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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
genealogical, and/or cultic links with, hygieia soteira, and asclepius Jim (2022) 136
genealogical, anxiety, centrality of the body and Lavee (2017) 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224
genealogical, anxiety, intermingling and Lavee (2017) 216
genealogical, anxiety, iranian context and Lavee (2017) 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224
genealogical, anxiety, negativity towards converts and Lavee (2017) 216, 217, 218, 219
genealogical, attitudes attributed to, yehuda, rav Kalmin (1998) 52, 56, 57, 59, 60
genealogical, component of inscriptions Kalinowski (2021) 76, 77, 78
genealogical, connections, greek-persian Gruen (2011) 19, 37, 38
genealogical, connections, in tales of founding of rome Gruen (2011) 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249
genealogical, exclusion of converts, babylonian agenda Lavee (2017) 130, 131
genealogical, exclusivist, paul, as Hayes (2015) 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150
genealogical, inscription ive, vedius antoninus iii, p., vedius iii, m. cl. p. vedius phaedrus sabinianus, ‘bauherr’, in Kalinowski (2021) 76, 125
genealogical, inscription, flavii vedii, in Kalinowski (2021) 71, 77, 78, 84, 89, 168, 169, 170
genealogical, inscription, flavius vedius apellas, t., son of t. fl. vedius antoninus and fl. pasinice, and monument with Kalinowski (2021) 71, 81, 84, 89, 163, 387, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397
genealogical, language and, dynastic succession Ando (2013) 37, 38, 39, 40
genealogical, model of prophecy DeJong (2022) 70, 71, 72, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 119, 170, 193, 194, 239, 240, 241, 272, 273, 287, 291, 311, 315, 319, 320, 321, 322
genealogical, purity Blidstein (2017) 34, 46
Feder (2022) 196, 204
Thiessen (2011) 83, 134, 135, 136, 137, 145
genealogical, purity and, leprosy Lavee (2017) 93, 94, 95
genealogical, purity, impurity Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 252
genealogical, reckoning Marincola et al (2021) 41, 42, 100
genealogical, section of the pentateuch Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 54
genealogical, tradition Finkelberg (2019) 150, 200, 201, 206, 209, 211, 212, 214, 283, 299
genealogical, traditions, phoenicians Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 129, 136
genealogical, vs. analogical, parallels, to other cultural traditions Hayes (2022) 314, 330, 430
genealogically, based, identity, jewish, as Hayes (2015) 142, 143, 149, 150
genealogies Allen and Dunne (2022) 81, 166
Borg (2008) 31
Lieu (2004) 77, 78
Vinzent (2013) 97, 125
genealogies, in inscriptions, onomastics, and Kalinowski (2021) 84
genealogies, of mania, family Johnston and Struck (2005) 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 192, 193
genealogies, on inscriptions, memory, in Kalinowski (2021) 84
genealogies, significance of aphrodite, two cult titles and Simon (2021) 276, 277, 278, 280, 387
genealogy Beyerle and Goff (2022) 3, 7, 80, 285, 287, 288, 289, 292, 306, 311, 328, 329, 435
Bierl (2017) 64, 81, 82, 118, 208, 224, 242
Gagné (2020) 17, 208, 214, 241
Gorain (2019) 19, 157, 167, 173
Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 6, 177, 227
Humphreys (2018) 541, 542, 544, 545, 638, 647, 668, 703, 710, 711, 715, 929
Iribarren and Koning (2022) 1, 21, 23, 26, 27, 35, 49, 105, 110, 111, 119, 163, 168, 171, 172, 173, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 235, 268, 329
Laemmle (2021) 83, 84, 93, 94, 95, 102, 103, 213, 218, 219, 220, 232, 238, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 287, 288, 297, 410, 411
Meister (2019) 45, 170, 175
Niehoff (2011) 53, 54
Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 103, 104, 105, 106
Sweeney (2013) 21, 94, 112, 161, 165, 166
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276
genealogy, achaimenid Marek (2019) 141
genealogy, ancestry Marcar (2022) 13, 90, 118, 120, 122, 123, 136, 149, 152, 158, 250
genealogy, and astyanax’s relationship to hector Bexley (2022) 128, 129, 130, 131, 132
genealogy, and atreus’ revenge Bexley (2022) 321, 322, 323
genealogy, and exemplarity Bexley (2022) 103, 104, 105, 106, 109, 110, 111, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 150, 151
genealogy, and poetic imitation Bexley (2022) 115, 116, 117, 125, 126, 127, 128, 321, 322
genealogy, arcadian Marek (2019) 476
genealogy, as basis of jewish peoplehood Hayes (2022) 364
genealogy, as catalogic discourse, genealogy, vs Folit-Weinberg (2022) 136
genealogy, as flesh Dawson (2001) 226
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, in aristides Gruen (2020) 208, 209
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, in herodotus Gruen (2020) 42, 44, 55
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, in josephus Gruen (2020) 167, 168, 171, 172, 175, 183
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, in justin Gruen (2020) 211
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, in paul Gruen (2020) 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 199
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, in philo Gruen (2020) 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 160, 161, 162
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, irrelevant for joseph and aseneth Gruen (2020) 145
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, italian Gruen (2020) 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 105, 107
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, mocked in tobit Gruen (2020) 126, 127, 136, 137, 138
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, of judith Gruen (2020) 140, 141
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, of ruth Gruen (2020) 119
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, rare in polybius Gruen (2020) 66, 70
genealogy, as identity lineage and marker, rome as mixed lineage Gruen (2020) 73, 76, 79, 94
genealogy, babylonian rabbis, sages, obsessive interest in Kalmin (1998) 16, 36, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60
genealogy, conception and birth Peppard (2011) 13, 125, 141
genealogy, construction of Stavrianopoulou (2013) 182, 188, 195, 358
genealogy, euripides’ ion, and hellenic Barbato (2020) 108
genealogy, family ideology importance of ancestral Peppard (2011) 74, 75
genealogy, herakles, myth Humphreys (2018) 317, 656, 658, 666, 749, 753, 849, 850
genealogy, hermes Humphreys (2018) 678, 679
genealogy, high priestly oniad authorship, succession Piotrkowski (2019) 19, 44, 54, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 69, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 106, 149, 372, 374, 375, 376, 377, 379
genealogy, hodos, vs Folit-Weinberg (2022) 234, 235, 236, 237, 241, 242, 249
genealogy, in mark, gospel of familial ties and Peppard (2011) 125, 126, 127, 128
genealogy, joseph, father of jesus Monnickendam (2020) 70, 71, 75
genealogy, lydian Marek (2019) 113
genealogy, matthew, gospel of Iricinschi et al. (2013) 337, 398
genealogy, new testament Monnickendam (2020) 69, 71, 82
genealogy, non-rabbinic jews, influence of attitudes to Kalmin (1998) 16, 36, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60
genealogy, of charicleia Cueva et al. (2018a) 211
genealogy, of israel, community of Dawson (2001) 227
genealogy, of jesus Van der Horst (2014) 207
Williams (2009) 119, 142
genealogy, of miriam, priestly Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 224
genealogy, of virtues Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 94, 95, 174, 179, 180, 186
genealogy, of virtues, genesis, title of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 147, 149
genealogy, palestinian rabbis, sages, relative lack of concern with Kalmin (1998) 16, 36, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60
genealogy, pandora Bremmer (2008) 32
genealogy, physical versus spiritual Dawson (2001) 27, 37
genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, babylonian rabbis preoccupation with Kalmin (1998) 16, 36, 46, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60
genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, in tobit Kalmin (1998) 135
genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, of palestinian rabbis Kalmin (1998) 16, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60
genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, theme of ezras purity of lineage Kalmin (1998) 16, 121, 122
genealogy, romans’ decent from the trojans Marek (2019) 220
genealogy, scythian, anacharsis’ Papadodima (2022) 22
genealogy, stele Humphreys (2018) 877
genealogy, writing Humphreys (2018) 545

List of validated texts:
39 validated results for "genealogy"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.3-1.5, 1.9, 4.13, 5.10-5.14 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, in Tobit • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, mocked in Tobit

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 289, 292; Gruen (2020) 126, 137, 138; Kalmin (1998) 135


1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather.
1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias.
4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine.
5.10. Then Tobit said to him, "My brother, to what tribe and family do you belong? Tell me. " 5.11. But he answered, "Are you looking for a tribe and a family or for a man whom you will pay to go with your son?" And Tobit said to him, "I should like to know, my brother, your people and your name." 5.12. He replied, "I am Azarias the son of the great Aias, one of your relatives." 5.13. Then Tobit said to him, "You are welcome, my brother. Do not be angry with me because I tried to learn your tribe and family. You are a relative of mine, of a good and noble lineage. For I used to know Aias and Jathan, the sons of the great Shemaiah, when we went together to Jerusalem to worship and offered the first-born of our flocks and the tithes of our produce. They did not go astray in the error of our brethren. My brother, you come of good stock. 5.14. But tell me, what wages am I to pay you -- a drachma a day, and expenses for yourself as for my son?''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 26.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • Land of Israel, genealogy • genealogical anxiety, Iranian context and • genealogical anxiety, centrality of the body and • genealogical anxiety, negativity towards converts and

 Found in books: Lavee (2017) 218; Neusner (2001) 66


26.3. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃''. None
26.3. And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.7, 15.5, 22.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • ancestry, genealogy • genealogical section of the Pentateuch • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Paul

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 7; Gruen (2020) 192; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 177; Marcar (2022) 120


12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃
15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃
22.18. וְהִתְבָּרֲכוּ בְזַרְעֲךָ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקֹלִי׃''. None
12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him.
15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’
22.18. and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast hearkened to My voice.’''. None
4. Hesiod, Works And Days, 159-160 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical tradition • genealogy

 Found in books: Finkelberg (2019) 150; Laemmle (2021) 247


159. ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται'160. ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. '. None
159. Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame'160. Would see no more, nor would this race be seen '. None
5. Hesiod, Theogony, 21, 886-923, 928, 950-955, 1011-1016 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical connections, in tales of founding of Rome • genealogical reckoning, • genealogy • genealogy, divine • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, Rome as mixed lineage

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 243; Gruen (2020) 76; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 23, 163, 171, 173; Laemmle (2021) 93, 94, 95, 218, 219, 220; Marincola et al (2021) 41; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 18, 29, 121, 262


21. ἄλλων τʼ ἀθανάτων ἱερὸν γένος αἰὲν ἐόντων.
886. Ζεὺς δὲ θεῶν βασιλεὺς πρώτην ἄλοχον θέτο Μῆτιν 887. πλεῖστα τε ἰδυῖαν ἰδὲ θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων. 888. ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ ἄρʼ ἔμελλε θεὰν γλαυκῶπιν Ἀθήνην 889. τέξεσθαι, τότʼ ἔπειτα δόλῳ φρένας ἐξαπατήσας 890. αἱμυλίοισι λόγοισιν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδὺν 891. Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσι καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος. 892. τὼς γάρ οἱ φρασάτην, ἵνα μὴ βασιληίδα τιμὴν 893. ἄλλος ἔχοι Διὸς ἀντὶ θεῶν αἰειγενετάων. 894. ἐκ γὰρ τῆς εἵμαρτο περίφρονα τέκνα γενέσθαι· 895. πρώτην μὲν κούρην γλαυκώπιδα Τριτογένειαν 896. ἶσον ἔχουσαν πατρὶ μένος καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν. 897. αὐτὰρ ἔπειτʼ ἄρα παῖδα θεῶν βασιλῆα καὶ ἀνδρῶν 898. ἤμελλεν τέξεσθαι, ὑπέρβιον ἦτορ ἔχοντα· 899. ἀλλʼ ἄρα μιν Ζεὺς πρόσθεν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδύν, 900. ὡς δή οἱ φράσσαιτο θεὰ ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 901. δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 902. Εὐνουμίην τε Δίκην τε καὶ Εἰρήνην τεθαλυῖαν, 903. αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι, 904. Μοίρας θʼ, ᾗ πλείστην τιμὴν πόρε μητίετα Ζεύς, 905. Κλωθώ τε Λάχεσίν τε καὶ Ἄτροπον, αἵτε διδοῦσι 906. θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν ἔχειν ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 907. τρεῖς δέ οἱ Εὐρυνομη Χάριτας τέκε καλλιπαρῄους, 908. Ὠκεανοῦ κούρη, πολυήρατον εἶδος ἔχουσα, 909. Ἀγλαΐην τε καὶ Εὐφροσύνην Θαλίην τʼ ἐρατεινήν· 910. τῶν καὶ ἀπὸ βλεφάρων ἔρος εἴβετο δερκομενάων 911. λυσιμελής· καλὸν δέ θʼ ὑπʼ ὀφρύσι δερκιόωνται. 912. αὐτὰρ ὁ Δήμητρος πολυφόρβης ἐς λέχος ἦλθεν, 913. ἣ τέκε Περσεφόνην λευκώλενον, ἣν Ἀιδωνεὺς 914. ἥρπασε ἧς παρὰ μητρός· ἔδωκε δὲ μητίετα Ζεύς. 915. μνημοσύνης δʼ ἐξαῦτις ἐράσσατο καλλικόμοιο, 916. ἐξ ἧς οἱ Μοῦσαι χρυσάμπυκες ἐξεγένοντο 917. ἐννέα, τῇσιν ἅδον θαλίαι καὶ τέρψις ἀοιδῆς. 918. Λητὼ δʼ Ἀπόλλωνα καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ἰοχέαιραν, 919. ἱμερόεντα γόνον περὶ πάντων Οὐρανιώνων, 920. γείνατʼ ἄρʼ αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς φιλότητι μιγεῖσα. 9
21. λοισθοτάτην δʼ Ἥρην θαλερὴν ποιήσατʼ ἄκοιτιν· 922. ἣ δʼ Ἥβην καὶ Ἄρηα καὶ Εἰλείθυιαν ἔτικτε 923. μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι θεῶν βασιλῆι καὶ ἀνδρῶν.
928. γείνατο, καὶ ζαμένησε καὶ ἤρισε ᾧ παρακοίτῃ,
950. ἥβην δʼ Ἀλκμήνης καλλισφύρου ἄλκιμος υἱός, 951. ἲς Ἡρακλῆος, τελέσας στονόεντας ἀέθλους, 952. παῖδα Διὸς μεγάλοιο καὶ Ἥρης χρυσοπεδίλου, 953. αἰδοίην θέτʼ ἄκοιτιν ἐν Οὐλύμπῳ νιφόεντι, 954. ὄλβιος, ὃς μέγα ἔργον ἐν ἀθανάτοισιν ἀνύσσας 955. ναίει ἀπήμαντος καὶ ἀγήραος ἤματα πάντα.
1011. Κίρκη δʼ, Ἠελίου θυγάτηρ Ὑπεριονίδαο,'1012. γείνατʼ Ὀδυσσῆος ταλασίφρονος ἐν φιλότητι 1013. Ἄγριον ἠδὲ Λατῖνον ἀμύμονά τε κρατερόν τε· 1014. Τηλέγονον δʼ ἄρʼ ἔτικτε διὰ χρυσέην Ἀφροδίτην. 1015. οἳ δή τοι μάλα τῆλε μυχῷ νήσων ἱεράων 1016. πᾶσιν Τυρσηνοῖσιν ἀγακλειτοῖσιν ἄνασσον. '. None
21. The mighty, bright Selene, Oceanos, Ge,
886. Gave him in marriage to his progeny 887. Cymopolea. When Zeus, in the war, 888. Drove the Titans out of Heaven, huge Earth bore 889. Her youngest child Typhoeus with the aid 890. of golden Aphrodite, who had bade 891. Her lie with Tartarus. In everything 892. He did the lad was strong, untiring 893. When running, and upon his shoulders spread 894. A hundred-headed dragon, full of dread, 895. Its dark tongues flickering, and from below 896. His eyes a flashing flame was seen to glow; 897. And from each head shot fire as he glared 898. And from each head unspeakable voices blared: 899. Sometimes a god could understand the sound 900. They made, but sometimes, echoing around, 901. A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 902. Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile 903. At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear – 904. The sound of whelps was heard, sometimes the ear 905. Would catch a hissing sound, which then would change 906. To echoing along the mountain range. 907. Something beyond all help would have that day 908. Occurred and over men and gods hold sway 909. Had Zeus not quickly seen it: mightily 910. And hard he thundered so that terribly 911. The earth resounded, as did Tartarus, 912. Wide Heaven and the streams of Oceanus, 913. And at his feet the mighty Heaven reeled 914. As he arose. The earth groaned, thunder pealed 915. And lightning flashed, and to the dark-blue sea, 916. From them and from the fiery prodigy, 917. The scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt, 918. Came heat, the whole earth seething in revolt 919. With both the sky and sea, while round the strand 920. Long waves rage at the onslaught of the band 9
21. of gods. An endless shaking, too, arose, 922. And Hades, who has sovereignty over those 923. Who are deceased, shook, and the Titan horde
928. Well-shored, from high Olympus he took flight,
950. Sailors and ships as fearfully they blow 951. In every season, making powerle 952. The sailors. Others haunt the limitle 953. And blooming earth, where recklessly they spoil 954. The splendid crops that mortals sweat and toil 955. To cultivate, and cruel agitation
1011. She brought into the world a glorious son,'1012. Hephaestus, who transcended everyone 1013. In Heaven in handiwork. But Zeus then lay 1014. With Ocean’s and Tethys’ fair child, away 1015. From Hera … He duped Metis, although she 1016. Was splendidly intelligent. Then he '. None
6. Homer, Iliad, 2.572, 2.641, 2.701-2.702, 6.146, 21.139-21.143, 21.150, 21.152-21.153, 21.157-21.160 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical connections, Greek-Persian • genealogical tradition • genealogy • genealogy/generations, immortality, generational succession as human means of

