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10 results for "general"
1. Homer, Iliad, 24 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 685
2. Euripides, Hecuba, 1, 109-113, 115, 114 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 685
114. Ποῖ δή, Δαναοί, τὸν ἐμὸν τύμβον
3. Apollodorus, Epitome, 5.22-5.23, 5.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 685
5.22. Μενέλαος δὲ Δηίφοβον κτείνας Ἑλένην ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς ἄγει· ἀπάγουσι δὲ καὶ τὴν Θησέως μητέρα Αἴθραν οἱ Θησέως παῖδες Δημοφῶν καὶ Ἀκάμας· καὶ γὰρ τούτους λέγουσιν εἰς Τροίαν ἐλθεῖν ὕστερον. Αἴας δὲ ὁ Λοκρὸς Κασάνδραν ὁρῶν περιπεπλεγμένην τῷ ξοάνῳ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς βιάζεται· διὰ τοῦ το τὸ 1 -- ξόανον εἰς οὐρανὸν βλέπειν. 2 -- 5.23. κτείναντες δὲ τοὺς Τρῶας τὴν πόλιν ἐνέπρησαν καὶ τὰ λάφυρα ἐμερίσαντο. καὶ θύσαντες πᾶσι τοῖς θεοῖς Ἀστυάνακτα ἀπὸ τῶν πύργων ἔρριψαν, Πολυξένην δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ Ἀχιλλέως τάφῳ κατέσφαξαν. λαμβάνει δὲ Ἀγαμέμνων μὲν κατʼ ἐξαίρετον Κασάνδραν, Νεοπτόλεμος δὲ Ἀνδρομάχην, Ὀδυσσεὺς δὲ Ἑκάβην. ὡς δὲ ἔνιοι λέγουσιν, Ἕλενος αὐτὴν λαμβάνει, καὶ διακομισθεὶς εἰς Χερρόνησον σὺν αὐτῇ κύνα γενομένην θάπτει, ἔνθα νῦν λέγεται Κυνὸς σῆμα. Λαοδίκην μὲν γὰρ κάλλει τῶν Πριάμου θυγατέρων διαφέρουσαν βλεπόντων πάντων γῆ χάσματι ἀπέκρυψεν. ὡς δὲ ἔμελλον ἀποπλεῖν πορθήσαντες Τροίαν, ὑπὸ Κάλχαντος κατείχοντο, μηνίειν Ἀθηνᾶν αὐτοῖς λέγοντος διὰ τὴν Αἴαντος ἀσέβειαν. καὶ τὸν μὲν Αἴαντα 1 -- κτείνειν ἔμελλον, φεύγοντα 2 -- δὲ ἐπὶ βωμὸν εἴασαν. 5.22. But Menelaus slew Deiphobus and led away Helen to the ships Compare Arctinus, Ilii Persis, summarized by Proclus, in Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, p. 49 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.354ff. ; Tryphiodorus, Excidium Ilii 627-633 ; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 729-731 ; Dictys Cretensis v.12 . Deiphobus had married Helen after the death of Paris. See above, Apollod. E.5.8.9 . ; and Aethra, mother of Theseus, was also led away by Demophon and Acamas, the sons of Theseus; for they say that they afterwards went to Troy . Compare Arctinus, Ilii Persis, summarized by Proclus, in Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, p. 50 ; Paus. 10.25.8 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.496-543 ; Scholiast on Eur. Hec. 123 and Scholiast on Eur. Tro. 31 ; Dictys Cretensis v.13 . Homer mentions Aethra as one of the handmaids of Helen at Troy ( Hom. Il. 3.53 ). Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.496-543 has described at length the recognition of the grandmother by the grandsons, who, according to Hellanicus, went to Troy for the purpose of rescuing or ransoming her ( Scholiast on Eur. Hec. 123 ). The recognition was related also by Lesches ( Paus. 10.25.8 ). Aethra had been taken prisoner at Athens by Castor and Pollux when they rescued their sister Helen. See above, Apollod. 3.7.4 , Apollod. E.1.23 . On the chest of Cypselus at Olympia the artist portrayed Helen setting her foot on Aethra's head and tugging at her handmaid's hair. See Paus. 5.19.3 ; Dio Chrysostom xi. vol. i. p. 179, ed. L. Dindorf . And the Locrian Ajax, seeing Cassandra clinging to the wooden image of Athena, violated her; therefore they say that the image looks to heaven. As to the violence offered to Cassandra by Ajax, compare Arctinus, Ilii Persis, summarized by Proclus, in Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, pp. 49ff. ; Scholiast on Hom. Il. xiii.66, referring to Callimachus ; Paus. 1.15.2 ; Paus. 5.11.6 ; Paus. 5.19.5 ; Paus. 10.26.3 ; Paus. 10.31.2 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.420-429 ; Tryphiodorus, Excidium Ilii 647-650 ; Verg. A. 2.403-406 ; Dictys Cretensis v.12 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. Bode, i. p. 55 (First Vatican Mythographer 181) . Arctinus described how, in dragging Cassandra from the image of Athena, at which she had taken refuge, Ajax drew down the image itself. This incident was carved on the chest of Cypselus at Olympia ( Paus. 5.19.5 ), and painted by Polygnotus in his great picture of the sack of Troy at Delphi ( Paus. 10.26.3 ). The Scholiast on Hom. Il. xiii.66 and Quintus Smyrnaeus describe how the image of Athena turned up its eyes to the roof in horror at the violence offered to the suppliant. 