|1. Hesiod, Theogony, 185 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge • revenge curses
Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 10; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 156
185 γείνατʼ Ἐρινῦς τε κρατερὰς μεγάλους τε Γίγαντας,'' None
185 “Children, your father’s sinful, so hear me,”'' None
|2. Homer, Iliad, 18.98-18.99, 18.108-18.110, 19.258-19.260, 21.225-21.226, 21.273-21.283, 21.316-21.323, 24.49, 24.157-24.158 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge • revenge • revenge curses • revenge, and Aeneas • revenge, and anger • revenge, and suffering • revenge, vengeance
Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 61, 227; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 101; Gagarin and Cohen (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law, 174; Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 31; Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 55, 139; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 10; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 97, 107, 214
18.98 αὐτίκα τεθναίην, ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἄρʼ ἔμελλον ἑταίρῳ 18.99 κτεινομένῳ ἐπαμῦναι· ὃ μὲν μάλα τηλόθι πάτρης
18.108 καὶ χόλος, ὅς τʼ ἐφέηκε πολύφρονά περ χαλεπῆναι, 18.109 ὅς τε πολὺ γλυκίων μέλιτος καταλειβομένοιο 18.110 ἀνδρῶν ἐν στήθεσσιν ἀέξεται ἠΰτε καπνός·
19.258 ἴστω νῦν Ζεὺς πρῶτα θεῶν ὕπατος καὶ ἄριστος 19.259 Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες, αἵ θʼ ὑπὸ γαῖαν 19.260 ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,
21.225 πρὶν ἔλσαι κατὰ ἄστυ καὶ Ἕκτορι πειρηθῆναι 21.226 ἀντιβίην, ἤ κέν με δαμάσσεται, ἦ κεν ἐγὼ τόν.
21.273 Ζεῦ πάτερ ὡς οὔ τίς με θεῶν ἐλεεινὸν ὑπέστη 21.274 ἐκ ποταμοῖο σαῶσαι· ἔπειτα δὲ καί τι πάθοιμι. 21.275 ἄλλος δʼ οὔ τις μοι τόσον αἴτιος Οὐρανιώνων, 21.276 ἀλλὰ φίλη μήτηρ, ἥ με ψεύδεσσιν ἔθελγεν· 21.277 ἥ μʼ ἔφατο Τρώων ὑπὸ τείχεϊ θωρηκτάων 21.278 λαιψηροῖς ὀλέεσθαι Ἀπόλλωνος βελέεσσιν. 21.279 ὥς μʼ ὄφελʼ Ἕκτωρ κτεῖναι ὃς ἐνθάδε γʼ ἔτραφʼ ἄριστος· 21.280 τώ κʼ ἀγαθὸς μὲν ἔπεφνʼ, ἀγαθὸν δέ κεν ἐξενάριξε· 21.281 νῦν δέ με λευγαλέῳ θανάτῳ εἵμαρτο ἁλῶναι 21.282 ἐρχθέντʼ ἐν μεγάλῳ ποταμῷ ὡς παῖδα συφορβόν, 21.283 ὅν ῥά τʼ ἔναυλος ἀποέρσῃ χειμῶνι περῶντα.
21.316 φημὶ γὰρ οὔτε βίην χραισμησέμεν οὔτέ τι εἶδος 21.317 οὔτε τὰ τεύχεα καλά, τά που μάλα νειόθι λίμνης 21.318 κείσεθʼ ὑπʼ ἰλύος κεκαλυμμένα· κὰδ δέ μιν αὐτὸν 21.319 εἰλύσω ψαμάθοισιν ἅλις χέραδος περιχεύας 21.320 μυρίον, οὐδέ οἱ ὀστέʼ ἐπιστήσονται Ἀχαιοὶ 21.321 ἀλλέξαι· τόσσην οἱ ἄσιν καθύπερθε καλύψω. 21.322 αὐτοῦ οἱ καὶ σῆμα τετεύξεται, οὐδέ τί μιν χρεὼ 21.323 ἔσται τυμβοχόης, ὅτε μιν θάπτωσιν Ἀχαιοί.
24.49 τλητὸν γὰρ Μοῖραι θυμὸν θέσαν ἀνθρώποισιν.
