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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
female Avery Peck et al. (2014) 59
Bernabe et al (2013) 16, 28, 38, 39, 46, 53, 102, 113, 114, 115, 120, 125, 128, 129, 139, 168, 186, 188, 195, 196, 236, 247, 263, 265, 291, 306, 359, 381, 457, 529, 534, 535, 536, 537
Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 32, 33, 296, 348
Hasan Rokem (2003) 69
Richter et al. (2015) 57, 76, 81, 88, 155, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 172, 179, 180, 181, 348, 392, 395, 397
female, activity, civic Sweeney (2013) 119
female, adolescent hysteria Faraone (1999) 160
female, agency of hypsipyle, positive treatment of Panoussi(2019) 165, 166
female, akeptous donor Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 393, 400
female, and male, hesiod, on Tor (2017) 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 313
female, and male, parmenides, on Tor (2017) 248, 249, 313
female, and voyeurism, suffering Pinheiro et al (2012a) 113, 153
female, animal victims Ekroth (2013) 133, 161, 162
female, apollonius rhodius, male and Augoustakis (2014) 74, 75, 76
Verhagen (2022) 74, 75, 76
female, artistic voice versus epic male voice, young womens rituals, in statius achilleid Panoussi(2019) 261
female, as a metaphysical principle, subordination, and inferiority, of the Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 59, 60, 104, 108, 111, 115, 134, 136, 139, 140, 148, 149, 158, 161, 162, 166, 184, 185, 223, 234, 265
female, as bounded space, body Fabian Meinel (2015) 188, 189
female, as deformed or mutilated Trott (2019) 188, 189, 190
female, as degrees of concoct, concoction, difference between male and Trott (2019) 4, 19, 31, 65, 110, 145, 154, 155, 156, 158, 177, 178, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 202, 206, 207, 208, 214, 221, 231, 233, 239
female, as element Trott (2019) 132
female, as irrational, emotional Trott (2019) 11, 30
female, as map of conflict, body Fabian Meinel (2015) 40
female, as material Trott (2019) 3, 4, 20, 30, 35, 39, 41, 48, 54, 110, 158, 165, 214, 220, 221, 222, 225, 226, 229
female, as opposite to male Trott (2019) 87, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209
female, as passive Trott (2019) 174
female, as tool of soul Trott (2019) 112
female, as unlimited heat Trott (2019) 150, 175, 182
female, as unpredictable Trott (2019) 40
female, as, contrary, contraries, male and Trott (2019) 30, 31, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210
female, as, potential, potentiality Trott (2019) 58, 110, 188, 198, 221, 222
female, asceticism Monnickendam (2020) 40
female, associated with body Trott (2019) 30
female, associated with, cold Trott (2019) 19, 132, 133, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 190, 191, 192, 194, 222
female, athletics, sparta Hubbard (2014) 258, 259
female, author ofo, alexandra Liapis and Petrides (2019) 120
female, authority in antiquity, kraemer, ross, on Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 223
female, autonomy, ascetic celibacy of christian women Kraemer (2010) 150
female, beauty and vulnerability in catullus epithalamia, floral images of Panoussi(2019) 27, 28, 29, 35, 36, 38
female, behavior and, war dead, burial of transgressive Panoussi(2019) 106, 107
female, bodies Cadwallader (2016) 108, 109, 110, 111, 180
female, body Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 274, 275, 276, 277, 278
Hasan Rokem (2003) 69
Penniman (2017) 155
Rosen-Zvi (2012) 228
female, body, beauty of Brule (2003) 60
female, body, causation, and medicine/the Fabian Meinel (2015) 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
female, body, difference between male and Trott (2019) 11, 30, 31, 41
female, body, pollution, and the Fabian Meinel (2015) 34
female, body, props, as stand-ins for Richlin (2018) 407, 409
female, breast, golden vessel in shape of Griffiths (1975) 208
female, breast, vessel, golden, in left hand of isis, small golden vessel with shape of Griffiths (1975) 208
female, capacity to be generated in Trott (2019) 30, 39, 40, 214, 216, 227, 228
female, characters of herodotus Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 68, 69
female, chastity, paterfamilias traditions, and Huebner and Laes (2019) 42
female, chief sōkenet, heb. “the administrator” Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 395
female, choir Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 340
female, chorus by, sotades, vase in form of astragal with hephaestus directing Simon (2021) 244
female, coldness of Trott (2019) 145, 146, 148, 152, 239
female, collective action Panoussi(2019) 104, 105, 148, 151, 165, 166, 221
female, collectors of taxes Ruffini (2018) 162
female, components, organism, male and Sly (1990) 50
female, consent to marriage Faraone (1999) 77, 79
female, container view of Trott (2019) 30
female, contrasted with vital heat Trott (2019) 153, 165, 166, 179, 180, 181
female, contribution Trott (2019) 54, 110, 143, 144, 146, 165, 182, 183, 214
female, contribution as, material, matter, ὑλή Trott (2019) 3, 4, 30, 41, 72, 196, 207, 210, 221, 222, 229