 Found in books: Bierl (2017) 81, 82; Finkelberg (2019) 200, 209; Goldhill (2022) 46; Gruen (2011) 38; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 105; Laemmle (2021) 253, 254, 257, 258


2.572. καὶ Σικυῶνʼ, ὅθʼ ἄρʼ Ἄδρηστος πρῶτʼ ἐμβασίλευεν,
2.701. καὶ δόμος ἡμιτελής· τὸν δʼ ἔκτανε Δάρδανος ἀνὴρ 2.702. νηὸς ἀποθρῴσκοντα πολὺ πρώτιστον Ἀχαιῶν.
6.146. οἵη περ φύλλων γενεὴ τοίη δὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν.
21.139. τόφρα δὲ Πηλέος υἱὸς ἔχων δολιχόσκιον ἔγχος 21.140. Ἀστεροπαίῳ ἐπᾶλτο κατακτάμεναι μενεαίνων 21.141. υἱέϊ Πηλεγόνος· τὸν δʼ Ἀξιὸς εὐρυρέεθρος 21.142. γείνατο καὶ Περίβοια Ἀκεσσαμενοῖο θυγατρῶν 21.143. πρεσβυτάτη· τῇ γάρ ῥα μίγη ποταμὸς βαθυδίνης.
21.150. τίς πόθεν εἰς ἀνδρῶν ὅ μευ ἔτλης ἀντίος ἐλθεῖν;
21.152. τὸν δʼ αὖ Πηλεγόνος προσεφώνεε φαίδιμος υἱός· 21.153. Πηλεΐδη μεγάθυμε τί ἦ γενεὴν ἐρεείνεις;
21.157. αὐτὰρ ἐμοὶ γενεὴ ἐξ Ἀξιοῦ εὐρὺ ῥέοντος 21.158. Ἀξιοῦ, ὃς κάλλιστον ὕδωρ ἐπὶ γαῖαν ἵησιν, 21.159. ὃς τέκε Πηλεγόνα κλυτὸν ἔγχεϊ· τὸν δʼ ἐμέ φασι 21.160. γείνασθαι· νῦν αὖτε μαχώμεθα φαίδιμʼ Ἀχιλλεῦ.' '. None
2.572. and wealthy Corinth, and well-built Cleonae, and dwelt in Orneiae and lovely Araethyrea and Sicyon, wherein at the first Adrastus was king; and they that held Hyperesia and steep Gonoessa and Pellene,
2.701. His wife, her two cheeks torn in wailing, was left in Phylace and his house but half established, while, for himself, a Dardanian warrior slew him as he leapt forth from his ship by far the first of the Achaeans. Yet neither were his men leaderless, though they longed for their leader; for Podarces, scion of Ares, marshalled them,
6.146. Great-souled son of Tydeus, wherefore inquirest thou of my lineage? Even as are the generations of leaves, such are those also of men. As for the leaves, the wind scattereth some upon the earth, but the forest, as it bourgeons, putteth forth others when the season of spring is come; even so of men one generation springeth up and another passeth away.
21.139. whom by the swift ships ye slew while I tarried afar. So spake he, and the river waxed the more wroth at heart, and pondered in mind how he should stay goodly Achilles from his labour and ward off ruin from the Trojans. Meanwhile the son of Peleus bearing his far-shadowing spear leapt, eager to slay him, 21.140. upon Asteropaeus, son of Pelegon, that was begotten of wide-flowing Axius and Periboea, eldest of the daughters of Acessamenus; for with her lay the deep-eddying River. Upon him rushed Achilles, and Asteropaeus
21.150. Who among men art thou, and from whence, that thou darest come forth against me? Unhappy are they whose children face my might. Then spake unto him the glorious son of Pelegon:Great-souled son of Peleus, wherefore enquirest thou of my lineage? I come from deep-soiled Paeonia, a land afar,
21.157. leading the Paeonians with their long spears, and this is now my eleventh morn, since I came to Ilios. But my lineage is from wide-flowing Axius—Axius, the water whereof flows the fairest over the face of the earth—who begat Pelegon famed for his spear, and he, men say, 21.160. was my father. Now let us do battle, glorious Achilles. ' '. None
7. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Euripides’ Ion, and Hellenic genealogy • genealogical tradition

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 108; Finkelberg (2019) 283


8. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogy

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 541; Laemmle (2021) 220


9. Herodotus, Histories, 1.146, 2.142-2.143, 6.35 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • genealogical reckoning, • genealogy • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Herodotus

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 435; Gruen (2020) 55; Humphreys (2018) 668; Marincola et al (2021) 100; Sweeney (2013) 161; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 267


1.146. τούτων δὴ εἵνεκα καὶ οἱ Ἴωνες δυώδεκα πόλιας ἐποιήσαντο· ἐπεὶ ὥς γέ τι μᾶλλον οὗτοι Ἴωνες εἰσὶ τῶν ἄλλων Ἰώνων ἢ κάλλιόν τι γεγόνασι, μωρίη πολλὴ λέγειν· τῶν Ἄβαντες μὲν ἐξ Εὐβοίες εἰσὶ οὐκ ἐλαχίστη μοῖρα, τοῖσι Ἰωνίης μέτα οὐδὲ τοῦ οὐνόματος οὐδέν, Μινύαι δὲ Ὀρχομένιοί σφι ἀναμεμίχαται καὶ Καδμεῖοι καὶ Δρύοπες καὶ Φωκέες ἀποδάσμιοι καὶ Μολοσσοὶ καὶ Ἀρκάδες Πελασγοὶ καὶ Δωριέες Ἐπιδαύριοι, ἄλλα τε ἔθνεα πολλὰ ἀναμεμίχαται· οἱ δὲ αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ πρυτανηίου τοῦ Ἀθηναίων ὁρμηθέντες καὶ νομίζοντες γενναιότατοι εἶναι Ἰώνων, οὗτοι δὲ οὐ γυναῖκας ἠγάγοντο ἐς τὴν ἀποικίην ἀλλὰ Καείρας ἔσχον, τῶν ἐφόνευσαν τοὺς γονέας. διὰ τοῦτὸν δὲ τὸν φόνον αἱ γυναῖκες αὗται νόμον θέμεναι σφίσι αὐτῇσι ὅρκους ἐπήλασαν καὶ παρέδοσαν τῇσι θυγατράσι, μή κοτε ὁμοσιτῆσαι τοῖσι ἀνδράσι μηδὲ οὐνόματι βῶσαι τὸν ἑωυτῆς ἄνδρα, τοῦδε εἵνεκα ὅτι ἐφόνευσαν σφέων τοὺς πατέρας καὶ ἄνδρας καὶ παῖδας καὶ ἔπειτα ταῦτα ποιήσαντες αὐτῇσι συνοίκεον.
2.142. ἐς μὲν τοσόνδε τοῦ λόγου Αἰγύπτιοί τε καὶ οἱ ἱρέες ἔλεγον, ἀποδεικνύντες ἀπὸ τοῦ πρώτου βασιλέος ἐς τοῦ Ἡφαίστου τὸν ἱρέα τοῦτον τὸν τελευταῖον βασιλεύσαντα μίαν τε καὶ τεσσεράκοντα καὶ τριηκοσίας γενεὰς ἀνθρώπων γενομένας, καὶ ἐν ταύτῃσι ἀρχιερέας καὶ βασιλέας ἑκατέρους τοσούτους γενομένους. καίτοι τριηκόσιαι μὲν ἀνδρῶν γενεαὶ δυνέαται μύρια ἔτεα· γενεαὶ γὰρ τρεῖς ἀνδρῶν ἑκατὸν ἔτεα ἐστί· μιῆς δὲ καὶ τεσσεράκοντα ἔτι τῶν ἐπιλοίπων γενεέων, αἳ ἐπῆσαν τῇσι τριηκοσίῃσι, ἐστὶ τεσσεράκοντα καὶ τριηκόσια καὶ χίλια ἔτεα. οὕτω ἐν μυρίοισί τε ἔτεσι καὶ χιλίοισι καὶ τριηκοσίοισί τε καὶ τεσσεράκοντα ἔλεγον θεὸν ἀνθρωποειδέα οὐδένα γενέσθαι· οὐ μέντοι οὐδὲ πρότερον οὐδὲ ὕστερον ἐν τοῖσι ὑπολοίποισι Αἰγύπτου βασιλεῦσι γενομένοισι ἔλεγον οὐδὲν τοιοῦτο. ἐν τοίνυν τούτῳ τῷ χρόνῳ τετράκις ἔλεγον ἐξ ἠθέων τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατεῖλαι· ἔνθα τε νῦν καταδύεται, ἐνθεῦτεν δὶς ἐπαντεῖλαι, καὶ ἔνθεν νῦν ἀνατέλλει, ἐνθαῦτα δὶς καταδῦναι. καὶ οὐδὲν τῶν κατʼ Αἴγυπτον ὑπὸ ταῦτα ἑτεροιωθῆναι, οὔτε τὰ ἐκ τῆς γῆς οὔτε τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ποταμοῦ σφι γινόμενα, οὔτε τὰ ἀμφὶ νούσους οὔτε τὰ κατὰ τοὺς θανάτους. 2.143. πρότερον δὲ Ἑκαταίῳ τῷ λογοποιῷ ἐν Θήβῃσι γενεηλογήσαντί τε ἑωυτὸν καὶ ἀναδήσαντι τὴν πατριὴν ἐς ἑκκαιδέκατον θεὸν ἐποίησαν οἱ ἱρέες τοῦ Διὸς οἷόν τι καὶ ἐμοὶ οὐ γενεηλογήσαντι ἐμεωυτόν· ἐσαγαγόντες ἐς τὸ μέγαρον ἔσω ἐὸν μέγα ἐξηρίθμεον δεικνύντες κολοσσοὺς ξυλίνους τοσούτους ὅσους περ εἶπον· ἀρχιερεὺς γὰρ ἕκαστος αὐτόθι ἱστᾷ ἐπὶ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ ζόης εἰκόνα ἑωυτοῦ· ἀριθμέοντες ὦν καὶ δεικνύντες οἱ ἱρέες ἐμοὶ ἀπεδείκνυσαν παῖδα πατρὸς ἑωυτῶν ἕκαστον ἐόντα, ἐκ τοῦ ἄγχιστα ἀποθανόντος τῆς εἰκόνος διεξιόντες διὰ πασέων, ἕως οὗ ἀπέδεξαν ἁπάσας αὐτάς. Ἑκαταίῳ δὲ γενεηλογήσαντι ἑωυτὸν καὶ ἀναδήσαντι ἐς ἑκκαιδέκατον θεὸν ἀντεγενεηλόγησαν ἐπὶ τῇ ἀριθμήσι, οὐ δεκόμενοι παρʼ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ θεοῦ γενέσθαι ἄνθρωπον· ἀντεγενεηλόγησαν δὲ ὧδε, φάμενοι ἕκαστον τῶν κολοσσῶν πίρωμιν ἐκ πιρώμιος γεγονέναι, ἐς ὃ τοὺς πέντε καὶ τεσσεράκοντα καὶ τριηκοσίους ἀπέδεξαν κολοσσούς πίρωμιν ἐπονομαζόμενον 1,καὶ οὔτε ἐς θεὸν οὔτε ἐς ἥρωα ἀνέδησαν αὐτούς. πίρωμις δὲ ἐστὶ κατὰ Ἑλλάδα γλῶσσαν καλὸς κἀγαθός.
6.35. ἐν δὲ τῇσι Ἀθήνῃσι τηνικαῦτα εἶχε μὲν τὸ πᾶν κράτος Πεισίστρατος, ἀτὰρ ἐδυνάστευέ γε καὶ Μιλτιάδης ὁ Κυψέλου ἐὼν οἰκίης τεθριπποτρόφου, τὰ μὲν ἀνέκαθεν ἀπʼ Αἰακοῦ τε καὶ Αἰγίνης γεγονώς, τὰ δὲ νεώτερα Ἀθηναῖος, Φιλαίου τοῦ Αἴαντος παιδὸς γενομένου πρώτου τῆς οἰκίης ταύτης Ἀθηναίου. οὗτος ὁ Μιλτιάδης κατήμενος ἐν τοῖσι προθύροισι τοῖσι ἑωυτοῦ, ὁρέων τοὺς Δολόγκους παριόντας ἐσθῆτα ἔχοντας οὐκ ἐγχωρίην καὶ αἰχμὰς προσεβώσατο καί σφι προσελθοῦσι ἐπηγγείλατο καταγωγὴν καὶ ξείνια. οἳ δὲ δεξάμενοι καὶ ξεινισθέντες ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐξέφαινον πᾶν τὸ μαντήιον, ἐκφήναντες δὲ ἐδέοντο αὐτοῦ τῷ θεῷ μιν πείθεσθαι. Μιλτιάδεα δὲ ἀκούσαντα παραυτίκα ἔπεισε ὁ λόγος οἷα ἀχθόμενόν τε τῇ Πεισιστράτου ἀρχῇ καὶ βουλόμενον ἐκποδὼν εἶναι. αὐτίκα δὲ ἐστάλη ἐς Δελφούς, ἐπειρησόμενος τὸ χρηστήριον εἰ ποιοίη τά περ αὐτοῦ οἱ Δόλογκοι προσεδέοντο.''. None
1.146. For this reason, and for no other, the Ionians too made twelve cities; for it would be foolishness to say that these are more truly Ionian or better born than the other Ionians; since not the least part of them are Abantes from Euboea, who are not Ionians even in name, and there are mingled with them Minyans of Orchomenus, Cadmeans, Dryopians, Phocian renegades from their nation, Molossians, Pelasgian Arcadians, Dorians of Epidaurus, and many other tribes; ,and as for those who came from the very town-hall of Athens and think they are the best born of the Ionians, these did not bring wives with them to their settlements, but married Carian women whose parents they had put to death. ,For this slaughter, these women made a custom and bound themselves by oath (and enjoined it on their daughters) that no one would sit at table with her husband or call him by his name, because the men had married them after slaying their fathers and husbands and sons. This happened at Miletus .
2.142. Thus far went the record given by the Egyptians and their priests; and they showed me that the time from the first king to that priest of Hephaestus, who was the last, covered three hundred and forty-one generations, and that in this time this also had been the number of their kings, and of their high priests. ,Now three hundred generations are ten thousand years, three generations being equal to a hundred. And over and above the three hundred, the remaining forty-one cover thirteen hundred and forty years. ,Thus the whole period is eleven thousand three hundred and forty years; in all of which time (they said) they had had no king who was a god in human form, nor had there been any such either before or after those years among the rest of the kings of Egypt . ,Four times in this period (so they told me) the sun rose contrary to experience; twice he came up where he now goes down, and twice went down where he now comes up; yet Egypt at these times underwent no change, either in the produce of the river and the land, or in the matter of sickness and death. 2.143. Hecataeus the historian was once at Thebes , where he made a genealogy for himself that had him descended from a god in the sixteenth generation. But the priests of Zeus did with him as they also did with me (who had not traced my own lineage). ,They brought me into the great inner court of the temple and showed me wooden figures there which they counted to the total they had already given, for every high priest sets up a statue of himself there during his lifetime; ,pointing to these and counting, the priests showed me that each succeeded his father; they went through the whole line of figures, back to the earliest from that of the man who had most recently died. ,Thus, when Hecataeus had traced his descent and claimed that his sixteenth forefather was a god, the priests too traced a line of descent according to the method of their counting; for they would not be persuaded by him that a man could be descended from a god; they traced descent through the whole line of three hundred and forty-five figures, not connecting it with any ancestral god or hero, but declaring each figure to be a “Piromis” the son of a “Piromis”; in Greek, one who is in all respects a good man. ' "
6.35. At that time in Athens, Pisistratus held all power, but Miltiades son of Cypselus also had great influence. His household was rich enough to maintain a four-horse chariot, and he traced his earliest descent to Aeacus and Aegina, though his later ancestry was Athenian. Philaeus son of Ajax was the first of that house to be an Athenian. ,Miltiades was sitting on his porch when he saw the Dolonci go by with their foreign clothing and spears, so he called out to them, and when they came over, he invited them in for lodging and hospitality. They accepted, and after he entertained them, they revealed the whole story of the oracle to him and asked him to obey the god. ,He was persuaded as soon as he heard their speech, for he was tired of Pisistratus' rule and wanted to be away from it. He immediately set out for Delphi to ask the oracle if he should do what the Dolonci asked of him. "'. None
10. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, theme of Ezras purity of lineage

