|1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 25-41, 118-237, 649-650 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 121; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 121
25 καὶ κεραμεὺς κεραμεῖ κοτέει καὶ τέκτονι τέκτων, 26 καὶ πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει καὶ ἀοιδὸς ἀοιδῷ. 27 ὦ Πέρση, σὺ δὲ ταῦτα τεῷ ἐνικάτθεο θυμῷ, 28 μηδέ σʼ Ἔρις κακόχαρτος ἀπʼ ἔργου θυμὸν ἐρύκοι 29 νείκεʼ ὀπιπεύοντʼ ἀγορῆς ἐπακουὸν ἐόντα. 30 ὤρη γάρ τʼ ὀλίγη πέλεται νεικέων τʼ ἀγορέων τε, 31 ᾧτινι μὴ βίος ἔνδον ἐπηετανὸς κατάκειται 32 ὡραῖος, τὸν γαῖα φέρει, Δημήτερος ἀκτήν. 33 τοῦ κε κορεσσάμενος νείκεα καὶ δῆριν ὀφέλλοις 34 κτήμασʼ ἐπʼ ἀλλοτρίοις· σοὶ δʼ οὐκέτι δεύτερον ἔσται 35 ὧδʼ ἔρδειν· ἀλλʼ αὖθι διακρινώμεθα νεῖκος 36 ἰθείῃσι δίκῃς, αἵ τʼ ἐκ Διός εἰσιν ἄρισται. 37 ἤδη μὲν γὰρ κλῆρον ἐδασσάμεθʼ, ἀλλὰ τὰ πολλὰ 38 ἁρπάζων ἐφόρεις μέγα κυδαίνων βασιλῆας 39 δωροφάγους, οἳ τήνδε δίκην ἐθέλουσι δίκασσαι. 40 νήπιοι, οὐδὲ ἴσασιν ὅσῳ πλέον ἥμισυ παντὸς 41 οὐδʼ ὅσον ἐν μαλάχῃ τε καὶ ἀσφοδέλῳ μέγʼ ὄνειαρ.
118 αὐτομάτη πολλόν τε καὶ ἄφθονον· οἳ δʼ ἐθελημοὶ'119 ἥσυχοι ἔργʼ ἐνέμοντο σὺν ἐσθλοῖσιν πολέεσσιν. 120 ἀφνειοὶ μήλοισι, φίλοι μακάρεσσι θεοῖσιν. 121 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 122 τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123 ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, 124 οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 1
25 ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν, 126 πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—, 127 δεύτερον αὖτε γένος πολὺ χειρότερον μετόπισθεν 128 ἀργύρεον ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες, 129 χρυσέῳ οὔτε φυὴν ἐναλίγκιον οὔτε νόημα. 130 ἀλλʼ ἑκατὸν μὲν παῖς ἔτεα παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ 131 ἐτρέφετʼ ἀτάλλων, μέγα νήπιος, ᾧ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ. 132 ἀλλʼ ὅτʼ ἄρʼ ἡβήσαι τε καὶ ἥβης μέτρον ἵκοιτο, 133 παυρίδιον ζώεσκον ἐπὶ χρόνον, ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντες 134 ἀφραδίῃς· ὕβριν γὰρ ἀτάσθαλον οὐκ ἐδύναντο 135 ἀλλήλων ἀπέχειν, οὐδʼ ἀθανάτους θεραπεύειν 136 ἤθελον οὐδʼ ἔρδειν μακάρων ἱεροῖς ἐπὶ βωμοῖς, 137 ἣ θέμις ἀνθρώποις κατὰ ἤθεα. τοὺς μὲν ἔπειτα 138 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ἔκρυψε χολούμενος, οὕνεκα τιμὰς 139 οὐκ ἔδιδον μακάρεσσι θεοῖς, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν. 140 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 141 τοὶ μὲν ὑποχθόνιοι μάκαρες θνητοῖς καλέονται, 142 δεύτεροι, ἀλλʼ ἔμπης τιμὴ καὶ τοῖσιν ὀπηδεῖ—, 143 Ζεὺς δὲ πατὴρ τρίτον ἄλλο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων 144 χάλκειον ποίησʼ, οὐκ ἀργυρέῳ οὐδὲν ὁμοῖον, 145 ἐκ μελιᾶν, δεινόν τε καὶ ὄβριμον· οἷσιν Ἄρηος 146 ἔργʼ ἔμελεν στονόεντα καὶ ὕβριες· οὐδέ τι σῖτον 147 ἤσθιον, ἀλλʼ ἀδάμαντος ἔχον κρατερόφρονα θυμόν, 148 ἄπλαστοι· μεγάλη δὲ βίη καὶ χεῖρες ἄαπτοι 149 ἐξ ὤμων ἐπέφυκον ἐπὶ στιβαροῖσι μέλεσσιν. 150 ὧν δʼ ἦν χάλκεα μὲν τεύχεα, χάλκεοι δέ τε οἶκοι 151 χαλκῷ δʼ εἰργάζοντο· μέλας δʼ οὐκ ἔσκε σίδηρος. 152 καὶ τοὶ μὲν χείρεσσιν ὕπο σφετέρῃσι δαμέντες 153 βῆσαν ἐς εὐρώεντα δόμον κρυεροῦ Αίδαο 154 νώνυμνοι· θάνατος δὲ καὶ ἐκπάγλους περ ἐόντας 155 εἷλε μέλας, λαμπρὸν δʼ ἔλιπον φάος ἠελίοιο. 156 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψεν, 157 αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 158 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ἄρειον, 159 ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 160 ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161 καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162 τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163 ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164 τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165 ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166 ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 167 τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 169 Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169 ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169 τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169 τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169 τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170 καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171 ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 172 ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173 τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα. 174 μηκέτʼ ἔπειτʼ ὤφελλον ἐγὼ πέμπτοισι μετεῖναι 175 ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλʼ ἢ πρόσθε θανεῖν ἢ ἔπειτα γενέσθαι. 176 νῦν γὰρ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ σιδήρεον· οὐδέ ποτʼ ἦμαρ 177 παύονται καμάτου καὶ ὀιζύος, οὐδέ τι νύκτωρ 178 φθειρόμενοι. χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας· 179 ἀλλʼ ἔμπης καὶ τοῖσι μεμείξεται ἐσθλὰ κακοῖσιν. 180 Ζεὺς δʼ ὀλέσει καὶ τοῦτο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων, 181 εὖτʼ ἂν γεινόμενοι πολιοκρόταφοι τελέθωσιν. 182 οὐδὲ πατὴρ παίδεσσιν ὁμοίιος οὐδέ τι παῖδες, 183 οὐδὲ ξεῖνος ξεινοδόκῳ καὶ ἑταῖρος ἑταίρῳ, 184 οὐδὲ κασίγνητος φίλος ἔσσεται, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ. 185 αἶψα δὲ γηράσκοντας ἀτιμήσουσι τοκῆας· 186 μέμψονται δʼ ἄρα τοὺς χαλεποῖς βάζοντες ἔπεσσι 187 σχέτλιοι οὐδὲ θεῶν ὄπιν εἰδότες· οὐδέ κεν οἵ γε 188 γηράντεσσι τοκεῦσιν ἀπὸ θρεπτήρια δοῖεν 189 χειροδίκαι· ἕτερος δʼ ἑτέρου πόλιν ἐξαλαπάξει. 190 οὐδέ τις εὐόρκου χάρις ἔσσεται οὔτε δικαίου 191 οὔτʼ ἀγαθοῦ, μᾶλλον δὲ κακῶν ῥεκτῆρα καὶ ὕβριν 192 ἀνέρες αἰνήσουσι· δίκη δʼ ἐν χερσί, καὶ αἰδὼς 193 οὐκ ἔσται· βλάψει δʼ ὁ κακὸς τὸν ἀρείονα φῶτα 194 μύθοισιν σκολιοῖς ἐνέπων, ἐπὶ δʼ ὅρκον ὀμεῖται. 195 ζῆλος δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀιζυροῖσιν ἅπασι 196 δυσκέλαδος κακόχαρτος ὁμαρτήσει, στυγερώπης. 197 καὶ τότε δὴ πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἀπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 198 λευκοῖσιν φάρεσσι καλυψαμένα χρόα καλὸν 199 ἀθανάτων μετὰ φῦλον ἴτον προλιπόντʼ ἀνθρώπους 200 Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ 201 θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐκ ἔσσεται ἀλκή. 202 νῦν δʼ αἶνον βασιλεῦσιν ἐρέω φρονέουσι καὶ αὐτοῖς· 203 ὧδʼ ἴρηξ προσέειπεν ἀηδόνα ποικιλόδειρον 204 ὕψι μάλʼ ἐν νεφέεσσι φέρων ὀνύχεσσι μεμαρπώς· 205 ἣ δʼ ἐλεόν, γναμπτοῖσι πεπαρμένη ἀμφʼ ὀνύχεσσι, 206 μύρετο· τὴν ὅγʼ ἐπικρατέως πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπεν· 207 δαιμονίη, τί λέληκας; ἔχει νύ σε πολλὸν ἀρείων· 208 τῇ δʼ εἶς, ᾗ σʼ ἂν ἐγώ περ ἄγω καὶ ἀοιδὸν ἐοῦσαν· 209 δεῖπνον δʼ, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλω, ποιήσομαι ἠὲ μεθήσω. 210 ἄφρων δʼ, ὅς κʼ ἐθέλῃ πρὸς κρείσσονας ἀντιφερίζειν· 211 νίκης τε στέρεται πρός τʼ αἴσχεσιν ἄλγεα πάσχει. 212 ὣς ἔφατʼ ὠκυπέτης ἴρηξ, τανυσίπτερος ὄρνις. 213 ὦ Πέρση, σὺ δʼ ἄκουε δίκης, μηδʼ ὕβριν ὄφελλε· 214 ὕβρις γάρ τε κακὴ δειλῷ βροτῷ· οὐδὲ μὲν ἐσθλὸς 215 ῥηιδίως φερέμεν δύναται, βαρύθει δέ θʼ ὑπʼ αὐτῆς 216 ἐγκύρσας ἄτῃσιν· ὁδὸς δʼ ἑτέρηφι παρελθεῖν 217 κρείσσων ἐς τὰ δίκαια· Δίκη δʼ ὑπὲρ Ὕβριος ἴσχει 218 ἐς τέλος ἐξελθοῦσα· παθὼν δέ τε νήπιος ἔγνω. 219 αὐτίκα γὰρ τρέχει Ὅρκος ἅμα σκολιῇσι δίκῃσιν. 220 τῆς δὲ Δίκης ῥόθος ἑλκομένης, ᾗ κʼ ἄνδρες ἄγωσι 221 δωροφάγοι, σκολιῇς δὲ δίκῃς κρίνωσι θέμιστας. 222 ἣ δʼ ἕπεται κλαίουσα πόλιν καὶ ἤθεα λαῶν, 223 ἠέρα ἑσσαμένη, κακὸν ἀνθρώποισι φέρουσα, 224 οἵ τε μιν ἐξελάσωσι καὶ οὐκ ἰθεῖαν ἔνειμαν. 2
25 Οἳ δὲ δίκας ξείνοισι καὶ ἐνδήμοισι διδοῦσιν 226 ἰθείας καὶ μή τι παρεκβαίνουσι δικαίου, 227 τοῖσι τέθηλε πόλις, λαοὶ δʼ ἀνθεῦσιν ἐν αὐτῇ· 228 εἰρήνη δʼ ἀνὰ γῆν κουροτρόφος, οὐδέ ποτʼ αὐτοῖς 229 ἀργαλέον πόλεμον τεκμαίρεται εὐρύοπα Ζεύς· 230 οὐδέ ποτʼ ἰθυδίκῃσι μετʼ ἀνδράσι λιμὸς ὀπηδεῖ 231 οὐδʼ ἄτη, θαλίῃς δὲ μεμηλότα ἔργα νέμονται. 232 τοῖσι φέρει μὲν γαῖα πολὺν βίον, οὔρεσι δὲ δρῦς 233 ἄκρη μέν τε φέρει βαλάνους, μέσση δὲ μελίσσας· 234 εἰροπόκοι δʼ ὄιες μαλλοῖς καταβεβρίθασιν· 235 τίκτουσιν δὲ γυναῖκες ἐοικότα τέκνα γονεῦσιν· 236 θάλλουσιν δʼ ἀγαθοῖσι διαμπερές· οὐδʼ ἐπὶ νηῶν 237 νίσσονται, καρπὸν δὲ φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα.
649 οὔτε τι ναυτιλίης σεσοφισμένος οὔτε τι νηῶν. 650 οὐ γάρ πώ ποτε νηί γʼ ἐπέπλων εὐρέα πόντον, ' None
25 Potter hates potter, builder builder, and 26 A beggar bears his fellow-beggar spite, 27 Likewise all singers. Perses, understand 28 My verse, don’t let the evil Strife invite 29 Your heart to shrink from work and make you gaze 30 And listen to the quarrels in the square - 31 No time for quarrels or to spend one’s day 32 In public life when in your granary there 33 Is not stored up a year’s stock of the grain 34 Demeter grants the earth. Get in that store, 35 Then you may wrangle, struggling to obtain 36 Other men’s goods – a chance shall come no more 37 To do this. Let’s set straight our wrangling 38 With Zeus’s laws, so excellent and fair. 39 We split our goods in two, but, capturing 40 The greater part, you carried it from there 41 And praised those kings, bribe-eaters, who adore
118 of gold, existing under Cronus’ reign'119 When he ruled Heaven. There was not a trace 120 of woe among them since they felt no pain; 121 There was no dread old age but, always rude 122 of health, away from grief, they took delight 123 In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued 124 By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right, 1
25 Would bring forth plenteous fruit. In harmony 126 They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease 127 With all the gods. But when this progeny 128 Was buried underneath the earth – yet these 129 Live on, land-spirits, holy, pure and blessed, 130 Who guard mankind from evil, watching out 131 For all the laws and heinous deeds, while dressed 132 In misty vapour, roaming all about 133 The land, bestowing wealth, this kingly right 134 Being theirs – a second race the Olympians made, 135 A silver one, far worse, unlike, in sight 136 And mind, the golden, for a young child stayed, 137 A large bairn, in his mother’s custody, 138 Just playing inside for a hundred years. 139 But when they all reached their maturity, 140 They lived a vapid life, replete with tears, 141 Through foolishness, unable to forbear 142 To brawl, spurning the gods, refusing, too, 143 To sacrifice (a law kept everywhere). 144 Then Zeus, since they would not give gods their due, 145 In rage hid them, as did the earth – all men 146 Have called the race Gods Subterranean, 147 Second yet honoured still. A third race then 148 Zeus fashioned out of bronze, quite different than 149 The second, with ash spears, both dread and stout; 150 They liked fell warfare and audacity; 151 They ate no corn, encased about 152 With iron, full invincibility 153 In hands, limbs, shoulders, and the arms they plied 154 Were bronze, their houses, too, their tools; they knew 155 of no black iron. Later, when they died 156 It was self-slaughter – they descended to 157 Chill Hades’ mouldy house, without a name. 158 Yes, black death took them off, although they’d been 159 Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 160 Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161 Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162 Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163 The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164 Called demigods. It was the race before 165 Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166 And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 167 While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168 The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 169 Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170 For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171 In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 172 Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173 Carefree, among the blessed isles, content 174 And affluent, by the deep-swirling sea. 175 Sweet grain, blooming three times a year, was sent 176 To them by the earth, that gives vitality 177 To all mankind, and Cronus was their lord, 178 Far from the other gods, for Zeus, who reign 179 Over gods and men, had cut away the cord 180 That bound him. Though the lowest race, its gain 181 Were fame and glory. A fifth progeny 182 All-seeing Zeus produced, who populated 183 The fecund earth. I wish I could not be 184 Among them, but instead that I’d been fated 185 To be born later or be in my grave 186 Already: for it is of iron made. 187 Each day in misery they ever slave, 188 And even in the night they do not fade 189 Away. The gods will give to them great woe 190 But mix good with the bad. Zeus will destroy 191 Them too when babies in their cribs shall grow 192 Grey hair. No bond a father with his boy 193 Shall share, nor guest with host, nor friend with friend – 194 No love of brothers as there was erstwhile, 195 Respect for aging parents at an end. 196 Their wretched children shall with words of bile 197 Find fault with them in their irreverence 198 And not repay their bringing up. We’ll find 199 Cities brought down. There’ll be no deference 200 That’s given to the honest, just and kind. 201 The evil and the proud will get acclaim, 202 Might will be right and shame shall cease to be, 203 The bad will harm the good whom they shall maim 204 With crooked words, swearing false oaths. We’ll see 205 Envy among the wretched, foul of face 206 And voice, adoring villainy, and then 207 Into Olympus from the endless space 208 Mankind inhabits, leaving mortal men, 209 Fair flesh veiled by white robes, shall Probity 210 And Shame depart, and there’ll be grievous pain 211 For men: against all evil there shall be 212 No safeguard. Now I’ll tell, for lords who know 213 What it purports, a fable: once, on high, 214 Clutched in its talon-grip, a bird of prey 215 Took off a speckled nightingale whose cry 216 Was “Pity me”, but, to this bird’s dismay, 217 He said disdainfully: “You silly thing, 218 Why do you cry? A stronger one by far 219 Now has you. Although you may sweetly sing, 220 You go where I decide. Perhaps you are 221 My dinner or perhaps I’ll let you go. 222 A fool assails a stronger, for he’ll be 223 The loser, suffering scorn as well as woe.” 224 Thus spoke the swift-winged bird. Listen to me, 2
