|1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.12, 12.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame
Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 609; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 315, 370
12.12 And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you.
12.15 I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One."'' None
|2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 21.14, 22.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • Touch, sense of touch is a shame according to Aristotle • shame
Found in books: Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 197; Rosen-Zvi (2012), The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash, 82; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 203
21.14 וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ׃
22.29 וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הנער הַנַּעֲרָה חֲמִשִּׁים כָּסֶף וְלוֹ־תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנָּהּ לֹא־יוּכַל שַׁלְּחָה כָּל־יָמָיו׃'' None
21.14 And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her.
22.29 then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife, because he hath humbled her; he may not put her away all his days.'' None
|3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 7.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • shame • shame and disgrace
Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 167; Gera (2014), Judith, 384
7.4 כִּי נִמְכַּרְנוּ אֲנִי וְעַמִּי לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרוֹג וּלְאַבֵּד וְאִלּוּ לַעֲבָדִים וְלִשְׁפָחוֹת נִמְכַּרְנוּ הֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי כִּי אֵין הַצָּר שֹׁוֶה בְּנֵזֶק הַמֶּלֶךְ׃'' None
7.4 for we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my peace, for the adversary is not worthy that the king be endamaged.’'' None
|4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • honour (and shame), morality and God’s honour
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 389; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 566
20.17 וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃'' None
20.17 And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’'' None
|5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.25, 3.4, 3.6-3.7, 3.19, 9.3, 15.13, 18.1-18.8, 20.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Sarah, shame of • Shame • shame • shame and disgrace • shameful
Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 256; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 96; Gera (2014), Judith, 210, 406; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 233, 299; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 58, 339, 484, 485, 573, 574, 575, 582, 583, 585, 586, 625, 647, 648, 1039, 1040; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 203; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 98, 363; Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 144, 146, 147, 150, 167
2.25 וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא יִתְבֹּשָׁשׁוּ׃
3.4 וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃
3.6 וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.7 וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃
3.19 בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃
9.3 כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃
15.13 וַיֹּאמֶר לְאַבְרָם יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי־גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָהֶם וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃
18.1 וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃
18.1 וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.2 וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃ 18.2 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃ 18.3 וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים׃ 18.3 וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 18.4 יֻקַּח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשָּׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ׃ 18.5 וְאֶקְחָה פַת־לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ כִּי־עַל־כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל־עַבְדְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 18.6 וַיְמַהֵר אַבְרָהָם הָאֹהֱלָה אֶל־שָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר מַהֲרִי שְׁלֹשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סֹלֶת לוּשִׁי וַעֲשִׂי עֻגוֹת׃ 18.7 וְאֶל־הַבָּקָר רָץ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח בֶּן־בָּקָר רַךְ וָטוֹב וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַנַּעַר וַיְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ׃ 18.8 וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוּא־עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃
20.4 וַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ לֹא קָרַב אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי הֲגוֹי גַּם־צַדִּיק תַּהֲרֹג׃' ' None
2.25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.
3.4 And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;
3.6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat. 3.7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles.
3.19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’
9.3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all.
15.13 And He said unto Abram: ‘Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;
18.1 And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day; 18.2 and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth, 18.3 and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant. 18.4 Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet, and recline yourselves under the tree. 18.5 And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and stay ye your heart; after that ye shall pass on; forasmuch as ye are come to your servant.’ And they said: ‘So do, as thou hast said.’ 18.6 And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said: ‘Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes.’ 18.7 And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it unto the servant; and he hastened to dress it. 18.8 And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.
20.4 Now Abimelech had not come near her; and he said: ‘Lord, wilt Thou slay even a righteous nation?' ' None
|6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.21-5.23, 7.6, 20.3-20.4, 23.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Sacrifices, asham, reparation offering • Shame • asham • guilt offering (asham) • honour (and shame), morality and God’s honour • shame • shame and disgrace
Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 97; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 389; Gera (2014), Judith, 282, 316; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 276; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 20, 30; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 117; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 203
5.21 נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃ 5.22 אוֹ־מָצָא אֲבֵדָה וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל־שָׁקֶר עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם לַחֲטֹא בָהֵנָּה׃ 5.23 וְהָיָה כִּי־יֶחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל אוֹ אֶת־הָעֹשֶׁק אֲשֶׁר עָשָׁק אוֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּדוֹן אֲשֶׁר הָפְקַד אִתּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־הָאֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא׃
7.6 כָּל־זָכָר בַּכֹּהֲנִים יֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ יֵאָכֵל קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא׃
20.3 וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ כִּי מִזַּרְעוֹ נָתַן לַמֹּלֶךְ לְמַעַן טַמֵּא אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי וּלְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי׃ 20.4 וְאִם הַעְלֵם יַעְלִימוּ עַם הָאָרֶץ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶם מִן־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא בְּתִתּוֹ מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ לְבִלְתִּי הָמִית אֹתוֹ׃
23.32 שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הוּא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב מֵעֶרֶב עַד־עֶרֶב תִּשְׁבְּתוּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶם׃'' None
5.21 If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour; 5.22 or have found that which was lost, and deal falsely therein, and swear to a lie; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein; 5.23 then it shall be, if he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took by robbery, or the thing which he hath gotten by oppression, or the deposit which was deposited with him, or the lost thing which he found,
7.6 Every male among the priests may eat thereof; it shall be eaten in a holy place; it is most holy.
20.3 I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name. 20.4 And if the people of the land do at all hide their eyes from that man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and put him not to death;
23.32 It shall be unto you a sabbath of solemn rest, and ye shall afflict your souls; in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye keep your sabbath.'' None
|7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame
Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 942, 944; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 370
7.8 אַל־תִּשְׂמְחִי אֹיַבְתִּי לִי כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָמְתִּי כִּי־אֵשֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יְהוָה אוֹר לִי׃'' None
7.8 Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy; Though I am fallen, I shall arise; Though I sit in darkness, the LORD is a light unto me.'' None
|8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.18, 11.1, 13.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame • shame and disgrace • shame and disgrace, and ridicule
Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 128, 198, 217; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 229, 397, 692; Rosen-Zvi (2012), The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash, 212; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 120, 205
5.18 וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃
11.1 וַיְהִי הָעָם כְּמִתְאֹנְנִים רַע בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ וַתִּבְעַר־בָּם אֵשׁ יְהוָה וַתֹּאכַל בִּקְצֵה הַמַּחֲנֶה׃
11.1 וַיִּשְׁמַע מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם בֹּכֶה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָיו אִישׁ לְפֶתַח אָהֳלוֹ וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה מְאֹד וּבְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה רָע׃' ' None
5.18 And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse.
11.1 And the people were as murmurers, speaking evil in the ears of the LORD; and when the LORD heard it, His anger was kindled; and the fire of the LORD burnt among them, and devoured in the uttermost part of the camp.
13.20 and what the land is, whether it is fat or lean, whether there is wood therein, or not. And be ye of good courage, and bring of the fruit of the land.’—Now the time was the time of the first-ripe grapes.—' ' None
|9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 5.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame and disgrace, and ridicule
Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 381; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 499
5.19 אַיֶּלֶת אֲהָבִים וְיַעֲלַת־חֵן דַּדֶּיהָ יְרַוֻּךָ בְכָל־עֵת בְּאַהֲבָתָהּ תִּשְׁגֶּה תָמִיד׃'' None
5.19 A lovely hind and a graceful doe, Let her breasts satisfy thee at all times; With her love be thou ravished always.'' None
|10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 34.26, 35.24, 38.16, 43.16, 106.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame
Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 582, 609, 942; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 116; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 310, 316, 370
38.16 כִּי־לְךָ יְהוָה הוֹחָלְתִּי אַתָּה תַעֲנֶה אֲדֹנָי אֱלֹהָי׃' ' None
38.16 For in Thee, O LORD, do I hope; Thou wilt answer, O Lord my God.
106.20 Thus they exchanged their glory For the likeness of an ox that eateth grass.' ' None
|11. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • community, shame • shame • shame, lack of
Found in books: Rosen-Zvi (2012), The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash, 195, 196; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 70
|12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 4.9, 4.12, 17.50-17.51, 25.39, 25.42 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame • shame and disgrace • shame and disgrace, and ridicule
Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 52, 103, 201, 204; Gera (2014), Judith, 217, 283, 381, 384, 396, 429, 430, 459; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 572
4.9 הִתְחַזְּקוּ וִהְיוּ לַאֲנָשִׁים פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן תַּעַבְדוּ לָעִבְרִים כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ לָכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם לַאֲנָשִׁים וְנִלְחַמְתֶּם׃
4.12 וַיָּרָץ אִישׁ־בִּנְיָמִן מֵהַמַּעֲרָכָה וַיָּבֹא שִׁלֹה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּמַדָּיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃' '17.51 וַיָּרָץ דָּוִד וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶל־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־חַרְבּוֹ וַיִּשְׁלְפָהּ מִתַּעְרָהּ וַיְמֹתְתֵהוּ וַיִּכְרָת־בָּהּ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּרְאוּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים כִּי־מֵת גִּבּוֹרָם וַיָּנֻסוּ׃
25.39 וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד כִּי מֵת נָבָל וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר רָב אֶת־רִיב חֶרְפָּתִי מִיַּד נָבָל וְאֶת־עַבְדּוֹ חָשַׂךְ מֵרָעָה וְאֵת רָעַת נָבָל הֵשִׁיב יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיְדַבֵּר בַּאֲבִיגַיִל לְקַחְתָּהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃
25.42 וַתְּמַהֵר וַתָּקָם אֲבִיגַיִל וַתִּרְכַּב עַל־הַחֲמוֹר וְחָמֵשׁ נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הַהֹלְכוֹת לְרַגְלָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי דָוִד וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃'' None
4.9 Strengthen yourselves and act like men, O Pelishtim, lest you fall slaves to the Hebrews, as they have been slaves to you: quit yourselves like men, and fight.
