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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
fate/justice/scales, association of zeus with Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
injustice, latin terms for, justice Sider (2001) 141
injustice, of laws, justice Sider (2001) 16
injustice, of persecution, justice Sider (2001) 141
injustice, of trials, justice Sider (2001) 3
injustice, possessed by sublime god, justice Sider (2001) 29
injustice, through hatred, justice Sider (2001) 15
justice Avery Peck et al. (2014) 76
Allen and Dunne (2022) 32, 181
Barbato (2020) 15, 63, 66, 67, 68, 74, 75, 76, 99, 100, 138, 139, 157, 158, 178, 187, 188, 206, 207
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 145
Bernabe et al (2013) 388
Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 3, 61, 62, 94, 95, 271, 336, 338
Borg (2008) 406
Bremmer (2008) 124
Corley (2002) 21, 83, 94, 111, 134, 138, 141, 144, 145, 146, 199, 208, 209, 225
Davies (2004) 210, 232, 240, 242, 269, 281, 283
Del Lucchese (2019) 15, 35, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 50, 87
Dillon and Timotin (2015) 7, 34, 51, 171
Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 16, 22, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 75, 128, 135, 137, 148, 152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 213, 225, 230, 247, 271, 273, 290, 293, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 308, 310, 311, 312, 314, 315, 316, 317, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 334, 348, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 548
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 25, 59, 235, 246
Frede and Laks (2001) 89, 90, 93, 94, 99, 106, 109, 111
Gagné (2020) 105, 107, 108, 209, 219, 221, 231, 250, 297, 307, 327, 347, 379
Garcia (2021) 44, 66, 79, 109, 131
Geljon and Runia (2013) 23, 92, 99, 112, 142, 149, 153, 232
Geljon and Runia (2019) 64, 95, 140, 153, 165, 202, 224, 234, 237, 238, 248
Griffiths (1975) 203
Harte (2017) 23, 33, 54, 55, 74, 75, 121, 123, 138, 150, 178, 179, 187
Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 32, 90, 96, 126, 137, 138, 246
Huffman (2019) 365, 469
Jedan (2009) 52, 66, 75, 83, 129, 138, 144, 165, 205
Joosse (2021) 64, 97, 101, 121, 162, 170, 172, 174, 175
Jouanna (2018) 452
Karfíková (2012) 38, 42, 60, 82, 146, 148, 149, 168, 230, 326, 327
Kirichenko (2022) 29, 30, 57, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162
Kneebone (2020) 58, 59, 61, 62, 143, 158, 347, 360, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 410
Legaspi (2018) 116, 117, 119, 129, 134, 152, 185
Levison (2009) 36, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 82, 83, 129, 130, 143, 144, 149, 152, 203, 210, 211, 214, 220, 237, 240, 246, 249, 251, 281, 292, 303, 304, 387, 388, 389, 405, 407, 409
Libson (2018) 2, 4
Long (2019) 36, 41, 91, 92, 97, 184, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195
Lynskey (2021) 145, 323
Malherbe et al (2014) 49, 454, 468, 471, 532, 533, 556, 586, 593, 633, 666, 770, 812, 813, 857, 926
Mcglothlin (2018) 19, 41, 104, 169, 190, 208, 223, 224, 250
O, Daly (2020) 105, 106, 112, 147, 148, 149, 150, 229, 235, 236, 237, 240, 271, 272
Pucci (2016) 12, 14, 30, 31, 32, 120, 128, 139
Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 46, 50, 79, 80, 84
Rubenstein (2018) 59, 73, 74, 75, 81, 108, 148, 213
Schibli (2002) 205, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219, 230, 233, 234, 236, 237, 240, 245, 268, 332, 340, 344, 347, 355
Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 45, 66, 86, 89, 96, 97, 98, 104, 118, 120, 128, 147, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 228, 239, 240, 241, 242, 249
Schwartz (2008) 155
Shilo (2022) 59, 94, 96, 100, 117, 133, 161, 167, 171, 176, 177, 178, 179, 182, 187, 189, 190, 209
Sly (1990) 95, 174
Stuckenbruck (2007) 57, 71, 72, 86, 87, 88, 137, 168, 216, 262, 280, 297, 298, 458, 460, 558, 589, 742
Taylor and Hay (2020) 156, 157
Tuori (2016) 1, 4, 5, 22, 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 48, 53, 59, 63, 88, 90, 96, 105, 120, 128, 132, 133, 137, 138, 140, 141, 143, 159, 161, 164, 167, 184, 196, 201, 202, 207, 210, 213, 214, 218, 220, 226, 227, 230, 238, 239, 246, 250, 251, 258, 265, 266, 269, 277, 278, 285, 287, 288, 290, 296
Vinzent (2013) 36, 37, 107
Wilson (2010) 3, 5, 29, 30, 36, 95, 103, 109, 113, 121, 126, 137, 148, 149, 150, 170, 209, 221, 262, 268, 286, 292, 293, 303, 338, 340, 342, 350, 390, 414
Wilson (2012) 31, 63, 85, 99, 100, 101, 103, 140, 147, 170, 211, 223, 225, 229, 238, 246, 255, 267, 306, 314, 331, 333, 362, 363, 364, 386, 399
de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 44, 331
Černušková (2016) 27, 68, 94, 142, 153, 154, 155, 166, 177, 178, 221, 222, 225, 233, 282, 330, 338, 339, 342
justice, / iustitia Maso (2022) 14, 21, 29, 45, 46, 63, 66, 112, 113, 121, 128, 136, 137
justice, absence of philomela and procne, divine Panoussi(2019) 141, 247
justice, access to Czajkowski et al (2020) 23, 161, 167, 442
justice, acting according to reason, divine Nisula (2012) 131, 132
justice, adikai praxeis in pythagoras Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 55, 59, 60, 61, 62, 77, 269, 270, 296
justice, adikemata and begging priests Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 258
justice, administration of Czajkowski et al (2020) 41, 60, 92, 124, 127, 141, 161, 215, 218, 230, 272, 279, 286, 288, 291, 300, 303, 326, 440, 441, 478, 488, 491
justice, administration of craftsmen, courts Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 60, 62, 73
justice, adrastia, and Davies (2004) 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282
justice, aequitas, and Davies (2004) 275
justice, and -, zeus Peels (2016) 57, 58, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 107, 108, 124, 125, 126, 127, 144, 145, 146, 147
justice, and augustine’s theory of justification Hoenig (2018) 266, 267
justice, and erinyes/semnai/in the oresteia Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 157, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165
justice, and fatum Davies (2004) 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282
justice, and political life, association of artemis with political assemblies and civic life Simon (2021) 173, 174, 190
justice, and political life, death sentences and suicides, artemis associated with Simon (2021) 190
justice, and small golden vessel Griffiths (1975) 208
justice, and the afterlife in poetry Wolfsdorf (2020) 552, 553, 559, 595, 596, 597
justice, and the erinyes in ajax, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 391
justice, and the erinyes in electra, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 391, 392
justice, and the erinyes in women of trachis, the, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 391
justice, and the gods Davies (2004) 240, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282
justice, and wider, justice, dike, between revenge Fabian Meinel (2015) 119, 120, 121, 124, 125
justice, and, injustice, Harte (2017) 60, 61, 77, 79, 122, 134, 156, 157, 158
justice, and, piety Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 61, 62, 177, 209, 300, 335, 336
justice, aretē/-a, virtue, excellence, in on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 463, 464
justice, aristotle, corrective Schick (2021) 100, 103
justice, aristotle, on distributive Wolfsdorf (2020) 465, 466, 468, 469
justice, aristoxenus xxv, and on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 458, 459, 480
justice, as concern of athens and athenians Joho (2022) 228, 229, 252, 253
justice, as excellentissima uirtus Davies (2004) 275
justice, as goddess Shilo (2022) 10, 96, 100, 120, 183, 184, 185, 209
justice, as leader of virtue Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 94, 177, 300
justice, as leader of virtues Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 94, 177, 300
justice, as means of purification in plato Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 76
justice, as prerequisite for salvation Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 228, 233
justice, attrib. justice, on law and archytas, on corrective Wolfsdorf (2020) 475, 476, 486
justice, attrib. on law and archytas Wolfsdorf (2020) 456, 458, 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, authorship Wolfsdorf (2020) 456, 458, 459, 487
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, on compliance of law with nature and proportion Wolfsdorf (2020) 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 482, 483
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, on legal hierarchy Wolfsdorf (2020) 474, 475
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, on primacy of law Wolfsdorf (2020) 461, 462, 463
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, on rulers Wolfsdorf (2020) 463, 480, 481, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, on self-sufficiency and freedom Wolfsdorf (2020) 463, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 482
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, on the best constitution Wolfsdorf (2020) 470, 471, 472, 473, 474
justice, attrib. on law and archytas, on written laws Wolfsdorf (2020) 475
justice, augustine, also Sorabji (2000) 188
justice, autochthony, and Barbato (2020) 99, 100
justice, avenges gordianus Davies (2004) 277
justice, chance, as Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 199
justice, charis, and Mikalson (2010) 207
justice, chrysippus, treatises of on Graver (2007) 250
justice, cicero’s use of Hoenig (2018) 268
justice, class Riess (2012) 93, 390
justice, corrective Barbato (2020) 70, 75
justice, dearness to god, and Mikalson (2010) 187, 188, 193, 194, 198, 201, 249
justice, defining, humanity Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 180
justice, deformed left hand, emblem of Griffiths (1975) 203
justice, democracy, on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 469, 470, 479, 487
justice, dikaia as object of thinking in the theognidea Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 119
justice, dikaios opposite of mysaros in euripides Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 229
justice, dike/adika erga/adikos in theognidea Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 272
justice, dik㪠Horkey (2019) 10, 29, 30, 34, 36, 41, 120, 124, 126, 167, 169, 174, 175, 183, 218
justice, dikè Jouanna (2018) 736
justice, dikè, and divine law Jouanna (2018) 397
justice, dikè, and vengeance Jouanna (2018) 391, 392, 393, 394
justice, dikè, in electra Jouanna (2018) 354, 355, 384
justice, dikê, δίκη‎/dikaiosunê, δικαιοσύνη‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 113, 263, 265, 272
justice, dikē, agathon—kalon—dikaion triad Wolfsdorf (2020) 305, 306, 307, 308, 309
justice, dikē, and truth in gorgias Wolfsdorf (2020) 122
justice, dikē, aristippus and Wolfsdorf (2020) 394
justice, dikē, in anonymus iamblichi Wolfsdorf (2020) 277, 278, 279, 283, 284
justice, dikē, in antisthenes Wolfsdorf (2020) 344, 347, 348, 351, 352
justice, dikē, in democritus Wolfsdorf (2020) 229
justice, dikē, in hesiodic myth Wolfsdorf (2020) 288
justice, dikē, in plato’s republic Wolfsdorf (2020) 268, 269
justice, dikē, in protagoras prometheus myth Wolfsdorf (2020) 88, 90, 91, 283
justice, dikē, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf (2020) 8, 12
justice, dikē, in xenophanes Wolfsdorf (2020) 30, 31
justice, dikē, in xenophon Wolfsdorf (2020) 418, 419, 426, 428
justice, dikē, intergenerational liability Wolfsdorf (2020) 561, 562, 597
justice, dikē, oaths invoking Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 120, 296, 324
justice, dikē, socratic conception Wolfsdorf (2020) 183, 184, 185, 436, 437
justice, distributive Barbato (2020) 70, 75
Wolfsdorf (2020) 59, 467, 468, 469, 470, 482, 483
justice, distributive, divine Nisula (2012) 69, 108, 114
justice, divine Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 15, 287, 288, 289, 292, 320
Czajkowski et al (2020) 445, 446
Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 44
Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 101, 102, 117, 118, 120, 161
Jouanna (2012) 107
Jouanna (2018) 256, 384, 385, 386, 395, 408, 409, 410, 485, 748
Legaspi (2018) 190, 194, 195
Nisula (2012) 2, 59, 63, 66, 76, 77, 106, 121, 122, 298
Stuckenbruck (2007) 133, 192, 202, 203, 227, 237, 272, 280, 297, 348, 349, 369, 436, 458, 492, 496, 497, 499, 500, 506, 523, 524, 525, 526, 533, 548, 553, 560, 581, 680, 690, 701, 702, 703, 704, 741
justice, divine, as opposed to human Jouanna (2012) 107
justice, divine, of nature Jouanna (2012) 303
justice, divine/god Fishbane (2003) 43, 54, 71, 124, 168, 209, 246, 259, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396
justice, electra, sophocles, and divine Jouanna (2018) 408, 409, 410
justice, emblem of carried by fourth in procession Griffiths (1975) 203
justice, environmental Konig (2022) 281
Konig and Wiater (2022) 125
König and Wiater (2022) 125
justice, epicurus Malherbe et al (2014) 49
justice, execution of Stuckenbruck (2007) 64, 142, 272, 364, 388, 436, 460, 498, 571
justice, faith, in divine Jouanna (2018) 408, 409, 410
justice, fate, law of Schibli (2002) 342
justice, fatum, and Davies (2004) 283
justice, forms, of Harte (2017) 96, 142, 157, 167, 180
justice, freedom, ἐλευθερία‎, in on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 463, 478, 479, 480
justice, furies, and Davies (2004) 277, 279
justice, ge/polis orthodikaios Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 163, 165
justice, general Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 22, 34, 265
justice, god, theoi, θεοί‎, and divine d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 263
justice, greek and roman, summary Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 369, 370, 489, 490, 491
justice, hand, deformed left, emblem of Griffiths (1975) 203
justice, helping paradigm, international relations, and Barbato (2020) 124, 125, 126, 138, 139, 187, 188, 199, 200, 203, 204, 207, 210, 211
justice, heralds staff in left hand of anubis, left hand, deformed, emblem of Griffiths (1975) 11, 219
justice, hermes, and cosmic Miller and Clay (2019) 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331
justice, hidden, divine Nisula (2012) 84, 111
justice, hippolytus as dikaios Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 191, 208, 212, 266
justice, historiography, and Davies (2004) 243
justice, human Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 119, 194, 197, 199, 267, 272
justice, in anonymus iamblichi, law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 277, 278, 279, 281, 282
justice, in basilidean tradition, concern with Scopello (2008) 148, 149
justice, in gold leaves Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258
justice, in hades Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 169
justice, in herodotus Davies (2004) 282
justice, in hesiod Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 269, 294
justice, in inscriptions Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 282, 283, 286, 287, 288
justice, in invidia, role of Kaster(2005) 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103
justice, in lactantius Davies (2004) 280
justice, in phoenician women and, sophism polyneices on truth and Pucci (2016) 31, 32
justice, in phoenician women, language, polyneices on truth and Pucci (2016) 30, 31, 32
justice, in plato Graver (2007) 72, 73
justice, in plato’s curricular hierarchy Hoenig (2018) 17, 178, 179
justice, in sophocles Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 178
justice, in tacitean rome Davies (2004) 155
justice, in tacitus Davies (2004) 283
justice, in the soul Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 303, 304, 322, 349, 522
justice, inscrutability of divine Nisula (2012) 79, 83, 281
justice, isis, and Griffiths (1975) 149, 203
justice, jewish, summary Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 492, 493, 494
justice, judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of see Long (2006) 4, 10, 29, 184, 185, 189, 190, 191, 192, 198, 199, 311, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 343, 345, 347, 348, 351, 354, 357
justice, just practices and zaleucus Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 65
justice, justice, , dikē, in on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 465, 466, 468, 469, 470
justice, keturah, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 43
justice, king archon Barbato (2020) 109, 110, 111
justice, knowledge, of Levison (2009) 45
justice, known by laws, divine Nisula (2012) 131
justice, kosmos, and, dik㪠Horkey (2019) 10, 36
justice, lack of Stuckenbruck (2007) 192, 202, 203, 211, 459, 499, 506, 560, 581
justice, lat. iustitia = gr. dikaiosynē Tsouni (2019) 117, 132, 155, 157, 158, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 185
justice, lat. iustitia = gr. dikaiosynē, species of Tsouni (2019) 158
justice, law, nomos, and socratic Wolfsdorf (2020) 428
justice, law, nomos, in on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 474, 475, 476, 481, 482, 483
justice, laws of Schibli (2002) 206, 228
justice, laws, of Schibli (2002) 206, 228, 342
justice, left hand, deformed, emblem of Griffiths (1975) 203
justice, lex talionis Stuckenbruck (2007) 418, 449
justice, linked with piety Brouwer (2013) 175
justice, logos, in on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 486
justice, ma'at and dikaiosyne, and Griffiths (1975) 204
justice, matricide Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 144
justice, maximinus, and Davies (2004) 277
justice, mother of adrastia Davies (2004) 259
justice, motifs, thematic, poetic Schwartz (2008) 239, 242, 256, 377, 451, 498, 507
justice, nemesis, daughter of Davies (2004) 276
justice, not analogical to human, justice, divine Nisula (2012) 111, 132, 133
justice, nous of adikoi identified by gods Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 46
justice, oaths, invoking, dikē Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 120, 296, 324
justice, object of prayer Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 103, 104, 111, 113, 271
justice, of divine punishment Nisula (2012) 70, 92, 104, 109
justice, of gnome Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 241, 242, 243, 244, 245
justice, of god Beatrice (2013) 20, 25, 26, 31, 79, 80, 96, 210
Karfíková (2012) 17, 19, 21, 60, 80, 98, 102, 116, 127, 210, 237, 280
Rubenstein (2018) 74, 75, 81, 82, 89, 90
justice, of gods, chrysippus, on Mikalson (2010) 203, 204
justice, of inner purity generally Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 116, 117, 121
justice, of justified killer Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 160
justice, of leaders Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 218
justice, of man Karfíková (2012) 29, 52, 112, 126, 237
justice, of matricide Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 225, 232
justice, of noah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 94, 95, 174, 177, 180, 186, 187
justice, of providence, fate Schibli (2002) 332, 340
justice, of province, chief Griffiths (1975) 12
justice, of yhwh Toloni (2022) 68, 73, 74, 82, 94, 100, 110, 111
justice, order, τάξις, and Schibli (2002) 237
justice, petitions for Stuckenbruck (2007) 297, 298, 307, 311, 312, 322, 386, 387, 388, 436, 558, 703, 706
justice, piety and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 61, 62, 177, 209, 300, 335, 336
justice, political thought, in on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 456
justice, polyvalence, cf. openness, semantic prayer for Riess (2012) 167, 179, 192, 195, 201, 215
justice, popular Riess (2012) 73, 75, 133, 257
justice, popular, cf. charivari, rough music Riess (2012) 73, 75, 76, 257
justice, prayer, for Versnel (2011) 154
justice, prayers, and Mikalson (2010) 49, 50, 53
justice, profitability of Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 299, 300, 315, 322
justice, proper respect for gods, and Mikalson (2010) 29, 31, 190, 194, 195, 196, 202, 207
justice, protagoras, relativism and Wolfsdorf (2020) 685
justice, pythagoras, doctrine of Simmons(1995) 313
justice, reciprocity, and Barbato (2020) 121, 122
justice, regarding, dead, the Mikalson (2010) 190
justice, related to human, justice, divine Nisula (2012) 132
justice, religious correctness, and Mikalson (2010) 29, 31, 77, 143, 144, 150, 166, 173, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 207
justice, retribution Stuckenbruck (2007) 133, 312, 369, 425, 449
justice, retributive Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 133
justice, rulers, as standard of Wolfsdorf (2020) 692
justice, rulers, in on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 463, 480, 481, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487
justice, sacrifices, and Mikalson (2010) 45, 46, 52, 59, 62, 77, 98, 106, 129, 193, 194, 197
justice, service to gods', and Mikalson (2010) 29, 31, 189, 190, 193, 194, 196, 203
justice, socrates definition of Brouwer (2013) 174
justice, socrates, on Brouwer (2013) 174
justice, sons, of Levison (2009) 387, 389
justice, sophia, wisdom truth contrasted with Pucci (2016) 30, 31, 32
justice, starting point for Graver (2007) 175
justice, stealing sacred things, and Mikalson (2010) 166, 194
justice, summary Humfress (2007) 31, 32
justice, supernatural Humfress (2007) 30
justice, ta adika Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 48
justice, ta dikaia phronein Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 111
justice, talionic Matthews (2010) 102, 103, 125, 126, 127, 186
justice, temple, of Mueller (2002) 161, 162, 163
justice, themis Clark (2007) 35
justice, theophrastus, and Mikalson (2010) 77, 194
justice, thoth, god of Miller and Clay (2019) 301
justice, to, archytas, attribution of on law and Wolfsdorf (2020) 456, 458
justice, under, augustus, nature of Williams and Vol (2022) 326
justice, valens, and Davies (2004) 275, 278, 279, 280, 281
justice, valentinian, and Davies (2004) 275
justice, virgin astraea Xinyue (2022) 54
justice, virtues Tite (2009) 87, 171, 180, 200, 241
justice, weeps Davies (2004) 275, 277
justice, wife of basilinna Barbato (2020) 110
justice, zeus, and Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 26, 75, 76, 97
Fabian Meinel (2015) 129
Gagarin and Cohen (2005) 399, 400
Mikalson (2010) 226, 227
justice/ethics, social Corley (2002) 18, 20, 21, 137, 153, 208, 209
justice/fate, association of zeus with, justice, and political life, scales of Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
justice/fate, association of zeus with, scales of Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
justice/scales/, zeus, fate, association with Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
power/justice/, strength/might, spirit, effects of Levison (2009) 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 72, 128, 143, 144, 203, 220, 237, 240, 241, 244, 250, 251, 268, 280, 281, 334, 364, 423

List of validated texts:
107 validated results for "justice"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.1, 3.6, 13.2, 13.5 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Execution of • Yhwh, justice of • justice

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 199; Stuckenbruck (2007) 498; Toloni (2022) 73, 100

3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying,
3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me."
13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.18, 16.19, 20.5, 28.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Democracy, as the optimal constitutional framework for achieving justice • Divine/God,, Justice • Justice • Justice, Divine • Justice, Lack of • Justice, Petitions for • Philo, divided justice • Royal justice (judiciary), Philo and the concept of • justice • justice,

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003) 394; Flatto (2021) 43, 51; Stuckenbruck (2007) 192, 297, 553; Wilson (2010) 126, 148, 150; Černušková (2016) 27

10.18. עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפַּט יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאֹהֵב גֵּר לָתֶת לוֹ לֶחֶם וְשִׂמְלָה׃
16.19. לֹא־תַטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט לֹא תַכִּיר פָּנִים וְלֹא־תִקַּח שֹׁחַד כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר עֵינֵי חֲכָמִים וִיסַלֵּף דִּבְרֵי צַדִּיקִם׃
20.5. וְדִבְּרוּ הַשֹּׁטְרִים אֶל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר מִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה בַיִת־חָדָשׁ וְלֹא חֲנָכוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יַחְנְכֶנּוּ׃
28.7. יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ הַקָּמִים עָלֶיךָ נִגָּפִים לְפָנֶיךָ בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד יֵצְאוּ אֵלֶיךָ וּבְשִׁבְעָה דְרָכִים יָנוּסוּ לְפָנֶיךָ׃''. None
10.18. He doth execute justice for the fatherless and widow, and loveth the stranger, in giving him food and raiment.
16.19. Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons; neither shalt thou take a gift; for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.
20.5. And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying: ‘What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.
28.7. The LORD will cause thine enemies that rise up against thee to be smitten before thee; they shall come out against thee one way, and shall flee before thee seven ways.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 4.10, 6.9, 9.20, 18.25, 21.9-21.13, 23.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/God,, Justice • Justice • Justice, Divine • Justice, Petitions for • Justice, Retribution • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice • Yhwh, justice of • humanity, justice defining • justice • justice , of man • justice, Keturah, omission of • justice, as leader of virtues • justice, of Noah • justice, piety and • piety, justice and • social justice/ethics • virtue, justice as leader of

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 32, 181; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 43, 94, 95, 174, 177, 180, 336; Corley (2002) 134, 137, 153; Fishbane (2003) 124; Garcia (2021) 109; Geljon and Runia (2013) 23, 92, 99, 112, 142, 149, 153, 232; Geljon and Runia (2019) 95; Karfíková (2012) 29, 146; Levison (2009) 149, 211; Libson (2018) 2; Schwartz (2008) 256; Stuckenbruck (2007) 88, 312, 704; Toloni (2022) 82; Černušková (2016) 27

1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃' '
1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃
18.25. חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשֹׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָּךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט׃
21.9. וַתֵּרֶא שָׂרָה אֶת־בֶּן־הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָה לְאַבְרָהָם מְצַחֵק׃ 21.11. וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּעֵינֵי אַבְרָהָם עַל אוֹדֹת בְּנוֹ׃ 21.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אַל־יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ עַל־הַנַּעַר וְעַל־אֲמָתֶךָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵלֶיךָ שָׂרָה שְׁמַע בְּקֹלָהּ כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע׃ 21.13. וְגַם אֶת־בֶּן־הָאָמָה לְגוֹי אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ כִּי זַרְעֲךָ הוּא׃
23.6. שְׁמָעֵנוּ אֲדֹנִי נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בְּמִבְחַר קְבָרֵינוּ קְבֹר אֶת־מֵתֶךָ אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־קִבְרוֹ לֹא־יִכְלֶה מִמְּךָ מִקְּבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃''. None
1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.
4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground.
6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God.
9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.
18.25. That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from Thee; shall not the judge of all the earth do justly?’
21.9. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne unto Abraham, making sport. 21.10. Wherefore she said unto Abraham: ‘Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.’ 21.11. And the thing was very grievous in Abraham’s sight on account of his son. 21.12. And God said unto Abraham: ‘Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall seed be called to thee. 21.13. And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.’
23.6. ’Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.’' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.13, 25.36, 25.39, 25.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judicial administration, responses to priestly justice • Priestly justice, appropriating clear-cut responsibilities of • Priestly justice, opposition to • Priestly justice, responses to • Rabbi Ismael, priestly justice • justice • justice, • social justice/ethics

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 208, 209; Flatto (2021) 152; Wilson (2010) 221, 286; Černušková (2016) 27

19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃
25.36. אַל־תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ׃
25.39. וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָךְ לֹא־תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד׃
25.41. וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ וְשָׁב אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב׃' '. None
19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning.
25.36. Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee.
25.39. And if thy brother be waxen poor with thee, and sell himself unto thee, thou shalt not make him to serve as a bondservant.
25.41. Then shall he go out from thee, he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return.' '. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/God,, Justice • Justice, Divine

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003) 392; Stuckenbruck (2007) 702

3.16. אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי יְהוָה אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמָע וַיִּכָּתֵב סֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו לְיִרְאֵי יְהוָה וּלְחֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ׃''. None
3.16. Then they that feared the LORD Spoke one with another; and the LORD hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the LORD, and that thought upon His name.''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Summary Justice, Greek and Roman • justice

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 370; Geljon and Runia (2019) 224

5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃''. None
5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance.''. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 10.16, 11.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, Divine • justice

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 181; Corley (2002) 138; Stuckenbruck (2007) 533

10.16. פְּעֻלַּת צַדִּיק לְחַיִּים תְּבוּאַת רָשָׁע לְחַטָּאת׃' '. None
10.16. The wages of the righteous is life; The increase of the wicked is sin.
11.10. When it goeth well with the righteous, the city rejoiceth; And when the wicked perish, there is joy.''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 104.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/God,, Justice • Justice

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 32; Fishbane (2003) 54, 71

104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃''. None
104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers.''. None
9. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • social justice/ethics

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 208; Vinzent (2013) 37

4.7. וְזֹאת לְפָנִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הַגְּאוּלָּה וְעַל־הַתְּמוּרָה לְקַיֵּם כָּל־דָּבָר שָׁלַף אִישׁ נַעֲלוֹ וְנָתַן לְרֵעֵהוּ וְזֹאת הַתְּעוּדָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃''. None
4.7. Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour; and this was the attestation in Israel.—''. None
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 24.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Divine • Justice, Lack of • justice

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 199; Stuckenbruck (2007) 560

24.6. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי־כֵן וַיַּךְ לֵב־דָּוִד אֹתוֹ עַל אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת־כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל׃''. None
24.6. And it came to pass afterwards, that David’s heart smote him, because he had cut off Sha᾽ul’s robe.''. None
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.12-2.17, 11.2, 11.4, 14.13, 49.6, 57.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dead Sea Scrolls, separating justice from royal power • Divine/God,, Justice • God, justice of • Justice • Justice, Divine • Justice, Execution of • Justice, biblical administration of • Justice, biblical administration of, prophetic writings • Royal justice (judiciary), glorification of • Royal justice (judiciary), royal texts • Spirit, effects of, power/justice/ strength/might • justice

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 145; Fishbane (2003) 71; Flatto (2021) 12, 61; Levison (2009) 44, 143; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 79; Rubenstein (2018) 81; Schwartz (2008) 155; Stuckenbruck (2007) 142, 553; Vinzent (2013) 36

2.12. כִּי יוֹם לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת עַל כָּל־גֵּאֶה וָרָם וְעַל כָּל־נִשָּׂא וְשָׁפֵל׃ 2.13. וְעַל כָּל־אַרְזֵי הַלְּבָנוֹן הָרָמִים וְהַנִּשָּׂאִים וְעַל כָּל־אַלּוֹנֵי הַבָּשָׁן׃ 2.14. וְעַל כָּל־הֶהָרִים הָרָמִים וְעַל כָּל־הַגְּבָעוֹת הַנִּשָּׂאוֹת׃ 2.15. וְעַל כָּל־מִגְדָּל גָּבֹהַ וְעַל כָּל־חוֹמָה בְצוּרָה׃ 2.16. וְעַל כָּל־אֳנִיּוֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ וְעַל כָּל־שְׂכִיּוֹת הַחֶמְדָּה׃ 2.17. וְשַׁח גַּבְהוּת הָאָדָם וְשָׁפֵל רוּם אֲנָשִׁים וְנִשְׂגַּב יְהוָה לְבַדּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃
11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃
11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃
14.13. וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃
49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי וּנְצוּרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃
57.15. כִּי כֹה אָמַר רָם וְנִשָּׂא שֹׁכֵן עַד וְקָדוֹשׁ שְׁמוֹ מָרוֹם וְקָדוֹשׁ אֶשְׁכּוֹן וְאֶת־דַּכָּא וּשְׁפַל־רוּחַ לְהַחֲיוֹת רוּחַ שְׁפָלִים וּלְהַחֲיוֹת לֵב נִדְכָּאִים׃' '. None
2.12. For the LORD of hosts hath a day Upon all that is proud and lofty, And upon all that is lifted up, and it shall be brought low; 2.13. And upon all the cedars of Lebanon That are high and lifted up, And upon all the oaks of Bashan; 2.14. And upon all the high mountains, And upon all the hills that are lifted up; 2.15. And upon every lofty tower, And upon every fortified wall; 2.16. And upon all the ships of Tarshish, And upon all delightful imagery. 2.17. And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, And the haughtiness of men shall be brought low; And the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.
11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.
11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
14.13. And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;
49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’
57.15. For thus saith the High and Lofty One That inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place, With him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit, To revive the spirit of the humble, And to revive the heart of the contrite ones.' '. None
12. Hesiod, Works And Days, 7, 9, 38-39, 106-292, 325-341, 524-525, 568, 724-759, 804 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Philomela and Procne, divine justice, absence of • Zeus, Justice and - • Zeus, and justice • fate, law of justice • justice • justice (dikē), in Hesiodic myth • justice (dikē), in Xenophanes • justice (dikē), intergenerational liability • justice, adikai praxeis in Pythagoras • justice, dikaia as object of thinking in the Theognidea • justice, dike/adika erga/adikos in Theognidea • justice, general • justice, in Hesiod • justice, nous of adikoi identified by gods • justice, peculiar to human beings • justice, retributive and cosmic • justice, ta adika • language, Polyneices on truth and justice, in Phoenician Women • laws, of justice • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • sacrifices, and justice • sophia, wisdom truth contrasted with justice • sophism Polyneices on truth and justice in Phoenician Women and

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 160, 161; Gagarin and Cohen (2005) 399, 400; Harte (2017) 23; Kirichenko (2022) 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 119, 145, 148; Kneebone (2020) 58, 59, 61, 347, 392, 393, 394; Liatsi (2021) 6; Mikalson (2010) 62; Panoussi(2019) 141; Peels (2016) 58, 61, 65, 107; Perkell (1989) 113, 187; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 119, 120, 265, 269; Pucci (2016) 12, 31; Schibli (2002) 342; Wolfsdorf (2020) 30, 288, 553, 561, 596, 597; Álvarez (2019) 25, 26, 31, 33

7. ῥεῖα δέ τʼ ἰθύνει σκολιὸν καὶ ἀγήνορα κάρφει
9. κλῦθι ἰδὼν ἀίων τε, δίκῃ δʼ ἴθυνε θέμιστας
38. ἁρπάζων ἐφόρεις μέγα κυδαίνων βασιλῆας 3
9. δωροφάγους, οἳ τήνδε δίκην ἐθέλουσι δίκασσαι.
106. εἰ δʼ ἐθέλεις, ἕτερόν τοι ἐγὼ λόγον ἐκκορυφώσω'10
7. εὖ καὶ ἐπισταμένως· σὺ δʼ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν. 108. ὡς ὁμόθεν γεγάασι θεοὶ θνητοί τʼ ἄνθρωποι. 10
9. χρύσεον μὲν πρώτιστα γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων 110. ἀθάνατοι ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες. 111. οἳ μὲν ἐπὶ Κρόνου ἦσαν, ὅτʼ οὐρανῷ ἐμβασίλευεν· 112. ὥστε θεοὶ δʼ ἔζωον ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 113. νόσφιν ἄτερ τε πόνων καὶ ὀιζύος· οὐδέ τι δειλὸν 114. γῆρας ἐπῆν, αἰεὶ δὲ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ὁμοῖοι 115. τέρποντʼ ἐν θαλίῃσι κακῶν ἔκτοσθεν ἁπάντων· 116. θνῇσκον δʼ ὥσθʼ ὕπνῳ δεδμημένοι· ἐσθλὰ δὲ πάντα 11
7. τοῖσιν ἔην· καρπὸν δʼ ἔφερε ζείδωρος ἄρουρα 118. αὐτομάτη πολλόν τε καὶ ἄφθονον· οἳ δʼ ἐθελημοὶ 11
9. ἥσυχοι ἔργʼ ἐνέμοντο σὺν ἐσθλοῖσιν πολέεσσιν. 120. ἀφνειοὶ μήλοισι, φίλοι μακάρεσσι θεοῖσιν. 121. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 122. τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123. ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, 124. οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 125. ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν, 126. πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—, 12
7. δεύτερον αὖτε γένος πολὺ χειρότερον μετόπισθεν 128. ἀργύρεον ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες, 12
9. χρυσέῳ οὔτε φυὴν ἐναλίγκιον οὔτε νόημα. 130. ἀλλʼ ἑκατὸν μὲν παῖς ἔτεα παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ 131. ἐτρέφετʼ ἀτάλλων, μέγα νήπιος, ᾧ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ. 132. ἀλλʼ ὅτʼ ἄρʼ ἡβήσαι τε καὶ ἥβης μέτρον ἵκοιτο, 133. παυρίδιον ζώεσκον ἐπὶ χρόνον, ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντες 134. ἀφραδίῃς· ὕβριν γὰρ ἀτάσθαλον οὐκ ἐδύναντο 135. ἀλλήλων ἀπέχειν, οὐδʼ ἀθανάτους θεραπεύειν 136. ἤθελον οὐδʼ ἔρδειν μακάρων ἱεροῖς ἐπὶ βωμοῖς, 13
7. ἣ θέμις ἀνθρώποις κατὰ ἤθεα. τοὺς μὲν ἔπειτα 1
38. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ἔκρυψε χολούμενος, οὕνεκα τιμὰς 13
9. οὐκ ἔδιδον μακάρεσσι θεοῖς, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν. 140. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 141. τοὶ μὲν ὑποχθόνιοι μάκαρες θνητοῖς καλέονται, 142. δεύτεροι, ἀλλʼ ἔμπης τιμὴ καὶ τοῖσιν ὀπηδεῖ—, 143. Ζεὺς δὲ πατὴρ τρίτον ἄλλο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων 144. χάλκειον ποίησʼ, οὐκ ἀργυρέῳ οὐδὲν ὁμοῖον, 145. ἐκ μελιᾶν, δεινόν τε καὶ ὄβριμον· οἷσιν Ἄρηος 146. ἔργʼ ἔμελεν στονόεντα καὶ ὕβριες· οὐδέ τι σῖτον 14
7. ἤσθιον, ἀλλʼ ἀδάμαντος ἔχον κρατερόφρονα θυμόν, 148. ἄπλαστοι· μεγάλη δὲ βίη καὶ χεῖρες ἄαπτοι 14
9. ἐξ ὤμων ἐπέφυκον ἐπὶ στιβαροῖσι μέλεσσιν. 150. ὧν δʼ ἦν χάλκεα μὲν τεύχεα, χάλκεοι δέ τε οἶκοι 151. χαλκῷ δʼ εἰργάζοντο· μέλας δʼ οὐκ ἔσκε σίδηρος. 152. καὶ τοὶ μὲν χείρεσσιν ὕπο σφετέρῃσι δαμέντες 153. βῆσαν ἐς εὐρώεντα δόμον κρυεροῦ Αίδαο 154. νώνυμνοι· θάνατος δὲ καὶ ἐκπάγλους περ ἐόντας 155. εἷλε μέλας, λαμπρὸν δʼ ἔλιπον φάος ἠελίοιο. 156. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψεν, 15
7. αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 158. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ἄρειον, 15
9. ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 160. ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161. καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162. τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163. ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164. τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165. ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166. ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 16
7. τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 16
9. Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 16
9. ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 16
9. τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 16
9. τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 16
9. τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 1
70. καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 1
71. ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 1
72. ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 1
73. τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα. 1
74. μηκέτʼ ἔπειτʼ ὤφελλον ἐγὼ πέμπτοισι μετεῖναι 1
75. ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλʼ ἢ πρόσθε θανεῖν ἢ ἔπειτα γενέσθαι. 1
76. νῦν γὰρ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ σιδήρεον· οὐδέ ποτʼ ἦμαρ 1
7. παύονται καμάτου καὶ ὀιζύος, οὐδέ τι νύκτωρ 1
78. φθειρόμενοι. χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας· 1
9. ἀλλʼ ἔμπης καὶ τοῖσι μεμείξεται ἐσθλὰ κακοῖσιν. 180. Ζεὺς δʼ ὀλέσει καὶ τοῦτο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων, 181. εὖτʼ ἂν γεινόμενοι πολιοκρόταφοι τελέθωσιν. 182. οὐδὲ πατὴρ παίδεσσιν ὁμοίιος οὐδέ τι παῖδες, 183. οὐδὲ ξεῖνος ξεινοδόκῳ καὶ ἑταῖρος ἑταίρῳ, 184. οὐδὲ κασίγνητος φίλος ἔσσεται, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ. 185. αἶψα δὲ γηράσκοντας ἀτιμήσουσι τοκῆας· 186. μέμψονται δʼ ἄρα τοὺς χαλεποῖς βάζοντες ἔπεσσι 18
7. σχέτλιοι οὐδὲ θεῶν ὄπιν εἰδότες· οὐδέ κεν οἵ γε 188. γηράντεσσι τοκεῦσιν ἀπὸ θρεπτήρια δοῖεν 18
9. χειροδίκαι· ἕτερος δʼ ἑτέρου πόλιν ἐξαλαπάξει. 1
90. οὐδέ τις εὐόρκου χάρις ἔσσεται οὔτε δικαίου 1
91. οὔτʼ ἀγαθοῦ, μᾶλλον δὲ κακῶν ῥεκτῆρα καὶ ὕβριν 1
92. ἀνέρες αἰνήσουσι· δίκη δʼ ἐν χερσί, καὶ αἰδὼς 1
93. οὐκ ἔσται· βλάψει δʼ ὁ κακὸς τὸν ἀρείονα φῶτα 1
94. μύθοισιν σκολιοῖς ἐνέπων, ἐπὶ δʼ ὅρκον ὀμεῖται. 1
95. ζῆλος δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀιζυροῖσιν ἅπασι 1
96. δυσκέλαδος κακόχαρτος ὁμαρτήσει, στυγερώπης. 1
7. καὶ τότε δὴ πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἀπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 1
98. λευκοῖσιν φάρεσσι καλυψαμένα χρόα καλὸν 1
9. ἀθανάτων μετὰ φῦλον ἴτον προλιπόντʼ ἀνθρώπους 200. Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ 201. θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐκ ἔσσεται ἀλκή. 202. νῦν δʼ αἶνον βασιλεῦσιν ἐρέω φρονέουσι καὶ αὐτοῖς· 203. ὧδʼ ἴρηξ προσέειπεν ἀηδόνα ποικιλόδειρον 204. ὕψι μάλʼ ἐν νεφέεσσι φέρων ὀνύχεσσι μεμαρπώς· 205. ἣ δʼ ἐλεόν, γναμπτοῖσι πεπαρμένη ἀμφʼ ὀνύχεσσι, 206. μύρετο· τὴν ὅγʼ ἐπικρατέως πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπεν· 20
7. δαιμονίη, τί λέληκας; ἔχει νύ σε πολλὸν ἀρείων· 208. τῇ δʼ εἶς, ᾗ σʼ ἂν ἐγώ περ ἄγω καὶ ἀοιδὸν ἐοῦσαν· 20
9. δεῖπνον δʼ, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλω, ποιήσομαι ἠὲ μεθήσω. 210. ἄφρων δʼ, ὅς κʼ ἐθέλῃ πρὸς κρείσσονας ἀντιφερίζειν· 211. νίκης τε στέρεται πρός τʼ αἴσχεσιν ἄλγεα πάσχει. 212. ὣς ἔφατʼ ὠκυπέτης ἴρηξ, τανυσίπτερος ὄρνις. 213. ὦ Πέρση, σὺ δʼ ἄκουε δίκης, μηδʼ ὕβριν ὄφελλε· 214. ὕβρις γάρ τε κακὴ δειλῷ βροτῷ· οὐδὲ μὲν ἐσθλὸς 215. ῥηιδίως φερέμεν δύναται, βαρύθει δέ θʼ ὑπʼ αὐτῆς 216. ἐγκύρσας ἄτῃσιν· ὁδὸς δʼ ἑτέρηφι παρελθεῖν 21
7. κρείσσων ἐς τὰ δίκαια· Δίκη δʼ ὑπὲρ Ὕβριος ἴσχει 218. ἐς τέλος ἐξελθοῦσα· παθὼν δέ τε νήπιος ἔγνω. 21
9. αὐτίκα γὰρ τρέχει Ὅρκος ἅμα σκολιῇσι δίκῃσιν. 220. τῆς δὲ Δίκης ῥόθος ἑλκομένης, ᾗ κʼ ἄνδρες ἄγωσι 221. δωροφάγοι, σκολιῇς δὲ δίκῃς κρίνωσι θέμιστας. 222. ἣ δʼ ἕπεται κλαίουσα πόλιν καὶ ἤθεα λαῶν, 223. ἠέρα ἑσσαμένη, κακὸν ἀνθρώποισι φέρουσα, 224. οἵ τε μιν ἐξελάσωσι καὶ οὐκ ἰθεῖαν ἔνειμαν. 225. Οἳ δὲ δίκας ξείνοισι καὶ ἐνδήμοισι διδοῦσιν 226. ἰθείας καὶ μή τι παρεκβαίνουσι δικαίου, 22
7. τοῖσι τέθηλε πόλις, λαοὶ δʼ ἀνθεῦσιν ἐν αὐτῇ· 228. εἰρήνη δʼ ἀνὰ γῆν κουροτρόφος, οὐδέ ποτʼ αὐτοῖς 22
9. ἀργαλέον πόλεμον τεκμαίρεται εὐρύοπα Ζεύς· 230. οὐδέ ποτʼ ἰθυδίκῃσι μετʼ ἀνδράσι λιμὸς ὀπηδεῖ 231. οὐδʼ ἄτη, θαλίῃς δὲ μεμηλότα ἔργα νέμονται. 232. τοῖσι φέρει μὲν γαῖα πολὺν βίον, οὔρεσι δὲ δρῦς 233. ἄκρη μέν τε φέρει βαλάνους, μέσση δὲ μελίσσας· 234. εἰροπόκοι δʼ ὄιες μαλλοῖς καταβεβρίθασιν· 235. τίκτουσιν δὲ γυναῖκες ἐοικότα τέκνα γονεῦσιν· 236. θάλλουσιν δʼ ἀγαθοῖσι διαμπερές· οὐδʼ ἐπὶ νηῶν 23
7. νίσσονται, καρπὸν δὲ φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα. 2
38. οἷς δʼ ὕβρις τε μέμηλε κακὴ καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα, 23
9. τοῖς δὲ δίκην Κρονίδης τεκμαίρεται εὐρύοπα Ζεύς. 240. πολλάκι καὶ ξύμπασα πόλις κακοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀπηύρα, 241. ὅς κεν ἀλιτραίνῃ καὶ ἀτάσθαλα μηχανάαται. 242. τοῖσιν δʼ οὐρανόθεν μέγʼ ἐπήγαγε πῆμα Κρονίων 243. λιμὸν ὁμοῦ καὶ λοιμόν· ἀποφθινύθουσι δὲ λαοί. 244. οὐδὲ γυναῖκες τίκτουσιν, μινύθουσι δὲ οἶκοι 245. Ζηνὸς φραδμοσύνῃσιν Ὀλυμπίου· ἄλλοτε δʼ αὖτε 246. ἢ τῶν γε στρατὸν εὐρὺν ἀπώλεσεν ἢ ὅ γε τεῖχος 24
7. ἢ νέας ἐν πόντῳ Κρονίδης ἀποαίνυται αὐτῶν. 248. ὦ βασιλῆς, ὑμεῖς δὲ καταφράζεσθε καὶ αὐτοὶ 24
9. τήνδε δίκην· ἐγγὺς γὰρ ἐν ἀνθρώποισιν ἐόντες 250. ἀθάνατοι φράζονται, ὅσοι σκολιῇσι δίκῃσιν 251. ἀλλήλους τρίβουσι θεῶν ὄπιν οὐκ ἀλέγοντες. 252. τρὶς γὰρ μύριοί εἰσιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 253. ἀθάνατοι Ζηνὸς φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων· 254. οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 255. ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι, πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν. 256. ἡ δέ τε παρθένος ἐστὶ Δίκη, Διὸς ἐκγεγαυῖα, 25
7. κυδρή τʼ αἰδοίη τε θεῶν, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν. 258. καί ῥʼ ὁπότʼ ἄν τίς μιν βλάπτῃ σκολιῶς ὀνοτάζων, 25
9. αὐτίκα πὰρ Διὶ πατρὶ καθεζομένη Κρονίωνι 260. γηρύετʼ ἀνθρώπων ἄδικον νόον, ὄφρʼ ἀποτίσῃ 261. δῆμος ἀτασθαλίας βασιλέων, οἳ λυγρὰ νοεῦντες 262. ἄλλῃ παρκλίνωσι δίκας σκολιῶς ἐνέποντες. 263. ταῦτα φυλασσόμενοι, βασιλῆς, ἰθύνετε †δίκας 264. δωροφάγοι, σκολιέων δὲ δικέων ἐπὶ πάγχυ λάθεσθε. 265. οἷ γʼ αὐτῷ κακὰ τεύχει ἀνὴρ ἄλλῳ κακὰ τεύχων, 266. ἡ δὲ κακὴ βουλὴ τῷ βουλεύσαντι κακίστη. 26
7. πάντα ἰδὼν Διὸς ὀφθαλμὸς καὶ πάντα νοήσας 268. καί νυ τάδʼ, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλῃσʼ, ἐπιδέρκεται, οὐδέ ἑ λήθει, 26
9. οἵην δὴ καὶ τήνδε δίκην πόλις ἐντὸς ἐέργει. 2
70. νῦν δὴ ἐγὼ μήτʼ αὐτὸς ἐν ἀνθρώποισι δίκαιος 2
71. εἴην μήτʼ ἐμὸς υἱός· ἐπεὶ κακὸν ἄνδρα δίκαιον 2
72. ἔμμεναι, εἰ μείζω γε δίκην ἀδικώτερος ἕξει· 2
73. ἀλλὰ τά γʼ οὔ πω ἔολπα τελεῖν Δία μητιόεντα. 2
74. ὦ Πέρση, σὺ δὲ ταῦτα μετὰ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσι, 2
75. καὶ νυ δίκης ἐπάκουε, βίης δʼ ἐπιλήθεο πάμπαν. 2
76. τόνδε γὰρ ἀνθρώποισι νόμον διέταξε Κρονίων 2
7. ἰχθύσι μὲν καὶ θηρσὶ καὶ οἰωνοῖς πετεηνοῖς 2
78. ἐσθέμεν ἀλλήλους, ἐπεὶ οὐ δίκη ἐστὶ μετʼ αὐτοῖς· 2
9. ἀνθρώποισι δʼ ἔδωκε δίκην, ἣ πολλὸν ἀρίστη 280. γίγνεται· εἰ γάρ τίς κʼ ἐθέλῃ τὰ δίκαιʼ ἀγορεῦσαι 281. γιγνώσκων, τῷ μέν τʼ ὄλβον διδοῖ εὐρύοπα Ζεύς· 282. ὃς δέ κε μαρτυρίῃσι ἑκὼν ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσας 283. ψεύσεται, ἐν δὲ δίκην βλάψας νήκεστον ἀασθῇ, 284. τοῦ δέ τʼ ἀμαυροτέρη γενεὴ μετόπισθε λέλειπται· 285. ἀνδρὸς δʼ εὐόρκου γενεὴ μετόπισθεν ἀμείνων. 286. σοὶ δʼ ἐγὼ ἐσθλὰ νοέων ἐρέω, μέγα νήπιε Πέρση. 28
7. τὴν μέν τοι κακότητα καὶ ἰλαδὸν ἔστιν ἑλέσθαι 288. ῥηιδίως· λείη μὲν ὁδός, μάλα δʼ ἐγγύθι ναίει· 28
9. τῆς δʼ ἀρετῆς ἱδρῶτα θεοὶ προπάροιθεν ἔθηκαν 2
90. ἀθάνατοι· μακρὸς δὲ καὶ ὄρθιος οἶμος ἐς αὐτὴν 2
91. καὶ τρηχὺς τὸ πρῶτον· ἐπὴν δʼ εἰς ἄκρον ἵκηται, 2
92. ῥηιδίη δὴ ἔπειτα πέλει, χαλεπή περ ἐοῦσα.
325. ῥεῖα δέ μιν μαυροῦσι θεοί, μινύθουσι δὲ οἶκον 326. ἀνέρι τῷ, παῦρον δέ τʼ ἐπὶ χρόνον ὄλβος ὀπηδεῖ. 32
7. ἶσον δʼ ὅς θʼ ἱκέτην ὅς τε ξεῖνον κακὸν ἔρξῃ, 328. ὅς τε κασιγνήτοιο ἑοῦ ἀνὰ δέμνια βαίνῃ 32
9. κρυπταδίης εὐνῆς ἀλόχου, παρακαίρια ῥέζων, 330. ὅς τέ τευ ἀφραδίῃς ἀλιταίνεται ὀρφανὰ τέκνα, 331. ὅς τε γονῆα γέροντα κακῷ ἐπὶ γήραος οὐδῷ 332. νεικείῃ χαλεποῖσι καθαπτόμενος ἐπέεσσιν· 333. τῷ δʼ ἦ τοι Ζεὺς αὐτὸς ἀγαίεται, ἐς δὲ τελευτὴν 334. ἔργων ἀντʼ ἀδίκων χαλεπὴν ἐπέθηκεν ἀμοιβήν. 335. ἀλλὰ σὺ τῶν μὲν πάμπαν ἔεργʼ ἀεσίφρονα θυμόν. 336. κὰδ δύναμιν δʼ ἔρδειν ἱέρʼ ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσιν 33
7. ἁγνῶς καὶ καθαρῶς, ἐπὶ δʼ ἀγλαὰ μηρία καίειν· 3
38. ἄλλοτε δὲ σπονδῇσι θύεσσί τε ἱλάσκεσθαι, 33
9. ἠμὲν ὅτʼ εὐνάζῃ καὶ ὅτʼ ἂν φάος ἱερὸν ἔλθῃ, 340. ὥς κέ τοι ἵλαον κραδίην καὶ θυμὸν ἔχωσιν, 341. ὄφρʼ ἄλλων ὠνῇ κλῆρον, μὴ τὸν τεὸν ἄλλος.
524. ἤματι χειμερίῳ, ὅτʼ ἀνόστεος ὃν πόδα τένδει 525. ἔν τʼ ἀπύρῳ οἴκῳ καὶ ἤθεσι λευγαλέοισιν.
568. τὸν δὲ μέτʼ ὀρθογόη Πανδιονὶς ὦρτο χελιδὼν