5.23. And having slain the Trojans, they set fire to the city and divided the spoil among them. And having sacrificed to all the gods, they threw Astyanax from the battlements Compare Arctinus, Ilii Persis, summarized by Proclus, in Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, p. 50 ; Eur. Tro. 719-739 , Eur. Tro. 1133-1135 ; Eur. And. 8-11 ; Paus. 10.26.9 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.251-257 ; Tryphiodorus, Excidium Ilii 644-646 ; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 1263 ; Scholiast on Eur. Andr. 10 ; Ov. Met. 13.415-417 ; Hyginus, Fab. 109 ; Seneca, Troades 524ff., 1063ff. While ancient writers generally agree that Astyanax was killed by being thrown from a tower at or after the sack of Troy , they differ as to the agent of his death. Arctinus, as reported by Proclus, says merely that he was killed by Ulysses. Tryphiodorus reports that he was hurled by Ulysses from a high tower. On the other hand, Lesches in the Little Iliad said that it was Neoptolemus who snatched Astyanax from his mother's lap and cast him down from the battlements (Tzetzes and Paus. 10.26.9 ). According to Euripides and Seneca, the murder of the child was not perpetrated in hot blood during the sack of Troy but was deliberately executed after the capture of the city in pursuance of a decree passed by the Greeks in a regular assembly. This seems to have been the version followed by Apollodorus, who apparently regarded the death of Astyanax as a sacrifice, like the slaughter of Polyxena on the grave of Achilles. But the killing of Astyanax was not thus viewed by our other ancient authorities, unless we except Seneca, who describes how Astyanax leaped voluntarily from the wall while Ulysses was reciting the words of the soothsayer Calchas and invoking the cruel gods to attend the rite. and slaughtered Polyxena on the grave of Achilles. As to the sacrifice of Polyxena on the grave of Achilles, see Arctinus, Ilii Persis, summarized by Proclus, in Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, p. 50 ; Eur. Hec. 107ff. ; Eur. Hec. 218ff. ; Eur. Hec. 391-393 ; Eur. Hec. 521-582 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.210-328 ; Tryphiodorus, Excidium Ilii 686ff. ; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 323 ; Hyginus, Fab. 110 ; Ov. Met. 13.439-480 ; Seneca, Troades 168ff., 938-944, 1118-1164 ; Dictys Cretensis v.13 ; Serv. Verg. A. 3.322 . According to Euripides and Seneca, the ghost of Achilles appeared above his grave and demanded the sacrifice of the maiden. Others said that the spirit of the dead showed himself in a dream to Neoptolemus (so Quintus Smyrnaeus) or to Agamemnon (so Ovid). In Quintus Smyrnaeus the ghost threatens to keep the Greeks wind-bound at Troy until they have complied with his demand, and accordingly the offering of the sacrifice is followed by a great calm. Euripides seems to have contemplated the sacrifice, in primitive fashion, as a means of furnishing the ghost with the blood needed to quench his thirst ( Eur. Hec. 391-393 ; Eur. Hec. 536ff. ); but Seneca represents the ghost as desiring to have Polyxena as his wife in the Elysian Fields ( Seneca, Troades 938-944 ). A more romantic turn is given to the tradition by Philostratus, who says that after the death of Achilles, and before the fall of Troy , the amorous Polyxena stole out from the city and stabbed herself to death on the grave of Achilles, that she might be his bride in the other world. See Philostratus, Her. xx.18 ; Philostratus, Vit. Apollon. iv.16.4 . According to the usual tradition, it was Neoptolemus who slew the maiden on his father's tomb. Pictures of the sacrifice were to be seen at Athens and Pergamus ( Paus. 1.22.6 ; Paus. 10.25.10 ). Sophocles wrote a tragedy on the theme. See The Fragments of Sophocles , ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 161ff. And as special awards Agamemnon got Cassandra, Neoptolemus got Andromache, and Ulysses got Hecuba. Compare Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.20-23 , who agrees with Apollodorus as to the partition of these captive women among the Greek leaders. But some say that Helenus got her, and crossed over with her to the Chersonese This is the version