24.157 οὔτε γάρ ἐστʼ ἄφρων οὔτʼ ἄσκοπος οὔτʼ ἀλιτήμων, 24.158 ἀλλὰ μάλʼ ἐνδυκέως ἱκέτεω πεφιδήσεται ἀνδρός.'' None
18.98 Doomed then to a speedy death, my child, shalt thou be, that thou spakest thus; for straightway after Hector is thine own death ready at hand. 18.99 Doomed then to a speedy death, my child, shalt thou be, that thou spakest thus; for straightway after Hector is thine own death ready at hand. Then, mightily moved, swift-footed Achilles spake to her:Straightway may I die, seeing I was not to bear aid to my comrade at his slaying. Far, far from his own land
18.108 I that in war am such as is none other of the brazen-coated Achaeans, albeit in council there be others better— so may strife perish from among gods and men, and anger that setteth a man on to grow wroth, how wise soever he be, and that sweeter far than trickling honey 18.110 waxeth like smoke in the breasts of men; even as but now the king of men, Agamemnon, moved me to wrath. Howbeit these things will we let be as past and done, for all our pain, curbing the heart in our breasts, because we must. But now will I go forth that I may light on the slayer of the man I loved,
19.258 made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth 19.259 made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth ' "19.260 take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath, that never laid I hand upon the girl Briseis either by way of a lover's embrace or anywise else, but she ever abode untouched in my huts. And if aught of this oath be false, may the gods give me woes " 21.225 until I have pent them in their city, and have made trial of Hector, man to man, whether he shall slay me or I him. So saying he leapt upon the Trojans like a god. Then unto Apollo spake the deep-eddying River:Out upon it, thou lord of the silver bow, child of Zeus, thou verily hast not kept the commandment
21.273 in vexation of spirit, and the River was ever tiring his knees with its violent flow beneath, and was snatching away the ground from under his feet. 21.274 in vexation of spirit, and the River was ever tiring his knees with its violent flow beneath, and was snatching away the ground from under his feet. Then the son of Peleus uttered a bitter cry, with a look at the broad heaven:Father Zeus, how is it that no one of the gods taketh it upon him in my pitiless plight to save me from out the River! thereafter let come upon me what may. 21.275 None other of the heavenly gods do I blame so much, but only my dear mother, that beguiled me with false words, saying that beneath the wall of the mail-clad Trojans I should perish by the swift missiles of Apollo. Would that Hector had slain me, the best of the men bred here; 21.280 then had a brave man been the slayer, and a brave man had he slain. But now by a miserable death was it appointed me to be cut off, pent in the great river, like a swine-herd boy whom a torrent sweepeth away as he maketh essay to cross it in winter. So spake he, and forthwith Poseidon and Pallas Athene
21.316 that now prevaileth, and is minded to vie even with the gods. For I deem that his strength shall naught avail him, neither anywise his comeliness, nor yet that goodly armour, which, I ween, deep beneath the mere shall lie covered over with slime; and himself will I enwrap in sands and shed over him great store of shingle 21.320 past all measuring; nor shall the Achaeans know where to gather his bones, with such a depth of silt shall I enshroud him. Even here shall be his sepulchre, nor shall he have need of a heaped-up mound, when the Achaeans make his funeral.
24.49 the which harmeth men greatly and profiteth them withal. Lo, it may be that a man hath lost one dearer even than was this—a brother, that the selfsame mother bare, or haply a son; yet verily when he hath wept and wailed for him he maketh an end; for an enduring soul have the Fates given unto men.
24.157 And when he shall have led him into the hut, neither shall Achilles himself slay him nor suffer any other to slay; for not without wisdom is he, neither without purpose, nor yet hardened in sin; nay, with all kindliness will he spare a suppliant man. 24.158 And when he shall have led him into the hut, neither shall Achilles himself slay him nor suffer any other to slay; for not without wisdom is he, neither without purpose, nor yet hardened in sin; nay, with all kindliness will he spare a suppliant man. '' None
|3. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1562-1564 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge • dike, between revenge justice and wider justice • revenge
Found in books: Gagarin and Cohen (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law, 174; Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 119; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 113
1562 φέρει φέροντʼ, ἐκτίνει δʼ ὁ καίνων.'1563 μίμνει δὲ μίμνοντος ἐν θρόνῳ Διὸς 1564 παθεῖν τὸν ἔρξαντα· θέσμιον γάρ. ' None
|4. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • revenge • revenge, divine • revenge, of Hera in Heracles
Found in books: Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 238; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 87
|5. Euripides, Hecuba, 714-715, 841-845, 1075-1078, 1118-1119, 1258, 1265-1274 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • revenge • revenge, hopelessness feeding a passion for revenge • revenge, of Electra • revenge, of Hecuba
Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 142; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018), Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62; Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 131, 133, 134
714 ἄρρητ' ἀνωνόμαστα, θαυμάτων πέρα," "715 οὐχ ὅσι' οὐδ' ἀνεκτά. ποῦ δίκα ξένων;" "
841 ὦ δέσποτ', ὦ μέγιστον ̔́Ελλησιν φάος," '842 πιθοῦ, παράσχες χεῖρα τῇ πρεσβύτιδι' "843 τιμωρόν, εἰ καὶ μηδέν ἐστιν, ἀλλ' ὅμως." "844 ἐσθλοῦ γὰρ ἀνδρὸς τῇ δίκῃ θ' ὑπηρετεῖν" '845 καὶ τοὺς κακοὺς δρᾶν πανταχοῦ κακῶς ἀεί.