724. μηδέ ποτʼ ἐξ ἠοῦς Διὶ λειβέμεν αἴθοπα οἶνον
725. χερσὶν ἀνίπτοισιν μηδʼ ἄλλοις ἀθανάτοισιν·
726. οὐ γὰρ τοί γε κλύουσιν, ἀποπτύουσι δέ τʼ ἀράς.
7. μηδʼ ἄντʼ ἠελίου τετραμμένος ὀρθὸς ὀμιχεῖν·
728. αὐτὰρ ἐπεί κε δύῃ, μεμνημένος, ἔς τʼ ἀνιόντα·
9. μήτʼ ἐν ὁδῷ μήτʼ ἐκτὸς ὁδοῦ προβάδην οὐρήσῃς
730. μηδʼ ἀπογυμνωθείς· μακάρων τοι νύκτες ἔασιν·
731. ἑζόμενος δʼ ὅ γε θεῖος ἀνήρ, πεπνυμένα εἰδώς,
732. ἢ ὅ γε πρὸς τοῖχον πελάσας ἐυερκέος αὐλῆς.
733. μηδʼ αἰδοῖα γονῇ πεπαλαγμένος ἔνδοθι οἴκου
734. ἱστίῃ ἐμπελαδὸν παραφαινέμεν, ἀλλʼ ἀλέασθαι.
735. μηδʼ ἀπὸ δυσφήμοιο τάφου ἀπονοστήσαντα
736. σπερμαίνειν γενεήν, ἀλλʼ ἀθανάτων ἀπὸ δαιτός.
7. μηδέ ποτʼ αἰενάων ποταμῶν καλλίρροον ὕδωρ
38. ποσσὶ περᾶν, πρίν γʼ εὔξῃ ἰδὼν ἐς καλὰ ῥέεθρα,
9. χεῖρας νιψάμενος πολυηράτῳ ὕδατι λευκῷ.
740. ὃς ποταμὸν διαβῇ κακότητʼ ἰδὲ χεῖρας ἄνιπτος,
741. τῷ δὲ θεοὶ νεμεσῶσι καὶ ἄλγεα δῶκαν ὀπίσσω.
742. μηδʼ ἀπὸ πεντόζοιο θεῶν ἐν δαιτὶ θαλείῃ
743. αὖον ἀπὸ χλωροῦ τάμνειν αἴθωνι σιδήρῳ.
744. μηδέ ποτʼ οἰνοχόην τιθέμεν κρητῆρος ὕπερθε
745. πινόντων· ὀλοὴ γὰρ ἐπʼ αὐτῷ μοῖρα τέτυκται.
746. μηδὲ δόμον ποιῶν ἀνεπίξεστον καταλείπειν,
7. μή τοι ἐφεζομένη κρώξῃ λακέρυζα κορώνη.
748. μηδʼ ἀπὸ χυτροπόδων ἀνεπιρρέκτων ἀνελόντα
9. ἔσθειν μηδὲ λόεσθαι· ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῖς ἔνι ποινή.
750. μηδʼ ἐπʼ ἀκινήτοισι καθιζέμεν, οὐ γὰρ ἄμεινον,
751. παῖδα δυωδεκαταῖον, ὅτʼ ἀνέρʼ ἀνήνορα ποιεῖ,
752. μηδὲ δυωδεκάμηνον· ἴσον καὶ τοῦτο τέτυκται.
753. μηδὲ γυναικείῳ λουτρῷ χρόα φαιδρύνεσθαι
754. ἀνέρα· λευγαλέη γὰρ ἐπὶ χρόνον ἔστʼ ἐπὶ καὶ τῷ
755. ποινή. μηδʼ ἱεροῖσιν ἐπʼ αἰθομένοισι κυρήσας
756. μωμεύειν ἀίδηλα· θεός νύ τι καὶ τὰ νεμεσσᾷ.
7. μηδέ ποτʼ ἐν προχοῇς ποταμῶν ἅλαδε προρεόντων
758. μηδʼ ἐπὶ κρηνάων οὐρεῖν, μάλα δʼ ἐξαλέασθαι·
9. μηδʼ ἐναποψύχειν· τὸ γὰρ οὔ τοι λώιόν ἐστιν.
804. Ὅρκον γεινόμενον, τὸν Ἔρις τέκε πῆμʼ ἐπιόρκοις. '. None
7. Obscure, makes great the low; the crooked he
9. See me and hear me, make straight our decrees,
38. With Zeus’s laws, so excellent and fair. 3
9. We split our goods in two, but, capturing
106. (The lid already stopped her, by the will'10
7. of aegis-bearing Zeus). But all about 108. There roam among mankind all kinds of ill, 10
9. Filling both land and sea, while every day 110. Plagues haunt them, which, unwanted, come at night 111. As well, in silence, for Zeus took away 112. Their voice – it is not possible to fight 113. The will of Zeus. I’ll sketch now skilfully, 114. If you should welcome it, another story: 115. Take it to heart. The selfsame ancestry 116. Embraced both men and gods, who, in their glory 11
7. High on Olympus first devised a race 118. of gold, existing under Cronus’ reign 11
9. When he ruled Heaven. There was not a trace 120. of woe among them since they felt no pain; 121. There was no dread old age but, always rude 122. of health, away from grief, they took delight 123. In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued 124. By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right, 125. Would bring forth plenteous fruit. In harmony 126. They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease 12
7. With all the gods. But when this progeny 128. Was buried underneath the earth – yet these 12
9. Live on, land-spirits, holy, pure and blessed, 130. Who guard mankind from evil, watching out 131. For all the laws and heinous deeds, while dressed 132. In misty vapour, roaming all about 133. The land, bestowing wealth, this kingly right 134. Being theirs – a second race the Olympians made, 135. A silver one, far worse, unlike, in sight 136. And mind, the golden, for a young child stayed, 13
7. A large bairn, in his mother’s custody, 1
38. Just playing inside for a hundred years. 13
9. But when they all reached their maturity, 140. They lived a vapid life, replete with tears, 141. Through foolishness, unable to forbear 142. To brawl, spurning the gods, refusing, too, 143. To sacrifice (a law kept everywhere). 144. Then Zeus, since they would not give gods their due, 145. In rage hid them, as did the earth – all men 146. Have called the race Gods Subterranean, 14
7. Second yet honoured still. A third race then 148. Zeus fashioned out of bronze, quite different than 14
9. The second, with ash spears, both dread and stout; 150. They liked fell warfare and audacity; 151. They ate no corn, encased about 152. With iron, full invincibility 153. In hands, limbs, shoulders, and the arms they plied 154. Were bronze, their houses, too, their tools; they knew 155. of no black iron. Later, when they died 156. It was self-slaughter – they descended to 15
7. Chill Hades’ mouldy house, without a name. 158. Yes, black death took them off, although they’d been 15
9. Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 160. Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161. Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162. Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163. The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164. Called demigods. It was the race before 165. Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166. And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 16
7. While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168. The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 16
9. Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 1
70. For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 1
71. In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 1
72. Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 1
73. Carefree, among the blessed isles, content 1
74. And affluent, by the deep-swirling sea. 1
75. Sweet grain, blooming three times a year, was sent 1
76. To them by the earth, that gives vitality 1
7. To all mankind, and Cronus was their lord, 1
78. Far from the other gods, for Zeus, who reign 1
9. Over gods and men, had cut away the cord 180. That bound him. Though the lowest race, its gain 181. Were fame and glory. A fifth progeny 182. All-seeing Zeus produced, who populated 183. The fecund earth. I wish I could not be 184. Among them, but instead that I’d been fated 185. To be born later or be in my grave 186. Already: for it is of iron made. 18
7. Each day in misery they ever slave, 188. And even in the night they do not fade 18
9. Away. The gods will give to them great woe 1
90. But mix good with the bad. Zeus will destroy 1
91. Them too when babies in their cribs shall grow 1
92. Grey hair. No bond a father with his boy 1
93. Shall share, nor guest with host, nor friend with friend – 1
94. No love of brothers as there was erstwhile, 1
95. Respect for aging parents at an end. 1
96. Their wretched children shall with words of bile 1
7. Find fault with them in their irreverence 1
98. And not repay their bringing up. We’ll find 1
9. Cities brought down. There’ll be no deference 200. That’s given to the honest, just and kind. 201. The evil and the proud will get acclaim, 202. Might will be right and shame shall cease to be, 203. The bad will harm the good whom they shall maim 204. With crooked words, swearing false oaths. We’ll see 205. Envy among the wretched, foul of face 206. And voice, adoring villainy, and then 20
7. Into Olympus from the endless space 208. Mankind inhabits, leaving mortal men, 20
9. Fair flesh veiled by white robes, shall Probity 210. And Shame depart, and there’ll be grievous pain 211. For men: against all evil there shall be 212. No safeguard. Now I’ll tell, for lords who know 213. What it purports, a fable: once, on high, 214. Clutched in its talon-grip, a bird of prey 215. Took off a speckled nightingale whose cry 216. Was “Pity me”, but, to this bird’s dismay, 21
7. He said disdainfully: “You silly thing, 218. Why do you cry? A stronger one by far 21
9. Now has you. Although you may sweetly sing, 220. You go where I decide. Perhaps you are 221. My dinner or perhaps I’ll let you go. 222. A fool assails a stronger, for he’ll be 223. The loser, suffering scorn as well as woe.” 224. Thus spoke the swift-winged bird. Listen to me, 225. Perses – heed justice and shun haughtiness; 226. It aids no common man: nobles can’t stay 22
7. It easily because it will oppre 228. Us all and bring disgrace. The better way 22
9. Is Justice, who will outstrip Pride at last. 230. Fools learn this by experience because 231. The God of Oaths, by running very fast, 232. Keeps pace with and requites all crooked laws. 233. When men who swallow bribes and crookedly 234. Pass sentences and drag Justice away, 235. There’s great turmoil, and then, in misery 236. Weeping and covered in a misty spray, 23
7. She comes back to the city, carrying 2
38. Woe to the wicked men who ousted her. 23
9. The city and its folk are burgeoning, 240. However, when to both the foreigner 241. And citizen are given judgments fair 242. And honest, children grow in amity, 243. Far-seeing Zeus sends them no dread warfare, 244. And decent men suffer no scarcity 245. of food, no ruin, as they till their field 246. And feast; abundance reigns upon the earth; 24
7. Each mountaintop a wealth of acorns yields, 248. Bees thrive below, and mothers all give birth 24
9. To children who resemble perfectly 250. Their fathers, while the fleeces on the sheep 251. Are heavy. All things flourish, while the sea 252. Needs not a ship; the vital soil is deep 253. With fruits. Far-seeing Zeus evens the score 254. Against proud, evil men. The wickedne 255. of one man often sways whole cities, for 256. The son of Cronus sends from heaven distress, 25
7. Both plague and famine, causing death amid 258. Its folk, its women barren. Homes decline 25
9. By Zeus’s plan. Sometimes he will consign 260. Broad armies to destruction or will bid 261. Them of their walls and take their ships away. 262. Lords, note this punishment. The gods are nigh 263. Those mortals who from adulation stray 264. And grind folk down with fraud. Yes, from on high 265. Full thirty-thousand gods of Zeus exist 266. Upon the fecund earth who oversee 26
7. All men and wander far, enclosed in mist, 268. And watch for law-suits and iniquity. 26
9. Justice is one, daughter of Zeus, a maid 2
70. Who is renowned among the gods who dwell 2
71. High in Olympus: should someone upbraid 2
72. Her cruelly, immediately she’ll tell 2
73. Lord Zeus, there at his side, of men who cause 2
74. Much woe till people pay a penalty 2
75. For unjust lords, who cruelly bend the law 2
76. For evil. You who hold supremacy 2
7. And swallow bribes, beware of this and shun 2
78. All crooked laws and deal in what is best. 2
9. Who hurts another hurts himself. When one 280. Makes wicked plans, he’ll be the most distressed. 281. All-seeing Zeus sees all there is to see 282. And, should he wish, takes note nor fails to know 283. The justice in a city. I’d not be 284. A just man nor would have my son be so – 285. It’s no use being good when wickedne 286. Holds sway. I trust wise Zeus won’t punish me. 28
7. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne 288. And wholly sidestep the iniquity 28
9. of force. The son of Cronus made this act 2
90. For men - that fish, wild beasts and birds should eat 2
91. Each other, being lawless, but the pact 2
92. He made with humankind is very meet –
325. The wealth you gain from work will very soon 326. Be envied by the idle man: virtue 32
7. And fame come to the rich. A greater boon 328. Is work, whatever else happens to you, 32
9. If from your neighbours’ goods your foolish mind 330. You turn and earn your pay by industry, 331. As I bid you. Shame of a cringing kind 332. Attends a needy man, ignominy 333. That causes major damage or will turn 334. To gain. Poor men feel sham, the rich, though, are 335. Self-confident. The money that we earn 336. Should not be seized – god-sent, it’s better far. 33
7. If someone steals great riches by dure 3
38. Or with a lying tongue, as has ensued 33
9. Quite often, when his mind in cloudine 340. Is cast by gain, and shame is now pursued 341. By shamelessness, the gods then easily
524. That way the man who ploughs but late just might 525. Equal the early plougher. All this you
568. To brighten). That’s the time the hornèd and

724. Seafarers slaughter, nor will any man
725. Shatter his ship, unless such is the will
726. of earth-shaking Poseidon or our king,
7. Lord Zeus, who always judge both good and ill.
728. The sea is tranquil then, unwavering
9. The winds. Trust these and drag down to the sea
730. Your ship with confidence and place all freight
731. On board and then as swiftly as may be
732. Sail home and for the autumn rain don’t wait
733. Or fast-approaching blizzards, new-made wine,
734. The South Wind’s dreadful blasts – he stirs the sea
735. And brings downpours in spring and makes the brine
736. Inclement. Spring, too, grants humanity
7. The chance to sail. When first some leaves are seen
38. On fig-tree-tops, as tiny as the mark
9. A raven leaves, the sea becomes serene
740. For sailing. Though spring bids you to embark,
741. I’ll not praise it – it does not gladden me.
742. It’s hazardous, for you’ll avoid distre
743. With difficulty thus. Imprudently
744. Do men sail at that time – covetousne
745. Is their whole life, the wretches. For the sea
746. To take your life is dire. Listen to me:
7. Don’t place aboard all your commodities –
748. Leave most behind, place a small quantity
9. Aboard. To tax your cart too much and break
750. An axle, losing all, will bring distress.
751. Be moderate, for everyone should take
752. An apt approach. When you’re in readiness,
753. Get married. Thirty years, or very near,
754. Is apt for marriage. Now, past puberty
755. Your bride should go four years: in the fifth year
756. Wed her. That you may teach her modesty
7. Marry a maid. The best would be one who
758. Lives near you, but you must with care look round
9. Lest neighbours make a laughingstock of you.
804. The gods will visit you with pece due '. None
13. Hesiod, Theogony, 26-28, 44, 81-92, 135, 390, 430, 434, 881, 901-917 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, • Zeus, Justice and - • justice • justice (dikê) • justice and political life, association of Artemis with political assemblies and civic life • language, Polyneices on truth and justice, in Phoenician Women • sophia, wisdom truth contrasted with justice • sophism Polyneices on truth and justice in Phoenician Women and

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 35; Horkey (2019) 169; Kirichenko (2022) 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 87; Peels (2016) 57; Pucci (2016) 12, 31; Simon (2021) 173; Álvarez (2019) 55

26. ποιμένες ἄγραυλοι, κάκʼ ἐλέγχεα, γαστέρες οἶον, 27. ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα, 28. ἴδμεν δʼ, εὖτʼ ἐθέλωμεν, ἀληθέα γηρύσασθαι.
44. θεῶν γένος αἰδοῖον πρῶτον κλείουσιν ἀοιδῇ
81. ὅν τινα τιμήσωσι Διὸς κοῦραι μεγάλοιο 82. γεινόμενόν τε ἴδωσι διοτρεφέων βασιλήων, 83. τῷ μὲν ἐπὶ γλώσσῃ γλυκερὴν χείουσιν ἐέρσην, 84. τοῦ δʼ ἔπεʼ ἐκ στόματος ῥεῖ μείλιχα· οἱ δέ τε λαοὶ 85. πάντες ἐς αὐτὸν ὁρῶσι διακρίνοντα θέμιστας 86. ἰθείῃσι δίκῃσιν· ὃ δʼ ἀσφαλέως ἀγορεύων 87. αἶψά κε καὶ μέγα νεῖκος ἐπισταμένως κατέπαυσεν· 88. τοὔνεκα γὰρ βασιλῆες ἐχέφρονες, οὕνεκα λαοῖς 89. βλαπτομένοις ἀγορῆφι μετάτροπα ἔργα τελεῦσι 90. ῥηιδίως, μαλακοῖσι παραιφάμενοι ἐπέεσσιν. 91. ἐρχόμενον δʼ ἀνʼ ἀγῶνα θεὸν ὣς ἱλάσκονται 92. αἰδοῖ μειλιχίῃ, μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν·
135. Θείαν τε Ῥείαν τε Θέμιν τε Μνημοσύνην τε'
390. ἤματι τῷ, ὅτε πάντας Ὀλύμπιος ἀστεροπητὴς
430. ἔν τʼ ἀγορῇ λαοῖσι μεταπρέπει, ὅν κʼ ἐθέλῃσιν·
434. ἔν τε δίκῃ βασιλεῦσι παρʼ αἰδοίοισι καθίζει, 8
81. αὐτὰρ ἐπεί ῥα πόνον μάκαρες θεοὶ ἐξετέλεσσαν,
901. δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 902. Εὐνουμίην τε Δίκην τε καὶ Εἰρήνην τεθαλυῖαν, 903. αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι, 904. Μοίρας θʼ, ᾗ πλείστην τιμὴν πόρε μητίετα Ζεύς, 905. Κλωθώ τε Λάχεσίν τε καὶ Ἄτροπον, αἵτε διδοῦσι 906. θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν ἔχειν ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 907. τρεῖς δέ οἱ Εὐρυνομη Χάριτας τέκε καλλιπαρῄους, 908. Ὠκεανοῦ κούρη, πολυήρατον εἶδος ἔχουσα, 909. Ἀγλαΐην τε καὶ Εὐφροσύνην Θαλίην τʼ ἐρατεινήν· 910. τῶν καὶ ἀπὸ βλεφάρων ἔρος εἴβετο δερκομενάων 911. λυσιμελής· καλὸν δέ θʼ ὑπʼ ὀφρύσι δερκιόωνται. 912. αὐτὰρ ὁ Δήμητρος πολυφόρβης ἐς λέχος ἦλθεν, 913. ἣ τέκε Περσεφόνην λευκώλενον, ἣν Ἀιδωνεὺς 914. ἥρπασε ἧς παρὰ μητρός· ἔδωκε δὲ μητίετα Ζεύς. 915. μνημοσύνης δʼ ἐξαῦτις ἐράσσατο καλλικόμοιο, 916. ἐξ ἧς οἱ Μοῦσαι χρυσάμπυκες ἐξεγένοντο 917. ἐννέα, τῇσιν ἅδον θαλίαι καὶ τέρψις ἀοιδῆς. '. None
26. of Helicon, and in those early day 27. Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me: 28. “You who tend sheep, full of iniquity,
44. The house their lips emit the sweetest sound,
81. In heaven, once Cronus he’d subjugated 82. As to the immortals he disseminated 83. Their rights. Lord Zeus begat this company 84. of Muses, Thalia, Melpomene, 85. Clio, Euterpe and Terpsichory, 86. And Polyhymnia, Calliope, 87. Urania, Erato: but the best 88. of all of them, deferred to by the rest 89. of all the Muses is Calliope 90. Because the kings blest by divinity 91. She serves. Each god-nursed king whom they adore, 92. Beholding him at birth, for him they pour
135. Their prudent judgment. Chaos then created'
390. The Ladon, Evenus, the Ardescus,
430. The star Eosphorus came after these,
434. And Ocean’s daughter Styx was joined in love 8
81. of Chaos. But the glorious allie
901. A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 902. Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile 903. At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear – 904. The sound of whelps was heard, sometimes the ear 905. Would catch a hissing sound, which then would change 906. To echoing along the mountain range. 907. Something beyond all help would have that day 908. Occurred and over men and gods hold sway 909. Had Zeus not quickly seen it: mightily 910. And hard he thundered so that terribly 911. The earth resounded, as did Tartarus, 912. Wide Heaven and the streams of Oceanus, 913. And at his feet the mighty Heaven reeled 914. As he arose. The earth groaned, thunder pealed 915. And lightning flashed, and to the dark-blue sea, 916. From them and from the fiery prodigy, 917. The scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt, '. None
14. Homer, Iliad, 1.238-1.239, 2.225-2.243, 3.278-3.279, 9.96-9.99, 16.384-16.388, 19.259-19.260 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dikē (Justice),oaths invoking • Justice (Dikē),oaths invoking • Zeus, Justice and - • Zeus, justice/scales/ fate, association with • fate/justice/scales, association of Zeus with • justice • justice (dikê) • justice and political life, scales of justice/fate, association of Zeus with • justice, retributive and cosmic • language, Polyneices on truth and justice, in Phoenician Women • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • scales of justice/fate, association of Zeus with • sophia, wisdom truth contrasted with justice • sophism Polyneices on truth and justice in Phoenician Women and

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 138; Horkey (2019) 167; Kirichenko (2022) 29, 81; Peels (2016) 57, 61; Pucci (2016) 31; Simon (2021) 23; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 296; Wolfsdorf (2020) 595, 596; Álvarez (2019) 26, 33

1.238. ἐν παλάμῃς φορέουσι δικασπόλοι, οἵ τε θέμιστας 1.239. πρὸς Διὸς εἰρύαται· ὃ δέ τοι μέγας ἔσσεται ὅρκος·
2.225. Ἀτρεΐδη τέο δʼ αὖτʼ ἐπιμέμφεαι ἠδὲ χατίζεις; 2.226. πλεῖαί τοι χαλκοῦ κλισίαι, πολλαὶ δὲ γυναῖκες 2.227. εἰσὶν ἐνὶ κλισίῃς ἐξαίρετοι, ἅς τοι Ἀχαιοὶ 2.228. πρωτίστῳ δίδομεν εὖτʼ ἂν πτολίεθρον ἕλωμεν. 2.229. ἦ ἔτι καὶ χρυσοῦ ἐπιδεύεαι, ὅν κέ τις οἴσει 2.230. Τρώων ἱπποδάμων ἐξ Ἰλίου υἷος ἄποινα, 2.231. ὅν κεν ἐγὼ δήσας ἀγάγω ἢ ἄλλος Ἀχαιῶν, 2.232. ἠὲ γυναῖκα νέην, ἵνα μίσγεαι ἐν φιλότητι, 2.233. ἥν τʼ αὐτὸς ἀπονόσφι κατίσχεαι; οὐ μὲν ἔοικεν 2.234. ἀρχὸν ἐόντα κακῶν ἐπιβασκέμεν υἷας Ἀχαιῶν. 2.235. ὦ πέπονες κάκʼ ἐλέγχεʼ Ἀχαιΐδες οὐκέτʼ Ἀχαιοὶ 2.236. οἴκαδέ περ σὺν νηυσὶ νεώμεθα, τόνδε δʼ ἐῶμεν 2.237. αὐτοῦ ἐνὶ Τροίῃ γέρα πεσσέμεν, ὄφρα ἴδηται 2.238. ἤ ῥά τί οἱ χἠμεῖς προσαμύνομεν ἦε καὶ οὐκί· 2.239. ὃς καὶ νῦν Ἀχιλῆα ἕο μέγʼ ἀμείνονα φῶτα 2.240. ἠτίμησεν· ἑλὼν γὰρ ἔχει γέρας αὐτὸς ἀπούρας. 2.241. ἀλλὰ μάλʼ οὐκ Ἀχιλῆϊ χόλος φρεσίν, ἀλλὰ μεθήμων· 2.242. ἦ γὰρ ἂν Ἀτρεΐδη νῦν ὕστατα λωβήσαιο· 2.243. ὣς φάτο νεικείων Ἀγαμέμνονα ποιμένα λαῶν,
3.278. καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ γαῖα, καὶ οἳ ὑπένερθε καμόντας 3.279. ἀνθρώπους τίνυσθον ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,
9.96. Ἀτρεΐδη κύδιστε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγάμεμνον 9.97. ἐν σοὶ μὲν λήξω, σέο δʼ ἄρξομαι, οὕνεκα πολλῶν 9.98. λαῶν ἐσσι ἄναξ καί τοι Ζεὺς ἐγγυάλιξε 9.99. σκῆπτρόν τʼ ἠδὲ θέμιστας, ἵνά σφισι βουλεύῃσθα.
16.384. ὡς δʼ ὑπὸ λαίλαπι πᾶσα κελαινὴ βέβριθε χθὼν 16.385. ἤματʼ ὀπωρινῷ, ὅτε λαβρότατον χέει ὕδωρ 16.386. Ζεύς, ὅτε δή ῥʼ ἄνδρεσσι κοτεσσάμενος χαλεπήνῃ, 16.387. οἳ βίῃ εἰν ἀγορῇ σκολιὰς κρίνωσι θέμιστας, 16.388. ἐκ δὲ δίκην ἐλάσωσι θεῶν ὄπιν οὐκ ἀλέγοντες·
19.259. Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες, αἵ θʼ ὑπὸ γαῖαν 19.260. ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,''. None
1.238. nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans 1.239. nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans ' "
2.225. Son of Atreus, with what art thou now again discontent, or what lack is thine? Filled are thy huts with bronze, and women full many are in thy huts, chosen spoils that we Achaeans give thee first of all, whensoe'er we take a citadel. Or dost thou still want gold also, " "2.229. Son of Atreus, with what art thou now again discontent, or what lack is thine? Filled are thy huts with bronze, and women full many are in thy huts, chosen spoils that we Achaeans give thee first of all, whensoe'er we take a citadel. Or dost thou still want gold also, " '2.230. which some man of the horse-taming Trojans shall bring thee out of Ilios as a ransom for his son, whom I haply have bound and led away or some other of the Achaeans? Or is it some young girl for thee to know in love, whom thou wilt keep apart for thyself? Nay, it beseemeth not one that is their captain to bring to ill the sons of the Achaeans. 2.235. Soft fools! base things of shame, ye women of Achaea, men no more, homeward let us go with our ships, and leave this fellow here in the land of Troy to digest his prizes, that so he may learn whether in us too there is aught of aid for him or no—for him that hath now done dishonour to Achilles, a man better far than he; 2.240. for he hath taken away, and keepeth his prize by his own arrogant act. of a surety there is naught of wrath in the heart of Achilles; nay, he heedeth not at all; else, son of Atreus, wouldest thou now work insolence for the last time. So spake Thersites, railing at Agamemnon, shepherd of the host. But quickly to his side came goodly Odysseus,
3.278. Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath;
9.96. He with good intent addressed their gathering and spake among them:Most glorious son of Atreus, Agamemnon, king of men, with thee will I begin and with thee make an end, for that thou art king over many hosts, and to thee Zeus hath vouchsafed the sceptre and judgements, that thou mayest take counsel for thy people.
16.384. And straight over the trench leapt the swift horses—the immortal horses that the gods gave as glorious gifts to Peleus—in their onward flight, and against Hector did the heart of Patroclus urge him on, for he was fain to smite him; but his swift horses ever bare Hector forth. And even as beneath a tempest the whole black earth is oppressed, 16.385. on a day in harvest-time, when Zeus poureth forth rain most violently, whenso in anger he waxeth wroth against men that by violence give crooked judgments in the place of gathering, and drive justice out, recking not of the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers flow in flood,
19.259. made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth ' "19.260. take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath, that never laid I hand upon the girl Briseis either by way of a lover's embrace or anywise else, but she ever abode untouched in my huts. And if aught of this oath be false, may the gods give me woes "'. None
15. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Zeus, Justice and - • justice • justice (dikē), in Antisthenes • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • polyvalence, cf. openness, semantic prayer for justice

 Found in books: Kirichenko (2022) 64; Liatsi (2021) 6, 15; Lipka (2021) 25; Peels (2016) 58, 60, 108; Riess (2012) 215; Wolfsdorf (2020) 347, 596

16. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice (dikê) • kosmos, and justice (dikê)

 Found in books: Horkey (2019) 10; Liatsi (2021) 10

17. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 160-175, 1610-1611 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Zeus, justice/scales/ fate, association with • fate/justice/scales, association of Zeus with • justice • justice and political life, scales of justice/fate, association of Zeus with • scales of justice/fate, association of Zeus with

 Found in books: Kirichenko (2022) 99; Lipka (2021) 121; Pucci (2016) 12; Shilo (2022) 133; Simon (2021) 24

160. Ζεύς, ὅστις ποτʼ ἐστίν, εἰ τόδʼ αὐ-'161. τῷ φίλον κεκλημένῳ, 162. τοῦτό νιν προσεννέπω. 163. οὐκ ἔχω προσεικάσαι 164. πάντʼ ἐπισταθμώμενος 165. πλὴν Διός, εἰ τὸ μάταν ἀπὸ φροντίδος ἄχθος 166. χρὴ βαλεῖν ἐτητύμως. Χορός 167. οὐδʼ ὅστις πάροιθεν ἦν μέγας, 168. παμμάχῳ θράσει βρύων,' '170. οὐδὲ λέξεται πρὶν ὤν· 171. ὃς δʼ ἔπειτʼ ἔφυ, τρια- 172. κτῆρος οἴχεται τυχών. 173. Ζῆνα δέ τις προφρόνως ἐπινίκια κλάζων 175. τεύξεται φρενῶν τὸ πᾶν· Χορός
1610. οὕτω καλὸν δὴ καὶ τὸ κατθανεῖν ἐμοί, 1611. ἰδόντα τοῦτον τῆς δίκης ἐν ἕρκεσιν. Χορός '. None
160. Zeus, whosoe’er he be, — if that express '161. Aught dear to him on whom I call — 162. So do I him address. 163. I cannot liken out, by all 164. Admeasurement of powers, 165. Any but Zeus for refuge at such hours, 165. If veritably needs I must 166. From off my soul its vague care-burthen thrust. 167. Not — whosoever was the great of yore, 168. Bursting to bloom with bravery all round — 169. Is in our mouths: he was, but is no more. 170. And who it was that after came to be, 171. Met the thrice-throwing wrestler, — he 172. Is also gone to ground. 173. But 1610. So, sweet, in fine, even to die were to me, 1611. Seeing, as I have, this man i’ the toils of justice! CHOROS. '. None
18. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 310-314, 973, 987-989, 1017, 1024, 1027-1028, 1054 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice (Dikè), and vengeance • Zeus, and justice • dike, between revenge justice and wider justice • justice • justice, and Erinyes/Semnai/in the Oresteia • justice, as goddess • justice, matricide • justice, retributive

 Found in books: Fabian Meinel (2015) 120, 121, 124, 125, 129; Jouanna (2018) 393; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 133, 144, 164; Shilo (2022) 96, 161, 189

310. γλῶσσα τελείσθω· τοὐφειλόμενον 311. πράσσουσα Δίκη μέγʼ ἀυτεῖ· 312. ἀντὶ δὲ πληγῆς φονίας φονίαν 313. πληγὴν τινέτω. δράσαντι παθεῖν, 314. τριγέρων μῦθος τάδε φωνεῖ. Ὀρέστης
973. ἴδεσθε χώρας τὴν διπλῆν τυραννίδα
987. ὡς ἂν παρῇ μοι μάρτυς ἐν δίκῃ ποτέ, 988. ὡς τόνδʼ ἐγὼ μετῆλθον ἐνδίκως μόρον 989. τὸν μητρός· Αἰγίσθου γὰρ οὐ λέγω μόρον·
1017. ἄζηλα νίκης τῆσδʼ ἔχων μιάσματα. Χορός'
1024. φρένες δύσαρκτοι· πρὸς δὲ καρδίᾳ φόβος
1027. κτανεῖν τέ φημι μητέρʼ οὐκ ἄνευ δίκης, 1028. πατροκτόνον μίασμα καὶ θεῶν στύγος.
1054. σαφῶς γὰρ αἵδε μητρὸς ἔγκοτοι κύνες. Χορός '. None
310. You mighty Fates, through the power of Zeus grant fulfilment in the way to which Justice now turns. 311. Justice cries out as she exacts the debt, Orestes
973. Behold this pair, oppressors of the land, who murdered my father and ransacked my house! They were majestic then, when they sat on their thrones,
987. that he may see the impious work of my own mother, that he may be my witness in court that I justly pursued this death, my own mother’s. For I do not speak of Aegisthus’ death: he has suffered the penalty prescribed for adulterers.
1017. Yet I grieve for the deed and the punishment and for my whole clan. My victory is an unenviable pollution. Chorus '
1024. But since I would have you know, for I do not know how it will end: I think I am a charioteer driving my team far beyond the course. For my ungoverned wits are whirling me away overmastered, and at my heart fear wishes to sing and dance to a tune of wrath.
1027. But while I am still in my senses, I proclaim to those who hold me dear and declare that not without justice did I slay my mother, the unclean murderess of my father, and a thing loathed by the gods. And for the spells that gave me the courage for this deed I count Loxias, the prophet of Pytho,
1054. To me these are no imagined troubles. For there indeed are the hounds of wrath to avenge my mother. Chorus '. None
19. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 29-31, 50, 54, 229, 515-519, 936 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, • Zeus, Justice and - • justice • justice (dikē), in Xenophanes • justice, as goddess

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 388; Del Lucchese (2019) 35, 40; Lipka (2021) 102, 103; Peels (2016) 126; Shilo (2022) 10; Wolfsdorf (2020) 31

