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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

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subject book bibliographic info
varus Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 121, 122, 123
Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 160
Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 172
Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 61, 63, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 97, 99, 113, 131, 137
Xinyue (2022), Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry, 46
varus, governor of syria Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 181
varus, governor, plancius Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 366
varus, in martial, tombs, of Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 213
varus, of cilicia Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 55, 78
varus, of laodicea Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 78
Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 219
varus, of laodikeia, sophist Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 495
varus, of pamphylia, perge Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 71, 80, 81, 82
varus, of perge Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022), The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography, 307
varus, p., licinius Balbo and Santangelo (2022), A Community in Transition: Rome between Hannibal and the Gracchi 274
varus, p., quinctilius Balbo and Santangelo (2022), A Community in Transition: Rome between Hannibal and the Gracchi 351
Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 30
varus, p.alfenus Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 5, 45
varus, plancius c., vespasian Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 139, 159
varus, plancius c., xenophon Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 14, 146
varus, portrait Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 81
varus, quinctilius p., general Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 127, 322
varus, quintilius Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 342, 343
Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 430
varus, quintilius rank, roman categories and Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 354
varus, unidentified Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 73

List of validated texts:
10 validated results for "varus"
1. Horace, Sermones, 1.5.40-1.5.43, 1.6.54-1.6.55, 1.9.22-1.9.23, 1.10.43-1.10.45, 1.10.81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thyestes (Varius Rufus) • Varius • Varius Rufus • Varius Rufus (poet) • Varius Rufus (poet), De morte • Varius Rufus (poet), paid by Augustus • Varius Rufus, L.

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 220; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 18; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 20; Nijs (2023), The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus. 208; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 6, 16, 17, 184, 185, 189, 196, 227

1.10 1. I suppose that, by my books of the Antiquities of the Jews, most excellent Epaphroditus, I have made it evident to those who peruse them, that our Jewish nation is of very great antiquity, and had a distinct subsistence of its own originally; as also I have therein declared how we came to inhabit this country wherein we now live. Those Antiquities contain the history of five thousand years, and are taken out of our sacred books; but are translated by me into the Greek tongue. ,However, since I observe a considerable number of people giving ear to the reproaches that are laid against us by those who bear ill will to us, and will not believe what I have written concerning the antiquity of our nation, while they take it for a plain sign that our nation is of a late date, because they are not so much as vouchsafed a bare mention by the most famous historiographers among the Grecians, ,I therefore have thought myself under an obligation to write somewhat briefly about these subjects, in order to convict those that reproach us of spite and voluntary falsehood, and to correct the ignorance of others, and withal to instruct all those who are desirous of knowing the truth of what great antiquity we really are. ,As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary. ,I shall also endeavor to give an account of the reasons why it hath so happened, that there hath not been a great number of Greeks who have made mention of our nation in their histories. I will, however, bring those Grecians to light who have not omitted such our history, for the sake of those that either do not know them, or pretend not to know them already. 1.5.40 Afterward I got leisure at Rome; and when all my materials were prepared for that work, I made use of some persons to assist me in learning the Greek tongue, and by these means I composed the history of those transactions; and I was so well assured of the truth of what I related, that I first of all appealed to those that had the supreme command in that war, Vespasian and Titus, as witnesses for me,
1.5.40
I shall also endeavor to give an account of the reasons why it hath so happened, that there hath not been a great number of Greeks who have made mention of our nation in their histories. I will, however, bring those Grecians to light who have not omitted such our history, for the sake of those that either do not know them, or pretend not to know them already.


1.6.54 2. And now, in the first place, I cannot but greatly wonder at those men who suppose that we must attend to none but Grecians, when we are inquiring about the most ancient facts, and must inform ourselves of their truth from them only, while we must not believe ourselves nor other men; for I am convinced that the very reverse is the truth of the case. I mean this,—if we will not be led by vain opinions, but will make inquiry after truth from facts themselves;
1.6.54
12. As for ourselves, therefore, we neither inhabit a maritime country, nor do we delight in merchandise, nor in such a mixture with other men as arises from it; but the cities we dwell in are remote from the sea, and having a fruitful country for our habitation, we take pains in cultivating that only. Our principal care of all is this, to educate our children well; and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life to observe the laws that have been given us, and to keep those rules of piety that have been delivered down to us.
1.9.22
but that, as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who had then the dominion over Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called Judea, and that large enough to contain this great number of men, and called it Jerusalem.”
1.9.22
for almost all these nations inhabit such countries as are least subject to destruction from the world about them; and these also have taken especial care to have nothing omitted of what was remarkably done among them; but their history was esteemed sacred, and put into public tables, as written by men of the greatest wisdom they had among them; ' None
2. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Varius Rufus • Varius Rufus (poet) • Varius Rufus (poet), De morte • Varius Rufus (poet), paid by Augustus

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 220; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 20

3. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Quintilius Varus • Varius • Varius Rufus (poet) • Varius Rufus (poet), De morte • Varius Rufus (poet), paid by Augustus

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 220; Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 183; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 53; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 17

4. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Varius • Varius Rufus • Varius Rufus (poet) • Varius Rufus (poet), De morte • Varius Rufus (poet), paid by Augustus

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 33; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 220; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 20

5. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thyestes (Varius Rufus) • Varius Rufus (poet), Thyestes • Varius Rufus (poet), paid by Augustus • Varius Rufus, L.