1075 ἀρνύμενος λώβαν' "
1075 λύμας ἀντίποιν' ἐμᾶς; ὦ τάλας."1076 ποῖ πᾷ φέρομαι τέκν' ἔρημα λιπὼν" '1077 Βάκχαις ̔́Αιδου διαμοιρᾶσαι,' "1078 σφακτά, κυσίν τε φοινίαν δαῖτ' ἀνή-" "
1118 τίς ὄμμ' ἔθηκε τυφλὸν αἱμάξας κόρας," "1119 παῖδάς τε τούσδ' ἔκτεινεν; ἦ μέγαν χόλον" 1258 οὐ γάρ με χαίρειν χρή σε τιμωρουμένην;' "
1265 κύων γενήσῃ πύρς' ἔχουσα δέργματα." "1266 πῶς δ' οἶσθα μορφῆς τῆς ἐμῆς μετάστασιν;" '1267 ὁ Θρῃξὶ μάντις εἶπε Διόνυσος τάδε.' "1268 σοὶ δ' οὐκ ἔχρησεν οὐδὲν ὧν ἔχεις κακῶν;" "1269 οὐ γάρ ποτ' ἂν σύ μ' εἷλες ὧδε σὺν δόλῳ." "1270 θανοῦσα δ' ἢ ζῶς' ἐνθάδ' ἐκπλήσω βίον;" "1271 θανοῦσα: τύμβῳ δ' ὄνομα σῷ κεκλήσεται —" '1272 μορφῆς ἐπῳδόν, ἢ τί, τῆς ἐμῆς ἐρεῖς; 1273 κυνὸς ταλαίνης σῆμα, ναυτίλοις τέκμαρ. 1274 οὐδὲν μέλει μοι σοῦ γέ μοι δόντος δίκην.' "" None
714 O dreadful crime! O deed without a name! beyond wonder! 715 impious! intolerable! Where are the laws between guest and host? Accursed of men! how have you mangled his flesh, slashing the poor child’s limb
841 bringing a thousand pleas to bear on you! O my lord and master, most glorious light of Hellas , listen, stretch forth a helping hand to this aged woman, for all she is a thing of nothing; still do so. For it is always a good man’s duty to help the right, 845 and to punish evil-doers wherever found. Chorus Leader
1075 in requital of their outrage on me? Ah, woe is me! where am I rushing, leaving my children unguarded for maenads of hell to mangle, to be murdered and ruthlessly cast forth upon the hills, a feast of blood for dogs?'1076 in requital of their outrage on me? Ah, woe is me! where am I rushing, leaving my children unguarded for maenads of hell to mangle, to be murdered and ruthlessly cast forth upon the hills, a feast of blood for dogs?
