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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
gold Avery Peck et al. (2014) 130, 234, 235
Cain (2016) 209
Cueva et al. (2018b) 140
Edmonds (2019) 24, 25, 72, 125, 141, 218, 269, 274, 277, 279, 280, 282, 283, 285, 287, 289, 294, 295, 298, 310, 312, 351, 358, 359
Gagné (2020) 5, 11, 23, 112, 132, 142, 176, 181, 188, 197, 204, 217, 224, 225, 250, 266, 275, 276, 282, 291, 305, 309, 354, 355
Gray (2021) 78, 90, 195, 241
Huttner (2013) 70, 71, 163, 164, 165
Joosse (2021) 18, 27, 28
Jouanna (2012) 162, 327
Marek (2019) 161, 405
Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 258, 279, 292
Rosen-Zvi (2012) 158
Rubenstein (2018) 17, 113, 215, 224, 225, 227, 228
Schibli (2002) 173
Seaford (2018) 44, 45, 46, 390, 402
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 8, 126, 135, 147, 148, 265, 313, 323, 332, 333, 334, 357
Stuckenbruck (2007) 193, 194, 205, 263, 297, 316, 317, 322, 325, 332, 333, 392, 398, 399, 418, 457, 461, 462, 716, 719, 720, 721, 722, 726
Thonemann (2020) 56, 67, 68, 69, 111, 125, 126, 148, 172
Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 31, 76, 81, 93, 245, 309, 347, 350, 359, 363, 364
Wilson (2012) 155
gold, and mines, silver, thrace Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 49
gold, and silver Gera (2014) 35, 148, 159, 207, 264, 269, 345, 369, 442, 445
gold, and/or silver Satlow (2013) 31
gold, associated with purity Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 116, 117
gold, aurum Radicke (2022) 88, 95, 126, 137, 159, 212, 274, 308, 350, 446, 458
gold, banned in certain cults Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 59
gold, barbara Yona (2018) 5, 51, 60, 76, 90, 93, 120, 297
gold, bulla, normally Edmondson (2008) 26, 42, 48, 58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 94, 105, 108, 111, 142, 144, 153, 154, 163, 169
gold, coinage of philip ii, money Richlin (2018) 439, 440, 441, 470
gold, colors, purple and Goldman (2013) 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
gold, crowns, crowns Gygax (2016) 19, 36, 39, 43, 44, 50, 174, 182, 183, 188, 192, 197, 208, 224, 231, 232, 244
gold, cup Griffiths (1975) 8, 179
gold, dust, sprinkled in hair Goldman (2013) 107, 108
gold, egyptian figures, on vase of Griffiths (1975) 11, 232
gold, extraction Joosse (2021) 18, 27
gold, from rome, senatus consulta, prohibiting export of silver and Udoh (2006) 96
gold, glass Levine (2005) 352
gold, glass fragments, catacombs Levine (2005) 352
gold, glass, bulla, normally Edmondson (2008) 153
gold, gold, cup, leaf, on stern of ship of isis Griffiths (1975) 263
gold, gold, cup, vase, image of highest deity Griffiths (1975) 11, 227
gold, golden, Edmondson (2008) 12, 27, 29, 30, 58, 62, 63, 69, 70, 72, 75, 89, 92, 94, 104, 111, 121, 133, 143, 144, 148, 152, 153, 175, 176, 182, 184, 206, 207, 218, 219, 223, 225, 226, 229, 230, 237, 240, 274, 280, 291
gold, golden, colors Goldman (2013) 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 50, 59, 60, 61, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 85, 92, 96, 101, 107, 108, 110, 118, 119, 120, 121, 126, 137, 146, 150, 151, 154, 158, 159
gold, image of highest deity, vase, small, of Griffiths (1975) 11, 227
gold, in story of amasis Steiner (2001) 127
gold, leaf rome from Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 249, 250, 251
gold, leaf, stern, of ship of isis, shining with Griffiths (1975) 263
gold, leather, bulla, normally Edmondson (2008) 62, 63, 111
gold, leaves Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 83, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 269, 277, 278, 296
Seaford (2018) 189, 190, 191, 192, 196, 200, 201, 207, 213, 215, 337, 405
gold, leaves / lamellae Bierl (2017) 128
gold, leaves of palm-branch, gold, cup Griffiths (1975) 198
gold, leaves of psyche/soul, katharos, in Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 65, 75, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 277
gold, leaves, euages/euageo, in Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 252, 259, 260, 261, 262
gold, leaves, justice, in Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258
gold, leaves, meadow, sacred, in the Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 262
gold, leaves, orphic Gee (2020) 226
gold, leaves, psyche as seat of purity/impurity, in the Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 277, 296
gold, leaves, supplication, in the Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 259, 261
gold, leaves/orphics, eschatology, and Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 259, 260, 277, 278, 296
gold, letters, sail, of ship of isis, with inwoven Griffiths (1975) 262
gold, love, of silver and Stuckenbruck (2007) 721
gold, mines Joosse (2021) 27, 28
gold, mines and mining Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 281, 689
gold, mines and mining, nw spain and dacia Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 690
gold, objects Gera (2014) 64, 161, 305, 346, 385, 398, 445, 470
gold, on sail of ship of isis, letters Griffiths (1975) 262
gold, ornaments Parker (2005) 223, 225
gold, placer Heymans (2021) 2, 210
gold, processing/production of Heymans (2021) 209, 210
gold, ring from tomb near heraeum with griffins and column of hera argos, ? Simon (2021) 65
gold, ring with daimones as cult attendants from, tiryns Simon (2021) 265
gold, ring with lions and column of hera mycenae, ? Simon (2021) 65
gold, ring with palladium and two goddesses, mycenae Simon (2021) 201, 202, 203, 265, 378
gold, rings associated with vegetation deities, crete Simon (2021) 299, 300
gold, rings, argos, tomb near heraeum, ring with griffins and column of hera, ? Simon (2021) 65
gold, rings, crete, rings associated with vegetation deities Simon (2021) 299, 300
gold, rings, mycenae, ring with lions and column of hera, ? Simon (2021) 65
gold, rings, mycenae, ring with palladium and two goddesses Simon (2021) 201, 202, 203, 265, 378
gold, rings, tyrins, ring with daimones as cult attendants from Simon (2021) 265
gold, sea lavender dedicatory objects, λειμώνιον Renberg (2017) 164
gold, significance of Heymans (2021) 3, 196
gold, sistrum = bronze rattle, carried by isis, sistrums of initiates, bronze, silver Griffiths (1975) 193
gold, statue Gera (2014) 48, 136, 161, 165, 249, 289
gold, supply, in greece Parkins and Smith (1998) 64
gold, tablets Gazis and Hooper (2021) 19, 20, 21, 100, 143
Tor (2017) 237, 238, 243, 244, 245, 270, 271, 274
gold, tablets, bacchic Gagné (2020) 275
gold, tablets, gold, leaves / de Jáuregui (2010) 1, 15, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 39, 51, 58, 69, 70, 71, 334, 341, 343, 344, 369
gold, tablets, orphic de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 10, 165, 168, 172, 174, 179, 180, 181, 182, 186, 187, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 222, 313
gold, tablets, orphic tradition, bacchic Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 135, 363, 426, 557, 558, 559
gold, tablets, pyrgi Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 706, 712
gold, taxes, roman, aurum coronarium, crown Marek (2019) 388
gold, thasos Heymans (2021) 213, 214, 216
gold, totenpässe tablets, orphism Wolfsdorf (2020) 560, 599
gold, vase carried in procession, serpent, on handle of golden, vessel carried by isis, on handle of Griffiths (1975) 11, 232
gold, vase, asp, coiled on handle of Griffiths (1975) 11, 232
golding, arthur Williams and Vol (2022) 343

List of validated texts:
75 validated results for "gold"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.7-5.9, 8.13, 9.14, 11.6, 17.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • Golden Calf • Golden Rule • Golden calf • gold • gold, and silver • golden calf

 Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 183; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 233, 245; Fishbane (2003) 346; Gera (2014) 207; Rubenstein (2018) 215, 227; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 102; Stuckenbruck (2007) 263, 297

5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃
8.13. וּבְקָרְךָ וְצֹאנְךָ יִרְבְּיֻן וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב יִרְבֶּה־לָּךְ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ יִרְבֶּה׃
9.14. הֶרֶף מִמֶּנִּי וְאַשְׁמִידֵם וְאֶמְחֶה אֶת־שְׁמָם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי־עָצוּם וָרָב מִמֶּנּוּ׃
11.6. וַאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדָתָן וְלַאֲבִירָם בְּנֵי אֱלִיאָב בֶּן־רְאוּבֵן אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה הָאָרֶץ אֶת־פִּיהָ וַתִּבְלָעֵם וְאֶת־בָּתֵּיהֶם וְאֶת־אָהֳלֵיהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־הַיְקוּם אֲשֶׁר בְּרַגְלֵיהֶם בְּקֶרֶב כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃''. None
5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me. 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me,
8.13. and when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied, and all that thou hast is multiplied;
9.14. let Me alone, that I may destroy them, and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make of thee a nation mightier and greater than they.’
11.6. and what He did unto Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, the son of Reuben; how the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up, and their households, and their tents, and every living substance that followed them, in the midst of all Israel;
17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.38, 17.2-17.7, 20.3-20.5, 30.7-30.8, 32.10, 32.19, 32.24-32.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • Gold glass • Golden Calf • Golden Rule • Golden calf • Homer, Golden throne • Temple (Jerusalem), golden lamp • gold, and silver • gold, objects • gold, statue • golden age in Bible • golden ages • golden calf • idolatry, Golden Calf • word of God, God's own and humans' of God Golden calf/calves

 Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 183, 237; Bar Kochba (1997) 163; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 233, 245; Dijkstra (2020) 267; Fishbane (2003) 130, 346, 376; Gera (2014) 148, 161, 249, 289; Hayes (2015) 49; Levison (2009) 51, 325; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 218, 279; Morgan (2022) 60; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 88; Schremer (2010) 61; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 97; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398

12.38. וְגַם־עֵרֶב רַב עָלָה אִתָּם וְצֹאן וּבָקָר מִקְנֶה כָּבֵד מְאֹד׃
17.2. וַיָּרֶב הָעָם עִם־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ תְּנוּ־לָנוּ מַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה מַה־תְּרִיבוּן עִמָּדִי מַה־תְּנַסּוּן אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 17.3. וַיִּצְמָא שָׁם הָעָם לַמַּיִם וַיָּלֶן הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָּה זֶּה הֶעֱלִיתָנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לְהָמִית אֹתִי וְאֶת־בָּנַי וְאֶת־מִקְנַי בַּצָּמָא׃ 17.4. וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לָעָם הַזֶּה עוֹד מְעַט וּסְקָלֻנִי׃ 17.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הָעָם וְקַח אִתְּךָ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת־הַיְאֹר קַח בְּיָדְךָ וְהָלָכְתָּ׃ 17.6. הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.7. וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם מַסָּה וּמְרִיבָה עַל־רִיב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל נַסֹּתָם אֶת־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הֲיֵשׁ יְהוָה בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ אִם־אָיִן׃
20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃
30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃' '
32.19. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר קָרַב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיַּרְא אֶת־הָעֵגֶל וּמְחֹלֹת וַיִּחַר־אַף מֹשֶׁה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ מידו מִיָּדָיו אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֹתָם תַּחַת הָהָר׃
32.24. וָאֹמַר לָהֶם לְמִי זָהָב הִתְפָּרָקוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ־לִי וָאַשְׁלִכֵהוּ בָאֵשׁ וַיֵּצֵא הָעֵגֶל הַזֶּה׃ 32.25. וַיַּרְא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם כִּי פָרֻעַ הוּא כִּי־פְרָעֹה אַהֲרֹן לְשִׁמְצָה בְּקָמֵיהֶם׃''. None
12.38. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
17.2. Wherefore the people strove with Moses, and said: ‘Give us water that we may drink.’ And Moses said unto them: ‘Why strive ye with me? wherefore do ye try the LORD?’ 17.3. And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said: ‘Wherefore hast thou brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?’ 17.4. And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘What shall I do unto this people? they are almost ready to stone me.’ 17.5. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Pass on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thy hand, and go. 17.6. Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel. 17.7. And the name of the place was called Massah, and Meribah, because of the striving of the children of Israel, and because they tried the LORD, saying: ‘Is the LORD among us, or not?’
20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me. 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;
30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it. 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations.
32.10. Now therefore let Me alone, that My wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them; and I will make of thee a great nation.’
32.19. And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dancing; and Moses’anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and broke them beneath the mount.
32.24. And I said unto them: Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off; so they gave it me; and I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.’ 32.25. And when Moses saw that the people were broken loose—for Aaron had let them loose for a derision among their enemies—' '. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 28.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • hacksilber and -gold

 Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 130; Heymans (2021) 50

28.17. לֹא־יַעַרְכֶנָּה זָהָב וּזְכוֹכִית וּתְמוּרָתָהּ כְּלִי־פָז׃''. None
28.17. Gold and glass cannot equal it; Neither shall the exchange thereof be vessels of fine gold.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.36, 20.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold glass • gold, and silver • golden calf

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 267; Gera (2014) 269; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 97

14.36. וְהָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח מֹשֶׁה לָתוּר אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וילונו וַיַּלִּינוּ עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵדָה לְהוֹצִיא דִבָּה עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
20.4. וְלָמָה הֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־קְהַל יְהוָה אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לָמוּת שָׁם אֲנַחְנוּ וּבְעִירֵנוּ׃''. None
14.36. And the men, whom Moses sent to spy out the land, and who, when they returned, made all the congregation to murmur against him, by bringing up an evil report against the land,
20.4. And why have ye brought the assembly of the LORD into this wilderness, to die there, we and our cattle?''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 135.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • Love, of Silver and Gold • gold, in story of Amasis

 Found in books: Steiner (2001) 127; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398, 399, 721

135.15. עֲצַבֵּי הַגּוֹיִם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃''. None
135.15. The idols of the nations are silver and gold, The work of men's hands."". None
6. Hesiod, Works And Days, 25-41, 100-237, 285, 287-292, 308-313, 649-650, 802-804 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ages of Man, Golden • Corycian gardener, as Golden Age figure • Corycian gardener, as discrepant from Golden Age ideal • Gold leaves / gold tablets • Golden Age • Golden Age, art in • Golden Age, as moral value • Golden Age, as retrospective ideal • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, in myth • Golden Age, symbolic value of • Golden Tablets, crossroads image in • Golden Tablets, vs Od. 12.55-126 • Iron Age, and Golden Age • Libyans as reflection on Golden Age ideals • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • Praises of Italy, reminiscent of Golden Age • Praises of Spring, as reflection on Golden Age • Praises of Spring, as scientific analogue of Golden Age myth • bees, as Golden Age ideal • city, as loss of Golden Age community • gold • gold leaves • golden age • golden age, pity in • golden age/race • plague, as reflection on Golden Age ideals in Georgic

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 121, 123; Blum and Biggs (2019) 13, 23; Clay and Vergados (2022) 235; Crabb (2020) 83; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 557; Folit-Weinberg (2022) 183, 184, 187; Fowler (2014) 43, 44; Gale (2000) 38, 40, 61, 62, 63, 155, 156, 218; Gee (2013) 25, 46, 176, 177; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 199, 305, 318, 319, 320, 321; Maciver (2012) 57; Perkell (1989) 52, 57, 58, 59, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138; Schibli (2002) 173; Seaford (2018) 191, 201; Verhagen (2022) 121, 123; Waldner et al (2016) 63; de Jáuregui (2010) 343

25. καὶ κεραμεὺς κεραμεῖ κοτέει καὶ τέκτονι τέκτων, 26. καὶ πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει καὶ ἀοιδὸς ἀοιδῷ. 27. ὦ Πέρση, σὺ δὲ ταῦτα τεῷ ἐνικάτθεο θυμῷ, 28. μηδέ σʼ Ἔρις κακόχαρτος ἀπʼ ἔργου θυμὸν ἐρύκοι 29. νείκεʼ ὀπιπεύοντʼ ἀγορῆς ἐπακουὸν ἐόντα. 30. ὤρη γάρ τʼ ὀλίγη πέλεται νεικέων τʼ ἀγορέων τε, 31. ᾧτινι μὴ βίος ἔνδον ἐπηετανὸς κατάκειται' '32. ὡραῖος, τὸν γαῖα φέρει, Δημήτερος ἀκτήν. 33. τοῦ κε κορεσσάμενος νείκεα καὶ δῆριν ὀφέλλοις 34. κτήμασʼ ἐπʼ ἀλλοτρίοις· σοὶ δʼ οὐκέτι δεύτερον ἔσται 35. ὧδʼ ἔρδειν· ἀλλʼ αὖθι διακρινώμεθα νεῖκος 36. ἰθείῃσι δίκῃς, αἵ τʼ ἐκ Διός εἰσιν ἄρισται. 37. ἤδη μὲν γὰρ κλῆρον ἐδασσάμεθʼ, ἀλλὰ τὰ πολλὰ 38. ἁρπάζων ἐφόρεις μέγα κυδαίνων βασιλῆας 39. δωροφάγους, οἳ τήνδε δίκην ἐθέλουσι δίκασσαι. 40. νήπιοι, οὐδὲ ἴσασιν ὅσῳ πλέον ἥμισυ παντὸς 41. οὐδʼ ὅσον ἐν μαλάχῃ τε καὶ ἀσφοδέλῳ μέγʼ ὄνειαρ.
100. ἄλλα δὲ μυρία λυγρὰ κατʼ ἀνθρώπους ἀλάληται·'101. πλείη μὲν γὰρ γαῖα κακῶν, πλείη δὲ θάλασσα· 102. νοῦσοι δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ἐφʼ ἡμέρῃ, αἳ δʼ ἐπὶ νυκτὶ 103. αὐτόματοι φοιτῶσι κακὰ θνητοῖσι φέρουσαι 104. σιγῇ, ἐπεὶ φωνὴν ἐξείλετο μητίετα Ζεύς. 105. οὕτως οὔτι πη ἔστι Διὸς νόον ἐξαλέασθαι. 106. εἰ δʼ ἐθέλεις, ἕτερόν τοι ἐγὼ λόγον ἐκκορυφώσω 107. εὖ καὶ ἐπισταμένως· σὺ δʼ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν. 108. ὡς ὁμόθεν γεγάασι θεοὶ θνητοί τʼ ἄνθρωποι. 109. χρύσεον μὲν πρώτιστα γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων 110. ἀθάνατοι ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες. 111. οἳ μὲν ἐπὶ Κρόνου ἦσαν, ὅτʼ οὐρανῷ ἐμβασίλευεν· 112. ὥστε θεοὶ δʼ ἔζωον ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 113. νόσφιν ἄτερ τε πόνων καὶ ὀιζύος· οὐδέ τι δειλὸν 114. γῆρας ἐπῆν, αἰεὶ δὲ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ὁμοῖοι 115. τέρποντʼ ἐν θαλίῃσι κακῶν ἔκτοσθεν ἁπάντων· 116. θνῇσκον δʼ ὥσθʼ ὕπνῳ δεδμημένοι· ἐσθλὰ δὲ πάντα 117. τοῖσιν ἔην· καρπὸν δʼ ἔφερε ζείδωρος ἄρουρα 118. αὐτομάτη πολλόν τε καὶ ἄφθονον· οἳ δʼ ἐθελημοὶ 119. ἥσυχοι ἔργʼ ἐνέμοντο σὺν ἐσθλοῖσιν πολέεσσιν. 120. ἀφνειοὶ μήλοισι, φίλοι μακάρεσσι θεοῖσιν. 121. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 122. τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123. ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, 124. οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 1
25. ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν, 126. πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—, 127. δεύτερον αὖτε γένος πολὺ χειρότερον μετόπισθεν 128. ἀργύρεον ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες, 129. χρυσέῳ οὔτε φυὴν ἐναλίγκιον οὔτε νόημα. 130. ἀλλʼ ἑκατὸν μὲν παῖς ἔτεα παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ 131. ἐτρέφετʼ ἀτάλλων, μέγα νήπιος, ᾧ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ. 132. ἀλλʼ ὅτʼ ἄρʼ ἡβήσαι τε καὶ ἥβης μέτρον ἵκοιτο, 133. παυρίδιον ζώεσκον ἐπὶ χρόνον, ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντες 134. ἀφραδίῃς· ὕβριν γὰρ ἀτάσθαλον οὐκ ἐδύναντο 135. ἀλλήλων ἀπέχειν, οὐδʼ ἀθανάτους θεραπεύειν 136. ἤθελον οὐδʼ ἔρδειν μακάρων ἱεροῖς ἐπὶ βωμοῖς, 137. ἣ θέμις ἀνθρώποις κατὰ ἤθεα. τοὺς μὲν ἔπειτα 138. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ἔκρυψε χολούμενος, οὕνεκα τιμὰς 139. οὐκ ἔδιδον μακάρεσσι θεοῖς, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν. 140. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 141. τοὶ μὲν ὑποχθόνιοι μάκαρες θνητοῖς καλέονται, 142. δεύτεροι, ἀλλʼ ἔμπης τιμὴ καὶ τοῖσιν ὀπηδεῖ—, 143. Ζεὺς δὲ πατὴρ τρίτον ἄλλο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων 144. χάλκειον ποίησʼ, οὐκ ἀργυρέῳ οὐδὲν ὁμοῖον, 145. ἐκ μελιᾶν, δεινόν τε καὶ ὄβριμον· οἷσιν Ἄρηος 146. ἔργʼ ἔμελεν στονόεντα καὶ ὕβριες· οὐδέ τι σῖτον 147. ἤσθιον, ἀλλʼ ἀδάμαντος ἔχον κρατερόφρονα θυμόν, 148. ἄπλαστοι· μεγάλη δὲ βίη καὶ χεῖρες ἄαπτοι 149. ἐξ ὤμων ἐπέφυκον ἐπὶ στιβαροῖσι μέλεσσιν. 150. ὧν δʼ ἦν χάλκεα μὲν τεύχεα, χάλκεοι δέ τε οἶκοι 151. χαλκῷ δʼ εἰργάζοντο· μέλας δʼ οὐκ ἔσκε σίδηρος. 152. καὶ τοὶ μὲν χείρεσσιν ὕπο σφετέρῃσι δαμέντες 153. βῆσαν ἐς εὐρώεντα δόμον κρυεροῦ Αίδαο 154. νώνυμνοι· θάνατος δὲ καὶ ἐκπάγλους περ ἐόντας 155. εἷλε μέλας, λαμπρὸν δʼ ἔλιπον φάος ἠελίοιο. 156. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψεν, 157. αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 158. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ἄρειον, 159. ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 160. ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161. καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162. τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163. ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164. τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165. ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166. ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 167. τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 169. Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169. ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169. τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169. τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169. τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170. καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171. ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 172. ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173. τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα. 174. μηκέτʼ ἔπειτʼ ὤφελλον ἐγὼ πέμπτοισι μετεῖναι 175. ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλʼ ἢ πρόσθε θανεῖν ἢ ἔπειτα γενέσθαι. 176. νῦν γὰρ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ σιδήρεον· οὐδέ ποτʼ ἦμαρ 177. παύονται καμάτου καὶ ὀιζύος, οὐδέ τι νύκτωρ 178. φθειρόμενοι. χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας· 179. ἀλλʼ ἔμπης καὶ τοῖσι μεμείξεται ἐσθλὰ κακοῖσιν. 180. Ζεὺς δʼ ὀλέσει καὶ τοῦτο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων, 181. εὖτʼ ἂν γεινόμενοι πολιοκρόταφοι τελέθωσιν. 182. οὐδὲ πατὴρ παίδεσσιν ὁμοίιος οὐδέ τι παῖδες, 183. οὐδὲ ξεῖνος ξεινοδόκῳ καὶ ἑταῖρος ἑταίρῳ, 184. οὐδὲ κασίγνητος φίλος ἔσσεται, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ. 185. αἶψα δὲ γηράσκοντας ἀτιμήσουσι τοκῆας· 186. μέμψονται δʼ ἄρα τοὺς χαλεποῖς βάζοντες ἔπεσσι 187. σχέτλιοι οὐδὲ θεῶν ὄπιν εἰδότες· οὐδέ κεν οἵ γε 188. γηράντεσσι τοκεῦσιν ἀπὸ θρεπτήρια δοῖεν 189. χειροδίκαι· ἕτερος δʼ ἑτέρου πόλιν ἐξαλαπάξει. 190. οὐδέ τις εὐόρκου χάρις ἔσσεται οὔτε δικαίου 191. οὔτʼ ἀγαθοῦ, μᾶλλον δὲ κακῶν ῥεκτῆρα καὶ ὕβριν 192. ἀνέρες αἰνήσουσι· δίκη δʼ ἐν χερσί, καὶ αἰδὼς 193. οὐκ ἔσται· βλάψει δʼ ὁ κακὸς τὸν ἀρείονα φῶτα 194. μύθοισιν σκολιοῖς ἐνέπων, ἐπὶ δʼ ὅρκον ὀμεῖται. 195. ζῆλος δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀιζυροῖσιν ἅπασι 196. δυσκέλαδος κακόχαρτος ὁμαρτήσει, στυγερώπης. 197. καὶ τότε δὴ πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἀπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 198. λευκοῖσιν φάρεσσι καλυψαμένα χρόα καλὸν 199. ἀθανάτων μετὰ φῦλον ἴτον προλιπόντʼ ἀνθρώπους 200. Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ 201. θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐκ ἔσσεται ἀλκή. 202. νῦν δʼ αἶνον βασιλεῦσιν ἐρέω φρονέουσι καὶ αὐτοῖς· 203. ὧδʼ ἴρηξ προσέειπεν ἀηδόνα ποικιλόδειρον 204. ὕψι μάλʼ ἐν νεφέεσσι φέρων ὀνύχεσσι μεμαρπώς· 205. ἣ δʼ ἐλεόν, γναμπτοῖσι πεπαρμένη ἀμφʼ ὀνύχεσσι, 206. μύρετο· τὴν ὅγʼ ἐπικρατέως πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπεν· 207. δαιμονίη, τί λέληκας; ἔχει νύ σε πολλὸν ἀρείων· 208. τῇ δʼ εἶς, ᾗ σʼ ἂν ἐγώ περ ἄγω καὶ ἀοιδὸν ἐοῦσαν· 209. δεῖπνον δʼ, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλω, ποιήσομαι ἠὲ μεθήσω. 210. ἄφρων δʼ, ὅς κʼ ἐθέλῃ πρὸς κρείσσονας ἀντιφερίζειν· 211. νίκης τε στέρεται πρός τʼ αἴσχεσιν ἄλγεα πάσχει. 212. ὣς ἔφατʼ ὠκυπέτης ἴρηξ, τανυσίπτερος ὄρνις. 213. ὦ Πέρση, σὺ δʼ ἄκουε δίκης, μηδʼ ὕβριν ὄφελλε· 214. ὕβρις γάρ τε κακὴ δειλῷ βροτῷ· οὐδὲ μὲν ἐσθλὸς 215. ῥηιδίως φερέμεν δύναται, βαρύθει δέ θʼ ὑπʼ αὐτῆς 216. ἐγκύρσας ἄτῃσιν· ὁδὸς δʼ ἑτέρηφι παρελθεῖν 217. κρείσσων ἐς τὰ δίκαια· Δίκη δʼ ὑπὲρ Ὕβριος ἴσχει 218. ἐς τέλος ἐξελθοῦσα· παθὼν δέ τε νήπιος ἔγνω. 219. αὐτίκα γὰρ τρέχει Ὅρκος ἅμα σκολιῇσι δίκῃσιν. 220. τῆς δὲ Δίκης ῥόθος ἑλκομένης, ᾗ κʼ ἄνδρες ἄγωσι 221. δωροφάγοι, σκολιῇς δὲ δίκῃς κρίνωσι θέμιστας. 222. ἣ δʼ ἕπεται κλαίουσα πόλιν καὶ ἤθεα λαῶν, 223. ἠέρα ἑσσαμένη, κακὸν ἀνθρώποισι φέρουσα, 224. οἵ τε μιν ἐξελάσωσι καὶ οὐκ ἰθεῖαν ἔνειμαν. 2
25. Οἳ δὲ δίκας ξείνοισι καὶ ἐνδήμοισι διδοῦσιν 226. ἰθείας καὶ μή τι παρεκβαίνουσι δικαίου, 227. τοῖσι τέθηλε πόλις, λαοὶ δʼ ἀνθεῦσιν ἐν αὐτῇ· 228. εἰρήνη δʼ ἀνὰ γῆν κουροτρόφος, οὐδέ ποτʼ αὐτοῖς 229. ἀργαλέον πόλεμον τεκμαίρεται εὐρύοπα Ζεύς· 230. οὐδέ ποτʼ ἰθυδίκῃσι μετʼ ἀνδράσι λιμὸς ὀπηδεῖ 231. οὐδʼ ἄτη, θαλίῃς δὲ μεμηλότα ἔργα νέμονται. 232. τοῖσι φέρει μὲν γαῖα πολὺν βίον, οὔρεσι δὲ δρῦς 233. ἄκρη μέν τε φέρει βαλάνους, μέσση δὲ μελίσσας· 234. εἰροπόκοι δʼ ὄιες μαλλοῖς καταβεβρίθασιν· 235. τίκτουσιν δὲ γυναῖκες ἐοικότα τέκνα γονεῦσιν· 236. θάλλουσιν δʼ ἀγαθοῖσι διαμπερές· οὐδʼ ἐπὶ νηῶν 237. νίσσονται, καρπὸν δὲ φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα.
285. ἀνδρὸς δʼ εὐόρκου γενεὴ μετόπισθεν ἀμείνων.
287. τὴν μέν τοι κακότητα καὶ ἰλαδὸν ἔστιν ἑλέσθαι 288. ῥηιδίως· λείη μὲν ὁδός, μάλα δʼ ἐγγύθι ναίει· 289. τῆς δʼ ἀρετῆς ἱδρῶτα θεοὶ προπάροιθεν ἔθηκαν 290. ἀθάνατοι· μακρὸς δὲ καὶ ὄρθιος οἶμος ἐς αὐτὴν 291. καὶ τρηχὺς τὸ πρῶτον· ἐπὴν δʼ εἰς ἄκρον ἵκηται, 292. ῥηιδίη δὴ ἔπειτα πέλει, χαλεπή περ ἐοῦσα.
308. ἐξ ἔργων δʼ ἄνδρες πολύμηλοί τʼ ἀφνειοί τε· 309. καὶ ἐργαζόμενοι πολὺ φίλτεροι ἀθανάτοισιν. 311. ἔργον δʼ οὐδὲν ὄνειδος, ἀεργίη δέ τʼ ὄνειδος. 312. εἰ δέ κε ἐργάζῃ, τάχα σε ζηλώσει ἀεργὸς 313. πλουτεῦντα· πλούτῳ δʼ ἀρετὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ.
649. οὔτε τι ναυτιλίης σεσοφισμένος οὔτε τι νηῶν. 650. οὐ γάρ πώ ποτε νηί γʼ ἐπέπλων εὐρέα πόντον,
802. πέμπτας δʼ ἐξαλέασθαι, ἐπεὶ χαλεπαί τε καὶ αἰναί· 803. ἐν πέμπτῃ γάρ φασιν Ἐρινύας ἀμφιπολεύειν 804. Ὅρκον γεινόμενον, τὸν Ἔρις τέκε πῆμʼ ἐπιόρκοις. '. None
25. Potter hates potter, builder builder, and 26. A beggar bears his fellow-beggar spite, 27. Likewise all singers. Perses, understand 28. My verse, don’t let the evil Strife invite 29. Your heart to shrink from work and make you gaze 30. And listen to the quarrels in the square - 31. No time for quarrels or to spend one’s day 32. In public life when in your granary there 33. Is not stored up a year’s stock of the grain 34. Demeter grants the earth. Get in that store, 35. Then you may wrangle, struggling to obtain 36. Other men’s goods – a chance shall come no more 37. To do this. Let’s set straight our wrangling 38. With Zeus’s laws, so excellent and fair. 39. We split our goods in two, but, capturing 40. The greater part, you carried it from there 41. And praised those kings, bribe-eaters, who adore
100. Which brought the Death-Gods. Now in misery'101. Men age. Pandora took out of the jar 102. Grievous calamity, bringing to men 103. Dreadful distress by scattering it afar. 104. Within its firm sides, Hope alone was then 105. Still safe within its lip, not leaping out 106. (The lid already stopped her, by the will 107. of aegis-bearing Zeus). But all about 108. There roam among mankind all kinds of ill, 109. Filling both land and sea, while every day 110. Plagues haunt them, which, unwanted, come at night 111. As well, in silence, for Zeus took away 112. Their voice – it is not possible to fight 113. The will of Zeus. I’ll sketch now skilfully, 114. If you should welcome it, another story: 115. Take it to heart. The selfsame ancestry 116. Embraced both men and gods, who, in their glory 117. High on Olympus first devised a race 118. of gold, existing under Cronus’ reign 119. When he ruled Heaven. There was not a trace 120. of woe among them since they felt no pain; 121. There was no dread old age but, always rude 122. of health, away from grief, they took delight 123. In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued 124. By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right, 1
25. Would bring forth plenteous fruit. In harmony 126. They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease 127. With all the gods. But when this progeny 128. Was buried underneath the earth – yet these 129. Live on, land-spirits, holy, pure and blessed, 130. Who guard mankind from evil, watching out 131. For all the laws and heinous deeds, while dressed 132. In misty vapour, roaming all about 133. The land, bestowing wealth, this kingly right 134. Being theirs – a second race the Olympians made, 135. A silver one, far worse, unlike, in sight 136. And mind, the golden, for a young child stayed, 137. A large bairn, in his mother’s custody, 138. Just playing inside for a hundred years. 139. But when they all reached their maturity, 140. They lived a vapid life, replete with tears, 141. Through foolishness, unable to forbear 142. To brawl, spurning the gods, refusing, too, 143. To sacrifice (a law kept everywhere). 144. Then Zeus, since they would not give gods their due, 145. In rage hid them, as did the earth – all men 146. Have called the race Gods Subterranean, 147. Second yet honoured still. A third race then 148. Zeus fashioned out of bronze, quite different than 149. The second, with ash spears, both dread and stout; 150. They liked fell warfare and audacity; 151. They ate no corn, encased about 152. With iron, full invincibility 153. In hands, limbs, shoulders, and the arms they plied 154. Were bronze, their houses, too, their tools; they knew 155. of no black iron. Later, when they died 156. It was self-slaughter – they descended to 157. Chill Hades’ mouldy house, without a name. 158. Yes, black death took them off, although they’d been 159. Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 160. Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161. Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162. Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163. The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164. Called demigods. It was the race before 165. Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166. And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 167. While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168. The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 169. Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170. For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171. In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 172. Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173. Carefree, among the blessed isles, content 174. And affluent, by the deep-swirling sea. 175. Sweet grain, blooming three times a year, was sent 176. To them by the earth, that gives vitality 177. To all mankind, and Cronus was their lord, 178. Far from the other gods, for Zeus, who reign 179. Over gods and men, had cut away the cord 180. That bound him. Though the lowest race, its gain 181. Were fame and glory. A fifth progeny 182. All-seeing Zeus produced, who populated 183. The fecund earth. I wish I could not be 184. Among them, but instead that I’d been fated 185. To be born later or be in my grave 186. Already: for it is of iron made. 187. Each day in misery they ever slave, 188. And even in the night they do not fade 189. Away. The gods will give to them great woe 190. But mix good with the bad. Zeus will destroy 191. Them too when babies in their cribs shall grow 192. Grey hair. No bond a father with his boy 193. Shall share, nor guest with host, nor friend with friend – 194. No love of brothers as there was erstwhile, 195. Respect for aging parents at an end. 196. Their wretched children shall with words of bile 197. Find fault with them in their irreverence 198. And not repay their bringing up. We’ll find 199. Cities brought down. There’ll be no deference 200. That’s given to the honest, just and kind. 201. The evil and the proud will get acclaim, 202. Might will be right and shame shall cease to be, 203. The bad will harm the good whom they shall maim 204. With crooked words, swearing false oaths. We’ll see 205. Envy among the wretched, foul of face 206. And voice, adoring villainy, and then 207. Into Olympus from the endless space 208. Mankind inhabits, leaving mortal men, 209. Fair flesh veiled by white robes, shall Probity 210. And Shame depart, and there’ll be grievous pain 211. For men: against all evil there shall be 212. No safeguard. Now I’ll tell, for lords who know 213. What it purports, a fable: once, on high, 214. Clutched in its talon-grip, a bird of prey 215. Took off a speckled nightingale whose cry 216. Was “Pity me”, but, to this bird’s dismay, 217. He said disdainfully: “You silly thing, 218. Why do you cry? A stronger one by far 219. Now has you. Although you may sweetly sing, 220. You go where I decide. Perhaps you are 221. My dinner or perhaps I’ll let you go. 222. A fool assails a stronger, for he’ll be 223. The loser, suffering scorn as well as woe.” 224. Thus spoke the swift-winged bird. Listen to me, 2
25. Perses – heed justice and shun haughtiness; 226. It aids no common man: nobles can’t stay 227. It easily because it will oppre 228. Us all and bring disgrace. The better way 229. Is Justice, who will outstrip Pride at last. 230. Fools learn this by experience because 231. The God of Oaths, by running very fast, 232. Keeps pace with and requites all crooked laws. 233. When men who swallow bribes and crookedly 234. Pass sentences and drag Justice away, 235. There’s great turmoil, and then, in misery 236. Weeping and covered in a misty spray, 237. She comes back to the city, carrying
285. It’s no use being good when wickedne
287. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne 288. And wholly sidestep the iniquity 289. of force. The son of Cronus made this act 290. For men - that fish, wild beasts and birds should eat 291. Each other, being lawless, but the pact 292. He made with humankind is very meet –
308. About the future. Who takes interest 309. In others’ notions is a good man too, 310. But he who shuns these things is valueless. 311. Remember all that I have said to you, 312. Noble Perses, and work with steadfastne 313. Till Hunger vexes you and you’re a friend
649. One who is nursing). You must take good care 650. of your sharp-toothed dog; do not scant his meat
802. And prayed and washed your hands in it. If you 803. Should cross with hands and errors unpurged still, 804. The gods will visit you with pece due '. None
7. Hesiod, Theogony, 270-336, 396, 577-578, 775 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Orpheus, Orphic gold leaves • Orpheus, Orphic gold leaves, Amphipolis • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • golden age/race • golden apples • golden maidens • tablets, Orphic gold

