Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


graph

graph

All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
garden Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 65, 79, 87
Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 135, 136, 137, 138, 170, 230, 247, 257, 327
Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 15, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 109, 116
Pinheiro et al. (2018), Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel, 143
Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 69, 74, 77, 89, 92, 166, 168, 170, 178, 182
garden, adam, placed in the Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 126
garden, and temple imagery in song of songs piyyutim Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 54
garden, aphrodite in the Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 257
garden, association with, aphrodite Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 202, 203, 259, 265
garden, at tivoli known as, cultic center of isis, hadrian’s Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 224, 225
garden, cult places, sacred grove Rüpke (2014), The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean. 7, 19, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127
garden, dionysophanes Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 541, 597, 684, 688, 689, 690, 699, 780, 881, 889, 901
garden, eden Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 135
garden, eden, of Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
garden, educational metaphor, student as Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 118
garden, epicurean Erler et al. (2021), Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition, 89, 100, 101
Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 12, 26, 179, 180, 182, 184, 199
garden, epicureans Bryan (2018), Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy, 209
Wardy and Warren (2018), Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy, 209
garden, female lover, as a Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 48, 315, 350, 352
garden, gardens, Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 30, 290
garden, hanging Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 135
garden, healing and medicines, herods medicinal Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 228
garden, heavenly paradise, as Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 80, 81, 82
garden, imagery and, eros Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 350
garden, imagery female lover and Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 315, 350, 352
garden, imagery in song of songs Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 48, 49, 50
garden, imagery, in the anonymous qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 139
garden, imagery, in the grooms qedushta Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 350, 351, 352
garden, imagery, in the shivata for dew Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 269, 308
garden, imagery, in the song of songs Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 48, 49, 50
garden, imagery, in yotzer shir ha-shirim Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 398, 399
garden, incident Beduhn (2013), Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1, 193, 197, 198, 200, 201, 203, 212, 222, 233, 236, 240, 310, 345
garden, meidas painter, lekythos with aphrodite in her Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 265, 386
garden, mortuary Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 52
garden, of aitolos, akademos Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 66, 68, 69, 70
garden, of delight Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 191
garden, of east Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 179
garden, of east, eden, of the Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 497, 617, 629
garden, of eden Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 263
Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 35, 39
Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 153
Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 225, 226
Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 228, 229, 230, 231
König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 157
Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 100, 179, 182, 183, 185, 200, 380, 382, 434, 481, 490, 496, 497, 526, 583, 610, 617, 621, 624, 625, 629, 697, 745, 749, 750, 786, 931, 994
Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 116
Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 48
Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 51, 76, 87
Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 45, 47, 50, 60, 311, 327, 328, 334, 352, 374, 375, 376, 452, 453, 454, 456, 459, 485
Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 41, 42
Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 94, 123, 124, 125, 282, 283
Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 33, 64
Segev (2017), Aristotle on Religion, 160
Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 373
Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 87, 89, 126, 392
Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 31
Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 136, 514
garden, of eden, procreation, and the Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 255, 257
garden, of gethsemane Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 62, 63, 98
Yates and Dupont (2023), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE).. 468, 469, 470, 471
garden, of god Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 190, 191, 503
garden, of herod the great medicinal Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 228
garden, of midas Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 71, 72
garden, of righteousness Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 643
garden, of the hesperides Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 174, 175, 179
garden, of withdrawal, eden Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 87, 88, 215, 219, 237, 277, 281, 285, 287, 288, 316, 318, 319, 320, 391, 392, 396
garden, party, relief from nineveh Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81
garden, philetas, in longus Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 502, 503, 558, 690, 837, 901
garden, rome, memphi Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 489
garden, temple, as Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 48, 350, 351
garden, tomb, cyrene, the Benefiel and Keegan (2016), Inscriptions in the Private Sphere in the Greco-Roman World, 196, 197, 199
garden, torah, as Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 182
garden, votive, religious Versnel (2011), Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology, 120, 121
garden, walls of paradise, or Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 9, 114, 115, 187, 190, 192, 194, 196, 334, 338, 340, 374, 382, 398, 443, 484, 485, 486, 491, 500, 501, 502, 518, 519, 520, 524, 525, 527, 555, 556, 557, 567, 582, 600, 601, 606, 608, 611, 624, 635, 695, 730, 754, 804, 839, 901, 989, 993, 1025
garden, zion, as Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 140, 141
gardener Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 106, 126
gardener, of khnum, deity Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 58, 61, 67
gardeners Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity , 23, 24
gardeners, ”, priest, ess, /priesthood, “sacred Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 160
gardening de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 138, 139, 140
gardens Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer (2023), Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature. 21, 22, 23, 24
Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 103
Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 25, 56, 129, 140, 167, 203
Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 42, 67, 68, 102, 103, 104, 107, 120, 124, 145, 152, 186
Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 102, 127, 133, 167, 290, 302, 303
König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 7, 156
Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 60, 141, 177
Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 241, 272
Thonemann (2020), An Ancient Dream Manual: Artemidorus' the Interpretation of Dreams, 99
gardens, adonis Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 139, 140, 225, 227
gardens, aphrodite, in the Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 257
gardens, as benefactions by tyrants Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021), Benefactors and the Polis: The Public Gift in the Greek Cities from the Homeric World to Late Antiquity, 56
gardens, as benefactions by, tyrants Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021), Benefactors and the Polis: The Public Gift in the Greek Cities from the Homeric World to Late Antiquity, 56
gardens, at machaerus, rue in Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 228, 270, 306, 315, 316, 339
gardens, funerary Galinsky (2016), Memory in Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 337, 338, 339
gardens, new Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 120
gardens, of adonis, expression Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 105, 108
gardens, of agrippa Fertik (2019), The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome, 72
gardens, of maecenas Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 543, 544
Fertik (2019), The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome, 68
gardens, of pompey Fertik (2019), The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome, 72, 73
gardens, of rome, sallust Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 272
gardens, of rome, servilius Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 125, 127, 368
gardens, of sallust Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 136
gardens, sacred Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 99, 101, 126, 127, 130, 187, 227
gardens, sanctuary of athens, aphrodite/urania in the Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 202, 259, 278
gardens, semiramis, design of her Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 43, 44
jardin/garden Bull, Lied and Turner (2011), Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty, 107, 108, 112

List of validated texts:
43 validated results for "gardens"
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.5, 4.12-4.14, 4.16, 5.1-5.2, 5.13, 6.2, 8.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • God–Israel relationship, as gardener-plant relationship • Temple, as garden • Torah, as garden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • Withdrawal, Eden, Garden of • Zion, as garden • as enclosed garden (Hortus conclusus), • eros, garden imagery and • female lover, as a garden • garden imagery female lover and • garden imagery, in The Grooms Qedushta • garden imagery, in the Shivata for Dew

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 316; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 100, 194, 556, 745; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 182, 269, 308, 315, 350, 351; Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 332; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 140, 141

sup>
1.5 שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃
4.12
גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃ 4.13 שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14 נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃
4.16
עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו׃
5.1
בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃
5.1
דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ 5.2 אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃

5.13
לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃
6.2
דּוֹדִי יָרַד לְגַנּוֹ לַעֲרוּגוֹת הַבֹּשֶׂם לִרְעוֹת בַּגַּנִּים וְלִלְקֹט שׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃
8.13
הַיוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּגַּנִּים חֲבֵרִים מַקְשִׁיבִים לְקוֹלֵךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי׃'' None
sup>
1.5 ’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon.
4.12
A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. 4.13 Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants, 4.14 Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
4.16
Awake, O north wind; And come, thou south; Blow upon my garden, That the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, And eat his precious fruits.
5.1
I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved. 5.2 I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’

5.13
His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh.
6.2
’My beloved is gone down into his garden, To the beds of spices, To feed in the gardens, And to gather lilies.
8.13
Thou that dwellest in the gardens, The companions hearken for thy voice: ‘Cause me to hear it.’'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 8.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Song of Songs piyyutim, garden and Temple imagery in • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Withdrawal, Eden, Garden of • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 391; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 49, 54; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 456; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 124

sup>
6.5 וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃
8.7
כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְבִיאֲךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה אֶרֶץ נַחֲלֵי מָיִם עֲיָנֹת וּתְהֹמֹת יֹצְאִים בַּבִּקְעָה וּבָהָר׃'' None
sup>
6.5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
8.7
For the LORD thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, springing forth in valleys and hills;'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 30.1-30.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • echo, Eden, garden of

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 129; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 749, 804, 931; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 50

sup>
30.1 וְכִפֶּר אַהֲרֹן עַל־קַרְנֹתָיו אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה מִדַּם חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם קֹדֶשׁ־קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַיהוָה׃
30.1
וְעָשִׂיתָ מִזְבֵּחַ מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 30.2 אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ וְאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה וְאַמָּתַיִם קֹמָתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ קַרְנֹתָיו׃ 30.2 בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יִרְחֲצוּ־מַיִם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ אוֹ בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת לְהַקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 30.3 וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תִּמְשָׁח וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי׃ 30.3 וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר אֶת־גַּגּוֹ וְאֶת־קִירֹתָיו סָבִיב וְאֶת־קַרְנֹתָיו וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 30.4 וּשְׁתֵּי טַבְּעֹת זָהָב תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ מִתַּחַת לְזֵרוֹ עַל שְׁתֵּי צַלְעֹתָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־שְׁנֵי צִדָּיו וְהָיָה לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים לָשֵׂאת אֹתוֹ בָּהֵמָּה׃ 30.5 וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 30.6 וְנָתַתָּה אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת לִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.7 וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8 וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.9 לֹא־תַעֲלוּ עָלָיו קְטֹרֶת זָרָה וְעֹלָה וּמִנְחָה וְנֵסֶךְ לֹא תִסְּכוּ עָלָיו׃' ' None
sup>
30.1 And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon; of acacia-wood shalt thou make it. 30.2 A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be; and two cubits shall be the height thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it. 30.3 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about. 30.4 And two golden rings shalt thou make for it under the crown thereof, upon the two ribs thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make them; and they shall be for places for staves wherewith to bear it. 30.5 And thou shalt make the staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold. 30.6 And thou shalt put it before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony, before the ark-cover that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee. 30.7 And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it. 30.8 And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations. 30.9 Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt-offering, nor meal-offering; and ye shall pour no drink-offering thereon.
30.10
And Aaron shall make atonement upon the horns of it once in the year; with the blood of the sin-offering of atonement once in the year shall he make atonement for it throughout your generations; it is most holy unto the LORD.’'' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.11, 1.27, 1.31, 2.4, 2.7, 2.9-2.10, 2.15-2.17, 2.20, 2.22-2.25, 3.1-3.10, 3.13-3.14, 3.16, 3.18, 3.22-3.24, 6.1-6.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adam, placed in the garden • Delight, Garden, of • East, Garden of Eden, of the • East, Garden, of • Eden, garden of • Garden • Garden of Eden • Garden of Eden, • Garden, of Eden • God, Garden of • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Temple, as garden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • Withdrawal, Eden, Garden of • diet, in the garden of Eden • echo, Eden, garden of • garden • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • garden, Eden, of • garden, as paradise • garden, in Jubilees

 Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 263; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 74, 81, 84, 85, 87, 94, 107, 118, 136, 152, 184, 210, 287, 369, 371, 377, 378; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 88, 237, 320; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 34, 52, 54, 55, 79; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 179, 182, 183, 190, 191, 192, 196, 484, 485, 486, 490, 496, 497, 500, 502, 503, 518, 526, 527, 555, 567, 582, 583, 606, 610, 611, 617, 625, 629, 730, 745, 754, 989, 993, 994; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 50; Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 84; Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 126; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 51, 76; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 47, 328, 453, 485; Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 373; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 87, 126; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 514

sup>
1.11 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.27
וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
1.31
וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃
2.4
אֵלֶּה תוֹלְדוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ בְּהִבָּרְאָם בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָיִם׃
2.7
וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
2.9
וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃' 2.15 וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.16 וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17 וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃
2.22
וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 2.23 וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃ 2.24 עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 2.25 וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא יִתְבֹּשָׁשׁוּ׃
3.1
וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃
3.1
וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.2 וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ חַוָּה כִּי הִוא הָיְתָה אֵם כָּל־חָי׃ 3.2 וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ 3.3 וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.4 וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.5 כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 3.6 וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.7 וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 3.8 וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.9 וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃

3.13
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃
3.14
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃

3.16
אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃

3.18
וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃
3.22
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 3.23 וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃ 3.24 וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃
6.1
וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃
6.1
וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2 וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2 מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃'' None
sup>
1.11 And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so.
1.27
And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
1.31
And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. 1 And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.,And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.,And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’,And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars.,And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good.,And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so.,And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.,And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.,And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.,And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.,And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.,And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,,and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, I have given every green herb for food.’ And it was so.,and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good.,And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good.,And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so.,And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.,And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’,In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.,And God said: ‘Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.’,And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so.,And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;,And God blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’,And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.,And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light.,And God said: ‘Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed—to you it shall be for food;,And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’,And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good.,And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.,Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.,and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so.2.4 These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven.
2.7
Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
2.9
And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 2.10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads.
2.15
And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 2.16 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat; 2.17 but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’
2.20
And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.
2.22
And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man. 2.23 And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’ 2.24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 2.25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. 2 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.,and the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium and the onyx stone.,The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;,No shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground;,And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.,And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made.,And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads.,And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.,And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof.,And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made.,These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven.,Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.,And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’,And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.,And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed.,but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.,And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush.,And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof.,And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.,Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh.,but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’,And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;,And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.,And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’,And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man.
3.1
Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’ 3.2 And the woman said unto the serpent: ‘of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat; 3.3 but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’ 3.4 And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die; 3.5 for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’ 3.6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat. 3.7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles. 3.8 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. 3.9 And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’
3.10
And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’

3.13
And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’
3.14
And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.

