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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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subject book bibliographic info
virgin Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013), Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians, 8, 142
Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 100, 101, 102
Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 101, 102, 108, 169, 379, 391
MacDougall (2022), Philosophy at the Festival: The Festal Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus and the Classical Tradition. 148, 156, 159
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 111, 244, 247, 251, 252, 255, 256, 257, 258, 335
Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 132, 145, 149, 293, 303, 304, 313, 316, 323, 359, 363, 420, 433, 434, 435, 477, 479, 497, 527, 602, 620, 636, 653
Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 44, 77, 320, 322, 323, 342, 343, 347
Schultz and Wilberding (2022), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism, 116, 127, 139, 216, 231, 248, 256, 280, 292
Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 297, 377
virgin al, virginity, Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 150, 151, 157, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 184, 252, 256, 257, 297, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 343, 348, 349, 354, 355, 360, 364, 385, 388, 389, 390, 405, 406, 444, 445, 491, 496
virgin angel standing by the Doble and Kloha (2014), Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, 322, 323
virgin astraea, justice Xinyue (2022), Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry, 54
virgin becoming Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 132
virgin birth Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370, 373
Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 248
Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 52, 53, 56, 64, 68, 81, 87, 186
Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 112
Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 53, 54, 134, 135, 202
virgin birth of jesus Beatrice (2013), The Transmission of Sin: Augustine and the Pre-Augustinian Sources, 69, 142, 143, 174, 175, 176, 178, 179, 231
virgin birth, betrothal, argument for the Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 53, 59, 64
virgin birth, mary O'Daly (2012), Days Linked by Song: Prudentius' Cathemerinon, 112, 330
virgin birth, theology, christian Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 26, 30, 57, 135, 136
virgin claudia the vestal Duffalo (2006), The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate. 21, 85, 90, 147
virgin dosithean practice Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 39
virgin eve Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 54
virgin girl of marriageable r. benayah, betulah age Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 72, 73, 75, 76
virgin goddess, hestia, as Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 121, 123, 124, 128
virgin in valentinianism Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 189, 197, 199, 201, 203, 204, 205
virgin in visual art, annunciation to Doble and Kloha (2014), Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326
virgin ion, as male Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 233, 234
virgin joseph’s other wife Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 125
virgin liability, rape of Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 120
virgin lots daughters Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 90, 93, 97, 110
virgin mary Hellholm et al. (2010), Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, 1146
Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 340, 388, 389
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 420, 427, 430
Rizzi (2010), Hadrian and the Christians, 127, 136
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006), Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy, 226, 285
virgin mary and child, icon, of MacDougall (2022), Philosophy at the Festival: The Festal Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus and the Classical Tradition. 156, 159
virgin mary, a Sider (2001), Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian, 42, 43
virgin mary, commons of the blessed Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 525, 528
virgin mary, martha, as sister of Ernst (2009), Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition, 212, 222, 297
virgin mary, virgin, and see celibacy, virgin mary Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 116, 123, 124, 125, 154, 292
virgin of nicolaus Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 84
virgin of noah Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 90, 91
virgin priestesses Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013), Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians, 142, 154
virgin rape, unbetrothed Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 119
virgin see under seed wife/wives Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 94
virgin tamar, daughter of david Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 120
virgin tamar, daughter-in-law of judah Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 128, 214
virgin valentinian treatment Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 178, 193
virgin vestal Czajkowski et al. (2020), Vitruvian Man: Rome under Construction, 274
virgin wife of adam Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 234
virgin wives to be held in common Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 93, 211
virgin “elders and, virgins”, Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 132
virgin “gnostic” treatment Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 99
virgin, virginity, Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 52, 164, 178, 206
Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 31, 143, 169, 191, 193
virgin, “ever-virgin”, Williams (2009), Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46), 90, 128
virgin/s Tabbernee (2007), Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism, 102, 199, 239, 240
virgin/virginity Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 49, 139, 168, 176, 209, 233, 238
Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 52, 71, 80, 87, 124, 192, 274, 292, 305
virginal, body as walled space Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 188, 189
virginal, choruses Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 60, 129, 145
virginal, death, strangulation, as Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 31
virgines, albanae Konrad (2022), The Challenge to the Auspices: Studies on Magisterial Power in the Middle Roman Republic, 90
virgines, pseudo-clementines, epistulae ad McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 183
virgines, vestales Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 81, 133
virginity Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 115, 116, 119, 120, 135
Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 106, 151
Fletcher (2012), Performing Oaths in Classical Greek Drama, 128, 235
Hellholm et al. (2010), Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, 1167, 1168
Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 162, 175, 268
Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 108, 267
Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 226, 227, 229, 235, 236, 237, 249, 250, 253
Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 119
Mueller (2002), Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus, 53, 54
Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 27, 28, 29, 35, 175, 206, 207, 208, 209
Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 19, 22, 71, 75, 76, 78, 79, 91, 94, 153
Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 92, 114
Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 6, 37, 39, 47, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 65, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 139, 141, 142, 143, 144, 155, 183, 187, 193
Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 34, 38, 39, 42, 43, 48
Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 271, 272, 403, 648
Ruffini (2018), Life in an Egyptian Village in Late Antiquity: Aphrodito Before and After the Islamic Conquest, 135
Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 71, 72, 73, 75, 80, 81, 140, 151, 154, 155, 177, 200, 210
Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 283, 284, 286, 287, 288
Welch (2015), Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth. 100, 110, 111, 112, 148, 154, 157, 159, 160, 162, 170, 171
van 't Westeinde (2021), Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites, 33, 45, 73, 81, 85, 90, 91
virginity, and age Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99
virginity, and amazons Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 189
virginity, and artemis Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 185, 199
virginity, and hippolytus Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 188, 189, 200
virginity, and pollution Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 199, 200
virginity, and priests Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 188
virginity, and sexuality in young womens rituals, in statius achilleid Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209
virginity, and the danaids Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 166
virginity, and, sacrifice Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 56, 67, 116
virginity, as non-physical concept Huebner and Laes (2019), Aulus Gellius and Roman Reading Culture: Text, Presence and Imperial Knowledge in the 'Noctes Atticae', 288
virginity, at marriage, parthenoi Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 69, 128
virginity, benefits of Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 179
virginity, biblical, law, hymns on Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 187
virginity, commercial value of Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 65
virginity, consecrated van 't Westeinde (2021), Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites, 74, 77, 109, 194
virginity, correlated to sacred space Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 224, 225
virginity, definition of Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100
virginity, fetish, as Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 59
virginity, fruitful Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 124
virginity, fruitful,  Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 124
virginity, hagnos, as chastity and/or Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 33, 194, 195, 196, 197
virginity, hymns on Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 119
virginity, in pagan cult Huebner and Laes (2019), Aulus Gellius and Roman Reading Culture: Text, Presence and Imperial Knowledge in the 'Noctes Atticae', 160, 161
virginity, irreparability Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 121
virginity, maintaining of before marriage Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 188, 189
virginity, male Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 5, 39, 59, 111, 112, 119, 143, 144
virginity, marital status Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 94, 214
virginity, mary, mother of jesus Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 54, 59, 93, 106, 159
virginity, motif, snake protecting Pinheiro et al. (2012b), The Ancient Novel and Early Christian and Jewish Narrative: Fictional Intersections, 51
virginity, mystery, of mary’s Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 198
virginity, of artemis Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 169
virginity, of athletes Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 260, 261
virginity, of goddesses Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 165, 166, 167
virginity, of hestia Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 121, 123, 124, 128
virginity, of mary Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 198, 199
Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 12
virginity, of mary, mother of jesus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 199
virginity, of mother, maternal love Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 109
virginity, of religious cults Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 167, 168, 169, 170, 217, 544
virginity, of tragic characters Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 170, 171, 172, 173, 354, 360, 361
virginity, of women at marriage Huebner and Laes (2019), Aulus Gellius and Roman Reading Culture: Text, Presence and Imperial Knowledge in the 'Noctes Atticae', 42, 277
virginity, parthenia, and Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 5, 111, 112, 115, 141, 142, 143, 144
virginity, pearl Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 120
virginity, personified Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 119
virginity, problematic Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 198, 233, 234
virginity, suit Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 97, 99, 100, 101, 105
virginity, tests for Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 111, 117
virginity, theagenes Cueva et al. (2018a), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 1: Greek Novels, 184
virginity, tokens of Rosen-Zvi (2012), The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash, 198
virginity, treatises Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 44
virginity, trial Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 210
virginity, vow of pulcheria Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 226, 232, 233, 241, 253
virginity, vs. celibacy Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 114, 128
virginity, widowhood, as Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 214
virginity, šeṯuqi, sermons on Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 106
virgins Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 129, 135, 137
Ernst (2009), Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition, 259, 266, 288, 289
Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 59, 80, 90, 91, 92, 183, 190
virgins, acts of peter, and Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 134, 135
virgins, ambrose, on Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 44, 235, 236, 238
virgins, among jews Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 47
virgins, apocalypse of paul, and Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 306
virgins, athanasius of alexandria, letters to Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 43, 44
virgins, athanasius of second letter to alexandria Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 43
virgins, caesarius of rules for arles Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 114
virgins, consecrated Humfress (2007), Oppian's Halieutica: Charting a Didactic Epic, 32
virgins, in christianity Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 152, 155, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 172, 173, 179, 199, 200, 216, 217
virgins, in gnosticism Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 167, 168
virgins, in greco-roman cult Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 21, 24, 25
virgins, omologia, on, ambrose Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 44, 235, 236, 238
virgins, parable of the Ernst (2009), Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition, 68, 278
virgins, pontifex maximus and, vestal Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 182, 255, 318
virgins, ps.-clement, letters to Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 324
virgins, stuprum of vestal Konrad (2022), The Challenge to the Auspices: Studies on Magisterial Power in the Middle Roman Republic, 263, 264, 265
virgins, taylor, j. e., as elderly Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 72, 73, 77
virgins, vestal Arthur-Montagne, DiGiulio and Kuin (2022), Documentality: New Approaches to Written Documents in Imperial Life and Literature, 166
Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 218, 399, 400
Cain (2013), Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian, 159
Clark (2007), Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome, 119, 120, 276
Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 12, 27, 42, 54, 155, 163, 166, 169, 170
Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 107, 108
Hug (2023), Fertility, Ideology, and the Cultural Politics of Reproduction at Rome, 148
Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 37, 78, 91, 157
Konrad (2022), The Challenge to the Auspices: Studies on Magisterial Power in the Middle Roman Republic, 39, 40, 87
McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 120, 121, 134, 157, 253
Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 173, 254
Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 223, 315, 327, 328, 340, 344, 435, 477, 575
Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 163, 215
Santangelo (2013), Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond, 88, 127, 144, 203, 205
Scott (2023), An Age of Iron and Rust: Cassius Dio and the History of His Time. 173
Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 12, 180, 181, 182, 239, 255, 257, 259, 268, 293, 311, 357
Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 284
virgins, wise and foolish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 374, 375
virgin’s, eyes, conception, the immaculate, through the Doble and Kloha (2014), Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, 324, 325
virgin’s, lament Alexiou and Cairns (2017), Greek Laughter and Tears: Antiquity and After. 211, 213, 331
virgin’s, nimbus, conception, the immaculate, piercing of the Doble and Kloha (2014), Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, 325, 326
‘virginity’, of clitophon/cleitophon Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 39, 111, 112, 119, 139, 142, 143, 144, 145
“virgins”, also called nĕʿārōt, heb. nares Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 515

List of validated texts:
61 validated results for "virginity"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 20.7, 22.20-22.21, 22.23-22.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hymns on Virginity • Hymns on Virginity,biblical law • Mary (mother of Jesus), virginity • R. Benayah, Betulah (virgin, girl of marriageable age) • Virginity • rape,unbetrothed virgin • virgin birth • virgin, Eve • virgin, Lots daughters • virginity • virginity suit • virginity, personified • virginity, tokens of

 Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 72, 73; Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 54, 87, 97, 119, 187; Rosen-Zvi (2012), The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash, 198; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 200

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20.7 וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵרַשׂ אִשָּׁה וְלֹא לְקָחָהּ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יִקָּחֶנָּה׃' '22.21 וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־הנער הַנַּעֲרָה אֶל־פֶּתַח בֵּית־אָבִיהָ וּסְקָלוּהָ אַנְשֵׁי עִירָהּ בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתָה כִּי־עָשְׂתָה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְנוֹת בֵּית אָבִיהָ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃
22.23
כִּי יִהְיֶה נער נַעֲרָה בְתוּלָה מְאֹרָשָׂה לְאִישׁ וּמְצָאָהּ אִישׁ בָּעִיר וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ׃ 22.24 וְהוֹצֵאתֶם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶל־שַׁעַר הָעִיר הַהִוא וּסְקַלְתֶּם אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ אֶת־הנער הַנַּעֲרָה עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צָעֲקָה בָעִיר וְאֶת־הָאִישׁ עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּה אֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 22.25 וְאִם־בַּשָּׂדֶה יִמְצָא הָאִישׁ אֶת־הנער הַנַּעֲרָה הַמְאֹרָשָׂה וְהֶחֱזִיק־בָּהּ הָאִישׁ וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ וּמֵת הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁכַב עִמָּהּ לְבַדּוֹ׃ 22.26 ולנער וְלַנַּעֲרָה לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה דָבָר אֵין לנער לַנַּעֲרָה חֵטְא מָוֶת כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יָקוּם אִישׁ עַל־רֵעֵהוּ וּרְצָחוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כֵּן הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 22.27 כִּי בַשָּׂדֶה מְצָאָהּ צָעֲקָה הנער הַנַּעֲרָה הַמְאֹרָשָׂה וְאֵין מוֹשִׁיעַ לָהּ׃'' None
sup>
20.7 And what man is there that hath betrothed a wife, and hath not taken her? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man take her.’
22.20
But if this thing be true, that the tokens of virginity were not found in the damsel; 22.21 then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die; because she hath wrought a wanton deed in Israel, to play the harlot in her father’s house; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee.
22.23
If there be a damsel that is a virgin betrothed unto a man, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her; 22.24 then ye shall bring them both out unto the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die: the damsel, because she cried not, being in the city; and the man, because he hath humbled his neighbour’s wife; so thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee. 22.25 But if the man find the damsel that is betrothed in the field, and the man take hold of her, and lie with her; then the man only that lay with her shall die. 22.26 But unto the damsel thou shalt do nothing; there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death; for as when a man riseth against his neighbour, and slayeth him, even so is this matter. 22.27 For he found her in the field; the betrothed damsel cried, and there was none to save her.'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 22.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • R. Benayah, Betulah (virgin, girl of marriageable age) • virginity

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 119; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 73

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22.15 וְכִי־יְפַתֶּה אִישׁ בְּתוּלָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אֹרָשָׂה וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ מָהֹר יִמְהָרֶנָּה לּוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃'' None
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22.15 And if a man entice a virgin that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely pay a dowry for her to be his wife.'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.24, 4.1, 6.1-6.4, 16.1, 24.14, 24.16, 24.28, 24.37-24.38, 24.51, 24.55, 24.57, 24.64 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary, virginity of • R. Benayah, Betulah (virgin, girl of marriageable age) • Virgin/Virginity • Virginity • Virginity, and age • Virginity, definition of • theology, Christian, virgin birth • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity • virginity • virgins in Christianity

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 57; Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 152; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 168; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 72, 73, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 268, 373; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 12; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 256, 354, 364; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 54; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 151, 155

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2.24 עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃
4.1
וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃
4.1
וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃
6.1
וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃
6.1
וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2 וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2 מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4 הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃
1
6.1
וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר׃
1
6.1
וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֵךְ וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃
2
4.14
וְהָיָה הַנַּעֲרָ אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיהָ הַטִּי־נָא כַדֵּךְ וְאֶשְׁתֶּה וְאָמְרָה שְׁתֵה וְגַם־גְּמַלֶּיךָ אַשְׁקֶה אֹתָהּ הֹכַחְתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לְיִצְחָק וּבָהּ אֵדַע כִּי־עָשִׂיתָ חֶסֶד עִם־אֲדֹנִי׃
2
4.16
וְהַנַּעֲרָ טֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד בְּתוּלָה וְאִישׁ לֹא יְדָעָהּ וַתֵּרֶד הָעַיְנָה וַתְּמַלֵּא כַדָּהּ וַתָּעַל׃
24.28
וַתָּרָץ הַנַּעֲרָ וַתַּגֵּד לְבֵית אִמָּהּ כַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃
24.37
וַיַּשְׁבִּעֵנִי אֲדֹנִי לֵאמֹר לֹא־תִקַּח אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִבְּנוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי יֹשֵׁב בְּאַרְצוֹ׃ 24.38 אִם־לֹא אֶל־בֵּית־אָבִי תֵּלֵךְ וְאֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתִּי וְלָקַחְתָּ אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי׃
24.51
הִנֵּה־רִבְקָה לְפָנֶיךָ קַח וָלֵךְ וּתְהִי אִשָּׁה לְבֶן־אֲדֹנֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃
24.55
וַיֹּאמֶר אָחִיהָ וְאִמָּהּ תֵּשֵׁב הַנַּעֲרָ אִתָּנוּ יָמִים אוֹ עָשׂוֹר אַחַר תֵּלֵךְ׃
24.57
וַיֹּאמְרוּ נִקְרָא לַנַּעֲרָ וְנִשְׁאֲלָה אֶת־פִּיהָ׃
24.64
וַתִּשָּׂא רִבְקָה אֶת־עֵינֶיהָ וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־יִצְחָק וַתִּפֹּל מֵעַל הַגָּמָל׃' ' None
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2.24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh.
4.1
And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’
6.1
And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 6.2 that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose. 6.3 And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’ 6.4 The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.
1
6.1
Now Sarai Abram’s wife bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.
2
4.14
So let it come to pass, that the damsel to whom I shall say: Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink; and she shall say: Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also; let the same be she that Thou hast appointed for Thy servant, even for Isaac; and thereby shall I know that Thou hast shown kindness unto my master.’
2
4.16
And the damsel was very fair to look upon, a virgin, neither had any man known her; and she went down to the fountain, and filled her pitcher, and came up.
24.28
And the damsel ran, and told her mother’s house according to these words.
24.37
And my master made me swear, saying: Thou shalt not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell. 24.38 But thou shalt go unto my father’s house, and to my kindred, and take a wife for my son.
24.51
Behold, Rebekah is before thee, take her, and go, and let her be thy master’s son’s wife, as the LORD hath spoken.’
24.55
And her brother and her mother said: ‘Let the damsel abide with us a few days, at the least ten; after that she shall go.’
24.57
And they said: ‘We will call the damsel, and inquire at her mouth.’
24.64
And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she alighted from the camel.' ' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin(al), virginity • virgins

 Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 190; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 252, 256

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8.22 יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23 מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24 בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25 בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26 עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27 בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28 בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29 בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃' '8.31 מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃'' None
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8.22 The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old. 8.23 I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was. 8.24 When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water. 8.25 Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth; 8.26 While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world. 8.27 When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep, 8.28 When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might, 8.29 When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth; 8.30 Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him, 8.31 Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men.'' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 51.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin(al), virginity • virgin/virginity

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 252; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 80

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51.7 הֵן־בְּעָווֹן חוֹלָלְתִּי וּבְחֵטְא יֶחֱמַתְנִי אִמִּי׃'' None
sup>
51.7 Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 7.14, 54.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • theology, Christian, virgin birth • virgin • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity • virginity • virginity, fruitful, • virginity, fruitful,

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 30, 115, 116, 119, 120, 124, 135, 136; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 100, 101, 102; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 331; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 53

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7.14 לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃
54.1
כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃54.1 רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ ' None
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7.14 Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
54.1
Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.'' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 11.39 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virgin • virginity,

 Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 106; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 256

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11.39 וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ שְׁנַיִם חֳדָשִׁים וַתָּשָׁב אֶל־אָבִיהָ וַיַּעַשׂ לָהּ אֶת־נִדְרוֹ אֲשֶׁר נָדָר וְהִיא לֹא־יָדְעָה אִישׁ וַתְּהִי־חֹק בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃'' None
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11.39 And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned to her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: and she knew no man. And it was a custom in Yisra᾽el,'' None
8. Hesiod, Works And Days, 734 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virginity, of goddesses • virginity, of religious cults • virgins in Greco-Roman cult

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 24; Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 167

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734 ἱστίῃ ἐμπελαδὸν παραφαινέμεν, ἀλλʼ ἀλέασθαι.'' None
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734 The South Wind’s dreadful blasts – he stirs the sea'' None
9. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin(al), virginity • virginity, of tragic characters

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 354; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 159

10. Euripides, Hippolytus, 16-20, 73-87, 102, 948-957 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • hagnos, as chastity and/or virginity • virginity, and Artemis • virginity, and Hippolytus • virginity, and priests • virginity, maintaining of before marriage • virginity, of goddesses • virginity, of religious cults • virginity, of tragic characters

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 360; Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 33; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 185, 188, 199, 200

