|14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.3, 1.7-1.8, 1.19, 1.29, 1.127, 1.138, 1.152-1.153, 1.179, 2.284-2.292, 2.345-2.369, 2.371-2.379, 2.381-2.389, 2.391-2.399, 2.401, 2.450-2.454, 2.562-2.568, 2.576-2.577, 2.617, 3.1-3.6, 3.29, 3.35-3.49, 3.51-3.58, 3.110-3.114, 3.132-3.134, 3.141-3.149, 3.151-3.179, 3.181-3.189, 3.191-3.199, 3.201-3.209, 3.211-3.219, 3.221-3.229, 3.231-3.239, 3.241-3.249, 3.251-3.259, 3.261-3.269, 3.271-3.279, 3.281-3.289, 3.291-3.306, 3.310-3.314, 3.340-3.349, 3.351-3.356, 3.361-3.379, 3.381-3.389, 3.391-3.392, 3.399-3.408, 3.443, 3.462-3.479, 3.481-3.489, 3.491-3.499, 3.501-3.502, 4.17-4.29, 4.31-4.38, 4.45, 4.54-4.61, 4.71-4.79, 4.81-4.90, 4.92-4.96, 4.101-4.119, 4.121-4.127, 4.438, 4.442, 4.456-4.469, 4.471-4.475, 4.477, 4.483-4.485, 4.601-4.604, 4.618, 4.620, 4.622-4.626, 4.629, 5.2, 5.45-5.46, 5.362-5.379, 5.381-5.389, 5.391-5.399, 5.401-5.419, 5.510, 5.519, 5.541-5.547, 6.216, 6.236-6.249, 6.251-6.259, 6.261-6.266, 7.37, 7.45, 7.73, 7.120-7.123, 7.128, 7.131-7.162, 7.217-7.229, 7.231-7.239, 7.241-7.243, 7.421 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alexandria, Vespasian’s uprising in • Cilicia/Cilicians, third Roman province formed under Vespasian • Emperors and Egypt, Vespasian • Jericho,Vespasians attack (68 CE) • Jews, revolts of, against Vespasian ( • Vespasian • Vespasian, Emperor • Vespasian, attitude toward Jewish law • Vespasian, confirmed as emperor by Judean religion and texts • Vespasian, declared emperor in Egypt • Vespasian, emperor • Vespasian, exemptions granted by • Vespasian, fights northern barbarians • Vespasian, his triumph • Vespasian, taxes under • Vespasian, triumph of • Vespasian,, in Josephus • tributum capitis, under Vespasian, more than head tax
Found in books: Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 192, 256; Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 105, 107; Augoustakis et al. (2021), Fides in Flavian Literature, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67; Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 109; Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 95, 102, 117, 129; Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 116, 117, 118, 132, 174; Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 101, 102, 143, 151; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020), Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity, 112, 150, 155, 162; Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 137; Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 279; Galinsky (2016), Memory in Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 136; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 26, 54, 80; JonquiÃ¨re (2007), Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 159, 189, 207, 208, 209, 212, 213, 217, 218, 225, 244, 258; Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 194; Konrad (2022), The Challenge to the Auspices: Studies on Magisterial Power in the Middle Roman Republic, 117; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 68, 126, 148; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 123; Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 339; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 129; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 108, 188, 190, 191, 193, 194; Roumpou (2023), Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature. 131; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 221, 272, 277, 278, 279, 280; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 260, 353; Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 71, 72; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 59, 60, 61, 225, 226, 234, 262, 318; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 114, 477, 543, 544, 545, 562; Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 20, 237
1.3 Ταῦτα πάντα περιλαβὼν ἐν ἑπτὰ βιβλίοις καὶ μηδεμίαν τοῖς ἐπισταμένοις τὰ πράγματα καὶ παρατυχοῦσι τῷ πολέμῳ καταλιπὼν ἢ μέμψεως ἀφορμὴν ἢ κατηγορίας, τοῖς γε τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἀγαπῶσιν, ἀλλὰ μὴ πρὸς ἡδονὴν ἀνέγραψα. ποιήσομαι δὲ ταύτην τῆς ἐξηγήσεως ἀρχήν, ἣν καὶ τῶν κεφαλαίων ἐποιησάμην.' "
1.3 προυθέμην ἐγὼ τοῖς κατὰ τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίαν ̔Ελλάδι γλώσσῃ μεταβαλὼν ἃ τοῖς ἄνω βαρβάροις τῇ πατρίῳ συντάξας ἀνέπεμψα πρότερον ἀφηγήσασθαι ̓Ιώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ἐξ ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἱερεύς, αὐτός τε ̔Ρωμαίους πολεμήσας τὰ πρῶτα καὶ τοῖς ὕστερον παρατυχὼν ἐξ ἀνάγκης:
1.3 ταῦτ' ἀκούσας ̓Αντίγονος διέπεμψεν περὶ τὴν χώραν εἴργειν καὶ λοχᾶν τοὺς σιτηγοὺς κελεύων. οἱ δ' ὑπήκουον, καὶ πολὺ πλῆθος ὁπλιτῶν ὑπὲρ τὴν ̔Ιεριχοῦντα συνηθροίσθη: διεκαθέζοντο δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρῶν παραφυλάσσοντες τοὺς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἐκκομίζοντας." 1.7 Καίτοι γε ἱστορίας αὐτὰς ἐπιγράφειν τολμῶσιν, ἐν αἷς πρὸς τῷ μηδὲν ὑγιὲς δηλοῦν καὶ τοῦ σκοποῦ δοκοῦσιν ἔμοιγε διαμαρτάνειν. βούλονται μὲν γὰρ μεγάλους τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους ἀποδεικνύειν, καταβάλλουσιν δὲ ἀεὶ τὰ ̓Ιουδαίων καὶ ταπεινοῦσιν:
1.7 Μετὰ γὰρ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τελευτὴν ὁ πρεσβύτερος αὐτῶν ̓Αριστόβουλος τὴν ἀρχὴν εἰς βασιλείαν μετατιθεὶς περιτίθεται μὲν διάδημα πρῶτος μετὰ τετρακοσιοστὸν καὶ ἑβδομηκοστὸν πρῶτον ἔτος, πρὸς δὲ μῆνας τρεῖς, ἐξ οὗ κατῆλθεν ὁ λαὸς εἰς τὴν χώραν ἀπαλλαγεὶς τῆς ἐν Βαβυλῶνι δουλείας: 1.8 ὁ δὴ χρόνος ἐκκρούει τὸ μάντευμα.” ταῦτα εἰπὼν σκυθρωπὸς ἐπὶ συννοίας ὁ γέρων διεκαρτέρει, καὶ μετ' ὀλίγον ἀνῃρημένος ̓Αντίγονος ἠγγέλλετο κατὰ τὸ ὑπόγαιον χωρίον, ὃ δὴ καὶ αὐτὸ Στράτωνος ἐκαλεῖτο πύργος ὁμωνυμοῦν τῇ παραλίῳ Καισαρείᾳ. τοῦτο γοῦν τὸν μάντιν διετάραξεν." "1.8 οὐχ ὁρῶ δέ, πῶς ἂν εἶναι μεγάλοι δοκοῖεν οἱ μικροὺς νενικηκότες: καὶ οὔτε τὸ μῆκος αἰδοῦνται τοῦ πολέμου οὔτε τὸ πλῆθος τῆς ̔Ρωμαίων καμούσης στρατιᾶς οὔτε τὸ μέγεθος τῶν στρατηγῶν, οἳ πολλὰ περὶ τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἱδρώσαντες οἶμαι ταπεινουμένου τοῦ κατορθώματος αὐτοῖς ἀδοξοῦσιν.' "
1.19 Καὶ τὸ Πηλούσιον μὲν ἑάλω, πρόσω δ' αὐτὸν ἰόντα εἶργον αὖθις οἱ τὴν ̓Ονίου προσαγορευομένην χώραν κατέχοντες: ἦσαν δὲ ̓Ιουδαῖοι Αἰγύπτιοι. τούτους ̓Αντίπατρος οὐ μόνον μὴ κωλύειν ἔπεισεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τῇ δυνάμει παρασχεῖν: ὅθεν οὐδὲ οἱ κατὰ Μέμφιν ἔτι εἰς χεῖρας ἦλθον, ἑκούσιοι δὲ προσέθεντο Μιθριδάτῃ." 1.19 ὡς ̓Αντίοχος ὁ κληθεὶς ̓Επιφανὴς ἑλὼν κατὰ κράτος ̔Ιεροσόλυμα καὶ κατασχὼν ἔτεσι τρισὶ καὶ μησὶν ἓξ ὑπὸ τῶν ̓Ασαμωναίου παίδων ἐκβάλλεται τῆς χώρας, ἔπειθ' ὡς οἱ τούτων ἔγγονοι περὶ τῆς βασιλείας διαστασιάσαντες εἵλκυσαν εἰς τὰ πράγματα ̔Ρωμαίους καὶ Πομπήιον. καὶ ὡς ̔Ηρώδης ὁ ̓Αντιπάτρου κατέλυσε τὴν δυναστείαν αὐτῶν ἐπαγαγὼν Σόσσιον," "
1.29 ̓́Ηδη δὲ ̔Ηρώδης καταπεπλευκὼς ἀπὸ τῆς ̓Ιταλίας εἰς Πτολεμαί̈δα καὶ συναγηοχὼς δύναμιν οὐκ ὀλίγην ξένων τε καὶ ὁμοφύλων ἤλαυνεν διὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐπ' ̓Αντίγονον συλλαμβανόντων Βεντιδίου καὶ Σίλωνος, οὓς Δέλλιος ὑπ' ̓Αντωνίου πεμφθεὶς ̔Ηρώδην συγκαταγαγεῖν ἔπεισεν." "
1.29 καὶ ὡς ̔Ρωμαῖοι μὲν ἐπεξῆλθον τὰ λείψανα τοῦ πολέμου καὶ τὰ ἐρύματα τῶν χωρίων καθεῖλον, Τίτος δὲ πᾶσαν ἐπελθὼν τὴν χώραν κατεστήσατο, τήν τε ὑποστροφὴν αὐτοῦ τὴν εἰς ̓Ιταλίαν καὶ τὸν θρίαμβον.' "
1.127 κἂν ἔφθη κατὰ κράτος ληφθείς, εἰ μὴ Σκαῦρος ὁ ̔Ρωμαίων στρατηγὸς ἐπαναστὰς αὐτῶν τοῖς καιροῖς ἔλυσε τὴν πολιορκίαν: ὃς ἐπέμφθη μὲν εἰς Συρίαν ἀπὸ ̓Αρμενίας ὑπὸ Πομπηίου Μάγνου πολεμοῦντος πρὸς Τιγράνην, παραγενόμενος δὲ εἰς Δαμασκὸν ἑαλωκυῖαν προσφάτως ὑπὸ Μετέλλου καὶ Λολλίου καὶ τούτους μεταστήσας, ἐπειδὴ τὰ κατὰ τὴν ̓Ιουδαίαν ἐπύθετο, καθάπερ ἐφ' ἕρμαιον ἠπείχθη." 1.138 ̔Ο δέ, οὐ γὰρ ἐδίδου χρόνον ταῖς παρασκευαῖς, εὐθέως εἵπετο, καὶ προσεπέρρωσεν τὴν ὁρμὴν ὁ Μιθριδάτου θάνατος ἀγγελθεὶς αὐτῷ περὶ ̔Ιεριχοῦντα, ἔνθα τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας τὸ πιότατον φοίνικά τε πάμπολυν καὶ βάλσαμον τρέφει. τοῦτο λίθοις ὀξέσιν ἐπιτέμνοντες τὰ πρέμνα συνάγουσιν κατὰ τὰς τομὰς ἐκδακρῦον.
1.152 Οὐδὲν δὲ οὕτως ἐν ταῖς τότε συμφοραῖς καθήψατο τοῦ ἔθνους ὡς τὸ τέως ἀόρατον ἅγιον ἐκκαλυφθὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων: παρελθὼν γοῦν σὺν τοῖς περὶ αὐτὸν ὁ Πομπήιος εἰς τὸν ναόν, ἔνθα μόνῳ θεμιτὸν ἦν παριέναι τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ, τὰ ἔνδον ἐθεάσατο, λυχνίαν τε καὶ λύχνους καὶ τράπεζαν καὶ σπονδεῖα καὶ θυμιατήρια, ὁλόχρυσα πάντα, πλῆθός τε ἀρωμάτων σεσωρευμένον καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν χρημάτων εἰς τάλαντα δισχίλια.' "1.153 οὔτε δὲ τούτων οὔτε ἄλλου τινὸς τῶν ἱερῶν κειμηλίων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ μετὰ μίαν τῆς ἁλώσεως ἡμέραν καθᾶραι τὸ ἱερὸν τοῖς νεωκόροις προσέταξεν καὶ τὰς ἐξ ἔθους ἐπιτελεῖν θυσίας. αὖθις δ' ἀποδείξας ̔Υρκανὸν ἀρχιερέα τά τε ἄλλα προθυμότατον ἑαυτὸν ἐν τῇ πολιορκίᾳ παρασχόντα καὶ διότι τὸ κατὰ τὴν χώραν πλῆθος ἀπέστησεν ̓Αριστοβούλῳ συμπολεμεῖν ὡρμημένον, ἐκ τούτων, ὅπερ ἦν προσῆκον ἀγαθῷ στρατηγῷ, τὸν λαὸν εὐνοίᾳ πλέον ἢ δέει προσηγάγετο." 1.179 Κἀν τούτῳ Κράσσος αὐτῷ διάδοχος ἐλθὼν παραλαμβάνει Συρίαν. οὗτος εἰς τὴν ἐπὶ Πάρθους στρατείαν τόν τε ἄλλον τοῦ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ναοῦ χρυσὸν πάντα περιεῖλεν καὶ τὰ δισχίλια τάλαντα ἦρεν, ὧν ἀπέσχετο Πομπήιος. διαβὰς δὲ τὸν Εὐφράτην αὐτός τε ἀπώλετο καὶ ὁ στρατὸς αὐτοῦ, περὶ ὧν οὐ νῦν καιρὸς λέγειν.
2.284 ̓Εν δὲ τούτῳ καὶ οἱ Καισαρέων ̔́Ελληνες νικήσαντες παρὰ Νέρωνι τῆς πόλεως ἄρχειν τὰ τῆς κρίσεως ἐκόμισαν γράμματα, καὶ προσελάμβανεν τὴν ἀρχὴν ὁ πόλεμος δωδεκάτῳ μὲν ἔτει τῆς Νέρωνος ἡγεμονίας, ἑπτακαιδεκάτῳ δὲ τῆς ̓Αγρίππα βασιλείας, ̓Αρτεμισίου μηνός. 2.285 πρὸς δὲ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν ἐξ αὐτοῦ συμφορῶν οὐκ ἀξίαν ἔσχεν πρόφασιν: οἱ γὰρ ἐν Καισαρείᾳ ̓Ιουδαῖοι, συναγωγὴν ἔχοντες παρὰ χωρίον, οὗ δεσπότης ἦν τις ̔́Ελλην Καισαρεύς, πολλάκις μὲν κτήσασθαι τὸν τόπον ἐσπούδασαν τιμὴν πολλαπλασίονα τῆς ἀξίας διδόντες:' "2.286 ὡς δ' ὑπερορῶν τὰς δεήσεις πρὸς ἐπήρειαν ἔτι καὶ παρῳκοδόμει τὸ χωρίον ἐκεῖνος ἐργαστήρια κατασκευαζόμενος στενήν τε καὶ παντάπασιν βιαίαν πάροδον ἀπέλειπεν αὐτοῖς, τὸ μὲν πρῶτον οἱ θερμότεροι τῶν νέων προπηδῶντες οἰκοδομεῖν ἐκώλυον." '2.287 ὡς δὲ τούτους εἶργεν τῆς βίας Φλῶρος, ἀμηχανοῦντες οἱ δυνατοὶ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων, σὺν οἷς ̓Ιωάννης ὁ τελώνης. πείθουσι τὸν Φλῶρον ἀργυρίου ταλάντοις ὀκτὼ διακωλῦσαι τὸ ἔργον. 2.288 ὁ δὲ πρὸς μόνον τὸ λαβεῖν ὑποσχόμενος πάντα συμπράξειν, λαβὼν ἔξεισιν τῆς Καισαρείας εἰς Σεβαστὴν καὶ καταλείπει τὴν στάσιν αὐτεξούσιον, ὥσπερ ἄδειαν πεπρακὼς ̓Ιουδαίοις τοῦ μάχεσθαι.' "2.289 Τῆς δ' ἐπιούσης ἡμέρας ἑβδομάδος οὔσης τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν συναθροισθέντων στασιαστής τις Καισαρεὺς γάστραν καταστρέψας καὶ παρὰ τὴν εἴσοδον αὐτῶν θέμενος ἐπέθυεν ὄρνεις. τοῦτο τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους ἀνηκέστως παρώξυνεν ὡς ὑβρισμένων μὲν αὐτοῖς τῶν νόμων, μεμιασμένου δὲ τοῦ χωρίου." "2.291 προσελθὼν δὲ ̓Ιούκουνδος ὁ διακωλύειν τεταγμένος ἱππάρχης τήν τε γάστραν αἴρει καὶ καταπαύειν ἐπειρᾶτο τὴν στάσιν. ἡττωμένου δ' αὐτοῦ τῆς τῶν Καισαρέων βίας ̓Ιουδαῖοι τοὺς νόμους ἁρπάσαντες ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς Νάρβατα: χώρα τις αὐτῶν οὕτω καλεῖται σταδίους ἑξήκοντα διέχουσα τῆς Καισαρείας:" '2.292 οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν ̓Ιωάννην δυνατοὶ δώδεκα πρὸς Φλῶρον ἐλθόντες εἰς Σεβαστὴν ἀπωδύροντο περὶ τῶν πεπραγμένων καὶ βοηθεῖν ἱκέτευον, αἰδημόνως ὑπομιμνήσκοντες τῶν ὀκτὼ ταλάντων. ὁ δὲ καὶ συλλαβὼν ἔδησεν τοὺς ἄνδρας αἰτιώμενος ὑπὲρ τοῦ τοὺς νόμους ἐξενεγκεῖν τῆς Καισαρείας.' "
2.345 “Εἰ μὲν ἑώρων πάντας ὑμᾶς πολεμεῖν ̔Ρωμαίοις ὡρμημένους καὶ μὴ τοῦ δήμου τὸ καθαρώτατον καὶ εἰλικρινέστατον εἰρήνην ἄγειν προῃρημένους, οὔτ' ἂν παρῆλθον εἰς ὑμᾶς οὔτε συμβουλεύειν ἐθάρρησα: περισσὸς γὰρ ὑπὲρ τοῦ τὰ δέοντα ποιεῖν πᾶς λόγος, ὅταν ᾖ τῶν ἀκουόντων πάντων ἡ πρὸς τὸ χεῖρον ὁμόνοια." '2.346 ἐπεὶ δὲ τινὰς μὲν ἡλικία τῶν ἐν πολέμῳ κακῶν ἄπειρος, τινὰς δὲ ἐλπὶς ἀλόγιστος ἐλευθερίας, ἐνίους δὲ πλεονεξία τις παροξύνει καὶ τὸ παρὰ τῶν ἀσθενεστέρων, ἐὰν τὰ πράγματα συγχυθῇ, κέρδος, ὅπως αὐτοί τε σωφρονισθέντες μεταβάλωνται καὶ μὴ τῆς ἐνίων κακοβουλίας οἱ ἀγαθοὶ παραπολαύσωσιν, ᾠήθην δεῖν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πάντας ὑμᾶς συναγαγὼν εἰπεῖν ἃ νομίζω συμφέρειν. 2.347 θορυβήσῃ δέ μοι μηδείς, ἐὰν μὴ τὰ πρὸς ἡδονὴν ἀκούῃ: τοῖς μὲν γὰρ ἀνηκέστως ἐπὶ τὴν ἀπόστασιν ὡρμημένοις ἔνεστι καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἐμὴν παραίνεσιν ταῦτα φρονεῖν, ἐμοὶ δὲ διαπίπτει καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἀκούειν ἐθέλοντας ὁ λόγος, ἐὰν μὴ παρὰ πάντων ἡσυχία γένηται. 2.348 οἶδα μὲν οὖν ὅτι πολλοὶ τὰς ἐκ τῶν ἐπιτρόπων ὕβρεις καὶ τὰ τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἐγκώμια τραγῳδοῦσιν, ἐγὼ δὲ πρὶν ἐξετάζειν τίνες ὄντες καὶ τίσιν ἐπιχειρεῖτε πολεμεῖν, πρῶτον διαζεύξω τὴν συμπλοκὴν τῶν προφάσεων. 2.349 εἰ μὲν γὰρ ἀμύνεσθε τοὺς ἀδικοῦντας, τί σεμνύνετε τὴν ἐλευθερίαν; εἰ δὲ τὸ δουλεύειν ἀφόρητον ἡγεῖσθε, περισσὴ πρὸς τοὺς ἡγεμόνας ἡ μέμψις: καὶ γὰρ ἐκείνων μετριαζόντων αἰσχρὸν ὁμοίως τὸ δουλεύειν.' "2.351 ὅταν δὲ τῶν μικρῶν ἁμαρτημάτων τοὺς ἐξονειδισμοὺς ποιῆσθε μεγάλους, καθ' ἑαυτῶν τοὺς ὀνειδιζομένους ἀπελέγχετε, καὶ παρέντες τὸ λάθρα καὶ μετ' αἰδοῦς ὑμᾶς βλάπτειν πορθοῦσι φανερῶς. οὐδὲν δὲ οὕτως τὰς πληγὰς ὡς τὸ φέρειν ἀναστέλλει, καὶ τὸ τῶν ἀδικουμένων ἡσύχιον τοῖς ἀδικοῦσι γίνεται διατροπή." "2.352 φέρε δ' εἶναι τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίων ὑπηρέτας ἀνηκέστως χαλεπούς: οὔπω ̔Ρωμαῖοι πάντες ἀδικοῦσιν ὑμᾶς οὐδὲ Καῖσαρ, πρὸς οὓς αἱρεῖσθε τὸν πόλεμον: οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐξ ἐντολῆς ἥκει τις πονηρὸς ἀπ' ἐκείνων, οὐδέ γε τοὺς ὑπὸ τὴν ἀνατολὴν οἱ ἀφ' ἑσπέρας ἐπιβλέπουσιν: ἀλλ' οὐδὲ ἀκούειν ταχέως τὰ ἐντεῦθεν ἐκεῖ ῥᾴδιον." "2.353 ἄτοπον δὲ καὶ δι' ἕνα πολλοῖς καὶ διὰ μικρὰς αἰτίας τηλικούτοις καὶ μηδὲ γινώσκουσιν ἃ μεμφόμεθα πολεμεῖν." "2.354 καὶ τῶν μὲν ἡμετέρων ἐγκλημάτων ταχεῖα γένοιτ' ἂν διόρθωσις: οὔτε γὰρ ὁ αὐτὸς ἐπίτροπος μένει διὰ παντός, καὶ τοὺς διαδεξομένους εἰκὸς ἐλεύσεσθαι μετριωτέρους: κινηθέντα δ' ἅπαξ τὸν πόλεμον οὔτε ἀποθέσθαι ῥᾴδιον δίχα συμφορῶν οὔτε βαστάζειν." "2.355 ἀλλὰ μὴν τό γε νῦν ἐλευθερίας ἐπιθυμεῖν ἄωρον, δέον ὑπὲρ τοῦ μηδὲ ἀποβαλεῖν αὐτὴν ἀγωνίζεσθαι πρότερον: ἡ γὰρ πεῖρα τῆς δουλείας χαλεπή, καὶ περὶ τοῦ μηδ' ἄρξασθαι ταύτης ὁ ἀγὼν δίκαιος." "2.356 ὁ δ' ἅπαξ χειρωθείς, ἔπειτα ἀφιστάμενος, αὐθάδης δοῦλός ἐστιν, οὐ φιλελεύθερος. τότε τοιγαροῦν ἐχρῆν πάνθ' ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ δέξασθαι ̔Ρωμαίους ποιεῖν, ὅτε ἐπέβαινεν τῆς χώρας Πομπήιος." "2.357 ἀλλ' οἱ μὲν ἡμέτεροι πρόγονοι καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς αὐτῶν καὶ χρήμασιν καὶ σώμασιν καὶ ψυχαῖς ἄμεινον ὑμῶν πολλῷ διακείμενοι πρὸς μοῖραν ὀλίγην τῆς ̔Ρωμαίων δυνάμεως οὐκ ἀντέσχον: ὑμεῖς δὲ οἱ τὸ μὲν ὑπακούειν ἐκ διαδοχῆς παρειληφότες, τοῖς πράγμασιν δὲ τῶν πρώτων ὑπακουσάντων τοσοῦτον ἐλαττούμενοι, πρὸς ὅλην ἀνθίστασθε τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίαν;" '2.358 καὶ ̓Αθηναῖοι μὲν οἱ περὶ τῆς τῶν ̔Ελλήνων ἐλευθερίας παραδόντες ποτὲ καὶ πυρὶ τὴν πόλιν, οἱ τὸν ὑπερήφανον Ξέρξην διὰ γῆς πλεύσαντα καὶ διὰ θαλάσσης ὁδεύσαντα καὶ μὴ χωρούμενον μὲν τοῖς πελάγεσιν, πλατυτέραν δὲ τῆς Εὐρώπης τὴν στρατιὰν ἄγοντα, οἷα δραπέτην ἐπὶ μιᾶς νηὸς διώξαντες, περὶ δὲ τῇ μικρᾷ Σαλαμῖνι τὴν τοσαύτην ̓Ασίαν κλάσαντες νῦν δουλεύουσιν ̔Ρωμαίοις, καὶ τὴν ἡγεμονίδα τῆς ̔Ελλάδος πόλιν διοικεῖ τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς ̓Ιταλίας προστάγματα. 2.359 Λακεδαιμόνιοι δὲ μετὰ Θερμοπύλας καὶ Πλαταιὰς καὶ τὸν ἐρευνήσαντα τὴν ̓Ασίαν ̓Αγησίλαον ἀγαπῶσιν τοὺς αὐτοὺς δεσπότας,' "2.361 ἄλλα τε ἔθνη μυρία πλείονος γέμοντα πρὸς ἐλευθερίαν παρρησίας εἴκει: μόνοι δ' ὑμεῖς ἀδοξεῖτε δουλεύειν οἷς ὑποτέτακται τὰ πάντα. ποίᾳ στρατιᾷ ποίοις πεποιθότες ὅπλοις; ποῦ μὲν ὁ στόλος ὑμῖν διαληψόμενος τὰς ̔Ρωμαίων θαλάσσας; ποῦ δ' οἱ ταῖς ἐπιβολαῖς ἐξαρκέσοντες θησαυροί;" '2.362 πρὸς Αἰγυπτίους ἄρα καὶ πρὸς ̓́Αραβας οἴεσθε κινεῖν τὸν πόλεμον; οὐ περισκέψεσθε τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίαν; οὐ μετρήσετε τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀσθένειαν; οὐ τὰ μὲν ἡμέτερα καὶ τῶν προσοίκων ἐθνῶν ἡττήθη πολλάκις, ἡ δὲ ἐκείνων ἰσχὺς διὰ τῆς οἰκουμένης ἀνίκητος;' "2.363 μᾶλλον δὲ καὶ ταύτης ἐζήτησάν τι πλέον: οὐ γὰρ ἐξήρκεσεν αὐτοῖς ὅλος Εὐφράτης ὑπὸ τὴν ἀνατολὴν οὐδὲ τῶν προσαρκτίων ὁ ̓́Ιστρος ἥ τε μεσημβρινὴ μέχρι τῶν ἀοικήτων ἐρευνηθεῖσα Λιβύη καὶ Γάδειρα πρὸς ἑσπέραν, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ ὠκεανὸν ἑτέραν ἐζήτησαν οἰκουμένην καὶ μέχρι τῶν ἀνιστορήτων πρότερον Βρεττανῶν διήνεγκαν τὰ ὅπλα." '2.364 τί οὖν; ὑμεῖς πλουσιώτεροι Γαλατῶν, ἰσχυρότεροι Γερμανῶν, ̔Ελλήνων συνετώτεροι, πλείους τῶν κατὰ τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐστὲ πάντων; τί τὸ πεποιθὸς ὑμᾶς κατὰ ̔Ρωμαίων ἐπαίρει; χαλεπὸν τὸ δουλεύειν, ἐρεῖ τις.' "2.365 πόσῳ μᾶλλον ̔́Ελλησιν, οἳ τῶν ὑφ' ἡλίῳ πάντων προύχοντες εὐγενείᾳ καὶ τοσαύτην νεμόμενοι χώραν ἓξ ̔Ρωμαίων ὑπείκουσιν ῥάβδοις, τοσαύταις δὲ καὶ Μακεδόνες οἱ δικαιότερον ὑμῶν ὀφείλοντες ἐλευθερίας ἀντιποιεῖσθαι." "2.366 τί δ' αἱ πεντακόσιαι τῆς ̓Ασίας πόλεις; οὐ δίχα φρουρᾶς ἕνα προσκυνοῦσιν ἡγεμόνα καὶ τὰς ὑπατικὰς ῥάβδους; τί χρὴ λέγειν ̔Ηνιόχους τε καὶ Κόλχους καὶ τὸ τῶν Ταύρων φῦλον, Βοσπορανούς τε καὶ τὰ περίοικα τοῦ Πόντου καὶ τῆς Μαιώτιδος ἔθνη;" "2.367 παρ' οἷς πρὶν μὲν οὐδ' οἰκεῖος ἐγιγνώσκετο δεσπότης, νῦν δὲ τρισχιλίοις ὁπλίταις ὑποτάσσεται, καὶ τεσσαράκοντα ναῦς μακραὶ τὴν πρὶν ἄπλωτον καὶ ἀγρίαν εἰρηνεύουσι θάλασσαν." '2.368 πόσα Βιθυνία καὶ Καππαδοκία καὶ τὸ Παμφύλιον ἔθνος Λύκιοί τε καὶ Κίλικες ὑπὲρ ἐλευθερίας ἔχοντες εἰπεῖν χωρὶς ὅπλων φορολογοῦνται; τί δαί; Θρᾷκες οἱ πέντε μὲν εὖρος ἑπτὰ δὲ μῆκος ἡμερῶν χώραν διειληφότες, τραχυτέραν τε καὶ πολλῷ τῆς ὑμετέρας ὀχυρωτέραν καὶ βαθεῖ κρυμῷ τοὺς ἐπιστρατεύσοντας ἀνακόπτουσαν, οὐχὶ δισχιλίοις ̔Ρωμαίων ὑπακούουσιν φρουροῖς;' "2.369 οἱ δ' ἀπὸ τούτων ̓Ιλλυριοὶ τὴν μέχρι Δαλματίας ἀποτεμνομένην ̓́Ιστρῳ κατοικοῦντες, οὐ δυσὶν μόνοις τάγμασιν ὑπείκουσιν, μεθ' ὧν αὐτοὶ τὰς Δακῶν ἀνακόπτουσιν ὁρμάς;" 2.371 ἀλλὰ μὴν εἴ γέ τινας εἰς ἀπόστασιν ὤφειλον ἀφορμαὶ μεγάλαι παροξύνειν, μάλιστα Γαλάτας ἐχρῆν τοὺς οὕτως ὑπὸ τῆς φύσεως τετειχισμένους, ἐξ ἀνατολῆς μὲν ταῖς ̓́Αλπεσιν πρὸς ἄρκτῳ δὲ ̔Ρήνῳ ποταμῷ, μεσημβρινοῖς δὲ τοῖς Πυρηναίοις ὄρεσιν, ὠκεανῷ δὲ πρὸς δυσμῶν.' "2.372 ἀλλὰ καίτοι τηλικαῦτα μὲν ἕρκη περιβεβλημένοι, πέντε δὲ καὶ τριακοσίοις πληθύοντες ἔθνεσιν, τὰς δὲ πηγάς, ὡς ἄν τις εἴποι, τῆς εὐδαιμονίας ἐπιχωρίους ἔχοντες καὶ τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς σχεδὸν ὅλην ἐπικλύζοντες τὴν οἰκουμένην, ἀνέχονται ̔Ρωμαίων πρόσοδος ὄντες καὶ ταμιευόμενοι παρ' αὐτῶν τὴν οἰκείαν εὐδαιμονίαν." "2.373 καὶ τοῦθ' ὑπομένουσιν οὐ διὰ φρονημάτων μαλακίαν οὐδὲ δι' ἀγένειαν, οἵ γε διήνεγκαν ὀγδοήκοντα ἔτη πόλεμον ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας, ἀλλὰ μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως ̔Ρωμαίων καὶ τὴν τύχην καταπλαγέντες, ἥτις αὐτοῖς κατορθοῖ πλείονα τῶν ὅπλων. τοιγαροῦν ὑπὸ χιλίοις καὶ διακοσίοις στρατιώταις δουλεύουσιν, ὧν ὀλίγου δεῖν πλείους ἔχουσι πόλεις." '2.374 οὐδὲ ̓́Ιβηρσιν ὁ γεωργούμενος χρυσὸς εἰς τὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἐξήρκεσεν πόλεμον οὐδὲ τὸ τοσοῦτον ἀπὸ ̔Ρωμαίων γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης διάστημα φῦλά τε Λουσιτανῶν καὶ Καντάβρων ἀρειμάνια οὐδὲ γείτων ὠκεανὸς φοβερὰν καὶ τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις ἄμπωτιν ἐπάγων,' "2.375 ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ τὰς ̔Ηρακλείους στήλας ἐκτείναντες τὰ ὅπλα καὶ διὰ νεφῶν ὁδεύσαντες τὰ Πυρηναῖα ὄρη καὶ τούτους ἐδουλώσαντο ̔Ρωμαῖοι: φρουρὰ δ' ἤρκεσεν τῶν οὕτως δυσμάχων καὶ τοσοῦτον ἀπῳκισμένων ἓν τάγμα." '2.376 τίς ὑμῶν οὐκ ἀκοῇ παρείληφεν τὸ Γερμανῶν πλῆθος; ἀλκὴν μὲν γὰρ καὶ μεγέθη σωμάτων εἴδετε δήπου πολλάκις, ἐπεὶ πανταχοῦ ̔Ρωμαῖοι τοὺς τούτων αἰχμαλώτους ἔχουσιν.' "2.377 ἀλλ' οὗτοι γῆν μὲν ἄπειρον νεμόμενοι, μείζω δὲ τῶν σωμάτων ἔχοντες τὰ φρονήματα καὶ τὴν μὲν ψυχὴν θανάτου καταφρονοῦσαν, τοὺς δὲ θυμοὺς τῶν ἀγριωτάτων θηρίων σφοδροτέρους, ̔Ρῆνον τῆς ὁρμῆς ὅρον ἔχουσιν καὶ ̔Ρωμαίων ὀκτὼ τάγμασιν δαμαζόμενοι δουλεύουσιν μὲν ἁλόντες, τὸ δ' ὅλον αὐτῶν ἔθνος φυγῇ διασώζεται." "2.378 σκέψασθε δὲ καὶ τὸ Βρεττανῶν τεῖχος οἱ τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμων τείχεσιν πεποιθότες: καὶ γὰρ ἐκείνους περιβεβλημένους ὠκεανὸν καὶ τῆς καθ' ἡμᾶς οἰκουμένης οὐκ ἐλάσσονα νῆσον οἰκοῦντας πλεύσαντες ἐδουλώσαντο ̔Ρωμαῖοι, τέσσαρα δὲ τάγματα τὴν τοσαύτην νῆσον φυλάσσει." '2.379 καὶ τί δεῖ πολλὰ λέγειν, ὅπου καὶ Πάρθοι, τὸ πολεμικώτατον φῦλον, τοσούτων ἄρχοντες ἐθνῶν καὶ τηλικαύτην περιβεβλημένοι δύναμιν ὁμήρους πέμπουσιν ̔Ρωμαίοις, καὶ ἔστιν ἐπὶ τῆς ̓Ιταλίας ἰδεῖν ἐν εἰρήνης προφάσει δουλεύουσαν τὴν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνατολῆς εὐγένειαν.' "
2.381 οὔτε δὲ Κυρηναῖοι, τὸ Λακώνων γένος, οὔτε Μαρμαρίδαι, τὸ μέχρι τῆς διψάδος ἐκτεταμένον φῦλον, οὔθ' αἱ φοβεραὶ καὶ τοῖς ἀκούουσιν Σύρτεις Νασαμῶνές τε καὶ Μαῦροι καὶ τὸ Νομάδων ἄπειρον πλῆθος τὰς ̔Ρωμαίων ἀνέκοψαν ἀρετάς." '2.382 τὴν δὲ τρίτην τῆς οἰκουμένης μοῖραν, ἧς οὐδὲ ἐξαριθμήσασθαι τὰ ἔθνη ῥᾴδιον, ὁριζομένην ̓Ατλαντικῷ τε πελάγει καὶ στήλαις ̔Ηρακλείοις καὶ μέχρι τῆς ̓Ερυθρᾶς θαλάσσης τοὺς ἀπείρους νέμουσαν Αἰθίοπας ἐχειρώσαντο μὲν ὅλην, 2.383 χωρὶς δὲ τῶν ἐτησίων καρπῶν, οἳ μησὶν ὀκτὼ τὸ κατὰ τὴν ̔Ρώμην πλῆθος τρέφουσιν, καὶ ἔξωθεν παντοίως φορολογοῦνται καὶ ταῖς χρείαις τῆς ἡγεμονίας παρέχουσιν ἑτοίμους τὰς εἰσφοράς, οὐδὲν τῶν ἐπιταγμάτων ὥσπερ ὑμεῖς ὕβριν ἡγούμενοι καίπερ ἑνὸς τάγματος αὐτοῖς παραμένοντος. 2.384 καὶ τί δεῖ πόρρωθεν ὑμῖν τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ὑποδεικνύναι δύναμιν παρὸν ἐξ Αἰγύπτου τῆς γειτνιώσης,' "2.385 ἥτις ἐκτεινομένη μέχρις Αἰθιόπων καὶ τῆς εὐδαίμονος ̓Αραβίας ὅρμος τε οὖσα τῆς ̓Ινδικῆς, πεντήκοντα πρὸς ταῖς ἑπτακοσίαις ἔχουσα μυριάδας ἀνθρώπων δίχα τῶν ̓Αλεξάνδρειαν κατοικούντων, ὡς ἔνεστιν ἐκ τῆς καθ' ἑκάστην κεφαλὴν εἰσφορᾶς τεκμήρασθαι, τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίαν οὐκ ἀδοξεῖ, καίτοι πηλίκον ἀποστάσεως κέντρον ἔχουσα τὴν ̓Αλεξάνδρειαν πλήθους τε ἀνδρῶν ἕνεκα καὶ πλούτου πρὸς δὲ μεγέθους:" "2.386 μῆκος μέν γε αὐτῆς τριάκοντα σταδίων, εὖρος δ' οὐκ ἔλαττον δέκα, τοῦ δὲ ἐνιαυσιαίου παρ' ὑμῶν φόρου καθ' ἕνα μῆνα πλέον ̔Ρωμαίοις παρέχει καὶ τῶν χρημάτων ἔξωθεν τῇ ̔Ρώμῃ σῖτον μηνῶν τεσσάρων: τετείχισται δὲ πάντοθεν ἢ δυσβάτοις ἐρημίαις ἢ θαλάσσαις ἀλιμένοις ἢ ποταμοῖς ἢ ἕλεσιν." "2.387 ἀλλ' οὐδὲν τούτων ἰσχυρότερον εὑρέθη τῆς ̔Ρωμαίων τύχης, δύο δ' ἐγκαθήμενα τῇ πόλει τάγματα τὴν βαθεῖαν Αἴγυπτον ἅμα τῇ Μακεδόνων εὐγενείᾳ χαλινοῖ." '2.388 τίνας οὖν ἐπὶ τὸν πόλεμον ἐκ τῆς ἀοικήτου παραλήψεσθε συμμάχους; οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκουμένης πάντες εἰσὶν ̔Ρωμαῖοι, εἰ μή τις ὑπὲρ Εὐφράτην ἐκτείνει τὰς ἐλπίδας καὶ τοὺς ἐκ τῆς ̓Αδιαβηνῆς ὁμοφύλους οἴεται προσαμυνεῖν,' "2.389 οἱ δ' οὔτε δι' αἰτίαν ἄλογον τηλικούτῳ πολέμῳ συνεμπλέξουσιν ἑαυτούς, οὔτε βουλευσαμένοις κακῶς ὁ Πάρθος ἐπιτρέψει: πρόνοια γὰρ αὐτῷ τῆς πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους ἐκεχειρίας, καὶ παραβαίνειν οἰήσεται τὰς σπονδάς, ἄν τις τῶν ὑπ' αὐτὸν ἐπὶ ̔Ρωμαίους ἴῃ." "
2.391 σκέψασθε δ' ὡς ὑμῖν τὸ τῆς θρησκείας ἄκρατον, εἰ καὶ πρὸς εὐχειρώτους πολεμοίητε, δυσδιοίκητον, καὶ δι' ἃ μᾶλλον τὸν θεὸν ἐλπίζετε σύμμαχον, ταῦτ' ἀναγκαζόμενοι παραβαίνειν ἀποστρέψετε." '2.392 τηροῦντές γε μὴν τὰ τῶν ἑβδομάδων ἔθη καὶ πρὸς μηδεμίαν πρᾶξιν κινούμενοι ῥᾳδίως ἁλώσεσθε, καθάπερ οἱ πρόγονοι Πομπηίῳ ταύτας μάλιστα τὰς ἡμέρας ἐνεργοὺς ποιησαμένῳ τῆς πολιορκίας, ἐν αἷς ἤργουν οἱ πολιορκούμενοι:' "2.393 παραβαίνοντες δὲ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ τὸν πάτριον νόμον οὐκ οἶδ' ὑπὲρ ὅτου λοιπὸν ποιήσεσθε τὸν ἀγῶνα: σπουδὴ γὰρ ὑμῖν μία τὸ μὴ τῶν πατρίων τι καταλῦσαι." "2.394 πῶς δὲ ἐπικαλέσεσθε τὸ θεῖον πρὸς τὴν ἄμυναν οἱ παραβάντες ἑκουσίως τὴν εἰς αὐτὸ θεραπείαν; ἐπαναιροῦνται δὲ ἕκαστοι πόλεμον ἢ θείᾳ πεποιθότες ἢ ἀνθρωπίνῃ βοηθείᾳ: ὅταν δὲ τὴν παρ' ἀμφοῖν τὸ εἰκὸς ἀποκόπτῃ, φανερὰν ἅλωσιν οἱ πολεμοῦντες αἱροῦνται." '2.395 τί δὴ κωλύει ταῖς ἑαυτῶν χερσὶν διαχρήσασθαι τέκνα καὶ γυναῖκας καὶ τὴν περικαλλεστάτην πατρίδα ταύτην καταφλέξαι; μανέντες γὰρ οὕτως τό γε τῆς ἥττης ὄνειδος κερδήσετε. καλόν,' "2.396 ὦ φίλοι, καλόν, ἕως ἔτι ἐν ὅρμῳ τὸ σκάφος προσκέπτεσθαι τὸν μέλλοντα χειμῶνα μηδ' εἰς μέσας τὰς θυέλλας ἀπολουμένους ἀναχθῆναι: τοῖς μὲν γὰρ ἐξ ἀδήλων ἐπιπεσοῦσιν δεινοῖς τὸ γοῦν ἐλεεῖσθαι περίεστιν, ὁ δ' εἰς πρόδηλον ἀπώλειαν ὁρμήσας καὶ προσονειδίζεται." "2.397 πλὴν εἰ μή τις ὑπολαμβάνει κατὰ συνθήκας πολεμήσειν καὶ ̔Ρωμαίους κρατήσαντας ὑμῶν μετριάσειν, ἀλλ' οὐκ εἰς ὑπόδειγμα τῶν ἄλλων ἐθνῶν καταφλέξειν μὲν τὴν ἱερὰν πόλιν, ἀναιρήσειν δὲ πᾶν ὑμῶν τὸ φῦλον: οὐδὲ γὰρ περιλειφθέντες φυγῆς εὑρήσετε τόπον ἁπάντων ἐχόντων ̔Ρωμαίους δεσπότας ἢ δεδοικότων σχεῖν." '2.398 ὁ δὲ κίνδυνος οὐ τῶν ἐνθάδε μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὰς ἄλλας κατοικούντων πόλεις: οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκουμένης δῆμος ὁ μὴ μοῖραν ἡμετέραν ἔχων.' "2.399 οὓς ἅπαντας πολεμησάντων ὑμῶν κατασφάξουσιν οἱ διάφοροι, καὶ δι' ὀλίγων ἀνδρῶν κακοβουλίαν πᾶσα πλησθήσεται πόλις ̓Ιουδαϊκοῦ φόνου. καὶ συγγνώμη μὲν τοῖς τοῦτο πράξασιν: ἂν δὲ μὴ πραχθῇ, λογίσασθε, πῶς πρὸς οὕτω φιλανθρώπους ὅπλα κινεῖν ἀνόσιον." 2.401 μαρτύρομαι δὲ ἐγὼ μὲν ὑμῶν τὰ ἅγια καὶ τοὺς ἱεροὺς ἀγγέλους τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρίδα τὴν κοινήν, ὡς οὐδὲν τῶν σωτηρίων ὑμῖν καθυφηκάμην, ὑμεῖς δὲ βουλευσάμενοι μὲν τὰ δέοντα κοινὴν σὺν ἐμοὶ τὴν εἰρήνην ἕξετε, προαχθέντες δὲ τοῖς θυμοῖς χωρὶς ἐμοῦ κινδυνεύσετε.” 2.451 οἱ δὲ καὶ τὴν ἱκεσίαν ἁρπάσαντες ἀνέπεμψαν πρὸς αὐτοὺς Γωρίονά τε Νικομήδους υἱὸν καὶ ̓Ανανίαν Σαδούκι καὶ ̓Ιούδαν ̓Ιωνάθου δεξιάν τε καὶ ὅρκους δώσοντας. ὧν γενομένων κατῆγεν τοὺς στρατιώτας ὁ Μετίλιος.' "2.452 οἱ δὲ μέχρι μὲν ἦσαν ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις, οὔτ' ἐπεχείρει τις τῶν στασιαστῶν αὐτοῖς οὔτ' ἐνέφαινεν ἐπιβουλήν: ὡς δὲ κατὰ τὰς συνθήκας ἅπαντες ἀπέθεντο τοὺς θυρεοὺς καὶ τὰ ξίφη καὶ μηδὲν ἔτι ὑποπτεύοντες ἀνεχώρουν," "2.453 ὥρμησαν ἐπ' αὐτοὺς οἱ περὶ τὸν ̓Ελεάζαρον καὶ περισχόντες ἀνῄρουν οὔτε ἀμυνομένους οὔτε ἱκετεύοντας, μόνας δὲ τὰς συνθήκας καὶ τοὺς ὅρκους ἀναβοῶντας." '2.454 οἱ μὲν οὖν οὕτως ὠμῶς ἀπεσφάγησαν ἅπαντες πλὴν Μετιλίου, τοῦτον γὰρ ἱκετεύσαντα καὶ μέχρι περιτομῆς ἰουδαί̈σειν ὑποσχόμενον διέσωσαν μόνον, τὸ δὲ πάθος ̔Ρωμαίοις μὲν ἦν κοῦφον, ἐκ γὰρ ἀπλέτου δυνάμεως ἀπαναλώθησαν ὀλίγοι, ̓Ιουδαίων δὲ προοίμιον ἁλώσεως ἔδοξεν.
2.562 Οἱ δὲ διώξαντες τὸν Κέστιον ὡς ὑπέστρεψαν εἰς ̔Ιεροσόλυμα, τοὺς μὲν βίᾳ τῶν ἔτι ῥωμαϊζόντων τοὺς δὲ πειθοῖ προσήγοντο, καὶ συναθροισθέντες εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν στρατηγοὺς ἀπεδείκνυσαν τοῦ πολέμου πλείονας. 2.563 ᾑρέθη δὲ ̓Ιώσηπός τε υἱὸς Γωρίονος καὶ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ̓́Ανανος τῶν τε κατὰ τὴν πόλιν ἁπάντων αὐτοκράτορες καὶ μάλιστα τὰ τείχη τῆς πόλεως ἀνεγείρειν:' "2.564 τὸν γὰρ τοῦ Σίμωνος υἱὸν ̓Ελεάζαρον καίπερ ὑφ' ἑαυτῷ πεποιημένον τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων λείαν καὶ τὰ ἁρπαγέντα Κεστίου χρήματα, πρὸς οἷς πολλὰ τῶν δημοσίων θησαυρῶν, ὅμως οὐκ ἐπέστησαν ταῖς χρείαις αὐτόν τε τυραννικὸν ὁρῶντες καὶ τοὺς ὑπ' αὐτῷ ζηλωτὰς δορυφόρων ἔθεσι χρωμένους." "2.565 κατ' ὀλίγον γε μὴν ἥ τε χρεία τῶν χρημάτων καὶ γοητεύων ̓Ελεάζαρος ἐκπεριῆλθε τὸν δῆμον ὥστε αὐτῷ πειθαρχεῖν περὶ τῶν ὅλων." "2.566 Εἰς δὲ τὴν ̓Ιδουμαίαν ἑτέρους ἐπελέξαντο στρατηγοὺς ̓Ιησοῦν υἱὸν Σαπφᾶ τῶν ἀρχιερέων ἕνα καὶ ̓Ελεάζαρον ἀρχιερέως υἱὸν Νέου: τῷ δ' ἄρχοντι τότε τῆς ̓Ιδουμαίας Νίγερι, γένος δ' ἦν ἐκ τῆς περὶ ̓Ιορδάνην Περαίας, διὸ καὶ Περαί̈της ἐκαλεῖτο, προσέταξαν ὑποτάσσεσθαι τοῖς στρατηγοῖς." "2.567 ἠμέλουν δὲ οὐδὲ τῆς ἄλλης χώρας, ἀλλ' εἰς μὲν ̔Ιεριχοῦν ̓Ιώσηπος ὁ Σίμωνος, εἰς δὲ τὴν Περαίαν Μανασσῆς, Θαμνᾶ δὲ τοπαρχίας ̓Ιωάννης ὁ ̓Εσσαῖος στρατηγήσων ἐπέμφθη: προσκεκλήρωτο δ' αὐτῷ Λύδδα καὶ ̓Ιόππη καὶ ̓Αμμαοῦς." '2.568 τῆς δὲ Γοφνιτικῆς καὶ ̓Ακραβεττηνῆς ὁ ̓Ανανίου ̓Ιωάννης ἡγεμὼν ἀποδείκνυται καὶ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἑκατέρας ̓Ιώσηπος Ματθίου: προσώριστο δὲ τῇ τούτου στρατηγίᾳ καὶ Γάμαλα τῶν ταύτῃ πόλεων ὀχυρωτάτη.