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 557; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 199, 264; Kirichenko (2022) 69; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 72; Waldner et al (2016) 43; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 213, 215

270. Φόρκυϊ δʼ αὖ Κητὼ Γραίας τέκε καλλιπαρῄους' 271. ἐκ γενετῆς πολιάς, τὰς δὴ Γραίας καλέουσιν 272. ἀθάνατοί τε θεοὶ χαμαὶ ἐρχόμενοί τʼ ἄνθρωποι, 273. Πεμφρηδώ τʼ ἐύπεπλον Ἐνυώ τε κροκόπεπλον, 274. Γοργούς θʼ, αἳ ναίουσι πέρην κλυτοῦ Ὠκεανοῖο 275. ἐσχατιῇ πρὸς Νυκτός, ἵνʼ Ἑσπερίδες λιγύφωνοι, 276. Σθεννώ τʼ Εὐρυάλη τε Μέδουσά τε λυγρὰ παθοῦσα. 277. ἣ μὲν ἔην θνητή, αἳ δʼ ἀθάνατοι καὶ ἀγήρῳ, 278. αἱ δύο· τῇ δὲ μιῇ παρελέξατο Κυανοχαίτης 279. ἐν μαλακῷ λειμῶνι καὶ ἄνθεσιν εἰαρινοῖσιν. 280. τῆς δʼ ὅτε δὴ Περσεὺς κεφαλὴν ἀπεδειροτόμησεν, 281. ἔκθορε Χρυσαωρ τε μέγας καὶ Πήγασος ἵππος. 282. τῷ μὲν ἐπώνυμον ἦεν, ὅτʼ Ὠκεανοῦ περὶ πηγὰς 283. γένθʼ, ὃ δʼ ἄορ χρύσειον ἔχων μετὰ χερσὶ φίλῃσιν. 284. χὠ μὲν ἀποπτάμενος προλιπὼν χθόνα, μητέρα μήλων, 285. ἵκετʼ ἐς ἀθανάτους· Ζηνὸς δʼ ἐν δώμασι ναίει 286. βροντήν τε στεροπήν τε φέρων Διὶ μητιόεντι. 287. Χρυσάωρ δʼ ἔτεκεν τρικέφαλον Γηρυονῆα 288. μιχθεὶς Καλλιρόῃ κούρῃ κλυτοῦ Ὠκεανοῖο. 290. βουσὶ παρʼ εἰλιπόδεσσι περιρρύτῳ εἰν Ἐρυθείῃ 291. ἤματι τῷ ὅτε περ βοῦς ἤλασεν εὐρυμετώπους 292. Τίρυνθʼ εἰς ἱερὴν διαβὰς πόρον Ὠκεανοῖο 293. Ὄρθον τε κτείνας καὶ βουκόλον Εὐρυτίωνα 294. σταθμῷ ἐν ἠερόεντι πέρην κλυτοῦ Ὠκεανοῖο. 295. ἣ δʼ ἔτεκʼ ἄλλο πέλωρον ἀμήχανον, οὐδὲν ἐοικὸς 296. θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποις οὐδʼ ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσιν, 297. σπῆι ἔνι γλαφυρῷ θείην κρατερόφρονʼ Ἔχιδναν, 298. ἥμισυ μὲν νύμφην ἑλικώπιδα καλλιπάρῃον, 299. ἥμισυ δʼ αὖτε πέλωρον ὄφιν δεινόν τε μέγαν τε 300. αἰόλον ὠμηστὴν ζαθέης ὑπὸ κεύθεσι γαίης. 301. ἔνθα δέ οἱ σπέος ἐστὶ κάτω κοίλῃ ὑπὸ πέτρῃ 302. τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων τε θεῶν θνητῶν τʼ ἀνθρώπων· 303. ἔνθʼ ἄρα οἱ δάσσαντο θεοὶ κλυτὰ δώματα ναίειν. 304. ἣ δʼ ἔρυτʼ εἰν Ἀρίμοισιν ὑπὸ χθονὶ λυγρὴ Ἔχιδνα, 305. ἀθάνατος νύμφη καὶ ἀγήραος ἤματα πάντα. 306. τῇ δὲ Τυφάονά φασι μιγήμεναι ἐν φιλότητι 307. δεινόν θʼ ὑβριστήν τʼ ἄνομόν θʼ ἑλικώπιδι κούρῃ· 308. ἣ δʼ ὑποκυσαμένη τέκετο κρατερόφρονα τέκνα. 309. Ὄρθον μὲν πρῶτον κύνα γείνατο Γηρυονῆι· 310. δεύτερον αὖτις ἔτικτεν ἀμήχανον, οὔ τι φατειὸν 311. Κέρβερον ὠμηστήν, Ἀίδεω κύνα χαλκεόφωνον, 312. πεντηκοντακέφαλον, ἀναιδέα τε κρατερόν τε· 313. τὸ τρίτον Ὕδρην αὖτις ἐγείνατο λυγρὰ ἰδυῖαν 314. Λερναίην, ἣν θρέψε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη 315. ἄπλητον κοτέουσα βίῃ Ἡρακληείῃ. 316. καὶ τὴν μὲν Διὸς υἱὸς ἐνήρατο νηλέι χαλκῷ 317. Ἀμφιτρυωνιάδης σὺν ἀρηιφίλῳ Ἰολάῳ 318. Ηρακλέης βουλῇσιν Ἀθηναίης ἀγελείης. 319. ἣ δὲ Χίμαιραν ἔτικτε πνέουσαν ἀμαιμάκετον πῦρ, 320. δεινήν τε μεγάλην τε ποδώκεά τε κρατερήν τε· 321. τῆς δʼ ἦν τρεῖς κεφαλαί· μία μὲν χαροποῖο λέοντος, 322. ἣ δὲ χιμαίρης, ἣ δʼ ὄφιος, κρατεροῖο δράκοντος, 323. πρόσθε λέων, ὄπιθεν δὲ δράκων, μέσση δὲ χίμαιρα, 324. δεινὸν ἀποπνείουσα πυρὸς μένος αἰθομένοιο. 325. τὴν μὲν Πήγασος εἷλε καὶ ἐσθλὸς Βελλεροφόντης. 326. ἣ δʼ ἄρα Φῖκʼ ὀλοὴν τέκε Καδμείοισιν ὄλεθρον 327. Ὅρθῳ ὑποδμηθεῖσα Νεμειαῖόν τε λέοντα, 328. τόν ῥʼ Ἥρη θρέψασα Διὸς κυδρὴ παράκοιτις 329. γουνοῖσιν κατένασσε Νεμείης, πῆμʼ ἀνθρώποις. 330. ἔνθʼ ἄρʼ ὃ οἰκείων ἐλεφαίρετο φῦλʼ ἀνθρώπων, 331. κοιρανέων Τρητοῖο Νεμείης ἠδʼ Ἀπέσαντος· 332. ἀλλά ἑ ἲς ἐδάμασσε βίης Ἡρακληείης. 333. Κητὼ δʼ ὁπλότατον Φόρκυι φιλότητι μιγεῖσα 334. γείνατο δεινὸν ὄφιν, ὃς ἐρεμνῆς κεύθεσι γαίης 335. πείρασιν ἐν μεγάλοις παγχρύσεα μῆλα φυλάσσει. 336. τοῦτο μὲν ἐκ Κητοῦς καὶ Φόρκυνος γένος ἐστίν.
396. τιμῆς καὶ γεράων ἐπιβησέμεν, ἧ θέμις ἐστίν.
577. ἱμερτοὺς περίθηκε καρήατι Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. 578. ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ στεφάνην χρυσέην κεφαλῆφιν ἔθηκε,
775. ἔνθα δὲ ναιετάει στυγερὴ θεὸς ἀθανάτοισι, '. None
270. Galene, Thetis, Eudora, Glauce,' 271. Fair Halie, Cymothoe. Speo, 272. Pasithea, Theo and Erato, 273. Eulimene and gracious Melite 274. And Doto, Proto, pink-armed Eunice, 275. Nisaea, Pherusa, Dynamene, 276. Actaea, Doris, fair Hippothoe, 277. Panopea, pink-armed Hipponoe, 278. Fair Galatea and Cymodoce 279. (With Amphitrite and Cymatolege 280. She calmed with ease the storms and misty sea), 281. Protomedea, Cymo, Eione, 282. Rich-crowned Alimede and Glauconome, 283. Laugh-loving, Pontoporea, Leagore, 284. Laomedea and Polynoe, 285. Autonoe and perfect Euarne, 286. Divine Menippe and fair Psamathe, 287. Neso, Themisto, Eupompe, Pronoe 288. And Nemertes, who had the qualitie 290. of her deathless father. All fifty of these 291. Sprang from fine Nereus, who was talented 292. In splendid specialties. And Thaumas wed 293. Electra, fathomless Ocean’s progeny 294. Who bore Iris who moves so rapidly 295. And the well-tressed Harpies, Aello, 296. Ocypetes, who on swift pinions go 297. With raging winds and flocks of birds on high. 298. Ceto bore Phorcys the fair-cheeked Graiae, 299. Called thus by everyone who walks on earth 300. And all the deathless gods, grey from their birth, 301. Well-clad Pemphredo, Enyo, who is dressed 302. In saffron and the Gorgons in the west 303. Beyond famed Ocean in the far frontier 304. Towards Night, where the Hesperides sing out clear 305. And liquid songs, Sthenno and Euryale 306. And her who bore a woeful destiny, 307. Medusa (she was mortal, but Sthenno 308. And Euryale were not and did not grow 309. In age) and then the dark-haired god of the sea, 310. Amid spring flowers and in a pleasant lea, 311. Lay with her. When Perseus cut off her head, 312. Great Chrysaor and Pegasus were bred 313. From her dead body, Pegasus called thu 314. Since he was born near the springs of Oceanus, 315. Chrysaor since at the moment of his birth 316. He held a gold sword. Pegasus left the earth, 317. The mother of all flocks, and flew away 318. Up to the deathless gods, where he would stay: 319. He brought to prudent Zeus his weaponry, 320. Thunder and lightning. To Callirrhoe, 321. Begat by glorious Ocean, Chrysaor 322. Was joined in love, and Calirrhoe bore 323. The creature with three heads, Geryones, 324. But in sea-girt Erythea, Heracle 325. Slew him among his oxen on that day 326. He drove his wide-browed oxen on the way 327. To holy Tiryns, after he had gone 328. Across the sea and slain Eurytion 329. The herdsman in an inky-black homestead 330. And Orthus. She then bore a monster, dread 331. And powerful, in a hollow cave: and it 332. Looked like no god or man, no, not a whit, 333. And fierce Echidna, who, with flashing eye 334. And prepossessing cheeks, displays the guise 335. of a nymph – well, that was half of her at least, 336. The other half a snake, a massive beast,
396. Admete, Ianthe, Doris and Prymno,
577. His lurid bolt because his vanity 578. And strength had gone beyond the boundary
775. Appeared in the forefront, Briareus, '. None
8. Homer, Iliad, 18.497-18.508 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • golden maidens

 Found in books: Kirichenko (2022) 43; Maciver (2012) 57

18.497. λαοὶ δʼ εἰν ἀγορῇ ἔσαν ἀθρόοι· ἔνθα δὲ νεῖκος 18.498. ὠρώρει, δύο δʼ ἄνδρες ἐνείκεον εἵνεκα ποινῆς 18.499. ἀνδρὸς ἀποφθιμένου· ὃ μὲν εὔχετο πάντʼ ἀποδοῦναι 18.500. δήμῳ πιφαύσκων, ὃ δʼ ἀναίνετο μηδὲν ἑλέσθαι· 18.501. ἄμφω δʼ ἱέσθην ἐπὶ ἴστορι πεῖραρ ἑλέσθαι. 18.502. λαοὶ δʼ ἀμφοτέροισιν ἐπήπυον ἀμφὶς ἀρωγοί· 18.503. κήρυκες δʼ ἄρα λαὸν ἐρήτυον· οἳ δὲ γέροντες 18.504. εἵατʼ ἐπὶ ξεστοῖσι λίθοις ἱερῷ ἐνὶ κύκλῳ, 18.505. σκῆπτρα δὲ κηρύκων ἐν χέρσʼ ἔχον ἠεροφώνων· 18.506. τοῖσιν ἔπειτʼ ἤϊσσον, ἀμοιβηδὶς δὲ δίκαζον. 18.507. κεῖτο δʼ ἄρʼ ἐν μέσσοισι δύω χρυσοῖο τάλαντα, 18.508. τῷ δόμεν ὃς μετὰ τοῖσι δίκην ἰθύντατα εἴποι.''. None
18.497. flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all, 18.500. declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle, 18.505. holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.508. holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors ''. None
9. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Fleece • gold, statue • golden calf

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 309, 314; Gera (2014) 48; Lieber (2014) 383

10. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ages of Man, Golden • Golden Age • Golden Bough • Golden Fleece • Golden Fleece, quest for • Golden House of Nero • Homer, Golden throne • Homer, ‘Golden Verses’ • Homer, ‘Golden Verses’, and Solon’s ‘Eunomia’ • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • Solon, and the ‘Golden Verses’ • gold • golden maidens • tablets, Orphic gold

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 77, 110; Blum and Biggs (2019) 17; Edmunds (2021) 153; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 557; Folit-Weinberg (2022) 74, 80, 81; Gale (2000) 218; Jenkyns (2013) 41; Kirichenko (2022) 43; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 88; Torok (2014) 108; Verhagen (2022) 77, 110; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 215

11. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 436-471 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Age, as moral value • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, in myth

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 165; Perkell (1989) 92; Verhagen (2022) 165

436. μή τοι χλιδῇ δοκεῖτε μηδʼ αὐθαδίᾳ'437. σιγᾶν με· συννοίᾳ δὲ δάπτομαι κέαρ, 438. ὁρῶν ἐμαυτὸν ὧδε προυσελούμενον. 439. καίτοι θεοῖσι τοῖς νέοις τούτοις γέρα 440. τίς ἄλλος ἢ ʼγὼ παντελῶς διώρισεν; 441. ἀλλʼ αὐτὰ σιγῶ· καὶ γὰρ εἰδυίαισιν ἂν 442. ὑμῖν λέγοιμι· τἀν βροτοῖς δὲ πήματα 443. ἀκούσαθʼ, ὥς σφας νηπίους ὄντας τὸ πρὶν 444. ἔννους ἔθηκα καὶ φρενῶν ἐπηβόλους. 445. λέξω δέ, μέμψιν οὔτινʼ ἀνθρώποις ἔχων, 446. ἀλλʼ ὧν δέδωκʼ εὔνοιαν ἐξηγούμενος· 447. οἳ πρῶτα μὲν βλέποντες ἔβλεπον μάτην, 448. κλύοντες οὐκ ἤκουον, ἀλλʼ ὀνειράτων 449. ἀλίγκιοι μορφαῖσι τὸν μακρὸν βίον 450. ἔφυρον εἰκῇ πάντα, κοὔτε πλινθυφεῖς 451. δόμους προσείλους, ᾖσαν, οὐ ξυλουργίαν· 452. κατώρυχες δʼ ἔναιον ὥστʼ ἀήσυροι 453. μύρμηκες ἄντρων ἐν μυχοῖς ἀνηλίοις. 454. ἦν δʼ οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς οὔτε χείματος τέκμαρ 455. οὔτʼ ἀνθεμώδους ἦρος οὔτε καρπίμου 456. θέρους βέβαιον, ἀλλʼ ἄτερ γνώμης τὸ πᾶν 457. ἔπρασσον, ἔστε δή σφιν ἀντολὰς ἐγὼ 458. ἄστρων ἔδειξα τάς τε δυσκρίτους δύσεις. 459. καὶ μὴν ἀριθμόν, ἔξοχον σοφισμάτων, 460. ἐξηῦρον αὐτοῖς, γραμμάτων τε συνθέσεις, 461. μνήμην ἁπάντων, μουσομήτορʼ ἐργάνην. 462. κἄζευξα πρῶτος ἐν ζυγοῖσι κνώδαλα 463. ζεύγλαισι δουλεύοντα σάγμασὶν θʼ, ὅπως 464. θνητοῖς μεγίστων διάδοχοι μοχθημάτων 465. γένοινθʼ, ὑφʼ ἅρμα τʼ ἤγαγον φιληνίους 466. ἵππους, ἄγαλμα τῆς ὑπερπλούτου χλιδῆς. 467. θαλασσόπλαγκτα δʼ οὔτις ἄλλος ἀντʼ ἐμοῦ 468. λινόπτερʼ ηὗρε ναυτίλων ὀχήματα. 469. τοιαῦτα μηχανήματʼ ἐξευρὼν τάλας 470. βροτοῖσιν, αὐτὸς οὐκ ἔχω σόφισμʼ ὅτῳ 471. τῆς νῦν παρούσης πημονῆς ἀπαλλαγῶ. Χορός '. None
436. No, do not think it is from pride or even from wilfulness that I am silent. Painful thoughts devour my heart as I behold myself maltreated in this way. And yet who else but I definitely assigned '437. No, do not think it is from pride or even from wilfulness that I am silent. Painful thoughts devour my heart as I behold myself maltreated in this way. And yet who else but I definitely assigned 440. their prerogatives to these upstart gods? But I do not speak of this; for my tale would tell you nothing except what you know. Still, listen to the miseries that beset mankind—how they were witless before and I made them have sense and endowed them with reason. 445. I will not speak to upbraid mankind but to set forth the friendly purpose that inspired my blessing. First of all, though they had eyes to see, they saw to no avail; they had ears, but they did not understand ; but, just as shapes in dreams, throughout their length of days, 450. without purpose they wrought all things in confusion. They had neither knowledge of houses built of bricks and turned to face the sun nor yet of work in wood; but dwelt beneath the ground like swarming ants, in sunless caves. They had no sign either of winter 455. or of flowery spring or of fruitful summer, on which they could depend but managed everything without judgment, until I taught them to discern the risings of the stars and their settings, which are difficult to distinguish. Yes, and numbers, too, chiefest of sciences, 460. I invented for them, and the combining of letters, creative mother of the Muses’ arts, with which to hold all things in memory. I, too, first brought brute beasts beneath the yoke to be subject to the collar and the pack-saddle, so that they might bear in men’s stead their 465. heaviest burdens; and to the chariot I harnessed horses and made them obedient to the rein, to be an image of wealth and luxury. It was I and no one else who invented the mariner’s flaxen-winged car that roams the sea. Wretched that I am—such are the arts I devised 470. for mankind, yet have myself no cunning means to rid me of my present suffering. Chorus '. None
12. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ages of Man, Golden • gold, associated with purity

 Found in books: Blum and Biggs (2019) 14; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 116, 117

13. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold tablets • Orphism, gold Totenpässe tablets

 Found in books: Gazis and Hooper (2021) 19; Wolfsdorf (2020) 560

14. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold leaves / gold tablets • Golden Age • Mycenae, gold ring with Palladium and two goddesses • Orphism, gold Totenpässe tablets • gold rings, Mycenae, ring with Palladium and two goddesses • rain, in myth, golden

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007) 228; Simon (2021) 201; Waldner et al (2016) 61; Wolfsdorf (2020) 599; de Jáuregui (2010) 369

15. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Fleece • golden fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 144, 157; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 311; Verhagen (2022) 144, 157

16. Euripides, Bacchae, 6, 902-905 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • gold • tablets, Orphic gold

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 363; Seaford (2018) 45; Simon (2021) 315; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 215

6. ὁρῶ δὲ μητρὸς μνῆμα τῆς κεραυνίας'
902. εὐδαίμων μὲν ὃς ἐκ θαλάσσας 903. ἔφυγε χεῖμα, λιμένα δʼ ἔκιχεν· 904. εὐδαίμων δʼ ὃς ὕπερθε μόχθων 905. ἐγένεθʼ· ἑτέρᾳ δʼ ἕτερος ἕτερον '. None
6. I am here at the fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remts of her house, smouldering with the still living flame of Zeus’ fire, the everlasting insult of Hera against my mother.'
902. Happy is he The archaic sound of the English happy is he... , with its implicit echo of the beatitudes from the Sermon on the Mount, is appropriate here, for the chorus is describing beatitudes of a kind (though not strictly religious beatitudes) as appear at 73ff. who has fled a storm on the sea, and reached harbor. Happy too is he who has overcome his hardships. 905. One surpass another in different ways, in wealth or power. There are innumerable hopes to innumerable men, and some result in wealth to mortals, while others fail. '. None
17. Euripides, Medea, 1-13 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 123; Bremmer (2008) 308; Verhagen (2022) 123

1. Εἴθ' ὤφελ' ̓Αργοῦς μὴ διαπτάσθαι σκάφος"2. Κόλχων ἐς αἶαν κυανέας Συμπληγάδας,' "3. μηδ' ἐν νάπαισι Πηλίου πεσεῖν ποτε" "4. τμηθεῖσα πεύκη, μηδ' ἐρετμῶσαι χέρας" '5. ἀνδρῶν ἀριστέων οἳ τὸ πάγχρυσον δέρος' "6. Πελίᾳ μετῆλθον. οὐ γὰρ ἂν δέσποιν' ἐμὴ" "7. Μήδεια πύργους γῆς ἔπλευς' ̓Ιωλκίας" "8. ἔρωτι θυμὸν ἐκπλαγεῖς' ̓Ιάσονος:" "9. οὐδ' ἂν κτανεῖν πείσασα Πελιάδας κόρας" "
10. πατέρα κατῴκει τήνδε γῆν Κορινθίαν
1. &λτ;φίλων τε τῶν πρὶν ἀμπλακοῦσα καὶ πάτρας.&γτ;' "
12. &λτ;καὶ πρὶν μὲν εἶχε κἀνθάδ' οὐ μεμπτὸν βίον&γτ;" '
13. ξὺν ἀνδρὶ καὶ τέκνοισιν, ἁνδάνουσα μὲν '. None
1. Ah! would to Heaven the good ship Argo ne’er had sped its course to the Colchian land through the misty blue Symplegades, nor ever in the glens of Pelion the pine been felled to furnish with oars the chieftain’s hands,'2. Ah! would to Heaven the good ship Argo ne’er had sped its course to the Colchian land through the misty blue Symplegades, nor ever in the glens of Pelion the pine been felled to furnish with oars the chieftain’s hands, 5. who went to fetch the golden fleece for Pelias; for then would my own mistress Medea never have sailed to the turrets of Iolcos, her soul with love for Jason smitten, nor would she have beguiled the daughters of Pelia
10. to slay their father and come to live here in the land of Corinth with her husband and children, where her exile found favour with the citizens to whose land she had come, and in all things of her own accord was she at one with Jason, the greatest safeguard thi '. None
18. Herodotus, Histories, 3.17-3.25, 3.114, 3.116 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • gold • gold, objects

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 309; Gera (2014) 64; Torok (2014) 34, 35, 38, 108