25 Perses – heed justice and shun haughtiness; 226 It aids no common man: nobles can’t stay 227 It easily because it will oppre 228 Us all and bring disgrace. The better way 229 Is Justice, who will outstrip Pride at last. 230 Fools learn this by experience because 231 The God of Oaths, by running very fast, 232 Keeps pace with and requites all crooked laws. 233 When men who swallow bribes and crookedly 234 Pass sentences and drag Justice away, 235 There’s great turmoil, and then, in misery 236 Weeping and covered in a misty spray, 237 She comes back to the city, carrying
649 One who is nursing). You must take good care 650 of your sharp-toothed dog; do not scant his meat ' None
|2. Homer, Iliad, 3.383 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, confession of Phaedra in Hippolytus and • Hippolytus • eros, confession of Phaedra in Hippolytus on • metalepsis, of Phaedra in Hippolytus
Found in books: Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 50; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 699
3.383 αὐτὴ δʼ αὖ Ἑλένην καλέουσʼ ἴε· τὴν δὲ κίχανε'' None
3.383 /with spear of bronze. '' None
|3. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus (Euripides), Artemis in
Found in books: Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 366; Romana Berno (2023), Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History, 233
|4. Euripides, Hippolytus, 1-40, 42-48, 51-56, 58-60, 84-86, 102, 104, 106, 141-148, 172, 179, 181-185, 188, 198, 208-249, 273, 275-276, 279-280, 282-283, 293, 302-305, 315-317, 325-336, 373-430, 443-456, 462-463, 473-479, 503-512, 516, 522, 525-564, 611-612, 616-624, 657, 792, 887-890, 925-926, 944, 952-957, 985-990, 1003, 1035-1040, 1055-1058, 1060-1063, 1074-1075, 1078-1079, 1157-1159, 1169-1170, 1179-1180, 1191, 1205-1217, 1243-1254, 1272-1273, 1277-1280, 1286-1295, 1298-1302, 1305-1324, 1326, 1328-1337, 1339-1340, 1390-1391, 1400, 1402, 1405, 1407, 1409, 1414, 1416-1439 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, confession of Phaedra in Hippolytus and • Aphrodite, in the Hippolytus • Artemis, and Hippolytus • Church Fathers, Hippolytus • Euripides, Hippolytus • Euripides, dramas by\n, Hippolytus • Euripides, works,, Hippolytus • Hippolytos • Hippolytos, cult of • Hippolytus • Hippolytus (Euripides), Artemis in • Hippolytus (Euripides), and the mechane • Hippolytus, blind oath to Phaedras nurse • Hippolytus, other oaths sworn by • Orphism, Hippolytus accused of • Theseus, and Hippolytus • Theseus, in Euripides’ Hippolytus • Trozen, cult of Hippolytus in • aidos, in Hippolytus • characters, tragic/mythical, Hippolytus • chorus, in Euripides’ Hippolytus • engages with Aeschylean corpus, Hippolytus • eros, confession of Phaedra in Hippolytus on • eros, lewd women condemned by Phaedra in Hippolytus • eudaimonia, and Hippolytus • justice, Hippolytus as dikaios • madness, in the Hippolytus • meadow, sacred, in the Hippolytus • metalepsis, of Phaedra in Hippolytus • noos/nous, seat of purity/impurity, in the Hippolytus • oath, in the Hippolytus • phren/phrenes, seat of purity/impurity, in the Hippolytus • prayer, Hippolytus • psyche as seat of purity/impurity, Hippolytus parthenos psyche • self-curses, Hippolytus • sophronein/sophrosyne, Hippolytus • supplication, in the Hippolytus • themis, in the Hippolytus • virginity, and Hippolytus • washing, ritual, of ears in the Hippolytus • water in ritual purification, in Hippolytus meadow • women in Greek culture lewd women condemned by Phaedra in Hippolytus
Found in books: Bednarek (2021), The Myth of Lycurgus in Aeschylus, Naevius, and beyond, 70, 71; Bexley (2022), Seneca's Characters: Fictional Identities and Implied Human Selves, 205, 206; Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 64, 65, 69; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 251; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 633, 634, 635, 638; Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 60; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 187, 188; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 201; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 20; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 145; Hesk (2000), Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 285, 287, 289; Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 76, 104; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 239, 366; Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 15, 21; Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 109, 310; Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 119, 124, 125, 126, 138; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 83, 94, 109; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 44, 100, 111; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 45, 133, 164, 165; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 121, 148; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 212, 213, 214, 215; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 67; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 5, 28, 31, 79, 246, 247, 289, 291, 294, 304, 347, 386, 387, 1899; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 53, 54; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 229; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 542, 544, 699, 704
1 Πολλὴ μὲν ἐν βροτοῖσι κοὐκ ἀνώνυμος'2 θεὰ κέκλημαι Κύπρις οὐρανοῦ τ' ἔσω:" '3 ὅσοι τε Πόντου τερμόνων τ' ̓Ατλαντικῶν" "4 ναίουσιν εἴσω, φῶς ὁρῶντες ἡλίου,' "5 τοὺς μὲν σέβοντας τἀμὰ πρεσβεύω κράτη,' "6 σφάλλω δ' ὅσοι φρονοῦσιν εἰς ἡμᾶς μέγα." '7 ἔνεστι γὰρ δὴ κἀν θεῶν γένει τόδε:' "8 τιμώμενοι χαίρουσιν ἀνθρώπων ὕπο.' "9 δείξω δὲ μύθων τῶνδ' ἀλήθειαν τάχα:" 10 ὁ γάρ με Θησέως παῖς, ̓Αμαζόνος τόκος,' "
1 ̔Ιππόλυτος, ἁγνοῦ Πιτθέως παιδεύματα,
12 μόνος πολιτῶν τῆσδε γῆς Τροζηνίας
13 λέγει κακίστην δαιμόνων πεφυκέναι:
14 ἀναίνεται δὲ λέκτρα κοὐ ψαύει γάμων,' "
15 Φοίβου δ' ἀδελφὴν ̓́Αρτεμιν, Διὸς κόρην," 16 τιμᾷ, μεγίστην δαιμόνων ἡγούμενος,' "
17 χλωρὰν δ' ἀν' ὕλην παρθένῳ ξυνὼν ἀεὶ" 18 κυσὶν ταχείαις θῆρας ἐξαιρεῖ χθονός,
19 μείζω βροτείας προσπεσὼν ὁμιλίας. 20 τούτοισι μέν νυν οὐ φθονῶ: τί γάρ με δεῖ; 2
1 ἃ δ' εἰς ἔμ' ἡμάρτηκε τιμωρήσομαι" "22 ̔Ιππόλυτον ἐν τῇδ' ἡμέρᾳ: τὰ πολλὰ δὲ" "23 πάλαι προκόψας', οὐ πόνου πολλοῦ με δεῖ." "24 ἐλθόντα γάρ νιν Πιτθέως ποτ' ἐκ δόμων" '25 σεμνῶν ἐς ὄψιν καὶ τέλη μυστηρίων 26 Πανδίονος γῆν πατρὸς εὐγενὴς δάμαρ 27 ἰδοῦσα Φαίδρα καρδίαν κατέσχετο 28 ἔρωτι δεινῷ τοῖς ἐμοῖς βουλεύμασιν. 29 καὶ πρὶν μὲν ἐλθεῖν τήνδε γῆν Τροζηνίαν,' "30 πέτραν παρ' αὐτὴν Παλλάδος, κατόψιον" "3
1 γῆς τῆσδε ναὸν Κύπριδος ἐγκαθίσατο,' "32 ἐρῶς' ἔρωτ' ἔκδημον, ̔Ιππολύτῳ δ' ἔπι" '33 τὸ λοιπὸν ὀνομάσουσιν ἱδρῦσθαι θεάν.' "34 ἐπεὶ δὲ Θησεὺς Κεκροπίαν λείπει χθόνα 35 μίασμα φεύγων αἵματος Παλλαντιδῶν 36 καὶ τήνδε σὺν δάμαρτι ναυστολεῖ χθόνα, 37 ἐνιαυσίαν ἔκδημον αἰνέσας φυγήν,' "38 ἐνταῦθα δὴ στένουσα κἀκπεπληγμένη' "39 κέντροις ἔρωτος ἡ τάλαιν' ἀπόλλυται" '40 σιγῇ, ξύνοιδε δ' οὔτις οἰκετῶν νόσον." "
42 δείξω δὲ Θησεῖ πρᾶγμα κἀκφανήσεται.' "43 καὶ τὸν μὲν ἡμῖν πολέμιον νεανίαν' "44 κτενεῖ πατὴρ ἀραῖσιν ἃς ὁ πόντιος 45 ἄναξ Ποσειδῶν ὤπασεν Θησεῖ γέρας,' "46 μηδὲν μάταιον ἐς τρὶς εὔξασθαι θεῷ.' "47 ἡ δ' εὐκλεὴς μὲν ἀλλ' ὅμως ἀπόλλυται" "48 Φαίδρα: τὸ γὰρ τῆσδ' οὐ προτιμήσω κακὸν" '5
1 ἀλλ' εἰσορῶ γὰρ τόνδε παῖδα Θησέως" "52 στείχοντα, θήρας μόχθον ἐκλελοιπότα,' "53 ̔Ιππόλυτον, ἔξω τῶνδε βήσομαι τόπων.' "54 πολὺς δ' ἅμ' αὐτῷ προσπόλων ὀπισθόπους" '55 κῶμος λέλακεν, ̓́Αρτεμιν τιμῶν θεὰν' "56 ὕμνοισιν: οὐ γὰρ οἶδ' ἀνεῳγμένας πύλας" "
58 ἕπεσθ' ᾄδοντες ἕπεσθε" '59 τὰν Διὸς οὐρανίαν' "60 ̓́Αρτεμιν, ᾇ μελόμεσθα.
84 μόνῳ γάρ ἐστι τοῦτ' ἐμοὶ γέρας βροτῶν:" '85 σοὶ καὶ ξύνειμι καὶ λόγοις ἀμείβομαι,' "86 κλύων μὲν αὐδῆς, ὄμμα δ' οὐχ ὁρῶν τὸ σόν." "
102 πρόσωθεν αὐτὴν ἁγνὸς ὢν ἀσπάζομαι.' "
104 ἄλλοισιν ἄλλος θεῶν τε κἀνθρώπων μέλει.' "
106 οὐδείς μ' ἀρέσκει νυκτὶ θαυμαστὸς θεῶν." 14
1 †σύ γὰρ† ἔνθεος, ὦ κούρα,
42 εἴτ' ἐκ Πανὸς εἴθ' ̔Εκάτας" 143 ἢ σεμνῶν Κορυβάντων φοι-
144 τᾷς ἢ ματρὸς ὀρείας;' "
145 †σὺ δ'† ἀμφὶ τὰν πολύθη-" 146 ρον Δίκτυνναν ἀμπλακίαις
147 ἀνίερος ἀθύτων πελάνων τρύχῃ;
148 φοιτᾷ γὰρ καὶ διὰ λί-' "
179 ἔξω δὲ δόμων ἤδη νοσερᾶς
1 δεῦρο γὰρ ἐλθεῖν πᾶν ἔπος ἦν σοι,' "
182 τάχα δ' ἐς θαλάμους σπεύσεις τὸ πάλιν." 183 ταχὺ γὰρ σφάλλῃ κοὐδενὶ χαίρεις,' "
84 οὐδέ ς' ἀρέσκει τὸ παρόν, τὸ δ' ἀπὸν" 185 φίλτερον ἡγῇ.
198 αἴρετέ μου δέμας, ὀρθοῦτε κάρα:' "
208 αἰαῖ: 209 πῶς ἂν δροσερᾶς ἀπὸ κρηνῖδος' "232 τί τόδ' αὖ παράφρων ἔρριψας ἔπος;" '236 τάδε μαντείας ἄξια πολλῆς, 237 ὅστις σε θεῶν ἀνασειράζει 238 καὶ παρακόπτει φρένας, ὦ παῖ.' "240 ποῖ παρεπλάγχθην γνώμης ἀγαθῆς; 24
1 ἐμάνην, ἔπεσον δαίμονος ἄτῃ. 244 αἰδούμεθα γὰρ τὰ λελεγμένα μοι. 247 τὸ γὰρ ὀρθοῦσθαι γνώμην ὀδυνᾷ, 248 τὸ δὲ μαινόμενον κακόν: ἀλλὰ κρατεῖ' "249 μὴ γιγνώσκοντ' ἀπολέσθαι." 273 ἐς ταὐτὸν ἥκεις: πάντα γὰρ σιγᾷ τάδε.' "
275 πῶς δ' οὔ, τριταίαν γ' οὖς' ἄσιτος ἡμέραν;" "276 πότερον ὑπ' ἄτης ἢ θανεῖν πειρωμένη;" '304 ἀλλ' ἴσθι μέντοι — πρὸς τάδ' αὐθαδεστέρα" '305 γίγνου θαλάσσης — εἰ θανῇ, προδοῦσα σοὺς 3
16 ἁγνὰς μέν, ὦ παῖ, χεῖρας αἵματος φορεῖς;' "3
16 παῖδάς τ' ὀνῆσαι καὶ σὸν ἐκσῶσαι βίον." '3
17 χεῖρες μὲν ἁγναί, φρὴν δ' ἔχει μίασμά τι." "
325 τί δρᾷς; βιάζῃ χειρὸς ἐξαρτωμένη;' "329 ὀλῇ. τὸ μέντοι πρᾶγμ' ἐμοὶ τιμὴν φέρει." '330 κἄπειτα κρύπτεις, χρήσθ' ἱκνουμένης ἐμοῦ;" '33
1 ἐκ τῶν γὰρ αἰσχρῶν ἐσθλὰ μηχανώμεθα. 332 οὐκοῦν λέγουσα τιμιωτέρα φανῇ; 335 δώσω: σέβας γὰρ χειρὸς αἰδοῦμαι τὸ σόν.
373 Τροζήνιαι γυναῖκες, αἳ τόδ' ἔσχατον" '374 οἰκεῖτε χώρας Πελοπίας προνώπιον,' "375 ἤδη ποτ' ἄλλως νυκτὸς ἐν μακρῷ χρόνῳ" "376 θνητῶν ἐφρόντις' ᾗ διέφθαρται βίος." '377 καί μοι δοκοῦσιν οὐ κατὰ γνώμης φύσιν' "378 πράσσειν κάκιον: ἔστι γὰρ τό γ' εὖ φρονεῖν" "379 πολλοῖσιν: ἀλλὰ τῇδ' ἀθρητέον τόδε:" '380 τὰ χρήστ' ἐπιστάμεσθα καὶ γιγνώσκομεν," "38
1 οὐκ ἐκπονοῦμεν δ', οἱ μὲν ἀργίας ὕπο," "382 οἱ δ' ἡδονὴν προθέντες ἀντὶ τοῦ καλοῦ" "383 ἄλλην τιν'. εἰσὶ δ' ἡδοναὶ πολλαὶ βίου," '3
84 μακραί τε λέσχαι καὶ σχολή, τερπνὸν κακόν,' "385 αἰδώς τε. δισσαὶ δ' εἰσίν, ἡ μὲν οὐ κακή," "386 ἡ δ' ἄχθος οἴκων. εἰ δ' ὁ καιρὸς ἦν σαφής," "387 οὐκ ἂν δύ' ἤστην ταὔτ' ἔχοντε γράμματα." "388 ταῦτ' οὖν ἐπειδὴ τυγχάνω προγνοῦς' ἐγώ," "389 οὐκ ἔσθ' ὁποίῳ φαρμάκῳ διαφθερεῖν" "390 ἔμελλον, ὥστε τοὔμπαλιν πεσεῖν φρενῶν. 39
1 λέξω δὲ καί σοι τῆς ἐμῆς γνώμης ὁδόν.' "392 ἐπεί μ' ἔρως ἔτρωσεν, ἐσκόπουν ὅπως" "393 κάλλιστ' ἐνέγκαιμ' αὐτόν. ἠρξάμην μὲν οὖν" '394 ἐκ τοῦδε, σιγᾶν τήνδε καὶ κρύπτειν νόσον. 395 γλώσσῃ γὰρ οὐδὲν πιστόν, ἣ θυραῖα μὲν' "396 φρονήματ' ἀνδρῶν νουθετεῖν ἐπίσταται," "397 αὐτὴ δ' ὑφ' αὑτῆς πλεῖστα κέκτηται κακά." '398 τὸ δεύτερον δὲ τὴν ἄνοιαν εὖ φέρειν 399 τῷ σωφρονεῖν νικῶσα προυνοησάμην. 400 τρίτον δ', ἐπειδὴ τοισίδ' οὐκ ἐξήνυτον" '40
1 Κύπριν κρατῆσαι, κατθανεῖν ἔδοξέ μοι, 402 κράτιστον — οὐδεὶς ἀντερεῖ — βουλευμάτων. 403 ἐμοὶ γὰρ εἴη μήτε λανθάνειν καλὰ' "404 μήτ' αἰσχρὰ δρώσῃ μάρτυρας πολλοὺς ἔχειν." "405 τὸ δ' ἔργον ᾔδη τὴν νόσον τε δυσκλεᾶ," "406 γυνή τε πρὸς τοῖσδ' οὖς' ἐγίγνωσκον καλῶς," '407 μίσημα πᾶσιν. ὡς ὄλοιτο παγκάκως' "408 ἥτις πρὸς ἄνδρας ἤρξατ' αἰσχύνειν λέχη" '409 πρώτη θυραίους. ἐκ δὲ γενναίων δόμων' "4
10 τόδ' ἦρξε θηλείαισι γίγνεσθαι κακόν:" '4
1 ὅταν γὰρ αἰσχρὰ τοῖσιν ἐσθλοῖσιν δοκῇ,' "4
12 ἦ κάρτα δόξει τοῖς κακοῖς γ' εἶναι καλά." '4
13 μισῶ δὲ καὶ τὰς σώφρονας μὲν ἐν λόγοις, 4
14 λάθρᾳ δὲ τόλμας οὐ καλὰς κεκτημένας:' "4
15 αἳ πῶς ποτ', ὦ δέσποινα ποντία Κύπρι," '4
16 βλέπουσιν ἐς πρόσωπα τῶν ξυνευνετῶν 4
17 οὐδὲ σκότον φρίσσουσι τὸν ξυνεργάτην' "4
18 τέραμνά τ' οἴκων μή ποτε φθογγὴν ἀφῇ;" "4
19 ἡμᾶς γὰρ αὐτὸ τοῦτ' ἀποκτείνει, φίλαι," 420 ὡς μήποτ' ἄνδρα τὸν ἐμὸν αἰσχύνας' ἁλῶ," "
1 μὴ παῖδας οὓς ἔτικτον: ἀλλ' ἐλεύθεροι" 422 παρρησίᾳ θάλλοντες οἰκοῖεν πόλιν' "
423 κλεινῶν ̓Αθηνῶν, μητρὸς οὕνεκ' εὐκλεεῖς." 424 δουλοῖ γὰρ ἄνδρα, κἂν θρασύσπλαγχνός τις ᾖ,
425 ὅταν ξυνειδῇ μητρὸς ἢ πατρὸς κακά.' "
426 μόνον δὲ τοῦτό φας' ἁμιλλᾶσθαι βίῳ," 427 γνώμην δικαίαν κἀγαθήν ὅτῳ παρῇ.' "
428 κακοὺς δὲ θνητῶν ἐξέφην' ὅταν τύχῃ," 429 προθεὶς κάτοπτρον ὥστε παρθένῳ νέᾳ, 430 χρόνος: παρ' οἷσι μήποτ' ὀφθείην ἐγώ." 443 Κύπρις γὰρ οὐ φορητὸν ἢν πολλὴ ῥυῇ,' "444 ἣ τὸν μὲν εἴκονθ' ἡσυχῇ μετέρχεται," "445 ὃν δ' ἂν περισσὸν καὶ φρονοῦνθ' εὕρῃ μέγα," '446 τοῦτον λαβοῦσα πῶς δοκεῖς καθύβρισεν.' "447 φοιτᾷ δ' ἀν' αἰθέρ', ἔστι δ' ἐν θαλασσίῳ" "448 κλύδωνι Κύπρις, πάντα δ' ἐκ ταύτης ἔφυ:" "449 ἥδ' ἐστὶν ἡ σπείρουσα καὶ διδοῦς' ἔρον," '450 οὗ πάντες ἐσμὲν οἱ κατὰ χθόν' ἔκγονοι." '45
1 ὅσοι μὲν οὖν γραφάς τε τῶν παλαιτέρων' "452 ἔχουσιν αὐτοί τ' εἰσὶν ἐν μούσαις ἀεὶ" "453 ἴσασι μὲν Ζεὺς ὥς ποτ' ἠράσθη γάμων" "454 Σεμέλης, ἴσασι δ' ὡς ἀνήρπασέν ποτε" '455 ἡ καλλιφεγγὴς Κέφαλον ἐς θεοὺς ̔́Εως' "456 ἔρωτος οὕνεκ': ἀλλ' ὅμως ἐν οὐρανῷ" '474 λῆξον δ' ὑβρίζους': οὐ γὰρ ἄλλο πλὴν ὕβρις" "475 τάδ' ἐστί, κρείσσω δαιμόνων εἶναι θέλειν," "477 νοσοῦσα δ' εὖ πως τὴν νόσον καταστρέφου." "509 ἔστιν κατ' οἴκους φίλτρα μοι θελκτήρια" "5
10 ἔρωτος, ἦλθε δ' ἄρτι μοι γνώμης ἔσω," "5
1 ἅ ς' οὔτ' ἐπ' αἰσχροῖς οὔτ' ἐπὶ βλάβῃ φρενῶν" "5
12 παύσει νόσου τῆσδ', ἢν σὺ μὴ γένῃ κακή." '5
16 πότερα δὲ χριστὸν ἢ ποτὸν τὸ φάρμακον;
525 ̓́Ερως ̓́Ερως, ὁ κατ' ὀμμάτων" '526 στάζων πόθον, εἰσάγων γλυκεῖαν 527 ψυχᾷ χάριν οὓς ἐπιστρατεύσῃ, 528 μή μοί ποτε σὺν κακῷ φανείης' "529 μηδ' ἄρρυθμος ἔλθοις." '530 οὔτε γὰρ πυρὸς οὔτ' ἄστρων ὑπέρτερον βέλος," '53
1 οἷον τὸ τᾶς ̓Αφροδίτας ἵησιν ἐκ χερῶν 532 ̓́Ερως ὁ Διὸς παῖς.' "54
1 πέρθοντα καὶ διὰ πάσας ἱέντα συμφορᾶς 5
42 θνατοὺς ὅταν ἔλθῃ. 545 τὰν μὲν Οἰχαλίᾳ 546 πῶλον ἄζυγα λέκτρων, ἄναν- 547 δρον τὸ πρὶν καὶ ἄνυμφον, οἴ-' "548 κων ζεύξας' ἀπ' Εὐρυτίων" '550 δρομάδα ναί̈δ' ὅπως τε βάκ-" '55
1 χαν σὺν αἵματι, σὺν καπνῷ, 552 φονίοισι νυμφείοις 553 ̓Αλκμήνας τόκῳ Κύπρις ἐξέδωκεν:' "6
1 ὦ τέκνον, ὅρκους μηδαμῶς ἀτιμάσῃς.' "6
12 ἡ γλῶσς' ὀμώμοχ', ἡ δὲ φρὴν ἀνώμοτος." '6
16 ὦ Ζεῦ, τί δὴ κίβδηλον ἀνθρώποις κακὸν 6
17 γυναῖκας ἐς φῶς ἡλίου κατῴκισας; 6
18 εἰ γὰρ βρότειον ἤθελες σπεῖραι γένος, 6
19 οὐκ ἐκ γυναικῶν χρῆν παρασχέσθαι τόδε,' "620 ἀλλ' ἀντιθέντας σοῖσιν ἐν ναοῖς βροτοὺς" '62
1 ἢ χαλκὸν ἢ σίδηρον ἢ χρυσοῦ βάρος 622 παίδων πρίασθαι σπέρμα του τιμήματος, 623 τῆς ἀξίας ἕκαστον, ἐν δὲ δώμασιν 624 ναίειν ἐλευθέροισι θηλειῶν ἄτερ.
