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24 results for "widows"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.17-10.19, 18.1-18.4, 23.9, 24.21, 26.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 230, 237, 259, 262
10.17. "כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים הָאֵל הַגָּדֹל הַגִּבֹּר וְהַנּוֹרָא אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשָּׂא פָנִים וְלֹא יִקַּח שֹׁחַד׃", 10.18. "עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפַּט יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאֹהֵב גֵּר לָתֶת לוֹ לֶחֶם וְשִׂמְלָה׃", 10.19. "וַאֲהַבְתֶּם אֶת־הַגֵּר כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃", 18.1. "לֹא־יִהְיֶה לַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם כָּל־שֵׁבֶט לֵוִי חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְנַחֲלָתוֹ יֹאכֵלוּן׃", 18.1. "לֹא־יִמָּצֵא בְךָ מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ־וּבִתּוֹ בָּאֵשׁ קֹסֵם קְסָמִים מְעוֹנֵן וּמְנַחֵשׁ וּמְכַשֵּׁף׃", 18.2. "אַךְ הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר יָזִיד לְדַבֵּר דָּבָר בִּשְׁמִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִיו לְדַבֵּר וַאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר בְּשֵׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וּמֵת הַנָּבִיא הַהוּא׃", 18.2. "וְנַחֲלָה לֹא־יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ בְּקֶרֶב אֶחָיו יְהוָה הוּא נַחֲלָתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לוֹ׃", 18.3. "וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת הָעָם מֵאֵת זֹבְחֵי הַזֶּבַח אִם־שׁוֹר אִם־שֶׂה וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה׃", 18.4. "רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וְרֵאשִׁית גֵּז צֹאנְךָ תִּתֶּן־לּוֹ׃", 23.9. "בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃", 24.21. "כִּי תִבְצֹר כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃", 26.11. "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל־הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּלְבֵיתֶךָ אַתָּה וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃", 10.17. "For the LORD your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the awful, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward.", 10.18. "He doth execute justice for the fatherless and widow, and loveth the stranger, in giving him food and raiment.", 10.19. "Love ye therefore the stranger; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.", 18.1. "The priests the Levites, even all the tribe of Levi, shall have no portion nor inheritance with Israel; they shall eat the offerings of the LORD made by fire, and His inheritance.", 18.2. "And they shall have no inheritance among their brethren; the LORD is their inheritance, as He hath spoken unto them.", 18.3. "And this shall be the priests’due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw.", 18.4. "The first-fruits of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him.", 23.9. "The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD.", 24.21. "When thou gatherest the grapes of thy vineyard, thou shalt not glean it after thee; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.", 26.11. "And thou shalt rejoice in all the good which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thy house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is in the midst of thee.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 230
19.10. "And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God.",
3. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 259
462b. διασπᾷ καὶ ποιῇ πολλὰς ἀντὶ μιᾶς; ἢ μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν τοῦ ὃ ἂν συνδῇ τε καὶ ποιῇ μίαν; 462b. and makes it many instead of one, or a greater good than that which binds it together and makes it one? We do not. Is not, then, the community of pleasure and pain the tie that binds, when, so far as may be, all the citizens rejoice and grieve alike at the same births and deaths? By all means, he said. But the individualization of these feelings is a dissolvent, when some grieve exceedingly and others rejoice at the same happening
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qmmt, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 337
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.52, 1.309, 2.187, 4.178 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 262, 337