29. θεὸς θεῶν γὰρ οὐχ ὑποπτήσσων χόλον 30. βροτοῖσι τιμὰς ὤπασας πέρα δίκης. 31. ἀνθʼ ὧν ἀτερπῆ τήνδε φρουρήσεις πέτραν
50. ἐλεύθερος γὰρ οὔτις ἐστὶ πλὴν Διός. Ἥφαιστος
54. καὶ δὴ πρόχειρα ψάλια δέρκεσθαι πάρα. Κράτος 2
29. αἰκίζεταί με, τοῦτο δὴ σαφηνιῶ.'
515. τίς οὖν ἀνάγκης ἐστὶν οἰακοστρόφος; Προμηθεύς 516. Μοῖραι τρίμορφοι μνήμονές τʼ Ἐρινύες Χορός 517. τούτων ἄρα Ζεύς ἐστιν ἀσθενέστερος; Προμηθεύς 518. οὔκουν ἂν ἐκφύγοι γε τὴν πεπρωμένην. Χορός 519. τί γὰρ πέπρωται Ζηνὶ πλὴν ἀεὶ κρατεῖν; Προμηθεύς
936. οἱ προσκυνοῦντες τὴν Ἀδράστειαν σοφοί. Προμηθεύς '. None
29. when the sun shall scatter again the frost of morning. Evermore the burden of your present ill shall wear you out; for your deliverer is not yet born. Such is the prize you have gained for your championship of man. For, god though you are, you did not fear the wrath of the gods, but 30. you bestowed honors upon mortal creatures beyond their due. Therefore on this joyless rock you must stand sentinel, erect, sleepless, your knee unbent. And many a groan and unavailing lament you shall utter; for the heart of Zeus is hard,
50. no one is free except Zeus. Hephaestus
54. Well, there then! The bands are ready, as you may see. Power 2
29. and with this foul payment he has responded; for it is a disease that is somehow inherent in tyranny to have no faith in friends. However, you ask why he torments me, and this I will now make clear.'
515. Who then is the helmsman of Necessity? Prometheus 516. The three-shaped Fates and mindful Furies. Chorus 517. Can it be that Zeus has less power than they do? Prometheus 518. Yes, in that even he cannot escape what is foretold. Chorus 519. Why, what is fated for Zeus except to hold eternal sway? Prometheu
936. Wise are they who do homage to Necessity. Prometheus '. None
20. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice (dikē), intergenerational liability • justice, dikaia as object of thinking in the Theognidea • justice, dike/adika erga/adikos in Theognidea • justice, general • justice, object of prayer • justice, of inner purity generally • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • prayer, for justice

 Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 116, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 265, 271, 272; Versnel (2011) 154; Wolfsdorf (2020) 597; Álvarez (2019) 55

21. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, • Justice, Divine • Zeus, and justice • dike, between revenge justice and wider justice • justice • justice, and Erinyes/Semnai/in the Oresteia • justice, as goddess • justice, ge/polis orthodikaios • justice, of justified killer • justice, retributive and cosmic • polyvalence, cf. openness, semantic prayer for justice

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 46; Fabian Meinel (2015) 124, 129; Gagné (2020) 108; Kirichenko (2022) 99, 103; Lipka (2021) 100, 101, 102; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 157, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165; Riess (2012) 215; Shilo (2022) 167, 171, 176, 177, 178, 179, 182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 189, 190; Stuckenbruck (2007) 349; Álvarez (2019) 23, 33

22. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 157; Kirichenko (2022) 98

23. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Zeus, Justice and - • justice • justice, in Hades • polyvalence, cf. openness, semantic prayer for justice

 Found in books: Peels (2016) 125, 144, 145, 146, 147; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 169; Riess (2012) 215; Shilo (2022) 179

24. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • justice • justice (dikē), agathon—kalon—dikaion triad

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 124; Harte (2017) 23; Wolfsdorf (2020) 306, 307

25. Euripides, Hippolytus, 1329-1334 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice, Hippolytus as dikaios

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 109; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 212

1329. πληροῦσα θυμόν. θεοῖσι δ' ὧδ' ἔχει νόμος:"1330. οὐδεὶς ἀπαντᾶν βούλεται προθυμίᾳ' "1330. τῇ τοῦ θέλοντος, ἀλλ' ἀφιστάμεσθ' ἀεί." "1331. ἐπεί, σάφ' ἴσθι, Ζῆνα μὴ φοβουμένη" "1332. οὐκ ἄν ποτ' ἦλθον ἐς τόδ' αἰσχύνης ἐγὼ" "1333. ὥστ' ἄνδρα πάντων φίλτατον βροτῶν ἐμοὶ" '1334. θανεῖν ἐᾶσαι. τὴν δὲ σὴν ἁμαρτίαν' "'. None
1329. Perdition seize me! Queen revered! Artemi'1330. his neighbour’s will, but ever we stand aloof. For be well assured, did I not fear Zeus, never would I have incurred the bitter shame of handing over to death a man of all his kind to me most dear. As for thy sin, '. None
26. Euripides, Medea, 1389-1390 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, • justice

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 124; Del Lucchese (2019) 43; Álvarez (2019) 33

1389. ἀλλά ς' ̓Ερινὺς ὀλέσειε τέκνων"1390. φονία τε Δίκη.' "'. None
1389. The curse of our sons’ avenging spirit and of Justice,'1390. that calls for blood, be on thee! Medea '. None
27. Euripides, Orestes, 495-503 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice, of matricide

 Found in books: Liatsi (2021) 143; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 225

495. οὐδ' ἦλθεν ἐπὶ τὸν κοινὸν ̔Ελλήνων νόμον;"496. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἐξέπνευσεν ̓Αγαμέμνων βίον 497. † πληγεὶς θυγατρὸς τῆς ἐμῆς ὑπὲρ κάρα †,' '499. αἴσχιστον ἔργον — οὐ γὰρ αἰνέσω ποτέ — 500. χρῆν αὐτὸν ἐπιθεῖναι μὲν αἵματος δίκην,' "501. ὁσίαν διώκοντ', ἐκβαλεῖν τε δωμάτων" "502. μητέρα: τὸ σῶφρόν τ' ἔλαβεν ἀντὶ συμφορᾶς" "503. καὶ τοῦ νόμου τ' ἂν εἴχετ' εὐσεβής τ' ἂν ἦν." "'. None
495. nor appealed to the universal law of Hellas ? For instance, when Agamemnon breathed his last struck on his head by my daughter a most foul deed, which I will never defend,'496. nor appealed to the universal law of Hellas ? For instance, when Agamemnon breathed his last struck on his head by my daughter a most foul deed, which I will never defend, 500. he should have brought a charge against his mother and inflicted a holy penalty for bloodshed, banishing her from his house; thus he would have gained moderation instead of calamity, keeping strictly to the law and showing his piety as well. As it is, he has come into the same fate as his mother. '. None
28. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 562-563, 739-740 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • helping paradigm (international relations), and justice • justice

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 199, 200; Pucci (2016) 120

562. ὡς εἰς ἔμ' ἐλθὼν καὶ πόλιν Πανδίονος"563. νόμος παλαιὸς δαιμόνων διεφθάρη.
739. ̓Ετεοκλέους τε σύμβασιν ποιουμένου, 740. μέτρια θέλοντος, οὐκ ἐχρῄζομεν λαβεῖν,' "'. None
562. Else is the issue clear; I will go and bury them by force. For never shall it be proclaimed through Hellas that heaven’s ancient law was set at naught, when it devolved on me and the city of Pandion. Choru'563. Else is the issue clear; I will go and bury them by force. For never shall it be proclaimed through Hellas that heaven’s ancient law was set at naught, when it devolved on me and the city of Pandion. Choru
739. human race? On thee we all depend, and all we do is only what thou listest. We thought our Argos irresistible, ourselves a young and lusty host, and so when Eteocles was for making terms, 740. in spite of his fair offer we would not accept them, and so we perished. Then in their turn those foolish folk of Cadmus, to fortune raised, like some beggar with his newly-gotten wealth, waxed wanton, and, waxing so, were ruined in their turn. Ye foolish sons of men! who strain your bow like men who shoot '. None
29. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/God,, Justice • Justice, Divine • Justice, Lack of

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003) 168; Stuckenbruck (2007) 560

2.9. וַאֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לָּהּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה חוֹמַת אֵשׁ סָבִיב וּלְכָבוֹד אֶהְיֶה בְתוֹכָהּ׃''. None
2.9. For I, saith the LORD, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and I will be the glory in the midst of her.''. None
30. Herodotus, Histories, 1.51, 1.159, 1.174, 3.28, 3.38, 3.60, 3.64, 3.117, 6.86, 7.12 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • "justice, divine", • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas) • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas), on primacy of law • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas), on rulers • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas), on self-sufficiency and freedom • Zeus, Justice and - • aretē/-a (virtue, excellence), in On Law and Justice • environmental justice • freedom (ἐλευθερία‎), in On Law and Justice • justice • justice, retributive and cosmic • law (nomos), in On Law and Justice • rulers, in On Law and Justice

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 107, 307; Hau (2017) 181, 183, 185, 186, 188; Konig and Wiater (2022) 125; König and Wiater (2022) 125; Lipka (2021) 152; Peels (2016) 124; Wolfsdorf (2020) 463; Álvarez (2019) 23

1.51. ἐπιτελέσας δὲ ὁ Κροῖσος ταῦτα ἀπέπεμπε ἐς Δελφούς, καὶ τάδε ἄλλα ἅμα τοῖσι, κρητῆρας δύο μεγάθεϊ μεγάλους, χρύσεον καὶ ἀργύρεον, τῶν ὁ μὲν χρύσεος ἔκειτο ἐπὶ δεξιὰ ἐσιόντι ἐς τὸν νηόν, ὁ δὲ ἀργύρεος ἐπʼ ἀριστερά. μετεκινήθησαν δὲ καὶ οὗτοι ὑπὸ τὸν νηὸν κατακαέντα καὶ ὁ μὲν χρύσεος κεῖται ἐν τῷ Κλαζομενίων θησαυρῷ, ἕλκων σταθμὸν εἴνατον ἡμιτάλαντον καὶ ἔτι δυώδεκα μνέας, ὁ δὲ ἀργύρεος ἐπὶ τοῦ προνηίου τῆς γωνίης, χωρέων ἀμφορέας ἑξακοσίους· ἐπικίρναται γὰρ ὑπὸ Δελφῶν Θεοφανίοισι. φασὶ δὲ μιν Δελφοὶ Θεοδώρου τοῦ Σαμίου ἔργον εἶναι, καὶ ἐγὼ δοκέω· οὐ γὰρ τὸ συντυχὸν φαίνεταί μοι ἔργον εἶναι. καὶ πίθους τε ἀργυρέους τέσσερας ἀπέπεμψε, οἳ ἐν τῷ Κορινθίων θησαυρῷ ἑστᾶσι, καὶ περιρραντήρια δύο ἀνέθηκε, χρύσεόν τε καὶ ἀργύρεον, τῶν τῷ χρυσέῳ ἐπιγέγραπται Λακεδαιμονίων φαμένων εἶναι ἀνάθημα, οὐκ ὀρθῶς λέγοντες· ἔστι γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο Κροίσου, ἐπέγραψε δὲ τῶν τις Δελφῶν Λακεδαιμονίοισι βουλόμενος χαρίζεσθαι, τοῦ ἐπιστάμενος τὸ οὔνομα οὐκ ἐπιμνήσομαι. ἀλλʼ ὁ μὲν παῖς, διʼ οὗ τῆς χειρὸς ῥέει τὸ ὕδωρ, Λακεδαιμονίων ἐστί, οὐ μέντοι τῶν γε περιρραντηρίων οὐδέτερον. ἄλλα τε ἀναθήματα οὐκ ἐπίσημα πολλὰ ἀπέπεμψε ἅμα τούτοισι ὁ Κροῖσος, καὶ χεύματα ἀργύρεα κυκλοτερέα, καὶ δὴ καὶ γυναικὸς εἴδωλον χρύσεον τρίπηχυ, τὸ Δελφοὶ τῆς ἀρτοκόπου τῆς Κροίσου εἰκόνα λέγουσι εἶναι. πρὸς δὲ καὶ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ γυναικὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς δειρῆς ἀνέθηκε ὁ Κροῖσος καὶ τὰς ζώνας.
1.159. ἀπικομένων δὲ ἐς Βραγχίδας ἐχρηστηριάζετο ἐκ πάντων Ἀριστόδικος ἐπειρωτῶν τάδε. “ὦναξ, ἦλθε παρʼ ἡμέας ἱκέτης Πακτύης ὁ Λυδός, φεύγων θάνατον βίαιον πρὸς Περσέων· οἳ δέ μιν ἐξαιτέονται, προεῖναι Κυμαίους κελεύοντες. ἡμεῖς δὲ δειμαίνοντες τὴν Περσέων δύναμιν τὸν ἱκέτην ἐς τόδε οὐ τετολμήκαμεν ἐκδιδόναι, πρὶν ἂν τὸ ἀπὸ σεῦ ἡμῖν δηλωθῇ ἀτρεκέως ὁκότερα ποιέωμεν.” ὃ μὲν ταῦτα ἐπειρώτα, ὃ δʼ αὖτις τὸν αὐτόν σφι χρησμὸν ἔφαινε, κελεύων ἐκδιδόναι Πακτύην Πέρσῃσι. πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Ἀριστόδικος ἐκ προνοίης ἐποίεε τάδε· περιιὼν τὸν νηὸν κύκλῳ ἐξαίρεε τοὺς στρουθοὺς καὶ ἄλλα ὅσα ἦν νενοσσευμένα ὀρνίθων γένεα ἐν τῷ νηῷ. ποιέοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ταῦτα λέγεται φωνὴν ἐκ τοῦ ἀδύτου γενέσθαι φέρουσαν μὲν πρὸς τὸν Ἀριστόδικον, λέγουσαν δὲ τάδε “ἀνοσιώτατε ἀνθρώπων, τί τάδε τολμᾷς ποιέειν; τοὺς ἱκέτας μου ἐκ τοῦ νηοῦ κεραΐζεις;” Ἀριστόδικον δὲ οὐκ ἀπορήσαντα πρὸς ταῦτα εἰπεῖν “ὦναξ, αὐτὸς μὲν οὕτω τοῖσι ἱκέτῃσι βοηθέεις, Κυμαίους δὲ κελεύεις τὸν ἱκέτην ἐκδιδόναι;” τὸν δὲ αὖτις ἀμείψασθαι τοῖσιδε “ναὶ κελεύω, ἵνα γε ἀσεβήσαντες θᾶσσον ἀπόλησθε, ὡς μὴ τὸ λοιπὸν περὶ ἱκετέων ἐκδόσιος ἔλθητε ἐπὶ τὸ χρηστήριον.”
1.174. οἱ μέν νυν Κᾶρες οὐδὲν λαμπρὸν ἔργον ἀποδεξάμενοι ἐδουλώθησαν ὑπὸ Ἁρπάγου, οὔτε αὐτοὶ οἱ Κᾶρες ἀποδεξάμενοι οὐδέν, οὔτε ὅσοι Ἑλλήνων ταύτην τὴν χώρην οἰκέουσι· οἰκέουσι δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι καὶ Λακεδαιμονίων ἄποικοι Κνίδιοι. οἳ τῆς χώρης τῆς σφετέρης τετραμμένης ἐς πόντον, τὸ δὴ Τριόπιον καλέεται, ἀργμένης δὲ ἐκ τῆς Χερσονήσου τῆς Βυβασσίης, ἐούσης τε πάσης τῆς Κνιδίης πλὴν ὀλίγης περιρρόου ʽτὰ μὲν γὰρ αὐτῆς πρὸς βορέην ἄνεμον ὁ Κεραμεικὸς κόλπος ἀπέργει, τὰ δὲ πρὸς νότον ἡ κατὰ Σύμην τε καὶ Ῥόδον θάλασσἀ, τὸ ὦν δὴ ὀλίγον τοῦτο, ἐὸν ὅσον τε ἐπὶ πέντε στάδια, ὤρυσσον οἱ Κνίδιοι ἐν ὅσῳ Ἅρπαγος τὴν Ἰωνίην κατεστρέφετο, βουλόμενοι νῆσον τὴν χώρην ποιῆσαι. ἐντὸς δὲ πᾶσά σφι ἐγίνετο· τῇ γὰρ ἡ Κνιδίη χώρη ἐς τὴν ἤπειρον τελευτᾷ, ταύτῃ ὁ ἰσθμός ἐστι τὸν ὤρυσσον. καὶ δὴ πολλῇ, χειρὶ ἐργαζομένων τῶν Κνιδίων, μᾶλλον γάρ τι καὶ θειότερον ἐφαίνοντο τιτρώσκεσθαι οἱ ἐργαζόμενοι τοῦ οἰκότος τά τε ἄλλα τοῦ σώματος καὶ μάλιστα τὰ περὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς θραυομένης τῆς πέτρης, ἔπεμπον ἐς Δελφοὺς θεοπρόπους ἐπειρησομένους τὸ ἀντίξοον. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφι, ὡς αὐτοὶ Κνίδιοι λέγουσι, χρᾷ ἐν τριμέτρῳ τόνῳ τάδε. Ἰσθμὸν δὲ μὴ πυργοῦτε μηδʼ ὀρύσσετε· Ζεὺς γάρ κʼ ἔθηκε νῆσον, εἴ κʼ ἐβούλετο. Κνίδιοι μὲν ταῦτα τῆς Πυθίης χρησάσης τοῦ τε ὀρύγματος ἐπαύσαντο καὶ Ἁρπάγῳ ἐπιόντι σὺν τῷ στρατῷ ἀμαχητὶ σφέας αὐτοὺς παρέδοσαν.
3.28. ἀποκτείνας δὲ τούτους δεύτερα τοὺς ἱρέας ἐκάλεε ἐς ὄψιν· λεγόντων δὲ κατὰ ταὐτὰ τῶν ἱρέων, οὐ λήσειν ἔφη αὐτὸν εἰ θεός τις χειροήθης ἀπιγμένος εἴη Αἰγυπτίοισι. τοσαῦτα δὲ εἴπας ἀπάγειν ἐκέλευε τὸν Ἆπιν τοὺς ἱρέας. οἳ μὲν δὴ μετήισαν ἄξοντες. ὁ δὲ Ἆπις οὗτος ὁ Ἔπαφος γίνεται μόσχος ἐκ βοός, ἥτις οὐκέτι οἵη τε γίνεται ἐς γαστέρα ἄλλον βάλλεσθαι γόνον. Αἰγύπτιοι δὲ λέγουσι σέλας ἐπὶ τὴν βοῦν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατίσχειν, καί μιν ἐκ τούτου τίκτειν τὸν Ἆπιν. ἔχει δὲ ὁ μόσχος οὗτος ὁ Ἆπις καλεόμενος σημήια τοιάδε ἐὼν μέλας, ἐπὶ μὲν τῷ μετώπῳ λευκόν τι τρίγωνον, ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ νώτου αἰετὸν εἰκασμένον, ἐν δὲ τῇ οὐρῇ τὰς τρίχας διπλᾶς, ὑπὸ δὲ τῇ γλώσσῃ κάνθαρον.
3.38. πανταχῇ ὦν μοι δῆλα ἐστὶ ὅτι ἐμάνη μεγάλως ὁ Καμβύσης· οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἱροῖσί τε καὶ νομαίοισι ἐπεχείρησε καταγελᾶν. εἰ γάρ τις προθείη πᾶσι ἀνθρώποισι ἐκλέξασθαι κελεύων νόμους τοὺς καλλίστους ἐκ τῶν πάντων νόμων, διασκεψάμενοι ἂν ἑλοίατο ἕκαστοι τοὺς ἑωυτῶν· οὕτω νομίζουσι πολλόν τι καλλίστους τοὺς ἑωυτῶν νόμους ἕκαστοι εἶναι. οὔκων οἰκός ἐστι ἄλλον γε ἢ μαινόμενον ἄνδρα γέλωτα τὰ τοιαῦτα τίθεσθαι· ὡς δὲ οὕτω νενομίκασι τὰ περὶ τοὺς νόμους πάντες ἄνθρωποι, πολλοῖσί τε καὶ ἄλλοισι τεκμηρίοισι πάρεστι σταθμώσασθαι, ἐν δὲ δὴ καὶ τῷδε. Δαρεῖος ἐπὶ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ ἀρχῆς καλέσας Ἑλλήνων τοὺς παρεόντας εἴρετο ἐπὶ κόσῳ ἂν χρήματι βουλοίατο τοὺς πατέρας ἀποθνήσκοντας κατασιτέεσθαι· οἳ δὲ ἐπʼ οὐδενὶ ἔφασαν ἔρδειν ἂν τοῦτο. Δαρεῖος δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα καλέσας Ἰνδῶν τοὺς καλεομένους Καλλατίας, οἳ τοὺς γονέας κατεσθίουσι, εἴρετο, παρεόντων τῶν Ἑλλήνων καὶ διʼ ἑρμηνέος μανθανόντων τὰ λεγόμενα, ἐπὶ τίνι χρήματι δεξαίατʼ ἂν τελευτῶντας τοὺς πατέρας κατακαίειν πυρί· οἳ δὲ ἀμβώσαντες μέγα εὐφημέειν μιν ἐκέλευον. οὕτω μέν νυν ταῦτα νενόμισται, καὶ ὀρθῶς μοι δοκέει Πίνδαρος ποιῆσαι νόμον πάντων βασιλέα φήσας εἶναι.
3.60. ἐμήκυνα δὲ περὶ Σαμίων μᾶλλον, ὅτι σφι τρία ἐστὶ μέγιστα ἁπάντων Ἑλλήνων ἐξεργασμένα, ὄρεός τε ὑψηλοῦ ἐς πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν ὀργυιάς, τούτου ὄρυγμα κάτωθεν ἀρξάμενον, ἀμφίστομον. τὸ μὲν μῆκος τοῦ ὀρύγματος ἑπτὰ στάδιοι εἰσί, τὸ δὲ ὕψος καὶ εὖρος ὀκτὼ ἑκάτερον πόδες. διὰ παντὸς δὲ αὐτοῦ ἄλλο ὄρυγμα εἰκοσίπηχυ βάθος ὀρώρυκται, τρίπουν δὲ τὸ εὖρος, διʼ οὗ τὸ ὕδωρ ὀχετευόμενον διὰ τῶν σωλήνων παραγίνεται ἐς τὴν πόλιν ἀγόμενον ἀπὸ μεγάλης πηγῆς. ἀρχιτέκτων δὲ τοῦ ὀρύγματος τούτου ἐγένετο Μεγαρεὺς Εὐπαλῖνος Ναυστρόφου. τοῦτο μὲν δὴ ἓν τῶν τριῶν ἐστι, δεύτερον δὲ περὶ λιμένα χῶμα ἐν θαλάσσῃ, βάθος καὶ εἴκοσι ὀργυιέων· μῆκος δὲ τοῦ χώματος μέζον δύο σταδίων. τρίτον δέ σφι ἐξέργασται νηὸς μέγιστος πάντων νηῶν τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν· τοῦ ἀρχιτέκτων πρῶτος ἐγένετο Ῥοῖκος Φιλέω ἐπιχώριος. τούτων εἵνεκεν μᾶλλόν τι περὶ Σαμίων ἐμήκυνα.
3.64. ἐνθαῦτα ἀκούσαντα Καμβύσεα τὸ Σμέρδιος οὔνομα ἔτυψε ἡ ἀληθείη τῶν τε λόγων καὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου· ὃς ἐδόκεε ἐν τῷ ὕπνῳ ἀπαγγεῖλαι τινά οἱ ὡς Σμέρδις ἱζόμενος ἐς τὸν βασιλήιον θρόνον ψαύσειε τῇ κεφαλῇ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. μαθὼν δὲ ὡς μάτην ἀπολωλεκὼς εἴη τὸν ἀδελφεόν, ἀπέκλαιε Σμέρδιν· ἀποκλαύσας δὲ καὶ περιημεκτήσας τῇ ἁπάσῃ συμφορῇ ἀναθρώσκει ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον, ἐν νόῳ ἔχων τὴν ταχίστην ἐς Σοῦσα στρατεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τὸν Μάγον. καί οἱ ἀναθρώσκοντι ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον τοῦ κολεοῦ τοῦ ξίφεος ὁ μύκης ἀποπίπτει, γυμνωθὲν δὲ τὸ ξίφος παίει τὸν μηρόν· τρωματισθεὶς δὲ κατὰ τοῦτο τῇ αὐτὸς πρότερον τὸν τῶν Αἰγυπτίων θεὸν Ἆπιν ἔπληξε, ὥς οἱ καιρίῃ ἔδοξε τετύφθαι, εἴρετο ὁ Καμβύσης ὅ τι τῇ πόλι οὔνομα εἴη· οἳ δὲ εἶπαν ὅτι Ἀγβάτανα. τῷ δὲ ἔτι πρότερον ἐκέχρηστο ἐκ Βουτοῦς πόλιος ἐν Ἀγβατάνοισι τελευτήσειν τὸν βίον. ὃ μὲν δὴ ἐν τοῖσι Μηδικοῖσι Ἀγβατάνοισι ἐδόκεε τελευτήσειν γηραιός, ἐν τοῖσί οἱ ἦν τὰ πάντα πρήγματα· τὸ δὲ χρηστήριον ἐν τοῖσι ἐν Συρίῃ Ἀγβατάνοισι ἔλεγε ἄρα. καὶ δὴ ὡς τότε ἐπειρόμενος ἐπύθετο τῆς πόλιος τὸ οὔνομα, ὑπὸ τῆς συμφορῆς τῆς τε ἐκ τοῦ Μάγου ἐκπεπληγμένος καὶ τοῦ τρώματος ἐσωφρόνησε, συλλαβὼν δὲ τὸ θεοπρόπιον εἶπε “ἐνθαῦτα Καμβύσεα τὸν Κύρου ἐστὶ πεπρωμένον τελευτᾶν.”
3.117. ἔστι δὲ πεδίον ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ περικεκληιμένον ὄρεϊ πάντοθεν, διασφάγες δὲ τοῦ ὄρεος εἰσὶ πέντε. τοῦτο τὸ πεδίον ἦν μὲν κοτὲ Χορασμίων, ἐν οὔροισι ἐὸν Χορασμίων τε αὐτῶν καὶ Ὑρκανίων καὶ Πάρθων καὶ Σαραγγέων καὶ Θαμαναίων, ἐπείτε δὲ Πέρσαι ἔχουσι τὸ κράτος, ἐστὶ τοῦ βασιλέος. ἐκ δὴ ὦν τοῦ περικληίοντος ὄρεος τούτου ῥέει ποταμὸς μέγας, οὔνομα δέ οἱ ἐστὶ Ἄκης. οὗτος πρότερον μὲν ἄρδεσκε διαλελαμμένος πενταχοῦ τούτων τῶν εἰρημένων τὰς χώρας, διὰ διασφάγος ἀγόμενος ἑκάστης ἑκάστοισι· ἐπείτε δὲ ὑπὸ τῷ Πέρσῃ εἰσί, πεπόνθασι τοιόνδε· τὰς διασφάγας τῶν ὀρέων ἐνδείμας ὁ βασιλεὺς πύλας ἐπʼ ἑκάστῃ διασφάγι ἔστησε· ἀποκεκληιμένου δὲ τοῦ ὕδατος τῆς ἐξόδου τὸ πεδίον τὸ ἐντὸς τῶν ὀρέων πέλαγος γίνεται, ἐνδιδόντος μὲν τοῦ ποταμοῦ, ἔχοντος δὲ οὐδαμῇ ἐξήλυσιν. οὗτοι ὦν οἵ περ ἔμπροσθε ἐώθεσαν χρᾶσθαι τῷ ὕδατι, οὐκ ἔχοντες αὐτῷ χρᾶσθαι συμφορῇ μεγάλῃ διαχρέωνται. τὸν μὲν γὰρ χειμῶνα ὕει σφι ὁ θεὸς ὥσπερ καὶ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι ἀνθρώποισι, τοῦ δὲ θέρεος σπείροντες μελίνην καὶ σήσαμον χρηίσκονται τῷ ὕδατι. ἐπεὰν ὦν μηδέν σφι παραδιδῶται τοῦ ὕδατος, ἐλθόντες ἐς τοὺς Πέρσας αὐτοί τε καὶ γυναῖκες, στάντες κατὰ τὰς θύρας τοῦ βασιλέος βοῶσι ὠρυόμενοι, ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς τοῖσι δεομένοισι αὐτῶν μάλιστα ἐντέλλεται ἀνοίγειν τὰς πύλας τὰς ἐς τοῦτο φερούσας. ἐπεὰν δὲ διάκορος ἡ γῆ σφεων γένηται πίνουσα τὸ ὕδωρ, αὗται μὲν αἱ πύλαι ἀποκληίονται, ἄλλας δʼ ἐντέλλεται ἀνοίγειν ἄλλοισι τοῖσι δεομένοισι μάλιστα τῶν λοιπῶν. ὡς δʼ ἐγὼ οἶδα ἀκούσας, χρήματα μεγάλα πρησσόμενος ἀνοίγει πάρεξ τοῦ φόρου.
6.86. οἱ μὲν δὴ Μιλήσιοι συμφορὴν ποιησάμενοι ἀπαλλάσσοντο ὡς ἀπεστερημένοι τῶν χρημάτων, Γλαῦκος δὲ ἐπορεύετο ἐς Δελφοὺς χρησόμενος τῷ χρηστηρίῳ. ἐπειρωτῶντα δὲ αὐτὸν τὸ χρηστήριον εἰ ὅρκῳ τὰ χρήματα ληίσηται, ἡ Πυθίη μετέρχεται τοῖσιδε τοῖσι ἔπεσι. “ γλαῦκʼ Ἐπικυδείδη, τὸ μὲν αὐτίκα κέρδιον οὕτω ὅρκῳ νικῆσαι καὶ χρήματα ληίσσασθαι. ὄμνυ, ἐπεὶ θάνατός γε καὶ εὔορκον μένει ἄνδρα. ἀλλʼ ὅρκου πάις ἐστίν, ἀνώνυμος, οὐδʼ ἔπι χεῖρες οὐδὲ πόδες· κραιπνὸς δὲ μετέρχεται, εἰς ὅ κε πᾶσαν συμμάρψας ὀλέσῃ γενεὴν καὶ οἶκον ἅπαντα. ἀνδρὸς δʼ εὐόρκου γενεὴ μετόπισθεν ἀμείνων. ταῦτα ἀκούσας ὁ Γλαῦκος συγγνώμην τὸν θεὸν παραιτέετο αὐτῷ ἴσχειν τῶν ῥηθέντων. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη ἔφη τὸ πειρηθῆναι τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὸ ποιῆσαι ἴσον δύνασθαι.”
6.86. οὐ φαμένων δὲ ἀποδώσειν τῶν Ἀθηναίων, ἔλεξέ σφι Λευτυχίδης τάδε. “ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι, ποιέετε μὲν ὁκότερα βούλεσθε αὐτοί· καὶ γὰρ ἀποδιδόντες ποιέετε ὅσια, καὶ μὴ ἀποδιδόντες τὰ ἐναντία τούτων· ὁκοῖον μέντοι τι ἐν τῇ Σπάρτῃ συνηνείχθη γενέσθαι περὶ παρακαταθήκης, βούλομαι ὑμῖν εἶπαι. λέγομεν ἡμεῖς οἱ Σπαρτιῆται γενέσθαι ἐν τῇ Λακεδαίμονι κατὰ τρίτην γενεὴν τὴν ἀπʼ ἐμέο Γλαῦκον Ἐπικύδεος παῖδα· τοῦτον τὸν ἄνδρα φαμὲν τά τε ἄλλα πάντα περιήκειν τὰ πρῶτα, καὶ δὴ καὶ ἀκούειν ἄριστα δικαιοσύνης πέρι πάντων ὅσοι τὴν Λακεδαίμονα τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον οἴκεον. συνενειχθῆναι δέ οἱ ἐν χρόνῳ ἱκνευμένῳ τάδε λέγομεν. ἄνδρα Μιλήσιον ἀπικόμενον ἐς Σπάρτην βούλεσθαί οἱ ἐλθεῖν ἐς λόγους προϊσχόμενον τοιάδε. “εἰμὶ μὲν Μιλήσιος, ἥκω δὲ τῆς σῆς Γλαῦκε βουλόμενος δικαιοσύνης ἀπολαῦσαι. ὡς γὰρ δὴ ἀνὰ πᾶσαν μὲν τὴν ἄλλην Ἑλλάδα, ἐν δὲ καὶ περὶ Ἰωνίην τῆς σῆς δικαιοσύνης ἦν λόγος πολλός, ἐμεωυτῷ λόγους ἐδίδουν καὶ ὅτι ἐπικίνδυνος ἐστὶ αἰεί κοτε ἡ Ἰωνίη, ἡ δὲ Πελοπόννησος ἀσφαλέως ἱδρυμένη, καὶ διότι χρήματα οὐδαμὰ τοὺς αὐτούς ἐστι ὁρᾶν ἔχοντας. ταῦτά τε ὦν ἐπιλεγομένῳ καὶ βουλευομένῳ ἔδοξέ μοι τὰ ἡμίσεα πάσης τῆς οὐσίης ἐξαργυρώσαντα θέσθαι παρὰ σέ, εὖ ἐξεπισταμένῳ ὥς μοι κείμενα ἔσται παρὰ σοὶ σόα. σὺ δή μοι καὶ τὰ χρήματα δέξαι καὶ τάδε τὰ σύμβολα σῶζε λαβών· ὃς δʼ ἂν ἔχων ταῦτα ἀπαιτέῃ, τούτῳ ἀποδοῦναι.” ”
6.86. ὡς δὲ ἀπικόμενος Λευτυχίδης ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας ἀπαίτεε τὴν παραθήκην, οἱ δʼ Ἀθηναῖοι προφάσιας εἷλκον οὐ βουλόμενοι ἀποδοῦναι, φάντες δύο σφέας ἐόντας βασιλέας παραθέσθαι καὶ οὐ δικαιοῦν τῷ ἑτέρῳ ἄνευ τοῦ ἑτέρου ἀποδιδόναι·
6.86. “Γλαῦκος μὲν δὴ μεταπεμψάμενος τοὺς Μιλησίους ξείνους ἀποδιδοῖ σφι τὰ χρήματα. τοῦ δὲ εἵνεκα ὁ λόγος ὅδε ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι ὁρμήθη λέγεσθαι ἐς ὑμέας, εἰρήσεται· Γλαύκου νῦν οὔτε τι ἀπόγονον ἐστὶ οὐδὲν οὔτʼ ἱστίη οὐδεμία νομιζομένη εἶναι Γλαύκου, ἐκτέτριπταί τε πρόρριζος ἐκ Σπάρτης. οὕτω ἀγαθὸν μηδὲ διανοέεσθαι περὶ παρακαταθήκης ἄλλο γε ἢ ἀπαιτεόντων ἀποδιδόναι.”
6.86. “ὁ μὲν δὴ ἀπὸ Μιλήτου ἥκων ξεῖνος τοσαῦτα ἔλεξε, Γλαῦκος δὲ ἐδέξατο τὴν παρακαταθήκην ἐπὶ τῷ εἰρημένῳ λόγῳ. χρόνου δὲ πολλοῦ διελθόντος ἦλθον ἐς Σπάρτην τούτου τοῦ παραθεμένου τὰ χρήματα οἱ παῖδες, ἐλθόντες δὲ ἐς λόγους τῷ Γλαύκῳ καὶ ἀποδεικνύντες τὰ σύμβολα ἀπαίτεον τὰ χρήματα· ὁ δὲ διωθέετο ἀντυποκρινόμενος τοιάδε. “οὔτε μέμνημαι τὸ πρῆγμα οὔτε με περιφέρει οὐδὲν εἰδέναι τούτων τῶν ὑμεῖς λέγετε, βούλομαί τε ἀναμνησθεὶς ποιέειν πᾶν τὸ δίκαιον· καὶ γὰρ εἰ ἔλαβον, ὀρθῶς ἀποδοῦναι, καὶ εἴ γε ἀρχὴν μὴ ἔλαβον, νόμοισι τοῖσι Ἑλλήνων χρήσομαι ἐς ὑμέας. ταῦτα ὦν ὑμῖν ἀναβάλλομαι κυρώσειν ἐς τέταρτον μῆνα ἀπὸ τοῦδε.” ”
7.12. ταῦτα μὲν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτο ἐλέγετο. μετὰ δὲ εὐφρόνη τε ἐγίνετο καὶ Ξέρξην ἔκνιζε ἡ Ἀρταβάνου γνώμη· νυκτὶ δὲ βουλὴν διδοὺς πάγχυ εὕρισκέ οἱ οὐ πρῆγμα εἶναι στρατεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα. δεδογμένων δέ οἱ αὖτις τούτων κατύπνωσε, καὶ δή κου ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ εἶδε ὄψιν τοιήνδε, ὡς λέγεται ὑπὸ Περσέων· ἐδόκεε ὁ Ξέρξης ἄνδρα οἱ ἐπιστάντα μέγαν τε καὶ εὐειδέα εἰπεῖν “μετὰ δὴ βουλεύεαι, ὦ Πέρσα, στράτευμα μὴ ἄγειν ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα, προείπας ἁλίζειν Πέρσας στρατόν; οὔτε ὦν μεταβουλευόμενος ποιέεις εὖ οὔτε ὁ συγγνωσόμενός τοι πάρα· ἀλλʼ ὥσπερ τῆς ἡμέρης ἐβουλεύσαο ποιέειν, ταύτην ἴθι τῶν ὁδῶν.”''. None
1.51. When these offerings were ready, Croesus sent them to Delphi, with other gifts besides: namely, two very large bowls, one of gold and one of silver. The golden bowl stood to the right, the silver to the left of the temple entrance. ,These too were removed about the time of the temple's burning, and now the golden bowl, which weighs eight and a half talents and twelve minae, is in the treasury of the Clazomenians, and the silver bowl at the corner of the forecourt of the temple. This bowl holds six hundred nine-gallon measures: for the Delphians use it for a mixing-bowl at the feast of the Divine Appearance. ,It is said by the Delphians to be the work of Theodorus of Samos, and I agree with them, for it seems to me to be of no common workmanship. Moreover, Croesus sent four silver casks, which stand in the treasury of the Corinthians, and dedicated two sprinkling-vessels, one of gold, one of silver. The golden vessel bears the inscription “Given by the Lacedaemonians,” who claim it as their offering. But they are wrong, ,for this, too, is Croesus' gift. The inscription was made by a certain Delphian, whose name I know but do not mention, out of his desire to please the Lacedaemonians. The figure of a boy, through whose hand the water runs, is indeed a Lacedaemonian gift; but they did not give either of the sprinkling-vessels. ,Along with these Croesus sent, besides many other offerings of no great distinction, certain round basins of silver, and a female figure five feet high, which the Delphians assert to be the statue of the woman who was Croesus' baker. Moreover, he dedicated his own wife's necklaces and girdles. " '
1.159. When they came to Branchidae, Aristodicus, speaking for all, put this question to the oracle: “Lord, Pactyes the Lydian has come to us a suppliant fleeing a violent death at the hands of the Persians; and they demand him of us, telling the men of Cyme to surrender him. ,But we, as much as we fear the Persian power, have not dared give up this suppliant of ours until it is clearly made known to us by you whether we are to do this or not.” Thus Aristodicus inquired; and the god again gave the same answer, that Pactyes should be surrendered to the Persians. ,With that Aristodicus did as he had already decided; he went around the temple, and took away the sparrows and all the families of nesting birds that were in it. But while he was doing so, a voice (they say) came out of the inner shrine calling to Aristodicus, and saying, “Vilest of men, how dare you do this? Will you rob my temple of those that take refuge with me?” ,Then Aristodicus had his answer ready: “Lord,” he said, “will you save your own suppliants, yet tell the men of Cyme to deliver up theirs?” But the god replied, “Yes, I do command them, so that you may perish all the sooner for your impiety, and never again come to inquire of my oracle about giving up those that seek refuge with you.”
1.174. Neither the Carians nor any Greeks who dwell in this country did any thing notable before they were all enslaved by Harpagus. ,Among those who inhabit it are certain Cnidians, colonists from Lacedaemon . Their country (it is called the Triopion) lies between the sea and that part of the peninsula which belongs to Bubassus, and all but a small part of the Cnidian territory is washed by the sea ,(for it is bounded on the north by the gulf of Ceramicus, and on the south by the sea off Syme and Rhodes ). Now while Harpagus was conquering Ionia, the Cnidians dug a trench across this little space, which is about two-thirds of a mile wide, in order that their country might be an island. So they brought it all within the entrenchment; for the frontier between the Cnidian country and the mainland is on the isthmus across which they dug. ,Many of them were at this work; and seeing that the workers were injured when breaking stones more often and less naturally than usual, some in other ways, but most in the eyes, the Cnidians sent envoys to Delphi to inquire what it was that opposed them. ,Then, as they themselves say, the priestess gave them this answer in iambic verse: 3.28. Having put them to death, he next summoned the priests before him. When they gave him the same account, he said that if a tame god had come to the Egyptians he would know it; and with no more words he bade the priests bring Apis. So they went to fetch and bring him. ,This Apis, or Epaphus, is a calf born of a cow that can never conceive again. By what the Egyptians say, the cow is made pregt by a light from heaven, and thereafter gives birth to Apis. ,The marks of this calf called Apis are these: he is black, and has on his forehead a three-cornered white spot, and the likeness of an eagle on his back; the hairs of the tail are double, and there is a knot under the tongue. ' "
3.38. I hold it then in every way proved that Cambyses was quite insane; or he would never have set himself to deride religion and custom. For if it were proposed to all nations to choose which seemed best of all customs, each, after examination, would place its own first; so well is each convinced that its own are by far the best. ,It is not therefore to be supposed that anyone, except a madman, would turn such things to ridicule. I will give this one proof among many from which it may be inferred that all men hold this belief about their customs. ,When Darius was king, he summoned the Greeks who were with him and asked them for what price they would eat their fathers' dead bodies. They answered that there was no price for which they would do it. ,Then Darius summoned those Indians who are called Callatiae, who eat their parents, and asked them (the Greeks being present and understanding through interpreters what was said) what would make them willing to burn their fathers at death. The Indians cried aloud, that he should not speak of so horrid an act. So firmly rooted are these beliefs; and it is, I think, rightly said in Pindar's poem that custom is lord of all." '
3.60. I have written at such length of the Samians, because the three greatest works of all the Greeks were engineered by them. The first of these is the tunnel with a mouth at either end driven through the base of a hill nine hundred feet high; ,the whole tunnel is forty-two hundred feet long, eight feet high and eight feet wide; and throughout the whole of its length there runs a channel thirty feet deep and three feet wide, through which the water coming from an abundant spring is carried by pipes to the city of Samos . ,The designer of this work was Eupalinus son of Naustrophus, a Megarian. This is one of the three works; the second is a breakwater in the sea enclosing the harbor, sunk one hundred and twenty feet, and more than twelve hundred feet in length. ,The third Samian work is the temple, which is the greatest of all the temples of which we know; its first builder was Rhoecus son of Philes, a Samian. It is for this cause that I have expounded at more than ordinary length of Samos .
3.64. The truth of the words and of a dream struck Cambyses the moment he heard the name Smerdis; for he had dreamt that a message had come to him that Smerdis sitting on the royal throne touched heaven with his head; ,and perceiving that he had killed his brother without cause, he wept bitterly for Smerdis. Having wept, and grieved by all his misfortune, he sprang upon his horse, with intent to march at once to Susa against the Magus. ,As he sprang upon his horse, the cap fell off the sheath of his sword, and the naked blade pierced his thigh, wounding him in the same place where he had once wounded the Egyptian god Apis; and believing the wound to be mortal, Cambyses asked what was the name of the town where he was. ,They told him it was Ecbatana . Now a prophecy had before this come to him from Buto, that he would end his life at Ecbatana ; Cambyses supposed this to signify that he would die in old age at the Median Ecbatana, his capital city; but as the event proved, the oracle prophesied his death at Ecbatana of Syria . ,So when he now inquired and learned the name of the town, the shock of his wound, and of the misfortune that came to him from the Magus, brought him to his senses; he understood the prophecy and said: “Here Cambyses son of Cyrus is to die.” ' "
3.117. There is a plain in Asia shut in on all sides by mountains through which there are five passes. This plain was once the Chorasmians', being at the boundaries of the Chorasmians, the Hyrcanians, Parthians, Sarangians, and Thamanaei, but since the Persians have held power it has been the king's. ,Now from the encircling mountains flows a great river whose name is the Aces. Its stream divides into five channels and formerly watered the lands of the above-mentioned peoples, going to each through a different pass, but since the beginning of the Persian rule ,the king has blocked the mountain passes, and closed each passage with a gate; with the water barred from outlet, the plain within the mountains becomes a lake, seeing that the river pours into it and finds no way out. ,Those therefore who before were accustomed to use the water endure great hardship in not being able to use it; for during the winter, god rains for them just as for the rest of mankind, but in the summer they are in need of the water for their sown millet and sesame. ,So whenever no water is given to them, they come into Persia with their women, and cry and howl before the door of the king's palace, until the king commands that the river-gate should be opened for those whose need is greatest; ,then, when this land has drunk its fill of water, that gate is shut, and the king has another opened for those of the rest who most require it. I know by hearsay that he gets a lot of money, over and above the tribute, for opening the gates. So much for these matters. " '
6.86. When Leutychides came to Athens and demanded back the hostages, the Athenians were unwilling to give them back and made excuses, saying that two kings had given them the trust and they deemed it wrong to restore it to one without the other. ,When the Athenians refused to give them back, Leutychides said to them: “Men of Athens, do whichever thing you desire. If you give them back, you do righteously; if you do not give them back, you do the opposite. But I want to tell you the story of what happened at Sparta in the matter of a trust. ,We Spartans say that three generations ago there was at Lacedaemon one Glaucus, the son of Epicydes. We say that this man added to his other excellences a reputation for justice above all men who at that time dwelt in Lacedaemon. ,But we say that at the fitting time this befell him: There came to Sparta a certain man of Miletus, who desired to have a talk with Glaucus and made him this offer: ‘I am a Milesian, and I have come to have the benefit of your justice, Glaucus. ,Since there is much talk about your justice throughout all the rest of Hellas, and even in Ionia, I considered the fact that Ionia is always in danger while the Peloponnese is securely established, and nowhere in Ionia are the same men seen continuing in possession of wealth. ,Considering and taking counsel concerning these matters, I resolved to turn half of my property into silver and deposit it with you, being well assured that it will lie safe for me in your keeping. Accept the money for me, and take and keep these tokens; restore the money to whoever comes with the same tokens and demands it back.’ ,Thus spoke the stranger who had come from Miletus, and Glaucus received the trust according to the agreement. After a long time had passed, the sons of the man who had deposited the money came to Sparta; they spoke with Glaucus, showing him the tokens and demanding the money back. ,But Glaucus put them off and answered in turn: ‘I do not remember the matter, and nothing of what you say carries my mind back. Let me think; I wish to do all that is just. If I took the money, I will duly restore it; if I never took it at all, I will deal with you according to the customs of the Greeks. I will put off making my decision for you until the fourth month from this day.’ ,So the Milesians went away in sorrow, as men robbed of their possessions; but Glaucus journeyed to Delphi to question the oracle. When he asked the oracle whether he should seize the money under oath, the Pythian priestess threatened him in these verses: ,7.12. The discussion went that far; then night came, and Xerxes was pricked by the advice of Artabanus. Thinking it over at night, he saw clearly that to send an army against Hellas was not his affair. He made this second resolve and fell asleep; then (so the Persians say) in the night he saw this vision: It seemed to Xerxes that a tall and handsome man stood over him and said, ,“Are you then changing your mind, Persian, and will not lead the expedition against Hellas, although you have proclaimed the mustering of the army? It is not good for you to change your mind, and there will be no one here to pardon you for it; let your course be along the path you resolved upon yesterday.” '". None
31. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • polyvalence, cf. openness, semantic prayer for justice • proper respect for gods, and justice • religious correctness, and justice