657 εἰ μὴ γὰρ ὅρκοις θεῶν ἄφαρκτος ᾑρέθην,
792 οὐ γάρ τί μ' ὡς θεωρὸν ἀξιοῖ δόμος" 925 φεῦ, χρῆν βροτοῖσι τῶν φίλων τεκμήριον 926 σαφές τι κεῖσθαι καὶ διάγνωσιν φρενῶν,
944 ᾔσχυνε τἀμὰ λέκτρα κἀξελέγχεται' "
952 ἤδη νυν αὔχει καὶ δι' ἀψύχου βορᾶς" "953 σίτοις καπήλευ' ̓Ορφέα τ' ἄνακτ' ἔχων" '954 βάκχευε πολλῶν γραμμάτων τιμῶν καπνούς:' "955 ἐπεί γ' ἐλήφθης. τοὺς δὲ τοιούτους ἐγὼ" '956 φεύγειν προφωνῶ πᾶσι: θηρεύουσι γὰρ 957 σεμνοῖς λόγοισιν, αἰσχρὰ μηχανώμενοι.
985 εἴ τις διαπτύξειεν οὐ καλὸν τόδε.' "986 ἐγὼ δ' ἄκομψος εἰς ὄχλον δοῦναι λόγον," '987 ἐς ἥλικας δὲ κὠλίγους σοφώτερος:' "988 ἔχει δὲ μοῖραν καὶ τόδ': οἱ γὰρ ἐν σοφοῖς" "989 φαῦλοι παρ' ὄχλῳ μουσικώτεροι λέγειν." "990 ὅμως δ' ἀνάγκη, ξυμφορᾶς ἀφιγμένης,"
1003 λέχους γὰρ ἐς τόδ' ἡμέρας ἁγνὸν δέμας:"
1035 ἡμεῖς δ' ἔχοντες οὐ καλῶς ἐχρώμεθα." 1036 ἀρκοῦσαν εἶπας αἰτίας ἀποστροφήν,
1037 ὅρκους παρασχών, πίστιν οὐ σμικράν, θεῶν.' "
1038 ἆρ' οὐκ ἐπῳδὸς καὶ γόης πέφυχ' ὅδε," 1039 ὃς τὴν ἐμὴν πέποιθεν εὐοργησίᾳ
1040 ψυχὴν κρατήσειν, τὸν τεκόντ' ἀτιμάσας;" "
1055 οὐδ' ὅρκον οὐδὲ πίστιν οὐδὲ μάντεων" 1056 φήμας ἐλέγξας ἄκριτον ἐκβαλεῖς με γῆς;
1057 ἡ δέλτος ἥδε κλῆρον οὐ δεδεγμένη' "
58 κατηγορεῖ σου πιστά: τοὺς δ' ὑπὲρ κάρα" "
1060 ὦ θεοί, τί δῆτα τοὐμὸν οὐ λύω στόμα,' "
1 ὅστις γ' ὑφ' ὑμῶν, οὓς σέβω, διόλλυμαι;" "
1062 οὐ δῆτα: πάντως οὐ πίθοιμ' ἂν οὕς με δεῖ," "
1063 μάτην δ' ἂν ὅρκους συγχέαιμ' οὓς ὤμοσα." "
1074 ὦ δώματ', εἴθε φθέγμα γηρύσαισθέ μοι" "
1075 καὶ μαρτυρήσαιτ' εἰ κακὸς πέφυκ' ἀνήρ."
1078 φεῦ:' "
1079 εἴθ' ἦν ἐμαυτὸν προσβλέπειν ἐναντίον" 1253 καὶ τὴν ἐν ̓́Ιδῃ γραμμάτων πλήσειέ τις' "
1254 πεύκην: ἐπεί νιν ἐσθλὸν ὄντ' ἐπίσταμαι." "
1272 ποτᾶται δὲ γαῖαν εὐάχητόν θ'" 1
273 ἁλμυρὸν ἐπὶ πόντον,
1277 ὅσα τε γᾶ τρέφει' "
1278 τά τ' αἰθόμενος ἅλιος δέρκεται," 1280 ἄνδρας τε: συμπάντων βασιληίδα τι-
1286 Θησεῦ, τί τάλας τοῖσδε συνήδῃ,' "
1287 παῖδ' οὐχ ὁσίως σὸν ἀποκτείνας" 1288 ψευδέσι μύθοις ἀλόχου πεισθεὶς' "
1289 ἀφανῆ; φανερὰν δ' ἔσχεθες ἄτην." 1290 πῶς οὐχ ὑπὸ γῆς τάρταρα κρύπτεις
1 δέμας αἰσχυνθείς,
1292 ἢ πτηνὸς ἄνω μεταβὰς βίοτον' "
293 πήματος ἔξω πόδα τοῦδ' ἀνέχεις;" "
1294 ὡς ἔν γ' ἀγαθοῖς ἀνδράσιν οὔ σοι" 1295 κτητὸν βιότου μέρος ἐστίν.' "
1298 ἀλλ' ἐς τόδ' ἦλθον, παιδὸς ἐκδεῖξαι φρένα" "
1299 τοῦ σοῦ δικαίαν, ὡς ὑπ' εὐκλείας θάνῃ," 1300 καὶ σῆς γυναικὸς οἶστρον ἢ τρόπον τινὰ
1 γενναιότητα: τῆς γὰρ ἐχθίστης θεῶν
302 ἡμῖν ὅσοισι παρθένειος ἡδονὴ' "
1305 τροφοῦ διώλετ' οὐχ ἑκοῦσα μηχαναῖς," "
1306 ἣ σῷ δι' ὅρκων παιδὶ σημαίνει νόσον." "
1307 ὁ δ', ὥσπερ ὢν δίκαιος, οὐκ ἐφέσπετο" "
1308 λόγοισιν, οὐδ' αὖ πρὸς σέθεν κακούμενος" 1309 ὅρκων ἀφεῖλε πίστιν, εὐσεβὴς γεγώς.' "
10 ἡ δ' εἰς ἔλεγχον μὴ πέσῃ φοβουμένη" 13
1 ψευδεῖς γραφὰς ἔγραψε καὶ διώλεσεν' "
12 δόλοισι σὸν παῖδ', ἀλλ' ὅμως ἔπεισέ σε." 13
13 οἴμοι.' "
14 δάκνει σε, Θησεῦ, μῦθος; ἀλλ' ἔχ' ἥσυχος," "
15 ἆρ' οἶσθα πατρὸς τρεῖς ἀρὰς ἔχων σαφεῖς;" 13
15 τοὐνθένδ' ἀκούσας ὡς ἂν οἰμώξῃς πλέον." "
16 ὧν τὴν μίαν παρεῖλες, ὦ κάκιστε σύ,
17 ἐς παῖδα τὸν σόν, ἐξὸν εἰς ἐχθρόν τινα.
18 πατὴρ μὲν οὖν σοι πόντιος φρονῶν καλῶς' "
19 ἔδωχ' ὅσονπερ χρῆν, ἐπείπερ ᾔνεσεν:" "
1320 σὺ δ' ἔν τ' ἐκείνῳ κἀν ἐμοὶ φαίνῃ κακός," 132
1 ὃς οὔτε πίστιν οὔτε μάντεων ὄπα
1322 ἔμεινας, οὐκ ἤλεγξας, οὐ χρόνῳ μακρῷ' "
1323 σκέψιν παρέσχες, ἀλλὰ θᾶσσον ἤ ς' ἐχρῆν" 1324 ἀρὰς ἀφῆκας παιδὶ καὶ κατέκτανες.' "
1326 δείν' ἔπραξας, ἀλλ' ὅμως" "
1328 Κύπρις γὰρ ἤθελ' ὥστε γίγνεσθαι τάδε," "
1329 πληροῦσα θυμόν. θεοῖσι δ' ὧδ' ἔχει νόμος:" 1330 οὐδεὶς ἀπαντᾶν βούλεται προθυμίᾳ' "
1330 τῇ τοῦ θέλοντος, ἀλλ' ἀφιστάμεσθ' ἀεί." "
1 ἐπεί, σάφ' ἴσθι, Ζῆνα μὴ φοβουμένη" "
1332 οὐκ ἄν ποτ' ἦλθον ἐς τόδ' αἰσχύνης ἐγὼ" "
1333 ὥστ' ἄνδρα πάντων φίλτατον βροτῶν ἐμοὶ" 1334 θανεῖν ἐᾶσαι. τὴν δὲ σὴν ἁμαρτίαν
1335 τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι μὲν πρῶτον ἐκλύει κάκης:' "
1336 ἔπειτα σὴ θανοῦς' ἀνήλωσεν γυνὴ" 1337 λόγων ἐλέγχους, ὥστε σὴν πεῖσαι φρένα.
1339 λύπη δὲ κἀμοί: τοὺς γὰρ εὐσεβεῖς θεοὶ
1340 θνῄσκοντας οὐ χαίρουσι: τούς γε μὴν κακοὺς' "
1390 τὸ δ' εὐγενές σε τῶν φρενῶν ἀπώλεσεν." 139
1400 Κύπρις γὰρ ἡ πανοῦργος ὧδ' ἐμήσατο." "
1402 τιμῆς ἐμέμφθη, σωφρονοῦντι δ' ἤχθετο."
1405 ᾤμωξα τοίνυν καὶ πατρὸς δυσπραξίας.
1407 ὦ δυστάλας σὺ τῆσδε συμφορᾶς, πάτερ.' "
1409 στένω σὲ μᾶλλον ἢ 'μὲ τῆς ἁμαρτίας." 14
14 δόξης γὰρ ἦμεν πρὸς θεῶν ἐσφαλμένοι.
16 ἔασον: οὐ γὰρ οὐδὲ γῆς ὑπὸ ζόφον
17 θεᾶς ἄτιμοι Κύπριδος ἐκ προθυμίας
18 ὀργαὶ κατασκήψουσιν ἐς τὸ σὸν δέμας,
19 σῆς εὐσεβείας κἀγαθῆς φρενὸς χάριν:' "
420 ἐγὼ γὰρ αὐτῆς ἄλλον ἐξ ἐμῆς χερὸς
1 ὃς ἂν μάλιστα φίλτατος κυρῇ βροτῶν
422 τόξοις ἀφύκτοις τοῖσδε τιμωρήσομαι.' "
423 σοὶ δ', ὦ ταλαίπωρ', ἀντὶ τῶνδε τῶν κακῶν" 1
424 τιμὰς μεγίστας ἐν πόλει Τροζηνίᾳ
425 δώσω: κόραι γὰρ ἄζυγες γάμων πάρος' "
426 κόμας κεροῦνταί σοι, δι' αἰῶνος μακροῦ" 1
427 πένθη μέγιστα δακρύων καρπουμένῳ.
428 ἀεὶ δὲ μουσοποιὸς ἐς σὲ παρθένων
429 ἔσται μέριμνα, κοὐκ ἀνώνυμος πεσὼν
1430 ἔρως ὁ Φαίδρας ἐς σὲ σιγηθήσεται.' "
1 σὺ δ', ὦ γεραιοῦ τέκνον Αἰγέως, λαβὲ" "
1432 σὸν παῖδ' ἐν ἀγκάλαισι καὶ προσέλκυσαι:" 1433 ἄκων γὰρ ὤλεσάς νιν, ἀνθρώποισι δὲ
1434 θεῶν διδόντων εἰκὸς ἐξαμαρτάνειν.
1435 καὶ σοὶ παραινῶ πατέρα μὴ στυγεῖν σέθεν,' "
1436 ̔Ιππόλυτ': ἔχει γὰρ μοῖραν ᾗ διεφθάρης." "
1437 καὶ χαῖρ': ἐμοὶ γὰρ οὐ θέμις φθιτοὺς ὁρᾶν" "
1438 οὐδ' ὄμμα χραίνειν θανασίμοισιν ἐκπνοαῖς:" "
1439 ὁρῶ δέ ς' ἤδη τοῦδε πλησίον κακοῦ." '' None
1 Wide o’er man my realm extends, and proud the name that I, the goddess Cypris, bear, both in heaven’s courts and ’mongst all those who dwell within the limits of the sea i.e. the Euxine. and the bounds of Atlas, beholding the sun-god’s light;' 2 Wide o’er man my realm extends, and proud the name that I, the goddess Cypris, bear, both in heaven’s courts and ’mongst all those who dwell within the limits of the sea i.e. the Euxine. and the bounds of Atlas, beholding the sun-god’s light; 5 those that respect my power I advance to honour, but bring to ruin all who vaunt themselves at me. For even in the race of gods this feeling finds a home, even pleasure at the honour men pay them.
10 for that son of Theseus, born of the Amazon, Hippolytus, whom holy Pittheus taught, alone of all the dwellers in this land of Troezen, calls me vilest of the deities. Love he scorns, and, as for marriage, will none of it;
15 but Artemis, daughter of Zeus, sister of Phoebus, he doth honour, counting her the chief of goddesses, and ever through the greenwood, attendant on his virgin goddess, he dears the earth of wild beasts with his fleet hounds, enjoying the comradeship of one too high for mortal ken. 20 ’Tis not this I grudge him, no! why should I? But for his sins against me, I will this very day take vengeance on Hippolytus; for long ago I cleared the ground of many obstacles, so it needs but trifling toil. 25 to witness the solemn mystic rites and be initiated therein in Pandion’s land, i.e. Attica. Phaedra, his father’s noble wife, caught sight of him, and by my designs she found her heart was seized with wild desire. 30 a temple did she rear to Cypris hard by the rock of Pallas where it o’erlooks this country, for love of the youth in another land; and to win his love in days to come she called after his name the temple she had founded for the goddess. 35 flying the pollution of the blood of Pallas’ Descendants of Pandion, king of Cecropia, slain by Theseus to obtain the kingdom. sons, and with his wife sailed to this shore, content to suffer exile for a year, then began the wretched wife to pine away in silence, moaning ’neath love’s cruel scourge, 40 and none of her servants knows what ails her. But this passion of hers must not fail thus. No, I will discover the matter to Theseus, and all shall be laid bare. Then will the father slay his child, my bitter foe, by curses, 45 for the lord Poseidon granted this boon to Theseus; three wishes of the god to ask, nor ever ask in vain. So Phaedra is to die, an honoured death ’tis true, but still to die; for I will not let her suffering outweigh the payment of such forfeit by my foe 5
1 as shall satisfy my honour. 55 of retainers, in joyous cries of revelry uniting and hymns of praise to Artemis, his goddess; for little he recks that Death hath oped his gates for him, and that this is his last look upon the light. Hippolytu
58 Come follow, friends, singing to Artemis, daughter of Zeus, throned in the sky, 60 whose votaries we are. Attendants of Hippolytu
84 elf-control, made perfect, hath a home, these may pluck the flowers, but not the wicked world. Accept, I pray, dear mistress, mine this chaplet from my holy hand to crown thy locks of gold; for I, and none other of mortals, have this high guerdon, 85 to be with thee, with thee converse, hearing thy voice, though not thy face beholding. So be it mine to end my life as I began. Attendant
102 I greet her from afar, preserving still my chastity. Att
104 ’Mongst gods as well as men we have our several preferences. Attendant
106 No god, whose worship craves the night, hath charms for me. Attendant
1 Maiden, thou must be possessed, by Pan made frantic or by Hecate, or by the Corybantes dread, and Cybele the mountain mother.
145 Or maybe thou hast sinned against Dictynna, huntress-queen, and art wasting for thy guilt in sacrifice unoffered. For she doth range o’er lakes’ expanse and past the bounds of earth
179 O, the ills of mortal men! the cruel diseases they endure! What can I do for thee? from what refrain? Here is the bright sun-light, here the azure sky; lo! we have brought thee on thy bed of sickne
1 without the palace; for all thy talk was of coming hither, but soon back to thy chamber wilt thou hurry. Disappointment follows fast with thee, thou hast no joy in aught for long; the present has no power to please; on something absent
185 next thy heart is set. Better be sick than tend the sick; the first is but a single ill, the last unites mental grief with manual toil. Man’s whole life is full of anguish;