2.576 κατέλεξεν δὲ καὶ δύναμιν ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ὑπὲρ δέκα μυριάδας νέων ἀνδρῶν, οὓς πάντας ἔκ τε τῶν συλλεγομένων παλαιῶν ὅπλων ἐγκατασκευαζόμενος ὥπλιζεν.' "
3.1 Νέρωνι δ' ὡς ἠγγέλη τὰ κατὰ τὴν ̓Ιουδαίαν πταίσματα, λεληθυῖα μὲν ὡς εἰκὸς ἔκπληξις ἐμπίπτει καὶ δέος, φανερῶς δὲ ὑπερηφάνει καὶ προσωργίζετο," 3.1 ἡγοῦνταί τε τῶν ἀπὸ τύχης ἐπιτευγμάτων ἀμείνους τὰς ἐπὶ τοῖς προβουλευθεῖσιν διαμαρτίας, ὡς τοῦ μὲν αὐτομάτου καλοῦ δελεάζοντος εἰς ἀπρομήθειαν, τῆς σκέψεως δέ, κἂν ἀτυχήσῃ ποτέ, πρὸς τὸ μὴ αὖθις καλὴν ἐχούσης μελέτην:' "
3.1 πόλις ἐστὶν ἀρχαία τῶν ̔Ιεροσολύμων εἴκοσι πρὸς τοῖς πεντακοσίοις ἀπέχουσα σταδίους ἀεὶ διὰ μίσους ̓Ιουδαίοις γεγενημένη, διὸ καὶ τότε ταῖς πρώταις ὁρμαῖς ἐγγίων ἔδοξεν. 3.2 οἱ λοιποὶ δὲ τραυματίαι τὸ πλέον σὺν τῷ περιλειπομένῳ τῶν ἡγεμόνων Νίγερι τῆς ̓Ιδουμαίας εἰς πολίχνην τινά, Χάαλλις καλεῖται, συνέφυγον.' "3.2 οὐχ ὁρᾶν δέ, τί παρακαθεζόμενος αὐτοῖς χρήσιμος εἴη νῦν, πλὴν εἰ μὴ ̔Ρωμαίους παροξύνων μᾶλλον ἐπὶ τὴν πολιορκίαν, οὓς περὶ πλείστου ποιεῖσθαι λαβεῖν αὐτόν: εἰ δ' ἐκδράντα πύθοιντο, πολὺ τῆς ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν ὁρμῆς ἀνήσειν." "3.2 στρατηγῶν μὲν ῥᾳστώνῃ μᾶλλον ἢ ταῖς τῶν πολεμίων ἀρεταῖς γεγονέναι τὰ συμβάντα λέγων, πρέπειν δ' ἡγούμενος ἑαυτῷ διὰ τὸν ὄγκον τῆς ἡγεμονίας κατασοβαρεύεσθαι τῶν σκυθρωπῶν καὶ δοκεῖν δεινοῦ παντὸς ἐπάνω τὴν ψυχὴν ἔχειν." '3.3 διηλέγχετό γε μὴν ὁ τῆς ψυχῆς θόρυβος ὑπὸ τῶν φροντίδων σκεπτομένου τίνι πιστεύσει κινουμένην τὴν ἀνατολήν, ὃς τιμωρήσεται μὲν τὴν τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἐπανάστασιν, προκαταλήψεται δ' αὐτοῖς ἤδη καὶ τὰ πέριξ ἔθνη συννοσοῦντα." '3.3 καὶ κατὰ ταύτην ὑπαντῶσιν αὐτῷ τὴν πόλιν οἱ τῆς Γαλιλαίας Σέπφωριν νεμόμενοι πόλιν, μόνοι τῶν τῇδε εἰρηνικὰ φρονοῦντες: 3.3 ὁ δὲ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐλθὼν διὰ τάχους καὶ διατάξας τὴν στρατιὰν ἐπὶ μὲν τοῦ λαιοῦ κέρως τὸν Τραϊανὸν ἵστησιν, αὐτὸς δὲ τὸ δεξιὸν ἔχων ἐξηγεῖτο πρὸς τὴν πολιορκίαν. 3.4 ἔφη, Οὐεσπασιανέ, νομίζεις αἰχμάλωτον αὐτὸ μόνον εἰληφέναι ̓Ιώσηπον, ἐγὼ δὲ ἄγγελος ἥκω σοι μειζόνων. μὴ γὰρ ὑπὸ θεοῦ προπεμπόμενος ᾔδειν τὸν ̓Ιουδαίων νόμον, καὶ πῶς στρατηγοῖς ἀποθνήσκειν πρέπει. 3.4 μηκύνεται δὲ μέχρι Μηρὼθ ἀπὸ Θελλᾶ κώμης ̓Ιορδάνου γείτονος. 3.4 μόνον εὑρίσκει Οὐεσπασιανὸν ταῖς χρείαις ἀναλογοῦντα καὶ τηλικούτου πολέμου μέγεθος ἀναδέξασθαι δυνάμενον, ἄνδρα ταῖς ἀπὸ νεότητος στρατείαις ἐγγεγηρακότα καὶ προειρηνεύσαντα μὲν πάλαι ̔Ρωμαίοις τὴν ἑσπέραν ὑπὸ Γερμανῶν ταρασσομένην, προσκτησάμενον δὲ τοῖς ὅπλοις Βρεττανίαν τέως λανθάνουσαν, 3.5 γλυκὺ δὲ νᾶμα πᾶν διαφόρως ἐν αὐταῖς, καὶ διὰ πλῆθος πόας ἀγαθῆς τὰ κτήνη πλέον ἢ παρ' ἄλλοις γαλακτοφόρα. μέγιστόν γε μὴν τεκμήριον ἀρετῆς καὶ εὐθηνίας τὸ πληθύειν ἀνδρῶν ἑκατέραν." '3.5 ὅθεν αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ πατρὶ Κλαυδίῳ παρέσχε χωρὶς ἱδρῶτος ἰδίου θρίαμβον καταγαγεῖν.' "3.5 τῶν μὲν ἐπηλύδων ὅσοι μὴ διαφυγεῖν ἔφθασαν ἀντιτασσομένων, ἀμαχητὶ δὲ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων: κατὰ γὰρ ἐλπίδα δεξιᾶς καὶ τὸ συνειδὸς τοῦ μὴ βεβουλεῦσθαι πολεμεῖν μάχης ἀπετρέποντο,' "3.6 Ταῦτά τε δὴ προκλῃδονιζόμενος καὶ σταθερὰν μετ' ἐμπειρίας τὴν ἡλικίαν ὁρῶν, μέγα δὲ πίστεως αὐτοῦ τοὺς υἱοὺς ὅμηρον καὶ τὰς τούτων ἀκμὰς χεῖρα τῆς πατρῴας συνέσεως, τάχα τι καὶ περὶ τῶν ὅλων ἤδη τοῦ θεοῦ προοικονομουμένου," '3.6 προϊόντες δὲ ἑκατέρωθεν συνεχῶς καὶ τὰ πέριξ τῆς χώρας κατατρέχοντες μεγάλα τοὺς περὶ τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον ἐκάκουν ἀτρεμοῦντα τάς τε πόλεις ἔξωθεν λῃζόμενοι καὶ προθέοντας ὁπότε θαρρήσειαν ἀνακόπτοντες.
3.29 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ τὰς δυνάμεις ἀναλαβὼν ἐκ τῆς ̓Αντιοχείας, ἣ μητρόπολίς ἐστι τῆς Συρίας, μεγέθους τε ἕνεκα καὶ τῆς ἄλλης εὐδαιμονίας τρίτον ἀδηρίτως ἐπὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ̔Ρωμαίοις οἰκουμένης ἔχουσα τόπον, ἔνθα μετὰ πάσης τῆς ἰδίας ἰσχύος ἐκδεχόμενον αὐτοῦ τὴν ἄφιξιν καὶ ̓Αγρίππαν τὸν βασιλέα κατειλήφει, ἐπὶ Πτολεμαί̈δος ἠπείγετο.
3.29 ὁ δὲ τὴν μὲν πόλιν δυσάλωτον καταλαβών, πρὸς γὰρ τῷ φύσει καρτερὰ τυγχάνειν οὖσα καὶ διπλῷ περιβόλῳ τετείχιστο, προαπηντηκότας δὲ τοὺς ἐξ αὐτῆς ἑτοίμους εἰς μάχην ἰδὼν συμβάλλει καὶ πρὸς ὀλίγον ἀντισχόντας ἐδίωκεν.' "
3.35 ̓Ενδοιάζοντος δὲ τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου καὶ πρὸς τὸν Νικάνορα τὸ μὲν στρατιωτικὸν ὑπ' ὀργῆς ἐκκαίειν τὸ σπήλαιον ὥρμητο, κατεῖχεν δ' αὐτοὺς ὁ πολέμαρχος ζωγρῆσαι τὸν ἄνδρα φιλοτιμούμενος." "
3.35 Δύο δ' οὔσας τὰς Γαλιλαίας, τήν τε ἄνω καὶ τὴν κάτω προσαγορευομένην, περιίσχει μὲν ἡ Φοινίκη τε καὶ Συρία, διορίζει δὲ ἀπὸ μὲν δύσεως ἡλίου Πτολεμαὶ̈ς τοῖς τῆς χώρας τέρμασι καὶ Κάρμηλος, τὸ πάλαι μὲν Γαλιλαίων, νῦν δὲ Τυρίων ὄρος:" "3.36 τεθνήξῃ.” ταῦθ' ἅμα λέγοντες ἐπανετείναντο τὰ ξίφη καὶ διηπείλουν ἀναιρήσειν αὐτόν, εἰ τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐνδιδοίη." '3.36 ᾧ προσίσχει Γαβαά, πόλις ἱππέων, οὕτω προσαγορευομένη διὰ τὸ τοὺς ὑφ' ̔Ηρώδου βασιλέως ἀπολυομένους ἱππεῖς ἐν αὐτῇ κατοικεῖν:" "3.37 ἀπὸ δὲ μεσημβρίας Σαμαρεῖτίς τε καὶ Σκυθόπολις μέχρι τῶν ̓Ιορδάνου ναμάτων. πρὸς ἕω δὲ ̔Ιππηνῇ τε καὶ Γαδάροις ἀποτέμνεται καὶ τῇ Γαυλωνίτιδι: ταύτῃ καὶ τῆς ̓Αγρίππα βασιλείας ὅροι.' "3.37 τῶν μέν γε ζῴων οὐδέν ἐστιν ὃ θνήσκει μετὰ προνοίας ἢ δι' αὐτοῦ: φύσεως γὰρ νόμος ἰσχυρὸς ἐν ἅπασιν τὸ ζῆν ἐθέλειν: διὰ τοῦτο καὶ τοὺς φανερῶς ἀφαιρουμένους ἡμᾶς τούτου πολεμίους ἡγούμεθα καὶ τοὺς ἐξ ἐνέδρας τιμωρούμεθα." "3.38 εἰ σώζεσθαι δοκεῖ, σωζώμεθα: καὶ γὰρ οὐκ ἄδοξος ἡ σωτηρία παρ' οἷς διὰ τοσούτων ἔργων ἐπεδειξάμεθα τὰς ἀρετάς: εἰ τεθνάναι, καλὸν ὑπὸ τῶν ἑλόντων." "3.38 τὰ προσάρκτια δ' αὐτῆς Τύρῳ τε καὶ τῇ Τυρίων χώρᾳ περατοῦται. καὶ τῆς μὲν κάτω καλουμένης Γαλιλαίας ἀπὸ Τιβεριάδος μέχρι Χαβουλών, ἧς ἐν τοῖς παραλίοις Πτολεμαὶ̈ς γείτων, τὸ μῆκος ἐκτείνεται." "3.39 ἑτοίμην δ' ὁ λαχὼν τῷ μεθ' αὑτὸν παρεῖχεν τὴν σφαγὴν ὡς αὐτίκα τεθνηξομένου καὶ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ: ζωῆς γὰρ ἡδίω τὸν μετὰ τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου θάνατον ἡγοῦντο." "3.39 πλατύνεται δ' ἀπὸ τῆς ἐν τῷ μεγάλῳ πεδίῳ κειμένης κώμης, ̓Εξαλὼθ καλεῖται, μέχρι Βηρσάβης, ἣ καὶ τῆς ἄνω Γαλιλαίας εἰς εὖρος ἀρχὴ μέχρι Βακὰ κώμης: αὕτη δὲ τὴν Τυρίων γῆν ὁρίζει." "3.41 Τηλικαῦται δ' οὖσαι τὸ μέγεθος καὶ τοσούτοις ἔθνεσιν ἀλλοφύλοις κεκυκλωμέναι πρὸς πᾶσαν ἀεὶ πολέμου πεῖραν ἀντέσχον:" "3.41 ἐδέχοντο δὲ καὶ τὴν στρατιὰν καὶ τὸν στρατηγὸν μετὰ πάσης εὐφημίας καὶ φιλοφροσύνης οἱ ἐπιχώριοι, καὶ κατ' εὔνοιαν μὲν τὴν πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους, τὸ δὲ πλέον ἔχθει τῶν κατεστραμμένων: διὸ καὶ τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον ἀθρόοι καταβοῶντες ἠξίουν κολάζειν." '3.42 αἱ δέ εἰσιν κρημνοὶ βαθεῖς καὶ προύχουσαι σπιλάδες εἰς τὸ πέλαγος, ἔνθα καὶ τῶν ̓Ανδρομέδας δεσμῶν ἔτι δεικνύμενοι τύποι πιστοῦνται τὴν ἀρχαιότητα τοῦ μύθου, 3.42 μάχιμοί τε γὰρ ἐκ νηπίων καὶ πολλοὶ Γαλιλαῖοι πάντοτε, καὶ οὔτε δειλία ποτὲ τοὺς ἄνδρας οὔτε λιπανδρία τὴν χώραν κατέσχεν, ἐπειδὴ πίων τε πᾶσα καὶ εὔβοτος καὶ δένδρεσι παντοίοις κατάφυτος, ὡς ὑπὸ τῆς εὐπετείας προκαλέσασθαι καὶ τὸν ἥκιστα γῆς φιλόπονον. 3.43 ἵν' οὗτοι μὲν κατὰ χώραν μένοντες φρουρῶσι τὸ στρατόπεδον, οἱ δ' ἱππεῖς προνομεύωσι τὴν πέριξ καὶ τὰς περιοίκους κώμας τε καὶ πολίχνας ἐξαιρῶσιν τῆς ̓Ιόππης." "3.43 προσησκήθη γοῦν ὑπὸ τῶν οἰκητόρων πᾶσα, καὶ μέρος αὐτῆς ἀργὸν οὐδέν, ἀλλὰ καὶ πόλεις πυκναὶ καὶ τὸ τῶν κωμῶν πλῆθος πανταχοῦ πολυάνθρωπον διὰ τὴν εὐθηνίαν, ὡς τὴν ἐλαχίστην ὑπὲρ πεντακισχιλίους πρὸς τοῖς μυρίοις ἔχειν οἰκήτορας.' "3.44 Καθόλου δέ, εἰ καὶ τῷ μεγέθει τις ἐλαττώσειε τῆς Περαίας τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, προέλοιτο δ' ἂν τῇ δυνάμει: ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἐνεργὸς ὅλη καὶ συνεχής ἐστιν καρποφόρος, ἡ Περαία δὲ πολὺ μὲν μείζων, ἔρημος δὲ καὶ τραχεῖα τὸ πλέον πρός τε καρπῶν ἡμέρων αὔξησιν ἀγριωτέρα," '3.44 παρωξύνοντο δὲ ταῖς πληγαῖς καὶ προσεξεκαίοντο ταῖς κακοπραγίαις: τό γε μὴν πταίειν, ὃ γίνεται τοῖς εὖ φρονοῦσιν ἀσφαλείας καὶ τῶν ὁμοίων φυλακῆς αἴτιον, ἐκείνοις κέντρον ἑτέρων ἐγίνετο συμφορῶν: καὶ τὸ τέλος ἀεὶ τῶν κακῶν αὖθις ἀρχή:' "3.45 ἐπεκθέουσιν αὐτῷ τῶν στασιαστῶν οἱ δυνατώτατοι μεθ' ὅπλων. ἐξηγεῖτο δ' αὐτῶν ̓Ιησοῦς τις ὄνομα παῖς Τοῦφα τοῦ λῃστρικοῦ στίφους ὁ κορυφαιότατος." "3.45 τό γε μὴν μαλθακὸν αὐτῆς καὶ πάμφορον, καὶ τὰ πεδία δένδρεσι ποικίλοις κατάφυτα τὸ πλεῖστόν τε ἐλαίαν τε καὶ ἄμπελον καὶ φοινικῶνας ἤσκηται, διαρδομένη χειμάρροις τε τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ὀρῶν καὶ πηγαῖς ἀεννάοις ἅλις, εἴ ποτ' ἐκεῖνοι σειρίῳ φθίνοιεν." "3.46 μῆκος μὲν οὖν αὐτῆς ἀπὸ Μαχαιροῦντος εἰς Πέλλαν, εὖρος δ' ἀπὸ Φιλαδελφείας μέχρι ̓Ιορδάνου." '3.46 τῆς δὲ στρατιᾶς τριβομένης περὶ τὴν τῶν εἰσόδων στενότητα παραρρῆξαι τοῦ κατὰ μεσημβρίαν τείχους Οὐεσπασιανὸς κελεύσας πλατύνει τὴν εἰσβολὴν αὐτοῖς.' "3.47 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ τὸ πολὺ πλῆθος αὐτῶν ἠθροισμένον ἀκούων ἐν τῷ πρὸ τῆς πόλεως πεδίῳ πέμπει τὸν υἱὸν σὺν ἱππεῦσιν ἑξακοσίοις ἐπιλέκτοις.' "3.47 καὶ Πέλλῃ μέν, ἣν προειρήκαμεν, τὰ πρὸς ἄρκτον ὁρίζεται, πρὸς ἑσπέραν δὲ ̓Ιορδάνῃ: μεσημβρινὸν δ' αὐτῆς πέρας ἡ Μωαβῖτις, καὶ πρὸς ἀνατολὴν ̓Αραβίᾳ τε καὶ Σιλωνίτιδι, πρὸς δὲ Φιλαδελφηνῇ καὶ Γεράσοις ἀποτέμνεται." '3.48 ̔Η δὲ Σαμαρεῖτις χώρα μέση μὲν τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐστὶ καὶ τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας: ἀρχομένη γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ κειμένης Γηνεὼς ὄνομα κώμης ἐπιλήγει τῆς ̓Ακραβετηνῶν τοπαρχίας: φύσιν δὲ τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας κατ' οὐδὲν διάφορος." '3.48 καὶ ὑπὲρ μειζόνων δὲ ἢ ̓Ιουδαῖοι διαγωνιεῖσθε: καὶ γὰρ εἰ περὶ ἐλευθερίας καὶ πατρίδων ἐκείνοις ὁ πόλεμος κινδυνεύεται, τί μεῖζον ἡμῖν εὐδοξίας καὶ τοῦ μὴ δοκεῖν μετὰ τὴν τῆς οἰκουμένης ἡγεμονίαν ἐν ἀντιπάλῳ τὰ ̓Ιουδαίων τίθεσθαι;' "3.49 Τίτος δὲ τοὺς μὲν κατόπιν προσκείμενος ἀνῄρει, τῶν δὲ διεκπαίων ἀθρόων, οὓς δὲ φθάνων κατὰ στόμα διήλαυνεν, πολλοὺς δὲ συνηλοία περὶ ἀλλήλοις πεσόντας ἐμπηδῶν,' "3.49 ἀμφότεραι γὰρ ὀρειναὶ καὶ πεδιάδες, εἴς τε γεωργίαν μαλθακαὶ καὶ πολύφοροι κατάδενδροί τε καὶ ὀπώρας ὀρεινῆς καὶ ἡμέρου μεσταί, παρ' ὅσον οὐδαμοῦ φύσει διψάδες, ὕονται δὲ τὸ πλέον:" 3.51 Μεθόριος δ' αὐτῶν ἡ ̓Ανουάθου Βόρκαιος προσαγορευομένη κώμη: πέρας αὕτη τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας τὰ πρὸς βορέαν, τὰ νότια δ' αὐτῆς ἐπὶ μῆκος μετρουμένης ὁρίζει προσκυροῦσα τοῖς ̓Αράβων ὅροις κώμη, καλοῦσι δ' αὐτὴν ̓Ιορδὰν οἱ τῇδε ̓Ιουδαῖοι. εὖρός γε μὴν ἀπὸ ̓Ιορδάνου ποταμοῦ μέχρις ̓Ιόππης ἀναπέπταται." "
3.51 ἡ δ' ἐστὶν ἀνιόντων εἰς τὴν Τραχωνῖτιν ἀπὸ σταδίων ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι Καισαρείας τῆς ὁδοῦ κατὰ τὸ δεξιὸν μέρος οὐκ ἄπωθεν." "3.52 μεσαιτάτη δ' αὐτῆς πόλις τὰ ̔Ιεροσόλυμα κεῖται, παρ' ὃ καί τινες οὐκ ἀσκόπως ὀμφαλὸν τὸ ἄστυ τῆς χώρας ἐκάλεσαν." '3.52 ταύτην φλέβα τινὲς τοῦ Νείλου ἔδοξαν, ἐπεὶ γεννᾷ τῷ κατὰ τὴν ̓Αλεξανδρέων λίμνην κορακίνῳ παραπλήσιον.' "3.53 ἀφῄρηται δ' οὐδὲ τῶν ἐκ θαλάσσης τερπνῶν ἡ ̓Ιουδαία τοῖς παραλίοις κατατείνουσα μέχρι Πτολεμαί̈δος." '3.53 δεινὴ δὲ ταῖς ἑξῆς ἡμέραις περιεῖχε τὴν χώραν ὀδμή τε καὶ ὄψις: οἱ μὲν γὰρ αἰγιαλοὶ ναυαγίων ἅμα καὶ διοιδούντων ἔγεμον σωμάτων, ἐκκαιόμενοι δὲ καὶ μυδῶντες οἱ νεκροὶ τὸν ἀέρα διέφθειρον, ὡς μὴ μόνον οἰκτρὸν ̓Ιουδαίοις γενέσθαι τὸ πάθος, ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ μίσους τοῖς δράσασιν ἐλθεῖν.' "3.54 μερίζεται δ' εἰς ἕνδεκα κληρουχίας, ὧν ἄρχει μὲν βασίλειον τὰ ̔Ιεροσόλυμα προανίσχουσα τῆς περιοίκου πάσης ὥσπερ ἡ κεφαλὴ σώματος: αἱ λοιπαὶ δὲ μετ' αὐτὴν διῄρηνται τὰς τοπαρχίας." '3.54 τῶν δὲ νέων ἐπιλέξας τοὺς ἰσχυροτάτους ἑξακισχιλίους ἔπεμψεν εἰς τὸν ἰσθμὸν Νέρωνι, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πλῆθος εἰς τρισμυρίους καὶ τετρακοσίους ὄντας πιπράσκει χωρὶς τῶν ̓Αγρίππᾳ χαρισθέντων: 3.55 Γοφνὰ δευτέρα καὶ μετὰ ταύτην ̓Ακραβετά, Θαμνὰ πρὸς ταύταις καὶ Λύδδα, ̓Αμμαοῦς καὶ Πέλλη καὶ ̓Ιδουμαία καὶ ̓Ενγαδδαὶ καὶ ̔Ηρώδειον καὶ ̔Ιεριχοῦς,' "3.56 μεθ' ἃς ̓Ιάμνεια καὶ ̓Ιόππη τῶν περιοίκων ἀφηγοῦνται, κἀπὶ ταύταις ἥ τε Γαμαλιτικὴ καὶ Γαυλανῖτις Βαταναία τε καὶ Τραχωνῖτις, αἳ καὶ τῆς ̓Αγρίππα βασιλείας εἰσὶ μοῖραι." "3.57 ἀρχομένη δὲ ἀπὸ Λιβάνου ὄρους καὶ τῶν ̓Ιορδάνου πηγῶν ἡ χώρα μέχρι τῆς πρὸς Τιβεριάδα λίμνης εὐρύνεται, ἀπὸ δὲ κώμης καλουμένης ̓Αρφᾶς μέχρις ̓Ιουλιάδος ἐκτείνεται τὸ μῆκος. οἰκοῦσι δ' αὐτὴν μιγάδες ̓Ιουδαῖοί τε καὶ Σύροι." '3.58 τὰ μὲν δὴ περὶ τῆς ̓Ιουδαίων τε καὶ πέριξ χώρας ὡς ἐνῆν μάλιστα συντόμως ἀπηγγέλκαμεν.
3.111 ὁρῶν δὲ συμφεῦγον ἀεὶ τὸ μάχιμον εἰς τὰς ὑπὸ τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου τειχισθείσας πόλεις ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὴν ὀχυρωτάτην αὐτῶν ̓Ιωταπάταν, οἰόμενος ἐξ ἐφόδου μὲν αἱρήσειν ῥᾳδίως, μέγα δὲ κλέος αὐτῷ παρὰ τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν κἀκείνοις ὄφελος εἰς τὰ λοιπὰ παρέξειν: προσχωρήσειν γὰρ δέει τὰς ἄλλας πόλεις τῆς καρτερωτάτης ἐχομένης.
3.112 πολύ γε μὴν διήμαρτεν τῆς ἐλπίδος: ἐπιόντα γὰρ αὐτὸν οἱ ̓Ιωταπατηνοὶ προαισθόμενοι πρὸ τῆς πόλεως ἐκδέχονται, καὶ τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις συρραγέντες ἀδοκήτοις πολλοὶ καὶ πρὸς μάχην ἕτοιμοι πρόθυμοί τε ὡς ἂν ὑπὲρ κινδυνευούσης πατρίδος καὶ γυναικῶν καὶ τέκνων, τρέπονται ταχέως.
3.113 καὶ πολλοὺς μὲν τιτρώσκουσι τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων, ἑπτὰ δὲ ἀναιροῦσιν διὰ τὸ μήτε ἄτακτον αὐτῶν τὴν ὑποχώρησιν γενέσθαι καὶ τὰς πληγὰς ἐπιπολαίους πεφραγμένων πάντοθεν τῶν σωμάτων, τούς τε ̓Ιουδαίους πόρρωθεν βάλλειν πλέον ἢ συμπλέκεσθαι θαρρεῖν γυμνῆτας ὁπλίταις.
3.114 ἔπεσον δὲ καὶ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων τρεῖς ἄνδρες καὶ ἐτρώθησαν ὀλίγοι. Πλάκιδος μὲν οὖν τῆς ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν ὁρμῆς ἀτονώτερος εὑρεθεὶς φεύγει.
3.132 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ τῇ πόλει τῶν Γαδάρων ἐπελθὼν αἱρεῖ τε κατὰ πρώτην ἔφοδον αὐτὴν μαχίμου πλήθους ἔρημον καταλαβών,
3.133 καὶ παρελθὼν εἴσω πάντας ἡβηδὸν ἀναιρεῖ μηδεμιᾶς τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡλικίας ἔλεον ποιουμένων μίσει πρὸς τὸ ἔθνος καὶ μνήμῃ τῆς κατὰ τὸν Κέστιον αὐτῶν παρανομίας.' "
3.134 ἐμπίμπρησιν δὲ οὐ μόνον αὐτὴν τὴν πόλιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς πέριξ κώμας πάσας τε καὶ πολίχνας, ἃς μὲν παντελῶς ἐκλελειμμένας, ἔστιν δ' ἃς αὐτὸς ἐξανδραποδιζόμενος." "
3.141 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ὡρμημένος ἐξαιρεῖν τὴν ̓Ιωταπάταν, πέπυστο γὰρ εἰς αὐτὴν πλείστους τῶν πολεμίων συμπεφευγέναι καὶ ἄλλως ὁρμητήριον ἰσχυρὸν οὖσαν αὐτῶν, πέμπει πεζούς τε καὶ ἱππεῖς τοὺς προεξομαλιοῦντας τὴν ὁδὸν ὀρεινὴν ὑπάρχουσαν καὶ πετρώδη, δύσβατον δὲ καὶ πεζοῖς, ἱππεῦσιν δ' ἀμήχανον." "
3.142 οἱ μὲν οὖν τέσσαρσιν ἡμέραις ἐξειργάσαντο καὶ πλατεῖαν ἤνοιξαν τῇ στρατιᾷ λεωφόρον: τῇ πέμπτῃ δ' ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος, αὕτη δ' ἦν ̓Αρτεμισίου μηνὸς μία καὶ εἰκάς, φθάνει παρελθὼν εἰς τὴν ̓Ιωταπάταν ἐκ τῆς Τιβεριάδος καὶ πεπτωκότα τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις ἐγείρει τὰ φρονήματα." "
3.143 Οὐεσπασιανῷ δέ τις εὐαγγελίζεται τὴν μετάβασιν τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτόμολος καὶ κατήπειγεν ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν ὡς μετ' ἐκείνης αἱρήσοντα πᾶσαν ̓Ιουδαίαν, εἰ λάβοι τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον ὑποχείριον." "
3.144 ὁ δ' ἁρπάσας ὥσπερ μέγιστον εὐτύχημα τὴν ἀγγελίαν, καὶ προνοίᾳ θεοῦ τὸν συνετώτατον εἶναι δοκοῦντα τῶν πολεμίων οἰόμενος εἰς εἱρκτὴν αὐθαίρετον παρελθεῖν, εὐθέως μὲν σὺν χιλίοις ἱππεῦσιν πέμπει Πλάκιδον καὶ δεκαδάρχην Αἰβούτιον, ἄνδρα τῶν ἐπισήμων κατὰ χεῖρα καὶ σύνεσιν, περικατασχεῖν κελεύσας τὴν πόλιν, ὡς μὴ λάθοι διαδρὰς ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος." 3.145 Αὐτὸς δὲ μετὰ μίαν ἡμέραν ἀναλαβὼν πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν εἵπετο καὶ μέχρι δείλης ὁδεύσας πρὸς τὴν ̓Ιωταπάταν ἀφικνεῖται.
3.146 ἀναλαβὼν δὲ τὴν στρατιὰν εἰς τὸ προσάρκτιον αὐτῆς μέρος ἔν τινι λόφῳ στρατοπεδεύεται διέχοντι σταδίους ἑπτὰ τῆς πόλεως, πειρώμενος ὡς μάλιστα τοῖς πολεμίοις εὐσύνοπτος εἶναι πρὸς ἔκπληξιν:
3.147 ἣ καὶ παραχρῆμα τοσαύτη τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους κατέσχεν, ὡς μηδένα τοῦ τείχους τολμῆσαι προελθεῖν.' "
3.148 ̔Ρωμαῖοι δ' εὐθὺς μὲν ἀπώκνησαν προσβαλεῖν δι' ὅλης ὡδευκότες ἡμέρας, διπλῇ δὲ τῇ φάλαγγι κυκλοῦνται τὴν πόλιν καὶ τρίτην ἔξωθεν περιιστᾶσιν τὴν ἵππον, πάσας ἀποφράσσοντες αὐτοῖς τὰς ἐξόδους." "
3.149 τοῦτ' ἐν ἀπογνώσει σωτηρίας παρώξυνε τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους πρὸς τόλμαν: οὐδὲν γὰρ ἀνάγκης ἐν πολέμῳ μαχιμώτερον." "
3.151 ὡς δὲ Οὐεσπασιανὸς τούτοις μὲν τοὺς τοξότας καὶ σφενδονήτας καὶ πᾶν τὸ τῶν ἑκηβόλων πλῆθος ἐπιστήσας ἐπέτρεψεν βάλλειν, αὐτὸς δὲ μετὰ τῶν πεζῶν εἰς τὸ πρόσαντες ἀνώθει καθ' ὃ τὸ τεῖχος ἦν εὐάλωτον, δείσας ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος περὶ τῇ πόλει προπηδᾷ καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ πᾶν τὸ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων πλῆθος." "
3.152 συμπεσόντες δὲ τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἀθρόοι τοῦ μὲν τείχους ἀνέστειλαν αὐτούς, πολλὰ δ' ἐπεδείκνυντο χειρῶν ἔργα καὶ τόλμης." "
3.153 οὐκ ἔλασσόν γε μὴν ὧν ἔδρων ἀντέπασχον: ὅσον γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἡ τῆς σωτηρίας ἀπόγνωσις, τοσοῦτο τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους αἰδὼς παρεκρότει, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἐμπειρία μετ' ἀλκῆς, τοὺς δὲ θράσος ὥπλιζε τῷ θυμῷ στρατηγουμένους." "
3.154 παραταξάμενοι δὲ δι' ὅλης ἡμέρας νυκτὶ διαλύονται, τρώσαντες μὲν πλείστους ̔Ρωμαίων, δεκατρεῖς δ' ἀνελόντες: αὐτῶν δ' ἔπεσον μὲν δεκαεπτά, τραυματίαι δ' ἐγένοντο ἑξακόσιοι." "
3.155 Τῇ δ' ὑστεραίᾳ πάλιν προσβάλλουσι τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐπεξελθόντες καὶ πολὺ καρτερώτερον ἀντιπαρετάξαντο, θαρραλεώτεροι μὲν ἐκ τοῦ παρὰ λόγον ἀντισχεῖν τῇ προτέρᾳ γεγενημένοι, χρώμενοι δὲ καὶ τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις μαχιμωτέροις:" 3.156 ὑπὸ γὰρ αἰδοῦς εἰς ὀργὴν ἐξεκαίοντο τὸ μὴ ταχέως νικᾶν ἧτταν ἡγούμενοι.
3.157 καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ἡμέρας προσβολαὶ μὲν ἐγίνοντο τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων ἀδιάλειπτοι, ἐκδρομαὶ δὲ τῶν ̓Ιωταπατηνῶν καὶ τειχομαχίαι καρτερώτεραι, καὶ οὔτε ̓Ιουδαῖοι τὴν τῶν πολεμίων ἰσχὺν κατωρρώδουν οὔτε ̔Ρωμαῖοι πρὸς τὸ τῆς πόλεως δυσάλωτον ἀπέκαμνον.' "
3.158 ̓́Εστιν δ' ̓Ιωταπάτα πλὴν ὀλίγου πᾶσα κρημνός, ἐκ μὲν τῶν ἄλλων μερῶν πάντοθεν φάραγξιν ἀπείροις ἀπότομος, ὡς τῶν κατιδεῖν πειρωμένων τὰς ὄψεις προεξασθενεῖν τοῦ βάθους, ἀπὸ βορέου δὲ προσιτὴ μόνον, καθ' ὃ λήγοντι τῷ ὄρει πλαγίῳ προσέκτισται." "
3.159 καὶ τοῦτο δ' ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος ἐμπεριειλήφει τειχίζων τὴν πόλιν, ὡς ἀκατάληπτον εἶναι πολεμίοις τὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἀκρώρειαν." "
3.161 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ τῇ τε φύσει τοῦ χωρίου καὶ ταῖς τόλμαις τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἀντιφιλονεικῶν ἔγνω καρτερώτερον ἅπτεσθαι τῆς πολιορκίας, καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς ὑπ' αὐτὸν ἡγεμόνας ἐβουλεύετο περὶ τῆς προσβολῆς." 3.162 δόξαν δὲ χῶσαι τὸ προσιτὸν τοῦ τείχους ἐπὶ συγκομιδὴν ὕλης ἐκπέμπει πᾶν τὸ στράτευμα, καὶ κοπέντων τῶν περὶ τὴν πόλιν ὀρῶν συναλισθείσης τε ἅμα τοῖς ξύλοις ἀπείρου χερμάδος,' "
3.163 οἱ μὲν πρὸς ἀλεωρὰν τῶν ὕπερθεν ἀφιεμένων βελῶν γέρρα διατείναντες ὑπὲρ χαρακωμάτων ἔχουν ὑπ' αὐτοῖς οὐδὲν ἢ μικρὰ βλαπτόμενοι ταῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους βολαῖς:" 3.164 οἱ δὲ τοὺς πλησίον ὄχθους ἀνασπῶντες γῆν αὐτοῖς ἀδιαλείπτως ἔφερον, καὶ τριχῆ διῃρημένων ἀργὸς ἦν οὐδείς.
3.165 οἱ δὲ ̓Ιουδαῖοι πέτρας τε μεγάλας ἀπὸ τῶν τειχῶν τοῖς σκεπάσμασιν αὐτῶν ἐπηφίεσαν καὶ πᾶν εἶδος βελῶν: ἦν δὲ καὶ μὴ διικνουμένων πολὺς ὁ ψόφος καὶ φοβερὸς ἐμπόδιον τοῖς ἐργαζομένοις.' "
3.166 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ἐν κύκλῳ τὰς ἀφετηρίους μηχανὰς ἐπιστήσας, τὰ πάντα δ' ἦν ἑκατὸν ἑξήκοντα ὄργανα, βάλλειν ἐκέλευσεν τοὺς ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους." 3.167 ὁμοῦ δὲ οἵ τε καταπέλται τὰς λόγχας ἀνερροίζουν καὶ ταλαντιαῖοι λίθοι μέγεθος ἐκ τῶν πετροβόλων ἐβάλλοντο πῦρ τε καὶ πλῆθος ἀθρόων οἰστῶν, ἅπερ οὐ μόνον τὸ τεῖχος ἀνεπίβατον τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις ἐποίησεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν ἐντὸς ὅσης ἐφικνεῖτο χώρας:
3.168 καὶ γὰρ καὶ τὸ τῶν ̓Αράβων τοξοτῶν πλῆθος ἀκοντισταί τε καὶ σφενδονῆται πάντες ἅμα τοῖς μηχανήμασιν ἔβαλλον.' "
3.169 οὐ μὴν εἰργόμενοι τῆς καθύπερθεν ἀμύνης ἠρέμουν: ἐκτρέχοντες γὰρ λῃστρικώτερον κατὰ λόχους περιέσπων τε τῶν ἐργαζομένων τὰς σκέπας καὶ τοὺς γυμνουμένους ἔπαιον, καὶ καθ' ὃ παρείκοιεν ἐκεῖνοι διερρίπτουν τε τὸ χῶμα καὶ τὰ χαρακώματα σὺν τοῖς γέρροις ἐνεπίμπρασαν," 3.171 ̓Εγειρομένου δὲ τοῦ χώματος ἤδη καὶ ταῖς ἐπάλξεσιν ὅσον οὔπω πλησιάζοντος δεινὸν ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος νομίσας, εἰ μηδὲν ἀντιμηχανήσαιτο τῇ πόλει σωτήριον, συναθροίζει τέκτονας καὶ τὸ τεῖχος ἐκέλευσεν ὑψοῦν.' "
3.172 τῶν δ' ἀδύνατον εἶναι φαμένων οἰκοδομεῖν τοσούτοις βέλεσι βαλλομένους, σκέπην αὐτοῖς ἐπινοεῖ τοιάνδε:" "
3.173 δρυφάκτους πήξασθαι κελεύσας ἐμπετάσαι τε βύρσας νεοδόρους βοῶν, ὡς ἀναδέχοιντο μὲν τοὺς ἀπὸ τῶν πετροβόλων λίθους κολπούμεναι, περιολισθάνοι δὲ ἀπ' αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ βέλη καὶ τὸ πῦρ ὑπὸ τῆς ἰκμάδος εἴργοιτο, προανίστησιν τῶν τεκτόνων." "
3.174 ὑφ' οἷς ἀσφαλῶς ἐργαζόμενοι δι' ἡμέρας τε καὶ νυκτὸς τὸ τεῖχος ἤγειραν εἰς εἴκοσι πήχεις τὸ ὕψος, καὶ συχνοὺς μὲν πύργους ἐνῳκοδόμησαν αὐτῷ, καρτερὰν δὲ ἔπαλξιν ἐφηρμόσαντο." 3.175 τοῦτο τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἤδη τῆς πόλεως ἐντὸς οἰομένοις εἶναι πολλὴν ἐποίησεν ἀθυμίαν, καὶ πρός τε τὴν ἐπίνοιαν τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου καὶ τὸ παράστημα τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως κατεπλάγησαν.
3.176 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ καὶ πρὸς τὸ πανοῦργον τοῦ στρατηγήματος καὶ πρὸς τὰς τόλμας παρωξύνετο τῶν ̓Ιωταπατηνῶν:' "
3.177 πάλιν γὰρ ἀναθαρσήσαντες ἐπὶ τῷ τειχισμῷ τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐπεξέθεον, καὶ καθ' ἡμέραν ἐγίνοντο συμπλοκαὶ κατὰ λόχους ἐπίνοιά τε λῃστρικὴ πᾶσα καὶ τῶν προστυχόντων ἁρπαγαὶ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἔργων πυρπολήσεις," 3.178 ἕως Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἀναπαύσας τὴν στρατιὰν μάχης διέγνω προσκαθεζόμενος σπάνει τῶν ἐπιτηδείων αἱρεῖν τὴν πόλιν:
3.179 ἢ γὰρ ἀναγκαζομένους ταῖς ἀπορίαις ἱκετεύσειν αὐτὸν ἢ μέχρι παντὸς ἀπαυθαδισαμένους διαφθαρήσεσθαι λιμῷ.' "
3.181 Τοῖς δὲ σίτου μὲν πλῆθος ἦν ἔνδον καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πλὴν ἁλὸς ἁπάντων, ἔνδεια δὲ ὕδατος ὡς ἂν πηγῆς μὲν οὐκ οὔσης κατὰ τὴν πόλιν, τῷ δ' ὀμβρίῳ διαρκουμένων τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ: σπάνιον δ' εἴ ποτε τὸ κλίμα θέρους ὕεται." 3.182 καὶ κατὰ ταύτην τὴν ὥραν πολιορκουμένων ἀθυμία δεινὴ πρὸς τὴν τοῦ δίψους ἐπίνοιαν ἦν, ἀσχαλλόντων ἤδη ὡς καθάπαν ἐπιλελοιπότος ὕδατος:' "
3.183 ὁ γὰρ ̓Ιώσηπος τήν τε πόλιν ὁρῶν τῶν ἄλλων ἐπιτηδείων εὔπορον καὶ τὰ φρονήματα γενναῖα τῶν ἀνδρῶν, βουλόμενός τε παρ' ἐλπίδα τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐκτεῖναι τὴν πολιορκίαν, μέτρῳ τὸ ποτὸν αὐτοῖς διένειμεν εὐθέως." 3.184 οἱ δὲ τὸ ταμιεύεσθαι χαλεπώτερον ἐνδείας ὑπελάμβανον, καὶ τὸ μὴ αὐτεξούσιον αὐτῶν πλέον ἐκίνει τὴν ὄρεξιν, καὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἔσχατον ἤδη δίψους προήκοντες ἀπέκαμνον. διακείμενοι δὲ οὕτως οὐκ ἐλάνθανον τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους:' "
3.185 ἀπὸ γὰρ τοῦ κατάντους ἑώρων αὐτοὺς ὑπὲρ τὸ τεῖχος ἐφ' ἕνα συρρέοντας τόπον καὶ μετρουμένους τὸ ὕδωρ, ἐφ' ὃν καὶ τοῖς ὀξυβελέσιν ἐξικνούμενοι πολλοὺς ἀνῄρουν." 3.186 Καὶ Οὐεσπασιανὸς μὲν οὐκ εἰς μακρὰν τῶν ἐκδοχείων κενωθέντων ἤλπιζεν ὑπὸ τῆς ἀνάγκης αὐτῷ παραδοθήσεσθαι τὴν πόλιν:
3.187 ὁ δὲ ̓Ιώσηπος κλάσαι τὴν ἐλπίδα ταύτην αὐτῷ προαιρούμενος ἐμβρέξαι κελεύει πλείστους τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ κατακρεμάσαι περὶ τὰς ἐπάλξεις, ὥστε περιρρεῖσθαι πᾶν ἐξαπίνης τὸ τεῖχος.' "
3.188 πρὸς τοῦτ' ἀθυμία τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων καὶ κατάπληξις ἦν θεασαμένων εἰς χλεύην τοσοῦτον παραναλίσκοντας ὕδατος οὓς οὐδὲ ποτὸν ἔχειν ὑπελάμβανον, ὥστε καὶ τὸν στρατηγὸν ἀπογνόντα τὴν δι' ἐνδείας ἅλωσιν τρέπεσθαι πάλιν πρὸς ὅπλα καὶ βίαν." "
3.189 ὃ δὴ τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις δι' ἐπιθυμίας ἦν: ἀπεγνωκότες γὰρ ἑαυτοὺς καὶ τὴν πόλιν πρὸ λιμοῦ καὶ δίψης τὸν ἐν πολέμῳ θάνατον ᾑροῦντο." "
3.191 διά τινος χαράδρας δυσβάτου καὶ διὰ τοῦθ' ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων ἀμελουμένης κατὰ τὰ πρὸς δύσιν μέρη τῆς φάραγγος ἐκπέμπων τινὰς γράμματά τε πρὸς οὓς ἠβούλετο τῶν ἔξω ̓Ιουδαίων διεπέμψατο καὶ παρ' αὐτῶν ἐλάμβανεν, παντός τε ἐπιτηδείου τῶν ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν ἐπιλελοιπότων εὐπόρησεν," 3.192 ἕρπειν τὰ πολλὰ παρὰ τὰς φυλακὰς κελεύσας τοῖς ἐξιοῦσιν καὶ τὰ νῶτα καλύπτειν νάκεσιν, ὡς εἰ καὶ κατίδοι τις αὐτοὺς νύκτωρ, φαντασίαν παρέχοιεν κυνῶν, μέχρι συναισθόμενοι τὴν ἐπίνοιαν οἱ φρουροὶ περιίσχουσιν τὴν χαράδραν.' "
3.193 Καὶ τόθ' ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος μὲν τὴν πόλιν οὐκ εἰς μακρὰν ὁρῶν ἀνθέξειν, ἐν ἀπόρῳ δὲ τὴν ἑαυτῶν σωτηρίαν εἰ μένοι, δρασμὸν ἅμα τοῖς δυνατοῖς ἐβουλεύετο. συναισθόμενοι δὲ τὸ πλῆθος καὶ περιχυθὲν αὐτῷ κατηντιβόλουν μὴ σφᾶς περιιδεῖν ἐπ' αὐτῷ μόνῳ κειμένους:" "
3.194 εἶναι γὰρ τῇ πόλει καὶ σωτηρίας μὲν ἐλπὶς παραμένων, παντὸς ἀγωνισομένου δι' αὐτὸν προθύμως, κἂν ἁλῶσιν δέ, παραμυθίαν." "
3.195 πρέπειν δ' αὐτῷ μήτε φυγεῖν τοὺς ἐχθροὺς μήτ' ἐγκαταλιπεῖν τοὺς φίλους μήτ' ἀποπηδᾶν ὥσπερ χειμαζομένης νεώς, εἰς ἣν ἐν γαλήνῃ παρῆλθεν:" "
3.196 ἐπιβαπτίσειν γὰρ αὐτοῖς τὴν πόλιν μηδενὸς ἔτι τοῖς πολεμίοις τολμῶντος ἀνθίστασθαι δι' ὃν ἂν θαρσοῖεν οἰχομένου." "
3.197 ̔Ο δὲ ̓Ιώσηπος τὸ κατ' αὐτὸν ἀσφαλὲς ὑποστελλόμενος ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἔφασκεν ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἔξοδον:" "
3.198 μένων μὲν γὰρ οὔτ' ἂν ὠφελῆσαί τι μέγα σωζομένους, κἂν ἁλίσκωνται, συναπολεῖσθαι περιττῶς, ἐκδὺς δὲ τῆς πολιορκίας ἔξωθεν αὐτοὺς ὠφελήσειν μέγιστα:" 3.199 τούς τε γὰρ ἐκ τῆς χώρας Γαλιλαίους συναθροίσειν ᾗ τάχος καὶ ̔Ρωμαίους ἑτέρῳ πολέμῳ τῆς πόλεως αὐτῶν ἀντιπερισπάσειν.
3.201 οὐκ ἔπειθεν δὲ τούτοις, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον ἐξέκαυσεν τὸ πλῆθος αὐτοῦ περιέχεσθαι: παιδία γοῦν καὶ γέροντες καὶ γύναια μετὰ νηπίων ὀδυρόμενα προσέπιπτον αὐτῷ καὶ τοῖς ποσὶν ἐμπλεκόμενοι πάντες εἴχοντο,' "3.202 καὶ μετὰ κωκυτῶν κοινωνὸν σφίσι τῆς τύχης μένειν ἱκέτευον, οὐ φθόνῳ τῆς ἐκείνου σωτηρίας, ἔμοιγε δοκεῖν, ἀλλ' ἐλπίδι τῆς ἑαυτῶν: οὐδὲν γὰρ ἠξίουν πείσεσθαι δεινὸν ̓Ιωσήπου μένοντος." "3.203 ̔Ο δὲ πειθομένῳ μὲν ἱκετηρίαν ταῦτα νομίσας, βιαζομένῳ δὲ φρουράν, πολὺ δ' αὐτοῦ τῆς εἰς τὴν ἀπόλειψιν ὁρμῆς καὶ ὁ τῶν ὀδυρομένων ἔκλασεν οἶκτος," "3.204 μένειν τε ἔγνω, καὶ τὴν κοινὴν τῆς πόλεως ἀπόγνωσιν ὁπλισάμενος, “νῦν καιρός, εἰπών, ἄρχεσθαι μάχης, ὅτ' ἐλπὶς οὐκ ἔστι σωτηρίας: καλὸν εὔκλειαν ἀντικαταλλαξάμενον τοῦ βίου καὶ δράσαντά τι γενναῖον εἰς μνήμην ὀψιγενῶν πεσεῖν”, ἐπ' ἔργα τρέπεται." '3.205 καὶ προελθὼν μετὰ τῶν μαχιμωτάτων διεσκίδνα τε τοὺς φρουροὺς καὶ μέχρι τοῦ στρατοπέδου τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων κατέτρεχεν, καὶ τὰς μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν χωμάτων δέρρεις, αἷς ὑπεσκήνουν, διέσπα, τοῖς δὲ ἔργοις ἐνέβαλλεν πῦρ. 3.206 τῇ τε ἑξῆς ὁμοίως καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ καὶ ἐπὶ συχνὰς ἡμέρας καὶ νύκτας πολεμῶν οὐκ ἔκαμνεν. 3.207 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ τῶν τε ̔Ρωμαίων κακουμένων ταῖς ἐκδρομαῖς, τρέπεσθαί τε γὰρ ὑπὸ ̓Ιουδαίων ᾐδοῦντο καὶ τραπέντων ἐπιδιώκειν βάρει τῶν ὅπλων ἦσαν βραδεῖς, οἵ τε ̓Ιουδαῖοι πρίν τι παθεῖν ἀεὶ δρῶντες ἀνέφευγον εἰς τὴν πόλιν, 3.208 τοῖς μὲν ὁπλίταις τὰς ὁρμὰς αὐτῶν ἐκκλίνειν ἐκέλευσεν καὶ μὴ συμπλέκεσθαι θανατῶσιν ἀνθρώποις: 3.209 οὐδὲν γὰρ ἀλκιμώτερον εἶναι τῆς ἀπογνώσεως, περισβέννυσθαι δὲ αὐτῶν τὰς ὁρμὰς σκοπῶν ἀπορουμένας ὥσπερ ὕλης τὸ πῦρ:
3.211 τοῖς δὲ τῶν ̓Αράβων τοξόταις καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς Συρίας σφενδονήταις καὶ λιθοβόλοις τὰ πολλὰ τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους ἀνέστελλεν: ἠρέμει δὲ οὐδὲ τῶν ἀφετηρίων ὀργάνων τὸ πλῆθος. 3.212 οἱ δὲ τούτοις μὲν εἶκον κακούμενοι, τῶν δὲ πόρρω βαλλομένων ἐνδοτέρω γινόμενοι προσέκειντο τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις χαλεποὶ καὶ ψυχῆς καὶ σώματος ἀφειδοῦντες ἐμάχοντο, ἐκ διαδοχῆς ἑκάτεροι τὸ κεκμηκὸς ἑαυτῶν ἀναλαμβάνοντες. 3.213 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ἡγούμενος τῷ μήκει τοῦ χρόνου καὶ ταῖς ἐκδρομαῖς ἀντιπολιορκεῖσθαι, τῶν χωμάτων ἤδη τοῖς τείχεσι πελαζόντων προσάγειν ἔγνω τὸν κριόν.' "3.214 ὁ δ' ἐστὶν ὑπερμεγέθης δοκὸς ἱστῷ νηὸς παραπλήσιος: ἐστόμωται δὲ παχεῖ σιδήρῳ κατ' ἄκρον εἰς κριοῦ προτομήν, ἀφ' οὗ καὶ καλεῖται, τετυπωμένῳ." '3.215 καταιωρεῖται δὲ κάλοις μέσος ὥσπερ ἀπὸ πλάστιγγος ἑτέρας δοκοῦ, σταυροῖς ἑκατέρωθεν ἑδραίοις ὑπεστηριγμένης. 3.216 ἀνωθούμενος δὲ ὑπὸ πλήθους ἀνδρῶν εἰς τὸ κατόπιν, τῶν αὐτῶν ἀθρόως πάλιν εἰς τοὔμπροσθεν ἐπιβρισάντων τύπτει τὰ τείχη τῷ προανέχοντι σιδήρῳ. 3.217 καὶ οὐδεὶς οὕτως καρτερὸς πύργος ἢ περίβολος πλατύς, ὃς κἂν τὰς πρώτας πληγὰς ἐνέγκῃ κατίσχυσεν τῆς ἐπιμονῆς. 3.218 ἐπὶ ταύτην τὴν πεῖραν ὁ στρατηγὸς τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων μετέβαινεν βίᾳ τὴν πόλιν ἑλεῖν σπεύδων, ὡς τὸ προσκαθέζεσθαι βλαβερὸν ἦν ̓Ιουδαίων οὐκ ἠρεμούντων. 3.219 οἱ μὲν οὖν τούς τε καταπέλτας καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν ἀφετηρίων, ὡς ἐξικνοῖτο τῶν ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους κωλύειν πειρωμένων, ἔγγιον προσαγαγόντες ἔβαλλον: ὁμοίως δὲ συνήγγιζον οἱ τοξόται καὶ σφενδονῆται.