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 108; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 18

6. Philostratus The Athenian, Lives of The Sophists, 1.7.487, 1.21.520, 2.4.570, 2.6.576, 2.8.580, 2.10.589 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plancius Varus, C., Xenophon • Varus (unidentified) • Varus of Pamphylia (Perge) • Varus of Perge • Varus, of Laodicea

 Found in books: Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 71, 73, 82, 146; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 219; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022), The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography, 307

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1.7.487 ON reaching the age when children are taught their letters, he showed great strength of memory and power of application; and his tongue affected the Attic dialect, nor was his accent corrupted by the race he lived among. All eyes were turned upon him, for he was, moreover, conspicuous for his beauty. When he reached his fourteenth year, his father brought him to Tarsus, to Euthydemus the teacher from Phoenicia. Now Euthydemus was a good rhetor, and began his education; but, though he was attached to his teacher, he found the atmosphere of the city harsh and strange and little conducive to the philosophic life, for nowhere are men more addicted than here to luxury; jesters and full of insolence are they all; and they attend more to their fine linen than the Athenians did to wisdom; and a stream called the Cydnus runs through their city, along the banks of which they sit like so many water-fowl. Hence the words which Apollonius addresses to them in his letter: Be done with getting drunk upon your water. He therefore transferred his teacher, with his father's consent, to the town of Aegae, which was close by, where he found a peace congenial to one who would be a philosopher, and a more serious school of study and a sanctuary of Asclepius, where that god reveals himself in person to men. There he had as his companions in philosophy followers of Plato and Chrysippus and peripatetic philosophers. And he diligently attended also to the discourses of Epicurus, for he did not despise these either, although it was to those of Pythagoras that he applied himself with unspeakable wisdom and ardor. However, his teacher of the Pythagorean system was not a very serious person, nor one who practiced in his conduct the philosophy he taught; for he was the slave of his belly and appetites, and modeled himself upon Epicurus. And this man was Euxenus from the town of Heraclea in Pontus, and he knew the principles of Pythagoras just as birds know what they learn from men; for the birds will wish you farewell, and say Good day or Zeus help you, and such like, without understanding what they say and without any real sympathy for mankind, merely because they have been trained to move their tongue in a certain manner. Apollonius, however, was like the young eagles who, as long as they are not fully fledged, fly alongside of their parents and are trained by them in flight, but who, as soon as they are able to rise in the air, outsoar the parent birds, especially when they perceive the latter to be greedy and to be flying along the ground in order to snuff the quarry; like them Apollonius attended Euxenus as long as he was a child and was guided by him in the path of argument, but when he reached his sixteenth year he indulged his impulse towards the life of Pythagoras, being fledged and winged thereto by some higher power. Notwithstanding he did not cease to love Euxenus, nay, he persuaded his father to present him with a villa outside the town, where there were tender groves and fountains, and he said to him: Now you live there your own life, but I will live that of Pythagoras." "
1.21.520
HE left Ctesiphon behind, and passed on to the borders of Babylon; and here was a frontier garrison belonging to the king, which one could not pass by without being questioned who one was, and as to one's city, and one's reason for coming there. And there was a satrap in command of this post, a sort of Eye of the King, I imagine; for the Mede had just acceded to the throne, and instead of being content to live in security, he worried himself about things real and imaginary and fell into fits of fear and panic. Apollonius then and his party were brought before this satrap, who had just set up the awning on his wagon and was driving out to go somewhere else. When he saw a man so dried up and parched, he began to bawl out like a cowardly woman and hid his face, and could hardly be induced to look up at him. Whence do you come to us, he said, and who sent you? as if he was asking questions of a spirit. And Apollonius replied: I have sent myself, to see whether I can make men of you, whether you like it or not. He asked a second time who he was to come trespassing like that into the king's country, and Apollonius said: All the earth is mine, and I have a right to go all over it and through it. Whereupon the other said: I will torture you, if you don't answer my questions. And I hope, said the other, that you will do it with your own hands, so that you may be tested by the touchstone of a true man. Now the eunuch was astonished to find that Apollonius needed no interpreter, but understood what he said without the least trouble or difficulty.By the gods, he said, who are you? this time altering his tone to a whine of entreaty. And Apollonius replied: Since you have asked me civilly this time and not so rudely as before, listen, I will tell you who I am: I am Apollonius of Tyana, and my road leads me to the king of India, because I want to acquaint myself with the country there; and I shall be glad to meet your king, for those who have associated with him say that he is no bad fellow, and certainly he is not, if he is this Vardanes