198 Lift my body, raise my head! My limbs are all unstrung, kind friends.
208 Ah! would I could draw a draught of water pure from some dew-fed spring, and lay me down to rest in the grassy meadow ’neath the poplar’s shade! Nurse 232 Why betray thy frenzy in these wild whirling words? Now thou wert for hasting hence to the hills away to hunt wild beasts, and now 236 thy yearning is to drive the steed over the waveless sands. This needs a cunning seer to say what god it is that reins thee from the course, distracting thy senses, child. Phaedra 240 Whither have I strayed, my senses leaving? Mad, mad! stricken by some demon’s curse! Woe is me! Cover my head again, nurse. Shame fills me for the words I have spoken. 247 Hide me then; from my eyes the tear-drops stream, and for very shame I turn them away. Tis painful coming to one’s senses again, and madness, evil though it be, has this advantage, that one has no knowledge of reason’s overthrow. Nurse
273 The same answer thou must take, for she is dumb on every point. Choru
275 What marvel? ’tis three days now since she has tasted food. Choru 276 Is this infatuation, or an attempt to die? Nurse 304 but if thy trouble can to men’s ears be divulged, speak, that physicians may pronounce on it. 305 that if thou diest thou art a traitress to thy children, for they will ne’er inherit their father’s halls, nay, by that knightly queen the Amazon Hippolytus was the son of Theseus by a former union with the queen of the Amazons. who bore a son to lord it over thine, a bastard born but not a bastard bred, whom well thou knowest, 3
16 Daughter, are thy hands from bloodshed pure? Phaedra 3
17 My hands are pure, but on my soul there rests a stain. Nurse
325 How now? thou usest force in clinging to my hand. Nurse 329 ’Twill be death to thee; though to me that brings renown. ὀλεῖ (
1) 2nd sing. Fut. Mid. thou wilt die as a consequence of sharing my secret (Paley). (2) 3rd sing. Fut. Active it will kill me to keep silence, though that better ensures my honour. Nurse 330 And dost thou then conceal this boon despite my prayers? Phaedra 33
1 I do, for ’tis out of shame I am planning an honourable escape. Nurse 332 Tell it, and thine honour shall the brighter shine. Phaedra 335 I will grant it out of reverence for thy holy sup- pliant touch. Nurse
373 Ladies of Troezen, who dwell here upon the frontier edge of Pelops’ land, 375 oft ere now in heedless mood through the long hours of night have I wondered why man’s life is spoiled; and it seems to me their evil case is not due to any natural fault of judgment, for there be many dowered with sense, but we must view the matter in this light; 380 by teaching and experience we learn the right but neglect it in practice, some from sloth, others from preferring pleasure of some kind or other to duty. Now life has many pleasures, protracted talk, and leisure, that seductive evil; 385 likewise there is shame which is of two kinds, one a noble quality, the other a curse to families; but if for each its proper time were clearly known, these twain could not have had the selfsame letters to denote them. 390 and make me think the contrary. And I will tell thee too the way my judgment went. When love wounded me, I bethought me how I best might bear the smart. So from that day forth I began to hide in silence what I suffered. 395 For I put no faith in counsellors, who know well to lecture others for presumption, yet themselves have countless troubles of their own. Next I did devise noble endurance of these wanton thoughts, striving by continence for victory. 400 And last when I could not succeed in mastering love hereby, methought it best to die; and none can gainsay my purpose. For fain I would my virtue should to all appear, my shame have few to witness it. 405 I knew my sickly passion now; to yield to it I saw how infamous; and more, I learnt to know so well that I was but a woman, a thing the world detests. Curses, hideous curses on that wife, who first did shame her marriage-vow for lovers other than her lord! ’Twas from noble familie 4
10 this curse began to spread among our sex. For when the noble countece disgrace, poor folk of course will think that it is right. Those too I hate who make profession of purity, though in secret reckless sinners. 4
15 How can these, queen Cypris, ocean’s child, e’er look their husbands in the face? do they never feel one guilty thrill that their accomplice, night, or the chambers of their house will find a voice and speak? 4
19 This it is that calls on me to die, kind friends,
420 that so I may ne’er be found to have disgraced my lord, or the children I have born; no! may they grow up and dwell in glorious Athens, free to speak and act, heirs to such fair fame as a mother can bequeath. For to know that father or mother have sinned doth turn
425 the stoutest heart to slavishness. This alone, men say, can stand the buffets of life’s battle, a just and virtuous soul in whomsoever found. For time unmasks the villain sooner or later, holding up to them a mirror as to some blooming maid. 430 ’Mongst such may I be never seen! Choru
443 Wilt thou, because thou lov’st, destroy thyself? ’Tis little gain, I trow, for those who love or yet may love their fellows, if death must be their end; for though the Love-Queen’s onset in her might is more than man can bear, yet doth she gently visit yielding hearts, 445 and only when she finds a proud unnatural spirit, doth she take and mock it past belief. Her path is in the sky, and mid the ocean’s surge she rides; from her all nature springs; she sows the seeds of love, inspires the warm desire 450 to which we sons of earth all owe our being. They who have aught to do with books of ancient scribes, or themselves engage in studious pursuits, know how Zeus of Semele was enamoured, 455 how the bright-eyed goddess of the Dawn once stole Cephalus to dwell in heaven for the love she bore him; yet these in heaven abide nor shun the gods’ approach, content, I trow, to yield to their misfortune. 474 e’en the roof that covers in a house; and how dost thou, after falling into so deep a pit, think to escape? Nay, if thou hast more of good than bad, thou wilt fare exceeding well, thy human nature considered. 475 this wish to rival gods in perfectness. Face thy love; ’tis heaven’s will thou shouldst. Sick thou art, yet turn thy sickness to some happy issue. For there are charms and spells to soothe the soul; surely some cure for thy disease will be found. 509 If thou art of this mind, ’twere well thou ne’er hadst sinned; but as it is, hear me; for that is the next best course; I in my house have charm 5
10 to soothe thy love,—’twas but now I thought of them;—these shall cure thee of thy sickness on no disgraceful terms, thy mind unhurt, if thou wilt be but brave. 5
16 Is thy drug a salve or potion? Nurse
525 O Love, Love, that from the eyes diffusest soft desire, bringing on the souls of those, whom thou dost camp against, sweet grace, O never in evil mood appear to me, nor out of time and tune approach! 530 Nor fire nor meteor hurls a mightier bolt than Aphrodite’s shaft shot by the hands of Love, the child of Zeus. Choru 54
1 weetest bower,—worship not him who, when he comes, lays waste and marks his path to mortal hearts by wide-spread woe. Choru 545 There was that maiden Iole, daughter of Eurytus, king of Oechalia. Her father refused, after promising, to give her to Heracles, who thereupon took her by force. in Oechalia, a girl unwed, that knew no wooer yet nor married joys; her did the queen of Love There is some corruption here. It is probable the doubtful εἰρεσίᾳ conceals an allusion to Euryptus, as Monk indeed suggest; but the passage is not yet satisfactorily emended. snatch from her home across the sea 550 and gave unto Alcmena’s son, mid blood and smoke and murderous marriage-hymns, to be to him a frantic fiend of hell; woe! woe for his wooing! Choru 6
1 Never dishonour thy oath, thy son. Hippolytu 6
12 My tongue an oath did take, but not my heart. Nurse 6
16 Great Zeus, why didst thou, to man’s sorrow, put woman, evil counterfeit, to dwell where shines the sun? If thou wert minded that the human race should multiply, it was not from women they should have drawn their stock, 620 but in thy temples they should have paid gold or iron or ponderous bronze and bought a family, each man proportioned to his offering, and so in independence dwelt, from women free.
657 when by the very mention of it I feel myself polluted? Be well assured, woman, ’tis only my religious scruple saves thee. For had not I unawares been caught by an oath, ’fore heaven! I would not have refrained from telling all unto my father. But now I will from the house away, so long a
792 Ladies, can ye tell me what the uproar in the palace means? There came the sound of servants weeping bitterly to mine ear. None of my household deign to open wide the gates and give me glad welcome as a traveller from prophetic shrines.
925 Fie upon thee! man needs should have some certain test set up to try his friends, some touchstone of their hearts, to know each friend whether he be true or false; all men should have two voices, one the voice of honesty, expediency’s the other,
944 in villainy, the gods will have to add another sphere unto the world, which shall take in the knaves and villains.
952 Thy boasts will never persuade me to be guilty of attributing ignorance to gods. Go then, vaunt thyself, and drive
1 Hippolytus is here taunted with being an exponent of the Orphic mysteries. Apparently Orpheus, like Pythagoras, taught the necessity of total abstinence from animal food. thy petty trade in viands formed of lifeless food; take Orpheus for thy chief and go a-revelling, with all honour for the vapourings of many a written scroll, 955 eeing thou now art caught. Let all beware, I say, of such hypocrites! who hunt their prey with fine words, and all the while are scheming villainy. She is dead; dost think that this will save thee? Why this convicts thee more than all, abandoned wretch!
985 becomes a calumny, if one lay it bare. Small skill have I in speaking to a crowd, but have a readier wit for comrades of mine own age and small companies. Yea, and this is as it should be; for they, whom the wise despise, are better qualified to speak before a mob. 990 Yet am I constrained under the present circumstances to break silence. And at the outset will I take the point which formed the basis of thy stealthy attack on me, designed to put me out of court unheard; dost see yon sun, this earth? These do not contain,
1003 to mock at friends is not my way, father, but I am still the same behind their backs as to their face. The very crime thou thinkest to catch me in, is just the one I am untainted with, for to this day have I kept me pure from women. Nor know I aught thereof, save what I hear
1035 while I, though chaste, was not discreet in using this virtue. There seems to be a play on the double meaning of the word σώφρων , unattainable by any one word in English. To obtain this, however, the Greek must be rather violently handled. Nauck cuts the Gordian knot by at once rejecting the passage; his plan certainly relieves Euripides of a host of difficulties, but where is it to stop? of many conjectures, Weil’s is so ingenious that it is at least worth quoting: . . . οὐκ ἔκουσ’ ἄλλως φροωεῖν … οὐ κακῶς . . . i.e. she was virtuous, because she had no chance of being otherwise, whereas I, who had such a chance, did not put it to a bad use. Choru
1036 Thy oath by heaven, strong security, sufficiently refutes the charge. Theseu
1038 A wizard or magician must the fellow be, to think he can first flout me, his father,
1040 then by coolness master my resolve. Hippolytu
1055 What! banish me untried, without even testing my oath, the pledge I offer, or the voice of seers? Theseu
1057 This letter here, though it bears no seers’ signs, arraigns thy pledges; as for birds that fly o’er our heads, a long farewell to them. Hippolytu
1060 (aside). Great gods! why do I not unlock my lips, seeing that I am ruined by you, the objects of my reverence? No, I will not; I should nowise persuade those whom I ought to, and in vain should break the oath I swore. Theseu
1074 O house, I would thou couldst speak for me and witness if I am so vile! Theseu
1078 Alas! Would I could stand and face myself, so should I weep to see the sorrows I endure. Theseu
1253 yet will I never believe so monstrous a charge against thy son’s character, no! not though the whole race of womankind should hang itself, or one should fill with writing every pine-tree tablet grown on Ida, sure as I am of his uprightness. Choru
1272 and that attendant boy’s, who, with painted plumage gay, flutters round his victims on lightning wing. O’er the land and booming deep on golden pinion borne flits the god of Love,
1277 maddening the heart and beguiling the senses of all whom he attacks, savage whelps on mountains bred, ocean’s monsters, creatures of this sun-warmed earth,
1280 and man; thine, O Cypris, thine alone the sovereign power to rule them all. Artemi
1286 lo! ’tis I Latona’s child, that speak, I, Artemis. Why, Theseus, to thy sorrow dost thou rejoice at these tidings, seeing that thou hast slain thy son most impiously, listening to a charge not clearly proved, but falsely sworn to by thy wife? though clearly has the curse therefrom upon thee fallen.
1290 Why dost thou not for very shame hide beneath the dark places of the earth, or change thy human life and soar on wings to escape this tribulation? ’Mongst men of honour thou hast
1295 now no share in life.
1300 as well the frenzy, and, in a sense, the nobleness of thy wife; for she was cruelly stung with a passion for thy son by that goddess whom all we, that joy in virgin purity, detest. And though she strove to conquer love by resolution,
1305 yet by no fault of hers she fell, thanks to her nurse’s strategy, who did reveal her malady unto thy son under oath. But he would none of her counsels, as indeed was right, nor yet, when thou didst revile him, would he break the oath he swore, from piety.
10 She meantime, fearful of being found out, wrote a lying letter, destroying by guile thy son, but yet persuading thee. Theseu
13 Woe is me! Artemi
15 Dost remember those three prayers thy father granted thee, fraught with certain issue? ’Tis one of these thou hast misused, unnatural wretch, against thy son, instead of aiming it at an enemy. Thy sea-god sire, ’tis true, for all his kind intent, hath granted that boon he was compelled, by reason of his promise, to grant.
1320 But thou alike in his eyes and in mine hast shewn thy evil heart, in that thou hast forestalled all proof or voice prophetic, hast made no inquiry, nor taken time for consideration, but with undue haste cursed thy son even to the death. Theseu
1326 Perdition seize me! Queen revered! Artemi
1330 his neighbour’s will, but ever we stand aloof. For be well assured, did I not fear Zeus, never would I have incurred the bitter shame of handing over to death a man of all his kind to me most dear. As for thy sin,
1335 first thy ignorance absolves thee from its villainy, next thy wife, who is dead, was lavish in her use of convincing arguments to influence thy mind.
1340 albeit we try to destroy the wicked, house and home. Choru
1390 Thy noble soul hath been thy ruin. Hippolytu
1 Ah! the fragrance from my goddess wafted! Even in my agony I feel thee near and find relief; she is here in this very place, my goddess Artemis. Artemi
1400 Twas Cypris, mistress of iniquity, devised this evil. Hippolytu
1402 She was jealous of her slighted honour, vexed at thy chaste life. Hippolytu
1405 My sire’s ill-luck as well as mine I mourn. Art
1407 Woe is thee, my father, in this sad mischance! Theseu
1409 For this mistake I mourn thee rather than myself. Theseu
14 Yes; Heaven had perverted my power to think. Hippolytu
16 Enough! for though thou pass to gloom beneath the earth, the wrath of Cypris shall not, at her will, fall on thee unrequited, because thou hadst a noble righteous soul. Nauck encloses this line in brackets.
420 For I with mine own hand will with these unerring shafts avenge me on another, Adonis. who is her votary, dearest to her of all the sons of men. And to thee, poor sufferer, for thy anguish now will I grant high honours in the city of Troezen;
425 for thee shall maids unwed before their marriage cut off their hair, thy harvest through the long roll of time of countless bitter tears. Yea, and for ever shall the virgin choir hymn thy sad memory,
1430 nor shall Phaedra’s love for thee fall into oblivion and pass away unnoticed.
1435 And thee Hippolytus, I admonish; hate not thy sire, for in this death thou dost but meet thy destined fate. ' None
|5. Euripides, Medea, 1339-1340, 1378, 1381-1383 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, revenge of, in Hippolytus • Hippolytus
Found in books: Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 137, 138; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 133; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 178
1339 οὐκ ἔστιν ἥτις τοῦτ' ἂν ̔Ελληνὶς γυνὴ"1340 ἔτλη ποθ', ὧν γε πρόσθεν ἠξίουν ἐγὼ" "
1378 οὐ δῆτ', ἐπεί σφας τῇδ' ἐγὼ θάψω χερί," 1381 τύμβους ἀνασπῶν: γῇ δὲ τῇδε Σισύφου 1382 σεμνὴν ἑορτὴν καὶ τέλη προσάψομεν 1383 τὸ λοιπὸν ἀντὶ τοῦδε δυσσεβοῦς φόνου.' "" None
1339 ere thou cam’st aboard our fair ship Argo. Such was the outset of thy life of crime; then didst thou wed with me, and having born me sons to glut thy passion’s lust, thou now hast slain them. Not one amongst the wives of Hellas e’er had dared'1340 this deed; yet before them all I chose thee for my wife, wedding a foe to be my doom, no woman, but a lioness fiercer than Tyrrhene Scylla in nature. But with reproaches heaped a thousandfold
1378 No, never! I will bury them myself, bearing them to Hera’s sacred field, who watches o’er the Cape,
1381 that none of their foes may insult them by pulling down their tombs; and in this land of Sisyphus I will ordain hereafter a solemn feast and mystic rites to atone for this impious murder. Myself will now to the land of Erechtheus, ' None
|6. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 145; Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 54
|364b καὶ πένητες ὦσιν, ὁμολογοῦντες αὐτοὺς ἀμείνους εἶναι τῶν ἑτέρων. τούτων δὲ πάντων οἱ περὶ θεῶν τε λόγοι καὶ ἀρετῆς θαυμασιώτατοι λέγονται, ὡς ἄρα καὶ θεοὶ πολλοῖς μὲν ἀγαθοῖς δυστυχίας τε καὶ βίον κακὸν ἔνειμαν, τοῖς δʼ ἐναντίοις ἐναντίαν μοῖραν. ἀγύρται δὲ καὶ μάντεις ἐπὶ πλουσίων θύρας ἰόντες πείθουσιν ὡς ἔστι παρὰ σφίσι δύναμις ἐκ θεῶν ποριζομένη θυσίαις τε καὶ ἐπῳδαῖς, εἴτε τι'' None||364b and disregard those who are in any way weak or poor, even while admitting that they are better men than the others. But the strangest of all these speeches are the things they say about the gods and virtue, how so it is that the gods themselves assign to many good men misfortunes and an evil life but to their opposites a contrary lot; and begging priests and soothsayers go to rich men’s doors and make them believe that they by means of sacrifices and incantations have accumulated a treasure of power from the gods that can expiate and cure with pleasurable festival'' None|
|7. Sophocles, Philoctetes, 1413-1414 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus (Euripides), Artemis in • Hippolytus (Euripides), and the mechane
Found in books: Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 239, 366; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 133
1413 on of Poeas. Know that your ears perceive the voice of Heracles, and that you look upon his face. For your sake I have left my divine seat and come'1414 on of Poeas. Know that your ears perceive the voice of Heracles, and that you look upon his face. For your sake I have left my divine seat and come ' None
|8. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, in the Hippolytus • Hippolytos • engages with Aeschylean corpus, Hippolytus • oath, in the Hippolytus • phren/phrenes, seat of purity/impurity, in the Hippolytus • supplication, in the Hippolytus
Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 69; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 206; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 246
|9. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, in the Hippolytus • engages with Aeschylean corpus, Hippolytus • oath, in the Hippolytus • phren/phrenes, seat of purity/impurity, in the Hippolytus • supplication, in the Hippolytus
Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 206; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 246
|10. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 94; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 133
|11. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Euripides, Hippolytus • Hippolytos • Hippolytus
Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 60; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 201; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 133; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 54
|12. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytos, cult of • Hippolytus
Found in books: Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 94; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 44
|13. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, in the Hippolytus • Hippolytus • oath, in the Hippolytus • phren/phrenes, seat of purity/impurity, in the Hippolytus • supplication, in the Hippolytus • washing, ritual, of ears in the Hippolytus
Found in books: Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 145; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 205
|14. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, in the Hippolytus • Hippolytus
Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 206; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 166
|15. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus,
Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 179; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 88
|16. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89-1.101, 1.103-1.136, 1.138-1.150 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 121; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 121
1.89 Aurea prima sata est aetas, quae vindice nullo, 1.90 sponte sua, sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. 1.91 Poena metusque aberant, nec verba mitia fixo 1.92 aere legebantur, nec supplex turba timebat 1.94 Nondum caesa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbem, 1.95 montibus in liquidas pinus descenderat undas, 1.96 nullaque mortales praeter sua litora norant. 1.97 Nondum praecipites cingebant oppida fossae; 1.98 non tuba directi, non aeris cornua flexi, 1.99 non galeae, non ensis erat: sine militis usu 1.100 mollia securae peragebant otia gentes. 1.101 ipsa quoque inmunis rastroque intacta nec ullis
1.103 contentique cibis nullo cogente creatis 1.104 arbuteos fetus montanaque fraga legebant 1.105 cornaque et in duris haerentia mora rubetis 1.106 et quae deciderant patula Iovis arbore glandes. 1.107 Ver erat aeternum, placidique tepentibus auris 1.108 mulcebant zephyri natos sine semine flores. 1.109 Mox etiam fruges tellus inarata ferebat, 1.110 nec renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis; 1.111 flumina iam lactis, iam flumina nectaris ibant, 1.112 flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella. 1.113 Postquam, Saturno tenebrosa in Tartara misso, 1.114 sub Iove mundus erat, subiit argentea proles, 1.115 auro deterior, fulvo pretiosior aere. 1.116 Iuppiter antiqui contraxit tempora veris 1.117 perque hiemes aestusque et inaequalis autumnos 1.118 et breve ver spatiis exegit quattuor annum. 1.119 Tum primum siccis aer fervoribus ustus 1.120 canduit, et ventis glacies adstricta pependit. 1.121 Tum primum subiere domus (domus antra fuerunt 1.122 et densi frutices et vinctae cortice virgae). 1.123 Semina tum primum longis Cerealia sulcis 1.124 obruta sunt, pressique iugo gemuere iuvenci. 1.125 Tertia post illam successit aenea proles, 1.126 saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promptior arma, 1.127 non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima ferro. 1.128 Protinus inrupit venae peioris in aevum 1.129 omne nefas: fugere pudor verumque fidesque; 1.130 In quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolique 1.131 insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi. 1.132 Vela dabat ventis (nec adhuc bene noverat illos) 1.133 navita; quaeque diu steterant in montibus altis, 1.134 fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae, 1.135 communemque prius ceu lumina solis et auras 1.136 cautus humum longo signavit limite mensor.
1.138 poscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera terrae: 1.139 quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris, 1.140 effodiuntur opes, inritamenta malorum. 1.141 Iamque nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum 1.142 prodierat: prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque, 1.143 sanguineaque manu crepitantia concutit arma. 1.144 Vivitur ex rapto: non hospes ab hospite tutus, 1.145 non socer a genero; fratrum quoque gratia rara est. 1.146 Inminet exitio vir coniugis, illa mariti; 1.147 lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae; 1.148 filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos. 1.149 Victa iacet pietas, et virgo caede madentis, 1.150 ultima caelestum terras Astraea reliquit.' ' None
1.89 and Auster wafted to the distant south 1.90 where clouds and rain encompass his abode.— 1.91 and over these He fixed the liquid sky, 1.92 devoid of weight and free from earthly dross. 1.94 and fixed their certain bounds, when all the stars, 1.95 which long were pressed and hidden in the mass, 1.96 began to gleam out from the plains of heaven, 1.97 and traversed, with the Gods, bright ether fields: 1.98 and lest some part might be bereft of life 1.99 the gleaming waves were filled with twinkling fish; 1.100 the earth was covered with wild animals; 1.101 the agitated air was filled with birds.
1.103 a being capable of lofty thought, 1.104 intelligent to rule, was wanting still 1.105 man was created! Did the Unknown God 1.106 designing then a better world make man 1.107 of seed divine? or did Prometheu 1.108 take the new soil of earth (that still contained' "1.109 ome godly element of Heaven's Life)" '1.110 and use it to create the race of man; 1.111 first mingling it with water of new streams; 1.112 o that his new creation, upright man, 1.113 was made in image of commanding Gods? 1.114 On earth the brute creation bends its gaze, 1.115 but man was given a lofty countece 1.116 and was commanded to behold the skies; 1.117 and with an upright face may view the stars:— 1.118 and so it was that shapeless clay put on 1.119 the form of man till then unknown to earth. 1.120 First was the Golden Age. Then rectitude 1.121 pontaneous in the heart prevailed, and faith. 1.122 Avengers were not seen, for laws unframed 1.123 were all unknown and needless. Punishment 1.124 and fear of penalties existed not. 1.125 No harsh decrees were fixed on brazen plates. 1.126 No suppliant multitude the countece 1.127 of Justice feared, averting, for they dwelt 1.128 without a judge in peace. Descended not 1.129 the steeps, shorn from its height, the lofty pine, 1.130 cleaving the trackless waves of alien shores, 1.131 nor distant realms were known to wandering men. 1.132 The towns were not entrenched for time of war; 1.133 they had no brazen trumpets, straight, nor horn 1.134 of curving brass, nor helmets, shields nor swords. 1.135 There was no thought of martial pomp —secure 1.136 a happy multitude enjoyed repose.
