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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
lactantius Baumann and Liotsakis (2022) 29
Bay (2022) 63, 92
Del Lucchese (2019) 125, 131, 139, 177, 178, 188, 189, 192, 202, 203, 213, 214, 215, 317
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 200, 205, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 27, 89, 148
Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 45, 464
Gorain (2019) 93, 230, 231
Harrison (2006) 10
Huttner (2013) 218, 236
Kahlos (2019) 20, 63, 123, 154
Ker and Wessels (2020) 116, 118
Kitzler (2015) 1
Konig and Wiater (2022) 188
Kraemer (2010) 17
König (2012) 137
König and Wiater (2022) 188
Long (2006) 181, 182
Lynskey (2021) 33, 213, 214, 217, 222, 223
Mackey (2022) 12, 13, 14, 33, 88, 89, 90
Malherbe et al (2014) 666, 672
Neusner Green and Avery-Peck (2022) 264, 265, 269
O, Daly (2012) 315
O, Daly (2020) 42, 129
Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 179
Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 22, 23
Schwartz (2008) 88
Simmons(1995) 3, 8, 12, 24, 25, 32, 35, 36, 48, 65, 67, 70, 77, 105, 110, 114, 127, 148, 201
Simon (2021) 105, 106
Van Nuffelen (2012) 148, 149
Widdicombe (2000) 77
Wilson (2018) 78, 82, 83, 84
van , t Westeinde (2021) 114, 209
lactantius, and dating the adv. nat. Simmons(1995) 53
lactantius, and the beginning of the persecution Simmons(1995) 40, 43
lactantius, and the galerian hypothesis Simmons(1995) 41
lactantius, biblical text, divine institutes Yates and Dupont (2020) 175, 176, 177, 186
lactantius, christian writer Marek (2019) 536
lactantius, church father Sorabji (2000) 241
lactantius, church father, anger need not be concerned with revenge Sorabji (2000) 138
lactantius, church father, attacks search for apatheia Sorabji (2000) 397
lactantius, church father, emotion needed for motivation Sorabji (2000) 185
lactantius, church father, misrepresents stoic recognition of eupatheiai as general acceptance of emotion Sorabji (2000) 207
lactantius, connection with palace fire Simmons(1995) 44
lactantius, criticism of cyprian Yates and Dupont (2020) 120
lactantius, criticism of cyprian, divine institutes Yates and Dupont (2020) 120
lactantius, divine institutes O, Daly (2020) 52, 53
lactantius, jerome, augustine in latin western, church, but flourishes in apatheia, freedom from, eradication of emotion, search for apatheia attacked by east, and restored in west by cassian Sorabji (2000) 397
lactantius, jerome, on O, Daly (2020) 52, 53
Yates and Dupont (2020) 169
lactantius, justice, in Davies (2004) 280
lactantius, kingship Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 59, 130
lactantius, l. c. f. Maso (2022) 21, 24
lactantius, laertes, shroud of Ker and Wessels (2020) 202, 203, 205
lactantius, lost letters, damasus, familiar with Simmons(1995) 50
lactantius, metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of emotion Sorabji (2000) 191, 195
lactantius, on apocalyptic prophecy, divine institutes Yates and Dupont (2020) 184, 185, 186
lactantius, on diocletians retirement Simmons(1995) 45
lactantius, on prophetic fulfillment, divine institutes Yates and Dupont (2020) 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182
lactantius, rhetorician Humfress (2007) 111, 149, 186
lactantius, the banquet of Simmons(1995) 50
lactantius, the death of the persecutors / de moribus persecutorum Yates and Dupont (2020) 172, 173
lactantius, the grammaticus of Simmons(1995) 50
lactantius, the itinerary of Simmons(1995) 50
lactantius, uncanonical sources, divine institutes Yates and Dupont (2020) 182, 183, 184

List of validated texts:
13 validated results for "lactantius"
1. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius, Church Father

 Found in books: Simmons(1995) 148; Sorabji (2000) 241

2. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 62.18.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 188; König and Wiater (2022) 188

62.18.3. \xa0There was no curse that the populace did not invoke upon Nero, though they did not mention his name, but simply cursed in general terms those who had set the city on fire. And they were disturbed above all by recalling the oracle which once in the time of Tiberius had been on everybody\'s lips. It ran thus: "Thrice three hundred years having run their course of fulfilment, Rome by the strife of her people shall perish."''. None
3. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10.12.2-10.12.3, 10.12.6-10.12.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 188; König and Wiater (2022) 188