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 135, 137; Long (2019) 92, 97, 184; Mikalson (2010) 195, 199; Riess (2012) 215

23b. τῷ ἐμῷ ὀνόματι, ἐμὲ παράδειγμα ποιούμενος, ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ εἴποι ὅτι οὗτος ὑμῶν, ὦ ἄνθρωποι, σοφώτατός ἐστιν, ὅστις ὥσπερ Σωκράτης ἔγνωκεν ὅτι οὐδενὸς ἄξιός ἐστι τῇ ἀληθείᾳ πρὸς σοφίαν. ταῦτʼ οὖν ἐγὼ μὲν ἔτι καὶ νῦν περιιὼν ζητῶ καὶ ἐρευνῶ κατὰ τὸν θεὸν καὶ τῶν ἀστῶν καὶ ξένων ἄν τινα οἴωμαι σοφὸν εἶναι· καὶ ἐπειδάν μοι μὴ δοκῇ, τῷ θεῷ βοηθῶν ἐνδείκνυμαι ὅτι οὐκ ἔστι σοφός. καὶ ὑπὸ ταύτης τῆς ἀσχολίας οὔτε τι τῶν τῆς πόλεως πρᾶξαί μοι σχολὴ γέγονεν ἄξιον λόγου οὔτε τῶν οἰκείων, ἀλλʼ ἐν'35d. δίκαια μήτε ὅσια, ἄλλως τε μέντοι νὴ Δία πάντως καὶ ἀσεβείας φεύγοντα ὑπὸ Μελήτου τουτουΐ. σαφῶς γὰρ ἄν, εἰ πείθοιμι ὑμᾶς καὶ τῷ δεῖσθαι βιαζοίμην ὀμωμοκότας, θεοὺς ἂν διδάσκοιμι μὴ ἡγεῖσθαι ὑμᾶς εἶναι, καὶ ἀτεχνῶς ἀπολογούμενος κατηγοροίην ἂν ἐμαυτοῦ ὡς θεοὺς οὐ νομίζω. ἀλλὰ πολλοῦ δεῖ οὕτως ἔχειν· νομίζω τε γάρ, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, ὡς οὐδεὶς τῶν ἐμῶν κατηγόρων, καὶ ὑμῖν ἐπιτρέπω καὶ τῷ θεῷ κρῖναι περὶ ἐμοῦ ὅπῃ μέλλει ἐμοί τε ἄριστα εἶναι καὶ ὑμῖν. 41a. ἀφικόμενος εἰς Ἅιδου, ἀπαλλαγεὶς τουτωνὶ τῶν φασκόντων δικαστῶν εἶναι, εὑρήσει τοὺς ὡς ἀληθῶς δικαστάς, οἵπερ καὶ λέγονται ἐκεῖ δικάζειν, Μίνως τε καὶ Ῥαδάμανθυς καὶ Αἰακὸς καὶ Τριπτόλεμος καὶ ἄλλοι ὅσοι τῶν ἡμιθέων δίκαιοι ἐγένοντο ἐν τῷ ἑαυτῶν βίῳ, ἆρα φαύλη ἂν εἴη ἡ ἀποδημία; ἢ αὖ Ὀρφεῖ συγγενέσθαι καὶ Μουσαίῳ καὶ Ἡσιόδῳ καὶ Ὁμήρῳ ἐπὶ πόσῳ ἄν τις δέξαιτʼ ἂν ὑμῶν; ἐγὼ μὲν γὰρ πολλάκις ἐθέλω τεθνάναι εἰ ταῦτʼ ἔστιν ἀληθῆ. ἐπεὶ 41c. τὴν πολλὴν στρατιὰν ἢ Ὀδυσσέα ἢ Σίσυφον ἢ ἄλλους μυρίους ἄν τις εἴποι καὶ ἄνδρας καὶ γυναῖκας, οἷς ἐκεῖ διαλέγεσθαι καὶ συνεῖναι καὶ ἐξετάζειν ἀμήχανον ἂν εἴη εὐδαιμονίας; πάντως οὐ δήπου τούτου γε ἕνεκα οἱ ἐκεῖ ἀποκτείνουσι· τά τε γὰρ ἄλλα εὐδαιμονέστεροί εἰσιν οἱ ἐκεῖ τῶν ἐνθάδε, καὶ ἤδη τὸν λοιπὸν χρόνον ἀθάνατοί εἰσιν, εἴπερ γε τὰ λεγόμενα ἀληθῆ. '. None
23b. and makes me an example, as if he were to say: This one of you, O human beings, is wisest, who, like Socrates, recognizes that he is in truth of no account in respect to wisdom. Therefore I am still even now going about and searching and investigating at the god’s behest anyone, whether citizen or foreigner, who I think is wise; and when he does not seem so to me, I give aid to the god and show that he is not wise. And by reason of this occupation I have no leisure to attend to any of the affairs of the state worth mentioning, or of my own, but am in vast poverty'35d. especially when impiety is the very thing for which Meletus here has brought me to trial. For it is plain that if by persuasion and supplication I forced you to break your oaths I should teach you to disbelieve in the existence of the gods and in making my defence should accuse myself of not believing in them. But that is far from the truth; for I do believe in them, men of Athens, more than any of my accusers, and I entrust my case to you and to God to decide it as shall be best for me and for you. 41a. after leaving behind these who claim to be judges, shall find those who are really judges who are said to sit in judgment there, Minos and Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus and Triptolemus, and all the other demigods who were just men in their lives, would the change of habitation be undesirable? Or again, what would any of you give to meet with Orpheus and Musaeus and Hesiod and Homer? I am willing to die many times over, if these things are true; for I personally should find the life there wonderful, 41c. or Odysseus, or Sisyphus, or countless others, both men and women, whom I might mention? To converse and associate with them and examine them would be immeasurable happiness. At any rate, the folk there do not kill people for it; since, if what we are told is true, they are immortal for all future time, besides being happier in other respects than men are here.But you also, judges, must regard death hopefully and must bear in mind this one truth, '. None
32. Plato, Euthydemus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice (dikē), Socratic conception

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 135, 137; Wolfsdorf (2020) 184

278e. ὑμῶν. ἀνάσχεσθον οὖν ἀγελαστὶ ἀκούοντες αὐτοί τε καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ ὑμῶν· σὺ δέ μοι, ὦ παῖ Ἀξιόχου, ἀπόκριναι.''. None
278e. to listen to your wisdom I shall venture to improvise in your presence. So both you and your disciples must restrain yourselves and listen without laughing; and you, son of Axiochus, answer me this:''. None
33. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dead, the, justice regarding • justice • proper respect for gods, and justice • religious correctness, and justice • service to gods', and justice

 Found in books: Legaspi (2018) 119; Mikalson (2010) 29, 31, 143, 190, 196

11e. δεῖξαι ὅπως ἄν με διδάξῃς περὶ τοῦ ὁσίου. καὶ μὴ προαποκάμῃς· ἰδὲ γὰρ εἰ οὐκ ἀναγκαῖόν σοι δοκεῖ δίκαιον εἶναι πᾶν τὸ ὅσιον. ΕΥΘ. ἔμοιγε. ΣΩ. ἆρʼ οὖν καὶ πᾶν τὸ δίκαιον ὅσιον; ἢ τὸ μὲν ὅσιον'12e. ΣΩ. πειρῶ δὴ καὶ σὺ ἐμὲ οὕτω διδάξαι τὸ ποῖον μέρος τοῦ δικαίου ὅσιόν ἐστιν, ἵνα καὶ Μελήτῳ λέγωμεν μηκέθʼ ἡμᾶς ἀδικεῖν μηδὲ ἀσεβείας γράφεσθαι, ὡς ἱκανῶς ἤδη παρὰ σοῦ μεμαθηκότας τά τε εὐσεβῆ καὶ ὅσια καὶ τὰ μή. ΕΥΘ. τοῦτο τοίνυν ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ, ὦ Σώκρατες, τὸ μέρος τοῦ δικαίου εἶναι εὐσεβές τε καὶ ὅσιον, τὸ περὶ τὴν τῶν θεῶν θεραπείαν, τὸ δὲ περὶ τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸ λοιπὸν εἶναι τοῦ δικαίου μέρος. ΣΩ. καὶ καλῶς γέ μοι, ὦ Εὐθύφρων, φαίνῃ λέγειν, ἀλλὰ '. None
11e. Euthyphro. I do. Socrates. But is everything that is right also holy?'12e. Euthyphro. This then is my opinion, Socrates, that the part of the right which has to do with attention to the gods constitutes piety and holiness, and that the remaining part of the right is that which has to do with the service of men. Socrates. I think you are correct, Euthyphro; '. None
34. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dearness to god, and justice • justice • justice (dikē), intergenerational liability • proper respect for gods, and justice • religious correctness, and justice

 Found in books: Legaspi (2018) 134; Mikalson (2010) 188, 192, 201, 202; Wolfsdorf (2020) 561

507a. γε κοσμία σώφρων;—πολλὴ ἀνάγκη.—ἡ ἄρα σώφρων ψυχὴ ἀγαθή. ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ ἔχω παρὰ ταῦτα ἄλλα φάναι, ὦ φίλε Καλλίκλεις· σὺ δʼ εἰ ἔχεις, δίδασκε. ΚΑΛ. λέγʼ, ὠγαθέ. ΣΩ. λέγω δὴ ὅτι, εἰ ἡ σώφρων ἀγαθή ἐστιν, ἡ τοὐναντίον τῇ σώφρονι πεπονθυῖα κακή ἐστιν· ἦν δὲ αὕτη ἡ ἄφρων τε καὶ ἀκόλαστος.—πάνυ γε.—καὶ μὴν ὅ γε σώφρων τὰ προσήκοντα πράττοι ἂν καὶ περὶ θεοὺς καὶ περὶ ἀνθρώπους· οὐ γὰρ ἂν σωφρονοῖ τὰ μὴ προσήκοντα πράττων;—'507b. ἀνάγκη ταῦτʼ εἶναι οὕτω.—καὶ μὴν περὶ μὲν ἀνθρώπους τὰ προσήκοντα πράττων δίκαιʼ ἂν πράττοι, περὶ δὲ θεοὺς ὅσια· τὸν δὲ τὰ δίκαια καὶ ὅσια πράττοντα ἀνάγκη δίκαιον καὶ ὅσιον εἶναι.—ἔστι ταῦτα.—καὶ μὲν δὴ καὶ ἀνδρεῖόν γε ἀνάγκη· οὐ γὰρ δὴ σώφρονος ἀνδρός ἐστιν οὔτε διώκειν οὔτε φεύγειν ἃ μὴ προσήκει, ἀλλʼ ἃ δεῖ καὶ πράγματα καὶ ἀνθρώπους καὶ ἡδονὰς καὶ λύπας φεύγειν καὶ διώκειν, καὶ ὑπομένοντα καρτερεῖν ὅπου δεῖ· ὥστε πολλὴ 523a. ΣΩ. ἄκουε δή, φασί, μάλα καλοῦ λόγου, ὃν σὺ μὲν ἡγήσῃ μῦθον, ὡς ἐγὼ οἶμαι, ἐγὼ δὲ λόγον· ὡς ἀληθῆ γὰρ ὄντα σοι λέξω ἃ μέλλω λέγειν. ὥσπερ γὰρ Ὅμηρος λέγει, διενείμαντο τὴν ἀρχὴν ὁ Ζεὺς καὶ ὁ Ποσειδῶν καὶ ὁ Πλούτων, ἐπειδὴ παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς παρέλαβον. ἦν οὖν νόμος ὅδε περὶ ἀνθρώπων ἐπὶ Κρόνου, καὶ ἀεὶ καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἔστιν ἐν θεοῖς, τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸν μὲν δικαίως τὸν βίον διελθόντα καὶ '. None
507a. And the orderly one is temperate? Most necessarily. So the temperate soul is good. For my part, I can find nothing to say in objection to this, my dear Callicles; but if you can, do instruct me. Call. Proceed, good sir. Soc. I say, then, that if the temperate soul is good, one that is in the opposite state to this sensible one is bad; and that was the senseless and dissolute one. Certainly. And further, the sensible man will do what is fitting as regards both gods and men; for he could not be sensible if he did what was unfitting. That must needs be so. And again, when he does what is fitting'507b. as regards men, his actions will be just, and as regards the gods, pious; and he who does what is just and pious must needs be a just and pious man. That is so. And surely he must be brave also: for you know a sound or temperate mind is shown, not by pursuing and shunning what one ought not, but by shunning and pursuing what one ought, whether they be things or people or pleasures or pains, and by steadfastly persevering in one’s duty; so that it follows of strict necessity, 523a. Soc. Give ear then, as they say, to a right fine story, which you will regard as a fable, I fancy, but I as an actual account; for what I am about to tell you I mean to offer as the truth. By Homer’s account, Zeus, Poseidon, and Pluto divided the sovereignty amongst them when they took it over from their father. Now in the time of Cronos there was a law concerning mankind, and it holds to this very day amongst the gods, that every man who has passed a just and holy life departs after his decease '. None
35. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice/δíκη • justice • religious correctness, and justice • sacrifices, and justice

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 537; Fowler (2014) 134; Long (2019) 190; Mikalson (2010) 197

864a. πάντως ἀδικίαν προσαγορεύω· τὴν δὲ τοῦ ἀρίστου δόξαν, ὅπῃπερ ἂν ἔσεσθαι τούτων ἡγήσωνται πόλις εἴτε ἰδιῶταί τινες, ἐὰν αὕτη κρατοῦσα ἐν ψυχαῖς διακοσμῇ πάντα ἄνδρα, κἂν σφάλληταί τι, δίκαιον μὲν πᾶν εἶναι φατέον τὸ ταύτῃ πραχθὲν καὶ τὸ τῆς τοιαύτης ἀρχῆς γιγνόμενον ὑπήκοον ἑκάστων, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἅπαντα ἀνθρώπων βίον ἄριστον, δοξάζεσθαι δὲ ὑπὸ πολλῶν ἀκούσιον ἀδικίαν εἶναι τὴν τοιαύτην βλάβην. ἡμῖν δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν τὰ νῦν ὀνομάτων πέρι δύσερις' '. None
864a. in whatsoever way either States or individuals think they can attain to it,—if this prevails in their souls and regulates every man, even if some damage be done, we must assert that everything thus done is just, and that in each man the part subject to this goverce is also just, and best for the whole life of mankind, although most men suppose that such damage is an involuntary injustice. But we are not now' '. None
36. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dearness to god, and justice • justice • justice, as means of purification in Plato • polyvalence, cf. openness, semantic prayer for justice • religious correctness, and justice

 Found in books: Long (2019) 184; Mikalson (2010) 201; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 76; Riess (2012) 192, 215

69c. κάθαρσίς τις τῶν τοιούτων πάντων καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἀνδρεία, καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ φρόνησις μὴ καθαρμός τις ᾖ. καὶ κινδυνεύουσι καὶ οἱ τὰς τελετὰς ἡμῖν οὗτοι καταστήσαντες οὐ φαῦλοί τινες εἶναι, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι πάλαι αἰνίττεσθαι ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀμύητος καὶ ἀτέλεστος εἰς Ἅιδου ἀφίκηται ἐν βορβόρῳ κείσεται, ὁ δὲ κεκαθαρμένος τε καὶ τετελεσμένος ἐκεῖσε ἀφικόμενος μετὰ θεῶν οἰκήσει. εἰσὶν γὰρ δή, ὥς φασιν οἱ περὶ τὰς τελετάς, ναρθηκοφόροι 113d. τούτων δὲ οὕτως πεφυκότων, ἐπειδὰν ἀφίκωνται οἱ τετελευτηκότες εἰς τὸν τόπον οἷ ὁ δαίμων ἕκαστον κομίζει, πρῶτον μὲν διεδικάσαντο οἵ τε καλῶς καὶ ὁσίως βιώσαντες καὶ οἱ μή. καὶ οἳ μὲν ἂν δόξωσι μέσως βεβιωκέναι, πορευθέντες ἐπὶ τὸν Ἀχέροντα, ἀναβάντες ἃ δὴ αὐτοῖς ὀχήματά ἐστιν, ἐπὶ τούτων ἀφικνοῦνται εἰς τὴν λίμνην, καὶ ἐκεῖ οἰκοῦσί τε καὶ καθαιρόμενοι τῶν τε ἀδικημάτων διδόντες δίκας ἀπολύονται, εἴ τίς τι ἠδίκηκεν, τῶν τε εὐεργεσιῶν''. None
69c. from all these things, and self-restraint and justice and courage and wisdom itself are a kind of purification. And I fancy that those men who established the mysteries were not unenlightened, but in reality had a hidden meaning when they said long ago that whoever goes uninitiated and unsanctified to the other world will lie in the mire, but he who arrives there initiated and purified will dwell with the gods. For as they say in the mysteries, the thyrsus-bearers are many, but the mystics few ; 113d. Such is the nature of these things. Now when the dead have come to the place where each is led by his genius, first they are judged and sentenced, as they have lived well and piously, or not. And those who are found to have lived neither well nor ill, go to the Acheron and, embarking upon vessels provided for them, arrive in them at the lake; there they dwell and are purified, and if they have done any wrong they are absolved by paying the penalty for their wrong doings,''. None
37. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice (dikē), in Anonymus Iamblichi • justice (dikē), in Protagoras Prometheus myth • justice, peculiar to human beings • religious correctness, and justice

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 161; Mikalson (2010) 191; Wolfsdorf (2020) 91, 283

325c. μηδὲ θεραπευθεῖσιν εἰς ἀρετήν, καὶ πρὸς τῷ θανάτῳ χρημάτων τε δημεύσεις καὶ ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν συλλήβδην τῶν οἴκων ἀνατροπαί, ταῦτα δʼ ἄρα οὐ διδάσκονται οὐδʼ ἐπιμελοῦνται πᾶσαν ἐπιμέλειαν; οἴεσθαί γε χρή, ὦ Σώκρατες. ἐκ παίδων σμικρῶν ἀρξάμενοι, μέχρι οὗπερ ἂν ζῶσι, καὶ διδάσκουσι καὶ νουθετοῦσιν. ἐπειδὰν θᾶττον συνιῇ τις τὰ λεγόμενα, καὶ τροφὸς καὶ μήτηρ καὶ παιδαγωγὸς καὶ αὐτὸς' '. None
325c. if not instructed and cultivated in virtue—and not merely death, but confiscation of property and practically the entire subversion of their house—here they do not have them taught or take the utmost care of them? So at any rate we must conclude, Socrates.' '. None
38. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • justice • justice (dikē), agathon—kalon—dikaion triad • justice (dikē), intergenerational liability • justice, • justice, as internal order • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • religious correctness, and justice • sacrifices, and justice

 Found in books: Bartels (2017) 66; Bernabe et al (2013) 388; Broadie (2021) 124; Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 56, 312; Kirichenko (2022) 150; Legaspi (2018) 152, 185; Mikalson (2010) 46, 129, 197, 200; Wilson (2012) 386; Wolfsdorf (2020) 306, 559, 561; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 63, 102

364b. καὶ πένητες ὦσιν, ὁμολογοῦντες αὐτοὺς ἀμείνους εἶναι τῶν ἑτέρων. τούτων δὲ πάντων οἱ περὶ θεῶν τε λόγοι καὶ ἀρετῆς θαυμασιώτατοι λέγονται, ὡς ἄρα καὶ θεοὶ πολλοῖς μὲν ἀγαθοῖς δυστυχίας τε καὶ βίον κακὸν ἔνειμαν, τοῖς δʼ ἐναντίοις ἐναντίαν μοῖραν. ἀγύρται δὲ καὶ μάντεις ἐπὶ πλουσίων θύρας ἰόντες πείθουσιν ὡς ἔστι παρὰ σφίσι δύναμις ἐκ θεῶν ποριζομένη θυσίαις τε καὶ ἐπῳδαῖς, εἴτε τι'433b. ἀκηκόαμεν καὶ αὐτοὶ πολλάκις εἰρήκαμεν. 443d. ἐντός, ὡς ἀληθῶς περὶ ἑαυτὸν καὶ τὰ ἑαυτοῦ, μὴ ἐάσαντα τἀλλότρια πράττειν ἕκαστον ἐν αὑτῷ μηδὲ πολυπραγμονεῖν πρὸς ἄλληλα τὰ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ γένη, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι τὰ οἰκεῖα εὖ θέμενον καὶ ἄρξαντα αὐτὸν αὑτοῦ καὶ κοσμήσαντα καὶ φίλον γενόμενον ἑαυτῷ καὶ συναρμόσαντα τρία ὄντα, ὥσπερ ὅρους τρεῖς ἁρμονίας ἀτεχνῶς, νεάτης τε καὶ ὑπάτης καὶ μέσης, καὶ εἰ ἄλλα ἄττα μεταξὺ τυγχάνει ὄντα, πάντα ταῦτα 451a. ἐγὼ δρῶ, φοβερόν τε καὶ σφαλερόν, οὔ τι γέλωτα ὀφλεῖν— παιδικὸν γὰρ τοῦτό γε—ἀλλὰ μὴ σφαλεὶς τῆς ἀληθείας οὐ μόνον αὐτὸς ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς φίλους συνεπισπασάμενος κείσομαι περὶ ἃ ἥκιστα δεῖ σφάλλεσθαι. προσκυνῶ δὲ Ἀδράστειαν, ὦ Γλαύκων, χάριν οὗ μέλλω λέγειν· ἐλπίζω γὰρ οὖν ἔλαττον ἁμάρτημα ἀκουσίως τινὸς φονέα γενέσθαι ἢ ἀπατεῶνα καλῶν τε καὶ ἀγαθῶν καὶ δικαίων νομίμων πέρι. τοῦτο οὖν τὸ κινδύνευμα κινδυνεύειν ἐν ἐχθροῖς κρεῖττον ἢ' '615a. μὲν ὀδυρομένας τε καὶ κλαούσας, ἀναμιμνῃσκομένας ὅσα τε καὶ οἷα πάθοιεν καὶ ἴδοιεν ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ γῆς πορείᾳ—εἶναι δὲ τὴν πορείαν χιλιέτη—τὰς δʼ αὖ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εὐπαθείας διηγεῖσθαι καὶ θέας ἀμηχάνους τὸ κάλλος. τὰ μὲν οὖν πολλά, ὦ Γλαύκων, πολλοῦ χρόνου διηγήσασθαι· τὸ δʼ οὖν κεφάλαιον ἔφη τόδε εἶναι, ὅσα πώποτέ τινα ἠδίκησαν καὶ ὅσους ἕκαστοι, ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων δίκην δεδωκέναι ἐν μέρει, ὑπὲρ ἑκάστου δεκάκις—τοῦτο δʼ εἶναι κατὰ ἑκατονταετηρίδα '. None
364b. and disregard those who are in any way weak or poor, even while admitting that they are better men than the others. But the strangest of all these speeches are the things they say about the gods and virtue, how so it is that the gods themselves assign to many good men misfortunes and an evil life but to their opposites a contrary lot; and begging priests and soothsayers go to rich men’s doors and make them believe that they by means of sacrifices and incantations have accumulated a treasure of power from the gods that can expiate and cure with pleasurable festival' 433b. is a saying that we have heard from many and have often repeated ourselves. We have. This, then, I said, my friend, if taken in a certain sense appears to be justice, this principle of doing one’s own business. Do you know whence I infer this? No, but tell me, he said. I think that this is the remaining virtue in the state after our consideration of soberness, courage, and intelligence, a quality which made it possible for them all to grow up in the body politic and which when they have sprung up preserves them as long as it is present. And I hardly need to remind you that 443d. that justice is indeed something of this kind, yet not in regard to the doing of one’s own business externally, but with regard to that which is within and in the true sense concerns one’s self, and the things of one’s self—it means that a man must not suffer the principles in his soul to do each the work of some other and interfere and meddle with one another, but that he should dispose well of what in the true sense of the word is properly his own, and having first attained to self-mastery and beautiful order within himself, and having harmonized these three principles, the notes or intervals of three terms quite literally the lowest, the highest, and the mean, 451a. a fearful and slippery venture. The fear is not of being laughed at, for that is childish, but, lest, missing the truth, I fall down and drag my friends with me in matters where it most imports not to stumble. So I salute Nemesis, Glaucon, in what I am about to say. For, indeed, I believe that involuntary homicide is a lesser fault than to mislead opinion about the honorable, the good, and the just. This is a risk that it is better to run with enemie 501b. I take it, in the course of the work they would glance frequently in either direction, at justice, beauty, sobriety and the like as they are in the nature of things, and alternately at that which they were trying to reproduce in mankind, mingling and blending from various pursuits that hue of the flesh, so to speak, deriving their judgement from that likeness of humanity which Homer too called when it appeared in men the image and likeness of God. Right, he said. And they would erase one touch or stroke and paint in another 615a. and wailing as they recalled how many and how dreadful things they had suffered and seen in their journey beneath the earth—it lasted a thousand years—while those from heaven related their delights and visions of a beauty beyond words. To tell it all, Glaucon, would take all our time, but the sum, he said, was this. For all the wrongs they had ever done to anyone and all whom they had severally wronged they had paid the penalty in turn tenfold for each, and the measure of this was by periods of a hundred years each, '. None
39. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dearness to god, and justice • justice • religious correctness, and justice

 Found in books: Long (2019) 41; Mikalson (2010) 187

212a. γίγνεσθαι ἐκεῖσε βλέποντος ἀνθρώπου καὶ ἐκεῖνο ᾧ δεῖ θεωμένου καὶ συνόντος αὐτῷ; ἢ οὐκ ἐνθυμῇ, ἔφη, ὅτι ἐνταῦθα αὐτῷ μοναχοῦ γενήσεται, ὁρῶντι ᾧ ὁρατὸν τὸ καλόν, τίκτειν οὐκ εἴδωλα ἀρετῆς, ἅτε οὐκ εἰδώλου ἐφαπτομένῳ, ἀλλὰ ἀληθῆ, ἅτε τοῦ ἀληθοῦς ἐφαπτομένῳ· τεκόντι δὲ ἀρετὴν ἀληθῆ καὶ θρεψαμένῳ ὑπάρχει θεοφιλεῖ γενέσθαι, καὶ εἴπέρ τῳ ἄλλῳ ἀνθρώπων ἀθανάτῳ καὶ ἐκείνῳ;''. None
212a. Do you call it a pitiful life for a man to lead—looking that way, observing that vision by the proper means, and having it ever with him? Do but consider, she said, that there only will it befall him, as he sees the beautiful through that which makes it visible, to breed not illusions but true examples of virtue, since his contact is not with illusion but with truth. So when he has begotten a true virtue and has reared it up he is destined to win the friendship of Heaven; he, above all men, is immortal.''. None
40. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice/δíκη • Protagoras, relativism and justice • dearness to god, and justice • justice • justice, • religious correctness, and justice • sacrifices, and justice

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 50; Fowler (2014) 134, 159; Mikalson (2010) 197, 198; Wilson (2010) 149; Wolfsdorf (2020) 685

152a. ἐπιστήμης, ἀλλʼ ὃν ἔλεγε καὶ Πρωταγόρας. τρόπον δέ τινα ἄλλον εἴρηκε τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα. φησὶ γάρ που πάντων χρημάτων μέτρον ἄνθρωπον εἶναι, τῶν μὲν ὄντων ὡς ἔστι, τῶν δὲ μὴ ὄντων ὡς οὐκ ἔστιν. ἀνέγνωκας γάρ που; ΘΕΑΙ. ἀνέγνωκα καὶ πολλάκις. ΣΩ. οὐκοῦν οὕτω πως λέγει, ὡς οἷα μὲν ἕκαστα ἐμοὶ φαίνεται τοιαῦτα μὲν ἔστιν ἐμοί, οἷα δὲ σοί, τοιαῦτα δὲ αὖ σοί· ἄνθρωπος δὲ σύ τε κἀγώ; ΘΕΑΙ. λέγει γὰρ οὖν οὕτω.' '. None
152a. the measure of all things, of the existence of the things that are and the non-existence of the things that are not. You have read that, I suppose? THEAET. Yes, I have read it often. SOC. Well, is not this about what he means, that individual things are for me such as they appear to me, and for you in turn such as they appear to you —you and I being man ? THEAET. Yes, that is what he says.' '. None
41. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dearness to god, and justice • justice

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 58; Geljon and Runia (2019) 237; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 246; Mikalson (2010) 249

29e. τόδε ὁ συνιστὰς συνέστησεν. ἀγαθὸς ἦν, ἀγαθῷ δὲ οὐδεὶς περὶ οὐδενὸς οὐδέποτε ἐγγίγνεται φθόνος· τούτου δʼ ἐκτὸς ὢν πάντα ὅτι μάλιστα ἐβουλήθη γενέσθαι παραπλήσια ἑαυτῷ. ΤΙ. ταύτην δὴ γενέσεως καὶ κόσμου μάλιστʼ ἄν τις ἀρχὴν κυριωτάτην'47a. δεδώρηται, μετὰ τοῦτο ῥητέον. ὄψις δὴ κατὰ τὸν ἐμὸν λόγον αἰτία τῆς μεγίστης ὠφελίας γέγονεν ἡμῖν, ὅτι τῶν νῦν λόγων περὶ τοῦ παντὸς λεγομένων οὐδεὶς ἄν ποτε ἐρρήθη μήτε ἄστρα μήτε ἥλιον μήτε οὐρανὸν ἰδόντων. νῦν δʼ ἡμέρα τε καὶ νὺξ ὀφθεῖσαι μῆνές τε καὶ ἐνιαυτῶν περίοδοι καὶ ἰσημερίαι καὶ τροπαὶ μεμηχάνηνται μὲν ἀριθμόν, χρόνου δὲ ἔννοιαν περί τε τῆς τοῦ παντὸς φύσεως ζήτησιν ἔδοσαν· ἐξ ὧν 47b. ἐπορισάμεθα φιλοσοφίας γένος, οὗ μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν οὔτʼ ἦλθεν οὔτε ἥξει ποτὲ τῷ θνητῷ γένει δωρηθὲν ἐκ θεῶν. λέγω δὴ τοῦτο ὀμμάτων μέγιστον ἀγαθόν· τἆλλα δὲ ὅσα ἐλάττω τί ἂν ὑμνοῖμεν, ὧν ὁ μὴ φιλόσοφος τυφλωθεὶς ὀδυρόμενος ἂν θρηνοῖ μάτην; ἀλλὰ τούτου λεγέσθω παρʼ ἡμῶν αὕτη ἐπὶ ταῦτα αἰτία, θεὸν ἡμῖν ἀνευρεῖν δωρήσασθαί τε ὄψιν, ἵνα τὰς ἐν οὐρανῷ τοῦ νοῦ κατιδόντες περιόδους χρησαίμεθα ἐπὶ τὰς περιφορὰς τὰς τῆς παρʼ ἡμῖν διανοήσεως, συγγενεῖς '. None
29e. constructed Becoming and the All. He was good, and in him that is good no envy ariseth ever concerning anything; and being devoid of envy He desired that all should be, so far as possible, like unto Himself. Tim. This principle, then, we shall be wholly right in accepting from men of wisdom as being above all the supreme originating principle of Becoming and the Cosmos.'47a. benefit effected by them, for the sake of which God bestowed them upon us. Vision, in my view, is the cause of the greatest benefit to us, inasmuch as none of the accounts now given concerning the Universe would ever have been given if men had not seen the stars or the sun or the heaven. But as it is, the vision of day and night and of months and circling years has created the art of number and has given us not only the notion of Time but also means of research into the nature of the Universe. From these we have procured Philosophy in all its range, 47b. than which no greater boon ever has come or will come, by divine bestowal, unto the race of mortals. This I affirm to be the greatest good of eyesight. As for all the lesser goods, why should we celebrate them? He that is no philosopher when deprived of the sight thereof may utter vain lamentations! But the cause and purpose of that best good, as we must maintain, is this,—that God devised and bestowed upon us vision to the end that we might behold the revolutions of Reason in the Heaven and use them for the revolvings of the reasoning that is within us, these being akin to those, '. None
42. Sophocles, Ajax, 1390 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ajax (Sophocles), Justice and the Erinyes in • Electra (Sophocles), Justice and the Erinyes in • Justice • Justice (Dikè), and vengeance • Women of Trachis, The (Sophocles), Justice and the Erinyes in

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 124; Jouanna (2018) 391

1390. and the unforgetting Fury and Justice the Fulfiller destroy them for their wickedness with wicked deaths, just as they sought to cast this man out with unmerited, outrageous mistreatment. But you, progeny of aged Laertes, I hesitate to permit you to touch the corpse in burial,''. None
43. Sophocles, Antigone, 60, 96-97, 453-457, 460-470, 773-775, 1075 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice (Dikè) • Justice (Dikè), and divine law • Justice (Dikè), in Electra • Justice, • justice • justice, divine • justice, in Sophocles • justice, retributive and cosmic

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 43; Jouanna (2018) 355, 397, 485, 736, 748; Kirichenko (2022) 102, 126; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 178; Álvarez (2019) 25

60. we transgress against an autocrat’s decree or his powers. No, we must remember, first, that ours is a woman’s nature, and accordingly not suited to battles against men; and next, that we are ruled by the more powerful, so that we must obey in these things and in things even more stinging.
96. But leave me and the foolish plan I have authored to suffer this terrible thing, for I will not suffer anything so terrible that my death will lack honor.
453. Yes, since it was not Zeus that published me that edict, and since not of that kind are the laws which Justice who dwells with the gods below established among men. Nor did I think that your decrees were of such force, that a mortal could override the unwritten 455. and unfailing statutes given us by the gods. For their life is not of today or yesterday, but for all time, and no man knows when they were first put forth. Not for fear of any man’s pride was I about to owe a penalty to the gods for breaking these. 4
60. Die I must, that I knew well (how could I not?). That is true even without your edicts. But if I am to die before my time, I count that a gain. When anyone lives as I do, surrounded by evils, how can he not carry off gain by dying? 465. So for me to meet this doom is a grief of no account. But if I had endured that my mother’s son should in death lie an unburied corpse, that would have grieved me. Yet for this, I am not grieved. And if my present actions are foolish in your sight, 470. it may be that it is a fool who accuses me of folly.
773. I will take her where the path is deserted, unvisited by men, and entomb her alive in a rocky vault, 775. etting out a ration of food, but only as much as piety requires so that all the city may escape defilement. And praying there to Hades, the only god she worships, perhaps she will obtain immunity from death, or else will learn, at last, even this late,
1075. the Furies of Hades and of the gods, lie in ambush for you, waiting to seize you in these same sufferings. And look closely if I tell you this with a silvered palm. A time not long to be delayed will reveal in your house wailing over men and over women.''. None
44. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.76.2, 1.138.6, 1.140, 2.37.1-2.37.2, 3.49, 3.82.5-3.82.6, 3.84.2, 5.89, 5.104, 5.105.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • "justice, divine", • "justice, human", • Anonymus Iamblichi, law and justice in • Athens and Athenians, justice as concern of • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice • autochthony, and justice • justice • justice (dikē), in Anonymus Iamblichi • justice (dikē), in Plato’s Republic • justice, corrective • justice, distributive • justice, divine • reciprocity, and justice • religious correctness, and justice • service to gods', and justice

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 70, 99, 121; Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 52, 54; Hau (2017) 206, 207, 212, 214; Joho (2022) 229, 252, 253; Jouanna (2018) 748; Kirichenko (2022) 109, 111, 112, 121; Mikalson (2010) 189; Schwartz (2008) 451; Wolfsdorf (2020) 269, 279

