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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
children, games, of Moss (2012) 137
contests/games, athletic Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 182, 391, 527, 553
festivals/games, pergamon Marek (2019) 233
game, alea, dice Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 504
game, ball Osborne (2010) 166, 167
game, dice oracles, chios Johnston and Struck (2005) 59
game, of love, amor, dilectio, caritas, zero-sum Nisula (2012) 138, 140, 143, 188
game, skolion König (2012) 10
games Edmonds (2019) 65, 68, 70
Ekroth (2013) 175, 181, 182, 184, 185, 203, 239, 262, 266, 267
Geljon and Runia (2013) 182, 183, 197, 201, 202, 206
Goldman (2013) 73, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 146, 148, 156
Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 19, 22, 121, 247, 255
Hanghan (2019) 102, 142, 148, 150, 152
Hitch (2017) 102, 142, 148, 150, 152
Humphreys (2018) 559, 567, 586, 587, 657, 684, 685, 769, 919, 972, 986, 1000
Mackay (2022) 73, 85, 173
Maier and Waldner (2022) 125, 167
Meister (2019) 66
Moss (2012) 138, 157
Tacoma (2020) 69, 70, 76, 77, 85, 134, 157, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 184, 186, 188
Williamson (2021) 61, 127, 135, 139, 140, 157, 158, 294, 295, 299, 300, 355, 374, 375
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 90, 131, 177, 196, 197
games, actian Csapo (2022) 117, 118, 119, 120, 125, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 228
games, aetiological myth, nemean Kowalzig (2007) 173
games, agon, olympic Stavrianopoulou (2006) 107
games, agon, transfer of pythian Stavrianopoulou (2006) 270, 271
games, amphidamas, funeral of Marincola et al (2021) 49
games, and fastidium, ranking Kaster(2005) 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
games, and ignatius Moss (2012) 53, 55, 67, 117
games, and martyrs of vienne and lyons Moss (2012) 110, 115
games, and perpetua Moss (2012) 137
games, and quintus Moss (2012) 70
games, and, severus, secular Ando (2013) 105, 106, 165
games, and, stoicism, gladiatorial Mermelstein (2021) 47
games, antinous, antinoeia Renberg (2017) 518
games, antiocheia on orontes Marek (2019) 417
games, apollinarian and pelusian Hellholm et al. (2010) 950
games, archeology, of the sites of the Sider (2001) 81
games, arena, and gladiatorial Moss (2012) 137, 138
games, aristophanes, scolia Cosgrove (2022) 34, 66, 67, 109
games, arsinoeia and philadelpheia Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 439
games, arsinoeia and philadelpheia games, crown, periodos Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 274, 275, 276, 277
games, as recreation Jenkyns (2013) 65, 66, 152
games, at delphi, pythian Hallmannsecker (2022) 53
games, at gythion Csapo (2022) 109
games, at sikyon, foundation, pythian Eisenfeld (2022) 158, 161
games, athletic Thonemann (2020) 9, 58, 98, 126, 159, 160, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 183, 199, 209
games, athletics, olympic Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 175, 176, 198
games, augustus, and actian Csapo (2022) 118, 119, 125, 126
games, board Johnson and Parker (2009) 126
games, canopus, dedication by victors in antinoeia Renberg (2017) 518
games, capitoline Csapo (2022) 100, 110, 117, 120
games, comedy at actian Csapo (2022) 118
games, dating, saecular Davies (2004) 216, 217, 220
games, death, in gladiatorial Moss (2012) 140, 141
games, delphi, pythian Martin (2009) 60, 78, 226, 227, 293
games, delphi, sanctuary of apollo, pythian Lupu(2005) 39, 94, 104
games, domitian, patronage of pythian Augoustakis (2014) 1
Verhagen (2022) 1
games, eponymous hero Kowalzig (2007) 218
games, fastidium, and ranking Kaster(2005) 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
games, festivals, olympic Mikalson (2003) 18, 64, 68, 112, 120, 153, 176, 212
games, for hesiod, at funeral amphidamas Marincola et al (2021) 49
games, for p., patroclus, funeral Finkelberg (2019) 166, 255
games, founder of olympic Sider (2001) 96
games, funeral Ekroth (2013) 83, 84, 105, 135, 136, 170, 172, 197, 204, 241, 333
Steiner (2001) 253
games, funerary Kowalzig (2007) 248
games, gaming boards Clark (2007) 274, 275
games, gladiatorial Borg (2008) 40, 304
Cosgrove (2022) 252, 253, 254
Huttner (2013) 39, 66, 241, 316
Moss (2012) 106, 130, 137, 192
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 65, 66, 67, 69
games, great panionian Hallmannsecker (2022) 108
games, idols, in procession at Sider (2001) 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98
games, idols, originated Sider (2001) 90
games, imagery Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 98, 181, 182, 183, 191
games, imagery of gladiatorial Moss (2012) 157
games, in honor of mars Sider (2001) 89
games, in honor of robigo Sider (2001) 89
games, in tragedy Meister (2019) 133
games, isthmian Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 40, 78
Griffiths (1975) 184
Gygax (2016) 63, 89, 120, 127, 132
Hallmannsecker (2022) 53
Lupu(2005) 104
Meister (2019) 108
Tupamahu (2022) 74, 75, 76
games, isthmian, games, arsinoeia and philadelpheia Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 274, 277
games, liber, originated Sider (2001) 89
games, ludi, actian Shannon-Henderson (2019) 313, 314
games, megacles, alcmaeonid winner in the pythian Gygax (2016) 65, 136
games, megale hellas, magna graecia Kowalzig (2007) 218
games, named after, gods Sider (2001) 90
games, named for, apollo Sider (2001) 90
games, named for, neptune Sider (2001) 90
games, named from, lydians Sider (2001) 89
games, nemean Gygax (2016) 63, 120, 127, 132
Hallmannsecker (2022) 52, 53
Kowalzig (2007) 174, 179, 196, 210, 218, 248
Lupu(2005) 104
Thonemann (2020) 98, 166, 167, 168
games, nemean, games, arsinoeia and philadelpheia Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 274
games, new panhellenic Jim (2022) 55, 57, 64, 77, 187
games, nonnus, funeral Greensmith (2021) 83
games, numa, initiated Sider (2001) 89
games, of asclepius, president of the Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 68, 69
games, of augustus, saecular Davies (2004) 216, 217, 219
games, of claudius, saecular Davies (2004) 216
games, of domitian, saecular Davies (2004) 216, 217, 219
games, of hephaestion, macedonian noble, funeral Csapo (2022) 33
games, of marcellus Csapo (2022) 108
games, of the boiotians Kowalzig (2007) 355
games, olympia Kowalzig (2007) 30, 201, 248, 260
games, olympia, olympic Thonemann (2020) 126, 159, 160, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174
games, olympic Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 1, 78, 117, 135, 304
Cosgrove (2022) 160, 161, 347, 348
Geljon and Runia (2013) 182, 183, 205
Gygax (2016) 63, 89, 127, 132, 153
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 170
Lupu(2005) 104
Meister (2019) 88, 92
Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 49, 51
Simon (2021) 12, 19, 23, 32, 100
Wilson (2010) 392
games, olympic, games, arsinoeia and philadelpheia Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 274, 388, 390, 391, 538
games, palatine Csapo (2022) 115
games, panhellenic Cosgrove (2022) 118
Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 76
Meister (2019) 83, 90, 124
games, panhellenic, sanctuaries and Papadodima (2022) 61
games, panionian Hallmannsecker (2022) 27, 62, 63, 64, 72, 108, 109
games, patroclus, funeral for, the Kirichenko (2022) 37, 38, 39, 40, 53
games, political aspects, saecular Davies (2004) 218
games, pontifices, exhibit Davies (2004) 190
games, priests, pagan priests at Sider (2001) 91, 96, 97
games, ptolemaian, games, arsinoeia and philadelpheia Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 437
games, public Cosgrove (2022) 249
Jenkyns (2013) 22, 28, 37, 60, 84, 94, 107, 236
games, public, at dion Cosgrove (2022) 161
games, public, roman Cosgrove (2022) 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259
games, pythian Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 48, 49, 50, 53, 78
Bernabe et al (2013) 72
Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 96
Gygax (2016) 63, 127, 132
Kowalzig (2007) 129, 196, 198, 268, 380
Naiden (2013) 64, 100
games, pythian games, arsinoeia and philadelpheia, delphic Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 276, 277, 538
games, quinquennial Davies (2004) 201
games, races, contests Lalone (2019) 92, 106, 155, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165
games, ranking Kaster(2005) 112
games, religious practices, olympic Segev (2017) 67
games, roman Sider (2001) 90
games, sacred Dignas (2002) 134, 149
Geljon and Runia (2013) 205, 295
games, sacrifice, at the Sider (2001) 91, 96, 97
games, saecular Davies (2004) 196, 216
Nuno et al (2021) 16
games, secular Ando (2013) 105, 106
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 402, 544
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 14, 15, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 266, 277, 347, 356
games, sicily Giusti (2018) 276, 277, 278, 279
games, spectacula, latin and greek terms for the Sider (2001) 81, 96
games, sympotic Cosgrove (2022) 3, 23, 26, 81, 148
games, sympotic, cottabus Cosgrove (2022) 13, 31, 79, 148
games, sympotic, in aristophanes’ wasps Cosgrove (2022) 34, 66, 67, 109
games, tertullian, on roman Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 45, 46, 47, 49, 59, 66, 71, 72
games, the assembly of satan, devil Sider (2001) 103
games, the, olympic Kirichenko (2022) 183
games, theatrical Borg (2008) 40
games, torch race olympic, modern Lupu(2005) 265
games, tragedy at actian Csapo (2022) 118
games, trajan’s victory Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 545
games, truce, olympic Lupu(2005) 369
games, unholy Geljon and Runia (2013) 202, 205
games, virgil, publius vergilius maro, sicilian Giusti (2018) 214
games, with epiphanes, motifs, thematic Schwartz (2008) 25, 81, 172, 355, 357
games/hermes, enagonios, mercury/hermes, and Miller and Clay (2019) 26, 97, 117, 214