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 288; Kalmin (1998) 121


11. Anon., Jubilees, 16.17-16.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestry, genealogy • identity, Jewish, as genealogically based

 Found in books: Hayes (2015) 142; Marcar (2022) 136


16.17. And she bare a son in the third month, and in the middle of the month, at the time of which the Lord had spoken to Abraham, 16.18. on the festival of the first-fruits of the harvest, Isaac was born.rAnd Abraham circumcised his son on the eighth day:''. None
12. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 12.19-12.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • ancestry, genealogy

 Found in books: Marcar (2022) 13; Piotrkowski (2019) 84


12.19. This is a copy of the letter which they sent to Onias: 12.20. "Arius, king of the Spartans, to Onias the high priest, greeting. 12.21. It has been found in writing concerning the Spartans and the Jews that they are brethren and are of the family of Abraham. 12.22. And now that we have learned this, please write us concerning your welfare; 12.23. we on our part write to you that your cattle and your property belong to us, and ours belong to you. We therefore command that our envoys report to you accordingly."''. None
13. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, mocked in Tobit

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 136; Piotrkowski (2019) 99


4.10. When the king assented and Jason came to office, he at once shifted his countrymen over to the Greek way of life.'"". None
14. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 45.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestry, genealogy • prophecy, genealogical model of

 Found in books: DeJong (2022) 170; Marcar (2022) 122


45.25. A covet was also established with David,the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah:the heritage of the king is from son to son only;so the heritage of Aaron is for his descendants.''. None
15. Septuagint, Judith, 14.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • leprosy, genealogical purity and • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, of Judith

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 141; Lavee (2017) 93


14.10. And when Achior saw all that the God of Israel had done, he believed firmly in God, and was circumcised, and joined the house of Israel, remaining so to this day. ''. None
16. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.10-1.13, 1.31, 1.49.1-1.49.2, 1.61-1.62, 2.49.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical connections, in tales of founding of Rome • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, Rome as mixed lineage

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 246, 247, 248; Gruen (2020) 73, 76, 79


1.10. 1. \xa0There are some who affirm that the Aborigines, from whom the Romans are originally descended, were natives of Italy, a stock which came into being spontaneously (I\xa0call Italy all that peninsula which is bounded by the Ionian Gulf and the Tyrrhenian Sea and, thirdly, by the Alps on the landward side); and these authors say that they were first called Aborigines because they were the founders of the families of their descendants, or, as we should call them, genearchai or prôtogonoi.,2. \xa0Others claim that certain vagabonds without house or home, coming together out of many places, met one another there by chance and took up their abode in the fastnesses, living by robbery and grazing their herds. And these writers change their name, also, to one more suitable to their condition, calling them Aberrigenes, to show that they were wanderers; indeed, according to these, the race of the Aborigines would seem to be no different from those the ancients called Leleges; for this is the name they generally gave to the homeless and mixed peoples who had no fixed abode which they could call their country.,3. \xa0Still others have a story to the effect that they were colonists sent out by those Ligurians who are neighbours of the Umbrians. For the Ligurians inhabit not only many parts of Italy but some parts of Gaul as well, but which of these lands is their native country is not known, since nothing certain is said of them further. 1.11. 1. \xa0But the most learned of the Roman historians, among whom is Porcius Cato, who compiled with the greatest care the "origins" of the Italian cities, Gaius Sempronius and a great many others, say that they were Greeks, part of those who once dwelt in Achaia, and that they migrated many generations before the Trojan war. But they do not go on to indicate either the Greek tribe to which they belonged or the city from which they removed, or the date or the leader of the colony, or as the result of what turns of fortune they left their mother country; and although they are following a Greek legend, they have cited no Greek historian as their authority. It is uncertain, therefore, what the truth of the matter is. But if what they say is true, the Aborigines can be a colony of no other people but of those who are now called Arcadians;,2. \xa0for these were the first of all the Greeks to cross the Ionian Gulf, under the leadership of Oenotrus, the son of Lycaon, and to settle in Italy. This Oenotrus was the fifth from Aezeius and Phoroneus, who were the first kings in the Peloponnesus. For Niobê was the daughter of Phoroneus, and Pelasgus was the son of Niobê and Zeus, it is said; Lycaon was the son of Aezeius and Deïanira was the daughter of Lycaon; Deïanira and Pelasgus were the parents of another Lycaon, whose son Oenotrus was born seventeen generations before the Trojan expedition. This, then, was the time when the Greeks sent the colony into Italy.,3. \xa0Oenotrus left Greece because he was dissatisfied with his portion of his father\'s land; for, as Lycaon had twenty-two sons, it was necessary to divide Arcadia into as many shares. For this reason Oenotrus left the Peloponnesus, prepared a fleet, and crossed the Ionian Gulf with Peucetius, one of his brothers. They were accompanied by many of their own people â\x80\x94 for this nation is said to have been very populous in early times â\x80\x94\xa0and by as many other Greeks as had less land than was sufficient for them.,4. \xa0Peucetius landed his people above the Iapygian Promontory, which was the first part of Italy they made, and settled there; and from him the inhabitants of this region were called Peucetians. But Oenotrus with the greater part of the expedition came into the other sea that washes the western regions along the coast of Italy; it was then called the Ausonian Sea, from the Ausonians who dwelt beside it, but after the Tyrrhenians became masters at sea its name was changed to that which it now bears. 1.12. 1. \xa0And finding there much land suitable for pasturage and much for tillage, but for the most part unoccupied, and even that which was inhabited not thickly populated, he cleared some of it of the barbarians and built small towns contiguous to one another on the mountains, which was the customary manner of habitation in use among the ancients. And all the land he occupied, which was very extensive, was called Oenotria, and all the people under his command Oenotrians, which was the third name they had borne. For in the reign of Aezeius they were called Aezeians, when Lycaon succeeded to the rule, Lycaonians, and after Oenotrus led them into Italy they were for a while called Oenotrians.,2. \xa0What I\xa0say is supported by the testimony of Sophocles, the tragic poet, in his drama entitled Triptolemus; for he there represents Demeter as informing Triptolemus how large a tract of land he would have to travel over while sowing it with the seeds she had given him. For, after first referring to the eastern part of Italy, which reaches from the Iapygian Promontory to the Sicilian Strait, and then touching upon Sicily on the opposite side, she returns again to the western part of Italy and enumerates the most important nations that inhabit this coast, beginning with the settlement of the Oenotrians. But it is enough to quote merely the iambics in which he says: "And after this, â\x80\x94 first, then, upon the right, Oenotria wide-outstretched and Tyrrhene Gulf, And next the Ligurian land shall welcome thee." ,3. \xa0And Antiochus of Syracuse, a very early historian, in his account of the settlement of Italy, when enumerating the most ancient inhabitants in the order in which each of them held possession of any part of it, says that the first who are reported to have inhabited that country are the Oenotrians. His words are these: "Antiochus, the son of Xenophanes, wrote this account of Italy, which comprises all that is most credible and certain out of the ancient tales; this country, which is now called Italy, was formerly possessed by the Oenotrians." Then he relates in what manner they were governed and says that in the course of time Italus came to be their king, after whom they were named Italians; that this man was succeeded by Morges, after whom they were called Morgetes, and that Sicelus, being received as a guest by Morges and setting up a kingdom for himself, divided the nation. After which he adds these words: "Thus those who had been Oenotrians became Sicels, Morgetes and Italians." 1.13. 1. \xa0Now let me also show the origin of the Oenotrian race, offering as my witness another of the early historians, Pherecydes of Athens, who was a genealogist inferior to none. He thus expresses himself concerning the kings of Arcadia: "of Pelasgus and Deïanira was born Lycaon; this man married Cyllenê, a Naiad nymph, after whom Mount Cyllenê is named." Then, having given an account of their children and of the places each of them inhabited, he mentions Oenotrus and Peucetius, in these words: "And Oenotrus, after whom are named the Oenotrians who live in Italy, and Peucetius, after whom are named the Peucetians who live on the Ionian Gulf.",2. \xa0Such, then, are the accounts given by the ancient poets and writers of legends concerning the places of abode and the origin of the Oenotrians; and on their authority I\xa0assume that if the Aborigines were in reality a Greek nation, according to the opinion of Cato, Sempronius and many others, they were descendants of these Oenotrians. For I\xa0find that the Pelasgians and Cretans and the other nations that lived in Italy came thither afterwards; nor can\xa0I discover that any other expedition more ancient than this came from Greece to the western parts of Europe.,3. \xa0I\xa0am of the opinion that the Oenotrians, besides making themselves masters of many other regions in Italy, some of which they found unoccupied and others but thinly inhabited, also seized a portion of the country of the Umbrians, and that they were called Aborigines from their dwelling on the mountains (for it is characteristic of the Arcadians to be fond of the mountains), in the same manner as at Athens some are called Hyperakriori, and others Paralioi.,4. \xa0But if any are naturally slow in giving credit to accounts of ancient matters without due examination, let them be slow also in believing the Aborigines to be Ligurians, Umbrians, or any other barbarians, and let them suspend their judgment till they have heard what remains to be told and then determine which opinion out of all is the most probable.
1.31. 1. \xa0Soon after, another Greek expedition landed in this part of Italy, having migrated from Pallantium, a town of Arcadia, about the sixtieth year before the Trojan war, as the Romans themselves say. This colony had for its leader Evander, who is said to have been the son of Hermes and a local nymph of the Arcadians. The Greeks call her Themis and say that she was inspired, but the writers of the early history of Rome call her, in the native language, Carmenta. The nymph\'s name would be in Greek Thespiôdos or "prophetic singer"; for the Romans call songs carmina, and they agree that this woman, possessed by divine inspiration, foretold to the people in song the things that would come to pass.,2. \xa0This expedition was not sent out by the common consent of the nation, but, a sedition having arisen among the people, the faction which was defeated left the country of their own accord. It chanced that the kingdom of the Aborigines had been inherited at that time by Faunus, a descendant of Mars, it is said, a man of prudence as well as energy, whom the Romans in their sacrifices and songs honour as one of the gods of their country. This man received the Arcadians, who were but few in number, with great friendship and gave them as much of his own land as they desired.,3. \xa0And the Arcadians, as Themis by inspiration kept advising them, chose a hill, not far from the Tiber, which is now near the middle of the city of Rome, and by this hill built a small village sufficient for the complement of the two ships in which they had come from Greece. Yet this village was ordained by fate to excel in the course of time all other cities, whether Greek or barbarian, not only in its size, but also in the majesty of its empire and in every other form of prosperity, and to be celebrated above them all as long as mortality shall endure.,4. \xa0They named the town Pallantium after their mother-city in Arcadia; now, however, the Romans call it Palatium, time having obscured the correct form, and this name has given occasion of the many to suggest absurd etymologies. But some writers, among them Polybius of Megalopolis, related that the town was named after Pallas, a lad who died there; they say that he was the son of Hercules and Lavinia, the daughter of Evander, and that his maternal grandfather raised a tomb to him on the hill and called the place Pallantium, after the lad.
1.49.1. \xa0What happened after his departure creates still greater difficulty for most historians. For some, after they have brought him as far as Thrace, say he died there; of this number are Cephalon of Gergis and Hegesippus, who wrote concerning Pallenê, both of them ancient and reputable men. Others make him leave Thrace and take him to Arcadia, and say that he lived in the Arcadian Orchomenus, in a place which, though situated inland, yet by reason of marshes and a river, is called Nesos or "Island"; and they add that the town called Capyae was built by Aeneas and the Trojans and took its name from Capys the Troan. < 1.49.2. \xa0This is the account given by various other writers and by Ariaethus, the author of Arcadica. And there are some who have the story that he came, indeed, to Arcadia and yet that his death did not occur there, but in Italy; this is stated by many others and especially by Agathyllus of Arcadia, the poet, who writes thus in an elegy: "Then to Arcadia came and in Nesos left his two daughters, Fruit of his love for Anthemonê fair and for lovely Codonê; Thence made haste to Hesperia\'s land and begat there male offspring, Romulus named." <
1.61. 1. \xa0That the Trojans, too, were a nation as truly Greek as any and formerly came from the Peloponnesus has long been asserted by some authors and shall be briefly related by me also. The account concerning them is as follows. Atlas was the first king of the country now called Arcadia, and he lived near the mountain called Thaumasius. He had seven daughters, who are said to be numbered now among the constellations under the name of the Pleiades; Zeus married one of these, Electra, and had by her two sons, Iasus and Dardanus.,2. \xa0Iasus remained unmarried, but Dardanus married Chrysê, the daughter of Pallas, by whom he had two sons, Idaeus and Deimas; and these, succeeding Atlas in the kingdom, reign for some time in Arcadia. Afterwards, a great deluge occurring throughout Arcadia, the plains were overflowed and for a long time could not be tilled; and the inhabitants, living upon the mountains and eking out a sorry livelihood, decided that the land remaining would not be sufficient for the support of them all, and so divided themselves into two groups, one of which remained in Arcadia, after making Deimas, the son of Dardanus, their king, while the other left the Peloponnesus on board a large fleet.,3. \xa0And sailing along the coast of Europe, they came to a gulf called Melas and chanced to land on a certain island of Thrace, as to which I\xa0am unable to say whether it was previously inhabited or not. They called the island Samothrace, a name compounded of the name of a man and the name of a place. For it belongs to Thrace and its first settler was Samon, the son of Hermes and a nymph of Cyllenê, named Rhenê.,4. \xa0Here they remained but a short time, since the life proved to be no easy one for them, forced to contend, as they were, with both a poor soil and a boisterous sea; but leaving some few of their people in the island, the greater part of them removed once more and went to Asia under Dardanus as leader of their colony (for Iasus had died in the island, being struck with a thunderbolt for desiring to have intercourse with Demeter), and disembarking in the strait now called the Hellespont, they settled in the region which was afterwards called Phrygia. Idaeus, the son of Dardanus, with part of the company occupied the mountains which are now called after him the Idaean mountains, and there built a temple to the Mother of the Gods and instituted mysteries and ceremonies which are observed to this day throughout all Phrygia. And Dardanus built a city named after himself in the region now called the Troad; the land was given to him by Teucer, the king, after whom the country was anciently called Teucris.,5. \xa0Many authors, and particularly Phanodemus, who wrote about the ancient lore of Attica, say that Teucer had come into Asia from Attica, where he had been chief of the deme called Xypetê, and of this tale they offer many proofs. They add that, having possessed himself of a large and fertile country with but a small native population, he was glad to see Dardanus and the Greeks who came with him, both because he hoped for their assistance in his wars against the barbarians and because he desired that the land should not remain unoccupied. But the subject requires that I\xa0relate also how Aeneas was descended: this, too, I\xa0shall do briefly. Dardanus, after the death of Chrysê, the daughter of Pallas, by whom he had his first sons, married Bateia, the daughter of Teucer, and by her had Erichthonius, who is said to have been the most fortunate of all men, since he inherited both the kingdom of his father and that of his maternal grandfather. 1.62. 2. \xa0of Erichthonius and Callirrhoê, the daughter of Scamander, was born Tros, from whom the nation has received its name; of Tros and Acallaris, the daughter of Eumedes, Assaracus; of Assaracus and Clytodora, the daughter of Laomedon, Capys; of Capys and a Naiad nymph, Hieromnemê, Anchises; of Anchises and Aphroditê, Aeneas. Thus I\xa0have shown that the Trojan race, too, was originally Greek.
2.49.2. \xa0But Porcius Cato says that the Sabine race received its name from Sabus, the son of Sancus, a divinity of that country, and that this Sancus was by some called Jupiter Fidius. He says also that their first place of abode was a certain village called Testruna, situated near the city of Amiternum; that from there the Sabines made an incursion at that time into the Reatine territory, which was inhabited by the Aborigines together with the Pelasgians, and took their most famous city, Cutiliae, by force of arms and occupied it; <''. None
17. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 7 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical section of the Pentateuch • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Philo

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 7; Gruen (2020) 152


7. and if God has not a face (inasmuch as he is not bound by what may seem appropriate for created things), and if he does not exist in parts inasmuch as he surrounds all things and is not surrounded by any, it is impossible for anything to remove and depart from this world as from a city, as there is no portion of it left without. It now remains for us, considering that none of these things are spoken of in terms of strict propriety, to turn to the allegorical system, which is dear to men versed in natural philosophy, taking the first principles of our argument from this source. ''. None
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 147, 199, 206-207, 212-219, 222-225 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestry, genealogy • genealogical section of the Pentateuch • genealogy of virtues • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Philo