3.16
Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’

3.18
Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field.
3.22
And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’ 3.23 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. 3.24 So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life. 3 And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’,In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’,And the woman said unto the serpent: ‘of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;,And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’,And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles.,And He said: ‘Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?’,And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.,Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’,And the man said: ‘The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.’,And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.,And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat.,And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’,And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’,And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life.,Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.,So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life.,Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’,for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’,And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’,And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;,And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.,And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.,but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’,Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. 4 And his brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all such as handle the harp and pipe.,If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.,And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh; then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.,And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.,And unto Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begot Mehujael; and Mehujael begot Methushael; and Methushael begot Lamech.,And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand.,When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’,Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’,And Cain said unto the LORD: ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear.,And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bore Enoch; and he builded a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch.,And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countece fallen?,And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’,And Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle.,If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’,And Lamech took unto him two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.,And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.,And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.,And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him.,but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countece fell.,And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;,And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground.,And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’,And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’,And Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.,And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.,And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me; 5 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah.,And all the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred ninety and five years; and he died.,And all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years; and he died.,This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;,And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years; and he died. .,And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.,And all the days of Ke were nine hundred and ten years; and he died.,And Mahalalel lived sixty and five years, and begot Jared.,And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died.,And he called his name Noah, saying: ‘This same shall comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, which cometh from the ground which the LORD hath cursed.’,And Noah was five hundred years old; and Noah begot Shem, Ham, and Japheth.,And Lamech lived a hundred eighty and two years, and begot a son.,And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years.,And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years; and he died.,And Enosh lived after he begot Ke eight hundred and fifteen years, and begot sons and daughters.,And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters.,And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years; and he died.,And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and begot Enoch.,And Methuselah lived a hundred eighty and seven years, and begot Lamech.,And Seth lived after he begot Enosh eight hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Ke lived after he begot Mahalalel eight hundred and forty years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth.,And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years; and he died.,And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.,And Ke lived seventy years, and begot Mahalalel.,And Lamech lived after he begot Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Seth lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enosh.,And Jared lived after he begot Enoch eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Enosh lived ninety years, and begot Ke.,And Mahalalel lived after he begot Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters.,male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.,And Methuselah lived after he begot Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begot sons and daughters.
6.1
And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 6.2 that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose. ' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Delight, Garden, of • Eden, garden of • Garden of Eden • God, Garden of • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Temple, as garden • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs

 Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 191, 621; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47

sup>
2.3 לְפָנָיו אָכְלָה אֵשׁ וְאַחֲרָיו תְּלַהֵט לֶהָבָה כְּגַן־עֵדֶן הָאָרֶץ לְפָנָיו וְאַחֲרָיו מִדְבַּר שְׁמָמָה וְגַם־פְּלֵיטָה לֹא־הָיְתָה לּוֹ׃'' None
sup>
2.3 A fire devoureth before them, And behind them a flame blazeth; The land is as the garden of Eden before them, And behind them a desolate wilderness; Yea, and nothing escapeth them.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Torah, as garden

 Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 200; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 182

sup>
11.12 הֶאָנֹכִי הָרִיתִי אֵת כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה אִם־אָנֹכִי יְלִדְתִּיהוּ כִּי־תֹאמַר אֵלַי שָׂאֵהוּ בְחֵיקֶךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת־הַיֹּנֵק עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתָיו׃'' None
sup>
11.12 Have I conceived all this people? have I brought them forth, that Thou shouldest say unto me: Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing-father carrieth the sucking child, unto the land which Thou didst swear unto their fathers?'' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 36.9, 74.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eden, garden of • Garden of Eden • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Temple, as garden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • Withdrawal, Eden, Garden of • garden • garden imagery, in the Shivata for Dew • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 114, 117, 118, 377; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 318; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 635; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 308; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 94, 123; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 136

sup>
36.9 יִרְוְיֻן מִדֶּשֶׁן בֵּיתֶךָ וְנַחַל עֲדָנֶיךָ תַשְׁקֵם׃
74.13
אַתָּה פוֹרַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל־הַמָּיִם׃' ' None
sup>
36.9 They are abundantly satisfied with the fatness of Thy house; And Thou makest them drink of the river of Thy pleasures.
74.13
Thou didst break the sea in pieces by Thy strength; Thou didst shatter the heads of the sea-monsters in the waters. 92 To declare Thy lovingkindness in the morning, And Thy faithfulness in the night seasons,,For, lo, Thine enemies, O LORD, For, lo, Thine enemies shall perish: All the workers of iniquity shall be scattered.,It is a good thing to give thanks unto the LORD, And to sing praises unto Thy name, O Most High;,A brutish man knoweth not, Neither doth a fool understand this.,For Thou, LORD, hast made me glad through Thy work; I will exult in the works of Thy hands.,But Thou, O LORD, art on high for evermore.,With an instrument of ten strings, and with the psaltery; With a solemn sound upon the harp.,A Psalm, a Song. For the sabbath day.,Planted in the house of the LORD, They shall flourish in the courts of our God.,When the wicked spring up as the grass, And when all the workers of iniquity do flourish; It is that they may be destroyed for ever.,The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; He shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon.,To declare that the LORD is upright, My Rock, in whom there is no unrighteousness.,But my horn hast Thou exalted like the horn of the wild-ox; I am anointed with rich oil.,Mine eye also hath gazed on them that lie in wait for me, Mine ears have heard my desire of the evil-doers that rise up against me.,They shall still bring forth fruit in old age; They shall be full of sap and richness;,How great are Thy works, O LORD! Thy thoughts are very deep. 93 Above the voices of many waters, The mighty breakers of the sea, The LORD on high is mighty.,Thy throne is established of old; Thou art from everlasting.,The floods have lifted up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their roaring.,The LORD reigneth; He is clothed in majesty; The LORD is clothed, He hath girded Himself with strength; Yea, the world is established, that it cannot be moved.,Thy testimonies are very sure, Holiness becometh Thy house, O LORD, for evermore.' "104 Who causeth the grass to spring up for the cattle, And herb for the service of man; To bring forth bread out of the earth,,Thou givest it unto them, they gather it; Thou openest Thy hand, they are satisfied with good.,The high mountains are for the wild goats; The rocks are a refuge for the conies.,Who looketh on the earth, and it trembleth; He toucheth the mountains, and they smoke.,Thou didst set a bound which they should not pass over, That they might not return to cover the earth.,Wherein the birds make their nests; As for the stork, the fir-trees are her house.,The sun ariseth, they slink away, And couch in their dens.,I will sing unto the LORD as long as I live; I will sing praise to my God while I have any being.,Yonder sea, great and wide, Therein are creeping things innumerable, Living creatures, both small and great.,Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers.,There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein.,Thou didst cover it with the deep as with a vesture; the waters stood above the mountains.,Who waterest the mountains from Thine upper chambers; The earth is full of the fruit of Thy works.,They give drink to every beast of the field, The wild asses quench their thirst. .,Let sinners cease out of the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the LORD, O my soul. Hallelujah.,Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters, who makest the clouds Thy chariot, who walkest upon the wings of the wind;,Who appointedst the moon for seasons; The sun knoweth his going down.,Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty.,The mountains rose, the valleys sank down— Unto the place which Thou hadst founded for them;,Who sendest forth springs into the valleys; They run between the mountains;,Thou makest darkness, and it is night, Wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth.,The young lions roar after their prey, And seek their food from God.,May the glory of the LORD endure for ever; let the LORD rejoice in His works!,The trees of the LORD have their fill, The cedars of Lebanon, which He hath planted;,Who didst establish the earth upon its foundations, that it should not be moved for ever and ever;,All of them wait for Thee, That Thou mayest give them their food in due season.,Who coverest Thyself with light as with a garment, who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain;,How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures.,Beside them dwell the fowl of the heaven, From among the branches they sing.,Let my musing be sweet unto Him; as for me, I will rejoice in the LORD.,Thou hidest Thy face, they vanish; Thou withdrawest their breath, they perish, And return to their dust.,At Thy rebuke they fled, at the voice of Thy thunder they hasted away—,And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, Making the face brighter than oil, And bread that stayeth man's heart.,Man goeth forth unto his work And to his labour until the evening.,Thou sendest forth Thy spirit, they are created; and Thou renewest the face of the earth."' None
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.18, 6.23, 6.29, 6.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eden, garden of • Garden of Eden • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Temple, as garden • garden • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 114, 117; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 376

sup>
6.18 וְאֶרֶז אֶל־הַבַּיִת פְּנִימָה מִקְלַעַת פְּקָעִים וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים הַכֹּל אֶרֶז אֵין אֶבֶן נִרְאָה׃
6.23
וַיַּעַשׂ בַּדְּבִיר שְׁנֵי כְרוּבִים עֲצֵי־שָׁמֶן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ׃
6.29
וְאֵת כָּל־קִירוֹת הַבַּיִת מֵסַב קָלַע פִּתּוּחֵי מִקְלְעוֹת כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרֹת וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים מִלִּפְנִים וְלַחִיצוֹן׃
6.32
וּשְׁתֵּי דַּלְתוֹת עֲצֵי־שֶׁמֶן וְקָלַע עֲלֵיהֶם מִקְלְעוֹת כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרוֹת וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים וְצִפָּה זָהָב וַיָּרֶד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים וְעַל־הַתִּמֹרוֹת אֶת־הַזָּהָב׃'' None
sup>
6.18 And the cedar on the house within was carved with knops and open flowers; all was cedar; there was no stone seen.
6.23
And in the Sanctuary he made two cherubim of olive-wood, each ten cubits high.
6.29
And he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, within and without.
6.32
And as for the two doors of olive-wood, he carved upon them carvings of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, and overlaid them with gold; and he spread the gold upon the cherubim, and upon the palm-trees.'' None
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 21.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • garden, mortuary • gardens, funerary

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 52; Galinsky (2016), Memory in Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 338, 339

sup>
21.18 וַיִּשְׁכַּב מְנַשֶּׁה עִם־אֲבֹתָיו וַיִּקָּבֵר בְּגַן־בֵּיתוֹ בְּגַן־עֻזָּא וַיִּמְלֹךְ אָמוֹן בְּנוֹ תַּחְתָּיו׃'' None
sup>
21.18 And Manasseh slept with his fathers, and was buried in the garden of his own house, in the garden of Uzza; and Amon his son reigned in his stead.'' None
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.1-5.7, 14.8, 14.12-14.15, 14.18, 51.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • East, Garden of Eden, of the • Eden, garden of • Garden of Eden • God, Garden of • God–Israel relationship, as gardener-plant relationship • Song of Songs piyyutim, garden and Temple imagery in • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Temple, as garden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • Withdrawal, Eden, Garden of • Zion, as garden • eros, garden imagery and • female lover, as a garden • garden imagery female lover and • garden imagery, in The Grooms Qedushta • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 87; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 190, 497, 502, 1025; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 48, 54, 350; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 376; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 125; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 140, 141

sup>
5.1 אָשִׁירָה נָּא לִידִידִי שִׁירַת דּוֹדִי לְכַרְמוֹ כֶּרֶם הָיָה לִידִידִי בְּקֶרֶן בֶּן־שָׁמֶן׃
5.1
כִּי עֲשֶׂרֶת צִמְדֵּי־כֶרֶם יַעֲשׂוּ בַּת אֶחָת וְזֶרַע חֹמֶר יַעֲשֶׂה אֵיפָה׃ 5.2 הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2 וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.3 וְיִנְהֹם עָלָיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כְּנַהֲמַת־יָם וְנִבַּט לָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה־חֹשֶׁךְ צַר וָאוֹר חָשַׁךְ בַּעֲרִיפֶיהָ׃ 5.3 וְעַתָּה יוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה שִׁפְטוּ־נָא בֵּינִי וּבֵין כַּרְמִי׃ 5.4 מַה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד לְכַרְמִי וְלֹא עָשִׂיתִי בּוֹ מַדּוּעַ קִוֵּיתִי לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.5 וְעַתָּה אוֹדִיעָה־נָּא אֶתְכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה לְכַרְמִי הָסֵר מְשׂוּכָּתוֹ וְהָיָה לְבָעֵר פָּרֹץ גְּדֵרוֹ וְהָיָה לְמִרְמָס׃ 5.6 וַאֲשִׁיתֵהוּ בָתָה לֹא יִזָּמֵר וְלֹא יֵעָדֵר וְעָלָה שָׁמִיר וָשָׁיִת וְעַל הֶעָבִים אֲצַוֶּה מֵהַמְטִיר עָלָיו מָטָר׃ 5.7 כִּי כֶרֶם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו וַיְקַו לְמִשְׁפָּט וְהִנֵּה מִשְׂפָּח לִצְדָקָה וְהִנֵּה צְעָקָה׃
14.8
גַּם־בְּרוֹשִׁים שָׂמְחוּ לְךָ אַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן מֵאָז שָׁכַבְתָּ לֹא־יַעֲלֶה הַכֹּרֵת עָלֵינוּ׃
14.12
אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃ 14.13 וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 14.14 אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.15 אַךְ אֶל־שְׁאוֹל תּוּרָד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר׃
14.18
כָּל־מַלְכֵי גוֹיִם כֻּלָּם שָׁכְבוּ בְכָבוֹד אִישׁ בְּבֵיתוֹ׃
51.3
כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה צִיּוֹן נִחַם כָּל־חָרְבֹתֶיהָ וַיָּשֶׂם מִדְבָּרָהּ כְּעֵדֶן וְעַרְבָתָהּ כְּגַן־יְהוָה שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יִמָּצֵא בָהּ תּוֹדָה וְקוֹל זִמְרָה׃' ' None
sup>
5.1 Let me sing of my well-beloved, A song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard In a very fruitful hill; 5.2 And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. . 5.3 And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard. 5.4 What could have been done more to my vineyard, That I have not done in it? Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, Brought it forth wild grapes? 5.5 And now come, I will tell you What I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, And it shall be eaten up; I will break down the fence thereof, And it shall be trodden down; 5.6 And I will lay it waste: It shall not be pruned nor hoed, But there shall come up briers and thorns; I will also command the clouds That they rain no rain upon it. 5.7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry. 5 Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, And prudent in their own sight!,Then shall the lambs feed as in their pasture, And the waste places of the fat ones shall wanderers eat.,Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, That they may follow strong drink; That tarry late into the night, Till wine inflame them!,Let me sing of my well-beloved, A song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard In a very fruitful hill;,Woe unto them that call evil good, And good evil; That change darkness into light, And light into darkness; That change bitter into sweet, And sweet into bitter!,And the harp and the psaltery, the tabret and the pipe, And wine, are in their feasts; But they regard not the work of the LORD, Neither have they considered the operation of His hands.,Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, And sin as it were with a cart rope,,None shall be weary nor stumble among them; None shall slumber nor sleep; Neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, Nor the latchet of their shoes be broken;,Therefore the nether-world hath enlarged her desire, And opened her mouth without measure; And down goeth their glory, and their tumult, and their uproar, And he that rejoiceth among them.,And man is bowed down, And man is humbled, And the eyes of the lofty are humbled; .,And now come, I will tell you What I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, And it shall be eaten up; I will break down the fence thereof, And it shall be trodden down;,Therefore My people are gone into captivity, For want of knowledge; And their honourable men are famished, And their multitude are parched with thirst.,Their roaring shall be like a lion, They shall roar like young lions, yea, they shall roar, And lay hold of the prey, and carry it away safe, And there shall be none to deliver.,And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard.,For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry.,Woe unto them that join house to house, That lay field to field, Till there be no room, and ye be made to dwell Alone in the midst of the land!,Therefore as the tongue of fire devoureth the stubble, And as the chaff is consumed in the flame, So their root shall be as rottenness, And their blossom shall go up as dust; Because they have rejected the law of the LORD of hosts, And contemned the word of the Holy One of Israel.,And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. .,Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, And men of strength to mingle strong drink;,Whose arrows are sharp, And all their bows bent; Their horses’hoofs shall be counted like flint, And their wheels like a whirlwind;,And they shall roar against them in that day Like the roaring of the sea; And if one look unto the land, Behold darkness and distress, And the light is darkened in the skies thereof.,That justify the wicked for a reward, And take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!,For ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, And the seed of a homer shall yield an ephah.,And I will lay it waste: It shall not be pruned nor hoed, But there shall come up briers and thorns; I will also command the clouds That they rain no rain upon it.,That say: ‘Let Him make speed, let Him hasten His work, That we may see it; And let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, That we may know it! ’,Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against His people, And He hath stretched forth His hand against them, and hath smitten them, And the hills did tremble, And their carcasses were as refuse in the midst of the streets. For all this His anger is not turned away, But His hand is stretched out still.,And He will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, And will hiss unto them from the end of the earth; And, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly;,In mine ears said the LORD of hosts: of a truth many houses shall be desolate, Even great and fair, without inhabitant.,But the LORD of hosts is exalted through justice, And God the Holy One is sanctified through righteousness.,What could have been done more to my vineyard, That I have not done in it? Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, Brought it forth wild grapes?14.8 Yea, the cypresses rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon: ‘Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.’
14.12
How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations! 14.13 And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north; 14.14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’ 14.15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, To the uttermost parts of the pit.
14.18
All the kings of the nations, all of them, sleep in glory, every one in his own house.
51.3
For the LORD hath comforted Zion; He hath comforted all her waste places, And hath made her wilderness like Eden, And her desert like the garden of the LORD; Joy and gladness shall be found therein, Thanksgiving, and the voice of melody. ' None
11. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God–Israel relationship, as gardener-plant relationship • Zion, as garden • echo, Eden, garden of