female, contribution to generation, reproductive anatomy van der EIjk (2005) 25
female, contribution to, life, living Trott (2019) 30, 110, 146
female, contribution, hippocratics, on Trott (2019) 30, 31, 143, 144, 146
female, counterpart to genius and juno, as genius Mueller (2002) 25
female, cult attendants/arrephoroi, parthenon, east frieze Simon (2021) 127, 128, 378
female, dedicatee, ptolemy chennus, novel history Mheallaigh (2014) 118
female, deity, anastasis Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 614
female, desire Faraone (1999) 19, 20, 160, 163, 164
female, devotees of isaeum campense, temple of isis Manolaraki (2012) 36, 127
female, devotion, men, and forbidden objects of Mueller (2002) 56, 57, 58, 59
female, diner, pompeii, “house of the triclinium, ” fresco of Cosgrove (2022) 161, 181, 182, 183
female, disease Jouanna (2012) 106
female, diviners/seers women, manteis Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 298, 299, 485, 496
female, domain home, as Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 266, 268
female, dress Edmondson (2008) 12, 22, 24, 26, 38, 39, 44, 45, 53, 64, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 242, 249, 271, 272, 273, 274, 280, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291
female, embryo, growing in Trott (2019) 214, 216, 221
female, empowerment and orpheus and eurydice, ritual, link between Panoussi(2019) 99, 100
female, epistolary perspective, format and Pinheiro et al (2012a) 186, 190
female, equality, of male and Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 173, 174
female, erastai Faraone (1999) 140, 150, 153, 158, 164
female, essence, of Trott (2019) 21, 41
female, euergetism Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 218, 598, 599, 600
female, exemplum of pietas, hypsipyle, as Panoussi(2019) 147, 148, 149, 158, 163, 164, 165, 222, 250
female, feck, herodotus , and Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 69, 72
female, fertility, plague, affecting Renberg (2017) 364
female, fig-juice Trott (2019) 184, 228, 229, 230, 231
female, figures, nude Eidinow (2007) 339
female, final cause Trott (2019) 40, 48, 53, 111, 112, 161
female, fish sellers, piscatrices Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 593, 673
female, gender Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 271
female, gender of worshippers / worship, see also women as worshippers of bacchus Gorain (2019) 116, 147, 148
female, generation of Trott (2019) 100, 101, 105
female, genitalia Ekroth (2013) 25, 54
female, genitals, , αἰδοῖα Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2012) 165, 274
female, genitals, jokes, about Richlin (2018) 123, 409
female, gladiators Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 538, 591
female, godhead, see also attributes, male and Fishbane (2003) 288, 368
female, gods Trott (2019) 122, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131
female, golden vessel in shape breast, of breasts exposed Griffiths (1975) 210
female, golden vessel in shape of breast Griffiths (1975) 208
female, golden vessel, in left hand of isis, small golden vessel with shape of breast, carried by fourth in procession Griffiths (1975) 208
female, grief and pleasure in lamentation, burials and mourning, excessive Panoussi(2019) 93, 95, 96, 109, 110, 236, 247
female, head of household Huebner (2013) 115, 125, 127, 128, 130, 131, 146
female, heroes, judaism/jewish Tite (2009) 159
female, heroines in greco-roman novels Kraemer (2010) 123
female, hippocratic view of Trott (2019) 132, 138, 156
female, homoeroticism, sparta Hubbard (2014) 151, 152
female, image of god, male and Ramelli (2013) 403, 787, 788
female, impure, body Fabian Meinel (2015) 34
female, in hippocratic medicine, body Fabian Meinel (2015) 41
female, in qumran, demons, male and Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 260, 261
female, incapacity of Trott (2019) 4, 21, 143, 144, 145, 146, 191, 193, 194, 195, 196, 207
female, incomplete nature of Trott (2019) 46
female, independence from male Trott (2019) 60
female, infertility van der EIjk (2005) 259, 262, 263
female, initiation ceremonies, life-change rituals Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 532, 533
female, journey, visibility, and Pinheiro et al (2012a) 33
female, labour Tacoma (2016) 192, 194
female, lalla of tlos, rich donor Marek (2019) 465
female, levitas animi Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 587
female, lover and, garden imagery Lieber (2014) 315, 350, 352
female, lover in the song of songs, israel, as the Lieber (2014) 57, 78, 110
female, lover, as a garden Lieber (2014) 48, 315, 350, 352
female, lover, as figure of israel Lieber (2014) 110
female, lover, as voice of israel in the song of songs Lieber (2014) 57, 58
female, lover, in passover machzorim Lieber (2014) 78
female, lover, in shivata shir ha-shirim Lieber (2014) 202
female, lover, in yotzer shir ha-shirim Lieber (2014) 397, 398, 399
female, lover, prominence of in the song of songs Lieber (2014) 399
female, lucretius, male and Geljon and Runia (2013) 131, 170, 228