1.76.2. οὕτως οὐδ’ ἡμεῖς θαυμαστὸν οὐδὲν πεποιήκαμεν οὐδ’ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρωπείου τρόπου, εἰ ἀρχήν τε διδομένην ἐδεξάμεθα καὶ ταύτην μὴ ἀνεῖμεν ὑπὸ <τριῶν> τῶν μεγίστων νικηθέντες, τιμῆς καὶ δέους καὶ ὠφελίας, οὐδ’ αὖ πρῶτοι τοῦ τοιούτου ὑπάρξαντες, ἀλλ᾽ αἰεὶ καθεστῶτος τὸν ἥσσω ὑπὸ τοῦ δυνατωτέρου κατείργεσθαι, ἄξιοί τε ἅμα νομίζοντες εἶναι καὶ ὑμῖν δοκοῦντες μέχρι οὗ τὰ ξυμφέροντα λογιζόμενοι τῷ δικαίῳ λόγῳ νῦν χρῆσθε, ὃν οὐδείς πω παρατυχὸν ἰσχύι τι κτήσασθαι προθεὶς τοῦ μὴ πλέον ἔχειν ἀπετράπετο.
1.138.6. τὰ δὲ ὀστᾶ φασὶ κομισθῆναι αὐτοῦ οἱ προσήκοντες οἴκαδε κελεύσαντος ἐκείνου καὶ τεθῆναι κρύφα Ἀθηναίων ἐν τῇ Ἀττικῇ: οὐ γὰρ ἐξῆν θάπτειν ὡς ἐπὶ προδοσίᾳ φεύγοντος. τὰ μὲν κατὰ Παυσανίαν τὸν Λακεδαιμόνιον καὶ Θεμιστοκλέα τὸν Ἀθηναῖον, λαμπροτάτους γενομένους τῶν καθ’ ἑαυτοὺς Ἑλλήνων, οὕτως ἐτελεύτησεν.
2.37.1. ‘χρώμεθα γὰρ πολιτείᾳ οὐ ζηλούσῃ τοὺς τῶν πέλας νόμους, παράδειγμα δὲ μᾶλλον αὐτοὶ ὄντες τισὶν ἢ μιμούμενοι ἑτέρους. καὶ ὄνομα μὲν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐς ὀλίγους ἀλλ’ ἐς πλείονας οἰκεῖν δημοκρατία κέκληται: μέτεστι δὲ κατὰ μὲν τοὺς νόμους πρὸς τὰ ἴδια διάφορα πᾶσι τὸ ἴσον, κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἀξίωσιν, ὡς ἕκαστος ἔν τῳ εὐδοκιμεῖ, οὐκ ἀπὸ μέρους τὸ πλέον ἐς τὰ κοινὰ ἢ ἀπ’ ἀρετῆς προτιμᾶται, οὐδ’ αὖ κατὰ πενίαν, ἔχων γέ τι ἀγαθὸν δρᾶσαι τὴν πόλιν, ἀξιώματος ἀφανείᾳ κεκώλυται. 2.37.2. ἐλευθέρως δὲ τά τε πρὸς τὸ κοινὸν πολιτεύομεν καὶ ἐς τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους τῶν καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἐπιτηδευμάτων ὑποψίαν, οὐ δι’ ὀργῆς τὸν πέλας, εἰ καθ’ ἡδονήν τι δρᾷ, ἔχοντες, οὐδὲ ἀζημίους μέν, λυπηρὰς δὲ τῇ ὄψει ἀχθηδόνας προστιθέμενοι.
3.82.5. καὶ ὁ μὲν χαλεπαίνων πιστὸς αἰεί, ὁ δ’ ἀντιλέγων αὐτῷ ὕποπτος. ἐπιβουλεύσας δέ τις τυχὼν ξυνετὸς καὶ ὑπονοήσας ἔτι δεινότερος: προβουλεύσας δὲ ὅπως μηδὲν αὐτῶν δεήσει, τῆς τε ἑταιρίας διαλυτὴς καὶ τοὺς ἐναντίους ἐκπεπληγμένος. ἁπλῶς δὲ ὁ φθάσας τὸν μέλλοντα κακόν τι δρᾶν ἐπῃνεῖτο, καὶ ὁ ἐπικελεύσας τὸν μὴ διανοούμενον. 3.82.6. καὶ μὴν καὶ τὸ ξυγγενὲς τοῦ ἑταιρικοῦ ἀλλοτριώτερον ἐγένετο διὰ τὸ ἑτοιμότερον εἶναι ἀπροφασίστως τολμᾶν: οὐ γὰρ μετὰ τῶν κειμένων νόμων ὠφελίας αἱ τοιαῦται ξύνοδοι, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τοὺς καθεστῶτας πλεονεξίᾳ. καὶ τὰς ἐς σφᾶς αὐτοὺς πίστεις οὐ τῷ θείῳ νόμῳ μᾶλλον ἐκρατύνοντο ἢ τῷ κοινῇ τι παρανομῆσαι.
3.84.2. ξυνταραχθέντος τε τοῦ βίου ἐς τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον τῇ πόλει καὶ τῶν νόμων κρατήσασα ἡ ἀνθρωπεία φύσις, εἰωθυῖα καὶ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ἀδικεῖν, ἀσμένη ἐδήλωσεν ἀκρατὴς μὲν ὀργῆς οὖσα, κρείσσων δὲ τοῦ δικαίου, πολεμία δὲ τοῦ προύχοντος: οὐ γὰρ ἂν τοῦ τε ὁσίου τὸ τιμωρεῖσθαι προυτίθεσαν τοῦ τε μὴ ἀδικεῖν τὸ κερδαίνειν, ἐν ᾧ μὴ βλάπτουσαν ἰσχὺν εἶχε τὸ φθονεῖν.
5.105.2. ΑΘ. ἡγούμεθα γὰρ τό τε θεῖον δόξῃ τὸ ἀνθρώπειόν τε σαφῶς διὰ παντὸς ὑπὸ φύσεως ἀναγκαίας, οὗ ἂν κρατῇ, ἄρχειν: καὶ ἡμεῖς οὔτε θέντες τὸν νόμον οὔτε κειμένῳ πρῶτοι χρησάμενοι, ὄντα δὲ παραλαβόντες καὶ ἐσόμενον ἐς αἰεὶ καταλείψοντες χρώμεθα αὐτῷ, εἰδότες καὶ ὑμᾶς ἂν καὶ ἄλλους ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ δυνάμει ἡμῖν γενομένους δρῶντας ἂν ταὐτό.' '. None
1.76.2. It follows that it was not a very wonderful action, or contrary to the common practice of mankind, if we did accept an empire that was offered to us, and refused to give it up under the pressure of three of the strongest motives, fear, honor, and interest. And it was not we who set the example, for it has always been the law that the weaker should be subject to the stronger. Besides, we believed ourselves to be worthy of our position, and so you thought us till now, when calculations of interest have made you take up the cry of justice—a consideration which no one ever yet brought forward to hinder his ambition when he had a chance of gaining anything by might.
1.138.6. His bones, it is said, were conveyed home by his relatives in accordance with his wishes, and interred in Attic ground. This was done without the knowledge of the Athenians; as it is against the law to bury in Attica an outlaw for treason. So ends the history of Pausanias and Themistocles, the Lacedaemonian and the Athenian, the most famous men of their time in Hellas .
2.37.1. Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if to social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. 2.37.2. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty.
3.82.5. The advocate of extreme measures was always trustworthy; his opponent a man to be suspected. To succeed in a plot was to have a shrewd head, to divine a plot a still shrewder; but to try to provide against having to do either was to break up your party and to be afraid of your adversaries. In fine, to forestall an intending criminal, or to suggest the idea of a crime where it was wanting, was equally commended, 3.82.6. until even blood became a weaker tie than party, from the superior readiness of those united by the latter to dare everything without reserve; for such associations had not in view the blessings derivable from established institutions but were formed by ambition for their overthrow; and the confidence of their members in each other rested less on any religious sanction than upon complicity in crime.
3.84.2. In the confusion into which life was now thrown in the cities, human nature, always rebelling against the law and now its master, gladly showed itself ungoverned in passion, above respect for justice, and the enemy of all superiority; since revenge would not have been set above religion, and gain above justice, had it not been for the fatal power of envy.
5.105.2. of the gods we believe, and of men we know, that by a necessary law of their nature they rule wherever they can. And it is not as if we were the first to make this law, or to act upon it when made: we found it existing before us, and shall leave it to exist for ever after us; all we do is to make use of it, knowing that you and everybody else, having the same power as we have, would do the same as we do. ' '. None
45. Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.4.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • "justice, divine", • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice

 Found in books: Hau (2017) 236, 238; Schwartz (2008) 242

6.4.7. Besides this, they were also somewhat encouraged by the oracle which was reported — that the Lacedaemonians were destined to be defeated at the spot where stood the monument of the virgins, who are said to have killed themselves because they had been violated by certain Lacedaemonians. The Thebans accordingly decorated this monument before the battle. Furthermore, reports were brought to them 371 B.C. from the city that all the temples were opening of themselves, and that the priestesses said that the gods revealed victory. And the messengers reported that from the Heracleium the arms also had disappeared, indicating that Heracles had gone forth to the battle. Some, to be sure, say that all these things were but devices of the leaders.''. None
46. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 7.2.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice (dikē), in Xenophon • proper respect for gods, and justice • religious correctness, and justice • service to gods', and justice

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 31; Wolfsdorf (2020) 426

7.2.15. τάδε δέ μοι πάντως, ἔφη, ὦ Κροῖσε, λέξον πῶς σοι ἀποβέβηκε τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἐν Δελφοῖς χρηστηρίου· σοὶ γὰρ δὴ λέγεται πάνυ γε τεθεραπεῦσθαι ὁ Ἀπόλλων καί σε πάντα ἐκείνῳ πειθόμενον πράττειν.''. None
7.2.15. But pray tell me, Croesus, he resumed, Croesus and the Pythian oracle what has come of your responses from the oracle at Delphi ? For it is said that Apollo has received much service from you and that everything that you do is done in obedience to him. ''. None
47. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.3.3, 3.8.10, 4.6.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Socrates, on justice • justice (dikē), Socratic conception • justice (dikē), in Xenophon • justice, Socrates definition of • justice, adikai praxeis in Pythagoras • justice, as means of purification in Plato • justice, just practices and Zaleucus • law (nomos), and Socratic justice • sacrifices, and justice

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 174; Mikalson (2010) 62; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 62, 65, 76; Wolfsdorf (2020) 184, 428

1.3.3. θυσίας δὲ θύων μικρὰς ἀπὸ μικρῶν οὐδὲν ἡγεῖτο μειοῦσθαι τῶν ἀπὸ πολλῶν καὶ μεγάλων πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα θυόντων. οὔτε γὰρ τοῖς θεοῖς ἔφη καλῶς ἔχειν, εἰ ταῖς μεγάλαις θυσίαις μᾶλλον ἢ ταῖς μικραῖς ἔχαιρον· πολλάκις γὰρ ἂν αὐτοῖς τὰ παρὰ τῶν πονηρῶν μᾶλλον ἢ τὰ παρὰ τῶν χρηστῶν εἶναι κεχαρισμένα· οὔτʼ ἂν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἄξιον εἶναι ζῆν, εἰ τὰ παρὰ τῶν πονηρῶν μᾶλλον ἦν κεχαρισμένα τοῖς θεοῖς ἢ τὰ παρὰ τῶν χρηστῶν· ἀλλʼ ἐνόμιζε τοὺς θεοὺς ταῖς παρὰ τῶν εὐσεβεστάτων τιμαῖς μάλιστα χαίρειν. ἐπαινέτης δʼ ἦν καὶ τοῦ ἔπους τούτου· καδδύναμιν δʼ ἔρδειν ἱέρʼ ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι, Hes. WD 336 καὶ πρὸς φίλους δὲ καὶ ξένους καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἄλλην δίαιταν καλὴν ἔφη παραίνεσιν εἶναι τὴν καδδύναμιν δʼ ἔρδειν.
3.8.10. ὡς δὲ συνελόντι εἰπεῖν, ὅποι πάσας ὥρας αὐτός τε ἂν ἥδιστα καταφεύγοι καὶ τὰ ὄντα ἀσφαλέστατα τιθοῖτο, αὕτη ἂν εἰκότως ἡδίστη τε καὶ καλλίστη οἴκησις εἴη· γραφαὶ δὲ καὶ ποικιλίαι πλείονας εὐφροσύνας ἀποστεροῦσιν ἢ παρέχουσι. ναοῖς γε μὴν καὶ βωμοῖς χώραν ἔφη εἶναι πρεπωδεστάτην ἥτις ἐμφανεστάτη οὖσα ἀστιβεστάτη εἴη· ἡδὺ μὲν γὰρ ἰδόντας προσεύξασθαι, ἡδὺ δὲ ἁγνῶς ἔχοντας προσιέναι.
4.6.7. σοφίαν δὲ τί ἂν φήσαιμεν εἶναι; εἰπέ μοι, πότερά σοι δοκοῦσιν οἱ σοφοί, ἃ ἐπίστανται, ταῦτα σοφοὶ εἶναι, ἢ εἰσί τινες ἃ μὴ ἐπίστανται σοφοί; ἃ ἐπίστανται δῆλον ὅτι, ἔφη· πῶς γὰρ ἄν τις, ἅ γε μὴ ἐπίσταιτο, ταῦτα σοφὸς εἴη; ἆρʼ οὖν οἱ σοφοὶ ἐπιστήμῃ σοφοί εἰσι; τίνι γὰρ ἄν, ἔφη, ἄλλῳ τις εἴη σοφός, εἴ γε μὴ ἐπιστήμῃ; ἄλλο δέ τι σοφίαν οἴει εἶναι ἢ ᾧ σοφοί εἰσιν; οὐκ ἔγωγε. ἐπιστήμη ἄρα σοφία ἐστίν; ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ. ἆρʼ οὖν δοκεῖ σοι ἀνθρώπῳ δυνατὸν εἶναι τὰ ὄντα πάντα ἐπίστασθαι; οὐδὲ μὰ Δίʼ ἔμοιγε πολλοστὸν μέρος αὐτῶν. πάντα μὲν ἄρα σοφὸν οὐχ οἷόν τε ἄνθρωπον εἶναι; μὰ Δίʼ οὐ δῆτα, ἔφη. ὃ ἄρα ἐπίσταται ἕκαστος, τοῦτο καὶ σοφός ἐστιν; ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ.''. None
1.3.3. Though his sacrifices were humble, according to his means, he thought himself not a whit inferior to those who made frequent and magnificent sacrifices out of great possessions. The gods (he said) could not well delight more in great offerings than in small — for in that case must the gifts of the wicked often have found more favour in their sight than the gifts of the upright — and man would not find life worth having, if the gifts of the wicked were received with more favour by the gods than the gifts of the upright. No, the greater the piety of the giver, the greater (he thought) was the delight of the gods in the gift. He would quote with approval the line: According to thy power render sacrifice to the immortal gods, Hes. WD 336 and he would add that in our treatment of friends and strangers, and in all our behaviour, it is a noble principle to render according to our power.
3.8.10. To put it shortly, the house in which the owner can find a pleasant retreat at all seasons and can store his belongings safely is presumably at once the pleasantest and the most beautiful. As for paintings and decorations, they rob one of more delights than they give. For temples and altars the most suitable position, he said, was a conspicuous site remote from traffic; for it is pleasant to breathe a prayer at the sight of them, and pleasant to approach them filled with holy thoughts.
4.6.7. How shall we describe it? Tell me, does it seem to you that the wise are wise about what they know, or are some wise about what they do not know? About what they know, obviously; for how can a man be wise about the things he doesn’t know? The wise, then, are wise by knowledge? How else can a man be wise if not by knowledge? Do you think that wisdom is anything but that by which men are wise? No. It follows that Wisdom is Knowledge? I think so. Then do you think it possible for a man to know all things? of course not — nor even a fraction of them. So an all-wise man is an impossibility? of course, of course. Consequently everyone is wise just in so far as he knows? I think so. ''. None
48. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • religious correctness, and justice • service to gods', and justice

 Found in books: Long (2019) 97; Mikalson (2010) 189

49. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dikē (Justice),oaths invoking • Justice (Dikē),oaths invoking • justice

 Found in books: Kirichenko (2022) 106; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 324

50. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • helping paradigm (international relations), and justice • justice

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 211; Kirichenko (2022) 115

51. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice, of gnome

 Found in books: Kirichenko (2022) 114; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 244

52. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice,

 Found in books: Bartels (2017) 157; Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 324; Kirichenko (2022) 151, 152; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 58

53. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • courts,, justice, administration of craftsmen • justice

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 74; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 60

54. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice, in inscriptions • sacrifices, and justice

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 98; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 283

55. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on distributive justice • Chrysippus, treatises of, On Justice • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas) • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas), on compliance of law with nature and proportion • democracy, On Law and Justice • distributive justice • justice • justice (dikē), in On Law and Justice • justice, natural justice

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 250; Liatsi (2021) 93; Long (2019) 192; Wolfsdorf (2020) 469

56. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice, natural justice • justice, of constitutions

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 269; Liatsi (2021) 87, 93, 94; Sattler (2021) 115

57. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice (Dikè), and divine law • justice

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 397; Liatsi (2021) 95

58. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.8-14.19, 98.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, Divine • Justice, Execution of • Justice, Lack of • Justice, Retribution • Summary Justice, Greek and Roman • justice

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 32; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 369; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 46; Stuckenbruck (2007) 71, 211, 237, 364, 369

14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright 14.10. The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance,with the command of the Holy Great One in that vision. I saw in my sleep what I will now say with a tongue of flesh and with the breath of my mouth: which the Great One has given to men to",converse therewith and understand with the heart. As He has created and given to man the power of understanding the word of wisdom, so hath He created me also and given me the power of reprimanding,the Watchers, the children of heaven. I wrote out your petition, and in my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be granted unto you throughout all the days of eternity, and that judgement,has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree,has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before,you by the sword. And your petition on their behalf shall not be granted, nor yet on your own: even though you weep and pray and speak all the words contained in the writing which I have,written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in,the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright,me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork was,of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were,fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and its,portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there,were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked,and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater,than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to,you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path,of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of,cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look",thereon. And the Great Glory sat thereon, and His raiment shone more brightly than the sun and,was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason",of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand times,ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were,nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: \' Come hither,,Enoch, and hear my word.\' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards. 14.11. of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were 14.12. fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and it 14.13. portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there 14.14. were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked 14.15. and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater 14.16. than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to 14.17. you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path 14.18. of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of 14.19. cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look" 46. And there I saw One who had a head of days, And His head was white like wool, And with Him was another being whose countece had the appearance of a man, And his face was full of graciousness, like one of the holy angels.,And I asked the angel who went with me and showed me all the hidden things, concerning that,Son of Man, who he was, and whence he was, (and) why he went with the Head of Days And he answered and said unto me: This is the son of Man who hath righteousness, With whom dwelleth righteousness, And who revealeth all the treasures of that which is hidden,Because the Lord of Spirits hath chosen him, And whose lot hath the pre-eminence before the Lord of Spirits in uprightness for ever.,And this Son of Man whom thou hast seen Shall raise up the kings and the mighty from their seats, And the strong from their thrones And shall loosen the reins of the strong, And break the teeth of the sinners.,And he shall put down the kings from their thrones and kingdoms Because they do not extol and praise Him, Nor humbly acknowledge whence the kingdom was bestowed upon them.,And he shall put down the countece of the strong, And shall fill them with shame.And darkness shall be their dwelling, And worms shall be their bed, And they shall have no hope of rising from their beds, Because they do not extol the name of the Lord of Spirits.,And these are they who judge the stars of heaven, And raise their hands against the Most High, And tread upon the earth and dwell upon it. And all their deeds manifest unrighteousness, And their power rests upon their riches, And their faith is in the gods which they have made with their hands, And they deny the name of the Lord of Spirits,,And they persecute the houses of His congregations, And the faithful who hang upon the name of the Lord of Spirits. 47. And in those days shall have ascended the prayer of the righteous, And the blood of the righteous from the earth before the Lord of Spirits.,In those days the holy ones who dwell above in the heavens Shall unite with one voice And supplicate and pray and praise, And give thanks and bless the name of the Lord of Spirits On behalf of the blood of the righteous which has been shed, And that the prayer of the righteous may not be in vain before the Lord of Spirits, That judgement may be done unto them, And that they may not have to suffer for ever.,In those days I saw the Head of Days when He seated himself upon the throne of His glory, And the books of the living were opened before Him: And all His host which is in heaven above and His counselors stood before Him,,And the hearts of the holy were filled with joy; Because the number of the righteous had been offered, And the prayer of the righteous had been heard, And the blood of the righteous been required before the Lord of Spirits.'
98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace. '. None
59. Anon., Jubilees, 5.7, 5.13-5.14, 23.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Divine • Justice, Petitions for • Justice, Retribution • justice

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 145; Corley (2002) 141; Stuckenbruck (2007) 349, 386, 425

5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created."
5.13. And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 5.14. And their fathers were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the day of the great condemnation when judgment is executed on all those who have corrupted their ways and their works before the Lord.
23.19. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they will say regarding him: "He hath lived long,''. None
60. Cicero, De Finibus, 3.62-3.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice • justice • justice (Lat. iustitia = Gr. dikaiosynē) • justice,

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 176; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 138; Long (2006) 326, 331, 348; Tsouni (2019) 161

3.62. \xa0"Again, it is held by the Stoics to be important to understand that nature creates in parents an affection for their children; and parental affection is the source to which we trace the origin of the association of the human race in communities. This cannot but be clear in the first place from the conformation of the body and its members, which by themselves are enough to show that nature\'s scheme included the procreation of offspring. Yet it could not be consistent that nature should at once intend offspring to be born and make no provision for that offspring when born to be loved and cherished. Even in the lower animals nature\'s operation can be clearly discerned; when we observe the labour that they spend on bearing and rearing their young, we seem to be listening to the actual voice of nature. Hence as it is manifest that it is natural for us to shrink from pain, so it is clear that we derive from nature herself the impulse to love those to whom we have given birth. <' "3.63. \xa0From this impulse is developed the sense of mutual attraction which unites human beings as such; this also is bestowed by nature. The mere fact of their common humanity requires that one man should feel another man to be akin to him. For just as some of the parts of the body, such as the eyes and the ears, are created as it were for their own sakes, while others like the legs or the hands also subserve the utility of the rest of the members, so some very large animals are born for themselves alone; whereas the seaâ\x80\x91pen, as it is called, in its roomy shell, and the creature named the 'pinoteres' because it keeps watch over the seaâ\x80\x91pen, which swims out of the seaâ\x80\x91pen's shell, then retires back into it and is shut up inside, thus appearing to have warned its host to be on its guard â\x80\x94 these creatures, and also the ant, the bee, the stork, do certain actions for the sake of others besides themselves. With human beings this bond of mutual aid is far more intimate. It follows that we are by nature fitted to form unions, societies and states. <" '3.64. \xa0"Again, they hold that the universe is governed by divine will; it is a city or state of which both men and gods are members, and each one of us is a part of this universe; from which it is a natural consequence that we should prefer the common advantage to our own. For just as the laws set the safety of all above the safety of individuals, so a good, wise and lawâ\x80\x91abiding man, conscious of his duty to the state, studies the advantage of all more than that of himself or of any single individual. The traitor to his country does not deserve greater reprobation than the man who betrays the common advantage or security for the sake of his own advantage or security. This explains why praise is owed to one who dies for the commonwealth, because it becomes us to love our country more than ourselves. And as we feel it wicked and inhuman for men to declare (the saying is usually expressed in a familiar Greek line) that they care not if, when they themselves are dead, the universal conflagration ensues, it is undoubtedly true that we are bound to study the interest of posterity also for its own sake. < 3.65. \xa0"This is the feeling that has given rise to the practice of making a will and appointing guardians for one\'s children when one is dying. And the fact that no one would care to pass his life alone in a desert, even though supplied with pleasures in unbounded profusion, readily shows that we are born for society and intercourse, and for a natural partnership with our fellow men. Moreover nature inspires us with the desire to benefit as many people as we can, and especially by imparting information and the principles of wisdom. < 3.66. \xa0Hence it would be hard to discover anyone who will not impart to another any knowledge that he may himself possess; so strong is our propensity not only to learn but also to teach. And just as bulls have a natural instinct to fight with all their strength and force in defending their calves against lions, so men of exceptional gifts and capacity for service, like Hercules and Liber in the legends, feel a natural impulse to be the protectors of the human race. Also when we confer upon Jove the titles of Most Good and Most Great, of Saviour, Lord of Guests, Rallier of Battles, what we mean to imply is that the safety of mankind lies in his keeping. But how inconsistent it would be for us to expect the immortal gods to love and cherish us, when we ourselves despise and neglect one another! Therefore just as we actually use our limbs before we have learnt for what particular useful purpose they were bestowed upon us, so we are united and allied by nature in the common society of the state. Were this not so, there would be no room either for justice or benevolence. < 3.67. \xa0"But just as they hold that man is united with man by the bonds of right, so they consider that no right exists as between man and beast. For Chrysippus well said, that all other things were created for the sake of men and gods, but that these exist for their own mutual fellowship and society, so that men can make use of beasts for their own purposes without injustice. And the nature of man, he said, is such, that as it were a code of law subsists between the individual and the human race, so that he who upholds this code will be just and he who departs from it, unjust. But just as, though the theatre is a public place, yet it is correct to say that the particular seat a man has taken belongs to him, so in the state or in the universe, though these are common to all, no principle of justice militates against the possession of private property. < 3.68. \xa0Again, since we see that man is designed by nature to safeguard and protect his fellows, it follows from this natural disposition, that the Wise Man should desire to engage in politics and government, and also to live in accordance with nature by taking to himself a wife and desiring to have children by her. Even the passion of love when pure is not thought incompatible with the character of the Stoic sage. As for the principles and habits of the Cynics, some say that these befit the Wise Man, if circumstances should happen to indicate this course of action; but other Stoics reject the Cynic rule unconditionally. < 3.69. \xa0"To safeguard the universal alliance, solidarity and affection that subsist between man and man, the Stoics held that both \'benefits\' and \'injuries\' (in their terminology, Å\x8dphelÄ\x93mata and blammata) are common, the former doing good and the latter harm; and they pronounce them to be not only \'common\' but also \'equal.\' \'Disadvantages\' and \'advantages\' (for so I\xa0render euchrÄ\x93stÄ\x93mata and duschrÄ\x93stÄ\x93mata) they held to be \'common\' but not \'equal.\' For things \'beneficial\' and \'injurious\' are goods and evils respectively, and these must needs be equal; but \'advantages\' and \'disadvantages\' belong to the class we speak of as \'preferred\' and \'rejected,\' and these may differ in degree. But whereas \'benefits\' and \'injuries\' are pronounced to be \'common,\' righteous and sinful acts are not considered \'common.\' < 3.70. \xa0"They recommend the cultivation of friendship, classing it among \'things beneficial.\' In friendship some profess that the Wise Man will hold his friends\' interests as dear as his own, while others say that a man\'s own interests must necessarily be dearer to him; at the same time the latter admit that to enrich oneself by another\'s loss is an action repugt to that justice towards which we seem to possess a natural propensity. But the school I\xa0am discussing emphatically rejects the view that we adopt or approve either justice or friendship for the sake of their utility. For if it were so, the same claims of utility would be able to undermine and overthrow them. In fact the very existence of both justice and friendship will be impossible if they are not desired for their own sake. <' "3.71. \xa0Right moreover, properly so styled and entitled, exists (they aver) by nature; and it is foreign to the nature of the Wise Man not only to wrong but even to hurt anyone. Nor again is it righteous to enter into a partnership in wrongdoing with one's friends or benefactors; and it is most truly and cogently maintained that honesty is always the best policy, and that whatever is fair and just is also honourable, and conversely whatever is honourable will also be just and fair. <"'. None
61. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.46, 3.16, 3.20, 3.24, 3.57, 3.60, 3.62-3.71, 5.38, 5.42, 5.60-5.61, 5.65-5.67 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, treatises of, On Justice • Justice / iustitia • judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice • justice • justice (Lat. iustitia = Gr. dikaiosynē) • justice (Lat. iustitia = Gr. dikaiosynē), species of • justice, • justice, starting point for

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 176; Graver (2007) 175, 250; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 138; Long (2006) 189, 325, 326, 331, 348; Long (2019) 195; Maso (2022) 29, 136, 137; Tsouni (2019) 132, 155, 157, 158, 161, 164

3.16. Bene facis, inquit, quod me adiuvas, et istis quidem, quae modo dixisti, utar potius Latinis, in ceteris subvenies, si me haerentem videbis. Sedulo, inquam, faciam. sed 'fortuna fortis'; quare conare, quaeso. quid enim possumus hoc agere divinius? Placet his, inquit, quorum ratio mihi probatur, simulatque natum sit animal—hinc hinc RN hin A huic BEV enim est ordiendum ordiendum est BER —, ipsum sibi conciliari et commendari ad se conservandum et ad suum statum eaque, eaque Gz. eque ABERN et ad ea V quae conservantia sint sint Iw. Mue. II p. 19; sunt eius status, diligenda, alienari autem ab interitu iisque rebus, quae interitum videantur adferre. id ita esse sic probant, quod ante, quam voluptas aut dolor attigerit, salutaria appetant parvi aspernenturque contraria, quod non fieret, nisi statum suum diligerent, interitum timerent. fieri autem non posset ut appeterent aliquid, nisi sensum haberent sui eoque se diligerent. ex quo intellegi debet principium ductum esse a se diligendo." "
3.20. Progrediamur igitur, quoniam, quoniam qui ideo BE (discerpto, ut vid., q uo in qi io cf. ad p. 104,24 et ad p. 31, 25) inquit, ab his principiis naturae discessimus, quibus congruere debent quae sequuntur. sequitur autem haec prima divisio: Aestimabile esse dicunt—sic enim, ut opinor, appellemus appellemus Bentl. appellamus — id, quod aut ipsum secundum naturam sit aut tale quid efficiat, ut selectione dignum propterea sit, quod aliquod pondus habeat dignum aestimatione, quam illi a)ci/an vocant, illi ... vocant Pearc. ille ... vocat contraque inaestimabile, quod sit superiori contrarium. initiis igitur ita constitutis, ut ea, quae secundum naturam sunt, ipsa propter se sumenda sint contrariaque item reicienda, primum primum primum enim BE ('suspicari aliquis possit enim ortum esse ex hominis' Mdv.) est officium—id enim appello kaqh=kon —, ut se conservet in naturae statu, deinceps ut ea teneat, quae secundum naturam sint, pellatque contraria. qua qua AVN 2 que BN 1 q (= quae) ER inventa selectione et item reiectione sequitur deinceps cum officio selectio, deinde ea perpetua, tum ad extremum constans consentaneaque naturae, in qua primum inesse incipit et intellegi, intelligi BE intellegit A intelligit RNV quid sit, quod vere bonum possit dici." '
3.24. ut enim histrioni actio, saltatori motus non quivis, sed certus quidam est datus, sic vita agenda est certo genere quodam, non quolibet; quod genus conveniens consentaneumque dicimus. nec enim gubernationi aut medicinae similem sapientiam esse arbitramur, sed actioni illi potius, quam modo dixi, et saltationi, ut ut arte N arte ut V in ipsa insit, insit ut sit N 1 ut insit N 2 non foris petatur extremum, id est artis effectio. et tamen est etiam aliqua aliqua Brem. alia (est alia etiam N) cum his ipsis artibus sapientiae dissimilitudo, propterea quod in illis quae recte facta sunt non continent tamen omnes partes, e quibus constant; quae autem nos aut recta aut recte facta dicamus, si placet, illi autem appellant katorqw/mata, omnes numeros virtutis continent. sola enim sapientia in se tota conversa est, quod idem in ceteris artibus non fit.
3.57. De bona autem fama—quam enim appellant eu)doci/an, aptius est bonam famam hoc loco appellare quam gloriam—Chrysippus quidem et Diogenes detracta detracta detractate quidem BE utilitate ne digitum quidem eius causa porrigendum esse dicebant; quibus ego vehementer assentior. qui autem post eos fuerunt, cum Carneadem sustinere non possent, hanc, quam dixi, bonam famam ipsam propter se praepositam et sumendam esse dixerunt, esseque esseque BENV esse A om. R hominis ingenui et liberaliter educati velle bene audire a parentibus, a propinquis, a bonis etiam viris, idque propter rem ipsam, non propter usum, dicuntque, ut ipsam non dicuntque propter usumque ut BE liberis consultum velimus, etiamsi postumi futuri sint, propter ipsos, sic futurae post mortem famae tamen esse propter rem, etiam detracto usu, consulendum.
3.60. Sed cum ab his omnia proficiscantur officia, non sine causa dicitur ad ea referri omnes nostras cogitationes, in his et excessum e vita et in vita mansionem. in quo enim plura sunt quae secundum naturam sunt, huius officium est in vita manere; in quo autem aut sunt plura contraria aut fore videntur, huius officium est de vita excedere. ex quo ex quo RV e quo (equo) apparet et sapientis esse aliquando officium excedere e vita, cum beatus sit, et stulti manere in vita, cum sit miser.
3.62. Pertinere autem ad rem arbitrantur intellegi natura fieri ut liberi a parentibus amentur. a quo initio profectam communem humani generis societatem persequimur. quod primum intellegi debet figura membrisque corporum, quae ipsa declarant procreandi a natura habitam esse rationem. neque vero haec inter se congruere possent, possent N 2 possint ut natura et procreari vellet et diligi procreatos non curaret. atque etiam in bestiis vis naturae perspici potest; quarum in fetu et in educatione laborem cum cernimus, naturae ipsius vocem videmur audire. quare ut perspicuum est natura nos a dolore add. P. Man. abhorrere, sic apparet a natura ipsa, ut eos, quos genuerimus, amemus, inpelli. 3.63. ex hoc nascitur ut etiam etiam ut BE communis hominum inter homines naturalis sit commendatio, ut oporteat hominem ab homine ob id ipsum, quod homo sit, non alienum videri. ut enim in membris alia sunt sunt N 2 sint tamquam sibi nata, ut oculi, ut aures, alia alia Marsus aliqua ARN aliaque BE reliqua V etiam ceterorum membrorum usum adiuvant, ut crura, ut manus, sic inmanes quaedam bestiae bestie quedam BE sibi solum natae sunt, at illa, quae in concha patula pina dicitur, isque, qui enat e concha, qui, quod eam custodit, pinoteres vocatur in eandemque in eandemque BE in eamque cum se recepit recepit cod. Glogav. recipit includitur, ut videatur monuisse ut caveret, itemque formicae, apes, ciconiae aliorum etiam causa quaedam faciunt. multo haec coniunctius homines. coniunctius homines Mdv. coniunctio est hominis itaque natura sumus apti ad coetus, concilia, consilia Non. civitatis Non. RV civitates. itaque ... civitatis ( v. 18 ) Non. p. 234 3.64. mundum autem censent regi numine deorum, eumque esse quasi communem urbem et civitatem hominum et deorum, et unum quemque nostrum eius mundi esse partem; ex quo illud natura consequi, ut communem utilitatem nostrae anteponamus. ut enim leges omnium salutem singulorum saluti anteponunt, sic vir bonus et sapiens et legibus parens et civilis officii non ignarus utilitati omnium plus quam unius alicuius aut suae consulit. nec magis est vituperandus proditor patriae quam communis utilitatis aut salutis desertor propter suam utilitatem aut salutem. ex quo fit, ut laudandus is sit, qui mortem oppetat pro re publica, quod deceat deceat dett. doceat ( in A ab ead. m. corr. ex diceat) cariorem nobis esse patriam quam nosmet ipsos. quoniamque quoniamque quēque R illa vox inhumana et scelerata ducitur eorum, qui negant se recusare quo minus ipsis mortuis terrarum omnium deflagratio consequatur—quod vulgari quodam versu Graeco pronuntiari solet—, certe verum est etiam iis, qui aliquando futuri sint, esse propter ipsos consulendum. 3.65. ex hac animorum affectione testamenta commendationesque morientium natae sunt. quodque nemo in summa solitudine vitam agere velit ne cum infinita quidem voluptatum abundantia, facile intellegitur nos ad coniunctionem congregationemque hominum et ad naturalem communitatem esse natos. Inpellimur autem natura, ut prodesse velimus quam plurimis in primisque docendo rationibusque prudentiae tradendis. 3.66. itaque non facile est invenire qui quod sciat ipse non tradat alteri; ita non solum ad discendum propensi sumus, verum etiam ad docendum. Atque ut tauris natura datum est ut pro vitulis contra leones summa vi impetuque contendant, sic ii, ii edd. hi qui valent opibus atque id facere possunt, ut de Hercule et de Libero accepimus, ad servandum genus hominum natura incitantur. Atque etiam Iovem cum Optimum et Maximum dicimus cumque eundem Salutarem, Hospitalem, Statorem, hoc intellegi volumus, salutem hominum in eius esse tutela. minime autem convenit, cum ipsi inter nos viles viles NV cules A eules R civiles BE neglectique simus, postulare ut diis inmortalibus cari simus et ab iis diligamur. Quem ad modum igitur membris utimur prius, quam didicimus, cuius ea causa utilitatis habeamus, sic inter nos natura ad civilem communitatem coniuncti et consociati sumus. quod ni ita se haberet, nec iustitiae ullus esset nec bonitati locus. 3.67. Et Et Sed Mdv. quo modo hominum inter homines iuris esse vincula putant, sic homini nihil iuris esse cum bestiis. praeclare enim Chrysippus, cetera nata esse hominum causa et deorum, eos autem communitatis et societatis suae, ut bestiis homines uti ad utilitatem suam possint possint suam BE sine iniuria. Quoniamque quoniamque quēque R ea natura esset hominis, ut ei ei Lamb. et ABEN om. RV cum genere humano quasi civile ius intercederet, qui id conservaret, eum iustum, qui migraret, migraret negaret A iniustum fore. sed quem ad modum, theatrum cum cum ut E commune sit, recte tamen dici potest eius esse eum locum, quem quisque occuparit, sic in urbe mundove communi non adversatur ius, quo minus suum quidque quodque BE cuiusque sit. 3.68. Cum autem ad tuendos conservandosque homines hominem natum esse videamus, consentaneum est huic naturae, ut sapiens velit gerere et administrare rem publicam atque, ut e natura vivat, uxorem adiungere et velle ex ea liberos. ne amores quidem sanctos a sapiente alienos esse arbitrantur. arbitramur BE Cynicorum autem rationem atque vitam alii cadere in sapientem dicunt, si qui qui ARN 1 V quis BEN 2 eius modi forte casus inciderit, ut id faciendum sit, alii nullo modo. 3.69. Ut vero conservetur omnis homini erga hominem societas, coniunctio, caritas, et emolumenta et detrimenta, quae w)felh/mata et bla/mmata appellant, communia esse voluerunt; quorum altera prosunt, nocent altera. neque solum ea communia, verum etiam paria esse dixerunt. incommoda autem et commoda—ita enim eu)xrhsth/mata et dusxrhsth/mata appello—communia esse voluerunt, paria noluerunt. illa enim, quae prosunt aut quae nocent, aut bona sunt aut mala, quae sint paria necesse est. commoda autem et incommoda in eo genere sunt, quae praeposita et reiecta diximus; dicimus BE ea possunt paria non esse. sed emolumenta communia emolumenta et detrimenta communia Lamb. esse dicuntur, recte autem facta et peccata non habentur communia. 3.70. Amicitiam autem adhibendam esse censent, quia sit ex eo genere, quae prosunt. quamquam autem in amicitia alii dicant aeque caram esse sapienti rationem amici ac suam, alii autem sibi cuique cariorem suam, tamen hi quoque posteriores fatentur alienum esse a iustitia, ad quam nati esse videamur, detrahere quid de aliquo, quod sibi adsumat. minime vero probatur huic disciplinae, de qua loquor, aut iustitiam aut amicitiam propter utilitates adscisci aut probari. eaedem enim utilitates poterunt eas labefactare atque pervertere. etenim nec iustitia nec amicitia iustitia nec amicitia Mdv. iusticie nec amicicie esse omnino poterunt, poterunt esse omnino BE nisi ipsae per se expetuntur. expetantur V 3.71. Ius autem, quod ita dici appellarique possit, id esse natura, natura P. Man., Lamb. naturam alienumque alienumque V et ( corr. priore u ab alt. m. ) N alienamque esse a sapiente non modo iniuriam cui facere, verum etiam nocere. nec vero rectum est cum amicis aut bene meritis consociare sociare BE aut coniungere iniuriam, gravissimeque et gravissime et BE verissime defenditur numquam aequitatem ab utilitate posse seiungi, et quicquid aequum iustumque esset, id etiam honestum vicissimque, quicquid esset honestum, id iustum etiam atque aequum fore.
5.38. Quibus expositis facilis est coniectura ea maxime esse expetenda ex nostris, quae plurimum habent habent habeant Ern. dignitatis, ut optimae cuiusque partis, quae per se expetatur, virtus sit expetenda maxime. ita fiet, ut animi virtus corporis virtuti anteponatur animique virtutes non voluntarias vincant virtutes voluntariae, quae quidem proprie virtutes appellantur multumque excellunt, propterea quod ex ratione gignuntur, qua nihil est in homine divinius. etenim omnium rerum, quas et creat natura et tuetur, quae aut sine animo sunt sunt Ern. sint aut sine animo sunt aut om. R non non add. A. Man. multo secus, earum earum edd. eorum summum bonum in corpore est, ut non inscite illud dictum videatur in sue, animum illi pecudi datum pro sale, ne putisceret. non inscite ... putisceret Non. p. 161 putisceret Non. putresceret sunt autem bestiae quaedam, in quibus inest aliquid aliquod BER simile virtutis, ut in leonibus, ut in canibus, in equis, leonibus ut in canibus in equis BEN 1 leonibus in canibus in equis RV leonibus ut in canibus ut in equis N 2 in quibus non corporum solum, ut in suibus, sed etiam animorum aliqua ex parte motus quosdam videmus. in homine autem summa omnis animi est et in animo rationis, ex qua virtus est, quae rationis absolutio definitur, quam etiam atque etiam explicandam putant.
5.42. quam similitudinem videmus in bestiis, quae primo, in quo loco natae sunt, ex eo se non commovent, deinde suo quaeque appetitu movetur. movetur moventur NV serpere anguiculos, nare nare natare Non. anaticulas, anaticulas V aneticulas BERN anaticulos Non. volare Non. evolare merulas, cornibus uti videmus boves, videamus boves Non. boves videmus BE nepas nepas RN 1 Non. nespas vel vespas V vespas BEN 2 aculeis, suam denique cuique naturam esse ad vivendum ducem. serpere ... ducem Non. p. 145 quae similitudo in genere etiam humano apparet. parvi enim primo ortu sic iacent, tamquam omnino sine animo sint. cum autem paulum firmitatis accessit, et animo utuntur et sensibus conitunturque, ut sese sese ut BE utuntur ed. Iuntina utantur erigant, et manibus utuntur et eos agnoscunt, a quibus educantur. deinde aequalibus delectantur libenterque se cum iis congregant dantque se ad ludendum fabellarumque auditione ducuntur deque eo, quod ipsis superat, aliis gratificari volunt animadvertuntque ea, quae domi fiunt, curiosius incipiuntque commentari aliquid et discere et discere facere R et eorum, quos vident, volunt non ignorare nomina, quibusque rebus cum aequalibus decertant, si vicerunt, vicerunt Mdv.. vicerint BENV dicerint R efferunt se laetitia, victi debilitantur animosque que om. BEN demittunt. quorum sine causa fieri nihil putandum est.
5.60. itaque amplius itaque BE itaque amplius RNV nostrum est—quod nostrum dico, artis est—ad ea principia, quae accepimus, consequentia exquirere, quoad sit id, quod volumus, effectum. quod quidem pluris est est Thurot. ( Revue critique 1870,1. semestrep.21 ); sunt R sit NV om. BE haud paulo magisque ipsum propter se expetendum quam aut sensus aut corporis ea, quae diximus, quibus tantum praestat mentis excellens perfectio, ut vix cogitari possit quid intersit. itaque omnis honos, omnis admiratio, omne studium ad virtutem et ad eas actiones, quae virtuti sunt consentaneae, consentanee sunt BE refertur, eaque omnia, quae aut ita in animis sunt aut ita geruntur, uno nomine honesta dicuntur. quorum omnium quae quae Matthiae ( Vermischte Schriften 1833 p. 31 sq. ); queque sint notitiae, quae quidem quae quidem Se. quaeque (queque) BENV que R significentur significent BE rerum vocabulis, quaeque cuiusque vis cuiusque vis NV cuiusvis BE cuius vis R et natura sit mox mox p. 189, 20 sqq. videbimus. 5.61. Hoc autem loco tantum explicemus haec honesta, quae dico, praeterquam quod nosmet ipsos diligamus, praeterea suapte natura per se esse expetenda. indicant iudicant BER pueri, in quibus ut in speculis natura cernitur. quanta studia decertantium sunt! sunt R sint quanta ipsa certamina! ut illi efferuntur laetitia, cum vicerunt! vicerunt Mdv. vicerint ut pudet victos! ut se accusari nolunt! quam cupiunt laudari! quos illi labores non perferunt, ut aequalium principes sint! quae memoria est in iis bene merentium, quae referendae gratiae cupiditas! atque ea in optima quaque indole indole quaque BE maxime apparent, in qua haec honesta, quae intellegimus, a natura tamquam adumbrantur.
5.65. in omni autem autem enim BE honesto, de quo loquimur, nihil est tam illustre nec quod latius pateat quam coniunctio inter homines hominum et quasi quaedam societas et communicatio utilitatum et ipsa caritas generis humani. quae nata a primo satu, quod a procreatoribus nati diliguntur et tota domus coniugio et stirpe coniungitur, serpit sensim foras, cognationibus primum, tum affinitatibus, deinde amicitiis, post vicinitatibus, tum civibus et iis, qui publice socii atque amici sunt, deinde totius complexu gentis humanae. quae animi affectio suum cuique tribuens atque hanc, quam dico, societatem coniunctionis humanae munifice et aeque tuens iustitia dicitur, cui sunt adiunctae pietas, bonitas, liberalitas, benignitas, comitas, quaeque sunt generis eiusdem. atque haec ita iustitiae propria sunt, ut sint virtutum reliquarum communia. 5.66. nam cum sic hominis natura generata sit, ut habeat quiddam quoddam BE ingenitum ingenitum B E innatum RN in natum V quasi civile atque populare, quod Graeci politiko/n vocant, quicquid aget quaeque virtus, id a communitate et ea, quam quam que RN exposui, caritate ac societate humana non abhorrebit, vicissimque iustitia, ut ipsa se fundet fundet se BE in in N post fundet ab alt. m. superscr. est (= scilicet) usu ceteras virtutes, sic illas expetet. servari enim iustitia nisi a forti forte RNV viro, nisi a sapiente non potest. qualis est igitur omnis haec, quam dico, conspiratio consensusque virtutum, tale est illud ipsum honestum, quandoquidem honestum aut ipsa virtus est aut res gesta virtute; quibus rebus in rebus R et (ī ab alt. m. superscr. ) N 2 vita consentiens virtutibusque respondens recta et honesta et constans et naturae congruens existimari potest. 5.67. atque haec coniunctio confusioque virtutum tamen a philosophis ratione quadam distinguitur. nam cum ita copulatae conexaeque sint, sint ( ante ut) BE sunt ut omnes omnium participes sint nec alia ab alia possit separari, tamen proprium suum cuiusque munus est, ut fortitudo in laboribus periculisque cernatur, temperantia in praetermittendis voluptatibus, prudentia in dilectu bonorum et malorum, iustitia in suo cuique tribuendo. quando igitur inest in omni virtute cura quaedam quasi foras spectans aliosque appetens atque complectens, existit illud, ut amici, ut fratres, ut propinqui, ut affines, ut cives, ut omnes denique—quoniam unam societatem hominum esse volumus—propter se expetendi sint. atqui eorum nihil est eius generis, ut sit in fine atque extremo bonorum.' ". None
3.16. \xa0"Thanks for your assistance," he said. "I\xa0certainly shall use for choice the Latin equivalents you have just given; and in other cases you shall come to my aid if you see me in difficulties." "I\'ll do my best," I\xa0replied; "but fortune favours the bold, so pray make the venture. What sublimer occupation could we find?" He began: "It is the view of those whose system I\xa0adopt, that immediately upon birth (for that is the proper point to start from) a living creature feels an attachment for itself, and an impulse to preserve itself and to feel affection for its own constitution and for those things which tend to preserve that constitution; while on the other hand it conceives an antipathy to destruction and to those things which appear to threaten destruction. In proof of this opinion they urge that infants desire things conducive to their health and reject things that are the opposite before they have ever felt pleasure or pain; this would not be the case, unless they felt an affection for their own constitution and were afraid of destruction. But it would be impossible that they should feel desire at all unless they possessed self-consciousness, and consequently felt affection for themselves. This leads to the conclusion that it is love of self which supplies the primary impulse to action. <
3.20. \xa0"To proceed then," he continued, "for we have been digressing from the primary impulses of nature; and with these the later stages must be in harmony. The next step is the following fundamental classification: That which is in itself in accordance with nature, or which produces something else that is so, and which therefore is deserving of choice as possessing a certain amount of positive value â\x80\x94 axia as the Stoics call it â\x80\x94 this they pronounce to be \'valuable\' (for so I\xa0suppose we may translate it); and on the other hand that which is the contrary of the former they term \'valueless.\' The initial principle being thus established that things in accordance with nature are \'things to be taken\' for their own sake, and their opposites similarly \'things to be rejected,\' the first \'appropriate act\' (for so I\xa0render the Greek kathÄ\x93kon) is to preserve oneself in one\'s natural constitution; the next is to retain those things which are in accordance with nature and to repel those that are the contrary; then when this principle of choice and also of rejection has been discovered, there follows next in order choice conditioned by \'appropriate action\'; then, such choice become a fixed habit; and finally, choice fully rationalized and in harmony with nature. It is at this final stage that the Good properly so called first emerges and comes to be understood in its true nature. <' "
3.24. \xa0For just as an actor or dancer has assigned to him not any but a certain particular part or dance, so life has to be conducted in a certain fixed way, and not in any way we like. This fixed way we speak of as 'conformable' and suitable. In fact we do not consider Wisdom to be like seamanship or medicine, but rather like the arts of acting and of dancing just mentioned; its End, being the actual exercise of the art, is contained within the art itself, and is not something extraneous to it. At the same time there is also another point which marks a dissimilarity between Wisdom and these arts as well. In the latter a movement perfectly executed nevertheless does not involve all the various motions which together constitute the subject matter of the art; whereas in the sphere of conduct, what we may call, if you approve, 'right actions,' or 'rightly performed actions,' in Stoic phraseology katorthÅ\x8dmata, contain all the factors of virtue. For Wisdom alone is entirely self-contained, which is not the case with the other arts. <" "
3.57. \xa0About good fame (that term being a better translation in this context than 'glory' of the Stoic expression eudoxiÄ\x81) Chrysippus and Diogenes used to aver that, apart from any practical value it may possess, it is not worth stretching out a finger for; and I\xa0strongly agree with them. On the other hand their successors, finding themselves unable to resist the attacks of Carneades, declared that good fame, as I\xa0have called it, was preferred and desirable for its own sake, and that a man of good breeding and liberal education would desire to have the good opinion of his parents and relatives, and of good men in general, and that for its own sake and not for any practical advantage; and they argue that just as we desire the welfare of our children, even of such as may be born after we are dead, for their own sake, so a man ought to study his reputation even after death, for itself, even apart from any advantage. <" "
3.60. \xa0But since these neutral things form the basis of all appropriate acts, there is good ground for the dictum that it is with these things that all our practical deliberations deal, including the will to live and the will to quit this life. When a man's circumstances contain a preponderance of things in accordance with nature, it is appropriate for him to remain alive; when he possesses or sees in prospect a majority of the contrary things, it is appropriate for him to depart from life. This makes it plain that it is on occasion appropriate for the Wise Man to quit life although he is happy, and also of the Foolish Man to remain in life although he is miserable. <" '
3.62. \xa0"Again, it is held by the Stoics to be important to understand that nature creates in parents an affection for their children; and parental affection is the source to which we trace the origin of the association of the human race in communities. This cannot but be clear in the first place from the conformation of the body and its members, which by themselves are enough to show that nature\'s scheme included the procreation of offspring. Yet it could not be consistent that nature should at once intend offspring to be born and make no provision for that offspring when born to be loved and cherished. Even in the lower animals nature\'s operation can be clearly discerned; when we observe the labour that they spend on bearing and rearing their young, we seem to be listening to the actual voice of nature. Hence as it is manifest that it is natural for us to shrink from pain, so it is clear that we derive from nature herself the impulse to love those to whom we have given birth. <' "3.63. \xa0From this impulse is developed the sense of mutual attraction which unites human beings as such; this also is bestowed by nature. The mere fact of their common humanity requires that one man should feel another man to be akin to him. For just as some of the parts of the body, such as the eyes and the ears, are created as it were for their own sakes, while others like the legs or the hands also subserve the utility of the rest of the members, so some very large animals are born for themselves alone; whereas the seaâ\x80\x91pen, as it is called, in its roomy shell, and the creature named the 'pinoteres' because it keeps watch over the seaâ\x80\x91pen, which swims out of the seaâ\x80\x91pen's shell, then retires back into it and is shut up inside, thus appearing to have warned its host to be on its guard â\x80\x94 these creatures, and also the ant, the bee, the stork, do certain actions for the sake of others besides themselves. With human beings this bond of mutual aid is far more intimate. It follows that we are by nature fitted to form unions, societies and states. <" '3.64. \xa0"Again, they hold that the universe is governed by divine will; it is a city or state of which both men and gods are members, and each one of us is a part of this universe; from which it is a natural consequence that we should prefer the common advantage to our own. For just as the laws set the safety of all above the safety of individuals, so a good, wise and lawâ\x80\x91abiding man, conscious of his duty to the state, studies the advantage of all more than that of himself or of any single individual. The traitor to his country does not deserve greater reprobation than the man who betrays the common advantage or security for the sake of his own advantage or security. This explains why praise is owed to one who dies for the commonwealth, because it becomes us to love our country more than ourselves. And as we feel it wicked and inhuman for men to declare (the saying is usually expressed in a familiar Greek line) that they care not if, when they themselves are dead, the universal conflagration ensues, it is undoubtedly true that we are bound to study the interest of posterity also for its own sake. < 3.65. \xa0"This is the feeling that has given rise to the practice of making a will and appointing guardians for one\'s children when one is dying. And the fact that no one would care to pass his life alone in a desert, even though supplied with pleasures in unbounded profusion, readily shows that we are born for society and intercourse, and for a natural partnership with our fellow men. Moreover nature inspires us with the desire to benefit as many people as we can, and especially by imparting information and the principles of wisdom. < 3.66. \xa0Hence it would be hard to discover anyone who will not impart to another any knowledge that he may himself possess; so strong is our propensity not only to learn but also to teach. And just as bulls have a natural instinct to fight with all their strength and force in defending their calves against lions, so men of exceptional gifts and capacity for service, like Hercules and Liber in the legends, feel a natural impulse to be the protectors of the human race. Also when we confer upon Jove the titles of Most Good and Most Great, of Saviour, Lord of Guests, Rallier of Battles, what we mean to imply is that the safety of mankind lies in his keeping. But how inconsistent it would be for us to expect the immortal gods to love and cherish us, when we ourselves despise and neglect one another! Therefore just as we actually use our limbs before we have learnt for what particular useful purpose they were bestowed upon us, so we are united and allied by nature in the common society of the state. Were this not so, there would be no room either for justice or benevolence. < 3.67. \xa0"But just as they hold that man is united with man by the bonds of right, so they consider that no right exists as between man and beast. For Chrysippus well said, that all other things were created for the sake of men and gods, but that these exist for their own mutual fellowship and society, so that men can make use of beasts for their own purposes without injustice. And the nature of man, he said, is such, that as it were a code of law subsists between the individual and the human race, so that he who upholds this code will be just and he who departs from it, unjust. But just as, though the theatre is a public place, yet it is correct to say that the particular seat a man has taken belongs to him, so in the state or in the universe, though these are common to all, no principle of justice militates against the possession of private property. < 3.68. \xa0Again, since we see that man is designed by nature to safeguard and protect his fellows, it follows from this natural disposition, that the Wise Man should desire to engage in politics and government, and also to live in accordance with nature by taking to himself a wife and desiring to have children by her. Even the passion of love when pure is not thought incompatible with the character of the Stoic sage. As for the principles and habits of the Cynics, some say that these befit the Wise Man, if circumstances should happen to indicate this course of action; but other Stoics reject the Cynic rule unconditionally. < 3.69. \xa0"To safeguard the universal alliance, solidarity and affection that subsist between man and man, the Stoics held that both \'benefits\' and \'injuries\' (in their terminology, Å\x8dphelÄ\x93mata and blammata) are common, the former doing good and the latter harm; and they pronounce them to be not only \'common\' but also \'equal.\' \'Disadvantages\' and \'advantages\' (for so I\xa0render euchrÄ\x93stÄ\x93mata and duschrÄ\x93stÄ\x93mata) they held to be \'common\' but not \'equal.\' For things \'beneficial\' and \'injurious\' are goods and evils respectively, and these must needs be equal; but \'advantages\' and \'disadvantages\' belong to the class we speak of as \'preferred\' and \'rejected,\' and these may differ in degree. But whereas \'benefits\' and \'injuries\' are pronounced to be \'common,\' righteous and sinful acts are not considered \'common.\' < 3.70. \xa0"They recommend the cultivation of friendship, classing it among \'things beneficial.\' In friendship some profess that the Wise Man will hold his friends\' interests as dear as his own, while others say that a man\'s own interests must necessarily be dearer to him; at the same time the latter admit that to enrich oneself by another\'s loss is an action repugt to that justice towards which we seem to possess a natural propensity. But the school I\xa0am discussing emphatically rejects the view that we adopt or approve either justice or friendship for the sake of their utility. For if it were so, the same claims of utility would be able to undermine and overthrow them. In fact the very existence of both justice and friendship will be impossible if they are not desired for their own sake. <' "3.71. \xa0Right moreover, properly so styled and entitled, exists (they aver) by nature; and it is foreign to the nature of the Wise Man not only to wrong but even to hurt anyone. Nor again is it righteous to enter into a partnership in wrongdoing with one's friends or benefactors; and it is most truly and cogently maintained that honesty is always the best policy, and that whatever is fair and just is also honourable, and conversely whatever is honourable will also be just and fair. <" "
5.38. \xa0From these explanations, it may readily be inferred that the most desirable of our faculties are those possessed of the highest intrinsic worth; so that the most desirable excellences are the excellences of the noblest parts of us, which are desirable for their own sake. The result will be that excellence of mind will be rated higher than excellence of body, and the volitional virtues of the mind will surpass the nonâ\x80\x91volitional; the former, indeed, are the 'virtues' specially so called, and are far superior, in that they spring from reason, the most divine element in man. For the iimate or nearly iimate creatures that are under nature's charge, all of them have their supreme good in the body; hence it has been cleverly said, as I\xa0think, about the pig, that a mind has been bestowed upon this animal to serve as salt and keep it from going bad. But there are some animals which possess something resembling virtue, for example, lions, dogs and horses; in these we observe not only bodily movements as in pigs, but in some degree a sort of mental activity also. In man, however, the whole importance belongs to the mind, and to the rational part of the mind, which is the source of virtue; and virtue is defined as the perfection of reason, a doctrine which the Peripatetics think cannot be expounded too often. <" '
5.42. \xa0Some resemblance to this process we observe in the lower animals. At first they do not move from the place where they were born. Then they begin to move, under the influence of their several instincts of appetition; we see little snakes gliding, ducklings swimming, blackbirds flying, oxen using their horns, scorpions their stings; each in fact has its own nature as its guide to life. A\xa0similar process is clearly seen in the human race. Infants just born lie helpless, as if absolutely iimate; when they have acquired a little more strength, they exercise their mind and senses; they strive to stand erect, they use their hands, they recognize their nurses; then they take pleasure in the society of other children, and enjoy meeting them, they take part in games and love to hear stories; they desire to bestow of their own abundance in bounty to others; they take an inquisitive interest in what goes on in their homes; they begin to reflect and to learn, and want to know the names of the people they see; in their contests with their companions they are elated by victory, discouraged and disheartened by defeat. For every stage of this development there must be supposed to be a reason. <
5.60. \xa0Therefore it rests with us (and when I\xa0say with us, I\xa0mean with our science), in addition to the elementary principles bestowed upon us, to seek out their logical developments, until our full purpose is realized. For this is much more valuable and more intrinsically desirable than either the senses or the endowments of the body above alluded to; since those are surpassed in an almost inconceivable degree by the matchless perfection of the intellect. Therefore all honour, all admiration, all enthusiasm is directed toward virtue and towards the actions in harmony with virtue, and all such properties and processes of the mind are entitled by the single name of Moral Worth. "The connotation of all these conceptions and the signification of the terms that denote them, and their several values and natures we shall study later; \xa0< 5.61. \xa0for the present let us merely explain that this Morality to which I\xa0allude is an object of our desire, not only because of our love of self, but also intrinsically and for its own sake. A\xa0hint of this is given by children, in whom nature is discerned as in a mirror. How hotly they pursue their rivalries! how fierce their contests and competitions! what exultation they feel when they win, and what shame when they are beaten! How they dislike blame! how they covet praise! what toils do they not undergo to stand first among their companions! how good their memory is for those who have shown them kindness, and how eager they are to repay it! And these traits are most apparent in the noblest characters, in which the moral excellences, as we understand them, are already roughly outlined by nature. <
5.65. \xa0But in the whole moral sphere of which we are speaking there is nothing more glorious nor of wider range than the solidarity of mankind, that species of alliance and partnership of interests and that actual affection which exists between man and man, which, coming into existence immediately upon our birth, owing to the fact that children are loved by their parents and the family as a whole is bound together by the ties of marriage and parenthood, gradually spreads its influence beyond the home, first by blood relationships, then by connections through marriage, later by friendships, afterwards by the bonds of neighbourhood, then to fellow-citizens and political allies and friends, and lastly by embracing the whole of the human race. This sentiment, assigning each his own and maintaining with generosity and equity that human solidarity and alliance of which I\xa0speak, is termed Justice; connected with it are dutiful affection, kindness, liberality, good-will, courtesy and the other graces of the same kind. And while these belong peculiarly to Justice, they are also factors shared by the remaining virtues. < 5.66. \xa0For human nature is so constituted at birth as to possess an innate element of civic and national feeling, termed in Greek politikon; consequently all the actions of every virtue will be in harmony with the human affection and solidarity I\xa0have described, and Justice in turn will diffuse its agency through the other virtues, and so will aim at the promotion of these. For only a brave and a wise man can preserve Justice. Therefore the qualities of this general union and combination of the virtues of which I\xa0am speaking belong also to the Moral Worth aforesaid; inasmuch as Moral Worth is either virtue itself or virtuous action; and life in harmony with these and in accordance with the virtues can be deemed right, moral, consistent, and in agreement with nature. < 5.67. \xa0"At the same time this complex of interfused virtues can yet be theoretically resolved into its separate parts by philosophers. For although the virtues are so closely united that each participates in every other and none can be separated from any other, yet on the other hand each has its own special function. Thus Courage is displayed in toils and dangers, Temperance in forgoing pleasures, Prudence in the choice of goods and evils, Justice in giving each his due. As then each virtue contains an element not merely self-regarding, which embraces other men and makes them its end, there results a state of feeling in which friends, brothers, kinsmen, connections, fellow-citizens, and finally all human beings (since our belief is that all mankind are united in one society) are things desirable for their own sakes. Yet none of these relations is such as to form part of the end and Ultimate Good. <' '. None
62. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.3, 2.133, 2.153-2.162, 3.44 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, • justice • justice (Lat. iustitia = Gr. dikaiosynē) • justice, • justice, linked with piety