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16 τιμᾷ, μεγίστην δαιμόνων ἡγούμενος,' "17 χλωρὰν δ' ἀν' ὕλην παρθένῳ ξυνὼν ἀεὶ" '18 κυσὶν ταχείαις θῆρας ἐξαιρεῖ χθονός, 19 μείζω βροτείας προσπεσὼν ὁμιλίας. 20 τούτοισι μέν νυν οὐ φθονῶ: τί γάρ με δεῖ;
73
σοὶ τόνδε πλεκτὸν στέφανον ἐξ ἀκηράτου 74 λειμῶνος, ὦ δέσποινα, κοσμήσας φέρω,' "75 ἔνθ' οὔτε ποιμὴν ἀξιοῖ φέρβειν βοτὰ" "76 οὔτ' ἦλθέ πω σίδηρος, ἀλλ' ἀκήρατον" "77 μέλισσα λειμῶν' ἠρινὴ διέρχεται," '78 Αἰδὼς δὲ ποταμίαισι κηπεύει δρόσοις,' "79 ὅσοις διδακτὸν μηδὲν ἀλλ' ἐν τῇ φύσει" "80 τὸ σωφρονεῖν εἴληχεν ἐς τὰ πάντ' ἀεί," "81 τούτοις δρέπεσθαι, τοῖς κακοῖσι δ' οὐ θέμις." "82 ἀλλ', ὦ φίλη δέσποινα, χρυσέας κόμης" '83 ἀνάδημα δέξαι χειρὸς εὐσεβοῦς ἄπο.' "84 μόνῳ γάρ ἐστι τοῦτ' ἐμοὶ γέρας βροτῶν:" '85 σοὶ καὶ ξύνειμι καὶ λόγοις ἀμείβομαι,' "86 κλύων μὲν αὐδῆς, ὄμμα δ' οὐχ ὁρῶν τὸ σόν." "87 τέλος δὲ κάμψαιμ' ὥσπερ ἠρξάμην βίου." 102 πρόσωθεν αὐτὴν ἁγνὸς ὢν ἀσπάζομαι.948 σὺ δὴ θεοῖσιν ὡς περισσὸς ὢν ἀνὴρ 949 ξύνει; σὺ σώφρων καὶ κακῶν ἀκήρατος; 950 οὐκ ἂν πιθοίμην τοῖσι σοῖς κόμποις ἐγὼ 951 θεοῖσι προσθεὶς ἀμαθίαν φρονεῖν κακῶς.' "952 ἤδη νυν αὔχει καὶ δι' ἀψύχου βορᾶς" "953 σίτοις καπήλευ' ̓Ορφέα τ' ἄνακτ' ἔχων" '954 βάκχευε πολλῶν γραμμάτων τιμῶν καπνούς:' "955 ἐπεί γ' ἐλήφθης. τοὺς δὲ τοιούτους ἐγὼ" '956 φεύγειν προφωνῶ πᾶσι: θηρεύουσι γὰρ 957 σεμνοῖς λόγοισιν, αἰσχρὰ μηχανώμενοι. ' None
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16 but Artemis, daughter of Zeus, sister of Phoebus, he doth honour, counting her the chief of goddesses, and ever through the greenwood, attendant on his virgin goddess, he dears the earth of wild beasts with his fleet hounds, enjoying the comradeship of one too high for mortal ken. 20 ’Tis not this I grudge him, no! why should I? But for his sins against me, I will this very day take vengeance on Hippolytus; for long ago I cleared the ground of many obstacles, so it needs but trifling toil.
73
For See note above on lines 70-72 thee, O mistress mine, I bring this woven wreath, culled from a virgin meadow, 75 where nor shepherd dares to herd his flock nor ever scythe hath mown, but o’er the mead unshorn the bee doth wing its way in spring; and with the dew from rivers drawn purity that garden tends. Such as know no cunning lore, yet in whose nature 80 elf-control, made perfect, hath a home, these may pluck the flowers, but not the wicked world. Accept, I pray, dear mistress, mine this chaplet from my holy hand to crown thy locks of gold; for I, and none other of mortals, have this high guerdon, 85 to be with thee, with thee converse, hearing thy voice, though not thy face beholding. So be it mine to end my life as I began. Attendant
102
I greet her from afar, preserving still my chastity. Att948 by my dead wife. Now, since thou hast dared this loathly crime, come, look thy father in the face. Art thou the man who dost with gods consort, as one above the vulgar herd? art thou the chaste and sinless saint? 950 Thy boasts will never persuade me to be guilty of attributing ignorance to gods. Go then, vaunt thyself, and drive1 Hippolytus is here taunted with being an exponent of the Orphic mysteries. Apparently Orpheus, like Pythagoras, taught the necessity of total abstinence from animal food. thy petty trade in viands formed of lifeless food; take Orpheus for thy chief and go a-revelling, with all honour for the vapourings of many a written scroll, 955 eeing thou now art caught. Let all beware, I say, of such hypocrites! who hunt their prey with fine words, and all the while are scheming villainy. She is dead; dost think that this will save thee? Why this convicts thee more than all, abandoned wretch! ' None
11. Euripides, Ion, 150 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virginity, correlated to sacred space • virginity, of tragic characters

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 171; Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 224

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150 νοτερὸν ὕδωρ βάλλων,'' None
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150 with hands from all defilement free. Oh may I never cease thus to serve Phoebus, or, if I do, may fortune smile upon me!'' None
12. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 9.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary, Virgin • Virginity • virgin(al), virginity

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 389; Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 71

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9.4 For Thou art a just judge over all the peoples of the earth.
9.4
give me the wisdom that sits by thy throne,and do not reject me from among thy servants.'' None
13. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins

 Found in books: Mowat (2021), Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic, 28; Rosa and Santangelo (2020), Cicero and Roman Religion: Eight Studies, 53; Santangelo (2013), Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond, 144

14. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudia the Vestal Virgin • Vestal Virgins • virginity,

 Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 106; Duffalo (2006), The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate. 21, 85, 147; Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 180

15. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.66.6, 9.40.3 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins

 Found in books: Hug (2023), Fertility, Ideology, and the Cultural Politics of Reproduction at Rome, 148; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 91, 157; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 163

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2.66.6 \xa0For my part, I\xa0find from very many evidences that there are indeed some holy things, unknown to the public, kept by the virgins, and not the fire alone; but what they are I\xa0do not think should be inquired into too curiously, either by me of by anyone else who wishes to observe the reverence due to the gods. <' ' None
16. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.31 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • Virgin

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 169; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 477

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1.31 Este procul, vittae tenues, insigne pudoris,'' None
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1.31 Nor Clio , nor her sisters, have I seen,'' None
17. Ovid, Fasti, 1.17, 1.19-1.20, 3.30, 4.619-4.620, 5.355-5.356, 6.436 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Iustitia Virgo • Minerva (Athena), as virginal • Minerva (Athena), chastity and virginity enforced by • Vestal Virgins • Vestal Virgins, pontifex maximus and • Virgin • virginity or chastity, Minerva as enforcer of

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 12, 170; Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 107, 109; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 51; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 434, 477; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 163; Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 318

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1.19 pagina iudicium docti subitura movetur 1.20 principis, ut Clario missa legenda deo.
3.30
decidit ante sacros lanea vitta focos,
4.619
alba decent Cererem: vestis Cerialibus albas 4.620 sumite; nunc pulli velleris usus abest.
5.355
cur tamen, ut dantur vestes Cerialibus albae, 5.356 sic haec est cultu versicolore decens?
6.436
Vesta, quod assiduo lumine cuncta videt,' ' None
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1.19 My page trembles, judged by a learned prince, 1.20 As if it were being read by Clarian Apollo.
3.30
Slipped from my hair, and fell down, in front of the sacred fire.
4.619
White is fitting for Ceres: dress in white clothes for Ceres’ 4.620 Festival: on this day no one wears dark-coloured thread.
5.355
And warns us to use life’s beauty while it’s in bloom: 5.356 The thorn is spurned when the rose has fallen.
6.436
Vesta guards it: who sees all things by her unfailing light.' ' None
18. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.477, 2.413, 3.167, 5.110, 9.771 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • Virgin • virginity • young womens rituals, in Statius Achilleid, virginity and sexuality in

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 166, 170; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 208; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 293, 304, 435, 477, 479

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1.477 Vitta coercebat positos sine lege capillos.
2.413
vitta coercuerat neglectos alba capillos,
9.771
crinalem capiti vittam nataeque sibique' ' None
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1.477 to take the form of man. Alas, the God
2.413
that she prevailed, and pleased that she secured
2.413
the universe confused will plunge once more
9.771
o surely would be worthy of my love.' ' None
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 40-48, 50-51 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Becoming virgin • Virginity • virgin(al), virginity • virginity

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 256, 257, 332; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 43; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 73, 75, 80, 132, 140, 151, 154

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40 "And Adam knew his wife, and she conceived and brought forth Cain; and she said I have gotten a man by means of the Lord; and he caused her also to bring forth Abel his Brother." These men, to whose virtue the Jewish legislation bears testimony, he does not represent as knowing their wives, such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and if there are any others of like zeal with them; '41 for since we say, that woman is to be understood symbolically as the outward sense, and since knowledge consists in alienation from the outward sense and from the body, it is plain that the lovers of wisdom must repudiate the outward sense rather than choose it, and is not this quite natural? for they who live with these men are in name indeed wives, but in fact virtues. Sarah is princess and guide, Rebecca is perseverance in what is good; Leah again is virtue, fainting and weary at the long continuance of exertion, which every foolish man declines, and avoids, and repudiates; and Zipporah, the wife of Moses, is virtue, mounting up from earth to heaven, and arriving at a just comprehension of the divine and blessed virtues which exist there, and she is called a bird. 42 But that we may describe the conception and the parturition of virtues, let the superstitious either stop their ears, or else let them depart; for we are about to teach those initiated persons who are worthy of the knowledge of the most sacred mysteries, the whole nature of such divine and secret ordices. And those who are thus worthy are they who, with all modesty, practise genuine piety, of that sort which scorns to disguise itself under any false colours. But we will not act the part of hierophant or expounder of sacred mysteries to those who are afflicted with the incurable disease of pride of language and quibbling expressions, and juggling tricks of manners, and who measure sanctity and holiness by no other standard. XIII. 43 But we must begin our explanation of these mysteries in this way. A husband unites with his wife, and the male human being with the female human being in a union which tends to the generation of children, in strict accordance with and obedience to nature. But it is not lawful for virtues, which are the parents of many perfect things, to associate with a mortal husband. But they, without having received the power of generation from any other being, will never be able by themselves alone to conceive any thing. 44 Who, then, is it who sows good seed in them, except the Father of the universe, the uncreated God, he who is the parent of all things? This, therefore, is the being who sows, and presently he bestows his own offspring, which he himself did sow; for God creates nothing for himself, inasmuch as he is in need of nothing, but he creates every thing for him who is able to take it. 45 And I will bring forward as a competent witness in proof of what I have said, the most holy Moses. For he introduces Sarah as conceiving a son when God beheld her by himself; but he represents her as bringing forth her son, not to him who beheld her then, but to him who was eager to attain to wisdom, and his name is called Abraham. 46 And he teaches the same lesson more plainly in the case of Leah, where he says that "God opened her Womb." But to open the womb is the especial business of the husband. And she having conceived, brought forth, not to God, for he alone is sufficient and all-abundant for himself, but to him who underwent labour for the sake of that which is good, namely, for Jacob; so that in this instance virtue received the divine seed from the great Cause of all things, but brought forth her offspring to one of her lovers, who deserved to be preferred to all her other Suitors. 47 Again, when the all-wise Isaac addressed his supplications to God, Rebecca, who is perseverance, became pregt by the agency of him who received the supplication; but Moses, who received Zipporah, that is to say, winged and sublime virtue, without any supplication or entreaty on his part, found that she conceived by no mortal man. XIV. 48 Now I bid ye, initiated men, who are purified, as to your ears, to receive these things, as mysteries which are really sacred, in your inmost souls; and reveal them not to any one who is of the number of the uninitiated, but guard them as a sacred treasure, laying them up in your own hearts, not in a storehouse in which are gold and silver, perishable substances, but in that treasurehouse in which the most excellent of all the possessions in the world does lie, the knowledge namely of the great first Cause, and of virtue, and in the third place, of the generation of them both. And if ever you meet with any one who has been properly initiated, cling to that man affectionately and adhere to him, that if he has learnt any more recent mystery he may not conceal it from you before you have learnt to comprehend it thoroughly.
50
For the association of men, with a view to the procreation of children, makes virgins women. But when God begins to associate with the soul, he makes that which was previously woman now again virgin. Since banishing and destroying all the degenerate appetites unbecoming a human being, by which it had been made effeminate, he introduces in their stead genuine, and perfect, and unadulterated virtues; therefore, he will not converse with Sarah before all the habits, such as other women have, have left her, and till she has returned into the class of pure virgins. XV. 51 But it is, perhaps, possible that in some cases a virgin soul may be polluted by intemperate passions, and so become impure. On which account the sacred oracle has been cautious, calling God the husband, not of a virgin, for a virgin is subject to change and to mortality, but of virginity; of an idea, that is to say, which is always existing in the same principles and in the same manner. For as all things endowed with distinctive qualities are by nature liable to origination and to destruction, so those archetypal powers, which are the makers of those particular things, have received an imperishable inheritance in their turn. ' None
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 135 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virginity • virgin(al), virginity