3.17. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης ἐβουλεύσατο τριφασίας στρατηίας, ἐπί τε Καρχηδονίους καὶ ἐπὶ Ἀμμωνίους καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, οἰκημένους δὲ Λιβύης ἐπὶ τῇ νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ· βουλευομένῳ δέ οἱ ἔδοξε ἐπὶ μὲν Καρχηδονίους τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατὸν ἀποστέλλειν, ἐπὶ δὲ Ἀμμωνίους τοῦ πεζοῦ ἀποκρίναντα, ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας κατόπτας πρῶτον, ὀψομένους τε τὴν ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι Αἰθίοψι λεγομένην εἶναι ἡλίου τράπεζαν εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως, καὶ πρὸς ταύτῃ τὰ ἄλλα κατοψομένους, δῶρα δὲ τῷ λόγῳ φέροντας τῷ βασιλέι αὐτῶν. 3.18. ἡ δὲ τράπεζα τοῦ ἡλίου τοιήδε τις λέγεται εἶναι, λειμὼν ἐστὶ ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ ἐπίπλεος κρεῶν ἑφθῶν πάντων τῶν τετραπόδων, ἐς τὸν τὰς μὲν νύκτας ἐπιτηδεύοντας τιθέναι τὰ κρέα τοὺς ἐν τέλεϊ ἑκάστοτε ἐόντας τῶν ἀστῶν, τὰς δὲ ἡμέρας δαίνυσθαι προσιόντα τὸν βουλόμενον. φάναι δὲ τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους ταῦτα τὴν γῆν αὐτὴν ἀναδιδόναι ἑκάστοτε. 3.19. ἡ μὲν δὴ τράπεζα τοῦ ἡλίου καλεομένη λέγεται εἶναι τοιήδε. Καμβύσῃ δὲ ὡς ἔδοξε πέμπειν τοὺς κατασκόπους, αὐτίκα μετεπέμπετο ἐξ Ἐλεφαντίνης πόλιος τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων ἀνδρῶν τοὺς ἐπισταμένους τὴν Αἰθιοπίδα γλῶσσαν. ἐν ᾧ δὲ τούτους μετήισαν, ἐν τούτῳ ἐκέλευε ἐπὶ τὴν Καρχηδόνα πλέειν τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατόν. Φοίνικες δὲ οὐκ ἔφασαν ποιήσειν ταῦτα· ὁρκίοισι γὰρ μεγάλοισι ἐνδεδέσθαι, καὶ οὐκ ἂν ποιέειν ὅσια ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἑωυτῶν στρατευόμενοι. Φοινίκων δὲ οὐ βουλομένων οἱ λοιποὶ οὐκ ἀξιόμαχοι ἐγίνοντο. Καρχηδόνιοι μέν νυν οὕτω δουλοσύνην διέφυγον πρὸς Περσέων· Καμβύσης γὰρ βίην οὐκ ἐδικαίου προσφέρειν Φοίνιξι, ὅτι σφέας τε αὐτοὺς ἐδεδώκεσαν Πέρσῃσι καὶ πᾶς ἐκ Φοινίκων ἤρτητο ὁ ναυτικὸς στρατός. δόντες δὲ καὶ Κύπριοι σφέας αὐτοὺς Πέρσῃσι ἐστρατεύοντο ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον. 3.20. ἐπείτε δὲ τῷ Καμβύσῃ ἐκ τῆς Ἐλεφαντίνης ἀπίκοντο οἱ Ἰχθυοφάγοι, ἔπεμπε αὐτοὺς ἐς τοὺς Αἰθίοπας ἐντειλάμενος τὰ λέγειν χρῆν καὶ δῶρα φέροντας πορφύρεόν τε εἷμα καὶ χρύσεον στρεπτὸν περιαυχένιον καὶ ψέλια καὶ μύρου ἀλάβαστρον καὶ φοινικηίου οἴνου κάδον. οἱ δὲ Αἰθίοπες οὗτοι, ἐς τοὺς ἀπέπεμπε ὁ Καμβύσης, λέγονται εἶναι μέγιστοι καὶ κάλλιστοι ἀνθρώπων πάντων. νόμοισι δὲ καὶ ἄλλοισι χρᾶσθαι αὐτοὺς κεχωρισμένοισι τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπων καὶ δὴ καὶ κατὰ τὴν βασιληίην τοιῷδε· τὸν ἂν τῶν ἀστῶν κρίνωσι μέγιστόν τε εἶναι καὶ κατὰ τὸ μέγαθος ἔχειν τὴν ἰσχύν, τοῦτον ἀξιοῦσι βασιλεύειν. 3.21. ἐς τούτους δὴ ὦν τοὺς ἄνδρας ὡς ἀπίκοντο οἱ Ἰχθυοφάγοι, διδόντες τὰ δῶρα τῷ, βασιλέι αὐτῶν ἔλεγον τάδε. “βασιλεὺς ὁ Περσέων Καμβύσης, βουλόμενος φίλος καὶ ξεῖνός τοι γενέσθαι, ἡμέας τε ἀπέπεμψε ἐς λόγους τοι ἐλθεῖν κελεύων, καὶ δῶρα ταῦτά τοι διδοῖ τοῖσι καὶ αὐτὸς μάλιστα ἥδεται χρεώμενος.” ὁ δὲ Αἰθίοψ μαθὼν ὅτι κατόπται ἥκοιεν, λέγει πρὸς αὐτοὺς τοιάδε. “οὔτε ὁ Περσέων βασιλεὺς δῶρα ὑμέας ἔπεμψε φέροντας προτιμῶν πολλοῦ ἐμοὶ ξεῖνος γενέσθαι, οὔτε ὑμεῖς λέγετε ἀληθέα ʽἥκετε γὰρ κατόπται τῆς ἐμῆς ἀρχῆσ̓, οὔτε ἐκεῖνος ἀνήρ δίκαιος. εἰ γὰρ ἦν δίκαιος, οὔτʼ ἂν ἐπεθύμησε χώρης ἄλλης ἢ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ, οὔτʼ ἂν ἐς δουλοσύνην ἀνθρώπους ἦγε ὑπʼ ὧν μηδὲν ἠδίκηται. νῦν δὲ αὐτῷ τόξον τόδε διδόντες τάδε ἔπεα λέγετε.” “βασιλεὺς ὁ Αἰθιόπων συμβουλεύει τῷ Περσέων βασιλέι, ἐπεὰν οὕτω εὐπετέως ἕλκωσι τὰ τόξα Πέρσαι ἐόντα μεγάθεϊ τοσαῦτα, τότε ἐπʼ Αἰθίοπας τοὺς μακροβίους πλήθεϊ ὑπερβαλλόμενον στρατεύεσθαι· μέχρι δὲ τούτου θεοῖσι εἰδέναι χάριν, οἳ οὐκ ἐπὶ νόον τρέπουσι Αἰθιόπων παισὶ γῆν ἄλλην προσκτᾶσθαι τῇ ἑωυτῶν.” 3.22. ταῦτα δὲ εἴπας καὶ ἀνεὶς τὸ τόξον παρέδωκε τοῖσι ἥκουσι. λαβὼν δὲ τὸ εἷμα τὸ πορφύρεον εἰρώτα ὅ τι εἴη καὶ ὅκως πεποιημένον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὴν ἀληθείην περὶ τῆς πορφύρης καὶ τῆς βαφῆς, δολεροὺς μὲν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἔφη εἶναι, δολερὰ δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ εἵματα. δεύτερα δὲ τὸν χρυσὸν εἰρώτα τὸν στρεπτὸν τὸν περιαυχένιον καὶ τὰ ψέλια· ἐξηγεομένων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὸν κόσμον αὐτοῦ, γελάσας ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ νομίσας εἶναι σφέα πέδας εἶπε ὡς παρʼ ἑωυτοῖσι εἰσὶ ῥωμαλεώτεραι τουτέων πέδαι. τρίτον δὲ εἰρώτα τὸ μύρον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῆς ποιήσιος πέρι καὶ ἀλείψιος, τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον τὸν καὶ περὶ τοῦ εἵματος εἶπε. ὡς δὲ ἐς τὸν οἶνον ἀπίκετο καὶ ἐπύθετο αὐτοῦ τὴν ποίησιν, ὑπερησθεὶς τῷ πόματι ἐπείρετο ὅ τι τε σιτέεται ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ χρόνον ὁκόσον μακρότατον ἀνὴρ Πέρσης ζώει. οἳ δὲ σιτέεσθαι μὲν τὸν ἄρτον εἶπον, ἐξηγησάμενοι τῶν πυρῶν τὴν φύσιν, ὀγδώκοντα δὲ ἔτεα ζόης πλήρωμα ἀνδρὶ μακρότατον προκεῖσθαι. πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Αἰθίοψ ἔφη οὐδὲν θωμάζειν εἰ σιτεόμενοι κόπρον ἔτεα ὀλίγα ζώουσι· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν τοσαῦτα δύνασθαι ζώειν σφέας, εἰ μὴ τῷ πόματι ἀνέφερον, φράζων τοῖσι Ἰχθυοφάγοισι τὸν οἶνον· τούτῳ γὰρ ἑωυτοὺς ὑπὸ Περσέων ἑσσοῦσθαι. 3.23. ἀντειρομένων δὲ τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τῆς ζόης καὶ διαίτης πέρι, ἔτεα μὲν ἐς εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατὸν τοὺς πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀπικνέεσθαι, ὑπερβάλλειν δὲ τινὰς καὶ ταῦτα, σίτησιν δὲ εἶναι κρέα τε ἑφθὰ καὶ πόμα γάλα. θῶμα δὲ ποιευμένων τῶν κατασκόπων περὶ τῶν ἐτέων, ἐπὶ κρήνην σφι ἡγήσασθαι, ἀπʼ ἧς λουόμενοι λιπαρώτεροι ἐγίνοντο, κατά περ εἰ ἐλαίου εἴη· ὄζειν δὲ ἀπʼ αὐτῆς ὡς εἰ ἴων. ἀσθενὲς δὲ τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς κρήνης ταύτης οὕτω δή τι ἔλεγον εἶναι οἱ κατάσκοποι ὥστε μηδὲν οἷόν τʼ εἶναι ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐπιπλέειν, μήτε ξύλον μήτε τῶν ὅσα ξύλου ἐστὶ ἐλαφρότερα, ἀλλὰ πάντα σφέα χωρέειν ἐς βυσσόν. τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τοῦτο εἴ σφι ἐστὶ ἀληθέως οἷόν τι λέγεται, διὰ τοῦτο ἂν εἶεν, τούτῳ τὰ πάντα χρεώμενοι, μακρόβιοι. ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης δὲ ἀπαλλασσομένων, ἀγαγεῖν σφεας ἐς δεσμωτήριον ἀνδρῶν, ἔνθα τοὺς πάντας ἐν πέδῃσι χρυσέῃσι δεδέσθαι. ἔστι δὲ ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι Αἰθίοψι πάντων ὁ χαλκὸς σπανιώτατον καὶ τιμιώτατον. θεησάμενοι δὲ καὶ τὸ δεσμωτήριον, ἐθεήσαντο καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἡλίου λεγομένην τράπεζαν. 3.24. μετὰ δὲ ταύτην τελευταίας ἐθεήσαντο τὰς θήκας αὐτῶν, αἳ λέγονται σκευάζεσθαι ἐξ ὑέλου τρόπῳ τοιῷδε· ἐπεὰν τὸν νεκρὸν ἰσχνήνωσι, εἴτε δὴ κατά περ Αἰγύπτιοι εἴτε ἄλλως κως, γυψώσαντες ἅπαντα αὐτὸν γραφῇ κοσμέουσι, ἐξομοιεῦντες τὸ εἶδος ἐς τὸ δυνατόν, ἔπειτα δέ οἱ περιιστᾶσι στήλην ἐξ ὑέλου πεποιημένην κοίλην· ἣ δέ σφι πολλὴ καὶ εὐεργὸς ὀρύσσεται. ἐν μέσῃ δὲ τῇ στήλῃ ἐνεὼν διαφαίνεται ὁ νέκυς, οὔτε ὀδμὴν οὐδεμίαν ἄχαριν παρεχόμενος οὔτε ἄλλο ἀεικὲς οὐδέν, καὶ ἔχει πάντα φανερὰ ὁμοίως αὐτῷ τῷ νέκυϊ. ἐνιαυτὸν μὲν δὴ ἔχουσι τὴν στήλην ἐν τοῖσι οἰκίοισι οἱ μάλιστα προσήκοντες, πάντων ἀπαρχόμενοι καὶ θυσίας οἱ προσάγοντες· μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐκκομίσαντες ἱστᾶσι περὶ τὴν πόλιν. 3.25. θεησάμενοι δὲ τὰ πάντα οἱ κατάσκοποι ἀπαλλάσσοντο ὀπίσω. ἀπαγγειλάντων δὲ ταῦτα τούτων, αὐτίκα ὁ Καμβύσης ὀργὴν ποιησάμενος ἐστρατεύετο ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας, οὔτε παρασκευὴν σίτου οὐδεμίαν παραγγείλας, οὔτε λόγον ἑωυτῷ δοὺς ὅτι ἐς τὰ ἔσχατα γῆς ἔμελλε στρατεύεσθαι· οἷα δὲ ἐμμανής τε ἐὼν καὶ οὐ φρενήρης, ὡς ἤκουε τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων, ἐστρατεύετο, Ἑλλήνων μὲν τοὺς παρεόντας αὐτοῦ τάξας ὑπομένειν, τὸν δὲ πεζὸν πάντα ἅμα ἀγόμενος. ἐπείτε δὲ στρατευόμενος ἐγένετο ἐν Θήβῃσι, ἀπέκρινε τοῦ στρατοῦ ὡς πέντε μυριάδας, καὶ τούτοισι μὲν ἐνετέλλετο Ἀμμωνίους ἐξανδραποδισαμένους τὸ χρηστήριον τὸ τοῦ Διὸς ἐμπρῆσαι, αὐτὸς δὲ τὸν λοιπὸν ἄγων στρατὸν ἤιε ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας. πρὶν δὲ τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ πέμπτον μέρος διεληλυθέναι τὴν στρατιήν, αὐτίκα πάντα αὐτοὺς τὰ εἶχον σιτίων ἐχόμενα ἐπελελοίπεε, μετὰ δὲ τὰ σιτία καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐπέλιπε κατεσθιόμενα. εἰ μέν νυν μαθὼν ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης ἐγνωσιμάχεε καὶ ἀπῆγε ὀπίσω τὸν στρατόν, ἐπὶ τῇ ἀρχῆθεν γενομένῃ ἁμαρτάδι ἦν ἂν ἀνὴρ σοφός· νῦν δὲ οὐδένα λόγον ποιεύμενος ἤιε αἰεὶ ἐς τὸ πρόσω. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἕως μέν τι εἶχον ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαμβάνειν, ποιηφαγέοντες διέζωον, ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐς τὴν ψάμμον ἀπίκοντο, δεινὸν ἔργον αὐτῶν τινες ἐργάσαντο· ἐκ δεκάδος γὰρ ἕνα σφέων αὐτῶν ἀποκληρώσαντες κατέφαγον. πυθόμενος δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης, δείσας τὴν ἀλληλοφαγίην, ἀπεὶς τὸν ἐπʼ Αἰθίοπας στόλον ὀπίσω ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἀπικνέεται ἐς Θήβας πολλοὺς ἀπολέσας τοῦ στρατοῦ· ἐκ Θηβέων δὲ καταβὰς ἐς Μέμφιν τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀπῆκε ἀποπλέειν.
3.114. ἀποκλινομένης δὲ μεσαμβρίης παρήκει πρὸς δύνοντα ἥλιον ἡ Αἰθιοπίη χώρη ἐσχάτη τῶν οἰκεομενέων· αὕτη δὲ χρυσόν τε φέρει πολλὸν καὶ ἐλέφαντας ἀμφιλαφέας καὶ δένδρεα πάντα ἄγρια καὶ ἔβενον καὶ ἄνδρας μεγίστους καὶ καλλίστους καὶ μακροβιωτάτους.
3.116. πρὸς δὲ ἄρκτου τῆς Εὐρώπης πολλῷ τι πλεῖστος χρυσὸς φαίνεται ἐών· ὅκως μὲν γινόμενος, οὐκ ἔχω οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀτρεκέως εἶπαι, λέγεται δὲ ὑπὲκ τῶν γρυπῶν ἁρπάζειν Ἀριμασποὺς ἄνδρας μουνοφθάλμους. πείθομαι δὲ οὐδὲ τοῦτο ὅκως μουνόφθαλμοι ἄνδρες φύονται, φύσιν ἔχοντες τὴν ἄλλην ὁμοίην τοῖσι ἄλλοισι ἀνθρώποισι· αἱ δὲ ὦν ἐσχατιαὶ οἴκασι, περικληίουσαι τὴν ἄλλην χώρην καὶ ἐντὸς ἀπέργουσαι, τὰ κάλλιστα δοκέοντα ἡμῖν εἶναι καὶ σπανιώτατα ἔχειν αὗται.''. None
3.17. After this Cambyses planned three expeditions, against the Carchedonians, against the Ammonians, and against the “long-lived” Ethiopians, who inhabit that part of Libya that is on the southern sea. ,He decided after consideration to send his fleet against the Carthaginians and a part of his land army against the Ammonians; to Ethiopia he would first send spies, to see what truth there was in the story of a Table of the Sun in that country, and to spy out all else besides, under the pretext of bringing gifts for the Ethiopian king. ' "3.18. Now the Table of the Sun is said to be something of this kind: there is a meadow outside the city, filled with the boiled flesh of all four-footed things; here during the night the men of authority among the townsmen are careful to set out the meat, and all day whoever wishes comes and feasts on it. These meats, say the people of the country, are ever produced by the earth of itself. Such is the story of the Sun's Table. " '3.19. When Cambyses determined to send the spies, he sent for those Fish-eaters from the city of Elephantine who understood the Ethiopian language. ,While they were fetching them, he ordered his fleet to sail against Carthage . But the Phoenicians said they would not do it; for they were bound, they said, by strong oaths, and if they sailed against their own progeny they would be doing an impious thing; and the Phoenicians being unwilling, the rest were inadequate fighters. ,Thus the Carthaginians escaped being enslaved by the Persians; for Cambyses would not use force with the Phoenicians, seeing that they had willingly surrendered to the Persians, and the whole fleet drew its strength from them. The Cyprians too had come of their own accord to aid the Persians against Egypt . ' "3.20. When the Fish-eaters arrived from Elephantine at Cambyses' summons, he sent them to Ethiopia, with orders what to say, and bearing as gifts a red cloak and a twisted gold necklace and bracelets and an alabaster box of incense and an earthenware jar of palm wine. These Ethiopians, to whom Cambyses sent them, are said to be the tallest and most handsome of all men. ,Their way of choosing kings is different from that of all others, as (it is said) are all their laws; they consider that man worthy to be their king whom they judge to be tallest and to have strength proportional to his stature. " '3.21. When the Fish-eaters arrived among these men, they gave the gifts to their king and said: “Cambyses, the king of the Persians, wishing to become your friend and ally, sent us with orders to address ourselves to you; and he offers you as gifts these things which he enjoys using himself.” ,But the Ethiopian, perceiving that they had come as spies, spoke thus to them: “It is not because he values my friendship that the Persian King sends you with gifts, nor do you speak the truth (for you have come to spy on my realm), nor is that man just; for were he just, he would not have coveted a land other than his own, nor would he try to lead into slavery men by whom he has not been injured. Now, give him this bow, and this message: ,‘The King of the Ethiopians advises the King of the Persians to bring overwhelming odds to attack the long-lived Ethiopians when the Persians can draw a bow of this length as easily as I do; but until then, to thank the gods who do not incite the sons of the Ethiopians to add other land to their own.’” 3.22. So speaking he unstrung the bow and gave it to the men who had come. Then, taking the red cloak, he asked what it was and how it was made; and when the Fish-eaters told him the truth about the color and the process of dyeing, he said that both the men and their garments were full of deceit. ,Next he inquired about the twisted gold necklace and the bracelets; and when the Fish-eaters told him how they were made, the king smiled, and, thinking them to be fetters, said: “We have stronger chains than these.” ,Thirdly he inquired about the incense; and when they described making and applying it, he made the same reply as about the cloak. But when he came to the wine and asked about its making, he was vastly pleased with the drink, and asked further what food their king ate, and what was the greatest age to which a Persian lived. ,They told him their king ate bread, showing him how wheat grew; and said that the full age to which a man might hope to live was eighty years. Then, said the Ethiopian, it was no wonder that they lived so few years, if they ate dung; they would not even have been able to live that many unless they were refreshed by the drink—signifying to the Fish-eaters the wine—for in this, he said, the Persians excelled the Ethiopians. 3.23. The Fish-eaters then in turn asking of the Ethiopian length of life and diet, he said that most of them attained to a hundred and twenty years, and some even to more; their food was boiled meat and their drink milk. ,The spies showed wonder at the tale of years; whereupon he led them, it is said, to a spring, by washing in which they grew sleeker, as though it were of oil; and it smelled of violets. ,So light, the spies said, was this water, that nothing would float on it, neither wood nor anything lighter than wood, but all sank to the bottom. If this water is truly such as they say, it is likely that their constant use of it makes the people long-lived. ,When they left the spring, the king led them to a prison where all the men were bound with fetters of gold. Among these Ethiopians there is nothing so scarce and so precious as bronze. Then, having seen the prison, they saw what is called the Table of the Sun. 3.24. Last after this they viewed the Ethiopian coffins; these are said to be made of alabaster, as I shall describe: ,they cause the dead body to shrink, either as the Egyptians do or in some other way, then cover it with gypsum and paint it all as far as possible in the likeness of the living man; ,then they set it within a hollow pillar of alabaster, which they dig in abundance from the ground, and it is easily worked; the body can be seen in the pillar through the alabaster, no evil stench nor anything unpleasant proceeding from it, and showing clearly all its parts, as if it were the man himself. ,The nearest of kin keep the pillar in their house for a year, giving it of the first-fruits and offering it sacrifices; after which they bring the pillars out and set them round about the city. 3.25. Having seen everything, the spies departed again. When they reported all this, Cambyses was angry, and marched at once against the Ethiopians, neither giving directions for any provision of food nor considering that he was about to lead his army to the ends of the earth; ,being not in his right mind but mad, however, he marched at once on hearing from the Fish-eaters, ordering the Greeks who were with him to await him where they were, and taking with him all his land army. ,When he came in his march to Thebes , he detached about fifty thousand men from his army, and directed them to enslave the Ammonians and burn the oracle of Zeus; and he himself went on towards Ethiopia with the rest of his host. ,But before his army had accomplished the fifth part of their journey they had come to an end of all there was in the way of provision, and after the food was gone, they ate the beasts of burden until there was none of these left either. ,Now had Cambyses, when he perceived this, changed his mind and led his army back again, he would have been a wise man at last after his first fault; but as it was, he went ever forward, taking account of nothing. ,While his soldiers could get anything from the earth, they kept themselves alive by eating grass; but when they came to the sandy desert, some did a terrible thing, taking by lot one man out of ten and eating him. ,Hearing this, Cambyses feared their becoming cannibals, and so gave up his expedition against the Ethiopians and marched back to Thebes , with the loss of many of his army; from Thebes he came down to Memphis, and sent the Greeks to sail away.
3.114. Where south inclines westwards, the part of the world stretching farthest towards the sunset is Ethiopia ; this produces gold in abundance, and huge elephants, and all sorts of wild trees, and ebony, and the tallest and handsomest and longest-lived people.
3.116. But in the north of Europe there is by far the most gold. In this matter again I cannot say with assurance how the gold is produced, but it is said that one-eyed men called Arimaspians steal it from griffins. ,But I do not believe this, that there are one-eyed men who have a nature otherwise the same as other men. ,The most outlying lands, though, as they enclose and wholly surround all the rest of the world, are likely to have those things which we think the finest and the rarest. ''. None
19. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold Tablets • Orpheus, Orphic gold leaves • Orpheus, Orphic gold leaves, Hipponion

 Found in books: Tor (2017) 270; Waldner et al (2016) 39

69c. κάθαρσίς τις τῶν τοιούτων πάντων καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἀνδρεία, καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ φρόνησις μὴ καθαρμός τις ᾖ. καὶ κινδυνεύουσι καὶ οἱ τὰς τελετὰς ἡμῖν οὗτοι καταστήσαντες οὐ φαῦλοί τινες εἶναι, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι πάλαι αἰνίττεσθαι ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀμύητος καὶ ἀτέλεστος εἰς Ἅιδου ἀφίκηται ἐν βορβόρῳ κείσεται, ὁ δὲ κεκαθαρμένος τε καὶ τετελεσμένος ἐκεῖσε ἀφικόμενος μετὰ θεῶν οἰκήσει. εἰσὶν γὰρ δή, ὥς φασιν οἱ περὶ τὰς τελετάς, ναρθηκοφόροι''. None
69c. from all these things, and self-restraint and justice and courage and wisdom itself are a kind of purification. And I fancy that those men who established the mysteries were not unenlightened, but in reality had a hidden meaning when they said long ago that whoever goes uninitiated and unsanctified to the other world will lie in the mire, but he who arrives there initiated and purified will dwell with the gods. For as they say in the mysteries, the thyrsus-bearers are many, but the mystics few ;''. None
20. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Orpheus, Orphic gold leaves • Orpheus, Orphic gold leaves, Amphipolis • Orphism, gold Totenpässe tablets • tablets, Orphic gold

 Found in books: Waldner et al (2016) 36, 43; Wolfsdorf (2020) 560; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 165, 180, 181, 187

21. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 185; Verhagen (2022) 185

22. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • tablets, Orphic gold

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 379; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 180

23. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • eschatology, and gold leaves/Orphics • euages/euageo, in gold leaves • gold leaves • gold, • katharos, in gold leaves of psyche/soul • psyche as seat of purity/impurity, in the gold leaves • supplication, in the gold leaves

 Found in books: Edmonds (2019) 125; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 259

24. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Age, as moral value • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, in myth

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 120; Gale (2000) 38, 41, 107, 156, 247; Maciver (2012) 64, 65; Perkell (1989) 92; Verhagen (2022) 120; Williams and Vol (2022) 177

25. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Bough • Golden Fleece • golden fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 77, 81, 89, 90, 110, 123, 125, 127, 139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 154, 157, 165; Bremmer (2008) 309; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 209, 311, 313; Verhagen (2022) 77, 81, 89, 90, 110, 123, 125, 127, 139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 154, 157, 165

26. Cicero, On Duties, 2.69 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • golden age,, and ideology of patronage • golden rule

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001) 132; Malherbe et al (2014) 541

2.69. Sed cum in hominibus iuvandis aut mores spectari aut fortuna soleat, dictu quidem est proclive, itaque volgo loquuntur, se in beneficiis collocandis mores hominum, non fortunam sequi. Honesta oratio est; sed quis est tandem, qui inopis et optimi viri causae non anteponat in opera danda gratiam fortunati et potentis? a quo enim expeditior et celerior remuneratio fore videtur, in eum fere est voluntas nostra propensior. Sed animadvertendum est diligentius, quae natura rerum sit. Nimirum enim inops ille, si bonus est vir, etiamsi referre gratiam non potest, habere certe potest. Commode autem, quicumque dixit, pecuniam qui habeat, non reddidisse, qui reddiderit, non habere, gratiam autem et, qui rettulerit, habere et, qui habeat, rettulisse. At qui se locupletes, honoratos, beatos putant, ii ne obligari quidem beneficio volunt; quin etiam beneficium se dedisse arbitrantur, cum ipsi quamvis magnum aliquod acceperint, atque etiam a se aut postulari aut exspectari aliquid suspicantur, patrocinio vero se usos aut clientes appellari mortis instar putant.''. None
2.69. \xa0Now in rendering helpful service to people, we usually consider either their character or their circumstances. And so it is an easy remark, and one commonly made, to say that in investing kindnesses we look not to people\'s outward circumstances, but to their character. The phrase is admirable! But who is there, pray, that does not in performing a service set the favour of a rich and influential man above the cause of a poor, though most worthy, person? For, as a rule, our will is more inclined to the one from whom we expect a prompter and speedier return. But we should observe more carefully how the matter really stands: the poor man of whom we spoke cannot return a favour in kind, of course, but if he is a good man he can do it at least in thankfulness of heart. As someone has happily said, "A\xa0man has not repaid money, if he still has it; if he has repaid it, he has ceased to have it. But a man still has the sense of favour, if he has returned the favour; and if he has the sense of the favour, he has repaid it." On the other hand, they who consider themselves wealthy, honoured, the favourites of fortune, do not wish even to be put under obligations by our kind services. Why, they actually think that they have conferred a favour by accepting one, however great; and they even suspect that a claim is thereby set up against them or that something is expected in return. Nay more, it is bitter as death to them to have accepted a patron or to be called clients. <''. None
27. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.35 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • golden calf

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 276; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398

2.35. בֵּאדַיִן דָּקוּ כַחֲדָה פַּרְזְלָא חַסְפָּא נְחָשָׁא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא וַהֲווֹ כְּעוּר מִן־אִדְּרֵי־קַיִט וּנְשָׂא הִמּוֹן רוּחָא וְכָל־אֲתַר לָא־הִשְׁתֲּכַח לְהוֹן וְאַבְנָא דִּי־מְחָת לְצַלְמָא הֲוָת לְטוּר רַב וּמְלָת כָּל־אַרְעָא׃''. None
2.35. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away, so that no place was found for them; and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.''. None
28. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.20-1.21, 6.9, 6.12-6.31, 7.1-7.42, 15.15-15.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • Temple (Jerusalem), golden lamp • gold, and silver • gold, objects • golden age • golden sword

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 163; Crabb (2020) 240; Gera (2014) 305, 369; Piotrkowski (2019) 116; Stuckenbruck (2007) 722

1.20. But after many years had passed, when it pleased God, Nehemiah, having been commissioned by the king of Persia, sent the descendants of the priests who had hidden the fire to get it. And when they reported to us that they had not found fire but thick liquid, he ordered them to dip it out and bring it.'" "1.21. And when the materials for the sacrifices were presented, Nehemiah ordered the priests to sprinkle the liquid on the wood and what was laid upon it.'" "
6.9. and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.'" "
6.12. Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.'" "6.13. In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.'" "6.14. For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,'" '6.15. in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height."' "6.16. Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.'" '6.17. Let what we have said serve as a reminder; we must go on briefly with the story."' "6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.'" "6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,'" "6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.'" "6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,'" "6.22. o that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.'" "6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.'" "6.24. Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, 'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,'" "6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.'" "6.26. For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.'" "6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age'" "6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.'" "6.29. And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.'" "6.30. When he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: 'It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him.'" "6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.'" "
7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'" "7.2. One of them, acting as their spokesman, said, 'What do you intend to ask and learn from us? For we are ready to die rather than transgress the laws of our fathers.'" "7.3. The king fell into a rage, and gave orders that pans and caldrons be heated.'" "7.4. These were heated immediately, and he commanded that the tongue of their spokesman be cut out and that they scalp him and cut off his hands and feet, while the rest of the brothers and the mother looked on.'" "7.5. When he was utterly helpless, the king ordered them to take him to the fire, still breathing, and to fry him in a pan. The smoke from the pan spread widely, but the brothers and their mother encouraged one another to die nobly, saying,'" "7.6. The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.''" "7.7. After the first brother had died in this way, they brought forward the second for their sport. They tore off the skin of his head with the hair, and asked him, 'Will you eat rather than have your body punished limb by limb?'" "7.8. He replied in the language of his fathers, and said to them, 'No.'Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done.'" "7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.'" "
7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,'" "
7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.'" "
7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.'" "
7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.'" "
7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!'" '
7.15. Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him."' "
7.16. But he looked at the king, and said, 'Because you have authority among men, mortal though you are, you do what you please. But do not think that God has forsaken our people.'" "
7.17. Keep on, and see how his mighty power will torture you and your descendants!'" "
7.18. After him they brought forward the sixth. And when he was about to die, he said, 'Do not deceive yourself in vain. For we are suffering these things on our own account, because of our sins against our own God. Therefore astounding things have happened.'" "
7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!'" "7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.'" "7.21. She encouraged each of them in the language of their fathers. Filled with a noble spirit, she fired her woman's reasoning with a man's courage, and said to them,'" "7.22. I do not know how you came into being in my womb. It was not I who gave you life and breath, nor I who set in order the elements within each of you.'" "7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.'" "7.24. Antiochus felt that he was being treated with contempt, and he was suspicious of her reproachful tone. The youngest brother being still alive, Antiochus not only appealed to him in words, but promised with oaths that he would make him rich and enviable if he would turn from the ways of his fathers, and that he would take him for his friend and entrust him with public affairs.'" "7.25. Since the young man would not listen to him at all, the king called the mother to him and urged her to advise the youth to save himself.'" "7.26. After much urging on his part, she undertook to persuade her son.'" "7.27. But, leaning close to him, she spoke in their native tongue as follows, deriding the cruel tyrant: 'My son, have pity on me. I carried you nine months in my womb, and nursed you for three years, and have reared you and brought you up to this point in your life, and have taken care of you.'" "7.28. I beseech you, my child, to look at the heaven and the earth and see everything that is in them, and recognize that God did not make them out of things that existed. Thus also mankind comes into being.'" "7.29. Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.'" "7.30. While she was still speaking, the young man said, 'What are you waiting for? I will not obey the king's command, but I obey the command of the law that was given to our fathers through Moses.'" "7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.'" '7.32. For we are suffering because of our own sins."' "7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.'" "7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.'" "7.35. You have not yet escaped the judgment of the almighty, all-seeing God.'" "7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.'" "7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,'" "7.38. and through me and my brothers to bring to an end the wrath of the Almighty which has justly fallen on our whole nation.'" "7.39. The king fell into a rage, and handled him worse than the others, being exasperated at his scorn.'" "7.40. So he died in his integrity, putting his whole trust in the Lord.'" "7.41. Last of all, the mother died, after her sons.'" "7.42. Let this be enough, then, about the eating of sacrifices and the extreme tortures.'" "
15.15. Jeremiah stretched out his right hand and gave to Judas a golden sword, and as he gave it he addressed him thus:'" "15.16. Take this holy sword, a gift from God, with which you will strike down your adversaries.'"". None
29. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.5, 15.7-15.8, 15.15, 15.17, 15.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • golden calf