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 279; Brouwer (2013) 175; Del Lucchese (2019) 15; Frede and Laks (2001) 99, 106, 111; O, Daly (2020) 272; Tsouni (2019) 185

1.3. For there are and have been philosophers who hold that the gods exercise no control over human affairs whatever. But if their opinion is the true one, how can piety, reverence or religion exist? For all these are tributes which it is our duty to render in purity and holiness to the divine powers solely on the assumption that they take notice of them, and that some service has been rendered by the immortal gods to the race of men. But if on the contrary the gods have neither the power nor the will to aid us, if they pay no heed to us at all and take no notice of our actions, if they can exercise no possible influence upon the life of men, what ground have we for rendering any sort of worship, honour or prayer to the immortal gods? Piety however, like the rest of the virtues, cannot exist in mere outward show and pretence; and, with piety, reverence and religion must likewise disappear. And when these are gone, life soon becomes a welter of disorder and confusion;
2.133. "Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature.
2.153. "Then moreover hasn\'t man\'s reason penetrated even to the sky? We alone of living creatures know the risings and settings and the courses of the stars, the human race has set limits to the day, the month and the year, and has learnt the eclipses of the sun and moon and foretold for all future time their occurrence, their extent and their dates. And contemplating the heavenly bodies the mind arrives at a knowledge of the gods, from which arises piety, with its comrades justice and the rest of the virtues, the sources of a life of happiness that vies with and resembles the divine existence and leaves us inferior to the celestial beings in nothing else save immortality, which is immaterial for happiness. I think that my exposition of these matters has been sufficient to prove how widely man\'s nature surpasses all other living creatures; and this should make it clear that neither such a conformation and arrangement of the members nor such power of mind and intellect can possibly have been created by chance. 2.154. "It remains for me to show, in coming finally to a conclusion, that all the things in this world which men employ have been created and provided for the sake of men. "In the first place the world itself was created for the sake of gods and men, and the things that it contains were provided and contrived for the enjoyment of men. For the world is as it were the common dwelling-place of gods and men, or the city that belongs to both; for they alone have the use of reason and live by justice and by law. As therefore Athens and Sparta must be deemed to have been founded for the sake of the Athenians and the Spartans, and all the things contained in those cities are rightly said to belong to those peoples, so whatever things are contained in all the world must be deemed to belong to the gods and to men. 2.155. Again the revolutions of the sun and moon no other heavenly bodies, although also contributing to the maintece of the structure of the world, nevertheless also afford a spectacle for man to behold; for there is no sight of which it is more impossible to grow weary, none more beautiful nor displaying a more surpassing wisdom and skill; for by measuring the courses of the stars we know when the seasons will come round, and when their variations and changes will occur; and if these things are known to men alone, they must be judged to have been created for the sake of men. 2.156. Then the earth, teeming with grain and vegetables of various kinds, which she pours forth in lavish abundance — does she appear to give birth to this produce for the sake of the wild beasts or for the sake of men? What shall I say of the vines and olives, whose bounteous and delightful fruits do not concern the lower animals at all? In fact the beasts of the field are entirely ignorant of the arts of sowing and cultivating, and of reaping and gathering the fruits of the earth in due season and storing them in garners; all these products are both enjoyed and tended by men. 2.157. Just as therefore we are bound to say that lyres and flutes were made for the sake of those who can use them, so it must be agreed that the things of which I have spoken have been provided for those only who make use of them, and even if some portion of them is filched or plundered by some of the lower animals, we shall not admit that they were created for the sake of these animals also. Men do not store up corn for the sake of mice and ants but for their wives and children and households; so the animals share these fruits of the earth only by stealth as I have said, whereas the masters enjoy them openly and freely. ' "2.158. It must therefore be admitted that all this abundance was provided for the sake of men, unless perchance the bounteous plenty and variety of our orchard fruit and the delightfulness not only of its flavour but also of its scent and appearance lead us to doubt whether nature intended this gift for man alone! So far is it from being true that the furs of the earth were provided for the sake of animals as well as men, that the animals themselves, as we may see, were created for the benefit of men. What other use have sheep save that their fleeces are dressed and woven into clothing for men? and in fact they could not have been reared nor sustained nor have produced anything of value without man's care and tendance. Then think of the dog, with its trusty watchfulness, its fawning affection for its master and hatred of strangers, its incredible keenness of scent in following a trail and its eagerness in hunting — what do these qualities imply except that they were created to serve the conveniences of men? " '2.159. Why should I speak of oxen? the very shape of their backs makes it clear that they were not destined to carry burdens, whereas their necks were born for the yoke and their broad powerful shoulders for drawing the plough. And as it was by their means that the earth was brought under tillage by breaking up its clods, no violence was ever used towards them, so the poets say, by the men of that Golden Age; But then the iron race sprang into being, And first did dare to forge the deadly sword, And taste the ox its hand had tamed to bondage. So valuable was deemed the service that man received from oxen that to eat their flesh was held a crime. "It would be a long story to tell of the services rendered by mules and asses, which were undoubtedly created for the use of men. ' "2.160. As for the pig, it can only furnish food; indeed Chrysippus actually says that its soul was given it to serve as salt and keep it from putrefaction; and because this animal was fitted for the food of man, nature made it the most prolific of all her offspring. Why should I speak of the teeming swarms of delicious fish? or of birds, which afford us so much pleasure that our Stoic Providence appears to have been at times a disciple of Epicurus? and they could not even be caught save by man's intelligence and cunning; — although some birds, birds of flight and birds of utterance as our augurs call them, we believe to have been created for the purpose of giving omens. " "2.161. The great beasts of the forest again we take by hunting, both for food and in order to exercise ourselves in the mimic warfare of the chase, and also, as in the case of elephants, to train and discipline them for our employment, and to procure from their busy a variety of medicines for diseases and wounds, as also we do from certain roots and herbs whose values we have learnt by long-continued use and trial. Let the mind's eye survey the whole earth and all the seas, and you will behold now fruitful plains of measureless extent and mountains thickly clad with forests and pastures filled with flocks, now vessels sailing with marvellous swiftness across the sea. " '2.162. Nor only on the surface of the earth, but also in its darkest recesses there lurks an abundance of commodities which were created for men\'s use and which men alone discover. "The next subject is one which each of you perhaps will seize upon for censure, Cotta because Carneades used to enjoy tilting at the Stoics, Velleius because nothing provokes the ridicule of Epicurus so much as the art of prophecy; but in my view it affords the very strongest proof that man\'s welfare is studied by divine providence. I refer of course to Divination, which we see practised in many regions and upon various matters and occasions both private and more especially public. ' "
3.44. No, you say, we must draw the line at that; well then, orcus is not a god either; what are you to say about his brothers then?' These arguments were advanced by Carneades, not with the object of establishing atheism (for what could less befit a philosopher?) but in order to prove the Stoic theology worthless; accordingly he used to pursue his inquiry thus: 'Well now,' he would say, 'if these brothers are included among the gods, can we deny the divinity of their father Saturation, who is held in the highest reverence by the common people in the west? And if he is a god, we must also admit that his father Caelus is a god. And if so, the parents of Caelus, the Aether and the Day, must be held to be gods, and their brothers and sisters, whom the ancient genealogists name Love, Guile, Dear, Toil, Envy, Fate, Old Age, Death, Darkness, Misery, Lamentation, Favour, Fraud, Obstinacy, the Parcae, the Daughters of Hesperus, the Dreams: all of these are fabled to be the children of erebus and Night.' Either therefore you must accept these monstrosities or you must discard the first claimants also."'. None
63. Cicero, On Duties, 1.2, 1.5, 1.15, 1.31, 1.49, 1.65, 1.85, 1.93, 2.9, 2.16-2.17, 2.23-2.29, 2.31, 2.38, 2.42-2.43, 2.73, 2.78, 2.84-2.86, 3.20-3.22, 3.26-3.32, 3.42, 3.50-3.57, 3.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice / iustitia • judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice • justice • justice,

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 191, 193, 249, 289; Jedan (2009) 138, 205; Long (2006) 311, 318, 319, 321, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 343, 347, 348, 351; Maso (2022) 29, 45, 46, 128, 136; Wilson (2012) 101