1.138 a store of every fruit. The harrow touched 1.139 her not, nor did the plowshare wound 1.140 her fields. And man content with given food, 1.141 and none compelling, gathered arbute fruit 1.142 and wild strawberries on the mountain sides, 1.143 and ripe blackberries clinging to the bush, 1.144 and corners and sweet acorns on the ground, 1.145 down fallen from the spreading tree of Jove. 1.146 Eternal Spring! Soft breathing zephyrs soothed 1.147 and warmly cherished buds and blooms, produced 1.148 without a seed. The valleys though unplowed 1.149 gave many fruits; the fields though not renewed 1.150 white glistened with the heavy bearded wheat:' ' None
|17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.171, 18.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus, on Essenes
Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 140; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 40; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 199
13.171 Κατὰ δὲ τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον τρεῖς αἱρέσεις τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἦσαν, αἳ περὶ τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων πραγμάτων διαφόρως ὑπελάμβανον, ὧν ἡ μὲν Φαρισαίων ἐλέγετο, ἡ δὲ Σαδδουκαίων, ἡ τρίτη δὲ ̓Εσσηνῶν.
18.23 Τῇ δὲ τετάρτῃ τῶν φιλοσοφιῶν ὁ Γαλιλαῖος ̓Ιούδας ἡγεμὼν κατέστη, τὰ μὲν λοιπὰ πάντα γνώμῃ τῶν Φαρισαίων ὁμολογούσῃ, δυσνίκητος δὲ τοῦ ἐλευθέρου ἔρως ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς μόνον ἡγεμόνα καὶ δεσπότην τὸν θεὸν ὑπειληφόσιν. θανάτων τε ἰδέας ὑπομένειν παρηλλαγμένας ἐν ὀλίγῳ τίθενται καὶ συγγενῶν τιμωρίας καὶ φίλων ὑπὲρ τοῦ μηδένα ἄνθρωπον προσαγορεύειν δεσπότην.' "
18.23 ὅσπερ τῇ φυλακῇ ἐφειστήκει τοῦ ̓Αγρίππου, θεώμενος τήν τε σπουδὴν μεθ' οἵας ὁ Μαρσύας ἀφίκετο καὶ τὸ ἐκ τῶν λόγων χάρμα τῷ ̓Αγρίππᾳ συνελθόν, ὑποτοπήσας καίνωσίν τινα γεγονέναι τῶν λόγων ἤρετό σφας περὶ τοῦ λόγου τοῦ ἐφεστηκότος."' None
13.171 9. At this time there were three sects among the Jews, who had different opinions concerning human actions; the one was called the sect of the Pharisees, another the sect of the Sadducees, and the other the sect of the Essenes.
18.23 6. But of the fourth sect of Jewish philosophy, Judas the Galilean was the author. These men agree in all other things with the Pharisaic notions; but they have an inviolable attachment to liberty, and say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. They also do not value dying any kinds of death, nor indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and friends, nor can any such fear make them call any man lord.
18.23 Now the centurion who was set to keep Agrippa, when he saw with what haste Marsyas came, and what joy Agrippa had from what he said, he had a suspicion that his words implied some great innovation of affairs, and he asked them about what was said.'' None
|18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.108, 2.118-2.139, 2.141-2.159, 2.161-2.166, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus, and Christian interpretation • Hippolytus, on Essenes • Hippolytus, use/modification of Josephus writings
Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 119, 140; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 19, 40; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 63, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 198, 199
2.108 πάνυ δὲ αὐτὸν παρώξυνεν ἡ τόλμα τῶν παρ' αὐτοῦ λεγομένων: τοῖς γὰρ πυνθανομένοις περὶ ̓Αριστοβούλου σώζεσθαι μὲν κἀκεῖνον ἔλεγεν, ἀπολελεῖφθαι δὲ ἐπίτηδες ἐν Κύπρῳ τὰς ἐπιβουλὰς φυλασσόμενον: ἧττον γὰρ ἐπιχειρεῖσθαι διεζευγμένους." "
2.118 ἐπὶ τούτου τις ἀνὴρ Γαλιλαῖος ̓Ιούδας ὄνομα εἰς ἀπόστασιν ἐνῆγε τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους κακίζων, εἰ φόρον τε ̔Ρωμαίοις τελεῖν ὑπομενοῦσιν καὶ μετὰ τὸν θεὸν οἴσουσι θνητοὺς δεσπότας. ἦν δ' οὗτος σοφιστὴς ἰδίας αἱρέσεως οὐδὲν τοῖς ἄλλοις προσεοικώς." '2.119 Τρία γὰρ παρὰ ̓Ιουδαίοις εἴδη φιλοσοφεῖται, καὶ τοῦ μὲν αἱρετισταὶ Φαρισαῖοι, τοῦ δὲ Σαδδουκαῖοι, τρίτον δέ, ὃ δὴ καὶ δοκεῖ σεμνότητα ἀσκεῖν, ̓Εσσηνοὶ καλοῦνται, ̓Ιουδαῖοι μὲν γένος ὄντες, φιλάλληλοι δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πλέον. 2.121 τὸν μὲν γάμον καὶ τὴν ἐξ αὐτοῦ διαδοχὴν οὐκ ἀναιροῦντες, τὰς δὲ τῶν γυναικῶν ἀσελγείας φυλαττόμενοι καὶ μηδεμίαν τηρεῖν πεπεισμένοι τὴν πρὸς ἕνα πίστιν.' "2.122 Καταφρονηταὶ δὲ πλούτου, καὶ θαυμάσιον αὐτοῖς τὸ κοινωνικόν, οὐδὲ ἔστιν εὑρεῖν κτήσει τινὰ παρ' αὐτοῖς ὑπερέχοντα: νόμος γὰρ τοὺς εἰς τὴν αἵρεσιν εἰσιόντας δημεύειν τῷ τάγματι τὴν οὐσίαν, ὥστε ἐν ἅπασιν μήτε πενίας ταπεινότητα φαίνεσθαι μήθ' ὑπεροχὴν πλούτου, τῶν δ' ἑκάστου κτημάτων ἀναμεμιγμένων μίαν ὥσπερ ἀδελφοῖς ἅπασιν οὐσίαν εἶναι." "2.123 κηλῖδα δ' ὑπολαμβάνουσι τὸ ἔλαιον, κἂν ἀλειφθῇ τις ἄκων, σμήχεται τὸ σῶμα: τὸ γὰρ αὐχμεῖν ἐν καλῷ τίθενται λευχειμονεῖν τε διαπαντός. χειροτονητοὶ δ' οἱ τῶν κοινῶν ἐπιμεληταὶ καὶ ἀδιαίρετοι πρὸς ἁπάντων εἰς τὰς χρείας ἕκαστοι." "2.124 Μία δ' οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτῶν πόλις ἀλλ' ἐν ἑκάστῃ μετοικοῦσιν πολλοί. καὶ τοῖς ἑτέρωθεν ἥκουσιν αἱρετισταῖς πάντ' ἀναπέπταται τὰ παρ' αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως ὥσπερ ἴδια, καὶ πρὸς οὓς οὐ πρότερον εἶδον εἰσίασιν ὡς συνηθεστάτους:" "2.125 διὸ καὶ ποιοῦνται τὰς ἀποδημίας οὐδὲν μὲν ὅλως ἐπικομιζόμενοι, διὰ δὲ τοὺς λῃστὰς ἔνοπλοι. κηδεμὼν δ' ἐν ἑκάστῃ πόλει τοῦ τάγματος ἐξαιρέτως τῶν ξένων ἀποδείκνυται ταμιεύων ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια." '2.126 καταστολὴ δὲ καὶ σχῆμα σώματος ὅμοιον τοῖς μετὰ φόβου παιδαγωγουμένοις παισίν. οὔτε δὲ ἐσθῆτας οὔτε ὑποδήματα ἀμείβουσι πρὶν διαρραγῆναι τὸ πρότερον παντάπασιν ἢ δαπανηθῆναι τῷ χρόνῳ.' "2.127 οὐδὲν δ' ἐν ἀλλήλοις οὔτ' ἀγοράζουσιν οὔτε πωλοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ τῷ χρῄζοντι διδοὺς ἕκαστος τὰ παρ' αὐτῷ τὸ παρ' ἐκείνου χρήσιμον ἀντικομίζεται: καὶ χωρὶς δὲ τῆς ἀντιδόσεως ἀκώλυτος ἡ μετάληψις αὐτοῖς παρ' ὧν ἂν θέλωσιν." '2.128 Πρός γε μὴν τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖς ἰδίως: πρὶν γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον οὐδὲν φθέγγονται τῶν βεβήλων, πατρίους δέ τινας εἰς αὐτὸν εὐχὰς ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντες ἀνατεῖλαι. 2.129 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἃς ἕκαστοι τέχνας ἴσασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν διαφίενται, καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ὥρας ἐργασάμενοι συντόνως πάλιν εἰς ἓν συναθροίζονται χωρίον, ζωσάμενοί τε σκεπάσμασιν λινοῖς οὕτως ἀπολούονται τὸ σῶμα ψυχροῖς ὕδασιν, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἁγνείαν εἰς ἴδιον οἴκημα συνίασιν, ἔνθα μηδενὶ τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ἐπιτέτραπται παρελθεῖν: αὐτοί τε καθαροὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἅγιόν τι τέμενος παραγίνονται τὸ δειπνητήριον.' "2.131 προκατεύχεται δ' ὁ ἱερεὺς τῆς τροφῆς, καὶ γεύσασθαί τινα πρὶν τῆς εὐχῆς ἀθέμιτον: ἀριστοποιησάμενος δ' ἐπεύχεται πάλιν: ἀρχόμενοί τε καὶ παυόμενοι γεραίρουσι θεὸν ὡς χορηγὸν τῆς ζωῆς. ἔπειθ' ὡς ἱερὰς καταθέμενοι τὰς ἐσθῆτας πάλιν ἐπ' ἔργα μέχρι δείλης τρέπονται." "2.132 δειπνοῦσι δ' ὁμοίως ὑποστρέψαντες συγκαθεζομένων τῶν ξένων, εἰ τύχοιεν αὐτοῖς παρόντες. οὔτε δὲ κραυγή ποτε τὸν οἶκον οὔτε θόρυβος μιαίνει, τὰς δὲ λαλιὰς ἐν τάξει παραχωροῦσιν ἀλλήλοις." "2.133 καὶ τοῖς ἔξωθεν ὡς μυστήριόν τι φρικτὸν ἡ τῶν ἔνδον σιωπὴ καταφαίνεται, τούτου δ' αἴτιον ἡ διηνεκὴς νῆψις καὶ τὸ μετρεῖσθαι παρ' αὐτοῖς τροφὴν καὶ ποτὸν μέχρι κόρου." "2.134 Τῶν μὲν οὖν ἄλλων οὐκ ἔστιν ὅ τι μὴ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν προσταξάντων ἐνεργοῦσι, δύο δὲ ταῦτα παρ' αὐτοῖς αὐτεξούσια, ἐπικουρία καὶ ἔλεος: βοηθεῖν τε γὰρ τοῖς ἀξίοις, ὁπόταν δέωνται, καὶ καθ' ἑαυτοὺς ἐφίεται καὶ τροφὰς ἀπορουμένοις ὀρέγειν. τὰς δὲ εἰς τοὺς συγγενεῖς μεταδόσεις οὐκ ἔξεστι ποιεῖσθαι δίχα τῶν ἐπιτρόπων." "2.135 ὀργῆς ταμίαι δίκαιοι, θυμοῦ καθεκτικοί, πίστεως προστάται, εἰρήνης ὑπουργοί. καὶ πᾶν μὲν τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἰσχυρότερον ὅρκου, τὸ δὲ ὀμνύειν αὐτοῖς περιίσταται χεῖρον τῆς ἐπιορκίας ὑπολαμβάνοντες: ἤδη γὰρ κατεγνῶσθαί φασιν τὸν ἀπιστούμενον δίχα θεοῦ." "2.136 σπουδάζουσι δ' ἐκτόπως περὶ τὰ τῶν παλαιῶν συντάγματα μάλιστα τὰ πρὸς ὠφέλειαν ψυχῆς καὶ σώματος ἐκλέγοντες: ἔνθεν αὐτοῖς πρὸς θεραπείαν παθῶν ῥίζαι τε ἀλεξητήριον καὶ λίθων ἰδιότητες ἀνερευνῶνται." "2.137 Τοῖς δὲ ζηλοῦσιν τὴν αἵρεσιν αὐτῶν οὐκ εὐθὺς ἡ πάροδος, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἔξω μένοντι τὴν αὐτὴν ὑποτίθενται δίαιταν ἀξινάριόν τε καὶ τὸ προειρημένον περίζωμα καὶ λευκὴν ἐσθῆτα δόντες." '2.138 ἐπειδὰν δὲ τούτῳ τῷ χρόνῳ πεῖραν ἐγκρατείας δῷ, πρόσεισιν μὲν ἔγγιον τῇ διαίτῃ καὶ καθαρωτέρων τῶν πρὸς ἁγνείαν ὑδάτων μεταλαμβάνει, παραλαμβάνεται δὲ εἰς τὰς συμβιώσεις οὐδέπω. μετὰ γὰρ τὴν τῆς καρτερίας ἐπίδειξιν δυσὶν ἄλλοις ἔτεσιν τὸ ἦθος δοκιμάζεται καὶ φανεὶς ἄξιος οὕτως εἰς τὸν ὅμιλον ἐγκρίνεται.' "2.139 πρὶν δὲ τῆς κοινῆς ἅψασθαι τροφῆς ὅρκους αὐτοῖς ὄμνυσι φρικώδεις, πρῶτον μὲν εὐσεβήσειν τὸ θεῖον, ἔπειτα τὰ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους δίκαια φυλάξειν καὶ μήτε κατὰ γνώμην βλάψειν τινὰ μήτε ἐξ ἐπιτάγματος, μισήσειν δ' ἀεὶ τοὺς ἀδίκους καὶ συναγωνιεῖσθαι τοῖς δικαίοις:" "
2.141 τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἀγαπᾶν ἀεὶ καὶ τοὺς ψευδομένους προβάλλεσθαι: χεῖρας κλοπῆς καὶ ψυχὴν ἀνοσίου κέρδους καθαρὰν φυλάξειν καὶ μήτε κρύψειν τι τοὺς αἱρετιστὰς μήθ' ἑτέροις αὐτῶν τι μηνύσειν, κἂν μέχρι θανάτου τις βιάζηται." '2.142 πρὸς τούτοις ὄμνυσιν μηδενὶ μὲν μεταδοῦναι τῶν δογμάτων ἑτέρως ἢ ὡς αὐτὸς μετέλαβεν, ἀφέξεσθαι δὲ λῃστείας καὶ συντηρήσειν ὁμοίως τά τε τῆς αἱρέσεως αὐτῶν βιβλία καὶ τὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων ὀνόματα. τοιούτοις μὲν ὅρκοις τοὺς προσιόντας ἐξασφαλίζονται.' "2.143 Τοὺς δ' ἐπ' ἀξιοχρέοις ἁμαρτήμασιν ἁλόντας ἐκβάλλουσι τοῦ τάγματος. ὁ δ' ἐκκριθεὶς οἰκτίστῳ πολλάκις μόρῳ διαφθείρεται: τοῖς γὰρ ὅρκοις καὶ τοῖς ἔθεσιν ἐνδεδεμένος οὐδὲ τῆς παρὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις τροφῆς δύναται μεταλαμβάνειν, ποηφαγῶν δὲ καὶ λιμῷ τὸ σῶμα τηκόμενος διαφθείρεται." '2.144 διὸ δὴ πολλοὺς ἐλεήσαντες ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἀναπνοαῖς ἀνέλαβον, ἱκανὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἁμαρτήμασιν αὐτῶν τὴν μέχρι θανάτου βάσανον ἡγούμενοι.' "2.145 Περὶ δὲ τὰς κρίσεις ἀκριβέστατοι καὶ δίκαιοι, καὶ δικάζουσι μὲν οὐκ ἐλάττους τῶν ἑκατὸν συνελθόντες, τὸ δ' ὁρισθὲν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀκίνητον. σέβας δὲ μέγα παρ' αὐτοῖς μετὰ τὸν θεὸν τοὔνομα τοῦ νομοθέτου, κἂν βλασφημήσῃ τις εἰς τοῦτον κολάζεται θανάτῳ." '2.146 τοῖς δὲ πρεσβυτέροις ὑπακούουσιν καὶ τοῖς πλείοσιν ἐν καλῷ: δέκα γοῦν συγκαθεζομένων οὐκ ἂν λαλήσειέν τις ἀκόντων τῶν ἐννέα.' "2.147 καὶ τὸ πτύσαι δὲ εἰς μέσους ἢ τὸ δεξιὸν μέρος φυλάσσονται καὶ ταῖς ἑβδομάσιν ἔργων ἐφάπτεσθαι διαφορώτατα ̓Ιουδαίων ἁπάντων: οὐ μόνον γὰρ τροφὰς ἑαυτοῖς πρὸ μιᾶς ἡμέρας παρασκευάζουσιν, ὡς μὴ πῦρ ἐναύοιεν ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν, ἀλλ' οὐδὲ σκεῦός τι μετακινῆσαι θαρροῦσιν οὐδὲ ἀποπατεῖν." "2.148 ταῖς δ' ἄλλαις ἡμέραις βόθρον ὀρύσσοντες βάθος ποδιαῖον τῇ σκαλίδι, τοιοῦτον γάρ ἐστιν τὸ διδόμενον ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀξινίδιον τοῖς νεοσυστάτοις, καὶ περικαλύψαντες θοιμάτιον, ὡς μὴ τὰς αὐγὰς ὑβρίζοιεν τοῦ θεοῦ, θακεύουσιν εἰς αὐτόν." "2.149 ἔπειτα τὴν ἀνορυχθεῖσαν γῆν ἐφέλκουσιν εἰς τὸν βόθρον: καὶ τοῦτο ποιοῦσι τοὺς ἐρημοτέρους τόπους ἐκλεγόμενοι. καίπερ δὴ φυσικῆς οὔσης τῆς τῶν λυμάτων ἐκκρίσεως ἀπολούεσθαι μετ' αὐτὴν καθάπερ μεμιασμένοις ἔθιμον." "2.151 καὶ μακρόβιοι μέν, ὡς τοὺς πολλοὺς ὑπὲρ ἑκατὸν παρατείνειν ἔτη, διὰ τὴν ἁπλότητα τῆς διαίτης ἔμοιγε δοκεῖν καὶ τὴν εὐταξίαν, καταφρονηταὶ δὲ τῶν δεινῶν, καὶ τὰς μὲν ἀλγηδόνας νικῶντες τοῖς φρονήμασιν, τὸν δὲ θάνατον, εἰ μετ' εὐκλείας πρόσεισι, νομίζοντες ἀθανασίας ἀμείνονα." "2.152 διήλεγξεν δὲ αὐτῶν ἐν ἅπασιν τὰς ψυχὰς ὁ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους πόλεμος, ἐν ᾧ στρεβλούμενοί τε καὶ λυγιζόμενοι καιόμενοί τε καὶ κλώμενοι καὶ διὰ πάντων ὁδεύοντες τῶν βασανιστηρίων ὀργάνων, ἵν' ἢ βλασφημήσωσιν τὸν νομοθέτην ἢ φάγωσίν τι τῶν ἀσυνήθων, οὐδέτερον ὑπέμειναν παθεῖν, ἀλλ' οὐδὲ κολακεῦσαί ποτε τοὺς αἰκιζομένους ἢ δακρῦσαι." '2.153 μειδιῶντες δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἀλγηδόσιν καὶ κατειρωνευόμενοι τῶν τὰς βασάνους προσφερόντων εὔθυμοι τὰς ψυχὰς ἠφίεσαν ὡς πάλιν κομιούμενοι.' "2.154 Καὶ γὰρ ἔρρωται παρ' αὐτοῖς ἥδε ἡ δόξα, φθαρτὰ μὲν εἶναι τὰ σώματα καὶ τὴν ὕλην οὐ μόνιμον αὐτῶν, τὰς δὲ ψυχὰς ἀθανάτους ἀεὶ διαμένειν, καὶ συμπλέκεσθαι μὲν ἐκ τοῦ λεπτοτάτου φοιτώσας αἰθέρος ὥσπερ εἱρκταῖς τοῖς σώμασιν ἴυγγί τινι φυσικῇ κατασπωμένας," "2.155 ἐπειδὰν δὲ ἀνεθῶσι τῶν κατὰ σάρκα δεσμῶν, οἷα δὴ μακρᾶς δουλείας ἀπηλλαγμένας τότε χαίρειν καὶ μετεώρους φέρεσθαι. καὶ ταῖς μὲν ἀγαθαῖς ὁμοδοξοῦντες παισὶν ̔Ελλήνων ἀποφαίνονται τὴν ὑπὲρ ὠκεανὸν δίαιταν ἀποκεῖσθαι καὶ χῶρον οὔτε ὄμβροις οὔτε νιφετοῖς οὔτε καύμασι βαρυνόμενον, ἀλλ' ὃν ἐξ ὠκεανοῦ πραὺ̈ς ἀεὶ ζέφυρος ἐπιπνέων ἀναψύχει: ταῖς δὲ φαύλαις ζοφώδη καὶ χειμέριον ἀφορίζονται μυχὸν γέμοντα τιμωριῶν ἀδιαλείπτων." "2.156 δοκοῦσι δέ μοι κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔννοιαν ̔́Ελληνες τοῖς τε ἀνδρείοις αὐτῶν, οὓς ἥρωας καὶ ἡμιθέους καλοῦσιν, τὰς μακάρων νήσους ἀνατεθεικέναι, ταῖς δὲ τῶν πονηρῶν ψυχαῖς καθ' ᾅδου τὸν ἀσεβῶν χῶρον, ἔνθα καὶ κολαζομένους τινὰς μυθολογοῦσιν, Σισύφους καὶ Ταντάλους ̓Ιξίονάς τε καὶ Τιτυούς, πρῶτον μὲν ἀιδίους ὑφιστάμενοι τὰς ψυχάς, ἔπειτα εἰς προτροπὴν ἀρετῆς καὶ κακίας ἀποτροπήν." '2.157 τούς τε γὰρ ἀγαθοὺς γίνεσθαι κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀμείνους ἐλπίδι τιμῆς καὶ μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν, τῶν τε κακῶν ἐμποδίζεσθαι τὰς ὁρμὰς δέει προσδοκώντων, εἰ καὶ λάθοιεν ἐν τῷ ζῆν, μετὰ τὴν διάλυσιν ἀθάνατον τιμωρίαν ὑφέξειν. 2.158 ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ̓Εσσηνοὶ περὶ ψυχῆς θεολογοῦσιν ἄφυκτον δέλεαρ τοῖς ἅπαξ γευσαμένοις τῆς σοφίας αὐτῶν καθιέντες.' "2.159 Εἰσὶν δ' ἐν αὐτοῖς οἳ καὶ τὰ μέλλοντα προγινώσκειν ὑπισχνοῦνται, βίβλοις ἱεραῖς καὶ διαφόροις ἁγνείαις καὶ προφητῶν ἀποφθέγμασιν ἐμπαιδοτριβούμενοι: σπάνιον δ' εἴ ποτε ἐν ταῖς προαγορεύσεσιν ἀστοχοῦσιν." "
2.161 δοκιμάζοντες μέντοι τριετίᾳ τὰς γαμετάς, ἐπειδὰν τρὶς καθαρθῶσιν εἰς πεῖραν τοῦ δύνασθαι τίκτειν, οὕτως ἄγονται. ταῖς δ' ἐγκύμοσιν οὐχ ὁμιλοῦσιν, ἐνδεικνύμενοι τὸ μὴ δι' ἡδονὴν ἀλλὰ τέκνων χρείαν γαμεῖν. λουτρὰ δὲ ταῖς γυναιξὶν ἀμπεχομέναις ἐνδύματα, καθάπερ τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἐν περιζώματι. τοιαῦτα μὲν ἔθη τοῦδε τοῦ τάγματος." '2.162 Δύο δὲ τῶν προτέρων Φαρισαῖοι μὲν οἱ μετὰ ἀκριβείας δοκοῦντες ἐξηγεῖσθαι τὰ νόμιμα καὶ τὴν πρώτην ἀπάγοντες αἵρεσιν εἱμαρμένῃ τε καὶ θεῷ προσάπτουσι πάντα, 2.163 καὶ τὸ μὲν πράττειν τὰ δίκαια καὶ μὴ κατὰ τὸ πλεῖστον ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις κεῖσθαι, βοηθεῖν δὲ εἰς ἕκαστον καὶ τὴν εἱμαρμένην: ψυχήν τε πᾶσαν μὲν ἄφθαρτον, μεταβαίνειν δὲ εἰς ἕτερον σῶμα τὴν τῶν ἀγαθῶν μόνην, τὰς δὲ τῶν φαύλων ἀιδίῳ τιμωρίᾳ κολάζεσθαι. 2.164 Σαδδουκαῖοι δέ, τὸ δεύτερον τάγμα, τὴν μὲν εἱμαρμένην παντάπασιν ἀναιροῦσιν καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἔξω τοῦ δρᾶν τι κακὸν ἢ ἐφορᾶν τίθενται:' "2.165 φασὶν δ' ἐπ' ἀνθρώπων ἐκλογῇ τό τε καλὸν καὶ τὸ κακὸν προκεῖσθαι καὶ κατὰ γνώμην ἑκάστου τούτων ἑκατέρῳ προσιέναι. ψυχῆς τε τὴν διαμονὴν καὶ τὰς καθ' ᾅδου τιμωρίας καὶ τιμὰς ἀναιροῦσιν." '2.166 καὶ Φαρισαῖοι μὲν φιλάλληλοί τε καὶ τὴν εἰς τὸ κοινὸν ὁμόνοιαν ἀσκοῦντες, Σαδδουκαίων δὲ καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ ἦθος ἀγριώτερον αἵ τε ἐπιμιξίαι πρὸς τοὺς ὁμοίους ἀπηνεῖς ὡς πρὸς ἀλλοτρίους. τοιαῦτα μὲν περὶ τῶν ἐν ̓Ιουδαίοις φιλοσοφούντων εἶχον εἰπεῖν.
3.11 Οὐεσπασιανὸς μὲν ἅμα τῷ παιδὶ Τίτῳ διατρίβων τέως ἐν τῇ Πτολεμαί̈δι συνέτασσεν τὰς δυνάμεις, ὁ δὲ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν κατατρέχων Πλάκιδος ἐπεὶ πολὺ μὲν πλῆθος ἀνῃρήκει τῶν καταλαμβανομένων, τοῦτο δ' ἦν τὸ ἀσθενέστερον Γαλιλαίων καὶ ταῖς φυγαῖς ἐναποκάμνον,"
3.11 ἐξηγοῦντο δὲ τῆς καταδρομῆς τρεῖς ἄνδρες ἀλκήν τε κορυφαῖοι καὶ συνέσει, Νίγερ τε ὁ Περαί̈της καὶ ὁ Βαβυλώνιος Σίλας, πρὸς οἷς ̓Ιωάννης ὁ ̓Εσσαῖος.' "" None
2.108 But the impudence of what he said greatly provoked him to be angry at him; for when he was asked about Aristobulus, he said that he was also preserved alive, and was left on purpose in Cyprus, for fear of treachery, because it would be harder for plotters to get them both into their power while they were separate.
2.118 Under his administration it was that a certain Galilean, whose name was Judas, prevailed with his countrymen to revolt, and said they were cowards if they would endure to pay a tax to the Romans and would after God submit to mortal men as their lords. This man was a teacher of a peculiar sect of his own, and was not at all like the rest of those their leaders. 2.119 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121 They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123 They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125 For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126 But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127 Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129 After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.131 but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their white garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132 then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133 which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135 They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without swearing by God is already condemned. 2.136 They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138 And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139 And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous;
2.141 that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142 Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels or messengers. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144 for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator Moses, whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146 They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147 They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148 Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit, 2.149 after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 2.151 They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152 and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153 but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155 but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156 And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157 whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158 These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions.
2.161 However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.162 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate or providence, and to God, 2.163 and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. 2.164 But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; 2.165 and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. 2.166 Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.
3.11 1. And now Vespasian, with his son Titus, had tarried some time at Ptolemais, and had put his army in order. But when Placidus, who had overrun Galilee, and had besides slain a number of those whom he had caught (which were only the weaker part of the Galileans, and such as were of timorous souls),
3.11 This excursion was led on by three men, who were the chief of them all, both for strength and sagacity; Niger, called the Peraite, Silas of Babylon, and besides them John the Essene.' ' None
|19. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.8-1.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 122; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 122