3.221 καὶ κατὰ τὴν πρώτην πληγὴν διεσείσθη μὲν τὸ τεῖχος, κραυγὴ δὲ μεγίστη παρὰ τῶν ἔνδον ἤρθη καθάπερ ἑαλωκότων ἤδη.' "3.222 Πολλάκις δὲ εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν παίοντας τόπον ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος ὁρῶν ὅσον οὔπω καταρριφθησόμενον τὸ τεῖχος, σοφίζεται κατ' ὀλίγον τὴν βίαν τοῦ μηχανήματος." "3.223 σάκκους ἀχύρων πληρώσαντας ἐκέλευσεν καθιμᾶν καθ' ὃ φερόμενον ἀεὶ τὸν κριὸν ὁρῷεν, ὡς πλάζοιτό τε ἡ ἐμβολή, καὶ δεχόμενοι τὰς πληγὰς ἐκκενοῖεν τῇ χαυνότητι." "3.224 τοῦτο πλείστην διατριβὴν παρέσχεν τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις, καθ' ὃ μὲν τρέποιεν τὴν μηχανὴν ἀντιπαραγόντων τοὺς σάκκους τῶν ὕπερθεν, ὑποβαλλόντων δὲ ταῖς ἐμβολαῖς, ὡς μηδὲν κατ' ἀντιτυπίαν βλάπτεσθαι τὸ τεῖχος:" "3.225 ἕως ἀντεπινοήσαντες κοντοὺς οἱ ̔Ρωμαῖοι μακροὺς καὶ δρέπανα δήσαντες ἐπ' ἄκρων τοὺς σάκους ἀπέτεμνον." '3.226 ἐνεργοῦς δὲ οὕτω τῆς ἑλεπόλεως γενομένης καὶ τοῦ τείχους, νεοπαγὲς γὰρ ἦν, ἐνδιδόντος ἤδη, τὸ λοιπὸν ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκ πυρὸς ἄμυναν οἱ περὶ τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον ὥρμησαν. 3.227 ἁψάμενοι δὲ ὅσον αὔης εἶχον ὕλης τριχόθεν ἐπεκθέουσιν, καὶ τά τε μηχανήματα καὶ τὰ γέρρα καὶ τὰ χώματα τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων ὑπεπίμπρασαν. 3.228 οἱ δὲ κακῶς ἐπεβοήθουν πρός τε τὴν τόλμαν αὐτῶν καταπεπληγότες καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς φλογὸς τὰς ἀμύνας φθανόμενοι: ξηρᾶς γὰρ ὕλης, πρὸς δὲ ἀσφάλτου τε καὶ πίσσης, ἔτι δὲ θείου διίπτατο τὸ πῦρ ἐπινοίας τάχιον, καὶ τὰ πολλῷ καμάτῳ πεπονημένα τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐπὶ μιᾶς ὥρας ἐνέμετο. 3.229 ̓́Ενθα καὶ ἀνήρ τις ἐξεφάνη ̓Ιουδαίων λόγου καὶ μνήμης ἄξιος: Σαμίου μὲν παῖς ἦν, ̓Ελεάζαρος δὲ ἐκαλεῖτο, Σαβὰ δὲ πατρὶς αὐτῷ τῆς Γαλιλαίας:
3.231 σκοπὸς δὲ πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐχθροῖς γενόμενος καὶ γυμνῷ τῷ σώματι τὰς πληγὰς δεξάμενος πέντε μὲν διαπείρεται βέλεσιν, 3.232 πρὸς οὐδὲν δὲ τούτων ἐπιστραφείς, ὅτε τὸ τεῖχος ἀνέβη καὶ περίοπτος πᾶσιν τῆς εὐτολμίας ἔστη, τότε ἰλυσπώμενος ὑπὸ τῶν τραυμάτων μετὰ τοῦ κριοῦ κατέπεσεν.' "3.233 ἄριστοι μετ' αὐτὸν ἐφάνησαν ἀδελφοὶ δύο Νετείρας καὶ Φίλιππος, ἀπὸ ̔Ρούμας κώμης, Γαλιλαῖοι καὶ αὐτοί, οἳ προπηδῶσι μὲν εἰς τοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ δεκάτου τάγματος, τοσούτῳ δὲ ῥοίζῳ καὶ βίᾳ τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις συνέπεσον, ὡς διαρρῆξαί τε τὰς τάξεις καὶ τρέψασθαι καθ' οὓς ἐφορμήσειαν ἅπαντας." '3.234 Μετὰ τούτους ὅ τε ̓Ιώσηπος καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πλῆθος ἀράμενοι πῦρ πάλιν τὰ μηχανήματα καὶ τὰς ὑποδύσεις ἅμα τοῖς ἔργοις ὑφῆψαν τοῦ τε πέμπτου καὶ τοῦ δεκάτου τραπέντος τάγματος, οἱ λοιποὶ δὲ φθάσαντες καὶ τὰ ὄργανα καὶ πᾶσαν ὕλην κατέχωσαν. 3.235 περὶ δὲ δείλην πάλιν ἀναστήσαντες προσῆγον τὸν κριὸν ᾗ προπεπονήκει τυπτόμενον τὸ τεῖχος.' "3.236 ἔνθα τις τῶν ἀμυνομένων ἀπ' αὐτοῦ βάλλει τὸν Οὐεσπασιανὸν βέλει κατὰ τὸν ταρσὸν τοῦ ποδὸς καὶ τιτρώσκει μὲν ἐπιπολαίως προεκλύσαντος τὸ βληθὲν τοῦ διαστήματος, μέγιστον δὲ θόρυβον ἐνεποίησεν τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις:" "3.237 πρὸς γὰρ τὸ αἷμα ταραχθέντων τῶν πλησίον φήμη διὰ παντὸς ἐπῄει τοῦ στρατοῦ, καὶ τῆς πολιορκίας οἱ πλείους ἀφέμενοι μετ' ἐκπλήξεως καὶ δέους ἐπὶ τὸν στρατηγὸν συνέθεον." '3.238 πρὸ δὲ πάντων Τίτος δείσας περὶ τῷ πατρὶ παρῆν, ὡς τὸ πλῆθος καὶ τῇ πρὸς τὸν ἡγούμενον εὐνοίᾳ καὶ τῇ τοῦ παιδὸς ἀγωνίᾳ συγχυθῆναι. ῥᾷστα μέντοι τόν τε υἱὸν ὁ πατὴρ δεδιότα καὶ τὴν στρατιὰν ἔπαυσεν τοῦ θορύβου:' "3.239 τῶν γὰρ ἀλγηδόνων ἐπάνω γενόμενος καὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐπτοημένοις δι' αὐτὸν ὀφθῆναι σπουδάσας χαλεπώτερον ̓Ιουδαίοις ἐπῆρεν τὸν πόλεμον: ἕκαστος γὰρ ὡς τιμωρὸς τοῦ στρατηγοῦ προκινδυνεύειν ἤθελεν, καὶ βοῇ παρακροτοῦντες ἀλλήλους ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος ὥρμων." 3.241 καὶ ἤνυον μὲν οὐδὲν ἢ μικρόν, αὐτοὶ δὲ ἀδιαλείπτως ἔπιπτον ὑπὸ μὴ βλεπομένων καθορώμενοι: 3.242 αὐτοί τε γὰρ ὑπὸ τῆς σφετέρας περιλαμπόμενοι φλογὸς σκοπὸς ἦσαν τοῖς πολεμίοις εὐσύνοπτος ὥσπερ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ, καὶ τῶν ὀργάνων πόρρωθεν μὴ βλεπομένων δυσφύλακτον ἦν τὸ βαλλόμενον. 3.243 ἥ τε οὖν τῶν ὀξυβελῶν καὶ καταπελτῶν βία πολλοὺς ἅμα διήλαυνεν, καὶ τῶν ὑπὸ τῆς μηχανῆς ἀφιεμένων πετρῶν ὁ ῥοῖζος ἐπάλξεις τε ἀπέσυρεν καὶ γωνίας ἀπέθρυπτε πύργων. 3.244 ἀνδρῶν μὲν γὰρ † οὕτως ἰσχυρὸν στῖφος, ὃ μὴ μέχρις ἐσχάτης στρώννυται φάλαγγος βίᾳ τε καὶ μεγέθει τοῦ λίθου.' "3.245 μάθοι δ' ἄν τις τὴν τοῦ μηχανήματος ἀλκὴν ἐκ τῶν ἐπὶ τῆσδε τῆς νυκτὸς γενομένων: πληγεὶς γάρ τις ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τῶν περὶ τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον ἑστώτων ἀνὰ τὸ τεῖχος ἀπαράσσεται τὴν κεφαλὴν ὑπὸ τῆς πέτρας, καὶ τὸ κρανίον ἀπὸ τριῶν ἐσφενδονήθη σταδίων." "3.246 γυναικός τε μεθ' ἡμέραν ἐγκύμονος πληγείσης τὴν γαστέρα, προῄει δὲ νέον ἐξ οἰκίας, ἐξέσεισεν ἐφ' ἡμιστάδιον τὸ βρέφος: τοσαύτη ἦν ἡ τοῦ λιθοβόλου βία." '3.247 τῶν οὖν ὀργάνων φοβερώτερος ὁ ῥοῖζος, τῶν δὲ βαλλομένων ἦν ὁ ψόφος.' "3.248 ἐπάλληλοι δὲ ἐκτύπουν οἱ νεκροὶ κατὰ τοῦ τείχους ῥιπτόμενοι, καὶ δεινὴ μὲν ἔνδοθεν κραυγὴ γυναικῶν ἠγείρετο, συνήχουν δ' ἔξωθεν οἰμωγαὶ φονευομένων." "3.249 αἵματι δ' ἐρρεῖτο πᾶς ὁ πρὸ τῆς μάχης περίβολος, καὶ προσβατὸν ὑπὸ πτωμάτων τὸ τεῖχος ἐγίνετο." "
3.251 πλεῖστοι μέν γε τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς ̓Ιωταπάτης ἀγωνιζόμενοι γενναίως ἔπεσον, πλεῖστοι δ' ἐγένοντο τραυματίαι, καὶ μόλις περὶ τὴν ἑωθινὴν φυλακὴν ἐνδίδωσι τοῖς μηχανήμασι τὸ τεῖχος ἀδιαλείπτως τυπτόμενον:" '3.252 οἱ δὲ φραξάμενοι τοῖς σώμασι καὶ τοῖς ὅπλοις τὸ καταρριφθὲν ἀντωχύρωσαν πρὶν βληθῆναι τὰς ἐπιβατηρίους ὑπὸ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων μηχανάς. 3.253 ̔Υπὸ δὲ τὴν ἕω Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἐπὶ τὴν κατάληψιν τῆς πόλεως συνῆγεν τὴν στρατιὰν ὀλίγον ἀπὸ τοῦ νυκτερινοῦ πόνου διαναπαύσας.' "3.254 βουλόμενος δ' ἀπὸ τῶν καταρριφθέντων περισπάσαι τοὺς εἴργοντας τοὺς μὲν γενναιοτάτους τῶν ἱππέων ἀποβήσας τῶν ἵππων τριχῇ διέταξεν κατὰ τὰ πεπτωκότα τοῦ τείχους, πάντοθεν πεφραγμένους τοῖς ὅπλοις καὶ τοὺς κοντοὺς προί̈σχοντας, ὡς ὁπότε τὰς ἐπιβατηρίους βάλλοιεν μηχανὰς κατάρχοιντο τῆς εἰσόδου:" '3.255 κατόπιν δὲ αὐτῶν ἔταξεν τοῦ πεζοῦ τὸ ἀκμαιότατον, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἱππικὸν ἀντιπαρεξέτεινεν τῷ τείχει κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν ὀρεινὴν πρὸς τὸ μηδένα τῶν ἀναφευγόντων ἐκ τῆς ἁλώσεως διαλαθεῖν. 3.256 κατόπιν δὲ τούτων περιέστησεν τοὺς τοξότας ἔχειν κελεύσας ἕτοιμα τὰ βέλη πρὸς ἄφεσιν, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ σφενδονήτας καὶ τοὺς ἐπὶ τῶν μηχανημάτων,' "3.257 ἑτέρους δὲ κλίμακας ἀραμένους προσφέρειν ἐπάνω τοῖς ἀκεραίοις τείχεσιν, ἵν' οἱ μὲν τούτους κωλύειν πειρώμενοι καταλίποιεν τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς καταρριφθεῖσιν φυλακήν, οἱ λοιποὶ δὲ ὑπ' ἀθρόων βιαζόμενοι τῶν βελῶν εἴξωσιν τῆς εἰσόδου." "3.258 ̓Ιώσηπος δὲ συνιεὶς τὴν ἐπίνοιαν ἐπὶ μὲν τοῦ μένοντος τείχους σὺν τοῖς κεκμηκόσιν ἵστησι τοὺς γηραιοὺς ὡς μηδὲν ταύτῃ βλαβησομένους, εἰς δὲ τὰ παρερρωγότα τοῦ τείχους τοὺς δυνατωτάτους καὶ πρὸ πάντων ἀνὰ ἓξ ἄνδρας, μεθ' ὧν καὶ αὐτὸς εἰς τὸ προκινδυνεύειν ἐκληρώσατο." '3.259 ἐκέλευσέν τε πρὸς μὲν τὸν ἀλαλαγμὸν τῶν ταγμάτων ἀποφράξαι τὰς ἀκοάς, ὡς ἂν μὴ καταπλαγεῖεν, πρὸς δὲ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν βελῶν συνοκλάσαντας καλύψασθαι καθύπερθεν τοῖς θυρεοῖς ὑποχωρῆσαί τε πρὸς ὀλίγον, ἕως τὰς φαρέτρας κενώσωσιν οἱ τοξόται.
3.261 λαμβάνειν τε πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σφαγησομένους γέροντας καὶ τέκνα καὶ γυναῖκας ἀναιρεθησομένας ὑπὸ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ὅσον οὐδέπω, καὶ τὸν ἐπὶ ταῖς μελλούσαις συμφοραῖς θυμὸν προαλίσαντας ἐναφεῖναι τοῖς δράσουσιν αὐτάς.' "3.262 ̓́Εταξεν μὲν οὖν οὕτως ἑκάτερον: τὸ δ' ἀργὸν ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως: πλῆθος, γύναια καὶ παῖδες, ὡς ἐθεάσαντο τριπλῇ μὲν φάλαγγι τὴν πόλιν ἐζωσμένην, οὐδὲν γὰρ εἰς τὴν μάχην μετακεκίνητο τῶν πάλαι φυλακῶν, πρὸς δὲ τοῖς βεβλημένοις τείχεσιν τοὺς πολεμίους ξιφήρεις καὶ τὴν καθύπερθεν ὀρεινὴν λαμπομένην ὅπλοις, τά τε βέλη τοῖς τοξόταις ἐπανέχοντα τῶν ̓Αράβων, ὕστατόν τινα κωκυτὸν ἁλώσεως συνήχησαν ὡς οὐκ ἀπειλουμένων ἔτι τῶν κακῶν ἀλλ' ἤδη παρόντων." "3.263 ὁ δὲ ̓Ιώσηπος τὰς μὲν γυναῖκας, ὡς μὴ θηλύνοιεν οἴκτῳ τὰς ὁρμὰς τῶν σφετέρων, κατακλείει ταῖς οἰκίαις μετ' ἀπειλῆς ἡσυχάζειν κελεύσας: αὐτὸς δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐρειφθέντων ᾗ ἔλαχεν παρῄει." "3.264 τοῖς μὲν οὖν καθ' ἕτερα προσφέρουσι τὰς κλίμακας οὐ προσεῖχεν, ἀπεκαραδόκει δὲ τὴν ὁρμὴν τῶν βελῶν." "3.265 ̔Ομοῦ δ' οἵ τε σαλπικταὶ τῶν ταγμάτων ἁπάντων συνήχησαν καὶ δεινὸν ἐπηλάλαξεν ἡ στρατιά, καὶ πάντοθεν ἀφιεμένων ἀπὸ συνθήματος τῶν βελῶν τὸ φῶς ὑπετέμνετο." '3.266 μεμνημένοι γε μὴν τῶν τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου προσταγμάτων οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ τάς τε ἀκοὰς πρὸς τὴν βοὴν καὶ τὰ σώματα πρὸς τὰς ἀφέσεις ἐφράξαντο,' "3.267 καὶ βαλλόντων τὰς μηχανὰς ἐπεξέδραμον δι' αὐτῶν πρὶν ἐπιβῆναι τοὺς βαλόντας," '3.268 συμπλεκόμενοί τε τοῖς ἀνιοῦσιν παντοῖα καὶ χειρῶν ἔργα καὶ ψυχῆς ἐναπεδείκνυντο, πειρώμενοι παρὰ τὰς ἐσχάτας συμφορὰς μὴ χείρους φαίνεσθαι τῶν ἐν ἀκινδύνῳ τῷ κατὰ σφᾶς ἀνδριζομένων: 3.269 ὥστε οὐ πρότερον ἀπερρήγνυντο τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων πρὶν ἢ πεσεῖν ἢ διαφθεῖραι.
3.271 ̔Ο δὲ ̓Ιώσηπος ἐν ταῖς ἀμηχανίαις σύμβουλον λαβὼν τὴν ἀνάγκην, ἡ δέ ἐστιν δεινὴ πρὸς ἐπίνοιαν, ὅταν αὐτὴν ἀπόγνωσις ἐρεθίζῃ, ζέον ἔλαιον ἐκέλευσεν καταχέειν τῶν συνησπικότων.' "3.272 οἱ δ' ὡς παρεσκευασμένον ἔχοντες μετὰ τάχους πολλοὶ καὶ πολὺ πάντοθεν τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων κατέχεον συνεπαφιέντες καὶ τὰ ἀγγεῖα βρασσόμενα τῇ θέρμῃ." '3.273 τοῦτο καιομένων τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων διεσκέδασεν τὴν τάξιν, καὶ μετὰ δεινῶν ἀλγηδόνων ἀπεκυλινδοῦντο τοῦ τείχους: 3.274 ῥᾷστα μὲν γὰρ τὸ ἔλαιον ἀπὸ κορυφῆς μέχρι ποδῶν ὑπὸ τὰς πανοπλίας διέρρει τοῦ σώματος ὅλου καὶ τὴν σάρκα φλογὸς οὐδὲν ἔλασσον ἐπεβόσκετο, θερμαινόμενόν τε φύσει ταχέως καὶ ψυχόμενον βραδέως διὰ τὴν πιότητα. 3.275 τοῖς δὲ θώραξιν καὶ τοῖς κράνεσιν ἐνδεδεμένων ἀπαλλαγὴ τῆς καύσεως οὐκ ἦν, πηδῶντες δὲ καὶ συνειλούμενοι ταῖς ἀλγηδόσιν ἀπὸ τῶν γεφυρωμάτων ἔπιπτον: οἱ δὲ τραπέντες εἰς τοὺς σφετέρους πρόσω βιαζομένους εὐχείρωτοι τοῖς κατόπιν τιτρώσκουσιν ἦσαν.' "3.276 ̓Επέλιπεν δὲ οὔτε ̔Ρωμαίους ἐν ταῖς κακοπραγίαις ἰσχὺς οὔτε τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους σύνεσις, ἀλλ' οἱ μὲν καίπερ οἰκτρὰ πάσχοντας ὁρῶντες τοὺς καταχυθέντας ὅμως εἰς τοὺς καταχέοντας ἐφέροντο τὸν πρὸ αὐτοῦ κακίζων ἕκαστος ὡς ἐμπόδιον ὄντα τῆς ῥώμης:" '3.277 οἱ δὲ ̓Ιουδαῖοι δόλῳ δευτέρῳ τὰς προσβάσεις αὐτῶν ἐπέσφαλλον τῆλιν ἑφθὴν ὑποχέοντες ταῖς σανίσιν, ἧς ἐπολισθάνοντες ὑπεσύροντο;' "3.278 καὶ οὔτε τῶν τρεπομένων οὔτε τῶν προσβαινόντων τις ὀρθὸς ἔμενεν, ἀλλ' οἱ μὲν ἐπ' αὐτῶν ὑπτιαζόμενοι τῶν ἐπιβατηρίων μηχανῶν συνεπατοῦντο, πολλοὶ δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ χῶμα κατέπιπτον." "3.279 ἐπαίοντο δ' ὑπὸ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων οἱ πεσόντες: ἐσφαλμένων γὰρ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων οὗτοι τῆς κατὰ χεῖρα συμπλοκῆς ἐλευθερωθέντες εἰς τὰς βολὰς εὐσχόλουν." "
3.281 ἔπεσον δὲ τούτων μὲν οὐκ ὀλίγοι καὶ πλείους ἐτρώθησαν, τῶν δ' ἀπὸ τῆς ̓Ιωταπάτης ἀπέθανον μὲν ἓξ ἄνδρες, τραυματίαι δ' ὑπὲρ τριακοσίους ἀνεκομίσθησαν." '3.282 εἰκάδι μὲν Δαισίου μηνὸς ἡ παράταξις ἦν.' "3.283 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ἐπὶ τοῖς συμβεβηκόσι τὴν στρατιὰν παραμυθούμενος, ὡς θυμουμένους ἑώρα καὶ οὐ προτροπῆς ἀλλ' ἔργων δεομένους," '3.284 προσυψῶσαι μὲν τὰ χώματα, πύργους δὲ τρεῖς πεντήκοντα ποδῶν τὸ ὕψος ἕκαστον κατασκευάσαι κελεύσας πάντοθεν σιδήρῳ κεκαλυμμένους, ὡς ἑδραῖοί τε εἶεν ὑπὸ βρίθους καὶ δυσάλωτοι πυρί, 3.285 τῶν χωμάτων ἐπέστησεν, συνεπιβήσας αὐτοῖς ἀκοντιστάς τε καὶ τοξότας καὶ τῶν ἀφετηρίων ὀργάνων τὰ κουφότερα, πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ῥωμαλεωτάτους σφενδονήτας: 3.286 οἳ μὴ καθορώμενοι διὰ τὸ ὕψος καὶ τὰ θωράκια τῶν πύργων εἰς καθορωμένους τοὺς ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους ἔβαλλον. 3.287 οἱ δὲ μήτε κατὰ κόρσης φερομένων τῶν βελῶν ἐκκλίνειν ῥᾳδίως δυνάμενοι μήτε τοὺς ἀφανεῖς ἀμύνεσθαι, καὶ τὸ μὲν ὕψος τῶν πύργων δυσέφικτον ὁρῶντες ἐκ χειρὸς βέλει, πυρὶ δὲ τὸν περὶ αὐτοῖς σίδηρον ἀνάλωτον, ἔφευγον ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους καὶ προσβάλλειν πειρωμένοις ἐπεξέθεον.' "3.288 καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ τῆς ̓Ιωταπάτης ἀντεῖχον οὕτως, ἀναιρούμενοί τε καθ' ἡμέραν πολλοὶ καὶ μηδὲν ἀντικακοῦν τοὺς πολεμίους, ὅτι μὴ μετὰ κινδύνων ἀνείργειν ἔχοντες." '3.289 Κατὰ δὲ τὰς αὐτὰς ἡμέρας Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἐπί τινα τῶν τῆς ̓Ιωταπάτης ἀστυγειτόνων πόλιν, ̓́Ιαφα καλεῖται, νεωτερίζουσαν καὶ τῶν ̓Ιωταπατηνῶν παρὰ δόξαν ἀντεχόντων ἐπαιρομένην, Τραϊανὸν ὄντα τοῦ δεκάτου τάγματος ἡγεμόνα ἐκπέμπει παραδοὺς αὐτῷ χιλίους μὲν ἱππεῖς πεζοὺς δὲ δισχιλίους.
3.291 συμφυγόντων δὲ εἰς τὸ πρῶτον τεῖχος οἱ ̔Ρωμαῖοι κατὰ πόδας προσκείμενοι συνεισέπεσον.
3.292 ὁρμήσαντας δὲ πάλιν εἰς τὸ δεύτερον τεῖχος ἀποκλείουσιν τῆς πόλεως οἱ σφέτεροι δείσαντες μὴ συνεισβάλωσιν οἱ πολέμιοι.' "
3.293 θεὸς δ' ἦν ἄρα ὁ ̔Ρωμαίοις τὰ Γαλιλαίων πάθη χαριζόμενος, ὃς καὶ τότε τὸν τῆς πόλεως λαὸν αὔτανδρον χερσὶν οἰκείαις ἐκκλεισθέντα πρὸς ἀπώλειαν ἔκδοτον φονῶσιν ἐχθροῖς παρέστησεν." "
3.294 ἐμπίπτοντες γὰρ ἀθρόοι ταῖς πύλαις καὶ πολλὰ τοὺς ἐπ' αὐτῶν ὀνομαστὶ καλοῦντες ἐν μέσαις ἀπεσφάττοντο ταῖς ἱκεσίαις." "
3.295 καὶ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον αὐτοῖς τεῖχος οἱ πολέμιοι, τὸ δεύτερον δ' ἔκλεισαν οἱ σφέτεροι," 3.296 μέσοι δὲ τοῖν δυοῖν κατειλούμενοι περιβόλων βύζην, πολλοὶ μὲν τοῖς ἀλλήλων, πολλοὶ δὲ τοῖς ἰδίοις περιεπείροντο ξίφεσιν, ἄπειροι δὲ ὑπὸ ̔Ρωμαίων ἔπιπτον οὐδὲ ὅσον εἰς ἄμυναν ἀναθαρροῦντες: πρὸς γὰρ τῷ καταπεπλῆχθαι τοὺς πολεμίους τὰς ψυχὰς αὐτῶν ἔκλασεν ἡ τῶν οἰκείων προδοσία.
3.297 πέρας ἔθνησκον οὐ ̔Ρωμαίοις ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἰδίοις καταρώμενοι, μέχρι πάντες ἀπώλοντο μύριοι καὶ δισχίλιοι τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὄντες.
3.298 κενὴν δὲ μαχίμων λογιζόμενος εἶναι τὴν πόλιν ὁ Τραϊανός, εἰ δὲ καί τινες ἔνδον εἶεν, οἰόμενος μηδὲν αὐτοὺς τολμήσειν ὑπὸ δέους, ἀνετίθει τῷ στρατηγῷ τὴν ἅλωσιν, καὶ στείλας ἀγγέλους πρὸς Οὐεσπασιανὸν ᾐτεῖτο πέμψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῷ Τίτον ἐπιθήσοντα τῇ νίκῃ τέλος.
3.299 ὁ δὲ συμβαλὼν ὑπολείπεσθαί τινα πόνον μετὰ στρατιᾶς τὸν υἱὸν ἐπιπέμπει πεντακοσίων μὲν ἱππέων χιλίων δὲ πεζῶν. 3.301 τῶν δὲ στρατιωτῶν κλίμακας πάντοθεν τῷ τείχει προσφερόντων πρὸς ὀλίγον οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι καθύπερθεν ἀμυνόμενοι λείπουσιν τὸν περίβολον, 3.302 ἐπιπηδήσαντες δὲ οἱ περὶ τὸν Τίτον τῆς μὲν πόλεως ἐκράτησαν ταχέως, πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ἔνδον αὐτοῖς συστραφέντας καρτερὰ μάχη συρρήγνυται: 3.303 καὶ γὰρ ἐν τοῖς στενωποῖς οἱ δυνατοὶ προσέπιπτον καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκιῶν αἱ γυναῖκες ἔβαλλον πᾶν τὸ προστυχὸν αὐταῖς. 3.304 καὶ μέχρι μὲν ἓξ ὡρῶν ἀντεῖχον μαχόμενοι, δαπανηθέντων δὲ τῶν μαχίμων τὸ λοιπὸν πλῆθος ἔν τε τοῖς ὑπαίθροις καὶ κατὰ τὰς οἰκίας ἀπεσφάττοντο νέοι τε ὁμοῦ καὶ γέροντες: οὐδὲν γὰρ ἄρρεν ὑπελείφθη δίχα νηπίων, ἃ μετὰ γυναικῶν ἐξηνδραποδίσαντο.' "3.305 τῶν μὲν οὖν ἀναιρεθέντων ἀνά τε τὴν πόλιν κἀπὶ τῆς προτέρας παρατάξεως ἀριθμὸς μύριοι πρὸς τοῖς πεντακισχιλίοις ἦν, τὰ δ' αἰχμάλωτα δισχίλια ἑκατὸν καὶ τριάκοντα." '3.306 τοῦτο συνέβη τὸ πάθος Γαλιλαίοις πέμπτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι Δαισίου μηνός.' "3.311 τούτῳ προσβαίνειν μὲν τὸ ὄρος καὶ συνάπτειν μάχην οὐκ ἀσφαλὲς ἔδοξεν πολλῶν καθύπερθεν τῶν πολεμίων ὄντων, κυκλωσάμενος δὲ τῇ δυνάμει πᾶσαν τὴν ὑπόρειον δι' ὅλης αὐτοὺς ἐφρούρει τῆς ἡμέρας." "3.312 συνέβη δὲ ὕδατος ἀπορουμένων τῶν Σαμαρέων ἐκφλεγῆναι τότε καὶ καῦμα δεινόν, ὥρα δ' ἦν θέρους καὶ τῶν ἐπιτηδείων τὸ πλῆθος ἀπαράσκευον," '3.313 ὡς τοὺς μὲν αὐθημερὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ δίψους ἀποθανεῖν, πολλοὺς δὲ τῆς τοιαύτης ἀπωλείας τὸ δουλεύειν προαιρουμένους ̔Ρωμαίοις προσφυγεῖν. 3.314 ἐξ ὧν συνεὶς ὁ Κερεάλιος καὶ τοὺς ἔτι συμμένοντας ὑπὸ τῶν δεινῶν κατεαγότας ἐπαναβαίνει τῷ ὄρει, καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἐν κύκλῳ περιστήσας τοῖς πολεμίοις τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἐπὶ δεξιὰς προυκαλεῖτο καὶ σώζεσθαι παρεκάλει διαβεβαιούμενος ἀσφάλειαν τὰ ὅπλα ῥίψασιν: 3.341 ὁ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἁλισκομένης δαιμονίῳ τινὶ συνεργίᾳ χρησάμενος μέσον μὲν ἑαυτὸν ἐκκλέπτει τῶν πολεμίων, καθάλλεται δὲ εἴς τινα βαθὺν λάκκον, ᾧ πλατὺ σπήλαιον διέζευκτο κατὰ πλευρὰν τοῖς ἄνωθεν ἀόρατον.' "3.342 ἔνθα τεσσαράκοντα μὲν τῶν ἐπισήμων ἄνδρας καταλαμβάνει λανθάνοντας, παρασκευὴν δ' ἐπιτηδείων οὐκ ὀλίγαις ἡμέραις διαρκεῖν δυναμένην." "3.343 μεθ' ἡμέραν μὲν οὖν ὑπεστέλλετο τῶν πολεμίων πάντα διειληφότων, νυκτὸς δ' ἀνιὼν ἐζήτει δρασμοῦ διάδυσιν καὶ τὰς φυλακὰς κατεσκέπτετο. φρουρουμένων δὲ πανταχόθεν πάντων δι' αὐτὸν ὡς λαθεῖν οὐκ ἦν, αὖθις εἰς τὸ σπήλαιον κατῄει." '3.344 δύο μὲν οὖν ἡμέραις διαλανθάνει, τῇ δὲ τρίτῃ γυναικὸς ἁλούσης τῶν ἅμα αὐτοῖς μηνύεται, καὶ Οὐεσπασιανὸς αὐτίκα μετὰ σπουδῆς πέμπει δύο χιλιάρχους Παυλῖνον καὶ Γαλλικανόν, δεξιάς τε τῷ ̓Ιωσήπῳ δοῦναι κελεύσας καὶ προτρεψομένους ἀνελθεῖν. 3.345 ̓Αφικόμενοι γοῦν παρεκάλουν οὗτοι τὸν ἄνδρα καὶ πίστεις περὶ σωτηρίας ἐδίδοσαν, οὐ μὴν ἔπειθον: 3.346 ἐκ γὰρ ὧν εἰκὸς ἦν τοσαῦτα δράσαντα παθεῖν, οὐκ ἐκ τοῦ φύσει τῶν παρακαλούντων ἡμέρου τὰς ὑποψίας συνέλεγεν ἐδεδίει τε ὡς ἐπὶ τιμωρίαν προκαλουμένους, ἕως Οὐεσπασιανὸς τρίτον ἐπιπέμπει χιλίαρχον Νικάνορα γνώριμον τῷ ̓Ιωσήπῳ καὶ συνήθη πάλαι.' "3.347 παρελθὼν δ' οὗτος τό τε φύσει ̔Ρωμαίων χρηστὸν πρὸς οὓς ἂν ἅπαξ ἕλωσι διεξῄει, καὶ ὡς δι' ἀρετὴν αὐτὸς θαυμάζοιτο μᾶλλον ἢ μισοῖτο πρὸς τῶν ἡγεμόνων," '3.348 σπουδάζειν τε τὸν στρατηγὸν οὐκ ἐπὶ τιμωρίαν ἀναγαγεῖν αὐτόν, εἶναι γὰρ ταύτην καὶ παρὰ μὴ προϊόντος λαβεῖν, ἀλλὰ σῶσαι προαιρούμενον ἄνδρα γενναῖον.' "3.349 προσετίθει δ' ὡς οὔτ' ἂν Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἐνεδρεύων φίλον ἔπεμπεν, ἵνα τοῦ κακίστου πράγματος προστήσηται τὸ κάλλιστον, ἀπιστίας φιλίαν, οὐδ' ἂν αὐτὸς ἀπατήσων ἄνδρα φίλον ὑπήκουσεν ἐλθεῖν." "
3.351 ὡς δ' ὅ τε Νικάνωρ προσέκειτο λιπαρῶν καὶ τὰς ἀπειλὰς τοῦ πολεμίου πλήθους ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος ἔμαθεν, ἀνάμνησις αὐτὸν τῶν διὰ νυκτὸς ὀνείρων εἰσέρχεται, δι' ὧν ὁ θεὸς τάς τε μελλούσας αὐτῷ συμφορὰς προεσήμαινεν ̓Ιουδαίων καὶ τὰ περὶ τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίων βασιλεῖς ἐσόμενα." 3.352 ἦν δὲ καὶ περὶ κρίσεις ὀνείρων ἱκανὸς συμβαλεῖν τὰ ἀμφιβόλως ὑπὸ τοῦ θείου λεγόμενα, τῶν γε μὴν ἱερῶν βίβλων οὐκ ἠγνόει τὰς προφητείας ὡς ἂν αὐτός τε ὢν ἱερεὺς καὶ ἱερέων ἔγγονος:
3.353 ὧν ἐπὶ τῆς τότε ὥρας ἔνθους γενόμενος καὶ τὰ φρικώδη τῶν προσφάτων ὀνείρων σπάσας φαντάσματα προσφέρει τῷ θεῷ λεληθυῖαν εὐχήν,
3.354 κἀπειδὴ τὸ ̓Ιουδαίων, ἔφη, φῦλον ὀκλάσαι δοκεῖ σοι τῷ κτίσαντι, μετέβη δὲ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους ἡ τύχη πᾶσα, καὶ τὴν ἐμὴν ψυχὴν ἐπελέξω τὰ μέλλοντα εἰπεῖν, δίδωμι μὲν ̔Ρωμαίοις τὰς χεῖρας ἑκὼν καὶ ζῶ, μαρτύρομαι δὲ ὡς οὐ προδότης, ἀλλὰ σὸς εἶμι διάκονος.”' "
3.355 Ταῦτ' εἰπὼν ἐνεδίδου τῷ Νικάνορι. καὶ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων οἱ συγκαταφυγόντες ὡς τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον συνίεσαν εἴκοντα τοῖς παρακαλοῦσιν," "
3.356 ἀθρόοι περιστάντες, “ἦ μεγάλα γ' ἂν στενάξειαν, ἐβόων, οἱ πάτριοι νόμοι, οὓς κατέφησεν θεὸς ̓Ιουδαίοις ὁ κτίσας ψυχὰς θανάτου καταφρονούσας." 3.361 Δείσας δὲ τὴν ἔφοδον ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος καὶ προδοσίαν ἡγούμενος εἶναι τῶν τοῦ θεοῦ προσταγμάτων, εἰ προαποθάνοι τῆς διαγγελίας, ἤρχετο πρὸς αὐτοὺς φιλοσοφεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀνάγκης: 3.362 “τί γὰρ τοσοῦτον, ἔφη, σφῶν αὐτῶν, ἑταῖροι, φονῶμεν; ἢ τί τὰ φίλτατα διαστασιάζομεν, σῶμα καὶ ψυχήν; ἠλλάχθαι τις ἐμέ φησιν.' "3.363 ἀλλ' οἴδασιν ̔Ρωμαῖοι τοῦτό γε. καλὸν ἐν πολέμῳ θνήσκειν, ἀλλὰ πολέμου νόμῳ, τουτέστιν ὑπὸ τῶν κρατούντων." "3.364 εἰ μὲν οὖν τὸν ̔Ρωμαίων ἀποστρέφομαι σίδηρον, ἄξιος ἀληθῶς εἰμι τοὐμοῦ ξίφους καὶ χειρὸς τῆς ἐμῆς: εἰ δ' ἐκείνους εἰσέρχεται φειδὼ πολεμίου, πόσῳ δικαιότερον ἂν ἡμᾶς ἡμῶν αὐτῶν εἰσέλθοι; καὶ γὰρ ἠλίθιον ταῦτα δρᾶν σφᾶς αὐτούς, περὶ ὧν πρὸς ἐκείνους διιστάμεθα." "3.365 καλὸν γὰρ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἀποθνήσκειν: φημὶ κἀγώ, μαχομένους μέντοι, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀφαιρουμένων αὐτήν. νῦν δ' οὔτ' εἰς μάχην ἀντιάζουσιν ἡμῖν οὔτ' ἀναιροῦσιν ἡμᾶς: δειλὸς δὲ ὁμοίως ὅ τε μὴ βουλόμενος θνήσκειν ὅταν δέῃ καὶ ὁ βουλόμενος, ὅταν μὴ δέῃ." '3.366 τί δὲ καὶ δεδοικότες πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους οὐκ ἄνιμεν;' "3.367 ἆρ' οὐχὶ θάνατον; εἶθ' ὃν δεδοίκαμεν ἐκ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ὑποπτευόμενον ἑαυτοῖς βέβαιον ἐπιστήσομεν; ἀλλὰ δουλείαν, ἐρεῖ τις. πάνυ γοῦν νῦν ἐσμὲν ἐλεύθεροι." "3.368 γενναῖον γὰρ ἀνελεῖν ἑαυτόν, φήσει τις. οὐ μὲν οὖν, ἀλλ' ἀγενέστατον, ὡς ἔγωγε καὶ κυβερνήτην ἡγοῦμαι δειλότατον, ὅστις χειμῶνα δεδοικὼς πρὸ τῆς θυέλλης ἐβάπτισεν ἑκὼν τὸ σκάφος." '3.369 ἀλλὰ μὴν ἡ αὐτοχειρία καὶ τῆς κοινῆς ἁπάντων ζῴων φύσεως ἀλλότριον καὶ πρὸς τὸν κτίσαντα θεὸν ἡμᾶς ἐστιν ἀσέβεια.' "3.371 τὸν δὲ θεὸν οὐκ οἴεσθε ἀγανακτεῖν, ὅταν ἄνθρωπος αὐτοῦ τὸ δῶρον ὑβρίζῃ; καὶ γὰρ εἰλήφαμεν παρ' ἐκείνου τὸ εἶναι καὶ τὸ μηκέτι εἶναι πάλιν ἐκείνῳ δίδομεν." "3.372 τὰ μέν γε σώματα θνητὰ πᾶσιν καὶ ἐκ φθαρτῆς ὕλης δεδημιούργηται, ψυχὴ δὲ ἀθάνατος ἀεὶ καὶ θεοῦ μοῖρα τοῖς σώμασιν ἐνοικίζεται: εἶτ' ἐὰν μὲν ἀφανίσῃ τις ἀνθρώπου παρακαταθήκην ἢ διαθῆται κακῶς, πονηρὸς εἶναι δοκεῖ καὶ ἄπιστος, εἰ δέ τις τοῦ σφετέρου σώματος ἐκβάλλει τὴν παρακαταθήκην τοῦ θεοῦ, λεληθέναι δοκεῖ τὸν ἀδικούμενον;" '3.373 καὶ κολάζειν μὲν τοὺς ἀποδράντας οἰκέτας δίκαιον νενόμισται κἂν πονηροὺς καταλείπωσι δεσπότας, αὐτοὶ δὲ κάλλιστον δεσπότην ἀποδιδράσκοντες τὸν θεὸν οὐ δοκοῦμεν ἀσεβεῖν;' "3.374 ἆρ' οὐκ ἴστε ὅτι τῶν μὲν ἐξιόντων τοῦ βίου κατὰ τὸν τῆς φύσεως νόμον καὶ τὸ ληφθὲν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ χρέος ἐκτινύντων, ὅταν ὁ δοὺς κομίσασθαι θέλῃ, κλέος μὲν αἰώνιον, οἶκοι δὲ καὶ γενεαὶ βέβαιοι, καθαραὶ δὲ καὶ ἐπήκοοι μένουσιν αἱ ψυχαί, χῶρον οὐράνιον λαχοῦσαι τὸν ἁγιώτατον, ἔνθεν ἐκ περιτροπῆς αἰώνων ἁγνοῖς πάλιν ἀντενοικίζονται σώμασιν:" "3.375 ὅσοις δὲ καθ' ἑαυτῶν ἐμάνησαν αἱ χεῖρες, τούτων ᾅδης μὲν δέχεται τὰς ψυχὰς σκοτεινότερος, ὁ δὲ τούτων πατὴρ θεὸς εἰς ἐγγόνους τιμωρεῖται τοὺς τῶν πατέρων ὑβριστάς." '3.376 διὰ τοῦτο μεμίσηται παρὰ θεῷ τοῦτο καὶ παρὰ τῷ σοφωτάτῳ κολάζεται νομοθέτῃ: 3.377 τοὺς γοῦν ἀναιροῦντας ἑαυτοὺς παρὰ μὲν ἡμῖν μέχρις ἡλίου δύσεως ἀτάφους ἐκρίπτειν ἔκριναν καίτοι καὶ πολεμίους θάπτειν θεμιτὸν ἡγούμενοι,' "3.378 παρ' ἑτέροις δὲ καὶ τὰς δεξιὰς τῶν τοιούτων νεκρῶν ἀποκόπτειν ἐκέλευσαν, αἷς ἐστρατεύσαντο καθ' ἑαυτῶν, ἡγούμενοι καθάπερ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ψυχῆς ἀλλότριον, οὕτως καὶ τὴν χεῖρα τοῦ σώματος." '3.379 καλὸν οὖν, ἑταῖροι, δίκαια φρονεῖν καὶ μὴ ταῖς ἀνθρωπίναις συμφοραῖς προσθεῖναι τὴν εἰς τὸν κτίσαντα ἡμᾶς δυσσέβειαν.' "
3.381 οὐ μεταβήσομαι δ' ἐγὼ εἰς τὴν τῶν πολεμίων τάξιν, ἵν' ἐμαυτοῦ προδότης γένωμαι: καὶ γὰρ ἂν εἴην πολὺ τῶν αὐτομολούντων πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους ἠλιθιώτερος, εἴ γ' ἐκεῖνοι μὲν ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ τοῦτο πράττουσιν, ἐγὼ δὲ ἐπὶ ἀπωλείᾳ, καί γε τῇ ἐμαυτοῦ." "3.382 τὴν μέντοι ̔Ρωμαίων ἐνέδραν εὔχομαι: μετὰ γὰρ δεξιὰν ἀναιρούμενος ὑπ' αὐτῶν εὔθυμος τεθνήξομαι, τὴν τῶν ψευσαμένων ἀπιστίαν νίκης μείζονα ἀποφέρων παραμυθίαν.”" '3.383 ̔Ο μὲν οὖν ̓Ιώσηπος πολλὰ τοιαῦτα πρὸς ἀποτροπὴν τῆς αὐτοχειρίας ἔλεγεν: 3.384 οἱ δὲ πεφραγμένας ἀπογνώσει τὰς ἀκοὰς ἔχοντες ὡς ἂν πάλαι καθοσιώσαντες ἑαυτοὺς τῷ θανάτῳ παρωξύνοντο πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ προστρέχων ἄλλος ἄλλοθεν ξιφήρεις ἐκάκιζόν τε εἰς ἀνανδρίαν καὶ ὡς ἕκαστος αὐτίκα πλήξων δῆλος ἦν. 3.385 ὁ δὲ τὸν μὲν ὀνομαστὶ καλῶν, τῷ δὲ στρατηγικώτερον ἐμβλέπων, τοῦ δὲ δρασσόμενος τῆς δεξιᾶς, ὃν δὲ δεήσει δυσωπῶν, καὶ ποικίλοις διαιρούμενος πάθεσιν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀνάγκης εἶργεν ἀπὸ τῆς σφαγῆς πάντων τὸν σίδηρον, ὥσπερ τὰ κυκλωθέντα τῶν θηρίων ἀεὶ πρὸς τὸν καθαπτόμενον ἀντιστρεφόμενος. 3.386 τῶν δὲ καὶ παρὰ τὰς ἐσχάτας συμφορὰς ἔτι τὸν στρατηγὸν αἰδουμένων παρελύοντο μὲν αἱ δεξιαί, περιωλίσθανεν δὲ τὰ ξίφη, καὶ πολλοὶ τὰς ῥομφαίας ἐπιφέροντες αὐτομάτως παρεῖσαν.' "3.387 ̔Ο δ' ἐν ταῖς ἀμηχανίαις οὐκ ἠπόρησεν ἐπινοίας, ἀλλὰ πιστεύων τῷ κηδεμόνι θεῷ τὴν σωτηρίαν παραβάλλεται," '3.388 κἀπεὶ δέδοκται τὸ θνήσκειν, ἔφη, φέρε κλήρῳ τὰς ἀλλήλων σφαγὰς ἐπιτρέψωμεν,' "3.389 ὁ λαχὼν δ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μετ' αὐτὸν πιπτέτω, καὶ διοδεύσει πάντων οὕτως ἡ τύχη, μηδ' ἐπὶ τῆς ἰδίας κείσθω δεξιᾶς ἕκαστος: ἄδικον γὰρ οἰχομένων τινὰ τῶν ἄλλων μετανοήσαντα σωθῆναι.” πιστὸς ἔδοξεν ταῦτα εἰπὼν καὶ συνεκληροῦτο πείσας." "
3.391 καταλείπεται δ' οὗτος εἴτε ὑπὸ τύχης χρὴ λέγειν, εἴτε ὑπὸ θεοῦ προνοίας σὺν ἑτέρῳ, καὶ σπουδάζων μήθ' ὑπὸ τοῦ κλήρου καταδικασθῆναι μήτε, εἰ τελευταῖος λείποιτο, μιᾶναι τὴν δεξιὰν ὁμοφύλῳ φόνῳ πείθει κἀκεῖνον ἐπὶ πίστει ζῆν." '3.392 ̔Ο μὲν οὖν οὕτως τόν τε ̔Ρωμαίων καὶ τὸν οἰκείων διαφυγὼν πόλεμον ἐπὶ Οὐεσπασιανὸν ἤγετο ὑπὸ τοῦ Νικάνορος.' "
3.399 Τοῦτο ἀκούσας ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος μόνῳ τι διαλεχθῆναι θέλειν ἔλεγεν αὐτῷ. μεταστησαμένου δ' ἐκείνου πλὴν τοῦ παιδὸς Τίτου καὶ δυοῖν φίλων τοὺς ἄλλους ἅπαντας “σὺ μέν," '3.401 Νέρωνί με πέμπεις: τί γάρ; * οἱ μετὰ Νέρωνα μέχρι σοῦ διάδοχοι μενοῦσιν. σὺ Καῖσαρ, Οὐεσπασιανέ, καὶ αὐτοκράτωρ, σὺ καὶ παῖς ὁ σὸς οὗτος. 3.402 δέσμει δέ με νῦν ἀσφαλέστερον, καὶ τήρει σεαυτῷ: δεσπότης μὲν γὰρ οὐ μόνον ἐμοῦ σὺ Καῖσαρ, ἀλλὰ καὶ γῆς καὶ θαλάττης καὶ παντὸς ἀνθρώπων γένους, ἐγὼ δὲ ἐπὶ τιμωρίαν δέομαι φρουρᾶς μείζονος,' "3.403 εἰ κατασχεδιάζω καὶ θεοῦ.” ταῦτ' εἰπόντος παραχρῆμα μὲν Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἀπιστεῖν ἐδόκει καὶ τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον ὑπελάμβανεν ταῦτα περὶ σωτηρίας πανουργεῖν," "3.404 κατὰ μικρὸν δὲ εἰς πίστιν ὑπήγετο τοῦ θεοῦ διεγείροντος αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ἤδη καὶ τὰ σκῆπτρα δι' ἑτέρων σημείων προδεικνύντος." "3.405 ἀτρεκῆ δὲ τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον καὶ ἐν ἄλλοις κατελάμβανεν: τῶν γὰρ τοῖς ἀπορρήτοις παρατυχόντων φίλων ὁ ἕτερος θαυμάζειν ἔφη πῶς οὔτε τοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν ̓Ιωταπάτων περὶ ἁλώσεως, οὔθ' ἑαυτῷ προμαντεύσαιτο αἰχμαλωσίαν, εἰ μὴ ταῦτα λῆρος εἴη διακρουομένου τὰς ἐπ' αὐτὸν ὀργάς." '3.406 ὁ δὲ ̓Ιώσηπος καὶ τοῖς ̓Ιωταπατηνοῖς ὅτι μετὰ τεσσαρακοστὴν ἑβδόμην ἡμέραν ἁλώσονται προειπεῖν ἔφη, καὶ ὅτι πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίων αὐτὸς ζωγρηθήσεται.' "3.407 ταῦτα παρὰ τῶν αἰχμαλώτων κατ' ἰδίαν ὁ Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἐκπυθόμενος ὡς εὕρισκεν ἀληθῆ, οὕτω πιστεύειν περὶ τῶν κατ' αὐτὸν ἦρκτο." "3.408 φρουρᾶς μὲν οὖν καὶ δεσμῶν οὐκ ἀνίει τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον, ἐδωρεῖτο δ' ἐσθῆτι καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις κειμηλίοις φιλοφρονούμενός τε καὶ περιέπων διετέλει τὰ πολλὰ Τίτου τῇ τιμῇ συνεργοῦντος." 3.462 ̓́Επειτα προελθὼν αὐτῆς τε μεταξὺ καὶ Ταριχεῶν στρατοπεδεύεται, τειχίζει τε τὴν παρεμβολὴν ὀχυρωτέραν ὑφορώμενος ἐκεῖ πολέμου τριβὴν αὐτῷ γενησομένην: 3.463 συνέρρει γὰρ εἰς τὰς Ταριχέας πᾶν τὸ νεωτερίζον, τῇ τε τῆς πόλεως ὀχυρότητι καὶ τῇ λίμνῃ πεποιθότες, ἣ καλεῖται Γεννησὰρ πρὸς τῶν ἐπιχωρίων. 3.464 ἡ μὲν γὰρ πόλις, ὥσπερ ἡ Τιβεριὰς ὑπόρειος οὖσα, καθὰ μὴ τῇ λίμνῃ προσεκλύζετο πάντοθεν ὑπὸ τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου τετείχιστο καρτερῶς, ἔλασσον μέντοι τῆς Τιβεριάδος:' "3.465 τὸν μὲν γὰρ ἐκεῖ περίβολον ἐν ἀρχῇ τῆς ἀποστάσεως δαψιλείᾳ χρημάτων καὶ δυνάμεως ἐκρατύνατο, Ταριχέαι δ' αὐτοῦ τὰ λείψανα τῆς φιλοτιμίας μετέλαβον." "3.466 σκάφη δ' ἦν αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ τῆς λίμνης παρεσκευασμένα πολλὰ πρός τε τὸ συμφεύγειν ἐπὶ γῆς ἡττωμένους, κἂν εἰ δέοι, διαναυμαχεῖν ἐξηρτυμένα." '3.467 περιβαλλομένων δὲ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων τὸ στρατόπεδον οἱ περὶ τὸν ̓Ιησοῦν οὔτε πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος οὔτε πρὸς τὴν εὐταξίαν τῶν πολεμίων ὑποδείσαντες προθέουσιν, 3.468 καὶ πρὸς τὴν πρώτην ἔφοδον τῶν τειχοποιῶν σκεδασθέντων ὀλίγα τῆς δομήσεως σπαράξαντες, ὡς ἑώρων τοὺς ὁπλίτας ἀθροιζομένους, πρίν τι παθεῖν εἰς τοὺς σφετέρους ἀνέφευγον: ἐπιδιώξαντες δὲ ̔Ρωμαῖοι συνελαύνουσιν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὰ σκάφη. 3.469 καὶ οἱ μὲν ἀναχθέντες εἰς ὅσον ἐξικνεῖσθαι τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων βάλλοντες δύναιντο τάς τε ἀγκύρας ἔβαλλον καὶ πυκνώσαντες ὥσπερ φάλαγγα τὰς ναῦς ἐπαλλήλους τοῖς ἐπὶ γῆς πολεμίοις διεναυμάχουν:' "3.471 ̔Ο δ' ὑπέρογκον εὑρὼν τὴν τῶν πολεμίων πληθὺν πρὸς μὲν τὸν πατέρα πέμπει πλείονος δυνάμεως αὐτῷ δεῖν λέγων. αὐτὸς δὲ τοὺς μὲν πλείους τῶν ἱππέων ὡρμημένους ὁρῶν καὶ πρὶν ἀφικέσθαι βοήθειαν, ἔστιν δ' οὓς ἡσυχῆ πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων καταπεπληγότας, ἐν ἐπηκόῳ στὰς ἔλεξεν ὧδε:" "3.472 “ἄνδρες, ἔφη, ̔Ρωμαῖοι, καλὸν γὰρ ἐν ἀρχῇ τῶν λόγων ὑπομνῆσαι τοῦ γένους ὑμᾶς, ἵν' εἰδῆτε, τίνες ὄντες πρὸς τίνας μάχεσθαι μέλλομεν." "3.473 τὰς μέν γε ἡμετέρας χεῖρας οὐδὲν εἰς τοῦτο τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκουμένης διαπέφευγεν, ̓Ιουδαῖοι δέ, ἵν' εἴπωμεν καὶ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν, μέχρι νῦν οὐ κοπιῶσιν ἡττώμενοι. καὶ δεινὸν ἐκείνων ἑστώτων ἐν ταῖς κακοπραγίαις ἡμᾶς τοῖς εὐτυχήμασιν ἐγκάμνειν." '3.474 προθυμίας μὲν εἰς τὸ φανερὸν ὑμᾶς εὖ ἔχοντας χαίρω βλέπων, δέδοικα δὲ μή τινι τῶν πολεμίων τὸ πλῆθος κατάπληξιν λεληθυῖαν ἐνεργάσηται.' "3.475 λογισάσθω δὴ πάλιν οἷος πρὸς οἵους παρατάξεται, καὶ διότι ̓Ιουδαῖοι μέν, εἰ καὶ σφόδρα τολμηταὶ καὶ θανάτου καταφρονοῦντες, ἀλλ' ἀσύντακτοί τε καὶ πολέμων ἄπειροι καὶ ὄχλος ἂν ἄλλως, οὐ στρατιὰ λέγοιντο: τὰ δὲ τῆς ἡμετέρας ἐμπειρίας καὶ τάξεως τί δεῖ καὶ λέγειν; ἐπὶ τοῦτο μέντοι γε μόνοι καὶ κατ' εἰρήνην ἀσκούμεθα τοῖς ὅπλοις, ἵν' ἐν πολέμῳ μὴ πρὸς τὸ ἀντίπαλον ἀριθμῶμεν ἑαυτούς." '3.476 ἐπεὶ τίς ὄνησις τῆς διηνεκοῦς στρατείας, ἂν ἴσοι πρὸς ἀστρατεύτους ἀντιτασσώμεθα; 3.477 λογίζεσθε δέ, ὅτι καὶ πρὸς γυμνῆτας ὁπλῖται καὶ ἱππεῖς πρὸς πεζοὺς καὶ στρατηγούμενοι πρὸς ἀστρατηγήτους διαγωνίζεσθε, καὶ ὡς ὑμᾶς μὲν ταῦτα πολλαπλασίους ποιεῖ τὰ πλεονεκτήματα, πολὺ δὲ τοῦ τῶν πολεμίων ἀριθμοῦ παραιρεῖται τὰ ἐλαττώματα.' "3.478 κατορθοῖ δὲ τοὺς πολέμους οὐ πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων, κἂν ᾖ μάχιμον, ἀνδρεία δέ, κἂν ἐν ὀλίγοις: οἱ μέν γε καὶ τάξασθαι ῥᾴδιοι καὶ προσαμύνειν ἑαυτοῖς, αἱ δ' ὑπέρογκοι δυνάμεις ὑφ' ἑαυτῶν βλάπτονται πλέον ἢ τῶν πολεμίων." "3.479 ̓Ιουδαίων μὲν οὖν τόλμα καὶ θράσος ἡγεῖται καὶ ἀπόνοια, πάθη κατὰ μὲν τὰς εὐπραγίας εὔτονα, σβεννύμενα δὲ ἐν ἐλαχίστοις σφάλμασιν: ἡμῶν δ' ἀρετὴ καὶ εὐπείθεια καὶ τὸ γενναῖον, ὃ κἀν τοῖς ἄλλοις εὐτυχήμασιν ἀκμάζει κἀν τοῖς πταίσμασιν οὐ μέχρι τέλους σφάλλεται." "
3.481 σκεπτέον δ' ὅτι καὶ παθεῖν μὲν οὐδὲν ἀνήκεστον ἡμῖν φόβος: πολλοὶ γὰρ οἱ βοηθήσοντες καὶ πλησίον: ἁρπάσαι δὲ τὴν νίκην δυνάμεθα, καὶ χρὴ τοὺς ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς πεμπομένους ἡμῖν συμμάχους φθάνειν, ἵν' ἀκοινώνητόν τε ᾖ τὸ κατόρθωμα καὶ μεῖζον." "3.482 νομίζω δ' ἔγωγε ἐπὶ τῆσδε τῆς ὥρας καὶ τὸν πατέρα τὸν ἐμὸν κρίνεσθαι κἀμὲ καὶ ὑμᾶς, εἰ τῶν μὲν προκατωρθωμένων ἄξιος ἐκεῖνος, ἐγὼ δ' ἐκείνου παῖς, στρατιῶται δ' ὑμεῖς ἐμοῦ: καὶ γὰρ ἐκείνῳ τὸ νικᾶν ἔθος, κἀγὼ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὑποστρέφειν οὐκ ἂν ὑπομείναιμι λειφθείς." '3.483 ὑμεῖς δὲ πῶς οὐκ ἂν αἰσχύνοισθε προκινδυνεύοντος ἡγεμόνος ἡττώμενοι; προκινδυνεύσω γάρ, εὖ ἴστε, καὶ πρῶτος εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους ἐμβαλῶ.' "3.484 μὴ λείπεσθε δ' ὑμεῖς ἐμοῦ πεπεισμένοι τὴν ἐμὴν ὁρμὴν παρακροτεῖσθαι θεῷ συμμάχῳ, καὶ προγινώσκετε σαφῶς, ὅτι τῆς ἔξω μάχης πλέον τι κατορθώσομεν.”" '3.485 Ταῦτα τοῦ Τίτου διεξιόντος προθυμία δαιμόνιος ἐμπίπτει τοῖς ἀνδράσιν, καὶ προσγενομένου πρὶν συμβαλεῖν Τραϊανοῦ μετὰ τετρακοσίων ἱππέων ἤσχαλλον ὡς μειουμένης τῆς νίκης αὐτοῖς διὰ τὴν κοινωνίαν. 3.486 ἔπεμψεν δὲ Οὐεσπασιανὸς καὶ ̓Αντώνιον Σίλωνα σὺν δισχιλίοις τοξόταις κελεύσας καταλαβόντας τὸ ἀντικρὺ τῆς πόλεως ὄρος τοὺς ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους ἀνείργειν.' "3.487 καὶ οἱ μὲν ὡς προσετέτακτο τοὺς ταύτῃ πειρωμένους ἐκβοηθεῖν περιέσχον, ὁ δὲ Τίτος πρῶτος τὸν ἵππον ἤλαυνεν εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους καὶ σὺν κραυγῇ μετ' αὐτὸν οἱ λοιποὶ παρεκτείναντες ἑαυτοὺς εἰς ὅσον ἐπεῖχον οἱ πολέμιοι τὸ πεδίον: παρὸ καὶ πολὺ πλείους ἔδοξαν." '3.488 οἱ δὲ ̓Ιουδαῖοι καίτοι τήν τε ὁρμὴν καὶ τὴν εὐταξίαν αὐτῶν καταπλαγέντες πρὸς ὀλίγον μὲν ἀντέσχον ταῖς ἐμβολαῖς, νυσσόμενοι δὲ τοῖς κοντοῖς καὶ τῷ ῥοίζῳ τῶν ἱππέων ἀνατρεπόμενοι συνεπατοῦντο. 3.489 πολλῶν δὲ πανταχοῦ φονευομένων διασκίδνανται καὶ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ὡς ἕκαστος εἶχεν τάχους ἔφευγον.