List of validated texts:
33 validated results for "games"
1. Homer, Iliad, 9.315-9.334, 9.363, 9.405, 9.447, 9.478, 16.233-16.234, 18.479, 18.482, 23.326-23.333, 23.536-23.538, 23.791-23.792, 23.891 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Achilles, and funeral games • Hephaestus, disability/lameness of • Patroclus, Funeral Games for P. • Patroclus, funeral games for, the • Pythian Games • funeral games • games • games, Olympic

 Found in books: Finkelberg (2019) 255; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 19, 22; Kirichenko (2022) 37, 38, 39; Kowalzig (2007) 198; Maciver (2012) 43; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 149; Simon (2021) 233; Steiner (2001) 253


9.315. οὔτʼ ἔμεγʼ Ἀτρεΐδην Ἀγαμέμνονα πεισέμεν οἴω 9.316. οὔτʼ ἄλλους Δαναούς, ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἄρα τις χάρις ἦεν 9.317. μάρνασθαι δηΐοισιν ἐπʼ ἀνδράσι νωλεμὲς αἰεί. 9.318. ἴση μοῖρα μένοντι καὶ εἰ μάλα τις πολεμίζοι· 9.319. ἐν δὲ ἰῇ τιμῇ ἠμὲν κακὸς ἠδὲ καὶ ἐσθλός· 9.320. κάτθανʼ ὁμῶς ὅ τʼ ἀεργὸς ἀνὴρ ὅ τε πολλὰ ἐοργώς. 9.321. οὐδέ τί μοι περίκειται, ἐπεὶ πάθον ἄλγεα θυμῷ 9.322. αἰεὶ ἐμὴν ψυχὴν παραβαλλόμενος πολεμίζειν. 9.323. ὡς δʼ ὄρνις ἀπτῆσι νεοσσοῖσι προφέρῃσι 9.324. μάστακʼ ἐπεί κε λάβῃσι, κακῶς δʼ ἄρα οἱ πέλει αὐτῇ, 9.325. ὣς καὶ ἐγὼ πολλὰς μὲν ἀΰπνους νύκτας ἴαυον, 9.326. ἤματα δʼ αἱματόεντα διέπρησσον πολεμίζων 9.327. ἀνδράσι μαρνάμενος ὀάρων ἕνεκα σφετεράων. 9.328. δώδεκα δὴ σὺν νηυσὶ πόλεις ἀλάπαξʼ ἀνθρώπων, 9.329. πεζὸς δʼ ἕνδεκά φημι κατὰ Τροίην ἐρίβωλον· 9.330. τάων ἐκ πασέων κειμήλια πολλὰ καὶ ἐσθλὰ 9.331. ἐξελόμην, καὶ πάντα φέρων Ἀγαμέμνονι δόσκον 9.332. Ἀτρεΐδῃ· ὃ δʼ ὄπισθε μένων παρὰ νηυσὶ θοῇσι 9.333. δεξάμενος διὰ παῦρα δασάσκετο, πολλὰ δʼ ἔχεσκεν. 9.334. ἄλλα δʼ ἀριστήεσσι δίδου γέρα καὶ βασιλεῦσι·
9.363. ἤματί κε τριτάτῳ Φθίην ἐρίβωλον ἱκοίμην.
9.405. Φοίβου Ἀπόλλωνος Πυθοῖ ἔνι πετρηέσσῃ.
9.447. οἷον ὅτε πρῶτον λίπον Ἑλλάδα καλλιγύναικα
9.478. φεῦγον ἔπειτʼ ἀπάνευθε διʼ Ἑλλάδος εὐρυχόροιο,
16.233. Ζεῦ ἄνα Δωδωναῖε Πελασγικὲ τηλόθι ναίων 16.234. Δωδώνης μεδέων δυσχειμέρου, ἀμφὶ δὲ Σελλοὶ
18.479. πάντοσε δαιδάλλων, περὶ δʼ ἄντυγα βάλλε φαεινὴν
18.482. ποίει δαίδαλα πολλὰ ἰδυίῃσι πραπίδεσσιν.
23.326. σῆμα δέ τοι ἐρέω μάλʼ ἀριφραδές, οὐδέ σε λήσει. 23.327. ἕστηκε ξύλον αὖον ὅσον τʼ ὄργυιʼ ὑπὲρ αἴης 23.328. ἢ δρυὸς ἢ πεύκης· τὸ μὲν οὐ καταπύθεται ὄμβρῳ, 23.329. λᾶε δὲ τοῦ ἑκάτερθεν ἐρηρέδαται δύο λευκὼ 23.330. ἐν ξυνοχῇσιν ὁδοῦ, λεῖος δʼ ἱππόδρομος ἀμφὶς 23.331. ἤ τευ σῆμα βροτοῖο πάλαι κατατεθνηῶτος, 23.332. ἢ τό γε νύσσα τέτυκτο ἐπὶ προτέρων ἀνθρώπων, 23.333. καὶ νῦν τέρματʼ ἔθηκε ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
23.536. λοῖσθος ἀνὴρ ὤριστος ἐλαύνει μώνυχας ἵππους· 23.537. ἀλλʼ ἄγε δή οἱ δῶμεν ἀέθλιον ὡς ἐπιεικὲς 23.538. δεύτερʼ· ἀτὰρ τὰ πρῶτα φερέσθω Τυδέος υἱός.
23.791. ὠμογέροντα δέ μίν φασʼ ἔμμεναι· ἀργαλέον δὲ 23.792. ποσσὶν ἐριδήσασθαι Ἀχαιοῖς, εἰ μὴ Ἀχιλλεῖ.
23.891. ἠδʼ ὅσσον δυνάμει τε καὶ ἥμασιν ἔπλευ ἄριστος·''. None
9.315. Not me, I ween, shall Atreus' son, Agamemnon, persuade, nor yet shall the other Danaans, seeing there were to be no thanks, it seemeth, for warring against the foeman ever without respite. Like portion hath he that abideth at home, and if one warreth his best, and in one honour are held both the coward and the brave; " "9.319. Not me, I ween, shall Atreus' son, Agamemnon, persuade, nor yet shall the other Danaans, seeing there were to be no thanks, it seemeth, for warring against the foeman ever without respite. Like portion hath he that abideth at home, and if one warreth his best, and in one honour are held both the coward and the brave; " '9.320. death cometh alike to the idle man and to him that worketh much. Neither have I aught of profit herein, that I suffered woes at heart, ever staking my life in fight. Even as a bird bringeth in her bill to her unfledged chicks whatever she may find, but with her own self it goeth ill, 9.324. death cometh alike to the idle man and to him that worketh much. Neither have I aught of profit herein, that I suffered woes at heart, ever staking my life in fight. Even as a bird bringeth in her bill to her unfledged chicks whatever she may find, but with her own self it goeth ill, ' "9.325. even so was I wont to watch through many a sleepless night, and bloody days did I pass in battle, fighting with warriors for their women's sake. " "9.329. even so was I wont to watch through many a sleepless night, and bloody days did I pass in battle, fighting with warriors for their women's sake. Twelve cities of men have I laid waste with my ships and by land eleven, I avow, throughout the fertile land of Troy; " '9.330. from out all these I took much spoil and goodly, and all would I ever bring and give to Agamemnon, this son of Atreus; but he staying behind, even beside his swiftships, would take and apportion some small part, but keep the most. Some he gave as prizes to chieftains and kings,
9.363. my ships at early dawn sailing over the teeming Hellespont, and on board men right eager to ply the oar; and if so be the great Shaker of the Earth grants me fair voyaging, on the third day shall I reach deep-soiled Phthia. Possessions full many have I that I left on my ill-starred way hither,
9.405. Phoebus Apollo encloseth in rocky Pytho. For by harrying may cattle be had and goodly sheep, and tripods by the winning and chestnut horses withal; but that the spirit of man should come again when once it hath passed the barrier of his teeth, neither harrying availeth nor winning.
9.447. to be left alone without thee, nay, not though a god himself should pledge him to strip from me my old age and render me strong in youth as in the day when first I left Hellas, the home of fair women, fleeing from strife with my father Amyntor, son of Ormenus; for he waxed grievously wroth against me by reason of his fair-haired concubine,
9.478. then verily I burst the cunningly fitted doors of my chamber and leapt the fence of the court full easily, unseen of the watchmen and the slave women. Thereafter I fled afar through spacious Hellas, and came to deep-soiled Phthia, mother of flocks,
16.233. and himself he washed his hands, and drew flaming wine. Then he made prayer, standing in the midst of the court, and poured forth the wine, looking up to heaven; and not unmarked was he of Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt:Zeus, thou king, Dodonaean, Pelasgian, thou that dwellest afar, ruling over wintry Dodona,—and about thee dwell the Selli,
18.479. and precious gold and silver; and thereafter he set on the anvil-block a great anvil, and took in one hand a massive hammer, and in the other took he the tongs.First fashioned he a shield, great and sturdy, adorning it cunningly in every part, and round about it set a bright rim,
18.482. threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, ' "
23.326. but keepeth them ever in hand, and watcheth the man that leadeth him in the race. Now will I tell thee a manifest sign that will not escape thee. There standeth, as it were a fathom's height above the ground, a dry stump, whether of oak or of pine, which rotteth not in the rain, and two white stones on either side " "23.329. but keepeth them ever in hand, and watcheth the man that leadeth him in the race. Now will I tell thee a manifest sign that will not escape thee. There standeth, as it were a fathom's height above the ground, a dry stump, whether of oak or of pine, which rotteth not in the rain, and two white stones on either side " '23.330. thereof are firmly set against it at the joinings of the course, and about it is smooth ground for driving. Haply it is a monnment of some man long ago dead, or haply was made the turning-post of a race in days of men of old; and now hath switft-footed goodly Achilles appointed it his turningpost. Pressing hard thereon do thou drive close thy chariot and horses, and thyself lean in thy well-plaited
23.536. and he stood up amid the Argives, and spake winged words:Lo, in the last place driveth his single-hooved horses the man that is far the best. But come, let us give him a prize, as is meet, a prize for the second place; but the first let the son of Tydeus bear away. So spake he, and they all assented even as he bade.
23.791. whereas Odysseus is of an earlier generation and of earlier men—a green old age is his, men say—yet hard were he for any other Achaean to contend with in running, save only for Achilles. So spake he,and gave glory to the son of Peleus, swift of foot. And Achilles made answer, and spake to him, saying:
23.891. Son of Atreus, we know how far thou excellest all, and how far thou art the best in might and in the casting of the spear; nay, take thou this prize and go thy way to the hollow ships; but the spear let us give to the warrior Meriones, if thy heart consenteth thereto: so at least would I have it:'". None
2. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arsinoeia and Philadelpheia games, Olympic games • Games, Olympic • Isthmian games • Nemean Games • Nemean games • Olympia, Olympic games • Olympia, games • Olympic games • Panhellenic, sanctuaries and games • contests, games, races • games • games, • games, Argive • games, Olympic • games, athletic • games, funerary • games, of the Boiotians