10.12.2. ἡ δὲ Ἡροφίλη νεωτέρα μὲν ἐκείνης, φαίνεται δὲ ὅμως πρὸ τοῦ πολέμου γεγονυῖα καὶ αὕτη τοῦ Τρωικοῦ, καὶ Ἑλένην τε προεδήλωσεν ἐν τοῖς χρησμοῖς, ὡς ἐπʼ ὀλέθρῳ τῆς Ἀσίας καὶ Εὐρώπης τραφήσοιτο ἐν Σπάρτῃ, καὶ ὡς Ἴλιον ἁλώσεται διʼ αὐτὴν ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων. Δήλιοι δὲ καὶ ὕμνον μέμνηνται τῆς γυναικὸς ἐς Ἀπόλλωνα. καλεῖ δὲ οὐχ Ἡροφίλην μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ἐν τοῖς ἔπεσιν αὑτήν, καὶ Ἀπόλλωνος γυνὴ γαμετή, τοτὲ δὲ ἀδελφὴ καὶ αὖθις θυγάτηρ φησὶν εἶναι. 10.12.3. ταῦτα μὲν δὴ μαινομένη τε καὶ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ κάτοχος πεποίηκεν· ἑτέρωθι δὲ εἶπε τῶν χρησμῶν ὡς μητρὸς μὲν ἀθανάτης εἴη μιᾶς τῶν ἐν Ἴδῃ νυμφῶν, πατρὸς δὲ ἀνθρώπου, καὶ οὕτω λέγει τὰ ἔπη· εἰμὶ δʼ ἐγὼ γεγαυῖα μέσον θνητοῦ τε θεᾶς τε, νύμφης δʼ ἀθανάτης, πατρὸς δʼ αὖ κητοφάγοιο, μητρόθεν Ἰδογενής, πατρὶς δέ μοί ἐστιν ἐρυθρή Μάρπησσος, μητρὸς ἱερή, ποταμός τʼ Ἀιδωνεύς.
10.12.6. τὸ μέντοι χρεὼν αὐτὴν ἐπέλαβεν ἐν τῇ Τρῳάδι, καί οἱ τὸ μνῆμα ἐν τῷ ἄλσει τοῦ Σμινθέως ἐστὶ καὶ ἐλεγεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς στήλης· ἅδʼ ἐγὼ ἁ Φοίβοιο σαφηγορίς εἰμι Σίβυλλα τῷδʼ ὑπὸ λαϊνέῳ σάματι κευθομένα, παρθένος αὐδάεσσα τὸ πρίν, νῦν δʼ αἰὲν ἄναυδος, μοίρᾳ ὑπὸ στιβαρᾷ τάνδε λαχοῦσα πέδαν. ἀλλὰ πέλας Νύμφαισι καὶ Ἑρμῇ τῷδʼ ὑπόκειμαι, μοῖραν ἔχοισα κάτω τᾶς τότʼ ἀνακτορίας. ὁ μὲν δὴ παρὰ τὸ μνῆμα ἕστηκεν Ἑρμῆς λίθου τετράγωνον σχῆμα· ἐξ ἀριστερᾶς δὲ ὕδωρ τε κατερχόμενον ἐς κρήνην καὶ τῶν Νυμφῶν ἐστι τὰ ἀγάλματα. 10.12.7. Ἐρυθραῖοι δὲ—ἀμφισβητοῦσι γὰρ τῆς Ἡροφίλης προθυμότατα Ἑλλήνων—Κώρυκόν τε καλούμενον ὄρος καὶ ἐν τῷ ὄρει σπήλαιον ἀποφαίνουσι, τεχθῆναι τὴν Ἡροφίλην ἐν αὐτῷ λέγοντες, Θεοδώρου δὲ ἐπιχωρίου ποιμένος καὶ νύμφης παῖδα εἶναι· Ἰδαίαν δὲ ἐπίκλησιν γενέσθαι τῇ νύμφῃ κατʼ ἄλλο μὲν οὐδέν, τῶν δὲ χωρίων τὰ δασέα ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἴδας τότε ὀνομάζεσθαι. τὸ δὲ ἔπος τὸ ἐς τὴν Μάρπησσον καὶ τὸν ποταμὸν τὸν Ἀϊδωνέα, τοῦτο οἱ Ἐρυθραῖοι τὸ ἔπος ἀφαιροῦσιν ἀπὸ τῶν χρησμῶν.''. None
10.12.2. Herophile was younger than she was, but nevertheless she too was clearly born before the Trojan war, as she foretold in her oracles that Helen would be brought up in Sparta to be the ruin of Asia and of Europe, and that for her sake the Greeks would capture Troy . The Delians remember also a hymn this woman composed to Apollo. In her poem she calls herself not only Herophile but also Artemis, and the wedded wife of Apollo, saying too sometimes that she is his sister, and sometimes that she is his daughter.' "10.12.3. These statements she made in her poetry when in a frenzy and possessed by the god. Elsewhere in her oracles she states that her mother was an immortal, one of the nymphs of Ida, while her father was a human. These are the verses:— I am by birth half mortal, half divine; An immortal nymph was my mother, my father an eater of corn; On my mother's side of Idaean birth, but my fatherland was red Marpessus, sacred to the Mother, and the river Aidoneus. " '
10.12.6. However, death came upon her in the Troad, and her tomb is in the grove of the Sminthian with these elegiac verses inscribed upon the tomb-stone:— Here I am, the plain-speaking Sibyl of Phoebus, Hidden beneath this stone tomb. A maiden once gifted with voice, but now for ever voiceless, By hard fate doomed to this fetter. But I am buried near the nymphs and this Hermes, Enjoying in the world below a part of the kingdom I had then. The Hermes stands by the side of the tomb, a square-shaped figure of stone. On the left is water running down into a well, and the images of the nymphs. 10.12.7. The Erythraeans, who are more eager than any other Greeks to lay claim to Herophile, adduce as evidence a mountain called Mount Corycus with a cave in it, saying that Herophile was born in it, and that she was a daughter of Theodorus, a shepherd of the district, and of a nymph. They add that the surname Idaean was given to the nymph simply because the men of those days called idai places that were thickly wooded. The verse about Marpessus and the river Aidoneus is cut out of the oracles by the Erythraeans.''. None
4. Tertullian, Apology, 24 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius,