3.491 πᾶσιν δὲ τὰς πρὸς τὸ τεῖχος φυγὰς ὑπετέμνετο καὶ πρὸς τὸ πεδίον ἀπέστρεφεν, ἕως τῷ πλήθει βιασάμενοι καὶ διεκπεσόντες εἰς τὴν πόλιν συνέφευγον.' "3.492 ̓Εκδέχεται δὲ αὐτοὺς πάλιν στάσις ἔσω χαλεπή: τοῖς μὲν γὰρ ἐπιχωρίοις διά τε τὰς κτήσεις καὶ τὴν πόλιν οὐκ ἐδόκει πολεμεῖν ἀπ' ἀρχῆς καὶ τότε διὰ τὴν ἧτταν πλέον:" "3.493 ὁ δ' ἔπηλυς πολὺς ὢν πλεῖον ἐβιάζετο, καὶ διωργισμένων ἐπ' ἀλλήλοις κραυγή τε ἦν καὶ θόρυβος ὡς ὅσον οὔπω φερομένων εἰς ὅπλα." '3.494 κατακούσας δὲ τῆς ταραχῆς Τίτος, οὐ γὰρ ἦν ἄπωθεν τοῦ τείχους, “οὗτος ἦν ὁ καιρός, ἐκβοᾷ, καὶ τί, συστρατιῶται, μέλλομεν ἐκδιδόντος ἡμῖν ̓Ιουδαίους θεοῦ; δέξασθε τὴν νίκην. 3.495 οὐκ ἀκούετε βοῆς; στασιάζουσιν οἱ τὰς χεῖρας ἡμῶν διεκφυγόντες. ἔχομεν τὴν πόλιν, ἐὰν ταχύνωμεν: δεῖ δὲ πόνου πρὸς τῷ τάχει καὶ λήματος: οὐδὲν γὰρ τῶν μεγάλων φιλεῖ δίχα κινδύνου κατορθοῦσθαι.' "3.496 φθάνειν δ' οὐ μόνον χρὴ τὴν τῶν πολεμίων ὁμόνοιαν, οὓς ἀνάγκη διαλλάξει ταχέως, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν τῶν ἡμετέρων βοήθειαν, ἵνα πρὸς τῷ νικῆσαι τοσοῦτον πλῆθος ὀλίγοι καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἕλωμεν μόνοι.”" "3.497 Ταῦθ' ἅμα λέγων ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον ἀνεπήδα καὶ καθηγεῖται πρὸς τὴν λίμνην, δι' ἧς ἐλάσας πρῶτος εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἰσέρχεται καὶ μετ' αὐτὸν οἱ λοιποί." '3.498 δέος δὲ πρὸς τὴν τόλμαν αὐτοῦ τοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν τειχῶν ἐνέπεσεν, καὶ μάχεσθαι μὲν ἢ διακωλύειν οὐδεὶς ὑπέμεινεν, λιπόντες δὲ τὴν φρουρὰν οἱ μὲν περὶ τὸν ̓Ιησοῦν διὰ τῆς χώρας ἔφευγον,' "3.499 οἱ δ' ἐπὶ τὴν λίμνην καταθέοντες ὑπαντιάζουσιν τοῖς πολεμίοις περιέπιπτον: ἐκτείνοντο δ' οἱ μὲν ἐπιβαίνοντες τῶν σκαφῶν, οἱ δὲ τοῖς ἀναχθεῖσιν προσπίπτειν πειρώμενοι. πολὺς δὲ τῶν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν ἦν φόνος," 3.501 μέχρι Τίτος τοὺς μὲν αἰτίους ἀνελών, οἰκτείρας δὲ τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους ἀνεπαύσατο φόνου. 3.502 καὶ οἱ μὲν εἰς τὴν λίμνην καταφυγόντες ἐπεὶ τὴν πόλιν εἶδον ἑαλωκυῖαν, ὡς πορρωτάτω τῶν πολεμίων ἀνήχθησαν:
4.17 Συντελεσθέντων οὖν τῶν χωμάτων θᾶττον πλήθει χειρῶν καὶ τῶν πραττομένων ἔθει προσῆγον τὰς μηχανάς.
4.17 ἀκόλουθον ἦν ἐπιδεῖν τοὺς αὐτοὺς φονευομένους. ἐπείδομεν καὶ τοῦτο καθάπερ ἐξ ἀγέλης ζῴων ἀλόγων ἑλκομένου τοῦ κρατιστεύοντος ἀεὶ θύματος, οὐδὲ φωνήν τις ἀφῆκεν οὐχ ὅπως ἐκίνησε τὴν δεξιάν. 4.18 ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἅπαξ ἐμνήσθην ̔Ρωμαίων, οὐκ ἀποκρύψομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς εἰπεῖν ὃ μεταξὺ τῶν λόγων ἐμπεσὸν ἐπέστρεψε τὴν διάνοιαν, ὅτι κἂν ἁλῶμεν ὑπ' ἐκείνοις, ἀπείη δὲ ἡ πεῖρα τοῦ λόγου, χαλεπώτερον οὐδὲν παθεῖν ἔχομεν ὧν ἡμᾶς διατεθείκασιν οὗτοι." "4.18 οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Χάρητα καὶ ̓Ιώσηπον, οὗτοι γὰρ ἦσαν τῶν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν δυνατώτατοι, καίπερ καταπεπληγότας τοὺς ὁπλίτας τάττουσιν, ἐπειδὴ μέχρι πολλοῦ πρὸς τὴν πολιορκίαν ἀνθέξειν οὐχ ὑπελάμβανον ὕδατι καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἐπιτηδείοις μὴ διαρκούμενοι.' "4.19 παρακροτήσαντες δ' ὅμως ἐξήγαγον ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος, καὶ πρὸς ὀλίγον μὲν ἀπημύναντο τοὺς προσάγοντας τὰς μηχανάς, βαλλόμενοι δὲ τοῖς καταπελτικοῖς καὶ τοῖς πετροβόλοις ἀνεχώρουν εἰς τὴν πόλιν." "4.19 τάχα τὸ θεῖον ὑβρισμένον ἀναστρέψει κατ' αὐτῶν τὰ βαλλόμενα, καὶ τοῖς σφετέροις διαφθαρήσονται βέλεσιν οἱ δυσσεβεῖς. μόνον ὀφθῶμεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ καταλέλυνται." '4.21 μηχανώμενος δὲ τὸ μὴ δι' ὑποψίας ἐλθεῖν ἀμέτροις ἐχρῆτο ταῖς θεραπείαις εἰς τόν τε ̓́Ανανον καὶ τοὺς τοῦ δήμου προεστῶτας." '4.21 οἱ δὲ τέως μὲν κατὰ τὰς πρώτας εἰσόδους ἐνιστάμενοι προσωτέρω χωρεῖν ἐκώλυον καὶ καρτερῶς τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους ἀνεῖργον:' "4.22 βιαζόμενοι δὲ ὑπὸ πολλῶν καὶ πάντοθεν τρέπονται πρὸς τὰ ὑψηλὰ τῆς πόλεως καὶ προσκειμένοις τοῖς πολεμίοις ἐξ ὑποστροφῆς ἐπιπεσόντες συνώθουν εἰς τὸ κάταντες καὶ τῇ στενότητι καὶ δυσχωρίᾳ θλιβομένους ἀνῄρουν. 4.22 δεῖν οὖν ἢ τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ ζῆν τοὺς φρουροῦντας ἱκετεύειν ἢ πορίζεσθαί τινα παρὰ τῶν ἔξωθεν ἐπικουρίαν: 4.23 οἱ δὲ μήτε τοὺς κατὰ κορυφὴν ἀμύνασθαι δυνάμενοι μήτε διεκπαίειν τῶν σφετέρων πρόσω βιαζομένων ἐπὶ τὰς οἰκίας τῶν πολεμίων, πρόσγειοι γὰρ ἦσαν, ἀνέφευγον. 4.23 προεβλήθησαν δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀγγελίαν δύο τῶν δραστηρίων ἀνδρῶν εἰπεῖν τε ἱκανοὶ καὶ πεῖσαι περὶ πραγμάτων, τὸ δὲ τούτων χρησιμώτερον, ὠκύτητι ποδῶν διαφέροντες:' "4.24 αἱ δὲ ταχέως κατηρείποντο πληρούμεναι καὶ τὸ βάρος μὴ στέγουσαι, κατέσειε δὲ πολλὰς μία τῶν ὑπ' αὐτῆς πεσοῦσα καὶ πάλιν ἐκεῖναι τὰς ὑπ' αὐτάς." "4.24 καὶ εἰ μὲν ἑώρων τὴν σύνταξιν ὑμῶν ἐξ ὁμοίων τοῖς καλέσασιν ἀνδρῶν, οὐκ ἂν ἄλογον τὴν ὁρμὴν ὑπελάμβανον: οὐδὲν γὰρ οὕτως συνίστησι τὰς εὐνοίας ὡς τρόπων συγγένεια: νῦν δ', εἰ μέν τις αὐτοὺς ἐξετάζοι καθ' ἕνα, μυρίων ἕκαστος εὑρεθήσεται θανάτων ἄξιος." "4.25 καὶ ἐγὼ καθ' ἑαυτὸν μὲν ἂν εἰρήνην προτιμήσαιμι θανάτου, πολεμούμενος δ' ἅπαξ καὶ συμβαλὼν θάνατον εὐκλεᾶ τοῦ ζῆν αἰχμάλωτος." '4.25 τοῦτο πλείστους διέφθειρε τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων: ὑπὸ γὰρ ἀμηχανίας καίτοι συνιζανούσας ὁρῶντες ἐπεπήδων ταῖς στέγαις, καὶ πολλοὶ μὲν κατεχώννυντο τοῖς ἐρειπίοις, πολλοὶ δ' ὑποφεύγοντες μέρη τοῦ σώματος κατελαμβάνοντο, πλείστους δὲ ὁ κονιορτὸς ἄγχων ἀνῄρει." "4.26 ἔξεστιν δ' ὑμῖν παρελθοῦσιν εἴσω μὴ πολέμου νόμῳ θεάσασθαι τὰ τεκμήρια τῶν λεγομένων, οἴκους ἠρημωμένους ταῖς ἐκείνων ἁρπαγαῖς καὶ γύναια καὶ γενεὰς τῶν ἀπεσφαγμένων μελανειμονούσας, κωκυτὸν δὲ καὶ θρῆνον ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν ὅλην: οὐδεὶς γάρ ἐστιν, ὃς οὐ γέγευται τῆς τῶν ἀνοσίων καταδρομῆς:" '4.26 συνεργίαν θεοῦ τοῦτο Γαμαλεῖς ὑπελάμβανον καὶ τῆς κατὰ σφᾶς ἀμελοῦντες βλάβης ἐπέκειντο, πρός τε τὰ στέγη τοὺς πολεμίους ἀνωθοῦντες καί τοι κατολισθάνοντας ἐν ὀξέσι τοῖς στενωποῖς καὶ ἀεὶ τοὺς πίπτοντας ὕπερθεν βάλλοντες ἔκτεινον.' "4.27 Τοιαῦτα μὲν ὁ ̓Ιησοῦς ἔλεγε: τῶν δὲ ̓Ιδουμαίων οὔτε τὸ πλῆθος προσεῖχεν, ἀλλὰ τεθύμωτο μὴ τυχὸν ἑτοίμης τῆς εἰσόδου, καὶ διηγανάκτουν οἱ στρατηγοὶ πρὸς ἀπόθεσιν τῶν ὅπλων αἰχμαλωσίαν ἡγούμενοι τὸ κελευόντων τινῶν αὐτὰ ῥῖψαι.' "4.27 καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐρείπια χερμάδων πλέα ἦν αὐτοῖς, σίδηρον δὲ παρεῖχον οἱ τῶν πολεμίων νεκροί: παρασπῶντες γὰρ τὰ τῶν πεσόντων ξίφη κατὰ τῶν δυσθανατούντων ἐχρῶντο. 4.28 μέμψαιτ' ἂν εἰκότως τις τοὺς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ πολιορκουμένους, ὅτι θαρσήσαντες τοὺς προδότας κολάζειν, οὓς ὑμεῖς ἄνδρας ἐπισήμους καὶ ἀκαταιτιάτους λέγετε διὰ τὴν κοινωνίαν, οὐκ ἀφ' ὑμῶν ἤρξαντο καὶ τὰ καιριώτατα τῆς προδοσίας μέρη προαπέκοψαν." "4.28 πολλοὶ δ' ἀπὸ πιπτόντων ἤδη τῶν δωμάτων σφᾶς αὐτοὺς βάλλοντες ἔθνησκον." "4.29 ἦν δ' οὐδὲ τραπέντων ἡ φυγὴ ῥᾴδιος: κατὰ γὰρ ἄγνοιαν τῶν ὁδῶν καὶ παχύτητα τοῦ κονιορτοῦ μηδὲ ἀλλήλους ἐπιγινώσκοντες ἀνειλοῦντο καὶ περὶ σφᾶς ἔπιπτον." '4.29 οἱ μὲν γὰρ ̓Ιδουμαῖοι συσπειραθέντες τοῖς σώμασιν ἀλλήλους ἀντέθαλπον καὶ τοὺς θυρεοὺς ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς συμφράξαντες ἧττον ἐκακοῦντο τοῖς ὑετοῖς,' "
4.31 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δ' ἀεὶ προσμένων τοῖς πονουμένοις, δεινὸν γάρ τι πάθος αὐτὸν εἰσῄει κατερειπομένην ὁρῶντα περὶ τῷ στρατῷ τὴν πόλιν, ἐν λήθῃ τοῦ κατ' αὐτὸν ἀσφαλοῦς γενόμενος λανθάνει κατὰ μικρὸν ἀνωτάτω τῆς πόλεως προελθών, ἔνθα μέσοις ἐγκαταλείπεται τοῖς κινδύνοις μετ' ὀλίγων παντελῶς:" 4.31 οἱ δὲ ζηλωταὶ τοῖς ̓Ιδουμαίοις συνεπηλάλαζον καὶ τὴν ἐκ πάντων βοὴν ὁ χειμὼν ἐποίει φοβερωτέραν. ἐφείδοντό τε οὐδενὸς ̓Ιδουμαῖοι φύσει τε ὠμότατοι φονεύειν ὄντες καὶ τῷ χειμῶνι κεκακωμένοι κατὰ τῶν ἀποκλεισάντων ἐχρῶντο τοῖς θυμοῖς: 4.32 οὐδὲ γὰρ ὁ παῖς αὐτῷ Τίτος τότε συμπαρῆν τηνικαῦτα πρὸς Μουκιανὸν εἰς Συρίαν ἀπεσταλμένος.' "4.32 πρό τε τῶν ἰδίων λυσιτελῶν τὸ κοινῇ συμφέρον ἀεὶ τιθέμενος καὶ περὶ παντὸς ποιούμενος τὴν εἰρήνην: ἄμαχα γὰρ ᾔδει τὰ ̔Ρωμαίων: προσκοπούμενος δ' ὑπ' ἀνάγκης καὶ τὰ κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον, ὅπως, εἰ μὴ διαλύσαιντο ̓Ιουδαῖοι, δεξιῶς διαφέροιντο." "4.33 οἱ συλληφθέντες δὲ μεθ' ἡμέραν ἀνῃροῦντο νύκτωρ, καὶ τοὺς νεκροὺς ἐκφοροῦντες ἔρριπτον, ὡς ἑτέροις εἴη δεσμώταις τόπος." '4.33 τραπῆναι μὲν οὖν οὔτε ἀσφαλὲς οὔτε πρέπον ἡγήσατο, μνησθεὶς δὲ τῶν ἀπὸ νεότητος αὐτῷ πεπονημένων καὶ τῆς ἰδίας ἀρετῆς, ὥσπερ ἔνθους γενόμενος, συνασπίζει μὲν τοὺς ἅμ' αὐτῷ τά τε σώματα καὶ τὰς πανοπλίας," "4.34 οἱ ζηλωταὶ δ' ἐθορύβουν καὶ μόλις τῶν ξιφῶν ἀπεκράτουν, τὸ σχῆμα καὶ τὴν εἰρωνείαν τοῦ δικαστηρίου μέχρι τέλους παῖξαι προαιρούμενοι, καὶ ἄλλως πειράσαι θέλοντες τοὺς δικαστάς, εἰ παρὰ τὸν αὐτῶν κίνδυνον μνησθήσονται τοῦ δικαίου." '4.34 ὑφίσταται δὲ κατὰ κορυφὴν ἐπιρρέοντα τὸν πόλεμον καὶ οὔτε ἀνδρῶν πλῆθος οὔτε βελῶν ὑποπτήξας ἐπέμενε, μέχρι δαιμόνιον τὸ παράστημα τῆς ψυχῆς συννοήσαντες οἱ πολέμιοι ταῖς ὁρμαῖς ἐνέδοσαν.' "4.35 ἀτονώτερον δὲ προσκειμένων αὐτὸς ὑπὸ πόδα ἀνεχώρει νῶτα μὴ δεικνὺς ἕως ἔξω τοῦ τείχους ἐγένετο.' "4.35 ἐφ' οἷς τῶν μὲν οἰκείων πολλοὺς αἰσθάνεσθαι μετανοοῦντας, τῶν ἐπικαλεσαμένων δὲ ὁρᾶν ἄμετρον τὴν ὠμότητα μηδὲ δι' οὓς ἐσώθησαν αἰδουμένων:" "4.36 ἐπεὶ δὲ ἔξω τῶν πυλῶν ἦκτο, τὴν σωτηρίαν ἀπογνοὺς περὶ ταφῆς ἱκέτευεν: οἱ δὲ προαπειλήσαντες ἧς ἐπεθύμει μάλιστα γῆς μὴ μεταδώσειν αὐτῷ, τὸν φόνον ἐνήργουν. 4.36 πλεῖστοι μὲν οὖν ̔Ρωμαίων κατὰ ταύτην ἔπεσον τὴν μάχην, ἐν οἷς ὁ δεκαδάρχης Αἰβούτιος, ἀνὴρ οὐ μόνον ἐφ' ἧς ἔπεσε παρατάξεως, ἀλλὰ πανταχοῦ καὶ πρότερον γενναιότατος φανεὶς καὶ πλεῖστα κακὰ ̓Ιουδαίους ἐργασάμενος." '4.37 ἑκατοντάρχης δέ τις, Γάλλος ὀνόματι, μετὰ στρατιωτῶν δέκα περισχεθεὶς ἐν τῇ ταραχῇ κατέδυ μὲν εἴς τινος οἰκίαν, 4.37 στρατηγεῖν μὲν γὰρ ἄμεινον αὐτοῦ τὸν θεὸν ἀπονητὶ ̔Ρωμαίοις παραδιδόντα ̓Ιουδαίους καὶ τὴν νίκην ἀκινδύνως τῇ στρατιᾷ χαριζόμενον:' "4.38 νεκροὶ δὲ κατὰ τὰς λεωφόρους πάσας ἐσωρεύοντο παμπληθεῖς, καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν ὁρμωμένων αὐτομολεῖν πάλιν τὴν ἔνδον ἀπώλειαν ᾑροῦντο: τὸν γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς πατρίδος θάνατον ἐλπὶς ταφῆς ἐποίει δοκεῖν μετριώτερον.' "4.38 τῶν δ' ἐν αὐτῇ διαλαλούντων παρὰ δεῖπνον ὅσα κατὰ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων ἢ περὶ σφῶν ὁ δῆμος ἐβουλεύετο κατακροασάμενος, ἦν δὲ αὐτός τε καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ Σύροι, νύκτωρ ἐπανίσταται καὶ πάντας ἀποσφάξας μετὰ τῶν στρατιωτῶν εἰς τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους διασώζεται." 4.45 τῇ δ' ἑξῆς εἰς ̔Ιεριχοῦντα ἀφικνεῖται, καθ' ἣν αὐτῷ συμμίσγει Τραϊανὸς εἷς τῶν ἡγεμόνων τὴν ἐκ τῆς Περαίας ἄγων δύναμιν ἤδη τῶν ὑπὲρ τὸν ̓Ιορδάνην κεχειρωμένων." 4.45 τὸ δ' ἀπερίσκεπτον ἐν πολέμῳ καὶ τῆς ὁρμῆς μανιῶδες οὐ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίων, οἳ πάντα ἐμπειρίᾳ καὶ τάξει κατορθοῦμεν, ἀλλὰ βαρβαρικόν, καὶ ᾧ μάλιστα ̓Ιουδαῖοι κρατοῦνται." "
4.54 Καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐν τοιούτοις πάθεσι διεκαρτέρουν, Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ πάρεργον ἐποιεῖτο τῆς πολιορκίας τοὺς τὸ ̓Ιταβύριον κατειληφότας ὄρος, ὅ ἐστι τοῦ μεγάλου πεδίου καὶ Σκυθοπόλεως μέσον:' "
4.54 τὸν δὲ οὐκ ἔλεος εἰσῆλθεν ἀλλ' ὀργὴ περὶ τῆς ἡρπασμένης, καὶ πρὸς τὸ τεῖχος τῶν ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἐλθὼν καθάπερ τὰ τρωθέντα τῶν θηρίων, ἐπειδὴ τοὺς τρώσαντας οὐ κατέλαβεν, ἐφ' οὓς εὗρε τὸν θυμὸν ἠφίει." "4.55 ἐν δὲ τούτῳ καὶ Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἀναστὰς ἐκ τῆς Καισαρείας πέμπτῃ Δαισίου μηνὸς ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὰ μηδέπω κατεστραμμένα τῶν τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας χωρίων. 4.55 οὗ τὸ μὲν ὕψος ἐπὶ τριάκοντα σταδίους ἀνίσχει, μόλις προσβατὸν κατὰ τὸ προσάρκτιον κλίμα, πεδίον δ' ἐστὶν ἡ κορυφὴ σταδίων ἓξ καὶ εἴκοσι, πᾶν τετειχισμένον." '4.56 ἤγειρε δὲ τοσοῦτον ὄντα τὸν περίβολον ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος ἐν τεσσαράκοντα ἡμέραις τῇ τε ἄλλῃ χορηγούμενος ὕλῃ κάτωθεν καὶ ὕδατι: καὶ γὰρ τοῖς ἐποίκοις μόνον ἦν ὄμβριον.' "4.56 πόθοι δ' ἦσαν ἁρπαγῆς ἀπλήρωτοι καὶ τῶν πλουσίων οἴκων ἔρευνα φόνος τε ἀνδρῶν καὶ γυναικῶν ὕβρεις ἐπαίζοντο," '4.57 ἐν δὲ τούτῳ τὸ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν ἐσκεδασμένον πλῆθος τῶν ζηλωτῶν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν πρὸς τοὺς διαπεφευγότας ἠθροίσθη, καὶ κατάγειν αὐτοὺς παρεσκευάσατο ̓Ιωάννης ἐπί τε τὸν δῆμον καὶ τοὺς ̓Ιδουμαίους. 4.57 πολλοῦ οὖν πλήθους ἐπὶ τοῦτο συνειλεγμένου Οὐεσπασιανὸς Πλάκιδον σὺν ἱππεῦσιν ἑξακοσίοις πέμπει. 4.58 πλεονεκτοῦντες δὲ τῷ τόπῳ καὶ πύργους ἔτι προσκατεσκεύασαν τέσσαρας μεγίστους, ὡς ἀφ' ὑψηλοτέρων ποιοῖντο τὰς ἀφέσεις, τὸν μὲν κατὰ τὴν ἀνατολικὴν καὶ βόρειον γωνίαν," '4.58 τούτῳ τὸ μὲν προσβαίνειν ἀμήχανον ἦν, ἐλπίδι δὲ δεξιῶν καὶ παρακλήσεως πρὸς εἰρήνην τοὺς πολλοὺς προεκαλεῖτο.' "4.59 κατῄεσαν δὲ ἀντεπιβουλεύοντες: ὅ τε γὰρ Πλάκιδος ὡμίλει πρᾳότερον σπουδάζων αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ λαβεῖν, κἀκεῖνοι κατῄεσαν ὡς πειθόμενοι δῆθεν, ἵνα ἀφυλάκτῳ προσπέσωσιν. 4.59 περιαλγήσας δὲ τῷ πάθει καρτερεῖν τὴν βάσανον οὐχ οἷός τε ἦν καὶ τῆς πατρίδος πορθουμένης ἑτέροις προσευσχολεῖν πολέμοις.' "4.61 καὶ οἱ μὲν τὸ ̓Ιταβύριον καταλιπόντες ἐπὶ ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἔφευγον, οἱ δὲ ἐπιχώριοι πίστεις λαβόντες, ἐπιλελοίπει δ' αὐτοὺς ὕδωρ, τό τε ὄρος καὶ σφᾶς αὐτοὺς Πλακίδῳ παρέδοσαν." '4.61 τετείχισται μὲν οὕτως ἡ Αἴγυπτος πάντοθεν: τὸ μεταξὺ δὲ Πηλουσίου καὶ Συήνης μῆκος αὐτῆς σταδίων δισχιλίων, ὅ τε ἀπὸ τῆς Πλινθίνης ἀνάπλους εἰς τὸ Πηλούσιον σταδίων τρισχιλίων ἑξακοσίων.
4.71 καὶ παρελθόντος οἱ μὲν φύλακες αἰσθόμενοι μετὰ βοῆς ἐχώρουν ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα, δήλης δὲ τῆς εἰσβολῆς ταχέως καὶ τοῖς εἴσω γενομένης, οἱ μὲν ἁρπάζοντες τὰ τέκνα καὶ γυναῖκας ἐπισυρόμενοι πρὸς τὴν ἄκραν ἀνέφευγον μετὰ κωκυτοῦ καὶ βοῆς, οἱ δὲ τὸν Τίτον ὑπαντιάζοντες ἀδιαλείπτως ἔπιπτον:' "4.72 ὅσοι δὲ ἀπεκωλύθησαν ἐπὶ τὴν κορυφὴν ἀναδραμεῖν ὑπ' ἀμηχανίας εἰς τὰς τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων φρουρὰς ἐξέπιπτον. ἄπειρος δ' ἦν πανταχοῦ φονευομένων ὁ στόνος, καὶ τὸ αἷμα πᾶσαν ἐπέκλυζε τὴν πόλιν κατὰ πρανοῦς χεόμενον." '4.73 πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ἀναφεύγοντας εἰς τὴν ἄκραν ἐπεβοήθει Οὐεσπασιανὸς πᾶσαν εἰσαγαγὼν τὴν δύναμιν.' "4.74 ἦν δ' ἥ τε κορυφὴ πάντοθεν πετρώδης καὶ δύσβατος, εἰς ἄπειρον ὕψος ἐπηρμένη, καὶ πανταχόθεν † τοῦ βάθους κατέγεμεν περιειλημμένη κρημνοῖς κατέτεμνόν τε." "4.75 ἐνταῦθα τοὺς προσβαίνοντας οἱ ̓Ιουδαῖοι τοῖς τε ἄλλοις βέλεσι καὶ πέτρας κατακυλινδοῦντες ἐκάκουν: αὐτοὶ δὲ δι' ὕψος ἦσαν δυσέφικτοι βέλει." '4.76 γίνεται δὲ πρὸς ἀπώλειαν αὐτῶν ἄντικρυς θύελλα δαιμόνιος, ἣ τὰ μὲν ̔Ρωμαίων ἔφερεν εἰς αὐτοὺς βέλη, τὰ δὲ αὐτῶν ἀνέστρεφεν καὶ πλάγια παρέσυρεν. 4.77 οὔτε δὲ τοῖς ὑποκρήμνοις ἐφίστασθαι διὰ τὴν βίαν ἐδύναντο τοῦ πνεύματος μηδὲν ἑδραῖον ἔχοντες, οὔτε τοὺς προσβαίνοντας καθορᾶν. 4.78 ἐπαναβαίνουσι δὲ ̔Ρωμαῖοι, καὶ περισχόντες οὓς μὲν ἀμυνομένους ἔφθανον, οὓς δὲ χεῖρας προί̈σχοντας: ἐτόνου δὲ τὸν θυμὸν αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ πάντας ἡ μνήμη τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης εἰσβολῆς ἀπολωλότων.' "4.79 ἀπογινώσκοντες δὲ τὴν σωτηρίαν πανταχόθεν οἱ πολλοὶ περισχόμενοι τέκνα καὶ γυναῖκας αὑτούς τε κατεκρήμνιζον εἰς τὴν φάραγγα: βαθυτάτη δ' αὕτη κατὰ τὴν ἄκραν ὑπορώρυκτο." 4.81 διεσώθη δὲ πλὴν δύο γυναικῶν οὐδείς: τῆς Φιλίππου δὲ ἦσαν ἀδελφῆς θυγατέρες αὗται, αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Φίλιππος ̓Ιακίμου τινὸς ἀνδρὸς ἐπισήμου, τετραρχήσαντος ̓Αγρίππᾳ τῷ βασιλεῖ.' "4.82 διεσώθησαν δὲ τὰς παρὰ τὴν ἅλωσιν ὀργὰς ̔Ρωμαίων λαθοῦσαι: τότε γὰρ οὐδὲ νηπίων ἐφείδοντο, πολλὰ δ' ἑκάστοτε ἁρπάζοντες ἐσφενδόνων ἀπὸ τῆς ἄκρας." '4.83 Γάμαλα μὲν οὕτως ἑάλω τρίτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι μηνὸς ̔Υπερβερεταίου τῆς ἀποστάσεως ἀρξαμένης Γορπιαίου μηνὸς τετάρτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι.' "4.84 Μόνη δὲ Γίσχαλα πολίχνη τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἀχείρωτος κατελείπετο, τοῦ μὲν πλήθους εἰρηνικὰ φρονοῦντος, καὶ γὰρ ἦσαν τὸ πλέον γεωργοὶ καὶ ταῖς ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν ἐλπίσιν ἀεὶ προσανέχοντες, παρεισεφθαρμένου δ' αὐτοῖς οὐκ ὀλίγου λῃστρικοῦ τάγματος, ᾧ τινες καὶ τοῦ πολιτικοῦ συνενόσουν." '4.85 ἐνῆγε δὲ τούτους εἰς τὴν ἀπόστασιν καὶ συνεκρότει Ληί̈ου τινὸς υἱὸς ̓Ιωάννης, γόης ἀνὴρ καὶ ποικιλώτατος τὸ ἦθος, πρόχειρος μὲν ἐλπίσαι μεγάλα, δεινὸς δὲ τῶν ἐλπισθέντων περιγενέσθαι παντί τε ὢν δῆλος ἀγαπᾶν τὸν πόλεμον εἰς δυναστείας ἐπίθεσιν.' "4.86 ὑπὸ τούτῳ τὸ στασιῶδες ἐν τοῖς Γισχάλοις ἐτέτακτο, δι' οὓς τυχὸν καὶ πρεσβευσάμενον περὶ παραδόσεως τὸ δημοτικὸν ἐν πολέμου μοίρᾳ τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἔφοδον ἐξεδέχετο." '4.87 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ἐπὶ μὲν τούτους Τίτον ἐκπέμπει σὺν χιλίοις ἱππεῦσιν, τὸ δέκατον δὲ τάγμα ἀπαίρει εἰς Σκυθόπολιν.' "4.88 αὐτὸς δὲ σὺν δυσὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς ἐπανῆλθεν εἰς Καισάρειαν, τοῦ τε συνεχοῦς καμάτου διδοὺς ἀνάπαυσιν αὐτοῖς καὶ δι' εὐθηνίαν τῶν πόλεων τά τε σώματα καὶ τὸ πρόθυμον ὑποθρέψειν οἰόμενος ἐπὶ τοὺς μέλλοντας ἀγῶνας:" '4.89 οὐ γὰρ ὀλίγον αὐτῷ πόνον ἑώρα περὶ τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις λειπόμενον, ἅτε δὴ βασιλείου μὲν οὔσης τῆς πόλεως καὶ προανεχούσης ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους, συρρεόντων δὲ εἰς αὐτὴν τῶν ἐκ τοῦ πολέμου διαδιδρασκόντων.' "
4.92 Τίτῳ δὲ προσιππασαμένῳ τοῖς Γισχάλοις εὐπετὲς μὲν ἦν ἐξ ἐφόδου τὴν πόλιν ἑλεῖν, εἰδὼς δέ, εἰ βίᾳ ληφθείη, διαφθαρησόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἀνέδην τὸ πλῆθος, ἦν δ' αὐτῷ κόρος ἤδη φόνων καὶ δι' οἴκτου τὸ πλέον ἀκρίτως συναπολλύμενον τοῖς αἰτίοις, ἐβούλετο μᾶλλον ὁμολογίαις παραστήσασθαι τὴν πόλιν." '4.93 καὶ δὴ τοῦ τείχους ἀνδρῶν καταγέμοντος, οἳ τὸ πλέον ἦσαν ἐκ τοῦ διεφθαρμένου τάγματος, θαυμάζειν ἔφη πρὸς αὐτούς, τίνι πεποιθότες πάσης ἑαλωκυίας πόλεως μόνοι τὰ ̔Ρωμαίων ὅπλα μένουσιν, 4.94 ἑωρακότες μὲν ὀχυρωτέρας πολλῷ πόλεις ὑπὸ μίαν προσβολὴν κατεστραμμένας, ἐν ἀσφαλείᾳ δὲ τῶν ἰδίων κτημάτων ἀπολαύοντας ὅσοι ταῖς ̔Ρωμαίων δεξιαῖς ἐπίστευσαν, ἃς καὶ νῦν προτείνειν αὐτοῖς μηδὲν μνησικακῶν τῆς αὐθαδείας. 4.95 εἶναι γὰρ συγγνωστὸν ἐλευθερίας ἐλπίδα, μηκέτι μέντοι τὴν ἐν τοῖς ἀδυνάτοις ἐπιμονήν: 4.96 εἰ γὰρ οὐ πεισθήσονται λόγοις φιλανθρώποις καὶ δεξιαῖς πίστεως, πειράσειν αὐτοὺς ἀφειδῆ τὰ ὅπλα, καὶ ὅσον οὐδέπω † γνωσθήσεσθαι πιεζόμενον τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίων μηχανήμασιν τὸ τεῖχος, ᾧ πεποιθότες ἐπιδείκνυνται μόνοι Γαλιλαίων, ὅτι εἰσὶν αὐθάδεις αἰχμάλωτοι.
4.101 τί γὰρ ἄν τις ἐν νυκτὶ βουλεύσαιτο δρασμοῦ πλέον ἐξὸν περιστρατοπεδεύσαντα παραφυλάξαι; 4.102 μέγα δὲ κέρδος αὐτοῖς τὸ μηδὲν παραβῆναι τῶν πατρίων ἐθῶν. πρέπει δὲ τῷ παρὰ προσδοκίαν εἰρήνην χαριζομένῳ τοῖς σωζομένοις τηρεῖν καὶ τοὺς νόμους.” 4.103 τοιούτοις ἐσοφίζετο τὸν Τίτον, οὐ τοσοῦτον τῆς ἑβδομάδος στοχαζόμενος, ὅσον τῆς αὑτοῦ σωτηρίας: ἐδεδοίκει δὲ ἐγκαταληφθῆναι παραχρῆμα τῆς πόλεως ἁλούσης ἐν νυκτὶ καὶ φυγῇ τὰς ἐλπίδας ἔχων τοῦ βίου.' "4.104 θεοῦ δ' ἦν ἔργον ἄρα τοῦ σώζοντος τὸν ̓Ιωάννην ἐπὶ τὸν τῶν ̔Ιεροσολύμων ὄλεθρον τὸ μὴ μόνον πεισθῆναι Τίτον τῇ σκήψει τῆς ὑπερθέσεως, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς πόλεως πορρωτέρω στρατοπεδεύσασθαι πρὸς Κυδασοῖς:" '4.105 μεσόγειος δέ ἐστι Τυρίων κώμη καρτερά, διὰ μίσους ἀεὶ καὶ πολέμου Γαλιλαίοις, ἔχουσα πλῆθός τε οἰκητόρων καὶ τὴν ὀχυρότητα τῆς πρὸς τὸ ἔθνος διαφορᾶς ἐφόδια.' "4.106 Νυκτὸς δ' ὁ ̓Ιωάννης ὡς οὐδεμίαν περὶ τῇ πόλει ̔Ρωμαίων ἑώρα φυλακήν, τὸν καιρὸν ἁρπασάμενος οὐ μόνον τοὺς περὶ αὐτὸν ὁπλίτας ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν ἀργοτέρων συχνοὺς ἅμα ταῖς γενεαῖς ἀναλαβὼν ἐπὶ ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἔφευγε." '4.107 μέχρι μὲν οὖν εἴκοσι σταδίων οἷόν τε ἦν συνεξαγαγεῖν γυναικῶν καὶ παιδίων ὄχλον ἀνθρώπῳ κατασπερχομένῳ τοῖς ὑπὲρ αἰχμαλωσίας καὶ τοῦ ζῆν φόβοις, περαιτέρω δὲ προκόπτοντος ἀπελείποντο, καὶ δειναὶ τῶν ἐωμένων ἦσαν ὀλοφύρσεις: 4.108 ὅσον γὰρ ἕκαστος τῶν οἰκείων ἐγίνετο πορρωτέρω, τοσοῦτον ἐγγὺς ὑπελάμβανεν εἶναι τῶν πολεμίων, παρεῖναί τε ἤδη τοὺς αἰχμαλωτισομένους δοκοῦντες ἐπτόηντο, καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἀλλήλων ἐκ τοῦ δρόμου ψόφον ἐπεστρέφοντο καθάπερ ἤδη παρόντων οὓς ἔφευγον:' "4.109 ἀνοδίαις τ' ἐνέπιπτον οἱ πολλοί, καὶ περὶ τὴν λεωφόρον ἡ τῶν φθανόντων ἔρις συνέτριβεν τοὺς πολλούς." "4.111 ἀλλ' ἐνίκα τὸ ̓Ιωάννου παρακέλευσμα σώζειν ἑαυτοὺς ἐμβοῶντος καὶ καταφεύγειν ἔνθα καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀπολειπομένων ἀμυνοῦνται ̔Ρωμαίους ἂν ἁρπαγῶσι. τὸ μὲν οὖν τῶν διαδιδρασκόντων πλῆθος ὡς ἕκαστος ἰσχύος εἶχεν ἢ τάχους ἐσκέδαστο." "4.112 Τίτος δὲ μεθ' ἡμέραν ἐπὶ τὰς συνθήκας πρὸς τὸ τεῖχος παρῆν." "4.113 ἀνοίγει δ' αὐτῷ τὰς πύλας ὁ δῆμος, καὶ μετὰ τῶν γενεῶν προελθόντες ἀνευφήμουν ὡς εὐεργέτην καὶ φρουρᾶς ἐλευθερώσαντα τὴν πόλιν:" '4.114 ἐδήλουν γὰρ ἅμα τὴν τοῦ ̓Ιωάννου φυγὴν καὶ παρεκάλουν φείσασθαί τε αὐτῶν καὶ παρελθόντα τοὺς ὑπολειπομένους τῶν νεωτεριζόντων κολάσαι. 4.115 ὁ δὲ τὰς τοῦ δήμου δεήσεις ἐν δευτέρῳ θέμενος μοῖραν ἔπεμπε τῶν ἱππέων ̓Ιωάννην διώξουσαν, οἳ τὸν μὲν οὐ καταλαμβάνουσιν, ἔφθη γὰρ εἰς ̔Ιεροσόλυμα διαφυγών, τῶν δὲ συναπαράντων ἀποκτείνουσι μὲν εἰς ἑξακισχιλίους, γύναια δὲ καὶ παιδία τρισχιλίων ὀλίγον ἀποδέοντα περιελάσαντες ἀνήγαγον. 4.116 ὁ δὲ Τίτος ἤχθετο μὲν ἐπὶ τῷ μὴ παραχρῆμα τιμωρήσασθαι τὸν ̓Ιωάννην τῆς ἀπάτης, ἱκανὸν δὲ ἀστοχήσαντι τῷ θυμῷ παραμύθιον ἔχων τὸ πλῆθος τῶν αἰχμαλώτων καὶ τοὺς διεφθαρμένους εἰσῄει τε ἀνευφημούμενος εἰς τὴν πόλιν, 4.117 καὶ τοῖς στρατιώταις ὀλίγον τοῦ τείχους παρασπάσαι κελεύσας νόμῳ καταλήψεως ἀπειλαῖς μᾶλλον ἢ κολάσει τοὺς ταράσσοντας τὴν πόλιν ἀνέστελλε:' "4.118 πολλοὺς γὰρ ἂν καὶ διὰ τὰ οἰκεῖα μίση καὶ διαφορὰς ἰδίας ἐνδείξασθαι τοὺς ἀναιτίους, εἰ διακρίνοι τοὺς τιμωρίας ἀξίους: ἄμεινον δ' εἶναι μετέωρον ἐν φόβῳ τὸν αἴτιον καταλιπεῖν ἤ τινα τῶν οὐκ ἀξίων αὐτῷ συναπολεῖν:" '4.119 τὸν μὲν γὰρ ἴσως καὶ σωφρονῆσαι δέει κολάσεως τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς παρῳχηκόσι συγγνώμην αἰδούμενον, ἀδιόρθωτον δὲ τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς παραναλωθεῖσι τιμωρίαν εἶναι.
4.121 Πρὸς δὲ τὴν εἴσοδον τοῦ ̓Ιωάννου ὁ πᾶς δῆμος ἐξεκέχυτο, καὶ περὶ ἕκαστον τῶν συμπεφευγότων μυρίος ὅμιλος συνηθροισμένοι τὰς ἔξωθεν συμφορὰς ἀνεπυνθάνοντο.' "4.122 τῶν δὲ τὸ μὲν ἆσθμα θερμὸν ἔτι κοπτόμενον ἐδήλου τὴν ἀνάγκην, ἠλαζονεύοντο δὲ κἀν κακοῖς, οὐ πεφευγέναι ̔Ρωμαίους φάσκοντες, ἀλλ' ἥκειν πολεμήσοντες αὐτοὺς ἐξ ἀσφαλοῦς:" '4.123 ἀλογίστων γὰρ εἶναι καὶ ἀχρήστων παραβόλως προκινδυνεύειν περὶ Γίσχαλα καὶ πολίχνας ἀσθενεῖς, δέον τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τὰς ἀκμὰς ταμιεύεσθαι τῇ μητροπόλει καὶ συμφυλάσσειν. 4.124 ἔνθα δὴ παρεδήλουν τὴν ἅλωσιν τῶν Γισχάλων, καὶ τὴν λεγομένην εὐσχημόνως ὑποχώρησιν αὐτῶν οἱ πολλοὶ δρασμὸν ἐνενόουν. 4.125 ὡς μέντοι τὰ περὶ τοὺς αἰχμαλωτισθέντας ἠκούσθη, σύγχυσις οὐ μετρία κατέσχε τὸν δῆμον, καὶ μεγάλα τῆς ἑαυτῶν ἁλώσεως συνελογίζοντο τὰ τεκμήρια.' "4.126 ̓Ιωάννης δ' ἐπὶ μὲν τοῖς καταληφθεῖσιν ἧττον ἠρυθρία, περιιὼν δ' ἑκάστους ἐπὶ τὸν πόλεμον ἐνῆγεν ταῖς ἐλπίσιν, τὰ μὲν ̔Ρωμαίων ἀσθενῆ κατασκευάζων, τὴν δ' οἰκείαν δύναμιν ἐξαίρων," "4.127 καὶ κατειρωνευόμενος τῆς τῶν ἀπείρων ἀγνοίας, ὡς οὐδ' ἂν πτερὰ λαβόντες ὑπερβαῖέν ποτε ̔Ρωμαῖοι τὸ ̔Ιεροσολύμων τεῖχος οἱ περὶ ταῖς Γαλιλαίων κώμαις κακοπαθοῦντες καὶ πρὸς τοῖς ἐκεῖ τείχεσι κατατρίψαντες τὰς μηχανάς." 4.438 Πλάκιδος δὲ δεξιᾷ τύχῃ χρώμενος ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὰς πέριξ πολίχνας τε καὶ κώμας, καταλαμβανόμενός τε ̓́Αβιλα καὶ ̓Ιουλιάδα καὶ Βησιμὼ τάς τε μέχρι τῆς ̓Ασφαλτίτιδος πάσας ἐγκαθίστησιν ἑκάστῃ τοὺς ἐπιτηδείους τῶν αὐτομόλων.
4.442 ἕως μὲν οὖν ἐπεῖχεν ὁ χειμὼν τὰς ὑπηγμένας διησφαλίζετο κώμας τε καὶ πολίχνας φρουραῖς, δεκαδάρχας μὲν κώμαις ἐγκαθιστάς, ἑκατοντάρχας δὲ πόλεσι: πολλὰ δὲ ἀνῴκιζε καὶ τῶν πεπορθημένων.' "
4.456 ἔστι δὲ αὐτοῦ μῆκος μὲν σταδίων χιλίων διακοσίων, εὖρος δ' εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατόν, καὶ μέσον ὑπὸ τοῦ ̓Ιορδάνου τέμνεται λίμνας τε ἔχει τήν τε ̓Ασφαλτῖτιν καὶ τὴν Τιβεριέων φύσιν ἐναντίας: ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἁλμυρώδης καὶ ἄγονος, ἡ Τιβεριέων δὲ γλυκεῖα καὶ γόνιμος." "
4.457 ἐκπυροῦται δὲ ὥρᾳ θέρους τὸ πεδίον καὶ δι' ὑπερβολὴν αὐχμοῦ περιέχει νοσώδη τὸν ἀέρα:" 4.458 πᾶν γὰρ ἄνυδρον πλὴν τοῦ ̓Ιορδάνου, παρὸ καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἐπὶ ταῖς ὄχθαις φοινικῶνας εὐθαλεστέρους καὶ πολυφορωτέρους εἶναι συμβέβηκεν, ἧττον δὲ τοὺς πόρρω κεχωρισμένους.