who has lately recovered the empire which he had lost. He is the same, replied the other, O divine Apollonius; for we have heard of you a long time ago, and in favor of so wise a man as you he would, I am sure, step down off his golden throne and send your party to India, each of you mounted on a camel. And I myself now invite you to be my guest, and I beg to present you with these treasures. And at the moment he pointed out a store of gold to him saying: Take as may handfuls as you like, fill your hands, not once, but ten times. And when Apollonius refused the money he said: Well, at any rate you will take some of the Babylonian wine, which the king bestows on us, his ten satraps. Take a jar of it, with some roast steaks of bacon and venison and some meal and bread and anything else you like. For the road after this, for many stades, leads through villages which are ill-stocked with provision. And here the eunuch caught himself up and said: Oh! ye gods, what have I done? For I have heard that this man never eats the flesh of animals, nor drinks wine, and here I am inviting him to dine in a gross and ignorant manner. Well, said Apollonius, you can offer me a lighter repast and give me bread and dried fruits. I will give you, said the other, leavened bread and palm dates, like amber and of good size. And I will also supply you with vegetables, the best which the gardens of the Tigris afford. Well, said Apollonius, the wild herbs which grow free are nicer than those which are forced and artificial. They are nicer, said the satrap, I admit, but our land in the direction of Babylon is full of wormwood so that the herbs which grow in it are disagreeably bitter. In the end Apollonius accepted the satrap's offer, and as he was on the point of going away, he said: My excellent fellow, don't keep your good manners to the end another time, but begin with them. This by way of rebuking him for saying that he would torture him, and for the barbaric language which he had heard to begin with." 2.4.570 HAVING passed the Caucasus our travelers say they saw men four cubits height, and they were already black, and that when they passed over the river Indus they saw others five cubits high. But on their way to this river our wayfarers found the following incidents worth of notice. For they were traveling by bright moonlight, when the figure of an empusa or hobgoblin appeared to them, that changed from one form into another, and sometimes vanished into nothing. And Apollonius realized what it was, and himself heaped abuse on the hobgoblin and instructed his party to do the same, saying that this was the right remedy for such a visitation. And the phantasm fled away shrieking even as ghosts do.
2.6.576
And having passed beyond the mountain, they at once came upon elephants with men riding on them; and these people dwell between the Caucasus and the river Cophen, and they are rude in their lives and they are nomad riders on the herds of elephants; some of them however rode on camels, which are used by Indians for carrying dispatches, and they will travel 1,000 stades a day without ever bending the knee or lying down anywhere. One of the Indians, then, who was riding on such a camel, asked the guide where they were going, and when he was told the object of their voyage, he informed the nomads thereof; and they raised a shout of pleasure, and bade them approach, and when they came up they offered them wine which they had made out of palm dates and honey from the same tree, and steaks from the flesh of lions and leopards which they had just flayed. And our travelers accepted everything except the flesh, and then started off for India and betook themselves eastwards.
2.8.580
THEY crossed the river Cophen, themselves in boats, but the camels by a ford on foot; for the river has not yet reached its full size here. They were now in a continent subject to the king, in which the mountain of Nysa rises, covered to its very top with plantations, like the mountain of Tmolus in Lydia, and you can ascend it, because paths been made by cultivators. They say then that when they ascended it, they found the sanctuary of Dionysus, which it is said Dionysus founded in honor of himself, planting round it a circle of laurel trees which encloses just as much ground as suffices to contain a moderate sized temple. He also surrounded the laurels with a border of ivy and vines; and he set up inside an image of himself, knowing that in time the trees would grow together and make themselves into a kind of roof; and this had now formed itself, so that neither rain can wet nor wind blow upon the sanctuary. And there were sickles and wine-presses and their furniture dedicated to Dionysus, as if to one who gathers grapes, all made of gold and silver. And the image resembled a youthful Indian, and was carved out of polished white stone. And when Dionysus celebrates his orgies and shakes Nysa, the cities underneath the mountain hear the noise and exult in sympathy.
2.10.589
DAMIS says that he did not see the rock called the Birdless (Aornus), which is not far distant from Nysa, because this lay off their road, and their guide feared to diverge from the direct path. But he says he heard that it had been captured by Alexander, and was called Birdless, not because it rises 9,000 feet, for the sacred birds fly higher than that; but because on the summit of the rock there is, they say, a cleft which draws into itself the birds which fly over it, as we may see at Athens also in the vestibule of the Parthenon, and in several places in Phrygia and Lydia. And this is why the rock was called and actually is Birdless.'" None
7. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 7.17 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Quintilius Varus • Quintilius Varus, readers, role of • Varius Rufus (poet), Thyestes • Varius Rufus (poet), paid by Augustus