4.12 And there ran a man of Binyamin out of the army, and came to Shilo the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head.
17.50 So David prevailed over the Pelishtian with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Pelishtian, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David. 17.51 Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Pelishtian, and took his sword, and drew it out of its sheath, and slew him, and with it he cut off his head. And when the Pelishtim saw that their champion was dead, they fled.
25.39 And when David heard that Naval was dead, he said, Blessed be the Lord, that has pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Naval, and has kept his servant from evil: for the Lord has requited the wickedness of Naval upon his own head. And David sent and spoke with Avigayil, to take her to him to wife.
25.42 And Avigayil hastened, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five girls of hers that went after her; and she went after the messengers of David, and became his wife.' ' None
|13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 4.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame and disgrace
Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 396; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 929
4.6 וְהֵנָּה בָּאוּ עַד־תּוֹךְ הַבַּיִת לֹקְחֵי חִטִּים וַיַּכֻּהוּ אֶל־הַחֹמֶשׁ וְרֵכָב וּבַעֲנָה אָחִיו נִמְלָטוּ׃'' None
4.6 And they came into the midst of the house, as though they would have fetched wheat; and they smote him in the belly: and Rekhav and Ba῾ana his brother escaped.'' None
|14. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 6.3-6.6 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • shame
Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 55; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 214
|sup>6.4 הַשֹּׁכְבִים עַל־מִטּוֹת שֵׁן וּסְרֻחִים עַל־עַרְשׂוֹתָם וְאֹכְלִים כָּרִים מִצֹּאן וַעֲגָלִים מִתּוֹךְ מַרְבֵּק׃ 6.5 הַפֹּרְטִים עַל־פִּי הַנָּבֶל כְּדָוִיד חָשְׁבוּ לָהֶם כְּלֵי־שִׁיר׃ 6.6 הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן וְרֵאשִׁית שְׁמָנִים יִמְשָׁחוּ וְלֹא נֶחְלוּ עַל־שֵׁבֶר יוֹסֵף' ' None||sup>6.4 That lie upon beds of ivory, And stretch themselves upon their couches, And eat the lambs out of the flock, And the calves out of the midst of the stall; 6.5 That thrum on the psaltery, That devise for themselves instruments of music, like David; 6.6 That drink wine in bowls, And anoint themselves with the chief ointments; But they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph.' ' None|
|15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 62.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • community, shame • honor/shame
Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 295; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 70
62.4 לֹא־יֵאָמֵר לָךְ עוֹד עֲזוּבָה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ לֹא־יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שְׁמָמָה כִּי לָךְ יִקָּרֵא חֶפְצִי־בָהּ וּלְאַרְצֵךְ בְּעוּלָה כִּי־חָפֵץ יְהוָה בָּךְ וְאַרְצֵךְ תִּבָּעֵל׃'' None
62.4 Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken, Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate; But thou shalt be called, My delight is in her, And thy land, Espoused; For the LORD delighteth in thee, And thy land shall be espoused.'' None
|16. Hesiod, Works And Days, 25-26, 181-201 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Emotions, Shame • Shame • shame • shame, in Hesiodic myth
Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 161; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 169; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 431, 432; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 288; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 155
25 καὶ κεραμεὺς κεραμεῖ κοτέει καὶ τέκτονι τέκτων, 26 καὶ πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει καὶ ἀοιδὸς ἀοιδῷ.
181 εὖτʼ ἂν γεινόμενοι πολιοκρόταφοι τελέθωσιν.'182 οὐδὲ πατὴρ παίδεσσιν ὁμοίιος οὐδέ τι παῖδες, 183 οὐδὲ ξεῖνος ξεινοδόκῳ καὶ ἑταῖρος ἑταίρῳ, 184 οὐδὲ κασίγνητος φίλος ἔσσεται, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ. 185 αἶψα δὲ γηράσκοντας ἀτιμήσουσι τοκῆας· 186 μέμψονται δʼ ἄρα τοὺς χαλεποῖς βάζοντες ἔπεσσι 187 σχέτλιοι οὐδὲ θεῶν ὄπιν εἰδότες· οὐδέ κεν οἵ γε 188 γηράντεσσι τοκεῦσιν ἀπὸ θρεπτήρια δοῖεν 189 χειροδίκαι· ἕτερος δʼ ἑτέρου πόλιν ἐξαλαπάξει. 190 οὐδέ τις εὐόρκου χάρις ἔσσεται οὔτε δικαίου 191 οὔτʼ ἀγαθοῦ, μᾶλλον δὲ κακῶν ῥεκτῆρα καὶ ὕβριν 192 ἀνέρες αἰνήσουσι· δίκη δʼ ἐν χερσί, καὶ αἰδὼς 193 οὐκ ἔσται· βλάψει δʼ ὁ κακὸς τὸν ἀρείονα φῶτα 194 μύθοισιν σκολιοῖς ἐνέπων, ἐπὶ δʼ ὅρκον ὀμεῖται. 195 ζῆλος δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀιζυροῖσιν ἅπασι 196 δυσκέλαδος κακόχαρτος ὁμαρτήσει, στυγερώπης. 197 καὶ τότε δὴ πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἀπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 198 λευκοῖσιν φάρεσσι καλυψαμένα χρόα καλὸν 199 ἀθανάτων μετὰ φῦλον ἴτον προλιπόντʼ ἀνθρώπους 200 Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ 201 θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐκ ἔσσεται ἀλκή. ' None
25 Potter hates potter, builder builder, and 26 A beggar bears his fellow-beggar spite,
181 Were fame and glory. A fifth progeny'182 All-seeing Zeus produced, who populated 183 The fecund earth. I wish I could not be 184 Among them, but instead that I’d been fated 185 To be born later or be in my grave 186 Already: for it is of iron made. 187 Each day in misery they ever slave, 188 And even in the night they do not fade 189 Away. The gods will give to them great woe 190 But mix good with the bad. Zeus will destroy 191 Them too when babies in their cribs shall grow 192 Grey hair. No bond a father with his boy 193 Shall share, nor guest with host, nor friend with friend – 194 No love of brothers as there was erstwhile, 195 Respect for aging parents at an end. 196 Their wretched children shall with words of bile 197 Find fault with them in their irreverence 198 And not repay their bringing up. We’ll find 199 Cities brought down. There’ll be no deference 200 That’s given to the honest, just and kind. 201 The evil and the proud will get acclaim, ' None
|17. Euripides, Orestes, 396 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • sex, shame-culture/ guilt-culture • shame
Found in books: Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 117; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 223
396 ἡ σύνεσις, ὅτι σύνοιδα δείν' εἰργασμένος."" None
396 My conscience; I know that I am guilty of a dreadful crime. Menelau'' None
|18. Herodotus, Histories, 1.119 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Emotions, Shame • shame and disgrace
Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 384; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 359
1.119 Ἅρπαγος μὲν ὡς ἤκουσε ταῦτα, προσκυνήσας καὶ μεγάλα ποιησάμενος ὅτι τε ἡ ἁμαρτὰς οἱ ἐς δέον ἐγεγόνεε καὶ ὅτι ἐπὶ τύχῃσι χρηστῇσι ἐπὶ δεῖπνον ἐκέκλητο, ἤιε ἐς τὰ οἰκία. ἐσελθὼν δὲ τὴν ταχίστην, ἦν γὰρ οἱ παῖς εἷς μοῦνος ἔτεα τρία καὶ δέκα κου μάλιστα γεγονώς, τοῦτον ἐκπέμπεν ἰέναι τε κελεύων ἐς Ἀστυάγεος καὶ ποιέειν ὅ τι ἂν ἐκεῖνος κελεύῃ, αὐτὸς δὲ περιχαρὴς ἐὼν φράζει τῇ γυναικὶ τὰ συγκυρήσαντα. Ἀστυάγης δέ, ὥς οἱ ἀπίκετο ὁ Ἁρπάγου παῖς, σφάξας αὐτὸν καὶ κατὰ μέλεα διελὼν τὰ μὲν ὤπτησε τὰ δὲ ἥψησε τῶν κρεῶν, εὔτυκα δὲ ποιησάμενος εἶχε ἕτοιμα. ἐπείτε δὲ τῆς ὥρης γινομένης τοῦ δείπνου παρῆσαν οἵ τε ἄλλοι δαιτυμόνες καὶ ὁ Ἅρπαγος, τοῖσι μὲν ἄλλοισι καὶ αὐτῷ Ἀστυάγεϊ παρετιθέατο τράπεζαι ἐπίπλεαι μηλέων κρεῶν, Ἁρπάγῳ δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς τοῦ ἑωυτοῦ, πλὴν κεφαλῆς τε καὶ ἄκρων χειρῶν τε καὶ ποδῶν, τἄλλα πάντα· ταῦτα δὲ χωρὶς ἔκειτο ἐπὶ κανέῳ κατακεκαλυμμένα, ὡς δὲ τῷ Ἁρπάγῳ ἐδόκεε ἅλις ἔχειν τῆς βορῆς, Ἀστυάγης εἴρετό μιν εἰ ἡσθείη τι τῇ θοίνῃ. φαμένου δὲ Ἁρπάγου καὶ κάρτα ἡσθῆναι, παρέφερον τοῖσι προσέκειτο τὴν κεφαλὴν τοῦ παιδὸς κατακεκαλυμμένην καὶ τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τοὺς πόδας, Ἅρπαγον δὲ ἐκέλευον προσστάντες ἀποκαλύπτειν τε καὶ λαβεῖν τὸ βούλεται αὐτῶν. πειθόμενος δὲ ὁ Ἅρπαγος καὶ ἀποκαλύπτων ὁρᾷ τοῦ παιδὸς τὰ λείμματα, ἰδὼν δὲ οὔτε ἐξεπλάγη ἐντός τε ἑωυτοῦ γίνεται. εἴρετο δὲ αὐτὸν ὁ Ἀστυάγης εἰ γινώσκοι ὅτευ θηρίου κρέα βεβρώκοι. ὁ δὲ καὶ γινώσκειν ἔφη καὶ ἀρεστὸν εἶναι πᾶν τὸ ἂν βασιλεὺς ἔρδῃ. τούτοισι δὲ ἀμειψάμενος καὶ ἀναλαβὼν τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν κρεῶν ἤιε ἐς τὰ οἰκία, ἐνθεῦτεν δὲ ἔμελλε, ὡς ἐγὼ δοκέω, ἁλίσας θάψειν τὰ πάντα.'' None
1.119 When Harpagus heard this, he bowed and went to his home, very pleased to find that his offense had turned out for the best and that he was invited to dinner in honor of this fortunate day. ,Coming in, he told his only son, a boy of about thirteen years of age, to go to Astyages' palace and do whatever the king commanded, and in his great joy he told his wife everything that had happened. ,But when Harpagus' son came, Astyages cut his throat and tore him limb from limb, roasted some of the flesh and boiled some, and kept it ready after he had prepared it. ,So when the hour for dinner came and the rest of the guests and Harpagus were present, Astyages and the others were served dishes of lamb's meat, but Harpagus that of his own son, all but the head and hands and feet, which lay apart covered up in a wicker basket. ,And when Harpagus seemed to have eaten his fill, Astyages asked him, “Did you like your meal, Harpagus?” “Exceedingly,” Harpagus answered. Then those whose job it was brought him the head of his son and hands and feet concealed in the basket, and they stood before Harpagus and told him to open and take what he liked. ,Harpagus did; he opened and saw what was left of his son: he saw this, but mastered himself and did not lose his composure. Astyages asked him, “Do you know what beast's meat you have eaten?” ,“I know,” he said, “and all that the king does is pleasing.” With that answer he took the remains of the meat and went home. There he meant, I suppose, after collecting everything, to bury it. "" None