1118 What! hapless Polymestor, who has stricken you? who has blinded your eyes, staining the pupils with blood? who has slain these children? whoever he was, fierce must have been his wrath against you and your children. Polymestor
1258 Yes, for I am avenged on you; have I not cause for delight? Polymestor
1265 You will become a dog with bloodshot gaze. Hecuba 1266 How did you know of my transformation? Polymestor 1267 Dionysus, our Thracian prophet, told me so. Hecuba 1268 And did he prophesy to you nothing of your present trouble? Polymestor 1269 No, for you would never have caught me thus by guile. Hecuba 1270 Dead or alive shall I complete my life here? Polymestor 1271 Dead; and to your tomb shall be given a name—; Hecuba 1272 Recalling my form, or what will you tell me? Polymestor 1273 The hapless hound’s grave, a mark for mariners. Hecuba 1274 It is nothing to me, now that you have paid me the penalty. Polymestor ' None
|6. Euripides, Medea, 407-409, 1329 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, revenge of, in Hippolytus • Medea, revenge in • revenge curses • revenge, of Hera in Heracles • revenge, of Medea • revenge, reverse retaliation • sophia, wisdom revenge of Medea and • women in Greek culture revenge of Medea and
Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 140, 141; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 25, 26, 178; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 25
407 ἐπίστασαι δέ: πρὸς δὲ καὶ πεφύκαμεν' "408 γυναῖκες, ἐς μὲν ἔσθλ' ἀμηχανώταται," '409 κακῶν δὲ πάντων τέκτονες σοφώταται.' "
1329 ὄλοι'. ἐγὼ δὲ νῦν φρονῶ, τότ' οὐ φρονῶν,"' None
407 to the race of Sisyphus Sisyphus was the founder of the royal house of Corinth. by reason of this wedding of Jason, sprung, as thou art, from a noble sire, and of the Sun-god’s race. Thou hast cunning; and, more than this, we women, though by nature little apt for virtuous deeds, are most expert to fashion any mischief. Choru
1329 who hadst the heart to stab thy babes, thou their mother, leaving me undone and childless; this hast thou done and still dost gaze upon the sun and earth after this deed most impious. Curses on thee! I now perceive what then I missed'' None
|7. Herodotus, Histories, 1.4 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge
Found in books: Michalopoulos et al. (2021), The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature, 196; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 369
1.4 μέχρι μὲν ὤν τούτου ἁρπαγάς μούνας εἶναι παρʼ ἀλλήλων, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου Ἕλληνας δὴ μεγάλως αἰτίους γενέσθαι· προτέρους γὰρ ἄρξαι στρατεύεσθαι ἐς τὴν Ἀσίην ἢ σφέας ἐς τὴν Εὐρώπην. τὸ μέν νυν ἁρπάζειν γυναῖκας ἀνδρῶν ἀδίκων νομίζειν ἔργον εἶναι, τὸ δὲ ἁρπασθεισέων σπουδήν ποιήσασθαι τιμωρέειν ἀνοήτων, τὸ δὲ μηδεμίαν ὤρην ἔχειν ἁρπασθεισέων σωφρόνων· δῆλα γὰρ δὴ ὅτι, εἰ μὴ αὐταὶ ἐβούλοντο, οὐκ ἂν ἡρπάζοντο. σφέας μὲν δὴ τοὺς ἐκ τῆς Ἀσίης λέγουσι Πέρσαι ἁρπαζομενέων τῶν γυναικῶν λόγον οὐδένα ποιήσασθαι, Ἕλληνας δὲ Λακεδαιμονίης εἵνεκεν γυναικὸς στόλον μέγαν συναγεῖραι καὶ ἔπειτα ἐλθόντας ἐς τὴν Ἀσίην τὴν Πριάμου δύναμιν κατελεῖν. ἀπὸ τούτου αἰεὶ ἡγήσασθαι τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν σφίσι εἶναι πολέμιον. τὴν γὰρ Ἀσίην καὶ τὰ ἐνοικέοντα ἔθνεα βάρβαρα 1 οἰκηιεῦνται οἱ Πέρσαι, τὴν δὲ Εὐρώπην καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικόν ἥγηνται κεχωρίσθαι.'' None
1.4 So far it was a matter of mere seizure on both sides. But after this (the Persians say), the Greeks were very much to blame; for they invaded Asia before the Persians attacked Europe . ,“We think,” they say, “that it is unjust to carry women off. But to be anxious to avenge rape is foolish: wise men take no notice of such things. For plainly the women would never have been carried away, had they not wanted it themselves. ,We of Asia did not deign to notice the seizure of our women; but the Greeks, for the sake of a Lacedaemonian woman, recruited a great armada, came to Asia, and destroyed the power of Priam. ,Ever since then we have regarded Greeks as our enemies.” For the Persians claim Asia for their own, and the foreign peoples that inhabit it; Europe and the Greek people they consider to be separate from them. '' None
|8. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge
Found in books: Gagarin and Cohen (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law, 179; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 3
|9. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge • revenge, Achilles’ desire for • revenge, in Aristotle
Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 79, 101, 109, 111; Gagarin and Cohen (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law, 171, 174
|10. New Testament, Romans, 12.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (God’s) • revenge
Found in books: Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 241; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 197
12.19 μὴ ἑαυτοὺς ἐκδικοῦντες, ἀγαπητοί, ἀλλὰ δότε τόπον τῇ ὀργῇ, γέγραπται γάρἘμοὶ ἐκδίκησις,ἐγὼἀνταποδώσω,λέγει Κύριος.' ' None