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 5, 179; Gruen (2020) 152, 153, 154, 155, 160, 162; Marcar (2022) 152


147. But, nevertheless, the lawgiver neither neglected the safety of the unclean animals, nor did he permit those which were clean to use their strength in disregard of justice, crying out and declaring loudly in express words, if one may say so, to those persons who have ears in their soul, not to injure any one of a different nation, unless they have some grounds for bringing accusations against them beyond the fact of their being of another nation, which is not ground of blame; for those things which are not wickedness, and which do not proceed from wickedness, are free from all reproach. XXVIII. '
199. Again, who is there who would deny that those men who were born of him who was made out of the earth were noble themselves, and the founders of noble families? persons who have received a birth more excellent than that of any succeeding generation, in being sprung from the first wedded pair, from the first man and woman, who then for the first time came together for the propagation of offspring resembling themselves. But, nevertheless, when there were two persons so born, the elder of them endured to slay the younger; and, having committed the great and most accursed crime of fratricide, he first defiled the ground with human blood.
206. But, however, let these men be set down as common rules and limits for all men, in order to prevent them from priding themselves on their noble birth, and so departing from and losing the rewards of excellence. But there are also other especial rules given to the Jews besides the common ones which are applicable to all mankind; for they are derived from the original founders of the nation, to whom the virtues of their ancestors were absolutely of no benefit at all, inasmuch as they were detected in blameable and guilty actions, and were convicted, if not by any other human being, at all events by their own consciences, which is the sole tribunal in the world which is never led away by any artifices of speech. ' "207. The first man of them had a numerous family, inasmuch as he had children by three wives, not forming these connections for the sake of pleasure, but because of his hope of multiplying his race. But, of all his children, one alone was appointed to be the inheritor of his father's possessions; and all the rest, being disappointed of their reasonable hopes, and having failed to obtain any portion whatever of their father's wealth, departed to live in different countries, having been completely alienated from that celebrated nobility of birth. " '
212. The most ancient person of the Jewish nation was a Chaldaean by birth, born of a father who was very skilful in astronomy, and famous among those men who pass their lives in the study of mathematics, who look upon the stars as gods, and worship the whole heaven and the whole world; thinking, that from them do all good and all evil proceed, to every individual among men; as they do not conceive that there is any cause whatever, except such as are included among the objects of the outward senses. 213. Now what can be more horrible than this? What can more clearly show the innate ignobleness of the soul, which, by consequence of its knowledge of the generality of things, of secondary causes, and of things created, proceeds onwards to ignorance of the one most ancient uncreated Being, the Creator of the universe, and who is most excellent on this account, and for many other reasons also, which the human reason is unable to comprehend by reason of their magnitude? ' "214. But this man, having formed a proper conception of this in his mind, and being under the influence of inspiration, left his country, and his family, and his father's house, well knowing that, if he remained among them, the deceitful fancies of the polytheistic doctrine abiding there likewise, must render his mind incapable of arriving at the proper discovery of the true God, who is the only everlasting God and the Father of all other things, whether appreciable only by the intellect or perceptible by the outward senses; while, on the other hand, he saw, that if he rose up and quitted his native land, deceit would also depart from his mind. changing his false opinions into true belief. " '215. At the same time, also, the divine oracles of God which were imparted to him excited still further that desire which longed to attain to a knowledge of the living God, by which he was guided, and thus went forth with most unhesitating earnestness to the investigation of the one God. And he never desisted from this investigation till he arrived at a more distinct perception, not indeed of his essence, for that is impossible, but of his existence, and of his over-ruling providence as far as it can be allowed to man to attain to such; 216. for which reason he is the first person who is said to have believed in God, since he was the first who had an unswerving and firm comprehension of him, apprehending that there is one supreme cause, and that he it is which governs the world by his providence, and all the things that are therein. And having attained to a most firm comprehension of the virtues, he acquired at the same time all the other virtues and excellencies also, so that he was looked upon as a king by those who received him, not indeed in respect of his appointments, for he was only a private individual, but in his magimity and greatness of soul, inasmuch as he was of a royal spirit. 217. For, indeed, his servants at all times steadfastly observed him, as subjects observe a ruler, looking with admiration at the universal greatness of his nature and disposition, which was more perfect than is customary to meet with in a man; for he did not use the same conversation as ordinary men, but, like one inspired, spoke in general in more dignified language. Whenever, therefore, he was possessed by the Holy Spirit he at once changed everything for the better, his eyes and his complexion, and his size and his appearance while standing, and his motions, and his voice; the Holy Spirit, which, being breathed into him from above, took up its lodging in his soul, clothing his body with extraordinary beauty, and investing his words with persuasiveness at the same time that it endowed his hearers with understanding. 218. Would not any one, then, be quite correct to say that this man who thus left his native land, who thus forsook all his relations and all his friends, was the most nobly related of all men, as aiming at making himself a kinsman of God, and labouring by every means in his power to become his disciple and friend? And that he was deservedly ranked in the very highest class among the prophets, because he trusted in no created being in preference to the uncreated God, the Father of all? And being honoured as king, as I have said before, by those who received him among them, not as having obtained his authority by warlike arms, or by armed hosts, as some persons have done, but having received his appointment from the all-righteous God, who honours the lovers of piety with independent authority, to the great advantage of all who are associated with them. 219. This man is the standard of nobleness to all who come to settle in a foreign land, leaving that ignobleness which attaches to them from foreign laws and unbecoming customs, which give honours, such as are due only to God, to stocks, and to stones, and, in short, to all kinds of iimate things; and who have thus come over to a constitution really full of vitality and life, the president and governor of which is truth. XL.
222. And yet she, having married two wicked brothers in turn, one after the other, first of all the one who was the husband of her virginity, and lastly him who succeeded to her by the law which enjoined such a marriage, in the case of the first husband not having left any family, but nevertheless, having preserved her own life free from all stain, was able to attain to that fair reputation which falls to the lot of the good, and to be the beginning of nobleness to all those who came after her. But even though she was a foreigner still she was nevertheless a freeborn woman, and born also of freeborn parents of no insignificant importance; 223. but her handmaidens were born of parents who lived on the other side of the Euphrates on the extremities of the country of Babylon, such as were given as part of their dowry to maidens of high rank when they were married, but still were often thought worthy to be taken to the bed of a wise man; and so they first of all were raised from the title of concubines to the name and dignity of wives, and in a short time, I may almost say, instead of being looked upon as handmaidens they were raised to an equality in point of dignity and consideration with their mistresses, and, which is the most extraordinary circumstance of all, were even invited by their mistresses to this position and dignity. For envy does not dwell in the souls of the wise, and whenever that is not present they all have all things in common. 224. And the illegitimate sons borne by those handmaidens differed in no respect from the legitimate children of the real wives, not only in the eyes of the father who begot them, for it is not at all surprising if he who was the father of them all displayed an equal degree of good-will to them all, since they were all equally his children; but they also were equally esteemed by their stepmothers. For they, laying aside all that dislike which women so commonly feel towards their stepsons, changed it into an unceasing affection with which they united themselves to them. 225. And the stepsons, showing a reciprocal good will to them, honoured their stepmothers as if they had been their natural mothers. And their brothers, being separated from them only by the mixture in their blood, nevertheless did not think them worthy of only a half degree of affection, but even increased their feelings so that they entertained a twofold degree of love for them, being equally beloved by them in return; and thus more than filled up what might else have appeared likely to be deficient, showing an eagerness to exhibit the same harmony and union of disposition with them that they did with their brethren by both parents. XLI. '. None
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.266 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Philo • prophecy, genealogical model of

 Found in books: DeJong (2022) 287; Gruen (2020) 154


1.266. So this man, Balak, now sent some of his companions, entreating him to come to him, and he gave him some presents at once, and he promised to give him others also, explaining to him the necessity which he was in, on account of which he had sent for him. But he did not treat the messengers with any noble or consistent disposition, but with great courtesy and civility evaded their request, as if he were one of the most celebrated prophets, and as such was accustomed to do nothing whatever without first consulting the oracle, and so he declined, saying that the Deity would not permit him to go with them. ''. None
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.179, 2.181, 11.340-11.341, 12.68, 12.71, 12.226, 20.100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • ancestry, genealogy • genealogical section of the Pentateuch • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Josephus

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1; Dijkstra (2020) 45; Gruen (2020) 167, 168, 171, 175; Marcar (2022) 13; Piotrkowski (2019) 87, 88


2.179. τρεῖς δὲ Ζαβουλὼν ἦγεν υἱούς, Σάραδον ̔́Ηλωνα ̓Ιάνηλον. τοῦτο μὲν τὸ ἐκ Λείας γένος: καὶ αὐτῇ συνανῄει καὶ θυγάτηρ αὐτῆς Δεῖνα.
2.181. καὶ τὸ μὲν γνήσιον γένος τῷ ̓Ιακώβῳ τοῦτο ἦν, ἐκ Βάλλας δὲ αὐτῷ γίνονται τῆς ̔Ραχήλας θεραπαινίδος Δάνος καὶ Νεφθαλίς, ᾧ τέσσαρες εἵποντο παῖδες, ̓Ελιῆλος Γοῦνις Σάρης τε καὶ Σέλλιμος, Δάνῳ δὲ μονογενὲς ἦν παιδίον Οὖσις. 11.341. εἰσὶν γὰρ οἱ Σαμαρεῖς τοιοῦτοι τὴν φύσιν, ὡς ἤδη που καὶ πρότερον δεδηλώκαμεν: ἐν μὲν ταῖς συμφοραῖς ὄντας τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους ἀρνοῦνται συγγενεῖς ὁμολογοῦντες τότε τὴν ἀλήθειαν, ὅταν δέ τι λαμπρὸν περὶ αὐτοὺς ἴδωσιν ἐκ τύχης, ἐπιπηδῶσιν αὐτῶν τῇ κοινωνίᾳ προσήκειν αὐτοῖς λέγοντες καὶ ἐκ τῶν ̓Ιωσήπου γενεαλογοῦντες αὑτοὺς ἐκγόνων ̓Εφραίμου καὶ Μανασσοῦς.
12.68. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν τῶν ὠῶν διατύπωσιν στέφανον περιήγαγον οἱ τεχνῖται παντοίου καρποῦ φύσιν ἐντετορευμένον, ὡς ἀποκρέμασθαί τε βότρυς καὶ στάχυας ἀναστῆναι καὶ ῥόας ἀποκεκλεῖσθαι. τοὺς δὲ λίθους εἰς πᾶν γένος τῶν προειρημένων καρπῶν, ὡς ἑκάστου τὴν οἰκείαν ἐντετυπῶσθαι χρόαν, ἐξεργασάμενοι συνέδησαν τῷ χρυσῷ περὶ ὅλην τὴν τράπεζαν.
12.71. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς τραπέζης μαίανδρον ἐξέγλυψαν λίθους αὐτῷ κατὰ μέσον ἀξιολόγους ὥσπερ ἀστέρας ποικίλης ἰδέας ἐνθέντες, τόν τε ἄνθρακα καὶ τὸν σμάραγδον ἥδιστον προσαυγάζοντας αὐτῶν ἑκάτερον τοῖς ὁρῶσιν, τῶν τε ἄλλων γενῶν ὅσοι περισπούδαστοι καὶ ζηλωτοὶ πᾶσιν διὰ τὴν πολυτέλειαν τῆς φύσεως ὑπάρχουσιν.
12.226. ἐντυχόντες γραφῇ τινι εὕρομεν, ὡς ἐξ ἑνὸς εἶεν γένους ̓Ιουδαῖοι καὶ Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ ἐκ τῆς πρὸς ̓́Αβραμον οἰκειότητος. δίκαιον οὖν ἐστιν ἀδελφοὺς ὑμᾶς ὄντας διαπέμπεσθαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς περὶ ὧν ἂν βούλησθε.' '. None
2.179. Zabulon had with him three sons—Sarad, Helon, Jalel. So far is the posterity of Lea; with whom went her daughter Dinah. These are thirty-three.
2.181. And this was the legitimate posterity of Jacob. He had besides by Bilhah, the handmaid of Rachel, Dan and Nephtliali; which last had four sons that followed him—Jesel, Guni, Issari, and Sellim. Dan had an only begotten son, Usi. 11.341. for such is the disposition of the Samaritans, as we have already elsewhere declared, that when the Jews are in adversity, they deny that they are of kin to them, and then they confess the truth; but when they perceive that some good fortune hath befallen them, they immediately pretend to have communion with them, saying that they belong to them, and derive their genealogy from the posterity of Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh.
12.68. But under these oval figures, thus engraven, the workmen had put a crown all round it, where the nature of all sorts of fruit was represented, insomuch that the bunches of grapes hung up. And when they had made the stones to represent all the kinds of fruit before mentioned, and that each in its proper color, they made them fast with gold round the whole table.
12.71. but upon the table itself they engraved a meander, inserting into it very valuable stones in the middle like stars, of various colors; the carbuncle and the emerald, each of which sent out agreeable rays of light to the spectators; with such stones of other sorts also as were most curious and best esteemed, as being most precious in their kind.
12.226. “Areus, King of The Lacedemonians, To Onias, Sendeth Greeting.
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Josephus • parallels (to other cultural traditions), genealogical vs. analogical

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 168; Hayes (2022) 330


2.119. Τρία γὰρ παρὰ ̓Ιουδαίοις εἴδη φιλοσοφεῖται, καὶ τοῦ μὲν αἱρετισταὶ Φαρισαῖοι, τοῦ δὲ Σαδδουκαῖοι, τρίτον δέ, ὃ δὴ καὶ δοκεῖ σεμνότητα ἀσκεῖν, ̓Εσσηνοὶ καλοῦνται, ̓Ιουδαῖοι μὲν γένος ὄντες, φιλάλληλοι δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πλέον.''. None
2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have.''. None
22. Mishnah, Negaim, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical anxiety, Iranian context and • genealogical anxiety, centrality of the body and • genealogy

 Found in books: Lavee (2017) 222; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 104


7.1. אֵלּוּ בֶהָרוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת. שֶׁהָיוּ בוֹ קֹדֶם לְמַתַּן תּוֹרָה, בְּנָכְרִי וְנִתְגַּיֵּר, בְּקָטָן וְנוֹלַד, בְּקֶמֶט וְנִגְלָה, בָּרֹאשׁ וּבַזָּקָן, בַּשְּׁחִין וּבַמִּכְוָה וְקֶדַח וּבַמּוֹרְדִין. חָזַר הָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן וְנִקְרְחוּ, הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְהַקֶּדַח וְנַעֲשׂוּ צָרֶבֶת, טְהוֹרִים. הָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר, הֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר וְנִקְרְחוּ, הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְהַקֶּדַח עַד שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂוּ צָרֶבֶת, נַעֲשׂוּ צָרֶבֶת וְחָיוּ, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב מְטַמֵּא, שֶׁתְּחִלָּתָן וְסוֹפָן טָמֵא. וַחֲכָמִים מְטַהֲרִים:''. None
7.1. The following bright spots are clean:Those that one had before the Torah was given, Those that a non-Jew had when he converted; Or a child when it was born, Or those that were in a crease and were subsequently uncovered. If they were on the head or the beard, on a boil, a burn or a blister that is festering, and subsequently the head or the beard became bald, and the boil, burn or blister turned into a scar, they are clean. If they were on the head or the beard before they grew hair, and they then grew hair and subsequently became bald, or if they were on the body before the boil, burn or blister before they were festering and then these formed a scar or were healed: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said that they are unclean since at the beginning and at the end they were unclean, But the sages say: they are clean.''. None
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.20-9.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Paul, as genealogical exclusivist • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Paul

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 193; Hayes (2015) 148


9.20. καὶ ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους κερδήσω· τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον, μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω· 9.21. τοῖς ἀνόμοις ὡς ἄνομος, μὴ ὢν ἄνομος θεοῦ ἀλλʼ ἔννομος Χριστοῦ, ἵνα κερδανῶ τοὺς ἀνόμους·''. None
9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law.''. None
24. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • genealogies

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 45; Vinzent (2013) 125


1.4. μηδὲ προσέχειν μύθοις καὶ γενεαλογίαις ἀπεράντοις,αἵτινες ἐκζητήσεις παρέχουσι μᾶλλον ἢ οἰκονομίαν θεοῦ τὴν ἐν πίστει,''. None
1.4. neither to pay attention to myths and endless genealogies, which cause disputes, rather than God's stewardship, which is in faith -- "". None
25. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.15, 3.19, 3.28-3.29, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogies • Genealogy • Paul, as genealogical exclusivist • ancestry, genealogy • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Paul

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 81; Dijkstra (2020) 45; Gruen (2020) 187, 190, 192, 193; Hayes (2015) 147, 148; Marcar (2022) 149