|19. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on shame and autonomy • shame
Found in books: Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 118; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 230, 231
|20. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame
Found in books: Petridou (2016), Homo Patiens: Approaches to the Patient in the Ancient World, 252; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 541
|21. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • shame
Found in books: Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 99; Spatharas (2019), Emotions, persuasion, and public discourse in classical Athens, 94
|22. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • shame
Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 161; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 283
|23. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on shame and autonomy • Honour and shame • Plato, on shame and fear • definition of individual emotions, envy, shame • punishment, shame as • shame • shame, and behaviour • shame, characteristics of • shame, in Greco-Roman sources • shame, moral (aidos) • shame, object of
Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 140, 151; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 217; Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 228; Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 18; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 87; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 231, 476
|24. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on shame and autonomy • Emotions, Shame • appraisal, of shame • shame • shame in Aristotle • shame, and behaviour • shame, and exposure • shame, and goods • shame, and self-perception • shame, and the critical other • shame, characteristics of • shame, in Greco-Roman sources • shame, object of
Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 115; Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 74, 140; Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 228, 229, 230; Sattler (2021), Ancient Ethics and the Natural World, 116; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 231; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 333
|25. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on shame and autonomy • shame
Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 37, 59; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 231
|26. Anon., 1 Enoch, 94.1, 94.6, 96.1, 97.2, 98.6, 99.9, 103.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Day, Great Shame • Day, of Great Shame • Shame • shame
Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 942; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 214; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 196, 198, 200, 201, 269, 286, 310, 335, 364
|94 And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish.,And to certain men of a generation shall the paths of violence and of death be revealed, And they shall hold themselves afar from them, And shall not follow them.,And now I say unto you the righteous: Walk not in the paths of wickedness, nor in the paths of death, And draw not nigh to them, lest ye be destroyed.,But seek and choose for yourselves righteousness and an elect life, And walk in the paths of peace, And ye shall live and prosper.,And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish.,Woe to those who build unrighteousness and oppression And lay deceit as a foundation; For they shall be suddenly overthrown, And they shall have no peace.,Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.,Woe to you, ye rich, for ye have trusted in your riches, And from your riches shall ye depart, Because ye have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches.,Ye have committed blasphemy and unrighteousness, And have become ready for the day of slaughter, And the day of darkness and the day of the great judgement.,Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction.,And your righteous ones in those days shall be A reproach to the sinners and the godless."' "97 Believe, ye righteous, that the sinners will become a shame And perish in the day of unrighteousness.,Be it known unto you (ye sinners) that the Most High is mindful of your destruction, And the angels of heaven rejoice over your destruction.,What will ye do, ye sinners, And whither will ye flee on that day of judgement, When ye hear the voice of the prayer of the righteous,Yea, ye shall fare like unto them, Against whom this word shall be a testimony: ' Ye have been companions of sinners.,And in those days the prayer of the righteous shall reach unto the Lord, And for you the days of your judgement shall come.,And all the words of your unrighteousness shall be read out before the Great Holy One, And your faces shall be covered with shame, And He will reject every work which is grounded on unrighteousness.,Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you.,Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired.,And now let us do what we purposed: For we have gathered silver,,And many are the husbandmen in our houses.,And our granaries are (brim) full as with water,,Yea and like water your lies shall flow away; For your riches shall not abide But speedily ascend from you;For ye have acquired it all in unrighteousness, And ye shall be given over to a great curse."|
94.1 And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish.
94.1 Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction.
96.1 Be hopeful, ye righteous; for suddenly shall the sinners perish before you, And ye shall have lordship over them according to your desires.
98.6 I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, by the Holy Great One, That all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens, And that none of your deeds of oppression are covered and hidden.
98.6 neighbour. Therefore they shall have no peace but die a sudden death."
99.9 Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish.
103.8 And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace. ' None
|27. Anon., Jubilees, 23.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame
Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 942; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 524
23.30 and they will all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men.'' None
|28. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.30, 2.1, 2.9, 4.17, 5.13-5.14, 6.1-6.2, 6.4, 6.9, 6.23, 7.17, 9.2, 9.8-9.9, 10.29, 12.11, 13.15-13.16, 16.17, 19.3-19.4, 20.22, 20.26, 22.10, 22.13, 22.16, 23.3, 23.6, 26.15, 27.16, 29.14, 31.19, 37.12, 37.27, 40.29, 41.18-41.19, 42.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • action-tendency, of shame • appraisal, of shame • begging, shame of • shame • shame and disgrace • shame and disgrace, and ridicule • shame, God • shame, and behaviour • shame, and exposure • shame, and self-perception • shame, and the critical other • shame, characteristics of • shame, contextualisation of • shame, definition of • shame, in Greco-Roman sources • shame, in the LXX • shame, negation of • shame, object of • shame, of the non-believer
Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 20, 29, 38, 40, 44, 52, 53, 55, 93, 110, 111, 170, 175, 181, 182, 184, 186, 198, 203, 204, 209, 210, 215, 216, 217, 224, 225; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 123, 130; Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 5; Gera (2014), Judith, 187, 384; Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 212, 231, 232, 233; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 929, 942; Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 374; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 370; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 141, 248
2.1 Consider the ancient generations and see:who ever trusted in the Lord and was put to shame?Or who ever persevered in the fear of the Lord and was forsaken?Or who ever called upon him and was overlooked?
2.1 My son, if you come forward to serve the Lord,prepare yourself for temptation.
2.9 you who fear the Lord, hope for good things,for everlasting joy and mercy.
4.17 For at first she will walk with him on tortuous paths,she will bring fear and cowardice upon him,and will torment him by her discipline until she trusts him,and she will test him with her ordices.
5.13 Glory and dishonor come from speaking,and a mans tongue is his downfall.
5.13 Keep yourself far from your enemies,and be on guard toward your friends. 5.14 A faithful friend is a sturdy shelter:he that has found one has found a treasure. 5.14 Do not be called a slanderer,and do not lie in ambush with your tongue;for shame comes to the thief,and severe condemnation to the double-tongued.
7.17 Humble yourself greatly,for the punishment of the ungodly is fire and worms.
9.2 Do not give yourself to a woman so that she gains mastery over your strength.
9.8 Turn away your eyes from a shapely woman,and do not look intently at beauty belonging to another;many have been misled by a womans beauty,and by it passion is kindled like a fire. 9.9 Never dine with another mans wife,nor revel with her at wine;lest your heart turn aside to her,and in blood you be plunged into destruction.
