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99 results for "purification"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.9, 17.7, 18.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 9, 129, 451
4.9. "רַק הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ וּשְׁמֹר נַפְשְׁךָ מְאֹד פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וּפֶן־יָסוּרוּ מִלְּבָבְךָ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ וְהוֹדַעְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֵי בָנֶיךָ׃", 17.7. "יַד הָעֵדִים תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשֹׁנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 18.4. "רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וְרֵאשִׁית גֵּז צֹאנְךָ תִּתֶּן־לּוֹ׃", 4.9. "Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes saw, and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life; but make them known unto thy children and thy children’s children;", 17.7. "The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. So thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee.", 18.4. "The first-fruits of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.15, 30.17-30.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 129, 136
19.15. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃", 30.17. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 30.18. "וְעָשִׂיתָ כִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וְכַנּוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת לְרָחְצָה וְנָתַתָּ אֹתוֹ בֵּין־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנָתַתָּ שָׁמָּה מָיִם׃", 30.19. "וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃", 30.21. "וְרָחֲצוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְרַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם חָק־עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ לְדֹרֹתָם׃", 19.15. "And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’", 30.17. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 30.18. "’Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, whereat to wash; and thou shalt put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein.", 30.19. "And Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat;", 30.20. "when they go into the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to cause an offering made by fire to smoke unto the LORD;", 30.21. "so they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not; and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.’",
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128
1.10. "And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 120, 121
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.9-18.11, 19.11, 19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 9, 113
18.9. "זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃", 18.11. "וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃", 19.11. "הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃", 19.19. "וְהִזָּה הַטָּהֹר עַל־הַטָּמֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְחִטְּאוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר בָּעָרֶב׃", 18.9. "This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons.", 18.10. "In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee.", 18.11. "And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof.", 19.11. "He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;", 19.19. "And the clean person shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify him; and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 134.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 134
134.2. "שְׂאוּ־יְדֵכֶם קֹדֶשׁ וּבָרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃", 134.2. "Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, And bless ye the LORD.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 54.11-54.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 451
54.11. "עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃", 54.12. "וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃", 54.13. "וְכָל־בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי יְהוָה וְרַב שְׁלוֹם בָּנָיִךְ׃", 54.14. "בִּצְדָקָה תִּכּוֹנָנִי רַחֲקִי מֵעֹשֶׁק כִּי־לֹא תִירָאִי וּמִמְּחִתָּה כִּי לֹא־תִקְרַב אֵלָיִךְ׃", 54.11. "O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires.", 54.12. "And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones.", 54.13. "And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children.", 54.14. "In righteousness shalt thou be established; be thou far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, And from ruin, for it shall not come near thee.",
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 20.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
20.26. "וְלֹא־דִבֶּר שָׁאוּל מְאוּמָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי אָמַר מִקְרֶה הוּא בִּלְתִּי טָהוֹר הוּא כִּי־לֹא טָהוֹר׃", 20.26. "Nevertheless Sha᾽ul spoke not anything that day: for he thought, It is an accidental pollution, he is not clean; yes, indeed, he is not clean.",
9. Homer, Odyssey, 2.261, 12.336, 17.48, 17.59 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111, 112
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.3 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 115
1.3. "הָיֹה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יְחֶזְקֵאל בֶּן־בּוּזִי הַכֹּהֵן בְּאֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים עַל־נְהַר־כְּבָר וַתְּהִי עָלָיו שָׁם יַד־יְהוָה׃", 1.3. "the word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him.",
11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 45.7-45.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qppsa, 3.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 436
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.6, 10.11, 11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127, 128, 436
14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.6, 10.11, 11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127, 128, 436
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.25-3.11, 3.7, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 5.213, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24-7.27, 8.17, 8.20-9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 436
16. Anon., Testament of Levi, 2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128
2.3. And when I was feeding the flocks in Abel-Maul, the spirit of understanding of the Lord came upon me, and I saw all men corrupting their way, and that unrighteousness had built for itself walls, and lawlessness sat upon towers.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 158, 45, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 113
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.1, 1.162, 1.258, 1.261, 3.63, 3.83-3.209 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111, 112, 113, 136
1.1. The genera and heads of all special laws, which are called "the ten commandments," have been discussed with accuracy in the former treatise. We must now proceed to consider the particular commands as we read them in the subsequent passages of the holy scriptures; and we will begin with that which is turned into ridicule by people in general. 1.162. Or the creatures which are fit to be offered as sacrifices, some are land animals, and some are such as fly through the air. Passing over, therefore, the infinite varieties of birds, God chose only two classes out of them all, the turtledove and the pigeon; because the pigeon is by nature the most gentle of all those birds which are domesticated and gregarious, and the turtle-dove the most gentle of those which love solitude. 1.258. And it has appointed a burning purification for both these things; for the soul, by means of the animals which are duly fit for sacrifices; and for the body, by ablutions and sprinklings; concerning which we will speak presently; for it is fit to assign the pre-eminence in honour in every point to the superior and domit part of the qualities existing in us, namely, to the soul. 1.261. The body then, as I have already said, he purifies with ablutions and bespringklings, and does not allow a person after he has once washed and sprinkled himself, at once to enter within the sacred precincts, but bids him wait outside for seven days, and to be besprinkled twice, on the third day and on the seventh day; and after this it commands him to wash himself once more, and then it admits him to enter the sacred precincts and to share in the sacred ministrations.XLIX. 3.63. And the law takes such exceeding pains to prevent any irregularity taking place with respect to marriages, that even in the case of husbands and wives who have come together for legitimate embraces, in strict accordance with the laws of marriage, after they have arisen from their beds it does not allow them to touch anything before they have had recourse to washings and ablutions; keeping them very far from adultery and from all accusations referring to adultery.XI. 3.83. The name of homicide is that affixed to him who has slain a man; but in real truth it is a sacrilege, and the very greatest of all sacrileges, because, of all the possessions and sacred treasures in the whole world, there is nothing more holy in appearance, nor more godlike than man, the all-beautiful copy of an all-beautiful model, a representation admirably made after an archetypal rational idea. 3.84. We must therefore, without hesitation, pronounce the homicide or murderer an impious and atrociously wicked person, committing as he does the greatest of all atrocities and impieties, and he ought to be put to death as having done things which can never be pardoned, since, being worthy of ten thousand deaths, he escapes by one only, because the way to death being easy, does not permit his existence to be protracted, so as to endure a multitude of punishments; but there can be nothing wrong in his suffering the same treatment as that which he has inflicted on others, 3.85. and yet how can it be the same, if it be different as to its time, as to its mode of infliction, as to the intention, and as to the persons? Does not the beginning of acts of violence come first, and the repelling or retaliating them come subsequently? And is not murder the most lawless of all things, but the punishment of murderers the most lawful action possible? Again, he who has slain a man has satisfied his desire which he entertained when he slew him; but he who has been slain, inasmuch as he is now put out of the way, can neither attack him in retaliation, nor can be gratify himself by taking revenge. Moreover, the one was able by his own hands to carry out the designs which he conceived by himself; but the other can never succeed in procuring his punishment, unless his relations and friends become his champions, taking compassion on him for the calamity which has befallen him. 3.86. If now any one aims a blow with a sword at any one, with the intention of killing him, and does not kill him, he will still be guilty of murder, since he was a murderer in his intention, even though the end did not keep pace with his wish. Again, let that man be liable to the same punishment who, by previous contrivance and machinations (not daring to behave bravely, and to stand face to face with his enemy and attack him openly 3.87. for as, in my opinion, one must not only look upon those people as enemies who fight against us by sea or by land, but also those who are prepared for either kind of warfare, and who are erecting battering rams and engines against our harbours and our walls; and as we do in fact judge thus of them, even though they come to no actual conflict, so also we must consider murderers, not only those who perform the mere act of killing, but those who do anything which tends to slaying, whether openly or secretly, even if they do not eventually perpetrate the action. 3.88. And if out of fear or out of audacity, two very contrary feelings, but both blameable, they venture to flee to the temple as if they would there find an asylum, we must prevent their doing so, if we can: but if they are beforehand with us, and do effect their entrance, then we must take them out and give them up for execution, affirming the principle that the temple does not give an asylum to impious men; for every one who commits actions of incurable guilt is an enemy to God; and murderers do commit such actions, since those who are murdered have suffered disasters which are incurable. 3.89. Or shall we say that to those who have done no wrong the temple is still inaccessible until they have washed themselves, and sprinkled themselves, and purified themselves with the accustomed purifications; but that those who are guilty of indelible crimes, the pollution of which no length of time will ever efface, may approach and dwell among those holy seats; though no decent person, who has any regard for holy things would even receive them in his house?XVI. 3.90. Therefore, since they have heaped iniquity upon iniquity, adding lawlessness and impiety to murder, they must be dragged out of the temple to undergo their punishment, since, as I have said before, they have committed actions worthy of ten thousand deaths instead of one; as otherwise, the temple would be shut against the relations and friends of the man who has been so treacherously murdered, if the murderer were to be dwelling in it, since they could never endure to come into the same place with him. But it would be absurd that, for the sake of one man, and him the most lawless of men, a great number of persons, and those too the very persons who have been injured by him, should be excluded from the temple--men who, besides that they have done no wrong themselves, have even sustained an unseasonable affliction through his actions. 3.91. And perhaps, indeed, the lawgiver seeing far into futurity by the acuteness of his reasoning powers, was, by such commandments, providing against any bloodshed ever taking place in the temple by the entrance of any of the friends of the murdered man into it, whom natural affection, a very ungovernable feeling, would urge, full of enthusiasm and violent rage as they would be, almost to slay the murderer with their own hands, while if such an event were to take place it would be most impious sacrilege; for then the blood of the sacrifices would be mingled with the blood of murderers; that which has been consecrated to God with that which is wholly impure. It is on this account that Moses commands that the murderer shall be given up, even from the altar itself.XVII. 3.92. But some persons who have slain others with swords, or spears, or darts, or clubs, or stones, or something of that kind, may possibly have done so without any previous design, and without having for some time before planned this deed in their hearts, but may have been excited at the moment, yielding to passion more powerful than their reason, to commit the homicide; so that it is but half a crime, inasmuch as the mind was not for some long time before occupied by the pollution. 3.93. But there are others also of the greatest wickedness, men polluted both in hands and mind, who, being sorcerers and poisoners, devoting all their leisure and all their solitude to planning seasonable attacks upon others, who invent all kinds of contrivances and devices to bring about calamities on their neighbours. 3.94. On which account, Moses commands that poisoners and sorceresses shall not be allowed to live one day or even one hour, but that they shall be put to death the moment that they are taken, no pretext being for a moment allowed them for putting off or delaying their punishment. For those who attack one openly and to one's face, any body may guard against; but of those who plot against one secretly, and who disguise their attacks by the concealed approaches of poison, it is not easy to see the cunning beforehand. 3.95. It is necessary, therefore, to anticipate them, inflicting upon them that death which other persons would else have suffered by their means. And again, besides this, he who openly slays a man with a sword, or with any similar weapon, can only kill a few persons at one time; but one who mixes and compounds poisonous drugs with food, may destroy innumerable companies at once who have no suspicion of his treachery. 3.96. Accordingly, it has happened before now that very numerous parties of men who have come together in good fellowship to eat of the same salt and to sit at the same table, have suffered at such a time of harmony things wholly incompatible with it, being suddenly killed, and have thus met with death instead of feasting. On which account it is fitting that even the most merciful, and gentle, and moderate of men should approve of such persons being put to death, who are all but the same as murderers who slay with their own hand; and that they should think it consistent with holiness, not to commit their punishment to others, but to execute it themselves. 3.97. For how can it by anything but a most terrible evil for any one to contrive the death of another by that food which is given as the cause of life, and to work such a change in that which is nutritious by nature as to render it destructive; so that those who, in obedience to the necessities of nature, have recourse to eating and drinking, having no previous idea of any treachery, take destructive food as though it were salutary? 3.98. Again, let those persons meet with the same punishment who, though they do not compound drugs which are actually deadly, nevertheless administer such as long diseases are caused by; for death is often a lesser evil than diseases; and especially than such as extend over a long time and have no fortunate or favourable end. For the illnesses which arise from poisons are difficult to be cured, and are often completely incurable. 3.99. Moreover, in the case of men who have been exposed to machinations of this kind, it often happens that diseases of the mind ensue which are worse even than the afflictions of the body; for they are often attacked by delirium and insanity, and intolerable frenzy, by means of which the mind, the greatest blessing which God has bestowed upon mankind, is impaired in every possible manner, despairing of any safety or cure, and so is utterly removed from its seat, and expelled, as it were, leaving in the body only the inferior portion of the soul, namely, its irrational part, of which even beasts partake, since every person who is deprived of reason, which is the better part of the soul, is changed into the nature of a beast, even though the characteristics of the human form remain.XVIII. 3.100. Now the true magical art, being a science of discernment, which contemplates and beholds the books of nature with a more acute and distinct perception than usual, and appearing as such to be a dignified and desirable branch of knowledge, is studied not merely by private individuals, but even by kings, and the very greatest of kings, and especially by the Persian monarchs, to such a degree, that they say that among that people no one can possibly succeed to the kingdom if he has not previously been initiated into the mysteries of the magi. 3.101. But there is a certain adulterated species of this science, which may more properly be called wicked imposture, which quacks, and cheats, and buffoons pursue, and the vilest of women and slaves, professing to understand all kinds of incantations and purifications, and promising to change the dispositions of those on whom they operate so as to turn those who love to unalterable enmity, and those who hate to the most excessive affection by certain charms and incantations; and thus they deceive and gain influence over men of unsuspicious and innocent dispositions, until they fall into the greatest calamities, by means of which great numbers of friends and relations have wasted away by degrees, and so have been rapidly destroyed without any noise being made. 3.102. And I imagine that the lawgiver, having a regard to all these circumstances, would on that account not permit the punishments due to poisoners to be postponed to any subsequent occasion, but ordained that the executioners should at once proceed to inflict the due penalty on them; for delay rather excites the guilty to make use of the time that is allowed them to carry out their iniquities, inasmuch as they are already condemned to death, while it fills those who are already suspicious and apprehensive of misfortune with a more urgent fear, as they look upon the life of their enemies to be their own death. 3.103. Therefore, as if we only see snakes, and serpents, and any other venomous animals, we at once, without a moment's delay, kill them before they can bite, or wound, or attack us at all, taking care not to expose ourselves to any injury from them by reason of our knowledge of the mischief which is inherent in them; in the same manner it is right promptly to punish those men who, though they have had a gentle nature assigned to them by means of that fountain of reason which is the cause and source of all society, do nevertheless of deliberate purpose change it themselves to the ferocity of untameable beasts, looking upon the doing injury to as many people as they can to be their greatest pleasure and advantage.XIX. 3.104. This may be sufficient to say on the present occasion concerning poisoners and magicians. Moreover, we ought also not to be ignorant of this, that very often unexpected occasions arise in which a person slays a man without having ever prepared himself for this action, but because he has been suddenly transported with anger, which is an intolerable and terrible feeling, and which injures beyond all other feelings both the man who entertains and the man who has excited it; 3.105. for sometimes a man having come into the market-place on some important business, meeting with some one who is inclined precipitately to accuse him, or who attempts to assault him, or who begins to pick a quarrel with him and engages him in a conflict, for the sake of separating from him and more speedily escaping him, either strikes his opponent with his fist or takes up a stone and throws it at him and knocks him down. 3.106. And if the wound which the man has received is mortal, so that he at once dies, then let the man who has struck him also die, suffering the same fate himself which he inflicted on the other. But if the man does not die immediately after receiving the blow, but is afflicted by illness in consequence and takes to his bed, and having been properly attended to rises up again, even though he may not be able to walk well without support, but may require some one to support him or a stick to lean upon, in that case the man who struck him shall pay a double penalty, one as an atonement for the injury done, and one for the expenses of the cure. 3.107. And when he has paid this he shall be acquitted as to the punishment of death, even if the man who has received the blow should subsequently die; for perhaps he did not die of the blow, since he got better after that and recovered so far as to walk, but perhaps he died from some other causes, such as often suddenly attack those who are of the most vigorous bodily health, and kill them. 3.108. But if any one has a contest with a woman who is pregt, and strike her a blow on her belly, and she miscarry, if the child which was conceived within her is still unfashioned and unformed, he shall be punished by a fine, both for the assault which he committed and also because he has prevented nature, who was fashioning and preparing that most excellent of all creatures, a human being, from bringing him into existence. But if the child which was conceived had assumed a distinct Shape{7}{#ex 21:22.} in all its parts, having received all its proper connective and distinctive qualities, he shall die; 3.109. for such a creature as that is a man, whom he has slain while still in the workshop of nature, who had not thought it as yet a proper time to produce him to the light, but had kept him like a statue lying in a sculptor's workshop, requiring nothing more than to be released and sent out into the world.XX. 3.110. On account of this commandment he also adds another proposition of greater importance, in which the exposure of infants is forbidden, which has become a very ordinary piece of wickedness among other nations by reason of their natural inhumanity; 3.111. for if it is proper to provide for that which is not yet brought forth by reason of the definite periods of time requisite for such a process, so that even that may not suffer any injury by being plotted against, how can it be otherwise than more necessary to take similar care of the child when brought to perfection and born, and sent forth, as it were, into that colony which has been assigned to the human race, for the purpose of having a share of the bounties of nature which she sends forth from the land, and from the water, and from the air, and from the heaven? bestowing on men the sight of the heavenly bodies, and the power and supreme authority over all the things on earth, and supplying all the external senses with abundant supplies of all things, and presenting to the mind as the great king, by means of those outward senses as its body-guards, all the thing which are visible to them, and, without employing their agency, all those things which are appreciable only by reason. 3.112. Accordingly, let those parents who deprive their children of all these blessings, giving them no share of any one of them from the moment of their birth, know that they are violating the laws of nature, and accusing themselves of the very greatest enormities, of a devotion to pleasure, and a hatred of their species, and murder, and the very worst kind of murder, infanticide; 3.113. for those men are devoted to pleasure who are not influenced by the wish of propagating children, and of perpetuating their race, when they have connection with women, but who are only like boars or he-goats seeking the enjoyment that arises from such a connection. Again, who can be greater haters of their species than those who are the implacable and ferocious enemies of their own children? Unless, indeed, any one is so foolish as to imagine that these men can be humane to strangers who act in a barbarous manner to those who are united to them by ties of blood. 3.114. And as for their murders and infanticides they are established by the most undeniable proofs, since some of them slay them with their own hands, and stifle the first breath of their children, and smother it altogether, out of a terribly cruel and unfeeling disposition; others throw them into the depths of a river, or of a sea, after they have attached a weight to them, in order that they may sink to the bottom more speedily because of it. 3.115. Others, again, carry them out into a desert place to expose them there, as they themselves say, in the hope that they may be saved by some one, but in real truth to load them with still more painful suffering; for there all the beasts which devour human flesh, since there is no one to keep them off, attack them and feast on the delicate banquet of the children, while those who were their only guardians, and who were bound above all other people to protect and save them, their own father and other, have exposed them. And carnivorous birds fly down and lick up the remainder of their bodies, when they are not themselves the first to discover them; for when they discover them themselves they do battle with the beasts of the earth for the whole carcass. 3.116. And even suppose that some one passing by on his road is moved by a feeling of gentle compassion to take pity on and show mercy to the exposed infants, so as to take them up and give them food, and to show them other portions of the attention that is requisite, what do we think of such a humane action? Do we not look upon it as an express condemnation of the real parents, when those who are in nowise related to them show the tender foresight of parents, but the parents do not display even the kindness of strangers? 3.117. Therefore, Moses has utterly prohibited the exposure of children, by a tacit prohibition, when he condemns to death, as I have said before, those who are the causes of a miscarriage to a woman whose child conceived within her is already formed. And yet those persons who have investigated the secrets of natural philosophy say that those children which are still within the belly, and while they are still contained in the womb, are a part of their mothers; and the most highly esteemed of the physicians who have examined into the formation of man, scrutinising both what is easily seen and what is kept concealed with great care, by means of anatomy, in order that, if there should be any need of their attention to any case, nothing may be disregarded through ignorance and so become the cause of serious mischief, agree with them and say the same thing. 3.118. But when the children are brought forth and are separated from that which is produced with them, and are set free and placed by themselves, they then become real living creatures, deficient in nothing which can contribute to the perfection of human nature, so that then, beyond all question, he who slays an infant is a homicide, and the law shows its indignation at such an action; not being guided by the age but by the species of the creature in whom its ordices are violated. 3.119. If, indeed, it seemed reasonable to be at all influenced by the age, then I think that a person might very reasonably be even more indigt at those who slay infants. For when full-grown people are killed, there may be ten thousand plausible excuses for assaults upon or quarrels with them; but in the case of mere infants only just launched into human life and shown to the light of day, it is impossible for the greatest liar to invent an accusation against them, as they are wholly void of offence. On which account those ought to be looked upon as the most inhuman and pitiless of all men who entertain plots for the destruction of those infants, and justly does the sacred law detest such criminals and pronounce them worthy of death.XXI. 3.120. The sacred law says that the man, who has been killed without any intention that he should be so on the part of him who killed him, has been given up by God into the hands of his slayers; {8}{#ex 21:13.} in this way designing to make an excuse for the man who appears to have slain him as if he had slain a guilty person. 3.121. For the merciful and forgiving God can never be supposed to have given up any innocent person to be put to death; but whoever ingeniously escapes the judgment of a human tribunal by means of his own cunning and wariness, he is convicted when brought before the invisible tribunal of nature, by which alone the uncorrupted truth is discerned without being kept in the dark by the artifices of sophistical arguments. For such an investigation does not admit of arguments at all, laying bare all devices and intentions, and bringing the most secret counsels to light; and, in one sense, it does not look upon a man who has slain another as liable to justice, inasmuch as he has only sinned to be the minister of a divine judgment, but still he will have incurred an obscure and slight kind of defilement, which, however, may obtain allowance and pardon. 3.122. For God employs those who commit slight and remedial errors against those who have perpetrated enormous and unpardonable crimes as ministers of punishment; not, indeed, that he approves of them, but that he avails himself of them as suitable instruments of punishment, so that no one who is himself pure in his whole life and descended from virtuous parents may have homicide imputed to him, even if he be the greatest man in the world. 3.123. Therefore, the law has pronounced the sentence of banishment upon him who has slain a man, yet not of banishment any where, nor for ever; for it has assigned six cities, {9}{#nu 35:1.} one fourth portion of what the whole sacred tribe received as its inheritance, for those who were convicted of homicide; which, from the circumstances connected with them, it has named cities of refuge. And it fixed the time of this banishment as the length of the life of the high priest, permitting the exiles to return home after his death.XXII. 3.124. And the cause of the first of these injunctions was this. The tribe which has been mentioned received these cities as a reward for a justifiable and holy slaughter, which we must look upon as the most illustrious and important of all the gallant actions that were ever performed. 3.125. For when the prophet, after having been called up to the loftiest and most sacred of all the mountains in that district, was divinely instructed in the generic outlines of all the special laws, {10}{#ex 32:1.} and was out of sight of his people for many days; those of the people who were not of a peaceable disposition filled every place with the evils which arise from anarchy, and crowned all their iniquity with open impiety, turning into ridicule all those excellent and beautiful lessons concerning the honour due to the one true and living God, and having made a golden bull, an imitation of the Egyptian Typhos, and brought to it unholy sacrifices, and festivals unhallowed, and instituted profane and impious dances, with songs and hymns instead of lamentations; 3.126. then the tribe aforesaid, being very terribly indigt at their sudden departure from their previous customs, and being enflamed with zeal by reason of their natural disposition which hated iniquity, all became full of rage and of divine enthusiasm, and arming themselves, as at one signal, and with great contempt and one uimous attack, came upon the people, drunk thus with a twofold intoxication of impiety and of wine, beginning with their nearest and dearest friends and relations, thinking those who loved God to be their only relations and friends. And in a very small portion of the day, four-and-twenty thousand men were slain; the calamities of whom were a warning to those who would otherwise have joined themselves to their iniquity, but who now were alarmed lest they should suffer a similar fate. 3.127. Since then these men had undertaken this expedition of their own accord and spontaneously, in the cause of piety and holy reverence for the one true and living God, not without great danger to those who had entered in the contest, the Father of the universe received them with approbation, and at once pronounced those who had slain those men to be pure from all curse and pollution, and in requital for their courage he bestowed the priesthood on them.XXIII. 3.128. Therefore the lawgiver enjoins that the man who has committed an unintentional murder should flee to some one of the cities which this tribe has received as its inheritance, in order to comfort him and to teach him not to despair of any sort of safety; but to make him, while safe through the privilege of the place, remember and consider that not only on certain occasions is forgiveness allowed to those who have designedly slain any person, but that even great and preeminent honours and excessive happiness is bestowed on them. And if such honours can ever be allowed to those who have slain a man voluntarily, how much more must there be allowance made for those who have done so not with any design, so that, even if no honour be bestowed on them, they may at least not be condemned to be put to death in retaliation. By which injunctions the lawgiver intimates that every kind of homicide is not blameable, but only that which is combined with injustice; and that of other kinds some are even praiseworthy which are committed out of a desire and zeal for virtue; and that which is unintentional is not greatly to be blamed. 3.129. This, then, may be enough to say about the first cause; and we must now explain the second. The law thinks fit to preserve the man who, without intending it, has slain another, knowing that in his intention he was not guilty, but that with his hands he has been ministering to that justice which presides over all human affairs. For the nearest relations of the dead man are lying in wait for him in a hostile manner seeking his death, while others, out of their excessive compassion and inconsolable brief for the dead, are eager for their revenge; in their unreasoning impetuosity not regarding either the truth or the justice of nature. 3.130. Therefore, the law directs a man who has committed a homicide under these circumstances not to flee to the temple, inasmuch as he is not yet purified, nor yet into any place which is neglected and obscure, lest, being despised, he should be without resistance given up to his enemies; but to flee to the sacred city, which lies on the borders between the holy and profane ground, being in a manner a second temple; for the cities of those who are consecrated to the priesthood are more entitled to respect than the others, in the same proportion, I think, as the inhabitants are more venerable than the inhabitants of other cities; for the lawgiver's intention is by means of the privilege belonging to the city which has received them to give more complete security to the fugitives. 3.131. Moreover, I said before, he has appointed a time for their return, the death of the high priest, for the following Reason.{11}{#nu 35:25.} As the relations of each individual who has been slain treacherously lie in wait to secure themselves revenge and justice upon those who treacherously slew him; in like manner the high priest is the relation and nearest of kin to the whole nation; inasmuch as he presides over and dispenses justice to all who dispute in accordance with the laws, and offers up prayers and sacrifices every day on behalf of the whole nation, and prays for blessings for the people as for his own brethren, and parents, and children, that every age and every portion of the nation, as if it were one body, may be united into one and the same society and union, devoted to peace and obedience to the law. 3.132. Therefore, let every one who has slain a man unintentionally fear him, as the champion and espouser of the cause of those who have been slain, and let him keep himself close within the city to which he has fled for refuge, no longer venturing to advance outside of the walls, if he has any regard for his own safety, and for keeping his life out of the reach of danger. 3.133. When, therefore, the law says, let not the fugitive return till the high priest is dead, it says something equivalent to this: Until the high priest is dead, who is the common relation of all the people, to whom alone it is committed to decide the affairs of those who are living and those who are dead.XXIV. 3.134. Such, then, is the reason which it is fitting should be communicated to the ears of the younger men. But there is another which may be well set before those who are elder and settled in their characters, which is this. It is granted to private individuals alone to be pure from voluntary offences, or if any one chooses, he may add the other priests also to this list; but it can only be given as an especial honour to the high priest to be pure from both kinds, that is from both voluntary and involuntary offences; 3.135. for it is altogether unlawful for him to touch any pollution whatever, whether intentionally or out of some unforeseen perversion of soul, in order that he, as being the declarer of the will of God may be adorned in both respects, having a disposition free from reproach, and prosperity of life, and being a man to whom no disgrace ever attaches. 