2.11. Ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Κηφᾶς εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην, ὅτι κατεγνωσμένος ἦν· 2.12. πρὸ τοῦ γὰρ ἐλθεῖν τινὰς ἀπὸ Ἰακώβου μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν· ὅτε δὲ ἦλθον, ὑπέστελλεν καὶ ἀφώριζεν ἑαυτόν, φοβούμενος τοὺς ἐκ περιτομῆς. 2.13. καὶ συνυπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ Ἰουδαῖοι, ὥστε καὶ Βαρνάβας συναπήχθη αὐτῶν τῇ ὑποκρίσει. 2.14. ἀλλʼ ὅτε εἶδον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθοποδοῦσιν πρὸς τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, εἶπον τῷ Κηφᾷ ἔμπροσθεν πάντων Εἰ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ὑπάρχων ἐθνικῶς καὶ οὐκ Ἰουδαϊκῶς ζῇς, πῶς τὰ ἔθνη ἀναγκάζεις Ἰουδαΐζειν; 2.15. Ἡμεῖς φύσει Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἁμαρτωλοί,
3.19. Τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, ἄχρις ἂν ἔλθῃ τὸ σπέρμα ᾧ ἐπήγγελται, διαταγεὶς διʼ ἀγγέλων ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου·
3.28. οὐκ ἔνι Ἰουδαῖος οὐδὲ Ἕλλην, οὐκ ἔνι δοῦλος οὐδὲ ἐλεύθερος, οὐκ ἔνι ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ· πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς εἷς ἐστὲ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. 3.29. εἰ δὲ ὑμεῖς Χριστοῦ, ἄρα τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ σπέρμα ἐστέ, κατʼ ἐπαγγελίαν κληρονόμοι.
4.5. ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ, ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν.''. None
2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn\'t walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. "We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners,
3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator.
3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. ' "3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise." '
4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. ''. None
26. New Testament, Romans, 1.3, 2.29, 3.29-3.30, 4.13, 4.16, 4.18, 9.4, 9.7-9.8, 11.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy, physical versus spiritual • Paul, as genealogical exclusivist • ancestry, genealogy • identity, Jewish, as genealogically based • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Paul

 Found in books: Dawson (2001) 37; Gruen (2020) 188, 192, 193, 194; Hayes (2015) 149; Marcar (2022) 149


1.3. περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, τοῦ γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυεὶδ κατὰ σάρκα,
2.29. ἀλλʼ ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖος, καὶ περιτομὴ καρδίας ἐν πνεύματι οὐ γράμματι, οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀλλʼ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ.
3.29. ἢ Ἰουδαίων ὁ θεὸς μόνον; οὐχὶ καὶ ἐθνῶν; 3.30. ναὶ καὶ ἐθνῶν, εἴπερ εἷς ὁ θεός, ὃς δικαιώσει περιτομὴν ἐκ πίστεως καὶ ἀκροβυστίαν διὰ τῆς πίστεως.
4.13. Οὐ γὰρ διὰ νόμου ἡ ἐπαγγελία τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἢ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ, τὸ κληρονόμον αὐτὸν εἶναι κόσμου, ἀλλὰ διὰ δικαιοσύνης πίστεως·
4.16. Διὰ τοῦτο ἐκ πίστεως, ἵνα κατὰ χάριν, εἰς τὸ εἶναι βεβαίαν τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν παντὶ τῷ σπέρματι, οὐ τῷ ἐκ τοῦ νόμου μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραάμ,?̔ὅς ἐστιν πατὴρ πάντων ἡμῶν,
4.18. ὃς παρʼ ἐλπίδα ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι ἐπίστευσεν εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι αὐτὸνπατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶνκατὰ τὸ εἰρημένονΟὕτως ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα σου·
9.4. ὧν ἡ υἱοθεσία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ αἱ διαθῆκαι καὶ ἡ νομοθεσία καὶ ἡ λατρεία καὶ αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι,
9.7. οὐδʼ ὅτι εἰσὶν σπέρμα Ἀβραάμ, πάντες τέκνα, ἀλλʼἘν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα. 9.8. τοῦτʼ ἔστιν, οὐ τὰ τέκνα τῆς σαρκὸς ταῦτα τέκνα τοῦ θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐπαγγελίας λογίζεται εἰς σπέρμα·
11.1. Λέγω οὖν, μὴἀπώσατο ὁ θεὸς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ;μὴ γένοιτο· καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ Ἰσραηλείτης εἰμί, ἐκ σπέρματος Ἀβραάμ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν.''. None
1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,
2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. ' "
3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, " '3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. ' "
4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. " '
4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all.
4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be."
9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises;
9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham\'s seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called." 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed.
11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. ''. None
27. New Testament, John, 1.1, 1.17, 3.4, 3.14-3.15, 8.41-8.42, 8.44, 8.47, 18.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestry, genealogy • conception and birth, genealogy • genealogy/generations, in Johns Gospel • genealogy/generations, in Luke • prophecy, genealogical model of

 Found in books: DeJong (2022) 311, 315; Goldhill (2022) 239; Marcar (2022) 158; Peppard (2011) 141


1.1. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.

1.17. ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωυσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο.
3.4. λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος Πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὤν; μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι;
3.14. καὶ καθὼς Μωυσῆς ὕψωσεν τὸν ὄφιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, οὕτως ὑψωθῆναι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, 3.15. ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐν αὐτῷ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον.
8.41. ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε τὰ ἔργα τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν. εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ἡμεῖς ἐκ πορνείας οὐκ ἐγεννήθημεν· ἕνα πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν θεόν. 8.42. εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Εἰ ὁ θεὸς πατὴρ ὑμῶν ἦν ἠγαπᾶτε ἂν ἐμέ, ἐγὼ γὰρ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐξῆλθον καὶ ἥκω· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀπʼ ἐμαυτοῦ ἐλήλυθα, ἀλλʼ ἐκεῖνός με ἀπέστειλεν.
8.44. ὑμεῖς ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ διαβόλου ἐστὲ καὶ τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν θέλετε ποιεῖν. ἐκεῖνος ἀνθρωποκτόνος ἦν ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς, καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ οὐκ ἔστηκεν, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν αὐτῷ. ὅταν λαλῇ τὸ ψεῦδος, ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων λαλεῖ, ὅτι ψεύστης ἐστὶν καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ.
8.47. ὁ ὢν ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ τὰ ῥήματα τοῦ θεοῦ ἀκούει· διὰ τοῦτο ὑμεῖς οὐκ ἀκούετε ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἐστέ.
18.36. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς Ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου· εἰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἦν ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμή, οἱ ὑπηρέται οἱ ἐμοὶ ἠγωνίζοντο ἄν, ἵνα μὴ παραδοθῶ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις· νῦν δὲ ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντεῦθεν.''. None
1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
3.4. Nicodemus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother\'s womb, and be born?"
3.14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 3.15. that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life.
8.41. You do the works of your father."They said to him, "We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, God." 8.42. Therefore Jesus said to them, "If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came out and have come from God. For I haven\'t come of myself, but he sent me. ' "
8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it. " '
8.47. He who is of God hears the words of God. For this cause you don\'t hear, because you are not of God."
18.36. Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn\'t be delivered to the Jews. But now my kingdom is not from here."''. None
28. New Testament, Luke, 3.21, 3.23-3.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogies • Genealogy • Jesus, Genealogy • Joseph (father of Jesus), genealogy • New Testament, genealogy • genealogies • purity, Genealogical

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 166; Beyerle and Goff (2022) 289; Lieu (2004) 78; Monnickendam (2020) 71; Ruzer (2020) 99, 100; Thiessen (2011) 137


3.21. Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ βαπτισθῆναι ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν καὶ Ἰησοῦ βαπτισθέντος καὶ προσευχομένου ἀνεῳχθῆναι τὸν οὐρανὸν
3.23. Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Ἰησοῦς ἀρχόμενος ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα, ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσήφ τοῦ Ἡλεί 3.24. τοῦ Ματθάτ τοῦ Λευεί τοῦ Μελχεί τοῦ Ἰανναί τοῦ Ἰωσήφ 3.25. τοῦ Ματταθίου τοῦ Ἀμώς τοῦ Ναούμ τοῦ Ἐσλεί τοῦ Ναγγαί 3.26. τοῦ Μαάθ τοῦ Ματταθίου τοῦ Σεμεείν τοῦ Ἰωσήχ τοῦ Ἰωδά 3.27. τοῦ Ἰωανάν τοῦ Ῥησά τοῦ Ζοροβάβελ τοῦ Σαλαθιήλ τοῦ Νηρεί 3.28. τοῦ Μελχεί τοῦ Ἀδδεί τοῦ Κωσάμ τοῦ Ἐλμαδάμ τοῦ Ἤρ 3.29. τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ τοῦ Ἰωρείμ τοῦ Μαθθάτ τοῦ Λευεί 3.30. τοῦ Συμεών τοῦ Ἰούδα τοῦ Ἰωσήφ τοῦ Ἰωνάμ τοῦ Ἐλιακείμ 3.31. τοῦ Μελεά τοῦ Μεννά τοῦ Ματταθά τοῦ Ναθάμ τοῦ Δαυείδ 3.32. τοῦ Ἰεσσαί τοῦ Ἰωβήλ τοῦ Βοός τοῦ Σαλά τοῦ Ναασσών 3.33. τοῦ Ἀδμείν τοῦ Ἀρνεί τοῦ Ἑσρών τοῦ Φαρές τοῦ Ἰούδα 3.34. τοῦ Ἰακώβ τοῦ Ἰσαάκ τοῦ Ἀβραάμ τοῦ Θαρά τοῦ Ναχώρ 3.35. τοῦ Σερούχ τοῦ Ῥαγαύ τοῦ Φάλεκ τοῦ Ἔβερ τοῦ Σαλά 3.36. τοῦ Καινάμ τοῦ Ἀρφαξάδ τοῦ Σήμ τοῦ Νῶε τοῦ Λάμεχ 3.37. τοῦ Μαθουσαλά τοῦ Ἑνώχ τοῦ Ἰάρετ τοῦ Μαλελεήλ τοῦ Καινάμ 3.38. τοῦ Ἐνώς τοῦ Σήθ τοῦ Ἀδάμ τοῦ θεοῦ.''. None
3.21. Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying. The sky was opened,
3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli, 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai, 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah, 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er, 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim, 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon, 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 3.37. the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalaleel, the son of Cai, 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. ''. None
29. New Testament, Mark, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jesus, genealogy • Mark, Gospel of familial ties and genealogy in • genealogies

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 213; Peppard (2011) 126


6.3. οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ Σίμωνος; καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ.''. None
6.3. Isn\'t this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? Aren\'t his sisters here with us?" They were offended at him. ''. None
30. New Testament, Matthew, 1.16, 1.24-1.25, 13.55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jesus, Genealogy • Jesus, genealogy • Joseph (father of Jesus), genealogy • Mark, Gospel of familial ties and genealogy in • Matthew, Gospel of, genealogy • New Testament, genealogy • conception and birth, genealogy • genealogies

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 213; Iricinschi et al. (2013) 337; Monnickendam (2020) 71; Peppard (2011) 13, 126; Ruzer (2020) 100


1.16. Ἰακὼβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἄνδρα Μαρίας, ἐξ ἧς ἐγεννήθη Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός.
1.24. Ἐγερθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰωσὴφ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕπνου ἐποίησεν ὡς προσέταξεν αὐτῷ ὁ ἄγγελος Κυρίου καὶ παρέλαβεν τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ· 1.25. καὶ οὐκ ἐγίνωσκεν αὐτὴν ἕως οὗ ἔτεκεν υἱόν· καὶ ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν.
13.55. οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται Μαριὰμ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας;' '. None
1.16. Jacob became the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, from whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.
1.24. Joseph arose from his sleep, and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took his wife to himself; ' "1.25. and didn't know her sexually until she had brought forth her firstborn son. He named him Jesus. " "
13.55. Isn't this the carpenter's son? Isn't his mother called Mary, and his brothers, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas? " '. None
31. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical connections, in tales of founding of Rome • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, Rome as mixed lineage

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 249; Gruen (2020) 76


32. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogies • genealogy, Arcadian • genealogy, construction of • mania, family genealogies of

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 31; Johnston and Struck (2005) 174; Marek (2019) 476; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 182


33. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestry, genealogy • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in Paul

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 191, 192, 193; Marcar (2022) 149


34. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Genealogy • genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, in Tobit

 Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 227; Kalmin (1998) 135


25b. ומה לפנים ומה לאחור קמ"ל,מעשה לוט ושתי בנותיו נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ניחוש לכבודו דאברהם קמ"ל,מעשה תמר ויהודה נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש לכבודו דיהודה קמ"ל שבחיה הוא דאודי,מעשה עגל הראשון נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש לכבודן של ישראל קמ"ל כל שכן דניחא להו דהויא להו כפרה,קללות וברכות נקרין ומתרגמין פשיטא מהו דתימא ניחוש דלמא פייגא דעתייהו דצבורא קמ"ל,אזהרות ועונשין נקרין ומתרגמין פשיטא מהו דתימא ניחוש דלמא אתו למעבד מיראה קמ"ל,מעשה אמנון ותמר נקרא ומתרגם מעשה אבשלום נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש ליקריה דדוד קמ"ל,מעשה פילגש בגבעה נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש לכבודו דבנימין קמ"ל,(יחזקאל טז, ב) הודע את ירושלם את תועבותיה נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא לאפוקי מדרבי אליעזר דתניא מעשה באדם אחד שהיה קורא למעלה מרבי אליעזר הודע את ירושלם את תועבותיה אמר לו עד שאתה בודק בתועבות ירושלים צא ובדוק בתועבות אמך בדקו אחריו ומצאו בו שמץ פסול:,ואלו נקרין ולא מתרגמין (רעבד"ן סימן) מעשה ראובן נקרא ולא מתרגם ומעשה ברבי חנינא בן גמליאל שהלך לכבול והיה קורא חזן הכנסת (בראשית לה, כב) ויהי בשכון ישראל ואמר לו למתורגמן (הפסק) אל תתרגם אלא אחרון ושיבחוהו חכמים,מעשה עגל השני נקרא ולא מתרגם איזה מעשה עגל השני מן (שמות לב, כא) ויאמר משה עד וירא משה,תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר לעולם יהא אדם זהיר בתשובותיו שמתוך תשובה שהשיבו אהרן למשה פקרו המערערים שנאמר (שמות לב, כד) ואשליכהו באש ויצא העגל הזה:,ברכת כהנים נקרין ולא מתרגמין מ"ט משום דכתיב (במדבר ו, כו) ישא:,מעשה דוד ואמנון לא נקרין ולא מתרגמין והא אמרת מעשה אמנון ותמר נקרא ומתרגם לא קשיא הא דכתיב אמנון בן דוד הא דכתיב אמנון סתמא,ת"ר כל המקראות הכתובין בתורה לגנאי קורין אותן לשבח כגון (דברים כח, ל) ישגלנה ישכבנה (דברים כח, כז) בעפולים בטחורים (מלכים ב ו, כה) חריונים דביונים (מלכים ב יח, כז) לאכול את חוריהם ולשתות את מימי שיניהם לאכול את צואתם ולשתות את מימי רגליהם,(מלכים ב י, כז) למחראות למוצאות ר\' יהושע בן קרחה אומר למחראות כשמן מפני שהוא גנאי לעבודת כוכבים,אמר רב נחמן כל ליצנותא אסירא בר מליצנותא דעבודת כוכבים דשריא דכתיב (ישעיהו מו, א) כרע בל קרס נבו וכתיב (ישעיהו מו, ב) קרסו כרעו יחדיו לא יכלו מלט משא וגו\' ר\' ינאי אמר מהכא (הושע י, ה) לעגלות בית און יגורו שכן שומרון כי אבל עליו עמו וכמריו עליו יגילו על כבודו כי גלה ממנו אל תקרי כבודו אלא כבידו,אמר רב הונא בר מנוח משמיה דרב אחא בריה דרב איקא שרי ליה לבר ישראל למימר ליה לעובד כוכבים שקליה לעבודת כוכבים ואנחיה בשין תיו שלו אמר רב אשי האי מאן דסנאי שומעניה שרי ליה לבזוייה בגימ"ל ושי"ן האי מאן דשפיר שומעניה שרי לשבוחיה ומאן דשבחיה ינוחו לו ברכות על ראשו:,
25b. what was before Creation and what is after, i.e., what will be at the end of time, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that the act of Creation is read in public.,The Tosefta continues: The incident of Lot and his two daughters is read and translated. The name Lot begins with a lamed, the second letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Abraham, as Lot was his nephew, and therefore the incident casts shame upon Abraham as well, therefore the baraita teaches us that this is not a concern.,The Tosefta continues: The incident of Tamar, beginning with a tav, and Judah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Judah, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that there is no such concern. On the contrary, the story is to his credit, as he confessed to his sin.,The Tosefta continues: The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf egel is read and translated. Egel begins with the letter ayin, the next letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the Jewish people, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that all the more so is it amenable to them that the matter be publicized, so that they will achieve atonement through their shame.,The Tosefta states: The curses kelalot and blessings are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned that perhaps the congregation will become dismayed by the many curses, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.,The Tosefta continues: The warnings and punishments onashin, alluded to in the first nun of the mnemonic mentioned above, are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if this section is read aloud, people will come to act out of fear and keep the mitzvot due to the fear of punishment rather than love of God, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.,It is further taught: The incident of Amnon and Tamar, alluded to in the second nun in the mnemonic mentioned above, is read and translated. Additionally, the incident of Absalom is read and translated, alluded to in the shin of the mnemonic, the third letter of his name. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of David, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.,The Tosefta continues: The incident of the concubine pilegesh in Gibeah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the tribe of Benjamin, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.,The Tosefta continues: The section of: “Make known hoda to Jerusalem her abominations” (Ezekiel 16:2) is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: This is needed to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who held that this chapter may not be read as a haftara, as it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident with regard to a certain man who was reading the haftara in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he read the section of: “Make known to Jerusalem her abominations.” Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Before you examine the abominations of Jerusalem, go and examine the abominations of your own mother. The Gemara relates that they examined his lineage and found him to have a stain of illegitimacy. His mother had engaged in illicit sexual relations, and therefore he was of questionable lineage.,The Tosefta also states: And these sections are read but are not translated. The acrostic composed of the letters reish, ayin, bet, dalet, nun is a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain. The Tosefta states that the incident of Reuben is read but not translated. The name Reuben begins with a reish, the first letter of the mnemonic. And there was an incident involving Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel, who went to the village of Kavul, and the sexton of the synagogue was reading: “And it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father’s concubine; and Israel heard of it” (Genesis 35:22). Rabbi Ḥanina said to the translator: Stop, translate only the end of the verse. And the Sages praised him for this.,The Tosefta continues: The second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf is read but not translated. Egel, the Hebrew word for calf, begins with an ayin, the second letter in the mnemonic. The Gemara explains: What is the second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf? Aaron’s account of what had taken place, from “And Moses said to Aaron” (Exodus 32:21) until “And Moses saw” (Exodus 32:25).,With regard to Aaron’s account, the Gemara cites that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: A person should always be careful in the way he formulates his responses, as sometimes the explanation that a person provides for his actions is worse than the original action itself, as, for example, based on Aaron’s response to Moses, the skeptics renounced their religious beliefs. It is stated in Aaron’s response: “And I cast it into the fire and this calf came forth” (Exodus 32:24). This formulation implies that the calf came from the fire by itself, suggesting that it had divine power and substance.,We learned in the mishna: The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction birkat kohanim are read but not translated. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara explains that it is because it is written: “May the Lord lift up His countece to you” (Numbers 6:26). Listeners may understand this to mean that God shows unfair favoritism to the Jewish people.,We also learned in the mishna: The incident of David and Amnon is neither read nor translated. David’s name begins with a dalet, the next letter in the mnemonic; nun, the last letter of the mnemonic, is the third letter in Amnon’s name. The Gemara asks: Didn’t you say in the Tosefta that the incident of Amnon and Tamar is both read and translated? The Gemara explains that this is not difficult. This statement of the mishna applies where Amnon’s name is written: Amnon, son of David. That statement of the Tosefta applies where it is written simply as Amnon.The Sages taught in a baraita: All of the verses that are written in the Torah in a coarse manner are read in a refined manner. For example, the term “shall lie with her yishgalena (Deuteronomy 28:30) is read as though it said yishkavena, which is a more refined term. The term “with hemorrhoids bafolim (Deuteronomy 28:27) is read bateḥorim. The term “doves’ dung ḥiryonim (II\xa0Kings 6:25) is read divyonim. The phrase “to eat their own excrement ḥoreihem and drink their own urine meimei shineihem (II\xa0Kings 18:27) is read with more delicate terms: To eat their own excrement tzo’atam and drink their own urine meimei ragleihem.,The term “into latrines lemoḥra’ot (II\xa0Kings 10:27) is read as the more refined lemotza’ot. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Lemoḥara’ot is read as it is written because it is used here as an expression of contempt for idol worship, and it is therefore permissible to use an indelicate term.,Similarly, Rav Naḥman said: All mockery and obscenity is forbidden except for mockery of idol worship, which is permitted, as it is written: “Bel bows down, Nevo stoops” (Isaiah 46:1). The prophet mocks these idols by describing them as crouching in order to defecate. Additionally, it is written: “They stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burden” (Isaiah 46:2). Rabbi Yannai said: This principle that one is permitted to mock idol worship is derived from here: “The inhabitants of Samaria shall be in dread for the calves of Beth-aven; for its people shall mourn over it, and its priests shall tremble for it, for its glory, because it is departed from it” (Hosea 10:5). Do not read it is as “its glory kevodo,” rather read it as its burden keveido, meaning that it is unable to restrain itself from defecating.,Rav Huna bar Manoaḥ said in the name of Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Ika: It is permitted for a Jew to say to a gentile: Take your idol and put it in your shin tav, i.e., shet, buttocks. Rav Ashi said: One whose reputation is tarnished, i.e., he is known as a philanderer, it is permitted to humiliate him by calling him gimmel sin, an acronym for girta sarya, son of a putrid harlot. One whose reputation is commendable, it is permitted to publicly praise him, and one who praises him, blessings will rest upon his head.,,Residents of a town who sold the town square, which was at times used for public prayer and therefore attained a certain degree of sanctity, may use the proceeds of the sale only to purchase something of a greater degree of sanctity. They may therefore purchase a synagogue with the proceeds of the sale. If they sold a synagogue, they may purchase an ark in which to house sacred scrolls. If they sold an ark, they may purchase wrapping cloths for the sacred scrolls. If they sold wrapping cloths,''. None
35. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical anxiety, Iranian context and • genealogical anxiety, centrality of the body and • genealogy

 Found in books: Lavee (2017) 223; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 103, 104


13b. מעטרה ולמעלה אסור,אמר רב המקשה עצמו לדעת יהא בנדוי ולימא אסור דקמגרי יצה"ר אנפשיה ורבי אמי אמר נקרא עבריין שכך אומנתו של יצר הרע היום אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו לך עבוד עבודת כוכבים והולך ועובד,איכא דאמרי אמר רבי אמי כל המביא עצמו לידי הרהור אין מכניסין אותו במחיצתו של הקב"ה כתיב הכא (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה\' וכתיב התם (תהלים ה, ה) כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע,ואמר ר\' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו אלו המנאפים ביד תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל (שמות כ, יג) לא תנאף לא תהא בך ניאוף בין ביד בין ברגל,ת"ר הגרים והמשחקין בתינוקות מעכבין את המשיח בשלמא גרים כדר\' חלבו דא"ר חלבו קשין גרים לישראל כספחת אלא משחקין בתנוקות מאי היא,אילימא משכב זכור בני סקילה נינהו אלא דרך אברים בני מבול נינהו,אלא דנסיבי קטנות דלאו בנות אולודי נינהו דא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,באנשים תקצץ איבעיא להו דינא תנן או לטותא תנן דינא תנן כי הא דרב הונא קץ ידא או לטותא תנן,ת"ש דתניא רבי טרפון אומר יד לאמה תקצץ ידו על טבורו אמרו לו ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו א"ל לא אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת,אי אמרת בשלמא דינא תנן היינו דאמרי והלא כריסו נבקעת אלא אי אמרת לטותא תנן מאי כריסו נבקעת אלא מאי דינא תנן לא סגי דלאו על טבורו,אלא ה"ק רבי טרפון כל המכניס ידו למטה מטבורו תקצץ אמרו לו לרבי טרפון ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו אמר להן לא והלא כריסו נבקעת אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת,
13b. From the corona and above, toward the body, it is prohibited.Rav says: One who intentionally causes himself an erection shall be ostracized. The Gemara suggests: And let Rav say simply that it is prohibited. The Gemara explains that it is proper to ostracize such a man, as he arouses the evil inclination upon himself. And Rabbi Ami says: He is called a habitual transgressor, as this is the craft of the evil inclination. Today he says to a person: Do this sin, and when the individual obeys his inclination, on the following day the evil inclination says to him: Do that sin, and on the following day he says to him: Go and worship idols, and he goes and worships idols.,Some say that Rabbi Ami says: With regard to anyone who brings himself into a state of arousal, they do not bring him within the boundary of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The proof is that it is written here, with regard to O, son of Judah: “And the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and He slew him also” (Genesis 38:10), and it is written there: “For You are not a God who has pleasure in wickedness; evil shall not sojourn with You. The boasters shall not stand in Your sight…But as for me, in the abundance of Your kindness will I come into Your house; I will bow down toward Your holy Temple in fear of You” (Psalms 5:5–8). This demonstrates that whoever does evil, like O, shall not sojourn with God.,And Rabbi Elazar says, with regard to the severity of this transgression: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And when you spread forth your hands, I will hide My eyes from you; even when you make many prayers, I will not hear; your hands are full of blood” (Isaiah 1:15)? These are those men who commit adultery with the hand, by masturbating. Likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: When it is stated in the Ten Commandments: “You shall not commit adultery” (Exodus 20:13), this means that there shall not be adultery among you, whether you masturbate by hand or whether with one’s foot.The Sages taught in a baraita: Converts and those who play with children delay the coming of the Messiah. The Gemara asks: Granted with regard to converts, this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥelbo, as Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scab on the skin, as they are not proficient in the performance of the mitzvot and born Jews learn from them. But with regard to the category of those who play with children, to what is it referring?,If we say that this is referring to homosexuality, such men are liable to be executed by stoning, and their behavior is criticized not simply because they delay the Messiah. Rather, one might suggest that this is referring to those who emit semen by way of other limbs, i.e., without engaging in intercourse; if so, they are considered as though they are bringing a flood, and are therefore liable to be punished themselves with a flood.,Rather, the baraita means that they marry minor girls who are not yet capable of bearing children, consequently emitting semen for naught. As Rabbi Yosei said: The Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies do so. As it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made” (Isaiah 57:16). The verse is interpreted as follows: The spirit, i.e., the souls about which it has been decreed by Me that they are to be born, if they are not born, they enwrap the Messiah and prevent him from coming.,§ The mishna teaches that with regard to any hand that is diligent to examine bodily emissions, among men, such a hand should be severed. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Do we learn this statement as a practical halakha, i.e., that the court should actually sever his hand, or do we learn it as a mere curse, but not as an actual instruction to punish him in that manner? The Gemara elaborates: Do we learn it as a practical halakha like that prohibition against striking another, in which the same expression is used: With regard to anyone who raises his hand upon another, his hand should be severed, and Rav Huna indeed acted accordingly and severed the hand of an offender? Or perhaps do we learn it as a mere curse?,The Gemara suggests: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Tarfon says: If one’s hand goes to his penis, his hand should be severed upon his navel. The Rabbis said to him: If so, in a case where a thorn was stuck in one’s belly, should he not remove it? Rabbi Tarfon said to them: Indeed, he should not remove it, and if he does so his hand should be severed. The Rabbis replied: But if his hand is severed while it is upon his navel, won’t his belly be split open? Rabbi Tarfon said to them: It is preferable that the belly of one who acts in this manner should be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction.,The Gemara analyzes this discussion: Granted, if you say that we learn the statement in the mishna as a practical halakha, this is the meaning of that which the Rabbis said: But if his hand is severed upon his navel, won’t his belly be split open? But if you say that we learn the statement in the mishna as a mere curse, what is the meaning of the phrase: Won’t his belly be split open? The Gemara responds: Rather, what explanation is the alternative? That we learn the mishna as stating a practical halakha? That would not explain the exchange between the Rabbis to Rabbi Tarfon, because is it not sufficient that the hand be severed not upon his navel? In other words, even if the hand must actually be severed, it is not clear why it should be severed while it is upon his navel.,Rather, this is what Rabbi Tarfon is saying: With regard to anyone who inserts his hand below his navel, his hand should be severed. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Tarfon: If a thorn was stuck in one’s belly, should he not remove it? Rabbi Tarfon said to them: He should not. They responded: But won’t his belly be split open due to the thorn? Rabbi Tarfon said to them: It is preferable that his belly be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction.,who is deaf haḥereshet, or an imbecile, or blind, or who went insane, and is therefore unable to examine herself reliably, if such women have competent friends, those friends prepare them by examining them and immersing them in a ritual bath. And on that basis the incompetent women may partake of teruma after the sun sets.,a deaf woman. The Gemara asks: Let her examine herself; as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: There was a deaf woman in our neighborhood who was so proficient in these matters that not only did she examine herself, but when her friends would see stains similar to blood and were unsure whether or not the stains were ritually impure, they would show her the stains.,The Gemara answers: There, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is referring to a woman who can speak but cannot hear. It is possible for such a woman to be an expert in examining blood. But here, the mishna is dealing with a woman who can neither speak nor hear, and she is therefore considered incompetent and incapable of examining herself. As we learned in a mishna (Terumot 1:2): The deaf person of whom the Sages spoke everywhere is one who can neither hear nor speak, i.e., a deaf-mute.,§ The mishna further teaches that competent women must assist a blind woman. The Gemara similarly asks: Let her examine herself and show the cloth to her friend. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The correct version of the mishna does not mention a blind woman.,§ The mishna also states that competent women must assist a woman who went insane. The Gemara asks: With regard to her ability to examine herself, isn’t this the same as an imbecile, who is already mentioned in the mishna? The Gemara answers: Here, the mishna is referring to a woman who went insane due to illness, which is a different category than that of an imbecile.,The Gemara further discusses halakhot pertaining to an imbecile. The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to an imbecile priest who was ritually impure, competent men deal with his purification: They immerse him, and then enable him to partake of teruma in the evening, like any other priest who was impure. And those taking care of him must watch over him to ensure that he does not sleep before he partakes of teruma, in case he experiences a seminal emission, which would render him impure. If he slept, he is once again impure, and may not partake of teruma; if he did not sleep he is pure.,Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says that there is another method of allowing an imbecile priest to partake of teruma: One prepares for him a leather pouch, which is wrapped around his penis, and before giving him teruma to partake of one checks this pouch to see if he has emitted semen. The other Sages said to him: It is improper to do this, as all the more so he will be prevented from partaking of teruma; this pouch warms him and increases the likelihood of a seminal emission. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said to them: According to your statement, an imbecile priest has no remedy that will enable him to partake of teruma.,They said to him: According to our statement there is a way he can partake of teruma, as stated above: If he slept, he is impure; if he did not sleep he is pure. But according to your statement, that one wraps a pouch around his penis, this is not a reliable method, as perhaps he will see, i.e., experience the emission of, a drop of semen as small as a mustard seed, and it will be absorbed in the pouch and will not be noticed, which would mean that he is eating teruma in a state of ritual impurity.,The Gemara continues to discuss the methods by which an imbecile priest can partake of teruma. It was taught in a baraita that the Sages said in the name of Rabbi Elazar: One prepares for him a metal pouch, which is placed on his penis and does not warm it.,In explanation of this statement, Abaye says: And when this tanna speaks of metal, he means that the pouch should be made of copper, which does not absorb liquid, and therefore any drop of semen would be visible. This is as it is taught in a mishna (Para 12:5), with regard to the amount of water of purification that must be sprinkled on an individual who is impure due to impurity imparted by a corpse, that Rabbi Yehuda says: One considers those hyssop stems, with which the waters of purification are sprinkled, as though they are made of copper, which does not absorb any of the water.,Rav Pappa says: One can learn from the statement of the Rabbis that a pouch wrapped around one’s penis can warm it enough to cause a seminal emission, that trousers are prohibited to be worn, as they too warm the penis, by being placed so they are tight against it. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written with regard to the priestly garments: “And you shall make them linen trousers to cover the flesh of their nakedness, from the loins even to the thighs they shall reach” (Exodus 28:42)?,The Gemara explains: That garment, the trousers worn by priests, was different, as it is taught in a baraita: The trousers of priests, to what are they comparable? They are similar to riding trousers pamalanya of horsemen, and this is what they look like: Above, they reach up to the loins; below, they go down to the thighs, and they have straps, and they have no opening, neither at the back nor at the front.,Abaye says:''. None
36. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, theme of Ezras purity of lineage • genealogy/generations, planting trees for future generations