female, luke-acts, patron as Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 176, 177
female, maids and servants, biblical Gera (2014) 76, 272, 301, 330
female, maids and servants, greek Gera (2014) 70, 71, 76, 334, 399
female, maids and servants, post biblical Gera (2014) 267, 272, 335, 344, 464
female, maids and servants, terminology Gera (2014) 271, 272, 348, 352, 382
female, male, as contrary to Trott (2019) 206, 207, 208
female, male, infertility van der EIjk (2005) 259, 268
female, mantis Bremmer (2008) 149, 150
female, manumission process, manumission as a critical aspect of the Perry (2014) 149, 151, 152
female, material, female Trott (2019) 41, 72, 196, 207, 210, 229
female, member, and cista Griffiths (1975) 224
female, menses Trott (2019) 58
female, messiah messiah, woman-messiah Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 515, 517, 519
female, mimes Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 591, 592, 593
female, mobility Tacoma (2016) 130
female, modesty Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 231, 232, 237, 238, 239
female, modesty, sanctuary, and Taylor and Hay (2020) 199, 200, 201, 203, 326
female, moisture in Trott (2019) 138, 139, 140, 146, 148, 152, 195
female, mother/mother, mother and Williams (2009) 277, 278
female, mourning orpheus and eurydice, behavior, orpheus adopting Panoussi(2019) 92, 95, 96, 97, 100
female, name, theophile/theophila as Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 179
female, nudity Edmondson (2008) 271, 272, 273, 274, 280, 288
female, onomastics Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 583
female, orgasm Brule (2003) 112, 113
female, orgasm, intercourse Brule (2003) 112, 113
female, orgasm, sexuality Brule (2003) 112, 113
female, origins of donatism Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 156, 157, 161
female, partners, plato, communal Sorabji (2000) 274
female, partners, zeno of citium, stoic, random sex advocated and communal Sorabji (2000) 274
female, passion Clay and Vergados (2022) 273, 274, 287
female, passions Geljon and Runia (2019) 277
female, patients, Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2012) 183
female, patrons Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 181
female, performers, spectacles, public Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 591, 592, 593
female, personification of israel Stern (2004) 37, 45, 46, 65, 70, 71, 142, 163
female, personification of jerusalem Stern (2004) 41, 42, 46, 90
female, personification of oikoumene Konig and Wiater (2022) 38, 49, 50
König and Wiater (2022) 38, 49, 50
female, personification of zion Stern (2004) 37, 45, 46, 66, 142, 163, 164
female, perspective Pinheiro et al (2012a) 148, 185, 186, 190, 192, 200, 217
female, pharmakeis, male, and pharmakides Eidinow (2007) 236
female, physiology in hippocratic medicine Fabian Meinel (2015) 41
female, piper, lucian of samosata, alcidamas’ attempted rape of Cosgrove (2022) 156
female, pipers, dio chrysostom, on Cosgrove (2022) 154
female, power of Trott (2019) 104, 122, 133, 152, 161, 180, 181, 185
female, pre-socratic views of Trott (2019) 133, 135
female, priesthoods Panoussi(2019) 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 220, 254, 255
female, priests Piotrkowski (2019) 152, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 247, 400, 420
female, principle distinguished from animal Trott (2019) 31, 46
female, proclivity for, error Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 160
female, proselytes in greco-roman inscriptions, proportion of male and Kraemer (2010) 202, 203, 204
female, protagonist van , t Westeinde (2021) 234
female, public slaves Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 415
female, pudicitia, chastity Mueller (2002) 23, 24
female, readership, acts of john Bremmer (2017) 110
female, readership, acts of paul and thecla Bremmer (2017) 110
female, reason, as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 239, 244, 245
female, receptivity, and the Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 83, 184, 216, 223, 224, 232, 233, 236, 243, 279
female, relation to form of Trott (2019) 96
female, resistance associated with, sexuality, violence, anxiety, and Panoussi(2019) 23, 24, 25, 26, 33, 34, 35, 36, 76
female, resistance associated with, weddings and marriage, violence, anxiety, and Panoussi(2019) 23, 24, 25, 26, 33, 34, 35, 36, 76
female, resistance at weddings, catullus epithalamia, on violence, anxiety, and Panoussi(2019) 23, 24, 25, 26, 33, 34, 35, 36
female, response to, statue Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 231
female, rite, ritual Bernabe et al (2013) 104, 114, 115, 125, 175
female, rites Bernabe et al (2013) 104, 114, 115, 125, 175
female, ritual as force for, war dead, burial of social unity and cohesion Panoussi(2019) 104, 105, 222
female, role in generation, γενέσις Trott (2019) 30, 31, 182, 207
female, role in resemblance Trott (2019) 19, 46, 195, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202
female, role in sexual differentiation Trott (2019) 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196