 Found in books: Edmonds (2019) 70; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 390; Ekroth (2013) 181; Gygax (2016) 120; Kowalzig (2007) 30, 248, 260, 355; Lalone (2019) 92; Meister (2019) 92; Papadodima (2022) 61; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 109, 149, 154; Simon (2021) 19; Thonemann (2020) 126


3. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletic contests/games • games

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 553; Ekroth (2013) 203


4. Euripides, Electra, 171 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Nemean Games • Pythian games

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007) 174; Naiden (2013) 100


171. ἀγγέλλει δ' ὅτι νῦν τριταί-"". None
171. a mountain walker; he reports that the Argives are proclaiming a sacrifice for the third day from now, and that all maidens are to go to Hera’s temple. Electra''. None
5. Herodotus, Histories, 1.66, 1.167-1.168, 2.7, 5.47, 5.67, 5.114, 6.38, 7.117 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arsinoeia and Philadelpheia games, Olympic games • Festivals, Olympic Games • Pythian Games • foundation, Pythian games at Sikyon • funeral games • games • games, Olympic

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 388; Eisenfeld (2022) 161; Ekroth (2013) 83, 170, 182, 197, 203, 239; Kowalzig (2007) 129; Mikalson (2003) 112, 176; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 149


1.66. οὕτω μὲν μεταβαλόντες εὐνομήθησαν, τῷ δὲ Λυκούργῳ τελευτήσαντι ἱρὸν εἱσάμενοι σέβονται μεγάλως. οἷα δὲ ἐν τε χώρῃ ἀγαθῇ καὶ πλήθεϊ οὐκ ὀλίγων ἀνδρῶν, ἀνά τε ἔδραμον αὐτίκα καὶ εὐθηνήθησαν, καὶ δή σφι οὐκέτι ἀπέχρα ἡσυχίην ἄγειν, ἀλλὰ καταφρονήσαντες Ἀρκάδων κρέσσονες εἶναι ἐχρηστηριάζοντο ἐν Δελφοῖσι ἐπὶ πάσῃ τῇ Ἀρκάδων χωρῇ. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφι χρᾷ τάδε. Ἀρκαδίην μʼ αἰτεῖς· μέγα μʼ αἰτεῖς· οὐ τοι δώσω. πολλοὶ ἐν Ἀρκαδίῃ βαλανηφάγοι ἄνδρες ἔασιν, οἵ σʼ ἀποκωλύσουσιν. ἐγὼ δὲ τοι οὔτι μεγαίρω· δώσω τοί Τεγέην ποσσίκροτον ὀρχήσασθαι καὶ καλὸν πεδίον σχοίνῳ διαμετρήσασθαι. ταῦτα ὡς ἀπενειχθέντα ἤκουσαν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι,Ἀρκάδων μὲν τῶν ἄλλων ἀπείχοντο, οἳ δὲ πέδας φερόμενοι ἐπὶ Τεγεήτας ἐστρατεύοντο, χρησμῷ κιβδήλῳ πίσυνοι, ὡς δὴ ἐξανδραποδιούμενοι τοὺς Τεγεήτας. ἑσσωθέντες δὲ τῇ συμβολῇ, ὅσοι αὐτῶν ἐζωγρήθησαν, πέδας τε ἔχοντες τὰς ἐφέροντο αὐτοὶ καὶ σχοίνῳ διαμετρησάμενοι τὸ πεδίον τὸ Τεγεητέων ἐργάζοντο. αἱ δὲ πέδαι αὗται ἐν τῇσι ἐδεδέατο ἔτι καὶ ἐς ἐμὲ ἦσαν σόαι ἐν Τεγέῃ περὶ τὸν νηὸν τῆς Ἀλέης Ἀθηναίης κρεμάμεναι.
1.167. τῶν δὲ διαφθαρεισέων νεῶν τοὺς ἄνδρας οἱ τε Καρχηδόνιοι καὶ οἱ Τυρσηνοὶ διέλαχον, τῶν δὲ Τυρσηνῶν οἱ Ἀγυλλαῖοι 1 ἔλαχόν τε αὐτῶν πολλῷ πλείστους καὶ τούτους ἐξαγαγόντες κατέλευσαν. μετὰ δὲ Ἀγυλλαίοισι πάντα τὰ παριόντα τὸν χῶρον, ἐν τῶ οἱ Φωκαιέες καταλευσθέντες ἐκέατο, ἐγίνετο διάστροφα καὶ ἔμπηρα καὶ ἀπόπληκτα, ὁμοίως πρόβατα καὶ ὑποζύγια καὶ ἄνθρωποι. οἱ δὲ Ἀγυλλαῖοι ἐς Δελφοὺς ἔπεμπον βουλόμενοι ἀκέσασθαι τὴν ἁμαρτάδα. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφέας ἐκέλευσε ποιέειν τὰ καὶ νῦν οἱ Ἀγυλλαῖοι ἔτι ἐπιτελέουσι· καὶ γὰρ ἐναγίζουσί σφι μεγάλως καὶ ἀγῶνα γυμνικὸν καὶ ἱππικὸν ἐπιστᾶσι. καὶ οὗτοι μὲν τῶν Φωκαιέων τοιούτῳ μόρῳ διεχρήσαντο, οἱ δὲ αὐτῶν ἐς τὸ Ῥήγιον καταφυγόντες ἐνθεῦτεν ὁρμώμενοι ἐκτήσαντο πόλιν γῆς τῆς Οἰνωτρίης ταύτην ἥτις νῦν Ὑέλη καλέεται· ἔκτισαν δὲ ταύτην πρὸς ἀνδρὸς Ποσειδωνιήτεω μαθόντες ὡς τὸν Κύρνον σφι ἡ Πυθίη ἔχρησε κτίσαι ἥρων ἐόντα, ἀλλʼ οὐ τὴν νῆσον. 1.168. Φωκαίης μέν νυν πέρι τῆς ἐν Ἰωνίῃ οὕτω ἔσχε παραπλήσια δὲ τούτοισι καὶ Τήιοι ἐποίησαν. ἐπείτε γὰρ σφέων εἷλε χώματι τὸ τεῖχος Ἅρπαγος, ἐσβάντες πάντες ἐς τὰ πλοῖα οἴχοντο πλέοντες ἐπὶ τῆς Θρηίκης, καὶ ἐνθαῦτα ἔκτισαν πόλιν Ἄβδηρα, τὴν πρότερος τούτων Κλαζομένιος Τιμήσιος κτίσας οὐκ ἀπόνητο, ἀλλʼ ὑπὸ Θρηίκων ἐξελασθεὶς τιμὰς νῦν ὑπὸ Τηίων τῶν ἐν Ἀβδήροισι ὡς ἥρως ἔχει.
2.7. οὕτω ἂν εἴησαν Αἰγύπτου στάδιοι ἑξακόσιοι καὶ τρισχίλιοι τὸ παρὰ θάλασσαν. ἐνθεῦτεν μὲν καὶ μέχρι Ἡλίου πόλιος ἐς τὴν μεσόγαιαν ἐστὶ εὐρέα Αἴγυπτος, ἐοῦσα πᾶσα ὑπτίη τε καὶ ἔνυδρος καὶ ἰλύς. ἔστι δὲ ὁδὸς ἐς Ἡλίου πόλιν ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ἄνω ἰόντι παραπλησίη τὸ μῆκος τῇ ἐξ Ἀθηνέων ὁδῷ τῇ ἀπὸ τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν τοῦ βωμοῦ φερούσῃ ἔς τε Πῖσαν καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν νηὸν τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Ὀλυμπίου. σμικρόν τι τὸ διάφορον εὕροι τις ἂν λογιζόμενος τῶν ὁδῶν τουτέων τὸ μὴ ἴσας μῆκος εἶναι, οὐ πλέον πεντεκαίδεκα σταδίων· ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἐς Πῖσαν ἐξ Ἀθηνέων καταδεῖ πεντεκαίδεκα σταδίων μὴ εἶναι πεντακοσίων καὶ χιλίων, ἡ δὲ ἐς Ἡλίου πόλιν ἀπὸ θαλάσσης πληροῖ ἐς τὸν ἀριθμὸν τοῦτον.
5.47. συνέσπετο δὲ Δωριέι καὶ συναπέθανε Φίλιππος ὁ Βουτακίδεω Κροτωνιήτης ἀνήρ, ὃς ἁρμοσάμενος Τήλυος τοῦ Συβαρίτεω θυγατέρα ἔφυγε ἐκ Κρότωνος, ψευσθεὶς δὲ τοῦ γάμου οἴχετο πλέων ἐς Κυρήνην, ἐκ ταύτης δὲ ὁρμώμενος συνέσπετο οἰκηίῃ τε τριήρεϊ καὶ οἰκηίῃ ἀνδρῶν δαπάνῃ, ἐών τε Ὀλυμπιονίκης καὶ κάλλιστος Ἑλλήνων τῶν κατʼ ἑωυτόν. διὰ δὲ τὸ ἑωυτοῦ κάλλος ἠνείκατο παρὰ Ἐγεσταίων τὰ οὐδεὶς ἄλλος· ἐπὶ γὰρ τοῦ τάφου αὐτοῦ ἡρώιον ἱδρυσάμενοι θυσίῃσι αὐτὸν ἱλάσκονται.