1.8 Wars worse than civil on Emathian plains, And crime let loose we sing; how Rome's high race Plunged in her vitals her victorious sword; Armies akin embattled, with the force of all the shaken earth bent on the fray; And burst asunder, to the common guilt, A kingdom's compact; eagle with eagle met, Standard to standard, spear opposed to spear. Whence, citizens, this rage, this boundless lust " "1.10 To sate barbarians with the blood of Rome? Did not the shade of Crassus, wandering still, Cry for his vengeance? Could ye not have spoiled, To deck your trophies, haughty Babylon? Why wage campaigns that send no laurels home? What lands, what oceans might have been the prize of all the blood thus shed in civil strife! Where Titan rises, where night hides the stars, 'Neath southern noons all quivering with heat, Or where keen frost that never yields to spring " "1.20 In icy fetters binds the Scythian main: Long since barbarians by the Eastern sea And far Araxes' stream, and those who know (If any such there be) the birth of NileHad felt our yoke. Then, Rome, upon thyself With all the world beneath thee, if thou must, Wage this nefarious war, but not till then. Now view the houses with half-ruined walls Throughout Italian cities; stone from stone Has slipped and lies at length; within the home " "1.23 In icy fetters binds the Scythian main: Long since barbarians by the Eastern sea And far Araxes' stream, and those who know (If any such there be) the birth of NileHad felt our yoke. Then, Rome, upon thyself With all the world beneath thee, if thou must, Wage this nefarious war, but not till then. Now view the houses with half-ruined walls Throughout Italian cities; stone from stone Has slipped and lies at length; within the home "" None
|20. New Testament, John, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus of Rome
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 572; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 249
1.18 θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.'' None
1.18 No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. '' None
|21. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus, and Stoic ethics • Hippolytus, and anger • Hippolytus, and autarkeia • Hippolytus, and autonomy • Hippolytus, and women • Hippolytus, beauty of • Hippolytus, body of • Stoicism, and Hippolytus • autarkeia, and Hippolytus • body, ‘physiognomy’, of Hippolytus • decorum, and Hippolytus • face, of Hippolytus • family, and Hippolytus • isolation, and Hippolytus
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 121; Bexley (2022), Seneca's Characters: Fictional Identities and Implied Human Selves, 226, 285; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 68; Romana Berno (2023), Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History, 179; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 121
|22. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 140; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 63
|23. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.41, 5.7.38, 6.41.2, 9.18-9.27 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus (author) • Hippolytus (bishop of Rome) • Hippolytus, • Hippolytus, and Christian interpretation • Hippolytus, on Essenes • Hippolytus, use/modification of Josephus writings
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 583; Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 198; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 140; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 159; Johnston and Struck (2005), Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination, 277; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 277; Sandnes and Hvalvik (2014), Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation 339; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 63, 104, 105, 106, 198, 199
4.41 But putting a skull on the ground, they make it speak in this manner. The skull itself is made out of the caul of an ox; and when fashioned into the requisite figure, by means of Etruscan wax and prepared gum, (and) when this membrane is placed around, it presents the appearance of a skull, which seems to all to speak when the contrivance operates; in the same manner as we have explained in the case of the (attendant) youths, when, having procured the windpipe of a crane, or some such long-necked animal, and attaching it covertly to the skull, the accomplice utters what he wishes. And when he desires (the skull) to become invisible, he appears as if burning incense, placing around, (for this purpose,) a quantity of coals; and when the wax catches the heat of these, it melts, and in this way the skull is supposed to become invisible.
5.7.38 There is also unquestionably a certain other (head of the hydra, namely, the heresy) of the Peratae, whose blasphemy against Christ has for many years escaped notice. And the present is a fitting opportunity for bringing to light the secret mysteries of such (heretics). These allege that the world is one, triply divided. And of the triple division with them, one portion is a certain single originating principle, just as it were a huge fountain, which can be divided mentally into infinite segments. Now the first segment, and that which, according to them, is (a segment) in preference (to others), is a triad, and it is called a Perfect Good, (and) a Paternal Magnitude. And the second portion of the triad of these is, as it were, a certain infinite crowd of potentialities that are generated from themselves, (while) the third is formal. And the first, which is good, is unbegotten, and the second is a self-producing good, and the third is created; and hence it is that they expressly declare that there are three Gods, three Logoi, three Minds, three Men. For to each portion of the world, after the division has been made, they assign both Gods, and Logoi, and Minds, and Men, and the rest; but that from unorigination and the first segment of the world, when afterwards the world had attained unto its completion, there came down from above, for causes that we shall afterwards declare, in the time of Herod a certain man called Christ, with a threefold nature, and a threefold body, and a threefold power, (and) having in himself all (species of) concretions and potentialities (derivable) from the three divisions of the world; and that this, says (the Peratic), is what is spoken: It pleased him that in him should dwell all fullness bodily, and in Him the entire Divinity resides of the triad as thus divided. For, he says, that from the two superjacent worlds - namely, from that (portion of the triad) which is unbegotten, and from that which is self-producing - there have been conveyed down into this world in which we are, seeds of all sorts of potentialities. What, however, the mode of the descent is, we shall afterwards declare. (The Peratic) then says that Christ descended from above from unorigination, that by His descent all things triply divided might be saved. For some things, he says, being borne down from above, will ascend through Him, whereas whatever (beings) form plots against those which are carried down from above are cast off, and being placed in a state of punishment, are renounced. This, he says, is what is spoken: For the Son of man came not into the world to destroy the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. The world, he says, he denominates those two parts that are situated above, viz., both the unbegotten (portion of the triad), and the self-produced one. And when Scripture, he says, uses the words, that we may not be condemned with the world, it alludes to the third portion of (the triad, that is) the formal world. For the third portion, which he styles the world (in which we are), must perish; but the two (remaining portions), which are situated above, must be rescued from corruption. ' "
9.18 But to those who wish to become disciples of the sect, they do not immediately deliver their rules, unless they have previously tried them. Now for the space of a year they set before (the candidates) the same food, while the latter continue to live in a different house outside the Essenes' own place of meeting. And they give (to the probationists) a hatchet and the linen girdle, and a white robe. When, at the expiration of this period, one affords proof of self-control, he approaches nearer to the sect's method of living, and he is washed more purely than before. Not as yet, however, does he partake of food along with the Essenes. For, after having furnished evidence as to whether he is able to acquire self-control - but for two years the habit of a person of this description is on trial - and when he has appeared deserving, he is thus reckoned among the members of the sect. Previous, however, to his being allowed to partake of a repast along with them, he is bound under fearful oaths. First, that he will worship the Divinity; next, that he will observe just dealings with men, and that he will in no way injure any one, and that he will not hate a person who injures him, or is hostile to him, but pray for them. He likewise swears that he will always aid the just, and keep faith with all, especially those who are rulers. For, they argue, a position of authority does not happen to any one without God. And if the Essene himself be a ruler, he swears that he will not conduct himself at any time arrogantly in the exercise of power, nor be prodigal, nor resort to any adornment, or a greater state of magnificence than the usage permits. He likewise swears, however, to be a lover of truth, and to reprove him that is guilty of falsehood, neither to steal, nor pollute his conscience for the sake of iniquitous gain, nor conceal anything from those that are members of his sect, and to divulge nothing to others, though one should be tortured even unto death. And in addition to the foregoing promises, he swears to impart to no one a knowledge of the doctrines in a different manner from that in which he has received them himself. " '9.19 With oaths, then, of this description, they bind those who come forward. If, however, any one may be condemned for any sin, he is expelled from the order; but one that has been thus excommunicated sometimes perishes by an awful death. For, inasmuch as he is bound by the oaths and rites of the sect, he is not able to partake of the food in use among other people. Those that are excommunicated, occasionally, therefore, utterly destroy the body through starvation. And so it is, that when it comes to the last the Essenes sometimes pity many of them who are at the point of dissolution, inasmuch as they deem a punishment even unto death, thus inflicted upon these culprits, a sufficient penalty. 9.20 But as regards judicial decisions, the Essenes are most accurate and impartial. And they deliver their judgments when they have assembled together, numbering at the very least one hundred; and the sentence delivered by them is irreversible. And they honour the legislator next after God; and if any one is guilty of blasphemy against this framer of laws, he is punished. And they are taught to yield obedience to rulers and elders; and if ten occupy seats in the same room, one of them will not speak unless it will appear expedient to the nine. And they are careful not to spit out into the midst of persons present, and to the right hand. They are more solicitous, however, about abstaining from work on the Sabbath day than all other Jews. For not only do they prepare their victuals for themselves one day previously, so as not (on the Sabbath) to kindle a fire, but not even would they move a utensil from one place to another (on that day), nor ease nature; nay, some would not even rise from a couch. On other days, however, when they wish to relieve nature, they dig a hole a foot long with the mattock - for of this description is the hatchet, which the president in the first instance gives those who come forward to gain admission as disciples - and cover (this cavity) on all sides with their garment, alleging that they do not necessarily insult the sunbeams. They then replace the upturned soil into the pit; and this is their practice, choosing the more lonely spots. But after they have performed this operation, immediately they undergo ablution, as if the excrement pollutes them. 9.21 The Essenes have, however, in the lapse of time, undergone divisions, and they do not preserve their system of training after a similar manner, inasmuch as they have been split up into four parties. For some of them discipline themselves above the requisite rules of the order, so that even they would not handle a current coin of the country, saying that they ought not either to carry, or behold, or fashion an image: wherefore no one of those goes into a city, lest (by so doing) he should enter through a gate at which statues are erected, regarding it a violation of law to pass beneath images. But the adherents of another party, if they happen to hear any one maintaining a discussion concerning God and His laws- supposing such to be an uncircumcised person, they will closely watch him and when they meet a person of this description in any place alone, they will threaten to slay him if he refuses to undergo the rite of circumcision. Now, if the latter does not wish to comply with this request, an Essene spares not, but even slaughters. And it is from this occurrence that they have received their appellation, being denominated (by some) Zelotae, but by others Sicarii. And the adherents of another party call no one Lord except the Deity, even though one should put them to the torture, or even kill them. But there are others of a later period, who have to such an extent declined from the discipline (of the order), that, as far as those are concerned who continue in the primitive customs, they would not even touch these. And if they happen to come in contact with them, they immediately resort to ablution, as if they had touched one belonging to an alien tribe. But here also there are very many of them of so great longevity, as even to live longer than a hundred years. They assert, therefore, that a cause of this arises from their extreme devotion to religion, and their condemnation of all excess in regard of what is served up (as food), and from their being temperate and incapable of anger. And so it is that they despise death, rejoicing when they can finish their course with a good conscience. If, however, any one would even put to the torture persons of this description, in order to induce any among them either to speak evil of the law, or eat what is offered in sacrifice to an idol, he will not effect his purpose; for one of this party submits to death and endures torment rather than violate his conscience. 9.22 Now the doctrine of the resurrection has also derived support among these; for they acknowledge both that the flesh will rise again, and that it will be immortal, in the same manner as the soul is already imperishable. And they maintain that the soul, when separated in the present life, (departs) into one place, which is well ventilated and lightsome, where, they say, it rests until judgment. And this locality the Greeks were acquainted with by hearsay, and called it Isles of the Blessed. And there are other tenets of these which many of the Greeks have appropriated, and thus have from time to time formed their own opinions. For the disciplinary system in regard of the Divinity, according to these (Jewish sects), is of greater antiquity than that of all nations. And so it is that the proof is at hand, that all those (Greeks) who ventured to make assertions concerning God, or concerning the creation of existing things, derived their principles from no other source than from Jewish legislation. And among these may be particularized Pythagoras especially, and the Stoics, who derived (their systems) while resident among the Egyptians, by having become disciples of these Jews. Now they affirm that there will be both a judgment and a conflagration of the universe, and that the wicked will be eternally punished. And among them is cultivated the practice of prophecy, and the prediction of future events. 9.23 There is then another order of the Essenes who use the same customs and prescribed method of living with the foregoing sects, but make an alteration from these in one respect, viz., marriage. Now they maintain that those who have abrogated matrimony commit some terrible offense, which is for the destruction of life, and that they ought not to cut off the succession of children; for, that if all entertained this opinion, the entire race of men would easily be exterminated. However, they make a trial of their betrothed women for a period of three years; and when they have been three times purified, with a view of proving their ability of bringing forth children, so then they wed. They do not, however, cohabit with pregt women, evincing that they marry not from sensual motives, but from the advantage of children. And the women likewise undergo ablution in a similar manner (with their husbands), and are themselves also arrayed in a linen garment, after the mode in which the men are with their girdles. These things, then, are the statements which I have to make respecting the Esseni. But there are also others who themselves practise the Jewish customs; and these, both in respect of caste and in respect of the laws, are called Pharisees. Now the greatest part of these is to be found in every locality, inasmuch as, though all are styled Jews, yet, on account of the peculiarity of the opinions advanced by them, they have been denominated by titles proper to each. These, then, firmly hold the ancient tradition, and continue to pursue in a disputative spirit a close investigation into the things regarded according to the Law as clean and not clean. And they interpret the regulations of the Law, and put forward teachers, whom they qualify for giving instruction in such things. These Pharisees affirm the existence of fate, and that some things are in our power, whereas others are under the control of destiny. In this way they maintain that some actions depend upon ourselves, whereas others upon fate. But (they assert) that God is a cause of all things, and that nothing is managed or happens without His will. These likewise acknowledge that there is a resurrection of flesh, and that soul is immortal, and that there will be a judgment and conflagration, and that the righteous will be imperishable, but that the wicked will endure everlasting punishment in unqenchable fire. 9.24 These, then, are the opinions even of the Pharisees. The Sadducees, however, are for abolishing fate, and they acknowledge that God does nothing that is wicked, nor exercises providence over (earthly concerns); but they contend that the choice between good and evil lies within the power of men. And they deny that there is a resurrection not only of flesh, but also they suppose that the soul does not continue after death. The soul they consider nothing but mere vitality, and that it is on account of this that man has been created. However, (they maintain) that the notion of the resurrection has been fully realized by the single circumstance, that we close our days after having left children upon earth. But (they still insist) that after death one expects to suffer nothing, either bad or good; for that there will be a dissolution both of soul and body, and that man passes into non-existence, similarly also with the material of the animal creation. But as regards whatever wickedness a man may have committed in life, provided he may have been reconciled to the injured party, he has been a gainer (by transgression), inasmuch as he has escaped the punishment (that otherwise would have been inflicted) by men. And whatever acquisitions a man may have made. and (in whatever respect), by becoming wealthy, he may have acquired distinction, he has so far been a gainer. But (they abide by their assertion), that God has no solicitude about the concerns of an individual here. And while the Pharisees are full of mutual affection, the Sadducees, on the other hand, are actuated by self-love. This sect had its stronghold especially in the region around Samaria. And these also adhere to the customs of the law, saying that one ought so to live, that he may conduct himself virtuously, and leave children behind him on earth. They do not, however, devote attention to prophets, but neither do they to any other sages, except to the law of Moses only, in regard of which, however, they frame no interpretations. These, then, are the opinions which also the Sadducees choose to teach. 