female, roles reversed among them, egyptians, male and Isaac (2004) 354
female, saint Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 5, 407, 421, 422, 426, 427
female, salaciousness Faraone (1999) 67, 163, 164
female, seed Trott (2019) 30, 31, 139, 194
van der EIjk (2005) 260, 270
female, servant of omphale, transvestism and cross-dressing, hercules as Panoussi(2019) 176, 180, 186
female, servants, maids and Gera (2014) 76, 263, 271, 272, 300
female, sexual deviance, livys bacchanalian narrative, on Panoussi(2019) 130, 131, 132
female, sexual gratification, rabbinic view Kraemer (2010) 46
female, sexual, agency Pinheiro et al (2012a) 148, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194
female, sexuality Hasan Rokem (2003) 67
Panoussi(2019) 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 226
female, sexuality in catullus epithalamia Panoussi(2019) 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 226
female, sexuality in livys bacchanalian narrative, sexuality, deviant Panoussi(2019) 130, 131, 132
female, sexuality, doctors on Brule (2003) 96, 97, 98
female, slave of odysseus Ker and Wessels (2020) 201, 202, 203, 204, 205
female, slave, ancilla, andromeda Radicke (2022) 412, 413, 420, 435
female, slave-owners, historical Richlin (2018) 255, 304
female, slave-owners, onstage Richlin (2018) 304
female, slaves Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 617
Vlassopoulos (2021) 51, 61, 67, 75, 95, 100, 117, 124, 146, 157, 163, 164, 172, 173, 174, 186
female, slaves, labor performed by Perry (2014) 45, 46, 47
female, slaves, public Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 415
female, slaves, sexualization of Perry (2014) 13, 14, 15, 16
female, slaves, sexualization of freedwomen and the value of Perry (2014) 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 40, 49, 50, 54, 58
female, soul, agency, of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 177
female, souls, soul Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 73, 83, 85, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 183, 189, 191, 192
female, speech Hasan Rokem (2003) 14
female, spheres of activity Jenkyns (2013) 12, 94, 95, 99, 104, 105, 106, 160, 161, 162, 273
female, spheres of activity, campus martius, male and Jenkyns (2013) 104, 105, 106
female, spheres of activity, forum, male and Jenkyns (2013) 19, 20, 160
female, spirit/spirits Williams (2009) 50, 145, 188
female, statue type from, herculaneum Rutledge (2012) 176, 179
female, statues, dillon, sheila, on costumes of Kalinowski (2021) 344
female, submission to societal norms, catullus epithalamia, on necessity of Panoussi(2019) 36, 37, 38
female, torture Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 31
female, virtues Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 584, 585, 586, 587
female, virtues, virtue, specifically Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 97, 98, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 137, 138, 139, 140, 149, 278, 282
female, vital heat as difference between male and Trott (2019) 41, 144, 146, 148, 155, 156, 207
female, voice Gera (2014) 101
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 5, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 371, 373, 374, 430
female, voice of lamentation in war dead, burial of poets assumption of Panoussi(2019) 104
female, voice prominent in shivata shir ha-shirim, yannai Lieber (2014) 202
female, voices, male and Brule (2003) 33, 79, 80, 88
female, war dead, burial of male epic and lament, linking Panoussi(2019) 104
female, ward of ptolemaios archive, taous ptolemaios Renberg (2017) 399, 406, 407, 419, 438, 439, 732
female, ward of ptolemaios archive, tawe ptolemaios Renberg (2017) 399, 406, 407, 419, 732, 739
female, wedding gifts, marriage Satlow (2013) 164, 165, 166, 167
female, wisdom Nissinen and Uro (2008) 212, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 502
female, womens rituals and agency in roman literature, collective action Panoussi(2019) 104, 105, 148, 151, 165, 166, 221
femaleness Tupamahu (2022) 165, 166, 167, 170
femaleness, [ woman ] Linjamaa (2019) 107, 108, 109, 166, 198
femaleness, ], woman [ Linjamaa (2019) 86
femaleness, as prone to error Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 160
femaleness, body, conceptually related to Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 162, 223
females Jouanna (2012) 170
females, adoptive parents of Huebner (2013) 186
females, and characteristics of demons Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 256
females, as resistant to conversion in acts of philip Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 10, 13, 16
females, children, soldiers’, exposure of Phang (2001) 298, 299, 303
male/female, divided space in sanctuary Taylor and Hay (2020) 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, 272, 288, 289, 306, 326
male/female, mixed, choirs, therapeutae Taylor and Hay (2020) 328, 335, 336, 340, 341, 343
male/female, opposition Seaford (2018) 138, 139, 312
maleness/femaleness Ernst (2009) 83, 108, 243, 247, 248, 265, 266