12.19 Don\'t seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God\'s wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord."' ' None
|11. New Testament, Luke, 11.50-11.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (God’s) • blood, innocent, avenging of
Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 154; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 187
11.50 ἵνα ἐκζητηθῇ τὸ αἷμα πάντων τῶν προφητῶν τὸ ἐκκεχυμένον ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, 11.51 ἀπὸ αἵματος Ἅβελ ἕως αἵματος Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου μεταξὺ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου καὶ τοῦ οἴκου· ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐκζητηθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης.'' None
11.50 that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; ' "11.51 from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. "' None
|12. New Testament, Matthew, 23.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (God’s) • blood, innocent, avenging of
Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 142, 154; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 187
23.35 ὅπως ἔλθῃ ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς πᾶν αἱμα δίκαιον ἐκχυννόμενον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ αἵματος Ἅβελ τοῦ δικαίου ἕως τοῦ αἵματος Ζαχαρίου υἱοῦ Βαραχίου, ὅν ἐφονεύσατε μεταξὺ τοῦ ναοῦ καὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου.'' None
23.35 that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar. '' None
|13. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Atreus, as avenger • Seneca, revenge in • agency, and revenge • avenger, similarity to director/author • freedom, revenge as source of • genealogy, and Atreus’ revenge • revenge, and Atreus • revenge, and oppression/powerlessness • revenge, as source of autonomy • revenge, as ‘satisfaction’
Found in books: Bexley (2022), Seneca's Characters: Fictional Identities and Implied Human Selves, 312, 313, 314, 315, 319, 321; Fertik (2019), The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome, 99
|14. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (God’s) • blood, innocent, avenging of
Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 161; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 186, 187
|96b ומי סליק נבוכד נצר לירושלים והכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ו) ויעלו אותו אל מלך בבל רבלתה ואמר ר\' אבהו זו אנטוכיא רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבודימי חד אמר דמות דיוקנו היתה חקוקה לו על מרכבתו וחד אמר אימה יתירה היתה לו ממנו ודומה כמי שעומד לפניו,אמר רבא טעין תלת מאה כודנייתא נרגא דפרזלא דשליט בפרזלא שדר ליה נבוכדנצר לנבוזראדן כולהו בלעתינהו חד דשא דירושלם שנאמר (תהלים עד, ו) פתוחיה יחד בכשיל וכילפות יהלומון בעי למיהדר אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו בי כי היכי דעבדו בסנחריב,נפקא קלא ואמר שוור בר שוור נבוזראדן שוור דמטא זימנא דמקדשא חריב והיכלא מיקלי פש ליה חד נרגא אתא מחייה בקופא ואיפתח שנאמר (תהלים עד, ה) יודע כמביא למעלה בסבך עץ קרדומות,הוה קטיל ואזל עד דמטא להיכלא אדליק ביה נורא גבה היכלא דרכו ביה מן שמיא שנאמר (איכה א, טו) גת דרך ה\' לבתולת בת יהודה קא זיחא דעתיה נפקא בת קלא ואמרה ליה עמא קטילא קטלת היכלא קליא קלית קימחא טחינא טחינת שנאמר (ישעיהו מז, ב) קחי רחים וטחני קמח גלי צמתך חשפי שובל גלי שוק עברי נהרות חטים לא נאמר אלא קמח,חזא דמיה דזכריה דהוה קא רתח אמר להו מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים הוא דאישתפיך אמר להו אייתי ואנסי אי מדמו כסי ולא אידמו אמר להו גלו לי ואי לא סריקנא לכו לבשרייכו במסריקא דפרזלא,אמרו ליה האי כהן ונביא הוא דאינבי להו לישראל בחורבנא דירושלם וקטלוהו אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי רבנן קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי דרדקי דבי רב קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי פרחי כהונה קטיל עילויה ולא נח עד די קטל עילויה תשעין וארבעה ריבוא ולא נח,קרב לגביה אמר זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאיקטלינהו לכולהו מיד נח הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר מה הם שלא איבדו אלא נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא מה תיהוי עליה ערק שדר פורטיתא לביתיה ואיתגייר,תנו רבנן נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזר אדן גר צדק היה מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תורה בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב לימדו תורה ברבים ומאן נינהו שמעיה ואבטליון,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק ואף מבני בניו של אותו רשע ביקש הקב"ה להכניסן תחת כנפי השכינה אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מי שהחריב את ביתך ושרף את היכלך תכניס תחת כנפי השכינה היינו דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, ט) רפינו את בבל ולא נרפתה עולא אמר זה נבוכדנצר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אלו נהרות בבל ותרגמה דצינייתא (צרידתא) דבבלאי,אמר עולא עמון ומואב שיבבי בישי דירושלם הוו כיון דשמעינהו לנביאי דקא מיתנבאי לחורבנא דירושלם שלחו לנבוכדנצר פוק ותא אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו לי כדעבדו בקמאי,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, יט) כי אין האיש בביתו הלך בדרך מרחוק ואין איש אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר (שמות טו, ג) ה\' איש מלחמה שלח להו בקריבא הוא ואתי שלחו ליה הלך בדרך מרחוק שלח להו אית להו צדיקי דבעו רחמי ומייתו ליה,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, כ) צרור הכסף לקח בידו ואין כסף אלא צדיקים שנאמר (הושע ג, ב) ואכרה לי בחמשה עשר כסף וחומר שעורים ולתך שעורים,שלח להו הדרי רשיעי בתשובה ובעו רחמי ומייתו ליה שלחו ליה כבר קבע להן זמן שנאמר (משלי ז, כ) ליום הכסא יבא (לביתו אין כסא אלא זמן שנאמר (תהלים פא, ד) בכסה ליום חגנו שלח להו סיתווא הוא ולא מצינא דאתי מתלגא וממיטרא,שלחו ליה תא אשינא דטורא שנאמר (ישעיהו טז, א) שלחו כר מושל ארץ מסלע מדברה אל הר בת ציון שלח להו אי אתינא לית לי דוכתא דיתיבנא ביה שלחו ליה קברות שלהם מעולין מפלטירין שלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ח, א) בעת ההיא נאום ה\' יוציאו את עצמות מלכי יהודה ואת עצמות שריו ואת עצמות הכהנים ואת עצמות הנביאים ואת עצמות יושבי ירושלים מקבריהם ושטחום לשמש ולירח ולכל צבא השמים אשר אהבום ואשר עבדום ואשר הלכו אחריהם,אמר ליה רב נחמן לרבי יצחק מי שמיע לך אימת אתי בר נפלי אמר ליה מאן בר נפלי א"ל משיח משיח בר נפלי קרית ליה א"ל אין דכתיב (עמוס ט, יא) ביום ההוא אקים'' None||96b The Gemara asks: And did Nebuchadnezzar ascend to Jerusalem? But isn’t it written with regard to Zedekiah: “And they took the king, and brought him up to the king of Babylonia, to Riblah” (II\xa0Kings 25:6), and Rabbi Abbahu says: This place called Riblah is a reference to Antioch. Apparently, Nebuchadnezzar was in Antioch, not in Jerusalem. Rav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi resolved this apparent contradiction. One says: An image of Nebuchadnezzar’s likeness was engraved on Nebuzaradan’s chariot, and he regarded that image as though Nebuchadnezzar were actually there. And one says: Nebuzaradan was in extreme fear of Nebuchadnezzar, and it was as though Nebuzaradan was always standing before Nebuchadnezzar. That is an example of the honor of a servant to his master mentioned in the verse.,§ The Gemara proceeds to discuss the role of Nebuzaradan in the destruction of the Temple. Rava says: Nebuchadnezzar sent to Nebuzaradan three hundred mules laden with iron axes that cut iron. All of them were incapacitated in the attempt to breach one gate of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And now they pound its carved work together with hatchet and with hammers” (Psalms 74:6). Nebuzaradan sought to return to Babylonia and said: I am afraid. I want to ensure that they will not do to me just as they did to Sennacherib, whose downfall was in Jerusalem.,A Divine Voice emerged and said: Leaper, son of a leaper; Nebuzaradan, take the leap, as the time has arrived for the Temple to be destroyed and the Sanctuary to burn. One ax remained for him to use. He went and struck the gate with the dull end of the ax and it opened, as it is stated: “He became known as the wielder of axes upward in a thicket of trees” (Psalms 74:5). At the appropriate time the gate was breached as though the ax were cutting trees.,He was proceeding and killing until he reached the Sanctuary. When he reached the Sanctuary, he ignited a fire in it. The Sanctuary rose, seeking to enter Heaven so that it would not burn. They trod upon it from Heaven and returned it to its place, as it is stated: “The Lord has trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, as in a winepress” (Lamentations 1:15). Nebuzaradan became haughty, taking pride in his conquest. A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: Your haughtiness is unwarranted, as you killed a nation that was already dead, you burned a Sanctuary that was already burned, and you ground flour that was already ground, as it is stated with regard to Babylonia: “Take millstones and grind flour; uncover your locks, tuck up the train, uncover the leg, pass over rivers” (Isaiah 47:2). It was not stated: Grind wheat, but “grind flour,” indicating that all the destruction had already been wrought by God, and the role played by the enemy was insignificant.,When he reached the Sanctuary, he saw the blood of Zechariah the priest boiling. It had not calmed since he was killed in the Temple (see II\xa0Chronicles 24:20–22). Nebuzaradan said to the priests there: What is this? They said to him: It is the blood of offerings that was spilled. Nebuzaradan said to them: Bring animals and I will test to determine if the blood of the animals is similar to the blood that is boiling. He slaughtered the animals and their blood was not similar to the boiling blood. Nebuzaradan said to the priests: Reveal the source of that blood to me, and if not I will comb your flesh with an iron comb.,The priests said to Nebuzaradan: This blood is the blood of a priest and a prophet who prophesied for the Jewish people with regard to the destruction of Jerusalem and whom they killed. He said to the priests: I will pacify the blood so the boiling will stop. He brought the Sages and killed them over