5.67. ταῦτα δέ, δοκέειν ἐμοί, ἐμιμέετο ὁ Κλεισθένης οὗτος τὸν ἑωυτοῦ μητροπάτορα Κλεισθένεα τὸν Σικυῶνος τύραννον. Κλεισθένης γὰρ Ἀργείοισι πολεμήσας τοῦτο μὲν ῥαψῳδοὺς ἔπαυσε ἐν Σικυῶνι ἀγωνίζεσθαι τῶν Ὁμηρείων ἐπέων εἵνεκα, ὅτι Ἀργεῖοί τε καὶ Ἄργος τὰ πολλὰ πάντα ὑμνέαται· τοῦτο δέ, ἡρώιον γὰρ ἦν καὶ ἔστι ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἀγορῇ τῶν Σικυωνίων Ἀδρήστου τοῦ Ταλαοῦ, τοῦτον ἐπεθύμησε ὁ Κλεισθένης ἐόντα Ἀργεῖον ἐκβαλεῖν ἐκ τῆς χώρης. ἐλθὼν δὲ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐχρηστηριάζετο εἰ ἐκβάλοι τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οἱ χρᾷ φᾶσα Ἄδρηστον μὲν εἶναι Σικυωνίων βασιλέα, κεῖνον δὲ λευστῆρα. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς τοῦτό γε οὐ παρεδίδου, ἀπελθὼν ὀπίσω ἐφρόντιζε μηχανὴν τῇ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἄδρηστος ἀπαλλάξεται. ὡς δέ οἱ ἐξευρῆσθαι ἐδόκεε, πέμψας ἐς Θήβας τὰς Βοιωτίας ἔφη θέλειν ἐπαγαγέσθαι Μελάνιππον τὸν Ἀστακοῦ· οἱ δὲ Θηβαῖοι ἔδοσαν. ἐπαγαγόμενος δὲ ὁ Κλεισθένης τὸν Μελάνιππον τέμενός οἱ ἀπέδεξε ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ πρυτανηίῳ καί μιν ἵδρυσε ἐνθαῦτα ἐν τῷ ἰσχυροτάτῳ. ἐπηγάγετο δὲ τὸν Μελάνιππον ὁ Κλεισθένης ʽ καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο δεῖ ἀπηγήσασθαἰ ὡς ἔχθιστον ἐόντα Ἀδρήστῳ, ὃς τόν τε ἀδελφεόν οἱ Μηκιστέα ἀπεκτόνεε καὶ τὸν γαμβρὸν Τυδέα. ἐπείτε δέ οἱ τὸ τέμενος ἀπέδεξε, θυσίας τε καὶ ὁρτὰς Ἀδρήστου ἀπελόμενος ἔδωκε τῷ Μελανίππῳ. οἱ δὲ Σικυώνιοι ἐώθεσαν μεγαλωστὶ κάρτα τιμᾶν τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ γὰρ χώρη ἦν αὕτη Πολύβου, ὁ δὲ Ἄδρηστος ἦν Πολύβου θυγατριδέος, ἄπαις δὲ Πόλυβος τελευτῶν διδοῖ Ἀδρήστῳ τὴν ἀρχήν. τά τε δὴ ἄλλα οἱ Σικυώνιοι ἐτίμων τὸν Ἄδρηστον καὶ δὴ πρὸς τὰ πάθεα αὐτοῦ τραγικοῖσι χοροῖσι ἐγέραιρον, τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον οὐ τιμῶντες, τὸν δὲ Ἄδρηστον. Κλεισθένης δὲ χοροὺς μὲν τῷ Διονύσῳ ἀπέδωκε, τὴν δὲ ἄλλην θυσίην Μελανίππῳ.
5.114. Ὀνησίλου μέν νυν Ἀμαθούσιοι, ὅτι σφέας ἐπολιόρκησε, ἀποταμόντες τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐκόμισαν ἐς Ἀμαθοῦντα καί μιν ἀνεκρέμασαν ὑπὲρ τῶν πυλέων· κρεμαμένης δὲ τῆς κεφαλῆς καὶ ἤδη ἐούσης κοίλης, ἐσμὸς μελισσέων ἐσδὺς ἐς αὐτὴν κηρίων μιν ἐνέπλησε. τούτου δὲ γενομένου τοιούτου, ἐχρέωντο γὰρ περὶ αὐτῆς οἱ Ἀμαθούσιοι, ἐμαντεύθη σφι τὴν μὲν κεφαλὴν κατελόντας θάψαι, Ὀνησίλῳ δὲ θύειν ὡς ἥρωϊ ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος, καί σφι ποιεῦσι ταῦτα ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι.
6.38. οὗτος μὲν δὴ διὰ Κροῖσον ἐκφεύγει, μετὰ δὲ τελευτᾷ ἄπαις, τὴν ἀρχήν τε καὶ τὰ χρήματα παραδοὺς Στησαγόρῃ τῷ Κίμωνος ἀδελφεοῦ παιδὶ ὁμομητρίου. καί οἱ τελευτήσαντι Χερσονησῖται θύουσι ὡς νόμος οἰκιστῇ, καὶ ἀγῶνα ἱππικόν τε καὶ γυμνικὸν ἐπιστᾶσι, ἐν τῷ Λαμψακηνῶν οὐδενὶ ἐγγίνεται ἀγωνίζεσθαι. πολέμου δὲ ἐόντος πρὸς Λαμψακηνοὺς καὶ Στησαγόρεα κατέλαβε ἀποθανεῖν ἄπαιδα, πληγέντα τὴν κεφαλὴν πελέκεϊ ἐν τῷ πρυτανηίῳ πρὸς ἀνδρὸς αὐτομόλου μὲν τῷ λόγῳ πολεμίου δὲ καὶ ὑποθερμοτέρου τῷ ἔργῳ.
7.117. ἐν Ἀκάνθῳ δὲ ἐόντος Ξέρξεω συνήνεικε ὑπὸ νούσου ἀποθανεῖν τὸν ἐπεστεῶτα τῆς διώρυχος Ἀρταχαίην, δόκιμον ἐόντα παρὰ Ξέρξῃ καὶ γένος Ἀχαιμενίδην, μεγάθεΐ τε μέγιστον ἐόντα Περσέων ʽἀπὸ γὰρ πέντε πηχέων βασιληίων ἀπέλειπε τέσσερας δακτύλουσ̓ φωνέοντά τε μέγιστον ἀνθρώπων, ὥστε Ξέρξην συμφορὴν ποιησάμενον μεγάλην ἐξενεῖκαί τε αὐτὸν κάλλιστα καὶ θάψαι· ἐτυμβοχόεε δὲ πᾶσα ἡ στρατιή. τούτῳ δὲ τῷ Ἀρταχαίῃ θύουσι Ἀκάνθιοι ἐκ θεοπροπίου ὡς ἥρωι, ἐπονομάζοντες τὸ οὔνομα.''. None
1.66. Thus they changed their bad laws to good ones, and when Lycurgus died they built him a temple and now worship him greatly. Since they had good land and many men, they immediately flourished and prospered. They were not content to live in peace, but, confident that they were stronger than the Arcadians, asked the oracle at Delphi about gaining all the Arcadian land. ,She replied in hexameter: 1.167. As for the crews of the disabled ships, the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians drew lots for them, and of the Tyrrhenians the Agyllaioi were allotted by far the majority and these they led out and stoned to death. But afterwards, everything from Agylla that passed the place where the stoned Phocaeans lay, whether sheep or beasts of burden or men, became distorted and crippled and palsied. ,The Agyllaeans sent to Delphi, wanting to mend their offense; and the Pythian priestess told them to do what the people of Agylla do to this day: for they pay great honors to the Phocaeans, with religious rites and games and horse-races. ,Such was the end of this part of the Phocaeans. Those of them who fled to Rhegium set out from there and gained possession of that city in the Oenotrian country which is now called Hyele ; ,they founded this because they learned from a man of Posidonia that the Cyrnus whose establishment the Pythian priestess ordained was the hero, and not the island. 1.168. Thus, then, it went with the Ionian Phocaea. The Teians did the same things as the Phocaeans: when Harpagus had taken their walled city by building an earthwork, they all embarked aboard ship and sailed away for Thrace . There they founded a city, Abdera, which before this had been founded by Timesius of Clazomenae ; yet he got no profit of it, but was driven out by the Thracians. This Timesius is now honored as a hero by the Teians of Abdera .