 Found in books: Goldhill (2022) 85; Kalmin (1998) 122


23a. בעתם בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות,שכן מצינו בימי שמעון בן שטח שירדו להם גשמים בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות עד שנעשו חטים ככליות ושעורים כגרעיני זיתים ועדשים כדינרי זהב וצררו מהם דוגמא לדורות להודיע כמה החטא גורם שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, כה) עונותיכם הטו אלה וחטאתיכם מנעו הטוב מכם,וכן מצינו בימי הורדוס שהיו עוסקין בבנין בהמ"ק והיו יורדין גשמים בלילה למחר נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם למלאכתן וידעו שמלאכת שמים בידיהם:,מעשה ששלחו לחוני המעגל וכו\': ת"ר פעם אחת יצא רוב אדר ולא ירדו גשמים שלחו לחוני המעגל התפלל וירדו גשמים התפלל ולא ירדו גשמים עג עוגה ועמד בתוכה כדרך שעשה חבקוק הנביא שנאמר (חבקוק ב, א) על משמרתי אעמדה ואתיצבה על מצור וגו\',אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בניך שמו פניהם עלי שאני כבן בית לפניך נשבע אני בשמך הגדול שאיני זז מכאן עד שתרחם על בניך התחילו גשמים מנטפין אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא להתיר שבועתך,אמר לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי בורות שיחין ומערות ירדו בזעף עד שכל טפה וטפה כמלא פי חבית ושיערו חכמים שאין טפה פחותה מלוג אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא לאבד העולם,אמר לפניו לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי רצון ברכה ונדבה ירדו כתיקנן עד שעלו כל העם להר הבית מפני הגשמים אמרו לו רבי כשם שהתפללת שירדו כך התפלל וילכו להם אמר להם כך מקובלני שאין מתפללין על רוב הטובה,אעפ"כ הביאו לי פר הודאה הביאו לו פר הודאה סמך שתי ידיו עליו ואמר לפניו רבש"ע עמך ישראל שהוצאת ממצרים אינן יכולין לא ברוב טובה ולא ברוב פורענות כעסת עליהם אינן יכולין לעמוד השפעת עליהם טובה אינן יכולין לעמוד יהי רצון מלפניך שיפסקו הגשמים ויהא ריוח בעולם מיד נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם לשדה והביאו להם כמהין ופטריות,שלח לו שמעון בן שטח אלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נידוי שאילו שנים כשני אליהו שמפתחות גשמים בידו של אליהו לא נמצא שם שמים מתחלל על ידך,אבל מה אעשה לך שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא על אביו ועושה לו רצונו ואומר לו אבא הוליכני לרחצני בחמין שטפני בצונן תן לי אגוזים שקדים אפרסקים ורמונים ונותן לו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,תנו רבנן מה שלחו בני לשכת הגזית לחוני המעגל (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך ועל דרכיך נגה אור,ותגזר אומר אתה גזרת מלמטה והקדוש ברוך הוא מקיים מאמרך מלמעלה ועל דרכיך נגה אור דור שהיה אפל הארת בתפלתך,כי השפילו ותאמר גוה דור שהיה שפל הגבהתו בתפלתך ושח עינים יושיע דור ששח בעונו הושעתו בתפלתך ימלט אי נקי דור שלא היה נקי מלטתו בתפלתך ונמלט בבור כפיך מלטתו במעשה ידיך הברורין,אמר ר\' יוחנן כל ימיו של אותו צדיק היה מצטער על מקרא זה (תהלים קכו, א) שיר המעלות בשוב ה\' את שיבת ציון היינו כחולמים אמר מי איכא דניים שבעין שנין בחלמא,יומא חד הוה אזל באורחא חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה נטע חרובא אמר ליה האי עד כמה שנין טעין אמר ליה עד שבעין שנין אמר ליה פשיטא לך דחיית שבעין שנין אמר ליה האי גברא עלמא בחרובא אשכחתיה כי היכי דשתלי לי אבהתי שתלי נמי לבראי,יתיב קא כריך ריפתא אתא ליה שינתא נים אהדרא ליה משוניתא איכסי מעינא ונים שבעין שנין כי קם חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מלקט מינייהו אמר ליה את הוא דשתלתיה א"ל בר בריה אנא אמר ליה שמע מינה דניימי שבעין שנין חזא לחמריה דאתיילידא ליה רמכי רמכי,אזל לביתיה אמר להו בריה דחוני המעגל מי קיים אמרו ליה בריה ליתא בר בריה איתא אמר להו אנא חוני המעגל לא הימנוהו אזל לבית המדרש שמעינהו לרבנן דקאמרי נהירן שמעתתין כבשני חוני המעגל דכי הוי עייל לבית מדרשא כל קושיא דהוו להו לרבנן הוה מפרק להו אמר להו אנא ניהו לא הימנוהו ולא עבדי ליה יקרא כדמבעי ליה חלש דעתיה בעי רחמי ומית אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברותא או מיתותא,אבא חלקיה בר בריה דחוני המעגל הוה וכי מצטריך עלמא למיטרא הוו משדרי רבנן לגביה ובעי רחמי ואתי מיטרא זימנא חדא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא שדור רבנן זוגא דרבנן לגביה למבעי רחמי דניתי מיטרא אזול לביתיה ולא אשכחוהו אזול בדברא ואשכחוהו דהוה קא רפיק יהבו ליה שלמא''. None
23a. “In their season” means on Wednesday eves, i.e., Tuesday nights, and on Shabbat eves, i.e., Friday nights, because at these times people are not out in the streets, either due to fear of demonic forces that were thought to wander on Tuesday nights or due to the sanctity of Shabbat.,As we found in the days of Shimon ben Shetaḥ that rain invariably fell for them on Wednesday eves and on Shabbat eves, until wheat grew as big as kidneys, and barley as big as olive pits, and lentils as golden dinars. And they tied up some of these crops as an example dugma for future generations, to convey to them how much damage sin causes, as it is stated: “The Lord our God, Who gives rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in its season that keeps for us the appointed weeks of the harvest. Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld the good from you” (Jeremiah 5:24–25).,And we likewise found that in the days of Herod that they were occupied in the building of the Temple, and rain would fall at night. And the next day the wind would blow, the clouds would disperse, the sun would shine, and the people would go out to their work. And as rain would fall only at a time when it would not interfere with their labor, the nation knew that the work of Heaven was being performed by their hands.,§ The mishna taught: An incident occurred in which the people sent a message to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. This event is related in greater detail in the following baraita. The Sages taught: Once, most of the month of Adar had passed but rain had still not fallen. They sent this message to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Pray, and rain will fall. He prayed, but no rain fell. He drew a circle in the dust and stood inside it, in the manner that the prophet Habakkuk did, as it is stated: “And I will stand upon my watch and set myself upon the tower, and I will look out to see what He will say to me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved” (Habakkuk 2:1). This verse is taken to mean that Habakkuk fashioned a kind of prison for himself where he sat.,Ḥoni said before God: Master of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household. Therefore, I take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until you have mercy upon Your children and answer their prayers for rain. Rain began to trickle down, but only in small droplets. His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen that you can perform great wonders, but this quantity of rain is not enough to ensure that we will not die. It appears to us that a small amount of rain is falling only to enable you to dissolve your oath, but it is not nearly enough to save us.,Ḥoni said to God: I did not ask for this, but for rain to fill the cisterns, ditches, and caves. Rain began to fall furiously, until each and every drop was as big as the mouth of a barrel, and the Sages estimated that no drop was less than a log in size. His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen that you can call on God to perform miracles and we will not die, but now it appears to us that rain is falling only to destroy the world.,Ḥoni again said before God: I did not ask for this harmful rain either, but for rain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity. Subsequently, the rains fell in their standard manner, until all of the people sought higher ground and ascended to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They said to him: Rabbi, just as you prayed that the rains should fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: This is the tradition that I received, that one does not pray over an excess of good.,Ḥoni continued: Nevertheless, bring me a bull. I will sacrifice it as a thanks-offering and pray at the same time. They brought him a bull for a thanks-offering. He placed his two hands on its head and said before God: Master of the Universe, Your nation Israel, whom You brought out of Egypt, cannot bear either an excess of good or an excess of punishment. You grew angry with them and withheld rain, and they are unable to bear it. You bestowed upon them too much good, and they were also unable to bear it. May it be Your will that the rain stop and that there be relief for the world. Immediately, the wind blew, the clouds dispersed, the sun shone, and everyone went out to the fields and gathered for themselves truffles and mushrooms that had sprouted in the strong rain.,Shimon ben Shetaḥ relayed to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: If you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you. For were these years like the years of Elijah, when the keys of rain were entrusted in Elijah’s hands, and he swore it would not rain, wouldn’t the name of Heaven have been desecrated by your oath not to leave the circle until it rained? Once you have pronounced this oath, either yours or Elijah’s must be falsified.,However, what can I do to you, as you nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and his father does his bidding. And the son says to his father: Father, take me to be bathed in hot water; wash me with cold water; give me nuts, almonds, peaches, and pomegranates. And his father gives him. About you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25).,The Sages taught: What message did the members of the Chamber of the Hewn Stone, the Great Sanhedrin, send to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel? About you, the verse states: “You shall also decree a matter, and it shall be established for you; and the light shall shine upon your ways. When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up, for He saves the humble person. He will deliver the one who is not innocent and he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands” (Job 22:28–30).,They interpreted: “You shall also decree a matter”; you, Ḥoni, decree from below, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, fulfills your statement from above. “And the light shall shine upon your ways”; a generation that was in darkness, you have illuminated it with your prayer.,“When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up”; a generation that was cast down, you lifted it up with your prayer. “For He saves the humble person”; a generation that was humble in its transgression, you saved it through your prayer. “He will deliver the one who is not innocent”; a generation that was not innocent, you have delivered it through your prayer. “And he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands”; you have delivered an undeserving generation through the clean work of your hands.,§ The Gemara relates another story about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. Rabbi Yoḥa said: All the days of the life of that righteous man, Ḥoni, he was distressed over the meaning of this verse: “A song of Ascents: When the Lord brought back those who returned to Zion, we were like those who dream” (Psalms 126:1). He said to himself: Is there really a person who can sleep and dream for seventy years? How is it possible to compare the seventy-year exile in Babylonia to a dream?,One day, he was walking along the road when he saw a certain man planting a carob tree. Ḥoni said to him: This tree, after how many years will it bear fruit? The man said to him: It will not produce fruit until seventy years have passed. Ḥoni said to him: Is it obvious to you that you will live seventy years, that you expect to benefit from this tree? He said to him: That man himself found a world full of carob trees. Just as my ancestors planted for me, I too am planting for my descendants.,Ḥoni sat and ate bread. Sleep overcame him and he slept. A cliff formed around him, and he disappeared from sight and slept for seventy years. When he awoke, he saw a certain man gathering carobs from that tree. Ḥoni said to him: Are you the one who planted this tree? The man said to him: I am his son’s son. Ḥoni said to him: I can learn from this that I have slept for seventy years, and indeed he saw that his donkey had sired several herds during those many years.,Ḥoni went home and said to the members of the household: Is the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel alive? They said to him: His son is no longer with us, but his son’s son is alive. He said to them: I am Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. They did not believe him. He went to the study hall, where he heard the Sages say about one scholar: His halakhot are as enlightening and as clear as in the years of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, for when Ḥoni HaMe’aggel would enter the study hall he would resolve for the Sages any difficulty they had. Ḥoni said to them: I am he, but they did not believe him and did not pay him proper respect. Ḥoni became very upset, prayed for mercy, and died. Rava said: This explains the folk saying that people say: Either friendship or death, as one who has no friends is better off dead.,§ The Gemara relates another story, this time about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s descendants, who were also renowned for their righteous deeds. Abba Ḥilkiyya was the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s son. And when the world was in need of rain they would send Sages to him, and he would pray for mercy, and rain would fall. Once the world was in need of rain, and the Sages sent a pair of Sages to him so that he would pray for mercy and rain would fall. They went to his house but they did not find him there. They went to the field and found him hoeing the ground. They greeted him,''. None
37. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical anxiety, Iranian context and • genealogical anxiety, centrality of the body and • genealogy

 Found in books: Lavee (2017) 223, 224; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 103, 104