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 256; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 154

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135 on which account Moses, in strict accordance with the principles of natural philosophy, represents Leah as Hated. For those whom the charms of pleasures, which are with Rachel, that is to say, with the outward sense, cannot be endured by Leah, who is situated out of the reach of the passions; on which account they repudiate and detest her. But as far as she herself is concerned, her alienation from the creature produces her a close connection with God, from whom she receives the seeds of wisdom, and conceives, and travails, and brings forth virtuous ideas, worthy of the father who begot them. If therefore, you, O my soul, imitating Leah, reject mortal things, you will of necessity turn to the incorruptible God, who will shed over you all the fountains of his good. XLI. '' None
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 68 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Taylor, J. E., as elderly virgins, • Virginity • virginity, of religious cults • virgins among Jews

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 47; Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 544; Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 72; Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 78; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 73, 210

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68 And the women also share in this feast, the greater part of whom, though old, are virgins in respect of their purity (not indeed through necessity, as some of the priestesses among the Greeks are, who have been compelled to preserve their chastity more than they would have done of their own accord), but out of an admiration for and love of wisdom, with which they are desirous to pass their lives, on account of which they are indifferent to the pleasures of the body, desiring not a mortal but an immortal offspring, which the soul that is attached to God is alone able to produce by itself and from itself, the Father having sown in it rays of light appreciable only by the intellect, by means of which it will be able to perceive the doctrines of wisdom. IX. '' None
22. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virginity • virginity, parthenia, and

 Found in books: Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 175; Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 115

23. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • Vestal Virgins, stuprum of • Vestal virgin, punishing of • virginity, • virginity, of goddesses • virginity, of religious cults

 Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 106; Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 167; Konrad (2022), The Challenge to the Auspices: Studies on Magisterial Power in the Middle Roman Republic, 263; Mowat (2021), Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic, 108; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 163; Welch (2015), Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth. 58

24. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virginity

 Found in books: Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 79; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 151

25. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virginity • virginity, of religious cults

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 544; Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 78

26. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudia the Vestal Virgin • Vestal Virgins • Vestales (priestesses of Vesta), Vestalium virgo maxima • Virgin

 Found in books: Duffalo (2006), The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate. 85, 90, 147; Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 27; Mueller (2002), Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus, 49; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 327, 435

27. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 19.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary (mother of Jesus), virginity of • mystery, of Mary’s virginity • virgin(al), virginity • virginity of Mary

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 198, 199; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 338

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19.1 And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her child-bearing and likewise also the death of the Lord -- three mysteries to be cried aloud -- the which were wrought in the silence of God. '' None
28. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary (mother of Jesus), virginity of • Virginity • mystery, of Mary’s virginity • virginity of Mary

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 198, 199; Hellholm et al. (2010), Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, 1167

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8.2 for the divine prophets lived after Christ Jesus. For this cause also they were persecuted, being inspired by His grace to the end that they which are disobedient might be fully persuaded that there is one God who manifested Himself through Jesus Christ His Son, who is His Word that proceeded from silence, who in all things was well-pleasing unto Him that sent Him. '' None
29. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 6.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virgin/Virginity • Virginity • sexuality, virginity • virgins in Christianity

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 152; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 415; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 49; Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 75, 79

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6.17 ὁ δὲ κολλώμενος τῷ κυρίῳ ἓν πνεῦμά ἐστιν.' ' None
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6.17 But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit.' ' None
30. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.5, 7.4, 14.4-14.5, 19.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin(al), virginity • virgin, virginity • virgins • virgins in Christianity

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 129, 135, 137; Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 173; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 52; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 349, 364

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3.5 Ὁ νικῶν οὕτως περιβαλεῖται ἐν ἱματίοις λευκοῖς, καὶ οὐ μὴἐξαλείψωτὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦἐκ τῆς βίβλου τῆς ζωῆς,καὶ ὁμολογήσω τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐνώπιον τοῦ πατρός μου καὶ ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ.
7.4
Καὶ ἤκουσα τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἐσφραγισμένων, ἑκατὸν τεσσεράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες, ἐσφραγισμένοι ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ·
14.4
οὗτοί εἰσιν οἳ μετὰ γυναικῶν οὐκ ἐμολύνθησαν, παρθένοι γάρ εἰσιν· οὗτοι οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες τῷ ἀρνίῳ ὅπου ἂν ὑπάγει· οὗτοι ἠγοράσθησαν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπαρχὴ τῷ θεῷ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ, 14.5 καὶἐν τῷ στόματιαὐτῶνοὐχ εὑρέθη ψεῦδος·ἄμωμοί εἰσιν.
19.8
καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῇ ἵνα περιβάληται βύσσινον λαμπρὸν καθαρόν, τὸ γὰρ βύσσινον τὰ δικαιώματα τῶν ἁγίων ἐστίν.'' None
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3.5 He who overcomes will be arrayed in white garments, and I will in no way blot his name out of the book of life, and I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels.
7.4
I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel:
14.4
These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 14.5 In their mouth was found no lie, for they are blameless.
19.8
It was given to her that she would array herself in bright, pure, fine linen: for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints.'' None
31. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary (virgin) • Virgins • virginity

 Found in books: Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 268; Pignot (2020), The Catechumenate in Late Antique Africa (4th–6th Centuries): Augustine of Hippo, His Contemporaries and Early Reception, 261

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5.29 οὐδεὶς γάρ ποτε τὴν ἑαυτοῦ σάρκα ἐμίσησεν, ἀλλὰ ἐκτρέφει καὶ θάλπει αὐτήν, καθὼς καὶ ὁ χριστὸς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν,'' None
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5.29 For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; '' None
32. New Testament, Galatians, 4.4, 4.6, 4.21-4.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • betrothal, argument for the virgin birth • virgin • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity • virginity, fruitful, • virginity, fruitful,

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 124; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102; Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 53; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 322, 323, 336

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4.4 ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον,
4.6
Ὅτι δέ ἐστε υἱοί, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν, κρᾶζον Ἀββά ὁ πατήρ.
4.21
Λέγετέ μοι, οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον θέλοντες εἶναι, τὸν νόμον οὐκ ἀκούετε; 4.22 γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Ἀβραὰμ δύο υἱοὺς ἔσχεν, ἕνα ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης καὶ ἕνα ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας· 4.23 ἀλλʼ ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται, ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας διʼ ἐπαγγελίας. 4.24 ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα· αὗται γάρ εἰσιν δύο διαθῆκαι, μία μὲν ἀπὸ ὄρους Σινά, εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα, ἥτις ἐστὶν Ἅγαρ, 4.25 τὸ δὲ Ἅγαρ Σινὰ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ, συνστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς· 4.26 ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίν, 4.27 ἥτις ἐστὶν μήτηρ ἡμῶν· γέγραπται γάρ 4.28 ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, κατὰ Ἰσαὰκ ἐπαγγελίας τέκνα ἐσμέν· 4.29 ἀλλʼ ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκε τὸν κατὰ πνεῦμα, οὕτως καὶ νῦν. 4.30 ἀλλὰ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; Ἔκβαλε τὴν παιδίσκην καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς, οὐ γὰρ μὴ κληρονομήσει ὁ υἱὸς τῆς παιδίσκης μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. 4.31 διό, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἐσμὲν παιδίσκης τέκνα ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας.'' None
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4.4 But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law,
4.6
And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!" ' "
4.21
Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? " '4.22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23 However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24 These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25 For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26 But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27 For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don\'t bear. Break forth and shout, you that don\'t travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband." 4.28 Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29 But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30 However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman." 4.31 So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman.'' None
33. New Testament, John, 1.3, 1.14, 2.1, 2.4, 6.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity

 Found in books: Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 325, 355, 360; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 54, 202

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1.3 πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν.
1.14
Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔
2.1
Καὶ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ γάμος ἐγένετο ἐν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καὶ ἦν ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐκεῖ·
2.4
καὶ λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, γύναι; οὔπω ἥκει ἡ ὥρα μου.
6.42
Οὐχὶ οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωσήφ, οὗ ἡμεῖς οἴδαμεν τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα; πῶς νῦν λέγει ὅτι Ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβέβηκα;'' None
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1.3 All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made.
1.14
The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. ' "
2.1
The third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. Jesus' mother was there. " 2.4 Jesus said to her, "Woman, what does that have to do with you and me? My hour has not yet come."
6.42
They said, "Isn\'t this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, \'I have come down out of heaven?\'"'' None
34. New Testament, Luke, 1.26-1.27, 1.35, 2.5, 3.22-3.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Annunciation to Virgin in visual art • betrothal, argument for the virgin birth • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity • virgin, virginity

 Found in books: Doble and Kloha (2014), Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, 319; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370; Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 53, 68; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 322, 323, 327, 329, 335, 336, 338, 339; Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 143

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1.26 Ἐν δὲ τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ ἀπεστάλη ὁ ἄγγελος Γαβριὴλ ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς πόλιν τῆς Γαλιλαίας ᾗ ὄνομα Ναζαρὲτ 1.27 πρὸς παρθένον ἐμνηστευμένην ἀνδρὶ ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰωσὴφ ἐξ οἴκου Δαυείδ, καὶ τὸ ὄνομα τῆς παρθένου Μαριάμ.
1.35
καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν αὐτῇ Πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἐπελεύσεται ἐπὶ σέ, καὶ δύναμις Ὑψίστου ἐπισκιάσει σοι· διὸ καὶ τὸ γεννώμενον ἅγιον κληθήσεται, υἱὸς θεοῦ·
2.5
ἀπογράψασθαι σὺν Μαριὰμ τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ, οὔσῃ ἐνκύῳ.
3.22
καὶ καταβῆναι τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον σωματικῷ εἴδει ὡς περιστερὰν ἐπʼ αὐτόν, καὶ φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γενέσθαι Σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα. 3.23 Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Ἰησοῦς ἀρχόμενος ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα, ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσήφ τοῦ Ἡλεί'' None
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1.26 Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, ' "1.27 to a virgin pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. " 1.35 The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God.
2.5
to enroll himself with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him as wife, being great with child.
3.22
and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased." 3.23 Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli, '' None
35. New Testament, Mark, 1.10, 4.3-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virgin, in Valentinianism • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity

 Found in books: Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 322, 355; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 203

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1.10 καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν·
4.3
Ἀκούετε. ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων σπεῖραι. 4.4 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν ὃ μὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, καὶ ἦλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό. 4.5 καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες καὶ ὅπου οὐκ εἶχεν γῆν πολλήν, καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξανέτειλεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος γῆς· 4.6 καὶ ὅτε ἀνέτειλεν ὁ ἥλιος ἐκαυματίσθη καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ῥίζαν ἐξηράνθη. 4.7 καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας, καὶ ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι καὶ συνέπνιξαν αὐτό, καὶ καρπὸν οὐκ ἔδωκεν. 4.8 καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν καλήν, καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενα, καὶ ἔφερεν εἰς τριάκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑκατόν. 4.9 Καὶ ἔλεγεν Ὃς ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω.'' None
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1.10 Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove.
4.3
"Listen! Behold, the farmer went out to sow, 4.4 and it happened, as he sowed, some seed fell by the road, and the birds came and devoured it. 4.5 Others fell on the rocky ground, where it had little soil, and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of soil. 4.6 When the sun had risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4.7 Others fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4.8 Others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing. Some brought forth thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times as much." 4.9 He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear."'' None
36. New Testament, Matthew, 1.2, 1.18, 25.1-25.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary (mother of Jesus), virginity • betrothal, argument for the virgin birth • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity • virgin, Eve • virgins, Wise and Foolish