4.459 Παρὰ μέντοι τὴν ̔Ιεριχοῦν ἐστι πηγὴ δαψιλής τε καὶ πρὸς ἀρδείας λιπαρωτάτη παρὰ τὴν παλαιὰν ἀναβλύζουσα πόλιν, ἣν ̓Ιησοῦς ὁ Ναυῆ παῖς στρατηγὸς ̔Εβραίων πρώτην εἷλε γῆς Χαναναίων δορίκτητον. 4.461 ὃς ἐπιξενωθεὶς τοῖς κατὰ τὴν ̔Ιεριχοῦν, περισσὸν δή τι φιλοφρονησαμένων αὐτὸν τῶν ἀνθρώπων αὐτούς τε ἀμείβεται καὶ τὴν χώραν αἰωνίῳ χάριτι. 4.462 προελθὼν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν πηγὴν καὶ καταβαλὼν εἰς τὸ ῥεῦμα πλῆρες ἁλῶν ἀγγεῖον κεράμου, ἔπειτα εἰς οὐρανὸν δεξιὰν ἀνατείνας δικαίαν κἀπὶ γῆς σπονδὰς μειλικτηρίους χεόμενος, τὴν μὲν ᾐτεῖτο μαλάξαι τὸ ῥεῦμα καὶ γλυκυτέρας φλέβας ἀνοῖξαι,' "4.463 τὸν δὲ ἐγκεράσασθαι τῷ ῥεύματι γονιμωτέρους τε ἀέρας δοῦναί τε ἅμα καὶ καρπῶν εὐθηνίαν τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις καὶ τέκνων διαδοχήν, μηδ' ἐπιλιπεῖν αὐτοῖς τὸ τούτων γεννητικὸν ὕδωρ, ἕως μένουσι δίκαιοι." '4.464 ταύταις ταῖς εὐχαῖς πολλὰ προσχειρουργήσας ἐξ ἐπιστήμης ἔτρεψε τὴν πηγήν, καὶ τὸ πρὶν ὀρφανίας αὐτοῖς καὶ λιμοῦ παραίτιον ὕδωρ ἔκτοτε εὐτεκνίας καὶ κόρου χορηγὸν κατέστη. 4.465 τοσαύτην γοῦν ἐν ταῖς ἀρδείαις ἔχει δύναμιν ὡς, εἰ καὶ μόνον ἐφάψαιτο τῆς χώρας, νοστιμώτερον εἶναι τῶν μέχρι κόρου χρονιζόντων. 4.466 παρὸ καὶ τῶν μὲν δαψιλεστέρως χρωμένων ἡ ὄνησίς ἐστιν ὀλίγη, τούτου δὲ τοῦ ὀλίγου χορηγία δαψιλής.' "4.467 ἄρδει γοῦν πλέονα τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων, καὶ πεδίον μὲν ἔπεισιν ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίων μῆκος εὖρος δ' εἴκοσιν, ἐκτρέφει δ' ἐν αὐτῷ παραδείσους καλλίστους τε καὶ πυκνοτάτους." '4.468 τῶν δὲ φοινίκων ἐπαρδομένων γένη πολλὰ ταῖς γεύσεσι καὶ ταῖς παρηγορίαις διάφορα: τούτων οἱ πιότεροι πατούμενοι καὶ μέλι δαψιλὲς ἀνιᾶσιν οὐ πολλῷ τοῦ λοιποῦ χεῖρον. 4.469 καὶ μελιττοτρόφος δὲ ἡ χώρα: φέρει δὲ καὶ ὀποβάλσαμον, ὃ δὴ τιμιώτατον τῶν τῇδε καρπῶν, κύπρον τε καὶ μυροβάλανον, ὡς οὐκ ἂν ἁμαρτεῖν τινα εἰπόντα θεῖον εἶναι τὸ χωρίον, ἐν ᾧ δαψιλῆ τὰ σπανιώτατα καὶ κάλλιστα γεννᾶται.
4.471 αἴτιόν μοι δοκεῖ τὸ θερμὸν τῶν ἀέρων καὶ τὸ τῶν ὑδάτων εὔτονον, τῶν μὲν προκαλουμένων τὰ φυόμενα καὶ διαχεόντων, τῆς δὲ ἰκμάδος ῥιζούσης ἕκαστον ἰσχυρῶς καὶ χορηγούσης τὴν ἐν θέρει δύναμιν: περικαὲς δέ ἐστιν οὕτως τὸ χωρίον, ὡς μηδένα ῥᾳδίως προϊέναι. 4.472 τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ πρὸ ἀνατολῆς ἀντλούμενον, ἔπειτα ἐξαιθριασθὲν γίνεται ψυχρότατον καὶ τὴν ἐναντίαν πρὸς τὸ περιέχον φύσιν λαμβάνει, χειμῶνος δὲ ἀνάπαλιν χλιαίνεται καὶ τοῖς ἐμβαίνουσι γίνεται προσηνέστατον. 4.473 ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ περιέχον οὕτως εὔκρατον, ὡς λινοῦν ἀμφιέννυσθαι τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους νιφομένης τῆς ἄλλης ̓Ιουδαίας. 4.474 ἀπέχει δὲ ἀπὸ ̔Ιεροσολύμων μὲν σταδίους ἑκατὸν πεντήκοντα, τοῦ δὲ ̓Ιορδάνου ἑξήκοντα, καὶ τὸ μὲν μέχρι ̔Ιεροσολύμων αὐτῆς ἔρημον καὶ πετρῶδες, τὸ δὲ μέχρι τοῦ ̓Ιορδάνου καὶ τῆς ̓Ασφαλτίτιδος χθαμαλώτερον μέν, ἔρημον δὲ ὁμοίως καὶ ἄκαρπον. 4.475 ἀλλὰ γὰρ τὰ μὲν περὶ ̔Ιεριχοῦν εὐδαιμονεστάτην οὖσαν ἀποχρώντως δεδήλωται.' "
4.477 ἀφικόμενος γοῦν καθ' ἱστορίαν ἐπ' αὐτὴν Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἐκέλευσέ τινας τῶν νεῖν οὐκ ἐπισταμένων δεθέντας ὀπίσω τὰς χεῖρας ῥιφῆναι κατὰ τοῦ βυθοῦ, καὶ συνέβη πάντας ἐπινήξασθαι καθάπερ ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἄνω βιαζομένους." "
4.483 γειτνιᾷ δ' ἡ Σοδομῖτις αὐτῇ, πάλαι μὲν εὐδαίμων γῆ καρπῶν τε ἕνεκεν καὶ τῆς κατὰ πόλιν περιουσίας, νῦν δὲ κεκαυμένη πᾶσα." "4.484 φασὶ δὲ ὡς δι' ἀσέβειαν οἰκητόρων κεραυνοῖς καταφλεγῆναι: ἔστι γοῦν ἔτι λείψανα τοῦ θείου πυρός, καὶ πέντε μὲν πόλεων ἰδεῖν σκιάς, ἔτι δὲ κἀν τοῖς καρποῖς σποδιὰν ἀναγεννωμένην, οἳ χροιὰν μὲν ἔχουσι τῶν ἐδωδίμων ὁμοίαν, δρεψαμένων δὲ χερσὶν εἰς καπνὸν διαλύονται καὶ τέφραν." '4.485 τὰ μὲν δὴ περὶ τὴν Σοδομῖτιν μυθευόμενα τοιαύτην ἔχει πίστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ὄψεως.
4.601 Τοιαῦτα κατὰ συστροφὰς οἱ στρατιῶται διελάλουν: ἔπειτα συναθροισθέντες καὶ παρακροτήσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀναγορεύουσι τὸν Οὐεσπασιανὸν αὐτοκράτορα καὶ σώζειν τὴν κινδυνεύουσαν ἡγεμονίαν παρεκάλουν. 4.602 τῷ δὲ φροντὶς μὲν ἦν πάλαι περὶ τῶν ὅλων, οὔτι γε μὴν αὐτὸς ἄρχειν προῄρητο, τοῖς μὲν ἔργοις ἑαυτὸν ἄξιον ἡγούμενος, προκρίνων δὲ τῶν ἐν λαμπρότητι κινδύνων τὴν ἐν ἰδιώταις ἀσφάλειαν. 4.603 ἀρνουμένῳ δὲ μᾶλλον οἱ ἡγεμόνες ἐπέκειντο καὶ περιχυθέντες οἱ στρατιῶται ξιφήρεις ἀναιρεῖν αὐτὸν ἠπείλουν, εἰ μὴ βούλοιτο ζῆν ἀξίως. 4.604 πολλὰ δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς διατεινάμενος ἐξ ὧν διωθεῖτο τὴν ἀρχὴν τελευταῖον, ὡς οὐκ ἔπειθεν, εἴκει τοῖς ὀνομάσασι.' "
4.618 καὶ ὁ μὲν πεπιστευμένος ἤδη τὰ περὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν προπαρεσκεύαζεν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰ πρὸς τὴν ἄφιξιν, τάχιον δ' ἐπινοίας διήγγελλον αἱ φῆμαι τὸν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀνατολῆς αὐτοκράτορα, καὶ πᾶσα μὲν πόλις ἑώρταζεν εὐαγγέλια δὲ καὶ θυσίας ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ἐπετέλει." "
4.622 Προχωρούσης δὲ πανταχοῦ κατὰ νοῦν τῆς τύχης καὶ τῶν πραγμάτων συννενευκότων ἐκ τοῦ πλείστου μέρους, ἤδη παρίστατο τῷ Οὐεσπασιανῷ νοεῖν, ὡς οὐ δίχα δαιμονίου προνοίας ἅψαιτο τῆς ἀρχῆς, ἀλλὰ δικαία τις εἱμαρμένη περιαγάγοι τὸ κρατεῖν τῶν ὅλων ἐπ' αὐτόν:" "4.623 ἀναμιμνήσκεται γὰρ τά τε ἄλλα σημεῖα, πολλὰ δ' αὐτῷ γεγόνει πανταχοῦ προφαίνοντα τὴν ἡγεμονίαν, καὶ τὰς τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου φωνάς, ὃς αὐτὸν ἔτι ζῶντος Νέρωνος αὐτοκράτορα προσειπεῖν ἐθάρσησεν." "4.624 ἐξεπέπληκτο δὲ τὸν ἄνδρα δεσμώτην ἔτι ὄντα παρ' αὐτῷ, καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος Μουκιανὸν ἅμα τοῖς ἄλλοις ἡγεμόσι καὶ φίλοις πρῶτον μὲν αὐτοῦ τὸ δραστήριον ἐκδιηγεῖτο καὶ ὅσα περὶ τοῖς ̓Ιωταπάτοις δι' αὐτὸν ἔκαμον," '4.625 ἔπειτα τὰς μαντείας, ἃς αὐτὸς μὲν ὑπώπτευσε τότε πλάσματα τοῦ δέους, ἀποδειχθῆναι δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ χρόνου καὶ τῶν πραγμάτων θείας. 4.626 “αἰσχρὸν οὖν, ἔφη, τὸν προθεσπίσαντά μοι τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ διάκονον τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ φωνῆς ἔτι αἰχμαλώτου τάξιν ἢ δεσμώτου τύχην ὑπομένειν” καὶ καλέσας τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον λυθῆναι κελεύει.
4.629 συνεδόκει ταῦτα, καὶ παρελθών τις πελέκει διέκοψε τὴν ἅλυσιν. ὁ δὲ ̓Ιώσηπος εἰληφὼς περὶ τῶν προειρημένων γέρας τὴν ἐπιτιμίαν ἤδη καὶ περὶ τῶν μελλόντων ἀξιόπιστος ἦν.' "
5.2 ἀλλὰ καθεκτέον γὰρ καὶ τὰ πάθη τῷ νόμῳ τῆς γραφῆς, ὡς οὐκ ὀλοφυρμῶν οἰκείων ὁ καιρός, ἀλλ' ἀφηγήσεως πραγμάτων. δίειμι δὲ τὰ ἑξῆς ἔργα τῆς στάσεως." "
5.2 ἔτι δ' αὐτοῦ κατὰ τὴν ̓Αλεξάνδρειαν συγκαθισταμένου τῷ πατρὶ τὴν ἡγεμονίαν νέον αὐτοῖς ἐγκεχειρισμένην ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ συνέβη καὶ τὴν ἐν τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις στάσιν ἀνακμάσασαν τριμερῆ γενέσθαι καὶ καθ' αὑτοῦ θάτερον ἐπιστρέψαι μέρος, ὅπερ ἄν τις ὡς ἐν κακοῖς ἀγαθὸν εἴποι καὶ δίκης ἔργον." "
5.2 τὸ δὲ πρὸς δύσιν μέρος οὐκ εἶχε πύλην, ἀλλὰ διηνεκὲς ἐδεδόμητο ταύτῃ τὸ τεῖχος. αἱ στοαὶ δὲ μεταξὺ τῶν πυλῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους ἔνδον ἐστραμμέναι πρὸ τῶν γαζοφυλακίων σφόδρα μὲν καλοῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ἀνείχοντο κίοσιν, ἦσαν δ' ἁπλαῖ, καὶ πλὴν τοῦ μεγέθους τῶν κάτω κατ' οὐδὲν ἀπελείποντο." 5.45 Τίτῳ μὲν οὖν οἰκτρὸν τὸ πάθος κατεφαίνετο πεντακοσίων ἑκάστης ἡμέρας ἔστι δὲ ὅτε καὶ πλειόνων ἁλισκομένων, οὔτε δὲ τοὺς βίᾳ ληφθέντας ἀφεῖναι ἀσφαλὲς καὶ φυλάττειν τοσούτους φρουρὰν τῶν φυλαξόντων ἑώρα: τό γε μὴν πλέον οὐκ ἐκώλυεν τάχ' ἂν ἐνδοῦναι πρὸς τὴν ὄψιν ἐλπίσας αὐτούς, εἰ μὴ παραδοῖεν, ὅμοια πεισομένους." "
5.45 φίλων δὲ δοκιμώτατος εὔνοιάν τε καὶ σύνεσιν Τιβέριος ̓Αλέξανδρος, πρότερον μὲν αὐτοῖς τὴν Αἴγυπτον διέπων,' "5.46 ̓Εν δὲ τούτῳ καὶ ὁ ̓Επιφανὴς ̓Αντίοχος παρῆν ἄλλους τε ὁπλίτας συχνοὺς ἔχων καὶ περὶ αὑτὸν στῖφος Μακεδόνων καλούμενον, ἥλικας πάντας, ὑψηλούς, ὀλίγον ὑπὲρ ἀντίπαιδας, τὸν Μακεδονικὸν τρόπον ὡπλισμένους τε καὶ πεπαιδευμένους, ὅθεν καὶ τὴν ἐπίκλησιν εἶχον ὑστεροῦντες οἱ πολλοὶ τοῦ γένους. 5.46 τότε δὲ τῶν στρατευμάτων ἄρχων, κριθεὶς ἄξιος ἐξ ὧν ἐδεξιώσατο πρῶτος ἐγειρομένην ἄρτι τὴν ἡγεμονίαν καὶ μετὰ πίστεως λαμπρᾶς ἐξ ἀδήλου τῇ τύχῃ προσέθετο, σύμβουλός γε μὴν ταῖς τοῦ πολέμου χρείαις ἡλικίᾳ τε προύχων καὶ κατ' ἐμπειρίαν εἵπετο." 5.362 Οὗτος περιιὼν τὸ τεῖχος καὶ πειρώμενος ἔξω τε βέλους εἶναι καὶ ἐν ἐπηκόῳ, πολλὰ κατηντιβόλει φείσασθαι μὲν αὑτῶν καὶ τοῦ δήμου, φείσασθαι δὲ τῆς πατρίδος καὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ μηδὲ γενέσθαι πρὸς ταῦτα τῶν ἀλλοφύλων ἀπαθεστέρους.' "5.363 ̔Ρωμαίους μέν γε τοὺς μὴ μετέχοντας ἐντρέπεσθαι τὰ τῶν πολεμίων ἅγια καὶ μέχρι νῦν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπέχειν, τοὺς δ' ἐντραφέντας αὐτοῖς κἂν περισωθῇ μόνους ἕξοντας ὡρμῆσθαι πρὸς ἀπώλειαν αὐτῶν." '5.364 ἦ μὴν τὰ καρτερώτερα μὲν αὐτῶν ὁρᾶν τείχη πεπτωκότα, λειπόμενον δὲ τὸ τῶν ἑαλωκότων ἀσθενέστερον: γινώσκειν δὲ τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἰσχὺν ἀνυπόστατον καὶ τὸ δουλεύειν τούτοις οὐκ ἀπείρατον αὐτοῖς.' "5.365 εἰ γὰρ δὴ καὶ πολεμεῖν ὑπὲρ ἐλευθερίας καλόν, χρῆναι τὸ πρῶτον: τὸ δ' ἅπαξ ὑποπεσόντας καὶ μακροῖς εἴξαντας χρόνοις ἔπειτα ἀποσείεσθαι τὸν ζυγὸν δυσθανατούντων, οὐ φιλελευθέρων εἶναι." '5.366 δεῖν μέντοι καὶ δεσπότας ἀδοξεῖν ταπεινοτέρους, οὐχ οἷς ὑποχείρια τὰ πάντα. τί γὰρ ̔Ρωμαίους διαπεφευγέναι, πλὴν εἰ μή τι διὰ θάλπος ἢ κρύος ἄχρηστον;' "5.367 μεταβῆναι γὰρ πρὸς αὐτοὺς πάντοθεν τὴν τύχην, καὶ κατὰ ἔθνος τὸν θεὸν ἐμπεριάγοντα τὴν ἀρχὴν νῦν ἐπὶ τῆς ̓Ιταλίας εἶναι. νόμον γε μὴν ὡρίσθαι καὶ παρὰ θηρσὶν ἰσχυρότατον καὶ παρὰ ἀνθρώποις, εἴκειν τοῖς δυνατωτέροις καὶ τὸ κρατεῖν παρ' οἷς ἀκμὴ τῶν ὅπλων εἶναι." "5.368 διὰ τοῦτο καὶ τοὺς προγόνους αὐτῶν καὶ ταῖς ψυχαῖς καὶ τοῖς σώμασιν ἔτι δὲ καὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις ἀφορμαῖς ἀμείνους ὄντας εἶξαι ̔Ρωμαίοις, οὐκ ἂν εἰ μὴ τὸν θεὸν ᾔδεσαν σὺν αὐτοῖς τοῦθ' ὑπομείναντας." "5.369 αὐτοὺς δὲ τίνι καὶ πεποιθότας ἀντέχειν, ἑαλωκυίας μὲν ἐκ πλείστου τῆς πόλεως μέρους, τῶν δ' ἔνδον, εἰ καὶ τὰ τείχη παρέμενεν, ἁλώσεως χεῖρον διακειμένων;" "5.371 εἰ γὰρ δὴ καὶ παύσαιντο ̔Ρωμαῖοι τῆς πολιορκίας μηδ' ἐπιπίπτοιεν τῇ πόλει ξιφήρεις, αὐτοῖς γε τὸν ἄμαχον πόλεμον ἔνδον παρακαθῆσθαι καθ' ἑκάστην ὥραν τρεφόμενον, εἰ μὴ καὶ πρὸς τὸν λιμὸν ἆραι τὰ ὅπλα καὶ μάχεσθαι δύνανται μόνοι τε καὶ παθῶν ἐπικρατεῖν." '5.372 προσετίθει δὲ ὡς καλὸν πρὸ ἀνηκέστου συμφορᾶς μεταβαλέσθαι καὶ πρὸς τὸ σωτήριον ἕως ἔξεστι ῥέψαι: καὶ γὰρ οὐδὲ μνησικακήσειν αὐτοῖς ̔Ρωμαίους τῶν γεγενημένων, εἰ μὴ μέχρι τέλους ἀπαυθαδίσαιντο: φύσει τε γὰρ ἐν τῷ κρατεῖν ἡμέρους εἶναι καὶ πρὸ τῶν θυμῶν θήσεσθαι τὸ συμφέρον.' "5.373 τοῦτο δ' εἶναι μήτε τὴν πόλιν ἀνδρῶν κενὴν μήτε τὴν χώραν ἔρημον ἔχειν. διὸ καὶ νῦν Καίσαρα βούλεσθαι δεξιὰν αὐτοῖς παρασχεῖν: οὐ γὰρ ἂν σῶσαί τινα βίᾳ λαβόντα τὴν πόλιν, καὶ μάλιστα μηδ' ἐν ἐσχάταις συμφοραῖς ὑπακουσάντων παρακαλοῦντι." '5.374 τοῦ γε μὴν ταχέως τὸ τρίτον τεῖχος ἁλώσεσθαι τὰ προεαλωκότα πίστιν εἶναι: κἂν ἄρρηκτον δὲ ᾖ τὸ ἔρυμα, τὸν λιμὸν ὑπὲρ ̔Ρωμαίων αὐτοῖς μαχεῖσθαι.' "5.375 Ταῦτα τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον παραινοῦντα πολλοὶ μὲν ἔσκωπτον ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους, πολλοὶ δ' ἐβλασφήμουν, ἔνιοι δ' ἔβαλλον. ὁ δ' ὡς ταῖς φανεραῖς οὐκ ἔπειθε συμβουλίαις, ἐπὶ τὰς ὁμοφύλους μετέβαινεν ἱστορίας “ἆ δειλοί," '5.376 βοῶν, καὶ τῶν ἰδίων ἀμνήμονες συμμάχων, ὅπλοις καὶ χερσὶ πολεμεῖτε ̔Ρωμαίοις; τίνα γὰρ ἄλλον οὕτως ἐνικήσαμεν;' "5.377 πότε δ' οὐ θεὸς ὁ κτίσας ἂν ἀδικῶνται ̓Ιουδαίων ἔκδικος; οὐκ ἐπιστραφέντες ὄψεσθε πόθεν ὁρμώμενοι μάχεσθε καὶ πηλίκον ἐμιάνατε σύμμαχον; οὐκ ἀναμνήσεσθε πατέρων ἔργα δαιμόνια, καὶ τὸν ἅγιον τόνδε χῶρον ἡλίκους ἡμῖν πάλαι πολέμους καθεῖλεν;" "5.378 ἐγὼ μὲν φρίττω τὰ ἔργα τοῦ θεοῦ λέγων εἰς ἀναξίους ἀκοάς: ἀκούετε δ' ὅμως, ἵνα γνῶτε μὴ μόνον ̔Ρωμαίοις πολεμοῦντες ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ θεῷ." "5.379 βασιλεὺς ὁ τότε Νεχαὼς Αἰγυπτίων, ὁ δ' αὐτὸς ἐκαλεῖτο καὶ Φαραώ, μυρίᾳ χειρὶ καταβὰς ἥρπασε Σάρραν βασιλίδα, τὴν μητέρα τοῦ γένους ἡμῶν." "
5.381 οὐ μετὰ μίαν ἑσπέραν ἄχραντος μὲν ἡ βασίλισσα ἀνεπέμφθη πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα, προσκυνῶν δὲ τὸν ὑφ' ὑμῶν αἱμαχθέντα χῶρον ὁμοφύλῳ φόνῳ καὶ τρέμων ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν νυκτὶ φαντασμάτων ἔφευγεν ὁ Αἰγύπτιος, ἀργύρῳ δὲ καὶ χρυσῷ τοὺς θεοφιλεῖς ̔Εβραίους ἐδωρεῖτο;" '5.382 εἴπω τὴν εἰς Αἴγυπτον μετοικίαν τῶν πατέρων; οὐ τυραννούμενοι καὶ βασιλεῦσιν ἀλλοφύλοις ὑποπεπτωκότες τετρακοσίοις ἔτεσι παρὸν ὅπλοις ἀμύνεσθαι καὶ χερσὶ σφᾶς αὐτοὺς ἐπέτρεψαν τῷ θεῷ; 5.383 τίς οὐκ οἶδεν τὴν παντὸς θηρίου καταπλησθεῖσαν Αἴγυπτον καὶ πάσῃ φθαρεῖσαν νόσῳ, τὴν ἄκαρπον γῆν, τὸν ἐπιλείποντα Νεῖλον, τὰς ἐπαλλήλους δέκα πληγάς, τοὺς διὰ ταῦτα μετὰ φρουρᾶς προπεμπομένους πατέρας ἡμῶν ἀναιμάκτους ἀκινδύνους, οὓς ὁ θεὸς αὑτῷ νεωκόρους ἦγεν; 5.384 ἀλλὰ τὴν ὑπὸ Σύρων ἁρπαγεῖσαν ἁγίαν ἡμῖν λάρνακα οὐκ ἐστέναξε μὲν ἡ Παλαιστίνη καὶ Δαγὼν τὸ ξόανον, ἐστέναξε δὲ πᾶν τὸ τῶν ἁρπασαμένων ἔθνος,' "5.385 σηπόμενοι δὲ τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σώματος καὶ δι' αὐτῶν τὰ σπλάγχνα μετὰ τῶν σιτίων καταφέροντες, χερσὶ ταῖς λῃσαμέναις ἀνεκόμισαν κυμβάλων καὶ τυμπάνων ἤχῳ καὶ πᾶσι μειλικτηρίοις ἱλασκόμενοι τὸ ἅγιον;" '5.386 θεὸς ἦν ὁ ταῦτα πατράσιν ἡμετέροις στρατηγῶν, ὅτι τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τὰ ὅπλα παρέντες αὐτῷ κρῖναι τὸ ἔργον ἐπέτρεψαν. 5.387 βασιλεὺς ̓Ασσυρίων Σενναχηρεὶμ ὅτε πᾶσαν τὴν ̓Ασίαν ἐπισυρόμενος τήνδε περιεστρατοπεδεύσατο τὴν πόλιν, ἆρα χερσὶν ἀνθρωπίναις ἔπεσεν;' "5.388 οὐχ αἱ μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ὅπλων ἠρεμοῦσαι ἐν προσευχαῖς ἦσαν, ἄγγελος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ μιᾷ νυκτὶ τὴν ἄπειρον στρατιὰν ἐλυμήνατο, καὶ μεθ' ἡμέραν ἀναστὰς ὁ ̓Ασσύριος ὀκτωκαίδεκα μυριάδας ἐπὶ πεντακισχιλίοις νεκρῶν εὗρε, μετὰ δὲ τῶν καταλειπομένων ἀνόπλους καὶ μὴ διώκοντας ̔Εβραίους ἔφυγεν;" "5.389 ἴστε καὶ τὴν ἐν Βαβυλῶνι δουλείαν, ἔνθα μετανάστης ὁ λαὸς ὢν ἔτεσιν ἑβδομήκοντα οὐ πρότερον εἰς ἐλευθερίαν ἀνεχαίτισεν ἢ Κῦρον τοῦτο χαρίσασθαι τῷ θεῷ: προυπέμφθησαν γοῦν ὑπ' αὐτοῦ, καὶ πάλιν τὸν αὑτῶν σύμμαχον ἐνεωκόρουν." "
5.391 τοῦτο μέν, ἡνίκα βασιλεὺς Βαβυλωνίων ἐπολιόρκει ταύτην τὴν πόλιν, συμβαλὼν Σεδεκίας ὁ ἡμέτερος βασιλεὺς παρὰ τὰς ̔Ιερεμίου προφητείας αὐτός τε ἑάλω καὶ τὸ ἄστυ μετὰ τοῦ ναοῦ κατασκαπτόμενον εἶδε: καίτοι πόσῳ μετριώτερος ὁ μὲν βασιλεὺς ἐκεῖνος τῶν ὑμετέρων ἡγεμόνων ἦν, ὁ δ' ὑπ' αὐτῷ λαὸς ὑμῶν." "5.392 βοῶντα γοῦν τὸν ̔Ιερεμίαν, ὡς ἀπέχθοιντο μὲν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τὰς εἰς αὐτὸν πλημμελείας, ἁλώσοιντο δ' εἰ μὴ παραδοῖεν τὴν πόλιν, οὔθ' ὁ βασιλεὺς οὔθ' ὁ δῆμος ἀνεῖλεν." "5.393 ἀλλ' ὑμεῖς, ἵν' ἐάσω τἄνδον, οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἑρμηνεῦσαι δυναίμην τὰς παρανομίας ὑμῶν ἀξίως, ἐμὲ τὸν παρακαλοῦντα πρὸς σωτηρίαν ὑμᾶς βλασφημεῖτε καὶ βάλλετε, παροξυνόμενοι πρὸς τὰς ὑπομνήσεις τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων καὶ μηδὲ τοὺς λόγους φέροντες ὧν τἆργα δρᾶτε καθ' ἡμέραν." "5.394 τοῦτο δ', ἡνίκα ̓Αντιόχου τοῦ κληθέντος ̓Επιφανοῦς προσκαθεζομένου τῇ πόλει πολλὰ πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ἐξυβρικότος, οἱ πρόγονοι μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων προῆλθον, αὐτοὶ μὲν ἀπεσφάγησαν ἐν τῇ μάχῃ, διηρπάγη δὲ τὸ ἄστυ τοῖς πολεμίοις, ἠρημώθη δ' ἔτη τρία καὶ μῆνας ἓξ τὸ ἅγιον. καὶ τί δεῖ τἆλλα λέγειν;" "5.395 ἀλλὰ ̔Ρωμαίους τίς ἐστρατολόγησε κατὰ τοῦ ἔθνους; οὐχ ἡ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων ἀσέβεια; πόθεν δ' ἠρξάμεθα δουλείας;" "5.396 ἆρ' οὐχὶ ἐκ στάσεως τῶν προγόνων, ὅτε ἡ ̓Αριστοβούλου καὶ ̔Υρκανοῦ μανία καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔρις Πομπήιον ἐπήγαγεν τῇ πόλει καὶ ̔Ρωμαίοις ὑπέταξεν ὁ θεὸς τοὺς οὐκ ἀξίους ἐλευθερίας;" "5.397 τρισὶ γοῦν μησὶ πολιορκηθέντες ἑαυτοὺς παρέδοσαν, οὔθ' ἁμαρτόντες εἰς τὰ ἅγια καὶ τοὺς νόμους ἡλίκα ὑμεῖς καὶ πολὺ μείζοσιν ἀφορμαῖς πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον χρώμενοι." "5.398 τὸ δ' ̓Αντιγόνου τέλος τοῦ ̓Αριστοβούλου παιδὸς οὐκ ἴσμεν, οὗ βασιλεύοντος ὁ θεὸς ἁλώσει πάλιν τὸν λαὸν ἤλαυνε πλημμελοῦντα, καὶ ̔Ηρώδης μὲν ὁ ̓Αντιπάτρου Σόσσιον, Σόσσιος δὲ ̔Ρωμαίων στρατιὰν ἤγαγεν, περισχεθέντες δ' ἐπὶ μῆνας ἓξ ἐπολιορκοῦντο, μέχρι δίκας τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν δόντες ἑάλωσαν καὶ διηρπάγη τοῖς πολεμίοις ἡ πόλις;" '5.399 οὕτως οὐδέποτε τῷ ἔθνει τὰ ὅπλα δέδοται, τῷ δὲ πολεμεῖσθαι καὶ τὸ ἁλώσεσθαι πάντως πρόσεστι.' "
5.401 ὑμῖν δὲ τί τῶν εὐλογηθέντων ὑπὸ τοῦ νομοθέτου πέπρακται; τί δὲ τῶν ὑπ' ἐκείνου κατηραμένων παραλέλειπται; πόσῳ δ' ἐστὲ τῶν τάχιον ἁλόντων ἀσεβέστεροι;" "5.402 οὐ τὰ κρυπτὰ μὲν τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων ἠδοξήκατε, κλοπὰς λέγω καὶ ἐνέδρας καὶ μοιχείας, ἁρπαγαῖς δ' ἐρίζετε καὶ φόνοις καὶ ξένας καινοτομεῖτε κακίας ὁδούς, ἐκδοχεῖον δὲ πάντων τὸ ἱερὸν γέγονεν καὶ χερσὶν ἐμφυλίοις ὁ θεῖος μεμίανται χῶρος, ὃν καὶ ̔Ρωμαῖοι πόρρωθεν προσεκύνουν, πολλὰ τῶν ἰδίων ἐθῶν εἰς τὸν ὑμέτερον παραλύοντες νόμον." "5.403 εἶτ' ἐπὶ τούτοις τὸν ἀσεβηθέντα σύμμαχον προσδοκᾶτε; πάνυ γοῦν ἐστὲ δίκαιοι ἱκέται καὶ χερσὶ καθαραῖς τὸν βοηθὸν ὑμῶν παρακαλεῖτε." '5.404 τοιαύταις ὁ βασιλεὺς ἡμῶν ἱκέτευσεν ἐπὶ τὸν ̓Ασσύριον, ὅτε τὸν μέγαν ἐκεῖνον στρατὸν μιᾷ νυκτὶ κατέστρωσεν ὁ θεός; ὅμοια δὲ τῷ ̓Ασσυρίῳ ̔Ρωμαῖοι δρῶσιν, ἵνα καὶ ἄμυναν ὑμεῖς ὁμοίαν ἐλπίσητε;' "5.405 οὐχ ὁ μὲν χρήματα παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως ἡμῶν λαβὼν ἐφ' ᾧ μὴ πορθήσει τὴν πόλιν κατέβη παρὰ τοὺς ὅρκους ἐμπρῆσαι τὸν ναόν, ̔Ρωμαῖοι δὲ τὸν συνήθη δασμὸν αἰτοῦσιν, ὃν οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν τοῖς ἐκείνων πατράσι παρέσχον;" "5.406 καὶ τούτου τυχόντες οὔτε πορθοῦσι τὴν πόλιν οὔτε ψαύουσι τῶν ἁγίων, διδόασι δὲ ὑμῖν τὰ ἄλλα, γενεάς τ' ἐλευθέρας καὶ κτήσεις τὰς ἑαυτῶν νέμεσθαι καὶ τοὺς ἱεροὺς νόμους σώζουσι." "5.407 μανία δὴ τὸν θεὸν προσδοκᾶν ἐπὶ δικαίοις οἷος ἐπ' ἀδίκοις ἐφάνη. καὶ παραχρῆμα δὲ ἀμύνειν οἶδεν ὅταν δέῃ: τοὺς γοῦν ̓Ασσυρίους κατὰ νύκτα τὴν πρώτην παραστρατοπεδευσαμένους ἔκλασεν:" "5.408 ὥστ' εἰ καὶ τὴν ἡμετέραν γενεὰν ἐλευθερίας ἢ ̔Ρωμαίους κολάσεως ἀξίους ἔκρινε, κἂν παραχρῆμα καθάπερ τοῖς ̓Ασσυρίοις ἐνέσκηψεν, ὅτε τοῦ ἔθνους ἥπτετο Πομπήιος, ὅτε μετ' αὐτὸν ἀνῄει Σόσσιος, ὅτε Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἐπόρθει τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, τὰ τελευταῖα νῦν, ὅτε ἤγγιζε Τίτος τῇ πόλει." "5.409 καίτοι Μάγνος μὲν καὶ Σόσσιος πρὸς τῷ μηδὲν παθεῖν καὶ ἀνὰ κράτος ἔλαβον τὴν πόλιν, Οὐεσπασιανὸς δ' ἐκ τοῦ πρὸς ἡμᾶς πολέμου καὶ βασιλείας ἤρξατο: Τίτῳ μὲν γὰρ καὶ πηγαὶ πλουσιώτεραι ῥέουσιν αἱ ξηρανθεῖσαι πρότερον ὑμῖν:" "5.411 τό γε μὴν τέρας τοῦτο πεπείραται καὶ πρότερον ἐφ' ἁλώσει τῆς πόλεως γεγενημένον, ὅτε ὁ προειρημένος Βαβυλώνιος ἐπεστράτευσεν, ὃς τήν τε πόλιν ἑλὼν ἐνέπρησε καὶ τὸν ναόν, οὐδὲν οἶμαι τῶν τότε ἠσεβηκότων τηλικοῦτον ἡλίκα ὑμεῖς:" "5.412 ὥστε ἐγὼ πεφευγέναι μὲν ἐκ τῶν ἁγίων οἶμαι τὸ θεῖον, ἑστάναι δὲ παρ' οἷς πολεμεῖτε νῦν." "5.413 ἀλλ' ἀνὴρ μὲν ἀγαθὸς οἰκίαν ἀσελγῆ φεύξεται καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ στυγήσει, τὸν δὲ θεὸν ἔτι πείθεσθε τοῖς οἰκείοις κακοῖς παραμένειν, ὃς τά τε κρυπτὰ πάντα ἐφορᾷ καὶ τῶν σιγωμένων ἀκούει;" "5.414 τί δὲ σιγᾶται παρ' ὑμῖν ἢ τί κρύπτεται; τί δ' οὐχὶ καὶ τοῖς ἐχθροῖς φανερὸν γέγονε; πομπεύετε γὰρ παρανομοῦντες καὶ καθ' ἡμέραν ἐρίζετε, τίς χείρων γένηται, τῆς ἀδικίας ὥσπερ ἀρετῆς ἐπίδειξιν ποιούμενοι." '5.415 καταλείπεται δὲ ὅμως ἔτι σωτηρίας ὁδός, ἐὰν θέλητε, καὶ τὸ θεῖον εὐδιάλλακτον ἐξομολογουμένοις καὶ μετανοοῦσιν. 5.416 ὦ σιδήρειοι, ῥίψατε τὰς πανοπλίας, λάβετε ἤδη κατερειπομένης αἰδῶ πατρίδος, ἐπιστράφητε καὶ θεάσασθε τὸ κάλλος ἧς προδίδοτε, οἷον ἄστυ, οἷον ἱερόν, ὅσων ἐθνῶν δῶρα.' "5.417 ἐπὶ ταῦτά τις ὁδηγεῖ φλόγα; ταῦτά τις μηκέτ' εἶναι θέλει; καὶ τί σώζεσθαι τούτων ἀξιώτερον, ἄτεγκτοι καὶ λίθων ἀπαθέστεροι." '5.418 καὶ εἰ μὴ ταῦτα γνησίοις ὄμμασιν βλέπετε, γενεὰς γοῦν ὑμετέρας οἰκτείρατε, καὶ πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ἑκάστῳ γενέσθω τέκνα καὶ γυνὴ καὶ γονεῖς, οὓς ἀναλώσει μετὰ μικρὸν ἢ λιμὸς ἢ πόλεμος.' "5.419 οἶδ' ὅτι μοι συγκινδυνεύει μήτηρ καὶ γυνὴ καὶ γένος οὐκ ἄσημον καὶ πάλαι λαμπρὸς οἶκος, καὶ τάχα δοκῶ διὰ ταῦτα συμβουλεύειν. ἀποκτείνατε αὐτούς, λάβετε μισθὸν τῆς ἑαυτῶν σωτηρίας τὸ ἐμὸν αἷμα: κἀγὼ θνήσκειν ἕτοιμος, εἰ μετ' ἐμὲ σωφρονεῖν μέλλετε.”" 5.519 Περιιὼν δὲ ταύτας ὁ Τίτος ὡς ἐθεάσατο πεπλησμένας τῶν νεκρῶν καὶ βαθὺν ἰχῶρα μυδώντων ὑπορρέοντα τῶν σωμάτων, ἐστέναξέ τε καὶ τὰς χεῖρας ἀνατείνας κατεμαρτύρατο τὸν θεόν, ὡς οὐκ εἴη τὸ ἔργον αὐτοῦ.
5.541 Κἀν τούτῳ περιιὼν ̓Ιώσηπος, οὐ γὰρ ἀνίει παρακαλῶν, βάλλεται τὴν κεφαλὴν λίθῳ καὶ παραχρῆμα πίπτει καρωθείς. ἐκδρομὴ δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ πτῶμα τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων γίνεται, κἂν ἔφθη συρεὶς εἰς τὴν πόλιν, εἰ μὴ ταχέως Καῖσαρ ἔπεμψε τοὺς ὑπερασπίζοντας.' "5.542 μαχομένων δὲ τούτων ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος μὲν αἴρεται βραχύ τι τῶν πραττομένων ἐπαί̈ων, οἱ στασιασταὶ δ' ὡς ἀνελόντες ὃν ἐπεθύμουν μάλιστα μετὰ χαρᾶς ἀνεβόων." "5.543 διαγγέλλεταί τε εἰς τὴν πόλιν, καὶ τὸ καταλειπόμενον πλῆθος ἐπέσχεν ἀθυμία πεπεισμένους οἴχεσθαι τῷ ὄντι δι' ὃν αὐτομολεῖν ἐθάρρουν." '5.544 ἀκούσασα δὲ ἡ τοῦ ̓Ιωσήπου μήτηρ ἐν τῷ δεσμωτηρίῳ τεθνάναι τὸν υἱόν, πρὸς μὲν τοὺς φύλακας ἀπὸ ̓Ιωταπάτων τοῦτο ἔφη πεπεῖσθαι: καὶ γὰρ οὐδὲ ζῶντος ἀπολαύειν:' "5.545 ἰδίᾳ δὲ ὀλοφυρομένη πρὸς τὰς θεραπαινίδας τοῦτον εἰληφέναι τῆς εὐτεκνίας ἔλεγε καρπὸν τὸ μηδὲ θάψαι τὸν υἱόν, ὑφ' οὗ ταφήσεσθαι προσεδόκησεν." '5.546 ἀλλὰ γὰρ οὔτε ταύτην ἐπὶ πλέον ὠδύνα τὸ ψεῦδος οὔτε τοὺς λῃστὰς ἔθαλπε: ταχέως γὰρ ἐκ τῆς πληγῆς ἀνήνεγκεν ὁ ̓Ιώσηπος, καὶ προελθὼν τοὺς μὲν οὐκ εἰς μακρὰν ἐβόα δίκας αὐτῷ δώσειν τοῦ τραύματος, τὸν δὲ δῆμον ἐπὶ πίστιν πάλιν προυκαλεῖτο. 5.547 θάρσος δὲ τῷ λαῷ καὶ τοῖς στασιασταῖς ἔκπληξις ἐμπίπτει πρὸς τὴν ὄψιν αὐτοῦ.' "
6.216 ἀντὶ δὲ εἰρήνης πόλεμον, πρὸ κόρου δὲ καὶ εὐθηνίας λιμὸν αἱρουμένους, ἰδίαις δὲ χερσὶν ἀρξαμένους καίειν τὸ συντηρούμενον ὑφ' ἡμῶν ἱερὸν αὐτοῖς, εἶναι καὶ τοιαύτης τροφῆς ἀξίους." "
6.236 Τῇ δ' ἐπιούσῃ Τίτος μέρει τῆς δυνάμεως σβεννύειν τε καὶ τὰ παρὰ τὰς πύλας ὁδοποιεῖν εἰς εὐμαρεστέραν τῶν ταγμάτων ἄνοδον κελεύσας αὐτὸς συνῆγε τοὺς ἡγεμόνας." '6.237 καὶ συνελθόντων ἓξ τῶν κορυφαιοτάτων, Τιβερίου τε ̓Αλεξάνδρου τοῦ πάντων τῶν στρατευμάτων ἐπάρχοντος, καὶ Σέξτου Κερεαλίου τοῦ τὸ πέμπτον ἄγοντος τάγμα, καὶ Λαρκίου Λεπίδου τὸ δέκατον, καὶ Τίτου Φρυγίου τὸ πεντεκαιδέκατον, 6.238 πρὸς οἷς Φρόντων ἦν ̔Ετέριος στρατοπεδάρχης τῶν ἀπὸ ̓Αλεξανδρείας δύο ταγμάτων, καὶ Μᾶρκος ̓Αντώνιος ̓Ιουλιανὸς ὁ τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας ἐπίτροπος, καὶ μετὰ τούτους ἐπιτρόπων καὶ χιλιάρχων ἀθροισθέντων, βουλὴν περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ προυτίθει.' "6.239 τοῖς μὲν οὖν ἐδόκει χρῆσθαι τῷ τοῦ πολέμου νόμῳ: μὴ γὰρ ἄν ποτε ̓Ιουδαίους παύσασθαι νεωτερίζοντας τοῦ ναοῦ μένοντος, ἐφ' ὃν οἱ πανταχόθεν συλλέγονται." "6.241 ὁ δὲ Τίτος οὐδ' ἂν ἐπιβάντες ἐπ' αὐτοῦ πολεμῶσιν ̓Ιουδαῖοι φήσας ἀντὶ τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀμυνεῖσθαι τὰ ἄψυχα οὐδὲ καταφλέξειν ποτὲ τηλικοῦτον ἔργον: ̔Ρωμαίων γὰρ ἔσεσθαι τὴν βλάβην, ὥσπερ καὶ κόσμον τῆς ἡγεμονίας αὐτοῦ μένοντος:" '6.242 θαρροῦντες δὲ ἤδη προσετίθεντο τῇ γνώμῃ Φρόντων τε καὶ ̓Αλέξανδρος καὶ Κερεάλιος. 6.243 τότε μὲν οὖν διαλύει τὸ συνέδριον καὶ τὰς ἄλλας δυνάμεις διαναπαῦσαι κελεύσας τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν, ὅπως ἐρρωμενεστέροις ἐν τῇ παρατάξει χρήσαιτο, τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν σπειρῶν ἐπιλέκτοις ὁδοποιεῖν διὰ τῶν ἐρειπίων προσέταξε καὶ τὸ πῦρ σβεννύειν.' "6.244 Κατ' ἐκείνην μὲν δὴ τὴν ἡμέραν τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων κάματός τε καὶ κατάπληξις ἐκράτησε τὰς ὁρμάς: τῇ δ' ἐπιούσῃ συλλεξάμενοί τε τὴν ἰσχὺν καὶ ἀναθαρσήσαντες ἐπεκθέουσι διὰ τῆς ἀνατολικῆς πύλης τοῖς φύλαξι τοῦ ἔξωθεν ἱεροῦ περὶ δευτέραν ὥραν." "6.245 οἱ δὲ καρτερῶς μὲν ἐδέξαντο αὐτῶν τὴν ἐμβολὴν καὶ φραξάμενοι τοῖς θυρεοῖς κατὰ μέτωπον ὥσπερ τεῖχος ἐπύκνωσαν τὴν φάλαγγα, δῆλοι δ' ἦσαν οὐκ ἐπὶ πολὺ συμμενοῦντες πλήθει τε τῶν ἐκτρεχόντων καὶ θυμοῖς ἡττώμενοι." '6.246 φθάσας δὲ τῆς παρατάξεως τὴν ῥοπὴν Καῖσαρ, καθεώρα γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ̓Αντωνίας, ἐπήμυνε μετὰ τῶν ἐπιλέκτων ἱππέων. 6.247 ̓Ιουδαῖοι δὲ τὴν ἔφοδον οὐχ ὑπέμειναν, ἀλλὰ τῶν πρώτων πεσόντων ἐτράπησαν οἱ πολλοί: 6.248 καὶ ὑποχωροῦσι μὲν τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐπιστρεφόμενοι προσέκειντο, μεταβαλλομένων δὲ ἀνέφευγον πάλιν, ἕως περὶ πέμπτην τῆς ἡμέρας ὥραν οἱ μὲν βιασθέντες εἰς τὸ ἔνδον συνεκλείσθησαν ἱερόν. 6.249 Τίτος δὲ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν ̓Αντωνίαν διεγνωκὼς τῆς ἐπιούσης ἡμέρας ὑπὸ τὴν ἕω μετὰ πάσης ἐμβαλεῖν τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ τὸν ναὸν περικατασχεῖν.' "
6.251 λαμβάνουσι δ' αἱ φλόγες ἐκ τῶν οἰκείων τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν: ὑποχωρήσαντος γὰρ τοῦ Τίτου πρὸς ὀλίγον λωφήσαντες οἱ στασιασταὶ πάλιν τοῖς ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐπιτίθενται, καὶ τῶν τοῦ ναοῦ φρουρῶν γίνεται συμβολὴ πρὸς τοὺς σβεννύντας τὸ πῦρ τοῦ ἔνδοθεν ἱεροῦ, οἳ τρεψάμενοι τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους μέχρι τοῦ ναοῦ παρηκολούθουν." "6.252 ἔνθα δὴ τῶν στρατιωτῶν τις οὔτε παράγγελμα περιμείνας οὔτ' ἐπὶ τηλικούτῳ δείσας ἐγχειρήματι, δαιμονίῳ ὁρμῇ τινι χρώμενος ἁρπάζει μὲν ἐκ τῆς φλεγομένης † φλογός, ἀνακουφισθεὶς δὲ ὑπὸ συστρατιώτου τὸ πῦρ ἐνίησι θυρίδι χρυσῇ, καθ' ἣν εἰς τοὺς περὶ τὸν ναὸν οἴκους εἰσιτὸν ἦν ἐκ τοῦ βορείου κλίματος." "6.253 αἰρομένης δὲ τῆς φλογὸς ̓Ιουδαίων μὲν ἐγείρεται κραυγὴ τοῦ πάθους ἀξία, καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἄμυναν συνέθεον, οὔτε τοῦ ζῆν ἔτι φειδὼ λαμβάνοντες οὔτε ταμιευόμενοι τὴν ἰσχύν, δι' ὃ φυλακτικοὶ πρότερον ἦσαν οἰχομένου." '6.254 Δραμὼν δέ τις ἀγγέλλει Τίτῳ: κἀκεῖνος, ἔτυχεν δὲ κατὰ σκηνὴν ἀναπαυόμενος ἐκ τῆς μάχης, ὡς εἶχεν ἀναπηδήσας ἔθει πρὸς τὸν ναὸν εἴρξων τὸ πῦρ. 6.255 κατόπιν δὲ οἵ τε ἡγεμόνες εἵποντο πάντες, καὶ πτοηθέντα τούτοις ἠκολούθει τὰ τάγματα: βοὴ δὲ ἦν καὶ θόρυβος ἅτε τηλικαύτης δυνάμεως ἀτάκτως κεκινημένης. 6.256 ὁ μὲν οὖν Καῖσαρ τῇ τε φωνῇ καὶ τῇ δεξιᾷ διεσήμαινε τοῖς μαχομένοις τὸ πῦρ σβεννύειν, οὔτε δὲ βοῶντος ἤκουον μείζονι κραυγῇ τὰς ἀκοὰς προκατειλημμένοι καὶ τοῖς νεύμασι τῆς χειρὸς οὐ προσεῖχον, οἱ μὲν τῷ πολεμεῖν, οἱ δὲ ὀργῇ περισπώμενοι.' "6.257 τῶν δὲ ταγμάτων εἰσθεόντων οὔτε παραίνεσις οὔτ' ἀπειλὴ κατεῖχεν τὰς ὁρμάς, ἀλλ' ὁ θυμὸς ἁπάντων ἐστρατήγει: καὶ περὶ τὰς εἰσόδους συνωθούμενοι πολλοὶ μὲν ὑπ' ἀλλήλων κατεπατοῦντο, πολλοὶ δὲ θερμοῖς ἔτι καὶ τυφομένοις τοῖς ἐρειπίοις τῶν στοῶν ἐμπίπτοντες ἡττωμένων συμφοραῖς ἐχρῶντο." '6.258 πλησίον δὲ τοῦ ναοῦ γινόμενοι τῶν μὲν τοῦ Καίσαρος παραγγελμάτων προσεποιοῦντο μηδὲ κατακούειν, τοῖς πρὸ αὐτῶν δὲ τὸ πῦρ ἐνιέναι παρεκελεύοντο.' "6.259 τῶν δὲ στασιαστῶν ἀμηχανία μὲν ἦν ἤδη τοῦ βοηθεῖν, φόνος δὲ πανταχοῦ καὶ τροπή. τὸ δὲ πλέον ἀπὸ τοῦ δήμου λαὸς ἀσθενὴς καὶ ἄνοπλος ὅπου καταληφθείη τις ἀπεσφάττετο, καὶ περὶ μὲν τὸν βωμὸν πλῆθος ἐσωρεύετο νεκρῶν, κατὰ δὲ τῶν τοῦ ναοῦ βάθρων αἷμά τ' ἔρρει πολὺ καὶ τὰ τῶν ἄνω φονευομένων σώματα κατωλίσθανε." 6.261 τῆς φλογὸς δὲ οὐδέπω διικνουμένης οὐδαμόθεν εἴσω, τοὺς δὲ περὶ τὸν ναὸν οἴκους νεμομένης, νομίσας, ὅπερ ἦν, ἔτι σώζεσθαι τὸ ἔργον δύνασθαι προπηδᾷ, 6.262 καὶ αὐτός τε παρακαλεῖν τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐπειρᾶτο τὸ πῦρ σβεννύειν καὶ Λιβεράλιον ἑκατοντάρχην τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν λογχοφόρων ξύλοις παίοντα τοὺς ἀπειθοῦντας ἐκέλευσεν εἴργειν. 6.263 τῶν δὲ καὶ τὴν πρὸς τὸν Καίσαρα αἰδῶ καὶ τὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ κωλύοντος φόβον ἐνίκων οἱ θυμοὶ καὶ τὸ πρὸς ̓Ιουδαίους μῖσος, καὶ πολεμική τις ὁρμὴ λαβροτέρα: 6.264 τοὺς δὲ πολλοὺς ἐνῆγεν ἁρπαγῆς ἐλπίς, δόξαν τε ἔχοντας ὡς τὰ ἔνδον ἅπαντα χρημάτων μεστὰ εἴη, καὶ τὰ πέριξ ὁρῶντας χρυσοῦ πεποιημένα. 6.265 φθάνει δέ τις καὶ τῶν εἴσω παρεληλυθότων ἐκπηδήσαντος τοῦ Καίσαρος πρὸς ἐποχὴν τῶν στρατιωτῶν πῦρ εἰς τοὺς στροφέας ἐμβαλὼν τῆς πύλης † ἐν σκότῳ: 6.266 τότε γὰρ ἐξαπίνης ἔνδοθεν ἐκφανείσης φλογὸς οἵ τε ἡγεμόνες μετὰ τοῦ Καίσαρος ἀνεχώρουν, καὶ τοὺς ἔξωθεν οὐδεὶς ὑφάπτειν ἐκώλυεν. ὁ μὲν οὖν ναὸς οὕτως ἄκοντος Καίσαρος ἐμπίπραται.