2.7. By this reckoning, then, the seaboard of Egypt will be four hundred and fifty miles in length. Inland from the sea as far as Heliopolis, Egypt is a wide land, all flat and watery and marshy. From the sea up to Heliopolis is a journey about as long as the way from the altar of the twelve gods at Athens to the temple of Olympian Zeus at Pisa . ,If a reckoning is made, only a little difference of length, not more than two miles, will be found between these two journeys; for the journey from Athens to Pisa is two miles short of two hundred, which is the number of miles between the sea and Heliopolis . ' "
5.47. Philippus of Croton, son of Butacides, was among those who followed Dorieus and were slain with him. He had been betrothed to the daughter of Telys of Sybaris but was banished from Croton. Cheated out of his marriage, he sailed away to Cyrene, from where he set forth and followed Dorieus, bringing his own trireme and covering all expenses for his men. This Philippus was a victor at Olympia and the fairest Greek of his day. ,For his physical beauty he received from the Egestans honors accorded to no one else. They built a hero's shrine by his grave and offer him sacrifices of propitiation. " "
5.67. In doing this, to my thinking, this Cleisthenes was imitating his own mother's father, Cleisthenes the tyrant of Sicyon, for Cleisthenes, after going to war with the Argives, made an end of minstrels' contests at Sicyon by reason of the Homeric poems, in which it is the Argives and Argos which are primarily the theme of the songs. Furthermore, he conceived the desire to cast out from the land Adrastus son of Talaus, the hero whose shrine stood then as now in the very marketplace of Sicyon because he was an Argive. ,He went then to Delphi, and asked the oracle if he should cast Adrastus out, but the priestess said in response: “Adrastus is king of Sicyon, and you but a stone thrower.” When the god would not permit him to do as he wished in this matter, he returned home and attempted to devise some plan which might rid him of Adrastus. When he thought he had found one, he sent to Boeotian Thebes saying that he would gladly bring Melanippus son of Astacus into his country, and the Thebans handed him over. ,When Cleisthenes had brought him in, he consecrated a sanctuary for him in the government house itself, where he was established in the greatest possible security. Now the reason why Cleisthenes brought in Melanippus, a thing which I must relate, was that Melanippus was Adrastus' deadliest enemy, for Adrastus had slain his brother Mecisteus and his son-in-law Tydeus. ,Having then designated the precinct for him, Cleisthenes took away all Adrastus' sacrifices and festivals and gave them to Melanippus. The Sicyonians had been accustomed to pay very great honor to Adrastus because the country had once belonged to Polybus, his maternal grandfather, who died without an heir and bequeathed the kingship to him. ,Besides other honors paid to Adrastus by the Sicyonians, they celebrated his lamentable fate with tragic choruses in honor not of Dionysus but of Adrastus. Cleisthenes, however, gave the choruses back to Dionysus and the rest of the worship to Melanippus. " '
5.114. As for Onesilus, the Amathusians cut off his head and brought it to Amathus, where they hung it above their gates, because he had besieged their city. When this head became hollow, a swarm of bees entered it and filled it with their honeycomb. ,In consequence of this the Amathusians, who had inquired concerning the matter, received an oracle which stated that they should take the head down and bury it, and offer yearly sacrifice to Onesilus as to a hero. If they did this, things would go better for them.
6.38. So he escaped by the intervention of Croesus, but he later died childless and left his rule and possessions to Stesagoras, the son of his half-brother Cimon. Since his death, the people of the Chersonese offer sacrifices to him as their founder in the customary manner, instituting a contest of horse races and gymnastics. No one from Lampsacus is allowed to compete. ,But in the war against the Lampsacenes Stesagoras too met his end and died childless; he was struck on the head with an axe in the town-hall by a man who pretended to be a deserter but in truth was an enemy and a man of violence. ' "
7.117. While Xerxes was at Acanthus, it happened that Artachaees, overseer of the digging of the canal, died of an illness. He was high in Xerxes' favor, an Achaemenid by lineage, and the tallest man in Persia, lacking four finger-breadths of five royal cubits in stature, and his voice was the loudest on earth. For this reason Xerxes mourned him greatly and gave him a funeral and burial of great pomp, and the whole army poured libations on his tomb. ,The Acanthians hold Artachaees a hero, and sacrifice to him, calling upon his name. This they do at the command of an oracle. "'. None
6. Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.4.20 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Delphi, Pythian Games • games