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 374, 375; Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 53, 54, 68; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 323, 329, 348, 349, 445

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1.2 Ἀβραὰμ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰσαάκ, Ἰσαὰκ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰακώβ, Ἰακὼβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰούδαν καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ,
1.18
ΤΟΥ ΔΕ ΙΗΣΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ ἡ γένεσις οὕτως ἦν. Μνηστευθείσης τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ Μαρίας τῷ Ἰωσήφ, πρὶν ἢ συνελθεῖν αὐτοὺς εὑρέθη ἐν γαστρὶ ἔχουσα ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου.
25.1
Τότε ὁμοιωθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν δέκα παρθένοις, αἵτινες λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν ἐξῆλθον εἰς ὑπάντησιν τοῦ νυμφίου. 25.2 πέντε δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἦσαν μωραὶ καὶ πέντε φρόνιμοι· 25.3 αἱ γὰρ μωραὶ λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔλαβον μεθʼ ἑαυτῶν ἔλαιον· 25.4 αἱ δὲ φρόνιμοι ἔλαβον ἔλαιον ἐν τοῖς ἀγγείοις μετὰ τῶν λαμπάδων ἑαυτῶν. 25.5 χρονίζοντος δὲ τοῦ νυμφίου ἐνύσταξαν πᾶσαι καὶ ἐκάθευδον. 25.6 μέσης δὲ νυκτὸς κραυγὴ γέγονεν Ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος, ἐξέρχεσθε εἰς ἀπάντησιν. 25.7 τότε ἠγέρθησαν πᾶσαι αἱ παρθένοι ἐκεῖναι καὶ ἐκόσμησαν τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν. 25.8 αἱ δὲ μωραὶ ταῖς φρονίμοις εἶπαν Δότε ἡμῖν ἐκ τοῦ ἐλαίου ὑμῶν, ὅτι αἱ λαμπάδες ἡμῶν σβέννυνται. 25.9 ἀπεκρίθησαν δὲ αἱ φρόνιμοι λέγουσαι Μήποτε οὐ μὴ ἀρκέσῃ ἡμῖν καὶ ὑμῖν· πορεύεσθε μᾶλλον πρὸς τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ ἀγοράσατε ἑαυταῖς.
25.10
ἀπερχομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀγοράσαι ἦλθεν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ αἱ ἕτοιμοι εἰσῆλθον μετʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς γάμους, καὶ ἐκλείσθη ἡ θύρα.
25.11
ὕστερον δὲ ἔρχονται καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ παρθένοι λέγουσαι Κύριε κύριε, ἄνοιξον ἡμῖν·
25.12
ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς.'' None
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1.2 Abraham became the father of Isaac. Isaac became the father of Jacob. Jacob became the father of Judah and his brothers.
1.18
Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this; for after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregt by the Holy Spirit.
25.1
"Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 25.2 Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 25.3 Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them, 25.4 but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25.5 Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. ' "25.6 But at midnight there was a cry, 'Behold! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!' " '25.7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. ' "25.8 The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' " "25.9 But the wise answered, saying, 'What if there isn't enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' " 25.10 While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. ' "
25.11
Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us.' " "
25.12
But he answered, 'Most assuredly I tell you, I don't know you.' "' None
37. Plutarch, Numa Pompilius, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • virginity

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 37, 157; Mowat (2021), Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic, 103

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10.6 αὐτὴν δὲ τὴν κολαζομένην εἰς φορεῖον ἐνθέμενοι καὶ καταστεγάσαντες ἔξωθεν καὶ καταλαβόντες ἱμᾶσιν, ὡς μηδὲ φωνὴν ἐξάκουστον γενέσθαι, κομίζουσι διʼ ἀγορᾶς, ἐξίστανται δὲ πάντες σιωπῇ καὶ παραπέμπουσιν ἄφθογγοι μετά τινος δεινῆς κατηφείας οὐδὲ ἔστιν ἕτερον θέαμα φρικτότερον, οὐδʼ ἡμέραν ἡ πόλις ἄλλην ἄγει στυγνοτέραν ἐκείνης.'' None
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10.6 Then the culprit herself is placed on a litter, over which coverings are thrown and fastened down with cords so that not even a cry can be heard from within, and carried through the forum. All the people there silently make way for the litter, and follow it without uttering a sound, in a terrible depression of soul. No other spectacle is more appalling, nor does any other day bring more gloom to the city than this.
10.6
Then the culprit herself is placed on a litter, over which coverings are thrown and fastened down with cords so that not even a cry can be heard from within, and carried through the forum. All the people there silently make way for the litter, and follow it without uttering a sound, in a terrible depression of soul. No other spectacle is more appalling, nor does any other day bring more gloom to the city than this.'' None
38. Plutarch, Roman Questions, 83 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • virginity

 Found in books: Mowat (2021), Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic, 103, 104, 109; Santangelo (2013), Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond, 88

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83 When the Romans learned that the people called Bletonesii, of Bletisa in Spain, according to Cichorius, Römische Studien (Berlin, 1922). a barbarian tribe, had sacrificed a man to the gods, why did they send for the tribal rulers with intent to punish them, but, when it was made plain that they had done thus in accordance with a certain custom, why did the Romans set them at liberty, but forbid the practice for the future? Yet they themselves, not many years before, had buried alive two men and two women, two of them Greeks, two Gauls, in the place called the Forum Boarium. It certainly seems strange that they themselves should do this, and yet rebuke barbarians on the ground that they were acting with impiety. Did they think it impious to sacrifice men to the gods, but necessary to sacrifice them to the spirits? Or did they believe that men who did this by tradition and custom were sinning, whereas they themselves did it by command of the Sibylline books? For the tale is told that a certain maiden, Helvia, was struck by lightning while she was riding on horseback, and her horse was found lying stripped of its trappings: and she herself was naked, for her tunic had been pulled far up as if purposely: and her shoes, her rings, and her head-dress were scattered apart here and there, and her open mouth allowed the tongue to protrude. The soothsayers declared that it was a terrible disgrace for the Vestal Virgins, that it would be bruited far and wide, and that some wanton outrage would be found touching the knights also. Thereupon a barbarian slave of a certain knight gave information against three Vestal Virgins, Aemilia, Licinia, and Marcia, that they had all been corrupted at about the same time, and that they had long entertained lovers, one of whom was Vetutius Barrus, Cf. Cicero, Brutus, 46 (169); Horace, Satires, i. 6. 30, if the emendation is right. the informer’s master. The Vestals, accordingly, were convicted and punished: but, since the deed was plainly atrocious, it was resolved that the priests should consult the Sibylline books. They say that oracles were found foretelling that these events would come to pass for the bane of the Romans, and enjoining on them that, to avert the impending disaster, they should offer as a sacrifice to certain strange and alien spirits two Greeks and two Gauls, buried alive on the spot. Cf. Life of Marcellus, chap. iii. (299 d); Livy, xxii. 57.'' None
39. Tacitus, Histories, 4.53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins

 Found in books: Clark (2007), Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome, 276; Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 357

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4.53 \xa0The charge of restoring the Capitol was given by Vespasian to Lucius Vestinus, a member of the equestrian order, but one whose influence and reputation put him on an equality with the nobility. The haruspices when assembled by him directed that the ruins of the old shrine should be carried away to the marshes and that a new temple should be erected on exactly the same site as the old: the gods were unwilling to have the old plan changed. On the twenty-first of June, under a cloudless sky, the area that was dedicated to the temple was surrounded with fillets and garlands; soldiers, who had auspicious names, entered the enclosure carrying boughs of good omen; then the Vestals, accompanied by boys and girls whose fathers and mothers were living, sprinkled the area with water drawn from fountains and streams. Next Helvidius Priscus, the praetor, guided by the pontifex Plautius Aelianus, purified the area with the sacrifice of the suovetaurilia, and placed the vitals of the victims on an altar of turf; and then, after he had prayed to Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and to the gods who protect the empire to prosper this undertaking and by their divine assistance to raise again their home which man's piety had begun, he touched the fillets with which the foundation stone was wound and the ropes entwined; at the same time the rest of the magistrates, the priests, senators, knights, and a great part of the people, putting forth their strength together in one enthusiastic and joyful effort, dragged the huge stone to its place. A\xa0shower of gold and silver and of virgin ores, never smelted in any furnace, but in their natural state, was thrown everywhere into the foundations: the haruspices had warned against the profanation of the work by the use of stone or gold intended for any other purpose. The temple was given greater height than the old: this was the only change that religious scruples allowed, and the only feature that was thought wanting in the magnificence of the old structure."" None
40. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Symbols , of virginity • virginity suit

 Found in books: Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 100, 105; Rubin (2008) Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives. 117

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1.4 בוגרת ואיילונית כתובתן מאתים נשאת בחזקת שהיא כשירה ונמצאת איילונית אין לה כתובה רצה לקיים נותן כתובה מנה.'' None
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1.4 An adult woman and a woman incapable of having children (aylonit)—their ketubah is 200. If she is married on the presumption that she was fit to bear children but it turned out that she was incapable, she has no ketubah. If he wants to uphold it, he gives a ketubah of 100 zuz.'' None
41. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 12, 15, 51, 84, 88, 144 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virginity • sexuality, virginity • virgins in Christianity

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 161, 162, 200; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 415; Hellholm et al. (2010), Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, 1167