1.52. Accordingly, having given equal rank and honour to all those who come over, and having granted to them the same favours that were bestowed on the native Jews, he recommends those who are ennobled by truth not only to treat them with respect, but even with especial friendship and excessive benevolence. And is not this a reasonable recommendation? What he says is this. "Those men, who have left their country, and their friends, and their relations for the sake of virtue and holiness, ought not to be left destitute of some other cities, and houses, and friends, but there ought to be places of refuge always ready for those who come over to religion; for the most effectual allurement and the most indissoluble bond of affectionate good will is the mutual honouring of the one God." 1.309. These men, having forsaken their country and their national customs in which they were bred up, which, however, were full of the inventions of falsehood and pride, becoming genuine lovers of truth, have come over to piety; and becoming in all worthiness suppliants and servants of the true and living God, they very properly receive a precedence which they have deserved, having found the reward of their fleeing to God in the assistance which they now receive from him. 2.187. And there are thus two most excellent acts of thanksgiving having a reference to two distinct times; to the past, in which we have been saved from experiencing the evils of scarcity and hunger while living in happiness and plenty; and to the future, because we have provided ourselves with supplies and abundant preparations for it.THE EIGHTH FESTIVALXXXI. 4.178. In the case of the first, because he has made his own kinsmen, whom alone it was natural for him to have as allies and champions, his irreconcileable enemies, by quitting their camp and taking up his abode with the truth, and with the honour of the one Being who is entitled to honour, abandoning all the fabulous inventions and polytheistic notions which his fathers, and grandfathers, and ancestors, and all his kindred, who cleave to the beautiful settlement which he has forsaken, were wont to honour. In the case of the second, because he is deprived of his father and mother, his natural defenders and protectors, and by consequence of the only power which was bound to show itself as his ally. And lastly, in the case of the woman who is a widow because she has been deprived of her husband, who succeeded her parents as her guardian and protector; for a husband is to his wife in point of relationship what her parents are to a virgin.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 128 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 230
128. And the lawgiver shows this, when he says, "And a river went out of Eden to water the Paradise; and from thence it is divided into four Heads." For there are four generic virtues: prudence, courage, temperance, and justice. And of these, every single one is a princess and a ruler; and he who has acquired them is, from the moment of the acquisition, a ruler and a king, even if he has no abundance of any kind of treasure;
7. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 337
5.2. "כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי הָיָה עוֹלֶה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם מַהֲלַךְ יוֹם אֶחָד לְכָל צָד. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא תְחוּמָהּ, אֵילַת מִן הַדָּרוֹם וְעַקְרַבַּת מִן הַצָּפוֹן, לוֹד מִן הַמַּעֲרָב וְהַיַּרְדֵּן מִן הַמִּזְרָח. וּמִשֶּׁרַבּוּ הַפֵּרוֹת, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא נִפְדֶּה סָמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה הַדָּבָר, שֶׁאֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּרְצוּ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיָה הַתְּנַאי הַזֶּה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה, אֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה: \n",
8. New Testament, Titus, 2.3-2.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 207
2.3. πρεσβύτιδας ὡσαύτως ἐν καταστήματι ἱεροπρεπεῖς, μὴ διαβόλους μηδὲ οἴνῳ πολλῷ δεδουλωμένας, καλοδιδασκάλους, 2.4. ἵνα lt*gtωφρονίζωσι τὰς νέας φιλάνδρους εἶναι, φιλοτέκνους, 2.3. and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good; 2.4. that they may train the young women to love their husbands, to love their children,
9. New Testament, Colossians, 4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 206
4.16. καὶ ὅταν ἀναγνωσθῇ παρʼ ὑμῖν ἡ ἐπιστολή, ποιήσατε ἵνα καὶ ἐν τῇ Λαοδικέων ἐκκλησίᾳ ἀναγνωσθῇ, καὶ τὴν ἐκ Λαοδικίας ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀναγνῶτε. 4.16. When this letter has been read among you, cause it to be read also in the assembly of the Laodiceans; and that you also read the letter from Laodicea.
10. New Testament, Acts, 182 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 196
11. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.11, 5.3-5.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 207