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 685; Martin (2009) 60, 227


2.4.20. And Cleocritus, the herald of the initiated, i.e. in the Eleusinian mysteries. a man with a very fine voice, obtained silence and said: Fellow citizens, why do you drive us out of the city? why do you wish to kill us? For we never did you any harm, but we have shared with you in the most solemn rites and sacrifices and the most splendid festivals, we have been companions in the dance and schoolmates and comrades in arms, and we have braved many dangers with you both by land and by sea in defense of the 404 B.C. common safety and freedom of us both.''. None
7. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Games, Olympic • games, Pan-Hellenic

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 1; Lloyd (1989) 97


8. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 7.72 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Actian Games • Augustus, and Actian Games • idols; in procession at games • priests; pagan priests at games • sacrifice; at the games

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 119; Sider (2001) 91


7.72. 1. \xa0Before beginning the games the principal magistrates conducted a procession in honour of the gods from the Capitol through the Forum to the Circus Maximus. Those who led the procession were, first, the Romans' sons who were nearing manhood and were of an age to bear a part in this ceremony, who rode on horseback if their fathers were entitled by their fortunes to be knights, while the others, who were destined to serve in the infantry, went on foot, the former in squadrons and troops, and the latter in divisions and companies, as if they were going to school; this was done in order that strangers might see the number and beauty of the youths of the commonwealth who were approaching manhood.,2. \xa0These were followed by charioteers, some of whom drove four horses abreast, some two, and others rode unyoked horses. After them came the contestants in both the light and the heavy games, their whole bodies naked except their loins. This custom continued even to my time at Rome, as it was originally practised by the Greeks; but it is now abolished in Greece, the Lacedaemonians having put an end to it.,3. \xa0The first man who undertook to strip and ran naked at Olympia, at the fifteenth Olympiad, was Acanthus the Lacedaemonian. Before that time, it seems, all the Greeks had been ashamed to appear entirely naked in the games, as Homer, the most credible and the most ancient of all witnesses, shows when he represents the heroes as girding up their loins. At any rate, when he is describing the wrestling-match of Aias and Odysseus at the funeral of Patroclus, he says: And then the twain with loins well girt stepped forth Into the lists. ,4. \xa0And he makes this still plainer in the Odyssey upon the occasion of the boxing-match between Irus and Odysseus, in these verses: He spake, and all approved; Odysseus then His rags girt round his loins, and showed his thighs So fair and stout; broad shoulders too and chest And brawny arms there stood revealed. And when he introduces the beggar as no longer willing to engage but declining the combat through fear, he says: They spake, and Irus' heart was sorely stirred; Yet even so the suitors girt his loins By force and led him forward. Thus it is plain that the Romans, who preserve this ancient Greek custom to this day, did not learn it from us afterwards nor even change it in the course of time, as we have done.,5. \xa0The contestants were followed by numerous bands of dancers arranged in three divisions, the first consisting of men, the second of youths, and the third of boys. These were accompanied by flute-players, who used ancient flutes that were small and short, as is done even to this day, and by lyre-players, who plucked ivory lyres of seven strings and the instruments called barbita. The use of these has ceased in my time among the Greeks, though traditional with them, but is preserved by the Romans in all their ancient sacrificial ceremonies.,6. \xa0The dancers were dressed in scarlet tunics girded with bronze cinctures, wore swords suspended at their sides, and carried spears of shorter than average length; the men also had bronze helmets adorned with conspicuous crests and plumes. Each group was led by one man who gave the figures of the dance to the rest, taking the lead in representing their warlike and rapid movements, usually in the proceleusmatic rhythms.,7. \xa0This also was in fact a very ancient Greek institution â\x80\x94 I\xa0mean the armed dance called the Pyrrhic â\x80\x94 whether it was Athena who first began to lead bands of dancers and to dance in arms over the destruction of the Titans in order to celebrate the victory by this manifestation of her joy, or whether it was the Curetes who introduced it still earlier when, acting as nurses to Zeus, they strove to amuse him by the clashing of arms and the rhythmic movements of their limbs, as the legend has it.,8. \xa0The antiquity of this dance also, as one native to the Greeks, is made clear by Homer, not only in many other places, but particularly in describing the fashioning of the shield which he says Hephaestus presented to Achilles. For, having represented on it two cities, one blessed with peace, the other suffering from war, in the one on which he bestows the happier fate, describing festivals, marriages, and merriment, as one would naturally expect, he says among other things: Youths whirled around in joyous dance, with sound of flute and harp; and, standing at their doors, Admiring women on the pageant gazed. ,9. \xa0And again, in describing another Cretan band of dancers, consisting of youths and maidens, with which the shield was adorned, he speaks in this manner: And on it, too, the famous craftsman wrought, With cunning workmanship, a dancing-floor, Like that which Daedalus in Cnossus wide For fair-haired Ariadnê shaped. And there Bright youths and many-suitored maidens danced While laying each on other's wrists their hands. And in describing the dress of these dancers, in order to show us that the males danced in arms, he says: The maidens garlands wore, the striplings swords of gold, which proudly hung from silver belts. And when he introduces the leaders of the dance who gave the rhythm to the rest and began it, he writes: And great the throng which stood about the dance, Enjoying it; and tumblers twain did whirl Amid the throng as prelude to the song. ,10. \xa0But it is not alone from the warlike and serious dance of these bands which the Romans employed in their sacrificial ceremonies and processions that one may observe their kinship to the Greeks, but also from that which is of a mocking and ribald nature. For after the armed dancers others marched in procession impersonating satyrs and portraying the Greek dance called sicinnis. Those who represented Sileni were dressed in shaggy tunics, called by some chortaioi, and in mantles of flowers of every sort; and those who represented satyrs wore girdles and goatskins, and on their heads manes that stood upright, with other things of like nature. These mocked and mimicked the serious movements of the others, turning them into laughter-provoking performances.,11. \xa0The triumphal entrances also show that raillery and fun-making in the manner of satyrs were an ancient practice native to the Romans; for the soldiers who take part in the triumphs are allowed to satirise and ridicule the most distinguished men, including even the generals, in the same manner as those who ride in procession in carts at Athens; the soldiers once jested in prose as they clowned, but now they sing improvised verses.,12. \xa0And even at the funerals of illustrious persons I\xa0have seen, along with the other participants, bands of dancers impersonating satyrs who preceded the bier and imitated in their motions the dance called sicinnis, and particularly at the funerals of the rich. This jesting and dancing in the manner of satyrs, then, was not the invention either of the Ligurians, of the Umbrians, or of any other barbarians who dwelt in Italy, but of the Greeks; but I\xa0fear I\xa0should prove tiresome to some of my readers if I\xa0endeavoured to confirm by more arguments a thing that is generally conceded.,13. \xa0After these bands of dancers came a throng of lyre-players and many flute-players, and after them the persons who carried the censers in which perfumes and frankincense were burned along the whole route of the procession, also the men who bore the show-vessels made of silver and gold, both those that were sacred owing to the gods and those that belonged to the state. Last of all in the procession came the images of the gods, borne on men's shoulders, showing the same likenesses as those made by the Greeks and having the same dress, the same symbols, and the same gifts which tradition says each of them invented and bestowed on mankind. These were the images not only of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Neptune, and of the rest whom the Greeks reckon among the twelve gods, but also of those still more ancient from whom legend says the twelve were sprung, namely, Saturn, Ops, Themis, Latona, the Parcae, Mnemosynê, and all the rest to whom temples and holy places are dedicated among the Greeks; and also of those whom legend represents as living later, after Jupiter took over the sovereignty, such as Proserpina, Lucina, the Nymphs, the Muses, the Seasons, the Graces, Liber, and the demigods whose souls after they had left their mortal bodies are said to have ascended to Heaven and to have obtained the same honours as the gods, such as Hercules, Aesculapius, Castor and Pollux, Helen, Pan, and countless others.,14. \xa0Yet if those who founded Rome and instituted this festival were barbarians, how could they properly worship all the gods and other divinities of the Greeks and scorn their own ancestral gods? Or let someone show us any other people besides the Greeks among whom these rites are traditional, and then let him censure this demonstration as unsound.,15. \xa0After the procession was ended the consuls and the priests whose function it was presently sacrificed oxen; and the manner of performing the sacrifices was the same as with us. For after washing their hands they purified the victims with clear water and sprinkled corn on their heads, after which they prayed and then gave orders to their assistants to sacrifice them. Some of these assistants, while the victim was still standing, struck it on the temple with a club, and others received it upon the sacrificial knives as it fell. After this they flayed it and cut it up, taking off a piece from each of the inwards and also from every limb as a first-offering, which they sprinkled with grits of spelt and carried in baskets to the officiating priests. These placed them on the altars, and making a fire under them, poured wine over them while they were burning.,16. \xa0It is easy to see from Homer's poems that every one of these ceremonies was performed according to the customs established by the Greeks with reference to sacrifices. For he introduces the heroes washing their hands and using barley grits, where he said: Then washed their hands and took up barley-grains. And also cutting off the hair from the head of the victim and placing it on the fire, writing thus: And he, the rite beginning, cast some hairs, Plucked from the victim's head, upon the fire. He also represents them as striking the foreheads of the victims with clubs and stabbing them when they had fallen, as at the sacrifice of Eumaeus: Beginning then the rite, with limb of oak\xa0â\x80\x94 One he had left when cleaving wood â\x80\x94 he smote The boar, which straightway yielded up his life; And next his throat they cut and singed his hide. ,17. \xa0And also at taking the first offerings from the inwards and from the limbs as well and sprinkling them with barley-meal and burning them upon the altars, as at that same sacrifice: Then made the swineherd slices of raw meat, Beginning with a cut from every limb, And wrapping them in rich fat, cast them all Upon the fire, first sprinkling barley-meal. ,18. \xa0These rites I\xa0am acquainted with from having seen the Romans perform them at their sacrifices even in my time; and contented with this single proof, I\xa0have become convinced that the founders of Rome were not barbarians, but Greeks who had come together out of many places. It is possible, indeed, that some barbarians also may observe a\xa0few customs relating to sacrifices and festivals in the same manner as the Greeks, but that they should do everything in the same way is hard to believe. It now remains for me to give a brief account of the games which the Romans performed after the procession. The first was a race of four-horse chariots, two-horse chariots, and of unyoked horses, as has been the custom among the Greeks, both anciently at Olympia and down to the present."". None
9. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • games • games, and Ignatius