 Found in books: Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 103; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398, 399

15.5. A new psalm with song in gladness of heart, The fruit of the lips with the well-tuned instrument of the tongue, The firstfruits of the lips from a pious and righteous heart–
15.5. whose appearance arouses yearning in fools,so that they desire the lifeless form of a dead image.
15.7. When it goeth forth from the face of the Lord against sinners, To destroy all the substance of sinners,
15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. For the mark of God is upon the righteous that they .may be saved. Famine and sword and pestilence (shall be) far from the righteous, 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him.
15.15. But they that fear the Lord shall find mercy therein, And shall live by the compassion of their God; But sinners shall perish for ever.
15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking.
15.17. He is mortal, and what he makes with lawless hands is dead,for he is better than the objects he worships,since he has life, but they never have.
15.19. and even as animals they are not so beautiful in appearance that one would desire them,but they have escaped both the praise of God and his blessing.''. None
30. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Age, in Georgic • Praises of Spring, as reflection on Golden Age • gold

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 38, 242; Perkell (1989) 111; Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 245

31. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • gold, • senatus consulta, prohibiting export of silver and gold from Rome

 Found in books: Huttner (2013) 70, 71; Udoh (2006) 96

32. Catullus, Poems, 64.13-64.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 68, 165; Verhagen (2022) 68, 165

64.13. While the oar-tortured wave with spumy whiteness was blanching, 64.14. Surged from the deep abyss and hoar-capped billows the face' '. None
33. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.8.1-1.8.7, 3.52.3, 4.40.1-4.40.3, 4.40.5, 4.41.1-4.41.3, 4.43.1-4.43.4, 4.50.1-4.50.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age, as moral value • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, in myth • Golden Fleece • golden age

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 157; Crabb (2020) 72; Perkell (1989) 92; Verhagen (2022) 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 157

1.8.1. \xa0Concerning the first generation of the universe this is the account which we have received. But the first men to be born, he says, led an undisciplined and bestial life, setting out one by one to secure their sustece and taking for their food both the tenderest herbs and the fruits of wild trees. Then,' "1.8.2. \xa0since they were attacked by the wild beasts, they came to each other's aid, being instructed by expediency, and when gathered together in this way by reason of their fear, they gradually came to recognize their mutual characteristics." '1.8.3. \xa0And though the sounds which they made were at first unintelligible and indistinct, yet gradually they came to give articulation to their speech, and by agreeing with one another upon symbols for each thing which presented itself to them, made known among themselves the significance which was to be attached to each term. 1.8.4. \xa0But since groups of this kind arose over every part of the inhabited world, not all men had the same language, inasmuch as every group organized the elements of its speech by mere chance. This is the explanation of the present existence of every conceivable kind of language, and, furthermore, out of these first groups to be formed came all the original nations of the world. 1.8.5. \xa0Now the first men, since none of the things useful for life had yet been discovered, led a wretched existence, having no clothing to cover them, knowing not the use of dwelling and fire, and also being totally ignorant of cultivated food. 1.8.6. \xa0For since they also even neglected the harvesting of the wild food, they laid by no store of its fruits against their needs; consequently large numbers of them perished in the winters because of the cold and the lack of food. 1.8.7. \xa0Little by little, however, experience taught them both to take to the caves in winter and to store such fruits as could be preserved.
3.52.3. \xa0For our part, however, since we find that many early poets and historians, and not a\xa0few of the later ones as well, have made mention of them, we shall endeavour to recount their deeds in summary, following the account of Dionysius, who composed a narrative about the Argonauts and Dionysus, and also about many other things which took place in the most ancient times.
4.40.1. \xa0As for the Argonauts, since Heracles joined them in their campaign, it may be appropriate to speak of them in this connection. This is the account which is given: â\x80\x94 Jason was the son of Aeson and the nephew through his father of Pelias, the king of the Thessalians, and excelling as he did above those of his years in strength of body and nobility of spirit he was eager to accomplish a deed worthy of memory. 4.40.2. \xa0And since he observed that of the men of former times Perseus and certain others had gained glory which was held in everlasting remembrance from the campaigns which they had waged in foreign lands and the hazard attending the labours they had performed, he was eager to follow the examples they had set. As a consequence he revealed his undertaking to the king and quickly received his approval. It was not so much that Pelias was eager to bring distinction to the youth that he hoped that in the hazardous expeditions he would lose his life; 4.40.3. \xa0for he himself had been deprived by nature of any male children and was fearful that his brother, with his son to aid him, would make an attempt upon the kingdom. Hiding, however, this suspicion and promising to supply everything which would be needed for the expedition, he urged Jason to undertake an exploit by sailing to Colchis after the renowned golden-fleeced skin of the ram.
4.40.5. \xa0Jason, who was eager for glory, recognizing that the labour was difficult of accomplishment and yet not altogether impossible, and concluding that for this very reason the greater renown would attach to himself, made ready everything needed for the undertaking.
4.41.1. \xa0First of all, in the vicinity of Mount Pelion he built a ship which far surpassed in its size and in its equipment in general any vessel known in those days, since the men of that time put to sea on rafts or in very small boats. Consequently those who saw the ship at the time were greatly astonished, and when the report was noised about throughout Greece both of the exploit of the enterprise of building the ship, no small number of the youths of prominence were eager to take part in the expedition. 4.41.2. \xa0Jason, then, after he had launched the ship and fitted it out in brilliant fashion with everything which would astonish the mind, picked out the most renowned chieftains from those who were eager to share his plan, with the result that the whole number of those in his company amounted to fifty-four. of these the most famous were Castor and Polydeuces, Heracles and Telamon, Orpheus and Atalantê the daughter of Schoeneus, and the sons of Thespius, and the leader himself who was setting out on the voyage to Colchis. 4.41.3. \xa0The vessel was called Argo after Argus, as some writers of myths record, who was the master-builder of the ship and went along on the voyage in order to repair the parts of the vessel as they were strained from time to time, but, as some say, after its exceeding great swiftness, since the ancients called what is swift Argos. Now after the chieftains had gathered together they chose Heracles to be their general, preferring him because of his courage.
4.43.1. \xa0But there came on a great storm and the chieftains had given up hope of being saved, when Orpheus, they say, who was the only one on shipboard who had ever been initiated in the mysteries of the deities of Samothrace, offered to these deities the prayers for their salvation. 4.43.2. \xa0And immediately the wind died down and two stars fell over the heads of the Dioscori, and the whole company was amazed at the marvel which had taken place and concluded that they had been rescued from their perils by an act of Providence of the gods. For this reason, the story of this reversal of fortune for the Argonauts has been handed down to succeeding generations, and sailors when caught in storms always direct their prayers to the deities of Samothrace and attribute the appearance of the two stars to the epiphany of the Dioscori. 4.43.3. \xa0At that time, however, the tale continues, when the storm had abated, the chieftains landed in Thrace on the country which was ruled by Phineus. Here they came upon two youths who by way of punishment had been shut within a burial vault where they were being subjected to continual blows of the whip; these were sons of Phineus and Cleopatra, who men said was born of Oreithyïa, the daughter of Erechtheus, and Boreas, and had unjustly been subjected to such a punishment because of the unscrupulousness and lying accusations of their mother-inâ\x80\x91law. 4.43.4. \xa0For Phineus had married Idaea, the daughter of Dardanus the king of the Scythians, and yielding to her every desire out of his love for her he had believed her charge that his sons by an earlier marriage had insolently offered violence to their mother-inâ\x80\x91law out of a desire to please their mother.
4.50.1. \xa0While the return of the chieftains was as yet not known in Thessaly, a rumour, they say, went the rounds there that all the companions of Jason in the expedition had perished in the region of Pontus. Consequently Pelias, thinking that an occasion was now come to do away with all who were waiting for the throne, forced the father of Jason to drink the blood of a bull, and murdered his brother Promachus, who was still a mere lad in years. 4.50.2. \xa0But Amphinomê, his mother, they say, when on the point of being slain, performed a manly deed and one worthy of mention; for fleeing to the hearth of the king she pronounced a curse against him, to the effect that he might suffer the fate which his impious deeds merited, and then, striking her own breast with a sword, she ended her life heroically.''. None
34. Ovid, Fasti, 1.337-1.456 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 107, 108; Williams and Vol (2022) 176, 177, 178, 179

1.337. ante, deos homini quod conciliare valeret, 1.338. far erat et puri lucida mica salis, 1.339. nondum pertulerat lacrimatas cortice murras 1.340. acta per aequoreas hospita navis aquas, 1.341. tura nec Euphrates nec miserat India costum, 1.342. nec fuerant rubri cognita fila croci. 1.343. ara dabat fumos herbis contenta Sabinis 1.344. et non exiguo laurus adusta sono. 1.345. si quis erat, factis prati de flore coronis 1.346. qui posset violas addere, dives erat. 1.347. hic, qui nunc aperit percussi viscera tauri, 1.348. in sacris nullum culter habebat opus. 1.349. prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae 1.350. ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes; 1.351. nam sata vere novo teneris lactentia sulcis 1.352. eruta saetigerae comperit ore suis. 1.353. sus dederat poenas: exemplo territus huius 1.354. palmite debueras abstinuisse, caper. 1.355. quem spectans aliquis dentes in vite prementem 1.356. talia non tacito dicta dolore dedit: 1.357. ‘rode, caper, vitem! tamen hinc, cum stabis ad aram, 1.358. in tua quod spargi cornua possit, erit.’ 1.359. verba fides sequitur: noxae tibi deditus hostis 1.360. spargitur adfuso cornua, Bacche, mero. 1.361. culpa sui nocuit, nocuit quoque culpa capellae: 1.362. quid bos, quid placidae commeruistis oves? 1.363. flebat Aristaeus, quod apes cum stirpe necatas 1.364. viderat inceptos destituisse favos. 1.365. caerula quem genetrix aegre solata dolentem 1.366. addidit haec dictis ultima verba suis: 1.367. ‘siste, puer, lacrimas! Proteus tua damna levabit, 1.368. quoque modo repares quae periere, dabit, 1.369. decipiat ne te versis tamen ille figuris, 1.370. impediant geminas vincula firma manus.’ 1.371. pervenit ad vatem iuvenis resolutaque somno 1.372. alligat aequorei brachia capta senis, 1.373. ille sua faciem transformis adulterat arte: 1.374. mox domitus vinclis in sua membra redit, 1.375. oraque caerulea tollens rorantia barba, 1.376. qua dixit ‘repares arte, requiris, apes? 1.377. obrue mactati corpus tellure iuvenci: 1.378. quod petis a nobis, obrutus ille dabit.’ 1.379. iussa facit pastor: fervent examina putri 1.380. de bove: mille animas una necata dedit, 1.381. poscit ovem fatum: verbenas improba carpsit, 1.382. quas pia dis ruris ferre solebat anus. 1.383. quid tuti superest, animam cum ponat in aris 1.384. lanigerumque pecus ruricolaeque boves? 1.385. placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum, 1.386. ne detur celeri victima tarda deo. 1.387. quod semel est triplici pro virgine caesa Dianae, 1.388. nunc quoque pro nulla virgine cerva cadit, 1.389. exta canum vidi Triviae libare Sapaeos, 1.390. et quicumque tuas accolit, Haeme, nives, 1.391. caeditur et rigido custodi ruris asellus; 1.392. causa pudenda quidem, sed tamen apta deo. 1.393. festa corymbiferi celebrabas, Graecia, Bacchi, 1.394. tertia quae solito tempore bruma refert. 1.395. di quoque cultores in idem venere Lyaei, 1.396. et quicumque iocis non alienus erat, 1.397. Panes et in Venerem Satyrorum prona iuventus, 1.398. quaeque colunt amnes solaque rura deae. 1.399. venerat et senior pando Silenus asello, 1.400. quique ruber pavidas inguine terret aves, 1.401. dulcia qui dignum nemus in convivia nacti 1.402. gramine vestitis accubuere toris, vina 1.403. vina dabat Liber, tulerat sibi quisque coronam, 1.404. miscendas parce rivus agebat aquas. 1.405. Naides effusis aliae sine pectinis usu, 1.406. pars aderant positis arte manuque comis: 1.407. illa super suras tunicam collecta ministrat, 1.408. altera dissuto pectus aperta sinu: 1.409. exserit haec humerum, vestem trahit illa per herbas, 1.410. impediunt teneros vincula nulla pedes, 1.411. hinc aliae Satyris incendia mitia praebent, 1.412. pars tibi, qui pinu tempora nexa geris, 1.413. te quoque, inextinctae Silene libidinis, urunt: 1.414. nequitia est, quae te non sinit esse senem. 1.415. at ruber, hortorum decus et tutela, Priapus 1.416. omnibus ex illis Lotide captus erat: 1.417. hanc cupit, hanc optat, sola suspirat in illa, 1.418. signaque dat nutu, sollicitatque notis, 1.419. fastus inest pulchris, sequiturque superbia formam: 1.420. irrisum voltu despicit illa suo. 1.421. nox erat, et vino somnum faciente iacebant 1.422. corpora diversis victa sopore locis. 1.423. Lotis in herbosa sub acernis ultima ramis, 1.424. sicut erat lusu fessa, quievit humo. 1.425. surgit amans animamque tenens vestigia furtim 1.426. suspenso digitis fert taciturna gradu, 1.427. ut tetigit niveae secreta cubilia nymphae, 1.428. ipsa sui flatus ne sonet aura, cavet, 1.429. et iam finitima corpus librabat in herba: 1.430. illa tamen multi plena soporis erat. 1.431. gaudet et, a pedibus tracto velamine, vota 1.432. ad sua felici coeperat ire via. 1.433. ecce rudens rauco Sileni vector asellus 1.434. intempestivos edidit ore sonos. 1.435. territa consurgit nymphe manibusque Priapum 1.436. reicit et fugiens concitat omne nemus; 1.437. at deus obscena nimium quoque parte paratus 1.438. omnibus ad lunae lumina risus erat. 1.439. morte dedit poenas auctor clamoris, et haec est 1.440. Hellespontiaco victima grata deo. 1.441. intactae fueratis aves, solacia ruris, 1.442. adsuetum silvis innocuumque genus, 1.443. quae facitis nidos et plumis ova fovetis 1.444. et facili dulces editis ore modos; 1.445. sed nil ista iuvant, quia linguae crimen habetis, 1.446. dique putant mentes vos aperire suas. 1.447. nec tamen hoc falsum: nam, dis ut proxima quaeque, 1.448. nunc penna veras, nunc datis ore notas, 1.449. tuta diu volucrum proles tum denique caesa est, 1.450. iuveruntque deos indicis exta sui. 1.451. ergo saepe suo coniunx abducta marito 1.452. uritur Idaliis alba columba focis; 1.453. nec defensa iuvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 1.454. det iecur in lances, Inachi lauta, tuas; 1.455. nocte deae Nocti cristatus caeditur ales, 1.456. quod tepidum vigili provocet ore diem.''. None
1.337. Cornmeal, and glittering grains of pure salt, 1.338. Were once the means for men to placate the gods. 1.339. No foreign ship had yet brought liquid myrrh 1.340. Extracted from tree’s bark, over the ocean waves: 1.341. Euphrates had not sent incense, nor India balm, 1.342. And the threads of yellow saffron were unknown. 1.343. The altar was happy to fume with Sabine juniper, 1.344. And the laurel burned with a loud crackling. 1.345. He was rich, whoever could add violet 1.346. To garlands woven from meadow flowers. 1.347. The knife that bares the entrails of the stricken bull, 1.348. Had no role to perform in the sacred rites. 1.349. Ceres was first to delight in the blood of the greedy sow, 1.350. Her crops avenged by the rightful death of the guilty creature, 1.351. She learned that in spring the grain, milky with sweet juice, 1.352. Had been uprooted by the snouts of bristling pigs. 1.353. The swine were punished: terrified by that example, 1.354. You should have spared the vine-shoots, he-goat. 1.355. Watching a goat nibbling a vine someone once 1.356. Vented their indignation in these words: 1.357. ‘Gnaw the vine, goat! But when you stand at the altar 1.358. There’ll be something from it to sprinkle on your horns.’ 1.359. Truth followed: Bacchus, your enemy is given you 1.360. To punish, and sprinkled wine flows over its horns. 1.361. The sow suffered for her crime, and the goat for hers: 1.362. But what were you guilty of you sheep and oxen? 1.363. Aristaeus wept because he saw his bees destroyed, 1.364. And the hives they had begun left abandoned. 1.365. His azure mother, Cyrene, could barely calm his grief, 1.366. But added these final words to what she said: 1.367. ‘Son, cease your tears! Proteus will allay your loss, 1.368. And show you how to recover what has perished. 1.369. But lest he still deceives you by changing shape, 1.370. Entangle both his hands with strong fastenings.’ 1.371. The youth approached the seer, who was fast asleep, 1.372. And bound the arms of that Old Man of the Sea. 1.373. He by his art altered his shape and transformed his face, 1.374. But soon reverted to his true form, tamed by the ropes. 1.375. Then raising his dripping head, and sea-green beard, 1.376. He said: ‘Do you ask how to recover your bees? 1.377. Kill a heifer and bury its carcase in the earth, 1.378. Buried it will produce what you ask of me.’ 1.379. The shepherd obeyed: the beast’s putrid corpse 1.380. Swarmed: one life destroyed created thousands. 1.381. Death claims the sheep: wickedly, it grazed the vervain 1.382. That a pious old woman offered to the rural gods. 1.383. What creature’s safe if woolly sheep, and oxen 1.384. Broken to the plough, lay their lives on the altar? 1.385. Persia propitiates Hyperion, crowned with rays, 1.386. With horses, no sluggish victims for the swift god. 1.387. Because a hind was once sacrificed to Diana the twin, 1.388. Instead of Iphigeneia, a hind dies, though not for a virgin now. 1.389. I have seen a dog’s entrails offered to Trivia by Sapaeans, 1.390. Whose homes border on your snows, Mount Haemus. 1.391. A young ass too is sacrificed to the erect rural guardian, 1.392. Priapus, the reason’s shameful, but appropriate to the god. 1.393. Greece, you held a festival of ivy-berried Bacchus, 1.394. That used to recur at the appointed time, every third winter. 1.395. There too came the divinities who worshipped him as Lyaeus, 1.396. And whoever else was not averse to jesting, 1.397. The Pans and the young Satyrs prone to lust, 1.398. And the goddesses of rivers and lonely haunts. 1.399. And old Silenus came on a hollow-backed ass, 1.400. And crimson Priapus scaring the timid birds with his rod. 1.401. Finding a grove suited to sweet entertainment, 1.402. They lay down on beds of grass covered with cloths. 1.403. Liber offered wine, each had brought a garland, 1.404. A stream supplied ample water for the mixing. 1.405. There were Naiads too, some with uncombed flowing hair, 1.406. Others with their tresses artfully bound. 1.407. One attends with tunic tucked high above the knee, 1.408. Another shows her breast through her loosened robe: 1.409. One bares her shoulder: another trails her hem in the grass, 1.410. Their tender feet are not encumbered with shoes. 1.411. So some create amorous passion in the Satyrs, 1.412. Some in you, Pan, brows wreathed in pine. 1.413. You too Silenus, are on fire, insatiable lecher: 1.414. Wickedness alone prevents you growing old. 1.415. But crimson Priapus, guardian and glory of gardens, 1.416. of them all, was captivated by Lotis: 1.417. He desires, and prays, and sighs for her alone, 1.418. He signals to her, by nodding, woos her with signs. 1.419. But the lovely are disdainful, pride waits on beauty: 1.420. She laughed at him, and scorned him with a look. 1.421. It was night, and drowsy from the wine, 1.422. They lay here and there, overcome by sleep. 1.423. Tired from play, Lotis rested on the grassy earth, 1.424. Furthest away, under the maple branches. 1.425. Her lover stood, and holding his breath, stole 1.426. Furtively and silently towards her on tiptoe. 1.427. Reaching the snow-white nymph’s secluded bed, 1.428. He took care lest the sound of his breath escaped. 1.429. Now he balanced on his toes on the grass nearby: 1.430. But she was still completely full of sleep. 1.431. He rejoiced, and drawing the cover from her feet, 1.432. He happily began to have his way with her. 1.433. Suddenly Silenus’ ass braying raucously, 1.434. Gave an untimely bellow from its jaws. 1.435. Terrified the nymph rose, pushed Priapus away, 1.436. And, fleeing, gave the alarm to the whole grove. 1.437. But the over-expectant god with his rigid member, 1.438. Was laughed at by them all, in the moonlight. 1.439. The creator of that ruckus paid with his life, 1.440. And he’s the sacrifice dear to the Hellespontine god. 1.441. You were chaste once, you birds, a rural solace, 1.442. You harmless race that haunt the woodlands, 1.443. Who build your nests, warm your eggs with your wings, 1.444. And utter sweet measures from your ready beaks, 1.445. But that is no help to you, because of your guilty tongues, 1.446. And the gods’ belief that you reveal their thoughts. 1.447. Nor is that false: since the closer you are to the gods, 1.448. The truer the omens you give by voice and flight. 1.449. Though long untouched, birds were killed at last, 1.450. And the gods delighted in the informers’ entrails. 1.451. So the white dove, torn from her mate, 1.452. Is often burned in the Idalian flames: 1.453. Nor did saving the Capitol benefit the goose, 1.454. Who yielded his liver on a dish to you, Inachus’ daughter: 1.455. The cock is sacrificed at night to the Goddess, Night, 1.456. Because he summons the day with his waking cries,''. None
35. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89-1.136, 1.138-1.150 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Age, as moral value • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, in myth • golden age • golden age in Bible, in Greco-Roman sources

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 121, 123; Crabb (2020) 83; Gale (2000) 218, 242; Hayes (2015) 71; O, Daly (2012) 346; Perkell (1989) 92; Verhagen (2022) 121, 123; Williams and Vol (2022) 158, 173

1.89. Aurea prima sata est aetas, quae vindice nullo, 1.90. sponte sua, sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. 1.91. Poena metusque aberant, nec verba mitia fixo 1.92. aere legebantur, nec supplex turba timebat 1.94. Nondum caesa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbem, 1.95. montibus in liquidas pinus descenderat undas, 1.96. nullaque mortales praeter sua litora norant. 1.97. Nondum praecipites cingebant oppida fossae; 1.98. non tuba directi, non aeris cornua flexi, 1.99. non galeae, non ensis erat: sine militis usu 1.100. mollia securae peragebant otia gentes. 1.101. ipsa quoque inmunis rastroque intacta nec ullis 1.103. contentique cibis nullo cogente creatis 1.104. arbuteos fetus montanaque fraga legebant 1.105. cornaque et in duris haerentia mora rubetis 1.106. et quae deciderant patula Iovis arbore glandes. 1.107. Ver erat aeternum, placidique tepentibus auris 1.108. mulcebant zephyri natos sine semine flores. 1.109. Mox etiam fruges tellus inarata ferebat, 1.110. nec renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis; 1.111. flumina iam lactis, iam flumina nectaris ibant, 1.112. flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella. 1.113. Postquam, Saturno tenebrosa in Tartara misso, 1.114. sub Iove mundus erat, subiit argentea proles, 1.115. auro deterior, fulvo pretiosior aere. 1.116. Iuppiter antiqui contraxit tempora veris 1.117. perque hiemes aestusque et inaequalis autumnos 1.118. et breve ver spatiis exegit quattuor annum. 1.119. Tum primum siccis aer fervoribus ustus 1.120. canduit, et ventis glacies adstricta pependit. 1.121. Tum primum subiere domus (domus antra fuerunt 1.122. et densi frutices et vinctae cortice virgae). 1.123. Semina tum primum longis Cerealia sulcis 1.124. obruta sunt, pressique iugo gemuere iuvenci. 1.125. Tertia post illam successit aenea proles, 1.126. saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promptior arma, 1.127. non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima ferro. 1.128. Protinus inrupit venae peioris in aevum 1.129. omne nefas: fugere pudor verumque fidesque; 1.130. In quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolique 1.131. insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi. 1.132. Vela dabat ventis (nec adhuc bene noverat illos) 1.133. navita; quaeque diu steterant in montibus altis, 1.134. fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae, 1.135. communemque prius ceu lumina solis et auras 1.136. cautus humum longo signavit limite mensor.
1.138. poscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera terrae: 1.139. quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris, 1.140. effodiuntur opes, inritamenta malorum. 1.141. Iamque nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum 1.142. prodierat: prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque, 1.143. sanguineaque manu crepitantia concutit arma. 1.144. Vivitur ex rapto: non hospes ab hospite tutus, 1.145. non socer a genero; fratrum quoque gratia rara est. 1.146. Inminet exitio vir coniugis, illa mariti; 1.147. lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae; 1.148. filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos. 1.149. Victa iacet pietas, et virgo caede madentis, 1.150. ultima caelestum terras Astraea reliquit.' '. None
1.89. and Auster wafted to the distant south 1.90. where clouds and rain encompass his abode.— 1.91. and over these He fixed the liquid sky, 1.92. devoid of weight and free from earthly dross. 1.94. and fixed their certain bounds, when all the stars, 1.95. which long were pressed and hidden in the mass, 1.96. began to gleam out from the plains of heaven, 1.97. and traversed, with the Gods, bright ether fields: 1.98. and lest some part might be bereft of life 1.99. the gleaming waves were filled with twinkling fish; 1.100. the earth was covered with wild animals; 1.101. the agitated air was filled with birds. 1.103. a being capable of lofty thought, 1.104. intelligent to rule, was wanting still 1.105. man was created! Did the Unknown God 1.106. designing then a better world make man 1.107. of seed divine? or did Prometheu 1.108. take the new soil of earth (that still contained' "1.109. ome godly element of Heaven's Life)" '1.110. and use it to create the race of man; 1.111. first mingling it with water of new streams; 1.112. o that his new creation, upright man, 1.113. was made in image of commanding Gods? 1.114. On earth the brute creation bends its gaze, 1.115. but man was given a lofty countece 1.116. and was commanded to behold the skies; 1.117. and with an upright face may view the stars:— 1.118. and so it was that shapeless clay put on 1.119. the form of man till then unknown to earth. 1.120. First was the Golden Age. Then rectitude 1.121. pontaneous in the heart prevailed, and faith. 1.122. Avengers were not seen, for laws unframed 1.123. were all unknown and needless. Punishment 1.124. and fear of penalties existed not. 1.125. No harsh decrees were fixed on brazen plates. 1.126. No suppliant multitude the countece 1.127. of Justice feared, averting, for they dwelt 1.128. without a judge in peace. Descended not 1.129. the steeps, shorn from its height, the lofty pine, 1.130. cleaving the trackless waves of alien shores, 1.131. nor distant realms were known to wandering men. 1.132. The towns were not entrenched for time of war; 1.133. they had no brazen trumpets, straight, nor horn 1.134. of curving brass, nor helmets, shields nor swords. 1.135. There was no thought of martial pomp —secure 1.136. a happy multitude enjoyed repose.
1.138. a store of every fruit. The harrow touched 1.139. her not, nor did the plowshare wound 1.140. her fields. And man content with given food, 1.141. and none compelling, gathered arbute fruit 1.142. and wild strawberries on the mountain sides, 1.143. and ripe blackberries clinging to the bush, 1.144. and corners and sweet acorns on the ground, 1.145. down fallen from the spreading tree of Jove. 1.146. Eternal Spring! Soft breathing zephyrs soothed 1.147. and warmly cherished buds and blooms, produced 1.148. without a seed. The valleys though unplowed 1.149. gave many fruits; the fields though not renewed 1.150. white glistened with the heavy bearded wheat:' '. None
36. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Age, as moral value • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, in myth • Isis, carries golden vessel

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 123; Gale (2000) 242; Griffiths (1975) 133; Mayor (2017) 304, 306; Perkell (1989) 92; Verhagen (2022) 123

37. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Lucius (Golden Ass) • Sistrum = bronze rattle, carried by Isis, sistrums of initiates, bronze, silver, gold • gold

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 120; Gale (2000) 242; Griffiths (1975) 193; Jenkyns (2013) 32; Santangelo (2013) 234; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 8; Verhagen (2022) 120; Xinyue (2022) 191

38. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cleopatra, gilded statue in Temple of Venus Genetrix • Corycian gardener, as Golden Age figure • Corycian gardener, as discrepant from Golden Age ideal • Gold, Barbara • Golden Age • Golden Age, art in • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, symbolic value of • Golden Fleece • Iron Age, and Golden Age • Libyans as reflection on Golden Age ideals • Praises of Spring, as reflection on Golden Age • Praises of Spring, as scientific analogue of Golden Age myth • bees, as Golden Age ideal • golden age • plague, as reflection on Golden Age ideals in Georgic

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 308; Clay and Vergados (2022) 218; Gale (2000) 28, 39, 40, 41, 46, 63, 66, 79, 80, 81, 171, 172, 182, 183, 210, 218, 225; Gee (2013) 52, 58; Perkell (1989) 94, 99, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138; Rutledge (2012) 229; Williams and Vol (2022) 156, 158, 174; Yona (2018) 76, 93

39. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 123; Verhagen (2022) 123

40. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • aurum (Gold) • bulla (normally gold)

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 169; Radicke (2022) 308

41. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.8-1.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 122; Verhagen (2022) 122

1.8. Wars worse than civil on Emathian plains, And crime let loose we sing; how Rome's high race Plunged in her vitals her victorious sword; Armies akin embattled, with the force of all the shaken earth bent on the fray; And burst asunder, to the common guilt, A kingdom's compact; eagle with eagle met, Standard to standard, spear opposed to spear. Whence, citizens, this rage, this boundless lust " "1.10. To sate barbarians with the blood of Rome? Did not the shade of Crassus, wandering still, Cry for his vengeance? Could ye not have spoiled, To deck your trophies, haughty Babylon? Why wage campaigns that send no laurels home? What lands, what oceans might have been the prize of all the blood thus shed in civil strife! Where Titan rises, where night hides the stars, 'Neath southern noons all quivering with heat, Or where keen frost that never yields to spring " "1.20. In icy fetters binds the Scythian main: Long since barbarians by the Eastern sea And far Araxes' stream, and those who know (If any such there be) the birth of NileHad felt our yoke. Then, Rome, upon thyself With all the world beneath thee, if thou must, Wage this nefarious war, but not till then. Now view the houses with half-ruined walls Throughout Italian cities; stone from stone Has slipped and lies at length; within the home " "1.23. In icy fetters binds the Scythian main: Long since barbarians by the Eastern sea And far Araxes' stream, and those who know (If any such there be) the birth of NileHad felt our yoke. Then, Rome, upon thyself With all the world beneath thee, if thou must, Wage this nefarious war, but not till then. Now view the houses with half-ruined walls Throughout Italian cities; stone from stone Has slipped and lies at length; within the home "". None
42. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.17-6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • golden rule

 Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 541; Stuckenbruck (2007) 263

6.17. Τοῖς πλουσίοις ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι παράγγελλε μὴ ὑψηλοφρονεῖν μηδὲ ἠλπικέναι ἐπὶ πλού του ἀδηλότητι, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ θεῷ τῷ παρέχοντι ἡμῖν πάντα πλουσίως εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν, 6.18. ἀγαθοεργεῖν, πλουτεῖν ἐν ἔργοις καλοῖς, εὐμεταδότους εἶναι, κοινωνικούς,''. None
6.17. Charge those who are rich in this present world that they not be haughty, nor have their hope set on the uncertainty of riches, but on the living God, who richly provides us with everything to enjoy; 6.18. that they do good, that they be rich in good works, that they be ready to distribute, willing to communicate; ''. None
43. New Testament, John, 12.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Gate (Jerusalem) • gold, and silver • gold, objects

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 445; Klein and Wienand (2022) 299

12.13. ἔλαβον τὰ βαΐα τῶν φοινίκων καὶ ἐξῆλθον εἰς ὑπάντησιν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἐκραύγαζον Ὡσαννά, εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου, καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ.''. None
12.13. they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!"''. None
44. New Testament, Luke, 6.48-6.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • Golden Rule

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 227, 245; Stuckenbruck (2007) 263

6.48. ὅμοιός ἐστιν ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομοῦντι οἰκίαν ὃς ἔσκαψεν καὶ ἐβάθυνεν καὶ ἔθηκεν θεμέλιον ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν· πλημμύρης δὲ γενομένης προσέρηξεν ὁ ποταμὸς τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐκείνῃ, καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσεν σαλεῦσαι αὐτὴν διὰ τὸ καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι αὐτήν. 6.49. ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας καὶ μὴ ποιήσας ὅμοιός ἐστιν ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομήσαντι οἰκίαν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν χωρὶς θεμελίου, ᾗ προσέρηξεν ὁ ποταμός, καὶ εὐθὺς συνέπεσεν, καὶ ἐγένετο τὸ ῥῆγμα τῆς οἰκίας ἐκείνης μέγα.''. None
6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn\'t do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great." ''. None
45. New Testament, Mark, 10.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold • Golden Rule • Love, of Silver and Gold

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 246; Stuckenbruck (2007) 721

10.19. τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας Μὴ φονεύσῃς, Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, Μὴ κλέψῃς, Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς, Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα.''. None
10.19. You know the commandments: \'Do not murder,\' \'Do not commit adultery,\' \'Do not steal,\' \'Do not give false testimony,\' \'Do not defraud,\' \'Honor your father and mother.\'"''. None
46. New Testament, Matthew, 5.43-5.48, 7.12, 22.37-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Rule • Golden rule

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 232, 245, 246; Ruzer (2020) 112

5.43. Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου καὶ μισήσεις τὸν ἐχθρόν σου. 5.44. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς· 5.45. ὅπως γένησθε υἱοὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς, ὅτι τὸν ἥλιον αὐτοῦ ἀνατέλλει ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς καὶ βρέχει ἐπὶ δικαίους καὶ ἀδίκους. 5.46. ἐὰν γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 5.47. καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 5.48. Ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι ὡς ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος τέλειός ἐστιν.
7.12. Πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς· οὗτος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ νόμος καὶ οἱ προφῆται.
22.37. ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτῷ Ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐν ὅλῃ καρδίᾳ σου καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου· 22.38. αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μεγάλη καὶ πρώτη ἐντολή. 22.39. δευτέρα ὁμοία αὕτη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. 22.40. ἐν ταύταις ταῖς δυσὶν ἐντολαῖς ὅλος ὁ νόμος κρέμαται καὶ οἱ προφῆται.''. None
5.43. "You have heard that it was said, \'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.\ '5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you, 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. ' "5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? " "5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? " '5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets.
22.37. Jesus said to him, "\'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.\ '22.38. This is the first and great commandment. ' "22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' " '22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments."''. None
47. Suetonius, Otho, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 160; Verhagen (2022) 160

7.1. \xa0Next, as the day was drawing to its close, he entered the senate and after giving a brief account of himself, alleging that he had been carried off in the streets and forced to undertake the rule, which he would exercise in accordance with the general will, he went to the Palace. When in the midst of the other adulations of those who congratulated and flattered him, he was hailed by the common herd as Nero, he made no sign of dissent; on the contrary, according to some writers, he even made use of that surname in his commissions and his first letters to some of the governors of the provinces. Certain it is that he suffered Nero's busts and statues to be set up again, and reinstated his procurators and freedmen in their former posts, while the first grant that he signed as emperor was one of fifty million sesterces for finishing the Golden House."". None
48. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 8.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 167; Verhagen (2022) 167

8.5. As the city was unsightly from former fires and fallen buildings, he allowed anyone to take possession of vacant sites and build upon them, in case the owners failed to do so. He began the restoration of the Capitol in person, was the first to lend a hand in clearing away the debris, and carried some of it off on his own head. He undertook to restore the three thousand bronze tablets which were destroyed with the temple, making a thorough search for copies: priceless and most ancient records of the empire, containing the decrees of the senate and the acts of the commons almost from the foundation of the city, regarding alliances, treaties, and special privileges granted to individuals.''. None
49. Tacitus, Annals, 15.42.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden House • Golden House, Nero’s

 Found in books: Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 371; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 174, 179, 183

15.42.1. \xa0However, Nero turned to account the ruins of his fatherland by building a palace, the marvels of which were to consist not so much in gems and gold, materials long familiar and vulgarized by luxury, as in fields and lakes and the air of solitude given by wooded ground alternating with clear tracts and open landscapes. The architects and engineers were Severus and Celer, who had the ingenuity and the courage to try the force of art even against the veto of nature and to fritter away the resources of a Caesar. They had undertaken to sink a navigable canal running from Lake Avernus to the mouths of the Tiber along a desolate shore or through intervening hills; for the one district along the route moist enough to yield a supply of water is the Pomptine Marsh; the rest being cliff and sand, which could be cut through, if at all, only by intolerable exertions for which no sufficient motive existed. None the less, Nero, with his passion for the incredible, made an effort to tunnel the height nearest the Avernus, and some evidences of that futile ambition survive.''. None
50. Tacitus, Histories, 3.55, 4.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 160, 167; Verhagen (2022) 160, 167

3.55. \xa0Vitellius was like a man wakened from a deep sleep. He ordered Julius Priscus and Alfenus Avarus to block the passes of the Apennines with fourteen praetorian cohorts and all the cavalry. A\xa0legion of marines followed them later. These thousands of armed forces, consisting too of picked men and horses, were equal to taking the offensive if they had had another leader. The rest of the cohorts Vitellius gave to his brother Lucius for the defence of Rome, while he, abating in no degree his usual life of pleasure and urged on by his lack of confidence in the future, held the comitia before the usual time, and designated the consuls for many years to come. He granted special treaties to allies and bestowed Latin rights on foreigners with a generous hand; he reduced the tribute for some provincials, he relieved others from all obligations â\x80\x94 in short, with no regard for the future he crippled the empire. But the mob attended in delight on the great indulgences that he bestowed; the most foolish citizens bought them, while the wise regarded as worthless privileges which could neither be granted nor accepted if the state was to stand. Finally Vitellius listened to the demands of his army which had stopped at Mevania, and left Rome, accompanied by a long line of senators, many of whom were drawn in his train by their desire to secure his favour, most however by fear. So he came to camp with no clear purpose in mind, an easy prey to treacherous advice.
4.52. \xa0It is said that Titus, before leaving, in a long interview with his father begged him not to be easily excited by the reports of those who calumniated Domitian, and urged him to show himself impartial and forgiving toward his son. "Neither armies nor fleets," he argued, "are so strong a defence of the imperial power as a\xa0number of children; for friends are chilled, changed, and lost by time, fortune, and sometimes by inordinate desires or by mistakes: the ties of blood cannot be severed by any man, least of all by princes, whose success others also enjoy, but whose misfortunes touch only their nearest kin. Not even brothers will always agree unless the father sets the example." Not so much reconciled toward Domitian as delighted with Titus\'s show of brotherly affection, Vespasian bade him be of good cheer and to magnify the state by war and arms; he would himself care for peace and his house. Then he had some of the swiftest ships laden with grain and entrusted to the sea, although it was still dangerous: for, in fact, Rome was in such a critical condition that she did not have more than ten days\' supplies in her granaries when the supplies from Vespasian came to her relief.''. None
51. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 314; Verhagen (2022) 314

52. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 120, 139; Verhagen (2022) 120, 139

53. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden House of Nero

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 121; Jenkyns (2013) 68; Verhagen (2022) 121

54. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • bulla (normally gold) • colors, gold, golden • colors, purple and gold • gold, golden

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 314; Edmondson (2008) 58, 66, 69; Goldman (2013) 44; Verhagen (2022) 314

55. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 154, 185; Verhagen (2022) 154, 185

56. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age

 Found in books: Faure (2022) 207; Xinyue (2022) 191, 192

57. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 160; Verhagen (2022) 160

58. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden House of Nero • aurum (Gold) • bulla (normally gold) • colors, gold, golden • gold, golden

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 108, 182; Goldman (2013) 60; Jenkyns (2013) 68; Radicke (2022) 458

59. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • gold • gold chains,, mines

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 250; Stephens and Winkler (1995) 124

60. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 1.1, 1.21, 1.25, 2.1-2.2, 2.4-2.5, 3.2, 3.4, 3.21, 3.23, 4.9, 4.22, 4.27, 4.32, 6.25, 8.24, 8.27-8.28, 10.20-10.21, 10.23, 10.34, 11.13, 11.15, 11.19-11.20, 11.23-11.24, 11.27 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apuleius Golden Ass • Apuleius, Golden Ass • Asinus aureus / The Golden Ass / Metamorphoses • Asp, coiled on handle of gold vase • Augustine, St., on meaning of Golden Ass • Black, and golden, of face of Anubis • Breast, female, golden vessel in shape of, breasts exposed • Cup, gold • Egyptian figures, on vase of gold • Gold cup • Gold cup, gold leaf, on stern of ship of Isis • Gold cup, gold vase, image of highest deity • Golden Age • Golden House of Nero • Golden and black, of face of Anubis • Isis, carries golden vessel • Isis, with serpent on handle of golden vessel carried by her • Libations, of milk, poured from golden vessel • Lucius (Golden Ass) • Milk, libations of, poured from golden vessel • Serpent, on handle of golden vessel carried by Isis • Serpent, on handle of golden vessel carried by Isis, on handle of gold vase carried in procession • Stern, of ship of Isis, shining with gold leaf • Vase, small, of gold, image of highest deity • colors, gold, golden • ekphrasis, in Golden Ass • epiphany, in Golden Ass • gaze, in Golden Ass • gold • gold leaves • gold, golden

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 240; Elsner (2007) 180, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300; Goldman (2013) 50, 110; Griffiths (1975) 4, 8, 11, 210, 263; Jenkyns (2013) 10, 32, 282, 283; Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 279; Pinheiro et al (2018) 221, 223, 224, 232, 283, 291, 333, 334, 336, 337, 341, 342, 353; Seaford (2018) 196; Stephens and Winkler (1995) 182, 322, 323

1.13. The priest, having been advised the night before, stood still and holding out his hand, and thrust out the garland of roses into my mouth. I (trembling) devoured it with a great eagerness. And as soon as I had eaten them, I found that the promise made to me had not been in vain. For my deformed face changed, and first the rugged hair of my body fell off, my thick skin grew soft and tender, the hooves of my feet changed into toes, my hands returned again, my neck grew short, my head and mouth became round, my long ears were made little, my great and stony teeth grew more like the teeth of men, and my tail, which had burdened me most, disappeared. Then the people began to marvel. The religious honored the goddess for so evident a miracle. They wondered at the visions which they saw in the night, and the ease of my restoration, whereby they rendered testimony of so great a benefit that I had received from the goddess. 1
1.15. “O my friend Lucius, after the enduring so many labors and escaping so many tempests of fortune, you have at length come to the port and haven of rest and mercy. Your noble linage, your dignity, your education, or any thing else did not avail you. But you have endured so many servile pleasures due to the folly of youth. Thusly you have had an unpleasant reward for your excessive curiosity. But however the blindness of Fortune has tormented you in various dangers, so it is now that, unbeknownst to her, you have come to this present felicity. Let Fortune go and fume with fury in another place. Let her find some other matter on which to execute her cruelty. Fortune has no power against those who serve and honor our goddess. What good did it do her that you endured thieves, savage beasts, great servitude, dangerous waits, long journeys, and fear of death every day? Know that now you are safe and under the protection of her who, by her clear light, brightens the other gods. Wherefore rejoice and take a countece appropriate to your white garment. Follow the parade of this devout and honorable procession so that those who do not worship the goddess may see and acknowledge their error. Behold Lucius, you are delivered from so great miseries by the providence of the goddess Isis. Rejoice therefore and triumph in the victory over fortune. And so that you may live more safe and sure, make yourself one of this holy order. Dedicate your mind to our religion and take upon yourself the voluntary yoke of ministry. And when you begin to serve and honor the goddess, then you shall feel the fruit of your liberty.” 1
1.19. After I had related to them of all my former miseries and present joys, I went before the face of the goddess and hired a house within the cloister of the temple so that I might continually be ready to serve of the goddess. I also wanted to be in continual contact with the company of the priests so that I could become wholly devoted to the goddess, and become an inseparable worshipper of her divine name. It happened that the goddess often appeared to me in the night, urging and commanding me to take the order of her religion. But I, though I greatly desired to do so, was held back because of fear. I considered her discipline was hard and difficult, the chastity of the priests intolerable, and the life austere and subject to many inconveniences. Being thus in doubt, I refrained from all those things as seeming impossible.
11.23. This done, I gave charge to certain of my companions to buy liberally whatever was necessary and appropriate. Then the priest brought me to the baths nearby, accompanied with all the religious sort. He, demanding pardon of the goddess, washed me and purified my body according to custom. After this, when no one approached, he brought me back again to the temple and presented me before the face of the goddess. He told me of certain secret things that it was unlawful to utter, and he commanded me, and generally all the rest, to fast for the space of ten continual days. I was not allowed to eat any beast or drink any wine. These strictures I observed with marvelous continence. Then behold, the day approached when the sacrifice was to be made. And when night came there arrived on every coast a great multitude of priests who, according to their order, offered me many presents and gifts. Then all the laity and profane people were commanded to depart. When they had put on my back a linen robe, they brought me to the most secret and sacred place of all the temple. You will perhaps ask (o studious reader) what was said and done there. Verily I would tell you if it were lawful for me to tell. You would know if it were appropriate for you to hear. But both your ears and my tongue shall incur similar punishment for rash curiosity. However, I will content your mind for this present time, since it is perhaps somewhat religious and given to devotion. Listen therefore and believe it to be true. You shall understand that I approached near to Hell, and even to the gates of Proserpina. After I was brought through all the elements, I returned to my proper place. About midnight I saw the sun shine, and I saw likewise the celestial and infernal gods. Before them I presented myself and worshipped them. Behold, now have I told you something which, although you have heard it, it is necessary for you to conceal. This much have I declared without offence for the understanding of the profane. 11.24. When morning came, and that the solemnities were finished, I came forth sanctified with twelve robes and in a religious habit. I am not forbidden to speak of this since many persons saw me at that time. There I was commanded to stand upon a seat of wood which stood in the middle of the temple before the image of the goddess. My vestment was of fine linen, covered and embroidered with flowers. I had a precious cloak upon my shoulders hung down to the ground. On it were depicted beasts wrought of diverse colors: Indian dragons and Hyperborean griffins which the other world engenders in the form of birds. The priests commonly call such a habit a celestial robe. In my right hand I carried a lit torch. There was a garland of flowers upon my head with palm leaves sprouting out on every side. I was adorned like un the sun and made in fashion of an image such that all the people came up to behold me. Then they began to solemnize the feast of the nativity and the new procession, with sumptuous banquets and delicacies. The third day was likewise celebrated with like ceremonies with a religious dinner, and with all the consummation of the order. After I had stayed there a good space, I conceived a marvelous pleasure and consolation in beholding the image of the goddess. She at length urged me to depart homeward. I rendered my thanks which, although not sufficient, yet they were according to my power. However, I could not be persuaded to depart before I had fallen prostrate before the face of the goddess and wiped her steps with my face. Then I began greatly to weep and sigh (so uch so that my words were interrupted) and, as though devouring my prayer, I began to speak in this way:
11.27. But it happened that, while I reasoned with myself and while I examined the issue with the priests, there came a new and marvelous thought in my mind. I realized that I was only consecrated to the goddess Isis, but not sacred to the religion of great Osiris, the sovereign father of all the goddesses. Between them, although there was a religious unity and concord, yet there was a great difference of order and ceremony. And because it was necessary that I should likewise be a devotee of Osiris, there was no long delay. For the night after there appeared to me one of that order, covered with linen robes. He held in his hands spears wrapped in ivy and other things not appropriate to declare. Then he left these things in my chamber and, sitting in my seat, recited to me such things as were necessary for the sumptuous banquet for my initiation. And so that I might know him again, he showed me how the ankle of his left foot was somewhat maimed, which gave him a slight limp.Afterwards I manifestly knew the will of the god Osiris. When matins ended, I went from one priest to another to find the one who had the halting mark on his foot, according to my vision. At length I found it true. I perceived one of the company of the priests who had not only the token of his foot, but the stature and habit of his body, resembling in every point the man who appeared in the nigh. He was called Asinius Marcellus, a name appropriate to my transformation. By and by I went to him and he knew well enough all the matter. He had been admonished by a similar precept in the night. For the night before, as he dressed the flowers and garlands about the head of the god Osiris, he understood from the mouth of the image (which told the predestinations of all men) how the god had sent him a poor man of Madauros. To this man the priest was supposed to minister his sacraments so that he could receive a reward by divine providence, and the other glory for his virtuous studies.' '. None
61. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apuleius, Golden Ass • Dedicatory objects, gold sea lavender (λειμώνιον) • epiphany, in Golden Ass

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 299; Renberg (2017) 164

62. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden House of Nero • gold

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 80; Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 364

63. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Temple (Jerusalem), golden lamp • divine names, taken away after Golden Calf

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 163; Janowitz (2002b) 28

39b. חמצן עד יום מותו,אמר רבה בר (בר) שילא מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ד) אלהי פלטני מיד רשע מכף מעול וחומץ רבא אמר מהכא (ישעיהו א, יז) למדו היטב דרשו משפט אשרו חמוץ אשרו חמוץ ואל תאשרו חומץ,תנו רבנן אותה שנה שמת בה שמעון הצדיק אמר להם בשנה זו הוא מת אמרו לו מניין אתה יודע אמר להם בכל יום הכפורים היה מזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש לבנים ועטוף לבנים נכנס עמי ויצא עמי והיום נזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש שחורים ועטוף שחורים נכנס עמי ולא יצא עמי אחר הרגל חלה שבעה ימים ומת,ונמנעו אחיו הכהנים מלברך בשם,ת"ר ארבעים שנה קודם חורבן הבית לא היה גורל עולה בימין ולא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין ולא היה נר מערבי דולק,והיו דלתות ההיכל נפתחות מאליהן עד שגער בהן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר לו היכל היכל מפני מה אתה מבעית עצמך יודע אני בך שסופך עתיד ליחרב וכבר נתנבא עליך זכריה בן עדוא (זכריה יא, א) פתח לבנון דלתיך ותאכל אש בארזיך,אמר רבי יצחק בן טבלאי למה נקרא שמו לבנון שמלבין עונותיהן של ישראל,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה למה נקרא שמו יער דכתיב (מלכים א י, יז) בית יער הלבנון לומר לך מה יער מלבלב אף בית המקדש מלבלב דאמר רב הושעיא בשעה שבנה שלמה בית המקדש נטע בו כל מיני מגדים של זהב והיו מוציאין פירות בזמניהן וכיון שהרוח מנשבת בהן היו נושרין פירותיהן שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו ומהן היתה פרנסה לכהונה,וכיון שנכנסו עובדי כוכבים להיכל יבשו שנאמר (נחום א, ד) ופרח לבנון אומלל ועתיד הקב"ה להחזירה לנו שנאמר (ישעיהו לה, ב) פרוח תפרח ותגל אף גילת ורנן כבוד הלבנון נתן לה,נתנן על שני השעירים תנו רבנן עשר פעמים מזכיר כהן גדול את השם בו ביום ג\' בוידוי ראשון ושלשה בוידוי שני ושלשה בשעיר המשתלח ואחד בגורלות,וכבר אמר השם ונשמע קולו ביריחו אמר רבה בר בר חנה מירושלים ליריחו עשרה פרסאות,וציר דלתות ההיכל נשמע בשמונה תחומי שבת עזים שביריחו היו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת נשים שביריחו אינן צריכות להתבשם מריח קטורת כלה שבירושלים אינה צריכה להתקשט מריח קטורת,אמר רבי (יוסי בן דולגאי) עזים היו לאבא בהרי (מכמר) והיו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד פעם אחת הלכתי לשילה והרחתי ריח קטורת מבין כותליה,אמר ר\' ינאי עליית גורל מתוך קלפי מעכבת הנחה אינה מעכבת ורבי יוחנן אמר אף עלייה אינה מעכבת,אליבא דרבי יהודה דאמר דברים הנעשין בבגדי לבן מבחוץ לא מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא כי פליגי אליבא דר\' נחמיה מ"ד מעכבא כר\' נחמיה ומאן דאמר לא מעכבא הני מילי עבודה הגרלה לאו עבודה היא,איכא דאמרי,אליבא דרבי נחמיה דאמר מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דמעכבא,כי פליגי אליבא דר\' יהודה מאן דאמר לא מעכבא כרבי יהודה ומאן דאמר מעכבא שאני הכא דתנא ביה קרא אשר עלה אשר עלה תרי זימני,מיתיבי מצוה להגריל ואם לא הגריל כשר,בשלמא להך לישנא דאמרת אליבא דרבי יהודה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא הא מני רבי יהודה היא''. None
39b. a robber ḥamtzan until the day of his death.,Rabba bar bar Sheila said: What is the verse that indicates that a ḥamtzan is a robber? The verse states: “O, my God, rescue me out of the hand of wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and robbing man ḥometz (Psalms 71:4). Rava said: From here: “Learn to do well, seek justice, strengthen the robbed ḥamotz (Isaiah 1:17), which teaches that one should strengthen the robbed, but not strengthen the robber.The Sages taught: During the year in which Shimon HaTzaddik died, he said to them, his associates: In this year, he will die, euphemistically referring to himself. They said to him: How do you know? He said to them: In previous years, on every Yom Kippur, upon entering the Holy of Holies, I was met, in a prophetic vision, by an old man who was dressed in white, and his head was wrapped up in white, and he would enter the Holy of Holies with me, and he would leave with me. But today, I was met by an old man who was dressed in black, and his head was wrapped up in black, and he entered the Holy of Holies with me, but he did not leave with me. He understood this to be a sign that his death was impending. Indeed, after the festival of Sukkot, he was ill for seven days and died.,Without the presence of Shimon HaTzaddik among them, the Jewish people were no longer worthy of the many miracles that had occurred during his lifetime. For this reason, following his death, his brethren, the priests, refrained from blessing the Jewish people with the explicit name of God in the priestly blessing.,The Sages taught: During the tenure of Shimon HaTzaddik, the lot for God always arose in the High Priest’s right hand; after his death, it occurred only occasionally; but during the forty years prior to the destruction of the Second Temple, the lot for God did not arise in the High Priest’s right hand at all. So too, the strip of crimson wool that was tied to the head of the goat that was sent to Azazel did not turn white, and the westernmost lamp of the candelabrum did not burn continually.,And the doors of the Sanctuary opened by themselves as a sign that they would soon be opened by enemies, until Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai scolded them. He said to the Sanctuary: Sanctuary, Sanctuary, why do you frighten yourself with these signs? I know about you that you will ultimately be destroyed, and Zechariah, son of Ido, has already prophesied concerning you: “Open your doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour your cedars” (Zechariah 11:1), Lebanon being an appellation for the Temple.,Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Tavlai said: Why is the Temple called Lebanon Levanon? Because it whitens malbin the Jewish people’s sins, alluded to by the root lavan, meaning white.,Rav Zutra bar Toviya said: Why is the Temple called: Forest, as it is written: “The house of the forest of Lebanon” (I Kings 10:17)? To tell you: Just as a forest blooms, so too the Temple blooms. As Rav Hoshaya said: When Solomon built the Temple, he planted in it all kinds of sweet fruit trees made of gold, and miraculously these brought forth fruit in their season. And when the wind blew upon them, their fruit would fall off, as it is stated: “May his fruits rustle like Lebanon” (Psalms 72:16). And through selling these golden fruits to the public, there was a source of income for the priesthood.,But once the gentile nations entered the Sanctuary the golden trees withered, as it states “And the blossoms of Lebanon wither” (Nahum 1:4). And in the future hour of redemption, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will restore them to us as it is stated: “It shall blossom abundantly, it shall also rejoice and shout, the glory of Lebanon will be given to it” (Isaiah 35:2).,§ The mishna states that after selecting the two lots, the High Priest places them upon the two goats. Upon placing the lot for God upon the appropriate goat, he says: For God, as a sin-offering. This is just one of the occasions on which he mentions God’s name, as the Sages taught in the Tosefta (Yoma 2:2): The High Priest mentions the name of God ten times on that day: Three times during the first confession; and three times during the second confession, over the bull; and three times when he confesses over the scapegoat to Azazel; and one time with the lots, when placing the lot for God upon the goat.,And there already was an incident when the High Priest said the name of God and his voice was so strong that it was heard even in Jericho. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: The distance from Jerusalem to Jericho is ten parasangs. Despite the great distance, his voice was miraculously heard there.,The Gemara describes similar miracles in which events in the Temple were sensed a great distance away. And the sound of the doors of the Sanctuary opening was heard from a distance of eight Shabbat limits, which is eight mil. Furthermore, goats that were in Jericho would sneeze from smelling the fragrance of the incense that burned in the Temple; the women that were in Jericho did not need to perfume themselves, since they were perfumed by the fragrance of the incense, which reached there; a bride that was in Jerusalem did not need to adorn herself with perfumes, since she was perfumed by the fragrance of the incense, which filled the air of Jerusalem.,Rabbi Yosei ben Dolgai said: Father had goats in the hills of Mikhmar, a district some distance from Jerusalem, and they would sneeze from smelling the fragrance of the incense. Similarly, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: An old man reported to me: One time I went to the ruins of the Tabernacle in Shiloh, and I smelled the smell of the incense from between its walls. The Tabernacle stood there during the period of the Judges, and more than a thousand years had passed since its destruction.,§ Rabbi Yannai said: The drawing of the lot from inside the receptacle is an indispensable part of the service, as it determines which goat will be for God and which for Azazel. However, the actual placing of the lots upon the goats is not indispensable. And Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even the drawing of the lots from inside the receptacle is not indispensable, since the High Priest may designate the goats himself, without employing the lottery.,The Gemara explains the dispute: In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said that matters that are performed in the white garments outside of the Holy of Holies are not indispensable, everyone agrees that the drawing of the lots is not indispensable, since it is held outside the Holy of Holies. When they disagree, it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya. He holds that all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are indispensable. The one who said the drawing of the lots is indispensable holds in accordance with the straightforward application of the principle of Rabbi Neḥemya. And the one who said the drawing of the lots is not indispensable claims that this principle applies only with regard to matters that are classified as a Temple service. The drawing of the lots is not a Temple service, therefore it is indispensable, even according to Rabbi Neḥemya’s principle.,Some say a different version of the dispute:,In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya, who said that all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are indispensable, everyone agrees that the drawing of the lots is indispensable.,When they disagree, it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that matters that are performed in the white garments outside of the Holy of Holies are not indispensable. The one who said that the drawing of the lots is not indispensable holds in accordance with the straightforward application of the principle of Rabbi Yehuda. And the one who said that the drawing of the lots is indispensable claims that although Rabbi Yehuda’s principle is generally true, it is different here, in the case of the lottery, because the verse repeated the phrase “which came up” (Leviticus 16:9) “which came up” (Leviticus 16:10) two times. In the laws of sacrifices, a repeated phrase indicates the matter is indispensable.,The Gemara raises an objection from that which was taught in a baraita: It is a mitzva to draw the lots, and if the High Priest did not draw the lots but instead designated the goats without using the lots, the designation is valid.,The Gemara considers the opinion presented in the baraita: Granted, according to that first version of the dispute, in which you said: In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda everyone, i.e., Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Yoḥa, agrees that the drawing of the lots is not indispensable, in accordance with whose opinion is this baraita taught? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, according to all opinions.''. None
64. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • gold • gold,

 Found in books: Edmonds (2019) 283; Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 292

6.22. After this, Celsus, desiring to exhibit his learning in his treatise against us, quotes also certain Persian mysteries, where he says: These things are obscurely hinted at in the accounts of the Persians, and especially in the mysteries of Mithras, which are celebrated among them. For in the latter there is a representation of the two heavenly revolutions - of the movement, viz., of the fixed stars, and of that which take place among the planets, and of the passage of the soul through these. The representation is of the following nature: There is a ladder with lofty gates, and on the top of it an eighth gate. The first gate consists of lead, the second of tin, the third of copper, the fourth of iron, the fifth of a mixture of metals, the sixth of silver, and the seventh of gold. The first gate they assign to Saturn, indicating by the 'lead' the slowness of this star; the second to Venus, comparing her to the splendour and softness of tin; the third to Jupiter, being firm and solid; the fourth to Mercury, for both Mercury and iron are fit to endure all things, and are money-making and laborious; the fifth to Mars, because, being composed of a mixture of metals, it is varied and unequal; the sixth, of silver, to the Moon; the seventh, of gold, to the Sun - thus imitating the different colors of the two latter. He next proceeds to examine the reason of the stars being arranged in this order, which is symbolized by the names of the rest of matter. Musical reasons, moreover, are added or quoted by the Persian theology; and to these, again, he strives to add a second explanation, connected also with musical considerations. But it seems to me, that to quote the language of Celsus upon these matters would be absurd, and similar to what he himself has done, when, in his accusations against Christians and Jews, he quoted, most inappropriately, not only the words of Plato; but, dissatisfied even with these, he adduced in addition the mysteries of the Persian Mithras, and the explanation of them. Now, whatever be the case with regard to these - whether the Persians and those who conduct the mysteries of Mithras give false or true accounts regarding them - why did he select these for quotation, rather than some of the other mysteries, with the explanation of them? For the mysteries of Mithras do not appear to be more famous among the Greeks than those of Eleusis, or than those in Ægina, where individuals are initiated in the rites of Hecate. But if he must introduce barbarian mysteries with their explanation, why not rather those of the Egyptians, which are highly regarded by many, or those of the Cappadocians regarding the Comanian Diana, or those of the Thracians, or even those of the Romans themselves, who initiate the noblest members of their senate? But if he deemed it inappropriate to institute a comparison with any of these, because they furnished no aid in the way of accusing Jews or Christians, why did it not also appear to him inappropriate to adduce the instance of the mysteries of Mithras? "". None
65. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 379; Gale (2000) 103