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 129; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 140

sup>
2.6 וַיַּחְמֹס כַּגַּן שֻׂכּוֹ שִׁחֵת מוֹעֲדוֹ שִׁכַּח יְהוָה בְּצִיּוֹן מוֹעֵד וְשַׁבָּת וַיִּנְאַץ בְּזַעַם־אַפּוֹ מֶלֶךְ וְכֹהֵן׃'' None
sup>
2.6 And He hath stripped His tabernacle, as if it were a garden, He hath destroyed His place of assembly; The LORD hath caused to be forgotten in Zion Appointed season and sabbath, And hath rejected in the indignation of His anger The king and the priest.'' None
12. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • garden, mortuary • gardens

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 52; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 156

13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 28.11-28.19, 31.1-31.9, 47.7, 47.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Delight, Garden, of • East, Garden of Eden, of the • Eden, garden of • Garden of Eden • God, Garden of • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Temple, as garden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • Withdrawal, Eden, Garden of • echo, Eden, garden of • garden • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 114, 117, 118, 184, 210; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 87, 88; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 114, 191, 497, 503, 518, 567, 611, 629; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 328; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 94, 124, 125, 282

sup>
28.11 וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 28.12 בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃ 28.13 בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14 אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 28.15 תָּמִים אַתָּה בִּדְרָכֶיךָ מִיּוֹם הִבָּרְאָךְ עַד־נִמְצָא עַוְלָתָה בָּךְ׃ 28.16 בְּרֹב רְכֻלָּתְךָ מָלוּ תוֹכְךָ חָמָס וַתֶּחֱטָא וָאֶחַלֶּלְךָ מֵהַר אֱלֹהִים וָאַבֶּדְךָ כְּרוּב הַסֹּכֵךְ מִתּוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 28.17 גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ בְּיָפְיֶךָ שִׁחַתָּ חָכְמָתְךָ עַל־יִפְעָתֶךָ עַל־אֶרֶץ הִשְׁלַכְתִּיךָ לִפְנֵי מְלָכִים נְתַתִּיךָ לְרַאֲוָה בָךְ׃ 28.18 מֵרֹב עֲוֺנֶיךָ בְּעֶוֶל רְכֻלָּתְךָ חִלַּלְתָּ מִקְדָּשֶׁיךָ וָאוֹצִא־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ וָאֶתֶּנְךָ לְאֵפֶר עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינֵי כָּל־רֹאֶיךָ׃ 28.19 כָּל־יוֹדְעֶיךָ בָּעַמִּים שָׁמְמוּ עָלֶיךָ בַּלָּהוֹת הָיִיתָ וְאֵינְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃
31.1
וַיְהִי בְּאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃
31.1
לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר גָּבַהְתָּ בְּקוֹמָה וַיִּתֵּן צַמַּרְתּוֹ אֶל־בֵּין עֲבוֹתִים וְרָם לְבָבוֹ בְּגָבְהוֹ׃ 31.2 בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר אֶל־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וְאֶל־הֲמוֹנוֹ אֶל־מִי דָּמִיתָ בְגָדְלֶךָ׃ 31.3 הִנֵּה אַשּׁוּר אֶרֶז בַּלְּבָנוֹן יְפֵה עָנָף וְחֹרֶשׁ מֵצַל וּגְבַהּ קוֹמָה וּבֵין עֲבֹתִים הָיְתָה צַמַּרְתּוֹ׃ 31.4 מַיִם גִּדְּלוּהוּ תְּהוֹם רֹמְמָתְהוּ אֶת־נַהֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלֵךְ סְבִיבוֹת מַטָּעָהּ וְאֶת־תְּעָלֹתֶיהָ שִׁלְחָה אֶל כָּל־עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 31.5 עַל־כֵּן גָּבְהָא קֹמָתוֹ מִכֹּל עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וַתִּרְבֶּינָה סַרְעַפֹּתָיו וַתֶּאֱרַכְנָה פארתו פֹארֹתָיו מִמַּיִם רַבִּים בְּשַׁלְּחוֹ׃ 31.6 בִּסְעַפֹּתָיו קִנְנוּ כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְתַחַת פֹּארֹתָיו יָלְדוּ כֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּבְצִלּוֹ יֵשְׁבוּ כֹּל גּוֹיִם רַבִּים׃ 31.7 וַיְּיִף בְּגָדְלוֹ בְּאֹרֶךְ דָּלִיּוֹתָיו כִּי־הָיָה שָׁרְשׁוֹ אֶל־מַיִם רַבִּים׃ 31.8 אֲרָזִים לֹא־עֲמָמֻהוּ בְּגַן־אֱלֹהִים בְּרוֹשִׁים לֹא דָמוּ אֶל־סְעַפֹּתָיו וְעַרְמֹנִים לֹא־הָיוּ כְּפֹארֹתָיו כָּל־עֵץ בְּגַן־אֱלֹהִים לֹא־דָמָה אֵלָיו בְּיָפְיוֹ׃ 31.9 יָפֶה עֲשִׂיתִיו בְּרֹב דָּלִיּוֹתָיו וַיְקַנְאֻהוּ כָּל־עֲצֵי־עֵדֶן אֲשֶׁר בְּגַן הָאֱלֹהִים׃
47.7
בְּשׁוּבֵנִי וְהִנֵּה אֶל־שְׂפַת הַנַּחַל עֵץ רַב מְאֹד מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה׃
47.12
וְעַל־הַנַּחַל יַעֲלֶה עַל־שְׂפָתוֹ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה כָּל־עֵץ־מַאֲכָל לֹא־יִבּוֹל עָלֵהוּ וְלֹא־יִתֹּם פִּרְיוֹ לָחֳדָשָׁיו יְבַכֵּר כִּי מֵימָיו מִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הֵמָּה יוֹצְאִים והיו וְהָיָה פִרְיוֹ לְמַאֲכָל וְעָלֵהוּ לִתְרוּפָה׃' ' None
sup>
28.11 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: 28.12 ’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty, 28.13 thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared. 28.14 Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire. 28.15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till unrighteousness was found in thee. 28.16 By the multitude of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. 28.17 Thy heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness; I have cast thee to the ground, I have laid thee before kings, that they may gaze upon thee. 28.18 By the multitude of thine iniquities, in the unrighteousness of thy traffic, thou hast profaned thy sanctuaries; therefore have I brought forth a fire from the midst of thee, it hath devoured thee, and I have turned thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee. 28.19 All they that know thee among the peoples shall be appalled at thee; thou art become a terror, and thou shalt never be any more.’ 28 Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised By the hand of strangers; For I have spoken, saith the Lord GOD.’,By the multitude of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.,Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thou hast set thy heart As the heart of God;,All they that know thee among the peoples shall be appalled at thee; thou art become a terror, and thou shalt never be any more.’,And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:,Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till unrighteousness was found in thee.,For I will send into her pestilence And blood in her streets; And the wounded shall fall in the midst of her By the sword upon her on every side; and they shall know that I am the LORD.,’Son of man, set thy face toward Zidon, and prophesy against it,,and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against thee, O Zidon, And I will be glorified in the midst of thee; And they shall know that I am the LORD, when I shall have executed judgments in her, and shall be sanctified in her.,’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty,,Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel! There is no secret that they can hide from thee!,Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire.,’Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thy heart is lifted up, And thou hast said: I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, In the heart of the seas; Yet thou art man, and not God, Though thou didst set thy heart as the heart of God—,Therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon thee, The terrible of the nations; And they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, And they shall defile thy brightness. .,Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth thee: I am God? But thou art man, and not God, In the hand of them that defile thee.,Thus saith the Lord GOD: When I shall have gathered the house of Israel from the peoples among whom they are scattered, and shall be sanctified in them in the sight of the nations, then shall they dwell in their own land which I gave to My servant Jacob.,By the multitude of thine iniquities, in the unrighteousness of thy traffic, thou hast profaned thy sanctuaries; therefore have I brought forth a fire from the midst of thee, it hath devoured thee, and I have turned thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.,They shall bring thee down to the pit; And thou shalt die the deaths of them that are slain, In the heart of the seas.,Thy heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness; I have cast thee to the ground, I have laid thee before kings, that they may gaze upon thee.,And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto the house of Israel, nor a piercing thorn of any that are round about them, that did have them in disdain; and they shall know that I am the Lord GOD.,By thy wisdom and by thy discernment Thou hast gotten thee riches, And hast gotten gold and silver Into thy treasures;,In thy great wisdom by thy traffic Hast thou increased thy riches, And thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches—,thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared.,And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:,And they shall dwell safely therein, and shall build houses, and plant vineyards; yea, they shall dwell safely; when I have executed judgments upon all those that have them in disdain round about them; and they shall know that I am the LORD their God.’,Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:31.1 And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third month, in the first day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: 31.2 ’Son of man, say unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude: Whom art thou like in thy greatness? 31.3 Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon, With fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, And of a high stature; And its top was among the thick boughs. 31.4 The waters nourished it, The deep made it to grow; Her rivers ran round About her plantation, And she sent out her conduits Unto all the trees of the field. 31.5 Therefore its stature was exalted Above all the trees of the field; And its boughs were multiplied, And its branches became long, Because of the multitude of waters, when it shot them forth. 31.6 All the fowls of heaven made Their nests in its boughs, And all the beasts of the field did bring forth their young Under its branches, And under its shadow dwelt All great nations. 31.7 Thus was it fair in its greatness, In the length of its branches; For its root was By many waters. 31.8 The cedars in the garden of God Could not hide it; The cypress-trees were not Like its boughs, And the plane-trees were not As its branches; Nor was any tree in the garden of God Like unto it in its beauty. 31.9 I made it fair By the multitude of its branches; So that all the trees of Eden, That were in the garden of God, envied it. 31 The waters nourished it, The deep made it to grow; Her rivers ran round About her plantation, And she sent out her conduits Unto all the trees of the field.,I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to the nether-world with them that descend into the pit; and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, were comforted in the nether parts of the earth.,Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon, With fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, And of a high stature; And its top was among the thick boughs.,And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third month, in the first day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:,I do even deliver him into the hand of the mighty one of the nations; he shall surely deal with him; I do drive him out according to his wickedness.,Thus was it fair in its greatness, In the length of its branches; For its root was By many waters.,And strangers, the terrible of the nations, do cut him off, and cast him down; upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs lie broken in all the channels of the land; and all the peoples of the earth do go down from his shadow, and do leave him.,’Son of man, say unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude: Whom art thou like in thy greatness?,To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? yet shall thou be brought down with the trees of Eden unto the nether parts of the earth; thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord GOD.’,The cedars in the garden of God Could not hide it; The cypress-trees were not Like its boughs, And the plane-trees were not As its branches; Nor was any tree in the garden of God Like unto it in its beauty.,Therefore its stature was exalted Above all the trees of the field; And its boughs were multiplied, And its branches became long, Because of the multitude of waters, when it shot them forth.,They also went down into the nether-world with him unto them that are slain by the sword; yea, they that were in his arm, that dwelt under his shadow in the midst of the nations.,All the fowls of heaven made Their nests in its boughs, And all the beasts of the field did bring forth their young Under its branches, And under its shadow dwelt All great nations.,to the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves in their stature, neither set their top among the thick boughs, nor that their mighty ones stand up in their height, even all that drink water; for they are all delivered unto death, to the nether parts of the earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the pit.,I made it fair By the multitude of its branches; So that all the trees of Eden, That were in the garden of God, envied it.,Upon his carcass all the fowls of the heaven do dwell, and upon his branches are all the beasts of the field;,Thus saith the Lord GOD: In the day when he went down to the nether-world I caused the deep to mourn and cover itself for him, and I restrained the rivers thereof, and the great waters were stayed; and I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him.,Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thou art exalted in stature, and he hath set his top among the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height;
47.7
Now when I had been brought back, behold, upon the bank of the river were very many trees on the one side and on the other.
47.12
And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for food, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail; it shall bring forth new fruit every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary; and the fruit thereof shall be for food, and the leaf thereof for healing.’ . ' None
14. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.5 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Walls of paradise (or garden) • diet, in the garden of Eden

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 81; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 187

sup>
2.5 עָשִׂיתִי לִי גַּנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים וְנָטַעְתִּי בָהֶם עֵץ כָּל־פֶּרִי׃'' None
sup>
2.5 I made me gardens and parks, and I planted trees in them of all kinds of fruit;'' None
15. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 2.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Walls of paradise (or garden)

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 39; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 187

sup>
2.8 וְאִגֶּרֶת אֶל־אָסָף שֹׁמֵר הַפַּרְדֵּס אֲשֶׁר לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִתֶּן־לִי עֵצִים לְקָרוֹת אֶת־שַׁעֲרֵי הַבִּירָה אֲשֶׁר־לַבַּיִת וּלְחוֹמַת הָעִיר וְלַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־אָבוֹא אֵלָיו וַיִּתֶּן־לִי הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּיַד־אֱלֹהַי הַטּוֹבָה עָלָי׃'' None
sup>
2.8 and a letter unto Asaph the keeper of the king’s park, that he may give me timber to make beams for the gates of the castle which appertaineth to the house, and for the wall of the city, and for the house that I shall enter into.’ And the king granted me, according to the good hand of my God upon me.'' None
16. Anon., 1 Enoch, 19.1, 32.1, 32.3-32.6 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Garden, of Eden • Garden, of Righteousness • Walls of paradise (or garden) • echo, Eden, garden of • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 123, 166, 184; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 100, 194, 196, 334, 635, 839; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 51; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 45, 47, 374, 375; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 125; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 89, 643