List of validated texts:
45 validated results for "female"
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 2.14, 4.12, 5.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Israel, as the female lover in the Song of Songs • Shivata Shir ha-Shirim (Yannai), female voice prominent in • Voice, female • Wisdom (female) • female lover, as a garden • female lover, as figure of Israel • female lover, in Shivata Shir ha-Shirim • female, • garden imagery female lover and

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 110, 202, 315, 350; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 246; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 360; Robbins et al (2017) 332

2.14. יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃
4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃
5.1. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃'
5.1. דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ '. None
2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’
4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed.
5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Messiah, female Messiah (woman-Messiah) • maids and female servants • maids and female servants, biblical • maids and female servants, post biblical • maids and female servants, terminology

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 271, 272, 464; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 515

2.9. וַתִּיטַב הַנַּעֲרָה בְעֵינָיו וַתִּשָּׂא חֶסֶד לְפָנָיו וַיְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶיהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶהָ לָתֵת לָהּ וְאֵת שֶׁבַע הַנְּעָרוֹת הָרְאֻיוֹת לָתֶת־לָהּ מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּהָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶיהָ לְטוֹב בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים׃''. None
2.9. And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her ointments, with her portions, and the seven maidens, who were meet to be given her out of the king’s house; and he advanced her and her maidens to the best place in the house of the women.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14, 15.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Female voice • Voice, female • Wisdom (female) • female, • maids and female servants, post biblical

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 335; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 249; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 358, 364; Robbins et al (2017) 139

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃' '. None
3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’
15.20. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26, 6.4, 26.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Creation, of male and female, egalitarian • Israel, female personification of • Jerusalem, female personification of • Wisdom (female) • Zion, female personification of • ascetic celibacy of Christian women, female autonomy • maids and female servants • maids and female servants, post biblical

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 263, 344; Kosman (2012) 207; Kraemer (2010) 150; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 243, 247, 250; Stern (2004) 46

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃
26.8. וַיְהִי כִּי אָרְכוּ־לוֹ שָׁם הַיָּמִים וַיַּשְׁקֵף אֲבִימֶלֶךְ מֶלֶךְ פְּלִשְׁתִּים בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה יִצְחָק מְצַחֵק אֵת רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ׃''. None
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’
6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.
26.8. And it came to pass, when he had been there a long time, that Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, Isaac was sporting with Rebekah his wife.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.14-2.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Israel, female personification of • Wisdom (female) • female lover, as a garden

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 48; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 212, 244; Stern (2004) 70

2.14. וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִי גַּפְנָהּ וּתְאֵנָתָהּ אֲשֶׁר אָמְרָה אֶתְנָה הֵמָּה לִי אֲשֶׁר נָתְנוּ־לִי מְאַהֲבָי וְשַׂמְתִּים לְיַעַר וַאֲכָלָתַם חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 2.15. וּפָקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ אֶת־יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים אֲשֶׁר תַּקְטִיר לָהֶם וַתַּעַד נִזְמָהּ וְחֶלְיָתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאֹתִי שָׁכְחָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.16. לָכֵן הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מְפַתֶּיהָ וְהֹלַכְתִּיהָ הַמִּדְבָּר וְדִבַּרְתִּי עַל לִבָּהּ׃ 2.17. וְנָתַתִּי לָהּ אֶת־כְּרָמֶיהָ מִשָּׁם וְאֶת־עֵמֶק עָכוֹר לְפֶתַח תִּקְוָה וְעָנְתָה שָּׁמָּה כִּימֵי נְעוּרֶיהָ וִּכְיוֹם עֲלֹתָהּ מֵאֶרֶץ־מִצְרָיִם׃ 2.18. וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה תִּקְרְאִי אִישִׁי וְלֹא־תִקְרְאִי־לִי עוֹד בַּעְלִי׃ 2.19. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־שְׁמוֹת הַבְּעָלִים מִפִּיהָ וְלֹא־יִזָּכְרוּ עוֹד בִּשְׁמָם׃' '2.21. וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי לְעוֹלָם וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי בְּצֶדֶק וּבְמִשְׁפָּט וּבְחֶסֶד וּבְרַחֲמִים׃ 2.22. וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי בֶּאֱמוּנָה וְיָדַעַתְּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 2.23. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶעֱנֶה נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶעֱנֶה אֶת־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהֵם יַעֲנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃''. None
2.14. And I will lay waste her vines and her fig-trees, Whereof she hath said: ‘These are my hire That my lovers have given me’; And I will make them a forest, And the beasts of the field shall eat them. 2.15. And I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim, Wherein she offered unto them, And decked herself with her ear-rings and her jewels, And went after her lovers, And forgot Me, saith the LORD. 2.16. Therefore, behold, I will allure her, And bring her into the wilderness, And speak tenderly unto her. 2.17. And I will give her her vineyards from thence, And the valley of Achor for a door of hope; And she shall respond there, as in the days of her youth, And as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt. 2.18. And it shall be at that day, saith the LORD, That thou shalt call Me Ishi, And shalt call Me no more Baali. 2.19. For I will take away the names of the Baalim out of her mouth, And they shall no more be mentioned by their name. 2.20. And in that day will I make a covet for them With the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven, And with the creeping things of the ground; And I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the land, And will make them to lie down safely. 2.21. And I will betroth thee unto Me for ever; Yea, I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness, and in justice, And in lovingkindness, and in compassion. 2.22. And I will betroth thee unto Me in faithfulness; And thou shalt know the LORD. 2.23. And it shall come to pass in that day, I will respond, saith the LORD, I will respond to the heavens, And they shall respond to the earth;' '. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.28-8.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Female, Female Body, fright caused by man’s looking at • Kraemer, Ross, on female authority in antiquity • Tehom (deep), as female creature • Wisdom (female)

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 223; Kosman (2012) 159; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 258