3.11. γυναῖκας ὡσαύτως σεμνάς, μὴ διαβόλους, νηφαλίους, πιστὰς ἐν πᾶσιν. 5.3. Χήρας τίμα τὰς ὄντως χήρας. 5.4. εἰ δέ τις χήρα τέκνα ἢ ἔκγονα ἔχει, μανθανέτωσαν πρῶτον τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον εὐσεβεῖν καὶ ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι τοῖς προγόνοις, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν ἀπόδεκτον ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. 5.5. ἡ δὲ ὄντως χήρα καὶ μεμονωμένηἤλπικεν ἐπὶ [τὸν] θεὸνκαὶ προσμένει ταῖς δεήσεσιν καὶ ταῖς προσευχαῖς νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας· 5.6. ἡ δὲ σπαταλῶσα ζῶσα τέθνηκεν. 5.7. καὶ ταῦτα παράγγελλε, ἵνα ἀνεπίλημπτοι ὦσιν· 5.8. εἰ δέ τις τῶν ἰδίων καὶ μάλιστα οἰκείων οὐ προνοεῖ, τὴν πίστιν ἤρνηται καὶ ἔστιν ἀπίστου χείρων. 5.9. Χήρα καταλεγέσθω μὴ ἔλαττον ἐτῶν ἑξήκοντα γεγονυῖα, ἑνὸς ἀνδρὸς γυνή, 5.10. ἐν ἔργοις καλοῖς μαρτυρουμένη, εἰ ἐτεκνοτρόφησεν, εἰ ἐξενοδόχησεν, εἰ ἁγίων πόδας ἔνιψεν, εἰ θλιβομένοις ἐπήρκεσεν, εἰ παντὶ ἔργῳ ἀγαθῷ ἐπηκολούθησεν. 5.11. νεωτέρας δὲ χήρας παραιτοῦ· ὅταν γὰρ καταστρηνιάσωσιν τοῦ χριστοῦ, γαμεῖν θέλουσιν, 5.12. ἔχουσαι κρίμα ὅτι τὴν πρώτην πίστιν ἠθέτησαν· 5.13. ἅμα δὲ καὶ ἀργαὶ μανθάνουσιν, περιερχόμεναι τὰς οἰκίας, οὐ μόνον δὲ ἀργαὶ ἀλλὰ καὶ φλύαροι καὶ περίεργοι, λαλοῦσαι τὰ μὴ δέοντα. 5.14. βούλομαι οὖν νεῶτέρας γαμεῖν, τεκνογονεῖν, οἰκοδεσποτεῖν, μηδεμίαν ἀφορμὴν διδόναι τῷ ἀντικειμένῳ λοιδορίας χάριν· 5.15. ἤδη γάρ τινες ἐξετράπησαν ὀπίσω τοῦ Σατανᾶ. 5.16. εἴ τις πιστὴ ἔχει χήρας, ἐπαρκείτω αὐταῖς, καὶ μὴ βαρείσθω ἡ ἐκκλησία, ἵνα ταῖς ὄντως χήραις ἐπαρκέσῃ. 3.11. Their wives in the same way must be reverent, not slanderers, temperate, faithful in all things. 5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.8. But if anyone doesn't provide for his own, and especially his own household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. 5.9. Let no one be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, having been the wife of one man, 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work. 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan. 5.16. If any man or woman who believes has widows, let them relieve them, and don't let the assembly be burdened; that it might relieve those who are widows indeed.
12. Mishnah, Sotah, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 131
8.2. "וְדִבְּרוּ הַשֹּׁטְרִים אֶל הָעָם לֵאמֹר מִי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה בַיִת חָדָשׁ וְלֹא חֲנָכוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ וְגוֹ' (שם). אֶחָד הַבּוֹנֶה בֵית הַתֶּבֶן, בֵּית הַבָּקָר, בֵּית הָעֵצִים, בֵּית הָאוֹצָרוֹת. אֶחָד הַבּוֹנֶה, וְאֶחָד הַלּוֹקֵחַ, וְאֶחָד הַיּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאֶחָד שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ מַתָּנָה. וּמִי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ וְגוֹ' (שם). אֶחָד הַנּוֹטֵעַ הַכֶּרֶם וְאֶחָד הַנּוֹטֵעַ חֲמִשָּׁה אִילָנֵי מַאֲכָל, וַאֲפִלּוּ מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינִין. אֶחָד הַנּוֹטֵעַ, וְאֶחָד הַמַּבְרִיךְ, וְאֶחָד הַמַּרְכִּיב, וְאֶחָד הַלּוֹקֵחַ, וְאֶחָד הַיּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאֶחָד שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ מַתָּנָה. וּמִי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר אֵרַשׂ אִשָּׁה וְגוֹ' (שם). אֶחָד הַמְאָרֵס אֶת הַבְּתוּלָה, וְאֶחָד הַמְאָרֵס אֶת הָאַלְמָנָה, אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם, וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁמַע שֶׁמֵּת אָחִיו בַּמִּלְחָמָה, חוֹזֵר וּבָא לוֹ. כֹּל אֵלּוּ שׁוֹמְעִין דִּבְרֵי כֹהֵן מֵעֶרְכֵי מִלְחָמָה וְחוֹזְרִין, וּמְסַפְּקִין מַיִם וּמָזוֹן וּמְתַקְּנִין אֶת הַדְּרָכִים: \n", 8.2. "“Then the officers shall address the people saying: ‘Is there anyone who has built a new house but has not dedicated it? Let him go back to his home’” (Deuteronomy 20:5). It is the same whether he built a house for straw, a house for cattle, a house for wood, or a storehouse; It is the same whether he built, purchased, inherited or somebody gave it to him as a present. “‘Is there anyone who has planted a vineyard but has never harvested it?’” (vs.. It is the same whether he planted a vineyard or planted five fruit-trees and even of five different species; It is the same whether he planted, bent or grafted it, or whether he purchased, inherited or somebody gave it to him as a present. “‘Is there anyone who has betrothed a woman [but who has not yet married her]?’” (vs. It is the same whether he had betrothed a virgin or a widow, or even a shomeret yavam, or even if a man heard that his brother had died in battle, he returns home. All these hear the priest’s words concerning the battles of war and return home, and they supply water and food and repair the roads.",