3.136. Now it will be consistent with the character of such a man to look with suspicion on those who have even unintentionally slain a man, not indeed regarding them as under a curse, but also not as pure and wholly free from offence, even though they may have appeared most completely to obey the intention of nature, who used them as her instruments to avenge herself on those whom they have slain, whom she had privately judged by herself and condemned to death.XXV. This is enough to say concerning free men and citizens. The lawgiver proceeds in due order to establish laws concerning slaves who are killed by violence. 3.137. Now servants are, indeed, in an inferior condition of life, but still the same nature belongs to them and to their masters. And it is not the condition of fortune, but the harmony of nature, which, in accordance with the divine law is the rule of justice. On which account it is proper for masters not to use their power over their slaves in an insolent manner, displaying by such conduct their insolence and overbearing disposition and terrible cruelty; for such conduct is not a proof of a peaceful soul, but of one which, out of an inability to regulate itself, covets the irresponsibility of a tyrannical power. 3.138. For the man who fortifies his own house like a citadel, and does not allow a single person within it to speak freely, but who behaves savagely to every one, by reason of his innate misanthropy and barbarity, which has perhaps even been increased by exercise, is a tyrant in miniature; and by his conduct now it is plainly shown that he will not stop even there if he should acquire greater power. 3.139. For then he will at once go forth to attack other cities and countries, and nations, after having previously enslaved his own native land, so as to prove that he is not inclined to behave mercifully to any one who shall ever become subject to him. 3.140. Let, then, such a man be well assured that he will not always escape punishment for his continual ill-treatment of many persons; for justice, which hates iniquity, will be his enemy, she who is the assistant and champion of those who are treated with injustice, and she will exact of him a strict account of, and reckoning for, those who have fallen into calamity through his means, 3.141. even if he should say that he had only inflicted blows on them to correct them, not designing to kill them. For he will not at once get off with a cheerful countece, but he will be brought before the tribunal and examined by accurate investigators of the truth, who will inquire whether he slew him intentionally or unintentionally. And if he be found to have plotted against him with a wicked disposition, let him die; not having any excuse made for him on the ground of his being the servants' master, so as to procure his deliverance. 3.142. But if the servants who have been beaten do not die at once after receiving the blows, but live one day or two, then the master shall no longer be liable to be accused of murder, having this strong ground of defence that he did not kill them on the spot by beating, nor afterwards when he had them in his house, but that he suffered them to live as long as they could, even though that may not have been very long. Besides that, no one is so silly as to attempt to distress another by conduct by which he himself also will be a loser. 3.143. But any one who kills his servant injures himself much more, since he deprives himself of the services which he received from him while alive, and, moreover, loses the price which he paid for him which, perhaps, was large. If, however, the servant turn out to have done any thing worthy of death, let him bring him before the judges and prove his offence, making the laws the arbiters of his punishment and not himself.CONCERNING THOSE BRUTE BEASTS WHICH ARE THE CAUSES OF A MAN'sDEATHXXVI. 3.144. If a bull gore a man and kill him, let him be Stoned.{12}{#ex 21:28.} For his flesh may not be either offered in sacrifice by the priests, nor eaten by men. Why not? Because it is not consistent with the law of God that man should take for food or for a seasoning to his food the flesh of an animal which has slain a man. 3.145. But if the owner of the beast knew that he was a savage and ferocious animal, and did not confine him, nor shut him up and take care of him, or if he had heard from others that he was not quiet, and still allowed him to feed at liberty, he shall be liable to a prosecution as guilty of the man's death. And then the animal which gored the man shall die, and his master shall be put to death also, or else shall pay a ransom and a price for his safety, and the court of justice shall devise what punishment he ought to suffer, what penalty he ought to pay. 3.146. And if it be a slave who has been killed then he shall pay his full value to his master; but if the bull have gored not a man but another animal, then the owner of the beast which killed him shall take the dead animal and give his master another like him instead of him, because he was aware beforehand of the fierceness of his own beast, and did not guard against it. And if the bull has killed a sheep which belonged to some one else, he shall again restore this man one like it instead of it, and be thankful to him for not exacting a greater penalty of him, since it was he who was the first to do any injury.CONCERNING PITSXXVII. 3.147. Some persons are accustomed to dig very deep pits, either in order to open springs which may bubble up, or else to receive rain water, and then they widen drains under ground; in which case they ought either to build round the mouths of them, or else to put a cover on them; but still they often, out of shameful carelessness or folly, have left such places open, by which means some persons have met with destruction. 3.148. If, therefore, any traveller passing along the road, not knowing beforehand that there is any such pit, shall step on the hole, and fall in, and be killed, any one of the relations of the dead man who chooses may bring an accusation against those who made the pit, and the tribunal shall decide what punishment they ought to suffer, or what penalty they ought to Pay.{13}{#ex 21:33.} But if a beast fall in and perish, then they who dug the pit shall pay its value to its owner as if it were still alive, and they shall have the dead body for themselves. 3.149. Again, those men also are committing an injury akin to and resembling that which has just been mentioned, who when building houses leave the roof level with the ground though they ought to protect them with a parapet, in order that no one may fall down into the hole made without perceiving it. For such men, if one is to tell the plain truth, are committing murder, as far as they themselves are concerned, even though no one fall in and perish; accordingly let them be punished equally with those who have the mouths of pits open.XXVIII. 3.150. The law expressly enjoins that it shall not be lawful to take any ransom from murderers who ought to be put to death, for the purpose of lessening their punishment, or substituting banishment for death. For blood must be atoned for by blood, the blood of him who has been treacherously slain by that of him who has slain him. 3.151. Since men of wicked dispositions are never wearied of offending, but are always committing atrocious actions in the excess of their wickedness, and increasing their iniquities, and extending them beyond all bounds or limits. For the lawgiver would, if it had been in his power, have condemned those men to ten thousand deaths. But since this was not possible, he prescribed another punishment for them, commanding those who had slain a man to be hanged upon a tree. 3.152. And after having established this ordice he returned again to his natural humanity, treating with mercy even those who had behaved unmercifully towards others, and he pronounced, "Let not the sun set upon persons hanging on a Tree;"{14}{#de 21:23.} but let them be buried under the earth and be concealed from sight before sunset. For it was necessary to raise up on high all those who were enemies to every part of the world, so as to show most evidently to the sun, and to the heaven, and to the air, and to the water, and to the earth, that they had been chastised; and after that it was proper to remove them into the region of the dead, and to bury them, in order to prevent their polluting the things upon the earth.XXIX. 3.153. Moreover, there is this further commandment given with great propriety, that the fathers are not to die in behalf of their sons, nor the sons in behalf of their parents, but that every one who has done things worthy of death is to be put to death by himself alone. And this commandment is established because of those persons who set might above right, and also for the sake of those who are too affectionate; 3.154. for these last, out of their extraordinary and extravagant good will, will be often willing cheerfully to die for others, the innocent thus giving themselves up for the guilty, and thinking it a great gain not to see them punished; or else sons giving themselves up for their fathers in the idea that, if deprived of them they would for the future live a miserable life, more grievous than any kind of death. 3.155. But to such persons one must say, "This your good-will is out of season." And all things which are out of season are very properly blamed, just as things that are done seasonably are praised on that account. Moreover, it is right to love those who do actions worthy to attract love. But no wicked man can be really a friend to any one. And wickedness alienates relations, and even those who are the most attached of relations, when men violate all the principles of justice. For the agreement as to principles of injustice and as to the other virtues, is a closer tie than relationship by blood; and if any one violates such an agreement, he is set down not only as a stranger and a foreigner, but even as an irreconcilable enemy. 3.156. "Why then do you pervert and misapply the name of good-will which is a most excellent and humane one, and conceal the truth, exhibiting as a veil an effeminate and womanly disposition? For are not those person womanly in whose minds reason is overcome by compassion? And you do this in order to effect a double iniquity, delivering the guilty from punishment, and thinking it fair to punish yourselves, who are blameable in no respect whatever, instead of them."XXX. 3.157. But these men have this to say in excuse of themselves, that they are not pursuing any private advantage for themselves, and also that they are influenced by excessive affection for their nearest relations, for the sake of the preservation of whom they will cheerfully submit to die. 3.158. But who, I will not say of moderate men, but even of those who are very inhuman indeed in their dispositions, would not reject such barbarous and actually brutally disposed persons as those who, either by secret contrivance or by open audacity, inflict the greatest calamities on one person as a punishment for the faults of another, putting forward as a pretext the plea of friendship, or of relationship, or of fellowship, or something of that kind, as a justification for the destruction of those who have done no wrong? And at times they even do these things without having suffered any injury at all out of mere covetousness and a love of rapine. 3.159. Not long ago a certain man who had been appointed a collector of taxes in our country, when some of those who appeared to owe such tribute fled out of poverty, from a fear of intolerable punishment if they remained without paying, carried off their wives, and their children, and their parents, and their whole families by force, beating and insulting them, and heaping every kind of contumely and ill treatment upon them, to make them either give information as to where the fugitives had concealed themselves, or pay the money instead of them, though they could not do either the one thing or the other; in the first place, because they did not know where they were, and secondly, because they were in still greater poverty than the men who had fled. 3.160. But this tax-collector did not let them go till he had tortured their bodies with racks and wheels, so as to kill them with newly invented kinds of death, fastening a basket full of sand to their necks with cords, and suspending it there as a very heavy weight, and then placing them in the open air in the middle of the market place, that some of them, being tortured and being overwhelmed by all these afflictions at once, the wind, and the sun, and the mockery of the passers by, and the shame, and the heavy burden attached to them, might faint miserably; and that the rest, being spectators, might be grieved and take warning by their punishment, 3.161. some of whom, having a more acute sense of such miseries in their minds than that which they could receive though their eyes, since they sympathised with these unfortunates as if they were themselves suffering in the persons of others, put an end to their own lives by swords, or poison, or halters, thinking it a great piece of good luck for persons, liable to such misery, to be able to meet with death without torture. 3.162. But those who did not make haste to kill themselves, but who were seized before they could do so, were led away in a row, as in the case of actions for inheritance, according to their nearness of kindred, the nearest relations first, then those next to them in succession, in the second or third place, till they came to the last; and then, when there were no relations left, the cruelty proceeded on to the friends and neighbours of the fugitives; and sometimes it was extended even into the cities and villages, which soon became desolate, being emptied of all their inhabitants, who all quitted their homes, and dispersed to places where they hoped that they might escape detection. 3.163. But perhaps it is not wonderful if men, barbarians by nature, utterly ignorant of all gentleness, and under the command of despotic authority, which compelled them to give an account of the yearly revenue, should, in order to enforce the payment of the taxes, extend their severities, not merely to properties but also to the persons, and even to the lives, of those from whom they thought they could exact a vicarious payment. 3.164. But now, even those persons who are the very standard and rule of justice, the lawgivers themselves, having a regard to appearance rather than to truth, have endured to become, instead, standards of injustice, commanding the children of a traitor to be put to death with the traitor himself, and in the case of tyrants the five families most nearly related to them. 3.165. Why is this I should say? For if indeed they have shared in their wickedness, then let them likewise share in their punishment; but if they have not participated in that, and if they have not been imitators of such actions, and if they have not been elated by the prosperity of their kinsmen, so as to exult in it, why should they be put to death? Is it for this reason alone, that they are their relations? Are the punishments then inflicted for the relationship, or for the lawless conduct? 3.166. Perhaps you yourselves, O you venerable lawgivers, have had virtuous relations; but suppose they had been wicked, then it seems to me that you not only would never yourselves have devised any such commandments as this, but would have been furious with any one else who proposed such a law, because [...]{15}{there appears to be an hiatus in the text here. There is clearly a want of connection and coherence in the rest of the sentence as it stands now.} taking care to avoid all liability to terrible calamity, and desiring to live in security, is now in great danger, and is exposed to an equal degree of misfortune. For the one condition is liable to fear, which, though a person may guard against for himself, he will still not despise the safety of another, but the other state is free from all apprehension, and by it men have often been persuaded to neglect the safety of innocent men. 3.167. Therefore our lawgiver, considering these things and perceiving the errors of others, rejects them and hates them as destructive of the most excellent constitution, and consigns to punishment all those who give way to such, whether it be out of indifference, or out of inhumanity and wickedness, and never permits any of their countrymen or friends to be substituted for them, making themselves an addition to the crimes which the others have already committed; 3.168. on which account he has expressly forbidden sons to be put to death instead of their parents, or parents instead of their sons, thinking it right that they who have committed the crimes should also bear the punishment, whether it be a pecuniary fine, or stripes, and more severe personal chastisement, or even wounds and mutilation, and dishonour, and exile, or any other judicial sentence; for though he only names one kind of punishment, forbidding one person to be put to death for another, he also comprises other kinds, which he does not expressly mention.ABOUT WOMEN NOT BEHAVING IMMODESTLYXXXI. 3.169. Market places, and council chambers, and courts of justice, and large companies and assemblies of numerous crowds, and a life in the open air full of arguments and actions relating to war and peace, are suited to men; but taking care of the house and remaining at home are the proper duties of women; the virgins having their apartments in the centre of the house within the innermost doors, and the full-grown women not going beyond the vestibule and outer courts; 3.170. for there are two kinds of states, the greater and the smaller. And the larger ones are called really cities; but the smaller ones are called houses. And the superintendence and management of these is allotted to the two sexes separately; the men having the government of the greater, which government is called a polity; and the women that of the smaller, which is called oeconomy. 3.171. Therefore let no woman busy herself about those things which are beyond the province of oeconomy, but let her cultivate solitude, and not be seen to be going about like a woman who walks the streets in the sight of other men, except when it is necessary for her to go to the temple, if she has any proper regard for herself; and even then let her not go at noon when the market is full, but after the greater part of the people have returned home; like a well-born woman, a real and true citizen, performing her vows and her sacrifices in tranquillity, so as to avert evils and to receive blessings. 3.172. But when men are abusing one another or fighting, for women to venture to run out under pretence of assisting or defending them, is a blameable action and one of no slight shamelessness, since even, in the times of war and of military expeditions, and of dangers to their whole native land, the law does not choose that they should be enrolled as its defenders; looking at what is becoming, which it thinks desirable to preserve unchangeable at all times and in all places, thinking that this very thing is of itself better than victory, or then freedom, or than any kind of success and prosperity. 3.173. Moreover, if any woman, hearing that her husband is being assaulted, being out of her affection for him carried away by love for her husband, should yield to the feelings which overpower her and rush forth to aid him, still let her not be so audacious as to behave like a man, outrunning the nature of a woman; {16}{#de 25:11.} but even while aiding him let her continue a woman. For it would be a very terrible thing if a woman, being desirous to deliver her husband from an insult, should expose herself to insult, by exhibiting human life as full of shamelessness and liable to great reproaches for her incurable boldness; 3.174. for shall a woman utter abuse in the marketplace and give vent to unlawful language? and if another man uses foul language, will not she stop her ears and run away? But as it is now, some women are advanced to such a pitch of shamelessness as not only, though they are women, to give vent to intemperate language and abuse among a crowd of men, but even to strike men and insult them, with hands practised rather in works of the loom and spinning than in blows and assaults, like competitors in the pancratium or wrestlers. And other things, indeed, may be tolerable, and what any one might easily bear, but that is a shocking thing if a woman were to proceed to such a degree of boldness as to seize hold of the genitals of one of the men quarrelling. 3.175. For let not such a woman be let go on the ground that she appears to have done this action in order to assist her own husband; but let her be impeached and suffer the punishment due to her excessive audacity, so that if she should ever be inclined to commit the same offence again she may not have an opportunity of doing so; and other women, also, who might be inclined to be precipitate, may be taught by fear to be moderate and to restrain themselves. And let the punishment be the cutting off of the hand which has touched what it ought not to have touched. 3.176. And it is fitting to praise those who have been the judges and managers of the gymnastic games, who have kept women from the spectacle, in order that they might not be thrown among naked men and so mar the approved coinage of their modesty, neglecting the ordices of nature, which she has appointed for each section of our race; for neither is it right for men to mix with women when they have laid aside their garments, but each of the sexes ought to avoid the sight of the other when they are naked, in accordance with the promptings of nature. 3.177. Well, then, of those things of which we are to abstain from the sight, are not the hands much more to be blamed for the touch? For the eyes, being wholly at freedom, are nevertheless often constrained so as to see things which they do not wish to see; but the hands are ranked among those parts which are completely under subjection, and obey our commands, and are subservient to us.XXXII. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature. 3.179. Very naturally, therefore, the law Commands{17}{#de 25:12.} that the executioner should cut off the hand of the woman which has laid hold of what it should not, speaking figuratively, and intimating not that the body shall be mutilated, being deprived of its most important part, but rather that it is proper to extirpate all the ungodly reasonings of the soul, using all things which are created as a stepping-stone; for the things which the woman is forbidden to take hold of are the symbols of procreation and generation. 3.180. And, moreover, keeping up a consistent regard to nature, I will also say this, that the unit is the image of the first cause, and the number two of the divisible matter that is worked upon. Whoever, therefore, receives the number two, honouring it above the unit, must be taught to know that he is, in so doing, approving of the matter more than of God. On which account the law has thought fit to cut off this apprehension of the soul as if it were a hand; for there can be no greater impiety than to ascribe the power of the agent to that which is passive.XXXIII. 3.181. And any one may here fitly blame those who appoint that punishments, in nowise corresponding to the offences, are to be inflicted on the offenders, imposing pecuniary penalties for assaults, or stigma and infamy for wounds and mutilations, or a banishment beyond the borders of the land for intentional murders, and everlasting exile or imprisonment for thefts; for irregularity and inequality are enemies to a constitution which is eager for the truth. 3.182. And our law, being the interpreter and teacher of equality, commands that offenders should undergo a punishment similar to the offence which they have committed; that, for instance, they should suffer punishment in their property if they have injured their neighbour in his property; in their persons, if they have injured him in his body, or in his limbs, or the organs of his outward senses; and, if their evil designs have extended to his life, then the law commands that the punishment should affect the life of the malefactor. For to exact a different and wholly unequal punishment which has no connection with or resemblance to the offence, but which is wholly at variance with it in all its characteristics, is the conduct of those who violate the laws rather than of those who would establish them. 3.183. And when we say this, we mean provided no circumstances occur to give a different complexion to the affair; for it is not the same thing to inflict blows on one's father and on a stranger, nor to speak ill of a ruler and of a private person, nor to do anything which is forbidden on common ground or in holy places, or at the time of a festival, or of a solemn assembly, or of a public sacrifice; or, again, on the days on which there is no holiday or sacred observance, or on those which are completely common and profane. And all other things of this kind one must examine with a view to judge of the propriety of increasing or diminishing the punishment. 3.184. Again. "If," says the law, "any one strike out the eye of a servant or of a handmaiden, he shall let them depart Free."{18}{#ex 21:26.} Because, as nature has assigned the chief position in the body to the head, having bestowed upon it a situation the most suitable to that pre-eminence, as it might give a citadel to a king (for having sent it forth to govern the body it has established it on a height, putting the whole composition of the body from the neck to the feet under it, as a pedestal might be placed under a statue 3.185. Now it would take a long time to enumerate all the necessities which the eyes supply to, and all the services which they perform for, the human race. But one, the most excellent of all, we may mention. It is the heaven which has showered philosophy upon us, it is the human mind which has received and which contains it, but it is sight which has entertained and been its host; for that is the faculty which was the first to see the level roads through the air. 3.186. And philosophy is the fountain of all blessings, of all things which are really good. And he who draws from this fountain, so as thus to acquire and make use of virtue is praiseworthy; but he who does it with the object of accomplishing wicked purposes and of condemning others is blameable. For the one is like a man at an entertainment, who is delighting both himself and all who are feasting in his company; but the other is like one who is swallowing down strong wine, in order to make himself and his neighbour drunk. 3.187. Now in what way it is that the sight may be said to have entertained philosophy as its host we must now proceed to explain. Having looked up to heaven it beheld the sun, and the moon, and the planets, and the fixed stars, the most beautiful host of heaven, the ornament of the world. 3.188. After that it arrived at a perception of the rising and setting of these bodies, and their harmonious motions, and the fixed seasons of their periodical revolutions, and their meetings, and eclipses, and re-appearances. After that it proceeded onwards to a comprehension of the increase and decrease of the moon; of the motions of the sun along the breadth of heaven, as he comes from the south towards the north, and again recedes from the north towards the south, in order to the generation of the fruits of the year, so that they may all be brought to perfection, and ten thousand other wonderful things besides these. And having looked round and surveyed the things in the earth, and in the sea, and in the air, with great diligence displayed all the things in each of these elements to the mind. 3.189. But as the mind was unable by itself to comprehend all these things from merely beholding them by the faculty of sight, it did not stop merely at what was seen by it, but being devoted to learning, and fond of what is honourable and excellent, as it admired what it did see, it adopted this probable opinion, that these things are not moved spontaneously and at random by any irrational impulse of their own, but that they are set in motion and guided by the will of God, whom it is proper to look upon as the Father and Creator of the world. Moreover, that these things are not unrestrained by any bounds, but that they are limited by the circumference of one world, as they might be by the walls of a city, the world itself being circumscribed within the outermost sphere of the fixed stars. Moreover it considered also that the Father who created the world does by the law of nature take care of that which he has created, exerting his providence in behalf of the whole universe and of its parts. 3.190. In the next place it also considered what was the essence of the visible world, and whether all the things in the world had the same essence, or whether different things had different essences, and also of what substances everything was made, and for what reasons it was made, and by what powers the world was held together, and whether these powers were corporeal or incorporeal. 3.191. For what can the investigation into these and similar subjects be called but philosophy? And what more fitting name could one give to the man who devoted himself to the investigation of these topics than that of a philosopher? For by his examination of the nature of God, and of the world, and of all the things in it, whether plants or animals, and of those models which are only appreciable by the intellect, and again of the perfected representations of those models which are visible to the outward senses, and of the virtues and vices which exist in all created things, he shows that his disposition is one truly devoted to learning, and contemplation, and philosophy; and this greatest of blessings to mortal man is bestowed upon him by the faculty of sight. 3.192. And this faculty seems to me to deserve this pre-eminence, since it is more nearly related to the soul than any one of the other outward senses, for they all of them have some kind of connection with the intellect; but this one obtains the first and principal rank as the nearest relation does in a private house. 3.193. And any one may conjecture this from many circumstances, for who is there who does not know that when persons are delighted their eyes betray their pleasure, and sparkle, but that when they are grieved their eyes are full of depression and heaviness; and if any heavy burden of grief oppresses, and crushes, and overwhelms the mind, they weep; and if anger obtains and preponderance, the eyes swell, and become bloodshot and fiery; 3.194. and again change so as to be gentle and soft when the anger is relaxed. Again, when the man is immersed in deep thought and contemplation, the eyes seem fixed as if they in a manner joined in his gravity; but in the case of those who are of no great wisdom the sight wanders, because of their vacancy of intellect, and is restless, and in short the eyes sympathise with the affections of the soul, and are wont to change along with it in innumerable alternations, on account of the closeness of their connection with it; for it seems to me that there is no one visible thing which God has made so complete a representation of that which is invisible as the sight is of the mind.XXXV. 3.195. If therefore any one has ever plotted against this most excellent and most domit of all the outward senses, namely sight, so as ever to have struck out the eye of a free man, let him suffer the same infliction himself, but not so if he have only struck out the eye of a slave; not because he is entitled to pardon, or because the injury which he has done is less, but because the man who has been injured will have a still worse master if he has been mutilated in retaliation, since he will for ever bear a grudge against him for the calamity which has fallen upon him, and will revenge himself on him every day as an irreconcileable enemy by harsh commands beyond his power to perform, by which the slave will be so oppressed that he will be ready to die. 3.196. Therefore the law has provided that the man who has thus done injury to his slave shall not be allowed to escape free, and yet has not commanded that the man who has already suffered the loss of his eye shall be ill-treated still further, enjoining that if any one strikes out the eye of his servant he shall without hesitation grant him his freedom; 3.197. for thus he will suffer a double punishment for the actions which he has committed, in being deprived of the value of his servant and also of his services, and thirdly, which is worse than either of the things already mentioned, in being compelled to do good to his enemy in the most important matters, whom very likely he wished to be able to ill-treat for ever. And the slave has a double consolation for the evils which he has been subjected to in being not only emancipated, but also in having escaped a cruel and inhuman master.XXXVI. 3.198. The law also commands that if any one strike out the tooth of a slave he shall bestow his freedom on the slave; why is this? because life is a thing of great value, and because nature has made the teeth the instruments of life, as being those by which the food is eaten. And of the teeth some are fitted for eating meat and all other eatable food, and on that account are called incisors, or cutting teeth; others are called molar teeth from their still further grinding and smoothing what has been cut by the incisors; 3.199. on which account the Creator and Father of the universe, who is not accustomed to make anything which is not appointed for some particular use, did not do with the teeth as he did with every other part of the body, and make them at once, at the first creation of the man, considering that as while an infant he was only intended to be fed upon milk they would be a superfluous burden in his way, and would be a severe injury to the breasts, filled as they are at that time with springs of milk, from which moist food is derived, as they would in that case be bitten by the child while sucking the milk. 3.200. Therefore, having waited for a suitable season (and that is when the child is weaned 3.201. If therefore any one, yielding to an insolent disposition, strikes out the tooth of his servant, that organ which is the minister and provider of those most necessary things, food and life, he shall emancipate him whom he has injured, because by the evil which he inflicted on him he has deprived him of the service and use of his tooth. "Is then," some one will say, "a tooth of equal value with an eye?" 3.202. "Each," I would reply, "is of equal value for the purposes for which they were given, the eye with reference to the objects of sight, the teeth with reference to those which are eatable." But if any one were to desire to institute a comparison, he would find that the eye is entitled to the highest respect among all the parts of the body, inasmuch as being occupied in the contemplation of the most glorious thing in the whole world, namely the heaven; and that the tooth is useful as being the masticator of food, which is the most useful thing as contributing to life. And he who strikes out a man's eye does not hinder him from living, but a most miserable death awaits the man who has all his teeth knocked out. 3.203. And if any one meditates inflicting injury in these parts on his servants, let him know that he is causing them an artificial famine in the midst of plenty and abundance; for what advantage is it to a man that there should be an abundance of food, if the instruments by which he may be enabled to make use of it are taken from him and lost, through the agency of his cruel, and pitiless, and inhuman master? 3.204. It is for this reason that in another passage the lawgiver forbids creditors to exact from their debtors a molar tooth or a grinder as a pledge, giving as a reason that the person who does so is taking a man's life in pledge; for he who deprives a man of the instruments of living is proceeding towards murder, entertaining the idea of plotting even against life. 3.205. And the law has taken such exceeding care that no one shall ever be the cause of death to another, that it does not look upon those who have even touched a dead body, which has met with a natural death, as pure and clean, until they have washed and purified themselves with sprinklings and ablutions; and even after they are perfectly clean it does not permit them to go into the temple within seven days, enjoining them to use purifying ceremonies on the third and seventh day. 3.206. And again, in the case of persons who have gone into the house in which any one has died, the law enjoins that no one shall touch them until they have both washed their bodies and also the garments in which they were clothed, and, in a word, it looks upon all the furniture and all the vessels, and everything which is in the house, as unclean and polluted; 3.207. for the soul of a man is a valuable thing, and when that has quitted its habitation, and passed to another place, everything that is left behind by it is polluted as being deprived of the divine image, since the human mind is made as a copy of the mind of God, having been created after the archetypal model, the most sublime reasoning. 3.208. And the law says, "Let everything which a man that is unclean has touched be also unclean as being polluted by a participation in that which is unclean." And this sacred injunction appears to have a wide operation, not being limited to the body alone, but proceeding as it would seem also to investigate the dispositions of the soul, 3.209. for the unjust and impious man is peculiarly unclean, being one who has no respect for either human or divine things, but who throws everything into disorder and confusion by the immoderate vehemence of his passions, and by the extravagance of his wickedness, so that everything which he touches becomes faulty, having its nature changed by the wickedness of him who has taken them in hand. For in like manner the actions of the good are, on the contrary, all praiseworthy, being made better by the energies of those who apply themselves to them, since in some degree what is done resembles in its character the person who does it.Go to the Tables of Contents of The Works of PhiloPlease buy the CD to support the site, view it without ads, and get bonus stuff!Early Christian Writings is copyright © 2001-2020 Peter Kirby E-Mail .