8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃' '. None
8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might, 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;' '. None
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 18.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Messiah, female Messiah (woman-Messiah) • Wisdom (female) • maids and female servants, post biblical

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 335; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 250; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 519

18.7. וַתַּעֲנֶינָה הַנָּשִׁים הַמְשַׂחֲקוֹת וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הִכָּה שָׁאוּל באלפו בַּאֲלָפָיו וְדָוִד בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃''. None
18.7. And the women answered one another as they danced, and said, Sha᾽ul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 6.14-6.16, 6.20-6.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Messiah, female Messiah (woman-Messiah) • Wisdom (female) • maids and female servants • maids and female servants, post biblical

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 263, 335; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 250; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 519

6.14. וְדָוִד מְכַרְכֵּר בְּכָל־עֹז לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד׃ 6.15. וְדָוִד וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲלִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר׃ 6.16. וְהָיָה אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בָּא עִיר דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל נִשְׁקְפָה בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד מְפַזֵּז וּמְכַרְכֵּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַתִּבֶז לוֹ בְּלִבָּהּ׃' '6.21. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־מִיכַל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר־בִּי מֵאָבִיךְ וּמִכָּל־בֵּיתוֹ לְצַוֺּת אֹתִי נָגִיד עַל־עַם יְהוָה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשִׂחַקְתִּי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃''. None
6.14. And David leaped about before the Lord with all his might; and David was girded with a linen efod. 6.15. So David and all the house of Yisra᾽el brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting, and with the sound of the shofar. 6.16. And as the ark of the Lord came into the city of David, Mikhal, Sha᾽ul’s daughter looked through a window, and saw king David dancing and leaping before the Lord; and she despised him in her heart.
6.20. Then David returned to bless his household. And Mikhal the daughter of Sha᾽ul came out to meet David, and said, How glorious was the king of Yisra᾽el today, in that he uncovered himself today in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the low fellows shamelessly uncovers himself! 6.21. And David said to Mikhal, It was before the Lord, who chose me before thy father, and before all his house, to appoint me prince over the people of the Lord, over Yisra᾽el. Therefore will I play before the Lord,''. None
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.3, 5.1-5.7, 62.4-62.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Israel, female personification of • Jerusalem, female personification of • Wisdom (female) • Zion, female personification of • female lover, as a garden • female, • garden imagery female lover and

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 48, 350; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 212, 244, 250; Robbins et al (2017) 330; Stern (2004) 42, 70, 71, 164

1.3. יָדַע שׁוֹר קֹנֵהוּ וַחֲמוֹר אֵבוּס בְּעָלָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יָדַע עַמִּי לֹא הִתְבּוֹנָן׃
1.3. כִּי תִהְיוּ כְּאֵלָה נֹבֶלֶת עָלֶהָ וּכְגַנָּה אֲשֶׁר־מַיִם אֵין לָהּ׃
5.1. אָשִׁירָה נָּא לִידִידִי שִׁירַת דּוֹדִי לְכַרְמוֹ כֶּרֶם הָיָה לִידִידִי בְּקֶרֶן בֶּן־שָׁמֶן׃
5.1. כִּי עֲשֶׂרֶת צִמְדֵּי־כֶרֶם יַעֲשׂוּ בַּת אֶחָת וְזֶרַע חֹמֶר יַעֲשֶׂה אֵיפָה׃ 5.2. הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2. וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.3. וְיִנְהֹם עָלָיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כְּנַהֲמַת־יָם וְנִבַּט לָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה־חֹשֶׁךְ צַר וָאוֹר חָשַׁךְ בַּעֲרִיפֶיהָ׃ 5.3. וְעַתָּה יוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה שִׁפְטוּ־נָא בֵּינִי וּבֵין כַּרְמִי׃ 5.4. מַה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד לְכַרְמִי וְלֹא עָשִׂיתִי בּוֹ מַדּוּעַ קִוֵּיתִי לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.5. וְעַתָּה אוֹדִיעָה־נָּא אֶתְכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה לְכַרְמִי הָסֵר מְשׂוּכָּתוֹ וְהָיָה לְבָעֵר פָּרֹץ גְּדֵרוֹ וְהָיָה לְמִרְמָס׃ 5.6. וַאֲשִׁיתֵהוּ בָתָה לֹא יִזָּמֵר וְלֹא יֵעָדֵר וְעָלָה שָׁמִיר וָשָׁיִת וְעַל הֶעָבִים אֲצַוֶּה מֵהַמְטִיר עָלָיו מָטָר׃ 5.7. כִּי כֶרֶם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו וַיְקַו לְמִשְׁפָּט וְהִנֵּה מִשְׂפָּח לִצְדָקָה וְהִנֵּה צְעָקָה׃
62.4. לֹא־יֵאָמֵר לָךְ עוֹד עֲזוּבָה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ לֹא־יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שְׁמָמָה כִּי לָךְ יִקָּרֵא חֶפְצִי־בָהּ וּלְאַרְצֵךְ בְּעוּלָה כִּי־חָפֵץ יְהוָה בָּךְ וְאַרְצֵךְ תִּבָּעֵל׃ 62.5. כִּי־יִבְעַל בָּחוּר בְּתוּלָה יִבְעָלוּךְ בָּנָיִךְ וּמְשׂוֹשׂ חָתָן עַל־כַּלָּה יָשִׂישׂ עָלַיִךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃''. None
1.3. The ox knoweth his owner, And the ass his master’s crib; But Israel doth not know, My people doth not consider.
5.1. Let me sing of my well-beloved, A song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard In a very fruitful hill; 5.2. And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. . 5.3. And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard. 5.4. What could have been done more to my vineyard, That I have not done in it? Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, Brought it forth wild grapes? 5.5. And now come, I will tell you What I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, And it shall be eaten up; I will break down the fence thereof, And it shall be trodden down; 5.6. And I will lay it waste: It shall not be pruned nor hoed, But there shall come up briers and thorns; I will also command the clouds That they rain no rain upon it. 5.7. For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry.
62.4. Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken, Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate; But thou shalt be called, My delight is in her, And thy land, Espoused; For the LORD delighteth in thee, And thy land shall be espoused. 62.5. For as a young man espouseth a virgin, So shall thy sons espouse thee; And as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, So shall thy God rejoice over thee.''. None
10. Hesiod, Works And Days, 60-89 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hesiod, on female and male • Receptivity, and the female • Soul, female souls