13. Plutarch, Comparison of Numa With Lycurgus, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 200
1.4. ὅθεν ὁ μὲν διʼ εὐνοίας καὶ τιμῆς ἅπαντα πείθων ἔπραξεν, ὁ δε κινδυνεύων καὶ βαλλόμενος μόγις ἐπεκράτησεν· ἥμερος μέντοι καὶ φιλάνθρωπος ἡ τοῦ Νομᾶ μοῦσα πρὸς εἰρήνην καὶ δικαιοσύνην μεθαρμοσαμένου καὶ καταπραΰναντος ἐξ ἀκρατῶν καὶ διαπύρων ἠθῶν τοὺς πολίτας. εἰ δὲ καὶ τὸ περὶ τοὺς Εἵλωτας ἀναγκάσει τις ἡμᾶς εἰς τὴν Λυκούργου θέσθαι πολιτείαν, 1.4. which his people held him; but the other had to risk his life and suffer wounds, and scarcely then prevailed. Numa’s muse, however, was gentle and humane, and he converted his people to peace and righteousness, and softened their violent and fiery tempers. And if we must ascribe to the administration of Lycurgus the treatment of the Helots,
14. Plutarch, Dialogue On Love, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 270
15. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.201 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 270
2.201. for (says the scripture) “A woman is inferior to her husband in all things.” Let her, therefore, be obedient to him; not so, that he should abuse her, but that she may acknowledge her duty to her husband; for God hath given the authority to the husband. A husband, therefore, is to lie only with his wife whom he hath married; but to have to do with another man’s wife is a wicked thing; which, if any one ventures upon, death is inevitably his punishment: no more can he avoid the same who forces a virgin betrothed to another man, or entices another man’s wife.
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.227, 4.231 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 230, 337
4.227. but let the owner gather all that is grown on the fourth year, for then it is in its proper season. And let him that has gathered it carry it to the holy city, and spend that, together with the tithe of his other fruits, in feasting with his friends, with the orphans, and the widows. But on the fifth year the fruit is his own, and he may use it as he pleases. 4.231. 21. Let not those that reap, and gather in the corn that is reaped, gather in the gleanings also; but let them rather leave some handfuls for those that are in want of the necessaries of life, that it may be a support and a supply to them, in order to their subsistence. In like manner when they gather their grapes, let them leave some smaller bunches for the poor, and let them pass over some of the fruits of the olive-trees, when they gather them, and leave them to be partaken of by those that have none of their own;
17. Mishnah, Peah, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 230
7.4. "אֵיזוֹהִי עוֹלֶלֶת. כָּל שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לֹא כָתֵף וְלֹא נָטֵף. אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ כָּתֵף אוֹ נָטֵף, שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, אִם סָפֵק, לָעֲנִיִּים. עוֹלֶלֶת שֶׁבָּאַרְכֻּבָּה, אִם נִקְרֶצֶת עִם הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. גַּרְגֵּר יְחִידִי, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֶשְׁכּוֹל. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עוֹלֶלֶת: \n", 7.4. "What constitutes a defective cluster (olelet) of grapes? Any [cluster] which has neither a shoulder [a wide upper part] nor a pendant [a cone-shaped lower part]. If it has a shoulder or a pendant, it belongs to the owner. If there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor. A defective cluster on the joint of a vine [where a normal cluster hangs from the vine], if it can be cut off with the cluster, it belongs to the owner; but if it can not, it belongs to the poor. A single grape: Rabbi Judah says: It is deemed a whole cluster, But the sages say: It is deemed a defective cluster.",
18. Lucian, Dialogues of The Courtesans, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •prostitution, of widows and orphans Found in books: McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 70
19. Hermas, Similitudes, 9.2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 59
20. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 12.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 59
21. Nag Hammadi, The Apocalypse of Paul, 35-36, 39-40, 31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 305
22. Libanius, Orations, 45.9 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •prostitution, of widows and orphans Found in books: McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 70
23. Demosthenes, Orations, 34.23  Tagged with subjects: •widows and orphans, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 259