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.138 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
2.138. The maker then thought it well to accept these offerings, and to melt them down, and to make nothing except the laver of them, in order that the priests who were about to enter the temple might be supplied from it, with water of purification for the purpose of performing the sacred ministrations which were appointed for them; washing their feet most especially, and their hands, as a symbol of their irreproachable life, and of a course of conduct which makes itself pure in all kinds of praiseworthy actions, proceeding not along the rough road of wickedness which one may more properly call no road at all, but keeping straight along the level and direct path of virtue.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.14 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 436
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 184 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 451
184. Having these ideas in my mind, I resisted the sanguine hopes of the others, and had no rest in my mind day or night. But while I was thus giving way to despondency and lamenting over my ignorance of the future (for it was not safe to postpone matters), on a sudden another most grievous and unexpected calamity fell upon us, bringing danger not on one section of the Jews only, but on all the nation together.
22. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.1-3.5, 4.6-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 9, 18, 25, 125, 229
3.1. "הַמַּכְנִיס יָדָיו לְבַיִת הַמְנֻגָּע, יָדָיו תְּחִלּוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יָדָיו שְׁנִיּוֹת. כֹּל הַמְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים בִּשְׁעַת מַגָּעוֹ, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם לִהְיוֹת תְּחִלּוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לִהְיוֹת שְׁנִיּוֹת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, הֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם תְּחִלָּה בְכָל מָקוֹם. אָמַר לָהֶם, וְכִי הֵיאַךְ אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶן לִהְיוֹת תְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִטְמָא גוּפוֹ, חוּץ מִזֶּה. הָאֳכָלִין וְהַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְמַשְׁקִין, מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם לִהְיוֹת שְׁנִיּוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶת שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְאַב הַטֻּמְאָה, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה, אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַעֲשֶׂה בְאִשָּׁה אַחַת שֶׁבָּאָת לִפְנֵי אַבָּא, אָמְרָה לוֹ, נִכְנְסוּ יָדַי לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ. אָמַר לָהּ, בִּתִּי, וּבַמֶּה הָיְתָה טֻמְאָתָהּ, וְלֹא שָׁמַעְתִּי מָה אָמְרָה לוֹ. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, מְבֹאָר הַדָּבָר. אֶת שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְאַב הַטֻּמְאָה, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה, אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדָיִם: \n", 3.2. "כֹּל הַפּוֹסֵל אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם לִהְיוֹת שְׁנִיּוֹת. הַיָּד מְטַמְּאָה אֶת חֲבֶרְתָּהּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין שֵׁנִי עוֹשֶׂה שֵׁנִי. אָמַר לָהֶם, וַהֲלֹא כִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ שְׁנִיִּים מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין דָּנִין דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְלֹא דִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, וְלֹא דִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים: \n", 3.3. "רְצוּעוֹת תְּפִלִּין עִם הַתְּפִלִּין, מְטַמְּאוֹת אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, רְצוּעוֹת תְּפִלִּין אֵינָן מְטַמְּאוֹת אֶת הַיָּדַיִם: \n", 3.4. "גִּלָּיוֹן שֶׁבַּסֵּפֶר, שֶׁמִּלְּמַעְלָן וְשֶׁמִּלְּמַטָּן שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה וְשֶׁבַּסּוֹף, מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁבַּסּוֹף אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ עַמּוּד: \n", 3.5. "סֵפֶר שֶׁנִּמְחַק וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת, כְּפָרָשַׁת וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. מְגִלָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת כְּפָרָשַׁת וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן, מְטַמָּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְקֹהֶלֶת מַחֲלֹקֶת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, קֹהֶלֶת אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם וְשִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים מַחֲלֹקֶת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, קֹהֶלֶת מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן עַזַּאי, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מִפִּי שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁנַיִם זָקֵן, בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה בַּיְשִׁיבָה, שֶׁשִּׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת מְטַמְּאִים אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, לֹא נֶחֱלַק אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל עַל שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים שֶׁלֹּא תְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, שֶׁאֵין כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ כְדַאי כַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּתַּן בּוֹ שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכָּל הַכְּתוּבִים קֹדֶשׁ, וְשִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים. וְאִם נֶחְלְקוּ, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ אֶלָּא עַל קֹהֶלֶת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חָמִיו שֶׁל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כְּדִבְרֵי בֶן עַזַּאי, כָּךְ נֶחְלְקוּ וְכָךְ גָּמְרוּ: \n", 4.6. "אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, וְכִי אֵין לָנוּ עַל הַפְּרוּשִׁים אֶלָּא זוֹ בִלְבָד. הֲרֵי הֵם אוֹמְרִים, עַצְמוֹת חֲמוֹר טְהוֹרִים וְעַצְמוֹת יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל טְמֵאִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם עַצְמוֹת אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ תַּרְוָדוֹת. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס, שֶׁאֵינָן חֲבִיבִין, אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדָיִם: \n", 4.7. "אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִין, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם מְטַהֲרִים אֶת הַנִּצּוֹק. אוֹמְרִים הַפְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, צְדוֹקִים, שֶׁאַתֶּם מְטַהֲרִים אֶת אַמַּת הַמַּיִם הַבָּאָה מִבֵּית הַקְּבָרוֹת. אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִין, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, שׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי שֶׁהִזִּיקוּ, חַיָּבִין. וְעַבְדִּי וַאֲמָתִי שֶׁהִזִּיקוּ, פְּטוּרִין. מָה אִם שׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי, שֶׁאֵינִי חַיָּב בָּהֶם מִצְוֹת, הֲרֵי אֲנִי חַיָּב בְּנִזְקָן. עַבְדִּי וַאֲמָתִי, שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב בָּהֶן מִצְוֹת, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁאֱהֵא חַיָּב בְּנִזְקָן. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם, לֹא. אִם אֲמַרְתֶּם בְּשׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי, שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם דַּעַת, תֹּאמְרוּ בְּעַבְדִּי וּבַאֲמָתִי, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם דָּעַת. שֶׁאִם אַקְנִיטֵם, יֵלֵךְ וְיַדְלִיק גְּדִישׁוֹ שֶׁל אַחֵר וֶאֱהֵא חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם: \n", 4.8. "אָמַר צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, קוֹבֵל אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם משֶׁה בַּגֵּט. אוֹמְרִים פְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עָלֶיךָ, צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִים אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם הַשֵּׁם בַּדַּף, וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל מִלְמַעְלָן וְאֶת הַשֵּׁם מִלְּמַטָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ה) וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ לְשַׁלַּח אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּכְשֶׁלָּקָה מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (שם ט), ה' הַצַּדִּיק: \n", 3.1. "If a person puts his hands inside a house with scale disease, his hands have first degree uncleanness, the words of Rabbi Akiba. But the sages say: his hands have second degree uncleanness. Whoever defiles garments: at the time when he touches [the uncleanness], he defiles hands so that they have first degree uncleanness, the words of Rabbi Akiba. But the sages say: such that they have second degree of uncleanness. They said to Rabbi Akiba: where do we find anywhere that hands have first degree uncleanness? He said to them: but how is it possible for them to become unclean with first degree uncleanness without his whole body becoming unclean? Only in these cases [can they have first degree uncleanness]. Foods and vessels which have been defiled by liquids convey second degree of uncleanness to the hands, the words of Rabbi Joshua. But the sages say: that which has been defiled by a father of uncleanness conveys uncleanness to the hands, but that which has been defiled by an offspring of uncleanness does not defiled the hands. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: it happened that a certain woman came before my father and said to him, \"My hands went into the air-space inside an earthenware vessel.\" He said to her: \"My daughter, what was the cause of its uncleanness?\" But I did not hear what she said to him. The sages said: the matter is clear that which has been defiled by a father of uncleanness conveys uncleanness to the hands, but that which has been rendered unclean by an offspring of uncleanness does not defiled the hands.", 3.2. "Anything which disqualifies terumah defiles hands with a second degree of uncleanness. One [unwashed] hand defiles the other hand, the words of Rabbi Joshua. But the sages say: that which has second degree of uncleanness cannot convey second degree of uncleanness. He said to them: But do not the Holy Scriptures which have second degree of uncleanness defile the hands? They said to him: the laws of the Torah may not be argued from the laws of the scribes, nor may the laws of the scribes be argued from the laws of the Torah, nor may the laws of the scribes be argued from [other] laws of the scribes.", 3.3. "The straps of the tefillin [when connected] with the tefillin [boxes] defile the hands. Rabbi Shimon says: the straps of the tefillin do not defile the hands.", 3.4. "The margin on a scroll which is above or below or at the beginning or at the end defiles the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the margin at the end does not render unclean [the hands] until a handle is fastened to it.", 3.5. "A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision.", 4.6. "The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands.", 4.7. "The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?", 4.8. "A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27).",
23. Mishnah, Yevamot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
1.4. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מַתִּירִין הַצָּרוֹת לָאַחִים, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹסְרִים. חָלְצוּ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹסְלִין מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַכְשִׁירִים. נִתְיַבְּמוּ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מַכְשִׁירִים, וּבֵית הִלֵּל פּוֹסְלִין. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵלּוּ אוֹסְרִין וְאֵלּוּ מַתִּירִין, אֵלּוּ פּוֹסְלִין וְאֵלּוּ מַכְשִׁירִין, לֹא נִמְנְעוּ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מִלִּשָּׂא נָשִׁים מִבֵּית הִלֵּל, וְלֹא בֵית הִלֵּל מִבֵּית שַׁמַּאי. כָּל הַטָּהֳרוֹת וְהַטֻּמְאוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ אֵלּוּ מְטַהֲרִין וְאֵלּוּ מְטַמְּאִין, לֹא נִמְנְעוּ עוֹשִׂין טָהֳרוֹת אֵלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי אֵלּוּ: \n", 1.4. "Beth Shammai permits the rival wives to the surviving brothers, and Beth Hillel prohibits them. If they perform the halitzah, Beth Shammai disqualifies them from marrying a priest, and Beth Hillel makes the eligible. If they performed yibbum, Beth Shammai makes them eligible [to marry a priest], and Beth Hillel disqualifies them. Though these forbid and these permit, and these disqualify and these make eligible, Beth Shammai did not refrain from marrying women from [the families of] Beth Hillel, nor did Beth Hillel [refrain from marrying women] from [the families of] Beth Shammai. [With regard to] purity and impurity, which these declare pure and the others declare impure, neither of them refrained from using the utensils of the others for the preparation of food that was ritually clean.",
24. Mishnah, Sotah, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 9, 125
5.2. "בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, (ויקרא יא) וְכָל כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר יִפֹּל מֵהֶם אֶל תּוֹכוֹ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא, אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר טָמֵא אֶלָּא יִטְמָא, לְטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים, לִמֵּד עַל כִּכָּר שֵׁנִי שֶׁמְּטַמֵּא אֶת הַשְּׁלִישִׁי. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, מִי יְגַלֶּה עָפָר מֵעֵינֶיךָ, רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁהָיִיתָ אוֹמֵר, עָתִיד דּוֹר אַחֵר לְטַהֵר כִּכָּר שְׁלִישִׁי, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מִקְרָא מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא. וַהֲלֹא עֲקִיבָא תַּלְמִידְךָ מֵבִיא לוֹ מִקְרָא מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא: \n", 5.2. "On that day, Rabbi Akiva expounded, “And every earthen vessel, into which any of them falls, everything in it shall be unclean” (Leviticus 11:33), it does not state tame (is unclean) but yitma’, (shall make unclean). This teaches that a loaf which is unclean in the second degree, makes unclean [food and liquids which come into contact with it] in the third degree. Rabbi Joshua said: who will remove the dust from your eyes, Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai, since you used to say that in the future another generation will pronounce clean a loaf which is unclean in the third degree on the grounds that there is no text in the Torah according to which it is unclean! Has not Rabbi Akiva your student brought a text from the Torah according to which it is unclean, as it is said “everything in it shall be unclean.”",
25. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 1.5, 4.1, 4.5, 5.4, 5.6, 8.1, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 113, 128
1.5. "מֵאֵימָתַי טָהֳרָתָן. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מִשֶּׁיִּרְבּוּ וְיִשְׁטֹפוּ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, רַבּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁטְפוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שָׁטְפוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא רַבּוּ. כְּשֵׁרִין לַחַלָּה וְלִטֹּל מֵהֶן לַיָּדָיִם: \n", 4.1. "הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלִים תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר, אֶחָד כֵּלִים גְּדוֹלִים וְאֶחָד כֵּלִים קְטַנִּים, אֲפִלּוּ כְלֵי גְלָלִים, כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים, כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה, פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. אֶחָד הַמַּנִּיחַ וְאֶחָד הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַהֲרִין בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, נִמְנוּ וְרַבּוּ בֵית שַׁמַּאי עַל בֵּית הִלֵּל. וּמוֹדִים בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, עֲדַיִין מַחֲלֹקֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ עוֹמָדֶת: \n", 4.5. "הַשֹּׁקֶת שֶׁבַּסֶּלַע, אֵין מְמַלְּאִין מִמֶּנָּה, וְאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין בָּהּ, וְאֵין מַזִּין מִמֶּנָּה, וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה צָמִיד פָּתִיל, וְאֵינָהּ פּוֹסֶלֶת אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. הָיְתָה כְלִי וְחִבְּרָהּ בְּסִיד, מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ, וּמְקַדְּשִׁין בָּהּ, וּמַזִּין מִמֶּנָּה, וּצְרִיכָה צָמִיד פָּתִיל, וּפוֹסֶלֶת אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. נִקְּבָה מִלְּמַטָּה אוֹ מִן הַצַּד וְאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְקַבֵּל מַיִם כָּל שֶׁהֵם, כְּשֵׁרָה. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בַנֶּקֶב. כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתֵירָא, מַעֲשֶׂה בְשֹׁקֶת יֵהוּא שֶׁהָיְתָה בִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְהָיְתָה נְקוּבָה כִשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד, וְהָיוּ כָל הַטָּהֳרוֹת שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם נַעֲשׂוֹת עַל גַּבָּהּ, וְשָׁלְחוּ בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּפְחָתוּהָ, שֶׁבֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, עַד שֶׁיִּפְחֲתוּ רֻבָּהּ: \n", 5.4. "כָּל הַיַּמִּים כְּמִקְוֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א), וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל כְּמִקְוֶה. לֹא נֶאֱמַר יַמִּים, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ מִינֵי יַמִּים הַרְבֵּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַיַּמִּים מְטַהֲרִים בְּזוֹחֲלִין, וּפְסוּלִין לַזָּבִין וְלַמְצֹרָעִים, וּלְקַדֵּשׁ מֵהֶם מֵי חַטָּאת: \n", 5.6. "גַּל שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ וּבוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, וְנָפַל עַל הָאָדָם וְעַל הַכֵּלִים, טְהוֹרִים. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, טוֹבְלִין וּמַטְבִּילִין. מַטְבִּילִין בַּחֲרִיצִין וּבִנְעָצִים וּבְפַרְסַת הַחֲמוֹר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת בַּבִּקְעָה. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מַטְבִּילִין בְּחַרְדָּלִית. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁהוּא גוֹדֵר כֵּלִים וְטוֹבֵל בָּהֶם. וְכֵלִים שֶׁגָּדַר בָּהֶם, לֹא הֻטְבְּלוּ: \n", 8.1. "אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל טְהוֹרָה, וּמִקְוְאוֹתֶיהָ טְהוֹרִים. מִקְוְאוֹת הָעַמִּים שֶׁבְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, כְּשֵׁרִים לְבַעֲלֵי קְרָיִין, אֲפִלּוּ נִתְמַלְּאוּ בְקִילוֹן. שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁחוּץ לַמַּפְתֵּחַ, כְּשֵׁרִים אַף לְנִדּוֹת. מִלִּפְנִים מִן הַמַּפְתֵּחַ, כְּשֵׁרִים לְבַעֲלֵי קְרָיִין, וּפְסוּלִים לְכָל הַטְּמֵאִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, הַקְּרוֹבִים לָעִיר וְלַדֶּרֶךְ, טְמֵאִים, מִפְּנֵי הַכְּבִיסָה. וְהָרְחוֹקִים, טְהוֹרִים:", 10.6. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין חַמִּין בְּצוֹנֵן וְלֹא צוֹנֵן בְּחַמִּין, לֹא יָפִים בְּרָעִים וְלֹא רָעִים בְּיָפִים. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מַטְבִּילִין. כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא מָלֵא מַשְׁקִין וְהִטְבִּילוֹ, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבָל. מָלֵא מֵי רַגְלַיִם, רוֹאִים אוֹתָם כְּאִלּוּ הֵם מָיִם. מָלֵא מֵי חַטָּאת, עַד שֶׁיִּרְבּוּ הַמַּיִם עַל מֵי חַטָּאת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ כְלִי מַחֲזִיק כּוֹר וְאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא רְבִיעִית, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבָל: \n" 1.5. "When do they become clean?Bet Shammai say: when their contents have been increased [by more than the original quantity] and they overflow. Bet Hillel say: when their contents have been increased [by more than their original quantity] even if they do not overflow. Rabbi Shimon says: when they overflow although their contents have not been so increased. [These] are valid [for preparing dough] for hallah and for the washing of the hands.", 4.1. "If one put vessels under a water-spout, whether they be large vessels or small vessels or even vessels of dung, vessels of stone or earthen vessels, they make the mikveh invalid. It is all alike whether they were put there [purposely] or were [merely] forgotten, the words of Bet Shammai. But Bet Hillel declare it clean in the case of one who forgets. Rabbi Meir said: they voted and Bet Shammai had a majority over Bet Hillel. Yet they agree in the case of one who forgets [and leaves vessels] in a courtyard that the mikveh remains clean. Rabbi Yose said: the controversy still remains as it was.", 4.5. "In the case of a trough in a rock: One may not fill up [the hatat waters] from it, nor may the [hatat waters] be consecrated in it, nor may one sprinkle from it. And it does not require a tightly stopped-up covering, And it does not invalidate the mikveh. If it was a vessel and had been joined to the ground with lime: One may fill up the hatat waters from it and the hatat waters may be consecrated in it, and one may sprinkle from it, And it requires a tightly stopped-up covering; And it invalidates the mikveh invalid. If a hole was made in it below or at the side so that it could not contain water in however small a quantity, it is valid. And how large must the hole be? Like the tube of a water-skin. Rabbi Yehudah ben Batera said: it happened in the case of the trough of Yehu in Jerusalem that there was a hole in it like the tube of a water-skin, all the pure things in Jerusalem were made using it. But Bet Shammai sent and broke it down, for Bet Shammai say: [it remains a vessel] unless the greater part of it is broken down.", 5.4. "All seas are equivalent to a mikveh, for it is said, \"And the gathering (ulemikveh) of the waters He called the seas\" (Genesis 1:10), the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: only the Great Sea is equivalent to a mikveh, for it says \"seas\" only because there are in it many kinds of seas. Rabbi Yose says: all seas afford cleanness when running, and yet they are unfit for zavim and metzoraim and for the preparation of the hatat waters.", 5.6. "If a wave was separated [from the sea] and was forty seahs, and it fell on a man or on vessels, they become clean. Any place containing forty seahs is valid for immersing oneself and for immersing other things. One may immerse in trenches or in ditches or even in a donkey-track whose water is connected in a valley. Bet Shammai say: one may immerse in a rain torrent. But Bet Hillel say: one may not immerse. They agree that one may block its flow with vessels and immerse oneself in it, but the vessels with which the flow is blocked are not thereby [validly] immersed.", 8.1. "The land of Israel is clean and its mikvaot are clean. The mikvaot of the nations outside the land are valid for those who had a seminal emission even though they have been filled by a pump-beam; Those in the land of Israel: when outside the entrance [to the city] are valid even for menstruants, and those within the entrance [to the city] are valid for those who had a seminal emission but invalid for all [others] who are unclean. Rabbi Eliezer says: those which are near to a city or to a road are unclean because of laundering; but those at a distance are clean.", 10.6. "Bet Shammai say: hot water may not be immersed in cold, or cold in hot, foul in fresh or fresh in foul. But Bet Hillel say: it may be immersed. A vessel full of liquids which one immersed, it is as if it has not been immersed. If it was full of urine, this is reckoned as water. If it contained hatat waters, [it is unclean] unless the water [of the mikveh which enters the vessel] exceeds the hatat waters. Rabbi Yose says: even if a vessel with the capacity of a kor contains but a quarter-log, it is as if it had not been immersed."
26. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.1-1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 117
1.1. "אֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת, הַשֶּׁרֶץ, וְשִׁכְבַת זֶרַע, וּטְמֵא מֵת, וְהַמְּצֹרָע בִּימֵי סָפְרוֹ, וּמֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי הַזָּיָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְטַמְּאִין אָדָם וְכֵלִים בְּמַגָּע, וּכְלֵי חֶרֶשׂ בַּאֲוִיר, וְאֵינָם מְטַמְּאִין בְּמַשָּׂא: \n", 1.2. "לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶם, נְבֵלָה, וּמֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהֶם כְּדֵי הַזָּיָה, שֶׁהֵם מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הָאָדָם בְּמַשָּׂא לְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים בְּמַגָּע, וַחֲשׂוּכֵי בְגָדִים בְּמַגָּע: \n", 1.3. "לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן, בּוֹעֵל נִדָּה, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב תַּחְתּוֹן כָּעֶלְיוֹן. לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן, זוֹבוֹ שֶׁל זָב וְרֻקּוֹ וְשִׁכְבַת זַרְעוֹ וּמֵימֵי רַגְלָיו, וְדַם הַנִּדָּה, שֶׁהֵן מְטַמְּאִין בְּמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא. לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן, מֶרְכָּב, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא תַּחַת אֶבֶן מְסָמָא. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמֶּרְכָּב, מִשְׁכָּב, שֶׁשָּׁוֶה מַגָּעוֹ לְמַשָּׂאוֹ. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמִּשְׁכָּב, הַזָּב, שֶׁהַזָּב עוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁכָּב, וְאֵין מִשְׁכָּב עוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁכָּב: \n", 1.4. "לְמַעְלָה מִן הַזָּב, זָבָה, שֶׁהִיא מְטַמְּאָה אֶת בּוֹעֲלָהּ. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַזָּבָה, מְצֹרָע, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא בְּבִיאָה. לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמְּצֹרָע, עֶצֶם כַּשְּׂעֹרָה, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. חָמוּר מִכֻּלָּם, הַמֵּת, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא בְאֹהֶל, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֻּלָּם מְטַמְּאִין: \n", 1.1. "The fathers of impurity are a: sheretz, semen, [an Israelite] who has contracted corpse impurity, a metzora during the days of his counting, and the waters of purification whose quantity is less than the minimum needed for sprinkling. Behold, these convey impurity to people and vessels by contact and to earthenware by presence within their airspace, But they do not convey impurity by being carried.", 1.2. "Above them are nevelah and waters of purification whose quantity is sufficient to be sprinkled, for these convey impurity to a person [even] by being carried so that he in turn conveys impurity to clothing by contact. Clothing, however, is free from impurity where there was contact alone.", 1.3. "Above them is one who had intercourse with a menstruant, for he defiles the bottom [bedding] upon which he lies as he does the top [bedding]. Above them is the issue of a zav, his spit, his semen and his urine, and the blood of a menstruant, for they convey impurity both by contact and by carrying. Above them is an object on which one can ride, for it conveys impurity even when it lies under a heavy stone. Above the object on which one can ride is that on which one can lie, for contact is the same as its carrying. Above the object on which one can lie is the zav, for a zav conveys impurity to the object on which he lies, while the object on which he lies cannot convey the same impurity to that upon which it lies.", 1.4. "Above the zav is the zavah, for she conveys impurity to the man who has intercourse with her. Above the zavah is the metzora, for he conveys impurity by entering into a house. Above the metzora is a [human] bone the size of a barley grain, for it conveys impurity for seven days. More strict than all these is a corpse, for it conveys impurity by ohel (tent) whereby all the others convey no impurity.",
27. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 117
2.3. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מְבִיאִין שְׁלָמִים וְאֵין סוֹמְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם, אֲבָל לֹא עוֹלוֹת. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מְבִיאִין שְׁלָמִים וְעוֹלוֹת וְסוֹמְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם: \n", 2.3. "Bet Shammai say: They may bring thanksgiving offerings [on Yom Tov] but they may not lay their hands on them, and [they may not bring] wholly burnt-offerings. And Bet Hillel say: They may bring thanksgiving offerings and wholly burnt-offerings and lay their hands on them.",
28. Mishnah, Terumot, 1.6, 2.1, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 9
1.6. "חֲמִשָּׁה לֹא יִתְרֹמוּ, וְאִם תָּרְמוּ, תְּרוּמָתָן תְּרוּמָה. הָאִלֵּם, וְהַשִּׁכּוֹר, וְהֶעָרוֹם, וְהַסּוּמָא, וּבַעַל קֶרִי. לֹא יִתְרֹמוּ, וְאִם תָּרְמוּ, תְּרוּמָתָן תְּרוּמָה: \n", 2.1. "אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא. וְאִם תָּרְמוּ, תְּרוּמָתָן תְּרוּמָה. בֶּאֱמֶת אָמְרוּ, הָעִגּוּל שֶׁל דְּבֵלָה שֶׁנִּטְמָא מִקְצָתוֹ, תּוֹרֵם מִן הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ עַל הַטָּמֵא שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ. וְכֵן אֲגֻדָּה שֶׁל יָרָק, וְכֵן עֲרֵמָה. הָיוּ שְׁנֵי עִגּוּלִים, שְׁתֵּי אֲגֻדּוֹת, שְׁתֵּי עֲרֵמוֹת, אַחַת טְמֵאָה וְאַחַת טְהוֹרָה, לֹא יִתְרֹם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, תּוֹרְמִין מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא: \n", 4.3. "שִׁעוּר תְּרוּמָה, עַיִן יָפָה, אֶחָד מֵאַרְבָּעִים. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים. וְהַבֵּינוֹנִית, מֵחֲמִשִּׁים. וְהָרָעָה, מִשִּׁשִּׁים. תָּרַם וְעָלָה בְיָדוֹ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים, תְּרוּמָה, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִתְרֹם. חָזַר וְהוֹסִיף, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת. עָלָה בְיָדוֹ מִשִּׁשִּׁים וְאֶחָד, תְּרוּמָה, וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא לָמוּד, בְּמִדָּה וּבְמִשְׁקָל וּבְמִנְיָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף:", 1.6. "Five may not give terumah, but if they do, their terumah is terumah.A mute person; A drunken person; One who is naked; A blind person; Or one who has had a seminal emission. They may not give terumah, but if they do their terumah is valid.", 2.1. "They may not give terumah from pure [produce] for impure [produce], but if they did give, the terumah is terumah. In truth they said: If a cake of pressed figs had become partly defiled, one may give terumah from the clean part for that part which had become defiled. The same applies to a bunch of vegetables, or a stack of grain. If there were two cakes [of figs], two bunches [of vegetables], two stacks [of grain], one pure and one impure, one should not give terumah from one for the other. Rabbi Eliezer says: one can give terumah from that which is pure for that which is impure.", 4.3. "The amount of terumah: A generous amount: one fortieth. Beth Shammai say: one thirtieth. The average amount: one fiftieth. A stingy amount: one sixtieth. If he gave terumah and discovered that it was only one sixtieth, his terumah is valid and he need not give again. If he does go back and add to it, [the extra amount] is liable to tithes. If he found that it was only one sixty-first it is valid, but he must give terumah again according to his established practice, in measure, weight or number. Rabbi Judah says: even if it be not from produce close by.",
29. Mishnah, Toharot, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 18
30. Tosefta, Berachot, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125
2.18. "גרף של רעי ועביט של מי רגלים עמו בבית הרי זה מרחיק ארבע אמות וקורין שלפני המטה נותן לתוכו מים כל שהוא וקורא ואם לאו לא יקרא ר' זכאי אומר אם נתן לתוכו רביעית מים יקרא ואם לאו לא יקרא רשב\"ג אומר שלפני המטה לא יקרא שלאחר המטה יקרא ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אפילו כל הבית כולו כעשר אמות וגרף של רעי מונח לתוכו לא יקרא עד שיכניסנו או יניחנו תחת המטה.",
31. Anon., Didache, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 132
32. New Testament, Matthew, 2.2, 3.2, 3.7-3.11, 3.14, 4.17, 5.21-5.48, 10.7, 14.12, 15.20, 27.42, 28.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25, 134, 176, 229, 230
2.2. Ποῦ ἐστὶν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; εἴδομεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ. 3.2. λέγων Μετανοεῖτε, ἤγγικεν γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 3.7. Ἰδὼν δὲ πολλοὺς τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων ἐρχομένους ἐπὶ τὸ βάπτισμα εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, τίς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῖν φυγεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς; 3.8. ποιήσατε οὖν καρπὸν ἄξιον τῆς μετανοίας· 3.9. καὶ μὴ δόξητε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς Πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ, λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι δύναται ὁ θεὸς ἐκ τῶν λίθων τούτων ἐγεῖραι τέκνα τῷ Ἀβραάμ. 3.10. ἤδη δὲ ἡ ἀξίνη πρὸς τὴν ῥίζαν τῶν δένδρων κεῖται· πᾶν οὖν δένδρον μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλὸν ἐκκόπτεται καὶ εἰς πῦρ βάλλεται. 3.11. ἐγὼ μὲν ὑμᾶς βαπτίζω ἐν ὕδατι εἰς μετάνοιαν· ὁ δὲ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος ἰσχυρότερός μου ἐστίν, οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς τὰ ὑποδήματα βαστάσαι· αὐτὸς ὑμᾶς βαπτίσει ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πυρί· 3.14. ὁ δὲ διεκώλυεν αὐτὸν λέγων Ἐγὼ χρείαν ἔχω ὑπὸ σοῦ βαπτισθῆναι, καὶ σὺ ἔρχῃ πρός με; 4.17. ΑΠΟ ΤΟΤΕ ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς κηρύσσειν καὶ λέγειν Μετανοεῖτε, ἤγγικεν γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5.21. Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις Οὐ φονεύσεις· ὃς δʼ ἂν φονεύσῃ, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει. 5.22. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὀργιζόμενος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει· ὃς δʼ ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ Ῥακά, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῷ συνεδρίῳ· ὃς δʼ ἂν εἴπῃ Μωρέ, ἔνοχος ἔσται εἰς τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρός. 5.23. ἐὰν οὖν προσφέρῃς τὸ δῶρόν σου ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον κἀκεῖ μνησθῇς ὅτι ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἔχει τι κατὰ σοῦ, 5.24. ἄφες ἐκεῖ τὸ δῶρόν σου ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, καὶ ὕπαγε πρῶτον διαλλάγηθι τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, καὶ τότε ἐλθὼν πρόσφερε τὸ δῶρόν σου. 5.25. ἴσθι εὐνοῶν τῷ ἀντιδίκῳ σου ταχὺ ἕως ὅτου εἶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, μή ποτέ σε παραδῷ ὁ ἀντίδικος τῷ κριτῇ, καὶ ὁ κριτὴς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ, καὶ εἰς φυλακὴν βληθήσῃ· 5.26. ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, οὐ μὴ ἐξέλθῃς ἐκεῖθεν ἕως ἂν ἀποδῷς τὸν ἔσχατον κοδράντην. 5.27. Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη Οὐ μοιχεύσεις. 5.28. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ βλέπων γυναῖκα πρὸς τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι [αὐτὴν] ἤδη ἐμοίχευσεν αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 5.29. εἰ δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ὁ δεξιὸς σκανδαλίζει σε, ἔξελε αὐτὸν καὶ βάλε ἀπὸ σοῦ, συμφέρει γάρ σοι ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μελῶν σου καὶ μὴ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου βληθῇ εἰς γέενναν· 5.30. καὶ εἰ ἡ δεξιά σου χεὶρ σκανδαλίζει σε, ἔκκοψον αὐτὴν καὶ βάλε ἀπὸ σοῦ, συμφέρει γάρ σοι ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μελῶν σου καὶ μὴ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου εἰς γέενναν ἀπέλθῃ. 5.31. Ἐρρέθη δέ Ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, δότω αὐτῇ ἀποστάσιον. 5.32. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας ποιεῖ αὐτὴν μοιχευθῆναι[, καὶ ὃς ἐὰν ἀπολελυμένην γαμήσῃ μοιχᾶται]. 5.33. Πάλιν ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις Οὐκ ἐπιορκήσεις, ἀποδώσεις δὲ τῷ κυρίῳ τοὺς ὅρκους σου. 5.34. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μν̀ ὀμόσαι ὅλως· μήτε ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, ὅτι θρόνος ἐστὶν τοῦ θεοῦ· 5.35. μήτε ἐν τῇ γῇ, ὅτι ὑποπόδιόν ἐστιν τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ· μήτε εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα, ὅτι πόλις ἐστὶν τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως· 5.36. μήτε ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ σου ὀμόσῃς, ὅτι οὐ δύνασαι μίαν τρίχα λευκὴν ποιῆσαι ἢ μέλαιναν. 5.37. ἔστω δὲ ὁ λόγος ὑμῶν ναὶ ναί, οὒ οὔ· τὸ δὲ περισσὸν τούτων ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ ἐστίν. 5.38. Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη Ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος. 5.39. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ἀντιστῆναι τῷ πονηρῷ· ἀλλʼ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα [σου], στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην· 5.40. καὶ τῷ θέλοντί σοι κριθῆναι καὶ τὸν χιτῶνά σου λαβεῖν, ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον· 5.41. καὶ ὅστις σε ἀγγαρεύσει μίλιον ἕν, ὕπαγε μετʼ αὐτοῦ δύο. 5.42. τῷ αἰτοῦντί σε δός, καὶ τὸν θέλοντα ἀπὸ σοῦ δανίσασθαι μὴ ἀποστραφῇς. 5.43. Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου καὶ μισήσεις τὸν ἐχθρόν σου. 5.44. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς· 5.45. ὅπως γένησθε υἱοὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς, ὅτι τὸν ἥλιον αὐτοῦ ἀνατέλλει ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς καὶ βρέχει ἐπὶ δικαίους καὶ ἀδίκους. 5.46. ἐὰν γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 5.47. καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 5.48. Ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι ὡς ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος τέλειός ἐστιν. 10.7. πορευόμενοι δὲ κηρύσσετε λέγοντες ὅτι Ἤγγικεν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 14.12. Καὶ προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἦραν τὸ πτῶμα καὶ ἔθαψαν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐλθόντες ἀπήγγειλαν τῷ Ἰησοῦ. 15.20. ταῦτά ἐστιν τὰ κοινοῦντα τὸν ἄνθρωπον, τὸ δὲ ἀνίπτοις χερσὶν φαγεῖν οὐ κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 27.42. Ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, ἑαυτὸν οὐ δύναται σῶσαι· βασιλεὺς Ἰσραήλ ἐστιν, καταβάτω νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ καὶ πιστεύσομεν ἐπʼ αὐτόν. 28.15. οἱ δὲ λαβόντες ἀργύρια ἐποίησαν ὡς ἐδιδάχθησαν. Καὶ διεφημίσθη ὁ λόγος οὗτος παρὰ Ἰουδαίοις μέχρι τῆς σήμερον [ἡμέρας]. 2.2. "Where is he who is born King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east, and have come to worship him." 3.2. "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!" 3.7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance! 3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 3.10. "Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. 3.11. I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 3.14. But John would have hindered him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me?" 4.17. From that time, Jesus began to preach, and to say, "Repent! For the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand." 5.21. "You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. "If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you, 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.31. "It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. "Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.38. "You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you, 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 14.12. His disciples came, and took the body, and buried it; and they went and told Jesus. 15.20. These are the things which defile the man; but to eat with unwashed hands doesn't defile the man." 27.42. "He saved others, but he can't save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. 28.15. So they took the money and did as they were told. This saying was spread abroad among the Jews, and continues until this day.
33. New Testament, Mark, 1.4-1.11, 1.14, 2.18, 7.1-7.15, 10.17, 15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 132, 133, 176, 229, 230
1.4. ἐγένετο Ἰωάνης ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν. 1.5. καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν πᾶσα ἡ Ἰουδαία χώρα καὶ οἱ Ἰεροσολυμεῖται πάντες, καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ ποταμῷ ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν. 1.6. καὶ ἦν ὁ Ἰωάνης ἐνδεδυμένος τρίχας καμήλου καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσθων ἀκρίδας καὶ μέλι ἄγριον. 1.7. καὶ ἐκήρυσσεν λέγων Ἔρχεται ὁ ἰσχυρότερός μου ὀπίσω [μου], οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς κύψας λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ· 1.8. ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ὕδατι, αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. 1.9. ΚΑΙ ΕΓΕΝΕΤΟ ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲτ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ ἐβαπτίσθη εἰς τὸν Ἰορδάνην ὑπὸ Ἰωάνου. 1.10. καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν· 1.11. καὶ φωνὴ [ἐγένετο] ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν Σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα. 1.14. Καὶ μετὰ τὸ παραδοθῆναι τὸν Ἰωάνην ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ 2.18. Καὶ ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι νηστεύοντες. καὶ ἔρχονται καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων νηστεύουσιν, οἱ δὲ σοὶ [μαθηταὶ] οὐ νηστεύουσιν; 7.1. Καὶ συνἄγονται πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καί τινες τῶν γραμματέων ἐλθόντες ἀπὸ Ἰεροσολύμων 7.2. καὶ ἰδόντες τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ὅτι κοιναῖς χερσίν, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν ἀνίπτοις, ἐσθίουσιν τοὺς ἄρτους. 7.3. —οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐὰν μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, 7.4. καὶ ἀπʼ ἀγορᾶς ἐὰν μὴ ῥαντίσωνται οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, καὶ ἄλλα πολλά ἐστιν ἃ παρέλαβον κρατεῖν, βαπτισμοὺς ποτηρίων καὶ ξεστῶν καὶ χαλκίων. 7.5. —καὶ ἐπερωτῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς Διὰ τί οὐ περιπατοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταί σου κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ κοιναῖς χερσὶν ἐσθίουσιν τὸν ἄρτον; 7.6. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν Ἠσαίας περὶ ὑμῶν τῶν ὑποκριτῶν, ὡς γέγραπται ὅτι Οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· 7.7. μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με, διδάσκοντες διδασκαλίας ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων· 7.8. ἀφέντες τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κρατεῖτε τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 7.9. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἀθετεῖτε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν τηρήσητε· 7.10. Μωυσῆς γὰρ εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητερα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 7.11. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Κορβάν, ὅ ἐστιν Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 7.12. οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, 7.13. ἀκυροῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ παραδόσει ὑμῶν ᾗ παρεδώκατε· καὶ παρόμοια τοιαῦτα πολλὰ ποιεῖτε. 7.14. Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος πάλιν τὸν ὄχλον ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ἀκούσατέ μου πάντες καὶ σύνετε. 7.15. οὐδὲν ἔστιν ἔξωθεν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς αὐτὸν ὃ δύναται κοινῶσαι αὐτόν· ἀλλὰ τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενά ἐστιν τὰ κοινοῦντα τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 10.17. Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ εἰς ὁδὸν προσδραμὼν εἷς καὶ γονυπετήσας αὐτὸν ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσω ἵνα ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω; 15.32. ὁ χριστὸς ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἰσραὴλ καταβάτω νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ, ἵνα ἴδωμεν καὶ πιστεύσωμεν. καὶ οἱ συνεσταυρωμένοι σὺν αὐτῷ ὠνείδιζον αὐτόν. 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit." 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." 1.14. Now after John was taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God, 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast?" 7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?" 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. "For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things." 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this." 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?" 15.32. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him." Those who were crucified with him insulted him.
34. New Testament, Luke, 3.3, 3.7-3.14, 3.16, 3.18, 7.1-7.10, 7.44, 9.2, 10.9, 19.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 132, 176, 229, 230
3.3. καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς πᾶσαν περίχωρον τοῦ Ἰορδάνου κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, 3.7. Ἔλεγεν οὖν τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ὄχλοις βαπτισθῆναι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ Γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, τίς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῖν φυγεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς; 3.8. ποιήσατε οὖν καρποὺς ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας· καὶ μὴ ἄρξησθε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς Πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ, λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι δύναται ὁ θεὸς ἐκ τῶν λίθων τούτων ἐγεῖραι τέκνα τῷ Ἀβραάμ. 3.9. ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἡ ἀξίνη πρὸς τὴν ῥίζαν τῶν δένδρων κεῖται· πᾶν οὖν δένδρον μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν [καλὸν] ἐκκόπτεται καὶ εἰς πῦρ βάλλεται. 3.10. καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ ὄχλοι λέγοντες Τί οὖν ποιήσωμεν; 3.11. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ὁ ἔχων δύο χιτῶνας μεταδότω τῷ μὴ ἔχοντι, καὶ ὁ ἔχων βρώματα ὁμοίως ποιείτω. 3.12. ἦλθον δὲ καὶ τελῶναι βαπτισθῆναι καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Διδάσκαλε, τί ποιήσωμεν; 3.13. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Μηδὲν πλέον παρὰ τὸ διατεταγμένον ὑμῖν πράσσετε. 3.14. ἐπηρώτων δὲ αὐτὸν καὶ στρατευόμενοι λέγοντες Τί ποιήσωμεν καὶ ἡμεῖς; καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Μηδένα διασείσητε μηδὲ συκοφαντήσητε, καὶ ἀρκεῖσθε τοῖς ὀψωνίοις ὑμῶν. 3.16. ἀπεκρίνατο λέγων πᾶσιν ὁ Ἰωάνης Ἐγὼ μὲν ὕδατι βαπτίζω ὑμᾶς· ἔρχεται δὲ ὁ ἰσχυρότερός μου, οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ· αὐτὸς ὑμᾶς βαπτίσει ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πυρί· 3.18. Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἕτερα παρακαλῶν εὐηγγελίζετο τὸν λαόν· 7.1. Επειδὴ ἐπλήρωσεν πάντα τὰ ῥήματα αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς ἀκοὰς τοῦ λαοῦ, εἰσῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναούμ. 7.2. Ἑκατοντάρχου δέ τινος δοῦλος κακῶς ἔχων ἤμελλεν τελευτᾷν, ὃς ἦν αὐτῷ ἔντιμος. 7.3. ἀκούσας δὲ περὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτὸν πρεσβυτέρους τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἐρωτῶν αὐτὸν ὅπως ἐλθὼν διασώσῃ τὸν δοῦλον αυτοῦ. 7.4. οἱ δὲ παραγενόμενοι πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν σπουδαίως λέγοντες ὅτι ἄξιός ἐστιν ᾧ παρέξῃ τοῦτο, 7.5. ἀγαπᾷ γὰρ τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν καὶ τὴν συναγωγὴν αὐτὸς ᾠκοδόμησεν ἡμῖν. 7.6. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐπορεύετο σὺν αὐτοῖς. ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας ἔπεμψεν φίλους ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης λέγων αὐτῷ Κύριε, μὴ σκύλλου, οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς· 7.7. διὸ οὐδὲ ἐμαυτὸν ἠξίωσα πρὸς σὲ ἐλθεῖν· ἀλλὰ εἰπὲ λόγῳ, καὶ ἰαθήτω ὁ παῖς μου· 7.8. καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν τασσόμενος, ἔχων ὑπʼ ἐμαυτὸν στρατιώτας, καὶ λέγω τούτῳ Πορεύθητι, καὶ πορεύεται, καὶ ἄλλῳ Ἔρχου, καὶ ἔρχεται, καὶ τῷ δούλῳ μου Ποίησον τοῦτο, καὶ ποιεῖ. 7.9. ἀκούσας δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐθαύμασεν αὐτόν, καὶ στραφεὶς τῷ ἀκολουθοῦντι αὐτῷ ὄχλῳ εἶπεν Λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐδὲ ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ τοσαύτην πίστιν εὗρον. 7.10. καὶ ὑποστρέψαντες εἰς τὸν οἶκον οἱ πεμφθέντες εὗρον τὸν δοῦλον ὑγιαίνοντα. 7.44. καὶ στραφεὶς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ Σίμωνι ἔφη Βλέπεις ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα; εἰσῆλθόν σου εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν, ὕδωρ μοι ἐπὶ πόδας οὐκ ἔδωκας· αὕτη δὲ τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξέν μου τοὺς πόδας καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς ἐξέμαξεν. 9.2. καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἰᾶσθαι, 10.9. ἐσθίετε τὰ παρατιθέμενα ὑμῖν, καὶ θεραπεύετε τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ ἀσθενεῖς, καὶ λέγετε αὐτοῖς Ἤγγικεν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ. 19.8. σταθεὶς δὲ Ζακχαῖος εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν κύριον Ἰδοὺ τὰ ἡμίσιά μου τῶν ὑπαρχόντων, κύριε, [τοῖς] πτωχοῖς δίδωμι, καὶ εἴ τινός τι ἐσυκοφάντησα ἀποδίδωμι τετραπλοῦν. 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 3.7. He said therefore to the multitudes who went out to be baptized by him, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don't begin to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! 3.9. Even now the ax also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire." 3.10. The multitudes asked him, "What then must we do?" 3.11. He answered them, "He who has two coats, let him give to him who has none. He who has food, let him do likewise." 3.12. Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do?" 3.13. He said to them, "Collect no more than that which is appointed to you." 3.14. Soldiers also asked him, saying, "What about us? What must we do?"He said to them, "Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully. Be content with your wages." 3.16. John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire, 3.18. Then with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people, 7.1. After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. 7.2. A certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick and at the point of death. 7.3. When he heard about Jesus, he sent to him elders of the Jews, asking him to come and save his servant. 7.4. When they came to Jesus, they begged him earnestly, saying, "He is worthy for you to do this for him, 7.5. for he loves our nation, and he built our synagogue for us." 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed. 7.8. For I also am a man placed under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go!' and he goes; and to another, 'Come!' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it." 7.9. When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith, no, not in Israel." 7.10. Those who were sent, returning to the house, found that the servant who had been sick was well. 7.44. Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. 9.2. He sent them forth to preach the Kingdom of God, and to heal the sick. 10.9. Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 19.8. Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Behold, Lord, half of my goods I give to the poor. If I have wrongfully exacted anything of anyone, I restore four times as much."