sup>1 The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, And appear from His camp And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."2 Observe ye everything that takes place in the heaven, how they do not change their orbits, and the luminaries which are in the heaven, how they all rise and set in order each in its season, and,transgress not against their appointed order. Behold ye the earth, and give heed to the things which take place upon it from first to last, how steadfast they are, how none of the things upon earth,change, but all the works of God appear to you. Behold the summer and the winter, how the whole earth is filled with water, and clouds and dew and rain lie upon it. 3 Observe and see how (in the winter) all the trees seem as though they had withered and shed all their leaves, except fourteen trees, which do not lose their foliage but retain the old foliage from two to three years till the new comes. 4 And again, observe ye the days of summer how the sun is above the earth over against it. And you seek shade and shelter by reason of the heat of the sun, and the earth also burns with growing heat, and so you cannot tread on the earth, or on a rock by reason of its heat. 5 Observe ye how the trees cover themselves with green leaves and bear fruit: wherefore give ye heed and know with regard to all His works, and recognize how He that liveth for ever hath made them so.,And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done.,And behold how the sea and the rivers in like manner accomplish and change not their tasks from His commandments\'.",But ye -ye have not been steadfast, nor done the commandments of the Lord, But ye have turned away and spoken proud and hard words With your impure mouths against His greatness. Oh, ye hard-hearted, ye shall find no peace.,Therefore shall ye execrate your days, And the years of your life shall perish, And the years of your destruction shall be multiplied in eternal execration, And ye shall find no mercy.,In those days ye shall make your names an eternal execration unto all the righteous, b And by you shall all who curse, curse, And all the sinners and godless shall imprecate by you,,And for you the godless there shall be a curse.",And all the . . . shall rejoice, e And there shall be forgiveness of sins, f And every mercy and peace and forbearance: g There shall be salvation unto them, a goodly light.I And for all of you sinners there shall be no salvation, j But on you all shall abide a curse.,But for the elect there shall be light and joy and peace, b And they shall inherit the earth.,And then there shall be bestowed upon the elect wisdom, And they shall all live and never again sin, Either through ungodliness or through pride: But they who are wise shall be humble.,And they shall not again transgress, Nor shall they sin all the days of their life, Nor shall they die of (the divine) anger or wrath, But they shall complete the number of the days of their life.And their lives shall be increased in peace, And the years of their joy shall be multiplied, In eternal gladness and peace, All the days of their life. 6 And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto",them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: \'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men,and beget us children.\' And Semjaza, who was their leader, said unto them: \'I fear ye will not,indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.\' And they all answered him and said: \'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations,not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.\' Then sware they all together and bound themselves",by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn,and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And these are the names of their leaders: Samlazaz, their leader, Araklba, Rameel, Kokablel, Tamlel, Ramlel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal,,Asael, Armaros, Batarel, Ael, Zaq1el, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel. These are their chiefs of tens.' "7 And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms,and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they,became pregt, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed,all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against,them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and,fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones." "8 And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all,colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they,were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . ." "9 And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being,shed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. And they said one to another: 'The earth made without inhabitant cries the voice of their cryingst up to the gates of heaven.,And now to you, the holy ones of heaven, the souls of men make their suit, saying, 'Bring our cause,before the Most High.' And they said to the Lord of the ages: 'Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings, and God of the ages, the throne of Thy glory (standeth) unto all the generations of the,ages, and Thy name holy and glorious and blessed unto all the ages! Thou hast made all things, and power over all things hast Thou: and all things are naked and open in Thy sight, and Thou seest all,things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which,men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the,women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have,borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are,wrought on the earth. And Thou knowest all things before they come to pass, and Thou seest these things and Thou dost suffer them, and Thou dost not say to us what we are to do to them in regard to these.'" "10 Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: \'Go to Noah and tell him in my name \'Hide thyself!\' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.\' And again the Lord said to Raphael: \'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.\' And to Gabriel said the Lord: \'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy the children of fornication and the children of the Watchers from amongst men and cause them to go forth: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.\' And the Lord said unto Michael: \'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth\' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever. 11 And in those days I will open the store chambers of blessing which are in the heaven, so as to send,them down upon the earth over the work and labour of the children of men. And truth and peace shall be associated together throughout all the days of the world and throughout all the generations of men.\'"' "12 Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of men knew where he was,hidden, and where he abode, and what had become of him. And his activities had to do with the Watchers, and his days were with the holy ones.,And I Enoch was blessing the Lord of majesty and the King of the ages, and lo! the Watchers,called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselves,wives: 'Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth: And ye shall have no peace nor forgiveness,of sin: and inasmuch as they delight themselves in their children, The murder of their beloved ones shall they see, and over the destruction of their children shall they lament, and shall make supplication unto eternity, but mercy and peace shall ye not attain.'" '14 The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance,with the command of the Holy Great One in that vision. I saw in my sleep what I will now say with a tongue of flesh and with the breath of my mouth: which the Great One has given to men to",converse therewith and understand with the heart. As He has created and given to man the power of understanding the word of wisdom, so hath He created me also and given me the power of reprimanding,the Watchers, the children of heaven. I wrote out your petition, and in my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be granted unto you throughout all the days of eternity, and that judgement,has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree,has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before,you by the sword. And your petition on their behalf shall not be granted, nor yet on your own: even though you weep and pray and speak all the words contained in the writing which I have,written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in,the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright,me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork was,of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were,fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and its,portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there,were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked,and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater,than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to,you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path,of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of,cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look",thereon. And the Great Glory sat thereon, and His raiment shone more brightly than the sun and,was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason",of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand times,ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were,nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: \' Come hither,,Enoch, and hear my word.\' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards. 17 And they took and brought me to a place in which those who were there were like flaming fire,,and, when they wished, they appeared as men. And they brought me to the place of darkness, and to a mountain the point of whose summit reached to heaven. And I saw the places of the luminaries and the treasuries of the stars and of the thunder and in the uttermost depths, where were,a fiery bow and arrows and their quiver, and a fiery sword and all the lightnings. And they took,me to the living waters, and to the fire of the west, which receives every setting of the sun. And I came to a river of fire in which the fire flows like water and discharges itself into the great sea towards,the west. I saw the great rivers and came to the great river and to the great darkness, and went,to the place where no flesh walks. I saw the mountains of the darkness of winter and the place",whence all the waters of the deep flow. I saw the mouths of all the rivers of the earth and the mouth of the deep." 18 I saw the treasuries of all the winds: I saw how He had furnished with them the whole creation",and the firm foundations of the earth. And I saw the corner-stone of the earth: I saw the four",winds which bear the earth and the firmament of the heaven. And I saw how the winds stretch out the vaults of heaven, and have their station between heaven and earth: these are the pillars,of the heaven. I saw the winds of heaven which turn and bring the circumference of the sun and",all the stars to their setting. I saw the winds on the earth carrying the clouds: I saw the paths",of the angels. I saw at the end of the earth the firmament of the heaven above. And I proceeded and saw a place which burns day and night, where there are seven mountains of magnificent stones,,three towards the east, and three towards the south. And as for those towards the east, was of coloured stone, and one of pearl, and one of jacinth, and those towards the south of red stone.,But the middle one reached to heaven like the throne of God, of alabaster, and the summit of the,throne was of sapphire. And I saw a flaming fire. And beyond these mountains Is a region the end of the great earth: there the heavens were completed. And I saw a deep abyss, with columns of heavenly fire, and among them I saw columns of fire fall, which were beyond measure alike towards,the height and towards the depth. And beyond that abyss I saw a place which had no firmament of the heaven above, and no firmly founded earth beneath it: there was no water upon it, and no,birds, but it was a waste and horrible place. I saw there seven stars like great burning mountains,,and to me, when I inquired regarding them, The angel said: \'This place is the end of heaven and earth: this has become a prison for the stars and the host of heaven. And the stars which roll over the fire are they which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord in the beginning of,their rising, because they did not come forth at their appointed times. And He was wroth with them, and bound them till the time when their guilt should be consummated (even) for ten thousand years.\'
19.1
And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in" '20 And these are the names of the holy angels who watch. Uriel, one of the holy angels, who is,over the world and over Tartarus. Raphael, one of the holy angels, who is over the spirits of men.,Raguel, one of the holy angels who takes vengeance on the world of the luminaries. Michael, one,of the holy angels, to wit, he that is set over the best part of mankind and over chaos. Saraqael,,one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits, who sin in the spirit. Gabriel, one of the holy,angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim. Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise. 21 And I proceeded to where things were chaotic. And I saw there something horrible: I saw neither",a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. And there I saw,seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then,I said: \'For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither\' Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: \'Enoch, why,dost thou ask, and why art thou eager for the truth These are of the number of the stars of heaven, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years,,the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.\' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of,fire: neither its extent or magnitude could I see, nor could I conjecture. Then I said: \'How,fearful is the place and how terrible to look upon!\' Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: \'Enoch, why hast thou such fear and affright\' And,I answered: \'Because of this fearful place, and because of the spectacle of the pain.\' And he said unto me: \'This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will be imprisoned for ever.\' 22 And thence I went to another place, and he mountain and of hard rock.,And there was in it four hollow places, deep and wide and very smooth. How smooth are the hollow places and deep and dark to look at.,Then Raphael answered, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: \'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should,assemble therein, yea that all the souls of the children of men should assemble here. And these places have been made to receive them till the day of their judgement and till their appointed period till the period appointed, till the great judgement (comes) upon them.\' I saw (the spirit of) a dead man making suit,,and his voice went forth to heaven and made suit. And I asked Raphael the angel who was",with me, and I said unto him: \'This spirit which maketh suit, whose is it, whose voice goeth forth and maketh suit to heaven \',And he answered me saying: \'This is the spirit which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, and he makes his suit against him till his seed is destroyed from the face of the earth, and his seed is annihilated from amongst the seed of men.\',The I asked regarding it, and regarding all the hollow places: \'Why is one separated from the other\',And he answered me and said unto me: \'These three have been made that the spirits of the dead might be separated. And such a division has been make (for) the spirits of the righteous, in which there is the bright spring of,water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their",lifetime. Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain till the great day of judgement and punishment and torment of those who curse for ever and retribution for their spirits. There",He shall bind them for ever. And such a division has been made for the spirits of those who make their suit, who make disclosures concerning their destruction, when they were slain in the days,of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.\',The I blessed the Lord of glory and said: \'Blessed be my Lord, the Lord of righteousness, who ruleth for ever.\' 23 From thence I went to another place to the west of the ends of the earth. And I saw a burning",fire which ran without resting, and paused not from its course day or night but (ran) regularly. And,I asked saying: \'What is this which rests not\' Then Raguel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered me and said unto me: \'This course of fire which thou hast seen is the fire in the west which persecutes all the luminaries of heaven.\'' "24 And from thence I went to another place of the earth, and he showed me a mountain range of,fire which burnt day and night. And I went beyond it and saw seven magnificent mountains all differing each from the other, and the stones (thereof) were magnificent and beautiful, magnificent as a whole, of glorious appearance and fair exterior: three towards the east, one founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon the other, and deep rough ravines, no one of which,joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them,in height, resembling the seat of a throne: and fragrant trees encircled the throne. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet smelt, neither was any amongst them nor were others like it: it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood wither not for ever:,and its fruit is beautiful, and its fruit n resembles the dates of a palm. Then I said: 'How beautiful is this tree, and fragrant, and its leaves are fair, and its blooms very delightful in appearance.',Then answered Michael, one of the holy and honoured angels who was with me, and was their leader." '25 And he said unto me: \'Enoch, why dost thou ask me regarding the fragrance of the tree,,and why dost thou wish to learn the truth\' Then I answered him saying: \'I wish to",know about everything, but especially about this tree.\' And he answered saying: \'This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit,the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgement, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring (everything) to its consummation,for ever. It shall then be given to the righteous and holy. Its fruit shall be for food to the elect: it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King.,Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, And into the holy place shall they enter; And its fragrance shall be in their bones, And they shall live a long life on earth, Such as thy fathers lived:And in their days shall no sorrow or plague Or torment or calamity touch them.\',Then blessed I the God of Glory, the Eternal King, who hath prepared such things for the righteous, and hath created them and promised to give to them. 26 And I went from thence to the middle of the earth, and I saw a blessed place in which there were,trees with branches abiding and blooming of a dismembered tree. And there I saw a holy mountain,,and underneath the mountain to the east there was a stream and it flowed towards the south. And I saw towards the east another mountain higher than this, and between them a deep and narrow,ravine: in it also ran a stream underneath the mountain. And to the west thereof there was another mountain, lower than the former and of small elevation, and a ravine deep and dry between them: and another deep and dry ravine was at the extremities of the three mountains. And all the ravines were deep rand narrow, (being formed) of hard rock, and trees were not planted upon,them. And I marveled at the rocks, and I marveled at the ravine, yea, I marveled very much. 27 Then said I: \'For what object is this blessed land, which is entirely filled with trees, and this,accursed valley between\' Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered and said: \'This accursed valley is for those who are accursed for ever: Here shall all the accursed be gathered together who utter with their lips against the Lord unseemly words and of His glory speak hard things. Here shall they be gathered together, and here,shall be their place of judgement. In the last days there shall be upon them the spectacle of righteous judgement in the presence of the righteous for ever: here shall the merciful bless the Lord of glory, the Eternal King.,In the days of judgement over the former, they shall bless Him for the mercy in accordance with,which He has assigned them (their lot).\' Then I blessed the Lord of Glory and set forth His glory and lauded Him gloriously." 28 And thence I went towards the east, into the midst of the mountain range of the desert, and,I saw a wilderness and it was solitary, full of trees and plants. And water gushed forth from,above. Rushing like a copious watercourse which flowed towards the north-west it caused clouds and dew to ascend on every side." 29 And thence I went to another place in the desert, and approached to the east of this mountain,range. And there I saw aromatic trees exhaling the fragrance of frankincense and myrrh, and the trees also were similar to the almond tree. 30 And beyond these, I went afar to the east, and I saw another place, a valley (full) of water. And,therein there was a tree, the colour () of fragrant trees such as the mastic. And on the sides of those valleys I saw fragrant cinnamon. And beyond these I proceeded to the east. 31 And I saw other mountains, and amongst them were groves of trees, and there flowed forth from,them nectar, which is named sarara and galbanum. And beyond these mountains I saw another mountain to the east of the ends of the earth, whereon were aloe-trees, and all the trees were full,of stacte, being like almond-trees. And when one burnt it, it smelt sweeter than any fragrant odour.' "
32.1
And after these fragrant odours, as I looked towards the north over the mountains I saw seven mountains full of choice nard and fragrant trees and cinnamon and pepper.
32.3
I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 32.4 That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit 32.5 is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then' "32.6 I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.'" '32 And after these fragrant odours, as I looked towards the north over the mountains I saw seven mountains full of choice nard and fragrant trees and cinnamon and pepper.,And thence I went over the summits of all these mountains, far towards the east of the earth, and passed above the Erythraean sea and went far from it, and passed over the angel Zotiel. And I came to the Garden of Righteousness,,I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom.,That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit,is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then,I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.'" '33 And from thence I went to the ends of the earth and saw there great beasts, and each differed from the other; and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and voice, the one differing from the other. And to the east of those beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon the heaven,rests, and the portals of the heaven open. And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and,I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their,times and their months, as Uriel the holy angel who was with me showed me. He showed all things to me and wrote them down for me: also their names he wrote for me, and their laws and their companies. 34 And from thence I went towards the north to the ends of the earth, and there I saw a great and,glorious device at the ends of the whole earth. And here I saw three portals of heaven open in the heaven: through each of them proceed north winds: when they blow there is cold, hail, frost,,snow, dew, and rain. And out of one portal they blow for good: but when they blow through the other two portals, it is with violence and affliction on the earth, and they blow with violence. 35 And from thence I went towards the west to the ends of the earth, and saw there three portals of the heaven open such as I had seen in the east, the same number of portals, and the same number of outlets. 36 And from thence I went to the south to the ends of the earth, and saw there three open portals,of the heaven: and thence there come dew, rain, and wind. And from thence I went to the east to the ends of the heaven, and saw here the three eastern portals of heaven open and small portals,above them. Through each of these small portals pass the stars of heaven and run their course to the west on the path which is shown to them. And as often as I saw I blessed always the Lord of Glory, and I continued to bless the Lord of Glory who has wrought great and glorious wonders, to show the greatness of His work to the angels and to spirits and to men, that they might praise His work and all His creation: that they might see the work of His might and praise the great work of His hands and bless Him for ever. " None
17. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • garden

 Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 327; Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 166, 168