of the story adopted by Dares Phrygius, who says that Helenus went to the Chersonese along with Hecuba, Andromache, and Cassandra ( Dares Phrygius, De excidio Trojae 43 ). ; and that there she turned into a bitch, and he buried her at the place now called the Bitch's Tomb. As to the transformation of Hecuba into a bitch, compare Eur. Hec. 1259-1273 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.347-351 ; Dio Chrysostom xxxii. vol. ii. p. 20, ed. L. Dindorf ; Agatharchides, De Erythraeo Mari, in Photius, Bibliotheca, p. 442a, ll. 23ff., ed. Bekker ; Julius Pollux, v.45 ; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 315, 1176 ; Excidium Ilii, Tusc. Disp. iii.26.63 ; Ov. Met. 13.565-571 ; Hyginus, Fab. 111 ; Serv. Verg. A. 3.6 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G.H.Bode, i. p. 145 (Second Vatican Mythographer 209) . A rationalistic version of the story is told by Dictys Cretensis v.16 . We may conjecture that the fable of the transformation originated in the resemblance of the name Hecuba to the name Hecate; for Hecate was supposed to be attended by dogs, and Hecuba is called an attendant of Hecate ( Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 1176 ). As for Laodice, the fairest of the daughters of Priam, she was swallowed up by a chasm in the earth in the sight of all. Compare Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.544-551 ; Tryphiodorus, Excidium Ilii 660-663 ; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 736 ; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 314 . When they had laid Troy waste and were about to sail away, they were detained by Calchas, who said that Athena was angry with them on account of the impiety of Ajax. And they would have killed Ajax, but he fled to the altar and they let him alone. Compare Arctinus, Ilii Persis, summarized by Proclus, in Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, pp. 49ff. Ulysses advised the Greeks to stone Ajax to death for his crime against Cassandra ( Paus. 10.31.2 ).
4. Longinus, On The Sublime, 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 685
5. Plutarch, On The Control of Anger, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 166
458d. ince it spends itself in biting the lips and gnashing the teeth, in vain attacks and railings coupled with senseless threats, and eventually resembles children running races, who, through lack of self-control, fall down ridiculously before they reach the goal toward would they are human. Therefore there was point in what the Rhodian said to the Roman general's servant who was shouting and talking insolently: "What yousay," said the Rhodian, "matters nothing to me, but what your master doesn't say." And Sophocles, when he has armed Neoptolemus and Eurypylus, says Without a vaunt, without reviling, they Have rushed within the ring of brazen arms. For although there are barbarians who poison their steel, true bravery has no need of bitter gall, for it has been dipped in reason;
6. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.15.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 685
1.15.2. ἐν δὲ τῷ μέσῳ τῶν τοίχων Ἀθηναῖοι καὶ Θησεὺς Ἀμαζόσι μάχονται. μόναις δὲ ἄρα ταῖς γυναιξὶν οὐκ ἀφῄρει τὰ πταίσματα τὸ ἐς τοὺς κινδύνους ἀφειδές, εἴ γε Θεμισκύρας τε ἁλούσης ὑπὸ Ἡρακλέους καὶ ὕστερον φθαρείσης σφίσι τῆς στρατιᾶς, ἣν ἐπʼ Ἀθήνας ἔστειλαν, ὅμως ἐς Τροίαν ἦλθον Ἀθηναίοις τε αὐτοῖς μαχούμεναι καὶ τοῖς πᾶσιν Ἕλλησιν. ἐπὶ δὲ ταῖς Ἀμαζόσιν Ἕλληνές εἰσιν ᾑρηκότες Ἴλιον καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς ἠθροισμένοι διὰ τὸ Αἴαντος ἐς Κασσάνδραν τόλμημα· καὶ αὐτὸν ἡ γραφὴ τὸν Αἴαντα ἔχει καὶ γυναῖκας τῶν αἰχμαλώτων ἄλλας τε καὶ Κασσάνδραν. 1.15.2. On the middle wall are the Athenians and Theseus fighting with the Amazons. So, it seems, only the women did not lose through their defeats their reckless courage in the face of danger; Themiscyra was taken by Heracles, and afterwards the army which they dispatched to Athens was destroyed, but nevertheless they came to Troy to fight all the Greeks as well as the Athenians them selves. After the Amazons come the Greeks when they have taken Troy , and the kings assembled on account of the outrage committed by Ajax against Cassandra. The picture includes Ajax himself, Cassandra and other captive women.