10.29 Do not bring every man into your home,for many are the wiles of the crafty.
10.29 Who will justify the man that sins against himself?And who will honor the man that dishonors his own life?
2.11 Even if he humbles himself and goes about cringing,watch yourself, and be on your guard against him;and you will be to him like one who has polished a mirror,and you will know that it was not hopelessly tarnished.
13.15 Every creature loves its like,and every person his neighbor; 13.16 all living beings associate by species,and a man clings to one like himself.
6.17 Do not say, "I shall be hidden from the Lord,and who from on high will remember me?Among so many people I shall not be known,for what is my soul in the boundless creation?
19.3 A mans attire and open-mouthed laughter,and a mans manner of walking, show what he is.
19.3 Decay and worms will inherit him,and the reckless soul will be snatched away. 19.4 One who trusts others too quickly is lightminded,and one who sins does wrong to himself.
20.22 A man may lose his life through shame,or lose it because of his foolish look.
20.26 The disposition of a liar brings disgrace,and his shame is ever with him. 2
2.13 Do not accustom your mouth to lewd vulgarity,for it involves sinful speech. 2
2.13 Do not talk much with a foolish man,and do not visit an unintelligent man;guard yourself from him to escape trouble,and you will not be soiled when he shakes himself off;avoid him and you will find rest,and you will never be wearied by his madness. 2
2.16 A wooden beam firmly bonded into a building will not be torn loose by an earthquake;so the mind firmly fixed on a reasonable counsel will not be afraid in a crisis. 2
2.16 Two sorts of men multiply sins,and a third incurs wrath. The soul heated like a burning fire will not be quenched until it is consumed;a man who commits fornication with his near of kin will never cease until the fire burns him up.
6.15 A modest wife adds charm to charm,and no balance can weigh the value of a chaste soul.
27.16 Whoever betrays secrets destroys confidence,and he will never find a congenial friend.
29.14 A good man will be surety for his neighbor,but a man who has lost his sense of shame will fail him.
31.19 How ample a little is for a well-disciplined man!He does not breathe heavily upon his bed.
37.12 But stay constantly with a godly man whom you know to be a keeper of the commandments,whose soul is in accord with your soul,and who will sorrow with you if you fail.
37.27 My son, test your soul while you live;see what is bad for it and do not give it that.
40.29 When a man looks to the table of another,his existence cannot be considered as life. He pollutes himself with another mans food,but a man who is intelligent and well instructed guards against that.
41.18 of a transgression, before a judge or magistrate;and of iniquity, before a congregation or the people;of unjust dealing, before your partner or friend; 41.19 and of theft, in the place where you live. Be ashamed before the truth of God and his covet. Be ashamed of selfish behavior at meals,of surliness in receiving and giving,
42.2 No thought escapes him,and not one word is hidden from him.
42.2 The cold north wind blows,and ice freezes over the water;it rests upon every pool of water,and the water puts it on like a breastplate.'
42.2 The sun, when it appears, making proclamation as it goes forth,is a marvelous instrument, the work of the Most High.
42.2 of the law of the Most High and his covet,and of rendering judgment to acquit the ungodly; ' None
|29. Septuagint, Judith, 9.2-9.3, 11.1, 12.12, 13.8, 16.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame • shame and disgrace • shame and disgrace, and ridicule • shame, God • shame, and behaviour • shame, and exposure • shame, and self-perception • shame, and the critical other • shame, contextualisation of • shame, in the LXX
Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 57, 73, 186, 217, 283, 308, 312, 316, 384, 406, 430, 449, 459; Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 232; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 499, 647, 692; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 370, 572
9.2 "O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done\' -- yet they did it. 9.3 So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones;
11.1 Then Holofernes said to her, "Take courage, woman, and do not be afraid in your heart, for I have never hurt any one who chose to serve Nebuchadnezzar, the king of all the earth.
13.8 And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body.
16.9 Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck. ' ' None
|30. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1, 17.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame
Found in books: Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 212; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 575; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 524
3.1 But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them.
3.1 Why sleepest thou, O my soul, And blessest not the Lord?
17.3 But we hope in God, our deliverer; For the might of our God is for ever with mercy,
17.3 For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters.'' None
|31. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame • shame, cognitive structure • shame, power and
Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 251; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 681; Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 160, 161, 162, 250
|32. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • shame • shame, as boundary-marker • shame, cognitive structure • shame, power and • shameful
Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 96, 97, 178, 179, 251; Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 250, 251
|33. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.625-1.626 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Juno (Hera),, judgment of Paris and shame of • Minerva (Athena), judgment of Paris and shame of • rituals, shaming • songs, shaming
Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 143; Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 37
1.625 Nam cur in Phrygiis Iunonem et Pallada silvis 1.626 rend='' None
1.625 Lest the grim tigers should the nymph affright, 1.626 His brawny arms around her waist he threw,'' None
|34. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • action-tendency, of shame • appraisal, of shame • shame • shame (aischune) • shame, characteristics of • shame, definition of • shame, in Greco-Roman sources
Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 231; Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 207, 227
|35. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • guilt offering (asham) • reparation offering (asham)
Found in books: Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 37; Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 132
8.8 חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם וַדַּאי מְכַפְּרִין. מִיתָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפְּרִין עִם הַתְּשׁוּבָה. הַתְּשׁוּבָה מְכַפֶּרֶת עַל עֲבֵרוֹת קַלּוֹת עַל עֲשֵׂה וְעַל לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. וְעַל הַחֲמוּרוֹת הִיא תוֹלָה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וִיכַפֵּר:'' None
8.8 The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: the transgression of positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions repentance suspends the divine punishment, until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement.'' None
|36. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.7, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • honour (and shame) • shame • shame, God • shame, and behaviour • shame, and exposure • shame, and self-perception • shame, and the critical other • shame, contextualisation of • shame, negation of • shame, of believer • shame, of the non-believer
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 211; Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 155, 236, 248, 249, 255; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 75
1.7 ἵνα τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως πολυτιμότερον χρυσίου τοῦ ἀπολλυμένου διὰ πυρὸς δὲ δοκιμαζομένου εὑρεθῇ εἰς ἔπαινον καὶ δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
2.12 τὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἔχοντες καλήν, ἵνα, ἐν ᾧ καταλαλοῦσιν ὑμῶν ὡς κακοποιῶν, ἐκ τῶν καλῶν ἔργων ἐποπτεύοντες δοξάσωσι τὸν θεὸνἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπισκοπῆς.'' None
1.7 that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ --
2.12 having good behavior among the nations, so in that which they speak against you as evil-doers, they may by your good works, which they see, glorify God in the day of visitation. '' None
|37. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • honor/shame • honour (and shame)
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 211; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 499; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 102
4.10 ἡμεῖς μωροὶ διὰ Χριστόν, ὑμεῖς δὲ φρόνιμοι ἐν Χριστῷ· ἡμεῖς ἀσθενεῖς, ὑμεῖς δὲ ἰσχυροί· ὑμεῖς ἔνδοξοι, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἄτιμοι.'' None
4.10 We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor."" None
|38. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • honour (and shame) • shame
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 211; Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 500
5.17 Οἱ καλῶς προεστῶτες πρεσβύτεροι διπλῆς τιμῆς ἀξιούσθωσαν, μάλιστα οἱ κοπιῶντες ἐν λόγῳ καὶ διδασκαλίᾳ·'' None
5.17 Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. '' None
|39. New Testament, Apocalypse, 13.16, 19.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • honor/shame • honour (and shame) • shame
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 211; Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 152; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 294
13.16 καὶ ποιεῖ πάντας, τοὺς μικροὺς καὶ τοὺς μεγάλους, καὶ τοὺς πλουσίους καὶ τοὺς πτω χούς, καὶ τοὺς ἐλευθέρους καὶ τοὺς δούλους, ἵνα δῶσιν αὐτοῖς χάραγμα ἐπὶ τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν τῆς δεξιᾶς ἢ ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον αὐτῶν,
19.7 χαίρωμεν καὶ ἀγαλλιῶμεν, καὶ δώσομεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτῷ, ὅτι ἦλθεν ὁ γάμος τοῦ ἀρνίου, καὶ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ ἡτοίμασεν ἑαυτήν,'' None
13.16 He causes all, the small and the great, the rich and the poor, and the free and the slave, so that they should give them marks on their right hand, or on their forehead;
19.7 Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready."'' None
|40. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.3, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • honour (and shame) • shame • shame, God • shame, and behaviour • shame, and self-perception • shame, negation of • shame, of the non-believer
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 211; Hockey (2019), The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter, 246; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 30
3.3 πλείονος γὰρ οὗτος δόξης παρὰ Μωυσῆν ἠξίωται καθʼ ὅσον πλείονα τιμὴν ἔχει τοῦ οἴκου ὁ κατασκευάσας αὐτόν·
12.2 ἀφορῶντες εἰς τὸν τῆς πίστεως ἀρχηγὸν καὶ τελειωτὴν Ἰησοῦν, ὃς ἀντὶ τῆς προκειμένης αὐτῷ χαρᾶς ὑπέμεινεν σταυρὸν αἰσχύνης καταφρονήσας,ἐν δεξιᾷτε τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ θεοῦκεκάθικεν.'' None