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 188; Simmons(1995) 8, 105

24. This whole confession of these beings, in which they declare that they are not gods, and in which they tell you that there is no God but one, the God whom we adore, is quite sufficient to clear us from the crime of treason, chiefly against the Roman religion. For if it is certain the gods have no existence, there is no religion in the case. If there is no religion, because there are no gods, we are assuredly not guilty of any offense against religion. Instead of that, the charge recoils on your own head: worshipping a lie, you are really guilty of the crime you charge on us, not merely by refusing the true religion of the true God, but by going the further length of persecuting it. But now, granting that these objects of your worship are really gods, is it not generally held that there is one higher and more potent, as it were the world's chief ruler, endowed with absolute power and majesty? For the common way is to apportion deity, giving an imperial and supreme domination to one, while its offices are put into the hands of many, as Plato describes great Jupiter in the heavens, surrounded by an array at once of deities and demons. It behooves us, therefore, to show equal respect to the procurators, prefects, and governors of the divine empire. And yet how great a crime does he commit, who, with the object of gaining higher favour with the C sar, transfers his endeavours and his hopes to another, and does not confess that the appellation of God as of Emperor belongs only to the Supreme Head, when it is held a capital offense among us to call, or hear called, by the highest title any other than C sar himself! Let one man worship God, another Jupiter; let one lift suppliant hands to the heavens, another to the altar of Fides; let one - if you choose to take this view of it - count in prayer the clouds, and another the ceiling panels; let one consecrate his own life to his God, and another that of a goat. For see that you do not give a further ground for the charge of irreligion, by taking away religious liberty, and forbidding free choice of deity, so that I may no longer worship according to my inclination, but am compelled to worship against it. Not even a human being would care to have unwilling homage rendered him; and so the very Egyptians have been permitted the legal use of their ridiculous superstition, liberty to make gods of birds and beasts, nay, to condemn to death any one who kills a god of their sort. Every province even, and every city, has its god. Syria has Astarte, Arabia has Dusares, the Norici have Belenus, Africa has its C lestis, Mauritania has its own princes. I have spoken, I think, of Roman provinces, and yet I have not said their gods are Roman; for they are not worshipped at Rome any more than others who are ranked as deities over Italy itself by municipal consecration, such as Delventinus of Casinum, Visidianus of Narnia, Ancharia of Asculum, Nortia of Volsinii, Valentia of Ocriculum, Hostia of Satrium, Father Curis of Falisci, in honour of whom, too, Juno got her surname. In, fact, we alone are prevented having a religion of our own. We give offense to the Romans, we are excluded from the rights and privileges of Romans, because we do not worship the gods of Rome. It is well that there is a God of all, whose we all are, whether we will or no. But with you liberty is given to worship any god but the true God, as though He were not rather the God all should worship, to whom all belong. "". None
5. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius, Christian writer