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12 Remember, my children, what my brother spake unto you and what he delivered before you: and know this, that if ye abstain from this foul intercourse, ye become holy temples, pure, being quit of impulses and pains, seen and unseen, and ye will acquire no cares of life or of children, whose end is destruction: and if indeed ye get many children, for their sakes ye become grasping and covetous, stripping orphans and overreaching widows, and by so doing subject yourselves to grievous punishments. For the more part of children become useless oppressed of devils, some openly and some invisibly, for they become either lunatic or half withered or blind or deaf or dumb or paralytic or foolish; and if they be sound, again they will be vain, doing useless or abominable acts, for they will be caught either in adultery or murder or theft or fornication, and by all these will ye be afflicted. But if ye be persuaded and keep your souls chaste before God, there will come unto you living children whom these blemishes touch not, and ye shall be without care, leading a tranquil life without grief or anxiety, looking to receive that incorruptible and true marriage, and ye shall be therein groomsmen entering into that bride-chamber which is full of immortality and light.15 And while the bride was saying yet more than this, the bridegroom answered and said: I give thee thanks, O Lord, that hast been proclaimed by the stranger, and found in us; who hast removed me far from corruption and sown life in me; who hast rid me of this disease that is hard to be healed and cured and abideth for ever, and hast implanted sober health in me; who hast shown me thyself and revealed unto me all my state wherein I am; who hast redeemed me from falling and led me to that which is better, and set me free from temporal things and made me worthy of those that are immortal and everlasting; that hast made thyself lowly even down to me and my littleness, that thou mayest present me unto thy greatness and unite me unto thyself; who hast not withheld thine own bowels from me that was ready to perish, but hast shown me how to seek myself and know who I was, and who and in what manner I now am, that I may again become that which I was: whom I knew not, but thyself didst seek me out: of whom I was not aware, but thyself hast taken me to thee: whom I have perceived, and now am not able to be unmindful of him: whose love burneth within me, and I cannot speak it as is fit, but that which I am able to say of it is little and scanty, and not fitly proportioned unto his glory: yet he blameth me not that presume to say unto him even that which I know not: for it is because of his love that I say even this much.' "
51
Now there was a certain youth who had wrought an abominable deed, and he came near and received of the eucharist with his mouth: but his two hands withered up, so that he could no more put them unto his own mouth. And they that were there saw him and told the apostle what had befallen; and the apostle called him and said unto him: Tell me, my child, and be not ashamed, what was it that thou didst and camest hither? for the eucharist of the Lord hath convicted thee. For this gift which passeth among many doth rather heal them that with faith and love draw near thereto, but thee it hath withered away; and that which is come to pass hath not befallen without some effectual cause. And the Youth, being convicted by the eucharist of the Lord, came and tell at the apostle's feet and besought him, saying: I have done an evil deed, yet I thought to do somewhat good. I was enamoured of a woman that dwelleth at an inn without the city, and she also loved me; and when I heard of thee and believed, that thou proclaimest a living God, I came and received of thee the seal with the rest; for thou saidst: Whosoever shall partake in the polluted union, and especially in adultery, he shall not have life with the God whom I preach. Whereas therefore I loved her much, I entreated her and would have persuaded her to become my consort in chastity and pure conversation, which thou also teachest: but she would not. When, therefore, she consented not, I took a sword and slew her: for I could not endure to see her commit adultery with another man." 84 Abstain therefore first from adultery, for this is the beginning of all evils, and next from theft, which enticed Judas Iscariot, and brought him unto hanging; (and from covetousness,) for as many as yield unto covetousness see not that which they do; and from vainglory and from all foul deeds, especially them of the body, whereby cometh eternal condemnation. For this is the chief city of all evils; and likewise it bringeth them that hold their heads (necks) high unto tyranny, and draweth them down unto the deep, and subdueth them under its hands that they see not what they do; wherefore the things done of them are hidden from them.
88
And the apostle said: I do pray and entreat for you all, brethren, that believe on the Lord, and for you, sisters, that hope in Christ, that in all of you the word of God may tabernacle and have his tabernacle therein: for we have no power over them (Syr. because ye are given power over your own souls). And he began to say unto the woman Mygdonia: Rise up from the earth and compose thyself (take off thine ornaments, P; be mindful of thyself, Syr.). For this attire that is put on shall not profit thee nor the beauty of thy body, nor thine apparel, neither yet the fame of thy rank, nor the authority of this world, nor the polluted intercourse with thine husband shall avail thee if thou be bereaved of the true fellowship: for the appearance (fantasy) of ornamenting cometh to nought, and the body waxeth old and changeth, and raiment weareth out, and authority and lordship pass away (U corrupt; P abridges; Syr. has: passeth away accompanied with punishment, according as each person hath conducted himself in it), and the fellowship of procreation also passeth away, and is as it were condemnation. Jesus only abideth ever, and they that hope in him. Thus he spake, and said unto the woman: Depart in peace, and the Lord shall make thee worthy of his own mysteries. But she said: I fear to go away, lest thou forsake me and depart unto another nation. But the apostle said to her: Even if I go, I shall not leave thee alone, but Jesus of his compassion will be with thee. And she fell down and did him reverence and departed unto her house.
144
And having fulfilled these sayings, he arose and prayed thus: our Father, which art in heaven: hallowed be thy name: Thy kingdom come: Thy will be done, as in heaven so upon earth: GIVE the of Syr. day, bread constant us and forgive us our debts as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. My Lord and God, hope and confidence and teacher, thou hast taught me to pray thus, behold, I pray this prayer and fulfil thy commandment: be thou with me unto the end; thou art he that from childhood hast sown life in me and kept me from corruption; thou art he that hast brought me unto the poverty of this world, and exhorted me unto the true riches; thou art he that hast made me known unto myself and showed me that I am thine; and I have kept myself pure from woman, that that which thou requirest be not found in defilement. At the words 'My Lord and God' begins the double text, represented on the one hand by the MS. U and on the other by the Paris MS. P, and three (partly four) others. These insert the prayer after ch. 167. Their text, I believe, may be the original Greek. I follow it here, repeating the first paragraph. (
144) My Lord and God, my hope and my confidence and my teacher, that hast implanted courage in me, thou didst teach me to pray thus; behold, I pray thy prayer and bring thy will to fulfilment: be thou with me unto the end. Thou art he that from my youth up didst give me patience in temptation and SOW in me life and preserve me from corruption; thou art he that didst bring me into the poverty of this world and fill me with the true riches; thou art he that didst show me that I was thine: wherefore I was never joined unto a wife, that the temple worthy of thee might not be found in pollution." '" None
42. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.22.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin birth

 Found in books: Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370; Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 112

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3.22.1 Those, therefore, who allege that He took nothing from the Virgin do greatly err, since, in order that they may cast away the inheritance of the flesh, they also reject the analogy between Him and Adam. For if the one who sprang from the earth had indeed formation and substance from both the hand and workmanship of God, but the other not from the hand and workmanship of God, then He who was made after the image and likeness of the former did not, in that case, preserve the analogy of man, and He must seem an inconsistent piece of work, not having wherewith He may show His wisdom. But this is to say, that He also appeared putatively as man when He was not man, and that He was made man while taking nothing from man. For if He did not receive the substance of flesh from a human being, He neither was made man nor the Son of man; and if He was not made what we were, He did no great thing in what He suffered and endured. But every one will allow that we are composed of a body taken from the earth, and a soul receiving spirit from God. This, therefore, the Word of God was made, recapitulating in Himself His own handiwork; and on this account does He confess Himself the Son of man, and blesses "the meek, because they shall inherit the earth." The Apostle Paul, moreover, in the Epistle to the Galatians, declares plainly, "God sent His Son, made of a woman." And again, in that to the Romans, he says, "Concerning His Son, who was made of the seed of David according to the flesh, who was predestinated as the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord."'' None
43. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.17.1, 9.27.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hera, virgin • virgin(al), virginity • virginity, of goddesses • virginity, of religious cults • virgins in Greco-Roman cult

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 24; Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 167, 168; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 160; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 111, 113

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2.17.1 Μυκηνῶν δὲ ἐν ἀριστερᾷ πέντε ἀπέχει καὶ δέκα στάδια τὸ Ἡραῖον. ῥεῖ δὲ κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ὕδωρ Ἐλευθέριον καλούμενον· χρῶνται δὲ αὐτῷ πρὸς καθάρσια αἱ περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ τῶν θυσιῶν ἐς τὰς ἀπορρήτους. αὐτὸ δὲ τὸ ἱερόν ἐστιν ἐν χθαμαλωτέρῳ τῆς Εὐβοίας· τὸ γὰρ δὴ ὄρος τοῦτο ὀνομάζουσιν Εὔβοιαν, λέγοντες Ἀστερίωνι γενέσθαι τῷ ποταμῷ θυγατέρας Εὔβοιαν καὶ Πρόσυμναν καὶ Ἀκραίαν, εἶναι δὲ σφᾶς τροφοὺς τῆς Ἥρας·
9.27.6
καὶ Ἡρακλέους Θεσπιεῦσίν ἐστιν ἱερόν· ἱερᾶται δὲ αὐτοῦ παρθένος, ἔστʼ ἂν ἐπιλάβῃ τὸ χρεὼν αὐτήν. αἴτιον δὲ τούτου φασὶν εἶναι τοιόνδε, Ἡρακλέα ταῖς θυγατράσι πεντήκοντα οὔσαις ταῖς Θεστίου συγγενέσθαι πάσαις πλὴν μιᾶς ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ νυκτί· ταύτην δὲ οὐκ ἐθελῆσαί οἱ τὴν μίαν μιχθῆναι· τὸν δὲ ὑβρισθῆναι νομίζοντα δικάσαι μένειν παρθένον πάντα αὐτὴν τὸν βίον ἱερωμένην αὐτῷ.'' None
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2.17.1 Fifteen stades distant from Mycenae is on the left the Heraeum. Beside the road flows the brook called Water of Freedom. The priestesses use it in purifications and for such sacrifices as are secret. The sanctuary itself is on a lower part of Euboea . Euboea is the name they give to the hill here, saying that Asterion the river had three daughters, Euboea, Prosymna, and Acraea, and that they were nurses of Hera.
9.27.6
At Thespiae is also a sanctuary of Heracles. The priestess there is a virgin, who acts as such until she dies. The reason of this is said to be as follows. Heracles, they say, had intercourse with the fifty daughters of Thestius, except one, in a single night. She was the only one who refused to have connection with him. Heracles,thinking that he had been insulted, condemned her to remain a virgin all her life, serving him as his priest.'' None
44. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • priestesses, virgin • virgin • virginity • virginity, fetish, as • virginity, male

 Found in books: Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013), Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians, 142; Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 59

45. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virgin/Virginity • Virginity, and age • Virginity, definition of

 Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 209; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95

46. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin(al), virginity • virginity, and Hippolytus

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 151; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 200

47. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Symbols , of virginity • virginity suit

 Found in books: Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 100, 105; Rubin (2008) Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives. 117