35. New Testament, John, 1.32, 1.35-1.41, 3.22-3.24, 4.1, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 132, 230
1.32. Καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάνης λέγων ὅτι Τεθέαμαι τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον ὡς περιστερὰν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐπʼ αὐτόν· 1.35. Τῇ ἐπαύριον πάλιν ἱστήκει Ἰωάνης καὶ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ δύο, 1.36. καὶ ἐμβλέψας τῷ Ἰησοῦ περιπατοῦντι λέγει Ἴδε ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. 1.37. καὶ ἤκουσαν οἱ δύο μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος καὶ ἠκολούθησαν τῷ Ἰησοῦ. 1.38. στραφεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ θεασάμενος αὐτοὺς ἀκολουθοῦντας λέγει αὐτοῖς Τί ζητεῖτε; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ῥαββεί, ?̔ὃ λέγεται μεθερμηνευόμενον Διδάσκαλε?̓ ποῦ μένεις; 1.39. λέγει αὐτοῖς Ἔρχεσθε καὶ ὄψεσθε. ἦλθαν οὖν καὶ εἶδαν ποῦ μένει, καὶ παρʼ αὐτῷ ἔμειναν τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην· ὥρα ἦν ὡς δεκάτη. 1.40. Ἦν Ἀνδρέας ὁ ἀδελφὸς Σίμωνος Πέτρου εἷς ἐκ τῶν δύο τῶν ἀκουσάντων παρὰ Ἰωάνου καὶ ἀκολουθησάντων αὐτῷ· 1.41. εὑρίσκει οὗτος πρῶτον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὸν ἴδιον Σίμωνα καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Εὑρήκαμεν τὸν Μεσσίαν ?̔ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον Χριστός̓. 3.22. Μετὰ ταῦτα ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν γῆν, καὶ ἐκεῖ διέτριβεν μετʼ αὐτῶν καὶ ἐβάπτιζεν. 3.23. ἦν δὲ καὶ [ὁ] Ἰωάνης βαπτίζων ἐν Αἰνὼν ἐγγὺς τοῦ Σαλείμ, ὅτι ὕδατα πολλὰ ἦν ἐκεῖ, καὶ παρεγίνοντο καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο· 3.24. οὔπω γὰρ ἦν βεβλημένος εἰς τὴν φυλακὴν Ἰωάνης. 4.1. ?̔Ως οὖν ἔγνω ὁ κύριος ὅτι ἤκουσαν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ὅτι Ἰησοῦς πλείονας μαθητὰς ποιεῖ καὶ βαπτίζει [ἢ] Ἰωάνης, 13.5. εἶτα βάλλει ὕδωρ εἰς τὸν νιπτῆρα, καὶ ἤρξατο νίπτειν τοὺς πόδας τῶν μαθητῶν καὶ ἐκμάσσειν τῷ λεντίῳ ᾧ ἦν διεζωσμένος. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.35. Again, the next day, John was standing with two of his disciples, 1.36. and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God!" 1.37. The two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. 1.38. Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said to them, "What are you looking for?"They said to him, "Rabbi" (which is to say, being interpreted, Teacher), "where are you staying?" 1.39. He said to them, "Come, and see."They came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day. It was about the tenth hour. 1.40. One of the two who heard John, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 1.41. He first found his own brother, Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah!" (which is, being interpreted, Christ). 3.22. After these things, Jesus came with his disciples into the land of Judea. He stayed there with them, and baptized. 3.23. John also was baptizing in Enon near Salim, because there was much water there. They came, and were baptized. 3.24. For John was not yet thrown into prison. 4.1. Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 13.5. Then he poured water into the basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him.
36. New Testament, Romans, 12.1, 14.14, 15.31, 16.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 132, 133, 135, 376
12.1. Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν ζῶσαν ἁγίαν τῷ θεῷ εὐάρεστον, τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν ὑμῶν· 14.14. οἶδα καὶ πέπεισμαι ἐν κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ ὅτι οὐδὲν κοινὸν διʼ ἑαυτοῦ· εἰ μὴ τῷ λογιζομένῳ τι κοινὸν εἶναι, ἐκείνῳ κοινόν. 15.31. ἵνα ῥυσθῶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀπειθούντων ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ καὶ ἡ διακονία μου ἡ εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ εὐπρόσδεκτος τοῖς ἁγίοις γένηται, 16.4. οἵτινες ὑπὲρ τῆς ψυχῆς μου τὸν ἑαυτῶν τράχηλον ὑπέθηκαν, οἷς οὐκ ἐγὼ μόνος εὐχαριστῶ ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶσαι αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῶν ἐθνῶν, 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints; 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles.
37. New Testament, Philippians, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 376
3.2. Βλέπετε τοὺς κύνας, βλέπετε τοὺς κακοὺς ἐργάτας, βλέπετε τὴν κατατομήν. 3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision.
38. Mishnah, Zavim, 5.11-5.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 8, 9, 18, 117
5.11. "בַּעַל קֶרִי, כְּמַגַּע שֶׁרֶץ. וּבוֹעֵל נִדָּה, כִּטְמֵא מֵת, אֶלָּא שֶׁחָמוּר מִמֶּנּוּ בּוֹעֵל נִדָּה, שֶׁהוּא מְטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב טֻמְאָה קַלָּה לְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין: \n", 5.12. "אֵלּוּ פוֹסְלִים אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. הָאוֹכֵל אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן, וְהָאוֹכֵל אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי, וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין, וְהַבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין, וְטָהוֹר שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין, וְהַסֵּפֶר, וְהַיָּדַיִם, וּטְבוּל יוֹם, וְהָאֳכָלִים וְהַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְמַשְׁקִים: \n", 5.11. "He who has had a seminal emission is like one who has touched a dead sheretz. And one who has had sex with a menstruant is like one who has suffered corpse uncleanness. But one who has had sex with a menstruant is more stringent in that he conveys minor grades of uncleanness to what he lies or sits upon, so as to make foods and liquids unclean.", 5.12. "The following disqualify terumah:One who eats foods with first degree uncleanness; Or one who eats food with second degree uncleanness; And who drinks unclean liquids. And the one who has immersed his head and the greater part of him in drawn water; And a clean person upon whose head and greater part of him there fell three logs of drawn water; And a scroll [of Holy Scriptures], And [unwashed] hands; And one that has had immersion that same day; And foods and vessels which have become defiled by liquids.",
39. New Testament, Galatians, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 376
3.4. τοσαῦτα ἐπάθετε εἰκῇ; εἴ γε καὶ εἰκῇ. 3.4. Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeedin vain?
40. New Testament, Acts, 2.37, 5.36, 13.24, 15.1, 15.20-15.21, 15.29, 16.30, 19.3-19.4, 21.20-21.30, 22.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 113, 133, 134, 229, 230, 376
2.37. Ἀκούσαντες δὲ κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν, εἶπάν τε πρὸς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀποστόλους Τί ποιήσωμεν, 5.36. πρὸ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ἡμερῶν ἀνέστη Θευδᾶς, λέγων εἶναί τινα ἑαυτόν, ᾧ προσεκλίθη ἀνδρῶν ἀριθμὸς ὡς τετρακοσίων· ὃς ἀνῃρέθη, καὶ πάντες ὅσοι ἐπείθοντο αὐτῷ διελύθησαν καὶ ἐγένοντο εἰς οὐδέν. 13.24. προκηρύξαντος Ἰωάνου πρὸ προσώπου τῆς εἰσόδου αὐτοῦ βάπτισμα μετανοίας παντὶ τῷ λαῷ Ἰσραήλ. 15.1. ΚΑΙ ΤΙΝΕΣ ΚΑΤΕΛΘΟΝΤΕΣ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐδίδασκον τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὅτι Ἐὰν μὴ lt*gtιτμηθῆτε τῷ ἔθει τῷ Μωυσέως, οὐ δύνασθε σωθῆναι. 15.20. ἀλλὰ ἐπιστεῖλαι αὐτοῖς τοῦ ἀπέχεσθαι τῶν ἀλισγημάτων τῶν εἰδώλων καὶ τῆς πορνείας καὶ πνικτοῦ καὶ τοῦ αἵματος· 15.21. Μωυσῆς γὰρ ἐκ γενεῶν ἀρχαίων κατὰ πόλιν τοὺς κηρύσσοντας αὐτὸν ἔχει ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκόμενος. 15.29. ἐξ ὧν διατηροῦντες ἑαυτοὺς εὖ πράξετε. Ἔρρωσθε. 16.30. καὶ προαγαγὼν αὐτοὺς ἔξω ἔφη Κύριοι, τί με δεῖ ποιεῖν ἵνα σωθῶ; 19.3. εἶπέν τε Εἰς τί οὖν ἐβαπτίσθητε; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Εἰς τὸ Ἰωάνου βάπτισμα. 19.4. εἶπεν δὲ Παῦλος Ἰωάνης ἐβάπτισεν βάπτισμα μετανοίας, τῷ λαῷ λέγων εἰς τὸν ἐρχόμενον μετʼ αὐτὸν ἵνα πιστεύσωσιν, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν εἰς τὸν Ἰησοῦν. 21.20. οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες ἐδόξαζον τὸν θεόν, εἶπάν τε αὐτῷ Θεωρεῖς, ἀδελφέ, πόσαι μυριάδες εἰσὶν ἐν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις τῶν πεπιστευκότων, καὶ πάντες ζηλωταὶ τοῦ νόμου ὑπάρχουσιν· 21.21. κατηχήθησαν δὲ περὶ σοῦ ὅτι ἀποστασίαν διδάσκεις ἀπὸ Μωυσέως τοὺς κατὰ τὰ ἔθνη πάντας Ἰουδαίους, λέγων μὴ περιτέμνειν αὐτοὺς τὰ τέκνα μηδὲ τοῖς ἔθεσιν περιπατεῖν. 21.22. τί οὖν ἐστίν; πάντως ἀκούσονται ὅτι ἐλήλυθας. 21.23. τοῦτο οὖν ποίησον ὅ σοι λέγομεν· εἰσὶν ἡμῖν ἄνδρες τέσσαρες εὐχὴν ἔχοντες ἀφʼ ἑαυτῶν. 21.24. τούτους παραλαβὼν ἁγνίσθητι σὺν αὐτοῖς καὶ δαπάνησον ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς ἵνα ξυρήσονται τὴν κεφαλήν, καὶ γνώσονται πάντες ὅτι ὧν κατήχηνται περὶ σοῦ οὐδὲν ἔστιν, ἀλλὰ στοιχεῖς καὶ αὐτὸς φυλάσσων τὸν νόμον. 21.25. περὶ δὲ τῶν πεπιστευκότων ἐθνῶν ἡμεῖς ἀπεστείλαμεν κρίναντες φυλάσσεσθαι αὐτοὺς τό τε εἰδωλόθυτον καὶ αἷμα καὶ πνικτὸν καὶ πορνείαν. 21.26. τότε ὁ Παῦλος παραλαβὼν τοὺς ἄνδρας τῇ ἐχομένῃ ἡμέρᾳ σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁγνισθεὶς εἰσῄει εἰς τὸ ἱερόν, διαγγέλλων τὴν ἐκπλήρωσιν τῶν ἡμερῶν τοῦ ἁγνισμοῦ ἕως οὗ προσηνέχθη ὑπὲρ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου αὐτῶν ἡ προσφορά. 21.27. Ὡς δὲ ἔμελλον αἱ ἑπτὰ ἡμέραι συντελεῖσθαι, οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀσίας Ἰουδαῖοι θεασάμενοι αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ συνέχεον πάντα τὸν ὄχλον καὶ ἐπέβαλαν ἐπʼ αὐτὸν τὰς χεῖρας, 21.28. κράζοντες Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, βοηθεῖτε· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ κατὰ τοῦ λαοῦ καὶ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τοῦ τόπου τούτου πάντας πανταχῇ διδάσκων, ἔτι τε καὶ Ἕλληνας εἰσήγαγεν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ κεκοίνωκεν τὸν ἅγιον τόπον τοῦτον. 21.29. ἦσαν γὰρ προεωρακότες Τρόφιμον τὸν Ἐφέσιον ἐν τῇ πόλει σὺν αὐτῷ, ὃν ἐνόμιζον ὅτι εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν εἰσήγαγεν ὁ Παῦλος. 21.30. ἐκινήθη τε ἡ πόλις ὅλη καὶ ἐγένετο συνδρομὴ τοῦ λαοῦ, καὶ ἐπιλαβόμενοι τοῦ Παύλου εἷλκον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἱεροῦ, καὶ εὐθέως ἐκλείσθησαν αἱ θύραι. 22.10. ὁ δὲ κύριος εἶπεν πρός με Ἀναστὰς πορεύου εἰς Δαμασκόν, κἀκεῖ σοι λαληθήσεται περὶ πάντων ὧν τέτακταί σοι ποιῆσαι. 2.37. Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Brothers, what shall we do?" 5.36. For before these days Theudas rose up, making himself out to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves: who was slain; and all, as many as obeyed him, were dispersed, and came to nothing. 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved." 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath." 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell." 16.30. and brought them out and said, "Sirs, what must I do to be saved?" 19.3. He said, "Into what then were you baptized?"They said, "Into John's baptism." 19.4. Paul said, "John indeed baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying to the people that they should believe in the one who would come after him, that is, on Jesus." 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality." 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 21.27. When the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the multitude and laid hands on him, 21.28. crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place!" 21.29. For they had seen Trophimus, the Ephesian, with him in the city, and they supposed that Paul had brought him into the temple. 21.30. All the city was moved, and the people ran together. They seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple. Immediately the doors were shut. 22.10. I said, 'What shall I do, Lord?' The Lord said to me, 'Arise, and go into Damascus. There you will be told about all things which are appointed for you to do.'
41. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.1-2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 451
2.1. Ἐρωτῶμεν δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, ὑπὲρ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου [ἡμῶν] Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἡμῶν ἐπισυναγωγῆς ἐπʼ αὐτόν, 2.2. εἰς τὸ μὴ ταχέως σαλευθῆναι ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ νοὸς μηδὲ θροεῖσθαι μήτε διὰ πνεύματος μήτε διὰ λόγου μήτε διʼ ἐπιστολῆς ὡς διʼ ἡμῶν, ὡς ὅτι ἐνέστηκεν ἡ ἡμέρα τοῦ κυρίου. 2.3. μή τις ὑμᾶς ἐξαπατήσῃ κατὰ μηδένα τρόπον· ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ ἔλθῃ ἡ ἀποστασία πρῶτον καὶ ἀποκαλυφθῇ ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἀνομίας, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας, 2.4. ὁ ἀντικείμενοςκαὶ ὑπεραιρόμενος ἐπὶ πάνταλεγόμενονθεὸνἢ σέβασμα, ὥστε αὐτὸνεἰς τὸνναὸντοῦ θεοῦ καθίξαι,ἀποδεικνύντα ἑαυτὸν ὅτι ἔστινθεός—. 2.5. Οὐ μνημονεύετε ὅτι ἔτι ὢν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ταῦτα ἔλεγον ὑμῖν; 2.6. καὶ νῦν τὸ κατέχον οἴδατε, εἰς τὸ ἀποκαλυφθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ καιρῷ· 2.7. τὸ γὰρ μυστήριον ἤδη ἐνεργεῖται τῆς ἀνομίας· μόνον ὁ κατέχων ἄρτι ἕως ἐκ μέσου γένηται. 2.8. καὶ τότε ἀποκαλυφθήσεταιὁ ἄνομος,ὃν ὁ κύριος [Ἰησοῦς]ἀνελεῖ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦκαὶ καταργήσει τῇ ἐπιφανείᾳ τῆς παρουσίας αὐτοῦ, 2.9. οὗ ἐστὶν ἡ παρουσία κατʼ ἐνέργειαν τοῦ Σατανᾶ ἐν πάσῃ δυνάμει καὶ σημείοις καὶ τέρασιν ψεύδους 2.10. καὶ ἐν πάσῃ ἀπάτῃ ἀδικίας τοῖς ἀπολλυμένοις, ἀνθʼ ὧν τὴν ἀγάπην τῆς ἀληθείας οὐκ ἐδέξαντο εἰς τὸ σωθῆναι αὐτούς· 2.11. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πέμπει αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς ἐνέργειαν πλάνης εἰς τὸ πιστεῦσαι αὐτοὺς τῷ ψεύδει, 2.12. ἵνα κριθῶσιν πάντες οἱ μὴ πιστεύσαντες τῇ ἀληθείᾳ ἀλλὰ εὐδοκήσαντες τῇ ἀδικίᾳ. 2.1. Now, brothers, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together to him, we ask you 2.2. not to be quickly shaken in your mind, nor yet be troubled, either by spirit, or by word, or by letter as from us, saying that the day of Christ had come. 2.3. Let no one deceive you in any way. For it will not be, unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of destruction, 2.4. he who opposes and exalts himself against all that is called God or that is worshiped; so that he sits as God in the temple of God, setting himself up as God. 2.5. Don't you remember that, when I was still with you, I told you these things? 2.6. Now you know what is restraining him, to the end that he may be revealed in his own season. 2.7. For the mystery of lawlessness already works. Only there is one who restrains now, until he is taken out of the way. 2.8. Then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord will kill with the breath of his mouth, and bring to nothing by the brightness of his coming; 2.9. even he whose coming is according to the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, 2.10. and with all deception of wickedness for those who are being lost, because they didn't receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved. 2.11. Because of this, God sends them a working of error, that they should believe a lie; 2.12. that they all might be judged who didn't believe the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.
42. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.11, 3.6, 6.14-7.1, 11.13, 11.14, 11.22, 11.26, 12.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 451
12.7. καὶ τῇ ὑπερβολῇ τῶν ἀποκαλύψεων. διὸ ἵνα μὴ ὑπεραίρωμαι, ἐδόθη μοι σκόλοψ τῇ σαρκί, ἄγγελος Σατανᾶ, ἵνα με κολαφίζῃ, ἵνα μὴ ὑπεραίρωμαι.
43. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.8, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 134
2.8. Βούλομαι οὖν προσεύχεσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ, ἐπαίροντας ὁσίους χεῖρας χωρὶς ὀργῆς καὶ διαλογισμῶν. 5.10. ἐν ἔργοις καλοῖς μαρτυρουμένη, εἰ ἐτεκνοτρόφησεν, εἰ ἐξενοδόχησεν, εἰ ἁγίων πόδας ἔνιψεν, εἰ θλιβομένοις ἐπήρκεσεν, εἰ παντὶ ἔργῳ ἀγαθῷ ἐπηκολούθησεν. 2.8. I desire therefore that the men in every place pray, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting. 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work.
44. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.30, 3.9-3.17, 5.5, 5.7, 5.9, 5.13, 6.11-6.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 134, 451
1.30. ἐξ αὐτοῦ δὲ ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ὃς ἐγενήθη σοφία ἡμῖν ἀπὸ θεοῦ, δικαιοσύνη τε καὶ ἁγιασμὸς καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις, ἵνα καθὼς γέγραπται 3.9. θεοῦ γεώργιον, θεοῦ οἰκοδομή ἐστε. 3.10. Κατὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι ὡς σοφὸς ἀρχιτέκτων θεμέλιον ἔθηκα, ἄλλος δὲ ἐποικοδομεῖ. ἕκαστος δὲ βλεπέτω πῶς ἐποικοδομεῖ· 3.11. θεμέλιον γὰρ ἄλλον οὐδεὶς δύναται θεῖναι παρὰ τὸν κείμενον, ὅς ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς Χριστός· 3.12. εἰ δέ τις ἐποικοδομεῖ ἐπὶ τὸν θεμέλιον χρυσίον, ἀργύριον, λίθους τιμίους, ξύλα, χόρτον, καλάμην, 3.13. ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον φανερὸν γενήσεται, ἡ γὰρ ἡμέρα δηλώσει· ὅτι ἐν πυρὶ ἀποκαλύπτεται, καὶ ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον ὁποῖόν ἐστιν τὸ πῦρ αὐτὸ δοκιμάσει. 3.14. εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον μενεῖ ὃ ἐποικοδόμησεν, μισθὸν λήμψεται· 3.15. εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον κατακαήσεται, ζημιωθήσεται, αὐτὸς δὲ σωθήσεται, οὕτως δὲ ὡς διὰ πυρός. 3.16. Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ναὸς θεοῦ ἐστὲ καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ὑμῖν οἰκεῖ; 3.17. εἴ τις τὸν ναὸν τοῦ θεοῦ φθείρει, φθερεῖ τοῦτον ὁ θεός· ὁ γὰρ ναὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ἅγιός ἐστιν, οἵτινές ἐστε ὑμεῖς. 5.5. παραδοῦναι τὸν τοιοῦτον τῷ Σατανᾷ εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός, ἵνα τὸ πνεῦμα σωθῇ ἐν τῇ ᾑμέρᾳ τοῦ κυρίου. 5.7. ἐκκαθάρατε τὴν παλαιὰν ζύμην, ἵνα ἦτε νέον φύραμα, καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι. καὶ γὰρτὸ πάσχαἡμῶνἐτύθηΧριστός· 5.9. Ἔγραψα ὑμῖν ἐν τῇ ἐπιστολῇ μὴ συναναμίγνυσθαι πόρνοις, 5.13. ἐξάρατε τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν. 6.11. Καὶ ταῦτά τινες ἦτε· ἀλλὰ ἀπελούσασθε, ἀλλὰ ἡγιάσθητε, ἀλλὰ ἐδικαιώθητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου [ἡμῶν] Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν. 6.12. Πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν· ἀλλʼ οὐ πάντα συμφέρει. πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν· ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐγὼ ἐξουσιασθήσομαι ὑπό τινος. 6.13. τὰ βρώματα τῇ κοιλίᾳ, καὶ ἡ κοιλία τοῖς βρώμασιν· ὁ δὲ θεὸς καὶ ταύτην καὶ ταῦτα καταργήσει. τὸ δὲ σῶμα οὐ τῇ πορνείᾳ ἀλλὰ τῷ κυρίῳ, καὶ ὁ κύριος τῷ σώματι· 6.14. ὁ δὲ θεὸς καὶ τὸν κύριον ἤγειρεν καὶ ἡμᾶς ἐξεγερεῖ διὰ τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ. 6.15. οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν μέλη Χριστοῦ ἐστίν; ἄρας οὖν τὰ μέλη τοῦ χριστοῦ ποιήσω πόρνης μέλη; μὴ γένοιτο. 6.16. ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ὁ κολλώμενος τῇ πόρνῃ ἓν σῶμά ἐστιν;Ἔσονταιγάρ, φησίν,οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν. 6.17. ὁ δὲ κολλώμενος τῷ κυρίῳ ἓν πνεῦμά ἐστιν. 6.18. φεύγετε τὴν πορνείαν· πᾶν ἁμάρτημα ὃ ἐὰν ποιήσῃ ἄνθρωπος ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν, ὁ δὲ πορνεύων εἰς τὸ ἴδιον σῶμα ἁμαρτάνει. 6.19. ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι τὸ σῶμα ὑμῶν ναὸς τοῦ ἐν ὑμῖν ἁγίου πνεύματός ἐστιν, οὗ ἔχετε ἀπὸ θεοῦ; 6.20. καὶ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἑαυτῶν, ἠγοράσθητε γὰρ τιμῆς· δοξάσατε δὴ τὸν θεὸν ἐν τῷ σώματι ὑμῶν. 1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption: 3.9. For we are God's fellow workers. Youare God's farming, God's building. 3.10. According to the grace of Godwhich was given to me, as a wise master builder I laid a foundation,and another builds on it. But let each man be careful how he builds onit. 3.11. For no one can lay any other foundation than that which hasbeen laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3.12. But if anyone builds on thefoundation with gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, or stubble; 3.13. each man's work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it,because it is revealed in fire; and the fire itself will test what sortof work each man's work is. 3.14. If any man's work remains which hebuilt on it, he will receive a reward. 3.15. If any man's work isburned, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but asthrough fire. 3.16. Don't you know that you are a temple of God, and that God'sSpirit lives in you? 3.17. If anyone destroys the temple of God, Godwill destroy him; for God's temple is holy, which you are. 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.13. But those who are outside, God judges. "Put awaythe wicked man from among yourselves." 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 6.12. "All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.13. "Foods for the belly, andthe belly for foods," but God will bring to nothing both it and them.But the body is not for sexual immorality, but for the Lord; and theLord for the body. 6.14. Now God raised up the Lord, and will alsoraise us up by his power. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6.16. Or don't you knowthat he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," sayshe, "will become one flesh." 6.17. But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own, 6.20. for you were bought with a price. Therefore glorifyGod in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.
45. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 5.73 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 436
46. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 376
2.11. ἐν ᾧ καὶ περιετμήθητε περιτομῇ ἀχειροποιήτῳ ἐν τῇ ἀπεκδύσει τοῦ σώματος τῆς σαρκός, ἐν τῇ περιτομῇ τοῦ χριστοῦ, 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ;
47. Mishnah, Avot, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
2.4. "הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה רְצוֹנוֹ כִרְצוֹנְךָ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה רְצוֹנְךָ כִרְצוֹנוֹ. בַּטֵּל רְצוֹנְךָ מִפְּנֵי רְצוֹנוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּבַטֵּל רְצוֹן אֲחֵרִים מִפְּנֵי רְצוֹנֶךָ. הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, אַל תִּפְרֹשׁ מִן הַצִּבּוּר, וְאַל תַּאֲמִין בְּעַצְמְךָ עַד יוֹם מוֹתְךָ, וְאַל תָּדִין אֶת חֲבֵרְךָ עַד שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹמוֹ, וְאַל תֹּאמַר דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁמֹעַ, שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לְהִשָּׁמַע. וְאַל תֹּאמַר לִכְשֶׁאִפָּנֶה אֶשְׁנֶה, שֶׁמָּא לֹא תִפָּנֶה:", 2.4. "He used to say: do His will as though it were your will, so that He will do your will as though it were His. Set aside your will in the face of His will, so that he may set aside the will of others for the sake of your will. Hillel said: do not separate yourself from the community, Do not trust in yourself until the day of your death, Do not judge not your fellow man until you have reached his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood [trusting] that in the end it will be understood. Say not: ‘when I shall have leisure I shall study;’ perhaps you will not have leisure.",
48. Mishnah, Berachot, 2.5, 2.8, 3.1, 3.4-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 115, 117, 127, 128, 129, 136
2.5. "חָתָן פָּטוּר מִקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, אִם לֹא עָשָׂה מַעֲשֶׂה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל שֶׁקָּרָא בַלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנָּשָׂא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לֹא לִמַּדְתָּנוּ, רַבֵּנוּ, שֶׁחָתָן פָּטוּר מִקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר לָהֶם, אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לָכֶם לְבַטֵּל מִמֶּנִּי מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם אֲפִלּוּ שָׁעָה אֶחָת: \n", 2.8. "חָתָן אִם רָצָה לִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע לַיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן, קוֹרֵא. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לֹא כָל הָרוֹצֶה לִטֹּל אֶת הַשֵּׁם יִטֹּל: \n", 3.1. "מִי שֶׁמֵּתוֹ מוּטָל לְפָנָיו, פָּטוּר מִקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע, מִן הַתְּפִלָּה וּמִן הַתְּפִלִּין. נוֹשְׂאֵי הַמִּטָּה וְחִלּוּפֵיהֶן וְחִלּוּפֵי חִלּוּפֵיהֶן, אֶת שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַמִּטָּה וְאֶת שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַמִּטָּה, אֶת שֶׁלַּמִּטָּה צֹרֶךְ בָּהֶן פְּטוּרִים, וְאֶת שֶׁאֵין לַמִּטָּה צֹרֶךְ בָּהֶן חַיָּבִין. אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִים מִן הַתְּפִלָּה: \n", 3.4. "בַּעַל קֶרִי מְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, לֹא לְפָנֶיהָ וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. וְעַל הַמָּזוֹן מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם: \n", 3.5. "הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּתְּפִלָּה, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁהוּא בַעַל קְרִי, לֹא יַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא יְקַצֵּר. יָרַד לִטְבֹּל, אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת וְלִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁלֹּא תָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְכַּסֶּה וְיִקְרָא. וְאִם לָאו, יִתְכַּסֶּה בַמַּיִם וְיִקְרָא. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְכַּסֶּה, לֹא בַמַּיִם הָרָעִים וְלֹא בְמֵי הַמִּשְׁרָה, עַד שֶׁיַּטִּיל לְתוֹכָן מָיִם. וְכַמָּה יַרְחִיק מֵהֶם וּמִן הַצּוֹאָה, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת: \n", 3.6. "זָב שֶׁרָאָה קְרִי, וְנִדָּה שֶׁפָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע, וְהַמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שֶׁרָאֲתָה נִדָּה, צְרִיכִין טְבִילָה, וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה פּוֹטֵר: \n", 2.5. "A bridegroom is exempt from reciting the Shema on the first night until the end of the Shabbat, if he has not performed the act. It happened with Rabban Gamaliel who recited the Shema on the first night after he had married. His students said to him: Our master, have you not taught us that a bridegroom is exempt from reciting the Shema. He replied to them: I will not listen to you to remove from myself the Kingship of Heaven even for a moment.", 2.8. "If a bridegroom wants to recite the Shema on the first night [of his marriage], he may do so. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: not everyone who desires to take up the name of God may do so.", 3.1. "One whose dead [relative] lies before him is exempt from the recital of the Shema and from the tefillah and from tefillin. The bearers of the bier and their replacements, and their replacements’ replacement, both those in front of the bier and those behind the bier those needed to carry the bier, are exempt; but those not needed to carry the bier are exempt. Both, however, are exempt from [saying] the tefillah.", 3.4. "One who has had a seminal emission utters the words [of the Shema] in his heart and he doesn’t say a blessing, neither before nor after. Over food he says a blessing afterwards, but not the blessing before. Rabbi Judah says: he blesses both before them and after them.", 3.5. "If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits.", 3.6. "A zav who has had a seminal emission and a niddah from whom semen escapes and a woman who becomes niddah during intercourse require a mikveh. Rabbi Judah exempts them.",
49. Tosefta, Pesahim, 1.5-1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 18
1.5. "ר' יהודה אומר משום רבן גמליאל [שתי] חלות של תודה פסולות מונחות על [גב] האצטבא כל זמן [שהם מונחות] כל העם אוכלין חולין ניטלה אחת מהן כל העם אוכלין תרומה ניטלו שתיהן שורפין אלו ואלו [שורפין תרומה תלויה טמאה וטהורה] כאחת דר\"מ [וחכ\"א תלויה בפני עצמה וטהורה בפ\"ע וטמאה] בפ\"ע אר\"ש לא נחלקו ר\"א ור' יהושע על הטהורה ועל הטמאה [ששורפין זו בעצמה וזו בעצמה] על מה נחלקו על התלויה ועל הטמאה שר\"א אומר תשרף זו [בעצמה וזו בעצמה] ור' יהושע אומר שתיהן כאחת א\"ר יוסי אין הנידון [זה] דומה לראיה [בשר] שנטמא בולד הטומאה [עם בשר] שנטמא באב הטומאה [שניהן טמאין] אלא שזה טמא טומאה חמורה וזה טמא טומאה קלה [וכן שמן] שנפסל בטבול יום [ובנר] שנטמא בטמא מת [שניהם טמאים אלא שזה טמא טומאה חמורה וזה טמא טומאה קלה ואני אומר ששורפין תרומה שנטמאת בולד טומאה] עם תרומה שנטמאת באב הטומאה אע\"פ שמוסיפין [לה] טומאה על טומאתה [ותלויה וטמאה אומר אני שהתלויה אם נשרפת עם הטמאה נמצאת זו מטמאתה ב\"ש אומרים אין שורפין בשר טהור עם בשר טמא וב\"ה מתירין].", 1.6. "בראשונה היו אומרים אין מוכרים חמץ לנכרי ואין נותנין לו במתנה אלא כדי שיאכל עד שלא הגיע שעת ביעור עד שבא רבי עקיבה ולימד [שמוכרין ונותנין במתנה] אף בשעת הביעור א\"ר יוסי אלו דברי בית שמאי ואלו דברי בית הלל הכריע רבי עקיבה לסייע דברי בית הלל.", 1.7. "האוכל חמץ אחר חצות וחמץ שעבר עליו הפסח הרי זה בלא תעשה ואין בו כרת דברי ר' יהודה [וחכמים אומרים] כל שאין בו כרת אין בו [בלא תעשה] האוכל כזית חמץ בפסח חייב על זדונו כרת ועל שגגתו חטאת ועל לא הודע אשם תלוי.", 1.8. "האוכל תרומת חמץ בפסח [אין משלם דמי עצים לכהן] אמר רבי יוחנן בן נורי נמתי לו לרבי עקיבה מפני מה האוכל תרומת חמץ בפסח אין משלם דמי עצים לכהן [מה] נשתנית זו משאר ימות השנה שבשאר ימות השנה משלם דמי עצים לכהן אמר לו לא אם אמרת בשאר ימות השנה שאע\"פ שאין לו בה היתר אכילה יש לו בה היתר [עצים תאמר בזו] שאין לו בה היתר אכילה ולא היתר [עצים] למה זה דומה לתרומת תותים [ואבטיחים ומלפפונות שנטמאות] שאין לו בה היתר אכילה ולא היתר [עצים בד\"א בתרומה שהפרישה חמץ קודם לפסח לשום תרומה אבל המפריש] תרומת חמץ בפסח [אינה תרומה].",
50. Tosefta, Zavim, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 18
5.2. "רוב הטמא על הטהור על מקצתו בין בזב בין במשכב טמא. מקצת טמא על הטהור על מקצתו בין בזב בין במשכב טמא. מקצת טהור על הטמא ועל מקצתו בזב טמא ובמשכב טהור ר\"ש אומר מקצת טהור על הטמא אף בזב טהור.",
51. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 113
6.1. "ארץ הכותים טהורה מקוותיה ומדוריה ושביליה טהורות. ארץ העמים טמאה מקוותיה ומדוריה ושביליה טמאין. מקוואות העמים שבחוצה לארץ כשרים לבעלי קריין ופסולין לכל הטמאין ושבארץ ישראל שחוץ מן המפתח לכל הטמאין וא\"צ לומר לבעלי קריין ושלפנים מן המפתח פסולין לבעלי קריין וא\"צ לומר לכל הטמאין דברי ר\"מ ר' יהודה אומר כשרין לבעלי קריין מפני שבעל קרי טובל במ' סאה בכל מקום. ושחוץ מן המפתח כשרין אף לנדות. אמר רשב\"ג הלכה אין לי. אלא מעשה במערה שהיתה בגינתו של מוסק אחד בדמיו שהיו כהנים כובשין את הגדר ויורדין וטובלין לתוכה. <א\"ר יהודה> מעשה במקוה שבין אושא לשפרעם <ושל שפרעם היה> והיה ר' דוסא מושיב בו <עליו> ב' תלמידי חכמים כדי שיקוו בו המים מ' סאה. שוב מעשה ברום בתענת שקוות יתר מאלפים כור ובאו ושאלו את ר' חנניא בן תרדיון ופסל שאני אומר נכנסו עובדי כוכבים וזלפוה בלילה וחזרו ומילאו אותו בקילון. ומעשה בר\"ג ואונקלוס הגר שהיו באשקלון וטבל ר\"ג במרחץ ואונקלוס בים. אמר ר' יהושע בן קופסאי עמהן הייתי ולא טבל ר\"ג אלא בים.",
52. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 229
53. Josephus Flavius, Life, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 229, 436
54. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.198, 2.203 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 112
2.198. Now the law has appointed several purifications at our sacrifices, whereby we are cleansed after a funeral after what sometimes happens to us in bed, and after accompanying with our wives, and upon many other occasions, which it would be too long now to set down. And this is our doctrine concerning God and his worship, and is the same that the law appoints for our practice. /p 2.203. Moreover, the law enjoins, that after the man and wife have lain together in a regular way, they shall bathe themselves; for there is a defilement contracted thereby, both in soul and body, as if they had gone into another country; for indeed the soul, by being united to the body, is subject to miseries, and is not freed therefrom again but by death; on which account the law requires this purification to be entirely performed. 26.
55. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.120-2.122, 2.128, 2.137-2.138, 2.143-2.144, 2.160-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128, 436
2.120. These Essenes reject pleasures as an evil, but esteem continence, and the conquest over our passions, to be virtue. They neglect wedlock, but choose out other persons’ children, while they are pliable, and fit for learning, and esteem them to be of their kindred, and form them according to their own manners. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.160. 13. Moreover, there is another order of Essenes, who agree with the rest as to their way of living, and customs, and laws, but differ from them in the point of marriage, as thinking that by not marrying they cut off the principal part of human life, which is the prospect of succession; nay, rather, that if all men should be of the same opinion, the whole race of mankind would fail. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
56. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.117, 18.261, 20.97 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 229, 376, 451
18.117. for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. 18.261. 2. Hereupon Caius, taking it very heinously that he should be thus despised by the Jews alone, sent Petronius to be president of Syria, and successor in the government to Vitellius, and gave him order to make an invasion into Judea, with a great body of troops; and if they would admit of his statue willingly, to erect it in the temple of God; but if they were obstinate, to conquer them by war, and then to do it. 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it;
57. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111
3.4. "שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:", 3.4. "Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer [questions relating to torah] in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this [statue of Aphrodite] stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. [In the torah] it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.",
58. Tosefta, Toharot, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 18
59. Tosefta, Shevi It, 4.6-4.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 113
4.6. "מודה ר' עקיבה שאין זורעין ואין חורשין ואין מנכשין בסוריא לפי שאין כיוצא בהן [מותר] בארץ שכל כיוצא בו מותר בארץ עושין אותו בסוריא אין עושין אותו במחובר בקרקע בסוריא אבל עוקרין ואוגד על ידיהן ובלבד שלא יהא הוא מלקט והן אוגדין על ידיו בוצרין ודורך על ידיהן מוסקין ואוטם על ידיהן בד\"א במוציא פירות לחבירו מתוך ביתו או ששלח לו חבירו פירות אבל הלוקח לו מן השוק הרי זה [מלקט ביד] ואינו חושש.", 4.7. "בצלים שנכנסו מערב שביעית לשביעית או שיצאו משביעית למוצאי שביעית אם עשו כיוצא בהן מותרין ואם לאו אסורין אמר ר' יוסי מעשה שזרעו כרם גדול בצלים בציפורי למוצאי שביעית זרעוהו שעורין והיו פועלין יורדין ומנכשין בתוכו ומביאין ירק בתוך קופותיהן ובא מעשה לפני ר' יוחנן בן נורי ואמר אם עשו כיוצא בהן מותרין ואם לאו אסורין.", 4.8. "אוכלין עלי ירק מן האפיל על הבכיר מן הרחוק על הקרוב הותר מקום אחד הותרו כל המקומות הלוף והשום והבצלים הותרו יבשים הותרו לחין לא הותרו יבשים עד שתגיע הגורן אין מינו מתיר [את] מינו ואין מתירין את מינן אלא ע\"פ חכם וכולן למוצאי שביעית חייבות במעשרות.", 4.9. "ירק שנטעו בערב ראש השנה של שביעית הרי זה לא יטול ממנו בשביעית עד [שיתיר את החדש] ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר נוטל הימנו שלו ומכניס לתוך ביתו אע\"פ שאין כיוצא בהן נמכר בשוק.", 4.11. "פירות שביעית שבאו לארץ אין מוכרין אותם לא במדה ולא במשקל ולא במנין אלא הרי הן כפירות הארץ.",
60. Tosefta, Sotah, 6.6-6.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
6.6. "ר' נחמיה אומר ומה אברהם שלא היה לו אלא בן אחד והקריבו ירש את הארץ אנו [שבנינו ובנותינו מקריבין] לעבודת כוכבים אינו דין שנירש את הארץ ר\"א בנו של ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר ומה אברהם שלא היה לו במי לתלות ירש את הארץ אנו שיש לנו במי לתלות אינו דין שנירש את הארץ [ואני אומר ומה אברהם שלא נצטוה אלא מצוה יחידית ירש את הארץ אנו שנצטוינו על כל מצות אינו דין שנירש את הארץ] תדע שכן תשמע מתשובה שהנביא משיבן אתה למד שנא' (יחזקאל ל״ג:כ״ה) כה אמר ה' על הדם תאכלו וגו' [עמדתם] על חרבכם וגו' [על הדם תאכלו] <ואת הארץ> זה אבר מן החי ועיניכם תשאו אל גלוליכם זו עבודת כוכבים ודם תשפכו זו שפיכות דמים עמדתם על חרבכם זו עינוי [דין] וגזל עשיתן תועבה זו משכב זכור ואיש את אשת רעהו טמאתם [זו] גילוי ערוה והלא דברים ק\"ו ומה שבע מצות שנצטוו עליהן בני נח לא עשיתן לפני ואתם אומרים נירש את הארץ ורואה אני את דברי מדברי ר' עקיבה.", 6.7. "דרש ר\"ע הרי הוא אומר (זכריה ח׳:י״ט) כה אמר ה' צום הרביעי וצום החמישי וצום השביעי וצום העשירי וגו' צום הרביעי [זה י\"ז בתמוז] שבו הובקעה העיר ולמה נקרא שמו רביעי שהוא רביעי לחדשים צום החמישי [זו] ט' באב יום שנשרף בו [בה\"מ] ולמה נקרא שמו חמישי שהוא [חדש] חמישי צום השביעי זה שלשה בתשרי יום שנהרג בו גדליה בן אחיקם [שהרגו ישמעאל בן נתניה ללמדך שקשה מיתתן של צדיקים לפני המקום כחורבן בה\"מ] ולמה נקרא שמו שביעי שהוא [בחדש] שביעי צום העשירי זה עשרה בטבת [יום] שבו סמך מלך בבל את ידו על ירושלים שנאמר (יחזקאל כ״ד:א׳) ויהי דבר ה' אלי בשנה התשיעית בחדש העשירי וגו' בן אדם כתב לך [וגו' ואני אומר] צום העשירי זה חמשה בטבת שבו באתה שמועה לבני גולה שנאמר (יחזקאל ל״ג:כ״א) ויהי בשתי עשרה שנה בעשירי בחמישי לחדש לגלותינו בא אלי הפליט [וגו' שמעו] ועשו יום שמועה כיום שרפה [והלא זה ראוי לכתב ראשונה למה נכתב באחרונה להסדיר חדשים כסדרן ורואה אני את דברי מדברי ר\"ע שר\"ע אומר על ראשון אחרון ועל אחרון ראשון ואני אומר על ראשון ראשון ועל אחרון אחרון]. ",
61. Tosefta, Zevahim, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
62. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Metsia, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
5.1. "כלי גללים וכלי אבנים וכלי אדמה הבאין במדה ר' מאיר אומר הרי הן ככלים וחכמים אומרין הרי הן כאהלין רבי נחמיה אומר קופות גדולות וסוגין הגדולים שיש להן שוליים והן מחזיקין מ' סאין בלח שהם כוריים ביבש אע\"פ שאין מטלטלין במשתייר בהן וכמה הן אמה על אמה על רום שליש ישנן שש מאות ארבעים ושמונה טפח ראיה לדבר ממדת השלחן. ר' יוסי אומר בים שעשה שלמה הוא אומר (דברי הימים ב ד׳:ה׳) מחזיק בתים שלשת אלפים יכיל במקום אחר הוא אומר (מלכים א ז׳:כ״ו) אלפים בת יכיל א\"א לומר אלפים שכבר נאמר שלשת אלפים ואי אפשר לומר שלשת אלפים שכבר נאמר אלפים אמור מעתה אלפים בלח שלשת אלפים ביבש. החזיונות שבטרקלין בעלי בתים האוכלים עליהם שאע\"פ שחולקים כצפורן טמאין מפני שהן כטבלא ומעשה בבעל הבית אחד שהיו לו נצרים בתוך והיו שואלין אותן לבית האבל ולבית המשתה ובא מעשה לפני חכמים וטמאום.", 5.1. "חומר בכלי פפיר מכלי נצרין שאין מקבלין טומאה אלא משתגמר מלאכתן וכלי פפיר כיון שעשה חור אחד על גבי הרחב שלהן טמאין. ",
63. Tosefta, Tevulyom, 1.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 18
64. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 22.4, 25.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 115, 127
22.4. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ, עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים עַל גַּבֵּי נַהֲרָא וְחָמָא חָדָא אוּרְדְּעָן טָעֲנָא חָדָא עַקְרָב וּמְגִזְתֵּיהּ נַהֲרָא, אָמַר זוֹ מוּכֶנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָא אַגִּיזְתָּא נַהֲרָא וַאֲזָלַת וַעֲבָדַת שְׁלִיחוּתָהּ וַחֲזָרַת יָתָהּ לְאַתְרָהּ, וְנִשְׁמַע קוֹל יְלָלָה בָּעִיר פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ עַקְרָב וָמֵת. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָנִין דְּצִפּוֹרִי אָמַר עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים וְחָפַר בַּהֲדָא בִּקְעַת בֵּית שׁוֹפָרֵי, חָמָא חַד עֵשֶׂב וְלָקֵיט יָתֵיהּ וְעָבְדָא כְּלִילָא לְרֵאשֵׁיהּ, אָזַל חַד חִוְיָא וּמָחָא יָתֵיהּ וְקָטַל יָתֵיהּ, אָתָא חַד חָבֵר וְקָם לֵיהּ סָקַר בְּהַהוּא חִוְיָא אָמַר תָּמַהּ אֲנָא עַל מַאן דְּקָטַל הֲדָא חִוְיָא, אֲמַר הַהוּא גַבְרָא אֲנָא קְטָלִית יָתֵיהּ, תָּלָה אַפּוֹי וְחָמָא הַהוּא עִשְׂבָּא עָבֵיד בָּהּ כְּלִילָא עַל רֵישֵׁיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן קוּשְׁטָא אֲנָא קְטָלִית יָתֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ יָכֵיל מֵרִים הָדֵין עִשְׂבָּא מִן רֵישָׁא, אָמַר לֵיהּ אִין, כֵּיוָן דְּאָרֵים יָתֵיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ יָכֵיל קָרֵב הָדֵין חִוְיָא בְּהָדֵין חוּטְרָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, כֵּיוָן דְּקָרַב לְהַהוּא חִוְיָא מִיָּד נָשְׁלוּ אֵבָרָיו. רַבִּי יַנַּאי הֲוָה יָתֵיב מַתְנֵי עַל תְּרַע קַרְתָּא, וְרָאָה נָחָשׁ אֶחָד מַרְתִּיעַ וּבָא וַהֲוָה מְרַדֵּף לֵיהּ מִן הָדֵין סִטְרָא וְהוּא חָזַר מִן הָדֵין סִטְרָא, אָמַר זֶה מוּכָן לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, מִיָּד נָפְלָה הֲבָרָה בָּעִיר אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ נָחָשׁ וָמֵת. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה יָתֵיב וּמְטַיֵּיל בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, אָתָא חַד רוֹמִי וּמְקִים יָתֵיהּ וִיתֵיב, אֲמַר הֲדָא לָא עַל מַגָּן, מִיָּד נָפְקָא חַד חִוְיָא וּמָחָא יָתֵיהּ וְקָטְלֵיהּ, קָרֵי עֲלֵיהּ (ישעיה מג, ד): וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל חָדָא שׁוּנִיתָא דְּיַמָּא דְקֵיסָרִין וְרָאָה קוּלְיָא אַחַת שֶׁהָיְתָה מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת וּבָאָה וַהֲוָה מַצְנַע לָהּ וְהָא מִתְגַּלְגְּלָא, אָמַר זוֹ מוּכֶנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָא, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין עָבַר חַד בַּלְדָּר, אִתְגַּלְגְּלַת בֵּין רַגְלָיו וְנִכְשַׁל בָּהּ וְנָפַל וּמֵת, אָזְלִין וּפַשְׁפְּשׁוּנֵיהּ וְאַשְׁכְּחוּן יָתֵיהּ טָעַן כְּתָבִין בִּישִׁין עַל יְהוּדָאי דְקֵיסָרִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הֲוָה עַסְקָן בִּדְבָרִים, הֲוָה לֵיהּ חַד פַּרְדֵּס, חַד זְמַן הֲוָה יָתֵיב בֵּיהּ וַהֲוָה בֵּיהּ חַד סַדָּן, חָמָא הֲדָא דוּכִיפַת דְּעָבֵיד לֵיהּ קֵן בְּגַוָּהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַה בָּעֵי הָדֵין עוֹפָא מְסָאֲבָא בַּהֲדֵין פַּרְדֵּס, אָזַל רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן וְסָתְרֵיהּ לְהַהוּא קִנָּא, אָזַל הַהוּא דוּכִיפַת וְתַקְנֵיהּ, מָה עֲבַד רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָזַל אַיְיתֵי חַד לוּחַ וְיַהֲבָהּ בְּאַפּוֹי דְהַהוּא קִנָּא וִיהַב בֵּיהּ חַד מַסְמֵר. מָה עֲבַד הַהוּא דוּכִיפַת אָזַל אַיְיתֵי חַד עֵשֶׂב וְיַהֲבֵיהּ עַל הַהוּא מַסְמְרָא וְשָׂרְפֵהּ. מָה עֲבַד רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָמַר טוֹב לְמִגְנְזָא הָדֵין עִשְׂבָּא דְּלָא יֵילְפוּן גַּנָּבַיָא לְמֶעְבַּד כֵּן וְיַחְרְבוּן בְּרִיָּיתָא. חֲמַרְתָּא דְּרַבִּי יַנַּאי אֲכָלַת עִשְׂבָּא וְאִיסְתַּמֵּית וַאֲכָלַת עִשְׂבָּא אָחֳרִי וְאִתְפַּתְּחַת. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בִּתְרֵין גַּבְרֵי דַּהֲווֹ עָיְלִין בְּאִילֵין שְׁבִילַיָּא דִּטְבֶרְיָא, חַד סַמְיָא וְחַד מְפַתַּח, וַהֲוָה הַהִיא פְּתִיחָה גָּדֵישׁ לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא סַמְיָא, יָתְבוּן לְמִקַרְטָא בְּאוֹרְחָא וַאֲרָעַת שַׁעְתָּא וְאָכְלִין מִן עִשְׂבָּא, דֵין דַּהֲוָה סַמֵּי אִתְפַּתַּח וְדֵין דַּהֲוָה פָּתִיחַ אִסְתַּמֵּי, וְלָא עָלוּן מִן תַּמָּן עַד דִּגְדַשׁ הַהוּא סַמְיָא לִפְתִיחָא. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה סָלֵיק מִן בָּבֶל, יָתֵיב לְמִקַרְטָא בְּאוֹרְחָא, וְחָמָא תַּרְתֵּין צִפֳּרִין מִתְנַצְיָין חָדָא עִם חָדָא, וְקָטְלַת חָדָא מִנְּהוֹן חֲבֶרְתָּהּ, אָזְלַת הַהִיא אַחְרִיתֵּי וְאַתְיָא עִשְׂבָּא וִיהַב עֲלָהּ וְאַחְיַית יָתָהּ, אֲמַר טַב לִי נְסַב מִן הָדֵין עִשְׂבָּא וְאַחְיֵה בֵּיהּ מֵתַיָא דְאַרְעָא דְיִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּי פָרֵי וְסָלַק חָמָא חַד תַּעֲלָא מִית מִקְלַק בְּאוֹרְחָא, אֲמַר טַב לִי מְנַסְיָא בַּהֲדֵין תַּעֲלָא, וִיהַב עֲלֵיהּ וְאַחְיֵיהּ, וְסָלֵיק עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסוּלַמֵּי צוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסוּלַמֵּי צוֹר חָמֵי חַד אֲרִי קְטֵיל וּמִקְלַק בְּאָרְחָא, אֲמַר טַב לִי מְנַסְיָא בַּהֲדֵין אֲרִי, וִיהַב עֲלוֹהִי מִן עִשְׂבָּא וַחֲיָה, וְקָם וַאֲכַל יָתֵיהּ, הוּא דִּבְרִיָּתָא אָמְרֵי טַב לְבִישׁ עֲבַדְתְּ בִּישָׁא עֲבַדְתְּ, טַב לְבִישׁ לָא תַעֲבֵיד וּבִישׁ לָא מָטֵי לָךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַיִם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּמֻכֶּה שְׁחִין אֶחָד שֶׁיָּרַד לִטְבֹּל בִּטְבֶרְיָא וַאֲרָעַת שַׁעְתָּא וְטָפַת לְבֵירָא דְמִרְיָם וְאַסְחֵי וְאִתְּסֵי, וְהֵיכָן הִיא בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּתִיב (במדבר כא, כ): וְנִשְׁקָפָה עַל פְּנֵי הַיְשִׁימֹן, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹלֶה עַל רֹאשׁ הַר יְשִׁימוֹן וְרוֹאֶה כְּמִין כְּבָרָה קְטַנָּה בְּיַם טְבֶרְיָא, זוֹ הִיא בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי שַׁעֲרוּתָא רַבָּנָן וְהוּא מְכַוְּנָא כָּל קְבֵיל תַּרְעֵי מְצִיעַיָא דִכְנִשְׁתָּא עַתִּיקָא דִטְבֶרְיָא. 25.5. מִי שָׁת בַּטֻּחוֹת חָכְמָה (איוב לח, לו), מַהוּ בַּטֻחוֹת, בַּטָּוָיָא, (איוב לח, לו): אוֹ מִי נָתַן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה, הֲדָא תַּרְנְגוֹלְתָּא אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּעֲרָבְיָא צָוְחִין לְתַרְנְגוֹלְתָּא שֶׂכְוִיא, הֲדָא תַּרְנְגוֹלְתָּא כַּד אֶפְרוֹחֶיהָ דַּקִּיקִין הִיא מְכַנְשָׁא לְהוֹן וְיַהֲבַת לְהוֹן תְּחוֹת אֲגַפַּיָּא וּמְשַׁחֲנָה לְהוֹן וּמַעֲדַרְנָה קֳדָמֵיהוֹן, וְכַד אִינוּן רַבְיָה חַד מִנְהוֹן בָּעֵי לְמִקְרַב לְוָתֵיהּ וְהִיא נָקְרָה לֵיהּ בְּגוֹ רֵישֵׁיהּ, וַאֲמָרַת לֵיהּ זִיל עֲדוֹר בְּקוּקַלְתָּךְ, כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָיָה הַמָּן יוֹרֵד וְהַבְּאֵר עוֹלֶה לָהֶן וְהַשְּׂלָיו מָצוּי לָהֶן, וְעַנְנֵי כָבוֹד מַקִּיפוֹת אוֹתָן, וְעַמּוּד עָנָן מַסִּיעַ לִפְנֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ אָמַר לָהֶם משֶׁה כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִכֶּם יִטְעוֹן מַכּוּשֵׁיהּ וְיִפּוֹק וְיִנְצוֹב לֵיהּ נְצִיבִין, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם. אַדְרִיָּנוּס שְׁחִיק טְמַיָּא הֲוָה עָבַר בְּאִלֵּין שְׁבִילַיָיא דִּטְבֶרְיָא וְחָמָא חַד גְּבַר סַב קָאֵים וְחָצֵיב חֲצוּבָן לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ סָבָא סָבָא אִי קָרַצְתְּ לָא חֲשַׁכְתְּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ קְרִיצַת וַחֲשִׁיכַת, וּמַה דְּהַנֵּי לְמָרֵי שְׁמַיָא עֲבֵיד, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּחַיֶּיךָ סָבָא בַּר כַּמָּה שְׁנִין אַתְּ יוֹמָא דֵין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בַּר מְאָה שְׁנִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאַתְּ בַּר מְאָה שְׁנִין וְקָאֵים וְחָצֵיב חֲצוּבִין לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, סָבַר דְּאַתְּ אָכֵיל מִנְּהוֹן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין זָכִית אֲכָלִית, וְאִם לָאו כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיָּגְעוּ לִי אֲבָהָתִי, כָּךְ אֲנִי יָגֵעַ לְבָנַי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּחַיָּיךְ, אִם זָכִית אָכוֹל מִנְהוֹן תֶּהֱוֵה מוֹדַע לִי. לְסוֹף יוֹמִין עָבְדִין תְּאֵנַיָא, אֲמַר הָא עָנָתָה נוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא, מָה עֲבַד מְלָא קַרְטְלָא תְּאֵינִין וְסָלַק וְקָם לֵיהּ עַל תְּרַע פָּלָטִין, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לוֹן עֲלוֹן קֳדָם מַלְכָּא, כֵּיוָן דְּעָל אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא סָבָא דַּעֲבַרְתְּ עָלַי וַאֲנָא חָצֵיב חֲצִיבִין לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, וַאֲמַרְתְּ לִי אִין זָכִית תֵּיכוֹל מִנְּהוֹן תְּהֵא מוֹדַע לִי, הָא זָכִיתִי וַאֲכֵילִית מִנְּהוֹן וְהֵילֵין תְּאֵינַיָא מִן פֵּרֵיהוֹן. אֲמַר אַדְרִיָּנוּס בְּהַהִיא שַׁעְתָּא קְלָווֹנִין אֲנָא תִּתְּנוּן סֵילוֹן דְּדַהֲבָא וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ, אֲמַר קְלַווֹנִין אֲנָא דִּתְפַנּוּן הָדֵין קַרְטַל דִּידֵיהּ וּתְמַלּוּן יָתֵיהּ דִּינָרִין. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַבְדוֹהִי כָּל הָדֵין מוֹקְרָא תְּיַקְרִינֵיהּ לְהָדֵין סָבָא דִּיהוּדָאֵי, אֲמַר לְהוֹן בָּרְיֵה אוֹקְרֵיא וַאֲנָא לָא אֲנָא מוֹקַר לֵיהּ. אִנְתְּתֵיהּ דִּמְגֵירָא הֲוַת בְּרַת פַּחִין, אָמְרָה לְבַעְלָהּ בַּר קַבָּלוּי חָמֵי דַּהֲדָא מַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, מָה עֲבַד מְלָא מַרְעֲלֵיהּ תֵּינִין וַאֲזַל וְקָם קֳדָם פָּלָטִין, אֲמָרוּן לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לוֹן שְׁמָעֵית דְּמַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, עָלוֹן וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא חַד סָבָא קָאֵים עַל תְּרַע פָּלָטִין טָעֵין מְלָא מַרְעֲלֵיהּ תֵּינִין, וַאֲמַרְנָא לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ אֲמַר לָן שְׁמָעֵית דְּמַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, אֲמַר קְלָווֹנִין אֲנָא דִּתְקִימוּן יָתֵיהּ קֳדָם תְּרַע פָּלָטִין וְכָל מַאן דְּעָיֵיל וְנָפֵיק יְהֵי טָרֵי עַל אַפֵּיהּ. בְּאַפְתֵּי רַמְשָׁא פַּנּוּן יָתֵיהּ וַאֲזַל לְבֵיתֵיהּ, אֲמַר לְאִנְתְּתֵיהּ כְּכָל הָדֵין יְקָרָא אֲנָא שְׁלִים לָךְ, אֲמַרָה אָזֵיל גְּלוֹג לְאִמָּךְ דַּהֲווֹן אִינוּן תֵּינִין וְלָא הֲווֹן אֶתְרוֹגִין, דַּהֲווֹן בְּשִׁילָן וְלָא פְגִינָן.
65. Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition, 16, 41, 35 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 134
66. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 46.2, 80.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 112, 229
67. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 39, 51 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 113
68. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 4.22.142 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111, 112, 133
69. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 11.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 134
11.8. Then there came to Him from Jerusalem Pharisees and scribes, saying, Why do Your disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? For they wash not their hands when they eat bread. Matthew 15:1-2 He who observes at what time the Pharisees and scribes came from Jerusalem to Jesus, saying, Why do Your disciples transgress the tradition of the elders, etc., will perceive that Matthew of necessity wrote not simply that Pharisees and scribes from Jerusalem came to the Saviour to inquire of Him the matters before us, but put it thus, Then come to Him from Jerusalem. What time, therefore, are we to understand by then? At the time when Jesus and His disciples crossed over and came in the boat to the land of Gennesaret, when the wind ceased from the time that Jesus entered into the boat, and when the men of that place knowing Him sent into all that region round about, and brought unto Him all that were sick, and besought Him that they might touch if it were only the border of His garment, and as many as touched were made whole. Matthew 14:35-36 At that time came to Him from Jerusalem Pharisees and scribes, not struck with admiration at the power which was in Jesus, which healed those who only touched even the border of His garment, but in a censorious spirit, accusing the disciples before their Teacher, not concerning the transgression of a commandment of God, but of a single tradition of the Jewish elders. And it is probable that this very charge of these censorious persons is a proof of the piety of the disciples of Jesus, who gave to the Pharisees and scribes no opportunity of censure with reference to the transgression of the commandments of God, as they would not have brought the charge of transgression against the disciples, as transgressing the commandment of the elders, if they had had it in their power to censure those whom they accused, and to show that they were transgressing a commandment of God. But do not suppose that these things go to establish the necessity of keeping the law of Moses according to the letter, because the disciples of Jesus up to that time kept it; for not before He suffered did He redeem us from the curse of the law, Galatians 3:13 who in suffering for men became a curse for us. But just as fittingly Paul became a Jew to the Jews that he might gain Jews, 1 Corinthians 9:20 what strange thing is it that the Apostles, whose way of life was passed among the Jews, even though they understood the spiritual things in the law, should have used a spirit of accommodation, as Paul also did when he circumcised Timothy, Galatians 2:3 and offered sacrifice in accordance with a certain legal vow, as is written in the Acts of the Apostles? Only, again, they appear fond of bringing accusations, as they have no charge to bring against the disciples of Jesus with reference to a commandment of God, but only with reference to one tradition of the elders. And especially does this love of accusation become manifest in this, that they bring the charge in presence of those very persons who had been healed from their sickness; in appearance against the disciples, but in reality purposing to slander their Teacher, as it was a tradition of the elders that the washing of hands was a thing essential to piety. For they thought that the hands of those who did not wash before eating bread were defiled and unclean, but that the hands of those who had washed them with water became pure and holy, not in a figurative sense, in due relation to the law of Moses according to the letter. But let us, not according to the tradition of the elders among the Jews, but according to sound reason, endeavour to purify our own actions and so to wash the hands of our souls, when we are about to eat the three loaves which we ask from Jesus, who wishes to be our friend; for with hands that are defiled and unwashed and impure, we ought not to partake of the loaves.
70. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 7.8.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 134
71. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 451
64a. שנאמר (דברי הימים א כו, ה) פעלתי השמיני וכתיב (דברי הימים א כו, ה) כי ברכו אלהים (דברי הימים א כו, ח) כל אלה [מבני] (ל) עובד אדום המה ובניהם ואחיהם (אנשי) [איש] חיל בכח לעבודה ששים ושנים לעובד אדום,אמר ר' אבין הלוי כל הדוחק את השעה שעה דוחקתו וכל הנדחה מפני השעה שעה נדחת מפניו,מדרבה ורב יוסף דרב יוסף סיני ורבה עוקר הרים אצטריכא להו שעתא שלחו להתם סיני ועוקר הרים איזה מהם קודם שלחו להו סיני קודם שהכל צריכין למרי חטיא אף על פי כן לא קבל עליו ר' יוסף דאמרי ליה כלדאי מלכת תרתין שנין,מלך רבה עשרין ותרתין שנין מלך רב יוסף תרתין שנין ופלגא,כל הנך שני דמלך רבה אפילו אומנא לביתיה לא קרא:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים כ, ב) יענך ה' ביום צרה ישגבך שם אלהי יעקב אלהי יעקב ולא אלהי אברהם ויצחק מכאן לבעל הקורה שיכנס בעביה של קורה:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי כל הנהנה מסעודה שתלמיד חכם שרוי בתוכה כאילו נהנה מזיו שכינה שנאמר (שמות יח, יב) ויבא אהרן וכל זקני ישראל לאכל לחם עם חותן משה לפני האלהים וכי לפני אלהים אכלו והלא לפני משה אכלו,אלא לומר לך כל הנהנה מסעודה שתלמיד חכם שרוי בתוכה כאילו נהנה מזיו שכינה:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי הנפטר מחברו אל יאמר לו לך בשלום אלא לך לשלום שהרי יתרו שאמר לו למשה (שמות ד, יח) לך לשלום עלה והצליח דוד שאמר לו לאבשלום (שמואל ב טו, ט) לך בשלום הלך ונתלה:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי הנפטר מן המת אל יאמר לו לך לשלום אלא לך בשלום שנאמר (בראשית טו, טו) ואתה תבא אל אבותיך בשלום:,אמר רבי לוי בר חייא היוצא מבית הכנסת ונכנס לבית המדרש ועוסק בתורה זוכה ומקבל פני שכינה שנאמר (תהלים פד, ח) ילכו מחיל אל חיל יראה אל אלהים בציון.,אמר רבי חייא בר אשי אמר רב תלמידי חכמים אין להם מנוחה לא בעולם הזה ולא בעולם הבא שנאמר ילכו מחיל אל חיל יראה אל אלהים בציון:,אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא תלמידי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, יג) וכל בניך למודי ה' ורב שלום בניך,אל תקרי בניך אלא בוניך (תהלים קיט, קסה) שלום רב לאוהבי תורתך ואין למו מכשול (תהלים קכב, ז) יהי שלום בחילך שלוה בארמנותיך (תהלים קכב, ח) למען אחי ורעי אדברה נא שלום בך (תהלים קכב, ט) למען בית ה' אלהינו אבקשה טוב לך (תהלים כט, יא) ה' עוז לעמו יתן ה' יברך את עמו בשלום:, br br big strongהדרן עלך הרואה וסליקא לה מסכת ברכות /strong /big br br
72. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
105a. אילימא בית שמאי אומרים מקנח ולא בעי מדיח ובית הלל אומרים מדיח ולא בעי מקנח אלא הא דאמר רבי זירא אין קינוח פה אלא בפת כמאן כב"ש,אלא בית שמאי אומרים מקנח ולא בעי מדיח ובית הלל אומרים אף מדיח הוי ליה מקולי בית שמאי ומחומרי בית הלל ולתנייה גבי קולי בית שמאי וחומרי בית הלל,אלא בית שמאי אומרים מקנח והוא הדין למדיח וב"ה אומרים מדיח והוא הדין למקנח מר אמר חדא ומר אמר חדא ולא פליגי,גופא אמר רבי זירא אין קינוח הפה אלא בפת והני מילי בדחיטי אבל בדשערי לא,ודחיטי נמי לא אמרן אלא בקרירא אבל בחמימא משטר שטרי והני מילי ברכיכא אבל באקושא לא והלכתא בכל מילי הוי קינוח לבר מקמחא תמרי וירקא,בעא מיניה רב אסי מרבי יוחנן כמה ישהה בין בשר לגבינה א"ל ולא כלום איני והא אמר רב חסדא אכל בשר אסור לאכול גבינה גבינה מותר לאכול בשר אלא כמה ישהה בין גבינה לבשר א"ל ולא כלום,גופא אמר רב חסדא אכל בשר אסור לאכול גבינה גבינה מותר לאכול בשר אמר ליה רב אחא בר יוסף לרב חסדא בשר שבין השינים מהו,קרי עליה (במדבר יא, לג) הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם,אמר מר עוקבא אנא להא מלתא חלא בר חמרא לגבי אבא דאילו אבא כי הוה אכיל בשרא האידנא לא הוה אכל גבינה עד למחר עד השתא ואילו אנא בהא סעודתא הוא דלא אכילנא לסעודתא אחריתא אכילנא,אמר שמואל אנא להא מלתא חלא בר חמרא לגבי אבא דאילו אבא הוה סייר נכסיה תרי זמני ביומא ואנא לא סיירנא אלא חדא זימנא שמואל לטעמיה דאמר שמואל מאן דסייר נכסיה כל יומא משכח אסתירא,אביי הוה סייר נכסיה כל יומא ויומא יומא חד פגע באריסיה דדרי פתכא דאופי אמר ליה הני להיכא אמר ליה לבי מר אמר ליה כבר קדמוך רבנן,רב אסי הוה סייר נכסיה כל יומא אמר היכא נינהו כל הני אסתירי דמר שמואל יומא חד חזא צינורא דבדקא בארעיה שקליה לגלימיה כרכיה אותביה בגוה רמא קלא אתו אינשי סכרוה אשכחתינהו לכולהו איסתרי דמר שמואל:,אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיין מים ראשונים מצוה ואחרונים חובה,מיתיבי מים ראשונים ואחרונים חובה אמצעיים רשות מצוה לגבי רשות חובה קרי לה,גופא מים ראשונים ואחרונים חובה אמצעיים רשות ראשונים נוטלין בין בכלי בין על גבי קרקע אחרונים אין נוטלין אלא בכלי ואמרי לה אין נוטלין על גבי קרקע,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו קינסא,מים ראשונים נוטלין בין בחמין בין בצונן אחרונים אין נוטלין אלא בצונן מפני שחמין מפעפעין את הידים ואין מעבירין את הזוהמא: מים ראשונים נוטלין בין בחמין בין בצונן: אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי ינאי לא שנו אלא שאין היד 105a. b If we say /b that b Beit Shammai say /b that one b wipes /b out his mouth with solid food b and does not need /b to b rinse /b his mouth with water, since they maintain that wiping is more effective than rinsing, b and Beit Hillel say /b that he b rinses /b his mouth in water b and does not need /b to b wipe /b his mouth, as rinsing is more effective, one can respond: b But /b as for b that which Rabbi Zeira said: Wiping of /b the b mouth /b can be performed b only with bread, in accordance with whose /b opinion is it? It is apparently b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Beit Shammai, /b since Beit Hillel do not require wiping. Yet, it is unlikely that Rabbi Zeira would rule in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai rather than Beit Hillel., b Rather, /b one must explain the dispute as follows: b Beit Shammai say /b that one b wipes /b his mouth after eating meat b and does not need /b to b rinse /b his mouth as well, b and Beit Hillel say /b that in addition to wiping one must b also rinse. /b This interpretation is difficult as well, since if so, this b constitutes /b one b of the /b disputes between them that involve b leniencies of Beit Shammai and stringencies of Beit Hillel, and /b consequently, b let /b the i tanna /i of tractate i Eduyyot /i b teach it alongside /b the other disputes listed there that involve b leniencies of Beit Shammai and stringencies of Beit Hillel. /b , b Rather, /b one must interpret their statements as follows: b Beit Shammai say /b that one b wipes /b his mouth after eating meat, b and the same is true of rinsing, /b i.e., one must rinse his mouth as well. b And Beit Hillel say /b that one b rinses /b his mouth, b and the same is true of wiping. /b And b one Sage said one /b statement b and one Sage said another /b statement, b and they do not disagree. /b ,§ After citing Rabbi Zeira’s statement tangentially, the Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself. Rabbi Zeira says: Wiping of the mouth /b can be performed b only with bread. /b The Gemara explains: b And this statement /b applies only b to /b bread prepared b from wheat /b flour. b But with regard to /b bread prepared b from barley /b flour, one may b not /b use it for wiping, as barley bread crumbles in the mouth and does not wipe thoroughly.,The Gemara adds: b And even /b in the case of bread prepared b from wheat /b flour, b we said /b the i halakha /i b only with regard to cold /b bread, b but /b as b for warm /b bread, it is ineffective for wiping even if made of wheat, as it softens and b sticks /b to the palate, and it does not wipe the mouth properly. b And /b furthermore, even if the bread is cold, b this statement /b applies only b with regard to soft /b bread, b but /b one may b not /b wipe b with hard /b bread, as it also does not clean effectively. The Gemara concludes: b And the i halakha /i is /b that the use b of all items constitutes /b effective b wiping, except for flour, dates, and vegetables. /b ,§ b Rav Asi posed a dilemma to Rabbi Yoḥa: How much /b time b should one wait between /b eating b meat and /b eating b cheese? /b Rabbi Yoḥa b said to him: No /b time b at all. /b The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But doesn’t Rav Ḥisda say: /b If one b ate meat, /b it is b prohibited /b for him b to eat cheese /b immediately, but if he ate b cheese /b it is b permitted /b for him b to eat meat /b without delay? b Rather, /b Rav Asi actually asked Rabbi Yoḥa the following question: b How much /b time b should one wait between /b eating b cheese and /b eating b meat? /b In response to this question, Rabbi Yoḥa b said to him: No /b time b at all. /b ,After tangentially citing a statement of Rav Ḥisda, the Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself. Rav Ḥisda says: /b If one b ate meat, /b it is b prohibited /b for him b to eat cheese /b immediately, as the meat contains fatty substances that stick to one’s mouth and preserve the flavor of meat. But if he ate b cheese /b it is b permitted /b for him b to eat meat /b without delay. b Rav Aḥa bar Yosef said to Rav Ḥisda: /b In the case of b meat that is between the teeth, what is /b the i halakha /i ? Are these remts considered meat to the extent that one may not eat cheese as long as they are in his mouth?,In response, Rav Ḥisda b read about him /b the following verse: b “While the meat was yet between their teeth” /b (Numbers 11:33). This verse indicates that even when the meat is between one’s teeth it is still considered meat, and therefore one may not partake of cheese until that meat has been removed., b Mar Ukva said: I am, with regard to this matter, /b like b vinegar, son of wine, with respect to Father, /b i.e., my practice is inferior to that of my father. b As Father, if he were to eat meat at this time, would not eat cheese until tomorrow at this time. But as for me, /b only b at this meal, /b during which I ate meat, b do I not eat /b cheese; b at a different meal /b on the same day b I /b will b eat /b cheese.,Similarly, b Shmuel said: I am, with regard to this /b other b matter, /b like b vinegar, son of wine, with respect to Father. As Father would patrol his property /b to examine it b twice daily, but I patrol /b it b only once /b a day. The Gemara notes: In this regard b Shmuel /b conforms b to his /b line of b reasoning, as Shmuel said: One who patrols his property every day will find an i asteira /i /b coin.,The Gemara relates that b Abaye would patrol his property each and every day. One day he encountered his sharecropper carrying a load of wood /b that the sharecropper intended to take for himself. Abaye b said to him: To where /b are you taking b these /b logs of wood? The sharecropper b said to him: To the Master’s house. /b Abaye, who knew that the sharecropper had intended to take the wood for himself, b said to him: The Sages already preempted you /b when they said that one should patrol his property regularly, and they thereby prevented you from stealing the wood.,The Gemara likewise relates that b Rav Asi would patrol his property every day. He said: Where are all these i asteira /i /b coins mentioned b by Mar Shmuel? /b This patrol is not reaping me any benefit. b One day he saw /b a water b channel that overflowed, /b causing water to flood b onto his land. He took off his cloak, wrapped it, and placed it inside /b the pipe to block the flow of water. b He /b then b raised /b his b voice, /b and b people came /b and b sealed /b the hole. He said: b I have /b just b found all the i asteira /i /b coins mentioned b by Mar Shmuel, /b as I would have suffered a great loss had I not patrolled my fields.,§ Having mentioned the manner of washing hands during a meal, the Gemara discusses another matter concerning washing hands. b Rav Idi bar Avin says /b that b Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan says: /b The b first waters, /b i.e., washing of the hands before eating bread, are b a mitzva /b by rabbinic law, b but /b the b final /b waters, washing of the hands upon conclusion of the meal and before reciting Grace after Meals, are b an obligation, /b a more stringent requirement.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to this ruling from a i baraita /i : The b first waters and /b the b final /b waters are b an obligation, /b whereas the b middle /b waters, between courses during the meal, are b optional. /b Apparently, the first waters are also an obligation, not a mitzva. The Gemara responds: Although the first waters are in fact a mitzva, the i tanna /i b calls a mitzva an obligation /b when b compared to an optional /b requirement.,The Gemara analyzes b the /b matter b itself. /b The full text of the i baraita /i is as follows: b First waters and final /b waters are b an obligation, /b whereas b middle /b waters are b optional. /b For b first /b waters, b one may wash either /b by spilling the water b into a vessel or onto the ground. /b But for b final /b waters, b one washes only /b by pouring the water b into a vessel. And some say /b a slightly different version of the i baraita /i : For final waters, b one may not wash /b by pouring the water b onto the ground. /b ,The Gemara interjects: b What is /b the difference b between /b these two versions? The Gemara answers: b There is /b a practical difference b between them /b with regard to pouring the water on thin wood b slivers /b on the ground. According to the first version, which requires that the water be poured into a vessel, one may not use such slivers for this purpose, whereas according to the second version, which merely prohibits pouring the water onto the ground, one may use wood slivers.,The i baraita /i continues: With regard to b first waters, one may wash either with hot /b water b or with cold /b water. But for b final /b waters, b one may wash only with cold /b water, b because hot /b water b softens the hands and does not remove the dirt /b from them. The Gemara analyzes the statement that for b first waters one may wash either with hot /b water b or with cold /b water: b Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef says /b that b Rabbi Yannai says: They taught /b this i halakha /i b only /b in a case b where the hand does not /b
73. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
18a. b And Rabbi Yehuda holds /b that the Rabbis and Rabbi Eliezer b disagree /b only b in those /b cases, where one’s intention is to drink the blood or burn the meat of the offering. In those cases, the Rabbis deem the offering fit, since the improper intention involves making use of the item in an unusual manner. But if one’s intention is b to leave /b of its blood until the next day, b everyone agrees /b that the offering is b unfit. What is the reason /b for this? It is a rabbinic b decree /b disqualifying the offering when b some of its blood /b is left over until the next day b due to /b the concern that a priest may intend to leave over b all of its blood, and /b if one’s intention is to leave b all of its blood /b until the next day, the offering is rendered b unfit by Torah law. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda said to /b the Rabbis: b Do you not concede to me that if he left /b the blood b until the next day /b without presenting it, b that /b the offering is b unfit? /b Therefore, if b he intended to leave /b the blood b until the next day, /b it is b also unfit. /b , b And Rabbi Elazar comes to say /b that b even in this /b case b Rabbi Eliezer deems /b the offering b unfit and the Rabbis deem /b it b fit, /b as there is no distinction between a case where one intended to drink of the blood on the next day and where one intended to merely leave the blood until the next day.,The Gemara asks: b And /b does b Rabbi Yehuda /b in fact b hold /b that if one’s intention is b to leave /b some b of the blood until the next day, everyone agrees /b that the offering is b unfit? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: When I went to Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua to clarify my knowledge, and some say /b that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I went b to clarify the knowledge of, /b i.e., study under, b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua, I found Yosef the Babylonian sitting before /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. b And /b every ruling that Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua taught b was especially dear to him, until /b they began discussing b one /b i halakha /i , when Yosef the Babylonian b said to him: My teacher, /b with regard to b one who slaughters the offering /b with the intention b to leave /b some b of its blood for the next day, what is /b the i halakha /i ?,Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him: /b The offering is b fit. /b Yosef the Babylonian repeated this question that b evening, /b and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him /b that the offering is b fit. /b He asked again the following b morning, /b and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him /b that the offering is b fit. /b Once again, he asked this question at b noon, /b and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him /b that the offering is b fit. /b When he asked the question a further time that late b afternoon, /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him: /b I hold that the offering is b fit, but Rabbi Eliezer deems /b it b unfit. Yosef the Babylonian’s face lit up [ i tzahavu panav /i ] /b with joy.,Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him: Yosef, it seems to me that our, /b i.e., my, b i halakhot /i were not accurate until now, /b when I said that the offering is fit. Yosef the Babylonian b said to him: My teacher, yes, /b I agree that the offering is fit, as you said. b But /b my reluctance to accept your statement was due to the fact b that Rabbi Yehuda taught me /b that the offering is b unfit, and I went around to all of /b Rabbi Yehuda’s b disciples, seeking another /b disciple who had also heard this from him, b but I could not find /b one, and thought that I must have been mistaken. b Now that you have taught me /b that Rabbi Eliezer deems it b unfit, you have returned to me that which I had lost. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: Upon hearing this, b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua’s eyes streamed with tears, /b and b he said: Happy are you, Torah scholars, for whom matters of Torah are exceedingly dear. /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b recited this verse about /b Yosef the Babylonian: b “O how I love Your Torah; it is my meditation all the day” /b (Psalms 119:97). He continued: b Because Rabbi Yehuda /b is b the son of Rabbi Elai, and Rabbi Elai /b is b the student of Rabbi Eliezer, therefore /b Rabbi Yehuda b taught you the mishna of Rabbi Eliezer /b that the offering is unfit.,The Gemara explains its objection: b And if it enters your mind /b that Rabbi Yehuda b taught /b Yosef the Babylonian that b all agree /b that the offering is b unfit, what /b did Yosef the Babylonian mean when he said to Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua: b You have returned to me that which I had lost? /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b had said to him /b only that whether the offering is rendered unfit is subject to b a dispute, /b and Yosef the Babylonian would have been taught that all agree that it is unfit., b Rather, what /b is it that Rabbi Yehuda taught Yosef the Babylonian? Did he b teach him /b that the Rabbis deem the offering b fit and Rabbi Eliezer deems /b it b unfit? If that is so, what /b did Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua mean when he said b that /b it was only b because /b Rabbi Yehuda was the son of Rabbi Elai, who was the student of Rabbi Eliezer, that Rabbi Yehuda taught this b dispute? /b According to Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua, b we too teach /b this b dispute. /b The fact that Rabbi Yehuda taught both opinions in a dispute does not require justification., b Rather, /b it must be that b actually, /b Rabbi Yehuda b taught /b Yosef the Babylonian that b all agree /b that the offering is b unfit; and what /b did Yosef the Babylonian mean when he said: b You have returned to me that which I had lost? /b He meant b that /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b had in any event returned to him /b that there is b some /b opinion b in the world /b concerning the b unfitness /b of the offering if one’s intention was to leave over the blood until the next day. His answer reassured Yosef the Babylonian that there is in fact such an opinion., strong MISHNA: /strong If one b did not pour /b the oil onto the meal offering, or b did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering, b or did not break /b the loaves into pieces, b or did not /b add b salt, or did not wave /b the i omer /i meal offering or the meal offering of a i sota /i , or b did not bring /b the meal offering to the altar, b or /b if it happened b that /b the priest b broke /b the meal offerings that require breaking into b greater pieces /b than appropriate, b or did not smear /b oil on the wafers requiring this (see Leviticus 2:4), in all these cases the meal offering is b fit. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What /b does the mishna mean when it states that if one b did not pour /b the oil onto the meal offering, the meal offering is fit? b If we say /b that it means that b he did not pour /b oil b at all, /b that is difficult: Doesn’t the verse b write with regard to /b the pouring of the oil that doing so is b indispensable? Rather, /b the mishna must be referring to a case where b a priest did not pour /b the oil onto the meal offering, b but a non-priest /b did pour it. The Gemara notes: b If so, /b that the first clause of the mishna is understood in this manner, then the next i halakha /i in the mishna: If one b did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering, should b also /b be understood as referring to a case where b a priest did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering, b but a non-priest /b did mix it, so it is fit. b This /b would indicate that if one b did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering b at all, /b the meal offering is b unfit. /b
74. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.22.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 229
4.22.7. And he wrote of many other matters, which we have in part already mentioned, introducing the accounts in their appropriate places. And from the Syriac Gospel according to the Hebrews he quotes some passages in the Hebrew tongue, showing that he was a convert from the Hebrews, and he mentions other matters as taken from the unwritten tradition of the Jews.
75. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 9, 113
14b. כיון דהך גזור ברישא הא תו למה לי אלא הך גזור ברישא והדר גזור בכולהו ידים,וטבול יום טבול יום דאורייתא הוא דכתיב (ויקרא כב, ז) ובא השמש וטהר סמי מכאן טבול יום,והאוכלין שנטמאו במשקין במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא יא, לד) וכל משקה אשר ישתה אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת ידים וגזירה משום משקין הבאין מחמת שרץ,והכלים שנטמאו במשקין כלים דאיטמאו במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין דזב דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא טו, ח) וכי ירוק הזב בטהור מה שביד טהור טמאתי לך אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ וגזירה משום משקין דזב,וידים תלמידי שמאי והלל גזור שמאי והלל גזור דתניא יוסי בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסי בן יוחנן איש ירושלים גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית שמעון בן שטח תיקן כתובה לאשה וגזר טומאה על כלי מתכות שמאי והלל גזרו טומאה על הידים,וכ"ת שמאי וסיעתו והלל וסיעתו והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל י"ח דבר גזרו ובי"ח נחלקו ואילו הלל ושמאי לא נחלקו אלא בג' מקומות דא"ר הונא בג' מקומות נחלקו ותו לא וכ"ת אתו אינהו גזור לתלות ואתו תלמידייהו וגזרו לשרוף והאמר אילפא ידים תחלת גזירתן לשריפה אלא אתו אינהו גזור ולא קבלו מינייהו ואתו תלמידייהו גזרו וקבלו מינייהו,ואכתי שלמה גזר דא"ר יהודה אמר שמואל בשעה שתיקן שלמה עירובין ונטילת ידים יצתה בת קול ואמרה (משלי כג, טו) בני אם חכם לבך ישמח לבי גם אני (משלי כז, יא) חכם בני ושמח לבי ואשיבה חורפי דבר אתא 14b. b once they decreed that first, why do I need that /b decree of impurity on hands that touch a sacred scroll b as well? /b Once the Sages decreed impurity on hands in general, there is no longer a necessity to decree impurity on hands that touched a Torah scroll, as hands are impure in any case. b Rather, /b certainly the Sages b decreed /b impurity on b this, /b hands that touched a Torah scroll, b first. And then they decreed /b impurity b on all hands. /b ,Among the decrees listed in the mishna, there is the decree that contact with one who b immersed himself during the day /b disqualifies i teruma /i . The Gemara asks: b One who immersed himself during the day /b transmits impurity by b Torah /b law, as it is written: “One who touches it remains impure until evening. He should not eat of the consecrated items and he must wash his flesh with water. b And the sun sets and it is purified. /b Afterward, he may eat from the teruma, for it is his bread” (Leviticus 22:6–7). Consequently, until sunset he is prohibited by Torah law from touching consecrated items, and the same is true for i teruma /i . The Gemara answers: b Delete from here, /b from the list of decrees in the mishna, b one who immersed himself during the day. /b , b And /b among the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning the impurity of b the foods that became impure /b through contact b with liquids. /b The Gemara asks: b With liquids that /b became impure due to contact with b what /b source of impurity? b If you say /b that the mishna is referring to b liquids that come /b to be impure b due to /b contact with b a creeping animal, they are /b impure b by Torah law, as it is written /b with regard to the impurity of creeping animals: b “And every liquid that is drunk /b in any vessel, will be impure” (Leviticus 11:34). b Rather, /b the mishna is referring to b liquids that come /b to be impure b due to /b contact with impure b hands. /b The Sages issued this b decree due to liquids that come /b to be impure b through /b contact with b a creeping animal. /b , b And /b among the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning b the vessels that became impure /b through contact b with liquids. /b The Gemara asks: b Vessels that became impure /b due to contact b with liquids that /b became impure due to contact with b what /b source of impurity? b If you say /b that they become impure due to contact b with liquids /b secreted by b a i zav /i , /b e.g., spittle, urine, etc., b they are /b impure b by Torah law, as it is written: “And if a i zav /i spits on a pure person /b and he should wash his clothes and wash in water and he is impure until the evening” (Leviticus 15:8). The Sages interpreted homiletically: b Whatever is in the hand of the pure person I made impure for you. /b Not only did the person who came into contact with the liquids of the i zav /i become impure, but the objects in his hand did as well. b Rather, /b here it is referring b to liquids that come /b to be impure b due to /b contact with b a creeping animal, /b which by Torah law do not transmit impurity to vessels. b And /b the Sages issued b a decree /b with regard to those liquids b due to /b their similarity to the b liquids of a i zav /i . /b ,Among the list of items in the mishna with regard to which the disciples of Shammai and Hillel instituted decrees, were the hands of any person who did not purify himself for the sake of purity of i teruma /i . If he came into contact with i teruma /i , the Sages decreed it impure. The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b hands, /b was it b the disciples of Shammai and Hillel /b who b issued the decree /b of impurity? b Shammai and Hillel /b themselves b issued the decree. As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Yosei ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosei ben Yoḥa of Jerusalem decreed impurity on the land of the nations, /b that the land outside Eretz Yisrael transmits impurity; b and /b they decreed impurity b on glass vessels, /b even though glass is not listed in the Torah among the vessels that can become impure. b Shimon ben Shataḥ instituted /b the formula of b a woman’s marriage contract and /b also b decreed /b special b impurity on metal vessels. Shammai and Hillel decreed impurity on the hands. /b , b And if you say /b that the i baraita /i is referring to b Shammai and his faction and Hillel and his faction, didn’t Rav Yehuda say /b that b Shmuel said: With regard to eighteen matters they issued decrees /b that day, b and with regard to /b those b eighteen /b matters b they disagreed /b prior to that? The eighteen disputes were only between the disciples of Shammai and Hillel, b whereas Hillel and Shammai /b themselves b argued only in three places. /b Clearly, they were neither party to the disputes nor the decrees. b As Rav Huna said: /b Shammai and Hillel b disagreed in /b only b three places and no more. And if you say /b that Hillel and Shammai b came /b and b decreed /b that i teruma /i that came into contact with hands b would be in abeyance, and their students came and decreed to burn /b i teruma /i that came into contact with hands, then the following difficulty arises. b Didn’t Ilfa, /b one of the Sages, b say: /b With regard to b hands, /b from b the beginning their decree /b was that i teruma /i that comes into contact with them is b to be burned? /b According to Ilfa, there is no uncertainty. i Teruma /i that came into contact with definite impurity is burned. i Teruma /i that is in abeyance may not be destroyed. One must wait until it becomes definitely impure or decomposes on its own. b Rather, /b the explanation is that b they came and issued a decree and /b the people b did not accept /b the decree b from them, and their disciples came and issued a decree and they accepted /b it b from them. /b ,The Gemara asks further: b Still, /b the matter is not clear, as the decree of hands was b issued /b by King b Solomon. As Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: At the time that Solomon instituted /b the ordices of b i eiruv /i and /b of b washing hands /b to purify them from their impurity, b a Divine Voice emerged and said /b in his praise: b “My son, if your heart is wise my heart will be glad, even mine” /b (Proverbs 23:15), and so too: b “My son, be wise and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me” /b (Proverbs 27: 11). The Gemara responds: b Came /b
76. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
3b. משום בניו אורחא הוא,והכתיב (שמואל א כה, כ) והיא רוכבת על החמור התם משום ביעתותא דליליא אורחא הוא ואיבעית אימא משום ביעתותא דליליא ליכא משום ביעתותא דדוד איכא ואיבעית אימא ביעתותא דדוד נמי ליכא משום ביעתותא דהר איכא,ובאורייתא מי לא כתיב טמא אלא כל היכא דכי הדדי נינהו משתעי בלשון נקיה כל היכא דנפישין מילי משתעי בלשון קצרה כדאמר רב הונא אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא אמר רב משום ר"מ לעולם ישנה אדם לתלמידו דרך קצרה,וכל היכא דכי הדדי נינהו משתעי בלשון כבוד והא רוכבת ויושבת דכי הדדי נינהו וקאמר רוכבת רכבת כתיב,הנהו תרי תלמידי דהוו יתבי קמיה דרב חד אמר שויתינן האי שמעתא כדבר אחר מסנקן וחד אמר שויתינן האי שמעתא כגדי מסנקן ולא אישתעי רב בהדי דהאיך,הנהו תרי תלמידי דהוו יתבי קמיה דהלל וחד מינייהו רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמרי לה קמיה דרבי וחד מינייהו רבי יוחנן חד אמר מפני מה בוצרין בטהרה ואין מוסקין בטהרה וחד אמר מפני מה בוצרין בטהרה ומוסקין בטומאה אמר מובטח אני בזה שמורה הוראה בישראל ולא היה ימים מועטים עד שהורה הוראה בישראל,הנהו תלתא כהני חד אמר להו הגיעני כפול וחד אמר הגיעני כזית וחד אמר הגיעני כזנב הלטאה בדקו אחריו ומצאו בו שמץ פסול,והא (תניא) אין בודקין מן המזבח ולמעלה,לא תימא שמץ פסול אלא אימא שחץ פסול ואי בעית אימא שאני התם דאיהו דארע נפשיה,ההוא ארמאה דהוה סליק ואכיל פסחים בירושלים אמר כתיב (שמות יב, מג) כל בן נכר לא יאכל בו (שמות יב, מח) כל ערל לא יאכל בו ואנא הא קאכילנא משופרי שופרי,אמר ליה רבי יהודה בן בתירא מי קא ספו לך מאליה אמר ליה לא כי סלקת להתם אימא להו ספו לי מאליה כי סליק אמר להו מאליה ספו לי אמרו ליה אליה לגבוה סלקא,אמרו ליה מאן אמר לך הכי אמר להו רבי יהודה בן בתירא אמרו מאי האי דקמן בדקו בתריה ואשכחוהו דארמאה הוא וקטלוהו שלחו ליה לרבי יהודה בן בתירא שלם לך ר' יהודה בן בתירא דאת בנציבין ומצודתך פרוסה בירושלים,רב כהנא חלש שדרוה רבנן לר' יהושע בריה דרב אידי אמרו ליה זיל בדוק מאי דיניה אתא אשכחיה דנח נפשיה קרעיה ללבושיה ואהדריה לקרעיה לאחוריה ובכי ואתי אמרו ליה נח נפשיה אמר להו אנא לא קאמינא (משלי י, יח) ומוציא דבה הוא כסיל,יוחנן חקוקאה נפק לקרייתא כי אתא אמרו ליה חיטין נעשו יפות אמר להם שעורים נעשו יפות אמרו ליה צא ובשר לסוסים ולחמורים דכתיב (מלכים א ה, ח) השעורים והתבן לסוסים ולרכש מאי הוי ליה למימר אשתקד נעשו חיטין יפות אי נמי עדשים נעשו יפות: 3b. b due to his children, /b as b it is standard practice /b for children to ride.,The Gemara raises another difficulty. b But isn’t it written /b with regard to Abigail: “And it was so, b as she rode on her donkey /b and came down by the covert of the mountain” (I Samuel 25:20). This verse employs the language of riding in reference to a woman on a donkey. The Gemara answers: b There, due to the fear of the night, it is standard practice /b for a woman to ride and not merely sit on the donkey. b And if you wish, say /b instead: b There is no /b consideration b due to the fear of the night /b that would explain why she was permitted to ride in the regular manner; rather, b there is /b a consideration b due to fear of David. And if you wish, say /b instead: b There is no /b consideration b due to fear of David either; /b however, b there is /b a consideration b due to the fear of /b the incline when riding down b the mountain. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t /b the word b impure written in the Torah? /b Apparently, the Torah does not consistently employ euphemisms, and indeed the word impure appears regularly. b Rather, anywhere that /b two phrases b are equal /b in length, the verse b speaks /b employing b a euphemism. Anywhere that the words /b of the euphemism b are /b more b numerous, /b requiring a lengthier description, the Torah b speaks /b employing b concise language, in accordance with /b that b which Rav Huna said /b that b Rav said, and some say it /b was b Rav Huna /b who b said /b that b Rav said in the name of Rabbi Meir: A person should always teach his student in a concise manner. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And anywhere that /b the phrases b are equal in /b length, does the verse always b speak /b employing b dignified language? Aren’t /b the Hebrew words for b rides [ i rokhevet /i ], /b spelled: i Reish /i , i vav /i , i kaf /i , i beit /i , i tav /i ; b and sits [ i yoshevet /i ], /b spelled: i Yod /i , i vav /i , i shin /i , i beit /i , i tav /i , b of equal /b length, and yet the verse b states: Rides /b (I Samuel 25:20). The Gemara answers: The Hebrew word for b rides is written /b without a i vav /i in the defective form, rendering it shorter than the term for sits. Brevity takes precedence over dignified language.,The Gemara relates an incident involving the use of appropriate language: There were b these two students who were sitting before Rav /b and were weary from studying a complex issue. b One /b of them b said: This i halakha /i /b we are studying b is rendering us /b as tired b as a tired [ i mesankan /i ] something else, /b a euphemism for a pig. b And /b the other b one said: This i halakha /i is rendering us /b as tired b as a tired kid. Rav /b would b not speak with that /b student who made reference to a pig, as one who speaks inappropriately is undoubtedly flawed in character.,The Gemara additionally relates that there were b these two students who were sitting before Hillel, and one of them /b was b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. And some say /b they were sitting b before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b and one of them was /b the i amora /i b Rabbi Yoḥa. One /b of them b said: Due to what /b reason need b one /b be careful to b harvest grapes in /b a state of b ritual purity, /b by insisting on the use of pure vessels, b and one need not harvest olives in /b a state of b ritual purity? And /b the other b one said /b the same point, only he worded it differently: b Due to what /b reason need b one harvest grapes in /b a state of b ritual purity, but one /b may b harvest olives in /b a state of b ritual impurity? /b Their teacher b said: I am certain that this /b first student, who spoke in a clean manner, will b issue /b halakhic b rulings in Israel. /b The Gemara adds: b And /b it was b not /b even b a few days later that he issued /b halakhic b rulings in Israel. /b ,The Gemara relates an incident involving the use of appropriate language. There were b these three priests /b in the Temple, each of whom received a portion of the showbread divided among the priests. Since there were many priests, each one received only a small amount. b One said to them: I received a bean-sized /b portion. b And one said: I received an olive-bulk. And one said: I received /b a portion the size b of a lizard’s tail. They investigated the background /b of the latter priest, who used the imagery of an impure creeping animal, b and they found a trace [ i shemetz /i ] of disqualification in his /b background. The Gemara assumes that they found a problem in his lineage that disqualified him from the priesthood. ,The Gemara asks: b But wasn’t /b it b taught /b in a i baraita /i that b one does not investigate /b a priest’s lineage b beyond the altar? /b When the court investigated the lineage of a priest, they would investigate his ancestry only until they discovered a priest who sacrificed offerings on the altar. At that point, they would halt the investigation. A priest of questionable lineage would certainly not have been permitted to serve on the altar. However, in this incident the lineage of a priest who had brought offerings was indeed called into question.,The Gemara rejects this contention: b Do not say /b that they found b a trace [ i shemetz /i ] of disqualification, /b referring to his lineage. b Rather, say /b that they found b arrogance [ i shaḥatz /i ] of disqualification, /b and for that reason he was disqualified from the priesthood. b And if you wish, say /b instead: b There it is different, as he cast aspersions upon himself. /b Although it is generally assumed that any priest who participates in the Temple service is qualified to do so, this priest discredited his own lineage through his conduct.,With regard to the investigation of the priestly lineage, the Gemara relates: b A certain gentile would ascend /b on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, claiming he was Jewish, b and eat Paschal /b lambs b in Jerusalem. /b He would then return home and boast about how he had tricked the Jews. b He said: It is written: /b “This is the statute of the Paschal lamb; b no foreigner may eat of it” /b (Exodus 12:43), and another verse says: b “Any uncircumcised man shall not eat of it” /b (Exodus 12:48). b And /b yet, b I ate from the finest of the fine /b portions of the Paschal lamb., b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira said to him, /b in an attempt to thwart any repetition of this action: b Did they feed you from the fat tail /b of the lamb? Do you really think they gave you the finest portion? The gentile was ignorant of the fact that the fat tail is sacrificed on the altar, not eaten. The gentile b said to him: No. /b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira replied: If so, b when you ascend there /b next time, b say to them: Feed me the fat tail. /b The next year b when he ascended, he said to /b the other members of the group he joined: b Feed me from the fat tail. They said to him: The fat tail is /b offered b up to God. /b , b They said to him: Who said that to you, /b to ask for that portion? b He said to them /b testily: It was b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. They said: What is this /b incident that has come b before us? /b Could Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira have told him to eat the fat tail? This matter must be investigated further. b They investigated his background and found that he was a gentile, and /b they b killed him. They sent /b a message b to Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira: Peace unto you, Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, as you /b are b in Netzivin and your net is spread in Jerusalem. /b Despite your distance from Jerusalem, you enabled us to apprehend a person who deceived us.,The Gemara relates another incident in praise of one who is careful to refrain from improper or negative language. b Rav Kahana fell ill, and the Sages sent Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, /b as their emissary to him. b They said to him: Go /b and b assess what is /b Rav Kahana’s b condition /b at present. Rabbi Yehoshua, son b of /b Rav Idi, b went and found that /b Rav Kahana b had passed away. He rent his garment and turned /b his garment around so b the tear /b would be b behind him /b and would not be immediately apparent, b and he was crying /b as he b was coming. They said to him: Did /b Rav Kahana b pass away? He said to them: I did not say /b that, as the verse states: b “And he who utters slander is a fool” /b (Proverbs 10:18). This verse indicates that it is undesirable to be a bearer of bad tidings, and if one must inform others of the unfortunate news, he should do so in an indirect manner.,The Gemara continues to cite examples of clean language: b Yoḥa from Ḥakuk went to the villages. When he came, they said to him: /b Did the b wheat /b crop b develop nicely? /b Reluctant to say that the wheat crop did not develop nicely, b he said to them: /b The b barley /b crop b developed nicely, /b leaving them to draw their own conclusion. b They said to him, /b mockingly: b Go out and inform the horses and donkeys /b about the barley, b as it is written: “Barley and hay for the horses and swift steeds” /b (I Kings 5:8). The Gemara asks: b What could he have said /b to better express the bad news euphemistically? The Gemara answers: He could have said: b Last year’s wheat /b crop b developed nicely. Alternatively, /b he could have said that this year’s crop of b lentils, /b which is also food for people, b has developed nicely. /b
77. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 8.32.18 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 134
78. John Chrysostom, Homilies On Matthew, 51 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 134
79. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 4.7  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 133
80. Anon., Baebi Italici Ilias, 16.227-16.229, 24.302-24.306  Tagged with subjects: •purification ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111
87. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 121, 176  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 176
176. When they entered with the gifts which had been sent with them and the valuable parchments, on which the law was inscribed in gold in Jewish characters, for the parchment was wonderfully prepared and the connexion between the pages had been so effected as to be invisible, the king as soon