7.45 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ τὸ πρᾶγμα ὑποπτεύσας ἀναζητεῖ τὴν ἀλήθειαν καὶ γνοὺς ἄδικον τὴν αἰτίαν τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἐπενηνεγμένην τοὺς μὲν ἀφίησι τῶν ἐγκλημάτων Τίτου σπουδάσαντος, δίκην δ' ἐπέθηκεν ̓Ιωνάθῃ τὴν προσήκουσαν: ζῶν γὰρ κατεκαύθη πρότερον αἰκισθείς." "
7.45 τὸν αὐτὸν δὲ τρόπον καὶ τῶν μετὰ ταῦτα βασιλέων αὐτοῖς προσφερομένων εἴς τε πλῆθος ἐπέδωκαν καὶ τῇ κατασκευῇ καὶ τῇ πολυτελείᾳ τῶν ἀναθημάτων τὸ ἱερὸν ἐξελάμπρυναν, ἀεί τε προσαγόμενοι ταῖς θρησκείαις πολὺ πλῆθος ̔Ελλήνων, κἀκείνους τρόπῳ τινὶ μοῖραν αὐτῶν πεποίηντο.' "
7.73 προτρέπεται δὲ τὰ πλήθη πρὸς εὐωχίαν καὶ κατὰ φυλὰς καὶ γένη καὶ γειτονίας ποιούμενοι τὰς ἑστιάσεις ηὔχοντο τῷ θεῷ σπένδοντες αὐτόν τ' ἐπὶ πλεῖστον χρόνον Οὐεσπασιανὸν ἐπιμεῖναι τῇ ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίᾳ, καὶ παισὶν αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῖς ἐξ ἐκείνων ἀεὶ γινομένοις φυλαχθῆναι τὸ κράτος ἀνανταγώνιστον." '7.121 οὐ πολλῶν δὲ ἡμερῶν διελθουσῶν ἕνα καὶ κοινὸν ἔγνωσαν τὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς κατωρθωμένοις ποιήσασθαι θρίαμβον, καίπερ ἑκατέρῳ τῆς βουλῆς ἴδιον ψηφισαμένης. 7.123 Τοῦ δὲ στρατιωτικοῦ παντὸς ἔτι νύκτωρ κατὰ λόχους καὶ τάξεις ὑπὸ τοῖς ἡγεμόσι διεξωδευκότος καὶ περὶ θύρας ὄντος οὐ τῶν ἄνω βασιλείων ἀλλὰ πλησίον τοῦ τῆς ̓́Ισιδος ἱεροῦ, ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἀνεπαύοντο τῆς νυκτὸς ἐκείνης οἱ αὐτοκράτορες,
7.128 καὶ πολλῆς ἐκ πάντων ἡσυχίας γενομένης ἀναστὰς καὶ τῷ περιβλήματι τὸ πλέον τῆς κεφαλῆς μέρος ἐπικαλυψάμενος εὐχὰς ἐποιήσατο τὰς νενομισμένας: ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Τίτος ηὔξατο.
7.131 ἐνταῦθα τροφῆς τε προαπογεύονται καὶ τὰς θριαμβικὰς ἐσθῆτας ἀμφιασάμενοι τοῖς τε παριδρυμένοις τῇ πύλῃ θύσαντες θεοῖς ἔπεμπον τὸν θρίαμβον διὰ τῶν θεάτρων διεξελαύνοντες, ὅπως εἴη τοῖς πλήθεσιν ἡ θέα ῥᾴων. 7.132 ̓Αμήχανον δὲ κατὰ τὴν ἀξίαν εἰπεῖν τῶν θεαμάτων ἐκείνων τὸ πλῆθος καὶ τὴν μεγαλοπρέπειαν ἐν ἅπασιν οἷς ἄν τις ἐπινοήσειεν ἢ τεχνῶν ἔργοις ἢ πλούτου μέρεσιν ἢ φύσεως σπανιότησιν:' "7.133 σχεδὸν γὰρ ὅσα τοῖς πώποτε ἀνθρώποις εὐδαιμονήσασιν ἐκτήθη κατὰ μέρος ἄλλα παρ' ἄλλοις θαυμαστὰ καὶ πολυτελῆ, ταῦτα ἐπὶ τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης ἀθρόα τῆς ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίας ἔδειξε τὸ μέγεθος." "7.134 ἀργύρου γὰρ καὶ χρυσοῦ καὶ ἐλέφαντος ἐν παντοίαις ἰδέαις κατασκευασμάτων ἦν ὁρᾶν οὐχ ὥσπερ ἐν πομπῇ κομιζόμενον πλῆθος, ἀλλ' ὡς ἂν εἴποι τις ῥέοντα ποταμόν, καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐκ πορφύρας ὑφάσματα τῆς σπανιωτάτης φερόμενα, τὰ δ' εἰς ἀκριβῆ ζωγραφίαν πεποικιλμένα τῇ Βαβυλωνίων τέχνῃ:" "7.135 λίθοι τε διαφανεῖς, οἱ μὲν χρυσοῖς ἐμπεπλεγμένοι στεφάνοις, οἱ δὲ κατ' ἄλλας ποιήσεις, τοσοῦτοι παρηνέχθησαν, ὥστε μαθεῖν ὅτι μάτην εἶναί τι τούτων σπάνιον ὑπειλήφαμεν." "7.136 ἐφέρετο δὲ καὶ θεῶν ἀγάλματα τῶν παρ' αὐτοῖς μεγέθεσι θαυμαστὰ καὶ κατὰ τὴν τέχνην οὐ παρέργως πεποιημένα, καὶ τούτων οὐδέν, ὅ τι μὴ τῆς ὕλης τῆς πολυτελοῦς, ζῴων τε πολλαὶ φύσεις παρήγοντο κόσμον οἰκεῖον ἁπάντων περικειμένων." "7.137 ἦν δὲ καὶ τὸ κομίζον ἕκαστα τούτων πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων ἁλουργαῖς ἐσθῆσι καὶ διαχρύσοις κεκοσμημένον, οἵ τ' εἰς αὐτὸ τὸ πομπεύειν διακριθέντες ἐξαίρετον εἶχον καὶ καταπληκτικὴν περὶ αὐτοὺς τοῦ κόσμου τὴν πολυτέλειαν." "7.138 ἐπὶ τούτοις οὐδὲ τὸν αἰχμάλωτον ἦν ἰδεῖν ὄχλον ἀκόσμητον, ἀλλ' ἡ τῶν ἐσθήτων ποικιλία καὶ τὸ κάλλος αὐτοῖς τὴν ἀπὸ τῆς κακώσεως τῶν σωμάτων ἀηδίαν ἔκλεπτε τῆς ὄψεως." "7.139 θαῦμα δ' ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα παρεῖχεν ἡ τῶν φερομένων πηγμάτων κατασκευή: καὶ γὰρ διὰ μέγεθος ἦν δεῖσαι τῷ βεβαίῳ τῆς φορᾶς ἀπιστήσαντα," '7.141 καὶ γὰρ ὑφάσματα πολλοῖς διάχρυσα περιβέβλητο, καὶ χρυσὸς καὶ ἐλέφας οὐκ ἀποίητος πᾶσι περιεπεπήγει. 7.142 διὰ πολλῶν δὲ μιμημάτων ὁ πόλεμος ἄλλος εἰς ἄλλα μεμερισμένος ἐναργεστάτην ὄψιν αὑτοῦ παρεῖχεν:' "7.143 ἦν γὰρ ὁρᾶν χώραν μὲν εὐδαίμονα δῃουμένην, ὅλας δὲ φάλαγγας κτεινομένας πολεμίων, καὶ τοὺς μὲν φεύγοντας τοὺς δ' εἰς αἰχμαλωσίαν ἀγομένους, τείχη δ' ὑπερβάλλοντα μεγέθει μηχαναῖς ἐρειπόμενα καὶ φρουρίων ἁλισκομένας ὀχυρότητας καὶ πόλεων πολυανθρώπους περιβόλους κατ' ἄκρας ἐχομένους," '7.144 καὶ στρατιὰν ἔνδον τειχῶν εἰσχεομένην, καὶ πάντα φόνου πλήθοντα τόπον, καὶ τῶν ἀδυνάτων χεῖρας ἀνταίρειν ἱκεσίας, πῦρ τε ἐνιέμενον ἱεροῖς καὶ κατασκαφὰς οἴκων ἐπὶ τοῖς δεσπόταις, 7.145 καὶ μετὰ πολλὴν ἐρημίαν καὶ κατήφειαν ποταμοὺς ῥέοντας οὐκ ἐπὶ γῆν γεωργουμένην, οὐδὲ ποτὸν ἀνθρώποις ἢ βοσκήμασιν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἐπιπανταχόθεν φλεγομένης: ταῦτα γὰρ ̓Ιουδαῖοι πεισομένους αὑτοὺς τῷ πολέμῳ παρέδοσαν.' "7.146 ἡ τέχνη δὲ καὶ τῶν κατασκευασμάτων ἡ μεγαλουργία τοῖς οὐκ ἰδοῦσι γινόμενα τότ' ἐδείκνυεν ὡς παροῦσι." "7.147 τέτακτο δ' ἐφ' ἑκάστῳ τῶν πηγμάτων ὁ τῆς ἁλισκομένης πόλεως στρατηγὸς ὃν τρόπον ἐλήφθη." "7.148 πολλαὶ δὲ καὶ νῆες εἵποντο. λάφυρα δὲ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα χύδην ἐφέρετο, διέπρεπε δὲ πάντων τὰ ἐγκαταληφθέντα τῷ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἱερῷ, χρυσῆ τε τράπεζα τὴν ὁλκὴν πολυτάλαντος καὶ λυχνία χρυσῆ μὲν ὁμοίως πεποιημένη, τὸ δ' ἔργον ἐξήλλακτο τῆς κατὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν χρῆσιν συνηθείας." "7.149 ὁ μὲν γὰρ μέσος ἦν κίων ἐκ τῆς βάσεως πεπηγώς, λεπτοὶ δ' ἀπ' αὐτοῦ μεμήκυντο καυλίσκοι τριαίνης σχήματι παραπλησίαν τὴν θέσιν ἔχοντες, λύχνον ἕκαστος αὐτῶν ἐπ' ἄκρον κεχαλκευμένος: ἑπτὰ δ' ἦσαν οὗτοι τῆς παρὰ τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις ἑβδομάδος τὴν τιμὴν ἐμφανίζοντες." "7.151 ἐπὶ τούτοις παρῄεσαν πολλοὶ Νίκης ἀγάλματα κομίζοντες: ἐξ ἐλέφαντος δ' ἦν πάντων καὶ χρυσοῦ ἡ κατασκευή." "7.152 μεθ' ἃ Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἤλαυνε πρῶτος καὶ Τίτος εἵπετο, Δομετιανὸς δὲ παρίππευεν, αὐτός τε διαπρεπῶς κεκοσμημένος καὶ τὸν ἵππον παρέχων θέας ἄξιον." "7.153 ̓͂Ην δὲ τῆς πομπῆς τὸ τέλος ἐπὶ τὸν νεὼ τοῦ Καπετωλίου Διός, ἐφ' ὃν ἐλθόντες ἔστησαν: ἦν γὰρ παλαιὸν πάτριον περιμένειν, μέχρις ἂν τὸν τοῦ στρατηγοῦ τῶν πολεμίων θάνατον ἀπαγγείλῃ τις." "7.154 Σίμων οὗτος ἦν ὁ Γιώρα, τότε πεπομπευκὼς ἐν τοῖς αἰχμαλώτοις, βρόχῳ δὲ περιβληθεὶς εἰς τὸν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς ἐσύρετο τόπον αἰκιζομένων αὐτὸν ἅμα τῶν ἀγόντων: νόμος δ' ἐστὶ ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐκεῖ κτείνειν τοὺς ἐπὶ κακουργίᾳ θάνατον κατεγνωσμένους." "7.155 ἐπεὶ δ' ἀπηγγέλθη τέλος ἔχων καὶ πάντες εὐφήμησαν, ἤρχοντο τῶν θυσιῶν, ἃς ἐπὶ ταῖς νομιζομέναις καλλιερήσαντες εὐχαῖς ἀπῄεσαν εἰς τὸ βασίλειον." "7.156 καὶ τοὺς μὲν αὐτοὶ πρὸς εὐωχίαν ὑπεδέχοντο, τοῖς δ' ἄλλοις ἅπασιν εὐτρεπεῖς κατὰ τὸ οἰκεῖον αἱ τῆς ἑστιάσεως ἦσαν παρασκευαί." '7.157 ταύτην γὰρ τὴν ἡμέραν ἡ ̔Ρωμαίων πόλις ἑώρταζεν ἐπινίκιον μὲν τῆς κατὰ τῶν πολεμίων στρατείας, πέρας δὲ τῶν ἐμφυλίων κακῶν, ἀρχὴν δὲ τῶν ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐδαιμονίας ἐλπίδων. 7.158 Μετὰ δὲ τοὺς θριάμβους καὶ τὴν βεβαιοτάτην τῆς ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίας κατάστασιν Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἔγνω τέμενος Εἰρήνης κατασκευάσαι: ταχὺ δὲ δὴ μάλα καὶ πάσης ἀνθρωπίνης κρεῖττον ἐπινοίας ἐτετελείωτο. 7.159 τῇ γὰρ ἐκ τοῦ πλούτου χορηγίᾳ δαιμονίῳ χρησάμενος ἔτι καὶ τοῖς ἔκπαλαι κατωρθωμένοις γραφῆς τε καὶ πλαστικῆς ἔργοις αὐτὸ κατεκόσμησεν:' "7.161 ἀνέθηκε δὲ ἐνταῦθα καὶ τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων χρυσᾶ κατασκευάσματα σεμνυνόμενος ἐπ' αὐτοῖς." '7.162 τὸν δὲ νόμον αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ πορφυρᾶ τοῦ σηκοῦ καταπετάσματα προσέταξεν ἐν τοῖς βασιλείοις ἀποθεμένους φυλάττειν.
7.217 οὐ γὰρ κατῴκισεν ἐκεῖ πόλιν ἰδίαν αὑτῷ τὴν χώραν φυλάττων, ὀκτακοσίοις δὲ μόνοις ἀπὸ τῆς στρατιᾶς διαφειμένοις χωρίον ἔδωκεν εἰς κατοίκησιν, ὃ καλεῖται μὲν ̓Αμμαοῦς, ἀπέχει δὲ τῶν ̔Ιεροσολύμων σταδίους τριάκοντα. 7.218 φόρον δὲ τοῖς ὁπουδηποτοῦν οὖσιν ̓Ιουδαίοις ἐπέβαλεν δύο δραχμὰς ἕκαστον κελεύσας ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος εἰς τὸ Καπετώλιον φέρειν, ὥσπερ πρότερον εἰς τὸν ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις νεὼν συνετέλουν. καὶ τὰ μὲν ̓Ιουδαίων τότε τοιαύτην εἶχε κατάστασιν. 7.219 ̓́Ηδη δὲ ἔτος τέταρτον Οὐεσπασιανοῦ διέποντος τὴν ἡγεμονίαν συνέβη τὸν βασιλέα τῆς Κομμαγηνῆς ̓Αντίοχον μεγάλαις συμφοραῖς πανοικεσίᾳ περιπεσεῖν ἀπὸ τοιαύτης αἰτίας: 7.221 γράμματα πρὸς Καίσαρα διεπέμψατο, λέγων τὸν ̓Αντίοχον μετὰ τοῦ παιδὸς ̓Επιφανοῦς διεγνωκέναι ̔Ρωμαίων ἀφίστασθαι συνθήκας πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Πάρθων πεποιημένον: 7.222 δεῖν οὖν προκαταλαβεῖν αὐτούς, μὴ φθάσαντες τῶν πραγμάτων ἄρξασθαι πᾶσαν τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἀρχὴν πολέμῳ συνταράξωσιν. 7.223 ἔμελλε Καῖσαρ τοιούτου μηνύματος αὐτῷ προσπεσόντος μὴ περιορᾶν: καὶ γὰρ ἡ γειτνίασις τῶν βασιλέων ἐποίει τὸ πρᾶγμα μείζονος ἄξιον προνοίας:' "7.224 τὰ γὰρ Σαμόσατα τῆς Κομμαγηνῆς μεγίστη πόλις κεῖται παρὰ τὸν Εὐφράτην, ὥστ' εἶναι τοῖς Πάρθοις, εἴ τι τοιοῦτον διενενόηντο, ῥᾴστην μὲν τὴν διάβασιν βεβαίαν δὲ τὴν ὑποδοχήν." '7.225 πιστευθεὶς οὖν Παῖτος καὶ λαβὼν ἐξουσίαν πράττειν ἃ δοκεῖ συμφέρειν οὐκ ἐμέλλησεν, ἐξαίφνης δὲ τῶν περὶ τὸν ̓Αντίοχον οὐδὲν προσδοκώντων εἰς τὴν Κομμαγηνὴν ἐνέβαλεν, τῶν μὲν ταγμάτων ἄγων τὸ ἕκτον καὶ πρὸς τούτῳ λόχους καί τινας ἴλας ἱππέων: 7.226 συνεμάχουν δὲ καὶ βασιλεῖς αὐτῷ τῆς μὲν Χαλκιδικῆς λεγομένης ̓Αριστόβουλος, τῆς ̓Εμέσης δὲ καλουμένης Σόαιμος.' "7.227 ἦν δ' αὐτοῖς τὰ περὶ τὴν εἰσβολὴν ἀνανταγώνιστα: τῶν γὰρ κατὰ τὴν χώραν οὐδεὶς ἤθελε χεῖρας ἀνταίρειν." '7.228 ̓Αντίοχος δὲ τῆς ἀγγελίας ἀδοκήτως προσπεσούσης πολέμου μὲν οὐδὲ ἐπίνοιαν πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους ἔσπασεν, ἔγνω δὲ πᾶσαν τὴν βασιλείαν ὡς εἶχεν ἐπὶ σχήματος καταλιπὼν μετὰ γυναικὸς καὶ τέκνων ὑπεξελθεῖν, οὕτως ἂν οἰόμενος καθαρὸν ̔Ρωμαίοις αὑτὸν ἀποδεῖξαι τῆς ἐπενηνεγμένης αἰτίας. 7.229 καὶ προελθὼν ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἑκατὸν σταδίους πρὸς τοῖς εἴκοσιν εἰς τὸ πεδίον ἐν αὐτῷ καταυλίζεται.' "
7.231 οὐ μὴν ὁ βασιλεὺς οὐδ' ὑπὸ τῆς ἀνάγκης προήχθη πρᾶξαί τι πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους πολεμικόν, ἀλλὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ τύχην ὀδυρόμενος ὅ τι δέοι παθεῖν ὑπέμενε:" '7.232 νέοις δὲ καὶ πολέμων ἐμπείροις καὶ ῥώμῃ σωμάτων διαφέρουσιν οὐ ῥᾴδιον ἦν τοῖς παισὶν αὐτοῦ τὴν συμφορὰν ἀμαχεὶ καρτερεῖν: τρέπονται οὖν πρὸς ἀλκὴν ̓Επιφανής τε καὶ Καλλίνικος.' "7.233 σφοδρᾶς δὲ τῆς μάχης καὶ παρ' ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν γενομένης αὐτοὶ τὴν ἀνδρείαν διαπρεπῆ παρέσχον καὶ μηδὲν ἐλαττωθείσῃ τῇ σφετέρᾳ δυνάμει ἑσπέρᾳ διελύθησαν." "7.234 ̓Αντιόχῳ δ' οὐδ' ἐπὶ τῇ μάχῃ τοῦτον κεχωρηκυίᾳ τὸν τρόπον μένειν ἀνεκτὸν ἐδόκει, λαβὼν δὲ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ τὰς θυγατέρας μετ' ἐκείνων ἐποιεῖτο τὴν φυγὴν εἰς Κιλικίαν, καὶ τοῦτο πράξας τὰ φρονήματα τῶν οἰκείων στρατιωτῶν κατέκλασεν:" "7.235 ὡς γὰρ κατεγνωσμένης ὑπ' αὐτοῦ τῆς βασιλείας ἀπέστησαν καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους μετεβάλοντο, καὶ πάντων πρόδηλος ἦν ἀπόγνωσις." "7.236 πρὶν οὖν τελέως ἐρημωθῆναι τῶν συμμάχων τοῖς περὶ τὸν ̓Επιφανῆ σώζειν αὑτοὺς ἐκ τῶν πολεμίων ἦν ἀναγκαῖον, καὶ γίνονται δέκα σύμπαντες ἱππεῖς οἱ μετ' αὐτῶν τὸν Εὐφράτην διαβαλόντες," "7.237 ἔνθεν ἤδη μετ' ἀδείας πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Πάρθων Βολογέσην κομισθέντες οὐχ ὡς φυγάδες ὑπερηφανήθησαν, ἀλλ' ὡς ἔτι τὴν παλαιὰν ἔχοντες εὐδαιμονίαν πάσης τιμῆς ἠξιώθησαν." "7.238 ̓Αντιόχῳ δ' εἰς Ταρσὸν ἀφιγμένῳ τῆς Κιλικίας ἑκατοντάρχην Παῖτος ἐπιπέμψας δεδεμένον αὐτὸν εἰς ̔Ρώμην ἀπέστειλεν." "7.239 Οὐεσπασιανὸς δ' οὕτως οὐχ ὑπέμεινεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀναχθῆναι τὸν βασιλέα, τῆς παλαιᾶς ἀξιῶν φιλίας μᾶλλον αἰδῶ λαβεῖν ἢ διὰ τὴν τοῦ πολέμου πρόφασιν ἀπαραίτητον ὀργὴν διαφυλάττειν." 7.241 ταῦτα τοῖς περὶ τὸν ̓Επιφανῆ πυθομένοις, πρότερον σφόδρα περὶ τοῦ πατρὸς δεδιόσιν ἀνείθησαν αἱ ψυχαὶ μεγάλης καὶ δυσδιαθέτου φροντίδος. 7.242 ἐλπὶς δὲ καὶ αὐτοῖς τῶν παρὰ Καίσαρος διαλλαγῶν ἐγένετο Βολογέσου περὶ αὐτῶν ἐπιστείλαντος: οὐδὲ γὰρ εὐδαιμονοῦντες ὑπέμενον ἔξω τῆς ̔Ρωμαίων ζῆν ἡγεμονίας. 7.243 δόντος δὲ Καίσαρος ἡμέρως αὐτοῖς τὴν ἄδειαν εἰς ̔Ρώμην παρεγένοντο, τοῦ τε πατρὸς ὡς αὐτοὺς ἐκ τῆς Λακεδαίμονος εὐθὺς ἐλθόντος πάσης ἀξιούμενοι τιμῆς κατέμενον ἐνταῦθα.
7.421 ὁ δὲ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων τὴν ἀκατάπαυστον ὑφορώμενος νεωτεροποιίαν καὶ δείσας, μὴ πάλιν εἰς ἓν ἀθρόοι συλλεγῶσι καί τινας αὑτοῖς συνεπισπάσωνται, προσέταξε τῷ Λούππῳ τὸν ἐν τῇ ̓Ονίου καλουμένῃ νεὼν καθελεῖν τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων.' ' None
1.3 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves with fictitious relations. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter.
1.3 I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward am the author of this work.
1.3 When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions.
1.7 1. For after the death of their father, the elder of them, Aristobulus, changed the government into a kingdom, and was the first that put a diadem upon his head, four hundred seventy and one years and three months after our people came down into this country, when they were set free from the Babylonian slavery.
1.7 3. It is true, these writers have the confidence to call their accounts histories; wherein yet they seem to me to fail of their own purpose, as well as to relate nothing that is sound. For they have a mind to demonstrate the greatness of the Romans, while they still diminish and lessen the actions of the Jews, 1.8 And when the old man had said this, he was dejected in his mind, and so continued. But, in a little time, news came that Antigonus was slain in a subterraneous place, which was itself also called Strato’s Tower, by the same name with that Caesarea which lay by the seaside; and this ambiguity it was which caused the prophet’s disorder. 1.8 as not discerning how it cannot be that those must appear to be great who have only conquered those that were little. Nor are they ashamed to overlook the length of the war, the multitude of the Roman forces who so greatly suffered in it, or the might of the commanders, whose great labors about Jerusalem will be deemed inglorious, if what they achieved be reckoned but a small matter.
1.19 4. Thus was Pelusium taken. But still, as they were marching on, those Egyptian Jews that inhabited the country called the country of Onias stopped them. Then did Antipater not only persuade them not to stop them, but to afford provisions for their army; on which account even the people about Memphis would not fight against them, but of their own accord joined Mithridates.
1.19 7. For example, I shall relate how Antiochus, who was named Epiphanes, took Jerusalem by force, and held it three years and three months, and was then ejected out of the country by the sons of Asamoneus: after that, how their posterity quarreled about the government, and brought upon their settlement the Romans and Pompey; how Herod also, the son of Antipater, dissolved their government, and brought Socius upon them;
1.29 3. Now by this time Herod had sailed out of Italy, and was come to Ptolemais; and as soon as he had gotten together no small army of foreigners, and of his own countrymen, he marched through Galilee against Antigonus, wherein he was assisted by Ventidius and Silo, both whom Dellius, a person sent by Antony, persuaded to bring Herod into his kingdom.
1.29 Moreover, what the Romans did to the remains of the wall; and how they demolished the strongholds that were in the country; and how Titus went over the whole country, and settled its affairs; together with his return into Italy, and his triumph.
1.127 he also had been taken at first by force, if Scaurus, the Roman general, had not come and seasonably interposed himself, and raised the siege. This Scaurus was sent into Syria from Armenia by Pompey the Great, when he fought against Tigranes; so Scaurus came to Damascus, which had been lately taken by Metellus and Lollius, and caused them to leave the place; and, upon his hearing how the affairs of Judea stood, he made haste thither as to a certain booty.
1.138 6. But Pompey did not give him time to make any preparations for a siege, but followed him at his heels; he was also obliged to make haste in his attempt, by the death of Mithridates, of which he was informed about Jericho. Now here is the most fruitful country of Judea, which bears a vast number of palm trees besides the balsam tree, whose sprouts they cut with sharp stones, and at the incisions they gather the juice, which drops down like tears.
1.152 6. But there was nothing that affected the nation so much, in the calamities they were then under, as that their holy place, which had been hitherto seen by none, should be laid open to strangers; for Pompey, and those that were about him, went into the temple itself whither it was not lawful for any to enter but the high priest, and saw what was reposited therein, the candlestick with its lamps, and the table, and the pouring vessels, and the censers, all made entirely of gold, as also a great quantity of spices heaped together, with two thousand talents of sacred money. 1.153 Yet did not he touch that money, nor any thing else that was there reposited; but he commanded the ministers about the temple, the very next day after he had taken it, to cleanse it, and to perform their accustomed sacrifices. Moreover, he made Hyrcanus high priest, as one that not only in other respects had showed great alacrity, on his side, during the siege, but as he had been the means of hindering the multitude that was in the country from fighting for Aristobulus, which they were otherwise very ready to have done; by which means he acted the part of a good general, and reconciled the people to him more by benevolence than by terror.
1.179 8. In the meantime, Crassus came as successor to Gabinius in Syria. He took away all the rest of the gold belonging to the temple of Jerusalem, in order to furnish himself for his expedition against the Parthians. He also took away the two thousand talents which Pompey had not touched; but when he had passed over Euphrates, he perished himself, and his army with him; concerning which affairs this is not a proper time to speak more largely.
2.284 4. Now at this time it happened that the Grecians at Caesarea had been too hard for the Jews, and had obtained of Nero the government of the city, and had brought the judicial determination: at the same time began the war, in the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, and the seventeenth of the reign of Agrippa, in the month of Artemisius Jyar. 2.285 Now the occasion of this war was by no means proportionable to those heavy calamities which it brought upon us. For the Jews that dwelt at Caesarea had a synagogue near the place, whose owner was a certain Cesarean Greek: the Jews had endeavored frequently to have purchased the possession of the place, and had offered many times its value for its price; 2.286 but as the owner overlooked their offers, so did he raise other buildings upon the place, in way of affront to them, and made workingshops of them, and left them but a narrow passage, and such as was very troublesome for them to go along to their synagogue. Whereupon the warmer part of the Jewish youth went hastily to the workmen, and forbade them to build there; 2.287 but as Florus would not permit them to use force, the great men of the Jews, with John the publican, being in the utmost distress what to do, persuaded Florus, with the offer of eight talents, to hinder the work. 2.288 He then, being intent upon nothing but getting money, promised he would do for them all they desired of him, and then went away from Caesarea to Sebaste, and left the sedition to take its full course, as if he had sold a license to the Jews to fight it out. 2.289 5. Now on the next day, which was the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a certain man of Caesarea, of a seditious temper, got an earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward, at the entrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. 2.291 Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.292 But John, and twelve of the principal men with him, went to Florus, to Sebaste, and made a lamentable complaint of their case, and besought him to help them; and with all possible decency, put him in mind of the eight talents they had given him; but he had the men seized upon and put in prison, and accused them for carrying the books of the law out of Caesarea.
2.345 4. “Had I perceived that you were all zealously disposed to go to war with the Romans, and that the purer and more sincere part of the people did not propose to live in peace, I had not come out to you, nor been so bold as to give you counsel; for all discourses that tend to persuade men to do what they ought to do are superfluous, when the hearers are agreed to do the contrary. 2.346 But because some are earnest to go to war because they are young, and without experience of the miseries it brings, and because some are for it out of an unreasonable expectation of regaining their liberty, and because others hope to get by it, and are therefore earnestly bent upon it, that in the confusion of your affairs they may gain what belongs to those that are too weak to resist them, I have thought it proper to get you all together, and to say to you what I think to be for your advantage; that so the former may grow wiser, and change their minds, and that the best men may come to no harm by the ill conduct of some others. 2.347 And let not anyone be tumultuous against me, in case what they hear me say does not please them; for as to those that admit of no cure, but are resolved upon a revolt, it will still be in their power to retain the same sentiments after my exhortation is over; but still my discourse will fall to the ground, even with a relation to those that have a mind to hear me, unless you will all keep silence. 2.348 I am well aware that many make a tragical exclamation concerning the injuries that have been offered you by your procurators, and concerning the glorious advantages of liberty; but before I begin the inquiry, who you are that must go to war, and who they are against whom you must fight,—I shall first separate those pretenses that are by some connected together; 2.349 for if you aim at avenging yourselves on those that have done you injury, why do you pretend this to be a war for recovering your liberty? but if you think all servitude intolerable, to what purpose serve your complaints against your particular governors? for if they treated you with moderation, it would still be equally an unworthy thing to be in servitude. 2.351 but when you reproach men greatly for small offenses, you excite those whom you reproach to be your adversaries; for this will only make them leave off hurting you privately, and with some degree of modesty, and to lay what you have waste openly. 2.352 Now nothing so much damps the force of strokes as bearing them with patience; and the quietness of those who are injured diverts the injurious persons from afflicting. But let us take it for granted that the Roman ministers are injurious to you, and are incurably severe; yet are they not all the Romans who thus injure you; nor hath Caesar, against whom you are going to make war, injured you: it is not by their command that any wicked governor is sent to you; for they who are in the west cannot see those that are in the east; nor indeed is it easy for them there even to hear what is done in these parts. 2.353 Now it is absurd to make war with a great many for the sake of one: to do so with such mighty people for a small cause; and this when these people are not able to know of what you complain: 2.354 nay, such crimes as we complain of may soon be corrected, for the same procurator will not continue forever; and probable it is that the successors will come with more moderate inclinations. But as for war, if it be once begun, it is not easily laid down again, nor borne without calamities coming therewith. 2.355 However, as to the desire of recovering your liberty, it is unseasonable to indulge it so late; whereas you ought to have labored earnestly in old time that you might never have lost it; for the first experience of slavery was hard to be endured, and the struggle that you might never have been subject to it would have been just; 2.356 but that slave who hath been once brought into subjection, and then runs away, is rather a refractory slave than a lover of liberty; for it was then the proper time for doing all that was possible, that you might never have admitted the Romans into your city, when Pompey came first into the country. 2.357 But so it was, that our ancestors and their kings, who were in much better circumstances than we are, both as to money, and strong bodies, and valiant souls, did not bear the onset of a small body of the Roman army. And yet you, who have now accustomed yourselves to obedience from one generation to another, and who are so much inferior to those who first submitted, in your circumstances will venture to oppose the entire empire of the Romans. 2.358 While those Athenians, who, in order to preserve the liberty of Greece, did once set fire to their own city; who pursued Xerxes, that proud prince, when he sailed upon the land, and walked upon the sea, and could not be contained by the seas, but conducted such an army as was too broad for Europe; and made him run away like a fugitive in a single ship, and brake so great a part of Asia as the Lesser Salamis; are yet at this time servants to the Romans; and those injunctions which are sent from Italy become laws to the principal governing city of Greece. 2.359 Those Lacedemonians also who got the great victories at Thermopylae and Platea, and had Agesilaus for their king, and searched every corner of Asia, are contented to admit the same lords. 2.361 Moreover, ten thousand other nations there are who had greater reason than we to claim their entire liberty, and yet do submit. You are the only people who think it a disgrace to be servants to those to whom all the world hath submitted. What sort of an army do you rely on? What are the arms you depend on? Where is your fleet, that may seize upon the Roman seas? and where are those treasures which may be sufficient for your undertakings? 2.362 Do you suppose, I pray you, that you are to make war with the Egyptians, and with the Arabians? Will you not carefully reflect upon the Roman empire? Will you not estimate your own weakness? Hath not your army been often beaten even by your neighboring nations, while the power of the Romans is invincible in all parts of the habitable earth? 2.363 nay, rather they seek for somewhat still beyond that; for all Euphrates is not a sufficient boundary for them on the east side, nor the Danube on the north; and for their southern limit, Libya hath been searched over by them, as far as countries uninhabited, as is Cadiz their limit on the west; nay, indeed, they have sought for another habitable earth beyond the ocean, and have carried their arms as far as such British islands as were never known before. 2.364 What therefore do you pretend to? Are you richer than the Gauls, stronger than the Germans, wiser than the Greeks, more numerous than all men upon the habitable earth? What confidence is it that elevates you to oppose the Romans? 2.365 Perhaps it will be said, It is hard to endure slavery. Yes; but how much harder is this to the Greeks, who were esteemed the noblest of all people under the sun! These, though they inhabit in a large country, are in subjection to six bundles of Roman rods. It is the same case with the Macedonians, who have juster reason to claim their liberty than you have. 2.366 What is the case of five hundred cities of Asia? Do they not submit to a single governor, and to the consular bundle of rods? What need I speak of the Heniochi, and Colchi and the nation of Tauri, those that inhabit the Bosphorus, and the nations about Pontus, and Meotis, 2.367 who formerly knew not so much as a lord of their own, but are now subject to three thousand armed men, and where forty long ships keep the sea in peace, which before was not navigable, and very tempestuous? 2.368 How strong a plea may Bithynia, and Cappadocia, and the people of Pamphylia, the Lycians, and Cilicians, put in for liberty! But they are made tributary without an army. What are the circumstances of the Thracians, whose country extends in breadth five days’ journey, and in length seven, and is of a much more harsh constitution, and much more defensible, than yours, and by the rigor of its cold sufficient to keep off armies from attacking them? do not they submit to two thousand men of the Roman garrisons? 2.369 Are not the Illyrians, who inhabit the country adjoining, as far as Dalmatia and the Danube, governed by barely two legions? by which also they put a stop to the incursions of the Dacians. And for the
2.371 Moreover, if great advantages might provoke any people to revolt, the Gauls might do it best of all, as being so thoroughly walled round by nature; on the east side by the Alps, on the north by the river Rhine, on the south by the Pyrenean mountains, and on the west by the ocean. 2.372 Now, although these Gauls have such obstacles before them to prevent any attack upon them, and have no fewer than three hundred and five nations among them, nay have, as one may say, the fountains of domestic happiness within themselves, and send out plentiful streams of happiness over almost the whole world, these bear to be tributary to the Romans, and derive their prosperous condition from them; 2.373 and they undergo this, not because they are of effeminate minds, or because they are of an ignoble stock, as having borne a war of eighty years in order to preserve their liberty; but by reason of the great regard they have to the power of the Romans, and their good fortune, which is of greater efficacy than their arms. These Gauls, therefore, are kept in servitude by twelve hundred soldiers, which are hardly so many as are their cities; 2.374 nor hath the gold dug out of the mines of Spain been sufficient for the support of a war to preserve their liberty, nor could their vast distance from the Romans by land and by sea do it; nor could the martial tribes of the Lusitanians and Spaniards escape; no more could the ocean, with its tide, which yet was terrible to the ancient inhabitants. 2.375 Nay, the Romans have extended their arms beyond the pillars of Hercules, and have walked among the clouds, upon the Pyrenean mountains, and have subdued these nations. And one legion is a sufficient guard for these people, although they were so hard to be conquered, and at a distance so remote from Rome. 2.376 Who is there among you that hath not heard of the great number of the Germans? You have, to be sure, yourselves seen them to be strong and tall, and that frequently, since the Romans have them among their captives everywhere; 2.377 yet these Germans, who dwell in an immense country, who have minds greater than their bodies, and a soul that despises death, and who are in a rage more fierce than wild beasts, have the Rhine for the boundary of their enterprises, and are tamed by eight Roman legions. Such of them as were taken captive became their servants; and the rest of the entire nation were obliged to save themselves by flight. 2.378 Do you also, who depend on the walls of Jerusalem, consider what a wall the Britons had; for the Romans sailed away to them, and subdued them while they were encompassed by the ocean, and inhabited an island that is not less than the continent of this habitable earth; and four legions are a sufficient guard to so large an island: 2.379 And why should I speak much more about this matter, while the Parthians, that most warlike body of men, and lords of so many nations, and encompassed with such mighty forces, send hostages to the Romans? whereby you may see, if you please, even in Italy, the noblest nation of the East, under the notion of peace, submitting to serve them.
2.381 Nor indeed have the Cyrenians, derived from the Lacedemonians, nor the Marmaridae, a nation extended as far as the regions uninhabitable for want of water, nor have the Syrtes, a place terrible to such as barely hear it described, the Nasamons and Moors, and the immense multitude of the Numidians, been able to put a stop to the Roman valor. 2.382 And as for the third part of the habitable earth Africa, whose nations are so many that it is not easy to number them, and which is bounded by the Atlantic Sea and the pillars of Hercules, and feeds an innumerable multitude of Ethiopians, as far as the Red Sea, these have the Romans subdued entirely. 2.383 And besides the annual fruits of the earth, which maintain the multitude of the Romans for eight months in the year, this, over and above, pays all sorts of tribute, and affords revenues suitable to the necessities of the government. Nor do they, like you, esteem such injunctions a disgrace to them, although they have but one Roman legion that abides among them. 2.384 And indeed what occasion is there for showing you the power of the Romans over remote countries, when it is so easy to learn it from Egypt, in your neighborhood? 2.385 This country is extended as far as the Ethiopians, and Arabia the Happy, and borders upon India; it hath seven million five hundred thousand men, besides the inhabitants of Alexandria, as may be learned from the revenue of the poll tax; yet it is not ashamed to submit to the Roman government, although it hath Alexandria as a grand temptation to a revolt, by reason it is so full of people and of riches, and is besides exceeding large, 2.386 its length being thirty furlongs, and its breadth no less than ten; and it pays more tribute to the Romans in one month than you do in a year; nay, besides what it pays in money, it sends corn to Rome that supports it for four months in the year: it is also walled round on all sides, either by almost impassable deserts, or seas that have no havens, or by rivers, or by lakes; 2.387 yet have none of these things been found too strong for the Roman good fortune; however, two legions that lie in that city are a bridle both for the remoter parts of Egypt, and for the parts inhabited by the more noble Macedonians. 2.388 Where then are those people whom you are to have for your auxiliaries? Must they come from the parts of the world that are uninhabited? for all that are in the habitable earth are under the Romans. Unless any of you extend his hopes as far as beyond the Euphrates, and suppose that those of your own nation that dwell in Adiabene will come to your assistance 2.389 (but certainly these will not embarrass themselves with an unjustifiable war, nor, if they should follow such ill advice, will the Parthians permit them so to do); for it is their concern to maintain the truce that is between them and the Romans, and they will be supposed to break the covets between them, if any under their government march against the Romans.
2.391 Reflect upon it, how impossible it is for your zealous observation of your religious customs to be here preserved, which are hard to be observed even when you fight with those whom you are able to conquer; and how can you then most of all hope for God’s assistance, when, by being forced to transgress his law, you will make him turn his face from you? 2.392 and if you do observe the custom of the Sabbath days, and will not be prevailed on to do anything thereon, you will easily be taken, as were your forefathers by Pompey, who was the busiest in his siege on those days on which the besieged rested. 2.393 But if in time of war you transgress the law of your country, I cannot tell on whose account you will afterward go to war; for your concern is but one, that you do nothing against any of your forefathers; 2.394 and how will you call upon God to assist you, when you are voluntarily transgressing against his religion? Now, all men that go to war do it either as depending on Divine or on human assistance; but since your going to war will cut off both those assistances, those that are for going to war choose evident destruction. 2.395 What hinders you from slaying your children and wives with your own hands, and burning this most excellent native city of yours? for by this mad prank you will, however, escape the reproach of being beaten. 2.396 But it were best, O my friends, it were best, while the vessel is still in the haven, to foresee the impending storm, and not to set sail out of the port into the middle of the hurricanes; for we justly pity those who fall into great misfortunes without foreseeing them; but for him who rushes into manifest ruin, he gains reproaches instead of commiseration. 2.397 But certainly no one can imagine that you can enter into a war as by an agreement, or that when the Romans have got you under their power, they will use you with moderation, or will not rather, for an example to other nations, burn your holy city, and utterly destroy your whole nation; for those of you who shall survive the war will not be able to find a place whither to flee, since all men have the Romans for their lords already, or are afraid they shall have hereafter. 2.398 Nay, indeed, the danger concerns not those Jews that dwell here only, but those of them which dwell in other cities also; for there is no people upon the habitable earth which have not some portion of you among them, 2.399 whom your enemies will slay, in case you go to war, and on that account also; and so every city which hath Jews in it will be filled with slaughter for the sake only of a few men, and they who slay them will be pardoned; but if that slaughter be not made by them, consider how wicked a thing it is to take arms against those that are so kind to you.
2.401 I call to witness your sanctuary, and the holy angels of God, and this country common to us all, that I have not kept back anything that is for your preservation; and if you will follow that advice which you ought to do, you will have that peace which will be common to you and to me; but if you indulge your passions, you will run those hazards which I shall be free from.” 2.451 The others readily complied with their petition, sent to them Gorion, the son of Nicodemus, and Aias, the son of Sadduk, and Judas, the son of Jonathan, that they might give them the security of their right hands, and of their oaths; after which Metilius brought down his soldiers; 2.452 which soldiers, while they were in arms, were not meddled with by any of the seditious, nor was there any appearance of treachery; but as soon as, according to the articles of capitulation, they had all laid down their shields and their swords, and were under no further suspicion of any harm, but were going away, 2.453 Eleazar’s men attacked them after a violent manner, and encompassed them round, and slew them, while they neither defended themselves, nor entreated for mercy, but only cried out upon the breach of their articles of capitulation and their oaths. 2.454 And thus were all these men barbarously murdered, excepting Metilius; for when he entreated for mercy, and promised that he would turn Jew, and be circumcised, they saved him alive, but none else. This loss to the Romans was but light, there being no more than a few slain out of an immense army; but still it appeared to be a prelude to the Jews’ own destruction,
2.562 3. But as to those who had pursued after Cestius, when they were returned back to Jerusalem, they overbore some of those that favored the Romans by violence, and some they persuaded by entreaties to join with them, and got together in great numbers in the temple, and appointed a great many generals for the war. 2.563 Joseph also, the son of Gorion, and Aus the high priest, were chosen as governors of all affairs within the city, and with a particular charge to repair the walls of the city; 2.564 for they did not ordain Eleazar the son of Simon to that office, although he had gotten into his possession the prey they had taken from the Romans, and the money they had taken from Cestius, together with a great part of the public treasures, because they saw he was of a tyrannical temper, and that his followers were, in their behavior, like guards about him. 2.565 However, the want they were in of Eleazar’s money, and the subtle tricks used by him, brought all so about, that the people were circumvented, and submitted themselves to his authority in all public affairs. 2.566 4. They also chose other generals for Idumea; Jesus, the son of Sapphias, one of the high priests; and Eleazar, the son of Aias, the high priest; they also enjoined Niger, the then governor of Idumea, who was of a family that belonged to Perea, beyond Jordan, and was thence called the Peraite, that he should be obedient to those forenamed commanders. 2.567 Nor did they neglect the care of other parts of the country; but Joseph the son of Simon was sent as general to Jericho, as was Manasseh to Perea, and John, the Essene, to the toparchy of Thamma; Lydda was also added to his portion, and Joppa, and Emmaus. 2.568 But John, the son of Matthias, was made the governor of the toparchies of Gophritica and Acrabattene; as was Josephus, the son of Matthias, of both the Galilees. Gamala also, which was the strongest city in those parts, was put under his command.
2.576 He also got together an army out of Galilee, of more than a hundred thousand young men, all of which he armed with the old weapons which he had collected together and prepared for them.
3.1 1. When Nero was informed of the Romans’ ill success in Judea, a concealed consternation and terror, as is usual in such cases, fell upon him; although he openly looked very big, and was very angry,
3.1 They also esteem any errors they commit upon taking counsel beforehand to be better than such rash success as is owing to fortune only; because such a fortuitous advantage tempts them to be inconsiderate, while consultation, though it may sometimes fail of success, hath this good in it, that it makes men more careful hereafter;
3.1 This is an ancient city that is distant from Jerusalem five hundred and twenty furlongs, and was always an enemy to the Jews; on which account they determined to make their first effort against it, and to make their approaches to it as near as possible. 3.2 That he did not see what advantage he could bring to them now, by staying among them, but only provoke the Romans to besiege them more closely, as esteeming it a most valuable thing to take him; but that if they were once informed that he was fled out of the city, they would greatly remit of their eagerness against it. 3.2 and said that what had happened was rather owing to the negligence of the commander, than to any valor of the enemy: and as he thought it fit for him, who bare the burden of the whole empire, to despise such misfortunes, he now pretended so to do, and to have a soul superior to all such sad accidents whatsoever. Yet did the disturbance that was in his soul plainly appear by the solicitude he was in how to recover his affairs again. 3.2 and the greater part of the remainder were wounded, with Niger, their remaining general, who fled away together to a small city of Idumea, called Sallis. 3.3 2. And as he was deliberating to whom he should commit the care of the East, now it was in so great a commotion, and who might be best able to punish the Jews for their rebellion, and might prevent the same distemper from seizing upon the neighboring nations also,— 3.3 At this city also the inhabitants of Sepphoris of Galilee met him, who were for peace with the Romans. 3.3 So he came quickly to the city, and put his army in order, and set Trajan over the left wing, while he had the right himself, and led them to the siege: 3.4 he found no one but Vespasian equal to the task, and able to undergo the great burden of so mighty a war, seeing he was growing an old man already in the camp, and from his youth had been exercised in warlike exploits: he was also a man that had long ago pacified the west, and made it subject to the Romans, when it had been put into disorder by the Germans; he had also recovered to them Britain by his arms, 3.4 its length is also from Meloth to Thella, a village near to Jordan. 3.4 “Thou, O Vespasian, thinkest no more than that thou hast taken Josephus himself captive; but I come to thee as a messenger of greater tidings; for had not I been sent by God to thee, I knew what was the law of the Jews in this case? and how it becomes generals to die. 3.5 There was also a great slaughter made in the city, while those foreigners that had not fled away already made opposition; but the natural inhabitants were killed without fighting: for in hopes of Titus’s giving them his right hand for their security, and out of a consciousness that they had not given any consent to the war, they avoided fighting, 3.5 and for those rivers which they have, all their waters are exceedingly sweet: by reason also of the excellent grass they have, their cattle yield more milk than do those in other places; and, what is the greatest sign of excellency and of abundance, they each of them are very full of people. 3.5 which had been little known before whereby he procured to his father Claudius to have a triumph bestowed on him without any sweat or labor of his own. 3.6 3. So Nero esteemed these circumstances as favorable omens, and saw that Vespasian’s age gave him sure experience, and great skill, and that he had his sons as hostages for his fidelity to himself, and that the flourishing age they were in would make them fit instruments under their father’s prudence. Perhaps also there was some interposition of Providence, which was paving the way for Vespasian’s being himself emperor afterwards. 3.6 These last, by marching continually one way or other, and overrunning the parts of the adjoining country, were very troublesome to Josephus and his men; they also plundered all the places that were out of the city’s liberty, and intercepted such as durst go abroad.
3.29 4. And now Vespasian took along with him his army from Antioch (which is the metropolis of Syria, and without dispute deserves the place of the third city in the habitable earth that was under the Roman empire, both in magnitude, and other marks of prosperity) where he found king Agrippa, with all his forces, waiting for his coming, and marched to Ptolemais.
3.29 When Trajan came to the city, he found it hard to be taken, for besides the natural strength of its situation, it was also secured by a double wall; but when he saw the people of this city coming out of it, and ready to fight him, he joined battle with them, and after a short resistance which they made, he pursued after them;
3.35 1. Now Phoenicia and Syria encompass about the Galilees, which are two, and called the Upper Galilee and the Lower. They are bounded toward the sunsetting, with the borders of the territory belonging toPtolemais, and by Carmel; which mountain had formerly belonged to the Galileans, but now belonged to the Tyrians;
3.35 3. Now, as Josephus began to hesitate with himself about Nicanor’s proposal, the soldiery were so angry, that they ran hastily to set fire to the den; but the tribune would not permit them so to do, as being very desirous to take the man alive. 3.36 but if unwillingly, thou wilt die as a traitor to them.” As soon as they said this, they began to thrust their swords at him, and threatened they would kill him, if he thought of yielding himself to the Romans. 3.36 to which mountain adjoins Gaba, which is called the City of Horsemen, because those horsemen that were dismissed by Herod the king dwelt therein; 3.37 nor indeed is there any animal that dies by its own contrivance, or by its own means, for the desire of life is a law engraven in them all; on which account we deem those that openly take it away from us to be our enemies, and those that do it by treachery are punished for so doing. 3.37 they are bounded on the south with Samaria and Scythopolis, as far as the river Jordan; on the east with Hippene and Gadaris, and also with Gaulanitis, and the borders of the kingdom of Agrippa; 3.38 If we have a mind to preserve ourselves, let us do it; for to be preserved by those our enemies, to whom we have given so many demonstrations of our courage, is no way inglorious; but if we have a mind to die, it is good to die by the hand of those that have conquered us. 3.38 its northern parts are bounded by Tyre, and the country of the Tyrians. As for that Galilee which is called the Lower, it, extends in length from Tiberias to Zabulon, and of the maritime places Ptolemais is its neighbor; 3.39 and when he had prevailed with them to determine this matter by lots, he drew one of the lots for himself also. He who had the first lot laid his neck bare to him that had the next, as supposing that the general would die among them immediately; for they thought death, if Josephus might but die with them, was sweeter than life; 3.39 its breadth is from the village called Xaloth, which lies in the great plain, as far as Bersabe, from which beginning also is taken the breadth of the Upper Galilee, as far as the village Baca, which divides the land of the Tyrians from it; 3.41 2. These two Galilees, of so great largeness, and encompassed with so many nations of foreigners, have been always able to make a strong resistance on all occasions of war; 3.41 the citizens here received both the Roman army and its general, with all sorts of acclamations and rejoicings, and this partly out of the goodwill they bore to the Romans, but principally out of the hatred they bore to those that were conquered by them; on which account they came clamoring against Josephus in crowds, and desired he might be put to death. 3.42 for the Galileans are inured to war from their infancy, and have been always very numerous; nor hath the country been ever destitute of men of courage, or wanted a numerous set of them; for their soil is universally rich and fruitful, and full of the plantations of trees of all sorts, insomuch that it invites the most slothful to take pains in its cultivation, by its fruitfulness; 3.42 where there are deep precipices, and great stones that jut out into the sea, and where the chains wherewith Andromeda was bound have left their footsteps, which attest to the antiquity of that fable. 3.43 accordingly, it is all cultivated by its inhabitants, and no part of it lies idle. Moreover, the cities lie here very thick, and the very many villages there are here are everywhere so full of people, by the richness of their soil, that the very least of them contain above fifteen thousand inhabitants. 3.43 that these last might stay there and guard the camp, and the horsemen might spoil the country that lay round it, and might destroy the neighboring villages and smaller cities. 3.44 3. In short, if anyone will suppose that Galilee is inferior to Perea in magnitude, he will be obliged to prefer it before it in its strength; for this is all capable of cultivation, and is everywhere fruitful; but for Perea, which is indeed much larger in extent, the greater part of it is desert and rough, and much less disposed for the production of the milder kinds of fruits; 3.44 and what usually becomes an occasion of caution to wise men, I mean affliction, became a spur to them to venture on further calamities, and the end of one misery became still the beginning of another; 3.45 their leader was one whose name was Jesus, the son of Shaphat, the principal head of a band of robbers. 3.45 yet hath it a moist soil in other parts, and produces all kinds of fruits, and its plains are planted with trees of all sorts, while yet the olive tree, the vine, and the palm tree are chiefly cultivated there. It is also sufficiently watered with torrents, which issue out of the mountains, and with springs that never fail to run, even when the torrents fail them, as they do in the dog-days. 3.46 But as the army was a great while in getting in at the gates, they were so narrow, Vespasian commanded the south wall to be broken down, and so made a broad passage for their entrance. 3.46 Now the length of Perea is from Macherus to Pella, and its breadth from Philadelphia to Jordan; 3.47 But Vespasian hearing that a great multitude of them were gotten together in the plain that was before the city, he thereupon sent his son, with six hundred chosen horsemen, to disperse them. 3.47 its northern parts are bounded by Pella, as we have already said, as well as its Western with Jordan; the land of Moab is its southern border, and its eastern limits reach to Arabia, and Silbonitis, and besides to Philadelphene and Gerasa. 3.48 4. Now, as to the country of Samaria, it lies between Judea and Galilee; it begins at a village that is in the great plain called Ginea, and ends at the Acrabbene toparchy, and is entirely of the same nature with Judea; 3.48 Nay, indeed, your fighting is to be on greater motives than those of the Jews; for although they run the hazard of war for liberty, and for their country, yet what can be a greater motive to us than glory? and that it may never be said, that after we have got dominion of the habitable earth, the Jews are able to confront us. 3.49 So Titus pressed upon the hindmost, and slew them; and of the rest, some he fell upon as they stood on heaps, and some he prevented, and met them in the mouth, and run them through; many also he leaped upon as they fell one upon another, and trod them down, 3.49 for both countries are made up of hills and valleys, and are moist enough for agriculture, and are very fruitful. They have abundance of trees, and are full of autumnal fruit, both that which grows wild, and that which is the effect of cultivation. They are not naturally watered by many rivers, but derive their chief moisture from rain-water, of which they have no want;
3.51 5. In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anuath, which is also named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea. The southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a Village adjoining to the confines of Arabia; the Jews that dwell there call it Jordan. However, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa.