18. Anon., Jubilees, 3.9-3.13, 4.17-4.26, 5.1-5.10, 8.12, 8.19, 21.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Garden, of Eden • Garden, of Righteousness • Procreation, And The Garden of Eden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 200, 380, 486, 583, 624, 625, 749, 750, 931, 993; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 116; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 255; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 87; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 45, 47, 50, 60, 374; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 125; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 89, 643

sup>
3.9 "This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called my wife; because she was taken from her husband." 3.10 Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11 In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 3.12 and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.13 And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden.' "
4.17
And in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dînâh, the daughter of Barâkî’êl the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared;" '4.18 for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth.' "4.19 And in the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Bâraka, the daughter of Râsûjâl, a daughter of his father's brother, in the fourth week of this jubilee," '4.20 and she bare him a son in the fifth week, in the fourth year of the jubilee, and he called his name Enoch. 4.21 And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom 4.22 and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months. 4.23 And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 4.24 And what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the day of judgment; 4.25 he saw and understood everything, and wrote his testimony, and placed the testimony on earth for all the children of men and for their generations.' "4.26 And in the twelfth jubilee, in the seventh week thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Ednî, the daughter of Dânêl, the daughter of his father's brother, and in the sixth year in this week she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah." 5.1 And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them, 5.2 that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. 5.3 And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walketh on the earth 5.4 -all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other, 5.5 and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men (was) thus evil continually. 5.6 And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 5.7 And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created." 5.8 But Noah found grace before the eyes of the Lord. 5.9 And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion,
5.10
and He bade us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and behold they are bound in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate.
8.12
And in the sixth year thereof, she bare him a son, and he called his name Peleg;
8.19
and his portion goeth towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this river goeth forth
21.10
and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys.'' None
19. Anon., Testament of Levi, 18.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth see Ge, Geb, Eden, garden of • echo, Eden, garden of

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 129, 210; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 174

sup>
18.11 And after their punishment shall have come from the Lord, the priesthood shall fail.,Then shall the Lord raise up a new priest. And to him all the words of the Lord shall be revealed; And he shall execute a righteous judgement upon the earth for a multitude of days.,And his star shall arise in heaven as of a king. Lighting up the light of knowledge as the sun the day, And he shall be magnified in the world.,He shall shine forth as the sun on the earth, And shall remove all darkness from under heaven, And there shall be peace in all the earth.,The heavens shall exult in his days, And the earth shall be glad, And the clouds shall rejoice, And the knowledge of the Lord shall be poured forth upon the earth, as the water of the seas; And the angels of the glory of the presence of the Lord shall be glad in him.,The heavens shall be opened, And From the temple of glory shall come upon him sanctification, With the Father's voice as from Abraham to Isaac.,And the glory of the Most High shall be uttered over him, And the spirit of understanding and sanctification shall rest upon him in the water. ,For he shall give the majesty of the Lord to His sons in truth for evermore; And there shall none succeed him for all generations for ever.,And in his priesthood the Gentiles shall be multiplied in knowledge upon the earth, And enlightened through the grace of the Lord: In his priesthood shall sin come to an end, And the lawless shall cease to do evil. And the just shall rest in him.,And he shall open the gates of paradise, And shall remove the threatening sword against Adam.,And he shall give to the saints to eat from the tree of life, And the spirit of holiness shall be on them.,And Beliar shall be bound by him, And he shall give power to His children to tread upon the evil spirits. ,And the Lord shall rejoice in His children, And be well pleased in His beloved ones for ever.,Then shall Abraham and Isaac and Jacob exult, And I will be glad, And all the saints shall clothe themselves with joy.,If ye also, therefore, walk in the commandments of the Lord, my children, He will exalt you there, and will bless you with good things for ever and ever.,And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil., For, behold, ye see that out of my humility and long -suffering I took unto wife the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis. And a hundred talents of gold were given me with her, and the Lord made them to serve me.,And He gave me also beauty as a flower beyond the beautiful ones of Israel; and He preserved me unto old age in strength and in beauty, because I was like in all things to Jacob."" None
20. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 49.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • East, Garden of Eden, of the • Garden of Eden

 Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 629; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 47, 311

sup>
49.8 It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim.'' None
21. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Corycian gardener • Epicurean garden • gardens

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 182; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 179

22. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Walls of paradise (or garden) • echo, Eden, garden of

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 238; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 192

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Walls of paradise (or garden) • garden, mortuary

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 52; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 192

sup>
10.46 ζήσας οὖν ἔτη ἑξήκοντα ἑπτὰ κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον βασιλεύσας ἔτη πέντε καὶ πεντήκοντα. καὶ θάπτεται μὲν αὐτὸς ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῦ παραδείσοις, ἡ βασιλεία δὲ εἰς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ παραγίνεται ̓Αμμῶνα μητρὸς ̓Εμασέλμης μὲν ὄνομα τετυχηκότα, ἐκ δὲ πόλεως ̓Ιαζαβάτης ὑπαρχούσης.'' None
sup>
10.46 When therefore he had lived sixty-seven years, he departed this life, having reigned fifty-five years, and was buried in his own garden; and the kingdom came to his son Amon, whose mother’s name was Meshulemeth, of the city of Jotbath.'' None
24. New Testament, Apocalypse, 22.2-22.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • echo, Eden, garden of • garden • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 184, 200, 209, 210, 371, 382; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 125

sup>
22.2 ἐν μέσῳτῆς πλατείας αὐτῆς· καὶτοῦ ποταμοῦ ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ξύλον ζωῆςποιοῦν καρποὺς δώδεκα,κατὰ μῆναἕκαστον ἀποδιδοῦντὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ φύλλατοῦ ξύλουεἰς θεραπείαντῶν ἐθνῶν. 22.3 καὶ πᾶν κατάθεμα οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι.καὶ ὁ θρόνος τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἀρνίου ἐν αὐτῇ ἔσται, καὶ οἱ δοῦλοι αὐτοῦ λατρεύσουσιν αὐτῷ,'' None
sup>
22.2 in the midst of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. 22.3 There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants serve him.'' None
25. New Testament, Luke, 22.42, 22.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Gethsemane • Gethsemane, Garden of • Walls of paradise (or garden)

 Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1025; Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 63; Yates and Dupont (2023), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE).. 468

sup>
22.42 εἰ βούλει παρένεγκε τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· πλὴν μὴ τὸ θέλημά μου ἀλλὰ τὸ σὸν γινέσθω.
22.45
καὶ ἀναστὰς ἀπὸ τῆς προσευχῆς ἐλθὼν πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς εὗρεν κοιμωμένους αὐτοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς λύπης, καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί καθεύδετε;'' None
sup>
22.42 saying, "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done."
22.45
When he rose up from his prayer, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping because of grief, '' None
26. New Testament, Mark, 14.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Gethsemane • Gethsemane, Garden of

 Found in books: Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 98; Yates and Dupont (2023), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE).. 468

sup>
14.32 Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς χωρίον οὗ τὸ ὄνομα Γεθσημανεί, καὶ λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ Καθίσατε ὧδε ἕως προσεύξωμαι.'' None
sup>
14.32 They came to a place which was named Gethsemane. He said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I pray."'' None
27. New Testament, Matthew, 26.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Gethsemane • Gethsemane, Garden of

 Found in books: Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 98; Yates and Dupont (2023), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE).. 468

sup>
26.36 Τότε ἔρχεται μετʼ αὐτῶν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς χωρίον λεγόμενον Γεθσημανεί, καὶ λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς Καθίσατε αὐτοῦ ἕως οὗ ἀπελθὼν ἐκεῖ προσεύξωμαι.'' None
sup>
26.36 Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane, and said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I go there and pray."'' None
28. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • echo, Eden, garden of • gardens

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 210; Thonemann (2020), An Ancient Dream Manual: Artemidorus' the Interpretation of Dreams, 99

29. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gardens • gardens

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 67; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 46

30. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Walls of paradise (or garden) • echo, Eden, garden of

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 35; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 129; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 183, 187, 334, 382, 434, 556, 567, 600, 624, 625, 695, 749, 750, 754, 786, 804, 931, 989

31. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epicureans, Garden

 Found in books: Bryan (2018), Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy, 209; Wardy and Warren (2018), Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy, 209

32. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 374; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 136

sup>
1.4 בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'."
1.4
בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(משלי ח, כב)<>: ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב <>(תהלים צג, ב)<>: נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(הושע ט, י)<>: כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(תהלים עד, ב)<>: זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(ירמיה יז, יב)<>: כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(תהלים עב, יז)<>: יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(תהלים צ, ב)<>: בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(משלי ח, כב)<>: ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ <>(תהלים צג, ב)<>: נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(משלי ג, יט)<>: ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(דברים לג, כא)<>: וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(במדבר טו, כ)<>: רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר <>(דברים יח, ד)<>: רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(שמות כג, יט)<>: רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'." "" None
sup>
1.4 "\\"In the beginning of God\'s creating...\\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \\"God made me at the beginning of his way.\\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \\"Your throne is established as of old etc.\\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \\"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \\"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \\"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \\"May his name exist forever etc. his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun.\\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze\'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \\"Before the mountains were birthed,\\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \\"You turned man to contrition etc.\\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \\"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \\"Your throne is established as of old.\\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \\"Take this ink and pen for my son.\\" They said: \\"He does not have a son.\\" He replied: \\"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \\"Command the children of Israel\\" or \\"Speak to the children of Israel.\\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \\"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \\"He saw a first part for himself.\\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \\"In the beginning God created\\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \\"The beginning of your doughs.\\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \\"The beginning of your grains.\\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \\"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\\"", '' None
33. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 30.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 328, 375; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 283

sup>
30.2 "Rabbi Mani opened, \\"\'All of my bones shall say, \\"Lord, who is like you\\"\' (Psalms 35:10). This verse was only stated for the sake of the lulav (the four species). The spine of the palm branch is similar to the spine of man. And the myrtle is similar to the eye. And the willow is similar to the mouth. And the etrog (citron), is similar to the heart. David said, \'In all of the limbs, there are no greater ones than these, as they are compared to the entire body.\' This is what is meant by \'All of my bones shall say.\'\\"", , "Rabbi Yehuda opened in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, \\"\'Listen my son and take my words\' (Proverbs 4:10). Many takings have I commanded you in order to give you merit. I said to you (Numbers 19:2), \'and you will take to you a pure red cow.\' Was it maybe for My sake? But rather it was for your sake, to purify you, as it is written (Numbers 19:19), \'And the pure one will sprinkle on the impure one.\' I said to you (Exodus 25:2), \'and they shall take an offering for Me\' in order that I will dwell among you: \'And make for Me a sanctuary\' (Ibid., verse 8). As if it were possible, the Holy One, blessed be He, said, \'take Me and I will dwell among you\' - it does not say, \'and they shall take an offering,\' but rather, \'and they shall take (for) Me:\' they are taking Me. I said to you (Leviticus 24:2), \'and they shall take to you pure olive oil.\' And do I need your light - behold, it is written (Daniel 2:22), \'and light dwells with Him?\' But rather to give you merit and to atone for your souls which is compared to a candle, as it is stated (Proverbs 20:27), \'The candle of God is the soul of a man, it searches all of the chambers of the innards.\' And now that I have said to you, \'And you shall take for yourselves on the first day,\' it is to give you merit, so that I will bring down the rain for you. Hence Moshe warned Israel, \'And you shall take for yourselves on the first day.\'\\"", , "Another explanation: \\"The fruit of a beautiful tree (
34. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Withdrawal, Eden, Garden of • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 281; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 282, 283