1.31. Sed incidunt saepe tempora, cum ea, quae maxime videntur digna esse iusto homine eoque, quem virum bonum dicimus, commutantur fiuntque contraria, ut reddere depositum, facere promissum quaeque pertinent ad veritatem et ad fidem, ea migrare interdum et non servare fit iustum. Referri enim decet ad ea, quae posui principio, fundamenta iustitiae, primum ut ne cui noceatur, deinde ut communi utilitati serviatur. Ea cum tempore commutantur, commutatur officium et non semper est idem.
1.49. Acceptorum autem beneficiorum sunt dilectus habendi, nec dubium, quin maximo cuique plurimum debeatur. In quo tamen in primis, quo quisque animo, studio, benivolentia fecerit, ponderandum est. Multi enim faciunt multa temeritate quadam sine iudicio vel morbo in omnes vel repentino quodam quasi vento impetu animi incitati; quae beneficia aeque magna non sunt habenda atque ea, quae iudicio, considerate constanterque delata sunt. Sed in collocando beneficio et in referenda gratia, si cetera paria sunt, hoc maxime officii est, ut quisque maxime opis indigeat, ita ei potissimum opitulari; quod contra fit a plerisque; a quo enim plurimum sperant, etiamsi ille iis non eget, tamen ei potissimum inserviunt.
1.65. Fortes igitur et magimi sunt habendi, non qui faciunt, sed qui propulsant iniuriam. Vera autem et sapiens animi magnitudo honestum illud, quod maxime natura sequitur, in factis positum, non in gloria iudicat principemque se esse mavult quam videri; etenim qui ex errore imperitae multitudinis pendet, hic in magnis viris non est habendus. Facillime autem ad res iniustas impellitur, ut quisque altissimo animo est, gloriae cupiditate; qui locus est sane lubricus, quod vix invenitur, qui laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis non quasi mercedem rerum gestarum desideret gloriam.
1.85. Omnino qui rei publicae praefuturi sunt, duo Platonis praecepta teneant, unum, ut utilitatem civium sic tueantur, ut, quaecumque agunt, ad eam referant obliti commodorum suorum, alterum, ut totum corpus rei publicae curent, ne, dum partem aliquam tuentur, reliquas deserant. Ut enim tutela, sic procuratio rei publicae ad eorum utilitatem, qui commissi sunt, non ad eorum, quibus commissa est, gerenda est. Qui autem parti civium consulunt, partem neglegunt, rem perniciosissimam in civitatem inducunt, seditionem atque discordiam; ex quo evenit, ut alii populares, alii studiosi optimi cuiusque videantur, pauci universorum.
1.93. Sequitur, ut de una reliqua parte honestatis dicendum sit, in qua verecundia et quasi quidam ornatus vitae, temperantia et modestia omnisque sedatio perturbationum animi et rerum modus cernitur. Hoc loco continetur id, quod dici Latine decorum potest; Graece enim pre/pon dicitur. Huius vis ea est, ut ab honesto non queat separari;
2.9. Quinque igitur rationibus propositis officii persequendi, quarum duae ad decus honestatemque pertinerent, duae ad commoda vitae, copias, opes, facultates, quinta ad eligendi iudicium, si quando ea, quae dixi, pugnare inter se viderentur, honestatis pars confecta est, quam quidem tibi cupio esse notissimam. Hoc autem, de quo nune agimus, id ipsum est, quod utile appellatur. In quo verbo lapsa consuetudo deflexit de via sensimque eo deducta est, ut honestatem ab utilitate secernens constitueret esse honestum aliquid, quod utile non esset, et utile, quod non honestum, qua nulla pernicies maior hominum vitae potuit afferri.
2.16. Longiores hoc loco sumus, quam necesse est. Quis est enim, cui non perspicua sint illa, quae pluribus verbis a Panaetio commemorantur, neminem neque ducem bello nec principem domi magnas res et salutares sine hominum studiis gerere potuisse? Commemoratur ab eo Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, quos negat sine adiumentis hominum tantas res efficere potuisse. Utitur in re non dubia testibus non necessariis. Atque ut magnas utilitates adipiscimur conspiratione hominum atque consensu, sic nulla tam detestabilis pestis est, quae non homini ab homine nascatur. Est Dicaearchi liber de interitu hominum, Peripatetici magni et copiosi, qui collectis ceteris causis eluvionis, pestilentiae, vastitatis, beluarum etiam repentinae multitudinis, quarum impetu docet quaedam hominum genera esse consumpta, deinde comparat, quanto plures deleti sint homines hominum impetu, id est bellis aut seditionibus, quam omni reliqua calamitate. 2.17. Cum igitur hie locus nihil habeat dubitationis, quin homines plurimum hominibus et prosint et obsint, proprium hoc statuo esse virtutis, conciliare animos hominum et ad usus suos adiungere. Itaque, quae in rebus iimis quaeque in usu et tractatione beluarum fiunt utiliter ad hominum vitam, artibus ea tribuuntur operosis, hominum autem studia ad amplificationem nostrarum rerum prompta ac parata virorum praestantium sapientia et virtute excitantur.
2.23. Omnium autem rerum nec aptius est quicquam ad opes tuendas ac tenendas quam diligi nec alienius quam timeri. Praeclare enim Ennius: Quém metuunt, odérunt; quem quisque ódit, periisse éxpetit. Multorum autem odiis nullas opes posse obsistere, si antea fuit ignotum, nuper est cognitum. Nec vero huius tyranni solum, quem armis oppressa pertulit civitas ac paret cum maxime mortuo, interitus declarat, quantum odium hominum valeat ad pestem, sed reliquorum similes exitus tyrannorum, quorum haud fere quisquam talem interitum effugit; malus enim est custos diuturnitatis metus contraque benivolentia fidelis vel ad perpetuitatem. 2.24. Sed iis, qui vi oppresses imperio coercent, sit sane adhibenda saevitia, ut eris in famulos, si aliter teneri non possunt; qui vero in libera civitate ita se instruunt, ut metuantur, iis nihil potest esse dementius. Quamvis enim sint demersae leges alicuius opibus, quamvis timefacta libertas, emergunt tamen haec aliquando aut iudiciis tacitis aut occultis de honore suffragiis. Acriores autem morsus sunt intermissae libertatis quam retentae. Quod igitur latissime patet neque ad incolumitatem solum, sed etiam ad opes et potentiam valet plurimum, id amplectamur, ut metus absit, caritas retineatur. Ita facillime, quae volemus, et privatis in rebus et in re publica consequemur. Etenim qui se metui volent, a quibus metuentur, eosdem metuant ipsi necesse est. 2.25. Quid enim censemus superiorem ilium Dionysium quo cruciatu timoris angi solitum, qui cultros metuens tonsorios candente carbone sibi adurebat capillum? quid Alexandrum Pheraeum quo animo vixisse arbitramur? qui, ut scriptum legimus, cum uxorem Theben admodum diligeret, tamen ad ear ex epulis in cubiculum veniens barbarum, et eum quidem, ut scriptum est, compunctum notis Thraeciis, destricto gladio iubebat anteire praemittebatque de stipatoribus suis, qui scrutarentur arculas muliebres et, ne quod in vestimentis telum occultaretur, exquirerent. O miserum, qui fideliorem et barbarum et stigmatiam putaret quam coniugem! Nec eum fefellit; ab ea est enim ipsa propter pelicatus suspicionem interfectus. Nec vero ulla vis imperii tanta est, quae premente metu possit esse diuturna. 2.26. Testis est Phalaris, cuius est praeter ceteros nobilitata crudelitas, qui non ex insidiis interiit, ut is, quem modo dixi, Alexander, non a paucis, ut hic noster, sed in quem universa Agrigentinorum multitudo impetum fecit. Quid? Macedones nonne Demetrium reliquerunt universique se ad Pyrrhum contulerunt? Quid? Lacedaemonios iniuste imperantes nonne repente omnes fere socii deseruerunt spectatoresque se otiosos praebuerunt Leuctricae calamitatis? Externa libentius in tali re quam domestica recordor. Verum tamen, quam diu imperium populi Romani beneficiis tenebatur, non iniuriis, bella aut pro sociis aut de imperio gerebantur, exitus erant bellorum aut mites aut necessarii, regum, populorum, nationum portus erat et refugium senatus, 2.27. nostri autem magistratus imperatoresque ex hac una re maximam laudem capere studebant, si provincias, si socios aequitate et fide defendissent; itaque illud patrocinium orbis terrae verius quam imperium poterat nominari. Sensim hanc consuetudinem et disciplinam iam antea minuebamus, post vero Sullae victoriam penitus amisimus; desitum est enim videri quicquam in socios iniquum, cum exstitisset in cives tanta crudelitas. Ergo in illo secuta est honestam causam non honesta victoria; est enim ausus dicere, hasta posita cum bona in foro venderet et bonorum virorum et locupletium et certe civium, praedam se suam vendere. Secutus est, qui in causa impia, victoria etiam foediore non singulorum civium bona publicaret, sed universas provincias regionesque uno calamitatis iure comprehenderet. 2.28. Itaque vexatis ac perditis exteris nationibus ad exemplum amissi imperii portari in triumpho Massiliam vidimus et ex ea urbe triumphari, sine qua numquam nostri imperatores ex Transalpinis bellis triumpharunt. Multa praeterea commemorarem nefaria in socios, si hoc uno quicquam sol vidisset indignius, lure igitur plectimur. Nisi enim multorum impunita scelera tulissemus, numquam ad unum tanta pervenisset licentia; a quo quidem rei familiaris ad paucos, cupiditatum ad multos improbos venit hereditas. 2.29. Nec vero umquam bellorum civilium semen et causa deerit, dum homines perditi hastam illam cruentam et meminerint et sperabunt; quam P. Sulla cum vibrasset dictatore propinquo suo, idem sexto tricesimo anno post a sceleratiore hasta non recessit; alter autem, qui in illa dictatura scriba fuerat, in hac fuit quaestor urbanus. Ex quo debet intellegi talibus praemiis propositis numquam defutura bella civilia. Itaque parietes modo urbis stant et manent, iique ipsi iam extrema scelera metuentes, rem vero publicam penitus amisimus. Atque in has clades incidimus (redeundum est enim ad propositum), dum metui quam carl esse et diligi malumus. Quae si populo Romano iniuste imperanti accidere potuerunt, quid debent putare singuli? Quod cum perspicuum sit, benivolentiae vim esse magnam, metus imbecillam, sequitur, ut disseramus, quibus rebus facillime possimus eam, quam volumus, adipisci cum honore et fide caritatem.
2.31. Honore et gloria et benivolentia civium fortasse non aeque omnes egent, sed tamen, si cui haec suppetunt, adiuvant aliquantum cum ad cetera, tum ad amicitias comparandas. Sed de amicitia alio libro dictum est, qui inscribitur Laelius; nunc dicamus de gloria, quamquam ea quoque de re duo sunt nostri libri, sed attingamus, quandoquidem ea in rebus maioribus administrandis adiuvat plurimum. Summa igitur et perfecta gloria constat ex tribus his: si diligit multitudo, si fidem habet, si cum admiratione quadam honore dignos putat. Haec autem, si est simpliciter breviterque dicendum, quibus rebus pariuntur a singulis, eisdem fere a multitudine. Sed est alius quoque quidam aditus ad multitudinem, ut in universorum animos tamquam influere possimus.
2.38. Ergo et haec animi despicientia admirabilitatem magnam facit et maxime iustitia, ex qua una virtute viri boni appellantur, mirifica quaedam multitudini videtur, nec iniuria; nemo enim iustus esse potest, qui mortem, qui dolorem, qui exsilium, qui egestatem timet, aut qui ea, quae sunt his contraria, aequitati anteponit. Maximeque admirantur eum, qui pecunia non movetur; quod in quo viro perspectum sit, hunc igni spectatum arbitrantur. Itaque illa tria, quae proposita sunt ad gloriarm omnia iustitia conficit, et benivolentiam, quod prodesse vult plurimis, et ob eandem causam fidem et admirationem, quod eas res spernit et neglegit, ad quas plerique inflammati aviditate rapiuntur.
2.42. Ius enim semper est quaesitum aequabile; neque enim aliter esset ius. Id si ab uno iusto et bono viro consequebantur, erant eo contenti; cum id minus contingeret, leges sunt inventae, quae cum omnibus semper una atque eadem voce loquerentur. Ergo hoc quidem perspicuum est, eos ad imperandum deligi solitos, quorum de iustitia magna esset opinio multitudinis. Adiuncto vero, ut idem etiam prudentes haberentur, nihil erat, quod homines iis auctoribus non posse consequi se arbitrarentur. Omni igitur ratione colenda et retinenda iustitia est cum ipsa per sese (nam aliter iustitia non esset), tum propter amplificationem honoris et gloriae. Sed ut pecuniae non quaerendae solum ratio est, verum etiam collocandae, quae perpetuos sumptus suppeditet, nec solum necessaries, sed etiam liberales, sic gloria et quaerenda et collocanda ratione est. 2.43. Quamquam praeclare Socrates hanc viam ad gloriam proximam et quasi compendiariam dicebat esse, si quis id ageret, ut, qualis haberi vellet, talis esset. Quodsi qui simulatione et ii ostentatione et ficto non modo sermone, sed etiam voltu stabilem se gloriam consequi posse rentur, vehementer errant. Vera gloria radices agit atque etiam propagatur, ficta omnia celeriter tamquam flosculi decidunt, nee simulatum potest quicquam esse diuturnum. Testes sunt permulti in utramque partem, sed brevitatis causa familia contenti erimus una. Ti. enim Gracchus P. f. tam diu laudabitur, dum memoria rerum Romanarum manebit; at eius filii nec vivi probabantur bonis et mortui numerum optinent iure caesorum. Qui igitur adipisci veram gloriam volet, iustitiae fungatur officiis. Ea quae essent, dictum est in libro superiore.
2.73. In primis autem videndum erit ei, qui rem publicam administrabit, ut suum quisque teneat neque de bonis privatorum publice deminutio fiat. Perniciose enim Philippus, in tribunatu cum legem agrariam ferret, quam tamen antiquari facile passus est et in eo vehementer se moderatum praebuit—sed cum in agendo multa populariter, tum illud male, non esse in civitate duo milia hominum, qui rem baberent. Capitalis oratio est, ad aequationem bonorum pertinens; qua peste quae potest esse maior? Hanc enim ob causam maxime, ut sua tenerentur, res publicae civitatesque constitutae sunt. Nam, etsi duce natura congregabantur hominess, tamen spe custodiae rerum suarum urbium praesidia quaerebant.
2.78. Qui vero se populares volunt ob eamque causam aut agrariam rem temptant, ut possessores pellantur suis sedibus, aut pecunias creditas debitoribus condodas putant, labefactant fundamenta rei publicae, concordiam primum, quae esse non potest, cum aliis adimuntur, aliis condotur pecuniae, deinde aequitatem, quae tollitur omnis, si habere suum cuique non licet. Id enim est proprium, ut supra dixi, civitatis atque urbis, ut sit libera et non sollicita suae rei cuiusque custodia.
2.84. Tabulae vero novae quid habent argumenti, nisi ut emas mea pecunia fundum, eum tu habeas, ego non habeam pecuniam? Quam ob rem ne sit aes alienum, quod rei publicae noceat, providendum est, quod multis rationibus caveri potest, non, si fuerit, ut locupletes suum perdant, debitores lucrentur alienum; nec enim ulla res vehementius rem publicam continet quam fides, quae esse nulla potest, nisi erit necessaria solutio rerum creditarum. Numquam vehementius actum est quam me consule, ne solveretur; armis et castris temptata res est ab omni genere hominum et ordine; quibus ita restiti, ut hoc totum malum de re publica tolleretur. Numquam nec maius aes alienum fuit nec melius nec facilius dissolutum est; fraudandi enim spe sublata solvendi necessitas consecuta est. At vero hic nunc victor, tum quidem victus, quae cogitarat, ea perfecit, cum eius iam nihil interesset. Tanta in eo peccandi libido fuit, ut hoc ipsum eum delectaret, peccare, etiamsi causa non esset. 2.85. Ab hoc igitur genere largitionis, ut aliis detur, aliis auferatur, aberunt ii, qui rem publicam tuebuntur, in primisque operam dabunt, ut iuris et iudiciorum aequitate suum quisque teneat et neque tenuiores propter humilitatem circumveniantur neque locupletibus ad sua vel tenenda vel recuperanda obsit invidia, praeterea, quibuscumque rebus vel belli vel domi poterunt, rem publicam augeant imperio, agris, vectigalibus. Haec magnorum hominum sunt, haec apud maiores nostros factitata, haec genera officiorum qui persequentur, cum summa utilitate rei publicae magnam ipsi adipiscentur et gratiam et gloriam. 2.86. In his autem utilitatum praeceptis Antipater Tyrius Stoicus, qui Athenis nuper est mortuus, duo praeterita censet esse a Panaetio, valetudinis curationem et pecuniae; quas res a summo philosopho praeteritas arbitror, quod essent faciles; sunt certe utiles. Sed valetudo sustentatur notitia sui corporis et observatione, quae res aut prodesse soleant aut obesse, et continentia in victu omni atque cultu corporis tuendi causa praetermittendis voluptatibus, postremo arte eorum, quorum ad scientiam haec pertinent.
3.20. Erit autem haec formula Stoicorum rationi disciplinaeque maxime consentanea; quam quidem his libris propterea sequimur, quod, quamquam et a veteribus Academicis et a Peripateticis vestris, qui quondam idem erant, qui Academici, quae honesta sunt, anteponuntur iis, quae videntur utilia, tamen splendidius haec ab eis disseruntur, quibus, quicquid honestum est, idem utile videtur nec utile quicquam, quod non honestum, quam ab iis, quibus et honestum aliquid non utile et utile non honestum. Nobis autem nostra Academia magnam licentiam dat, ut, quodcumque maxime probabile occurrat, id nostro iure liceat defendere. Sed redeo ad formulam. 3.21. Detrahere igitur alteri aliquid et hominem hominis incommodo suum commodum augere magis est contra naturam quam mors, quam paupertas, quam dolor, quam cetera, quae possunt aut corpori accidere aut rebus externis. Nam principio tollit convictum humanum et societatem. Si enim sic erimus affecti, ut propter suum quisque emolumentum spoliet aut violet alterum, disrumpi necesse est, eam quae maxime est secundum naturam, humani generis societatem. 3.22. Ut, si unum quodque membrum sensum hunc haberet, ut posse putaret se valere, si proximi membri valetudinem ad se traduxisset, debilitari et interire totum corpus necesse esset, sic, si unus quisque nostrum ad se rapiat commoda aliorum detrahatque, quod cuique possit, emolumenti sui gratia, societas hominum et communitas evertatur necesse est. Nam sibi ut quisque malit, quod ad usum vitae pertineat, quam alteri acquirere, concessum est non repugte natura, illud natura non patitur, ut aliorum spoliis nostras facultates, copias, opes augeamus.
3.26. Deinde, qui alterum violat, ut ipse aliquid commodi consequatur, aut nihil existimat se facere contra naturam aut magis fugiendam censet mortem, paupertatem, dolorem, amissionem etiam liberorum, propinquorum, amicorum quam facere cuiquam iniuriam. Si nihil existimat contra naturam fieri hominibus violandis, quid cum eo disseras, qui omnino hominem ex homine tollat? sin fugiendum id quidem censet, sed multo illa peiora, mortem, paupertatem, dolorem, errat in eo, quod ullum aut corporis aut fortunae vitium vitiis animi gravius existimat. Ergo unum debet esse omnibus propositum, ut eadem sit utilitas unius cuiusque et universorum; quam si ad se quisque rapiet, dissolvetur omnis humana consortio. 3.27. Atque etiam, si hoc natura praescribit, ut homo homini, quicumque sit, ob eam ipsam causam, quod is homo sit, consultum velit, necesse est secundum eandem naturam omnium utilitatem esse communem. Quod si ita est, una continemur omnes et eadem lege naturae, idque ipsum si ita est, certe violare alterum naturae lege prohibemur. Verum autem primum; verum igitur extremum. 3.28. Nam illud quidem absurdum est, quod quidam dicunt, parenti se aut fratri nihil detracturos sui commodi causa, aliam rationem esse civium reliquorum. Hi sibi nihil iuris, nullam societatem communis utilitatis causa statuunt esse cum civibus, quae sententia omnem societatem distrahit civitatis. Qui autem civium rationem dicunt habendam, externorum negant, ii dirimunt communem humani generis societatem; qua sublata beneficentia, liberalitas, bonitas, iustitia funditus tollitur; quae qui tollunt, etiam adversus deos immortales impii iudicandi sunt. Ab iis enim constitutam inter homines societatem evertunt, cuius societatis artissimum vinculum est magis arbitrari esse contra naturam hominem homini detrahere sui commodi causa quam omnia incommoda subire vel externa vel corporis vel etiam ipsius animi, quae vacent iustitia; haec enim una virtus omnium est domina et regina virtutum. 3.29. Forsitan quispiam dixerit: Nonne igitur sapiens, si fame ipse conficiatur, abstulerit cibum alteri homini ad nullam rem utili? Minime vero; non enim mihi est vita mea utilior quam animi talis affectio, neminem ut violem commodi mei gratia. Quid? si Phalarim, crudelem tyrannum et immanem, vir bonus, ne ipse frigore conficiatur, vestitu spoliare possit, nonne faciat? 3.30. Haec ad iudicandum sunt facillima. Nam, si quid ab homine ad nullam partem utili utilitatis tuae causa detraxeris, inhumane feceris contraque naturae legem; sin autem is tu sis, qui multam utilitatem rei publicae atque hominum societati, si in vita remaneas, afferre possis, si quid ob eam causam alteri detraxeris, non sit reprehendendum. Sin autem id non sit eius modi, suum cuique incommodum ferendum est potius quam de alterius commodis detrahendum. Non igitur magis est contra naturam morbus aut egestas aut quid eius modi quam detractio atque appetitio alieni, sed communis utilitatis derelictio contra naturam est; est enim iniusta. 3.31. Itaque lex ipsa naturae, quae utilitatem hominum conservat et continet, decernet profecto, ut ab homine inerti atque inutili ad sapientem, bonum, fortem virum transferantur res ad vivendum necessariae, qui si occiderit, multum de communi utilitate detraxerit, modo hoc ita faciat, ut ne ipse de se bene existimans seseque diligens hanc causam habeat ad iniuriam. Ita semper officio fungetur utilitati consulens hominum et ei, quam saepe commemoro, humanae societati. 3.32. Nam quod ad Phalarim attinet, perfacile iudicium est. Nulla est enim societas nobis cum tyrannis, et potius summa distractio est, neque est contra naturam spoliare eum, si possis, quem est honestum necare, atque hoc omne genus pestiferum atque impium ex hominum communitate extermidum est. Etenim, ut membra quaedam amputantur, si et ipsa sanguine et tamquam spiritu carere coeperunt et nocent reliquis partibus corporis, sic ista in figura hominis feritas et immanitas beluae a communi tamquam humanitatis corpore segreganda est. Huius generis quaestiones sunt omnes eae, in quibus ex tempore officium exquiritur.
3.42. Nec tamen nostrae nobis utilitates omittendae sunt aliisque tradendae, cum iis ipsi egeamus, sed suae cuique utilitati, quod sine alterius iniuria fiat, serviendum est. Scite Chrysippus, ut multa: Qui stadium, inquit, currit, eniti et contendere debet, quam maxime possit, ut vincat, supplantare eum, quicum certet, aut manu depellere nullo modo debet; sic in vita sibi quemque petere, quod pertineat ad usum, non iniquum est, alteri deripere ius non est.
3.50. Sed incidunt, ut supra dixi, saepe causae, cum repugnare utilitas honestati videatur, ut animadvertendum sit, repugnetne plane an possit cum honestate coniungi. Eius generis hae sunt quaestiones: si exempli gratia vir bonus Alexandrea Rhodum magnum frumenti nurerum advexerit in Rhodiorum inopia et fame summaque annonae caritate, si idem sciat complures mercatores Alexandrea solvisse navesque in cursu frumento onustas petentes Rhodum viderit, dicturusne sit id Rhodiis an silentio suum quam plurimo venditurus. Sapientem et bonum virum fingimus; de eius deliberatione et consultatione quaerimus, qui celaturus Rhodios non sit, si id turpe iudicet, sed dubitet, an turpe non sit. 3.51. In huius modi causis aliud Diogeni Babylonio videri solet, magno et gravi Stoico, aliud Antipatro, discipulo eius, homini acutissimo. Antipatro omnia patefacienda, ut ne quid om-nino, quod venditor norit, emptor ignoret, Diogeni venditorem, quatenus iure civili constitutum sit, dicere vitia oportere, cetera sine insidiis agere et, quoniam vendat, velle quam optime vendere. Advexi, exposui, vendo meum non pluris quain ceteri, fortasse etiam minoris, cum maior est copia. Cui fit iniuria? 3.52. Exoritur Antipatri ratio ex altera parte: Quid ais? tu cum horninibus consulere debeas et servire humanae societati eaque lege natus sis et ea habeas principia naturae, quibus parere et quae sequi debeas, ut utilitas tua communis sit utilitas vicissimque communis utilitas tua sit, celabis homines, quid iis adsit commoditatis et copiae? Respondebit Diogenes fortasse sic: Aliud est celare, aliud tacere; neque ego nune te celo, si tibi non dico, quae natura deorum sit, qui sit finis bonorum, quae tibi plus prodessent cognita quam tritici vilitas; sed non, quicquid tibi audire utile est, idem mihi dicere necesse est. 3.53. Immo vero, inquiet ille, necesse est, siquidem meministi esse inter homines natura coniunctam societatem. Memini, inquiet ille; sed num ista societas talis est, ut nihil suum cuiusque sit? Quod si ila est, ne vendendum quidem quicquam est, sed dodum. Vides in hac tota disceptatione non illud dici: Quamvis hoc turpe sit, tamen, quoniam expedit, faciam, sed ita expedire, ut turpe non sit, ex altera autem parte, ea re, quia turpe sit, non esse faciendum. 3.54. Vendat aedes vir bonus propter aliqua vitia, quae ipse norit, ceteri ignorent, pestilentes sint et habeantur salubres, ignoretur in omnibus cubiculis apparere serpentes, male materiatae sint, ruinosae, sed hoc praeter dominum nemo sciat; quaero, si haec emptoribus venditor non dixerit aedesque vendiderit pluris multo, quam se venditurun putarit, num id iniuste aut improbe fecerit.' "3.55. Ille vero, inquit Antipater; quid est enim aliud erranti viam non monstrare, quod Athenis exsecrationibus publicis sanctum est, si hoc non est, emptorem pati ruere et per errorem in maximam fraudem incurrere? Plus etiam est quam viam non monstrare; nam est scientem in errorem alterum inducere. Diogenes contra: Num te emere coegit, qui ne hortatus quidem est? Ille, quod non placebat, proscripsit, tu, quod placebat, emisti. Quodsi, qui proscribunt villain bonam beneque aedificatam, non existimantur fefellisse, etiamsi illa nec bona est nec aedificata ratione, multo minus, qui domum non laudarunt. Ubi enim iudicium emptoris est, ibi fraus venditoris quae potest esse? Sin autem dictum non omne praestandum est, quod dictum non est, id praestandum putas? Quid vero est stultius quam venditorem eius rei, quam vendat, vitia narrare? quid autem tam absurdum, quam si domini iussu ita praeco praedicet: 'Domum pestilentem vendo'?" '3.56. Sic ergo in quibusdam causis dubiis ex altera parte defenditur honestas, ex altera ita de utilitate dicitur, ut id, quod utile videatur, non modo facere honestum sit, sed etiam non facere turpe. Haec est illa, quae videtur utilium fieri cum honestis saepe dissensio. Quae diiudicanda sunt; non enim, ut quaereremus, exposuimus, sed ut explicaremus. 3.57. Non igitur videtur nec frumentarius ille Rhodios nec hic aedium venditor celare emptores debuisse. Neque enim id est celare, quicquid reticeas, sed cum, quod tu scias, id ignorare emolumenti tui causa velis eos, quorum intersit id scire. Hoc autem celandi genus quale sit et cuius hominis, quis non videt? Certe non aperti, non simplicis, non ingenui, non iusti, non viri boni, versuti potius, obscuri, astuti, fallacis, malitiosi, callidi, veteratoris, vafri. Haec tot et alia plura nonne inutile est vitiorum subire nomina?
3.63. Hecatonem quidem Rhodium, discipulum Panaeti, video in iis libris, quos de officio scripsit Q. Tuberoni, dicere sapientis esse nihil contra mores, leges, instituta facientem habere rationem rei familiaris. Neque enim solum nobis divites esse volumus, sed liberis, propinquis, amicis maximeque rei publicae. Singulorum enim facultates et copiae divitiae sunt civitatis. Huic Scaevolae factum, de quo paulo ante dixi, placere nullo modo potest; etenim omnino tantum se negat facturum compendii sui causa, quod non liceat. Huic nec laus magna tribuenda nec gratia est.' '. None
1.31. \xa0But occasions often arise, when those duties which seem most becoming to the just man and to the "good man," as we call him, undergo a change and take on a contrary aspect. It may, for example, not be a duty to restore a trust or to fulfil a promise, and it may become right and proper sometimes to evade and not to observe what truth and honour would usually demand. For we may well be guided by those fundamental principles of justice which I\xa0laid down at the outset: first, that no harm be done to anyone; second, that the common interests be conserved. When these are modified under changed circumstances, moral duty also undergoes a change and it does not always remain the same. <
1.49. \xa0Furthermore, we must make some discrimination between favours received; for, as a matter of course the greater the favour, the greater is the obligation. But in deciding this we must above all give due weight to the spirit, the devotion, the affection that prompted the favour. For many people often do favours impulsively for everybody without discrimination, prompted by a morbid sort of benevolence or by a sudden impulse of the heart, shifting the wind. Such acts of generosity are not to be so highly esteemed as those which are performed with judgment, deliberation, and mature consideration. But in bestowing a kindness, as well as in making a requital, the first rule of duty requires us â\x80\x94 other things being equal â\x80\x94 to lend assistance preferably to people in proportion to their individual need. Most people adopt the contrary course: they put themselves most eagerly at the service of the one from whom they hope to receive the greatest favours even though he has no need of their help. <' "
1.65. \xa0So then, not those who do injury but those who prevent it are to be considered brave and courageous. Moreover, true and philosophic greatness of spirit regards the moral goodness to which Nature most aspires as consisting in deeds, not in fame, and prefers to be first in reality rather than in name. And we must approve this view; for he who depends upon the caprice of the ignorant rabble cannot be numbered among the great. Then, too, the higher a man's ambition, the more easily he is tempted to acts of injustice by his desire for fame. We are now, to be sure, on very slippery ground; for scarcely can the man be found who has passed through trials and encountered dangers and does not then wish for glory as a reward for his achievements. <" "
1.85. \xa0Those who propose to take charge of the affairs of government should not fail to remember two of Plato's rules: first, to keep the good of the people so clearly in view that regardless of their own interests they will make their every action conform to that; second, to care for the welfare of the whole body politic and not in serving the interests of some one party to betray the rest. For the administration of the government, like the office of a trustee, must be conducted for the benefit of those entrusted to one's care, not of those to whom it is entrusted. Now, those who care for the interests of a part of the citizens and neglect another part, introduce into the civil service a dangerous element â\x80\x94 dissension and party strife. The result is that some are found to be loyal supporters of the democratic, others of the aristocratic party, and few of the nation as a whole. <" '
1.93. \xa0We have next to discuss the one remaining division of moral rectitude. That is the one in which we find considerateness and self-control, which give, as it were, a sort of polish to life; it embraces also temperance, complete subjection of all the passions, and moderation in all things. Under this head is further included what, in Latin, may be called decorum (propriety); for in Greek it is called Ï\x80Ï\x81Î\xadÏ\x80ον. Such is its essential nature, that it is inseparable from moral goodness; for what is proper is morally right, and what is morally right is proper. <
2.9. \xa0Five principles, accordingly, have been laid down for the pursuance of duty: two of them have to do with propriety and moral rectitude; two, with the external conveniences of life â\x80\x94 means, wealth, influence; the fifth, with the proper choice, if ever the four first mentioned seem to be in conflict. The division treating of moral rectitude, then, has been completed, and this is the part with which I\xa0desire you to be most familiar. The principle with which we are now dealing is that one which is called Expediency. The usage of this word has been corrupted and perverted and has gradually come to the point where, separating moral rectitude from expediency, it is accepted that a thing may be morally right without being expedient, and expedient without being morally right. No more pernicious doctrine than this could be introduced into human life. <
2.16. \xa0I\xa0have dwelt longer on this point than was necessary. For who is there to whom those facts which Panaetius narrates at great length are not self-evident â\x80\x94 namely, that no one, either as a general in war or as a statesman at home, could have accomplished great things for the benefit of the state, without the hearty coâ\x80\x91operation of other men? He cites the deeds of Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Agesilaus, Alexander, who, he says, could not have achieved so great success without the support of other men. He calls in witnesses, whom he does not need, to prove a fact that no one questions. And yet, as, on the one hand, we secure great advantages through the sympathetic cooperation of our fellow-men; so, on the other, there is no curse so terrible but it is brought down by man upon man. There is a book by Dicaearchus on "The Destruction of Human Life." He was a famous and eloquent Peripatetic, and he gathered together all the other causes of destruction â\x80\x94 floods, epidemics, famines, and sudden incursions of wild animals in myriads, by whose assaults, he informs us, whole tribes of men have been wiped out. And then he proceeds to show by way of comparison how many more men have been destroyed by the assaults of men â\x80\x94 that is, by wars or revolutions â\x80\x94 than by any and all other sorts of calamity. <' "2.17. \xa0Since, therefore, there can be no doubt on this point, that man is the source of both the greatest help and the greatest harm to man, I\xa0set it down as the peculiar function of virtue to win the hearts of men and to attach them to one's own service. And so those benefits that human life derives from iimate objects and from the employment and use of animals are ascribed to the industrial arts; the cooperation of men, on the other hand, prompt and ready for the advancement of our interests, is secured through wisdom and virtue in men of superior ability. <" '
2.23. \xa0But, of all motives, none is better adapted to secure influence and hold it fast than love; nothing is more foreign to that end than fear. For Ennius says admirably: "Whom they fear they hate. And whom one hates, one hopes to see him dead." And we recently discovered, if it was not known before, that no amount of power can withstand the hatred of the many. The death of this tyrant, whose yoke the state endured under the constraint of armed force and whom it still obeys more humbly than ever, though he is dead, illustrates the deadly effects of popular hatred; and the same lesson is taught by the similar fate of all other despots, of whom practically no one has ever escaped such a death. For fear is but a poor safeguard of lasting power; while affection, on the other hand, may be trusted to keep it safe for ever. <' "2.24. \xa0But those who keep subjects in check by force would of course have to employ severity â\x80\x94 masters, for example, toward their servants, when these cannot be held in control in any other way. But those who in a free state deliberately put themselves in a position to be feared are the maddest of the mad. For let the laws be never so much overborne by some one individual's power, let the spirit of freedom be never so intimidated, still sooner or later they assert themselves either through unvoiced public sentiment, or through secret ballots disposing of some high office of state. Freedom suppressed and again regained bites with keener fangs than freedom never endangered. Let us, then, embrace this policy, which appeals to every heart and is the strongest support not only of security but also of influence and power â\x80\x94 namely, to banish fear and cleave to love. And thus we shall most easily secure success both in private and in public life. Furthermore, those who wish to be feared must inevitably be afraid of those whom they intimidate. <" "2.25. \xa0What, for instance, shall we think of the elder Dionysius? With what tormenting fears he used to be racked! For through fear of the barber's razor he used to have his hair singed off with a glowing coal. In what state of mind do we fancy Alexander of Pherae lived? We read in history that he dearly loved his wife Thebe; and yet, whenever he went from the banquet-hall to her in her chamber, he used to order a barbarian â\x80\x94 one, too, tattooed like a Thracian, as the records state â\x80\x94 to go before him with a drawn sword; and he used to send ahead some of his bodyguard to pry into the lady's caskets and to search and see whether some weapon were not concealed in her wardrobe. Unhappy man! To think a barbarian, a branded slave, more faithful than his own wife! Nor was he mistaken. For he was murdered by her own hand, because she suspected him of infidelity. <" '2.26. \xa0And indeed no power is strong enough to be lasting if it labours under the weight of fear. Witness Phalaris, whose cruelty is notorious beyond that of all others. He was slain, not treacherously (like that Alexander whom I\xa0named but now), not by a\xa0few conspirators (like that tyrant of ours), but the whole population of Agrigentum rose against him with one accord. Again, did not the Macedonians abandon Demetrius and march over as one man to Pyrrhus? And again, when the Spartans exercised their supremacy tyrannically, did not practically all the allies desert them and view their disaster at Leuctra, as idle spectators? I\xa0prefer in this connection to draw my illustrations from foreign history rather than from our own. Let me add, however, that as long as the empire of the Roman People maintained itself by acts of service, not of oppression, wars were waged in the interest of our allies or to safeguard our supremacy; the end of our wars was marked by acts of clemency or by only a necessary degree of severity; the senate was a haven of refuge for kings, tribes, and nations; < 2.27. \xa0and the highest ambition of our magistrates and generals was to defend our provinces and allies with justice and honour. < 2.28. \xa0And so, when foreign nations had been oppressed and ruined, we have seen a model of Marseilles carried in a triumphal procession, to serve as proof to the world that the supremacy of the people had been forfeited; and that triumph we saw celebrated over a city without whose help our generals have never gained a triumph for their wars beyond the Alps. I\xa0might mention many other outrages against our allies, if the sun had ever beheld anything more infamous than this particular one. Justly, therefore, are we being punished. For if we had not allowed the crimes of many to go unpunished, so great licence would never have centred in one individual. His estate descended by inheritance to but a\xa0few individuals, his ambitions to many scoundrels. < 2.29. \xa0And never will the seed and occasion of civil war be wanting, so long as villains remember that bloodstained spear and hope to see another. As Publius Sulla wielded that spear, when his kinsman was dictator, so again thirty-six years later he did not shrink from a still more criminal spear. And still another Sulla, who was a mere clerk under the former dictatorship, was under the later one a city quaestor. From this, one would realize that, if such rewards are offered, civil wars will never cease to be. And so in Rome only the walls of her houses remain standing â\x80\x94 and even they wait now in fear of the most unspeakable crimes â\x80\x94 but our republic we have lost for ever. But to return to my subject: it is while we have preferred to be the object of fear rather than of love and affection, that all these misfortunes have fallen upon us. And if such retribution could overtake the Roman People for their injustice and tyranny, what ought private individuals to expect? And since it is manifest that the power of good-will is so great and that of fear is so weak, it remains for us to discuss by what means we can most readily win the affection, linked with honour and confidence, which we desire. <
2.31. \xa0All men do not, perhaps, stand equally in need of political honour, fame and the good-will of their fellow-citizens; nevertheless, if these honours come to a man, they help in many ways, and especially in the acquisition of friends. But friendship has been discussed in another book of mine, entitled "Laelius." Let us now take up the discussion of Glory, although I\xa0have published two books on that subject also. Still, let us touch briefly on it here, since it is of very great help in the conduct of more important business. The highest, truest glory depends upon the following three things: the affection, the confidence, and the mingled admiration and esteem of the people. Such sentiments, if I\xa0may speak plainly and concisely, are awakened in the masses in the same way as in individuals. But there is also another avenue of approach to the masses, by which we can, as it were, steal into the hearts of all at once. <
2.38. \xa0As, then, this superiority of mind to such externals inspires great admiration, so justice, above all, on the basis of which alone men are called "good men," seems to people generally a quite marvellous virtue â\x80\x94 and not without good reason; for no one can be just who fears death or pain or exile or poverty, or who values their opposites above equity. And people admire especially the man who is uninfluenced by money; and if a man has proved himself in this direction, they think him tried as by fire. Those three requisites, therefore, which were presupposed as the means of obtaining glory, are all secured by justice: (1)\xa0good-will, for it seeks to be of help to the greatest number; (2)\xa0confidence, for the same reason; and (3)\xa0admiration, because it scorns and cares nothing for those things, with a consuming passion for which most people are carried away. <
2.42. \xa0For what people have always sought is equality of rights before the law. For rights that were not open to all alike would be no rights. If the people secured their end at the hands of one just and good man, they were satisfied with that; but when such was not their good fortune, laws were invented, to speak to all men at all times in one and the same voice. This, then, is obvious: nations used to select for their rulers those men whose reputation for justice was high in the eyes of the people. If in addition they were also thought wise, there was nothing that men did not think they could secure under such leadership. Justice is, therefore, in every way to be cultivated and maintained, both for its own sake (for otherwise it would not be justice) and for the enhancement of personal honour and glory. But as there is a method not only of acquiring money but also of investing it so as to yield an income to meet our continuously recurring expenses â\x80\x94 both for the necessities and for the more refined comforts of life â\x80\x94 so there must be a method of gaining glory and turning it to account. And yet, as Socrates used to express it so admirably, < 2.43. \xa0"the nearest way to glory â\x80\x94 a\xa0short cut, as it were â\x80\x94 is to strive to be what you wish to be thought to be." For if anyone thinks that he can win lasting glory by pretence, by empty show, by hypocritical talk and looks, he is very much mistaken. True glory strikes deep root and spreads its branches wide; but all pretences soon fall to the ground like fragile flowers, and nothing counterfeit can be lasting. There are very many witnesses to both facts; but, for brevity\'s sake: I\xa0shall confine myself to one family: Tiberius Gracchus, Publius\'s son, will be held in honour as long as the memory of Rome shall endure; but his sons were not approved by patriots while they lived, and since they are dead they are numbered among those whose murder was justifiable. If, therefore, anyone wishes to win true glory, let him discharge the duties required by justice. And what they are has been set forth in the course of the preceding book.
2.73. \xa0The man in an administrative office, however, must make it his first care that everyone shall have what belongs to him and that private citizens suffer no invasion of their property rights by act of the state. It was a ruinous policy that Philippus proposed when in his tribuneship he introduced his agrarian bill. However, when his law was rejected, he took his defeat with good grace and displayed extraordinary moderation. But in his public speeches on the measure he often played the demagogue, and that time viciously, when he said that "there were not in the state two thousand people who owned any property." That speech deserves unqualified condemnation, for it favoured an equal distribution of property; and what more ruinous policy than that could be conceived? For the chief purpose in the establishment of constitutional state and municipal governments was that individual property rights might be secured. For, although it was by Nature\'s guidance that men were drawn together into communities, it was in the hope of safeguarding their possessions that they sought the protection of cities. <
2.78. \xa0But they who pose as friends of the people, and who for that reason either attempt to have agrarian laws passed, in order that the occupants may be driven out of their homes, or propose that money loaned should be remitted to the borrowers, are undermining the foundations of the commonwealth: first of all, they are destroying harmony, which cannot exist when money is taken away from one party and bestowed upon another; and second, they do away with equity, which is utterly subverted, if the rights of property are not respected. For, as I\xa0said above, it is the peculiar function of the state and the city to guarantee to every man the free and undisturbed control of his own particular property. <' "
2.84. \xa0And what is the meaning of an abolition of debts, except that you buy a farm with my money; that you have the farm, and I\xa0have not my money? We must, therefore, take measures that there shall be no indebtedness of a nature to endanger the public safety. It is a menace that can be averted in many ways; but should a serious debt be incurred, we are not to allow the rich to lose their property, while the debtors profit by what is their neighbour's. For there is nothing that upholds a government more powerfully than its credit; and it can have no credit, unless the payment of debts is enforced by law. Never were measures for the repudiation of debts more strenuously agitated than in my consulship. Men of every sort and rank attempted with arms and armies to force the project through. But I\xa0opposed them with such energy that this plague was wholly eradicated from the body politic. Indebtedness was never greater; debts were never liquidated more easily or more fully; for the hope of defrauding the creditor was cut off and payment was enforced by law. But the present victor, though vanquished then, still carried out his old design, when it was no longer of any personal advantage to him. So great was his passion for wrongdoing that the very doing of wrong was a joy to him for its own sake even when there was no motive for it. <" '2.85. \xa0Those, then, whose office it is to look after the interests of the state will refrain from that form of liberality which robs one man to enrich another. Above all, they will use their best endeavours that everyone shall be protected in the possession of his own property by the fair administration of the law and the courts, that the poorer classes shall not be oppressed because of their helplessness, and that envy shall not stand in the way of the rich, to prevent them from keeping or recovering possession of what justly belongs to them; they must strive, too, by whatever means they can, in peace or in war, to advance the state in power, in territory, and in revenues. Such service calls for great men; it was commonly rendered in the days of our ancestors; if men will perform duties such as these, they will win popularity and glory for themselves and at the same time render eminent service to the state. <' "2.86. \xa0Now, in this list of rules touching expediency, Antipater of Tyre, a Stoic philosopher who recently died at Athens, claims that two points were overlooked by Panaetius â\x80\x94 the care of health and of property. I\xa0presume that the eminent philosopher overlooked these two items because they present no difficulty. At all events they are expedient. Although they are a matter of course, I\xa0will still say a\xa0few words on the subject. Individual health is preserved by studying one's own constitution, by observing what is good or bad for one, by constant self-control in supplying physical wants and comforts (but only to the extent necessary to self-preservation), by forgoing sensual pleasures, and finally, by the professional skill of those to whose science these matters belong. <" "
3.20. \xa0That rule, moreover, shall be in perfect harmony with the Stoics' system and doctrines. It is their teachings that I\xa0am following in these books, and for this reason: the older Academicians and your Peripatetics (who were once the same as the Academicians) give what is morally right the preference over what seems expedient; and yet the discussion of these problems, if conducted by those who consider whatever is morally right also expedient and nothing expedient that is not at the same time morally right, will be more illuminating than if conducted by those who think that something not expedient may be morally right and that something not morally right may be expedient. But our New Academy allows us wide liberty, so that it is within my right to defend any theory that presents itself to me as most probable. But to return to my rule. <" "3.21. \xa0Well then, for a man to take something from his neighbour and to profit by his neighbour's loss is more contrary to Nature than is death or poverty or pain or anything else that can affect either our person or our property. For, in the first place, injustice is fatal to social life and fellowship between man and man. For, if we are so disposed that each, to gain some personal profit, will defraud or injure his neighbour, then those bonds of human society, which are most in accord with Nature's laws, must of necessity be broken. <" "3.22. \xa0Suppose, by way of comparison, that each one of our bodily members should conceive this idea and imagine that it could be strong and well if it should draw off to itself the health and strength of its neighbouring member, the whole body would necessarily be enfeebled and die; so, if each one of us should seize upon the property of his neighbours and take from each whatever he could appropriate to his own use, the bonds of human society must inevitably be annihilated. For, without any conflict with Nature's laws, it is granted that everybody may prefer to secure for himself rather than for his neighbour what is essential for the conduct of life; but Nature's laws do forbid us to increase our means, wealth, and resources by despoiling others. <" '
3.26. \xa0Finally, if a man wrongs his neighbour to gain some advantage for himself he must either imagine that he is not acting in defiance of Nature or he must believe that death, poverty, pain, or even the loss of children, kinsmen, or friends, is more to be shunned than an act of injustice against another. If he thinks he is not violating the laws of Nature, when he wrongs his fellow-men, how is one to argue with the individual who takes away from man all that makes him man? But if he believes that, while such a course should be avoided, the other alternatives are much worse â\x80\x94 namely, death, poverty, pain â\x80\x94 he is mistaken in thinking that any ills affecting either his person or his property are more serious than those affecting his soul. This, then, ought to be the chief end of all men, to make the interest of each individual and of the whole body politic identical. For, if the individual appropriates to selfish ends what should be devoted to the common good, all human fellowship will be destroyed. <' "3.27. \xa0And further, if Nature ordains that one man shall desire to promote the interests of a fellow-man, whoever he may be, just because he is a fellow-man, then it follows, in accordance with that same Nature, that there are interests that all men have in common. And, if this is true, we are all subject to one and the same law of Nature; and, if this also is true, we are certainly forbidden by Nature's law to wrong our neighbour. Now the first assumption is true; therefore the conclusion is likewise true. <" '3.28. \xa0For that is an absurd position which is taken by some people, who say that they will not rob a parent or a brother for their own gain, but that their relation to the rest of their fellow-citizens is quite another thing. Such people contend in essence that they are bound to their fellow-citizens by no mutual obligations, social ties, or common interests. This attitude demolishes the whole structure of civil society. Others again who say that regard should be had for the rights of fellow-citizens, but not of foreigners, would destroy the universal brotherhood of mankind; and, when this is annihilated, kindness, generosity, goodness, and justice must utterly perish; and those who work all this destruction must be considered as wickedly rebelling against the immortal gods. For they uproot the fellowship which the gods have established between human beings, and the closest bond of this fellowship is the conviction that it is more repugt to Nature for man to rob a fellow-man for his own gain than to endure all possible loss, whether to his property or to his person .\xa0.\xa0. or even to his very soul â\x80\x94 so far as these losses are not concerned with justice; for this virtue is the sovereign mistress and queen of all the virtues. < 3.29. \xa0But, perhaps, someone may say: "Well, then, suppose a wise man were starving to death, might he not take the bread of some perfectly useless member of society?" Not at all; for my life is not more precious to me than that temper of soul which would keep me from doing wrong to anybody for my own advantage. "Or again; supposing a righteous man were in a position to rob the cruel and inhuman tyrant Phalaris of clothing, might he not do it to keep himself from freezing to death?" <' "3.30. \xa0These cases are very easy to decide. For, if merely for one's own benefit one were to take something away from a man, though he were a perfectly worthless fellow, it would be an act of meanness and contrary to Nature's law. But suppose one would be able, by remaining alive, to render signal service to the state and to human society â\x80\x94 if from that motive one should take something from another, it would not be a matter for censure. But, if such is not the case, each one must bear his own burden of distress rather than rob a neighbour of his rights. We are not to say, therefore, that sickness or want or any evil of that sort is more repugt to Nature than to covet and to appropriate what is one's neighbour's; but we do maintain that disregard of the common interests is repugt to Nature; for it is unjust. <" "3.31. \xa0And therefore Nature's law itself, which protects and conserves human interests, will surely determine that a man who is wise, good, and brave, should in emergency have the necessaries of life transferred to him from a person who is idle and worthless; for the good man's death would be a heavy loss to the common weal; only let him beware that self-esteem and self-love do not find in such a transfer of possessions a pretext for wrong-doing. But, thus guided in his decision, the good man will always perform his duty, promoting the general interests of human society on which I\xa0am so fond of dwelling. <" '3.32. \xa0As for the case of Phalaris, a decision is quite simple: we have no ties of fellowship with a tyrant, but rather the bitterest feud; and it is not opposed to Nature to rob, if one can, a man whom it is morally right to kill; â\x80\x94 nay, all that pestilent and abominable race should be exterminated from human society. And this may be done by proper measures; for, as certain members are amputated, if they show signs themselves of being bloodless and virtually lifeless and thus jeopardize the health of the other parts of the body, so those fierce and savage monsters in human form should be cut off from what may be called the common body of humanity. of this sort are all those problems in which we have to determine what moral duty is, as it varies with varying circumstances. <
3.42. \xa0And yet we are not required to sacrifice our own interest and surrender to others what we need for ourselves, but each one should consider his own interests, as far as he may without injury to his neighbour\'s. "When a man enters the foot-race," says Chrysippus with his usual aptness, "it is his duty to put forth all his strength and strive with all his might to win; but he ought never with his foot to trip, or with his hand to foul a competitor. Thus in the stadium of life, it is not unfair for anyone to seek to obtain what is needful for his own advantage, but he has no right to wrest it from his neighbour." <
3.50. \xa0But, as I\xa0said above, cases often arise in which expediency may seem to clash with moral rectitude; and so we should examine carefully and see whether their conflict is inevitable or whether they may be reconciled. The following are problems of this sort: suppose, for example, a time of dearth and famine at Rhodes, with provisions at fabulous prices; and suppose that an honest man has imported a large cargo of grain from Alexandria and that to his certain knowledge also several other importers have set sail from Alexandria, and that on the voyage he has sighted their vessels laden with grain and bound for Rhodes; is he to report the fact to the Rhodians or is he to keep his own counsel and sell his own stock at the highest market price? I\xa0am assuming the case of a virtuous, upright man, and I\xa0am raising the question how a man would think and reason who would not conceal the facts from the Rhodians if he thought that it was immoral to do so, but who might be in doubt whether such silence would really be immoral. < 3.51. \xa0In deciding cases of this kind Diogenes of Babylonia, a great and highly esteemed Stoic, consistently holds one view; his pupil Antipater, a most profound scholar, holds another. According to Antipater all the facts should be disclosed, that the buyer may not be uninformed of any detail that the seller knows; according to Diogenes the seller should declare any defects in his wares, in so far as such a course is prescribed by the common law of the land; but for the rest, since he has goods to sell, he may try to sell them to the best possible advantage, provided he is guilty of no misrepresentation. "I\xa0have imported my stock," Diogenes\'s merchant will say; "I\xa0have offered it for sale; I\xa0sell at a price no higher than my competitors â\x80\x94 perhaps even lower, when the market is overstocked. Who is wronged?" < 3.52. \xa0"What say you?" comes Antipater\'s argument on the other side; "it is your duty to consider the interests of your fellow-men and to serve society; you were brought into the world under these conditions and have these inborn principles which you are in duty bound to obey and follow, that your interest shall be the interest of the community and conversely that the interest of the community shall be your interest as well; will you, in view of all these facts, conceal from your fellow-men what relief in plenteous supplies is close at hand for them?" "It is one thing to conceal," Diogenes will perhaps reply; not to reveal is quite a different thing. At this present moment I\xa0am not concealing from you, even if I\xa0am not revealing to you, the nature of gods or the highest good; and to know these secrets would be of more advantage to you than to know that the price of wheat was down. But I\xa0am under no obligation to tell you everything that it may be to your interest to be told." < 3.53. \xa0"Yea," Antipater will say, "but you are, as you must admit, if you will only bethink you of the bonds of fellowship forged by Nature and existing between man and man." "I\xa0do not forget them," the other will reply: but do you mean to say that those bonds of fellowship are such that there is no such thing as private property? If that is the case, we should not sell anything at all, but freely give everything away." In this whole discussion, you see, no one says, "However wrong morally this or that may be, still, since it is expedient, I\xa0will do it"; but the one side asserts that a given act is expedient, without being morally wrong, while the other insists that the act should not be done, because it is morally wrong. < 3.54. \xa0Suppose again that an honest man is offering a house for sale on account of certain undesirable features of which he himself is aware but which nobody else knows; suppose it is unsanitary, but has the reputation of being healthful; suppose it is not generally known that vermin are to be found in all the bedrooms; suppose, finally, that it is built of unsound timber and likely to collapse, but that no one knows about it except the owner; if the vendor does not tell the purchaser these facts but sells him the house for far more than he could reasonably have expected to get for it, I\xa0ask whether his transaction is unjust or dishonourable. < 3.55. \xa0"Yes," says Antipater, "it is; for to allow a purchaser to be hasty in closing a deal and through mistaken judgment to incur a very serious loss, if this is not refusing \'to set a man right when he has lost his way\' (a\xa0crime which at Athens is prohibited on pain of public execration), what is? It is even worse than refusing to set a man on his way: it is deliberately leading a man astray." "Can you say," answers Diogenes, "that he compelled you to purchase, when he did not even advise it? He advertised for sale what he did not like; you bought what you did like. If people are not considered guilty of swindling when they place upon their placards For Sale: A\xa0Fine Villa, Well Built, even when it is neither good nor properly built, still less guilty are they who say nothing in praise of their house. For there the purchaser may exercise his own judgment, what fraud can there be on the part of the vendor? But if, again, not all that is expressly stated has to be made good, do you think a man is bound to make good what has not been said? What, pray, would be more stupid than for a vendor to recount all the faults in the article he is offering for sale? And what would be so absurd as for an auctioneer to cry, at the owner\'s bidding, \'Here is an unsanitary house for sale\'?" < 3.56. \xa0In this way, then, in certain doubtful cases moral rectitude is defended on the one side, while on the other side the case of expediency is so presented as to make it appear not only morally right to do what seems expedient, but even morally wrong not to do it. This is the contradiction that seems often to arise between the expedient and the morally right. But I\xa0must give my decision in these two cases; for I\xa0did not propound them merely to raise the questions, but to offer a solution. <' "3.57. \xa0I\xa0think, then, that it was the duty of that grain-dealer not to keep back the facts from the Rhodians, and of this vendor of the house to deal in the same way with his purchaser. The fact is that merely holding one's peace about a thing does not constitute concealment, but concealment consists in trying for your own profit to keep others from finding out something that you know, when it is for their interest to know it. And who fails to discern what manner of concealment that is and what sort of person would be guilty of it? At all events he would be no candid or sincere or straightforward or upright or honest man, but rather one who is shifty, sly, artful, shrewd, underhand, cunning, one grown old in fraud and subtlety. Is it not inexpedient to subject oneself to all these terms of reproach and many more besides? <" '
3.63. \xa0Now I\xa0observe that Hecaton of Rhodes, a pupil of Panaetius, says in his books on "Moral Duty" dedicated to Quintus Tubero that "it is a wise man\'s duty to take care of his private interests, at the same time doing nothing contrary to the civil customs, laws, and institutions. But that depends on our purpose in seeking prosperity; for we do not aim to be rich for ourselves alone but for our children, relatives, friends, and, above all, for our country. For the private fortunes of individuals are the wealth of the state." Hecaton could not for a moment approve of Scaevola\'s act, which I\xa0cited a moment ago; for he openly avows that he will abstain from doing for his own profit only what the law expressly forbids. Such a man deserves no great praise nor gratitude. <' '. None
64. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2-12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Divine • Justice, Execution of • Justice, Petitions for • justice

 Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018) 19; Stuckenbruck (2007) 364, 388, 496, 524

12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃''. None
12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence. 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.''. None
65. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 7.47 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Divine • Justice, Retribution • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice

 Found in books: Schwartz (2008) 507; Stuckenbruck (2007) 369

7.47. Then the Jews seized the spoils and the plunder, and they cut off Nicanors head and the right hand which he so arrogantly stretched out, and brought them and displayed them just outside Jerusalem.''. None
66. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.30, 4.7-4.10, 10.13, 10.30, 13.24, 17.5, 17.22, 29.12, 30.14, 33.7-33.15, 38.16, 40.17, 40.24, 41.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Execution of • Justice, Petitions for • justice • justice, of Noah • social justice/ethics

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 174; Corley (2002) 21, 94, 111, 134, 141, 145, 146, 199; Garcia (2021) 44, 66, 131; Stuckenbruck (2007) 322, 498; Wilson (2012) 170

4.7. Make yourself beloved in the congregation;bow your head low to a great man. 4.8. Incline your ear to the poor,and answer him peaceably and gently. 4.9. Deliver him who is wronged from the hand of the wrongdoer;and do not be fainthearted in judging a case.
10.13. For the beginning of pride is sin,and the man who clings to it pours out abominations. Therefore the Lord brought upon them extraordinary afflictions,and destroyed them utterly.
10.13. and raises up his head,so that many are amazed at him.
13.24. Riches are good if they are free from sin,and poverty is evil in the opinion of the ungodly.
17.22. A mans almsgiving is like a signet with the Lord and he will keep a persons kindness like the apple of his eye.
29.12. Store up almsgiving in your treasury,and it will rescue you from all affliction;
30.14. Better off is a poor man who is well and strong in constitution than a rich man who is severely afflicted in body.
33.7. Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.8. By the Lords decision they were distinguished,and he appointed the different seasons and feasts; 33.9. some of them he exalted and hallowed,and some of them he made ordinary days. 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12. some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other.
38.16. My son, let your tears fall for the dead,and as one who is suffering grievously begin the lament. Lay out his body with the honor due him,and do not neglect his burial.
40.17. Kindness is like a garden of blessings,and almsgiving endures for ever.
40.24. Brothers and help are for a time of trouble,but almsgiving rescues better than both.
41.4. and how can you reject the good pleasure of the Most High?Whether life is for ten or a hundred or a thousand years,there is no inquiry about it in Hades.' '. None
67. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.4-1.9, 8.7, 15.7-15.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, Divine • Spirit, effects of, power/justice/ strength/might • justice • justice, divine

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 66, 131; Legaspi (2018) 185, 195; Levison (2009) 143, 144, 240, 249; Stuckenbruck (2007) 280; Černušková (2016) 338