3.51 this place lies as you go up to Trachonitis, and is a hundred and twenty furlongs from Caesarea, and is not far out of the road on the right hand; 3.52 Some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria. 3.52 The city Jerusalem is situated in the very middle; on which account some have, with sagacity enough, called that city the Navel of the country. 3.53 And a terrible stink, and a very sad sight there was on the following days over that country; for as for the shores, they were full of shipwrecks, and of dead bodies all swelled; and as the dead bodies were inflamed by the sun, and putrefied, they corrupted the air, insomuch that the misery was not only the object of commiseration to the Jews, but to those that hated them, and had been the authors of that misery. 3.53 Nor indeed is Judea destitute of such delights as come from the sea, since its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais: 3.54 Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the Isthmus, and sold the remainder for slaves, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides such as he made a present of to Agrippa; 3.54 it was parted into eleven portions, of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme, and presided over all the neighboring country, as the head does over the body. As to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over their several toparchies; 3.55 Gophna was the second of those cities, and next to that Acrabatta, after them Thamna, and Lydda, and Emmaus, and Pella, and Idumea, and Engaddi, and Herodium, and Jericho; 3.56 and after them came Jamnia and Joppa, as presiding over the neighboring people; and besides these there was the region of Gamala, and Gaulanitis, and Batanea, and Trachonitis, which are also parts of the kingdom of Agrippa. 3.57 This last country begins at Mount Libanus, and the fountains of Jordan, and reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias; and in length is extended from a village called Arpha, as far as Julias. Its inhabitants are a mixture of Jews and Syrians. 3.58 And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, and those that lie round about it.
3.111 aw that the warriors ran always to those cities whose walls had been built by Josephus, he marched furiously against Jotapata, which was of them all the strongest, as supposing he should easily take it by a sudden surprise, and that he should thereby obtain great honor to himself among the commanders, and bring a great advantage to them in their future campaign; because if this strongest place of them all were once taken, the rest would be so affrighted as to surrender themselves.
3.112 But he was mightily mistaken in his undertaking; for the men of Jotapata were apprised of his coming to attack them, and came out of the city, and expected him there. So they fought the Romans briskly when they least expected it, being both many in number, and prepared for fighting, and of great alacrity, as esteeming their country, their wives, and their children to be in danger,
3.113 and easily put the Romans to flight, and wounded many of them, and slew seven of them; because their retreat was not made in a disorderly manner, because the strokes only touched the surface of their bodies, which were covered with their armor in all parts, and because the Jews did rather throw their weapons upon them from a great distance, than venture to come hand to hand with them, and had only light armor on, while the others were completely armed.
3.114 However, three men of the Jews’ side were slain, and a few wounded; so Placidus, finding himself unable to assault the city, ran away.
3.132 1. So Vespasian marched to the city Gadara, and took it upon the first onset, because he found it destitute of any considerable number of men grown up and fit for war.
3.133 He came then into it, and slew all the youth, the Romans having no mercy on any age whatsoever; and this was done out of the hatred they bore the nation, and because of the iniquity they had been guilty of in the affair of Cestius.
3.134 He also set fire not only to the city itself, but to all the villas and small cities that were round about it; some of them were quite destitute of inhabitants, and out of some of them he carried the inhabitants as slaves into captivity.
3.141 3. Now Vespasian was very desirous of demolishing Jotapata, for he had gotten intelligence that the greatest part of the enemy had retired thither, and that it was, on other accounts, a place of great security to them. Accordingly, he sent both footmen and horsemen to level the road, which was mountainous and rocky, not without difficulty to be traveled over by footmen, but absolutely impracticable for horsemen.
3.142 Now these workmen accomplished what they were about in four days’ time, and opened a broad way for the army. On the fifth day, which was the twenty-first of the month Artemisius (Jyar), Josephus prevented him, and came from Tiberias, and went into Jotapata, and raised the drooping spirits of the Jews.
3.143 And a certain deserter told this good news to Vespasian, that Josephus had removed himself thither, which made him make haste to the city, as supposing that with taking that he should take all Judea, in case he could but withal get Josephus under his power.
3.144 So he took this news to be of the vastest advantage to him, and believed it to be brought about by the providence of God, that he who appeared to be the most prudent man of all their enemies, had, of his own accord, shut himself up in a place of sure custody. Accordingly, he sent Placidus with a thousand horsemen, and Ebutius a decurion, a person that was of eminency both in council and in action, to encompass the city round, that Josephus might not escape away privately.
3.145 4. Vespasian also, the very next day, took his whole army and followed them, and by marching till late in the evening, arrived then at Jotapata;
3.146 and bringing his army to the northern side of the city, he pitched his camp on a certain small hill which was seven furlongs from the city, and still greatly endeavored to be well seen by the enemy, to put them into a consternation;
3.147 which was indeed so terrible to the Jews immediately, that no one of them durst go out beyond the wall.
3.148 Yet did the Romans put off the attack at that time, because they had marched all the day, although they placed a double row of battalions round the city, with a third row beyond them round the whole, which consisted of cavalry, in order to stop up every way for an exit;
3.149 which thing making the Jews despair of escaping, excited them to act more boldly; for nothing makes men fight so desperately in war as necessity.
3.151 But when Vespasian had set against them the archers and slingers, and the whole multitude that could throw to a great distance, he permitted them to go to work, while he himself, with the footmen, got upon an acclivity, whence the city might easily be taken. Josephus was then in fear for the city, and leaped out, and all the Jewish multitude with him;
3.152 these fell together upon the Romans in great numbers, and drove them away from the wall, and performed a great many glorious and bold actions. Yet did they suffer as much as they made the enemy suffer;
3.153 for as despair of deliverance encouraged the Jews, so did a sense of shame equally encourage the Romans. These last had skill as well as strength; the other had only courage, which armed them, and made them fight furiously.
3.154 And when the fight had lasted all day, it was put an end to by the coming on of the night. They had wounded a great many of the Romans, and killed of them thirteen men; of the Jews’ side seventeen were slain, and six hundred wounded.
3.155 6. On the next day the Jews made another attack upon the Romans, and went out of the walls and fought a much more desperate battle with them than before. For they were now become more courageous than formerly, and that on account of the unexpected good opposition they had made the day before, as they found the Romans also to fight more desperately;
3.156 for a sense of shame inflamed these into a passion, as esteeming their failure of a sudden victory to be a kind of defeat.
3.157 Thus did the Romans try to make an impression upon the Jews till the fifth day continually, while the people of Jotapata made sallies out, and fought at the walls most desperately; nor were the Jews affrighted at the strength of the enemy, nor were the Romans discouraged at the difficulties they met with in taking the city.
3.158 7. Now Jotapata is almost all of it built upon a precipice, having on all the other sides of it every way valleys immensely deep and steep, insomuch that those who would look down would have their sight fail them before it reaches to the bottom. It is only to be come at on the north side, where the utmost part of the city is built on the mountain, as it ends obliquely at a plain.
3.159 This mountain Josephus had encompassed with a wall when he fortified the city, that its top might not be capable of being seized upon by the enemies.
3.161 8. Vespasian, therefore, in order to try how he might overcome the natural strength of the place, as well as the bold defense of the Jews, made a resolution to prosecute the siege with vigor. To that end he called the commanders that were under him to a council of war, and consulted with them which way the assault might be managed to the best advantage.
3.162 And when the resolution was there taken to raise a bank against that part of the wall which was practicable, he sent his whole army abroad to get the materials together. So when they had cut down all the trees on the mountains that adjoined to the city, and had gotten together a vast heap of stones,
3.163 besides the wood they had cut down, some of them brought hurdles, in order to avoid the effects of the darts that were shot from above them. These hurdles they spread over their banks, under cover whereof they formed their bank, and so were little or nothing hurt by the darts that were thrown upon them from the wall,
3.164 while others pulled the neighboring hillocks to pieces, and perpetually brought earth to them; so that while they were busy three sorts of ways, nobody was idle.
3.165 However, the Jews cast great stones from the walls upon the hurdles which protected the men, with all sorts of darts also; and the noise of what could not reach them was yet so terrible, that it was some impediment to the workmen.
3.166 9. Vespasian then set the engines for throwing stones and darts round about the city. The number of the engines was in all a hundred and sixty, and bid them fall to work, and dislodge those that were upon the wall.
3.167 At the same time such engines as were intended for that purpose threw at once lances upon them with a great noise, and stones of the weight of a talent were thrown by the engines that were prepared for that purpose, together with fire, and a vast multitude of arrows, which made the wall so dangerous, that the Jews durst not only notcome upon it, but durst not come to those parts within the walls which were reached by the engines;
3.168 for the multitude of the Arabian archers, as well also as all those that threw darts and slung stones, fell to work at the same time with the engines.
3.169 Yet did not the others lie still, when they could not throw at the Romans from a higher place; for they then made sallies out of the city, like private robbers, by parties, and pulled away the hurdles that covered the workmen, and killed them when they were thus naked; and when those workmen gave way, these cast away the earth that composed the bank, and burnt the wooden parts of it, together with the hurdles,
3.171 10. And when the bank was now raised, and brought nearer than ever to the battlements that belonged to the walls, Josephus thought it would be entirely wrong in him if he could make no contrivances in opposition to theirs, and that might be for the city’s preservation; so he got together his workmen, and ordered them to build the wall higher;
3.172 and while they said that this was impossible to be done while so many darts were thrown at them, he invented this sort of cover for them:
3.173 He bid them fix piles, and expand before them the raw hides of oxen newly killed, that these hides by yielding and hollowing themselves when the stones were thrown at them might receive them, for that the other darts would slide off them, and the fire that was thrown would be quenched by the moisture that was in them. And these he set before the workmen,
3.174 and under them these workmen went on with their works in safety, and raised the wall higher, and that both by day and by night, till it was twenty cubits high. He also built a good number of towers upon the wall, and fitted it to strong battlements.
3.175 This greatly discouraged the Romans, who in their own opinions were already gotten within the walls, while they were now at once astonished at Josephus’s contrivance, and at the fortitude of the citizens that were in the city.
3.176 11. And now Vespasian was plainly irritated at the great subtlety of this stratagem, and at the boldness of the citizens of Jotapata;
3.177 for taking heart again upon the building of this wall, they made fresh sallies upon the Romans, and had every day conflicts with them by parties, together with all such contrivances, as robbers make use of, and with the plundering of all that came to hand, as also with the setting fire to all the other works;
3.178 and this till Vespasian made his army leave off fighting them, and resolved to lie round the city, and to starve them into a surrender,
3.179 as supposing that either they would be forced to petition him for mercy by want of provisions, or if they should have the courage to hold out till the last, they should perish by famine:
3.181 12. Now the besieged had plenty of corn within the city, and indeed of allnecessaries, but they wanted water, because there was no fountain in the city, the people being there usually satisfied with rain water; yet is it a rare thing in that country to have rain in summer,
3.182 and at this season, during the siege, they were in great distress for some contrivance to satisfy their thirst; and they were very sad at this time particularly, as if they were already in want of water entirely,
3.183 for Josephus seeing that the city abounded with other necessaries, and that the men were of good courage, and being desirous to protract the siege to the Romans longer than they expected, ordered their drink to be given them by measure;
3.184 but this scanty distribution of water by measure was deemed by them as a thing more hard upon them than the want of it; and their not being able to drink as much as they would made them more desirous of drinking than they otherwise had been; nay, they were as much disheartened hereby as if they were come to the last degree of thirst. Nor were the Romans unacquainted with the state they were in,
3.185 for when they stood over against them, beyond the wall, they could see them running together, and taking their water by measure, which made them throw their javelins thither the place being within their reach, and kill a great many of them.
3.186 13. Hereupon Vespasian hoped that their receptacles of water would in no long time be emptied, and that they would be forced to deliver up the city to him;
3.187 but Josephus being minded to break such his hope, gave command that they should wet a great many of their clothes, and hang them out about the battlements, till the entire wall was of a sudden all wet with the running down of the water.
3.188 At this sight the Romans were discouraged, and under consternation, when they saw them able to throw away in sport so much water, when they supposed them not to have enough to drink themselves. This made the Roman general despair of taking the city by their want of necessaries, and to betake himself again to arms, and to try to force them to surrender,
3.189 which was what the Jews greatly desired; for as they despaired of either themselves or their city being able to escape, they preferred a death in battle before one by hunger and thirst.
3.191 There was a certain rough and uneven place that could hardly be ascended, and on that account was not guarded by the soldiers; so Josephus sent out certain persons along the western parts of the valley, and by them sent letters to whom he pleased of the Jews that were out of the city, and procured from them what necessaries soever they wanted in the city in abundance;
3.192 he enjoined them also to creep generally along by the watch as they came into the city, and to cover their backs with such sheepskins as had their wool upon them, that if anyone should spy them out in the nighttime, they might be believed to be dogs. This was done till the watch perceived their contrivance, and encompassed that rough place about themselves.
3.193 15. And now it was that Josephus perceived that the city could not hold out long, and that his own life would be in doubt if he continued in it; so he consulted how he and the most potent men of the city might fly out of it. When the multitude understood this, they came all round about him, and begged of him not to overlook them while they entirely depended on him, and him alone;
3.194 for that there was still hope of the city’s deliverance, if he would stay with them, because everybody would undertake any pains with great cheerfulness on his account, and in that case there would be some comfort for them also, though they should be taken:
3.195 that it became him neither to fly from his enemies, nor to desert his friends, nor to leap out of that city, as out of a ship that was sinking in a storm, into which he came when it was quiet and in a calm;
3.196 for that by going away he would be the cause of drowning the city, because nobody would then venture to oppose the enemy when he was once gone, upon whom they wholly confided.
3.197 16. Hereupon Josephus avoided letting them know that he was to go away to provide for his own safety, but told them that he would go out of the city for their sakes;
3.198 for that if he staid with them, he should be able to do them little good while they were in a safe condition; and that if they were once taken, he should only perish with them to no purpose; but that if he were once gotten free from this siege, he should be able to bring them very great relief;
3.199 for that he would then immediately get the Galileans together, out of the country, in great multitudes, and draw the Romans off their city by another war.
3.201 Yet did not this plea move the people, but inflamed them the more to hang about him. Accordingly, both the children and the old men, and the women with their infants, came mourning to him, and fell down before him, and all of them caught hold of his feet, and held him fast, 3.202 and besought him, with great lamentations, that he would take his share with them in their fortune;—and I think they did this, not that they envied his deliverance, but that they hoped for their own; for they could not think they should suffer any great misfortune, provided Josephus would but stay with them. 3.203 17. Now, Josephus thought, that if he resolved to stay, it would be ascribed to their entreaties; and if he resolved to go away by force, he should be put into custody. His commiseration also of the people under their lamentations had much broken that of his eagerness to leave them; so he resolved to stay, 3.204 and arming himself with the common despair of the citizens, he said to them, “Now is the time to begin to fight in earnest, when there is no hope of deliverance left. It is a brave thing to prefer glory before life, and to set about some such noble undertaking as may be remembered by late posterity.” 3.205 Having said this, he fell to work immediately, and made a sally, and dispersed the enemies’ outguards, and ran as far as the Roman camp itself, and pulled the coverings of their tents to pieces, that were upon their banks, and set fire to their works. 3.206 And this was the manner in which he never left off fighting, neither the next day, nor the day after it, but went on with it for a considerable number of both days and nights. 3.207 18. Upon this, Vespasian, when he saw the Romans distressed by these sallies, (although they were ashamed to be made to run away by the Jews; and when at any time they made the Jews run away, their heavy armor would not let them pursue them far; while the Jews, when they had performed any action, and before they could be hurt themselves, still retired into the city), 3.208 ordered his armed men to avoid their onset, and not fight it out with men under desperation, 3.209 while nothing is more courageous than despair; but that their violence would be quenched when they saw they failed of their purposes, as fire is quenched when it wants fuel;
3.211 So he repelled the Jews in great measure by the Arabian archers, and the Syrian slingers, and by those that threw stones at them, nor was there any intermission of the great number of their offensive engines. 3.212 Now, the Jews suffered greatly by these engines, without being able to escape from them; and when these engines threw their stones or javelins a great way, and the Jews were within their reach, they pressed hard upon the Romans, and fought desperately, without sparing either soul or body, one part succoring another by turns, when it was tired down. 3.213 19. When, therefore, Vespasian looked upon himself as in a manner besieged by these sallies of the Jews, and when his banks were now not far from the walls, he determined to make use of his battering ram. 3.214 This battering ram is a vast beam of wood like the mast of a ship, its forepart is armed with a thick piece of iron at the head of it, which is so carved as to be like the head of a ram, whence its name is taken. 3.215 This ram is slung in the air by ropes passing over its middle, and is hung like the balance in a pair of scales from another beam, and braced by strong beams that pass on both sides of it, in the nature of a cross. 3.216 When this ram is pulled backward by a great number of men with united force, and then thrust forward by the same men, with a mighty noise, it batters the walls with that iron part which is prominent. 3.217 Nor is there any tower so strong, or walls so broad, that can resist any more than its first batteries, but all are forced to yield to it at last. 3.218 This was the experiment which the Roman general betook himself to, when he was eagerly bent upon taking the city; but found lying in the field so long to be to his disadvantage, because the Jews would never let him be quiet. 3.219 So these Romans brought the several engines for galling an enemy nearer to the walls, that they might reach such as were upon the wall, and endeavored to frustrate their attempts; these threw stones and javelins at them; in the like manner did the archers and slingers come both together closer to the wall.
3.221 Now, at the very first stroke of this engine, the wall was shaken, and a terrible clamor was raised by the people within the city, as if they were already taken. 3.222 20. And now, when Josephus saw this ram still battering the same place, and that the wall would quickly be thrown down by it, he resolved to elude for a while the force of the engine. 3.223 With this design he gave orders to fill sacks with chaff, and to hang them down before that place where they saw the ram always battering, that the stroke might be turned aside, or that the place might feel less of the strokes by the yielding nature of the chaff. 3.224 This contrivance very much delayed the attempts of the Romans, becauseit let them remove their engine to what part they pleased, those that were above it removed their sacks, and placed them over against the strokes it made, insomuch that the wall was no way hurt, and this by diversion of the strokes, 3.225 till the Romans made an opposite contrivance of long poles, and by tying hooks at their ends, cut off the sacks. 3.226 Now, when the battering ram thus recovered its force, and the wall having been but newly built, was giving way, Josephus and those about him had afterward immediate recourse to fire, to defend themselves withal; 3.227 whereupon they took what materials soever they had that were but dry, and made a sally three ways, and set fire to the machines, and the hurdles, and the banks of the Romans themselves; 3.228 nor did the Romans well know how to come to their assistance, being at once under a consternation at the Jews’ boldness, and being prevented by the flames from coming to their assistance; for the materials being dry with the bitumen and pitch that were among them, as was brimstone also, the fire caught hold of everything immediately, and what cost the Romans a great deal of pains was in one hour consumed. 3.229 21. And here a certain Jew appeared worthy of our relation and commendation; he was the son of Sameas, and was called Eleazar, and was born at Saab, in Galilee.
3.231 and this while he stood as a fit mark to be pelted by all his enemies. Accordingly, he received the strokes upon his naked body, and was wounded with five darts; 3.232 nor did he mind any of them while he went up to the top of the wall, where he stood in the sight of them all, as an instance of the greatest boldness; after which he threw himself on a heap with his wounds upon him, and fell down together with the head of the ram. 3.233 Next to him, two brothers showed their courage; their names were Netir and Philip, both of them of the village Ruma, and both of them Galileans also; these men leaped upon the soldiers of the tenth legion, and fell upon the Romans with such a noise and force as to disorder their ranks, and to put to flight all upon whomsoever they made their assaults. 3.234 22. After these men’s performances, Josephus, and the rest of the multitude with him, took a great deal of fire, and burnt both the machines and their coverings, with the works belonging to the fifth and to the tenth legion, which they put to flight; when others followed them immediately, and buried those instruments and all their materials under ground. 3.235 However, about the evening, the Romans erected the battering ram again, against that part of the wall which had suffered before; 3.236 where a certain Jew that defended the city from the Romans hit Vespasian with a dart in his foot, and wounded him a little, the distance being so great, that no mighty impression could be made by the dart thrown so far off. However, this caused the greatest disorder among the Romans; 3.237 for when those who stood near him saw his blood, they were disturbed at it, and a report went abroad, through the whole army, that the general was wounded, while the greatest part left the siege, and came running together with surprise and fear to the general; 3.238 and before them all came Titus, out of the concern he had for his father, insomuch that the multitude were in great confusion, and this out of the regard they had for their general, and by reason of the agony that the son was in. Yet did the father soon put an end to the son’s fear, and to the disorder the army was under, 3.239 for being superior to his pains, and endeavoring soon to be seen by all that had been in a fright about him, he excited them to fight the Jews more briskly; for now everybody was willing to expose himself to danger immediately, in order to avenge their general; and then they encouraged one another with loud voices, and ran hastily to the walls.
3.241 and these could do little or nothing, but fell themselves perpetually, while they were seen by those whom they could not see, 3.242 for the light of their own flame shone about them, and made them a most visible mark to the enemy, as they were in the daytime, while the engines could not be seen at a great distance, and so what was thrown at them was hard to be avoided; 3.243 for the force with which these engines threw stones and darts made them hurt several at a time, and the violent noise of the stones that were cast by the engines was so great, that they carried away the pinnacles of the wall, and broke off the corners of the towers; 3.244 for no body of men could be so strong as not to be overthrown to the last rank by the largeness of the stones. 3.245 And anyone may learn the force of the engines by what happened this very night; for as one of those that stood round about Josephus was near the wall, his head was carried away by such a stone, and his skull was flung as far as three furlongs. 3.246 In the daytime also, a woman with child had her belly so violently struck, as she was just come out of her house, that the infant was carried to the distance of half a furlong, so great was the force of that engine. 3.247 The noise of the instruments themselves was very terrible, the sound of the darts and stones that were thrown by them was so also; 3.248 of the same sort was that noise the dead bodies made, when they were dashed against the wall; and indeed dreadful was the clamor which these things raised in the women within the city, which was echoed back at the same time by the cries of such as were slain; 3.249 while the whole space of ground whereon they fought ran with blood, and the wall might have been ascended over by the bodies of the dead carcasses;
3.251 yet did a great part of those that fought so hard for Jotapata fall manfully, as were a great part of them wounded. 3.252 However, the morning watch was come ere the wall yielded to the machines employed against it, though it had been battered without intermission. However, those within covered their bodies with their armor, and raised works over against that part which was thrown down, before those machines were laid by which the Romans were to ascend into the city. 3.253 24. In the morning Vespasian got his army together, in order to take the city by storm, after a little recreation upon the hard pains they had been at the night before; 3.254 and as he was desirous to draw off those that opposed him from the places where the wall had been thrown down, he made the most courageous of the horsemen get off their horses, and placed them in three ranks over against those ruins of the wall, but covered with their armor on every side, and with poles in their hands, that so these might begin their ascent as soon as the instruments for such ascent were laid; 3.255 behind them he placed the flower of the footmen; but for the rest of the horse, he ordered them to extend themselves over against the wall, upon the whole hilly country, in order to prevent any from escaping out of the city when it should be taken; 3.256 and behind these he placed the archers round about, and commanded them to havetheir darts ready to shoot. The same command he gave to the slingers, and to those that managed the engines, 3.257 and bid them to take up other ladders, and have them ready to lay upon those parts of the wall which were yet untouched, that the besieged might be engaged in trying to hinder their ascent by them, and leave the guard of the parts that were thrown down, while the rest of them should be overborne by the darts cast at them, and might afford his men an entrance into the city. 3.258 25. But Josephus, understanding the meaning of Vespasian’s contrivance, set the old men, together with those that were tired out, at the sound parts of the wall, as expecting no harm from those quarters, but set the strongest of his men at the place where the wall was broken down, and before them all six men by themselves, among whom he took his share of the first and greatest danger. 3.259 He also gave orders, that when the legions made a shout, they should stop their ears, that they might not be affrighted at it, and that, to avoid the multitude of the enemy’s darts, they should bend down on their knees, and cover themselves with their shields, and that they should retreat a little backward for a while, till the archers should have emptied their quivers;
3.261 and that they should set before their eyes how their old men were to be slain, and their children and wives were to be killed immediately by the enemy; and that they would beforehand spend all their fury, on account of the calamities just coming upon them, and pour it out on the actors. 3.262 26. And thus did Josephus dispose of both his bodies of men; but then for the useless part of the citizens, the women and children, when they saw their city encompassed by a threefold army (for none of the usual guards that had been fighting before were removed), when they also saw, not only the walls thrown down, but their enemies with swords in their hands, as also the hilly country above them shining with their weapons, and the darts in the hands of the Arabian archers, they made a final and lamentable outcry of the destruction, as if the misery were not only threatened, but actually come upon them already. 3.263 But Josephus ordered the women to be shut up in their houses, lest they should render the warlike actions of the men too effeminate, by making them commiserate their condition, and commanded them to hold their peace, and threatened them if they did not, while he came himself before the breach, where his allotment was; 3.264 for all those who brought ladders to the other places, he took no notice of them, but earnestly waited for the shower of arrows that was coming. 3.265 27. And now the trumpeters of the several Roman legions sounded together, and the army made a terrible shout; and the darts, as by order, flew so fast, that they intercepted the light. 3.266 However, Josephus’s men remembered the charges he had given them, they stopped their ears at the sounds, and covered their bodies against the darts; 3.267 and as to the engines that were set ready to go to work, the Jews ran out upon them, before those that should have used them were gotten upon them. 3.268 And now, on the ascending of the soldiers, there was a great conflict, and many actions of the hands and of the soul were exhibited; while the Jews did earnestly endeavor, in the extreme danger they were in, not to show less courage than those who, without being in danger, fought so stoutly against them; 3.269 nor did they leave struggling with the Romans till they either fell down dead themselves, or killed their antagonists.
3.271 28. Then did Josephus take necessity for his counselor in this utmost distress (which necessity is very sagacious in invention when it is irritated by despair), and gave orders to pour scalding oil upon those whose shields protected them. 3.272 Whereupon they soon got it ready, being many that brought it, and what they brought being a great quantity also, and poured it on all sides upon the Romans, and threw down upon them their vessels as they were still hissing from the heat of the fire: 3.273 this so burnt the Romans, that it dispersed that united band, who now tumbled down from the wall with horrid pains, 3.274 for the oil did easily run down the whole body from head to foot, under their entire armor, and fed upon their flesh like flame itself, its fat and unctuous nature rendering it soon heated and slowly cooled; 3.275 and as the men were cooped up in their headpieces and breastplates, they could no way get free from this burning oil; they could only leap and roll about in their pains, as they fell down from the bridges they had laid. And as they thus were beaten back, and retired to their own party, who still pressed them forward, they were easily wounded by those that were behind them. 3.276 29. However, in this ill success of the Romans, their courage did not fail them, nor did the Jews want prudence to oppose them; for the Romans, although they saw their own men thrown down, and in a miserable condition, yet were they vehemently bent against those that poured the oil upon them; while every one reproached the man before him as a coward, and one that hindered him from exerting himself; 3.277 and while the Jews made use of another stratagem to prevent their ascent, and poured boiling fenugreek upon the boards, in order to make them slip and fall down; 3.278 by which means neither could those that were coming up, nor those that were going down, stand on their feet; but some of them fell backward upon the machines on which they ascended, and were trodden upon; many of them fell down upon the bank they had raised, 3.279 and when they were fallen upon it were slain by the Jews; for when the Romans could not keep their feet, the Jews being freed from fighting hand to hand, had leisure to throw their darts at them.
3.281 of whom the number of the slain was not a few, while that of the wounded was still greater; but of the people of Jotapata no more than six men were killed, although more than three hundred were carried off wounded. 3.282 This fight happened on the twentieth day of the month Desius Sivan. 3.283 30. Hereupon Vespasian comforted his army on occasion of what had happened, and as he found them angry indeed, but rather wanting somewhat to do than any further exhortations, 3.284 he gave orders to raise the banks still higher, and to erect three towers, each fifty feet high, and that they should cover them with plates of iron on every side, that they might be both firm by their weight, and not easily liable to be set on fire. 3.285 These towers he set upon the banks, and placed upon them such as could shoot darts and arrows, with the lighter engines for throwing stones and darts also; and besides these, he set upon them the stoutest men among the slingers, 3.286 who not being to be seen by reason of the height they stood upon, and the battlements that protected them, might throw their weapons at those that were upon the wall, and were easily seen by them. 3.287 Hereupon the Jews, not being easily able to escape those darts that were thrown down upon their heads, nor to avenge themselves on those whom they could not see, and perceiving that the height of the towers was so great, that a dart which they threw with their hand could hardly reach it, and that the iron plates about them made it very hard to come at them by fire, they ran away from the walls, and fled hastily out of the city, and fell upon those that shot at them. 3.288 And thus did the people of Jotapata resist the Romans, while a great number of them were every day killed, without their being able to retort the evil upon their enemies; nor could they keep them out of the city without danger to themselves. 3.289 31. About this time it was that Vespasian sent out Trajan against a city called Japha, that lay near to Jotapata, and that desired innovations, and was puffed up with the unexpected length of the opposition of Jotapata. This Trajan was the commander of the tenth legion, and to him Vespasian committed one thousand horsemen, and two thousand footmen.
3.291 and as they fled to their first wall, the Romans followed them so closely, that they fell in together with them:
3.292 but when the Jews were endeavoring to get again within their second wall, their fellow citizens shut them out, as being afraid that the Romans would force themselves in with them.
3.293 It was certainly God therefore who brought the Romans to punish the Galileans, and did then expose the people of the city every one of them manifestly to be destroyed by their bloody enemies;
3.294 for they fell upon the gates in great crowds, and earnestly calling to those that kept them, and that by their names also, yet had they their throats cut in the very midst of their supplications;
3.295 for the enemy shut the gates of the first wall, and their own citizens shut the gates of the second,
3.296 o they were enclosed between two walls, and were slain in great numbers together; many of them were run through by swords of their own men, and many by their own swords, besides an immense number that were slain by the Romans. Nor had they any courage to revenge themselves; for there was added to the consternation they were in from the enemy, their being betrayed by their own friends, which quite broke their spirits;
3.297 and at last they died, cursing not the Romans, but their own citizens, till they were all destroyed, being in number twelve thousand.
3.298 So Trajan gathered that the city was empty of people that could fight, and although there should a few of them be therein, he supposed that they would be too timorous to venture upon any opposition; so he reserved the taking of the city to the general. Accordingly, he sent messengers to Vespasian, and desired him to send his son Titus to finish the victory he had gained.
3.299 Vespasian hereupon imagining there might be some pains still necessary, sent his son with an army of five hundred horsemen, and one thousand footmen. 3.301 and when the soldiers brought ladders to be laid against the wall on every side, the Galileans opposed them from above for a while; but soon afterward they left the walls. 3.302 Then did Titus’s men leap into the city, and seized upon it presently; but when those that were in it were gotten together, there was a fierce battle between them; 3.303 for the men of power fell upon the Romans in the narrow streets, and the women threw whatsoever came next to hand at them, 3.304 and sustained a fight with them for six hours’ time; but when the fighting men were spent, the rest of the multitude had their throats cut, partly in the open air, and partly in their own houses, both young and old together. So there were no males now remaining, besides infants, which, with the women, were carried as slaves into captivity; 3.305 o that the number of the slain, both now in the city and at the former fight, was fifteen thousand, and the captives were two thousand one hundred and thirty. 3.306 This calamity befell the Galileans on the twenty-fifth day of the month Desius Sivan. 3.311 who did not think it safe to go up to the mountain, and give them battle, because many of the enemy were on the higher part of the ground; so he encompassed all the lower part of the mountain with his army, and watched them all that day. 3.312 Now it happened that the Samaritans, who were now destitute of water, were inflamed with a violent heat (for it was summer time, and the multitude had not provided themselves with necessaries), 3.313 insomuch that some of them died that very day with heat, while others of them preferred slavery before such a death as that was, and fled to the Romans, 3.314 by whom Cerealis understood that those which still staid there were very much broken by their misfortunes. So he went up to the mountain, and having placed his forces round about the enemy, he, in the first place, exhorted them to take the security of his right hand, and come to terms with him, and thereby save themselves; and assured them, that if they would lay down their arms, he would secure them from any harm; 3.341 but as the city was first taken, he was assisted by a certain supernatural providence; for he withdrew himself from the enemy when he was in the midst of them, and leaped into a certain deep pit, whereto there adjoined a large den at one side of it, which den could not be seen by those that were above ground; 3.342 and there he met with forty persons of eminency that had concealed themselves, and with provisions enough to satisfy them for not a few days. 3.343 So in the daytime he hid himself from the enemy, who had seized upon all places, and in the nighttime he got up out of the den and looked about for some way of escaping, and took exact notice of the watch; but as all places were guarded everywhere on his account, that there was no way of getting off unseen, he went down again into the den. 3.344 Thus he concealed himself two days; but on the third day, when they had taken a woman who had been with them, he was discovered. Whereupon Vespasian sent immediately and zealously two tribunes, Paulinus and Gallicanus, and ordered them to give Josephus their right hands as a security for his life, and to exhort him to come up. 3.345 2. So they came and invited the man to come up, and gave him assurances that his life should be preserved: but they did not prevail with him; 3.346 for he gathered suspicions from the probability there was that one who had done so many things against the Romans must suffer for it, though not from the mild temper of those that invited him. However, he was afraid that he was invited to come up in order to be punished, until Vespasian sent besides these a third tribune, Nicanor, to him; he was one that was well known to Josephus, and had been his familiar acquaintance in old time. 3.347 When he was come, he enlarged upon the natural mildness of the Romans towards those they have once conquered; and told him that he had behaved himself so valiantly, that the commanders rather admired than hated him; 3.348 that the general was very desirous to have him brought to him, not in order to punish him, for that he could do though he should not come voluntarily, but that he was determined to preserve a man of his courage. 3.349 He moreover added this, that Vespasian, had he been resolved to impose upon him, would not have sent to him a friend of his own, nor put the fairest color upon the vilest action, by pretending friendship and meaning perfidiousness; nor would he have himself acquiesced, or come to him, had it been to deceive him.
3.351 And now, as Nicanor lay hard at Josephus to comply, and he understood how the multitude of the enemies threatened him, he called to mind the dreams which he had dreamed in the nighttime, whereby God had signified to him beforehand both the future calamities of the Jews, and the events that concerned the Roman emperors.
3.352 Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests:
3.353 and just then was he in an ecstasy; and setting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God,
3.354 and said, “Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewish nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and since thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretell what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live. And I protest openly that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.”
3.355 4. When he had said this, he complied with Nicanor’s invitation. But when those Jews who had fled with him understood that he yielded to those that invited him to come up, they came about him in a body, and cried out,
3.356 “Nay, indeed, now may the laws of our forefathers, which God ordained himself, well groan to purpose; that God we mean who hath created the souls of the Jews of such a temper, that they despise death.
3.361 5. Upon this Josephus was afraid of their attacking him, and yet thought he should be a betrayer of the commands of God, if he died before they were delivered. So he began to talk like a philosopher to them in the distress he was then in, 3.362 when he said thus to them:—“O my friends, why are we so earnest to kill ourselves? and why do we set our soul and body, which are such dear companions, at such variance? 3.363 Can anyone pretend that I am not the man I was formerly? Nay, the Romans are sensible how that matter stands well enough. It is a brave thing to die in war; but so that it be according to the law of war, by the hand of conquerors. 3.364 If, therefore, I avoid death from the sword of the Romans, I am truly worthy to be killed by my own sword, and my own hand; but if they admit of mercy, and would spare their enemy, how much more ought we to have mercy upon ourselves, and to spare ourselves? For it is certainly a foolish thing to do that to ourselves which we quarrel with them for doing to us. 3.365 I confess freely that it is a brave thing to die for liberty; but still so that it be in war, and done by those who take that liberty from us; but in the present case our enemies do neither meet us in battle, nor do they kill us. Now, he is equally a coward who will not die when he is obliged to die, and he who will die when he is not obliged so to do. 3.366 What are we afraid of, when we will not go up to the Romans? Is it death? 3.367 If so, what we are afraid of, when we but suspect our enemies will inflict it on us, shall we inflict it on ourselves for certain? But it may be said we must be slaves. 3.368 And are we then in a clear state of liberty at present? It may also be said that it is a manly act for one to kill himself. No, certainly, but a most unmanly one; as I should esteem that pilot to be an arrant coward, who, out of fear of a storm, should sink his ship of his own accord. 3.369 Now, self-murder is a crime most remote from the common nature of all animals, and an instance of impiety against God our Creator; 3.371 And do not you think that God is very angry when a man does injury to what he hath bestowed on him? For from him it is that we have received our being, and we ought to leave it to his disposal to take that being away from us. 3.372 The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and are created out of corruptible matter; but the soul is ever immortal, and is a portion of the divinity that inhabits our bodies. Besides, if anyone destroys or abuses a depositum he hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked and perfidious person; but then if anyone cast out of his body this Divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is thereby affronted does not know of it. 3.373 Moreover, our law justly ordains that slaves which run away from their masters shall be punished, though the masters they run away from may have been wicked masters to them. And shall we endeavor to run away from God, who is the best of all masters, and not think ourselves highly guilty of impiety? 3.374 Do not you know that those who depart out of this life, according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which was received from God, when he that lent it us is pleased to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame? that their houses and their posterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from whence, in the revolution of ages, they are again sent into pure bodies; 3.375 while the souls of those whose hands have acted madly against themselves are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their Father, punishes those that offend against either of them in their posterity? 3.376 for which reason God hates such doings, and the crime is punished by our most wise legislator. 3.377 Accordingly, our laws determine that the bodies of such as kill themselves should be exposed till the sun be set, without burial, although at the same time it be allowed by them to be lawful to bury our enemies sooner. 3.378 The laws of other nations also enjoin such men’s hands to be cut off when they are dead, which had been made use of in destroying themselves when alive, while they reckoned that as the body is alien from the soul, so is the hand alien from the body. 3.379 It is therefore, my friends, a right thing to reason justly, and not add to the calamities which men bring upon us impiety towards our Creator.
3.381 For my part, I will not run over to our enemies’ quarters, in order to be a traitor to myself; for certainly I should then be much more foolish than those that deserted to the enemy, since they did it in order to save themselves, and I should do it for destruction, for my own destruction. 3.382 However, I heartily wish the Romans may prove treacherous in this matter; for if, after their offer of their right hand for security, I be slain by them, I shall die cheerfully, and carry away with me the sense of their perfidiousness, as a consolation greater than victory itself.” 3.383 6. Now these and many the like motives did Josephus use to these men to prevent their murdering themselves; 3.384 but desperation had shut their ears, as having long ago devoted themselves to die, and they were irritated at Josephus. They then ran upon him with their swords in their hands, one from one quarter, and another from another, and called him a coward, and everyone of them appeared openly as if he were ready to smite him; 3.385 but he calling to one of them by name, and looking like a general to another, and taking a third by the hand, and making a fourth ashamed of himself, by praying him to forbear, and being in this condition distracted with various passions (as he well might in the great distress he was then in), he kept off every one of their swords from killing him, and was forced to do like such wild beasts as are encompassed about on every side, who always turn themselves against those that last touched them. 3.386 Nay, some of their right hands were debilitated by the reverence they bare to their general in these his fatal calamities, and their swords dropped out of their hands; and not a few of them there were, who, when they aimed to smite him with their swords, were not thoroughly either willing or able to do it. 3.387 7. However, in this extreme distress, he was not destitute of his usual sagacity; but trusting himself to the providence of God, he put his life into hazard in the manner following: 3.388 “And now,” said he, “since it is resolved among you that you will die, come on, let us commit our mutual deaths to determination by lot. He whom the lot falls to first, let him be killed by him that hath the second lot, 3.389 and thus fortune shall make its progress through us all; nor shall any of us perish by his own right hand, for it would be unfair if, when the rest are gone, somebody should repent and save himself.” This proposal appeared to them to be very just;
3.391 yet was he with another left to the last, whether we must say it happened so by chance, or whether by the providence of God. And as he was very desirous neither to be condemned by the lot, nor, if he had been left to the last, to imbrue his right hand in the blood of his countrymen, he persuaded him to trust his fidelity to him, and to live as well as himself. 3.392 8. Thus Josephus escaped in the war with the Romans, and in this his own war with his friends, and was led by Nicanor to Vespasian.
3.399 9. When Josephus heard him give those orders, he said that he had somewhat in his mind that he would willingly say to himself alone. When therefore they were all ordered to withdraw, excepting Titus and two of their friends, he said, 3.401 Dost thou send me to Nero? For why? Are Nero’s successors till they come to thee still alive? Thou, O Vespasian, art Caesar and emperor, thou, and this thy son. 3.402 Bind me now still faster, and keep me for thyself, for thou, O Caesar, are not only lord over me, but over the land and the sea, and all mankind; and certainly I deserve to be kept in closer custody than I now am in, in order to be punished, if I rashly affirm anything of God.” 3.403 When he had said this, Vespasian at present did not believe him, but supposed that Josephus said this as a cunning trick, in order to his own preservation; 3.404 but in a little time he was convinced, and believed what he said to be true, God himself erecting his expectations, so as to think of obtaining the empire, and by other signs foreshowing his advancement. 3.405 He also found Josephus to have spoken truth on other occasions; for one of those friends that were present at that secret conference said to Josephus, “I cannot but wonder how thou couldst not foretell to the people of Jotapata that they should be taken, nor couldst foretell this captivity which hath happened to thyself, unless what thou now sayest be a vain thing, in order to avoid the rage that is risen against thyself.” 3.406 To which Josephus replied, “I did foretell to the people of Jotapata that they would be taken on the forty-seventh day, and that I should be caught alive by the Romans.” 3.407 Now when Vespasian had inquired of the captives privately about these predictions, he found them to be true, and then he began to believe those that concerned himself. 3.408 Yet did he not set Josephus at liberty from his bands, but bestowed on him suits of clothes, and other precious gifts; he treated him also in a very obliging manner, and continued so to do, Titus still joining his interest in the honors that were done him.
3.462 1. And now Vespasian pitched his camp between this city and Taricheae, but fortified his camp more strongly, as suspecting that he should be forced to stay there, and have a long war; 3.463 for all the innovators had gotten together at Taricheae, as relying upon the strength of the city, and on the lake that lay by it. This lake is called by the people of the country the Lake of Gennesareth. 3.464 The city itself is situated like Tiberias, at the bottom of a mountain, and on those sides which are not washed by the sea, had been strongly fortified by Josephus, though not so strongly as Tiberias; 3.465 for the wall of Tiberias had been built at the beginning of the Jews’ revolt, when he had great plenty of money, and great power, but Taricheae partook only the remains of that liberality. 3.466 Yet had they a great number of ships gotten ready upon the lake, that, in case they were beaten at land, they might retire to them; and they were so fitted up, that they might undertake a Sea-fight also. 3.467 But as the Romans were building a wall about their camp, Jesus and his party were neither affrighted at their number, nor at the good order they were in, but made a sally upon them; 3.468 and at the very first onset the builders of the wall were dispersed; and these pulled what little they had before built to pieces; but as soon as they saw the armed men getting together, and before they had suffered anything themselves, they retired to their own men. But then the Romans pursued them, and drove them into their ships, 3.469 where they launched out as far as might give them the opportunity of reaching the Romans with what they threw at them, and then cast anchor, and brought their ships close, as in a line of battle, and thence fought the enemy from the sea, who were themselves at land. 3.471 2. But when Titus perceived that the enemy was very numerous, he sent to his father, and informed him that he should want more forces. But as he saw a great many of the horsemen eager to fight, and that before any succors could come to them, and that yet some of them were privately under a sort of consternation at the multitude of the Jews, he stood in a place whence he might be heard, and said to them, 3.472 “My brave Romans! for it is right for me to put you in mind of what nation you are, in the beginning of my speech, that so you may not be ignorant who you are, and who they are against whom we are going to fight. 3.473 For as to us, Romans, no part of the habitable earth hath been able to escape our hands hitherto; but as for the Jews, that I may speak of them too, though they have been already beaten, yet do they not give up the cause; and a sad thing it would be for us to grow weary under good success, when they bear up under their misfortunes. 3.474 As to the alacrity which you show publicly, I see it, and rejoice at it; yet am I afraid lest the multitude of the enemy should bring a concealed fright upon some of you: 3.475 let such a one consider again, who we are that are to fight, and who those are against whom we are to fight. Now these Jews, though they be very bold and great despisers of death, are but a disorderly body, and unskillful in war, and may rather be called a rout than an army; while I need say nothing of our skill and our good order; for this is the reason why we Romans alone are exercised for war in time of peace, that we may not think of number for number when we come to fight with our enemies: 3.476 for what advantage should we reap by our continual sort of warfare, if we must still be equal in number to such as have not been used to war. 3.477 Consider further, that you are to have a conflict with men in effect unarmed, while you are well armed; with footmen, while you are horsemen; with those that have no good general, while you have one; and as these advantages make you in effect manifold more than you are, so do their disadvantages mightily diminish their number. 3.478 Now it is not the multitude of men, though they be soldiers, that manages wars with success, but it is their bravery that does it, though they be but a few; for a few are easily set in battle-array, and can easily assist one another, while over-numerous armies are more hurt by themselves than by their enemies. 3.479 It is boldness and rashness, the effects of madness, that conduct of the Jews. Those passions indeed make a great figure when they succeed, but are quite extinguished upon the least ill success; but we are led on by courage, and obedience, and fortitude, which shows itself indeed in our good fortune, but still does not forever desert us in our ill fortune.
3.481 We must also reflect upon this, that there is no fear of our suffering any incurable disaster in the present case; for those that are ready to assist us are many, and at hand also; yet it is in our power to seize upon this victory ourselves; and I think we ought to prevent the coming of those my father is sending to us for our assistance, that our success may be peculiar to ourselves, and of greater reputation to us. 3.482 And I cannot but think this an opportunity wherein my father, and I, and you shall be all put to the trial, whether he be worthy of his former glorious performances, whether I be his son in reality, and whether you be really my soldiers; for it is usual for my father to conquer; and for myself, I should not bear the thoughts of returning to him if I were once taken by the enemy. 3.483 And how will you be able to avoid being ashamed, if you do not show equal courage with your commander, when he goes before you into danger? For you know very well that I shall go into the danger first, and make the first attack upon the enemy. 3.484 Do not you therefore desert me, but persuade yourselves that God will be assisting to my onset. Know this also before we begin, that we shall now have better success than we should have, if we were to fight at a distance.” 3.485 3. As Titus was saying this, an extraordinary fury fell upon the men; and as Trajan was already come before the fight began, with four hundred horsemen, they were uneasy at it, because the reputation of the victory would be diminished by being common to so many. 3.486 Vespasian had also sent both Antonius and Silo, with two thousand archers, and had given it them in charge to seize upon the mountain that was over against the city, and repel those that were upon the wall; 3.487 which archers did as they were commanded, and prevented those that attempted to assist them that way; And now Titus made his own horse march first against the enemy, as did the others with a great noise after him, and extended themselves upon the plain as wide as the enemy which confronted them; by which means they appeared much more numerous than they really were. 3.488 Now the Jews, although they were surprised at their onset, and at their good order, made resistance against their attacks for a little while; but when they were pricked with their long poles, and overborne by the violent noise of the horsemen, they came to be trampled under their feet; 3.489 many also of them were slain on every side, which made them disperse themselves, and run to the city, as fast as every one of them were able.
3.491 and cut off all the retreat they had to the wall, and turned them back into the plain, till at last they forced a passage by their multitude, and got away, and ran into the city. 3.492 4. But now there fell out a terrible sedition among them within the city; for the inhabitants themselves, who had possessions there, and to whom the city belonged, were not disposed to fight from the very beginning; and now the less so, because they had been beaten; 3.493 but the foreigners, which were very numerous, would force them to fight so much the more, insomuch that there was a clamor and a tumult among them, as all mutually angry one at another. 3.494 And when Titus heard this tumult, for he was not far from the wall, he cried out, “Fellow soldiers, now is the time; and why do we make any delay, when God is giving up the Jews to us? Take the victory which is given you: do not you hear what a noise they make? 3.495 Those that have escaped our hands are in an uproar against one another. We have the city if we make haste; but besides haste, we must undergo some labor, and use some courage; for no great thing uses to be accomplished without danger: 3.496 accordingly, we must not only prevent their uniting again, which necessity will soon compel them to do, but we must also prevent the coming of our own men to our assistance, that, as few as we are, we may conquer so great a multitude, and may ourselves alone take the city.” 3.497 5. As soon as ever Titus had said this, he leaped upon his horse, and rode apace down to the lake; by which lake he marched, and entered into the city the first of them all, as did the others soon after him. 3.498 Hereupon those that were upon the walls were seized with a terror at the boldness of the attempt, nor durst anyone venture to fight with him, or to hinder him; so they left guarding the city, and some of those that were about Jesus fled over the country, 3.499 while others of them ran down to the lake, and met the enemy in the teeth, and some were slain as they were getting up into the ships, but others of them as they attempted to overtake those that were already gone abroad.
3.501 till Titus had slain the authors of this revolt, and then put a stop to any further slaughters, out of commiseration of these inhabitants of the place. 3.502 But for those that had fled to the lake, upon seeing the city taken, they sailed as far as they possibly could from the enemy.
4.17 4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands, and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines;
4.17 the consequence was, that you saw the same persons slain. We have seen this also; so that still the best of the herd of brute animals, as it were, have been still led to be sacrificed, when yet nobody said one word, or moved his right hand for their preservation. 4.18 However, since I have had occasion to mention the Romans, I will not conceal a thing that, as I am speaking, comes into my mind, and affects me considerably;—it is this, that though we should be taken by them (God forbid the event should be so!) yet can we undergo nothing that will be harder to be borne than what these men have already brought upon us. 4.18 but Chares and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficient quantity either of water, or of other necessaries. 4.19 However, these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while indeed they drove away those that were bringing the machines; but when those machines threw darts and stones at them, they retired into the city; 4.19 perhaps also God himself, who hath been affronted by them, will make what they throw at us return against themselves, and these impious wretches will be killed by their own darts: let us but make our appearance before them, and they will come to nothing. 4.21 And by way of contrivancehow he might not be brought into suspicion, he cultivated the greatest friendship possible with Aus, and with the chief of the people; 4.21 but these men fell upon the Romans for some time, at their first entrance, and prevented their going any further, and with great courage beat them back; 4.22 and the Romans were so overpowered by the greater multitude of the people, who beat them on every side, that they were obliged to run into the upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about, and fell upon their enemies, who had attacked them, and thrust them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and difficulty of the place, slew them; 4.22 that they ought to choose one of these two methods: either to intercede with those that guarded them, to save their lives, or to provide some foreign assistance for themselves; 4.23 Now, there were two active men proposed for the carrying this message, and such as were able to speak, and to persuade them that things were in this posture, and, what was a qualification still more necessary than the former, they were very swift of foot; 4.23 and as these Romans could neither beat those back that were above them, nor escape the force of their own men that were forcing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies’ houses, which were low; 4.24 And if I had perceived that your army was composed of men like unto those who invited them, I had not deemed your attempt so absurd; for nothing does so much cement the minds of men together as the alliance there is between their manners. But now for these men who have invited you, if you were to examine them one by one, every one of them would be found to have deserved ten thousand deaths; 4.24 but these houses being thus full, of soldiers, whose weight they could not bear, fell down suddenly; and when one house fell, it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them. 4.25 As for myself, indeed, I should have preferred peace with them before death; but now we have once made war upon them, and fought with them, I prefer death, with reputation, before living in captivity under them. 4.25 By this means a vast number of the Romans perished; for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were compelled to leap upon the tops of them; so that a great many were ground to powder by these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them lost some of their limbs, but still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins. 4.26 The people of Gamala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, and without regarding what damage they suffered themselves, they pressed forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houses; and when they stumbled in the sharp and narrow streets, and were perpetually falling down, they threw their stones or darts at them, and slew them. 4.26 You may, if you please, come into the city, though not in the way of war, and take a view of the marks still remaining of what I now say, and may see the houses that have been depopulated by their rapacious hands, with those wives and families that are in black, mourning for their slaughtered relations; as also you may hear their groans and lamentations all the city over; for there is nobody but hath tasted of the incursions of these profane wretches, 4.27 4. Thus spake Jesus; yet did not the multitude of the Idumeans give any attention to what he said, but were in a rage, because they did not meet with a ready entrance into the city. The generals also had indignation at the offer of laying down their arms, and looked upon it as equal to a captivity, to throw them away at any man’s injunction whomsoever. 4.27 Now the very ruins afforded them stones enough; and for iron weapons, the dead men of the enemies’ side afforded them what they wanted; for drawing the swords of those that were dead, they made use of them to dispatch such as were only half dead; 4.28 One may indeed justly complain of those that are besieged in the temple, that when they had courage enough to punish those tyrants, whom you call eminent men, and free from any accusations, because of their being your companions in wickedness, they did not begin with you, and thereby cut off beforehand the most dangerous parts of this treason. 4.28 nay, there were a great number who, upon their falling down from the tops of the houses, stabbed themselves, and died after that manner; 4.29 for the Idumeans fenced one another by uniting their bodies into one band, and thereby kept themselves warm, and connecting their shields over their heads, were not so much hurt by the rain. 4.29 nor indeed was it easy for those that were beaten back to fly away; for they were so unacquainted with the ways, and the dust was so thick, that they wandered about without knowing one another, and fell down dead among the crowd.