75a קניגיא עם לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כה) התמשוך לויתן בחכה ובחבל תשקיע לשונו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר (איוב מ, יט) העושו יגש חרבו,כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שלויתן רעב מוציא הבל מפיו ומרתיח כל מימות שבמצולה שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ירתיח כסיר מצולה ואלמלא מכניס ראשו לגן עדן אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ים ישים כמרקחה,ובשעה שצמא עושה תלמים תלמים בים שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) אחריו יאיר נתיב אמר רב אחא בר יעקב אין תהום חוזר לאיתנו עד שבעים שנה שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) יחשוב תהום לשיבה ואין שיבה פחותה משבעים,אמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סעודה לצדיקים מבשרו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יכרו עליו חברים ואין כרה אלא סעודה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כרה גדולה ויאכלו וישתו ואין חברים אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, יג) היושבת בגנים חברים מקשיבים לקולך השמיעני,והשאר מחלקין אותו ועושין בו סחורה בשוקי ירושלים שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יחצוהו בין כנענים ואין כנענים אלא תגרים שנאמר (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה לעשק אהב ואי בעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סוכה לצדיקים מעורו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) התמלא בשכות עורו זכה עושין לו סוכה לא זכה עושין לו צלצל שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) ובצלצל דגים ראשו,זכה עושין לו צלצל לא זכה עושין לו ענק שנאמר (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך זכה עושין לו ענק לא זכה עושין לו קמיע שנאמר (איוב מ, כט) ותקשרנו לנערותיך,והשאר פורסו הקב"ה על חומות ירושלים וזיוו מבהיק מסוף העולם ועד סופו שנאמר (ישעיהו ס, ג) והלכו גוים לאורך ומלכים לנוגה זרחך:,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושמתי כדכד שמשותיך א"ר שמואל בר נחמני פליגי תרי מלאכי ברקיעא גבריאל ומיכאל ואמרי לה תרי אמוראי במערבא ומאן אינון יהודה וחזקיה בני רבי חייא חד אמר שוהם וחד אמר ישפה אמר להו הקב"ה להוי כדין וכדין,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושעריך לאבני אקדח כי הא דיתיב רבי יוחנן וקא דריש עתיד הקב"ה להביא אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם שלשים על שלשים וחוקק בהן עשר על עשרים ומעמידן בשערי ירושלים לגלג עליו אותו תלמיד השתא כביעתא דציצלא לא משכחינן כולי האי משכחינן,לימים הפליגה ספינתו בים חזא מלאכי השרת דיתבי וקא מינסרי אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם ל\' על ל\' וחקוק בהן עשר ברום עשרים אמר להו הני למאן אמרו ליה שעתיד הקב"ה להעמידן בשערי ירושלים אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה דרוש רבי לך נאה לדרוש כאשר אמרת כן ראיתי אמר לו ריקא אלמלא (לא) ראית לא האמנת מלגלג על דברי חכמים אתה נתן עיניו בו ונעשה גל של עצמות,מיתיבי (ויקרא כו, יג) ואולך אתכם קוממיות רבי מאיר אומר מאתים אמה כשתי קומות של אדם הראשון,רבי יהודה אומר מאה אמה כנגד היכל וכתליו שנאמר (תהלים קמד, יב) אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל כי קאמר ר\' יוחנן לכווי דבי זיקא,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות שבע חופות לכל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ה) וברא ה\' על כל מכון הר ציון ועל מקראיה ענן יומם ועשן ונוגה אש להבה לילה כי על כל כבוד חופה מלמד שכל אחד ואחד עושה לו הקדוש ברוך הוא חופה לפי כבודו,עשן בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא שכל מי שעיניו צרות בתלמידי חכמים בעולם הזה מתמלאות עיניו עשן לעולם הבא ואש בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נכוה מחופתו של חבירו אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו ולא כל הודך זקנים שבאותו הדור אמרו פני משה כפני חמה פני יהושע כפני לבנה אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,אמר רבי חמא (בר) חנינא עשר חופות עשה הקדוש ברוך הוא לאדם הראשון בגן עדן שנאמר (יחזקאל כח, יג) בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה וגו\' מר זוטרא אמר אחת עשרה שנאמר כל אבן יקרה אמר רבי יוחנן וגרוע שבכולן זהב דקא חשיב ליה לבסוף,מאי (יחזקאל כח, יג) מלאכת תופיך ונקביך בך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לחירם מלך צור בך נסתכלתי ובראתי נקבים נקבים באדם ואיכא דאמרי הכי קאמר בך נסתכלתי'' None75a a hunt of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you draw out leviathan with a fish hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?” (Job 40:25). And were the Holy One, Blessed be He, not assisting Gabriel, he would not be able to hunt it, as it is stated: “Only He Who made him can use His sword to approach him” (Job 40:19).,When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: When the leviathan is hungry, he produces breath from his mouth and thereby boils all of the waters in the depths of the sea. As it is stated: “He makes the deep boil like a pot” (Job 41:23). And if the leviathan did not place its head in the Garden of Eden, no creature could withstand his foul smell, as it is stated: “He makes the sea like a seething mixture merkaḥa (Job 41:23), and the term merkaḥa is also used to describe something with a smell (see Exodus 30:25).,And when he is thirsty, he makes many furrows in the sea, as it is stated: “He makes a path to shine after him” (Job 41:24). Rav Aḥa bar Yaakov says: After the leviathan drinks from the sea, the depth of the sea does not return to its normal condition until seventy years have passed, as it is stated: “One would think the deep to be hoary” (Job 41:24), and hoary indicates a person who is no less than seventy years old.,Rabba says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will make a feast for the righteous from the flesh of the leviathan, as it is stated: “The ḥabbarim will make a feast yikhru of him” (Job 40:30). And kera means nothing other than a feast, as it is stated: “And he prepared va’yikhreh for them a great feast kera; and they ate and drank” (II\xa0Kings 6:23). And ḥabbarim means nothing other than Torah scholars, as it is stated: “You that dwell in the gardens, the companions ḥaverim hearken for your voice: Cause me to hear it” (Song of Songs 8:13). This verse is interpreted as referring to Torah scholars, who listen to God’s voice.,And with regard to the remainder of the leviathan, they will divide it and use it for commerce in the markets of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “They will part him among the kena’anim (Job 40:30). And kena’anim means nothing other than merchants, as it is stated: “As for the merchant kena’an, the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress” (Hosea 12:8). And if you wish, say that the proof is from here: “Whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers kieha are the honorable of the earth” (Isaiah 23:8).,And Rabba says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will prepare a sukka for the righteous from the skin of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you fill his skin with barbed irons besukkot (Job 40:31). If one is deserving of being called righteous, an entire sukka is prepared for him from the skin of the leviathan; if one is not deserving of this honor, a covering is prepared for his head, as it is stated: “Or his head with fish-spears” (Job 40:31).,If one is deserving at least of this reward, a covering is prepared for him, and if one is not deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, as it is stated: “And necklaces about your neck” (Proverbs 1:9). If one is somewhat deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, and if one is not deserving even of this, only an amu-let is prepared for him from the skin of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Or will you bind him for your maidens” (Job 40:29), i.e., a small amulet is prepared for him, like the amulets tied on children’s necks.,And with regard to the remaining part of the skin of the leviathan, the Holy One, Blessed be He, spreads it on the walls of Jerusalem, and its glory radiates from one end of the world until the other end. As it is stated: “And nations shall walk in your light, and kings at the brightness of your rising” (Isaiah 60:3).,§ With regard to the future glory of Jerusalem, the Gemara interprets the verse: “And I will make your pinnacles of kadkhod (Isaiah 54:12). Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael, disagree with regard to the material that will be used to form the walls of Jerusalem. And some say that this dispute is between two amora’im in the West, i.e., Eretz Yisrael. And who are they? They are Yehuda and Ḥizkiyya, the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya. One said they will be made of onyx, and one said of jasper. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Let it be like this kedein and like that ukhedein, i.e., let them be formed from both together. This compromise is indicated by the word kadkhod, a combination of this kedein and that ukhedein.,The Gemara analyzes the rest of that verse: “And your gates of precious stones” (Isaiah 54:12). This should be understood in light of that incident where Rabbi Yoḥa sat and taught: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring precious stones and pearls that are thirty by thirty cubits, and He will hollow out in them a hole of ten by twenty cubits and set them in the gates of Jerusalem. A certain unnamed student sneered at him, saying: Now we do not find precious stones even of the size of an egg of a dove, and yet all of this we will find?,After a period of time that student’s ship went to sea, where he saw ministering angels sitting and sawing precious stones and pearls that were thirty by thirty cubits, and hollowed out in them were holes of ten by twenty cubits. He said to the angels: For whom are these? They said to him that in the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will place them in the gates of Jerusalem. Later, the student came before Rabbi Yoḥa and said to him: Continue to interpret, my teacher, it is fitting for you to interpret, as I saw just as you said. Rabbi Yoḥa said to him: Worthless man, if you had not seen, you would not have believed; clearly, you are mocking the statement of the Sages. Rabbi Yoḥa set his eyes upon him, and the student was instantly killed and turned into a pile of bones.,The Gemara raises an objection against Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement, based on a baraita. The verse states: “And I will make you go upright komemiyyut (Leviticus 26:13). Rabbi Meir says: In the future, the Jewish people will have the stature of two hundred cubits, equivalent to two times the height komot of Adam the first man, whose height was one hundred cubits. Rabbi Meir interprets the word komemiyyut as two komot.,Rabbi Yehuda says: They will have the stature of one hundred cubits, corresponding to the Sanctuary and its walls, as it is stated: “We whose sons are as plants grown up in their youth; whose daughters are as corner-pillars carved after the fashion of the Sanctuary” (Psalms 144:12). But if they are each one hundred cubits tall, how could the Jews enter the gates of Jerusalem, whose entrance gate will be ten by twenty cubits, as claimed by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: When Rabbi Yoḥa stated that idea, he was not referring to the gates themselves but to the windows that allow wind to enter.,§ And Rabba says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will fashion seven canopies for each and every righteous individual, as it is stated: “And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over those who are invited to it, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory shall be a canopy” (Isaiah 4:5). This teaches that for each and every righteous individual, the Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions for him a canopy seven times over, in accordance with his honor, i.e., greater individuals receive grander and larger canopies.,The Gemara asks a question with regard to the above verse: Why should there be smoke in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said: It is because anyone whose eyes are narrow, i.e., is stingy, toward Torah scholars in this world, his eyes fill with smoke in the World-to-Come. And why should there be fire in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said: This teaches that each and every one is burned from embarrassment at the size of the canopy of the other, and says: Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace, that I did not merit a canopy as large as his.,In a similar manner, you can say that God said to Moses about Joshua: “And you shall put of your honor upon him” (Numbers 27:20), which indicates that you should put some of your honor, but not all of your honor. The elders of that generation said: The face of Moses was as bright as the face of the sun; the face of Joshua was like the face of the moon. Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace, that we did not merit another leader of the stature of Moses.,Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, fashioned ten canopies for Adam the first man, in the Garden of Eden; as it is stated to Hiram, king of Tyre: “You were in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of your drums and of your holes was in you; they were prepared on the day that you were created” (Ezekiel 28:13). This verse mentions ten items, from carnelian to gold. Mar Zutra said: There were eleven canopies, as it states: “Every precious stone,” which is also part of the tally. Rabbi Yoḥa said: And the worst of all of them was gold, as it is counted last, which indicates that the other items are more valuable.,The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: “The workmanship of your drums and of your holes nekavekha (Ezekiel 28:13)? Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hiram, king of Tyre: Were you in the Garden of Eden when I created all of this for you? I looked at you, saw that you would one day claim divinity for yourself, and created many orifices nekavim in man, i.e., the excretory system, so that you would know that you are human and not a god. And there are those who say that this is what God said to Hiram: I looked at you'' None
35. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden • educational metaphor, student as garden

 Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 55; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 118

13b ונמלך ומצאו בן עירו ואמר שמך כשמי ושם אשתך כשם אשתי פסול לגרש בו,הכי השתא התם (דברים כד, א) וכתב לה כתיב בעינן כתיבה לשמה הכא ועשה לה כתיב בעינן עשייה לשמה עשייה דידה מחיקה היא,א"ר אחא בר חנינא גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שאין בדורו של רבי מאיר כמותו ומפני מה לא קבעו הלכה כמותו שלא יכלו חביריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו שהוא אומר על טמא טהור ומראה לו פנים על טהור טמא ומראה לו פנים,תנא לא ר"מ שמו אלא רבי נהוראי שמו ולמה נקרא שמו ר"מ שהוא מאיר עיני חכמים בהלכה ולא נהוראי שמו אלא רבי נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה רבי אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה,אמר רבי האי דמחדדנא מחבראי דחזיתיה לר\' מאיר מאחוריה ואילו חזיתיה מקמיה הוה מחדדנא טפי דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך,א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן תלמיד היה לו לר"מ וסומכוס שמו שהיה אומר על כל דבר ודבר של טומאה ארבעים ושמונה טעמי טומאה ועל כל דבר ודבר של טהרה ארבעים ושמונה טעמי טהרה,תנא תלמיד ותיק היה ביבנה שהיה מטהר את השרץ במאה וחמשים טעמים,אמר רבינא אני אדון ואטהרנו ומה נחש שממית ומרבה טומאה טהור שרץ שאין ממית ומרבה טומאה לא כ"ש,ולא היא מעשה קוץ בעלמא קעביד,א"ר אבא אמר שמואל שלש שנים נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה הללו אומרים הלכה כמותנו והללו אומרים הלכה כמותנו יצאה בת קול ואמרה אלו ואלו דברי אלהים חיים הן והלכה כב"ה,וכי מאחר שאלו ואלו דברי אלהים חיים מפני מה זכו ב"ה לקבוע הלכה כמותן מפני שנוחין ועלובין היו ושונין דבריהן ודברי ב"ש ולא עוד אלא שמקדימין דברי ב"ש לדבריהן,כאותה ששנינו מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושלחנו בתוך הבית בית שמאי פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את ר\' יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושלחנו בתוך הבית אמרו להן בית שמאי (אי) משם ראיה אף הן אמרו לו אם כך היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,ללמדך שכל המשפיל עצמו הקב"ה מגביהו וכל המגביה עצמו הקב"ה משפילו כל המחזר על הגדולה גדולה בורחת ממנו וכל הבורח מן הגדולה גדולה מחזרת אחריו וכל הדוחק את השעה שעה דוחקתו וכל הנדחה מפני שעה שעה עומדת לו,ת"ר שתי שנים ומחצה נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה הללו אומרים נוח לו לאדם שלא נברא יותר משנברא והללו אומרים נוח לו לאדם שנברא יותר משלא נברא נמנו וגמרו נוח לו לאדם שלא נברא יותר משנברא עכשיו שנברא יפשפש במעשיו ואמרי לה ימשמש במעשיו,13b but later reconsidered and did not divorce her, and a resident of his city found him and said: Your name is the same as my name, and your wife’s name is the same as my wife’s name, and we reside in the same town; give me the bill of divorce, and I will use it to divorce my wife, then this document is invalid to divorce with it? Apparently, a man may not divorce his wife with a bill of divorce written for another woman, and the same should apply to the scroll of a sota.,The Gemara rejects this argument: How can you compare the two cases? There, with regard to a bill of divorce, it is written: “And he shall write for her” (Deuteronomy 24:1), and therefore we require writing it in her name, specifically for her; whereas here, with regard to a sota, it is written: “And he shall perform with her all this ritual” (Numbers 5:30), and therefore we require performance in her name. In her case, the performance is erasure; however, writing of the scroll need not be performed specifically for her.,On the topic of Rabbi Meir and his Torah study, the Gemara cites an additional statement. Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that in the generation of Rabbi Meir there was no one of the Sages who is his equal. Why then didn’t the Sages establish the halakha in accordance with his opinion? It is because his colleagues were unable to ascertain the profundity of his opinion. He was so brilliant that he could present a cogent argument for any position, even if it was not consistent with the prevalent halakha. As he would state with regard to a ritually impure item that it is pure, and display justification for that ruling, and likewise he would state with regard to a ritually pure item that it is impure, and display justification for that ruling. The Sages were unable to distinguish between the statements that were halakha and those that were not.,It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Meir was not his name; rather, Rabbi Nehorai was his name. And why was he called by the name Rabbi Meir? It was because he illuminates meir the eyes of the Sages in matters of the halakha. And Rabbi Nehorai was not the name of the tanna known by that name; rather, Rabbi Neḥemya was his name, and some say: Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his name. And why was he called by the name Rabbi Nehorai? It is because he enlightens manhir the eyes of the Sages in matters of the halakha.,The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: The fact that I am more incisive than my colleagues is due to the fact that I saw Rabbi Meir from behind, i.e., I sat behind him when I was his student. Had I seen him from the front, I would be even more incisive, as it is written: “And your eyes shall see your teacher” (Isaiah 30:20). Seeing the face of one’s teacher increases one’s understanding and sharpens one’s mind.,And the Gemara stated that Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: Rabbi Meir had a disciple, and his name was Sumakhus, who would state with regard to each and every matter of ritual impurity forty-eight reasons in support of the ruling of impurity, and with regard to each and every matter of ritual purity forty-eight reasons in support of the ruling of purity.,It was taught in a baraita: There was a distinguished disciple at Yavne who could with his incisive intellect purify the creeping animal, explicitly deemed ritually impure by the Torah, adducing one hundred and fifty reasons in support of his argument.,Ravina said: I too will deliberate and purify it employing the following reasoning: And just as a snake that kills people and animals and thereby increases ritual impurity in the world, as a corpse imparts impurity through contact, through being carried, and by means of a tent, is ritually pure and transmits no impurity, a creeping animal that does not kill and does not increase impurity in the world, all the more so should it be pure.,The Gemara rejects this: And it is not so; that is not a valid a fortiori argument, as it can be refuted. A snake is performing a mere act of a thorn. A thorn causes injury and even death; nevertheless, it is not ritually impure. The same applies to a snake, and therefore this a fortiori argument is rejected.,Rabbi Abba said that Shmuel said: For three years Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disagreed. These said: The halakha is in accordance with our opinion, and these said: The halakha is in accordance with our opinion. Ultimately, a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed: Both these and those are the words of the living God. However, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel.,The Gemara asks: Since both these and those are the words of the living God, why were Beit Hillel privileged to have the halakha established in accordance with their opinion? The reason is that they were agreeable and forbearing, showing restraint when affronted, and when they taught the halakha they would teach both their own statements and the statements of Beit Shammai. Moreover, when they formulated their teachings and cited a dispute, they prioritized the statements of Beit Shammai to their own statements, in deference to Beit Shammai.,As in the mishna that we learned: In the case of one whose head and most of his body were in the sukka, but his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deem this sukka invalid; and Beit Hillel deem it valid. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: Wasn’t there an incident in which the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit, and they found him sitting with his head and most of his body in the sukka, but his table was in the house? Beit Shammai said to them: From there do you seek to adduce a proof? Those visitors, too, said to him: If that was the manner in which you were accustomed to perform the mitzva, you have never fulfilled the mitzva of sukka in all your days. It is apparent from the phrasing of the mishna that when the Sages of Beit Hillel related that the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel visited Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit, they mentioned the Elders of Beit Shammai before their own Elders.,This is to teach you that anyone who humbles himself, the Holy One, Blessed be He, exalts him, and anyone who exalts himself, the Holy One, Blessed be He, humbles him. Anyone who seeks greatness, greatness flees from him, and, conversely, anyone who flees from greatness, greatness seeks him. And anyone who attempts to force the moment and expends great effort to achieve an objective precisely when he desires to do so, the moment forces him too, and he is unsuccessful. And conversely, anyone who is patient and yields to the moment, the moment stands by his side, and he will ultimately be successful.,The Sages taught the following baraita: For two and a half years, Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disagreed. These say: It would have been preferable had man not been created than to have been created. And those said: It is preferable for man to have been created than had he not been created. Ultimately, they were counted and concluded: It would have been preferable had man not been created than to have been created. However, now that he has been created, he should examine his actions that he has performed and seek to correct them. And some say: He should scrutinize his planned actions and evaluate whether or not and in what manner those actions should be performed, so that he will not sin.,The cross beam, which the Sages stated may be used to render an alleyway fit for one to carry within it, must be wide enough to receive and hold a small brick. And this small brick is half a large brick, which measures three handbreadths, i.e., a handbreadth and a half. It is sufficient that the cross beam will be a handbreadth in width, not a handbreadth and a half, enough to hold a small brick across its width.,And the cross beam must be wide enough to hold a small brick and also sturdy enough to hold a small brick and not collapse. Rabbi Yehuda says: If it is wide enough to hold the brick, even though it is not sturdy enough to actually support it, it is sufficient. Therefore, even if the cross beam is made of straw or reeds, one considers it as though it were made of metal.,If the cross beam is curved, so that a small brick cannot rest on it, one considers it as though it were straight; if it is round, one considers it as though it were square. The following principle was stated with regard to a round cross beam: Any beam with a circumference of three handbreadths is a handbreadth in width, i.e., in diameter.'' None
36. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • Walls of paradise (or garden)