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 83; Marek (2019) 536

6. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 7.16.11, 7.19.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine Institutes (Lactantius), biblical text • Divine Institutes (Lactantius), on apocalyptic prophecy • Lactantius

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 235, 244, 245; Pignot (2020) 269; Yates and Dupont (2020) 185, 186

7.16.11. But, test any one should think this incredible, I will show how it will come to pass. First, the kingdom will be enlarged, and the chief power, dispersed among many and divided, will be diminished. Then civil discords will perpetually be sown; nor will there be any rest from deadly wars, until ten kings arise at the same time, who will divide the world, not to govern, but to consume it. These, having increased their armies to an immense extent, and having deserted the cultivation of the fields, which is the beginning of overthrow and disaster, will lay waste and break in pieces and consume all things. Then a most powerful enemy will suddenly arise against him from the extreme boundaries of the northern region, who, having destroyed three of that number who shall then be in possession of Asia, shall be admitted into alliance by the others, and shall be constituted prince of all. He shall harass the world with an intolerable rule; shall mingle things divine and human; shall contrive things impious to relate, and detestable; shall meditate new designs in his breast, that he may establish the government for himself: he will change the laws, and appoint his own; he will contaminate, plunder, spoil, and put to death. And at length, the name being changed and the seat of government being transferred, confusion and the disturbance of mankind will follow. Then, in truth, a detestable and abominable time shall come, in which life shall be pleasant to none of men. Cities shall be utterly overthrown, and shall perish; not only by fire and the sword, but also by continual earthquakes and overflowings of waters, and by frequent diseases and repeated famines. For the atmosphere will be tainted, and become corrupt and pestilential - at one time by unseasonable rains, at another by barren drought, now by colds, and now by excessive heats. Nor will the earth give its fruit to man: no field, or tree, or vine will produce anything; but after they have given the greatest hope in the blossom, they will fail in the fruit. Fountains also shall be dried up, together with the rivers; so that there shall not be a sufficient supply for drinking; and waters shall be changed into blood or bitterness. On account of these things, beasts shall fail on the land, and birds in the air, and fishes in the sea. Wonderful prodigies also in heaven shall confound the minds of men with the greatest terrors, and the trains of comets, and the darkness of the sun, and the color of the moon, and the gliding of the falling stars. Nor, however, will these things take place in the accustomed manner; but there will suddenly appear stars unknown and unseen by the eyes; the sun will be perpetually darkened, so that there will be scarcely any distinction between the night and the day; the moon will now fail, not for three hours only, but overspread with perpetual blood, will go through extraordinary movements, so that it will not be easy for man to ascertain the courses of the heavenly bodies or the system of the times; for there will either be summer in the winter, or winter in the summer. Then the year will be shortened, and the month diminished, and the day contracted into a short space; and stars shall fall in great numbers, so that all the heaven will appear dark without any lights. The loftiest mountains also will fall, and be levelled with the plains; the sea will be rendered unnavigable. And that nothing may be wanting to the evils of men and the earth, the trumpet shall be heard from heaven, which the Sibyl foretells in this manner:- The trumpet from heaven shall utter its wailing voice.And then all shall tremble and quake at that mournful sound. But then, through the anger of God against the men who have not known righteousness, the sword and fire, famine and disease, shall reign; and, above all things, fear always overhanging. Then they shall call upon God, but He will not hear them; death shall be desired, but it will not come; not even shall night give rest to their fear, nor shall sleep approach to their eyes, but anxiety and watchfulness shall consume the souls of men; they shall deplore and lament, and gnash their teeth; they shall congratulate the dead, and bewail the living. Through these and many other evils there shall be desolation on the earth, and the world shall be disfigured and deserted, which is thus expressed in the verses of the Sibyl: - The world shall be despoiled of beauty, through the destruction of men.For the human race will be so consumed, that scarcely the tenth part of men will be left; and from whence a thousand had gone forth, scarcely a hundred will go forth. of the worshippers of God also, two parts will perish; and the third part, which shall have been proved, will remain.
7.19.2. The world therefore being oppressed, since the resources of men shall be insufficient for the overthrow of a tyranny of immense strength, inasmuch as it will press upon the captive world with great armies of robbers, that calamity so great will stand in need of divine assistance. Therefore God, being aroused both by the doubtful danger and by the wretched lamentation of the righteous, will immediately send a deliverer. Then the middle of the heaven shall be laid open in the dead and darkness of the night, that the light of the descending God may be manifest in all the world as lightning: of which the Sibyl spoke in these words:- When He shall come, there will be fire and darkness in the midst of the black night.This is the night which is celebrated by us in watchfulness on account of the coming of our King and God: of which night there is a twofold meaning; because in it He then received life when He suffered, and hereafter He is about to receive the kingdom of the world. For He is the Deliverer, and Judge, and Avenger, and King, and God, whom we call Christ, who before He descends will give this sign: There shall suddenly fall from heaven a sword, that the righteous may know that the leader of the sacred warfare is about to descend; and He shall descend with a company of angels to the middle of the earth, and there shall go before Him an unquenchable fire, and the power of the angels shall deliver into the hands of the just that multitude which has surrounded the mountain, and they shall be slain from the third hour until the evening, and blood shall flow like a torrent; and all his forces being destroyed, the wicked one shall alone escape, and his power shall perish from him. Now this is he who is called Antichrist; but he shall falsely call himself Christ, and shall fight against the truth, and being overcome shall flee; and shall often renew the war, and often be conquered, until in the fourth battle, all the wicked being slain, subdued, and captured, he shall at length pay the penalty of his crimes. But other princes also and tyrants who have harassed the world, together with him, shall be led in chains to the king; and he shall rebuke them, and reprove them, and upbraid them with their crimes, and condemn them, and consign them to deserved tortures. Thus, wickedness being extinguished and impiety suppressed, the world will be at rest, which having been subject to error and wickedness for so many ages, endured dreadful slavery. No longer shall gods made by the hands be worshipped; but the images being thrust out from their temples and couches, shall be given to the fire, and shall be burnt, together with their wonderful gifts: which also the Sibyl, in accordance with the prophets, announced as about to take place:- But mortals shall break in pieces the images and all the wealth.The Erythr an Sibyl also made the same promise:- And the works made by the hand of the gods shall be burnt up. ''. None
7. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jerome, on Lactantius • Lactantius • Lactantius, Divine Institutes • Lactantius, The Death of the Persecutors / De moribus persecutorum