9.25 Since, therefore, we have explained even the diversities among the Jews, it seems expedient likewise not to pass over in silence the system of their religion. The doctrine, therefore, among all Jews on the subject of religion is fourfold-theological, natural, moral, and ceremonial. And they affirm that there is one God, and that He is Creator and Lord of the universe: that He has formed all these glorious works which had no previous existence; and this, too, not out of any coeval substance that lay ready at hand, but His Will - the efficient cause- was to create, and He did create. And (they maintain) that there are angels, and that these have been brought into being for ministering unto the creation; but also that there is a sovereign Spirit that always continues beside God, for glory and praise. And that all things in the creation are endued with sensation, and that there is nothing iimate. And they earnestly aim at serious habits and a temperate life, as one may ascertain from their laws. Now these matters have long ago been strictly defined by those who in ancient times have received the divinely-appointed law; so that the reader will find himself astonished at the amount of temperance, and of diligence, lavished on customs legally enacted in reference to man. The ceremonial service, however, which has been adapted to divine worship in a manner befitting the dignity of religion, has been practised among them with the highest degree of elaboration. The superiority of their ritualism it is easy for those who wish it to ascertain, provided they read the book which furnishes information on these points. They will thus perceive how that with solemnity and sanctity the Jewish priests offer unto God the first-fruits of the gifts bestowed by Him for the rise and enjoyment of men; how they fulfil their ministrations with regularity and steadfastness, in obedience to His commandments. There are, however, some (liturgical usages adopted) by these, which the Sadducees refuse to recognise, for they are not disposed to acquiesce in the existence of angels or spirits. Still all parties alike expect Messiah, inasmuch as the Law certainly, and the prophets, preached beforehand that He was about to be present on earth. Inasmuch, however, as the Jews were not cognizant of the period of His advent, there remains the supposition that the declarations (of Scripture) concerning His coming have not been fulfilled. And so it is, that up to this day they continue in anticipation of the future coming of the Christ, - from the fact of their not discerning Him when He was present in the world. And (yet there can be little doubt but) that, on beholding the signs of the times of His having been already among us, the Jews are troubled; and that they are ashamed to confess that He has come, since they have with their own hands put Him to death, because they were stung with indignation in being convicted by Himself of not having obeyed the laws. And they affirm that He who was thus sent forth by God is not this Christ (whom they are looking for); but they confess that another Messiah will come, who as yet has no existence; and that he will usher in some of the signs which the law and the prophets have shown beforehand, whereas, regarding the rest (of these indications), they suppose that they have fallen into error. For they say that his generation will be from the stock of David, but not from a virgin and the Holy Spirit, but from a woman and a man, according as it is a rule for all to be procreated from seed. And they allege that this Messiah will be King over them - a warlike and powerful individual, who, after having gathered together the entire people of the Jews, and having done battle with all the nations, will restore for them Jerusalem the royal city. And into this city He will collect together the entire Hebrew race, and bring it back once more into the ancient customs, that it may fulfil the regal and sacerdotal functions, and dwell in confidence for periods of time of sufficient duration. After this repose, it is their opinion that war would next be waged against them after being thus congregated; that in this conflict Christ would fall by the edge of the sword; and that, after no long time, would next succeed the termination and conflagration of the universe; and that in this way their opinions concerning the resurrection would receive completion, and a recompense be rendered to each man according to his works. 9.26 It now seems to us that the tenets of both all the Greeks and barbarians have been sufficiently explained by us, and that nothing has remained unrefuted either of the points about which philosophy has been busied, or of the allegations advanced by the heretics. And from these very explanations the condemnation of the heretics is obvious, for having either purloined their doctrines, or derived contributions to them from some of those tenets elaborately worked out by the Greeks, and for having advanced (these opinions) as if they originated from God. Since, therefore, we have hurriedly passed through all the systems of these, and with much labour have, in the nine books, proclaimed all their opinions, and have left behind us for all men a small viaticum in life, and to those who are our contemporaries have afforded a desire of learning (with) great joy and delight, we have considered it reasonable, as a crowning stroke to the entire work, to introduce the discourse (already mentioned) concerning the truth, and to furnish our delineation of this in one book, namely the tenth. Our object is, that the reader, not only when made acquainted with the overthrow of those who have presumed to establish heresies, may regard with scorn their idle fancies, but also, when brought to know the power of the truth, may be placed in the way of salvation, by reposing that faith in God which He so worthily deserves. <' ' None
|24. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.1-1.3, 1.2.4, 1.11.5, 1.23-1.24, 1.28.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Church Fathers, Hippolytus • Hippolytus • Hippolytus (soon after • Hippolytus of Rome
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 151, 295, 420; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 95, 98, 174; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 251; Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 182; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 155, 160
1.1 I. ΛΕΓΟΥΣI 1γάρ τινα εἶναι ἐν ἀοράτοις καὶ ἀκατονομάστοις ὑψώμασι 2τέλειον Αἰῶνα προόντα· τοῦτον δὲ καὶ Epiph. Hær. xxxi. cf. Tbeodoret. Hær. Pab. 1.7. dre. Tertull. adv. Val. προαρχὴν καὶ προπάτορα καὶ Bυθὸν καλοῦσιν. 3 ὑπάρχοντα δ᾿ αὐτὸν ἀχώρυτον καὶ ἀόρατον, ἀΐδιόν τε καὶ ἀγέννητον. ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ καὶ ἠραμίᾳ πολλῇ γεγονέναι ἐν ἀπείροις αἰῶσι 4 χρόνων . συνυπάρχειν δ᾿ αὐτῷ καὶ Ἔννοιαν, ἣν δὲ καὶ Χάριν, καὶ Σιγὴν ὀνομάζουσι· καὶ ἐννονθῆναί ποτε ἀφʼ LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. l. ἑαυτοῦ προβαλέσθαι τὸν Bυθὸν τοῦτον, ἀρχὴν τῶν πάντων καὶ καθάπερ σπέρμα, τὴν προβολὴν ταύτην, ἣν προβαλέσθαι ἐνενοήθη, καὶ καθέσθαι ὡς ἐν μήτρα τῇ συνυπαρχούσῃ ἑαυτῷ Σιγῇ· ταύτην δὲ ὑποδεξαμένην τὸ σπέρμα τοῦτο καὶ ἐγκύμονα γενομένην, ἀποκυῆσαι Νοῦν, ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ἶσον τῷ προβαλόντι, καὶ μόνον χωροῦντα τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ Πατρός· τὸν δὲ Νοῦν τοῦτον καὶ Μονογενῆ καλοῦσι, καὶ Πατέρα, 2καὶ Ἀρχὴν τῶν G. 8. πάντων· συμπροβεβλῆσθαι δὲ αὐτῷ Ἀλήθειαν· καὶ εἶναι ταύτην πρῶτον καὶ ἀρχέγονον 3Πυθαγορικὴν τετρακτὺν, ἣν καὶ M.6. ῥίζαν τῶν πάντων καλοῦσιν· ἔστι γάρ Βοθὸς καὶ Σιγὴ, ἔπειτα LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. 2. Νοῦς καὶ Ἀλήθεια. Αἰσθόμενόν τε τὸν Μονογενῆ τοῦτον ἐφʼ οἷς προεβλήθη, προβαλεῖν καὶ αὐτὸν Λόγον καὶ Ζωὴν, πατέρα πάντων τῶν μετʼ αὐτὸν ἐσομένων, καὶ ἀρχὴν καὶ 1 μόφωσιν παντὸς τοῦ πληρώματος. Ἐκ δὴ τοῦ Λόγου καὶ τῆς Ζωῆς προβεβλῆσθαι κατὰ συζυγίαν 2Ἄνθρωπον καὶ Ἐκκλησίαν· καὶ εἶναι ταύτην ἀρχέγονον Ὀγδοάδα, ῥίζαν καὶ ὑπόστασιν τῶν πάντων, τέτρασιν ὀνόμασι παῤ αὐτοῖς καλουμένων, l. καλουμένην Βυθῷ, καὶ Νῷ, καὶ Λόγῳ, καὶ Ἀνθρώπῳ· εἶναι γὰρ αὐτῶν ἕκαστον ἀῤῥενόθηλυν· οὕτως πρῶτον τὸν Προπάτορα ἡνῶσθαι κατὰ συζυγίαν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ Ἐννοίᾳ· τὸν δὲ Μονογενῆ, τουτέστι τὸν Νοῦν, τῇ Ἀληθείᾳ· τὸν δὲ Λόγον τῇ Ζωῇ, καὶ τὸν Ἄνθρωπον τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ. Τούτους δὲ τοὺς Αἰῶνας εἰς δόξαν τοῦ Πατρὸς προβεβλημένους, βουληθέντας καὶ αὐτοὺς διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου δοξάσαι τὸν Πατέρα, προβαλεῖν προβολὰς ἐν συζυγίᾳ· τὸν μὲν Λόγον καὶ τὴν Ζωὴν, μετὰ τὸ προβαλέσθαι τὸν Ἄνθρωπον καὶ τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, ἄλλους δέκα Αἰῶνας, ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα λέγουσι ταῦτα· Βύθιος καὶ LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I i. 3. Μίξις, 1Ἀγήρατος καὶ Ἑνώσις, Αὐτοφυὴς καὶ Ἡδονὴ, Ἀκίνητος καὶ Σύγκρασις, Μονογενὴς καὶ Μακαρία· οὗτοι δέκα Αἰῶνες, οὓς καὶ φάσκουσιν ἐκ Λόγου καὶ Ζωῆς προβεβλῆσθαι. τὸν δὲ Ἄνθρωπον καὶ αὐτὸν προβαλεῖν μετὰ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας Αἰῶνας δώδεκα, οἷς ταῦτα τὰ ὀνόματα χαρίζονται· Παράκλητος M. 7. καὶ Πίστις, Πατρικὸς καὶ Ἐλπὶς, Μητρικὸς καὶ Ἀγάπη, 2Ἀείνους καὶ Σύνεσις, Ἐκκλησιαστικὸς καὶ Μακαριότης, G. 9. Θλητὸς καὶ Σοφία· οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ τριάκοντα Αἰῶνες τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν, οἱ 3σεσιγημένοι καὶ μὴ γινωσκόμενοι· τοῦτο τὸ ἀόρατον καὶ πνευματικὸν κατʼ αὐτοὺς πλήρωμα, τριχῆ διεσταμένον 4εἰς ὀγδοάδα, καὶ δεκάδα, καὶ δωδεκάδα. Καὶ διὰ II. xil. LIB. L. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. 3. τοῦτο τὸν Σωτῆρα λέγουσιν (οὐδὲ γὰρ Μύριον ὀνομάζειν αὐτὸν θέλουσι) τριάκοντα ἔτεσι κατὰ τὸ φανερὸν μηδὲν πεποιηκέναι, ἐπιδεικνύντα τὸ μυστήριον τούτων τῶν Αἰώνων. Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς παραβολῆς τῶν εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα πεμπομένων ἐργατῶν φασὶ φανερώτατα τοὺς τριάκοντα τούτους Αἰῶνας μεμηνύσθαι· πέμπονται γὰρ οἱ μὲν περὶ πρώτην ὥραν, οἱ δὲ περὶ τρίτην, οἱ δὲ περὶ ἕκτην, οἱ δὲ περὶ ἐνάτην, ἄλλοι δὲ περὶ ἑνδεκάτην· συντιθέμεναι οὖν αἱ προειρημέναι ὧραι εἰς ἑαυτὰς, τὸν τῶν τριάκοντα ἀριθμὸν ἀναπληροῦσι· μία γὰρ, καὶ τρεῖς, καὶ ἓξ, καὶ ἐννέα, καὶ ἕνδεκα, τριάκοντα γίνονται· διὰ δὲ τῶν ὡρῶν τοὺς Αἰῶνας μεμηνύσθαι θέλουσι. Καὶ ταῦτʼ εἶναι τὰ μεγάλα καὶ θαυμαστὰ καὶ ἀπόῤῥητα Μυστήρια, ἃ καρποφοροῦσιν αὐτοὶ, καὶ εἴ που τι τῶν ἐν LIB. I. i. 2. GR. I. i. 2. MASS. I. ii. 1. πλήθει εἰρημένων ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς δυνηθείη προσαρμόσαι, καὶ εἰκάσαι τῷ πλάσματι αὐτῶν. G. 10. M.8. 1.2 2. Τὸν μὲν οὖν Προπάτορα αὐτῶν γινώσκεσθαι μόνῳ λέγουσι τῷ ἐξ αὐτοῦ γεγονότι Μονογενεῖ, τουτέστι τῷ Νῷ· τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς πᾶσιν ἀόρατον καὶ ἀκατάληπτον ὑπάρχειν· μόνος δὲ ὁ Νοῦς κατ᾿ αὐτοὺς ἐτέρπετο θεωρῶν τὸν Πατέρα, καὶ τὸ μέγεθος τὸ ἀμέτρητον αὐτοῦ κατανοῶν ἠγάλλετο· καὶ διενοεῖτο καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς αἰῶσιν ἀνακοινώσασθαι τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ Πατρὸς, ἡλίκος τε καὶ ὅσος ὑπῆρχε, καὶ ὡς ἦν ἄναρχός τε καὶ ἀχώρητος, καὶ οὐ καταληπτὸς ἰδεῖν· 1κατέσχε δὲ αὐτὸν ἡ Σιγὴ βουλήσει τοῦ Πατρὸς, διὰ τὸ θέλειν πάντας αὐτοὺς εἰς ἔννοιαν καὶ πόθον ζητήσεως τοῦ προειρημένου Προπάτορος αὐτῶν ἀγαγεῖν. Καὶ οἱ μὲν λοιποὶ ὁμοίως Αἰῶνες ἡσυχῇ πως ἐπεπόθουν τὸν προβολέα τοῦ σπέρματος αὐτῶν ἰδεῖν, καὶ τὴν ἄναρχον 2ῥίζαν ἱστορῆσαι· προήλατο δὲ πολὺ ὁ τελευταῖος LIB. I. i. 2. GR. I. i. 2. MASS. I. ii. 2. καὶ νεώτατος τῆς δωδεκάδος, τῆς ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου καὶ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας, προβεβλημένος Αἰὼν, τουτέστιν ἡ Σοφία, καὶ ἔπαθε πάθος ἄνευ τῆς ἐπιπλοκῆς τοῦ ζνγοῦ l. συζ. τοῦ Θελητοῦ· ἐνήρξατο μὲν ἐν τοῖς περὶ τὸν Νοῦν καὶ τὴν Ἀλήθειαν, 2ἀπέσκηψε δὲ εἰς τοῦτον τὸν παρατραπέντα, 3πρόφασιν μὲν G. 11. ἀγάπης, τόλμης δὲ, διὰ τὸ μὴ κεκοινωνῆσθαι τῷ Πατρὶ τῷ LIB. I. i. 2. GR. I. i. 2. MASS. I. ii. 2. τελείῳ, καθὼς καὶ ὁ Νοῦς. Τὸ δὲ πάθος εἶναι ζήτησιν τοῦ Πατρός· ἤθελε γὰρ, ὡς λέγουσι, τὸ μέγεθος αὐτοῦ καταλαβεῖν· ἔπειτα μὴ δυνηθῆναι, διὰ τὸ ἀδυνάτῳ ἐπιβαλεῖν M. 2. πράγματι, καὶ ἐν πολλῷ πάνυ ἀγῶνι γενόμενον, διά τε τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ βάθους, καὶ τὸ ἀνεξιχνίαστον τοῦ Πατρὸς, καὶ τὴν πρὸς αὐτὸν στοργὴν, 1ἐκτεινόμενον ἀεὶ ἐπὶ τὸ πρόσθεν, 2ὑπὸ τῆς γλυκύτητος αὐτοῦ τελευταῖον ἂν καταπεπόσθαι, καὶ ἀναλελύσθαι εἰς τὴν ὅλην 3οὐσίαν, εἰ μὴ τῇ στηριζούσῃ καὶ ἐκτὸς τοῦ ἀῤῥήτου μεγέθους φυλασσούσῃ τὰ ὅλα συνέτυχε δυνάμει. Ταύτην δὲ τὴν δύναμιν καὶ Ὅρον καλοῦσιν, ὑφʼ ἧς LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 3. 1ἐπεσχῆσθαι καὶ ἐστηρίχθαι, καὶ μόγις ἐπιστρέψαντα εἰς ἑαοτὸν, καὶ παισθέντα ὅτι 2ἀκατάληπτός ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ, ἀποθέσθαι τὴν προτέραν ἐνθύμησιν σὺν τῷ ἐπιγινομένῳ πάθει ἐκ τοῦ ἐκπλήκτου ἐκείνου θαύματος.' '1.3 3. Ἔνιοι δὲ αὐτῶν 3πῶς τὸ πάθος τῆς Σοφίας καὶ τὴν ἐπιστροφὴν μυθολογοῦσιν· ἀδυνάτῳ καὶ ἀκαταλήπτῳ πράγματι αὐτὴν ἐπιχειρήσασαν τεκεῖν οὐσίαν ἄμορφον, 4οἵαν φύσιν εἶχε θήλειαν τεκεῖν· ἣν καὶ κατανοήσασαν πρῶτον μὲν λυπηθῆναι, διὰ τὸ ἀτελὲς τῆς γενέσεως, ἔπειτα φοβηθῆναι 5μηδὲ αὐτὸ τὸ εἶναι τελείως ἔχειν· εἶτα ἐκστῆναι καὶ ἀπορῆσαι, ζητοῦσαν LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 4. G. 12. M. 10. 1 τὴν αἰτίαν, καὶ ὅντινα τρόπον ἀποκρύψει τὸ γεγονός. Ἐγκαταγενομένην δὲ τοῖς πάθεσι λαβεῖν ἐπιστροφὴν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Πατέρα ἀναδραμεῖν πειρασθῆναι, καὶ μέχρι τινὸς τολμήσασαν, ἐξασθενῆσαι, καὶ 2ἱκέτιν τοῦ πατρὸς γενέσθαι· συνδεηθῆναι δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς Αἰῶνας, μάλιστα δὲ τὸν Νοῦν. Ἐντεῦθεν λέγουσι πρώτην ἀρχὴν ἐσχηκέναι τὴν 3οὐσίαν, ἐκ τῆς ἀγνοίας, καὶ τῆς λύπης, καὶ τοῦ φόβου, καὶ τῆς ἐκπλήξεως. Ὁ δὲ Πατὴρ τὸν προειρημένον Ὅρον ἐπὶ τούτοις 4διὰ τοῦ Μονογενοῦς LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 4. προβάλλεται ἐν εἰκόνι ἰδίᾳ, 1ἀσύζυγον, ἀθήλυντον. Τὸν γὰρ Πατέρα ποτὲ μὲν μετὰ συζυγίας τῆς Σιγῆς, ποτὲ δὲ καὶ cf. p. 11. n. 4. ὑπέραῤῥεν, καὶ ὑπέρθηλυ εἶναι θέλουσι. Τὸν δὲ Ὅρον τοῦτον καὶ 2Σολλυτρωτὴν l. Σταυρὸν καὶ Λυτρωτὴν καὶ 3Καρπιστὴν, καὶ Ὁροθέτην, καὶ 4Μεταγωγέα καλοῦσι. Διὰ M. 11. δὲ τοῦ Ὅρου τούτου φασὶ κεκαθάρθαι καὶ ἐστηρίχθαι LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. τὴν Σοφίαν, καὶ ἀποκατασταθῆναι τῇ 1συζογίᾳ· χωρισθείσης γὰρ τῆς Ἐνθυμήσεως ἀπʼ αὐτῆς σὺν τῷ ἐπιγινομένῳ G. 13. μένῳ πάθει, αὐτὴν μὲν ἐντὸς πληρώματος εἶναι· l. μεῖναι· LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 5. Tert. remansisse. τὴν δὲ ἐνθύμησιν αὐτῆς σὺν τῷ πάθει τοῦ Ὅρου ἀφορισθῆναι καὶ ἀποστερηθῆναι l. ἀποσταυρωθῆναι, καὶ ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ γενομένην, εἶναι μὲν πνευματικὴν οὐσίαν, φυσικήν τινα Αἰῶνος ὁρμὴν τυγχάνουσαν· ἄμορφον δὲ καὶ ἀνείδεον 2διὰ τὸ μηδὲν καταλαβεῖν· καὶ διὰ τοῦτο 3καρπὸν ἀσθενῆ καὶ θῆλυν αὐτὸν λέγουσι.'' None
1.1 It is said that Thales of Miletus, one of the seven wise men, first attempted to frame a system of natural philosophy. This person said that some such thing as water is the generative principle of the universe, and its end - for that out of this, solidified and again dissolved, all things consist, and that all things are supported on it; from which also arise both earthquakes and changes of the winds and atmospheric movements, and that all things are both produced and are in a state of flux corresponding with the nature of the primary author of generation - and that the Deity is that which has neither beginning nor end. This person, having been occupied with an hypothesis and investigation concerning the stars, became the earliest author to the Greeks of this kind of learning. And he, looking towards heaven, alleging that he was carefully examining supernal objects, fell into a well; and a certain maid, by name Thratta, remarked of him derisively, that while intent on beholding things in heaven, he did not know, what was at his feet. And he lived about the time of Croesus. ' "