3.3 For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house.
12.2 looking to Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. '' None
|41. New Testament, Romans, 3.23, 5.2, 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • honor/shame
Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 609; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 108, 115
3.23 πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον καὶ ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ,
5.2 διʼ οὗ καὶ τὴν προσαγωγὴν ἐσχήκαμεν τῇ πίστει εἰς τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν, καὶ καυχώμεθα ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ·
15.7 Διὸ προσλαμβάνεσθε ἀλλήλους, καθὼς καὶ ὁ χριστὸς προσελάβετο ἡμᾶς, εἰς δόξαν τοῦ θεοῦ.'' None
3.23 for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God;
5.2 through whom we also have our access by faith into this grace in which we stand. We rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
15.7 Therefore receive one another, even as Christ also received you, to the glory of God. '' None
|42. New Testament, Luke, 1.8-1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • asham. See reparation offering ashes • honor/shame
Found in books: Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 193; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 484; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 330
1.8 Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφημερίας αὐτοῦ ἔναντι τοῦ θεοῦ 1.9 κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἱερατίας ἔλαχε τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν ναὸν τοῦ κυρίου, 1.10 καὶ πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος ἦν τοῦ λαοῦ προσευχόμενον ἔξω τῇ ὥρᾳ τοῦ θυμιάματος· 1.11 ὤφθη δὲ αὐτῷ ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἑστὼς ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου τοῦ θυμιάματος. 1.12 καὶ ἐταράχθη Ζαχαρίας ἰδών, καὶ φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπʼ αὐτόν. 1.13 εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ ἄγγελος Μὴ φοβοῦ, Ζαχαρία, διότι εἰσηκούσθη ἡ δέησίς σου, καὶ ἡ γυνή σου Ἐλεισάβετ γεννήσει υἱόν σοι, καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάνην· 1.14 καὶ ἔσται χαρά σοι καὶ ἀγαλλίασις, καὶ πολλοὶ ἐπὶ τῇ γενέσει αὐτοῦ χαρήσονται· 1.15 ἔσται γὰρ μέγας ἐνώπιον Κυρίου, καὶ οἶνον καὶ σίκερα οὐ μὴ πίῃ, καὶ πνεύματος ἁγίου πλησθήσεται ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ, 1.16 καὶ πολλοὺς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐπιστρέψει ἐπὶ Κύριον τὸν θεὸν αὐτῶν·'' None
1.8 Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division, " "1.9 according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. " '1.10 The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 1.11 An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 1.12 Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 1.13 But the angel said to him, "Don\'t be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 1.14 You will have joy and gladness; and many will rejoice at his birth. ' "1.15 For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. " '1.16 He will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord, their God. '" None
|43. New Testament, Mark, 6.3, 13.12, 14.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • honor/shame • honour (and shame), Jesus’ascribed honour in Matthew
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 213; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 169; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 324, 423; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 432
6.3 οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ Σίμωνος; καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ.
13.12 καὶ παραδώσει ἀδελφὸς ἀδελφὸν εἰς θάνατον καὶ πατὴρ τέκνον, καὶ ἐπαναστήσονται τέκνα ἐπὶ γονεῖς καὶ θανατώσουσιν αὐτούς·
14.36 καὶ ἔλεγεν Ἀββά ὁ πατήρ, πάντα δυνατά σοι· παρένεγκε τὸ ποτήριον τοῦτο ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· ἀλλʼ οὐ τί ἐγὼ θέλω ἀλλὰ τί σύ.'' None
6.3 Isn\'t this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? Aren\'t his sisters here with us?" They were offended at him.
13.12 "Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death.
14.36 He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire."'' None
|44. New Testament, Matthew, 5.28, 6.1-6.4, 25.4, 25.8-25.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Halbanat Panim, publicly shaming • Shame • honor/shame • shame
Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 152; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 41; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 499; Nissinen and Uro (2008), Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 295; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 45; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 244
5.28 Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ βλέπων γυναῖκα πρὸς τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι αὐτὴν ἤδη ἐμοίχευσεν αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ.
6.1 Προσέχετε δὲ τὴν δικαιοσύνην ὑμῶν μὴ ποιεῖν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τὸ θεαθῆναι αὐτοῖς· εἰ δὲ μήγε, μισθὸν οὐκ ἔχετε παρὰ τῷ πατρὶ ὑμῶν τῷ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. 6.2 Ὅταν οὖν ποιῇς ἐλεημοσύνην, μὴ σαλπίσῃς ἔμπροσθέν σου, ὥσπερ οἱ ὑποκριταὶ ποιοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς ῥύμαις, ὅπως δοξασθῶσιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.3 σοῦ δὲ ποιοῦντος ἐλεημοσύνην μὴ γνώτω ἡ ἀριστερά σου τί ποιεῖ ἡ δεξιά σου, 6.4 ὅπως ᾖ σου ἡ ἐλεημοσύνη ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ· καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ἀποδώσει σοι.
25.4 αἱ δὲ φρόνιμοι ἔλαβον ἔλαιον ἐν τοῖς ἀγγείοις μετὰ τῶν λαμπάδων ἑαυτῶν.
25.8 αἱ δὲ μωραὶ ταῖς φρονίμοις εἶπαν Δότε ἡμῖν ἐκ τοῦ ἐλαίου ὑμῶν, ὅτι αἱ λαμπάδες ἡμῶν σβέννυνται. 25.9 ἀπεκρίθησαν δὲ αἱ φρόνιμοι λέγουσαι Μήποτε οὐ μὴ ἀρκέσῃ ἡμῖν καὶ ὑμῖν· πορεύεσθε μᾶλλον πρὸς τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ ἀγοράσατε ἑαυταῖς.'' None
5.28 but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart.
6.1 "Be careful that you don\'t do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. ' "6.2 Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. " "6.3 But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does, " '6.4 so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly.
25.4 but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. ' "
25.8 The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' " "25.9 But the wise answered, saying, 'What if there isn't enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' "' None
|45. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 11.8, 41.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • shame • shame culture
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 14, 15; Schibli (2002), Hierocles of Alexandria, 211; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 236
11.8 But my letter calls for its closing sentence. Hear and take to heart this useful and wholesome motto:1 "Cherish some man of high character, and keep him ever before your eyes, living as if he were watching you, and ordering all your actions as if he beheld them."
41.2 This is what I mean, Lucilius: a holy spirit indwells within us, one who marks our good and bad deeds, and is our guardian. As we treat this spirit, so are we treated by it. Indeed, no man can be good without the help of God. Can one rise superior to fortune unless God helps him to rise? He it is that gives noble and upright counsel. In each good man A god doth dwell, but what god know we not.1 '' None
|46. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • honor/shame • honour (and shame)
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 211; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 609; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 102, 108, 115
|47. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Halbanat Panim, publicly shaming • Shame • shame
Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 153; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 35
|5a ומחריא תנורא שקלתא ואנחתא אגבה דכרעה קדחא ואיתרע מזלה ואייתיתה,א"ל רב ביבי בר אביי אית לכו רשותא למיעבד הכי אמר ליה ולא כתיב ויש נספה בלא משפט א"ל והכתיב (קהלת א, ד) דור הולך ודור בא,אמר דרעינא להו אנא עד דמלו להו לדרא והדר משלימנא ליה לדומה א"ל סוף סוף שניה מאי עבדת אמר אי איכא צורבא מרבנן דמעביר במיליה מוסיפנא להו ליה והויא חלופיה,רבי יוחנן כי מטי להאי קרא בכי (איוב ב, ג) ותסיתני בו לבלעו חנם עבד שרבו מסיתין לו וניסת תקנה יש לו רבי יוחנן כי מטי להאי קרא בכי (איוב טו, טו) הן בקדושיו לא יאמין אי בקדושיו לא יאמין במאן יאמין,יומא חד הוה קא אזיל באורחא חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה מנקיט תאני שביק הנך דמטו ושקיל הנך דלא מטו א"ל לאו הני מעלן טפי א"ל הני לאורחא בעינן להו הני נטרן והני לא נטרן אמר היינו דכתיב הן בקדושיו לא יאמין,איני והא ההוא תלמידא דהוה בשיבבותיה דרבי אלכסנדרי ושכיב אדזוטר ואמר אי בעי האי מרבנן הוה חיי ואם איתא דלמא מהן בקדושיו לא יאמין הוה ההוא מבעט ברבותיו הוה,רבי יוחנן כי מטי להאי קרא בכי (מלאכי ג, ה) וקרבתי אליכם למשפט והייתי עד ממהר במכשפים ובמנאפים ובנשבעים לשקר ובעושקי שכר שכיר עבד שרבו מקרבו לדונו וממהר להעידו תקנה יש לו,אמר רבי יוחנן בן זכאי אוי לנו ששקל עלינו הכתוב קלות כחמורות,אמר ריש לקיש כל המטה דינו של גר כאילו מטה דינו של מעלה שנאמר (מלאכי ג, ה) ומטי גר ומטי כתיב א"ר חנינא בר פפא כל העושה דבר ומתחרט בו מוחלין לו מיד שנאמר (מלאכי ג, ה) ולא יראוני הא יראוני מוחלין להם מיד,רבי יוחנן כי מטי להאי קרא בכי (קהלת יב, יד) כי את כל מעשה האלהים יביא במשפט על כל נעלם עבד שרבו שוקל לו שגגות כזדונות תקנה יש לו,מאי על כל נעלם אמר רב זה ההורג כינה בפני חברו ונמאס בה ושמואל אמר זה הרק בפני חבירו ונמאס,מאי אם טוב ואם רע אמרי דבי ר\' ינאי זה הנותן צדקה לעני בפרהסיא כי הא דרבי ינאי חזייה לההוא גברא דקא יהיב זוזא לעני בפרהסיא אמר ליה מוטב דלא יהבת ליה מהשתא דיהבת ליה וכספתיה,דבי ר\' שילא אמרי זה הנותן צדקה לאשה בסתר דקא מייתי לה לידי חשדא רבא אמר זה המשגר לאשתו בשר שאינו מחותך בערבי שבתות,והא רבא משגר שאני בת רב חסדא דקים ליה בגווה דבקיאה,רבי יוחנן כי מטי להאי קרא בכי (דברים לא, כא) והיה כי תמצאן אותו רעות רבות וצרות עבד שרבו ממציא לו רעות וצרות תקנה יש לו,מאי רעות וצרות אמר רב רעות שנעשות צרות זו לזו כגון זיבורא ועקרבא,ושמואל אמר זה הממציא לו מעות לעני בשעת דוחקו אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי זוזא לעללא לא שכיחא לתליתא שכיח,(דברים לא, יז) וחרה אפי בו ביום ההוא ועזבתים והסתרתי פני מהם אמר רב ברדלא בר טביומי אמר רב כל שאינו בהסתר פנים אינו מהם כל שאינו בוהיה לאכול'' None||5a and sweeping the oven. She took the fire and set it on her foot; she was scalded and her luck suffered, which gave me the opportunity, and I brought her.,Rav Beivai bar Abaye said to the Angel of Death: Do you have the right to act in this manner, to take someone before his time? The Angel of Death said to him: And is it not written: “But there are those swept away without justice” (Proverbs 13:23)? Rav Beivai said to him: And isn’t it written: “One generation passes away, and another generation comes” (Ecclesiastes 1:4), which indicates that there is a predetermined amount of time for the life of every generation.,He said to him: I shepherd them, not releasing them until the years of the generation are completed, and then I pass them on to the angel Duma who oversees the souls of the dead. Rav Beivai said to him: Ultimately, what do