 Found in books: Maier and Waldner (2022) 167; Moss (2012) 55, 67


4.2. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my sepulchre and may leave no part of my body behind, so that I may not, when I am fallen asleep, be burdensome to any one. Then shall I be truly a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not so much as see my body. Supplicate the Lord for me, that through these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God. ''. None
10. New Testament, Acts, 8.18-8.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • games

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 152; Hitch (2017) 152


8.18. Ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Σίμων ὅτι διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν τῶν ἀποστόλων δίδοται τὸ πνεῦμα προσήνεγκεν αὐτοῖς χρήματα λέγων Δότε κἀμοὶ τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ἵνα ᾧ ἐὰν ἐπιθῶ τὰς χεῖ 8.19. ρας λαμβάνῃ πνεῦμα ἅγιον. 8.20. Πέτρος δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Τὸ ἀργύριόν σου σὺν σοὶ εἴη εἰς ἀπώλειαν, ὅτι τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐνόμισας διὰ χρημάτων κτᾶσθαι. 8.21. οὐκ ἔστιν σοι μερὶς οὐδὲ κλῆρος ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ, ἡ γὰρκαρδία σου οὐκ ἔστιν εὐθεῖα ἔναντι τοῦ θεοῦ. 8.22. μετανόησον οὖν ἀπὸ τῆς κακίας σου ταύτης, καὶ δεήθητι τοῦ κυρίου εἰ ἄρα ἀφεθήσεταί σοι ἡ ἐπίνοια τῆς καρδίας σου· 8.23. εἰς γὰρ χολὴν πικρίας καὶσύνδεσμον ἀδικίας ὁρῶ σε ὄντα. 8.24. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Σίμων εἶπεν Δεήθητε ὑμεῖς ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύριον ὅπως μηδὲν ἐπέλθῃ ἐπʼ ἐμὲ ὧν εἰρήκατε.''. None
8.18. Now when Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands, he offered them money, " '8.19. saying, "Give me also this power, that whoever I lay my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit." 8.20. But Peter said to him, "May your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain the gift of God with money! ' "8.21. You have neither part nor lot in this matter, for your heart isn't right before God. " '8.22. Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. 8.23. For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity." 8.24. Simon answered, "Pray for me to the Lord, that none of the things which you have spoken come on me."'". None
11. New Testament, Luke, 1.5-1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • games

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 152; Hitch (2017) 152


1.5. ΕΓΕΝΕΤΟ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου βασιλέως τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἱερεύς τις ὀνόματι Ζαχαρίας ἐξ ἐφημερίας Ἀβιά, καὶ γυνὴ αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν θυγατέρων Ἀαρών, καὶ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτῆς Ἐλεισάβετ. 1.6. ἦσαν δὲ δίκαιοι ἀμφότεροι ἐναντίον τοῦ θεοῦ, πορευόμενοι ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν τοῦ κυρίου ἄμεμπτοι. 1.7. καὶ οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τέκνον, καθότι ἦν ἡ Ἐλεισάβετ στεῖρα, καὶ ἀμφότεροι προβεβηκότες ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτῶν ἦσαν. 1.8. Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφημερίας αὐτοῦ ἔναντι τοῦ θεοῦ 1.9. κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἱερατίας ἔλαχε τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν ναὸν τοῦ κυρίου, 1.10. καὶ πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος ἦν τοῦ λαοῦ προσευχόμενον ἔξω τῇ ὥρᾳ τοῦ θυμιάματος· 1.11. ὤφθη δὲ αὐτῷ ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἑστὼς ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου τοῦ θυμιάματος. 1.12. καὶ ἐταράχθη Ζαχαρίας ἰδών, καὶ φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπʼ αὐτόν. 1.13. εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ ἄγγελος Μὴ φοβοῦ, Ζαχαρία, διότι εἰσηκούσθη ἡ δέησίς σου, καὶ ἡ γυνή σου Ἐλεισάβετ γεννήσει υἱόν σοι, καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάνην· 1.14. καὶ ἔσται χαρά σοι καὶ ἀγαλλίασις, καὶ πολλοὶ ἐπὶ τῇ γενέσει αὐτοῦ χαρήσονται· 1.15. ἔσται γὰρ μέγας ἐνώπιον Κυρίου, καὶ οἶνον καὶ σίκερα οὐ μὴ πίῃ, καὶ πνεύματος ἁγίου πλησθήσεται ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ, 1.16. καὶ πολλοὺς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐπιστρέψει ἐπὶ Κύριον τὸν θεὸν αὐτῶν· 1.17. καὶ αὐτὸς προελεύσεται ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει Ἠλεία, ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα καὶ ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων, ἑτοιμάσαι Κυρίῳ λαὸν κατεσκευασμένον.''. None
1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 1.6. They were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and ordices of the Lord. 1.7. But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. ' "1.8. Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division, " "1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. " '1.10. The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 1.11. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 1.12. Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 1.13. But the angel said to him, "Don\'t be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 1.14. You will have joy and gladness; and many will rejoice at his birth. ' "1.15. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. " '1.16. He will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord, their God. 1.17. He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, \'to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,\' and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord."''. None
12. Plutarch, Agesilaus, 30.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Games, Olympic • lame

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 117; Laes Goodey and Rose (2013) 240


30.1. οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ τοῖς πολλοῖς, ὡς ἀφίσταντο μὲν οἱ σύμμαχοι, προσεδοκᾶτο δὲ νενικηκὼς Ἐπαμεινώνδας καὶ μεγαλοφρονῶν ἐμβαλεῖν εἰς Πελοπόννησον, ἔννοια τῶν χρησμῶν ἐνέπεσε τότε, πρὸς τὴν χωλότητα τοῦ Ἀγησιλάου, καὶ δυσθυμία πολλὴ καὶ πτοία πρὸς τὸ θεῖον, ὡς διὰ τοῦτο πραττούσης κακῶς τῆς πόλεως, ὅτι τὸν ἀρτίποδα τῆς βασιλείας ἐκβαλόντες εἵλοντο χωλὸν καὶ πεπηρωμένον· ὃ παντὸς μᾶλλον αὐτοὺς ἐδίδασκε φράζεσθαι καὶ φυλάττεσθαι τὸ δαιμόνιον.''. None
30.1. ''. None
13. Plutarch, Pericles, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pythian Games • games (public), Roman