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 35; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 187; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 375

77b התם כי אמרה הוינא בהדיה שבקינן לה הכא אף על גב דאמרה הוינא בהדיה לא שבקינן לה והרי מוכה שחין דאף על גב דאמרה הוינא בהדיה לא שבקינן לה דתנן חוץ ממוכה שחין מפני שממקתו וקתני,התם כי אמרה דיירנא בהדיה בסהדי שבקינן לה הכא אע"ג דאמרה דיירנא בהדיה בסהדי לא שבקינן לה,תניא אמר רבי יוסי שח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים עשרים וארבעה מוכי שחין הן וכולן אמרו חכמים תשמיש קשה להן ובעלי ראתן קשה מכולן ממאי הוי דתניא הקיז דם ושימש הויין לו בנים ויתיקין הקיזו שניהם ושימשו הויין לו בנים בעלי ראתן אמר רב פפא לא אמרן אלא דלא טעים מידי אבל טעים מידי לית לן בה,מאי סימניה דלפן עיניה ודייבי נחיריה ואיתי ליה רירא מפומיה ורמו דידבי עילויה ומאי אסותיה אמר אביי פילא ולודנא גירדא דאגוזא וגירדא דאשפא וכליל מלכא ומתחלא דדיקלא סומקא ושליק להו בהדי הדדי ומעייל ליה לביתא דשישא ואי לא איכא ביתא דשישא מעייל ליה לביתא דשב לבני ואריחא,ונטיל ליה תלת מאה כסי על רישיה עד דרפיא ארעיתא דמוחיה וקרע למוחיה ומייתי ארבע טרפי דאסא ומדלי כל חד כרעא ומותיב חד ושקיל בצבתא וקלי ליה דאי לא הדר עילויה,מכריז רבי יוחנן הזהרו מזבובי של בעלי ראתן רבי זירא לא הוה יתיב בזיקיה רבי אלעזר לא עייל באהליה רבי אמי ורבי אסי לא הוו אכלי מביעי דההיא מבואה ריב"ל מיכרך בהו ועסיק בתורה אמר (משלי ה, יט) אילת אהבים ויעלת חן אם חן מעלה על לומדיה אגוני לא מגנא,כי הוה שכיב אמרו ליה למלאך המות זיל עביד ליה רעותיה אזל איתחזי ליה א"ל אחוי לי דוכתאי אמר ליה לחיי א"ל הב לי סכינך דלמא מבעתת לי באורחא יהבה ניהליה כי מטא להתם דלייה קא מחוי ליה שוור נפל לההוא גיסא,נקטיה בקרנא דגלימיה א"ל בשבועתא דלא אתינא אמר קודשא בריך הוא אי איתשיל אשבועתא ניהדר אי לא לא ניהדר אמר ליה הב לי סכינאי לא הוה קא יהיב ליה נפקא בת קלא ואמרה ליה הב ניהליה דמיתבעא לברייתא מכריז אליהו קמיה פנו מקום לבר ליואי פנו מקום לבר ליואי,אזל אשכחיה לר\' שמעון בן יוחאי דהוה יתיב על תלת עשר תכטקי פיזא אמר ליה את הוא בר ליואי אמר ליה הן נראתה קשת בימיך אמר ליה הן אם כן אי אתה בר ליואי ולא היא דלא הואי מידי אלא סבר לא אחזיק טיבותא לנפשאי,רבי חנינא בר פפא שושביניה הוה כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמרו ליה למלאך המות זיל עביד ליה רעותיה אזל לגביה ואיתחזי ליה אמר ליה שבקי תלתין יום עד דנהדר תלמודאי דאמרי אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו שבקיה לבתר תלתין יומין אזל איתחזי ליה א"ל אחוי לי דוכתאי א"ל לחיי א"ל הב לי סכינך דלמא מבעתת לי באורחא אמר ליה כחברך בעית למיעבד לי,אמר ליה אייתי ספר תורה וחזי מי איכא מידי דכתיב ביה דלא קיימתיה אמר ליה מי איכרכת בבעלי ראתן ואיעסקת בתורה ואפילו הכי כי נח נפשיה אפסיק ליה עמודא דנורא בין דידיה לעלמא וגמירי דלא מפסיק עמודא דנורא אלא לחד בדרא או לתרין בדרא,קרב לגביה רבי אלכסנדרי אמר עשה בשביל כבוד חכמים לא אשגח עשה בשביל כבוד אביך לא אשגח עשה בשביל כבוד עצמך איסתלק אמר אביי לאפוקי ממאן דלא קיים (אפילו אות אחת) אמר ליה רב אדא בר מתנא לאפוקי ממר דלא אית ליה מעקה לאיגריה ולא היא מיהוה הוה וההיא שעתא הוא דשדייה זיקא,אמר ר\' חנינא מפני מה אין בעלי ראתן בבבל מפני שאוכלין תרדין ושותין שכר של היזמי אמר רבי יוחנן מפני מה אין מצורעין בבבל מפני שאוכלין תרדין ושותין שכר ורוחצין במי פרת:,77b but there, with regard to the blemishes specified in the mishna, if she says: I want to be with him, we leave her alone with him and do not force a divorce, whereas here, in the case of a woman who has not given birth, even though she says: I want to be with him, we do not leave her alone, as her husband is neglecting the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But there is the case of a husband afflicted with boils, where even though she says: I want to be with him, we do not leave her alone with him. As we learned in the mishna: Apart from a situation where her husband is afflicted with boils, because it consumes his flesh. And yet this halakha is taught in the same mishna as the others, which indicates that our above analysis is incorrect.,The Gemara answers: Even so, there is a difference between these cases, as there, with regard to a man with boils, if she says: I am willing to live with him under the supervision of witnesses; that is, I will not seclude myself with him but I will nevertheless remain his wife, we leave her alone. However, here, even though she says: I will live with him under the supervision of witnesses, we do not leave her alone, but rather force him to divorce her.,It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei said: A certain Elder from among the residents of Jerusalem told me that there are twenty-four types of patients afflicted with boils, and with regard to all of them the Sages said that sexual relations are harmful to them, and those afflicted with ra’atan, a severe skin disease characterized by extreme weakness and trembling, are harmed even more than all of the others. The Gemara asks: From where and how does this disease come about? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita: One who let blood and immediately afterward engaged in sexual relations will have weak vitaykin children. If both of them let blood and then engaged in sexual relations, he will have children afflicted with ra’atan. Rav Pappa said in response: We said this only if he did not taste anything between bloodletting and intercourse, but if he tasted something we have no problem with it, as it is not dangerous.,The Gemara inquires: What are the symptoms of ra’atan? His eyes water, his nose runs, drool comes out of his mouth, and flies rest upon him. The Gemara further inquires: And what is his cure to remove the insect found in his head, which is associated with this illness? Abaye said: One takes pila and ladanum lodana, which are types of grasses; and the ground shell of a nut; and shavings of smoothed hides; and artemisia kelil malka; and the calyx of a red date palm. And one cooks them together and brings the patient into a marble house, i.e., one that is completely sealed. And if there is no marble house available, the one performing the treatment brings the patient into a house whose walls have the thickness of seven bricks and one small brick.,And the one performing the treatment pours three hundred cups of this mixture on the patient’s head until his skull is soft, and then he tears open the patient’s skull to expose his brain, and brings four myrtle leaves and lifts up each time one foot of the insect that is found on the patient’s brain, and places one leaf under each foot of the insect so as to prevent it from attempting to cling to his brain when it is forcibly removed, and subsequently takes it with tweezers. And he then burns the insect, because if he does not burn it, it will return to him.,Rabbi Yoḥa would announce: Be careful of the flies found on those afflicted with ra’atan, as they are carriers of the disease. Rabbi Zeira would not sit in a spot where the wind blew from the direction of someone afflicted with ra’atan. Rabbi Elazar would not enter the tent of one afflicted with ra’atan, and Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would not eat eggs from an alley in which someone afflicted with ra’atan lived. Conversely, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would attach himself to them and study Torah, saying as justification the verse: “The Torah is a loving hind and a graceful doe” (Proverbs 5:19). If it bestows grace on those who learn it, does it not protect them from illness?,When Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi was on the verge of dying, they said to the Angel of Death: Go and perform his bidding, as he is a righteous man and deserves to die in the manner he sees fit. The Angel of Death went and appeared to him. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: Show me my place in paradise. He said to him: Very well. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: Give me your knife that you use to kill mortals, lest you frighten me on the way. He gave it to him. When he arrived there, in paradise, he lifted Rabbi Yehoshua so he could see his place, and he showed it to him. Rabbi Yehoshua jumped and fell into that other side, thereby escaping into paradise.,The Angel of Death grabbed him by the corner of his cloak. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: I swear that I will not come with you. The Holy One, blessed be He, said: If he ever in his life requested dissolution concerning an oath he had taken, he must return to this world with the Angel of Death, as he can have his oath dissolved this time also. If he did not ever request dissolution of an oath, he need not return. Since Rabbi Yehoshua had in fact never requested dissolution of an oath, he was allowed to stay in paradise. The Angel of Death said to him: At least give me my knife back. However, he did not give it to him, as he did not want any more people to die. A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: Give it to him, as it is necessary to kill the created beings; death is the way of the world. Elijah the Prophet announced before him: Make way for the son of Levi, make way for the son of Levi.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi went and found in paradise Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai sitting on thirteen golden stools takhtekei. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai said to him: Are you the son of Levi? He said to him: Yes. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Was a rainbow ever seen in your days? He said: Yes. Rabbi Shimon retorted: If so, you are not the son of Levi, as he is a completely righteous man. During the lifetimes of completely righteous people no rainbows are visible, as they are a sign that the world deserves to be destroyed by a flood; whereas the merit of the righteous protects the world from such things. The Gemara comments: And that is not so, for there was no rainbow seen at all during the lifetime of Rabbi Yehoshua, but he thought: I do not want to take credit for myself by presenting myself as such a righteous person.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa was a friend of the Angel of Death and would see him frequently. When Rabbi Ḥanina was on the verge of dying, they said to the Angel of Death: Go and perform his bidding. He went before him and appeared to him. He said to the angel: Leave me for thirty days until I have reviewed my studies, for they say: Happy is he who comes here, to paradise, with his learning in his hand. He left him, and after thirty days he again went and appeared to him. He said to the Angel of Death: Show me my place in paradise. He said to him: Very well. Rabbi Ḥanina said to him: Give me your knife, lest you frighten me on the way. The Angel of Death said to him: Do you wish to do to me as your friend Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi did, and escape?,He said to him: Bring a Torah scroll and see: Is there anything written in it that I have not fulfilled? I am therefore worthy of entering Paradise alive, as did Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. He said to him: But did you attach yourself to those afflicted with ra’atan and study Torah, as he did? The Gemara comments: And even so, despite the fact that he was not equal to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, when he passed away a pillar of fire separated him from everyone. And it is learned as a tradition that a pillar of fire separates in this manner only for one in a generation or for two in a generation.,Due to the pillar of fire they could not go near Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa to attend to his burial. Rabbi Alexandri approached him and said: Make the pillar of fire disappear in honor of the Sages. He did not pay attention to him. He said: Make it go away in honor of your father. Again he did not pay attention to him. Finally he said: Make it go away in your own honor, at which point the pillar disappeared. Abaye said: The purpose of the pillar of fire is to exclude him from the company of those who have not fulfilled even one letter of the Torah. Rav Adda bar Mattana said to him: It comes to exclude him from the Master himself, who does not have a guardrail for his roof. Rav Adda bar Mattana took this opportunity to rebuke Abaye. The Gemara comments: And that is not so as he in fact did have a guardrail, but the wind had just blown it off at that time.,Rabbi Ḥanina said: For what reason are there no people afflicted with ra’atan in Babylonia? Because the Babylonians eat beets teradin and drink beer made from the hizmei plant. Rabbi Yoḥa said: For what reason are there no lepers in Babylonia? Because they eat beets, drink beer, and bathe in the waters of the Euphrates, all of which are good for the body.,'' None
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden • Garden of Eden

 Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 58; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 514