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 238; O, Daly (2020) 52; Yates and Dupont (2020) 172

8. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius, and the beginning of the persecution • Lactantius, connection with palace fire

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 232; Simmons(1995) 43, 44

9. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius, connection with palace fire

 Found in books: Lynskey (2021) 33; Simmons(1995) 44

10. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius,

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 215; Fowler (2014) 102, 107, 109; Lynskey (2021) 213, 214, 222

11. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius, The Death of the Persecutors / De moribus persecutorum • Lactantius, and the Galerian Hypothesis • Lactantius, and the beginning of the persecution • Lactantius, connection with palace fire

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 200, 205, 235; Kahlos (2019) 154; Simmons(1995) 24, 40, 41, 44, 67, 70; Yates and Dupont (2020) 173

12. Augustine, The City of God, 19.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lactantius • Lactantius, The Death of the Persecutors / De moribus persecutorum

 Found in books: Simmons(1995) 12, 24; Yates and Dupont (2020) 172

19.23. For in his book called &". None
13. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Damasus, familiar with Lactantius lost letters • Jerome, on Lactantius • Lactantius • Lactantius, the Banquet of • Lactantius, the Grammaticus of • Lactantius, the Itinerary of

 Found in books: König (2012) 137; Simmons(1995) 3, 8, 48, 50; Yates and Dupont (2020) 169

Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.