47b. לא רוב טובה ולא רוב פורענות ואין מרבין עליו ואין מדקדקין עליו,קיבל מלין אותו מיד נשתיירו בו ציצין המעכבין את המילה חוזרים ומלין אותו שניה נתרפא מטבילין אותו מיד ושני ת"ח עומדים על גביו ומודיעין אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות טבל ועלה הרי הוא כישראל לכל דבריו,אשה נשים מושיבות אותה במים עד צוארה ושני ת"ח עומדים לה מבחוץ ומודיעין אותה מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות,אחד גר ואחד עבד משוחרר ובמקום שנדה טובלת שם גר ועבד משוחרר טובלין וכל דבר שחוצץ בטבילה חוצץ בגר ובעבד משוחרר ובנדה,אמר מר גר שבא להתגייר אומרים לו מה ראית שבאת להתגייר ומודיעים אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות מ"ט דאי פריש נפרוש דא"ר חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת דכתיב (ישעיהו יד, א) ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב:,ומודיעים אותו עון לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני: מ"ט א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן בן נח נהרג על פחות משוה פרוטה ולא ניתן להשבון,(ומודיעים אותו עון שכחה ופאה): ואין מרבים עליו ואין מדקדקים עליו: אמר רבי אלעזר מאי קראה דכתיב (רות א, יח) ותרא כי מתאמצת היא ללכת אתה ותחדל לדבר אליה,אמרה לה אסיר לן תחום שבת (רות א, טז) באשר תלכי אלך אסיר לן יחוד (רות א, טז) באשר תליני אלין,מפקדינן שש מאות וי"ג מצות (רות א, טז) עמך עמי אסיר לן עבודת כוכבים (רות א, טז) ואלהיך אלהי ארבע מיתות נמסרו לב"ד (רות א, יז) באשר תמותי אמות ב\' קברים נמסרו לב"ד (רות א, יז) ושם אקבר,מיד ותרא כי מתאמצת היא וגו\':,קיבל מלין אותו מיד: מ"ט שהויי מצוה לא משהינן:,נשתיירו בו ציצין המעכבין המילה וכו\': כדתנן אלו הן ציצין המעכבין המילה בשר החופה את רוב העטרה ואינו אוכל בתרומה וא"ר ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב בשר החופה רוב גובהה של עטרה:,נתרפא מטבילין אותו מיד: נתרפא אין לא נתרפא לא מאי טעמא משום דמיא מרזו מכה:,ושני ת"ח עומדים על גביו: והא א"ר חייא א"ר יוחנן גר צריך שלשה הא א"ר יוחנן לתנא תני שלשה:,טבל ועלה הרי הוא כישראל לכל דבריו: למאי הלכתא דאי הדר ביה ומקדש בת ישראל ישראל מומר קרינא ביה וקידושיו קידושין:,אחד גר ואחד עבד משוחרר: קסלקא דעתך לקבל עליו עול מצות ורמינהו במה דברים אמורים בגר אבל בעבד משוחרר אין צריך לקבל,אמר רב ששת לא קשיא הא ר"ש בן אלעזר הא רבנן,דתניא (דברים כא, יג) ובכתה את אביה ואת אמה וגו\' בד"א שלא קבלה עליה אבל קבלה עליה מטבילה ומותר בה מיד,ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר אע"פ שלא קבלה עליה כופה ומטבילה לשם שפחות וחוזר ומטבילה לשם שחרור ומשחררה 109b. ואמר רבי אבהו אתיא רדיפה רדיפה כתיב הכא (תהלים לד, טו) בקש שלום ורדפהו וכתיב התם (משלי כא, כא) רודף צדקה וחסד ימצא חיים צדקה וכבוד: בהפרת נדרים כרבי נתן דתניא רבי נתן אומר הנודר כאילו בנה במה והמקיימו כאילו הקריב עליה קרבן,ויתרחק משלשה דברים מן המיאונין דלמא גדלה ומיחרטא בה מן הפקדונות בבר מתא דבייתיה כי בייתיה דמי מן הערבון בערבי שלציון,דא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יא, טו) רע ירוע כי ערב זר רעה אחר רעה תבא למקבלי גרים ולערבי שלציון ולתוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה מקבלי גרים כר\' חלבו דאמר ר\' חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת בעור,ערבי שלציון דעבדי שלוף דוץ תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה דתניא רבי יוסי אומר כל האומר אין לו תורה אין לו תורה פשיטא אלא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה,הא נמי פשיטא אלא דאפילו תורה אין לו מאי טעמא אמר רב פפא אמר קרא (דברים ה, א) ולמדתם ועשיתם כל שישנו בעשיה ישנו בלמידה כל שאינו בעשיה אינו בלמידה,ואיבעית אימא לעולם כדאמריתו מעיקרא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה לא צריכא דקא מגמר לאחריני ואזלי ועבדי מהו דתימא אית ליה אגרא לדידיה קמ"ל,ואיבעית אימא תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה בדיינא דאתי דינא לקמיה וגמר הלכה ומדמי מילתא למילתא ואית ליה רבה ולא אזיל משאיל,דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן לעולם יראה דיין עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין יריכותיו וגיהנם פתוחה לו מתחתיו שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל וגו\' מפחד בלילות מפחד של גיהנם שדומה ללילה:,ר"ג אומר אם מיאנה וכו\': בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב מאי טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר קידושי קטנה מיתלא תלו וכי גדלה גדלי בהדה אע"ג דלא בעל,או דלמא משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר ליה היינו טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר רב ששת אמינא כי ניים ושכיב רב אמר להא שמעתא דתניא המקדש את הקטנה קידושיה תלויין מאי תלויין לאו כי גדלה גדלי בהדה ואע"ג דלא בעל,אמר ליה רבין בריה דרב נחמן הא מילתא דקטנה מיתלא תליא וקיימא אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא דאמרה הוא עדיף מינאי ואנא עדיפנא מיניה,וסבר רב אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא והא איתמר קטנה שלא מיאנה והגדילה ועמדה ונשאת רב אמר אינה צריכה גט משני ושמואל אמר צריכה גט משני''. None
47b. they are not able to receive either an abundance of good nor an abundance of calamities, since the primary place for reward and punishment is in the World-to-Come. And they do not overwhelm him with threats, and they are not exacting with him about the details of the mitzvot.,If he accepts upon himself all of these ramifications, then they circumcise him immediately. If there still remain on him shreds of flesh from the foreskin that invalidate the circumcision, they circumcise him again a second time to remove them. When he is healed from the circumcision, they immerse him immediately, and two Torah scholars stand over him at the time of his immersion and inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. Once he has immersed and emerged, he is like a born Jew in every sense.,For the immersion of a woman: Women appointed by the court seat her in the water of the ritual bath up to her neck, and two Torah scholars stand outside the bath house so as not to compromise her modesty, and from there they inform her of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot.,The procedure applies for both a convert and an emancipated slave who, upon immersion at the time of his emancipation, becomes a Jew in every sense. And in the same place that a menstruating woman immerses, i.e., in a ritual bath of forty se’a of water, there a convert and an emancipated slave also immerse. And anything that interposes between one’s body and the water of the ritual bath with regard to immersion of a ritually impure person, in a manner that would invalidate the immersion, also interposes and invalidates the immersion for a convert, and for an emancipated slave, and for a menstruating woman.,The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The Master said in the baraita: With regard to a potential convert who comes to a court in order to convert, the judges of the court say to him: What did you see that motivated you to come to convert? And they inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to say this to him? It is so that if he is going to withdraw from the conversion process, let him withdraw already at this stage. He should not be convinced to continue, as Rabbi Ḥelbo said: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scab sappaḥat on the skin, as it is written: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave venispeḥu to the house of Jacob” (Isaiah 14:1). This alludes to the fact that the cleaving of the convert to the Jewish people is like a scab.,The baraita continues: And they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one’s field, and about the poor man’s tithe. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to specifically mention these mitzvot? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: Because a gentile is executed even on account of stealing less than the value of a peruta, since gentiles are particular about even such a small loss, and an item that a gentile steals is not subject to being returned, i.e., he is not obligated to return it to its owner. Since gentiles are unwilling to separate even from items of little value, a potential convert must be made aware that he if converts, he will be required to relinquish some of his property to others.,The baraita continues: And they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one’s field. And they do not overwhelm him with threats, and they are not exacting with him about the details of the mitzvot, i.e., the court should not overly dissuade the convert from converting. Rabbi Elazar said: What is the verse from which this ruling is derived? As it is written: “And when she saw that she was steadfastly minded to go with her, she left off speaking with her” (Ruth 1:18). When Naomi set out to return to Eretz Yisrael, Ruth insisted on joining her. The Gemara understands this to mean that Ruth wished to convert. Naomi attempted to dissuade her, but Ruth persisted. The verse states that once Naomi saw Ruth’s resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her. The Gemara infers from here that the same approach should be taken by a court in all cases of conversion.,The Gemara reconstructs the original dialogue in which Naomi attempted to dissuade Ruth from converting: Naomi said to her: On Shabbat, it is prohibited for us to go beyond the Shabbat limit. Ruth responded: “Where you go, I shall go” (Ruth 1:16), and no further. Naomi said to her: It is forbidden for us to be alone together with a man with whom it is forbidden to engage in relations. Ruth responded: “Where you lodge, I shall lodge” (Ruth 1:16), and in the same manner.,Naomi said to her: We are commanded to observe six hundred and thirteen mitzvot. Ruth responded: “Your people are my people” (Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: Idolatrous worship is forbidden to us. Ruth responded: “Your God is my God” (Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: Four types of capital punishment were handed over to a court with which to punish those who transgress the mitzvot. Ruth responded: “Where you die, I shall die” (Ruth 1:17). Naomi said to her: Two burial grounds were handed over to the court, one for those executed for more severe crimes and another for those executed for less severe crimes. Ruth responded: “And there I shall be buried” (Ruth 1:17).,Immediately following this dialogue, the verse states: “And when she saw that she was steadfastly minded she left off speaking with her” (Ruth 1:18). Once Naomi saw Ruth’s resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her.,The baraita continues: If he accepts upon himself all of these ramifications, then they circumcise him immediately. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to act immediately? It is that we do not delay the performance of a mitzva.,The baraita continues: If there still remain on him shreds of flesh from the foreskin that invalidate the circumcision, he is circumcised a second time to remove them. The Gemara explains: This is as we learned in a mishna (Shabbat 137a): These are the shreds of flesh that invalidate the circumcision if they are not cut: Any fragments of the flesh that cover the greater part of the corona. If such shreds remain, the child is considered uncircumcised, and he may not partake of teruma. And in explanation of this mishna, Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rav said: This also includes the flesh that covers the greater part of the height of the corona.,The baraita continues: When he is healed from the circumcision, they immerse him immediately. The Gemara infers from the precise formulation of the baraita that when he has healed, then yes, he is immersed, but as long as he has not healed, then no, he is not. What is the reason for this? It is because water agitates a wound.,The baraita continues: And two Torah scholars stand over him at the time of his immersion. The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya say that Rabbi Yoḥa said that a convert requires a court of three to be present at his conversion? The Gemara answers: In fact, Rabbi Yoḥa said to the tanna reciting the mishna: Do not teach that there are two Torah scholars; rather, teach that there are three.,The baraita continues: Once he has immersed and emerged he is a Jew in every sense. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is this said? It is that if he reverts back to behaving as a gentile, he nevertheless remains Jewish, and so if he betroths a Jewish woman, although he is considered to be an apostate Jew, his betrothal is a valid betrothal.,The baraita continues: This applies both for a convert and for an emancipated slave. The Gemara considers the meaning of this clause: If it enters your mind to interpret the baraita to mean that a convert and an emancipated slave are the same with regard to accepting upon oneself the yoke of mitzvot, then one could raise a contradiction from that which is taught in another baraita: In what case is this statement that there is a need to accept the yoke of mitzvot said? It is with respect to a convert; however, an emancipated slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot when he immerses for the sake of emancipation. Rather, the immersion alone is sufficient to emancipate him and thereby render him a Jew.,Rav Sheshet said: This is not difficult, as this baraita that states that an emancipated slave is not required to accept the yoke of mitzvot is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, whereas that baraita that implies he is required to do so is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, the first tanna of the following baraita.,As it is taught in a baraita: The Torah permits a Jewish soldier to take a beautiful female prisoner of war out of her captivity in order to marry her. Before he may do so, she must first undergo the process that the Torah describes: “And she shall shave her head, and do her nails; and she shall remove the raiment of her captivity from upon her, and she shall remain in your house and bewail her father and her mother a month of days” (Deuteronomy 21:12–13). She may then be immersed for the sake of conversion, even though she does not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot. At that point it is permitted to marry her. The baraita asks: Under what circumstance are these matters stated? It is when she did not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot; however, if she willingly accepted upon herself the yoke of mitzvot, he may immerse her for the sake of conversion, and he is permitted to marry her immediately without the need for her to undergo the process described in the Torah.,Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even if she did not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot, the need for the process can still be circumvented if he forces her and immerses her for the sake of slavery, and then he again immerses her for the sake of emancipation and thereby emancipates her, rendering her a Jewess. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds that the immersion of a slave for the sake of emancipation is effective even if the slave does not accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot. 109b. And Rabbi Abbahu said: It is derived by verbal analogy from the terms pursuit and pursuit. It is written here: “Seek peace and pursue it” (Psalms 34:15) and it is written there: “He who pursues righteousness and mercy finds life, prosperity, and honor” (Proverbs 21:21), indicating that pursuing peace is a mitzva, just as pursuing righteousness and mercy is. As for the nullification of vows, this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: With regard to one who vows, it is as if he built a personal altar when it is prohibited to build an altar outside the Temple. And one who fulfills that vow, it is as if he sacrificed an offering on this personal altar, thereby doubling his sin. Therefore, it is preferable that he ask a halakhic authority to dissolve the vow.,And one should distance himself from three things: From refusals, as perhaps she will grow up and regret her decision, and it will turn out that she refused a husband who was suitable for her. From deposits entrusted to him by an inhabitant of the same city, as he will treat the bailee’s home as his home. The owner might enter the bailee’s house and take the deposit without the latter’s knowledge, and subsequently falsely sue him for its return. From serving as a guarantor: This is referring to Sheltziyyon guarantees, in which the lender is entitled to demand payment from the guarantor even before the borrower defaults on the loan.,As Rabbi Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He who serves as a guarantor for a stranger shall suffer evil; but he who hates those who shake hands is secure” (Proverbs 11:15)? This means: Evil after evil will befall those who accept converts, and Sheltziyyon guarantors, and one who confounds himself in matters of halakha. The Gemara clarifies. Evil will befall those who accept converts: This is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥelbo. As Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are difficult for the Jewish people like a leprous sore on the skin.,Evil shall befall Sheltziyyon guarantors because they practice: Pull out, thrust in. That is, they pull out the borrower and thrust the guarantor in his place as the one responsible for the loan. Evil befalls one who confounds himself in matters of halakha, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Anyone who says he has no Torah, has no Torah. The Gemara asks: Is this not obvious? Rather, anyone who says he has nothing other than Torah, has nothing other than Torah.,The Gemara asks: But isn’t this also obvious? One does not receive more reward than he deserves. Rather, it means that he does not even have Torah. What is the reason? Rav Pappa said: The verse states: That you may learn them and perform them, which is an abridged version of the verse “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices that I speak in your ears this day, that you may learn them, and take care to perform them” (Deuteronomy 5:1). The verse teaches that anyone who is engaged in performing mitzvot is engaged in Torah study, while anyone not engaged in performing mitzvot is not engaged in Torah study; the Torah study of one who wishes only to immerse himself in his studies without fulfilling the mitzvot is not considered to be fulfilling even the mitzva of Torah study.,And if you wish, say: Actually, it is as you initially said: Anyone who says he has nothing other than Torah has nothing other than Torah. Rather, this statement is necessary with regard to one who teaches others and they go and perform the mitzvot. Lest you say that there is reward for him in it, Rabbi Yosei teaches us that since that person engaged in Torah study without the intention of observing the mitzvot himself, he does not receive a reward for the mitzvot that he taught others and which they performed.,And if you wish, say that one who confounds himself in matters of halakha is referring to a judge who had a case come before him, and he learned the tradition about a ruling in a similar case, and he likens one matter to the other in order to reach a conclusion; and he has a teacher nearby but he does not go and ask him. This is inappropriate, as judges must be very careful not to err in judgment.,As Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: A judge should always view himself as if a sword were placed between his thighs, so that if he leans right or left he will be injured, and as if Gehenna was open beneath him, as it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel. They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh, because of dread in the night” (Song of Songs 3:7–8), i.e., because of the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani understands the mighty men of Israel in this verse to refer to the judges who sit in judgment around the bed of Solomon, i.e., in the Temple.,§ It was taught in the mishna that Rabban Gamliel says: If the minor refuses of her own accord, her refusal is valid. And if not, she should wait until she reaches majority, whereupon her marriage is valid by Torah law, and the widowed adult sister shall be exempt from levirate marriage due to her status as the sister of a wife. Rabbi Elazar raised a dilemma to Rav: What is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning? Is it because he holds that the betrothal of a minor girl is in suspension and when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority, i.e., is fully realized, with her? Accordingly, the betrothal would then be realized even if he did not engage in intercourse with her after she reached majority.,Or perhaps, is it because he holds that when a yavam betroths the sister of his yevama, causing the yevama to be forbidden to him, the yevama is exempt and is released even though her levirate bond came first? If he engaged in sexual intercourse with his betrothed after she reached majority, then yes, the yevama is exempt as a forbidden relative, because only then does Rabban Gamliel consider the betrothal to be fully realized, but if he did not engage in intercourse with his betrothed, then the yevama is not exempt from levirate marriage.,Rav said to him: This is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning: Because he holds that in the case of one who betroths the sister of his yevama, the yevama is exempt and is released, then if he engaged in sexual intercourse with the sister after she reached majority then yes, the yevama is exempt from levirate marriage, but if he did not engage in intercourse with the sister after she reached majority, the yevama is not exempt.,Rav Sheshet said: I say that Rav said this halakha when he was dozing and lying down, as it is difficult. As it is taught in a baraita: In the case of one who betroths a minor girl, her betrothal is in suspension. What does it mean that it is in suspension? Is it not that when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority with her and is fully realized even if he did not have intercourse with her after she reached majority?,Ravin, son of Rav Naḥman, said to Rav Sheshet: This matter, that the betrothal of a minor girl remains in suspension, should be understood differently. It means that her betrothal is provisional as long as she is still a minor: If he has sexual intercourse with her after she reaches majority, yes, her betrothal is realized; if he does not engage in intercourse with her after she reaches majority, her betrothal is not realized. For she says to herself: He has an advantage over me in that he can divorce me, and I have an advantage over him, as I can refuse him. Since the marriage of a minor depends upon her ongoing consent, as she can refuse him at any time, it remains provisional until it is consummated when she is an adult.,The Gemara asks: But does Rav truly think that only if he has intercourse with her after she becomes an adult, then yes, her betrothal is realized, but if he did not engage in intercourse with her, then no, it is not realized? Wasn’t it stated that with regard to a minor who had not refused her husband and reached majority, and then went and married another, Rav said: She does not require a bill of divorce from the second man, as she is fully married to the first and consequently her second marriage is invalid? And Shmuel said: She does require a bill of divorce from the second man, as it is uncertain whether her second marriage is valid.''. None
38. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical connections, in tales of founding of Rome • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, Rome as mixed lineage

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 247; Gruen (2020) 79


39. Strabo, Geography, 13.1.53
 Tagged with subjects: • genealogical connections, in tales of founding of Rome • lineage and genealogy as identity marker, Rome as mixed lineage

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 247; Gruen (2020) 79


13.1.53. Demetrius thinks that Scepsis was also the royal residence of Aeneias, since it lies midway between the territory subject to Aeneias and Lyrnessus, to which latter he fled, according to Homer's statement, when he was being pursued by Achilles. At any rate, Achilles says: Dost thou not remember how from the kine, when thou wast all alone, I made thee run down the Idaean mountains with swift feet? And thence thou didst escape to Lyrnessus, but I rushed in pursuit of thee and sacked it. However, the oft-repeated stories of Aeneias are not in agreement with the account which I have just given of the founders of Scepsis. For according to these stories he survived the war because of his enmity to Priam: For always he was wroth against goodly Priam, because, although he was brave amid warriors, Priam would not honor him at all; and his fellow-rulers, the sons of Antenor and Antenor himself, survived because of the hospitality shown Menelaus at Antenor's house. At any rate, Sophocles says that at the capture of Troy a leopard's skin was put before the doors of Antenor as a sign that his house was to be left unpillaged; and Antenor and his children safely escaped to Thrace with the survivors of the Heneti, and from there got across to the Adriatic Henetice, as it is called, whereas Aeneias collected a host of followers and set sail with his father Anchises and his son Ascanius; and some say that he took up his abode near the Macedonian Olympus, others that he founded Capyae near Mantineia in Arcadia, deriving the name he gave the settlement from Capys, and others say that he landed at Aegesta in Sicily with Elymus the Trojan and took possession of Eryx and Lilybaion, and gave the names Scamander and Simoeis to rivers near Aegesta, and that thence he went into the Latin country and made it his abode, in accordance with an oracle which bade him abide where he should eat up his table, and that this took place in the Latin country in the neighborhood of Lavinium, where a large loaf of bread was put down for a table, for want of a better table, and eaten up along with the meats upon it. Homer, however, appears not to be in agreement with either of the two stories, nor yet with the above account of the founders of Scepsis; for he clearly indicates that Aeneias remained in Troy and succeeded to the empire and bequeathed the succession thereto to his sons' sons, the family of the Priamidae having been wiped out: For already the race of Priam was hated, by the son of Cronus; and now verily the mighty Aeneias will rule over the Trojans, and his sons' sons that are hereafter to be born. And in this case one cannot even save from rejection the succession of Scamandrius. And Homer is in far greater disagreement with those who speak of Aeneias as having wandered even as far as Italy and make him die there. Some write,the family of Aeneias will rule over all, and his sons' sons, meaning the Romans."". None



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