38b גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו\',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו\' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה\' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה\' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר\' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה\' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה\' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר\' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר\' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה\' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו\',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר\' ישמעאל בר\' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה\' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה\' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר\' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר\' יוחנן ג\' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש'' None38b his torso was fashioned from dust taken from Babylonia, and his head was fashioned from dust taken from Eretz Yisrael, the most important land, and his limbs were fashioned from dust taken from the rest of the lands in the world. With regard to his buttocks, Rav Aḥa says: They were fashioned from dust taken from Akra De’agma, on the outskirts of Babylonia.,Rabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hours long, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the first hour of the day, his dust was gathered. In the second, an undefined figure was fashioned. In the third, his limbs were extended. In the fourth, a soul was cast into him. In the fifth, he stood on his legs. In the sixth, he called the creatures by the names he gave them. In the seventh, Eve was paired with him. In the eighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four, i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the ninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. In the tenth, he sinned. In the eleventh, he was judged. In the twelfth, he was expelled and left the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “But man abides not in honor; he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night.,Rami bar Ḥama says in explanation of the end of that verse: A wild animal does not have power over a person unless that person seems to the wild animal like an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.”,The Gemara presents a mnemonic for the statements that follow: At the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them: If you agree, let us fashion a person in our image. The angels said before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions of this person You suggest to create? God said to them: His actions are such and such, according to human nature.,The angels said before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?” (Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God outstretched His small finger among them and burned them with fire. And the same occurred with a second group of angels. The third group of angels that He asked said before Him: Master of the Universe, the first two groups who spoke their mind before You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do. God then created the first person.,When history arrived at the time of the people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion, i.e., the Tower of Babel, whose actions were ruinous, the angels said before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t the first set of angels speak appropriately before You, that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God said to them concerning humanity: “Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you; I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws.,Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man spanned from one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other” (Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. Once Adam sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him.,Rabbi Elazar says: The height of Adam the first man was from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.” Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. Once Adam sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of the verses contradict each other. The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: This and that, from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, are one measure, i.e., the same distance.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man spoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is stated in the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God” (Psalms 139:17).,And this, i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what Reish Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam” (Genesis 5:1)? This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Adam every generation and its Torah interpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived at his vision of the generation of Rabbi Akiva, Adam was gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by his manner of death. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,” i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man was a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”? (Genesis 3:9), meaning, to where has your heart turned, indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He was one who drew his foreskin forward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It is written here: “And they like men adam have transgressed the covet” (Hosea 6:7), and it is written there: “And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covet” (Genesis 17:14).,Rav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principle of belief in God. It is written here: “And they like men adam have transgressed the covet,” and it is written there: “He has broken My covet,” and it is written in a third verse: “And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their God and worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ We learned in a mishna there (Avot 2:14): Rabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic la’apikoros. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This was taught only with regard to a gentile heretic, but not with regard to a Jewish heretic, as one should not respond to him. All the more so, if one does respond he will become more heretical. His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position.,Rabbi Yoḥa says: Any place in the Bible from where the heretics attempt to prove their heresy, i.e., that there is more than one god, the response to their claim is alongside them, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: “Let us make man in our image” (Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, but it then states: “And God created man in His image” (Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: “Come, let us go down and there confound their language” (Genesis 11:7), but it also states: “And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower” (Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: “There God was revealed niglu to him when he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: “To God Who answers haoneh me in the day of my distress” (Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: “For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, kerovim, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: “And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?” (II\xa0Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, halekhu, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld till thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit” (Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, kharsavan, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: Why do I need these instances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above, i.e., the angels, as it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones” (Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This works out well for almost all the verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but what is there to say concerning the verse: “I beheld till thrones were placed”? The Gemara answers: One throne is for Him and one throne is for David, i.e., the messiah, as it is taught in a baraita: One throne is for Him and one throne is for David; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presence by equating God with a person? Rather, the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as one throne is for judgment and one throne is for righteousness.,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva accept this explanation from Rabbi Yosei or did he not accept it from him? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof to the matter from what was taught in another baraita, as it is taught in a baraita: One throne is for judgment and one throne is for righteousness; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near, i.e., discussing, matters of aggada? Go near tractates Nega’im and Oholot, which examine the complex halakhot of ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. Rather, the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, one is for a throne and one is for a stool. There is a throne for God to sit upon, and a stool that serves as His footstool.,Rav Naḥman says: This one, i.e., any person, who knows how to respond to the heretics as effectively as Rav Idit should respond to them, but if he does not know, he should not respond to them. The Gemara relates: A certain heretic said to Rav Idit: It is written in the verse concerning God: “And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord” (Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: It should have stated: Come up to Me. Rav Idit said to him: This term, “the Lord,” in that verse is referring to the angel Metatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written: “Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, for My name is in him” (Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: If so, if this angel is equated with God, we should worship him as we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It is written: “Do not defy tammer him,” which alludes to: Do not replace Me temireni with him. The heretic said to him: If so, why do I need the clause “For he will not pardon your transgression”? Rav Idit said to him: We believe that we did not accept the angel even as a guide befarvanka for the journey, as it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with me raise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: A certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: It is written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: It should have stated: From Him out of heaven. A certain launderer said to Rabbi Yishmael: Leave him be; I will respond to him. This is as it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech, hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: It should have been written: My wives, and not: “Wives of Lemech.” Rather, it is the style of the verse to speak in this manner. Here too, it is the style of the verse to speak in this manner. Rabbi Yishmael said to the launderer: From where did you hear this interpretation? The launderer said to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir.,The Gemara comments: This is as Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third halakha, one-third aggada, and one-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had, i.e., taught, three hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three.'' None
38. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • garden of Eden,

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 374; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 125

54b כאיש המעורה בלוייה שלו אמר ריש לקיש בשעה שנכנסו נכרים להיכל ראו כרובים המעורין זה בזה הוציאון לשוק ואמרו ישראל הללו שברכתן ברכה וקללתן קללה יעסקו בדברים הללו מיד הזילום שנאמר (איכה א, ח) כל מכבדיה הזילוה כי ראו ערותה,ושתיה היתה נקראת תנא שממנה הושתת העולם תנן כמאן דאמר מציון נברא העולם דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר עולם מאמצעיתו נברא שנאמר (איוב לח, לח) בצקת עפר למוצק ורגבים ידובקו,רבי יהושע אומר עולם מן הצדדין נברא שנאמר (איוב לז, ו) כי לשלג יאמר הוי ארץ וגשם מטר וגשם מטרות עוזו רבי יצחק (נפחא) אמר אבן ירה הקב"ה בים ממנו נשתת העולם שנאמר (איוב לח, ו) על מה אדניה הטבעו או מי ירה אבן פנתה,וחכמים אומרים מציון נברא שנאמר (תהלים נ, א) מזמור לאסף אל אלהים ה\' ואומר מציון מכלל יופי ממנו מוכלל יפיו של עולם,תניא ר\' אליעזר הגדול אומר (בראשית ב, ד) אלה תולדות השמים והארץ בהבראם ביום עשות ה\' אלהים ארץ ושמים תולדות שמים משמים נבראו תולדות הארץ מארץ נבראו,וחכמים אומרים אלו ואלו מציון נבראו שנאמר מזמור לאסף אל אלהים ה\' דבר ויקרא ארץ ממזרח שמש עד מבואו ואומר מציון מכלל יופי אלהים הופיע ממנו מוכלל יופיו של עולם,נטל את הדם ממי שממרס בו וכו\' מאי כמצליף מחוי רב יהודה'' None54b It means like a man joined and clinging to his livaya, his partner, i.e., his wife. In other words, the cherubs appeared to be embracing one another. Reish Lakish said: When gentiles destroyed the Second Temple and entered the Sanctuary, they saw these drawings of cherubs clinging to one another. They peeled them from the wall, took them out to the market, and said: These Jews, whose blessing is a blessing and whose curse is a curse, due to their great fear of God, should they be occupied with such matters, making images of this kind? They immediately debased and destroyed them, as it is stated: “All who honored her debase her because they have seen her nakedness” (Lamentations 1:8).,§ The mishna taught that a stone sat in the Holy of Holies and it was called the foundation shetiyya rock. A Sage taught in the Tosefta: Why was it called shetiyya? It is because the world was created hushtat from it. The Gemara comments: We learned the mishna in accordance with the opinion of the one who said that the world was created from Zion. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The world was created from its center, as it is stated: “When the dust runs into a mass, and the clods cleave fast together” (Job 38:38). The world was created by adding matter to the center, like the formation of clumps of earth.,Rabbi Yehoshua says: The world was created from the sides, as it is stated: “For He said to the snow: Become the earth, likewise to the shower of rain, and to the showers of His mighty rain” (Job 37:6). This verse indicates that the rains fell from all sides, which led to the creation of the earth. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, cast a stone into the sea, from which the world was created, as it is stated: “Upon what were its foundations fastened; or who laid its cornerstone?” (Job 38:6).,And the Rabbis say: The world was created from Zion, as it is stated: “A Psalm of Asaph. God, the Lord God has spoken and called the earth, from the rising of the sun to its place of setting” (Psalms 50:1), and it states: “Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God has shined forth” (Psalms 50:2). The mishna is taught in accordance with this last opinion.,It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: “These are the generations of the heaven and the earth when they were created, on the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven” (Genesis 2:4) means that the generations of the heavens, i.e., all things found in the heavens, were created from the heavens, while the generations of the earth were created from the earth.,And the Rabbis say: Both these and those were created from Zion, as it is stated: “A Psalm of Asaph. God, the Lord God has spoken and called the earth, from the rising of the sun to its place of setting,” and it says: “Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God has shined forth,” i.e., from Zion the beauty of the world was perfected, which includes both the generations of the heavens and the generations of the earth.,§ The mishna taught that the High Priest took the blood of the bull from the one who was stirring it so it would not coagulate, and he entered and sprinkled it like one who whips. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Like one who whips? Rav Yehuda demonstrated the action with his hand,'' None
39. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 10.5-10.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epicureans, Garden

 Found in books: Bryan (2018), Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy, 209; Wardy and Warren (2018), Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy, 209

sup>
10.5 Furthermore that he extolled Idomeneus, Herodotus, and Timocrates, who had published his esoteric doctrines, and flattered them for that very reason. Also that in his letters he wrote to Leontion, O Lord Apollo, my dear little Leontion, with what tumultuous applause we were inspired as we read your letter. Then again to Themista, the wife of Leonteus: I am quite ready, if you do not come to see me, to spin thrice on my own axis and be propelled to any place that you, including Themista, agree upon; and to the beautiful Pythocles he writes: I will sit down and await thy divine advent, my heart's desire. And, as Theodorus says in the fourth book of his work, Against Epicurus, in another letter to Themista he thinks he preaches to her." '10.6 It is added that he corresponded with many courtesans, and especially with Leontion, of whom Metrodorus also was enamoured. It is observed too that in his treatise On the Ethical End he writes in these terms: I know not how to conceive the good, apart from the pleasures of taste, sexual pleasures, the pleasures of sound and the pleasures of beautiful form. And in his letter to Pythocles: Hoist all sail, my dear boy, and steer clear of all culture. Epictetus calls him preacher of effeminacy and showers abuse on him.Again there was Timocrates, the brother of Metrodorus, who was his disciple and then left the school. He in the book entitled Merriment asserts that Epicurus vomited twice a day from over-indulgence, and goes on to say that he himself had much ado to escape from those notorious midnight philosophizings and the confraternity with all its secrets;'" None
40. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden • Garden of Eden

 Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 58; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 485

41. Vergil, Georgics, 2.176, 4.6, 4.30-4.32, 4.109, 4.112, 4.116-4.148, 4.325-4.326, 4.471-4.477, 4.495
 Tagged with subjects: • Corycian gardener • Corycian gardener, and Aristaeus and Orpheus • Corycian gardener, as Golden Age figure • Corycian gardener, as apolitical • Corycian gardener, as discrepant from Golden Age ideal • Corycian gardener, as poet • Corycian gardener, as poet's ideal • city, and Corycian gardener • gardens

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 1, 18, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 193, 227; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 66, 69, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136

sup>
2.176 Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen.
4.6
In tenui labor; at tenuis non gloria, si quem
4.30
Haec circum casiae virides et olentia late 4.31 serpylla et graviter spirantis copia thymbrae 4.32 floreat inriguumque bibant violaria fontem.
4.109
Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti
4.112
Ipse thymum pinosque ferens de montibus altis
4.116
Atque equidem, extremo ni iam sub fine laborum 4.117 vela traham et terris festinem advertere proram, 4.118 forsitan et, pingues hortos quae cura colendi 4.119 ornaret, canerem, biferique rosaria Paesti, 4.120 quoque modo potis gauderent intiba rivis 4.121 et virides apio ripae, tortusque per herbam 4.122 cresceret in ventrem cucumis; nec sera comantem 4.123 narcissum aut flexi tacuissem vimen acanthi 4.124 pallentesque hederas et amantes litora myrtos. 4.125 Namque sub Oebaliae memini me turribus arcis, 4.126 qua niger umectat flaventia culta Galaesus, 4.127 Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti 4.128 iugera ruris erant, nec fertilis illa iuvencis 4.129 nec pecori opportuna seges nec commoda Baccho. 4.130 Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus albaque circum 4.131 lilia verbenasque premens vescumque papaver 4.132 regum aequabat opes animis seraque revertens 4.133 nocte domum dapibus mensas onerabat inemptis. 4.134 Primus vere rosam atque autumno carpere poma, 4.135 et cum tristis hiems etiamnum frigore saxa 4.136 rumperet et glacie cursus frenaret aquarum, 4.137 ille comam mollis iam tondebat hyacinthi 4.138 aestatem increpitans seram Zephyrosque morantes. 4.139 Ergo apibus fetis idem atque examine multo 4.140 primus abundare et spumantia cogere pressis 4.141 mella favis; illi tiliae atque uberrima pinus, 4.142 quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos 4.143 induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat. 4.144 Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos 4.145 eduramque pirum et spinos iam pruna ferentes 4.146 iamque ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras. 4.147 Verum haec ipse equidem spatiis exclusus iniquis 4.148 praetereo atque aliis post me memoranda relinquo.
4.325
pulsus amor? quid me caelum sperare iubebas? 4.326 En etiam hunc ipsum vitae mortalis honorem,
4.471
At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 4.472 umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque luce carentum, 4.473 quam multa in foliis avium se milia condunt 4.474 vesper ubi aut hibernus agit de montibus imber, 4.475 matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita 4.476 magimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 4.477 impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum,
4.495
quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro'' None
sup>
2.176 Nor Ganges fair, and Hermus thick with gold,
4.6
Its traits, its bent, its battles and its clans,
4.30
The colony comes forth to sport and play, 4.31 The neighbouring bank may lure them from the heat, 4.32 Or bough befriend with hospitable shade.
4.109
A little sprinkled dust controls and quells.
4.112
Lest royal waste wax burdensome, but let
4.116
of peerless front and lit with flashing scales; 4.117 That other, from neglect and squalor foul, 4.118 Drags slow a cumbrous belly. As with kings, 4.119 So too with people, diverse is their mould, 4.120 Some rough and loathly, as when the wayfarer 4.121 Scapes from a whirl of dust, and scorched with heat 4.122 Spits forth the dry grit from his parched mouth: 4.123 The others shine forth and flash with lightning-gleam, 4.124 Their backs all blazoned with bright drops of gold 4.125 Symmetric: this the likelier breed; from these, 4.126 When heaven brings round the season, thou shalt strain 4.127 Sweet honey, nor yet so sweet as passing clear,' "4.128 And mellowing on the tongue the wine-god's fire." '4.129 But when the swarms fly aimlessly abroad, 4.130 Disport themselves in heaven and spurn their cells, 4.131 Leaving the hive unwarmed, from such vain play 4.132 Must you refrain their volatile desires,' "4.133 Nor hard the task: tear off the monarchs' wings;" '4.134 While these prove loiterers, none beside will dare 4.135 Mount heaven, or pluck the standards from the camp. 4.136 Let gardens with the breath of saffron flower 4.137 Allure them, and the lord of 4.138 Priapus, wielder of the willow-scythe, 4.139 Safe in his keeping hold from birds and thieves. 4.140 And let the man to whom such cares are dear 4.141 Himself bring thyme and pine-trees from the heights, 4.142 And strew them in broad belts about their home; 4.143 No hand but his the blistering task should ply, 4.144 Plant the young slips, or shed the genial showers. 4.145 And I myself, were I not even now' "4.146 Furling my sails, and, nigh the journey's end," "4.147 Eager to turn my vessel's prow to shore," '4.148 Perchance would sing what careful husbandry
4.325
Will nerve them, fill the cells up, tier on tier, 4.326 And weave their granaries from the rifled flowers.
4.471
All streams beneath the mighty earth that glide, 4.472 Phasis and Lycus, and that fountain-head 4.473 Whence first the deep Enipeus leaps to light, 4.474 Whence father 4.475 And Hypanis that roars amid his rocks, 4.476 And Mysian Caicus, and, bull-browed' "4.477 'Twixt either gilded horn,
4.495 “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer,"' None
42. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Garden of Eden • echo, Eden, garden of

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 166; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 100

43. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysophanes, garden • garden

 Found in books: Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 889; Pinheiro et al. (2012a), Narrating Desire: Eros, Sex, and Gender in the Ancient Novel, 15




Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.