1.4. Their wealth spread to the whole earth, And their glory unto the end of the earth.
1.4. because wisdom will not enter a deceitful soul,nor dwell in a body enslaved to sin. 1.5. For a holy and disciplined spirit will flee from deceit,and will rise and depart from foolish thoughts,and will be ashamed at the approach of unrighteousness. 1.5. They were exalted unto the stars; They said they would never fall. 1.6. But they became insolent in their prosperity, And they were without understanding, 1.6. For wisdom is a kindly spirit and will not free a blasphemer from the guilt of his words;because God is witness of his inmost feelings,and a true observer of his heart, and a hearer of his tongue. 1.7. Because the Spirit of the Lord has filled the world,and that which holds all things together knows what is said; 1.7. Their sins were in secret, And even I had no knowledge (of them). 1.8. Their transgressions (went) beyond those of the heathen before them; They utterly polluted the holy things of the Lord. 1.8. therefore no one who utters unrighteous things will escape notice,and justice, when it punishes, will not pass him by. 1.9. For inquiry will be made into the counsels of an ungodly man,and a report of his words will come to the Lord,to convict him of his lawless deeds;
8.7. I said: They establish their ways in righteousness. I thought upon the judgements of God since the creation of heaven and earth; I held God righteous in His judgements which have been from of old.
8.7. And if any one loves righteousness,her labors are virtues;for she teaches self-control and prudence,justice and courage;nothing in life is more profitable for men than these.
15.7. When it goeth forth from the face of the Lord against sinners, To destroy all the substance of sinners,
15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. For the mark of God is upon the righteous that they .may be saved. Famine and sword and pestilence (shall be) far from the righteous, 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.9. For they shall flee away from the pious as men pursued in war; But they shall pursue sinners and overtake (them), And they that do lawlessness shall not escape the judgement of God; As by enemies experienced (in war) shall they be overtaken, 15.10. For the mark of destruction is upon their forehead. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay, 15.11. And the inheritance of sinners is destruction and darkness, And their iniquities shall pursue them unto Sheol beneath. 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit." 15.12. Their inheritance shall not be found of their children, 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.13. For sins shall lay waste the houses of sinners. And sinners shall perish for ever in the day of the Lord’s judgement, 15.13. For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images.''. None
68. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Divine • Justice, Retribution • Summary Justice, Greek and Roman

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491; Stuckenbruck (2007) 369

69. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas) • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas), on compliance of law with nature and proportion • On Law and Justice (attrib. Archytas), on rulers • distributive justice • judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice • justice, • law (nomos), in On Law and Justice • rulers, in On Law and Justice

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 98, 193; Long (2006) 311, 325; Wolfsdorf (2020) 483

70. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice / iustitia • judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice • justice,

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 222; Long (2006) 327; Maso (2022) 45, 112, 113

71. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, administration of • justice

 Found in books: Czajkowski et al (2020) 230; Tuori (2016) 59

72. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice • justice,

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 242; Long (2006) 325

73. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Sons, of justice • Spirit, effects of, power/justice/ strength/might • justice

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 138, 144, 145; Levison (2009) 281, 303, 387, 407

74. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 208 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice,

 Found in books: Wilson (2010) 149; Wilson (2012) 364

208. This is enough to say about the piety of the man, though there is a vast abundance of other things which might be brought forward in praise of it. We must also investigate his skill and wisdom as displayed towards his fellow men; for it belongs to the same character to be pious towards God and affectionate towards man; and both these qualities, of holiness towards God and justice towards man, are commonly seen in the same individual. Now it would take a long time to go through all the instances and actions which form this; but it is not out of place to record two or three. ''. None
75. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 27-28 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 271; Geljon and Runia (2019) 202

27. I have also, on one occasion, heard a more ingenious train of reasoning from my own soul, which was accustomed frequently to be seized with a certain divine inspiration, even concerning matters which it could not explain even to itself; which now, if I am able to remember it accurately, I will relate. It told me that in the one living and true God there were two supreme and primary powers--goodness and authority; and that by his goodness he had created every thing, and by his authority he governed all that he had created; '28. and that the third thing which was between the two, and had the effect of bringing them together was reason, for that it was owing to reason that God was both a ruler and good. Now, of this ruling authority and of this goodness, being two distinct powers, On the Cherubim were the symbols, but of reason the flaming sword was the symbol. For reason is a thing capable of rapid motion and impetuous, and especially the reason of the Creator of all things is so, inasmuch as it was before everything and passed by everything, and was conceived before everything, and appears in everything. '. None
76. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 128 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice, piety and • piety, justice and

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 209; Geljon and Runia (2019) 165

128. And this is the end which is celebrated among those who study philosophy in the best manner, namely, to live in accordance with nature. And this takes place when the mind, entering into the path of virtue, treads in the steps of right reason, and follows God, remembering his commandments, and at all times and in all places confirming them both by word and deed;" ''. None
77. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 3, 154 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, Divine • Sons, of justice • justice • justice, piety and • piety, justice and

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 209; Geljon and Runia (2019) 153, 165; Levison (2009) 387; Stuckenbruck (2007) 496

3. And his exordium, as I have already said, is most admirable; embracing the creation of the world, under the idea that the law corresponds to the world and the world to the law, and that a man who is obedient to the law, being, by so doing, a citizen of the world, arranges his actions with reference to the intention of nature, in harmony with which the whole universal world is regulated.
154. And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV. ''. None
78. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.135, 4.170 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Royal justice (judiciary) • Royal justice (judiciary), Philo and the concept of • Royal justice (judiciary), in Psalms of Solomon • justice • justice, • justice, as leader of virtues • justice, of Noah • justice, piety and • piety, justice and • virtue, justice as leader of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 177, 209, 336; Flatto (2021) 35, 42; Wilson (2010) 5, 170

4.135. We have spoken before of that queen of all the virtues, piety and holiness, and also of prudence and moderation; we must now proceed to speak of justice which is conversant about subjects which are akin and nearly related to Them.{33}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On Justice. The publisher has elected to follow the Loeb numbering.}XXVI. " '
4.170. And it becomes a man who has been thought worthy of the supreme and greatest authority to appoint successors who may govern with him and judge with him, and, in concert with him, may ordain everything which is for the common advantage; for one person would not be sufficient, even if he were ever so willing, and if he were the most powerful man in the world, both in body and soul, to support the weight and number of affairs which would come upon him, as he would faint under the pressure and rapidity of all kinds of business coming in upon him continually every day from all quarters, unless he had a number of persons selected with reference to their excellence who might co-operate with him by their prudence, and power, and justice, and godly piety, men who not only avoid arrogance, but even detest it as an enemy and as the very greatest of evils. '". None
79. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 38, 156-159 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • justice • justice, piety and • piety, justice and

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 3, 336; Geljon and Runia (2019) 234; Sly (1990) 95

38. And this war will have a novel glory as having been brought to a successful issue by means of women, and not by means of men. For we confess that our sex is in danger of being defeated, because our enemies are better provided with all the appliances of war and necessaries for battle; but your sex is more completely armed, and you will gain the greatest of all advantages, namely the victory; carrying off the prize without having to encounter any danger; for without any loss or bloodshed, or indeed, I may rather say, without even a struggle, you will overpower the enemy at the first sight of you, merely by being beheld by him. ' "
156. for he commands the young plants to be nursed carefully for the space of three years, while the husbandman prunes away the superfluous off-shoots, in order that the threes may not be weighed down and exhausted by them, in which case the fruit borne by them would become small and weak through insufficiency of nourishment, and he must also dig round it and clear the ground, in order that no injurious plant may grow near it, so as to hinder its growth. And he does not allow the fruit to be gathered out of season at any one's pleasure, not only because, if that were done, it would be imperfect and produced from imperfect trees (for so also animals which are not perfect themselves cannot produce a perfect offspring), but also because the young plants themselves would be injured, and would in a manner be bowed down and kept as creepers on the earth, by being prevented from shooting up into straight and stout trunks. "157. Accordingly, many husbandmen at the commencement of the spring watch their young trees, in order at once to destroy whatever fruit they show before it gets to any growth or comes to any size, from fear lest, if it be suffered to remain on, it may bring weakness to the parent tree. For it might happen, if some one did not take care beforehand, when the tree ought to bring fruit to perfection, that it will either bear none at all, or not be able to ripen any, being completely weakened by having been allowed to satiate itself with bearing before its proper time, just as old vinestems when weighed down, are exhausted both in root and trunk. 158. But after three years, when the roots have got some depth and have taken a firmer hold of the soil, and when the trunk, being supported as it were on a firm unbending foundation, brows up with vigour, it is then in the fourth year able to bear fruit in perfection and in proper quantity: 159. and in the fourth year he permits the fruit to be gathered, not for the enjoyment and use of man, but that the whole crop may be dedicated to God as the first-fruits, partly as a thank-offering for mercies already received, and partly from hope of good crops for the future, and of a revenue to be derived from the tree hereafter. '. None
80. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 141, 170 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice, of Noah

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 186; Geljon and Runia (2019) 238; Wilson (2012) 63

141. However, we have now said enough on this subject, and let us proceed to investigate what comes afterwards. He continues thus: "And Cain said unto the Lord, My crime is too great to be Forgiven." Now what is meant by this will be shown by a consideration of simple passages. If a pilot were to desert his ship when tossed about by the sea, would it not follow of necessity that the ship would wander out of her course in the voyage? Shall I say more? If a charioteer in the contest of the horse-race were to quit his chariot, is it not inevitable that the course of the free horses would be disorderly and irregular? Again, when a city is left destitute of rulers or of laws, and laws, undoubtedly, are entitled to be classed on an equality with magistrates, must not that city be destroyed by those greatest of evils, anarchy and lawlessness? '
170. At all events, when the Creator determined to purify the earth by means of water, and that the soul should receive purification of all its unspeakable offences, having washed off and effaced its pollutions after the fashion of a holy purification, he recommended him who was found to be a just man, who was not borne away the violence of the deluge, to enter into the ark, that is to say, into the vessel containing the soul, namely, the body, and to lead into it "seven of all clean beasts, male and Female," thinking it proper that virtuous reason should employ all the pure parts of the irrational portion of man. XLVII. '. None
81. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • justice • justice,

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 79, 109; Geljon and Runia (2013) 99; Sly (1990) 95; Wilson (2010) 109

82. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 38.37 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, administration of • justice

 Found in books: Czajkowski et al (2020) 218; Wilson (2012) 399

38.37. \xa0Yet by their public acts they have branded you as a pack of fools, yes, they treat you just like children, for we often offer children the most trivial things in place of things of greatest worth; moreover, those children, in their ignorance of what is truly valuable and in their pleasure over what is of least account, delight in what is a mere nothing. So also in your case, in place of justice, in place of the freedom of the cities from spoliation or from the seizure of the private possessions of their inhabitants, in place of their refraining from insulting you, in place of their refraining from drunken violence, your governors hand you titles, and call you "first" either by word of mouth or in writing; that done, they may thenceforth with impunity treat you as being the very last! <''. None
83. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 9.6, 10.1-10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Criminal justice, hierarchization of crimes • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice • Summary Justice, Jewish • justice

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 493; Mcglothlin (2018) 41; Neusner (2001) 202; Schwartz (2008) 242

9.6. הַגּוֹנֵב אֶת הַקַּסְוָה וְהַמְקַלֵּל בַּקּוֹסֵם וְהַבּוֹעֵל אֲרַמִּית, קַנָּאִין פּוֹגְעִין בּוֹ. כֹּהֵן שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בְּטֻמְאָה, אֵין אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין, אֶלָּא פִרְחֵי כְהֻנָּה מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה וּמַפְצִיעִין אֶת מֹחוֹ בִּגְזִירִין. זָר שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, בְּחֶנֶק. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בִּידֵי שָׁמָיִם:' "
10.1. כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס) וְעַמֵּךְ כֻּלָּם צַדִּיקִים לְעוֹלָם יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ נֵצֶר מַטָּעַי מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי לְהִתְפָּאֵר. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הָאוֹמֵר אֵין תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין תּוֹרָה מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, וְאֶפִּיקוֹרֶס. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אַף הַקּוֹרֵא בַסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים, וְהַלּוֹחֵשׁ עַל הַמַּכָּה וְאוֹמֵר (שמות טו) כָּל הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי ה' רֹפְאֶךָ. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, אַף הַהוֹגֶה אֶת הַשֵּׁם בְּאוֹתִיּוֹתָיו:" '10.2. שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָכִים וְאַרְבָּעָה הֶדְיוֹטוֹת אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָכִים, יָרָבְעָם, אַחְאָב, וּמְנַשֶּׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְנַשֶּׁה יֶשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לג) וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע תְּחִנָּתוֹ וַיְשִׁיבֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם לְמַלְכוּתוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְמַלְכוּתוֹ הֱשִׁיבוֹ וְלֹא לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא הֱשִׁיבוֹ. אַרְבָּעָה הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, בִּלְעָם, וְדוֹאֵג, וַאֲחִיתֹפֶל, וְגֵחֲזִי:' "10.3. דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְאֵין עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ו) לֹא יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם, לֹא דִין וְלֹא רוּחַ. דּוֹר הַפַּלָּגָה אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יא) וַיָּפֶץ ה' אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל פְּנֵי כָל הָאָרֶץ. וַיָּפֶץ ה' אֹתָם, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם ה', לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יג) וְאַנְשֵׁי סְדֹם רָעִים וְחַטָּאִים לַה' מְאֹד. רָעִים בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. וְחַטָּאִים, לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. אֲבָל עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ אֵין עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים א) עַל כֵּן לֹא יָקֻמוּ רְשָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְחַטָּאִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים. עַל כֵּן לֹא יָקֻמוּ רְשָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, זֶה דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. וְחַטָּאִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים, אֵלּוּ אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵינָם עוֹמְדִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים אֲבָל עוֹמְדִין בַּעֲדַת רְשָׁעִים. מְרַגְּלִים אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיָּמֻתוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים מוֹצִאֵי דִבַּת הָאָרֶץ רָעָה בַּמַּגֵּפָה לִפְנֵי ה' (במדבר יד). וַיָּמֻתוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. בַּמַּגֵּפָה, בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דּוֹר הַמִּדְבָּר אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְאֵין עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) בַּמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה יִתַּמּוּ וְשָׁם יָמֻתוּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא אוֹמֵר (תהלים נ) אִסְפוּ לִי חֲסִידָי כֹּרְתֵי בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי זָבַח. עֲדַת קֹרַח אֵינָהּ עֲתִידָה לַעֲלוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טז) וַתְּכַס עֲלֵיהֶם הָאָרֶץ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וַיֹּאבְדוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל, לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא אוֹמֵר (שמואל א ב) ה' מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל. עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים אֵינָן עֲתִידִין לַחֲזֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כט) וַיַּשְׁלִכֵם אֶל אֶרֶץ אַחֶרֶת כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה, מַה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הוֹלֵךְ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר, אַף הֵם הוֹלְכִים וְאֵינָם חוֹזְרִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה, מַה הַיּוֹם מַאֲפִיל וּמֵאִיר, אַף עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים שֶׁאָפַל לָהֶן, כָּךְ עָתִיד לְהָאִיר לָהֶן:"'. None
9.6. If one steals the sacred vessel called a “kasvah” (Numbers 4:7), or cursed by the name of an idol, or has sexual relations with an Aramean (non-Jewish) woman, he is punished by zealots. If a priest performed the temple service while impure, his fellow priests do not bring him to the court, but rather the young priests take him out into the courtyard and split his skull with clubs. A layman who performed the service in the Temple: Rabbi Akiva says: “He is strangled.” But the Sages say: “His death is at the hands of heaven.”
10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers a charm over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases which i brought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.” 10.2. Three kings and four commoners have no portion in the world to come:The three kings are Jeroboam, Ahab, and Manasseh. Rabbi Judah says: “Manasseh has a portion in the world to come, for it says, “He prayed to him, and He granted his prayer, and heard his plea and he restored him to Jerusalem, to his kingdom” (II Chronicles 33:13). They the sages said to him: “They restored him to his kingdom, but not to his portion in the world to come.” The four commoners are: Bilaam, Doeg, Ahitophel, and Gehazi. 10.3. The generation of the flood has no portion in the world to come, nor will they stand at the last judgment, as it says, “And the Lord said, my spirit will not always enter into judgment with man” (Genesis 6:3), meaning there will be neither judgment nor my spirit for them. The generation of the dispersion have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “So the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8): “So the lord scattered them”, refers to this world, “And from there the Lord scattered them” (Genesis 11:9), refers to the world to come. The men of Sodom have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And the men of Sodom were wicked and great sinners before the Lord” (Genesis 13:1: “wicked” in this world, and “sinners” in the world to come; Yet will they stand at judgment. R. Nehemiah says: “Neither the generation of the flood nor the men of Sodom will stand at judgment, as it says, “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5) “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”, refers to the generation of the flood; “nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”, refers to the men of Sodom. They the Sages said to him: “They will not stand in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in the congregation of the wicked.” The spies have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And those men that spread such calumnies about the land, died by the plague before the lord” (Numbers 14:37): “they died” in this world, “by the plague” in the world to come. The generation of the wilderness have no share in the world to come and will not stand at the last judgment, as it says, “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:3, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘Bring in My devotees, who made a covet with Me over sacrifice” (Psalms 50:5). The congregation of Korah is not destined to ascend from the earth, as it says, “And the earth closed upon them” in this world, “and they perished from among the congregation” (Numbers 16:33) in the world to come, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘The Lord kills and makes alive: He brings down to Sheol, and brings up” (I Samuel 2:6). The ten tribes will not return to the Land of Israel, for it is said, “And He cast them into another land, as is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:2: just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “‘As is this day’ just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the ten tribes even as it went dark for them, so will it in the future become light for them.''. None
84. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.2, 2.9-2.13, 15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, Divine • Spirit, effects of, power/justice/ strength/might • justice • justice (dikê) • justice , of God

 Found in books: Horkey (2019) 29; Karfíková (2012) 80; Levison (2009) 268, 280; Mcglothlin (2018) 250; Stuckenbruck (2007) 523; Černušková (2016) 225

2.2. οὐ γὰρ ἔκρινά τι εἰδέναι ἐν ὑμῖν εἰ μὴ Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν καὶ τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον·
2.9. ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπταιἋ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν καὶοὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν 2.10. ἡμῖν γὰρ ἀπεκάλυψεν ὁ θεὸς διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, τὸ γὰρ πνεῦμα πάντα ἐραυνᾷ, καὶ τὰ βάθη τοῦ θεοῦ. 2.11. τίς γὰρ οἶδεν ἀνθρώπων τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ; οὕτως καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐδεὶς ἔγνωκεν εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ. 2.12. ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου ἐλάβομεν ἀλλὰ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ χαρισθέντα ἡμῖν· 2.13. ἃ καὶ λαλοῦμεν οὐκ ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις, ἀλλʼ ἐν διδακτοῖς πνεύματος, πνευματικοῖς πνευματικὰ συνκρίνοντες.
15.22. ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐν τῷ Ἀδὰμ πάντες ἀποθνήσκουσιν, οὕτως καὶ ἐν τῷ χριστῷ πάντες ζωοποιηθήσονται.''. None
2.2. ForI determined not to know anything among you, except Jesus Christ, andhim crucified.
2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn\'t see, and an ear didn\'t hear,Which didn\'t enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him." 2.10. But to us, God revealed them through the Spirit. For theSpirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God.' "2.11. For whoamong men knows the things of a man, except the spirit of the man,which is in him? Even so, no one knows the things of God, except God'sSpirit." '2.12. But we received, not the spirit of the world, but theSpirit which is from God, that we might know the things that werefreely given to us by God.' "2.13. Which things also we speak, not inwords which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches,comparing spiritual things with spiritual things." '
15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.''. None
85. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.19, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, Divine • Justice, Petitions for • justice

 Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 533, 556; Stuckenbruck (2007) 297; Wilson (2012) 246

1.19. ἔχων πίστιν καὶ ἀγαθὴν συνείδησιν, ἥν τινες ἀπωσάμενοι περὶ τὴν πίστιν ἐναυάγησαν·
2.9. Ὡσαύτως γυναῖκας ἐν καταστολῇ κοσμίῳ μετὰ αἰδοῦς καὶ σωφροσύνης κοσμεῖν ἑαυτάς, μὴ ἐν πλέγμασιν καὶ χρυσίῳ ἢ μαργαρίταις ἢ ἱματισμῷ πολυτελεῖ,''. None
1.19. holding faith and a good conscience; which some having thrust away made a shipwreck concerning the faith;
2.9. In the same way, that women also adorn themselves in decent clothing, with modesty and propriety; not just with braided hair, gold, pearls, or expensive clothing; ''. None
86. New Testament, Acts, 7.55 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, effects of, power/justice/ strength/might • talionic justice

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 244; Matthews (2010) 103

7.55. ὑπάρχων δὲ πλήρης πνεύματος ἁγίου ἀτενίσας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἶδεν δόξαν θεοῦ καὶ Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ,''. None
7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, ''. None
87. New Testament, Romans, 8.15, 10.14, 10.17, 12.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice, Divine • justice • justice , of man • talionic justice

 Found in books: Karfíková (2012) 52; Malherbe et al (2014) 926; Matthews (2010) 125; Stuckenbruck (2007) 280; Černušková (2016) 330, 338

8.15. οὐ γὰρ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα δουλείας πάλιν εἰς φόβον, ἀλλὰ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἐν ᾧ κράζομεν
10.14. Πῶς οὖν ἐπικαλέσωνται εἰς ὃν οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν; πῶς δὲ πιστεύσωσιν οὗ οὐκ ἤκουσαν; πῶς δὲ ἀκούσωσιν χωρὶς κηρύσσοντος;
10.17. ἄρα ἡ πίστις ἐξ ἀκοῆς, ἡ δὲ ἀκοὴ διὰ ῥήματος Χριστοῦ.
12.19. μὴ ἑαυτοὺς ἐκδικοῦντες, ἀγαπητοί, ἀλλὰ δότε τόπον τῇ ὀργῇ, γέγραπται γάρἘμοὶ ἐκδίκησις,ἐγὼἀνταποδώσω,λέγει Κύριος.''. None
8.15. For you didn\'t receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father!"
10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher?
10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.
12.19. Don\'t seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God\'s wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord."''. None
88. New Testament, John, 1.5-1.10, 1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Sons, of justice • justice • justice , of God • justice , of man

 Found in books: Karfíková (2012) 126, 280; Levison (2009) 389; Černušková (2016) 282

1.5. καὶ τὸ φῶς ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φαίνει, καὶ ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν. 1.6. Ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ, ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἰωάνης· 1.7. οὗτος ἦλθεν εἰς μαρτυρίαν, ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός, ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν διʼ αὐτοῦ. 1.8. οὐκ ἦν ἐκεῖνος τὸ φῶς, ἀλλʼ ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός. 1.9. Ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον. 1.10. ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν, καὶ ὁ κόσμος διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω.
1.16. ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς πάντες ἐλάβομεν, καὶ χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος·''. None
1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. " '1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. ' "1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. " '
1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. '". None
89. New Testament, Matthew, 5.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • talionic justice

 Found in books: Matthews (2010) 126; Wilson (2012) 101

5.39. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ἀντιστῆναι τῷ πονηρῷ· ἀλλʼ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα σου, στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην·''. None
5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. "". None
90. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Anonymus Iamblichi, law and justice in • justice • justice (dikē), in Hesiodic myth

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 63; Wolfsdorf (2020) 281, 288

91. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, effects of, power/justice/ strength/might • justice

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 423; Černušková (2016) 339

92. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice (Lat. iustitia = Gr. dikaiosynē)

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 106, 109; Tsouni (2019) 185; Álvarez (2019) 37

93. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice (dikē), in Pythagorean acusmata

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019) 238; Wolfsdorf (2020) 12

94. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gaius, jurist • justice

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 288; Tuori (2016) 285

95. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.4, 7.33, 7.85, 7.88, 7.129, 8.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, treatises of, On Justice • Socrates, on justice • justice • justice (Lat. iustitia = Gr. dikaiosynē) • justice (dikê) • justice (dikē), in Pythagorean acusmata • justice, Socrates definition of • justice, retributive and cosmic • kosmos, and justice (dikê)

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 174; Geljon and Runia (2019) 165; Graver (2007) 250; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 138; Horkey (2019) 36; Jedan (2009) 144; Long (2019) 191; Tsouni (2019) 162, 185; Wolfsdorf (2020) 8; Álvarez (2019) 25

7.4. For a certain space, then, he was instructed by Crates, and when at this time he had written his Republic, some said in jest that he had written it on Cynosura, i.e. on the dog's tail. Besides the Republic he wrote the following works:of Life according to Nature.of Impulse, or Human Nature.of Emotions.of Duty.of Law.of Greek Education.of Vision.of the Whole World.of Signs.Pythagorean Questions.Universals.of Varieties of Style.Homeric Problems, in five books.of the Reading of Poetry.There are also by him:A Handbook of Rhetoric.Solutions.Two books of Refutations.Recollections of Crates.Ethics.This is a list of his writings. But at last he left Crates, and the men above mentioned were his masters for twenty years. Hence he is reported to have said, I made a prosperous voyage when I suffered shipwreck. But others attribute this saying of his to the time when he was under Crates." '
7.33. Again, in the Republic, making an invidious contrast, he declares the good alone to be true citizens or friends or kindred or free men; and accordingly in the view of the Stoics parents and children are enemies, not being wise. Again, it is objected, in the Republic he lays down community of wives, and at line 200 prohibits the building of sanctuaries, law-courts and gymnasia in cities; while as regards a currency he writes that we should not think it need be introduced either for purposes of exchange or for travelling abroad. Further, he bids men and women wear the same dress and keep no part of the body entirely covered.' "
7.85. An animal's first impulse, say the Stoics, is to self-preservation, because nature from the outset endears it to itself, as Chrysippus affirms in the first book of his work On Ends: his words are, The dearest thing to every animal is its own constitution and its consciousness thereof; for it was not likely that nature should estrange the living thing from itself or that she should leave the creature she has made without either estrangement from or affection for its own constitution. We are forced then to conclude that nature in constituting the animal made it near and dear to itself; for so it comes to repel all that is injurious and give free access to all that is serviceable or akin to it." '
7.88. And this is why the end may be defined as life in accordance with nature, or, in other words, in accordance with our own human nature as well as that of the universe, a life in which we refrain from every action forbidden by the law common to all things, that is to say, the right reason which pervades all things, and is identical with this Zeus, lord and ruler of all that is. And this very thing constitutes the virtue of the happy man and the smooth current of life, when all actions promote the harmony of the spirit dwelling in the individual man with the will of him who orders the universe. Diogenes then expressly declares the end to be to act with good reason in the selection of what is natural. Archedemus says the end is to live in the performance of all befitting actions.
7.129. Neither do they think that the divergence of opinion between philosophers is any reason for abandoning the study of philosophy, since at that rate we should have to give up life altogether: so Posidonius in his Exhortations. Chrysippus allows that the ordinary Greek education is serviceable.It is their doctrine that there can be no question of right as between man and the lower animals, because of their unlikeness. Thus Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Justice, and Posidonius in the first book of his De officio. Further, they say that the wise man will feel affection for the youths who by their countece show a natural endowment for virtue. So Zeno in his Republic, Chrysippus in book i. of his work On Modes of Life, and Apollodorus in his Ethics.
8.32. The whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together.'". None
96. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.16, 2.19, 2.54, 3.2.2, 3.2.4, 3.11.1, 3.19, 3.26.11-3.26.12, 3.27.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • "justice, divine", • Justice • Pythagoras, doctrine of justice • judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice • justice • justice (Lat. iustitia = Gr. dikaiosynē) • justice and political life, association of Artemis with political assemblies and civic life • justice and political life, death sentences and suicides, Artemis associated with • justice, • justice, in inscriptions

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 379; Hau (2017) 268; Long (2006) 354; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 283, 286, 287, 288; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 147, 151, 153, 154, 156; Simmons(1995) 313; Simon (2021) 190; Tsouni (2019) 161; Wilson (2010) 338; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 177, 178, 179, 180, 183

2.16. 16.Theopompus likewise narrates things similar to these, viz. that a certain Magnesian came from Asia to Delphi; a man very rich, and abounding in cattle, and that he was accustomed every year to make many and magnificent sacrifices to the Gods, partly through the abundance of his possessions, and partly through piety and wishing to please the Gods. But being thus disposed, he came to the divinity at Delphi, bringing with him a hecatomb for the God, and magnificently honouring Apollo, he consulted his oracle. Conceiving also that he worshipped the Gods in a manner more beautiful than that of all other men, he asked the Pythian deity who the man was that, with the greatest promptitude, and in the best manner, venerated divinity, and |53 made the most acceptable sacrifices, conceiving that on this occasion the God would deem him to be pre-eminent. The Pythian deity however answered, that Clearchus, who dwelt in Methydrium, a town of Arcadia, worshipped the Gods in a way surpassing that of all other men. But the Magnesian being astonished, was desirous of seeing Clearchus, and of learning from him the manner in which he performed his sacrifices. Swiftly, therefore, betaking himself to Methydrium, in the first place, indeed, he despised the smallness and vileness of the town, conceiving that neither any private person, nor even the whole city, could honour the Gods more magnificently and more beautifully than he did. Meeting, however, with the man, he thought fit to ask him after what manner he reverenced the Gods. But Clearchus answered him, that he diligently sacrificed to them at proper times in every month at the new moon, crowning and adorning the statues of Hermes and Hecate, and the other sacred images which were left to us by our ancestors, and that he also honoured the Gods with frankincense, and sacred wafers and cakes. He likewise said, that he performed public sacrifices annually, omitting no festive day; and that in these festivals he worshipped the Gods, not by slaying oxen, nor by cutting victims into fragments, but that he sacrificed whatever he might casually meet with, sedulously offering the first-fruits to the Gods of all the vegetable productions of the seasons, and of all the fruits with which he was supplied. He added, that some of these he placed before the statues of the Gods,6 but that he burnt others on their altars; and that, being studious of frugality, he avoided the sacrificing of oxen. 2.19. 19.But those who have written concerning sacred operations and sacrifices, admonish us to be accurate in preserving what pertains to the popana, because these are more acceptable to the Gods than the sacrifice which is performed through the mactation of animals. Sophocles also, in describing a sacrifice which is pleasing to divinity, says in his Polyidus: The skins of sheep in sacrifice were used, Libations too of wine, grapes well preserved, And fruits collected in a heap of every kind; The olive's pinguid juice, and waxen work Most variegated, of the yellow bee. Formerly, also, there were venerable monuments in Delos of those who came from the Hyperboreans, bearing handfuls of fruits. It is necessary, therefore, that, being purified in our manners, we should make oblations, offering to the Gods those sacrifices which are pleasing to them, and not such as are attended with great expense. Now, however, if a man's body is not pure and invested with a splendid garment, he does not think it is qualified for the sanctity of sacrifice. But when he has rendered his body splendid, together with his garment, though his soul at the same time is not, purified from vice, yet he betakes himself to sacrifice, and thinks that it is a thing of no consequence; as if divinity did not especially rejoice in that which is most divine in our nature, when it is in a pure condition, as being allied to his essence. In Epidaurus, therefore, there was the following inscription on the doors of the temple: Into an odorous temple, he who goes Should pure and holy be; but to be wise In what to sanctity pertains, is to be pure. 2.54. 54.And that we do not carelessly assert these things, but that what we have said is abundantly confirmed by history, the following narrations sufficiently testify. For in Rhodes, on the sixth day of June, a man was sacrificed to Saturn; which custom having prevailed for a long time, was afterwards changed into a more human mode of sacrificing. For one of those men who, by the public decision, had been sentenced to death, was kept in prison till the Saturnalia commenced; but as soon as this festival began, they brought the man out of the gates of the city, opposite to the temple of Aristobulus, and giving him wine to drink, they cut his throat. But in the island which is now called Salamis, but was formerly denominated Coronis, in the month according to the Cyprians Aphrodisius, a man was sacrificed to Agraule, the daughter of Cecrops, and the nymph Agraulis. And this custom continued till the time of Diomed. Afterwards it was changed, so that a man was sacrificed to Diomed. But the temples of Minerva, of Agraule, and Diomed, were contained in one and the same enclosure. The man who was also about to be slain, was first led by young men thrice round the altar, afterwards the priest pierced him with a lance in the stomach, and thus being thrown on the pyre, he was entirely consumed. 3.2.2. 2.Since, however, with respect to reason, one kind, according to the doctrine of the Stoics, is internal, but the other external 1, and again, one kind being right, but the other erroneous, it is requisite to explain of which of these two, animals, according to them, are deprived. Are they therefore deprived of right reason alone? or are they entirely destitute both of internal and externally proceeding reason? They appear, indeed, to ascribe to brutes an entire privation of reason, and not a privation of right reason alone. For if they merely denied that brutes possess right reason, animals would not be irrational, but rational beings, in the same manner as nearly all men are according to them. For, according to their opinion, one or two wise men may be found in whom alone right reason prevails, but all the rest of mankind are depraved; though some |82of these make a certain proficiency, but others are profoundly depraved, and yet, at the same time, all of them are similarly rational. Through the influence, therefore, of self-love, they say, that all other animals are irrational; wishing to indicate by irrationality, an entire privation of reason. If, however, it be requisite to speak the truth, not only reason may plainly be perceived in all animals, but in many of them it is so great as to approximate to perfection. 3.11.1. 11.Who likewise is ignorant how much gregarious animals preserve justice towards each other? for this is preserved by ants, by bees, and by |91 other animals of the like kind. And who is ignorant of the chastity of female ringdoves towards the males with whom they associate? for they destroy those who are found by them to have committed adultery. Or who has not heard of the justice of storks towards their parents? For in the several species of animals, a peculiar virtue is eminent, to which each species is naturally adapted; nor because this virtue is natural and stable, is it fit to deny that they are rational? For it might be requisite to deprive them of rationality, if their works were not the proper effects of virtue and rational sagacity; but if we do not understand how these works are effected, because we are unable to penetrate into the reasoning which they use, we are not on this account to accuse them of irrationality; for neither is any one able to penetrate into the intellect of that divinity the sun, but from his works we assent to those who demonstrate him to be an intellectual and rational essence. 3.19. 19.But with respect to him who thinks that we should not use an ox for food, nor destroying and corrupting spirit and life, place things on the table which are only the allurements and elegances of satiety, of what does he deprive our life, which is either necessary to our safety, or subservient to virtue? To compare plants, however, with animals, is doing violence to the order of things. For the latter are naturally sensitive, and adapted to feel pain, to be terrified and hurt; on which account also they may be injured. But the former are entirely destitute of sensation, and in consequence of this, nothing foreign, or evil, or hurtful, or injurious, can befall them. For sensation is the principle of all alliance, and of every thing of a foreign nature. But Zeno and his followers assert, that alliance is the principle of justice. And is it not absurd, since we see that many of our own species live from sense alone, but do not possess intellect and reason, and since we also see, that many of them surpass the most terrible of wild beasts in cruelty, anger, and rapine, being murderous of their children and their parents, and also being tyrants, and the tools of kings is it not, I say, absurd, to fancy that we ought to act justly towards these, but that no justice is due from us to the ox that ploughs, the dog that is fed with us, and the animals that nourish us with their milk, and adorn our bodies with their wool? Is it not such an opinion most irrational and absurd? |97 3.26.11. 26.By making pleasure, therefore, the end of life, that which is truly justice cannot be preserved; since neither such things as are primarily useful according to nature, nor all such as are easily attainable, give completion to felicity. For, in many instances, the motions of the irrational nature, and utility and indigence, have been, and still are the sources of injustice. For men became indigent as they pretended of animal food, in order that they might preserve, as they said, the corporeal frame free from molestation, and without being in want of those things after which the animal nature aspires. But if an assimilation to divinity is the end of life, an innoxious conduct towards all things will be in the most eminent degree preserved. As, therefore, he who is led by his passions is innoxious only towards his children and his wife, but despises and acts fraudulently towards other persons, since in consequence of the irrational part predominating in him, he is excited to, and astonished about mortal concerns; but he who is led by reason, preserves an innoxious conduct towards his fellow-citizens, and still more so towards strangers, and towards all men, through having the irrational part in subjection, and is therefore more rational and divine than the former character; - thus also, he who does not confine harmless conduct to men alone, but extends it to other animals, is more similar to divinity; and if it was possible to extend it even to plants, he would preserve this image in a still greater degree. As, however, this is not possible, we may in this respect lament, with the ancients 18, the defect of our nature, that we consist of such adverse and discordant principles, so that we are unable to preserve our divine part incorruptible, and in all respects innoxious. For we are not unindigent in all things: the cause of which is generation, and our becoming needy through the abundant corporeal efflux which we sustain. But want procures safety and ornament from things of a foreign nature, which are necessary to the existence of our mortal part. He, therefore, who is indigent of a greater number of externals, is in a greater degree agglutinated to penury; and by how much his wants increase, by so much is he destitute of divinity, |108 and an associate of penury. For that which is similar to deity, through this assimilation immediately possesses true wealth. But no one who is truly rich and perfectly unindigent injures any thing. For as long as any one injures another, though he should possess the greatest wealth, and all the acres of land which the earth contains, he is still poor, and has want for his intimate associate. On this account, also, he is unjust, without God, and impious, and enslaved to every kind of depravity, which is produced by the lapse of the soul into matter, through the privation of good. Every thing, therefore, is nugatory to any one, as long as he wanders from the principle of the universe; and he is indigent of all things, while he does not direct his attention to Porus or the source of true abundance. He likewise yields to the mortal part of his nature, while he remains ignorant of his real self. But Injustice is powerful in persuading and corrupting those that belong to her empire, because she associates with her votaries in conjunction with Pleasure. As, however, in the choice of lives, he is the more accurate judge who has obtained an experience of both the better and the worse kind of life, than he who has only experienced one of them; thus also, in the choice and avoidance of what is proper, he is a safer judge who, from that which is more, judges of that which is less excellent, than he who from the less, judges of the more excellent. Hence, he who lives according to intellect, will more accurately define what is eligible and what is not, than he who lives under the dominion of irrationality. For the former has passed through the irrational life, as having from the first associated with it; but the latter, having had no experience of an intellectual life, persuades those that resemble himself, and acts with nugacity, like a child among children. If, however, say our opponents, all men were persuaded by these arguments, what would become of us? Is it not evident that we should be happy, injustice, indeed, being exterminated from men, and justice being conversant with us, in the same manner as it is in the heavens? But now this question is just the same as if men should be dubious what the life of the Danaids would be, if they were liberated from the employment of drawing water in a sieve, and attempting to fill a perforated vessel. For they are dubious what would be the consequence if we should cease to replenish our passions and desires, the whole of which replenishing continually flows away through the want of real good; since this fills up the ruinous clefts of the soul more than the greatest of external necessaries. Do you therefore ask, O man, what we should do? We should imitate those that lived in the golden age, we should imitate those of that period who were truly free. For with them modesty, Nemesis, and Justice associated, because they were satisfied with the fruits of the earth. |109 The fertile earth for them spontaneous yields Abundantly her fruits 19. But those who are liberated from slavery, obtain for themselves what they before procured for their masters. In like manner, also, do you, when liberated from the servitude of the body, and a slavish attention to the passions produced through the body, as, prior to this, you nourished them in an all-various manner with externals, so now nourish yourself all-variously with internal good, justly assuming things which are properly your own, and no longer by violence taking away things which are foreign to your true nature and real good. Footnotes moved to the end and numbered 1.* This external reason (&'. None
97. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice/δíκη • justice

 Found in books: Dillon and Timotin (2015) 171; Fowler (2014) 53

98. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • Justice/δíκη • justice • justice,

 Found in books: Fowler (2014) 83; Sattler (2021) 96; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 45; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 37, 39, 58, 69

99. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • divine justice, inscrutability of • justice , of God

 Found in books: Karfíková (2012) 80; Nisula (2012) 281

100. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jurists • Paul, jurist

 Found in books: Humfress (2007) 89; Rohmann (2016) 26

101. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Stoics, and influence on Roman jurists • Trebatius (jurist) • Ulpian (jurist), generalization of framework of • conventio pignoris, early classical jurists • juristic pedagogy, on non-ownership of res sacrae • jurists • non-possessory pledge, early classical jurists

 Found in books: Farag (2021) 213; Hayes (2015) 82; Humfress (2007) 73; Verhagen (2022) 194

102. Demosthenes, Orations, 16.3, 54.1, 60.10, 60.34
 Tagged with subjects: • helping paradigm (international relations), and justice • justice • justice, • justice, corrective • justice, distributive • justice, popular • poetry, justice and the afterlife in

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 70, 139; Kirichenko (2022) 115, 119; Liatsi (2021) 171; Riess (2012) 133; Wilson (2010) 103; Wolfsdorf (2020) 552

16.3. All the same, if that is to be my fate, I will choose rather to be charged with talking nonsense than allow you to be misled by certain speakers, contrary to what I judge to be best for the city. Other points I will, with your permission, discuss later, but now, starting from principles admitted by all, I will try to explain what I consider the best policy.
54.1. With gross outrage I have met, men of the jury, at the hands of the defendant, Conon , and have suffered such bodily injury that for a very long time neither my relatives nor any of the attending physicians thought that I should survive. Contrary to expectation, however, I did recover and regain my strength, and I then brought against him this action for the assault. All my friends and relatives, whose advice I asked, declared that for what he had done the defendant was liable to summary seizure as a highwayman, or to public indictments for criminal outrage As guilty of highway robbery the defendant had made himself liable to summary arrest ( ἀπαγωγή ), and the gravity of his assault would have justified a public indictment for criminal outrage ( ὕβρεως γραφή ), for either of which crimes he would, if convicted, have suffered a heavy penalty. The private suit for assault and battery ( αἰκείας δίκη ) entailed merely a fine to be paid to the plaintiff. ; but they urged and advised me not to take upon myself matters which I should not be able to carry, or to appear to be bringing suit for the maltreatment I had received in a manner too ambitious for one so young. I took this course, therefore, and, in deference to their advice, have instituted a private suit, although I should have been very glad, men of Athens, to prosecute the defendant on a capital charge.
60.10. Those men single-handed twice repulsed by land and sea the expedition assembled out of the whole of Asia, King Darius of Persia was repulsed at Marathon, 490, and Xerxes at Salamis, 480 B.C. The Persian wars are discussed at length in Plat. Menex. 239d ff. and at their individual risks established themselves as the authors of the joint salvation of all the Greeks. And though what I shall say next has been said before by many another, still even at this date those dead must not be deprived of their just and excellent praise. For I say that with good reason those men might be judged so far superior to those who campaigned against Troy, that the latter, the foremost princes out of the whole of Greece, with difficulty captured a single stronghold of Asia after besieging it for ten years, Blass notes this sentiment in Isoc. 4.83 . It is found also in Hyp. 35 .
60.34. With excellent reason one might declare them to be now seated beside the gods below, possessing the same rank as the brave men who have preceded them in the islands of the blest. For though no man has been there to see or brought back this report concerning them, yet those whom the living have assumed to be worthy of honors in the world above, these we believe, basing our surmise on their fame, receive the same honors also in the world beyond. A similar sentiment is found in Hyp. 43 . ''. None
103. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.570-6.572
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice, • justice (injustice); possessed by sublime god

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 41; Sider (2001) 29

6.570. Continuo sontes ultrix accincta flagello 6.571. Tisiphone quatit insultans, torvosque sinistra 6.572. intentans angues vocat agmina saeva sororum.''. None
6.570. of Styx: nine times it coils and interflows. 6.571. Not far from hence, on every side outspread, 6.572. The Fields of Sorrow lie,—such name they bear; ''. None
104. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • polyvalence, cf. openness, semantic prayer for justice • prayer, for justice

 Found in books: Chaniotis (2012) 253; Riess (2012) 201

105. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Justice • justice • justice (dikê)

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 124; Horkey (2019) 41; Liatsi (2021) 10; Sattler (2021) 85

106. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • autochthony, and justice • helping paradigm (international relations), and justice • justice

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 63, 100, 138, 139, 157, 158, 187, 188, 200, 210, 211; Kirichenko (2022) 114, 115, 116, 117, 118

107. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • justice • justice, class

 Found in books: Chaniotis (2012) 320, 322, 324; Riess (2012) 93

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