2.19. 19.But those who have written concerning sacred operations and sacrifices, admonish us to be accurate in preserving what pertains to the popana, because these are more acceptable to the Gods than the sacrifice which is performed through the mactation of animals. Sophocles also, in describing a sacrifice which is pleasing to divinity, says in his Polyidus: The skins of sheep in sacrifice were used, Libations too of wine, grapes well preserved, And fruits collected in a heap of every kind; The olive's pinguid juice, and waxen work Most variegated, of the yellow bee. Formerly, also, there were venerable monuments in Delos of those who came from the Hyperboreans, bearing handfuls of fruits. It is necessary, therefore, that, being purified in our manners, we should make oblations, offering to the Gods those sacrifices which are pleasing to them, and not such as are attended with great expense. Now, however, if a man's body is not pure and invested with a splendid garment, he does not think it is qualified for the sanctity of sacrifice. But when he has rendered his body splendid, together with his garment, though his soul at the same time is not, purified from vice, yet he betakes himself to sacrifice, and thinks that it is a thing of no consequence; as if divinity did not especially rejoice in that which is most divine in our nature, when it is in a pure condition, as being allied to his essence. In Epidaurus, therefore, there was the following inscription on the doors of the temple: Into an odorous temple, he who goes Should pure and holy be; but to be wise In what to sanctity pertains, is to be pure.
66. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 207
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Rule • Golden rule

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 227; Ruzer (2020) 112

207. The king received the answer with great delight and looking at another said, 'What is the teaching of wisdom?' And the other replied, 'As you wish that no evil should befall you, but to be a partaker of all good things, so you should act on the same principle towards your subjects and offenders, and you should mildly admonish the noble and good. For God draws all men to himself by his benignity.'"". None
67. Strabo, Geography, 11.2.19, 12.3.19, 12.3.30, 12.3.37, 12.3.39-12.3.40
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Fleece • Golden Fleece, the • gold • gold, placer

 Found in books: Bianchetti et al (2015) 264; Heymans (2021) 2; Marek (2019) 405

11.2.19. Among the tribes which come together at Dioscurias are the Phtheirophagi, who have received their name from their squalor and their filthiness. Near them are the Soanes, who are no less filthy, but superior to them in power, — indeed, one might almost say that they are foremost in courage and power. At any rate, they are masters of the peoples around them, and hold possession of the heights of the Caucasus above Dioscurias. They have a king and a council of three hundred men; and they assemble, according to report, an army of two hundred thousand; for the whole of the people are a fighting force, though unorganized. It is said that in their country gold is carried down by the mountain torrents, and that the barbarians obtain it by means of perforated troughs and fleecy skins, and that this is the origin of the myth of the golden fleece — unless they call them Iberians, by the same name as the western Iberians, from the gold mines in both countries. The Soanes use remarkable poisons for the points of their missiles; and even people who are not wounded by the poisoned missiles suffer from their odor. Now in general the tribes in the neighborhood of the Caucasus occupy barren and cramped territories, but the tribes of the Albanians and the Iberians, which occupy nearly all the isthmus above-mentioned, might also be called Caucasian tribes; and they possess territory that is fertile and capable of affording an exceedingly good livelihood.
12.3.19. The Chaldaei of today were in ancient times named Chalybes; and it is just opposite their territory that Pharnacia is situated, which, on the sea, has the natural advantages of pelamydes-fishing (for it is here that this fish is first caught) and, on the land, has the mines, only iron-mines at the present time, though in earlier times it also had silver-mines. Upon the whole, the seaboard in this region is extremely narrow, for the mountains, full of mines and forests, are situated directly above it, and not much of it is tilled. But there remains for the miners their livelihood from the mines, and for those who busy themselves on the sea their livelihood from their fishing, and especially from their catches of pelamydes and dolphins; for the dolphins pursue the schools of fish — the cordyle and the tunny-fish and the pelamydes themselves; and they not only grow fat on them, but also become easy to catch because they are rather eager to approach the land. These are the only people who cut up the dolphins, which are caught with bait, and use their abundance of fat for all purposes.
12.3.30. Sidene and Themiscyra are contiguous to Pharnacia. And above these lies Phanaroea, which has the best portion of Pontus, for it is planted with olive trees, abounds in wine, and has all the other goodly attributes a country can have. On its eastern side it is protected by the Paryadres Mountain, in its length lying parallel to that mountain; and on its western side by the Lithrus and Ophlimus Mountains. It forms a valley of considerable breadth as well as length; and it is traversed by the Lycus River, which flows from Armenia, and by the Iris, which flows from the narrow passes near Amaseia. The two rivers meet at about the middle of the valley; and at their junction is situated a city which the first man who subjugated it called Eupatoria after his own name, but Pompey found it only half-finished and added to it territory and settlers, and called it Magnopolis. Now this city is situated in the middle of the plain, but Cabeira is situated close to the very foothills of the Paryadres Mountains about one hundred and fifty stadia farther south than Magnopolis, the same distance that Amaseia is farther west than Magnopolis. It was at Cabeira that the palace of Mithridates was built, and also the water-mill; and here were the zoological gardens, and, near by, the hunting grounds, and the mines.
12.3.37. The whole of the country around is held by Pythodoris, to whom belong, not only Phanaroea, but also Zelitis and Megalopolitis. Concerning Phanaroea I have already spoken. As for Zelitis, it has a city Zela, fortified on a mound of Semiramis, with the sanctuary of Anaitis, who is also revered by the Armenians. Now the sacred rites performed here are characterized by greater sanctity; and it is here that all the people of Pontus make their oaths concerning their matters of greatest importance. The large number of temple-servants and the honors of the priests were, in the time of the kings, of the same type as I have stated before, but at the present time everything is in the power of Pythodoris. Many persons had abused and reduced both the multitude of temple-servants and the rest of the resources of the sanctuary. The adjacent territory, also, was reduced, having been divided into several domains — I mean Zelitis, as it is called (which has the city Zela on a mound); for in, early times the kings governed Zela, not as a city, but as a sacred precinct of the Persian gods, and the priest was the master of the whole thing. It was inhabited by the multitude of temple-servants, and by the priest, who had an abundance of resources; and the sacred territory as well as that of the priest was subject to him and his numerous attendants. Pompey added many provinces to the boundaries of Zelitis, and named Zela, as he did Megalopolis, a city, and he united the latter and Culupene and Camisene into one state; the latter two border on both Lesser Armenia and Laviansene, and they contain rock-salt, and also an ancient fortress called Camisa, now in ruins. The later Roman prefects assigned a portion of these two governments to the priests of Comana, a portion to the priest of Zela, and a portion to Ateporix, a dynast of the family of tetrarchs of Galatia; but now that Ateporix has died, this portion, which is not large, is subject to the Romans, being called a province (and this little state is a political organization of itself, the people having incorporated Carana into it, from which fact its country is called Caranitis), whereas the rest is held by Pythodoris and Dyteutus.
12.3.39. My city is situated in a large deep valley, through which flows the Iris River. Both by human foresight and by nature it is an admirably devised city, since it can at the same time afford the advantage of both a city and a fortress; for it is a high and precipitous rock, which descends abruptly to the river, and has on one side the wall on the edge of the river where the city is settled and on the other the wall that runs up on either side to the peaks. These peaks are two in number, are united with one another by nature, and are magnificently towered. Within this circuit are both the palaces and monuments of the kings. The peaks are connected by a neck which is altogether narrow, and is five or six stadia in height on either side as one goes up from the riverbanks and the suburbs; and from the neck to the peaks there remains another ascent of one stadium, which is sharp and superior to any kind of force. The rock also has reservoirs of water inside it, A water-supply of which the city cannot be deprived, since two tube-like channels have been hewn out, one towards the river and the other towards the neck. And two bridges have been built over the river, one from the city to the suburbs and the other from the suburbs to the outside territory; for it is at this bridge that the mountain which lies above the rock terminates. And there is a valley extending from the river which at first is not altogether wide, but it later widens out and forms the plain called Chiliocomum; and then comes the Diacopene and Pimolisene country, all of which is fertile, extending to the Halys River. These are the northern parts of the country of the Amaseians, and are about five hundred stadia in length. Then in order comes the remainder of their country, which is much longer than this, extending to Babanomus and Ximene, which latter itself extends as far as the Halys River. This, then, is the length of their country, whereas the breadth from the north to the south extends, not only to Zelitis, but also to Greater Cappadocia, as far as the Trocmi. In Ximene there are halae of rock-salt, after which the river is supposed to have been called Halys. There are several demolished strongholds in my country, and also much deserted land, because of the Mithridatic War. However, it is all well supplied with trees; a part of it affords pasturage for horses and is adapted to the raising of the other animals; and the whole of it is beautifully adapted to habitation. Amaseia was also given to kings, though it is now a province. 12.3.40. There remains that part of the Pontic province which lies outside the Halys River, I mean the country round Mt. Olgassys, contiguous to Sinopis. Mt. Olgassys is extremely high and hard to travel. And sanctuaries that have been established everywhere on this mountain are held by the Paphlagonians. And round it lies fairly good territory, both Blaene and Domanitis, through which latter flows the Amnias River. Here Mithridates Eupator utterly wiped out the forces of Nicomedes the Bithynian — not in person, however, since it happened that he was not even present, but through his generals. And while Nicomedes, fleeing with a few others, safely escaped to his home-land and from there sailed to Italy, Mithridates followed him and not only took Bithynia at the first assault but also took possession of Asia as far as Caria and Lycia. And here, too, a place was proclaimed a city, I mean Pompeiupolis and in this city is Mt. Sandaracurgium, not far away from Pimolisa, a royal fortress now in ruins, after which the country on either side of the river is called Pimolisene. Mt. Sandaracurgium is hollowed out in consequence of the mining done there, since the workmen have excavated great cavities beneath it. The mine used to be worked by publicans, who used as miners the slaves sold in the market because of their crimes; for, in addition to the painfulness of the work, they say that the air in the mines is both deadly and hard to endure on account of the grievous odor of the ore, so that the workmen are doomed to a quick death. What is more, the mine is often left idle because of the unprofitableness of it, since the workmen are not only more than two hundred in number, but are continually spent by disease and death. So much be said concerning Pontus.''. None
68. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 1.1.15
 Tagged with subjects: • Sun, golden, veering • golden age

 Found in books: Crabb (2020) 240; Griffiths (1975) 292

1.1.15. How much more religious toward the gods did our senate show themselves! After the fatal defeat at Cannae, they decreed that no women should mourn longer than thirty days, to the end that the rites of Ceres might be by them performed. For now, the greatest part of the men lying slain upon the bloody accursed earth, there was no family in the city that did not partake of the general calamity. And therefore the mothers and daughters, wives and sisters of the slain were compelled to put off their mourning-clothes, and put on their white garments, and to perform the office of priests. Through which constancy of observing religion, they forced the deities themselves to blush, and be ashamed of raging any more against such a nation, that could not be drawn from adoring them that had with so much cruelty destroyed them.''. None
69. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.262-1.296, 1.446-1.493, 4.261-4.263, 4.369, 6.176-6.235, 6.428, 6.540-6.543, 6.756-6.818, 6.820-6.886, 7.781-7.792, 8.151, 8.198, 8.200-8.204, 8.244-8.246, 8.319-8.332, 8.649, 8.659-8.661, 8.717-8.720, 8.728, 9.616, 12.107-12.109, 12.940, 12.952
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold leaves / gold tablets • Golden Age • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Bough • Golden Bough (Aeneid) • Golden Fleece • Sun, golden, illumined by Isis • bulla (normally gold) • colors, gold, golden • colors, purple and gold • gold, golden • golden age • golden age, pity in • golden age,, and absence of private property • golden age,, and ideology of patronage • golden age,, and spontaneous production • labor,, in the golden age • tablets, Orphic gold

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 67, 68, 110, 123, 143, 260, 314; Bowditch (2001) 140; Crabb (2020) 82, 83, 84, 239, 240, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281; Edmondson (2008) 108, 133; Farrell (2021) 115, 184, 237; Faure (2022) 207, 225; Gale (2000) 162; Goldman (2013) 14, 41, 42, 126, 150, 151; Griffiths (1975) 213, 322; Isaac (2004) 314; Mackay (2022) 219; Perkell (1989) 4, 49, 50, 105, 129; Santangelo (2013) 123, 124, 234; Verhagen (2022) 67, 68, 110, 123, 143, 260, 314; Xinyue (2022) 181, 182, 193; de Jáuregui (2010) 39; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 174

1.262. longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo) 1.263. bellum ingens geret Italia, populosque feroces 1.264. contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, 1.266. ternaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis. 1.267. At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo 1.268. additur,—Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno,— 1.269. triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbis 1.270. imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 1.271. transferet, et longam multa vi muniet Albam. 1.272. Hic iam ter centum totos regnabitur annos 1.273. gente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos, 1.274. Marte gravis, geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. 1.275. Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 1.276. Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 1.277. moenia, Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. 1.279. imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Iuno, 1.280. quae mare nunc terrasque metu caelumque fatigat, 1.281. consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit 1.282. Romanos rerum dominos gentemque togatam: 1.283. sic placitum. Veniet lustris labentibus aetas, 1.284. cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas 1.285. servitio premet, ac victis dominabitur Argis. 1.286. Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar, 1.287. imperium oceano, famam qui terminet astris,— 1.288. Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo. 1.289. Hunc tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, 1.290. accipies secura; vocabitur hic quoque votis. 1.291. Aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis; 1.292. cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus, 1.293. iura dabunt; dirae ferro et compagibus artis 1.294. claudentur Belli portae; Furor impius intus, 1.295. saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus aenis 1.296. post tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento.
1.446. Hic templum Iunoni ingens Sidonia Dido 1.448. aerea cui gradibus surgebant limina, nexaeque 1.449. aere trabes, foribus cardo stridebat aenis. 1.450. Hoc primum in luco nova res oblata timorem 1.451. leniit, hic primum Aeneas sperare salutem 1.452. ausus, et adflictis melius confidere rebus. 1.453. Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo, 1.454. reginam opperiens, dum, quae fortuna sit urbi, 1.455. artificumque manus inter se operumque laborem 1.456. miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas, 1.457. bellaque iam fama totum volgata per orbem, 1.458. Atridas, Priamumque, et saevum ambobus Achillem. 1.459. Constitit, et lacrimans, Quis iam locus inquit Achate, 1.461. En Priamus! Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi; 1.462. sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt. 1.463. Solve metus; feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem. 1.464. Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit ii, 1.465. multa gemens, largoque umectat flumine voltum. 1.466. Namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum 1.467. hac fugerent Graii, premeret Troiana iuventus, 1.468. hac Phryges, instaret curru cristatus Achilles. 1.469. Nec procul hinc Rhesi niveis tentoria velis 1.470. adgnoscit lacrimans, primo quae prodita somno 1.471. Tydides multa vastabat caede cruentus, 1.472. ardentisque avertit equos in castra, prius quam 1.473. pabula gustassent Troiae Xanthumque bibissent. 1.474. Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis, 1.475. infelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli, 1.476. fertur equis, curruque haeret resupinus ii, 1.477. lora tenens tamen; huic cervixque comaeque trahuntur 1.478. per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta. 1.479. Interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant 1.480. crinibus Iliades passis peplumque ferebant, 1.481. suppliciter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis; 1.482. diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat. 1.483. Ter circum Iliacos raptaverat Hectora muros, 1.484. exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles. 1.485. Tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo, 1.486. ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici, 1.487. tendentemque manus Priamum conspexit inermis. 1.488. Se quoque principibus permixtum adgnovit Achivis, 1.489. Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma. 1.490. Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 1.491. Penthesilea furens, mediisque in milibus ardet, 1.492. aurea subnectens exsertae cingula mammae, 1.493. bellatrix, audetque viris concurrere virgo.
4.261. conspicit; atque illi stellatus iaspide fulva 4.262. ensis erat, Tyrioque ardebat murice laena 4.263. demissa ex umeris, dives quae munera Dido
4.369. Num fletu ingemuit nostro? Num lumina flexit?
6.176. praecipue pius Aeneas. Tum iussa Sibyllae, 6.177. haud mora, festit flentes, aramque sepulchri 6.178. congerere arboribus caeloque educere certant. 6.179. Itur in antiquam silvam, stabula alta ferarum; 6.180. procumbunt piceae, sonat icta securibus ilex, 6.181. fraxineaeque trabes cuneis et fissile robur 6.182. scinditur, advolvunt ingentis montibus ornos. 6.183. Nec non Aeneas opera inter talia primus 6.184. hortatur socios, paribusque accingitur armis. 6.185. Atque haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat, 6.186. aspectans silvam inmensam, et sic voce precatur: 6.187. Si nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus 6.188. ostendat nemore in tanto, quando omnia vere 6.189. heu nimium de te vates, Misene, locuta est. 6.190. Vix ea fatus erat, geminae cum forte columbae 6.191. ipsa sub ora viri caelo venere volantes, 6.192. et viridi sedere solo. Tum maximus heros 6.193. maternas agnoscit aves, laetusque precatur: 6.194. Este duces, O, si qua via est, cursumque per auras 6.195. dirigite in lucos, ubi pinguem dives opacat 6.196. ramus humum. Tuque, O, dubiis ne defice rebus, 6.197. diva parens. Sic effatus vestigia pressit, 6.198. observans quae signa ferant, quo tendere pergant. 6.199. Pascentes illae tantum prodire volando, 6.200. quantum acie possent oculi servare sequentum. 6.201. Inde ubi venere ad fauces grave olentis Averni, 6.202. tollunt se celeres, liquidumque per aëra lapsae 6.203. sedibus optatis geminae super arbore sidunt, 6.204. discolor unde auri per ramos aura refulsit. 6.205. Quale solet silvis brumali frigore viscum 6.206. fronde virere nova, quod non sua seminat arbos, 6.207. et croceo fetu teretis circumdare truncos, 6.208. talis erat species auri frondentis opaca 6.209. ilice, sic leni crepitabat brattea vento. 6.210. Corripit Aeneas extemplo avidusque refringit 6.212. Nec minus interea Misenum in litore Teucri 6.213. flebant, et cineri ingrato suprema ferebant. 6.214. Principio pinguem taedis et robore secto 6.215. ingentem struxere pyram, cui frondibus atris 6.216. intexunt latera, et ferales ante cupressos 6.217. constituunt, decorantque super fulgentibus armis. 6.218. Pars calidos latices et aëna undantia flammis 6.219. expediunt, corpusque lavant frigentis et unguunt. 6.220. Fit gemitus. Tum membra toro defleta reponunt, 6.221. purpureasque super vestes, velamina nota, 6.222. coniciunt. Pars ingenti subiere feretro, 6.223. triste ministerium, et subiectam more parentum 6.224. aversi tenuere facem. Congesta cremantur 6.225. turea dona, dapes, fuso crateres olivo. 6.226. Postquam conlapsi cineres et flamma quievit 6.227. reliquias vino et bibulam lavere favillam, 6.228. ossaque lecta cado texit Corynaeus aëno. 6.229. Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda, 6.230. spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae, 6.231. lustravitque viros, dixitque novissima verba. 6.232. At pius Aeneas ingenti mole sepulcrum 6.233. imponit, suaque arma viro, remumque tubamque, 6.234. monte sub aërio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 6.235. dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen.
6.428. quos dulcis vitae exsortes et ab ubere raptos 6.541. dextera quae Ditis magni sub moenia tendit, 6.542. hac iter Elysium nobis; at laeva malorum 6.543. exercet poenas, et ad impia Tartara mittit.
6.756. Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 6.757. gloria, qui maneant Itala de gente nepotes, 6.758. inlustris animas nostrumque in nomen ituras, 6.759. expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo. 6.760. Ille, vides, pura iuvenis qui nititur hasta, 6.761. proxuma sorte tenet lucis loca, primus ad auras 6.762. aetherias Italo commixtus sanguine surget, 6.763. silvius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles, 6.764. quem tibi longaevo serum Lavinia coniunx 6.765. educet silvis regem regumque parentem, 6.766. unde genus Longa nostrum dominabitur Alba. 6.767. Proxumus ille Procas, Troianae gloria gentis, 6.768. et Capys, et Numitor, et qui te nomine reddet 6.769. Silvius Aeneas, pariter pietate vel armis 6.770. egregius, si umquam regdam acceperit Albam. 6.771. Qui iuvenes! Quantas ostentant, aspice, vires, 6.772. atque umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu! 6.773. Hi tibi Nomentum et Gabios urbemque Fidenam, 6.774. hi Collatinas imponent montibus arces, 6.775. Pometios Castrumque Inui Bolamque Coramque. 6.776. Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 6.777. Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet 6.778. Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater 6.779. educet. Viden, ut geminae stant vertice cristae, 6.780. et pater ipse suo superum iam signat honore? 6.781. En, huius, nate, auspiciis illa incluta Roma 6.782. imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo, 6.783. septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces, 6.784. felix prole virum: qualis Berecyntia mater 6.785. invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 6.786. laeta deum partu, centum complexa nepotes, 6.787. omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes. 6.788. Huc geminas nunc flecte acies, hanc aspice gentem 6.789. Romanosque tuos. Hic Caesar et omnis Iuli 6.790. progenies magnum caeli ventura sub axem. 6.791. Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 6.792. Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea condet 6.793. saecula qui rursus Latio regnata per arva 6.794. Saturno quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 6.795. proferet imperium: iacet extra sidera tellus, 6.796. extra anni solisque vias, ubi caelifer Atlas 6.797. axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 6.798. Huius in adventum iam nunc et Caspia regna 6.799. responsis horrent divom et Maeotia tellus, 6.800. et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 6.801. Nec vero Alcides tantum telluris obivit, 6.802. fixerit aeripedem cervam licet, aut Erymanthi 6.803. pacarit nemora, et Lernam tremefecerit arcu; 6.804. nec, qui pampineis victor iuga flectit habenis, 6.805. Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigres. 6.806. Et dubitamus adhuc virtute extendere vires, 6.807. aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terra? 6.809. sacra ferens? Nosco crines incanaque menta 6.810. regis Romani, primus qui legibus urbem 6.811. fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 6.812. missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit, 6.813. otia qui rumpet patriae residesque movebit 6.814. Tullus in arma viros et iam desueta triumphis 6.815. agmina. Quem iuxta sequitur iactantior Ancus, 6.816. nunc quoque iam nimium gaudens popularibus auris. 6.817. Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam 6.818. ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre receptos?
6.820. accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventes 6.821. ad poenam pulchra pro libertate vocabit. 6.822. Infelix, utcumque ferent ea facta minores, 6.823. vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa cupido. 6.824. Quin Decios Drusosque procul saevumque securi 6.825. aspice Torquatum et referentem signa Camillum. 6.826. Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis, 6.827. concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 6.828. heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae 6.829. attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt! 6.830. Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci 6.831. descendens, gener adversis instructus Eois. 6.832. Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella, 6.833. neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires; 6.834. tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo, 6.835. proice tela manu, sanguis meus!— 6.836. Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho 6.837. victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis. 6.838. Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas, 6.839. ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli, 6.840. ultus avos Troiae, templa et temerata Minervae. 6.841. Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat? 6.842. Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, 6.843. Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem 6.844. Fabricium vel te sulco Serrane, serentem? 6.845. quo fessum rapitis, Fabii? Tu Maxumus ille es, 6.846. unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem. 6.847. Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera, 6.848. credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus, 6.849. orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus 6.850. describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: 6.851. tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento; 6.852. hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 6.853. parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos. 6.854. Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit: 6.855. Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis 6.856. ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes! 6.857. Hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu, 6.858. sistet, eques sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem, 6.859. tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino. 6.860. Atque hic Aeneas; una namque ire videbat 6.861. egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis, 6.862. sed frons laeta parum, et deiecto lumina voltu: 6.863. Quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem? 6.864. Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum? 6.865. Quis strepitus circa comitum! Quantum instar in ipso! 6.866. Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra. 6.867. Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis: 6.868. O gnate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuorum; 6.869. ostendent terris hunc tantum fata, neque ultra 6.870. esse sinent. Nimium vobis Romana propago 6.871. visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent. 6.872. Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem 6.873. campus aget gemitus, vel quae, Tiberine, videbis 6.874. funera, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem! 6.875. Nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 6.876. in tantum spe tollet avos, nec Romula quondam 6.877. ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno. 6.878. Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello 6.879. dextera! Non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 6.880. obvius armato, seu cum pedes iret in hostem, 6.881. seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 6.882. Heu, miserande puer, si qua fata aspera rumpas, 6.883. tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date lilia plenis, 6.884. purpureos spargam flores, animamque nepotis 6.885. his saltem adcumulem donis, et fungar ii 6.886. munere—Sic tota passim regione vagantur
7.781. Filius ardentis haud setius aequore campi 7.782. exercebat equos curruque in bella ruebat. 7.783. Ipse inter primos praestanti corpore Turnus 7.784. vertitur arma tenens et toto vertice supra est. 7.785. Cui triplici crinita iuba galea alta Chimaeram 7.786. sustinet, Aetnaeos efflantem faucibus ignis: 7.787. tam magis illa fremens et tristibus effera flammis, 7.788. quam magis effuso crudescunt sanguine pugnae. 7.789. At levem clipeum sublatis cornibus Io 7.790. auro insignibat, iam saetis obsita, iam bos 7.791. (argumentum ingens), et custos virginis Argus 7.792. caelataque amnem fundens pater Inachus urna.
8.151. pectora, sunt animi et rebus spectata iuventus.
8.198. Huic monstro Volcanus erat pater: illius atros
8.200. Attulit et nobis aliquando optantibus aetas 8.201. auxilium adventumque dei. Nam maximus ultor, 8.202. tergemini nece Geryonae spoliisque superbus 8.203. Alcides aderat taurosque hac victor agebat 8.204. ingentis, vallemque boves amnemque tenebant.
8.244. infernas reseret sedes et regna recludat 8.245. pallida, dis invisa, superque immane barathrum 8.246. cernatur, trepident inmisso lumine manes.
8.319. Primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo, 8.320. arma Iovis fugiens et regnis exsul ademptis. 8.321. Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis 8.322. composuit legesque dedit Latiumque vocari 8.323. maluit, his quoniam latuisset tutis in oris. 8.324. Aurea quae perhibent illo sub rege fuere 8.325. saecula. Sic placida populos in pace regebat, 8.326. deterior donec paulatim ac decolor aetas 8.327. et belli rabies et amor successit habendi. 8.328. Tum manus Ausonia et gentes venere Sicanae, 8.329. saepius et nomen posuit Saturnia tellus; 8.330. tum reges asperque immani corpore Thybris, 8.331. a quo post Itali fluvium cognomine Thybrim 8.332. diximus, amisit verum vetus Albula nomen;
8.649. Illum indigti similem similemque miti
8.659. aurea caesaries ollis atque aurea vestis, 8.660. virgatis lucent sagulis, tum lactea colla 8.661. auro innectuntur, duo quisque Alpina coruscant
8.717. Laetitia ludisque viae plausuque fremebant; 8.718. omnibus in templis matrum chorus, omnibus arae; 8.719. ante aras terram caesi stravere iuvenci. 8.720. Ipse, sedens niveo candentis limine Phoebi,
8.728. indomitique Dahae, et pontem indignatus Araxes.
9.616. et tunicae manicas et habent redimicula mitrae.
12.107. Nec minus interea maternis saevos in armis 12.108. Aeneas acuit Martem et se suscitat ira, 12.109. oblato gaudens componi foedere bellum,
12.952. vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras.' '. None
1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by ' "1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. " "1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! " '1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end, 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care, 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore, ' "1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. " '1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives, 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale, 1.286. place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green, 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done, 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell, ' "1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows " '1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death, 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends, 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus,
1.446. her spotted mantle was; perchance she roused ' "1.448. So Venus spoke, and Venus' son replied: " '1.449. “No voice or vision of thy sister fair 1.450. has crossed my path, thou maid without a name! 1.451. Thy beauty seems not of terrestrial mould, 1.452. nor is thy music mortal! Tell me, goddess, ' "1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph, " "1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art, " '1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies, ' "1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! " '1.458. Strange are these lands and people where we rove, 1.459. compelled by wind and wave. Lo, this right hand 1.461. Then Venus: “Nay, I boast not to receive 1.462. honors divine. We Tyrian virgins oft 1.463. bear bow and quiver, and our ankles white 1.464. lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies 1.465. the Punic power, where Tyrian masters hold ' "1.466. Agenor's town; but on its borders dwell " '1.467. the Libyans, by battles unsubdued. 1.468. Upon the throne is Dido, exiled there ' "1.469. from Tyre, to flee th' unnatural enmity " "1.470. of her own brother. 'T was an ancient wrong; " '1.471. too Iong the dark and tangled tale would be; 1.472. I trace the larger outline of her story: 1.473. Sichreus was her spouse, whose acres broad 1.474. no Tyrian lord could match, and he was-blessed ' "1.475. by his ill-fated lady's fondest love, " '1.476. whose father gave him her first virgin bloom 1.477. in youthful marriage. But the kingly power 1.478. among the Tyrians to her brother came, 1.479. Pygmalion, none deeper dyed in crime 1.480. in all that land. Betwixt these twain there rose 1.481. a deadly hatred,—and the impious wretch, 1.482. blinded by greed, and reckless utterly ' "1.483. of his fond sister's joy, did murder foul " '1.484. upon defenceless and unarmed Sichaeus, 1.485. and at the very altar hewed him down. 1.486. Long did he hide the deed, and guilefully 1.487. deceived with false hopes, and empty words, 1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept, ' "1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came, " '1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare 1.491. his heart with dagger pierced, disclosing so 1.492. the blood-stained altar and the infamy 1.493. that darkened now their house. His counsel was
4.261. foul, whispering lips, and ears, that catch at all. ' "4.262. At night she spreads midway 'twixt earth and heaven " '4.263. her pinions in the darkness, hissing loud,
4.369. parted the winds and skimmed the sandy merge
6.176. Or quenchless virtue carried to the stars, 6.177. Children of gods, have such a victory won. 6.178. Grim forests stop the way, and, gliding slow, 6.179. Cocytus circles through the sightless gloom. 6.180. But if it be thy dream and fond desire ' "6.181. Twice o'er the Stygian gulf to travel, twice " '6.182. On glooms of Tartarus to set thine eyes, 6.183. If such mad quest be now thy pleasure—hear 6.184. What must be first fulfilled . A certain tree 6.185. Hides in obscurest shade a golden bough, 6.186. of pliant stems and many a leaf of gold, 6.187. Sacred to Proserpine, infernal Queen. 6.188. Far in the grove it hides; in sunless vale 6.189. Deep shadows keep it in captivity. 6.190. No pilgrim to that underworld can pass 6.191. But he who plucks this burgeoned, leafy gold; 6.192. For this hath beauteous Proserpine ordained ' "6.193. Her chosen gift to be. Whene'er it is culled, " '6.194. A branch out-leafing in like golden gleam, 6.195. A second wonder-stem, fails not to spring. 6.196. Therefore go seek it with uplifted eyes! 6.197. And when by will of Heaven thou findest it, 6.198. Reach forth and pluck; for at a touch it yields, 6.199. A free and willing gift, if Fate ordain; 6.200. But otherwise no mortal strength avails, 6.201. Nor strong, sharp steel, to rend it from the tree. ' "6.202. Another task awaits; thy friend's cold clay " '6.203. Lies unentombed. Alas! thou art not ware 6.204. (While in my house thou lingerest, seeking light) 6.205. That all thy ships are by his death defiled. 6.206. Unto his resting-place and sepulchre, 6.207. Go, carry him! And sable victims bring, 6.208. In expiation, to his mournful shade. 6.209. So at the last on yonder Stygian groves, 6.210. And realms to things that breathe impassable, 6.212. Aeneas then drew forth, with downcast eyes, 6.213. From that dark cavern, pondering in his heart 6.214. The riddle of his fate. His faithful friend 6.215. Achates at his side, with paces slow, 6.216. Companioned all his care, while their sad souls 6.217. Made mutual and oft-renewed surmise 6.218. What comrade dead, what cold and tombless clay, ' "6.219. The Sibyl's word would show. " '6.220. But as they mused, 6.221. Behold Misenus on the dry sea-sands, 6.222. By hasty hand of death struck guiltless down! 6.223. A son of Aeolus, none better knew ' "6.224. To waken heroes by the clarion's call, " "6.225. With war-enkindling sound. Great Hector's friend " "6.226. In happier days, he oft at Hector's side " '6.227. Strode to the fight with glittering lance and horn. 6.228. But when Achilles stripped his fallen foe, 6.229. This dauntless hero to Aeneas gave 6.230. Allegiance true, in not less noble cause. 6.231. But, on a day, he chanced beside the sea 6.232. To blow his shell-shaped horn, and wildly dared 6.233. Challenge the gods themselves to rival song; 6.234. Till jealous Triton, if the tale be true, 6.235. Grasped the rash mortal, and out-flung him far ' "
6.428. Then win late passage o'er the longed-for wave.” " '6.541. Here Cerberus, with triple-throated roar, 6.542. Made all the region ring, as there he lay 6.543. At vast length in his cave. The Sibyl then, ' "
6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds, " '6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode ' "6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way, " '6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! ' "6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— " '6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame, 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked, 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: ' "6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge " '6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side, 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous, 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall, 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud, 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured, 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires, 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape ' "6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. " '6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels, 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud, 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell, 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues, 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin, ' "6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. " '6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! ' "6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down " "6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side, " '6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode, 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door, ' "6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw, " '
6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine, 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb, 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long ' "6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; " '6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song, 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad, 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody, 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand, 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race, 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times, 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus, 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views, 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds, 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song ' "6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found " "6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; " '6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng, ' "6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: " '6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair, 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn, 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on, 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down, 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh ' "6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands " "
7.781. dread Juno's will, then with complaining prayer " '7.782. the aged sire cried loud upon his gods ' "7.783. and on th' unheeding air: “Alas,” said he, " '7.784. “My doom is shipwreck, and the tempest bears 7.785. my bark away! O wretches, your own blood 7.786. hall pay the forfeit for your impious crime. 7.787. O Turnus! O abominable deed! 7.788. Avenging woes pursue thee; to deaf gods 7.789. thy late and unavailing prayer shall rise. 7.790. Now was my time to rest. But as I come ' "7.791. close to my journey's end, thou spoilest me " '7.792. of comfort in my death.” With this the King
8.151. prang to its feet and left the feast divine.
8.198. risking my person and my life, have come
8.200. the house of Daunus hurls insulting war. 8.201. If us they quell, they doubt not to obtain 8.202. lordship of all Hesperia, and subdue 8.203. alike the northern and the southern sea. 8.204. Accept good faith, and give! Behold, our hearts ' "
8.244. Then high-born pages, with the altar's priest, " '8.245. bring on the roasted beeves and load the board 8.246. with baskets of fine bread; and wine they bring — ' "
8.319. filled all the arching sky, the river's banks " '8.320. asunder leaped, and Tiber in alarm ' "8.321. reversed his flowing wave. So Cacus' lair " '8.322. lay shelterless, and naked to the day 8.323. the gloomy caverns of his vast abode 8.324. tood open, deeply yawning, just as if 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide ' "8.326. th' infernal world and fearful kingdoms pale, " '8.327. which gods abhor; and to the realms on high 8.328. the measureless abyss should be laid bare, 8.329. and pale ghosts shrink before the entering sun. 8.330. Now upon Cacus, startled by the glare, 8.331. caged in the rocks and howling horribly, 8.332. Alcides hurled his weapons, raining down
8.649. his people rose in furious despair,
8.659. an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660. re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661. of ships in close array; their eager lords
8.717. a panoply from Vulcan through the air, 8.718. to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths ' "8.719. over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! " '8.720. O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay
8.728. adored, as yesterday, the household gods
9.616. have lasting music, no remotest age
12.107. Make me no sad farewells, as I depart ' "12.108. to the grim war-god's game! Can Turnus' hand " "12.109. delay death's necessary coming? Go, " '
12.952. were battering the foundations, now laid by ' '. None
70. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.1-4.10, 4.13, 4.17-4.25, 4.29-4.35, 4.38-4.39, 4.52
 Tagged with subjects: • Aratus, and the golden race • Gold leaves / gold tablets • Golden Age • Golden Age, as retrospective ideal • Golden Age, in Georgic • Praises of Spring, as reflection on Golden Age • golden age • golden age,, Greek tradition of • golden age,, and absence of private property • golden age,, and aesthetic production • golden age,, and ideology of patronage • golden age,, and spontaneous production • golden age,, attributes of • labor,, in the golden age • law, Roman, absent in the golden age