12a אמר רבה זאת אומרת כנסה בחזקת בתולה ונמצאת בעולה יש לה כתובה מנה רב אשי אמר בעלמא לעולם אימא לך לית לה כלל ושאני הכא שהרי כנסה ראשון,וניחוש שמא תחתיו זינתה אמר רב שרביא כגון שקידש ובעל לאלתר,ואיכא דמתני לה אמתניתין בתולה אלמנה גרושה חלוצה מן הנישואין כתובתן מנה ואין להן טענת בתולין בתולה מן הנישואין היכי משכחת לה כגון שנכנסה לחופה ולא נבעלה,אמר רבה זאת אומרת כנסה בחזקת בתולה ונמצאת בעולה כתובתה מנה רב אשי אמר לעולם אימא לך בעלמא לית לה כלל ושאני הכא שהרי נכנסה לחופה,וליחוש שמא תחתיו זינתה אמר רב שרביא כגון שקידש ובעל לאלתר,מאן דמתני לה אברייתא כל שכן אמתניתין ומאן דמתני לה אמתני\' אבל אברייתא לא משום דמצי אמר לה אנא אעדים סמכי:,12a Rabba said: That is to say, if one married a woman with the presumptive status of a virgin, as there were witnesses that she did not engage in intercourse, and she was found to be a non-virgin, she is entitled to a marriage contract of one hundred dinars. The Gemara rejects the proof. Rav Ashi said: In general, actually, I would say to you that in that case she does not receive a marriage contract at all, as it is a mistaken transaction. But here it is different, and she does not totally lose her marriage contract, because the first husband brought her into his house. Therefore, the second husband should have considered that a woman who entered her husband’s home is no longer a virgin.,The Gemara asks: And since there are witnesses that she did not engage in intercourse with the first husband, let us be concerned that perhaps she committed adultery after betrothal, while under the jurisdiction of the second husband, and rule that she is forbidden to him due to suspicion of adultery and is not entitled to a marriage contract at all. Rav Sherevya said: The baraita is referring to a case where he betrothed her and engaged in intercourse immediately. Therefore, there was no opportunity to engage in adultery between her betrothal and her marriage to the second husband.,Others taught this statement of Rabba with regard to the mishna: Concerning a virgin who is a widow, a divorcée, or a ḥalutza who achieved that status from a state of marriage, for all these women their marriage contract is one hundred dinars, and they are not subject to a claim concerning their virginity. The Gemara asks: How can you find a virgin from a state of marriage? It is in a case where she entered the wedding canopy and did not engage in intercourse.,Rabba said: That is to say, if one married a woman with the presumptive status of a virgin and she was found to be a non-virgin, her marriage contract is one hundred dinars. The Gemara rejects the proof. Rav Ashi said: In general, actually, I would say to you that in general, she does not receive a marriage contract at all, as it is a mistaken transaction. But here it is different, and she does not totally lose her marriage contract, because she entered the wedding canopy. Therefore, the second husband should have considered that a woman who entered her husband’s home is no longer a virgin.,The Gemara asks: And let us be concerned that perhaps she committed adultery after betrothal, while under the jurisdiction of the second husband. Rav Sherevya said: The baraita is referring to a case where he betrothed her and engaged in intercourse immediately. Therefore, there was no opportunity to engage in adultery between her betrothal and her marriage to the second husband.,The Gemara notes: The one who taught the exchange between Rabba and Rav Ashi with regard to the baraita, where there is explicit testimony that she did not engage in intercourse with the first husband and nevertheless no proof can be brought that if he discovers that she is not a virgin she receives a marriage contract of one hundred dinars, all the more so would he say that the same is true with regard to the mishna. And the one who taught the exchange with regard to the mishna, however, would not say the same with regard to the baraita, due to the fact that the husband could say to her: I relied on witnesses. Therefore, proof can be brought from the baraita that if he discovered that she is not a virgin, she receives a marriage contract of one hundred dinars.,who eats at the house of his father-in-law in Judea after betrothal and with-out witnesses to attest to the fact that he was not alone with his betrothed is unable to make a claim concerning virginity after marriage because in accordance with the custom in Judea, the assumption is that he secluded himself with her, and the concern is that it was he who engaged in intercourse with her.,From the fact that the mishna teaches the halakha employing the phrase: A man who eats, by inference one may conclude that there is also a place in Judea where the groom does not eat at the house of his father-in-law, and does not enter into seclusion with his betrothed. Abaye said: Conclude from it that in Judea too there are different places with different customs, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: In Judea, at first they would seclude the groom and bride together for a brief period before their entry into the wedding canopy, so that he would grow accustomed to her companionship in order to ease the awkwardness when they would consummate the marriage. And in the Galilee they did not do so.,The baraita continues. In Judea, at first they would appoint for them two groomsmen shushvinin, one for him and one for her, in order to examine the groom and the bride at the time of their entry into the wedding canopy and thereafter, to ensure that neither would engage in deception with regard to the presence or absence of blood from the rupture of the hymen. And in the Galilee they would not do so. As the custom of appointing groomsmen would be relevant only in a case where the groom and the bride had not been together in seclusion prior to marriage, this is apparently a custom in Judea different from the first custom cited in the mishna, where they would enter into seclusion prior to marriage.,The baraita continues. In Judea, at first the groomsmen would sleep in the house in which the groom and bride sleep, in order to examine the sheet on which the marriage was consummated immediately following intercourse. This was in order to ensure that the groom would not attempt to obscure the blood of the rupture of the hymen and claim that the bride was not a virgin. And in the Galilee they would not do so.,The baraita concludes: And anyone who did not conduct himself in accordance with this custom cannot make a claim concerning virginity against the bride. The Gemara asks: Concerning which case in the baraita was this principle stated? If we say it is concerning the first clause of the baraita, regarding the custom to seclude the couple prior to marriage, in that case, the phrase: Anyone who conducted himself in accordance with this custom cannot make a claim concerning virginity, is what it needed to say, due to the concern that perhaps they had sexual relations before the marriage.,Rather, it is concerning the latter clause of the baraita: They would appoint for them two groomsmen to examine them, that the principle was stated. In that case, the phrase: Anyone who was not examined by the groomsmen, is what it needed to say, as it is dependent on the family of the bride, and not the phrase: Anyone who did not conduct himself in accordance with this custom, which indicates that it depends on him.,Abaye said: Actually, the principle is stated concerning the first clause; and emend the baraita and teach: Anyone who conducted himself in accordance with this custom. Rava said to him: But isn’t it teaching explicitly: Anyone who did not conduct himself in accordance with this custom? One should not corrupt a baraita due to a difficulty that arose in understanding it. Rather, Rava said that this is what the baraita is saying: Anyone who did not practice the custom of the Galilee in the Galilee, but instead observed the custom of Judea in the Galilee, cannot make a claim concerning virginity against the bride. Rav Ashi said: Actually, this principle could be applied concerning the latter clause, and teach: Anyone who was not examined. When it said in the baraita: Anyone who did not conduct himself in accordance with this custom, it is referring to the custom of being examined.,both a widow who is an Israelite woman and a widow who is the daughter of priests, her marriage contract is one hundred dinars. A court of priests would collect a marriage contract of four hundred dinars for a virgin daughter of a priest, twice the sum of the standard marriage contract for a virgin, and the Sages did not reprimand them.,taught in a baraita: And for a widow who is the daughter of priests, her marriage contract is two hundred dinars. The Gemara asks: But didn’t we learn in the mishna: For both a widow who is an Israelite woman and a widow who is the daughter of priests, their marriage contract is one hundred dinars?,Rav Ashi said: There were two ordices instituted: Initially, the court of priests instituted for a virgin daughter of a priest a marriage contract of four hundred dinars, and for a widow, a marriage contract of one hundred dinars.'' None
48. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary, virginity of • Taylor, J. E., as elderly virgins,

 Found in books: Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 72, 73, 77; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 12

31a מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה\',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה\') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה\' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך'' None31a What is the verse from which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; You are He Who took me out gozi of my mother’s womb” (Psalms 71:6). From where may it be inferred that this word: Gozi,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off gozi your hair and cast it away” (Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship.,And Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable? It is comparable to a nut placed in a basin full of water, floating on top of the water. If a person puts his finger on top of the nut, it sinks either in this direction or in that direction.The Sages taught in a baraita: During the first three months of pregcy, the fetus resides in the lower compartment of the womb; in the middle three months, the fetus resides in the middle compartment; and during the last three months of pregcy the fetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this is what causes labor pains.,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: And this is the explanation for that which we learned in a baraita: The labor pains experienced by a woman who gives birth to a female are greater than those experienced by a woman who gives birth to a male. The Gemara will explain this below.,And Rabbi Elazar says: What is the verse from which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? “When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth” (Psalms 139:15). Since it is not stated: I resided in the lowest parts of the earth, but rather: “I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: What is different about the labor pains experienced by a woman who gives birth to a female, that they are greater than those experienced by a woman who gives birth to a male? The Gemara answers: This one, a male fetus, emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse. Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. And that one, a female fetus, emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse, i.e., facing upward. Consequently, that one, a female fetus, turns its face around before it is born, but this one, a male fetus, does not turn its face around before it is born.,§ The Sages taught in a baraita: During the first three months of pregcy, sexual intercourse is difficult and harmful for the woman and is also difficult for the offspring. During the middle three months, intercourse is difficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring. During the last three months, sexual intercourse is beneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned.,The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who engages in intercourse with his wife on the ninetieth day of her pregcy, it is as though he spills her blood. The Gemara asks: How does one know that it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? Rather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercourse with his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, and rely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: “The Lord preserves the simple” (Psalms 116:6).,§ The Sages taught: There are three partners in the creation of a person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from which the following body parts are formed: The bones, the sinews, the nails, the brain that is in its head, and the white of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from which are formed the skin, the flesh, the hair, and the black of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul, his countece ukelaster, eyesight, hearing of the ear, the capability of speech of the mouth, the capability of walking with the legs, understanding, and wisdom.,And when a person’s time to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part of the person’s father and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: This is in accordance with the adage that people say: Remove the salt from a piece of meat, and you may then toss the meat to a dog, as it has become worthless.,§ Rav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number” (Job 9:10)? Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood is that if one puts an article in a flask, even if the flask is tied and its opening faces upward, it is uncertain whether the item is preserved from getting lost, and it is uncertain whether it is not preserved from being lost. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its opening faces downward, and yet the fetus is preserved.,Another matter that demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when a person places his articles on a scale to be measured, the heavier the item is, the more it descends. But when the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms a fetus, the heavier the offspring gets, the more it ascends upward in the womb.,Rabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well” (Psalms 139:14)? Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood is that when a person plants seeds of different species in one garden bed, each and every one of the seeds emerges as a grown plant according to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all of the seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, emerge when the offspring is formed as one sex.,Alternatively, when a dyer puts herbs in a cauldron leyora, they all emerge as one color of dye, whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and each and every one of the seeds emerges as its own type. In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above.,Rav Yosef taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And on that day you shall say: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me” (Isaiah 12:1)? With regard to what matter is the verse speaking?,It is referring, for example, to two people who left their homes to go on a business trip. A thorn penetrated the body of one of them, and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. He started blaspheming and cursing in frustration. After a period of time, he heard that the ship of the other person had sunk in the sea, and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then started thanking God and praising Him for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. Therefore, it is stated at the end of the verse: “Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.”,And this statement is identical to that which Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, Who does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever” (Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that even the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miracle that was performed for him.,Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You measure zerita my going about orḥi and my lying down riv’i, and are acquainted with all my ways” (Psalms 139:3)? This verse teaches that a person is not created from the entire drop of semen, but from its clear part. Zerita can mean to winnow, while orḥi and riv’i can both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable: This matter is comparable to a person who winnows grain in the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste.,This is in accordance with a statement of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is written in one of King David’s psalms: “For You have girded me vatazreni with strength for battle” (II\xa0Samuel 22:40), without the letter alef in vatazreni; and it is written in another psalm: “Who girds me hame’azreni with strength” (Psalms 18:33), with an alef in hame’azreini. What is the difference between these two expressions? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me zeiritani, i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, and You have girded me zeraztani with strength.,Rabbi Abbahu taught: What is the meaning of that which is written in Balaam’s blessing: “Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock rova of Israel” (Numbers 23:10)? The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse revi’iyyoteihem, anticipating the time when the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive.,And it was due to this matter that the eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: Should God, who is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blinded as a divine punishment, as it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut” (Numbers 24:3).,And this statement is the same as that which Rabbi Yoḥa said: What is the meaning of that which is written, with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: “And he lay with her that night” (Genesis 30:16)? The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act. The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, as it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned garem donkey” (Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s donkey toward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby causing garam Leah’s conceiving Issachar.Rabbi Yitzḥak says that Rabbi Ami says: The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the woman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male, and if the man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male” (Leviticus 12:2).,The Sages taught: At first, people would say that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, and if the man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explain from which verse this matter is derived, until Rabbi Tzadok came and explained that it is derived from the following verse: “These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah” (Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse attributes the males to the females, as the males are called: The sons of Leah, and it attributes the females to the males,in that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: “And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons” (I\xa0Chronicles 8:40). Is it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because'' None
49. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virgin/Virginity • virgin, Tamar (daughter-in-law of Judah) • virginity, vs. celibacy

 Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 233; Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 128