7. Vergil, Aeneis, 2.57-2.198  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 166
2.57. thus hailed the people: “O unhappy men! 2.58. What madness this? Who deems our foemen fled? 2.59. Think ye the gifts of Greece can lack for guile? 2.60. Have ye not known Ulysses? The Achaean 2.61. hides, caged in yonder beams; or this is reared 2.62. for engin'ry on our proud battlements, 2.63. to spy upon our roof-tops, or descend 2.64. in ruin on the city. 'T is a snare. 2.65. Trust not this horse, O Troy , whate'er it bode! 2.66. I fear the Greeks, though gift on gift they bear.” 2.67. So saying, he whirled with ponderous javelin 2.68. a sturdy stroke straight at the rounded side 2.69. of the great, jointed beast. A tremor struck 2.70. its towering form, and through the cavernous womb 2.71. rolled loud, reverberate rumbling, deep and long. 2.72. If heaven's decree, if our own wills, that hour, 2.73. had not been fixed on woe, his spear had brought 2.74. a bloody slaughter on our ambushed foe, 2.75. and Troy were standing on the earth this day! 2.77. But, lo! with hands fast bound behind, a youth 2.78. by clamorous Dardan shepherds haled along, 2.79. was brought before our king,—to this sole end 2.80. a self-surrendered captive, that he might, 2.81. although a nameless stranger, cunningly 2.82. deliver to the Greek the gates of Troy . 2.83. His firm-set mind flinched not from either goal,— 2.84. uccess in crime, or on swift death to fall. 2.85. The thronging Trojan youth made haste his way 2.86. from every side, all eager to see close 2.87. their captive's face, and clout with emulous scorn. 2.88. Hear now what Greek deception is, and learn 2.89. from one dark wickedness the whole. For he, 2.90. a mark for every eye, defenceless, dazed, 2.91. tood staring at our Phrygian hosts, and cried: 2.92. “Woe worth the day! What ocean or what shore 2.93. will have me now? What desperate path remains 2.94. for miserable me? Now have I lost 2.95. all foothold with the Greeks, and o'er my head 2.96. Troy 's furious sons call bloody vengeance down.” 2.97. Such groans and anguish turned all rage away 2.98. and stayed our lifted hands. We bade him tell 2.99. his birth, his errand, and from whence might be 2.100. uch hope of mercy for a foe in chains. 2.102. “O King! I will confess, whate'er befall, 2.103. the whole unvarnished truth. I will not hide 2.104. my Grecian birth. Yea, thus will I begin. 2.105. For Fortune has brought wretched Sinon low; 2.106. but never shall her cruelty impair 2.107. his honor and his truth. Perchance the name 2.108. of Palamedes, Belus' glorious son, 2.109. has come by rumor to your listening ears; 2.110. whom by false witness and conspiracy, 2.111. because his counsel was not for this war, 2.112. the Greeks condemned, though guiltless, to his death, 2.113. and now make much lament for him they slew. 2.114. I, his companion, of his kith and kin, 2.115. ent hither by my humble sire's command, 2.116. followed his arms and fortunes from my youth. 2.117. Long as his throne endured, and while he throve 2.118. in conclave with his kingly peers, we twain 2.119. ome name and lustre bore; but afterward, 2.120. because that cheat Ulysses envied him 2.121. (Ye know the deed), he from this world withdrew, 2.122. and I in gloom and tribulation sore 2.123. lived miserably on, lamenting loud 2.124. my lost friend's blameless fall. A fool was I 2.125. that kept not these lips closed; but I had vowed 2.126. that if a conqueror home to Greece I came, 2.127. I would avenge. Such words moved wrath, and were 2.128. the first shock of my ruin; from that hour, 2.129. Ulysses whispered slander and alarm; 2.130. breathed doubt and malice into all men's ears, 2.131. and darkly plotted how to strike his blow. 2.132. Nor rest had he, till Calchas, as his tool,- 2.133. but why unfold this useless, cruel story? 