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 122, 123; Bernabe et al (2013) 465; Bowditch (2001) 122, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 208; Crabb (2020) 83, 239; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 243; Faure (2022) 200; Gale (2000) 40, 46, 87, 213, 218, 225, 248; O, Daly (2012) 343, 344, 346; Perkell (1989) 94, 104, 107, 115; Verhagen (2022) 122, 123; Xinyue (2022) 52, 53, 54, 191, 192; de Jáuregui (2010) 70

4.1. muses of 4.10. Only do thou, at the boy's birth in whom" '

4.13. apollo reigns. And in thy consulate,

4.17. of our old wickedness, once done away,
4.18. hall free the earth from never-ceasing fear.
4.19. He shall receive the life of gods, and see 4.20. heroes with gods commingling, and himself' "4.21. be seen of them, and with his father's worth" "4.22. reign o'er a world at peace. For thee, O boy," '4.23. first shall the earth, untilled, pour freely forth 4.24. her childish gifts, the gadding ivy-spray 4.25. with foxglove and Egyptian bean-flower mixed,
4.29. hall of the monstrous lion have no fear. 4.30. Thy very cradle shall pour forth for thee 4.31. caressing flowers. The serpent too shall die, 4.32. die shall the treacherous poison-plant, and far 4.33. and wide Assyrian spices spring. But soon' "4.34. as thou hast skill to read of heroes' fame," "4.35. and of thy father's deeds, and inly learn" '
4.38. from the wild briar shall hang the blushing grape, 4.39. and stubborn oaks sweat honey-dew. Nathle
4.52. the sturdy ploughman shall loose yoke from steer,' '. None
71. Vergil, Georgics, 1.1-1.42, 1.51-1.52, 1.63, 1.118-1.148, 1.150-1.159, 1.176-1.186, 1.199-1.203, 1.237, 1.324-1.326, 1.463-1.466, 1.486, 1.490, 1.495, 1.500-1.502, 1.505-1.514, 2.11, 2.136-2.147, 2.149-2.157, 2.161-2.164, 2.167-2.176, 2.207-2.211, 2.278, 2.323-2.345, 2.438-2.439, 2.458-2.460, 2.467, 2.473-2.476, 2.490, 2.498-2.499, 2.503-2.514, 2.516, 2.527-2.540, 3.8-3.15, 3.17, 3.262, 3.313, 3.343-3.344, 3.347-3.383, 3.478-3.566, 4.1-4.50, 4.116-4.117, 4.125-4.152, 4.170-4.175, 4.197-4.198, 4.205, 4.210-4.214, 4.228-4.280, 4.294, 4.299-4.302, 4.389, 4.554, 4.559-4.566
 Tagged with subjects: • Corycian gardener, as Golden Age figure • Corycian gardener, as discrepant from Golden Age ideal • Golden Age • Golden Age, art in • Golden Age, as moral value • Golden Age, as retrospective ideal • Golden Age, in Georgic • Golden Age, in myth • Golden Fleece • Golden Fleece, and Ares • Golden Fleece, purple • Libyans as reflection on Golden Age ideals • Lucius (Golden Ass) • Praises of Italy, reminiscent of Golden Age • Praises of Spring, as reflection on Golden Age • Praises of Spring, as scientific analogue of Golden Age myth • Sabine farm, the, and golden age attributes • aurum (Gold) • bees, as Golden Age ideal • city, as loss of Golden Age community • community, as Golden Age • golden age • golden age, pity in • golden age,, and Horace's estate • golden age,, and absence of private property • golden age,, and ideology of patronage • golden age,, and spontaneous production • labor,, in the golden age • plague, as reflection on Golden Age ideals in Georgic

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 121, 123, 156, 165; Bowditch (2001) 140, 245; Bremmer (2008) 311; Clay and Vergados (2022) 218, 231, 232, 235, 239, 325; Crabb (2020) 83; Gale (2000) 8, 19, 28, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 46, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 80, 81, 87, 107, 108, 116, 124, 162, 171, 172, 182, 183, 206, 207, 210, 213, 218, 219, 225, 229, 247, 248, 254; Gee (2013) 46; Jenkyns (2013) 10; O, Daly (2012) 344; Perkell (1989) 1, 2, 3, 20, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, 59, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136; Radicke (2022) 212; Santangelo (2013) 234; Verhagen (2022) 121, 123, 156, 165; Williams and Vol (2022) 155, 156, 158, 173, 174, 177, 178; Xinyue (2022) 52, 191

1.1. Quid faciat laetas segetes, quo sidere terram 1.2. vertere, Maecenas, ulmisque adiungere vitis 1.3. conveniat, quae cura boum, qui cultus habendo 1.4. sit pecori, apibus quanta experientia parcis, 1.5. hinc canere incipiam. Vos, o clarissima mundi 1.6. lumina, labentem caelo quae ducitis annum, 1.7. Liber et alma Ceres, vestro si munere tellus 1.8. Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arista, 1.9. poculaque inventis Acheloia miscuit uvis;
1.10. et vos, agrestum praesentia numina, Fauni,
1.11. ferte simul Faunique pedem Dryadesque puellae:
1.12. Munera vestra cano. Tuque o, cui prima frementem
1.13. fudit equum magno tellus percussa tridenti,
1.14. Neptune; et cultor nemorum, cui pinguia Ceae
1.15. ter centum nivei tondent dumeta iuvenci;
1.16. ipse nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycaei,
1.17. Pan, ovium custos, tua si tibi Maenala curae,
1.18. adsis, o Tegeaee, favens, oleaeque Minerva
1.19. inventrix, uncique puer monstrator aratri, 1.20. et teneram ab radice ferens, Silvane, cupressum, 1.21. dique deaeque omnes, studium quibus arva tueri, 1.22. quique novas alitis non ullo semine fruges, 1.23. quique satis largum caelo demittitis imbrem; 1.24. tuque adeo, quem mox quae sint habitura deorum 1.25. concilia, incertum est, urbisne invisere, Caesar, 1.26. terrarumque velis curam et te maximus orbis 1.27. auctorem frugum tempestatumque potentem 1.28. accipiat, cingens materna tempora myrto, 1.29. an deus inmensi venias maris ac tua nautae 1.30. numina sola colant, tibi serviat ultima Thule 1.31. teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis, 1.32. anne novum tardis sidus te mensibus addas, 1.33. qua locus Erigonen inter Chelasque sequentis 1.34. panditur—ipse tibi iam bracchia contrahit ardens 1.35. Scorpius et caeli iusta plus parte reliquit— 1.36. quidquid eris,—nam te nec sperant Tartara regem 1.37. nec tibi regdi veniat tam dira cupido, 1.38. quamvis Elysios miretur Graecia campos 1.39. nec repetita sequi curet Proserpina matrem— 1.40. da facilem cursum atque audacibus adnue coeptis 1.41. ignarosque viae mecum miseratus agrestis 1.42. ingredere et votis iam nunc adsuesce vocari.
1.51. ventos et varium caeli praediscere morem 1.52. cura sit ac patrios cultusque habitusque locorum
1.63. unde homines nati, durum genus. Ergo age, terrae

1.118. Nec tamen, haec cum sint hominumque boumque labores
1.119. versando terram experti, nihil inprobus anser
1.120. Strymoniaeque grues et amaris intiba fibris
1.121. officiunt aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi
1.122. haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem
1.123. movit agros curis acuens mortalia corda
1.124. nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.
1.125. Ante Iovem nulli subigebant arva coloni;
1.126. ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum
1.127. fas erat: in medium quaerebant ipsaque tellus
1.128. omnia liberius nullo poscente ferebat.
1.129. Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris
1.130. praedarique lupos iussit pontumque moveri,
1.131. mellaque decussit foliis ignemque removit
1.132. et passim rivis currentia vina repressit,
1.133. ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis
1.134. paulatim et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam.
1.135. Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem.
1.136. Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas;
1.137. navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit,
1.138. Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton;
1.139. tum laqueis captare feras et fallere visco
1.140. inventum et magnos canibus circumdare saltus;
1.141. atque alius latum funda iam verberat amnem
1.142. alta petens, pelagoque alius trahit humida lina;
1.143. tum ferri rigor atque argutae lamina serrae,—
1.144. nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum
1.145. tum variae venere artes. Labor omnia vicit
1.146. inprobus et duris urgens in rebus egestas.
1.147. Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terram
1.148. instituit, cum iam glandes atque arbuta sacrae

1.150. Mox et frumentis labor additus, ut mala culmos
1.151. esset robigo segnisque horreret in arvis
1.152. carduus; intereunt segetes, subit aspera silva,
1.153. lappaeque tribolique, interque nitentia culta
1.154. infelix lolium et steriles domitur avenae.
1.155. Quod nisi et adsiduis herbam insectabere rastris,
1.156. et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci
1.157. falce premes umbras votisque vocaveris imbrem,
1.158. heu magnum alterius frustra spectabis acervum,
1.159. concussaque famem in silvis solabere quercu.

1.176. Possum multa tibi veterum praecepta referre,
1.177. ni refugis tenuisque piget cognoscere curas.
1.178. Area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro
1.179. et vertenda manu et creta solidanda tenaci,
1.180. ne subeant herbae neu pulvere victa fatiscat,
1.181. tum variae inludant pestes: saepe exiguus mus
1.182. sub terris posuitque domos atque horrea fecit,
1.183. aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae,
1.184. inventusque cavis bufo et quae plurima terrae
1.185. monstra ferunt, populatque ingentem farris acervum
1.186. curculio atque inopi metuens formica senectae.

1.199. maxima quaeque manu legeret. Sic omnia fatis 1.200. in peius ruere ac retro sublapsa referri, 1.201. non aliter, quam qui adverso vix flumine lembum 1.202. remigiis subigit, si bracchia forte remisit, 1.203. atque illum in praeceps prono rapit alveus amni.
1.237. has inter mediamque duae mortalibus aegris
1.324. collectae ex alto nubes; ruit arduus aether 1.325. et pluvia ingenti sata laeta boumque labores 1.326. diluit; inplentur fossae et cava flumina crescunt
1.463. sol tibi signa dabit. Solem quis dicere falsum 1.464. audeat. Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus 1.465. saepe monet fraudemque et operta tumescere bella. 1.466. Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam,
1.486. per noctem resonare lupis ululantibus urbes.
1.490. Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi;
1.495. exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila
1.500. hunc saltem everso iuvenem succurrere saeclo 1.501. ne prohibete! Satis iam pridem sanguine nostro 1.502. Laomedonteae luimus periuria Troiae;
1.505. quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas: tot bella per orbem, 1.506. tam multae scelerum facies; non ullus aratro 1.507. dignus honos, squalent abductis arva colonis 1.508. et curvae rigidum falces conflantur in ensem. 1.509. Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum;
1.510. vicinae ruptis inter se legibus urbes
1.511. arma ferunt; saevit toto Mars inpius orbe;
1.512. ut cum carceribus sese effudere quadrigae,
1.513. addunt in spatia et frustra retinacula tendens
1.514. fertur equis auriga neque audit currus habenas.
2.11. sponte sua veniunt camposque et flumina late
2.136. sed neque Medorum, silvae ditissima, terra, 2.137. nec pulcher Ganges atque auro turbidus Hermus 2.138. laudibus Italiae certent, non Bactra neque Indi 2.139. totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis harenis. 2.140. Haec loca non tauri spirantes naribus ignem 2.141. invertere satis inmanis dentibus hydri 2.142. nec galeis densisque virum seges horruit hastis; 2.143. sed gravidae fruges et Bacchi Massicus humor 2.144. inplevere; tenent oleae armentaque laeta. 2.145. Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert; 2.146. hinc albi, Clitumne, greges et maxima taurus 2.147. victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro,
2.149. Hic ver adsiduum atque alienis mensibus aestas 2.150. bis gravidae pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbos. 2.151. At rabidae tigres absunt et saeva leonum 2.152. semina nec miseros fallunt aconita legentis 2.153. nec rapit inmensos orbis per humum neque tanto 2.154. squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis. 2.155. Adde tot egregias urbes operumque laborem, 2.156. tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis 2.157. fluminaque antiquos subter labentia muros.
2.161. an memorem portus Lucrinoque addita claustra 2.162. atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequor 2.163. Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso 2.164. Tyrrhenusque fretis inmittitur aestus Avernis?
2.167. Haec genus acre virum, Marsos pubemque Sabellam 2.168. adsuetumque malo Ligurem Volscosque verutos 2.169. extulit, haec Decios, Marios, magnosque Camillos, 2.170. Scipiadas duros bello et te, maxume Caesar, 2.171. qui nunc extremis Asiae iam victor in oris 2.172. inbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum. 2.173. Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, 2.174. magna virum; tibi res antiquae laudis et artem 2.175. ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis, 2.176. Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen.
2.207. aut unde iratus silvam devexit arator 2.208. et nemora evertit multos ignava per annos 2.209. antiquasque domos avium cum stirpibus imis 2.210. eruit; illae altum nidis petiere relictis, 2.211. at rudis enituit inpulso vomere campus.
2.278. arboribus positis secto via limite quadret.
2.323. Ver adeo frondi nemorum, ver utile silvis; 2.324. vere tument terrae et genitalia semina poscunt. 2.325. Tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether 2.326. coniugis in gremium laetae descendit et omnis 2.327. magnus alit magno commixtus corpore fetus. 2.328. Avia tum resot avibus virgulta canoris 2.329. et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus; 2.330. parturit almus ager Zephyrique tepentibus auris 2.331. laxant arva sinus; superat tener omnibus humor; 2.332. inque novos soles audent se germina tuto 2.333. credere, nec metuit surgentis pampinus austros 2.334. aut actum caelo magnis aquilonibus imbrem, 2.335. sed trudit gemmas et frondes explicat omnis. 2.336. Non alios prima crescentis origine mundi 2.337. inluxisse dies aliumve habuisse tenorem 2.338. crediderim: ver illud erat, ver magnus agebat 2.339. orbis et hibernis parcebant flatibus Euri, 2.340. cum primae lucem pecudes hausere virumque 2.341. terrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis, 2.342. inmissaeque ferae silvis et sidera caelo. 2.343. Nec res hunc tenerae possent perferre laborem, 2.344. si non tanta quies iret frigusque caloremque 2.345. inter, et exciperet caeli indulgentia terras.
2.438. naryciaeque picis lucos, iuvat arva videre 2.439. non rastris, hominum non ulli obnoxia curae.
2.458. O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, 2.459. agricolas! quibus ipsa procul discordibus armis 2.460. fundit humo facilem victum iustissima tellus.
2.467. at secura quies et nescia fallere vita,
2.473. sacra deum sanctique patres; extrema per illos 2.474. iustitia excedens terris vestigia fecit. 2.475. Me vero primum dulces ante omnia Musae, 2.476. quarum sacra fero ingenti percussus amore,
2.490. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,
2.498. non res Romanae perituraque regna; neque ille 2.499. aut doluit miserans inopem aut invidit habenti
2.503. sollicitant alii remis freta caeca ruuntque 2.504. in ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum; 2.505. hic petit excidiis urbem miserosque Penatis, 2.506. ut gemma bibat et Sarrano dormiat ostro; 2.507. condit opes alius defossoque incubat auro; 2.508. hic stupet attonitus rostris; hunc plausus hiantem 2.509. per cuneos—geminatus enim plebisque patrumque— 2.510. corripuit; gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum, 2.511. exsilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant 2.512. atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole iacentem. 2.513. Agricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro: 2.514. hinc anni labor, hinc patriam parvosque nepotes
2.516. Nec requies, quin aut pomis exuberet annus
2.527. Ipse dies agitat festos fususque per herbam, 2.528. ignis ubi in medio et socii cratera corot, 2.529. te libans, Lenaee, vocat pecorisque magistris 2.530. velocis iaculi certamina ponit in ulmo, 2.531. corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestrae. 2.532. Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, 2.533. hanc Remus et frater, sic fortis Etruria crevit 2.534. scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma, 2.535. septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces. 2.536. Ante etiam sceptrum Dictaei regis et ante 2.537. inpia quam caesis gens est epulata iuvencis, 2.538. aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat; 2.539. necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum 2.540. inpositos duris crepitare incudibus enses.
3.8. acer equis? Temptanda via est, qua me quoque possim 3.9. tollere humo victorque virum volitare per ora. 3.10. Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 3.11. Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas; 3.12. primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas, 3.13. et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 3.14. propter aquam. Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 3.15. Mincius et tenera praetexit arundine ripas.
3.17. illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro
3.262. aequora; nec miseri possunt revocare parentes
3.313. usum in castrorum et miseris velamina nautis.
3.343. hospitiis: tantum campi iacet. Omnia secum 3.344. armentarius Afer agit, tectumque laremque
3.347. iniusto sub fasce viam cum carpit et hosti 3.348. ante expectatum positis stat in agmine castris. 3.349. At non, qua Scythiae gentes Maeotiaque unda, 3.350. turbidus et torquens flaventis Hister harenas, 3.351. quaque redit medium Rhodope porrecta sub axem. 3.352. Illic clausa tenent stabulis armenta, neque ullae 3.353. aut herbae campo apparent aut arbore frondes; 3.354. sed iacet aggeribus niveis informis et alto 3.355. terra gelu late septemque adsurgit in ulnas. 3.356. Semper hiemps, semper spirantes frigora cauri. 3.357. Tum Sol pallentis haud umquam discutit umbras, 3.358. nec cum invectus equis altum petit aethera, nec cum 3.359. praecipitem Oceani rubro lavit aequore currum. 3.360. Concrescunt subitae currenti in flumine crustae 3.361. undaque iam tergo ferratos sustinet orbis, 3.362. puppibus illa prius, patulis nunc hospita plaustris; 3.363. aeraque dissiliunt vulgo vestesque rigescunt 3.364. indutae caeduntque securibus umida vina 3.365. et totae solidam in glaciem vertere lacunae 3.366. stiriaque impexis induruit horrida barbis. 3.367. Interea toto non setius aere ninguit: 3.368. intereunt pecudes, stant circumfusa pruinis 3.369. corpora magna boum, confertoque agmine cervi 3.370. torpent mole nova et summis vix cornibus extant. 3.371. Hos non immissis canibus, non cassibus ullis 3.372. puniceaeve agitant pavidos formidine pennae, 3.373. sed frustra oppositum trudentis pectore montem 3.374. comminus obtruncant ferro graviterque rudentis 3.375. caedunt et magno laeti clamore reportant. 3.376. Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta 3.377. otia agunt terra congestaque robora totasque 3.378. advolvere focis ulmos ignique dedere. 3.379. Hic noctem ludo ducunt et pocula laeti 3.380. fermento atque acidis imitantur vitea sorbis. 3.381. Talis Hyperboreo septem subiecta trioni 3.382. gens effrena virum Rhiphaeo tunditur euro 3.383. et pecudum fulvis velatur corpora saetis.
3.478. Hic quondam morbo caeli miseranda coorta est 3.479. tempestas totoque autumni incanduit aestu 3.480. et genus omne neci pecudum dedit, omne ferarum, 3.481. corrupitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo. 3.482. Nec via mortis erat simplex, sed ubi ignea venis 3.483. omnibus acta sitis miseros adduxerat artus, 3.484. rursus abundabat fluidus liquor omniaque in se 3.485. ossa minutatim morbo collapsa trahebat. 3.486. Saepe in honore deum medio stans hostia ad aram 3.487. lanea dum nivea circumdatur infula vitta, 3.488. inter cunctantis cecidit moribunda ministros. 3.489. Aut si quam ferro mactaverat ante sacerdos 3.490. inde neque impositis ardent altaria fibris 3.491. nec responsa potest consultus reddere vates, 3.492. ac vix suppositi tinguntur sanguine cultri 3.493. summaque ieiuna sanie infuscatur harena. 3.494. Hinc laetis vituli volgo moriuntur in herbis 3.495. et dulcis animas plena ad praesepia reddunt; 3.496. hinc canibus blandis rabies venit et quatit aegros 3.497. tussis anhela sues ac faucibus angit obesis. 3.498. Labitur infelix studiorum atque immemor herbae 3.499. victor equus fontisque avertitur et pede terram 3.500. crebra ferit; demissae aures, incertus ibidem 3.501. sudor et ille quidem morituris frigidus, aret 3.502. pellis et ad tactum tractanti dura resistit. 3.503. Haec ante exitium primis dant signa diebus; 3.504. sin in processu coepit crudescere morbus, 3.505. tum vero ardentes oculi atque attractus ab alto 3.506. spiritus, interdum gemitu gravis, imaque longo 3.507. ilia singultu tendunt, it naribus ater 3.508. sanguis et obsessas fauces premit aspera lingua. 3.509. Profuit inserto latices infundere cornu 3.510. Lenaeos; ea visa salus morientibus una; 3.511. mox erat hoc ipsum exitio, furiisque refecti 3.512. ardebant ipsique suos iam morte sub aegra, 3.513. di meliora piis erroremque hostibus illum, 3.514. discissos nudis laniabant dentibus artus. 3.515. Ecce autem duro fumans sub vomere taurus 3.516. concidit et mixtum spumis vomit ore cruorem 3.517. extremosque ciet gemitus. It tristis arator 3.518. maerentem abiungens fraterna morte iuvencum, 3.519. atque opere in medio defixa relinquit aratra. 3.520. Non umbrae altorum nemorum, non mollia possunt 3.521. prata movere animum, non qui per saxa volutus 3.522. purior electro campum petit amnis; at ima 3.523. solvuntur latera atque oculos stupor urguet inertis 3.524. ad terramque fluit devexo pondere cervix. 3.525. Quid labor aut benefacta iuvant? Quid vomere terras 3.526. invertisse gravis? Atqui non Massica Bacchi 3.527. munera, non illis epulae nocuere repostae: 3.528. frondibus et victu pascuntur simplicis herbae, 3.529. pocula sunt fontes liquidi atque exercita cursu 3.530. flumina, nec somnos abrumpit cura salubris. 3.531. Tempore non alio dicunt regionibus illis 3.532. quaesitas ad sacra boves Iunonis et uris 3.533. imparibus ductos alta ad donaria currus. 3.534. Ergo aegre rastris terram rimantur et ipsis 3.535. unguibus infodiunt fruges montisque per altos 3.536. contenta cervice trahunt stridentia plaustra. 3.537. Non lupus insidias explorat ovilia circum 3.538. nec gregibus nocturnus obambulat; acrior illum 3.539. cura domat; timidi dammae cervique fugaces 3.540. nunc interque canes et circum tecta vagantur. 3.541. Iam maris immensi prolem et genus omne natantum 3.542. litore in extremo, ceu naufraga corpora, fluctus 3.543. proluit; insolitae fugiunt in flumina phocae. 3.544. Interit et curvis frustra defensa latebris 3.545. vipera et attoniti squamis adstantibus hydri. 3.546. Ipsis est aer avibus non aequus et illae 3.547. praecipites alta vitam sub nube relinquunt. 3.548. Praeterea iam nec mutari pabula refert 3.549. artes nocent quaesitaeque; cessere magistri 3.550. Phillyrides Chiron Amythaoniusque Melampus. 3.551. Saevit et in lucem Stygiis emissa tenebris 3.552. pallida Tisiphone Morbos agit ante Metumque, 3.553. inque dies avidum surgens caput altius effert: 3.554. Balatu pecorum et crebris mugitibus amnes 3.555. arentesque sot ripae collesque supini: 3.556. Iamque catervatim dat stragem atque aggerat ipsis 3.557. in stabulis turpi dilapsa cadavera tabo 3.558. donec humo tegere ac foveis abscondere discunt. 3.559. Nam neque erat coriis usus nec viscera quisquam 3.560. aut undis abolere potest aut vincere flamma; 3.561. ne tondere quidem morbo inluvieque peresa 3.562. vellera nec telas possunt attingere putris; 3.563. verum etiam invisos si quis temptarat amictus, 3.564. ardentes papulae atque immundus olentia sudor 3.565. membra sequebatur nec longo deinde moranti 3.566. tempore contactos artus sacer ignis edebat.
4.1. Protinus aerii mellis caelestia dona 4.2. exsequar: hanc etiam, Maecenas, adspice partem. 4.3. Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum 4.4. magimosque duces totiusque ordine gentis 4.5. mores et studia et populos et proelia dicam. 4.6. In tenui labor; at tenuis non gloria, si quem 4.7. numina laeva sinunt auditque vocatus Apollo. 4.8. Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda, 4.9. quo neque sit ventis aditus—nam pabula venti
4.10. ferre domum prohibent—neque oves haedique petulci
4.11. floribus insultent aut errans bucula campo
4.12. decutiat rorem et surgentes atterat herbas.
4.13. Absint et picti squalentia terga lacerti
4.14. pinguibus a stabulis meropesque aliaeque volucres
4.15. et manibus Procne pectus signata cruentis;
4.16. omnia nam late vastant ipsasque volantes
4.17. ore ferunt dulcem nidis immitibus escam.
4.18. At liquidi fontes et stagna virentia musco
4.19. adsint et tenuis fugiens per gramina rivus, 4.20. palmaque vestibulum aut ingens oleaster inumbret, 4.21. ut, cum prima novi ducent examina reges 4.22. vere suo ludetque favis emissa iuventus, 4.23. vicina invitet decedere ripa calori, 4.24. obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos. 4.25. In medium, seu stabit iners seu profluet umor, 4.26. transversas salices et grandia conice saxa, 4.27. pontibus ut crebris possint consistere et alas 4.28. pandere ad aestivum solem, si forte morantes 4.29. sparserit aut praeceps Neptuno immerserit Eurus. 4.30. Haec circum casiae virides et olentia late 4.31. serpylla et graviter spirantis copia thymbrae 4.32. floreat inriguumque bibant violaria fontem. 4.33. Ipsa autem, seu corticibus tibi suta cavatis, 4.34. seu lento fuerint alvaria vimine texta, 4.35. angustos habeant aditus: nam frigore mella 4.36. cogit hiems, eademque calor liquefacta remittit. 4.37. Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda; neque illae 4.38. nequiquam in tectis certatim tenuia cera 4.39. spiramenta linunt fucoque et floribus oras 4.40. explent collectumque haec ipsa ad munera gluten 4.41. et visco et Phrygiae servant pice lentius Idae. 4.42. Saepe etiam effossis, si vera est fama, latebris 4.43. sub terra fovere larem, penitusque repertae 4.44. pumicibusque cavis exesaeque arboris antro. 4.45. Tu tamen et levi rimosa cubilia limo 4.46. ungue fovens circum et raras superinice frondes. 4.47. Neu propius tectis taxum sine, neve rubentes 4.48. ure foco cancros, altae neu crede paludi, 4.49. aut ubi odor caeni gravis aut ubi concava pulsu 4.50. saxa sot vocisque offensa resultat imago.