34b והא תמר בביאה ראשונה איעברא א"ל תמר באצבע מעכה דאמר רבי יצחק כל מועכות של בית רבי תמר שמן ולמה נקרא שמן תמר ע"ש תמר שמעכה באצבעה והא הוו ער ואונן ער ואונן שמשו שלא כדרכן,מיתיבי כל עשרים וארבעה חדש דש מבפנים וזורה מבחוץ דברי ר\' אליעזר א"ל הללו אינו אלא כמעשה ער ואונן,כמעשה ער ואונן ולא כמעשה ער ואונן כמעשה ער ואונן דכתיב (בראשית לח, ט) והיה אם בא אל אשת אחיו ושחת ארצה ולא כמעשה ער ואונן דאילו התם שלא כדרכה והכא כדרכה,בשלמא אונן דכתיב ביה ושחת ארצה אלא ער מנלן אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק דכתיב (בראשית לח, י) וימת גם אותו אף הוא באותו מיתה מת בשלמא אונן משום לא לו יהיה הזרע אלא ער מ"ט עבד הכי כדי שלא תתעבר ויכחיש יפיה,ת"ר (ויקרא טו, כד) אותה פרט לכלה דברי רבי יהודה וחכ"א פרט לשלא כדרכה אמר ליה הון בריה דרב נחמן לרב נחמן לימא קא סבר רבי יהודה התורה חסה על תכשיטי כלה אמר ליה לפי שאין אשה מתעברת מביאה ראשונה,במאי קמיפלגי רבנן סברי שכבת זרע פרט להעראה אותה פרט לשלא כדרכה ורבי יהודה סבר שלא כדרכה והעראה משכבת זרע נפקא אותה פרט לכלה,כי אתא רבין א"ר יוחנן כל ששהתה אחר בעלה עשר שנים ונשאת שוב אינה יולדת אמר רב נחמן לא שנו אלא שאין דעתה להנשא אבל דעתה להנשא מתעברת אמר ליה רבא לבת רב חסדא קא מרנני רבנן אבתריך אמרה ליה אנא דעתאי עלך הואי,ההיא דאתיא לקמיה דרב יוסף אמרה לו ר\' אנא שהיתי אחר בעלי עשר שנים וילדתי א"ל בתי אל תוציאי לעז על דברי חכמים אמרה ליה לנכרי נבעלתי,אמר שמואל וכולן צריכות להמתין שלשה חדשים חוץ מגיורת ומשוחררת קטנה אבל קטנה בת ישראל צריכה להמתין ג\' חדשים,ובמאי אי במיאון והאמר שמואל דלא בעיא ואי בגט האמרה שמואל חדא זימנא דאמר שמואל מיאנה בו אינה צריכה להמתין שלשה חדשים נתן לה גט צריכה להמתין שלשה חדשים אלא בזנות'' None34b But didn’t Tamar become pregt from the first act of intercourse, despite the fact that she was a virgin at the time of her sexual act with Judah? Rav Naḥman said: Tamar broke her hymen with her finger prior to intercourse, and it is due to this that she became pregt from the first act of intercourse, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said: All of those women from the household of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who break their hymens are named Tamar by nickname. And why are they named Tamar? They are called this on account of Tamar, who broke her hymen with her finger. The Gemara wonders about the proof from Tamar itself: But weren’t there Er and O, her previous husbands, who presumably engaged in sexual intercourse with her? The Gemara responds: Er and O engaged in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner, i.e., anal intercourse, and therefore she was still a virgin.,The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: After a woman gives birth, her husband penetrates inside and spills his semen outside for the entire twenty-four months during which the baby is breastfeeding, so that his wife not become pregt, as that would terminate her milk production and the child might die. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. They said to him: These acts are nothing other than acts similar to those of Er and O, which are prohibited. Regardless, it can be deduced from here that Er and O engaged in normative sexual intercourse with Tamar, only they did not fully complete the sexual act.,The Gemara answers: The Tosefta actually means that what they did was similar to the act of Er and O in some ways, but not similar to the act of Er and O in other ways. The Gemara elaborates: It was similar to the act of Er and O in that there was a spilling of semen, as it is written: “And it came to pass when he had intercourse with his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground” (Genesis 38:9). Yet it was not similar to the act of Er and O, as there Er and O engaged in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner, i.e., anal intercourse, while here the Tosefta is referring to sexual intercourse in a typical manner.,The Gemara continues to clarify what took place: Granted, O engaged in unnatural sexual intercourse with her, as it is written with regard to his act: “That he spilled it on the ground” (Genesis 38:9). However, from where do we derive that Er engaged in unnatural sexual intercourse with her? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: As it is written with regard to O: “And He slew him also” (Genesis 38:10). This indicates that he, too, died the same death for performing the same transgression as his brother. The Gemara asks: Granted, O engaged in anal intercourse because he did not want Tamar to give birth as “he knew that the seed would not be his” (Genesis 38:9). However, with regard to Er, what is the reason he acted in this way? The Gemara responds: He did so in order that she not become pregt and become less beautiful as a result of her pregcy.,The Sages taught: The verse states: “And the woman, with whom a man shall lie giving seed, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the evening” (Leviticus 15:18). The extra term “with whom” comes to exclude a bride who does not become ritually impure; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: It excludes the case of sexual intercourse performed in an atypical manner. Hon, son of Rav Naḥman, said to Rav Naḥman: Shall we say that Rabbi Yehuda holds: The Torah spared a bride’s adornments, including her make-up, and therefore exempted her from submersion in water, as that might cause them ruin? Rav Naḥman said to him: That is not the reason. Rather, it is because a woman does not become pregt from the first act of intercourse. Therefore, that act of intercourse would not cause ritual impurity, as it is not considered intercourse that can result in the implanting of seed.,The Gemara asks: With regard to what do Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis disagree? The Rabbis hold that the phrase “giving seed” excludes the initial stage of intercourse, during which there is no emission of semen. And the extra phrase “with whom” excludes intercourse that is performed in an atypical way. Rabbi Yehuda, on the other hand, holds that the exclusion of both atypical sexual intercourse and the initial stage of intercourse were derived from the phrase “giving seed,” as neither of these are sexual acts that might bring about the birth of a seed, i.e., a child. The phrase “with whom” then excludes a bride.,On the topic of intercourse that cannot result in conception, the Gemara relates the following: When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: Any woman who waits after her husband has died or divorced her for ten years without intercourse and is then married can no longer bear children. Rav Naḥman said: They taught this principle only with regard to cases where she did not intend to get married at a later time, but if she intended to get married at some point, she can become pregt later on. Rava said to his wife, the daughter of Rav Ḥisda: The Sages are gossiping about you. From the time she was widowed from her first husband until the time that she was married to Rava, more than ten years passed, yet she bore him children. It seemed as though she had engaged in intercourse in the meantime. She said to him: My mind was on you. Indeed, it is told that already as a young girl she prophesized that she would marry Rava.,The Gemara relates: A certain woman who came before Rav Yosef said to him: My teacher, I waited after my husband’s death for ten years, and nevertheless I gave birth. He said to her: My daughter, do not cast aspersions on the statement of the Sages. She said to him in confession: I had sexual intercourse with a gentile during those ten years.,§ Shmuel said: And all of those women who had sexual intercourse, and there is therefore a concern that they might be pregt, must wait three months before marrying so as to differentiate between a child born from the previous intercourse and a child born from this marriage, except for a female convert who is a minor and a female released slave who is a minor. Although it is possible that they had sexual intercourse, they cannot become pregt in any case. However, a female Israelite who was a minor and had intercourse must wait three months like all other women.,The Gemara asks: And with regard to what situation is this statement referring? If it is referring to a minor who was released from her marriage by refusal, as a minor girl who was married to a man by her mother or brothers may refuse to remain married to her husband until reaching majority, but didn’t Shmuel say that she is not required to wait three months? And if it is referring to a woman who received a bill of divorce as a minor, didn’t Shmuel already state this halakha one time? Why would he repeat this ruling, as Shmuel said: A female minor who refused her husband need not wait three months before her second marriage, but if he gave her a bill of divorce, she must wait three months, so as not to make a distinction between an adult divorcée and a minor divorcée. Rather, it must be that this is referring to a female minor who was involved in licentious sexual intercourse.'' None
50. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • Virgin

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 42; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 359

51. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virgin, in Valentinianism • Virginity

 Found in books: Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 108; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 197, 203, 204, 205

52. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mary, Virgin • virgin(al), virginity • virgins in Gnosticism

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 168; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 340

53. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin birth of Jesus • virgins in Christianity

 Found in books: Beatrice (2013), The Transmission of Sin: Augustine and the Pre-Augustinian Sources, 178; Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 217

54. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin birth of Jesus • virgin/virginity • virgins in Christianity

 Found in books: Beatrice (2013), The Transmission of Sin: Augustine and the Pre-Augustinian Sources, 178; Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 217; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 71

55. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virginity

 Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 227, 237, 249, 250, 253; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 271, 272

56. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athanasius of Alexandria, Letters to Virgins • Second Letter to Virgins (Athanasius of Alexandria) • virginity

 Found in books: Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 43; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 648; van 't Westeinde (2021), Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites, 45

57. Anon., Ascension of Isaiah, 11.1-11.11
 Tagged with subjects: • virgin birth • virgin(al), virginity

 Found in books: Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 370; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 339

sup>
11.1 AFTER this I saw, and the angel who spoke with me, who conducted me, said unto me: "Understand, Isaiah son of Amoz; for for this purpose have I been sent from God." 11.2 And I indeed saw a woman of the family of David the prophet, named Mary, and Virgin, and she was espoused to a man named Joseph, a carpenter, and he also was of the seed and family of the righteous David of Bethlehem Judah. 11.3 And he came into his lot. And when she was espoused, she was found with child, and Joseph the carpenter was desirous to put her away. 11.4 But the angel of the Spirit appeared in this world, and after that Joseph did not put her away, but kept Mary and did not reveal this matter to any one. 11.5 And he did not approach May, but kept her as a holy virgin, though with child. 11.6 And he did not live with her for two months. 11.7 And after two months of days while Joseph was in his house, and Mary his wife, but both alone. 11.8 It came to pass that when they were alone that Mary straight-way looked with her eyes and saw a small babe, and she was astonished. 11.9 And after she had been astonished, her womb was found as formerly before she had conceived.
11.10
And when her husband Joseph said unto her: "What has astonished thee?" his eyes were opened and he saw the infant and praised God, because into his portion God had come.
11.11
And a voice came to them: "Tell this vision to no one."'' None
58. Vergil, Aeneis, 2.221, 2.296, 3.370, 7.418, 11.480-11.481
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • Virgin • lyric (early Greek), and virgins

 Found in books: Cairns (1989), Virgil's Augustan Epic. 163, 166; Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 166, 170; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 477

sup>
2.221 perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno,
2.296
Sic ait, et manibus vittas Vestamque potentem
3.370
exorat pacem divom, vittasque resolvit
11.480
causa mali tanti, oculos deiecta decoros. 11.481 Succedunt matres et templum ture vaporant' ' None
sup>
2.221 I publish to the world. No fatherland
2.296
each dragon coiled, and on the shrinking flesh
3.370
Father Anchises to the gods in heaven
11.480
for peace, O Turnus! and, not less than peace, 11.481 its one inviolable pledge. Behold, ' ' None
59. Vergil, Georgics, 2.476
 Tagged with subjects: • Dike (Δίκη, Virgo) • Iustitia Virgo

 Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 107; Gee (2013), Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition, 41

sup>
2.476 quarum sacra fero ingenti percussus amore,'' None
sup>
2.476 of their hard tooth, whose gnawing scars the stem.'' None
60. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Vestal Virgins • Vestal virgin

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 400; Talbert (1984), The Senate of Imperial Rome, 389

61. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Hera, virgin • virgin(al), virginity

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 160; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 113




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