2.134. Why make delay? Ye count all sons of Greece 2.135. arrayed as one; and to have heard thus far 2.136. uffices you. Take now your ripe revenge! 2.137. Ulysses smiles and Atreus' royal sons 2.139. We ply him then with passionate appeal 2.140. and question all his cause: of guilt so dire 2.141. or such Greek guile we harbored not the thought. 2.142. So on he prates, with well-feigned grief and fear, 2.143. and from his Iying heart thus told his tale: 2.144. “Full oft the Greeks had fain achieved their flight, 2.145. and raised the Trojan siege, and sailed away 2.146. war-wearied quite. O, would it had been so! 2.147. Full oft the wintry tumult of the seas 2.148. did wall them round, and many a swollen storm 2.149. their embarcation stayed. But chiefly when, 2.150. all fitly built of beams of maple fair, 2.151. this horse stood forth,— what thunders filled the skies! 2.152. With anxious fears we sent Eurypylus 2.153. to ask Apollo's word; and from the shrine 2.154. he brings the sorrowful commandment home: 2.155. ‘By flowing blood and by a virgin slain 2.156. the wild winds were appeased, when first ye came, 2.157. ye sons of Greece , to Ilium 's distant shore. 2.158. Through blood ye must return. Let some Greek life 2.159. your expiation be.’ The popular ear 2.160. the saying caught, all spirits were dimmed o'er; 2.161. cold doubt and horror through each bosom ran, 2.162. asking what fate would do, and on what wretch 2.163. Apollo's choice would fall. Ulysses, then, 2.164. amid the people's tumult and acclaim, 2.165. thrust Calchas forth, some prophecy to tell 2.166. to all the throng: he asked him o'er and o'er 2.167. what Heaven desired. Already not a few 2.168. foretold the murderous plot, and silently 2.169. watched the dark doom upon my life impend. 2.170. Twice five long days the seer his lips did seal, 2.171. and hid himself, refusing to bring forth 2.172. His word of guile, and name what wretch should die. 2.173. At last, reluctant, and all loudly urged 2.174. By false Ulysses, he fulfils their plot, 2.175. and, lifting up his voice oracular, 2.176. points out myself the victim to be slain. 2.177. Nor did one voice oppose. The mortal stroke 2.178. horribly hanging o'er each coward head 2.179. was changed to one man's ruin, and their hearts 2.180. endured it well. Soon rose th' accursed morn; 2.181. the bloody ritual was ready; salt 2.182. was sprinkled on the sacred loaf; my brows 2.183. were bound with fillets for the offering. 2.184. But I escaped that death—yes! I deny not! 2.185. I cast my fetters off, and darkling lay 2.186. concealed all night in lake-side sedge and mire, 2.187. awaiting their departure, if perchance 2.188. they should in truth set sail. But nevermore 2.189. hall my dear, native country greet these eyes. 2.190. No more my father or my tender babes 2.191. hall I behold. Nay, haply their own lives 2.192. are forfeit, when my foemen take revenge 2.193. for my escape, and slay those helpless ones, 2.194. in expiation of my guilty deed. 2.195. O, by yon powers in heaven which witness truth, 2.196. by aught in this dark world remaining now 2.197. of spotless human faith and innocence, 2.198. I do implore thee look with pitying eye
8. Dionysius Periegetes, The Sack of Troy, 164  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 166, 167
9. Dionysius Periegetes, Telegony, 164  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 167
10. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.48  Tagged with subjects: •general polyxena Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 166