the blood and its boiling did not cease. He brought schoolchildren and killed them over the blood and its boiling did not cease. He brought young priests and killed them over the blood and its boiling did not cease. He continued killing until he killed 940,000 people over the blood, and its boiling did not cease.,Nebuzaradan approached the blood and said: Zechariah, Zechariah, the worthy among them I killed on your behalf. Is it satisfactory for you that I kill them all? Immediately the boiling ceased. Nebuzaradan contemplated repentance. He said: If they, who caused only one person to perish, gained atonement only after all this killing, then with regard to that man, referring to himself, what will be required for him to gain atonement? He deserted his army and dispatched a last will to his house and converted.,The Sages taught in a baraita: Naaman the Aramean (see II\xa0Kings, chapter 5) was a ger toshav, meaning that he accepted upon himself to refrain from idol worship but did not convert to Judaism. Nebuzaradan was a completely righteous convert. Among the descendants of Sisera (see Judges, chapter 4) were those who studied Torah in Jerusalem. Among the descendants of Sennacherib were those who taught Torah in public. The Gemara asks: And who are they? The Gemara answers: They were Shemaya and Avtalyon.,The baraita continues: Among the descendants of Haman were those who studied Torah in Bnei Brak. And even among the descendants of that wicked person, Nebuchadnezzar, were those whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to bring beneath the wings of the Divine Presence and have them convert. The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: The one who destroyed Your House and burned Your Sanctuary, will You introduce him beneath the wings of the Divine Presence? The Gemara explains: That is the meaning of that which is written: “We have healed Babylonia, but she is not healed” (Jeremiah 51:9). Ulla says: This verse is a reference to Nebuchadnezzar, none of whose children converted. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: This is not a reference to a person; rather, these are the rivers of Babylonia, and interpret it as referring to the bitter saltwater rivers of Babylonia.,§ On a related note, the Gemara describes the events that led to the destruction of the Temple. Ulla says: Ammon and Moab were bad neighbors of Jerusalem. Once they heard the prophets who prophesied about the destruction of the Jerusalem, they sent to Nebuchadnezzar: Emerge from your dwelling place and come conquer them. Nebuchadnezzar said to them: I am afraid. I want to ensure that they will not do to me just as they did to my predecessors.,Ammon and Moab sent to him that it is written: “For the ish is not at home; he is gone on a long journey” (Proverbs 7:19), and ish is referring to no one but the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord is an ish of war” (Exodus 15:3). Nebuchadnezzar sent to them is response: He is in a nearby location, and He will come. They sent to Nebuchadnezzar: “He has gone on a journey from afar” (Proverbs 7:19). Nebuchadnezzar said to them: They have righteous among them who will pray for mercy and bring Him to return.,Ammon and Moab sent to Nebuchadnezzar: “He has taken a bundle of kesef with him” (Proverbs 7:20), and kesef is referring to nothing other than the righteous, as it is stated: “So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of kesef and for a kor of barley and a half-kor of barley” (Hosea 3:2). The inference is that God acquired the congregation of Israel due to the presence of righteous people among them, and Ammon and Moab sent a message to Nebuchadnezzar that God had already taken the righteous and they no longer offered protection.,Nebuchadnezzar sent to them: Perhaps the wicked will repent and become righteous and they will pray for mercy and they will bring Him to return. Ammon and Moab sent to Nebuchadnezzar: God already designated the time of their redemption, as it is stated: “On the day of the keseh, He will come home” (Proverbs 7:20), and keseh is referring to nothing other than a designated time, as it is stated: “Sound a shofar at the New Moon, at the keseh on the day of our feast” (Psalms 81:4). Since there is a time designated for redemption, until then you can do as you please. Nebuchadnezzar sent to them: It is winter now and I cannot come and conquer Jerusalem due to the snow and the rain.,Ammon and Moab sent to him: Come on the peaks of mountains, where the rain does not pool, as it is stated: “Send the lamb to the ruler of the land from the peaks of the wilderness to the mount of the daughter of Zion” (Isaiah 16:1). Nebuchadnezzar sent to them: If I come to Jerusalem, I will have no place to dwell while laying siege to the city. Ammon and Moab sent to him: Their burial caves are superior to your palaces, and you can clear the caves and dwell there, as it is written: “At that time, says the Lord, they shall remove the bones of the kings of Judea, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem from their graves; and they shall spread them before the sun and the moon and all of the hosts of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked” (Jeremiah 8:1–2). Ultimately Nebuchadnezzar came to conquer Judea and removed the corpses to make room for his army.,§ Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: Have you heard when the son of giants bar niflei will come? Rabbi Yitzḥak said to him: Who is the son of giants? Rav Naḥman said to him: He is the Messiah. Rabbi Yitzḥak asked him: Do you call the Messiah son of giants? Rav Naḥman said to him: Yes, as it is written: “On that day I will establish'' None|