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 258; Kowalzig (2007) 380


1.5. διὸ καλῶς μὲν Ἀντισθένης ἀκούσας ὅτι σπουδαῖός ἐστιν αὐλητὴς Ἰσμηνίας, ἀλλʼ ἄνθρωπος, ἔφη, μοχθηρός· οὐ γὰρ ἂν οὕτω σπουδαῖος ἦν αὐλητής· ὁ δὲ Φίλιππος πρὸς τὸν υἱὸν ἐπιτερπῶς ἔν τινι πότῳ ψήλαντα καὶ τεχνικῶς εἶπεν· οὐκ αἰσχύνῃ καλῶς οὕτω ψάλλων; ἀρκεῖ γάρ, ἂν βασιλεὺς ἀκροᾶσθαι ψαλλόντων σχολάζῃ, καὶ πολὺ νέμει ταῖς Μούσαις ἑτέρων ἀγωνιζομένων τὰ τοιαῦτα θεατὴς γιγνόμενος.''. None
1.5. Therefore it was a fine saying of Antisthenes, when he heard that Ismenias was an excellent piper: But he’s a worthless man, said he, otherwise he wouldn’t be so good a piper. And so Philip Philip of Macedon, to Alexander. once said to his son, who, as the wine went round, plucked the strings charmingly and skilfully, Art not ashamed to pluck the strings so well? It is enough, surely, if a king have leisure to hear others pluck the strings, and he pays great deference to the Muses if he be but a spectator of such contests.''. None
14. Tacitus, Annals, 11.11.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Saecular Games • Secular Games

 Found in books: Davies (2004) 196; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 14, 15, 244, 245, 347, 356


11.11.1. \xa0Under the same consulate, eight hundred years from the foundation of Rome, sixty-four from their presentation by Augustus, came a performance of the Secular Games. The calculations employed by the two princes I\xa0omit, as they have been sufficiently explained in the books which I\xa0have devoted to the reign of Domitian. For he too exhibited Secular Games, and, as the holder of a quindecimviral priesthood and as praetor at the time, I\xa0followed them with more than usual care: a\xa0fact which I\xa0recall not in vanity, but because from of old this responsibility has rested with the Fifteen, and because it was to magistrates in especial that the task fell of discharging the duties connected with the religious ceremonies. During the presence of Claudius at the Circensian Games, when a cavalcade of boys from the great families opened the mimic battle of Troy, among them being the emperor's son, Britannicus, and Lucius Domitius, â\x80\x94 soon to be adopted as heir to the throne and to the designation of Nero, â\x80\x94 the livelier applause given by the populace to Domitius was accepted as prophetic. Also there was a common tale that serpents had watched over his infancy like warders: a\xa0fable retouched to resemble foreign miracles, since Nero â\x80\x94 certainly not given to self-depreciation â\x80\x94 used to say that only a single snake had been noticed in his bedroom."". None
15. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • founder of Olympic games • games • idols; in procession at games • priests; pagan priests at games • sacrifice; at the games • spectacula; Latin and Greek terms for the games

 Found in books: Sider (2001) 96; Talbert (1984) 151


16. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gythion, games at • games

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 109; Talbert (1984) 151


17. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Stoicism, gladiatorial games and • arena, and gladiatorial games • children,games of • games, and Perpetua • gladiatorial games

 Found in books: Mermelstein (2021) 47; Moss (2012) 137


18. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hephaestion (Macedonian noble), funeral games of • Pythian games

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 33; Naiden (2013) 100


19. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • board games • games

 Found in books: Goldman (2013) 148; Johnson and Parker (2009) 126


20. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Marcellus, games of • Secular Games

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 108; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 245


21. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Games, Pythian • Pythian games

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 49; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 96


22. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 67.4.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • games • games (public), Roman

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 259; Goldman (2013) 85


67.4.4. \xa0He changed the name of October to Domitianus because he had been born in that month. Among the charioteers he instituted two more factions, calling one the Golden and the other the Purple. To the spectators he used to make many presents by means of the little balls; and once he gave them a banquet while they remained in their seats and at night provided for them wine that flowed freely in many different places.''. None
23. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.21, 6.13, 9.34.1, 10.7.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arsinoeia and Philadelpheia games, Pythian (Delphic) games • Arsinoeia and Philadelpheia games, crown games (periodos) • Olympia, Olympic games • Olympic Games • Pythian Games • contests, games, races • games • games, Olympic • games, athletic

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 276; Humphreys (2018) 972; Kowalzig (2007) 129; Lalone (2019) 106; Lipka (2021) 168; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 154; Thonemann (2020) 171, 172


9.34.1. πρὶν δὲ ἐς Κορώνειαν ἐξ Ἀλαλκομενῶν ἀφικέσθαι, τῆς Ἰτωνίας Ἀθηνᾶς ἐστι τὸ ἱερόν· καλεῖται δὲ ἀπὸ Ἰτωνίου τοῦ Ἀμφικτύονος, καὶ ἐς τὸν κοινὸν συνίασιν ἐνταῦθα οἱ Βοιωτοὶ σύλλογον. ἐν δὲ τῷ ναῷ χαλκοῦ πεποιημένα Ἀθηνᾶς Ἰτωνίας καὶ Διός ἐστιν ἀγάλματα· τέχνη δὲ Ἀγορακρίτου, μαθητοῦ τε καὶ ἐρωμένου Φειδίου. ἀνέθεσαν δὲ καὶ Χαρίτων ἀγάλματα ἐπʼ ἐμοῦ.
10.7.4. τῆς δὲ τεσσαρακοστῆς Ὀλυμπιάδος καὶ ὀγδόης, ἣν Γλαυκίας ὁ Κροτωνιάτης ἐνίκησε, ταύτης ἔτει τρίτῳ ἆθλα ἔθεσαν οἱ Ἀμφικτύονες κιθαρῳδίας μὲν καθὰ καὶ ἐξ ἀρχῆς, προσέθεσαν δὲ καὶ αὐλῳδίας ἀγώνισμα καὶ αὐλῶν· ἀνηγορεύθησαν δὲ νικῶντες Κεφαλήν τε Μελάμπους κιθαρῳδίᾳ καὶ αὐλῳδὸς Ἀρκὰς Ἐχέμβροτος, Σακάδας δὲ Ἀργεῖος ἐπὶ τοῖς αὐλοῖς· ἀνείλετο δὲ ὁ Σακάδας οὗτος καὶ ἄλλας δύο τὰς ἐφεξῆς ταύτης πυθιάδας.' '. None
9.34.1. Before reaching Coroneia from Alalcomenae we come to the sanctuary of Itonian Athena. It is named after Itonius the son of Amphictyon, and here the Boeotians gather for their general assembly. In the temple are bronze images of Itonian Athena and Zeus; the artist was Agoracritus, pupil and loved one of Pheidias. In my time they dedicated too images of the Graces.
10.7.4. In the third year of the forty-eighth Olympiad, 586 B.C at which Glaucias of Crotona was victorious, the Amphictyons held contests for harping as from the beginning, but added competitions for flute-playing and for singing to the flute. The conquerors proclaimed were Melampus, a Cephallenian, for harping, and Echembrotus, an Arcadian, for singing to the flute, with Sacadas of Argos for flute-playing. This same Sacadas won victories at the next two Pythian festivals.' '. None
24. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.1, 9.16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • games

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 150; Hitch (2017) 150


1.1. To Septicius. You have constantly urged me to collect and publish the more highly finished of the letters that I may have written. I have made such a collection, but without preserving the order in which they were composed, as I was not writing a historical narrative. So I have taken them as they happened to come to hand. I can only hope that you will not have cause to regret the advice you gave, and that I shall not repent having followed it; for I shall set to work to recover such letters as have up to now been tossed on one side, and I shall not keep back any that I may write in the future. Farewell..
9.16. To Mamilianus. I am not surprised that you have been immensely pleased with your sport, considering how productive it was, for you are like the historians when they say that the number of the slain was beyond all computation. Personally, I have neither time nor inclination for sport; no time, because the grape harvest is now on, and no inclination, because it is a poor crop. However, I am drawing off some new verses instead of new must, and as soon as I see that they have fermented I will send them to you, as you have very kindly asked for them. Farewell. ''. None
25. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • games

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 102, 142, 148, 150, 152; Hitch (2017) 102, 142, 148, 150, 152


26. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • games

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 150; Hitch (2017) 150


27. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 17.14
 Tagged with subjects: • Stoicism, gladiatorial games and • games

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 206; Mermelstein (2021) 47


17.14. The tyrant was the antagonist, and the world and the human race were the spectators.''. None
28. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Achilles, and funeral games • Nonnus, funeral games

 Found in books: Greensmith (2021) 83; Maciver (2012) 32


29. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Delphi, sanctuary of Apollo, Pythian games • games

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 239; Lupu(2005) 39


30. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Secular Games • Trajan’s victory games • games

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 402, 544, 545; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 245; Tacoma (2020) 70


31. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Isthmian games • Nemean games • Olympic games • Pythian games • games

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 127; Humphreys (2018) 919


32. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Games • new Panhellenic games

 Found in books: Jim (2022) 64; Williamson (2021) 295, 375


33. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Domitian, patronage of Pythian games

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 1; Verhagen (2022) 1





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