you do with his extra years, those taken away from this individual? The Angel of Death said to him: If there is a Torah scholar who disregards his personal matters, i.e., who overlooks the insults of those who wrong him, I add those years to him and he becomes the deceased’s replacement for that time.,§ The Gemara returns to the previous topic. When Rabbi Yoḥa reached this verse, he cried, as God said to the Satan about Job: “Although you did incite Me against him, to destroy him without cause” (Job 2:3). Rabbi Yoḥa said: With regard to a slave whose master is one whom others incite to act harshly against the slave and the master is incited to do so, is there a remedy for the slave? Additionally, when Rabbi Yoḥa reached this verse, he cried: “Behold He puts no trust in His sacred ones” (Job 15:15), saying: If He does not place trust in His sacred ones, in whom does He place trust?,The Gemara relates: One day Rabbi Yoḥa was walking along the road, and he saw a certain man who was picking figs in an unusual manner: He left the ones that had reached the stage of ripeness and took those that had not yet reached that state. Rabbi Yoḥa said to him: Aren’t these ripe ones much better? He said to him: I need these dates for the road; these that are not yet ripe will be preserved, and these that are already ripe will not be preserved. Rabbi Yoḥa said: This is the same as is written: “Behold He puts no trust in His sacred ones”; there are righteous people whom God takes from this world before their time, as He knows that in the future they will stumble.,The Gemara asks: Is that so? But there was a certain student in the neighborhood of Rabbi Alexandri, and he died while he was still young. And Rabbi Alexandri said: If this young Sage had wanted, he would have lived, i.e., his actions caused him to die young. And if it is so, as Rabbi Yoḥa suggested, perhaps this student was from those concerning whom it is written: “Behold he puts no trust in his sacred ones,” and it was not his sins that caused his death. The Gemara answers: That student was one who acted irreverently toward his teachers, and Rabbi Alexandri knew of his improper behavior.,When Rabbi Yoḥa reached this verse, he cried: “And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false witnesses, and against those who oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow, and the fatherless, and who turn aside the convert from his right, and do not fear Me, says the Lord” (Malachi\xa03:5). He said: With regard to a slave whose master comes near to him to judge him and is swift to testify against him, is there a remedy for him?,With regard to that same verse, Rabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai said: Woe to us, as the verse weighs lenient mitzvot for us like more stringent mitzvot, as it lists both those who violate sins punishable by death, e.g., sorcerers and adulterers, with those who violate apparently less severe sins, e.g., those who withhold payment from a hired worker.,Reish Lakish said: Anyone who distorts the judgment of a convert, it is considered as if he distorted the judgment of the One above, as it is stated: “And who turn aside umattei the convert” (Malachi\xa03:5). This term is written as: Umatti, turn Me aside, i.e., one who distorts the judgment of a convert it considered as though he distorts the judgment of God, as it were. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Anyone who does something sinful and regrets it, he is forgiven immediately, as it is stated: “And do not fear Me” (Malachi 3:5), which indicates that if they do fear Me and are embarrassed to sin before God, they are forgiven immediately.,Additionally, when Rabbi Yoḥa reached this verse, he cried: “For God shall bring every work into the judgment concerning every hidden thing” (Ecclesiastes\xa012:14). He said: With regard to a slave whose master weighs his unwitting sins like intentional ones, i.e., God punishes him even for an action that was hidden from him, is there a remedy for him?,The Gemara asks: What sin is the verse referring to when it states: “Concerning every hidden thing”? Rav said: This is referring to one who kills a louse in the presence of another and his friend is disgusted by it. God judges him for the unintentional discomfort he caused. And similarly, Shmuel said: This is referring to one who spits in the presence of another and his friend is disgusted by his action.,The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the end of that verse: “Whether it be good, or whether it be evil” (Ecclesiastes 12:14)? This verse indicates that God judges man harshly even for the good deeds he performs. The Sages from the school of Rabbi Yannai say: This verse is referring to one who gives charity to a poor person in public. Although he performed a good deed, he embarrassed the pauper, as in this case of Rabbi Yannai, who saw a certain man who was giving a dinar to a poor person in public. He said to him: It would have been better had you not given it to him than what you did, as now you gave it to him and embarrassed him.,The Sages from the school of Rabbi Sheila say: This verse is referring to one who gives charity to a woman in private, as he subjects her to suspicion, for people might think that he is engaging her services as a prostitute. Rava said: This is referring to one who sends his wife meat that is not sliced, i.e., that has not yet had the prohibited sciatic nerve removed, on Shabbat eve. Since she is in a hurry she might not notice and will perhaps cook the prohibited meat.,The Gemara asks: But yet Rava himself would send this type of meat to his wife on Shabbat eve. The Gemara answers: The daughter of Rav Ḥisda, Rava’s wife, is different, as he was certain about her that she was an expert in this matter. Rava trusted that his wife would realize the sciatic nerve had not been removed even when she was in a hurry on Shabbat eve.,Additionally, when Rabbi Yoḥa reached this verse, he cried: “Then it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are come upon them” (Deuteronomy\xa031:21). He said: With regard to a slave whose master brings upon him evils and troubles, is there a remedy for him?,The Gemara asks: What is the verse referring to when it states: “Evils and troubles”? Rav said: Evils that become troubles for one another, i.e., the remedy for one problem has a deleterious effect on the other. For example, one who is stung by a hornet and a scorpion. The sting of a hornet must be treated only with a cold ointment, while that of a scorpion must be treated with a hot ointment. As these medicaments are mutually exclusive, one cannot treat both stings at the same time.,And Shmuel said: This verse is referring to one who provides money to a poor person as a loan during his exigent ficial circumstances, but immediately after the borrower is released from the initial pressure by receiving the loan, the lender begins to demand repayment, subjecting the recipient to further pressure. Rava said that this explains the folk saying that people say: A dinar for produce is not found; for hanging it can be found. A poor person cannot find money to buy basic necessities; however, when the lenders hang on and pressure him he must come up with the money somehow.,On the same topic the Gemara states: “Then My anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and I will hide My face from them, and they shall be devoured” (Deuteronomy\xa031:17). Rav Bardela bar Tavyumei said that Rav said: Anyone who is not subject to His hiding of the face, i.e., whose prayers are invariably answered, is not from the Jewish people, as the verse states about the Jewish people that God will hide His face from them as a result of their sins. Similarly, anyone who is not subject to: “And they shall be devoured,” i.e., gentiles do not steal his money,'' None|
|48. Augustine, The City of God, 14.8-14.9, 14.16-14.24 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Anger, Augustine, less shameful than lust, because body supposedly subject to will • Augustine, Novelty of shame after Fall shows the insubordination to be a punishment • Augustine, This in turn explains shame at sex and need for privacy • Sex, Sex in public and shame • Shame at sex, evolutionary, versus Lapsarian explanations • shame
Found in books: Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 274, 380, 406, 411; Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 116, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 158, 159, 160, 163, 164, 166, 167, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 183, 191, 192, 194, 209
14.8 Those emotions which the Greeks call &14.9 But so far as regards this question of mental perturbations, we have answered these philosophers in the ninth book of this work, showing that it is rather a verbal than a real dispute, and that they seek contention rather than truth. Among ourselves, according to the sacred Scriptures and sound doctrine, the citizens of the holy city of God, who live according to God in the pilgrimage of this life, both fear and desire, and grieve and rejoice. And because their love is rightly placed, all these affections of theirs are right. They fear eternal punishment, they desire eternal life; they grieve because they themselves groan within themselves, waiting for the adoption, the redemption of their body; Romans 8:23 they rejoice in hope, because there shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. 1 Corinthians 15:54 In like manner they fear to sin, they desire to persevere; they grieve in sin, they rejoice in good works. They fear to sin, because they hear that because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. Matthew 24:12 They desire to persevere, because they hear that it is written, He that endures to the end shall be saved. Matthew 10:22 They grieve for sin, hearing that If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 1 John 1:8 They rejoice in good works, because they hear that the Lord loves a cheerful giver. 2 Corinthians 9:7 In like manner, according as they are strong or weak, they fear or desire to be tempted, grieve or rejoice in temptation. They fear to be tempted, because they hear the injunction, If a man be overtaken in a fault, you which are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering yourself, lest you also be tempted. Galatians 6:l They desire to be tempted, because they hear one of the heroes of the city of God saying, Examine me, O Lord, and tempt me: try my reins and my heart. They grieve in temptations, because they see Peter weeping; Matthew 26:75 they rejoice in temptations, because they hear James saying, My brethren, count it all joy when you fall into various temptations. James 1:2 And not only on their own account do they experience these emotions, but also on account of those whose deliverance they desire and whose perdition they fear, and whose loss or salvation affects them with grief or with joy. For if we who have come into the Church from among the Gentiles may suitably instance that noble and mighty hero who glories in his infirmities, the teacher (doctor) of the nations in faith and truth, who also labored more than all his fellow apostles, and instructed the tribes of God's people by his epistles, which edified not only those of his own time, but all those who were to be gathered in - that hero, I say, and athlete of Christ, instructed by Him, anointed of His Spirit, crucified with Him, glorious in Him, lawfully maintaining a great conflict on the theatre of this world, and being made a spectacle to angels and men, 1 Corinthians 4:9 and pressing onwards for the prize of his high calling, Philippians 3:14 - very joyfully do we with the eyes of faith behold him rejoicing with them that rejoice, and weeping with them that weep; Romans 12:15 though hampered by fightings without and fears within; 2 Corinthians 7:5 desiring to depart and to be with Christ; Philippians 1:23 longing to see the Romans, that he might have some fruit among them as among other Gentiles; Romans 1:11-13 being jealous over the Corinthians, and fearing in that jealousy lest their minds should be corrupted from the chastity that is in Christ; 2 Corinthians 11:1-3 having great heaviness and continual sorrow of heart for the Israelites, Romans 9:2 because they, being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God; Romans 10:3 and expressing not only his sorrow, but bitter lamentation over some who had formally sinned and had not repented of their uncleanness and fornications. 