|15. Demosthenes, Orations, 21.20, 21.37
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge • vengeance, cf. punishment, revenge, timoria
Found in books: Gagarin and Cohen (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law, 175, 219; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 136, 137
21.20 Some of his victims, gentlemen of the jury, suffered in silence, because they were cowed by him and his self-confidence, or by his gang of bullies, his wealth and all his other resources; others tried to obtain redress and failed; others again made terms with him, perhaps because they thought that the best policy. Those, then, who were induced to do so have obtained the satisfaction due to themselves; but of the satisfaction due to the laws, by breaking which Meidias wronged them and is wronging me now and every other citizen—of that satisfaction you are the dispensers.
21.37 But it seems to me, Athenians, that it would be reasonable for you to do just the reverse, since your duty is to be solicitous for the common good of all. For who of you is unaware that the reason for the frequency of these assaults is the failure to punish the offenders, and that the only way to prevent such assaults in the future is adequately to punish every offender who is caught? Therefore, if it is to your interest to deter others, those cases are an additional reason for punishing Meidias, and punishing him the more severely in proportion to their number and their seriousness; but if you want to encourage him and everybody, you must let him off.'' None
|16. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.12-1.22, 1.349, 4.625-4.629, 10.433, 10.435-10.436
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge • Virgil and the Aeneid, revenge • revenge, and Aeneas • revenge, vengeance
Found in books: Agri (2022), Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism, 86; Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 223; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 180, 212, 270; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 549, 558
1.12 Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni, 1.13 Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe 1.14 ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli; 1.15 quam Iuno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 1.17 hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, 1.18 si qua fata sit, iam tum tenditque fovetque. 1.19 Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci 1.20 audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces; 1.21 hinc populum late regem belloque superbum 1.22 venturum excidio Libyae: sic volvere Parcas.
1.349 impius ante aras, atque auri caecus amore,
4.625 Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor, 4.626 qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, 4.627 nunc, olim, quocumque dabunt se tempore vires. 4.628 Litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas 4.629 imprecor, arma armis; pugnent ipsique nepotesque.
10.433 tela manusque sinit. Hinc Pallas instat et urget,
10.435 egregii forma, sed quis Fortuna negarat 10.436 in patriam reditus. Ipsos concurrere passus' ' None
1.12 O Muse, the causes tell! What sacrilege, 1.13 or vengeful sorrow, moved the heavenly Queen 1.14 to thrust on dangers dark and endless toil ' "1.15 a man whose largest honor in men's eyes " '1.17 In ages gone an ancient city stood— 1.18 Carthage, a Tyrian seat, which from afar 1.19 made front on Italy and on the mouths ' "1.20 of Tiber 's stream; its wealth and revenues " '1.21 were vast, and ruthless was its quest of war. ' "1.22 'T is said that Juno, of all lands she loved, " 1.349 “Let Cytherea cast her fears away!
4.625 teadfast it ever clings; far as toward heaven 4.626 its giant crest uprears, so deep below 4.627 its roots reach down to Tartarus:—not less 4.628 the hero by unceasing wail and cry 4.629 is smitten sore, and in his mighty heart
10.433 to death were hurled, while with their knotted clubs
10.435 Herculean weapons, nor their mighty hands, 10.436 or that Melampus was their sire, a peer ' ' None
|17. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Revenge • vengeance, cf. punishment, revenge, timoria
Found in books: Gagarin and Cohen (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law, 226, 227; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 36, 54