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 108; König and Whitton (2018), Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 147, 197

sup>
7.17 To Celer. Every author has his own reasons for giving recitals; mine, as I have often said before, is that I may discover any slip I may have made, and I certainly do make them. So I am surprised when you say that some people have found fault with me for giving recitals of speeches at all, unless, indeed, they think that speeches are the only kind of composition which requires no emendations. I should be very glad if they were to tell me why they allow - if they do allow it - that history is a proper subject for recitation, seeing that history is written not for display but in the interests of strict truth, or why they should consider a tragedy a fit subject, seeing that it requires not an audience room but a stage and actors, or lyric verses, which need not a reader but the accompaniment of a chorus and a lyre. Perhaps they will say that long established custom sanctions the practice. Then is the originator of it to be blamed ? Besides, not only our own countrymen but the Greeks as well have constantly read speeches. But, they say, it is a waste of time to give a reading of a speech which has already been delivered. So it would be if the speech remained identically the same, and you read it to the same audience and immediately after its delivery; but if you make a number of additions, if you recast numerous passages, if you have a new audience, or if the audience be the same and yet a considerable time has elapsed, why should one hesitate more about giving a reading of an already delivered speech than about publishing it ? It may be argued that it is difficult to make a speech convincing when it is read. True, but that is a point connected with the difficulty of reciting, and has no bearing on the argument that a speech should not be read at all. For my own part I desire applause, not when I am reciting but when other people are reading my book, and that is why I let no opportunity of emending a passage escape me. In the first place, I go carefully over what I have written again and again; then I read it to two or three friends; subsequently I pass it on to others to make marginal criticisms, and, if I am in doubt, I once more call in a friend or two to help me in weighing their value. Last of all, I read it to a large audience, and it is then, if you can credit the statement, that I make the severest corrections, because the greater my anxiety to please, the more diligent I am in application. But the best judges of all are modesty, respect, and awe. Consider the matter in this light. If you are going to enter into conversation with some one person, however learned he may be, are you not less flurried than you would be if you were entering into conversation with a number of people or with persons who know nothing ? Is not your diffidence the greatest just at the moment when you rise to plead, and is it not then that you wish not only a large part of your speech but the whole of it were cast in a different mould ? Especially is this the case if the scene of the encounter is a spacious one and there is a dense ring of spectators, for we feel nervous even of the meanest and commonest folk who crowd there. If you think your opening points are badly received, does it not weaken your nerve and make you feel like collapse? I fancy so, the reason being that there exists a considerable weight of sound opinion in mere numbers simply, and though, if you take them individually, their judgment is worth next to nothing, taken collectively, it is worth a great deal. Hence it was that Pomponius Secundus, who used to write tragedies, was in the habit of exclaiming, " I appeal to the people," whenever he thought that a passage should be retained, which some one of his intimate friends considered had better be expunged, and so he either stuck to his own opinion or followed that of his friend, according as the people received the passage in silence or greeted it with applause. Such was the high estimate he formed of the popular judgment; whether rightly or wrongly does not affect me. For my custom is to call in, not the people, but a few carefully selected friends, whose judgment I respect and have confidence in, and whose faces I can watch individually, yet who are numerous enough collectively to put me in some awe. For I think that although Marcus Cicero says, "Composition is the keenest critic in the world," * this applies even more to the fear of speaking in public. The very fact that we keep thinking we are going to give a reading sharpens our critical taste, so too does our entry into the audience-hall, so too do our pale looks, anxious tremors, and our glances from side to side. Hence I am far from repenting of my practice, which I find of the greatest value to me, and so far am I from being deterred by the idle talk of my critics that I beg of you to point out to me some additional method of criticism in addition to those I have enumerated. For though I take great pains I never seem to take enough. I keep thinking what a serious matter it is to place anything in the hands of the public for them to read, nor can I persuade myself that\' any work of mine, which you are always anxious should get a welcome everywhere, does not stand in need of constant revision by myself and a number of my friends. Farewell. '' None
8. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Quinctilius Varus, P. • Quintilius Varus

 Found in books: Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 430; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 30

9. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Ephesus, buildings and streets, Varius/Scholastikia Baths • Quintilius Valens Varius, P.

 Found in books: Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 105; Kalinowski (2021), Memory, Family, and Community in Roman Ephesos, 147

10. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Varius Geminus, Q.

 Found in books: Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 40; Talbert (1984), The Senate of Imperial Rome, 36




Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.