2 Corinthians 12:21 If these emotions and affections, arising as they do from the love of what is good and from a holy charity, are to be called vices, then let us allow these emotions which are truly vices to pass under the name of virtues. But since these affections, when they are exercised in a becoming way, follow the guidance of right reason, who will dare to say that they are diseases or vicious passions? Wherefore even the Lord Himself, when He condescended to lead a human life in the form of a slave, had no sin whatever, and yet exercised these emotions where He judged they should be exercised. For as there was in Him a true human body and a true human soul, so was there also a true human emotion. When, therefore, we read in the Gospel that the hard-heartedness of the Jews moved Him to sorrowful indignation, Mark 3:5 that He said, I am glad for your sakes, to the intent you may believe, John 11:15 that when about to raise Lazarus He even shed tears, John 11:35 that He earnestly desired to eat the passover with His disciples, Luke 22:15 that as His passion drew near His soul was sorrowful, Matthew 26:38 these emotions are certainly not falsely ascribed to Him. But as He became man when it pleased Him, so, in the grace of His definite purpose, when it pleased Him He experienced those emotions in His human soul. But we must further make the admission, that even when these affections are well regulated, and according to God's will, they are peculiar to this life, not to that future life we look for, and that often we yield to them against our will. And thus sometimes we weep in spite of ourselves, being carried beyond ourselves, not indeed by culpable desire; but by praiseworthy charity. In us, therefore, these affections arise from human infirmity; but it was not so with the Lord Jesus, for even His infirmity was the consequence of His power. But so long as we wear the infirmity of this life, we are rather worse men than better if we have none of these emotions at all. For the apostle vituperated and abominated some who, as he said, were without natural affection. Romans 1:31 The sacred Psalmist also found fault with those of whom he said, I looked for some to lament with me, and there was none. For to be quite free from pain while we are in this place of misery is only purchased, as one of this world's literati perceived and remarked, at the price of blunted sensibilities both of mind and body. And therefore that which the Greeks call &
14.16 Although, therefore, lust may have many objects, yet when no object is specified, the word lust usually suggests to the mind the lustful excitement of the organs of generation. And this lust not only takes possession of the whole body and outward members, but also makes itself felt within, and moves the whole man with a passion in which mental emotion is mingled with bodily appetite, so that the pleasure which results is the greatest of all bodily pleasures. So possessing indeed is this pleasure, that at the moment of time in which it is consummated, all mental activity is suspended. What friend of wisdom and holy joys, who, being married, but knowing, as the apostle says, how to possess his vessel in santification and honor, not in the disease of desire, as the Gentiles who know not God, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 would not prefer, if this were possible, to beget children without this lust, so that in this function of begetting offspring the members created for this purpose should not be stimulated by the heat of lust, but should be actuated by his volition, in the same way as his other members serve him for their respective ends? But even those who delight in this pleasure are not moved to it at their own will, whether they confine themselves to lawful or transgress to unlawful pleasures; but sometimes this lust importunes them in spite of themselves, and sometimes fails them when they desire to feel it, so that though lust rages in the mind, it stirs not in the body. Thus, strangely enough, this emotion not only fails to obey the legitimate desire to beget offspring, but also refuses to serve lascivious lust; and though it often opposes its whole combined energy to the soul that resists it, sometimes also it is divided against itself, and while it moves the soul, leaves the body unmoved. ' "14.17 Justly is shame very specially connected with this lust; justly, too, these members themselves, being moved and restrained not at our will, but by a certain independent autocracy, so to speak, are called shameful. Their condition was different before sin. For as it is written, They were naked and were not ashamed, Genesis 2:25 - not that their nakedness was unknown to them, but because nakedness was not yet shameful, because not yet did lust move those members without the will's consent; not yet did the flesh by its disobedience testify against the disobedience of man. For they were not created blind, as the unenlightened vulgar fancy; for Adam saw the animals to whom he gave names, and of Eve we read, The woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes. Genesis 3:6 Their eyes, therefore were open, but were not open to this, that is to say, were not observant so as to recognize what was conferred upon them by the garment of grace, for they had no consciousness of their members warring against their will. But when they were stripped of this grace, that their disobedience might be punished by fit retribution, there began in the movement of their bodily members a shameless novelty which made nakedness indecent: it at once made them observant and made them ashamed. And therefore, after they violated God's command by open transgression, it is written: And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. Genesis 3:7 The eyes of them both were opened, not to see, for already they saw, but to discern between the good they had lost and the evil into which they had fallen. And therefore also the tree itself which they were forbidden to touch was called the tree of the knowledge of good and evil from this circumstance, that if they ate of it it would impart to them this knowledge. For the discomfort of sickness reveals the pleasure of health. They knew, therefore, that they were naked,- naked of that grace which prevented them from being ashamed of bodily nakedness while the law of sin offered no resistance to their mind. And thus they obtained a knowledge which they would have lived in blissful ignorance of, had they, in trustful obedience to God, declined to commit that offense which involved them in the experience of the hurtful effects of unfaithfulness and disobedience. And therefore, being ashamed of the disobedience of their own flesh, which witnessed to their disobedience while it punished it, they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons, that is, cinctures for their privy parts; for some interpreters have rendered the word by succinctoria. Campestria is, indeed, a Latin word, but it is used of the drawers or aprons used for a similar purpose by the young men who stripped for exercise in the campus; hence those who were so girt were commonly called campestrati. Shame modestly covered that which lust disobediently moved in opposition to the will, which was thus punished for its own disobedience. Consequently all nations, being propagated from that one stock, have so strong an instinct to cover the shameful parts, that some barbarians do not uncover them even in the bath, but wash with their drawers on. In the dark solitudes of India also, though some philosophers go naked, and are therefore called gymnosophists, yet they make an exception in the case of these members and cover them. " "14.20 It is this which those canine or cynic philosophers have overlooked, when they have, in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs, viz., that as the matrimonial act is legitimate, no one should be ashamed to perform it openly, in the street or in any public place. Instinctive shame has overborne this wild fancy. For though it is related that Diogenes once dared to put his opinion in practice, under the impression that his sect would be all the more famous if his egregious shamelessness were deeply graven in the memory of mankind, yet this example was not afterwards followed. Shame had more influence with them, to make them blush before men, than error to make them affect a resemblance to dogs. And possibly, even in the case of Diogenes, and those who did imitate him, there was but an appearance and pretence of copulation, and not the reality. Even at this day there are still Cynic philosophers to be seen; for these are Cynics who are not content with being clad in the pallium, but also carry a club; yet no one of them dares to do this that we speak of. If they did, they would be spat upon, not to say stoned, by the mob. Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man's first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin - that sin from whose evil connection no one can escape, unless God's grace expiate in him individually that which was perpetrated to the destruction of all in common, when all were in one man, and which was avenged by God's justice. " '14.21 Far be it, then, from us to suppose that our first parents in Paradise felt that lust which caused them afterwards to blush and hide their nakedness, or that by its means they should have fulfilled the benediction of God, Increase and multiply and replenish the earth; Genesis 1:28 for it was after sin that lust began. It was after sin that our nature, having lost the power it had over the whole body, but not having lost all shame, perceived, noticed, blushed at, and covered it. But that blessing upon marriage, which encouraged them to increase and multiply and replenish the earth, though it continued even after they had sinned, was yet given before they sinned, in order that the procreation of children might be recognized as part of the glory of marriage, and not of the punishment of sin. But now, men being ignorant of the blessedness of Paradise, suppose that children could not have been begotten there in any other way than they know them to be begotten now, i.e., by lust, at which even honorable marriage blushes; some not simply rejecting, but sceptically deriding the divine Scriptures, in which we read that our first parents, after they sinned, were ashamed of their nakedness, and covered it; while others, though they accept and honor Scripture, yet conceive that this expression, Increase and multiply, refers not to carnal fecundity, because a similar expression is used of the soul in the words, You will multiply me with strength in my soul; and so, too, in the words which follow in Genesis, And replenish the earth, and subdue it, they understand by the earth the body which the soul fills with its presence, and which it rules over when it is multiplied in strength. And they hold that children could no more then than now be begotten without lust, which, after sin, was kindled, observed, blushed for, and covered; and even that children would not have been born in Paradise, but only outside of it, as in fact it turned out. For it was after they were expelled from it that they came together to beget children, and begot them. ' "14.23 But he who says that there should have been neither copulation nor generation but for sin, virtually says that man's sin was necessary to complete the number of the saints. For if these two by not sinning should have continued to live alone, because, as is supposed, they could not have begotten children had they not sinned, then certainly sin was necessary in order that there might be not only two but many righteous men. And if this cannot be maintained without absurdity, we must rather believe that the number of the saints fit to complete this most blessed city would have been as great though no one had sinned, as it is now that the grace of God gathers its citizens out of the multitude of sinners, so long as the children of this world generate and are generated. Luke 20:34 And therefore that marriage, worthy of the happiness of Paradise, should have had desirable fruit without the shame of lust, had there been no sin. But how that could be, there is now no example to teach us. Nevertheless, it ought not to seem incredible that one member might serve the will without lust then, since so many serve it now. Do we now move our feet and hands when we will to do the things we would by means of these members? Do we meet with no resistance in them, but perceive that they are ready servants of the will, both in our own case and in that of others, and especially of artisans employed in mechanical operations, by which the weakness and clumsiness of nature become, through industrious exercise, wonderfully dexterous? And shall we not believe that, like as all those members obediently serve the will, so also should the members have discharged the function of generation, though lust, the award of disobedience, had been awanting? Did not Cicero, in discussing the difference of governments in his De Republica, adopt a simile from human nature, and say that we command our bodily members as children, they are so obedient; but that the vicious parts of the soul must be treated as slaves, and be coerced with a more stringent authority? And no doubt, in the order of nature, the soul is more excellent than the body; and yet the soul commands the body more easily than itself. Nevertheless this lust, of which we at present speak, is the more shameful on this account, because the soul is therein neither master of itself, so as not to lust at all, nor of the body, so as to keep the members under the control of the will; for if they were thus ruled, there should be no shame. But now the soul is ashamed that the body, which by nature is inferior and subject to it, should resist its authority. For in the resistance experienced by the soul in the other emotions there is less shame, because the resistance is from itself, and thus, when it is conquered by itself, itself is the conqueror, although the conquest is inordinate and vicious, because accomplished by those parts of the soul which ought to be subject to reason, yet, being accomplished by its own parts and energies, the conquest is, as I say, its own. For when the soul conquers itself to a due subordination, so that its unreasonable motions are controlled by reason, while it again is subject to God, this is a conquest virtuous and praiseworthy. Yet there is less shame when the soul is resisted by its own vicious parts than when its will and order are resisted by the body, which is distinct from and inferior to it, and dependent on it for life itself. But so long as the will retains under its authority the other members, without which the members excited by lust to resist the will cannot accomplish what they seek, chastity is preserved, and the delight of sin foregone. And certainly, had not culpable disobedience been visited with penal disobedience, the marriage of Paradise should have been ignorant of this struggle and rebellion, this quarrel between will and lust, that the will may be satisfied and lust restrained, but those members, like all the rest, should have obeyed the will. The field of generation should have been sown by the organ created for this purpose, as the earth is sown by the hand. And whereas now, as we essay to investigate this subject more exactly, modesty hinders us, and compels us to ask pardon of chaste ears, there would have been no cause to do so, but we could have discoursed freely, and without fear of seeming obscene, upon all those points which occur to one who meditates on the subject. There would not have been even words which could be called obscene, but all that might be said of these members would have been as pure as what is said of the other parts of the body. Whoever, then, comes to the perusal of these pages with unchaste mind, let him blame his disposition, not his nature; let him brand the actings of his own impurity, not the words which necessity forces us to use, and for which every pure and pious reader or hearer will very readily pardon me, while I expose the folly of that scepticism which argues solely on the ground of its own experience, and has no faith in anything beyond. He who is not scandalized at the apostle's censure of the horrible wickedness of the women who changed the natural use into that which is against nature, Romans 1:26 will read all this without being shocked, especially as we are not, like Paul, citing and censuring a damnable uncleanness, but are explaining, so far as we can, human generation, while with Paul we avoid all obscenity of language. " '14.24 The man, then, would have sown the seed, and the woman received it, as need required, the generative organs being moved by the will, not excited by lust. For we move at will not only those members which are furnished with joints of solid bone, as the hands, feet, and fingers, but we move also at will those which are composed of slack and soft nerves: we can put them in motion, or stretch them out, or bend and twist them, or contract and stiffen them, as we do with the muscles of the mouth and face. The lungs, which are the very tenderest of the viscera except the brain, and are therefore carefully sheltered in the cavity of the chest, yet for all purposes of inhaling and exhaling the breath, and of uttering and modulating the voice, are obedient to the will when we breathe, exhale, speak, shout, or sing, just as the bellows obey the smith or the organist. I will not press the fact that some animals have a natural power to move a single spot of the skin with which their whole body is covered, if they have felt on it anything they wish to drive off - a power so great, that by this shivering tremor of the skin they can not only shake off flies that have settled on them, but even spears that have fixed in their flesh. Man, it is true, has not this power; but is this any reason for supposing that God could not give it to such creatures as He wished to possess it? And therefore man himself also might very well have enjoyed absolute power over his members had he not forfeited it by his disobedience; for it was not difficult for God to form him so that what is now moved in his body only by lust should have been moved only at will. We know, too, that some men are differently constituted from others, and have some rare and remarkable faculty of doing with their body what other men can by no effort do, and, indeed, scarcely believe when they hear of others doing. There are persons who can move their ears, either one at a time, or both together. There are some who, without moving the head, can bring the hair down upon the forehead, and move the whole scalp backwards and forwards at pleasure. Some, by lightly pressing their stomach, bring up an incredible quantity and variety of things they have swallowed, and produce whatever they please, quite whole, as if out of a bag. Some so accurately mimic the voices of birds and beasts and other men, that, unless they are seen, the difference cannot be told. Some have such command of their bowels, that they can break wind continuously at pleasure, so as to produce the effect of singing. I myself have known a man who was accustomed to sweat whenever he wished. It is well known that some weep when they please, and shed a flood of tears. But far more incredible is that which some of our brethren saw quite recently. There was a presbyter called Restitutus, in the parish of the Calamensian Church, who, as often as he pleased (and he was asked to do this by those who desired to witness so remarkable a phenomenon), on some one imitating the wailings of mourners, became so insensible, and lay in a state so like death, that not only had he no feeling when they pinched and pricked him, but even when fire was applied to him, and he was burned by it, he had no sense of pain except afterwards from the wound. And that his body remained motionless, not by reason of his self-command, but because he was insensible, was proved by the fact that he breathed no more than a dead man; and yet he said that, when any one spoke with more than ordinary distinctness, he heard the voice, but as if it were a long way off. Seeing, then, that even in this mortal and miserable life the body serves some men by many remarkable movements and moods beyond the ordinary course of nature, what reason is there for doubting that, before man was involved by his sin in this weak and corruptible condition, his members might have served his will for the propagation of offspring without lust? Man has been given over to himself because he abandoned God, while he sought to be self-satisfying; and disobeying God, he could not obey even himself. Hence it is that he is involved in the obvious misery of being unable to live as he wishes. For if he lived as he wished, he would think himself blessed; but he could not be so if he lived wickedly. ' ' None
|49. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 16.21
Tagged with subjects: • Shame • shame and disgrace
Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 284; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 335
16.21 And Daniel the righteous was thrown to the lions, and Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael were hurled into the fiery furnace and endured it for the sake of God.'' None
|50. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • shame
Found in books: Chaniotis (2012), Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol, 364; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 97, 99