1.2.4 The Father afterwards produces, in his own image, by means of Monogenes, the above-mentioned Horos, without conjunction, masculo-feminine. For they maintain that sometimes the Father acts in conjunction with Sige, but that at other times he shows himself independent both of male and female. They term this Horos both Stauros and Lytrotes, and Carpistes, and Horothetes, and Metagoges. And by this Horos they declare that Sophia was purified and established, while she was also restored to her proper conjunction. For her enthymesis (or inborn idea) having been taken away from her, along with its supervening passion, she herself certainly remained within the Pleroma; but her enthymesis, with its passion, was separated from her by Horos, fenced off, and expelled from that circle. This enthymesis was, no doubt, a spiritual substance, possessing some of the natural tendencies of an AEon, but at the same time shapeless and without form, because it had received nothing. And on this account they say that it was an imbecile and feminine production.' "1.2 But there was also, not far from these times, another philosophy which Pythagoras originated (who some say was a native of Samos), which they have denominated Italian, because that Pythagoras, flying from Polycrates the king of Samos, took up his residence in a city of Italy, and there passed the entire of his remaining years. And they who received in succession his doctrine, did not much differ from the same opinion. And this person, instituting an investigation concerning natural phenomena, combined together astronomy, and geometry, and music. And so he proclaimed that the Deity is a monad; and carefully acquainting himself with the nature of number, he affirmed that the world sings, and that its system corresponds with harmony, and he first resolved the motion of the seven stars into rhythm and melody. And being astonished at the management of the entire fabric, he required that at first his disciples should keep silence, as if persons coming into the world initiated in (the secrets of) the universe; next, when it seemed that they were sufficiently conversant with his mode of teaching his doctrine, and could forcibly philosophize concerning the stars and nature, then, considering them pure, he enjoins them to speak. This man distributed his pupils in two orders, and called the one esoteric, but the other exoteric. And to the former he confided more advanced doctrines, and to the latter a more moderate amount of instruction. And he also touched on magic - as they say - and himself discovered an art of physiogony, laying down as a basis certain numbers and measures, saying that they comprised the principle of arithmetical philosophy by composition after this manner. The first number became an originating principle, which is one, indefinable, incomprehensible, having in itself all numbers that, according to plurality, can go on ad infinitum. But the primary monad became a principle of numbers, according to substance. - which is a male monad, begetting after the manner of a parent all the rest of the numbers. Secondly, the duad is a female number, and the same also is by arithmeticians termed even. Thirdly, the triad is a male number. This also has been classified by arithmeticians under the denomination uneven. And in addition to all these is the tetrad, a female number; and the same also is called even, because it is female. Therefore all the numbers that have been derived from the genus are four; but number is the indefinite genus, from which was constituted, according to them, the perfect number, viz., the decade. For one, two, three, four, become ten, if its proper denomination be preserved essentially for each of the numbers. Pythagoras affirmed this to be a sacred quaternion, source of everlasting nature, having, as it were, roots in itself; and that from this number all the numbers receive their originating principle. For eleven, and twelve, and the rest, partake of the origin of existence from ten. of this decade, the perfect number, there are termed four divisions - namely, number, monad, square, (and) cube. And the connections and blendings of these are performed, according to nature, for the generation of growth completing the productive number. For when the square itself is multiplied into itself, a biquadratic is the result. But when the square is multiplied into the cube, the result is the product of a square and cube; and when the cube is multiplied into the cube, the product of two cubes is the result. So that all the numbers from which the production of existing (numbers) arises, are seven - namely, number, monad, square, cube, biquadratic, quadratic-cube, cubo-cube. This philosopher likewise said that the soul is immortal, and that it subsists in successive bodies. Wherefore he asserted that before the Trojan era he was Aethalides, and during the Trojan epoch Euphorbus, and subsequent to this Hermotimus of Samos, and after him Pyrrhus of Delos; fifth, Pythagoras. And Diodorus the Eretrian, and Aristoxenus the musician, assert that Pythagoras came to Zaratas the Chaldean, and that he explained to him that there are two original causes of things, father and mother, and that father is light, but mother darkness; and that of the light the parts are hot, dry, not heavy, light, swift; but of darkness, cold, moist, weighty, slow; and that out of all these, from female and male, the world consists. But the world, he says, is a musical harmony; wherefore, also, that the sun performs a circuit in accordance with harmony. And as regards the things that are produced from earth and the cosmical system, they maintain that Zaratas makes the following statements: that there are two demons, the one celestial and the other terrestrial; and that the terrestrial sends up a production from earth, and that this is water; and that the celestial is a fire, partaking of the nature of air, hot and cold. And he therefore affirms that none of these destroys or sullies the soul, for these constitute the substance of all things. And he is reported to have ordered his followers not to eat beans, because that Zaratas said that, at the origin and concretion of all things, when the earth was still undergoing its process of solidification, and that of putrefaction had set in, the bean was produced. And of this he mentions the following indication, that if any one, after having chewed a bean without the husk, places it opposite the sun for a certain period - for this immediately will aid in the result - it yields the smell of human seed. And he mentions also another clearer instance to be this: if, when the bean is blossoming, we take the bean and its flower, and deposit them in a jar, smear this over, and bury it in the ground, and after a few days uncover it, we shall see it wearing the appearance, first of a woman's pudendum, and after this, when closely examined, of the head of a child growing in along with it. This person, being burned along with his disciples in Croton, a town of Italy, perished. And this was a habit with him, whenever one repaired to him with a view of becoming his follower, (the candidate disciple was compelled) to sell his possessions, and lodge the money sealed with Pythagoras, and he continued in silence to undergo instruction, sometimes for three, but sometimes for five years. And again, on being released, he was permitted to associate with the rest, and remained as a disciple, and took his meals along with them; if otherwise, however, he received back his property, and was rejected. These persons, then, were styled Esoteric Pythagoreans, whereas the rest, Pythagoristae. Among his followers, however, who escaped the conflagration were Lysis and Archippus, and the servant of Pythagoras, Zamolxis, who also is said to have taught the Celtic Druids to cultivate the philosophy of Pythagoras. And they assert that Pythagoras learned from the Egyptians his system of numbers and measures; and I being struck by the plausible, fanciful, and not easily revealed wisdom of the priests, he himself likewise, in imitation of them, enjoined silence, and made his disciples lead a solitary life in underground chapels. " '1.3 But Empedocles, born after these, advanced likewise many statements respecting the nature of demons, to the effect that, being very numerous, they pass their time in managing earthly concerns. This person affirmed the originating principle of the universe to be discord and friendship, and that the intelligible fire of the monad is the Deity, and that all things consist of fire, and will be resolved into fire; with which opinion the Stoics likewise almost agree, expecting a conflagration. But most of all does he concur with the tenet of transition of souls from body to body, expressing himself thus:- For surely both youth and maid I was, And shrub, and bird, and fish, from ocean stray'd. This (philosopher) maintained the transmutation of all souls into any description of animal. For Pythagoras, the instructor of these (sages), asserted that himself had been Euphorbus, who sewed in the expedition against Ilium, alleging that he recognised his shield.The foregoing are the tenets of Empedocles. "
1.11.5 Others still, however, have called their primary and first-begotten Ogdoad by the following names: first, Proarche; then Anennoetos; thirdly, Arrhetos; and fourthly, Aoratos. Then, from the first, Proarche, there was produced, in the first and fifth place, Arche; from Anennoetos, in the second and sixth place, Acataleptos; from Arrhetos, in the third and seventh place, Anonomastos; and from Aoratos, in the fourth and eighth place, Agennetos. This is the Pleroma of the first Ogdoad. They maintain that these powers were anterior to Bythus and Sige, that they may appear more perfect than the perfect, and more knowing than the very Gnostics To. these persons one may justly exclaim: "O ye trifling sophists!" since, even respecting Bythus himself, there are among them many and discordant opinions. For some/declare him to be without a consort, and neither male nor female, and, in fact, nothing at all; while others affirm him to be masculo-feminine, assigning to him the nature of a hermaphrodite; others, again, allot Sige to him as a spouse, that thus may be formed the first conjunction.
1.23 But Hesiod the poet asserts himself also that he thus heard from the Muses concerning nature, and that the Muses are the daughters of Jupiter. For when for nine nights and days together, Jupiter, through excess of passion, had uninterruptedly lain with Mnemosyne, that Mnemosyne conceived in one womb those nine Muses, becoming pregt with one during each night. Having then summoned the nine Muses from Pieria, that is, Olympus, he exhorted them to undergo instruction:- How first both gods and earth were made, And rivers, and boundless deep, and ocean\'s surge, And glittering stars, and spacious heaven above; How they grasped the crown and shared the glory, And how at first they held the many-valed Olympus. These (truths), you Muses, tell me of, says he, From first, and next which of them first arose. Chaos, no doubt, the very first, arose; but next Wide-stretching Earth, ever the throne secure of all Immortals, who hold the peaks of white Olympus; And breezy Tartarus in wide earth\'s recess; And Love, who is most beauteous of the gods immortal, Chasing care away from all the gods and men, Quells in breasts the mind and counsel sage. But Erebus from Chaos and gloomy Night arose; And, in turn, from Night both Air and Day were born; But primal Earth, equal to self in truth begot The stormy sky to veil it round on every side, Ever to be for happy gods a throne secure. And forth she brought the towering hills, the pleasant haunts of nymphs who dwell throughout the woody heights. And also barren Sea begot the surge-tossed Flood, apart from luscious Love; but next Embracing Heaven, she Ocean bred with eddies deep, And Caeus, and Crius, and Hyperian, and Iapetus, And Thia, and Rhea, and Themis, and Mnemosyne, And gold-crowned Phoebe, and comely Tethys. But after these was born last fittest for bearing arms" (for service, as we say).}-- the wiley Cronus, Fiercest of sons; but he abhorred his blooming sire, And in turn the Cyclops bred, who owned a savage breast. And all the rest of the giants from Cronus, Hesiod enumerates, and somewhere afterwards that Jupiter was born of Rhea. All these, then, made the foregoing statements in their doctrine regarding both the nature and generation of the universe. But all, sinking below what is divine, busied themselves concerning the substance of existing things, being astonished at the magnitude of creation, and supposing that it constituted the Deity, each speculator selecting in preference a different portion of the world; failing, however, to discern the God and maker of these. The opinions, therefore, of those who have attempted to frame systems of philosophy among the Greeks, I consider that we have sufficiently explained; and from these the heretics, taking occasion, have endeavoured to establish the tenets that will be after a short time declared. It seems, however, expedient, that first explaining the mystical rites and whatever imaginary doctrines some have laboriously framed concerning the stars, or magnitudes, to declare these; for heretics likewise, taking occasion from them, are considered by the multitude to utter prodigies. Next in order we shall elucidate the feeble opinions advanced by these. Books 2 and 3 are wanting. <' "
1.28.1 Many offshoots of numerous heresies have already been formed from those heretics we have described. This arises from the fact that numbers of them--indeed, we may say all--desire themselves to be teachers, and to break off from the particular heresy in which they have been involved. Forming one set of doctrines out of a totally different system of opinions, and then again others from others, they insist upon teaching something new, declaring themselves the inventors of any sort of opinion which they may have been able to call into existence. To give an example: Springing from Saturninus and Marcion, those who are called Encratites (self-controlled) preached against marriage, thus setting aside the original creation of God, and indirectly blaming Him who made the male and female for the propagation of the human race. Some of those reckoned among them have also introduced abstinence from animal food, thus proving themselves ungrateful to God, who formed all things. They deny, too, the salvation of him who was first created. It is but lately, however, that this opinion has been invented among them. A certain man named Tatian first introduced the blasphemy. He was a hearer of Justin's, and as long as he continued with him he expressed no such views; but after his martyrdom he separated from the Church, and, excited and puffed up by the thought of being a teacher, as if he were superior to others, he composed his own peculiar type of doctrine. He invented a system of certain invisible AEons, like the followers of Valentinus; while, like Marcion and Saturninus, he declared that marriage was nothing else than corruption and fornication. But his denial of Adam's salvation was an opinion due entirely to himself." ' None
|25. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus of Rome, Apostolic Tradition
Found in books: Goldhill (2022), The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity, 348; Sandnes and Hvalvik (2014), Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation 75
|26. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.61 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus (soon after • Hippolytus of Rome
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 251, 381; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 145
5.61 After the above remarks he proceeds as follows: Let no one suppose that I am ignorant that some of them will concede that their God is the same as that of the Jews, while others will maintain that he is a different one, to whom the latter is in opposition, and that it was from the former that the Son came. Now, if he imagine that the existence of numerous heresies among the Christians is a ground of accusation against Christianity, why, in a similar way, should it not be a ground of accusation against philosophy, that the various sects of philosophers differ from each other, not on small and indifferent points, but upon those of the highest importance? Nay, medicine also ought to be a subject of attack, on account of its many conflicting schools. Let it be admitted, then, that there are among us some who deny that our God is the same as that of the Jews: nevertheless, on that account those are not to be blamed who prove from the same Scriptures that one and the same Deity is the God of the Jews and of the Gentiles alike, as Paul, too, distinctly says, who was a convert from Judaism to Christianity, I thank my God, whom I serve from my forefathers with a pure conscience. And let it be admitted also, that there is a third class who call certain persons carnal, and others spiritual,- I think he here means the followers of Valentinus - yet what does this avail against us, who belong to the Church, and who make it an accusation against such as hold that certain natures are saved, and that others perish in consequence of their natural constitution? And let it be admitted further, that there are some who give themselves out as Gnostics, in the same way as those Epicureans who call themselves philosophers: yet neither will they who annihilate the doctrine of providence be deemed true philosophers, nor those true Christians who introduce monstrous inventions, which are disapproved of by those who are the disciples of Jesus. Let it be admitted, moreover, that there are some who accept Jesus, and who boast on that account of being Christians, and yet would regulate their lives, like the Jewish multitude, in accordance with the Jewish law - and these are the twofold sect of Ebionites, who either acknowledge with us that Jesus was born of a virgin, or deny this, and maintain that He was begotten like other human beings - what does that avail by way of charge against such as belong to the Church, and whom Celsus has styled those of the multitude? He adds, also, that certain of the Christians are believers in the Sibyl, having probably misunderstood some who blamed such as believed in the existence of a prophetic Sibyl, and termed those who held this belief Sibyllists. '' None
|27. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus • Hippolytus (soon after
Found in books: Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 19; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 251, 381
|28. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 346; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 709
|29. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.18-4.20, 4.31-4.35
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 122; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 122
4.18 hall free the earth from never-ceasing fear. 4.19 He shall receive the life of gods, and see 4.20 heroes with gods commingling, and himself
4.31 caressing flowers. The serpent too shall die, 4.32 die shall the treacherous poison-plant, and far 4.33 and wide Assyrian spices spring. But soon' "4.34 as thou hast skill to read of heroes' fame," "4.35 and of thy father's deeds, and inly learn"' None
|30. Vergil, Georgics, 1.121-1.146
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 121; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 121
1.121 officiunt aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi 1.122 haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem 1.123 movit agros curis acuens mortalia corda 1.124 nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno. 1.125 Ante Iovem nulli subigebant arva coloni; 1.126 ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum 1.127 fas erat: in medium quaerebant ipsaque tellus 1.128 omnia liberius nullo poscente ferebat. 1.129 Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris 1.130 praedarique lupos iussit pontumque moveri, 1.131 mellaque decussit foliis ignemque removit 1.132 et passim rivis currentia vina repressit, 1.133 ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis 1.134 paulatim et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam. 1.135 Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem. 1.136 Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas; 1.137 navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit, 1.138 Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton; 1.139 tum laqueis captare feras et fallere visco 1.140 inventum et magnos canibus circumdare saltus; 1.141 atque alius latum funda iam verberat amnem 1.142 alta petens, pelagoque alius trahit humida lina; 1.143 tum ferri rigor atque argutae lamina serrae,— 1.144 nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum 1.145 tum variae venere artes. Labor omnia vicit 1.146 inprobus et duris urgens in rebus egestas.'' None
1.121 And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122 Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123 The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124 Pray for wet summers and for winters fine,' "1.125 Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop" '1.126 Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127 No tilth makes 1.128 Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire. 1.129 Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed, 1.130 Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth 1.131 The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn 1.132 Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain; 1.133 And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade 1.134 Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed, 1.135 See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls,' "1.136 Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones," '1.137 And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields? 1.138 Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear' "1.139 O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade" "1.140 Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth" '1.141 First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain' "1.142 The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand," '1.143 Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream 1.144 Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime 1.145 Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke 1.146 Sweat steaming vapour?'' None
|31. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 122; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 122