4.116. Atque equidem, extremo ni iam sub fine laborum
4.117. vela traham et terris festinem advertere proram,

4.125. Namque sub Oebaliae memini me turribus arcis,
4.126. qua niger umectat flaventia culta Galaesus,
4.127. Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti
4.128. iugera ruris erant, nec fertilis illa iuvencis
4.129. nec pecori opportuna seges nec commoda Baccho.
4.130. Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus albaque circum
4.131. lilia verbenasque premens vescumque papaver
4.132. regum aequabat opes animis seraque revertens
4.133. nocte domum dapibus mensas onerabat inemptis.
4.134. Primus vere rosam atque autumno carpere poma,
4.135. et cum tristis hiems etiamnum frigore saxa
4.136. rumperet et glacie cursus frenaret aquarum,
4.137. ille comam mollis iam tondebat hyacinthi
4.138. aestatem increpitans seram Zephyrosque morantes.
4.139. Ergo apibus fetis idem atque examine multo
4.140. primus abundare et spumantia cogere pressis
4.141. mella favis; illi tiliae atque uberrima pinus,
4.142. quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos
4.143. induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat.
4.144. Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos
4.145. eduramque pirum et spinos iam pruna ferentes
4.146. iamque ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras.
4.147. Verum haec ipse equidem spatiis exclusus iniquis
4.148. praetereo atque aliis post me memoranda relinquo.
4.149. Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Iuppiter ipse
4.150. addidit, expediam, pro qua mercede canoros
4.151. Curetum sonitus crepitantiaque aera secutae
4.152. Dictaeo caeli regem pavere sub antro.

4.170. ac veluti lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis
4.171. cum properant, alii taurinis follibus auras
4.172. accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia tingunt
4.173. aera lacu; gemit impositis incudibus Aetna;
4.174. illi inter sese magna vi bracchia tollunt
4.175. in numerum versantque tenaci forcipe ferrum:

4.197. Illum adeo placuisse apibus mirabere morem,
4.198. quod neque concubitu indulgent nec corpora segnes
4.205. tantus amor florum et generandi gloria mellis.
4.210. Praeterea regem non sic Aegyptus et ingens 4.211. Lydia nec populi Parthorum aut Medus Hydaspes 4.212. observant. Rege incolumi mens omnibus una est; 4.213. amisso rupere fidem constructaque mella 4.214. diripuere ipsae et crates solvere favorum.
4.228. Si quando sedem angustam servataque mella 4.229. thesauris relines, prius haustu sparsus aquarum 4.230. ora fove fumosque manu praetende sequaces. 4.231. Bis gravidos cogunt fetus, duo tempora messis, 4.232. Taygete simul os terris ostendit honestum 4.233. Pleas et Oceani spretos pede reppulit amnes, 4.234. aut eadem sidus fugiens ubi Piscis aquosi 4.235. tristior hibernas caelo descendit in undas. 4.236. Illis ira modum supra est, laesaeque venenum 4.237. morsibus inspirant et spicula caeca relinquunt 4.238. adfixae venis animasque in vulnere ponunt. 4.239. Sin duram metues hiemem parcesque futuro 4.240. contunsosque animos et res miserabere fractas, 4.241. at suffire thymo cerasque recidere ies 4.242. quis dubitet? nam saepe favos ignotus adedit 4.243. stellio et lucifugis congesta cubilia blattis 4.244. immunisque sedens aliena ad pabula fucus 4.245. aut asper crabro imparibus se immiscuit armis, 4.246. aut dirum tiniae genus, aut invisa Minervae 4.247. laxos in foribus suspendit aranea casses. 4.248. Quo magis exhaustae fuerint, hoc acrius omnes 4.249. incumbent generis lapsi sarcire ruinas 4.250. complebuntque foros et floribus horrea texent. 4.251. Si vero, quoniam casus apibus quoque nostros 4.252. vita tulit, tristi languebunt corpora morbo— 4.253. quod iam non dubiis poteris cognoscere signis: 4.254. continuo est aegris alius color, horrida vultum 4.255. deformat macies, tum corpora luce carentum 4.256. exportant tectis et tristia funera ducunt; 4.257. aut illae pedibus conexae ad limina pendent, 4.258. aut intus clausis cunctantur in aedibus, omnes 4.259. ignavaeque fame et contracto frigore pigrae. 4.260. Tum sonus auditur gravior, tractimque susurrant, 4.261. frigidus ut quondam silvis immurmurat Auster, 4.262. ut mare sollicitum stridit refluentibus undis, 4.263. aestuat ut clausis rapidus fornacibus ignis: 4.264. hic iam galbaneos suadebo incendere odores 4.265. mellaque harundineis inferre canalibus, ultro 4.266. hortantem et fessas ad pabula nota vocantem. 4.267. Proderit et tunsum gallae admiscere saporem 4.268. Arentesque rosas aut igni pinguia multo 4.269. defruta vel psithia passos de vite racemos 4.270. Cecropiumque thymum et grave olentia centaurea. 4.271. Est etiam flos in pratis, cui nomen amello 4.272. fecere agricolae, facilis quaerentibus herba; 4.273. namque uno ingentem tollit de caespite silvam, 4.274. aureus ipse, sed in foliis, quae plurima circum 4.275. funduntur, violae sublucet purpura nigrae; 4.276. saepe deum nexis ornatae torquibus arae 4.277. asper in ore sapor; tonsis in vallibus illum 4.278. pastores et curva legunt prope flumina Mellae. 4.279. Huius odorato radices incoque Baccho 4.280. pabulaque in foribus plenis adpone canistris.
4.294. omnis in hac certam regio iacit arte salutem.
4.299. Tum vitulus bima curvans iam cornua fronte 4.300. quaeritur; huic geminae nares et spiritus oris 4.301. multa reluctanti obstruitur, plagisque perempto 4.302. tunsa per integram solvuntur viscera pellem.
4.389. et iuncto bipedum curru metitur equorum.
4.554. Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum
4.559. Haec super arvorum cultu pecorumque canebam 4.560. et super arboribus, Caesar dum magnus ad altum 4.561. fulminat Euphraten bello victorque volentes 4.562. per populos dat iura viamque adfectat Olympo. 4.563. Illo Vergilium me tempore dulcis alebat 4.564. Parthenope studiis florentem ignobilis oti, 4.565. carmina qui lusi pastorum audaxque iuventa, 4.566. Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi.' '. None
1.1. What makes the cornfield smile; beneath what star 1.2. Maecenas, it is meet to turn the sod 1.3. Or marry elm with vine; how tend the steer; 1.4. What pains for cattle-keeping, or what proof 1.5. of patient trial serves for thrifty bees;— 1.6. Such are my themes. O universal light 1.7. Most glorious! ye that lead the gliding year 1.8. Along the sky, Liber and Ceres mild, 1.9. If by your bounty holpen earth once changed
1.10. Chaonian acorn for the plump wheat-ear,
1.11. And mingled with the grape, your new-found gift,
1.12. The draughts of Achelous; and ye Faun
1.13. To rustics ever kind, come foot it, Faun
1.14. And Dryad-maids together; your gifts I sing.
1.15. And thou, for whose delight the war-horse first' "
1.16. Sprang from earth's womb at thy great trident's stroke," '
1.17. Neptune; and haunter of the groves, for whom
1.18. Three hundred snow-white heifers browse the brakes,
1.19. The fertile brakes of 1.51. Her mother's voice entreating to return—" '1.52. Vouchsafe a prosperous voyage, and smile on thi' "
1.63. Ay, that's the land whose boundless harvest-crop" "

1.118. Hales o'er them; from the far Olympian height" '
1.119. Him golden Ceres not in vain regards;
1.120. And he, who having ploughed the fallow plain
1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more
1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke
1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall.
1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine,' "
1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop" '
1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy;
1.127. No tilth makes 1.128. Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire.
1.129. Why tell of him, who, having launched his seed,
1.130. Sets on for close encounter, and rakes smooth
1.131. The dry dust hillocks, then on the tender corn
1.132. Lets in the flood, whose waters follow fain;
1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade
1.134. Are dying, from the brow of its hill-bed,
1.135. See! see! he lures the runnel; down it falls,' "
1.136. Waking hoarse murmurs o'er the polished stones," '
1.137. And with its bubblings slakes the thirsty fields?
1.138. Or why of him, who lest the heavy ear' "
1.139. O'erweigh the stalk, while yet in tender blade" "
1.140. Feeds down the crop's luxuriance, when its growth" '
1.141. First tops the furrows? Why of him who drain' "
1.142. The marsh-land's gathered ooze through soaking sand," '
1.143. Chiefly what time in treacherous moons a stream
1.144. Goes out in spate, and with its coat of slime
1.145. Holds all the country, whence the hollow dyke
1.146. Sweat steaming vapour?
1.147. But no whit the more
1.148. For all expedients tried and travail borne

1.150. Do greedy goose and Strymon-haunting crane' "
1.151. And succory's bitter fibres cease to harm," '
1.152. Or shade not injure. The great Sire himself
1.153. No easy road to husbandry assigned,
1.154. And first was he by human skill to rouse
1.155. The slumbering glebe, whetting the minds of men
1.156. With care on care, nor suffering realm of hi
1.157. In drowsy sloth to stagnate. Before Jove
1.158. Fields knew no taming hand of husbandmen;
1.159. To mark the plain or mete with boundary-line—

1.176. And hem with hounds the mighty forest-glades.
1.177. Soon one with hand-net scourges the broad stream,
1.178. Probing its depths, one drags his dripping toil' "
1.179. Along the main; then iron's unbending might," '
1.180. And shrieking saw-blade,—for the men of old
1.181. With wedges wont to cleave the splintering log;—
1.182. Then divers arts arose; toil conquered all,' "
1.183. Remorseless toil, and poverty's shrewd push" '
1.184. In times of hardship. Ceres was the first
1.185. Set mortals on with tools to turn the sod,' "
1.186. When now the awful groves 'gan fail to bear" "

1.199. Alack! thy neighbour's heaped-up harvest-mow," '1.200. And in the greenwood from a shaken oak 1.201. Seek solace for thine hunger. 1.202. Now to tell' "1.203. The sturdy rustics' weapons, what they are," '
1.237. Fearful of coming age and penury.
1.324. Hence, too, not idly do we watch the stars— 1.325. Their rising and their setting-and the year, 1.326. Four varying seasons to one law conformed.' "
1.463. oft, too, when wind is toward, the stars thou'lt see" '1.464. From heaven shoot headlong, and through murky night 1.465. Long trails of fire white-glistening in their wake, 1.466. Or light chaff flit in air with fallen leaves,
1.486. Round Asian meads within thy fresher-pools,
1.490. Into the billows, for sheer idle joy
1.495. Know not the storm-sign, when in blazing crock
1.500. And learn by tokens sure, for then nor dimmed' "1.501. Appear the stars' keen edges, nor the moon" "1.502. As borrowing of her brother's beams to rise," '
1.505. Do halcyons dear to Thetis ope their wings, 1.506. Nor filthy swine take thought to toss on high 1.507. With scattering snout the straw-wisps. But the cloud 1.508. Seek more the vales, and rest upon the plain, 1.509. And from the roof-top the night-owl for naught' "
1.510. Watching the sunset plies her 'lated song." '
1.511. Distinct in clearest air is Nisus seen
1.512. Towering, and Scylla for the purple lock
1.513. Pays dear; for whereso, as she flies, her wing
1.514. The light air winnow, lo! fierce, implacable,
2.11. In the new must with me.
2.136. But lo! how many kinds, and what their names, 2.137. There is no telling, nor doth it boot to tell; 2.138. Who lists to know it, he too would list to learn 2.139. How many sand-grains are by Zephyr tossed 2.140. On 2.149. Mark too the earth by outland tillers tamed, 2.150. And Eastern homes of Arabs, and tattooed 2.151. Geloni; to all trees their native land 2.152. Allotted are; no clime but 2.161. Where not an arrow-shot can cleave the air 2.162. Above their tree-tops? yet no laggards they, 2.163. When girded with the quiver! Media yield 2.164. The bitter juices and slow-lingering taste
2.167. With simples mixed and spells of baneful power, 2.168. To drive the deadly poison from the limbs.' "2.169. Large the tree's self in semblance like a bay," '2.170. And, showered it not a different scent abroad, 2.171. A bay it had been; for no wind of heaven 2.172. Its foliage falls; the flower, none faster, clings; 2.173. With it the Medes for sweetness lave the lips, 2.174. And ease the panting breathlessness of age. 2.175. But no, not Mede-land with its wealth of woods, 2.176. Nor Ganges fair, and Hermus thick with gold,
2.207. Or sing her harbours, and the barrier cast 2.208. Athwart the Lucrine, and how ocean chafe 2.209. With mighty bellowings, where the Julian wave 2.210. Echoes the thunder of his rout, and through 2.211. Avernian inlets pours the Tuscan tide?
2.278. Drinks moisture up and casts it forth at will,
2.323. A glance will serve to warn thee which is black, 2.324. Or what the hue of any. But hard it i 2.325. To track the signs of that pernicious cold: 2.326. Pines only, noxious yews, and ivies dark 2.327. At times reveal its traces. 2.328. All these rule 2.329. Regarding, let your land, ay, long before, 2.330. Scorch to the quick, and into trenches carve 2.331. The mighty mountains, and their upturned clod 2.332. Bare to the north wind, ere thou plant therein' "2.333. The vine's prolific kindred. Fields whose soil" '2.334. Is crumbling are the best: winds look to that,' "2.335. And bitter hoar-frosts, and the delver's toil" '2.336. Untiring, as he stirs the loosened glebe. 2.337. But those, whose vigilance no care escapes, 2.338. Search for a kindred site, where first to rear 2.339. A nursery for the trees, and eke whereto 2.340. Soon to translate them, lest the sudden shock 2.341. From their new mother the young plants estrange. 2.342. Nay, even the quarter of the sky they brand 2.343. Upon the bark, that each may be restored, 2.344. As erst it stood, here bore the southern heats, 2.345. Here turned its shoulder to the northern pole;
2.438. Take heed to hide them, and dig in withal 2.439. Rough shells or porous stone, for therebetween
2.458. Forbear their frailty, and while yet the bough 2.459. Shoots joyfully toward heaven, with loosened rein 2.460. Launched on the void, assail it not as yet
2.467. Hedges too must be woven and all beast
2.473. Nor cold by hoar-frost curdled, nor the prone 2.474. Dead weight of summer upon the parched crags, 2.475. So scathe it, as the flocks with venom-bite 2.476. of their hard tooth, whose gnawing scars the stem.' "
2.490. Till hollow vale o'erflows, and gorge profound," '
2.498. Hath needs beyond exhausting; the whole soil 2.499. Thrice, four times, yearly must be cleft, the sod
2.503. As on its own track rolls the circling year. 2.504. Soon as the vine her lingering leaves hath shed, 2.505. And the chill north wind from the forests shook 2.506. Their coronal, even then the careful swain 2.507. Looks keenly forward to the coming year,' "2.508. With Saturn's curved fang pursues and prune" '2.509. The vine forlorn, and lops it into shape. 2.510. Be first to dig the ground up, first to clear 2.511. And burn the refuse-branches, first to house 2.512. Again your vine-poles, last to gather fruit. 2.513. Twice doth the thickening shade beset the vine,' "2.514. Twice weeds with stifling briers o'ergrow the crop;" '
2.516. Broad acres, farm but few. Rough twigs beside
2.527. When once they have gripped the soil, and borne the breeze. 2.528. Earth of herself, with hooked fang laid bare, 2.529. Yields moisture for the plants, and heavy fruit,' "2.530. The ploughshare aiding; therewithal thou'lt rear" "2.531. The olive's fatness well-beloved of Peace." '2.532. Apples, moreover, soon as first they feel 2.533. Their stems wax lusty, and have found their strength, 2.534. To heaven climb swiftly, self-impelled, nor crave 2.535. Our succour. All the grove meanwhile no le 2.536. With fruit is swelling, and the wild haunts of bird 2.537. Blush with their blood-red berries. Cytisu 2.538. Is good to browse on, the tall forest yield 2.539. Pine-torches, and the nightly fires are fed 2.540. And shoot forth radiance. And shall men be loath
3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young, 3.9. Latonian Delos and Hippodame, 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed, 3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried, 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust, 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure, 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa
3.17. I, 3.262. Or else in plenteous stalls pen fast at home.
3.313. Hardens each wallowing shoulder to the wound.
3.343. By shepherds truly named hippomanes, 3.344. Hippomanes, fell stepdames oft have culled,
3.347. As point to point our charmed round we trace. 3.348. Enough of herds. This second task remains, 3.349. The wool-clad flocks and shaggy goats to treat. 3.350. Here lies a labour; hence for glory look, 3.351. Brave husbandmen. Nor doubtfully know 3.352. How hard it is for words to triumph here, 3.353. And shed their lustre on a theme so slight: 3.354. But I am caught by ravishing desire 3.355. Above the lone Parnassian steep; I love 3.356. To walk the heights, from whence no earlier track' "3.357. Slopes gently downward to Castalia's spring." '3.358. Now, awful Pales, strike a louder tone. 3.359. First, for the sheep soft pencotes I decree' "3.360. To browse in, till green summer's swift return;" '3.361. And that the hard earth under them with straw 3.362. And handfuls of the fern be littered deep, 3.363. Lest chill of ice such tender cattle harm 3.364. With scab and loathly foot-rot. Passing thence 3.365. I bid the goats with arbute-leaves be stored, 3.366. And served with fresh spring-water, and their pen 3.367. Turned southward from the blast, to face the sun' "3.368. of winter, when Aquarius' icy beam" '3.369. Now sinks in showers upon the parting year. 3.370. These too no lightlier our protection claim,' "3.371. Nor prove of poorer service, howsoe'er" '3.372. Milesian fleeces dipped in Tyrian red 3.373. Repay the barterer; these with offspring teem 3.374. More numerous; these yield plenteous store of milk: 3.375. The more each dry-wrung udder froths the pail, 3.376. More copious soon the teat-pressed torrents flow.' "3.377. Ay, and on Cinyps' bank the he-goats too" '3.378. Their beards and grizzled chins and bristling hair 3.379. Let clip for camp-use, or as rugs to wrap 3.380. Seafaring wretches. But they browse the wood 3.381. And summits of Lycaeus, and rough briers, 3.382. And brakes that love the highland: of themselve 3.383. Right heedfully the she-goats homeward troop
3.478. Many there be who from their mothers keep 3.479. The new-born kids, and straightway bind their mouth 3.480. With iron-tipped muzzles. What they milk at dawn, 3.481. Or in the daylight hours, at night they press; 3.482. What darkling or at sunset, this ere morn 3.483. They bear away in baskets—for to town 3.484. The shepherd hies him—or with dash of salt 3.485. Just sprinkle, and lay by for winter use. 3.486. Nor be thy dogs last cared for; but alike 3.487. Swift Spartan hounds and fierce Molossian feed 3.488. On fattening whey. Never, with these to watch, 3.489. Dread nightly thief afold and ravening wolves, 3.490. Or Spanish desperadoes in the rear. 3.491. And oft the shy wild asses thou wilt chase, 3.492. With hounds, too, hunt the hare, with hounds the doe; 3.493. oft from his woodland wallowing-den uprouse 3.494. The boar, and scare him with their baying, and drive,' "3.495. And o'er the mountains urge into the toil" '3.496. Some antlered monster to their chiming cry. 3.497. Learn also scented cedar-wood to burn 3.498. Within the stalls, and snakes of noxious smell 3.499. With fumes of galbanum to drive away. 3.500. oft under long-neglected cribs, or lurk 3.501. A viper ill to handle, that hath fled 3.502. The light in terror, or some snake, that wont' "3.503. 'Neath shade and sheltering roof to creep, and shower" '3.504. Its bane among the cattle, hugs the ground, 3.505. Fell scourge of kine. Shepherd, seize stakes, seize stones! 3.506. And as he rears defiance, and puffs out 3.507. A hissing throat, down with him! see how low 3.508. That cowering crest is vailed in flight, the while, 3.509. His midmost coils and final sweep of tail 3.510. Relaxing, the last fold drags lingering spires. 3.511. Then that vile worm that in Calabrian glade 3.512. Uprears his breast, and wreathes a scaly back, 3.513. His length of belly pied with mighty spots— 3.514. While from their founts gush any streams, while yet 3.515. With showers of Spring and rainy south-winds earth 3.516. Is moistened, lo! he haunts the pools, and here 3.517. Housed in the banks, with fish and chattering frog 3.518. Crams the black void of his insatiate maw. 3.519. Soon as the fens are parched, and earth with heat 3.520. Is gaping, forth he darts into the dry, 3.521. Rolls eyes of fire and rages through the fields, 3.522. Furious from thirst and by the drought dismayed. 3.523. Me list not then beneath the open heaven 3.524. To snatch soft slumber, nor on forest-ridge 3.525. Lie stretched along the grass, when, slipped his slough, 3.526. To glittering youth transformed he winds his spires, 3.527. And eggs or younglings leaving in his lair, 3.528. Towers sunward, lightening with three-forked tongue. 3.529. of sickness, too, the causes and the sign' "3.530. I'll teach thee. Loathly scab assails the sheep," '3.531. When chilly showers have probed them to the quick, 3.532. And winter stark with hoar-frost, or when sweat 3.533. Unpurged cleaves to them after shearing done, 3.534. And rough thorns rend their bodies. Hence it i 3.535. Shepherds their whole flock steep in running streams, 3.536. While, plunged beneath the flood, with drenched fell, 3.537. The ram, launched free, goes drifting down the tide.' "3.538. Else, having shorn, they smear their bodies o'er" '3.539. With acrid oil-lees, and mix silver-scum 3.540. And native sulphur and Idaean pitch, 3.541. Wax mollified with ointment, and therewith 3.542. Sea-leek, strong hellebores, bitumen black.' "3.543. Yet ne'er doth kindlier fortune crown his toil," '3.544. Than if with blade of iron a man dare lance' "3.545. The ulcer's mouth ope: for the taint is fed" '3.546. And quickened by confinement; while the swain 3.547. His hand of healing from the wound withholds, 3.548. Or sits for happier signs imploring heaven.' "3.549. Aye, and when inward to the bleater's bone" '3.550. The pain hath sunk and rages, and their limb' "3.551. By thirsty fever are consumed, 'tis good" '3.552. To draw the enkindled heat therefrom, and pierce 3.553. Within the hoof-clefts a blood-bounding vein. 3.554. of tribes Bisaltic such the wonted use, 3.555. And keen Gelonian, when to 3.556. He flies, or Getic desert, and quaffs milk 3.557. With horse-blood curdled. Seest one far afield' "3.558. oft to the shade's mild covert win, or pull" '3.559. The grass tops listlessly, or hindmost lag, 3.560. Or, browsing, cast her down amid the plain, 3.561. At night retire belated and alone; 3.562. With quick knife check the mischief, ere it creep 3.563. With dire contagion through the unwary herd. 3.564. Less thick and fast the whirlwind scours the main 3.565. With tempest in its wake, than swarm the plague 3.566. of cattle; nor seize they single lives alone,
4.1. of air-born honey, gift of heaven, I now 4.2. Take up the tale. Upon this theme no le 4.3. Look thou, Maecenas, with indulgent eye. 4.4. A marvellous display of puny powers,' "4.5. High-hearted chiefs, a nation's history," '4.6. Its traits, its bent, its battles and its clans, 4.7. All, each, shall pass before you, while I sing.' "4.8. Slight though the poet's theme, not slight the praise," '4.9. So frown not heaven, and Phoebus hear his call.
4.10. First find your bees a settled sure abode,
4.11. Where neither winds can enter (winds blow back
4.12. The foragers with food returning home)
4.13. Nor sheep and butting kids tread down the flowers,
4.14. Nor heifer wandering wide upon the plain
4.15. Dash off the dew, and bruise the springing blades.
4.16. Let the gay lizard too keep far aloof
4.17. His scale-clad body from their honied stalls,
4.18. And the bee-eater, and what birds beside,
4.19. And Procne smirched with blood upon the breast 4.20. From her own murderous hands. For these roam wide 4.21. Wasting all substance, or the bees themselve 4.22. Strike flying, and in their beaks bear home, to glut 4.23. Those savage nestlings with the dainty prey. 4.24. But let clear springs and moss-green pools be near, 4.25. And through the grass a streamlet hurrying run,' "4.26. Some palm-tree o'er the porch extend its shade," '4.27. Or huge-grown oleaster, that in Spring, 4.28. Their own sweet Spring-tide, when the new-made chief 4.29. Lead forth the young swarms, and, escaped their comb, 4.30. The colony comes forth to sport and play, 4.31. The neighbouring bank may lure them from the heat, 4.32. Or bough befriend with hospitable shade.' "4.33. O'er the mid-waters, whether swift or still," '4.34. Cast willow-branches and big stones enow, 4.35. Bridge after bridge, where they may footing find 4.36. And spread their wide wings to the summer sun, 4.37. If haply Eurus, swooping as they pause, 4.38. Have dashed with spray or plunged them in the deep. 4.39. And let green cassias and far-scented thymes, 4.40. And savory with its heavy-laden breath 4.41. Bloom round about, and violet-beds hard by 4.42. Sip sweetness from the fertilizing springs.' "4.43. For the hive's self, or stitched of hollow bark," '4.44. Or from tough osier woven, let the door' "4.45. Be strait of entrance; for stiff winter's cold" '4.46. Congeals the honey, and heat resolves and thaws, 4.47. To bees alike disastrous; not for naught 4.48. So haste they to cement the tiny pore 4.49. That pierce their walls, and fill the crevice 4.50. With pollen from the flowers, and glean and keep

4.116. of peerless front and lit with flashing scales;
4.117. That other, from neglect and squalor foul,

4.125. Symmetric: this the likelier breed; from these,
4.126. When heaven brings round the season, thou shalt strain
4.127. Sweet honey, nor yet so sweet as passing clear,' "
4.128. And mellowing on the tongue the wine-god's fire." '
4.129. But when the swarms fly aimlessly abroad,
4.130. Disport themselves in heaven and spurn their cells,
4.131. Leaving the hive unwarmed, from such vain play
4.132. Must you refrain their volatile desires,' "
4.133. Nor hard the task: tear off the monarchs' wings;" '
4.134. While these prove loiterers, none beside will dare
4.135. Mount heaven, or pluck the standards from the camp.
4.136. Let gardens with the breath of saffron flower
4.137. Allure them, and the lord of 4.138. Priapus, wielder of the willow-scythe,
4.139. Safe in his keeping hold from birds and thieves.
4.140. And let the man to whom such cares are dear
4.141. Himself bring thyme and pine-trees from the heights,
4.142. And strew them in broad belts about their home;
4.143. No hand but his the blistering task should ply,
4.144. Plant the young slips, or shed the genial showers.
4.145. And I myself, were I not even now' "
4.146. Furling my sails, and, nigh the journey's end," "
4.147. Eager to turn my vessel's prow to shore," '
4.148. Perchance would sing what careful husbandry
4.149. Makes the trim garden smile; of 4.150. Whose roses bloom and fade and bloom again;
4.151. How endives glory in the streams they drink,
4.152. And green banks in their parsley, and how the gourd

4.170. With unbought plenty heaped his board on high.
4.171. He was the first to cull the rose in spring,
4.172. He the ripe fruits in autumn; and ere yet
4.173. Winter had ceased in sullen ire to rive
4.174. The rocks with frost, and with her icy bit
4.175. Curb in the running waters, there was he

4.197. Community of offspring, and they house
4.198. Together in one city, and beneath
4.205. By settled order ply their tasks afield;
4.210. Others the while lead forth the full-grown young,' "4.211. Their country's hope, and others press and pack" '4.212. The thrice repured honey, and stretch their cell 4.213. To bursting with the clear-strained nectar sweet. 4.214. Some, too, the wardship of the gates befalls,
4.228. Not otherwise, to measure small with great, 4.229. The love of getting planted in their breast' "4.230. Goads on the bees, that haunt old Cecrops' heights," '4.231. Each in his sphere to labour. The old have charge 4.232. To keep the town, and build the walled combs, 4.233. And mould the cunning chambers; but the youth, 4.234. Their tired legs packed with thyme, come labouring home 4.235. Belated, for afar they range to feed 4.236. On arbutes and the grey-green willow-leaves, 4.237. And cassia and the crocus blushing red, 4.238. Glue-yielding limes, and hyacinths dusky-eyed. 4.239. One hour for rest have all, and one for toil: 4.240. With dawn they hurry from the gates—no room 4.241. For loiterers there: and once again, when even 4.242. Now bids them quit their pasturing on the plain, 4.243. Then homeward make they, then refresh their strength: 4.244. A hum arises: hark! they buzz and buzz 4.245. About the doors and threshold; till at length 4.246. Safe laid to rest they hush them for the night, 4.247. And welcome slumber laps their weary limbs. 4.248. But from the homestead not too far they fare, 4.249. When showers hang like to fall, nor, east winds nigh,' "4.250. Confide in heaven, but 'neath the city wall" '4.251. Safe-circling fetch them water, or essay 4.252. Brief out-goings, and oft weigh-up tiny stones, 4.253. As light craft ballast in the tossing tide, 4.254. Wherewith they poise them through the cloudy vast. 4.255. This law of life, too, by the bees obeyed, 4.256. Will move thy wonder, that nor sex with sex 4.257. Yoke they in marriage, nor yield their limbs to love, 4.258. Nor know the pangs of labour, but alone 4.259. From leaves and honied herbs, the mothers, each, 4.260. Gather their offspring in their mouths, alone 4.261. Supply new kings and pigmy commonwealth, 4.262. And their old court and waxen realm repair. 4.263. oft, too, while wandering, against jagged stone' "4.264. Their wings they fray, and 'neath the burden yield" '4.265. Their liberal lives: so deep their love of flowers,' "4.266. So glorious deem they honey's proud acquist." '4.267. Therefore, though each a life of narrow span,' "4.268. Ne'er stretched to summers more than seven, befalls," '4.269. Yet deathless doth the race endure, and still 4.270. Perennial stands the fortune of their line, 4.271. From grandsire unto grandsire backward told. 4.272. Moreover, not 4.294. Find place: but, each into his starry rank,
4.299. And spread before thee fumes of trailing smoke. 4.300. Twice is the teeming produce gathered in, 4.301. Twofold their time of harvest year by year, 4.302. Once when Taygete the Pleiad uplift
4.389. And shut the doors, and leave him there to lie.
4.554. The steers from pasture to their stall repair,
4.559. With a great cry leapt on him, and ere he rose 4.560. Forestalled him with the fetters; he nathless, 4.561. All unforgetful of his ancient craft, 4.562. Transforms himself to every wondrous thing, 4.563. Fire and a fearful beast, and flowing stream. 4.564. But when no trickery found a path for flight, 4.565. Baffled at length, to his own shape returned, 4.566. With human lips he spake, “Who bade thee, then,''. None
72. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Age • Golden Bough • Golden Fleece • Golden Fleece, anddragon

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 47, 67, 68, 79, 81, 89, 90, 110, 113, 120, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 135, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 154, 156, 157, 160, 163, 165, 167; Bremmer (2008) 310, 318; Mackay (2022) 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 206, 209, 212, 214; Verhagen (2022) 47, 67, 68, 79, 81, 89, 90, 110, 113, 120, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 135, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 154, 156, 157, 160, 163, 165, 167

73. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • gold • golden apples

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 11; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 255

74. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Golden Fleece

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 157; Verhagen (2022) 157

75. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Gold leaves / gold tablets • Gold tablets • Orphism, gold Totenpässe tablets

 Found in books: Gazis and Hooper (2021) 20, 21; Wolfsdorf (2020) 560; de Jáuregui (2010) 1

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