 Found in books: Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 56; Tor (2017) 88, 89, 90

60. Ἥφαιστον δʼ ἐκέλευσε περικλυτὸν ὅττι τάχιστα'61. γαῖαν ὕδει φύρειν, ἐν δʼ ἀνθρώπου θέμεν αὐδὴν 62. καὶ σθένος, ἀθανάτῃς δὲ θεῇς εἰς ὦπα ἐίσκειν 63. παρθενικῆς καλὸν εἶδος ἐπήρατον· αὐτὰρ Ἀθήνην 64. ἔργα διδασκῆσαι, πολυδαίδαλον ἱστὸν ὑφαίνειν· 65. καὶ χάριν ἀμφιχέαι κεφαλῇ χρυσέην Ἀφροδίτην 66. καὶ πόθον ἀργαλέον καὶ γυιοβόρους μελεδώνας· 67. ἐν δὲ θέμεν κύνεόν τε νόον καὶ ἐπίκλοπον ἦθος 68. Ἑρμείην ἤνωγε, διάκτορον Ἀργεϊφόντην. 69. ὣς ἔφαθʼ· οἳ δʼ ἐπίθοντο Διὶ Κρονίωνι ἄνακτι. 70. αὐτίκα δʼ ἐκ γαίης πλάσσεν κλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 71. παρθένῳ αἰδοίῃ ἴκελον Κρονίδεω διὰ βουλάς· 72. ζῶσε δὲ καὶ κόσμησε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη· 73. ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ Χάριτές τε θεαὶ καὶ πότνια Πειθὼ 74. ὅρμους χρυσείους ἔθεσαν χροΐ· ἀμφὶ δὲ τήν γε 75. Ὧραι καλλίκομοι στέφον ἄνθεσιν εἰαρινοῖσιν· 76. πάντα δέ οἱ χροῒ κόσμον ἐφήρμοσε Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. 77. ἐν δʼ ἄρα οἱ στήθεσσι διάκτορος Ἀργεϊφόντης 78. ψεύδεά θʼ αἱμυλίους τε λόγους καὶ ἐπίκλοπον ἦθος 79. τεῦξε Διὸς βουλῇσι βαρυκτύπου· ἐν δʼ ἄρα φωνὴν 80. θῆκε θεῶν κῆρυξ, ὀνόμηνε δὲ τήνδε γυναῖκα 81. Πανδώρην, ὅτι πάντες Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες 82. δῶρον ἐδώρησαν, πῆμʼ ἀνδράσιν ἀλφηστῇσιν. 83. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δόλον αἰπὺν ἀμήχανον ἐξετέλεσσεν, 84. εἰς Ἐπιμηθέα πέμπε πατὴρ κλυτὸν Ἀργεϊφόντην 85. δῶρον ἄγοντα, θεῶν ταχὺν ἄγγελον· οὐδʼ Ἐπιμηθεὺς 86. ἐφράσαθʼ, ὥς οἱ ἔειπε Προμηθεὺς μή ποτε δῶρον 87. δέξασθαι πὰρ Ζηνὸς Ὀλυμπίου, ἀλλʼ ἀποπέμπειν 88. ἐξοπίσω, μή πού τι κακὸν θνητοῖσι γένηται. 89. αὐτὰρ ὃ δεξάμενος, ὅτε δὴ κακὸν εἶχʼ, ἐνόησεν. '. None
60. And duped me. So great anguish shall befall'61. Both you and future mortal men. A thing 62. of ill in lieu of fire I’ll afford 63. Them all to take delight in, cherishing 64. The evil”. Thus he spoke and then the lord 65. of men and gods laughed. Famed Hephaistus he 66. Enjoined to mingle water with some clay 67. And put a human voice and energy 68. Within it and a goddess’ features lay 69. On it and, like a maiden, sweet and pure, 70. The body, though Athene was to show 71. Her how to weave; upon her head allure 72. The golden Aphrodite would let flow, 73. With painful passions and bone-shattering stress. 74. Then Argus-slayer Hermes had to add 75. A wily nature and shamefacedness. 76. Those were his orders and what Lord Zeus bade 77. They did. The famed lame god immediately 78. Formed out of clay, at Cronus’ son’s behest, 79. The likeness of a maid of modesty. 80. By grey-eyed Queen Athene was she dressed 81. And cinctured, while the Graces and Seduction 82. Placed necklaces about her; then the Hours, 83. With lovely tresses, heightened this production 84. By garlanding this maid with springtime flowers. 85. Athene trimmed her up, while in her breast 86. Hermes put lies and wiles and qualitie 87. of trickery at thundering Zeus’ behest: 88. Since all Olympian divinitie 89. Bestowed this gift, Pandora was her name, '. None
11. Hesiod, Theogony, 27, 93-95, 468-491, 567-616, 837-838, 869-885 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hesiod, on female and male • Parmenides, on female and male • Receptivity, and the female • Soul, female souls • Virtue, specifically female virtues • dragon (female)/drakaina • female, gods • gender, female