4.31 But now Vespasian always staid among those that were hard set; for he was deeply affected with seeing the ruins of the city falling upon his army, and forgot to take care of his own preservation. He went up gradually towards the highest parts of the city before he was aware, and was left in the midst of dangers, having only a very few with him;
4.31 The zealots also joined in the shouts raised by the Idumeans; and the storm itself rendered the cry more terrible; nor did the Idumeans spare anybody; for as they are naturally a most barbarous and bloody nation, and had been distressed by the tempest, they made use of their weapons against those that had shut the gates against them, 4.32 for even his son Titus was not with him at that time, having been then sent into Syria to Mucianus. 4.32 he was a prodigious lover of liberty, and an admirer of a democracy in government; and did ever prefer the public welfare before his own advantage, and preferred peace above all things; for he was thoroughly sensible that the Romans were not to be conquered. He also foresaw that of necessity a war would follow, and that unless the Jews made up matters with them very dexterously, they would be destroyed; 4.33 However, he thought it not safe to fly, nor did he esteem it a fit thing for him to do; but calling to mind the actions he had done from his youth, and recollecting his courage, as if he had been excited by a divine fury, he covered himself and those that were with him with their shields, and formed a testudo over both their bodies and their armor, 4.33 Those whom they caught in the day time were slain in the night, and then their bodies were carried out and thrown away, that there might be room for other prisoners; 4.34 and bore up against the enemy’s attacks, who came running down from the top of the city; and without showing any dread at the multitude of the men or of their darts, he endured all, until the enemy took notice of that divine courage that was within him, and remitted of their attacks; 4.34 in the meantime, the zealots grew tumultuous, and had much ado to abstain from drawing their swords, although they designed to preserve the appearance and show of judicature to the end. They were also desirous, on other accounts, to try the judges, whether they would be mindful of what was just at their own peril. 4.35 That one may perceive many of themselves now repenting for what they had done, and might see the horrid barbarity of those that had invited them, and that they had no regard to such as had saved them; 4.35 and when they pressed less zealously upon him, he retired, though without showing his back to them till he was gotten out of the walls of the city. 4.36 Now a great number of the Romans fell in this battle, among whom was Ebutius, the decurion, a man who appeared not only in this engagement, wherein he fell, but everywhere, and in former engagements, to be of the truest courage, and one that had done very great mischief to the Jews. 4.36 and, as he went, he frequently cried out, and showed the scars of his wounds; and when he was drawn out of the gates, and despaired of his preservation, he besought them to grant him a burial; but as they had threatened him beforehand not to grant him any spot of earth for a grave, which he chiefly desired of them, so did they slay him without permitting him to be buried. 4.37 But there was a centurion whose name was Gallus, who, during this disorder, being encompassed about, he and ten other soldiers privately crept into the house of a certain person, 4.37 that God acts as a general of the Romans better than he can do, and is giving the Jews up to them without any pains of their own, and granting their army a victory without any danger; 4.38 Along all the roads also vast numbers of dead bodies lay in heaps, and even many of those that were so zealous in deserting at length chose rather to perish within the city; for the hopes of burial made death in their own city appear of the two less terrible to them. 4.38 where he heard them talking at supper, what the people intended to do against the Romans, or about themselves (for both the man himself and those with him were Syrians). So he got up in the nighttime, and cut all their throats, and escaped, together with his soldiers, to the Romans.
4.45 But this incautiousness in war, and this madness of zeal, is not a Roman maxim. While we perform all that we attempt by skill and good order, that procedure is the part of barbarians, and is what the Jews chiefly support themselves by.
4.45 and on the day following he came to Jericho; on which day Trajan, one of his commanders, joined him with the forces he brought out of Perea, all the places beyond Jordan being subdued already.
4.54 8. And these were the hard circumstances that the people of Gamala were in. But now Vespasian went about other work by the by, during this siege, and that was to subdue those that had seized upon Mount Tabor, a place that lies in the middle between the great plain and Scythopolis,
4.54 but instead of indulging any merciful affection, he grew very angry at them for seizing his beloved wife; so he came to the wall of Jerusalem, and, like wild beasts when they are wounded, and cannot overtake those that wounded them, he vented his spleen upon all persons that he met with. 4.55 But in the meantime Vespasian removed from Caesarea, on the fifth day of the month Daesius, Sivan, and marched against those places of Judea which were not yet overthrown. 4.55 whose top is elevated as high as thirty furlongs and is hardly to be ascended on its north side; its top is a plain of twenty-six furlongs, and all encompassed with a wall. 4.56 Now, Josephus erected this so long a wall in forty days’ time, and furnished it with other materials, and with water from below, for the inhabitants only made use of rain water. 4.56 while their inclination to plunder was insatiable, as was their zeal in searching the houses of the rich; and for the murdering of the men, and abusing of the women, it was sport to them. 4.57 As therefore there was a great multitude of people gotten together upon this mountain, Vespasian sent Placidus with six hundred horsemen thither. 4.57 In the meantime, the multitude of those zealots that were dispersed over the city ran together to the temple unto those that had fled thither, and John prepared to bring them down against the people and the Idumeans, 4.58 Now, as it was impossible for him to ascend the mountain, he invited many of them to peace, by the offer of his right hand for their security, and of his intercession for them. 4.58 but having the advantage of situation, and having withal erected four very large towers aforehand, that their darts might come from higher places, 4.59 Accordingly they came down, but with a treacherous design, as well as he had the like treacherous design upon them on the other side; for Placidus spoke mildly to them, as aiming to take them, when he got them into the plain; they also came down, as complying with his proposals, but it was in order to fall upon him when he was not aware of it: 4.59 And as this sorrow of his was violent, he was not able to support the torments he was under, nor to apply himself further in other wars, when his native country was laid waste; 4.61 And thus is Egypt walled about on every side. Its length between Pelusium and Syene is two thousand furlongs, and the passage by sea from Plinthine to Pelusium is three thousand six hundred furlongs. 4.61 So they left Tabor, and fled to Jerusalem, while the people of the country came to terms with him, for their water failed them, and so they delivered up the mountain and themselves to Placidus.
4.71 Now, as the watch perceived that he was coming, they made a noise, and betook themselves to their arms; and as that his entrance was presently known to those that were in the city, some of them caught hold of their children and their wives, and drew them after them, and fled away to the citadel, with lamentations and cries, while others of them went to meet Titus, and were killed perpetually; 4.72 but so many of them as were hindered from running up to the citadel, not knowing what in the world to do, fell among the Roman guards, while the groans of those that were killed were prodigiously great everywhere, and blood ran down over all the lower parts of the city, from the upper. 4.73 But then Vespasian himself came to his assistance against those that had fled to the citadel, and brought his whole army with him; 4.74 now this upper part of the city was every way rocky, and difficult of ascent, and elevated to a vast altitude, and very full of people on all sides, and encompassed with precipices, 4.75 whereby the Jews cut off those that came up to them, and did much mischief to others by their darts, and the large stones which they rolled down upon them, while they were themselves so high that the enemy’s darts could hardly reach them. 4.76 However, there arose such a Divine storm against them as was instrumental to their destruction; this carried the Roman darts upon them, and made those which they threw return back, and drove them obliquely away from them; 4.77 nor could the Jews indeed stand upon their precipices, by reason of the violence of the wind, having nothing that was stable to stand upon, nor could they see those that were ascending up to them; 4.78 o the Romans got up and surrounded them, and some they slew before they could defend themselves, and others as they were delivering up themselves; and the remembrance of those that were slain at their former entrance into the city increased their rage against them now; 4.79 a great number also of those that were surrounded on every side, and despaired of escaping, threw their children and their wives, and themselves also, down the precipices, into the valley beneath, which, near the citadel, had been dug hollow to a vast depth;
4.81 nor did anyone escape except two women, who were the daughters of Philip, and Philip himself was the son of a certain eminent man called Jacimus, who had been general of king Agrippa’s army; 4.82 and these did therefore escape, because they lay concealed from the sight of the Romans when the city was taken; for otherwise they spared not so much as the infants, of which many were flung down by them from the citadel. 4.83 And thus was Galama taken on the three and twentieth day of the month Hyperberetaeus Tieri, whereas the city had first revolted on the four and twentieth day of the month Gorpiaeus Elul. 4.84 1. Now, no place of Galilee remained to be taken but the small city of Gischala, whose multitude yet were desirous of peace; for they were generally husbandmen, and always applied themselves to cultivate the fruits of the earth. However, there were a great number that belonged to a band of robbers, that were already corrupted, and had crept in among them, and some of the governing part of the citizens were sick of the same distemper. 4.85 It was John, the son of a certain man whose name was Levi, that drew them into this rebellion, and encouraged them in it. He was a cunning knave, and of a temper that could put on various shapes; very rash in expecting great things, and very sagacious in bringing about what he hoped for. It was known to everybody that he was fond of war, in order to thrust himself into authority; 4.86 and the seditious part of the people of Gischala were under his management, by whose means the populace, who seemed ready to send ambassadors in order to surrender, waited for the coming of the Romans in battle-array. 4.87 Vespasian sent against them Titus, with a thousand horsemen, but withdrew the tenth legion to Scythopolis, 4.88 while he returned to Caesarea with the two other legions, that he might allow them to refresh themselves after their long and hard campaign, thinking withal that the plenty which was in those cities would improve their bodies and their spirits, against the difficulties they were to go through afterwards; 4.89 for he saw there would be occasion for great pains about Jerusalem, which was not yet taken, because it was the royal city, and the principal city of the whole nation, and because those that had run away from the war in other places got all together thither.
4.92 2. Now Titus, as he rode up to Gischala, found it would be easy for him to take the city upon the first onset; but knew withal, that if he took it by force, the multitude would be destroyed by the soldiers without mercy. (Now he was already satiated with the shedding of blood, and pitied the major part, who would then perish, without distinction, together with the guilty.) So he was rather desirous the city might be surrendered up to him on terms. 4.93 Accordingly, when he saw the wall full of those men that were of the corrupted party, he said to them,—That he could not but wonder what it was they depended on, when they alone staid to fight the Romans, after every other city was taken by them, 4.94 especially when they have seen cities much better fortified than theirs is overthrown by a single attack upon them; while as many as have entrusted themselves to the security of the Romans’ right hands, which he now offers to them, without regarding their former insolence, do enjoy their own possessions in safety; 4.95 for that while they had hopes of recovering their liberty, they might be pardoned; but that their continuance still in their opposition, when they saw that to be impossible, was inexcusable; 4.96 for that if they will not comply with such humane offers, and right hands for security, they should have experience of such a war as would spare nobody, and should soon be made sensible that their wall would be but a trifle, when battered by the Roman machines; in depending on which they demonstrate themselves to be the only Galileans that were no better than arrogant slaves and captives.
4.101 and that this delay could be of no disadvantage to him; for why should anybody think of doing anything in the night, unless it was to fly away? which he might prevent by placing his camp round about them; 4.102 and that they should think it a great point gained, if they might not be obliged to transgress the laws of their country; and that it would be a right thing for him, who designed to grant them peace, without their expectation of such a favor, to preserve the laws of those they saved inviolable. 4.103 Thus did this man put a trick upon Titus, not so much out of regard to the seventh day as to his own preservation, for he was afraid lest he should be quite deserted if the city should be taken, and had his hopes of life in that night, and in his flight therein. 4.104 Now this was the work of God, who therefore preserved this John, that he might bring on the destruction of Jerusalem; as also it was his work that Titus was prevailed with by this pretense for a delay, and that he pitched his camp further off the city at Cydessa. 4.105 This Cydessa was a strong Mediterranean village of the Tyrians, which always hated and made war against the Jews; it had also a great number of inhabitants, and was well fortified, which made it a proper place for such as were enemies to the Jewish nation. 4.106 4. Now, in the nighttime, when John saw that there was no Roman guard about the city, he seized the opportunity directly, and, taking with him not only the armed men that were about him, but a considerable number of those that had little to do, together with their families, he fled to Jerusalem. 4.107 And indeed, though the man was making haste to get away, and was tormented with fears of being a captive, or of losing his life, yet did he prevail with himself to take out of the city along with him a multitude of women and children, as far as twenty furlongs; but there he left them as he proceeded further on his journey, where those that were left behind made sad lamentations; 4.108 for the farther every one of them was come from his own people, the nearer they thought themselves to be to their enemies. They also affrighted themselves with this thought, that those who would carry them into captivity were just at hand, and still turned themselves back at the mere noise they made themselves in this their hasty flight, as if those from whom they fled were just upon them. 4.109 Many also of them missed their ways, and the earnestness of such as aimed to outgo the rest threw down many of them. 4.111 but John’s exhortation, who cried out to them to save themselves, and fly away, prevailed. He said also, that if the Romans should seize upon those whom they left behind, they would be revenged on them for it. So this multitude that ran thus away was dispersed abroad, according as each of them was able to run, one faster or slower than another. 4.112 5. Now on the next day Titus came to the wall, to make the agreement; 4.113 whereupon the people opened their gates to him, and came out to him, with their children and wives, and made acclamations of joy to him, as to one that had been their benefactor, and had delivered the city out of custody; 4.114 they also informed him of John’s flight, and besought him to spare them, and to come in, and bring the rest of those that were for innovations to punishment. 4.115 But Titus, not so much regarding the supplications of the people, sent part of his horsemen to pursue after John, but they could not overtake him, for he was gotten to Jerusalem before; they also slew six thousand of the women and children who went out with him, but returned back, and brought with them almost three thousand. 4.116 However, Titus was greatly displeased that he had not been able to bring this John, who had deluded him, to punishment; yet he had captives enough, as well as the corrupted part of the city, to satisfy his anger, when it missed of John. 4.117 So he entered the city in the midst ofacclamations of joy; and when he had given orders to the soldiers to pull down a small part of the wall, as of a city taken in war, he repressed those that had disturbed the city rather by threatenings than by executions; 4.118 for he thought that many would accuse innocent persons, out of their own private animosities and quarrels, if he should attempt to distinguish those that were worthy of punishment from the rest; and that it was better to let a guilty person alone in his fearsthan to destroy with him anyone that did not deserve it; 4.119 for that probably such a one might be taught prudence, by the fear of the punishment he had deserved, and have a shame upon him for his former offenses, when he had been forgiven; but that the punishment of such as have been once put to death could never be retrieved.
4.121 1. Now, upon John’s entry into Jerusalem, the whole body of the people were in an uproar, and ten thousand of them crowded about every one of the fugitives that were come to them, and inquired of them what miseries had happened abroad, 4.122 when their breath was so short, and hot, and quick, that of itself it declared the great distress they were in; yet did they talk big under their misfortunes, and pretended to say that they had not fled away from the Romans, but came thither in order to fight them with less hazard; 4.123 for that it would be an unreasonable and a fruitless thing for them to expose themselves to desperate hazards about Gischala, and such weak cities, whereas they ought to lay up their weapons and their zeal, and reserve it for their metropolis. 4.124 But when they related to them the taking of Gischala, and their decent departure, as they pretended, from that place, many of the people understood it to be no better than a flight; 4.125 and especially when the people were told of those that were made captives, they were in great confusion, and guessed those things to be plain indications that they should be taken also. 4.126 But for John, he was very little concerned for those whom he had left behind him, but went about among all the people, and persuaded them to go to war, by the hopes he gave them. He affirmed that the affairs of the Romans were in a weak condition, and extolled his own power. 4.127 He also jested upon the ignorance of the unskillful, as if those Romans, although they should take to themselves wings, could never fly over the wall of Jerusalem, who found such great difficulties in taking the villages of Galilee, and had broken their engines of war against their walls.
4.438 And now Placidus, after this good success that he had, fell violently upon the neighboring smaller cities and villages; when he took Abila, and Julias, and Bezemoth, and all those that lay as far as the lake Asphaltitis, and put such of the deserters into each of them as he thought proper.
4.442 while therefore the winter was his hinderance from going into the field, he put garrisons into the villages and smaller cities for their security; he put decurions also into the villages, and centurions into the cities: he besides this rebuilt many of the cities that had been laid waste;
4.456 its length is two hundred and thirty furlongs, and its breadth a hundred and twenty, and it is divided in the midst by Jordan. It hath two lakes in it, that of Asphaltitis, and that of Tiberias, whose natures are opposite to each other; for the former is salt and unfruitful, but that of Tiberias is sweet and fruitful.
4.457 This plain is much burnt up in summertime, and, by reason of the extraordinary heat, contains a very unwholesome air;
4.458 it is all destitute of water excepting the river Jordan, which water of Jordan is the occasion why those plantations of palm trees that are near its banks are more flourishing, and much more fruitful, as are those that are remote from it not so flourishing, or fruitful.
4.459 3. Notwithstanding which, there is a fountain by Jericho, that runs plentifully, and is very fit for watering the ground; it arises near the old city, which Joshua, the son of Nun, the general of the Hebrews, took the first of all the cities of the land of Canaan, by right of war. 4.461 who, when he once was the guest of the people at Jericho, and the men of the place had treated him very kindly, he both made them amends as well as the country, by a lasting favor; 4.462 for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463 that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464 To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country. 4.465 Accordingly, the power of it is so great in watering the ground, that if it does but once touch a country, it affords a sweeter nourishment than other waters do, when they lie so long upon them, till they are satiated with them. 4.466 For which reason, the advantage gained from other waters, when they flow in great plenty, is but small, while that of this water is great when it flows even in little quantities. 4.467 Accordingly, it waters a larger space of ground than any other waters do, and passes along a plain of seventy furlongs long, and twenty broad; wherein it affords nourishment to those most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees. 4.468 There are in it many sorts of palm trees that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and name; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey. 4.469 This country withal produces honey from bees; it also bears that balsam which is the most precious of all the fruits in that place, cypress trees also, and those that bear myrobalanum; so that he who should pronounce this place to be divine would not be mistaken, wherein is such plenty of trees produced as are very rare, and of the most excellent sort.
4.471 the cause of which seems to me to be the warmth of the air, and the fertility of the waters; the warmth calling forth the sprouts, and making them spread, and the moisture making every one of them take root firmly, and supplying that virtue which it stands in need of in summertime. Now this country is then so sadly burnt up, that nobody cares to come at it; 4.472 and if the water be drawn up before sunrising, and after that exposed to the air, it becomes exceeding cold, and becomes of a nature quite contrary to the ambient air; 4.473 as in winter again it becomes warm; and if you go into it, it appears very gentle. The ambient air is here also of so good a temperature, that the people of the country are clothed in linen-only, even when snow covers the rest of Judea. 4.474 This place is one hundred and fifty furlongs from Jerusalem, and sixty from Jordan. The country, as far as Jerusalem, is desert and stony; but that as far as Jordan and the lake Asphaltitis lies lower indeed, though it be equally desert and barren. 4.475 But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation.
4.477 Accordingly, when Vespasian went to see it, he commanded that some who could not swim should have their hands tied behind them, and be thrown into the deep, when it so happened that they all swam as if a wind had forced them upwards.
4.483 The country of Sodom borders upon it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up. 4.484 It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire, and the traces or shadows of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits; which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes. 4.485 And thus what is related of this land of Sodom hath these marks of credibility which our very sight affords us.
4.601 4. These were the discourses the soldiers had in their several companies; after which they got together in a great body, and, encouraging one another, they declared Vespasian emperor, and exhorted him to save the government, which was now in danger. 4.602 Now Vespasian’s concern had been for a considerable time about the public, yet did he not intend to set up for governor himself, though his actions showed him to deserve it, while he preferred that safety which is in a private life before the dangers in a state of such dignity; 4.603 but when he refused the empire, the commanders insisted the more earnestly upon his acceptance; and the soldiers came about him, with their drawn swords in their hands, and threatened to kill him, unless he would now live according to his dignity. 4.604 And when he had shown his reluctance a great while, and had endeavored to thrust away this dominion from him, he at length, being not able to persuade them, yielded to their solicitations that would salute him emperor.
4.618 Accordingly Vespasian, looking upon himself as already intrusted with the government, got all things ready for his journey to Rome. Now fame carried this news abroad more suddenly than one could have thought, that he was emperor over the east, upon which every city kept festivals, and celebrated sacrifices and oblations for such good news;
4.622 7. So Vespasian’s good fortune succeeded to his wishes everywhere, and the public affairs were, for the greatest part, already in his hands; upon which he considered that he had not arrived at the government without Divine Providence, but that a righteous kind of fate had brought the empire under his power; 4.623 for as he called to mind the other signals, which had been a great many everywhere, that foretold he should obtain the government, so did he remember what Josephus had said to him when he ventured to foretell his coming to the empire while Nero was alive; 4.624 o he was much concerned that this man was still in bonds with him. He then called for Mucianus, together with his other commanders and friends, and, in the first place, he informed them what a valiant man Josephus had been, and what great hardships he had made him undergo in the siege of Jotapata. 4.625 After that he related those predictions of his which he had then suspected as fictions, suggested out of the fear he was in, but which had by time been demonstrated to be Divine. 4.626 “It is a shameful thing (said he) that this man, who hath foretold my coming to the empire beforehand, and been the minister of a Divine message to me, should still be retained in the condition of a captive or prisoner.” So he called for Josephus, and commanded that he should be set at liberty;
4.629 This advice was agreed to by Vespasian also; so there came a man in, and cut the chain to pieces; while Josephus received this testimony of his integrity for a reward, and was moreover esteemed a person of credit as to futurities also.
5.2 But I must restrain myself from these passions by the rules of history, since this is not a proper time for domestic lamentations, but for historical narrations; I therefore return to the operations that follow in this sedition.
5.2 Nay, indeed, while he was assisting his father at Alexandria, in settling that government which had been newly conferred upon them by God, it so happened that the sedition at Jerusalem was revived, and parted into three factions, and that one faction fought against the other; which partition in such evil cases may be said to be a good thing, and the effect of Divine justice.
5.2 The western part of this court had no gate at all, but the wall was built entire on that side. But then the cloisters which were betwixt the gates extended from the wall inward, before the chambers; for they were supported by very fine and large pillars. These cloisters were single, and, excepting their magnitude, were no way inferior to those of the lower court.
5.45 This miserable procedure made Titus greatly to pity them, while they caught every day five hundred Jews; nay, some days they caught more: yet it did not appear to be safe for him to let those that were taken by force go their way, and to set a guard over so many he saw would be to make such as guarded them useless to him. The main reason why he did not forbid that cruelty was this, that he hoped the Jews might perhaps yield at that sight, out of fear lest they might themselves afterwards be liable to the same cruel treatment.
5.45 as also there came Tiberius Alexander, who was a friend of his, most valuable, both for his goodwill to him, and for his prudence. He had formerly been governor of Alexandria, 5.46 3. In the meantime Antiochus Epiphanes came to the city, having with him a considerable number of other armed men, and a band called the Macedonian band about him, all of the same age, tall, and just past their childhood, armed, and instructed after the Macedonian manner, whence it was that they took that name. Yet were many of them unworthy of so famous a nation; 5.46 but was now thought worthy to be general of the army under Titus. The reason of this was, that he had been the first who encouraged Vespasian very lately to accept this his new dominion, and joined himself to him with great fidelity, when things were uncertain, and fortune had not yet declared for him. He also followed Titus as a counselor, very useful to him in this war, both by his age and skill in such affairs.
5.362 3. So Josephus went round about the wall, and tried to find a place that was out of the reach of their darts, and yet within their hearing, and besought them, in many words, to spare themselves, to spare their country and their temple, and not to be more obdurate in these cases than foreigners themselves; 5.363 for that the Romans, who had no relation to those things, had a reverence for their sacred rites and places, although they belonged to their enemies, and had till now kept their hands off from meddling with them; while such as were brought up under them, and, if they be preserved, will be the only people that will reap the benefit of them, hurry on to have them destroyed. 5.364 That certainly they have seen their strongest walls demolished, and that the wall still remaining was weaker than those that were already taken. That they must know the Roman power was invincible, and that they had been used to serve them; 5.365 for, that in case it be allowed a right thing to fight for liberty, that ought to have been done at first; but for them that have once fallen under the power of the Romans, and have now submitted to them for so many long years, to pretend to shake off that yoke afterward, was the work of such as had a mind to die miserably, not of such as were lovers of liberty. 5.366 Besides, men may well enough grudge at the dishonor of owning ignoble masters over them, but ought not to do so to those who have all things under their command; for what part of the world is there that hath escaped the Romans, unless it be such as are of no use for violent heat, or for violent cold? 5.367 And evident it is that fortune is on all hands gone over to them; and that God, when he had gone round the nations with this dominion, is now settled in Italy. That, moreover, it is a strong and fixed law, even among brute beasts, as well as among men, to yield to those that are too strong for them; and to suffer those to have dominion who are too hard 5.368 for the rest in war; for which reason it was that their forefathers, who were far superior to them, both in their souls and bodies, and other advantages, did yet submit to the Romans, which they would not have suffered, had they not known that God was with them. 5.369 As for themselves, what can they depend on in this their opposition, when the greatest part of their city is already taken? and when those that are within it are under greater miseries than if they were taken, although their walls be still standing? 5.371 for although the Romans should leave off the siege, and not fall upon the city with their swords in their hands, yet was there an insuperable war that beset them within, and was augmented every hour, unless they were able to wage war with famine, and fight against it, or could alone conquer their natural appetites. 5.372 He added this further, how right a thing it was to change their conduct before their calamities were become incurable, and to have recourse to such advice as might preserve them, while opportunity was offered them for so doing; for that the Romans would not be mindful of their past actions to their disadvantage, unless they persevered in their insolent behavior to the end; because they were naturally mild in their conquests, and preferred what was profitable, before what their passions dictated to them; 5.373 which profit of theirs lay not in leaving the city empty of inhabitants, nor the country a desert; on which account Caesar did now offer them his right hand for their security. Whereas, if he took the city by force, he would not save anyone of them, and this especially, if they rejected his offers in these their utmost distresses; 5.374 for the walls that were already taken could not but assure them that the third wall would quickly be taken also. And though their fortifications should prove too strong for the Romans to break through them, yet would the famine fight for the Romans against them. 5.375 4. While Josephus was making this exhortation to the Jews, many of them jested upon him from the wall, and many reproached him; nay, some threw their darts at him: but when he could not himself persuade them by such open good advice, he betook himself to the histories belonging to their own nation, 5.376 and cried out aloud, “O miserable creatures! are you so unmindful of those that used to assist you, that you will fight by your weapons and by your hands against the Romans? When did we ever conquer any other nation by such means? 5.377 and when was it that God, who is the Creator of the Jewish people, did not avenge them when they had been injured? Will not you turn again, and look back, and consider whence it is that you fight with such violence, and how great a Supporter you have profanely abused? Will not you recall to mind the prodigious things done for your forefathers and this holy place, and how great enemies of yours were by him subdued under you? 5.378 I even tremble myself in declaring the works of God before your ears, that are unworthy to hear them; however, hearken to me, that you may be informed how you fight not only against the Romans, but against God himself. 5.379 In old times there was one Necao, king of Egypt, who was also called Pharaoh; he came with a prodigious army of soldiers, and seized queen Sarah, the mother of our nation.
5.381 Was not our queen sent back, without any defilement, to her husband, the very next evening?—while the king of Egypt fled away, adoring this place which you have defiled by shedding thereon the blood of your own countrymen; and he also trembled at those visions which he saw in the night season, and bestowed both silver and gold on the Hebrews, as on a people beloved by God. 5.382 Shall I say nothing, or shall I mention the removal of our fathers into Egypt, who, when they were used tyrannically, and were fallen under the power of foreign kings for four hundred years together, and might have defended themselves by war and by fighting, did yet do nothing but commit themselves to God? 5.383 Who is there that does not know that Egypt was overrun with all sorts of wild beasts, and consumed by all sorts of distempers? how their land did not bring forth its fruit? how the Nile failed of water? how the ten plagues of Egypt followed one upon another? and how by those means our fathers were sent away under a guard, without any bloodshed, and without running any dangers, because God conducted them as his peculiar servants? 5.384 Moreover, did not Palestine groan under the ravage the Assyrians made, when they carried away our sacred ark? asdid their idol Dagon, and as also did that entire nation of those that carried it away, 5.385 how they were smitten with a loathsome distemper in the secret parts of their bodies, when their very bowels came down together with what they had eaten, till those hands that stole it away were obliged to bring it back again, and that with the sound of cymbals and timbrels, and other oblations, in order to appease the anger of God for their violation of his holy ark. 5.386 It was God who then became our General, and accomplished these great things for our fathers, and this because they did not meddle with war and fighting, but committed it to him to judge about their affairs. 5.387 When Sennacherib, king of Assyria, brought along with him all Asia, and encompassed this city round with his army, did he fall by the hands of men? 5.388 were not those hands lifted up to God in prayers, without meddling with their arms, when an angel of God destroyed that prodigious army in one night? when the Assyrian king, as he rose the next day, found a hundred fourscore and five thousand dead bodies, and when he, with the remainder of his army, fled away from the Hebrews, though they were unarmed, and did not pursue them. 5.389 You are also acquainted with the slavery we were under at Babylon, where the people were captives for seventy years; yet were they not delivered into freedom again before God made Cyrus his gracious instrument in bringing it about; accordingly they were set free by him, and did again restore the worship of their Deliverer at his temple.
5.391 for example, when the king of Babylon besieged this very city, and our king Zedekiah fought against him, contrary to what predictions were made to him by Jeremiah the prophet, he was at once taken prisoner, and saw the city and the temple demolished. Yet how much greater was the moderation of that king, than is that of your present governors, and that of the people then under him, than is that of you at this time! 5.392 for when Jeremiah cried out aloud, how very angry God was at them, because of their transgressions, and told them that they should be taken prisoners, unless they would surrender up their city, neither did the king nor the people put him to death; 5.393 but for you (to pass over what you have done within the city, which I am not able to describe as your wickedness deserves) you abuse me, and throw darts at me, who only exhort you to save yourselves, as being provoked when you are put in mind of your sins, and cannot bear the very mention of those crimes which you every day perpetrate. 5.394 For another example, when Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, lay before this city, and had been guilty of many indignities against God, and our forefathers met him in arms, they then were slain in the battle, this city was plundered by our enemies, and our sanctuary made desolate for three years and six months. And what need I bring any more examples? 5.395 Indeed what can it be that hath stirred up an army of the Romans against our nation? Is it not the impiety of the inhabitants? Whence did our servitude commence? 5.396 Was it not derived from the seditions that were among our forefathers, when the madness of Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, and our mutual quarrels, brought Pompey upon this city, and when God reduced those under subjection to the Romans who were unworthy of the liberty they had enjoyed? 5.397 After a siege, therefore, of three months, they were forced to surrender themselves, although they had not been guilty of such offenses, with regard to our sanctuary and our laws, as you have; and this while they had much greater advantages to go to war than you have. 5.398 Do not we know what end Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, came to, under whose reign God provided that this city should be taken again upon account of the people’s offenses? When Herod, the son of Antipater, brought upon us Sosius, and Sosius brought upon us the Roman army, they were then encompassed and besieged for six months, till, as a punishment for their sins, they were taken, and the city was plundered by the enemy. 5.399 Thus it appears that arms were never given to our nation, but that we are always given up to be fought against, and to be taken;
5.401 As for you, what have you done of those things that are recommended by our legislator? and what have you not done of those things that he hath condemned? How much more impious are you than those who were so quickly taken! 5.402 You have not avoided so much as those sins that are usually done in secret; I mean thefts, and treacherous plots against men, and adulteries. You are quarreling about rapines and murders, and invent strange ways of wickedness. Nay, the temple itself is become the receptacle of all, and this Divine place is polluted by the hands of those of our own country; which place hath yet been reverenced by the Romans when it was at a distance from them, when they have suffered many of their own customs to give place to our law. 5.403 And, after all this, do you expect Him whom you have so impiously abused to be your supporter? To be sure then you have a right to be petitioners, and to call upon Him to assist you, so pure are your hands! 5.404 Did your king Hezekiah lift up such hands in prayer to God against the king of Assyria, when he destroyed that great army in one night? And do the Romans commit such wickedness as did the king of Assyria, that you may have reason to hope for the like vengeance upon them? 5.405 Did not that king accept of money from our king on this condition, that he should not destroy the city, and yet, contrary to the oath he had taken, he came down to burn the temple? while the Romans do demand no more than that accustomed tribute which our fathers paid to their fathers; 5.406 and if they may but once obtain that, they neither aim to destroy this city, nor to touch this sanctuary; nay, they will grant you besides, that your posterity shall be free, and your possessions secured to you, and will preserve your holy laws inviolate to you. 5.407 And it is plain madness to expect that God should appear as well disposed towards the wicked as towards the righteous, since he knows when it is proper to punish men for their sins immediately; accordingly he brake the power of the Assyrians the very first night that they pitched their camp. 5.408 Wherefore, had he judged that our nation was worthy of freedom, or the Romans of punishment, he had immediately inflicted punishment upon those Romans, as he did upon the Assyrians, when Pompey began to meddle with our nation, or when after him Sosius came up against us, or when Vespasian laid waste Galilee, or, lastly, when Titus came first of all near to the city; 5.409 although Magnus and Sosius did not only suffer nothing, but took the city by force; as did Vespasian go from the war he made against you to receive the empire; and as for Titus, those springs that were formerly almost dried up when they were under your power since he is come, run more plentifully than they did before; 5.411 The same wonderful sign you had also experience of formerly, when the forementioned king of Babylon made war against us, and when he took the city, and burnt the temple; while yet I believe the Jews of that age were not so impious as you are. 5.412 Wherefore I cannot but suppose that God is fled out of his sanctuary, and stands on the side of those against whom you fight. 5.413 Now, even a man, if he be but a good man, will fly from an impure house, and will hate those that are in it; and do you persuade yourselves that God will abide with you in your iniquities, who sees all secret things, and hears what is kept most private? 5.414 Now, what crime is there, I pray you, that is so much as kept secret among you, or is concealed by you? nay, what is there that is not open to your very enemies? for you show your transgressions after a pompous manner, and contend one with another which of you shall be more wicked than another; and you make a public demonstration of your injustice, as if it were virtue. 5.415 However, there is a place left for your preservation, if you be willing to accept of it; and God is easily reconciled to those that confess their faults, and repent of them. 5.416 O hard-hearted wretches as you are! cast away all your arms, and take pity of your country already going to ruin; return from your wicked ways, and have regard to the excellency of that city which you are going to betray, to that excellent temple with the donations of so many countries in it. 5.417 Who could bear to be the first that should set that temple on fire? who could be willing that these things should be no more? and what is there that can better deserve to be preserved? O insensible creatures, and more stupid than are the stones themselves! 5.418 And if you cannot look at these things with discerning eyes, yet, however, have pity upon your families, and set before every one of your eyes your children, and wives, and parents, who will be gradually consumed either by famine or by war. 5.419 I am sensible that this danger will extend to my mother, and wife, and to that family of mine who have been by no means ignoble, and indeed to one that hath been very eminent in old time; and perhaps you may imagine that it is on their account only that I give you this advice; if that be all, kill them; nay, take my own blood as a reward, if it may but procure your preservation; for I am ready to die, in case you will but return to a sound mind after my death.”
5.519 4. However, when Titus, in going his rounds along those valleys, saw them full of dead bodies, and the thick putrefaction running about them, he gave a groan; and, spreading out his hands to heaven, called God to witness that this was not his doing;
5.541 3. In the meantime, Josephus, as he was going round the city, had his head wounded by a stone that was thrown at him; upon which he fell down as giddy. Upon which fall of his the Jews made a sally, and he had been hurried away into the city, if Caesar had not sent men to protect him immediately; 5.542 and as these men were fighting, Josephus was taken up, though he heard little of what was done. So the seditious supposed they had now slain that man whom they were the most desirous of killing, and made thereupon a great noise, in way of rejoicing. 5.543 This accident was told in the city, and the multitude that remained became very disconsolate at the news, as being persuaded that he was really dead, on whose account alone they could venture to desert to the Romans. 5.544 But when Josephus’s mother heard in prison that her son was dead, she said to those that watched about her, That she had always been of opinion, since the siege of Jotapata, that he would be slain, and she should never enjoy him alive any more. 5.545 She also made great lamentation privately to the maidservants that were about her, and said, That this was all the advantage she had of bringing so extraordinary a person as this son into the world; that she should not be able even to bury that son of hers, by whom she expected to have been buried herself. 5.546 However, this false report did not put his mother to pain, nor afford merriment to the robbers, long; for Josephus soon recovered of his wound, and came out, and cried out aloud, That it would not be long ere they should be punished for this wound they had given him. He also made a fresh exhortation to the people to come out upon the security that would be given them. 5.547 This sight of Josephus encouraged the people greatly, and brought a great consternation upon the seditious.
6.216 That they had begun with their own hands to burn down that temple which we have preserved hitherto; and that therefore they deserved to eat such food as this was.
6.236 3. But then, on the next day, Titus commanded part of his army to quench the fire, and to make a road for the more easy marching up of the legions, while he himself gathered the commanders together. 6.237 of those there were assembled the six principal persons: Tiberius Alexander, the commander under the general of the whole army; with Sextus Cerealis, the commander of the fifth legion; and Larcius Lepidus, the commander of the tenth legion; and Titus Frigius, the commander of the fifteenth legion: 6.238 there was also with them Eternius, the leader of the two legions that came from Alexandria; and Marcus Antonius Julianus, procurator of Judea: after these came together all the rest of the procurators and tribunes. Titus proposed to these that they should give him their advice what should be done about the holy house. 6.239 Now, some of these thought it would be the best way to act according to the rules of war, and demolish it, because the Jews would never leave off rebelling while that house was standing; at which house it was that they used to get all together. 6.241 But Titus said, that “although the Jews should get upon that holy house, and fight us thence, yet ought we not to revenge ourselves on things that are iimate, instead of the men themselves;” and that he was not in any case for burning down so vast a work as that was, because this would be a mischief to the Romans themselves, as it would be an ornament to their government while it continued. 6.242 So Fronto, and Alexander, and Cerealis grew bold upon that declaration, and agreed to the opinion of Titus. 6.243 Then was this assembly dissolved, when Titus had given orders to the commanders that the rest of their forces should lie still; but that they should make use of such as were most courageous in this attack. So he commanded that the chosen men that were taken out of the cohorts should make their way through the ruins, and quench the fire. 6.244 4. Now it is true that on this day the Jews were so weary, and under such consternation, that they refrained from any attacks. But on the next day they gathered their whole force together, and ran upon those that guarded the outward court of the temple very boldly, through the east gate, and this about the second hour of the day. 6.245 These guards received that their attack with great bravery, and by covering themselves with their shields before, as if it were with a wall, they drew their squadron close together; yet was it evident that they could not abide there very long, but would be overborne by the multitude of those that sallied out upon them, and by the heat of their passion. 6.246 However, Caesar seeing, from the tower of Antonia, that this squadron was likely to give way, he sent some chosen horsemen to support them. 6.247 Hereupon the Jews found themselves not able to sustain their onset, and upon the slaughter of those in the forefront, many of the rest were put to flight. 6.248 But as the Romans were going off, the Jews turned upon them, and fought them; and as those Romans came back upon them, they retreated again, until about the fifth hour of the day they were overborne, and shut themselves up in the inner court of the temple. 6.249 5. So Titus retired into the tower of Antonia, and resolved to storm the temple the next day, early in the morning, with his whole army, and to encamp round about the holy house.
6.251 although these flames took their rise from the Jews themselves, and were occasioned by them; for upon Titus’s retiring, the seditious lay still for a little while, and then attacked the Romans again, when those that guarded the holy house fought with those that quenched the fire that was burning in the inner court of the temple; but these Romans put the Jews to flight, and proceeded as far as the holy house itself. 6.252 At which time one of the soldiers, without staying for any orders, and without any concern or dread upon him at so great an undertaking, and being hurried on by a certain divine fury, snatched somewhat out of the materials that were on fire, and being lifted up by another soldier, he set fire to a golden window, through which there was a passage to the rooms that were round about the holy house, on the north side of it. 6.253 As the flames went upward, the Jews made a great clamor, such as so mighty an affliction required, and ran together to prevent it; and now they spared not their lives any longer, nor suffered anything to restrain their force, since that holy house was perishing, for whose sake it was that they kept such a guard about it. 6.254 6. And now a certain person came running to Titus, and told him of this fire, as he was resting himself in his tent after the last battle; whereupon he rose up in great haste, and, as he was, ran to the holy house, in order to have a stop put to the fire; 6.255 after him followed all his commanders, and after them followed the several legions, in great astonishment; so there was a great clamor and tumult raised, as was natural upon the disorderly motion of so great an army. 6.256 Then did Caesar, both by calling to the soldiers that were fighting, with a loud voice, and by giving a signal to them with his right hand, order them to quench the fire. 6.257 But they did not hear what he said, though he spake so loud, having their ears already dinned by a greater noise another way; nor did they attend to the signal he made with his hand neither, as still some of them were distracted with fighting, and others with passion. But as for the legions that came running thither, neither any persuasions nor any threatenings could restrain their violence, but each one’s own passion was his commander at this time; and as they were crowding into the temple together, many of them were trampled on by one another, while a great number fell among the ruins of the cloisters, which were still hot and smoking, and were destroyed in the same miserable way with those whom they had conquered; 6.258 and when they were come near the holy house, they made as if they did not so much as hear Caesar’s orders to the contrary; but they encouraged those that were before them to set it on fire. 6.259 As for the seditious, they were in too great distress already to afford their assistance towards quenching the fire; they were everywhere slain, and everywhere beaten; and as for a great part of the people, they were weak and without arms, and had their throats cut wherever they were caught. Now, round about the altar lay dead bodies heaped one upon another, as at the steps going up to it ran a great quantity of their blood, whither also the dead bodies that were slain above on the altar fell down.
6.261 But as the flame had not as yet reached to its inward parts, but was still consuming the rooms that were about the holy house, and Titus supposing what the fact was, that the house itself might yet be saved, 6.262 he came in haste and endeavored to persuade the soldiers to quench the fire, and gave order to Liberalius the centurion, and one of those spearmen that were about him, to beat the soldiers that were refractory with their staves, and to restrain them; 6.263 yet were their passions too hard for the regards they had for Caesar, and the dread they had of him who forbade them, as was their hatred of the Jews, and a certain vehement inclination to fight them, too hard for them also. 6.264 Moreover, the hope of plunder induced many to go on, as having this opinion, that all the places within were full of money, and as seeing that all round about it was made of gold. 6.265 And besides, one of those that went into the place prevented Caesar, when he ran so hastily out to restrain the soldiers, and threw the fire upon the hinges of the gate, in the dark; 6.266 whereby the flame burst out from within the holy house itself immediately, when the commanders retired, and Caesar with them, and when nobody any longer forbade those that were without to set fire to it. And thus was the holy house burnt down, without Caesar’s approbation.
7.45 and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body.
7.45 yet did Vespasian suspect the matter, and made an inquiry how far it was true. And when he understood that the accusation laid against the Jews was an unjust one, he cleared them of the crimes charged upon them, and this on account of Titus’s concern about the matter, and brought a deserved punishment upon Jonathan; for he was first tormented, and then burnt alive.
7.73 The multitude did also betake themselves to feasting; which feasts and drink-offerings they celebrated by their tribes, and their families, and their neighborhoods, and still prayed God to grant that Vespasian, his sons, and all their posterity, might continue in the Roman government for a very long time, and that his dominion might be preserved from all opposition. 7.121 nor were many days overpast when they determined to have but one triumph, that should be common to both of them, on account of the glorious exploits they had performed, although the senate had decreed each of them a separate triumph by himself. 7.123 4. Now all the soldiery marched out beforehand by companies, and in their several ranks, under their several commanders, in the nighttime, and were about the gates, not of the upper palaces, but those near the temple of Isis; for there it was that the emperors had rested the foregoing night.
7.128 And when everybody entirely held their peace, he stood up, and covering the greatest part of his head with his cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers; the like prayers did Titus put up also;
7.131 there it was that they tasted some food, and when they had put on their triumphal garments, and had offered sacrifices to the gods that were placed at the gate, they sent the triumph forward, and marched through the theatres, that they might be the more easily seen by the multitudes. 7.132 5. Now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shows as they deserve, and the magnificence of them all; such indeed as a man could not easily think of as performed, either by the labor of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature; 7.133 for almost all such curiosities as the most happy men ever get by piecemeal were here one heaped on another, and those both admirable and costly in their nature; and all brought together on that day demonstrated the vastness of the dominions of the Romans; 7.134 for there was here to be seen a mighty quantity of silver, and gold, and ivory, contrived into all sorts of things, and did not appear as carried along in pompous show only, but, as a man may say, running along like a river. Some parts were composed of the rarest purple hangings, and so carried along; and others accurately represented to the life what was embroidered by the arts of the Babylonians. 7.135 There were also precious stones that were transparent, some set in crowns of gold, and some in other ouches, as the workmen pleased; and of these such a vast number were brought, that we could not but thence learn how vainly we imagined any of them to be rarities. 7.136 The images of the gods were also carried, being as well wonderful for their largeness, as made very artificially, and with great skill of the workmen; nor were any of these images of any other than very costly materials; and many species of animals were brought, every one in their own natural ornaments. 7.137 The men also who brought every one of these shows were great multitudes, and adorned with purple garments, all over interwoven with gold; those that were chosen for carrying these pompous shows having also about them such magnificent ornaments as were both extraordinary and surprising. 7.138 Besides these, one might see that even the great number of the captives was not unadorned, while the variety that was in their garments, and their fine texture, concealed from the sight the deformity of their bodies. 7.139 But what afforded the greatest surprise of all was the structure of the pageants that were borne along; for indeed he that met them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be able firmly enough to support them, such was their magnitude; 7.141 for upon many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wrought gold and ivory fastened about them all; 7.142 and many resemblances of the war, and those in several ways, and variety of contrivances, affording a most lively portraiture of itself. 7.143 For there was to be seen a happy country laid waste, and entire squadrons of enemies slain; while some of them ran away, and some were carried into captivity; with walls of great altitude and magnitude overthrown and ruined by machines; with the strongest fortifications taken, and the walls of most populous cities upon the tops of hills seized on, 7.144 and an army pouring itself within the walls; as also every place full of slaughter, and supplications of the enemies, when they were no longer able to lift up their hands in way of opposition. Fire also sent upon temples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and falling upon their owners: 7.145 rivers also, after they came out of a large and melancholy desert, ran down, not into a land cultivated, nor as drink for men, or for cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergone during this war. 7.146 Now the workmanship of these representations was so magnificent and lively in the construction of the things, that it exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as if they had been there really present. 7.147 On the top of every one of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. Moreover, there followed those pageants a great number of ships; 7.148 and for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is, the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction were now changed from that which we made use of; 7.149 for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews; 7.151 After these spoils passed by a great many men, carrying the images of Victory, whose structure was entirely either of ivory or of gold. 7.152 After which Vespasian marched in the first place, and Titus followed him; Domitian also rode along with them, and made a glorious appearance, and rode on a horse that was worthy of admiration. 7.153 6. Now the last part of this pompous show was at the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, whither when they were come, they stood still; for it was the Romans’ ancient custom to stay till somebody brought the news that the general of the enemy was slain. 7.154 This general was Simon, the son of Gioras, who had then been led in this triumph among the captives; a rope had also been put upon his head, and he had been drawn into a proper place in the forum, and had withal been tormented by those that drew him along; and the law of the Romans required that malefactors condemned to die should be slain there. 7.155 Accordingly, when it was related that there was an end of him, and all the people had sent up a shout for joy, they then began to offer those sacrifices which they had consecrated, in the prayers used in such solemnities; which when they had finished, they went away to the palace. 7.156 And as for some of the spectators, the emperors entertained them at their own feast; and for all the rest there were noble preparations made for their feasting at home; 7.157 for this was a festival day to the city of Rome, as celebrated for the victory obtained by their army over their enemies, for the end that was now put to their civil miseries, and for the commencement of their hopes of future prosperity and happiness. 7.158 7. After these triumphs were over, and after the affairs of the Romans were settled on the surest foundations, Vespasian resolved to build a temple to Peace, which was finished in so short a time, and in so glorious a manner, as was beyond all human expectation and opinion: 7.159 for he having now by Providence a vast quantity of wealth, besides what he had formerly gained in his other exploits, he had this temple adorned with pictures and statues; 7.161 he also laid up therein, as ensigns of his glory, those golden vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewish temple. 7.162 But still he gave order that they should lay up their Law, and the purple veils of the holy place, in the royal palace itself, and keep them there.
7.217 for he did not found any city there, but reserved the country for himself. However, he assigned a place for eight hundred men only, whom he had dismissed from his army, which he gave them for their habitation; it is called Emmaus, and is distant from Jerusalem threescore furlongs. 7.218 He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever they were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachmae every year into the Capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time. 7.219 1. And now, in the fourth year of the reign of Vespasian, it came to pass that Antiochus, the king of Commagene, with all his family, fell into very great calamities. The occasion was this: 7.221 and therein told him that Antiochus, with his son Epiphanes, had resolved to rebel against the Romans, and had made a league with the king of Parthia to that purpose; 7.222 that it was therefore fit to prevent them, lest they prevent us, and begin such a war as may cause a general disturbance in the Roman empire. 7.223 Now Caesar was disposed to take some care about the matter, since this discovery was made; for the neighborhood of the kingdoms made this affair worthy of greater regard; 7.224 for Samosata, the capital of Commagene, lies upon Euphrates, and upon any such design could afford an easy passage over it to the Parthians, and could also afford them a secure reception. 7.225 Petus was accordingly believed, and had authority given him of doing what he should think proper in the case; so he set about it without delay, and fell upon Commagene before Antiochus and his people had the least expectation of his coming: he had with him the tenth legion, as also some cohorts and troops of horsemen. 7.226 These kings also came to his assistance: Aristobulus, king of the country called Chalcidene, and Sohemus, who was called king of Emesa. 7.227 Nor was there any opposition made to his forces when they entered the kingdom; for no one of that country would so much as lift up his hand against them. 7.228 When Antiochus heard this unexpected news, he could not think in the least of making war with the Romans, but determined to leave his whole kingdom in the state wherein it now was, and to retire privately, with his wife and children, as thinking thereby to demonstrate himself to the Romans to be innocent as to the accusation laid against him. 7.229 So he went away from that city as far as a hundred and twenty furlongs, into a plain, and there pitched his tents.
7.231 However, the king was not prevailed upon by the distress he was in to do anything in the way of war against the Romans, but bemoaned his own hard fate, and endured with patience what he was not able to prevent. 7.232 But his sons, who were young, and unexperienced in war, but of strong bodies, were not easily induced to bear this calamity without fighting. Epiphanes, therefore, and Callinicus, betook themselves to military force; 7.233 and as the battle was a sore one, and lasted all the day long, they showed their own valor in a remarkable manner, and nothing but the approach of night put a period thereto, and that without any diminution of their forces; 7.234 yet would not Antiochus, upon this conclusion of the fight, continue there by any means, but took his wife and his daughters, and fled away with them to Cilicia, and by so doing quite discouraged the minds of his own soldiers. 7.235 Accordingly, they revolted, and went over to the Romans, out of the despair they were in of his keeping the kingdom; and his case was looked upon by all as quite desperate. 7.236 It was therefore necessary that Epiphanes and his soldiers should get clear of their enemies before they became entirely destitute of any confederates; nor were there any more than ten horsemen with him, who passed with him over Euphrates, 7.237 whence they went undisturbed to Vologeses, the king of Parthia, where they were not disregarded as fugitives, but had the same respect paid them as if they had retained their ancient prosperity. 7.238 3. Now when Antiochus was come to Tarsus in Cilicia, Petus ordered a centurion to go to him, and send him in bonds to Rome. 7.239 However, Vespasian could not endure to have a king brought to him in that manner, but thought it fit rather to have a regard to the ancient friendship that had been between them, than to preserve an inexorable anger upon pretense of this war.
7.241 When Epiphanes, who before was in great fear for his father, was informed of this, their minds were freed from that great and almost incurable concern they had been under. 7.242 He also hoped that Caesar would be reconciled to them, upon the intercession of Vologeses; for although he lived in plenty, he knew not how to bear living out of the Roman empire. 7.243 So Caesar gave him leave, after an obliging manner, and he came to Rome; and as his father came quickly to him from Lacedemon, he had all sorts of respect paid him there, and there he remained.
7.421 who having in suspicion the restless temper of the Jews for innovation, and being afraid lest they should get together again, and persuade some others to join with them, gave orders to Lupus to demolish that Jewish temple which was in the region called Onion,' ' None