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 71; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 73; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 55, 56, 57, 123; Tor (2017) 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 313; Trott (2019) 124, 125

27. ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα,'
93. τοίη Μουσάων ἱερὴ δόσις ἀνθρώποισιν. 94. ἐκ γάρ τοι Μουσέων καὶ ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος 95. ἄνδρες ἀοιδοὶ ἔασιν ἐπὶ χθόνα καὶ κιθαρισταί,
468. ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ Δίʼ ἔμελλε θεῶν πατέρʼ ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν 469. τέξεσθαι, τότʼ ἔπειτα φίλους λιτάνευε τοκῆας 470. τοὺς αὐτῆς, Γαῖάν τε καὶ Οὐρανὸν ἀστερόεντα, 471. μῆτιν συμφράσσασθαι, ὅπως λελάθοιτο τεκοῦσα 472. παῖδα φίλον, τίσαιτο δʼ ἐρινῦς πατρὸς ἑοῖο 473. παίδων θʼ, οὓς κατέπινε μέγας Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτης. 474. οἳ δὲ θυγατρὶ φίλῃ μάλα μὲν κλύον ἠδʼ ἐπίθοντο, 475. καί οἱ πεφραδέτην, ὅσα περ πέπρωτο γενέσθαι 476. ἀμφὶ Κρόνῳ βασιλῆι καὶ υἱέι καρτεροθύμῳ. 477. πέμψαν δʼ ἐς Λύκτον, Κρήτης ἐς πίονα δῆμον, 478. ὁππότʼ ἄρʼ ὁπλότατον παίδων τέξεσθαι ἔμελλε, 479. Ζῆνα μέγαν· τὸν μέν οἱ ἐδέξατο Γαῖα πελώρη 480. Κρήτῃ ἐν εὐρείῃ τραφέμεν ἀτιταλλέμεναί τε. 481. ἔνθα μιν ἷκτο φέρουσα θοὴν διὰ νύκτα μέλαιναν 482. πρώτην ἐς Λύκτον· κρύψεν δέ ἑ χερσὶ λαβοῦσα 483. ἄντρῳ ἐν ἠλιβάτῳ, ζαθέης ὑπὸ κεύθεσι γαίης, 484. Αἰγαίῳ ἐν ὄρει πεπυκασμένῳ ὑλήεντι. 485. τῷ δὲ σπαργανίσασα μέγαν λίθον ἐγγυάλιξεν 486. Οὐρανίδῃ μέγʼ ἄνακτι, θεῶν προτέρῳ βασιλῆι. 487. τὸν τόθʼ ἑλὼν χείρεσσιν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδὺν 488. σχέτλιος· οὐδʼ ἐνόησε μετὰ φρεσίν, ὥς οἱ ὀπίσσω 489. ἀντὶ λίθου ἑὸς υἱὸς ἀνίκητος καὶ ἀκηδὴς 490. λείπεθʼ, ὅ μιν τάχʼ ἔμελλε βίῃ καὶ χερσὶ δαμάσσας 491. τιμῆς ἐξελάειν, ὃ δʼ ἐν ἀθανάτοισι ἀνάξειν.
567. ἐν κοΐλῳ νάρθηκι· δάκεν δέ ἑ νειόθι θυμόν, 568. Ζῆνʼ ὑψιβρεμέτην, ἐχόλωσε δέ μιν φίλον ἦτορ, 569. ὡς ἴδʼ ἐν ἀνθρώποισι πυρὸς τηλέσκοπον αὐγήν. 570. αὐτίκα δʼ ἀντὶ πυρὸς τεῦξεν κακὸν ἀνθρώποισιν· 571. γαίης γὰρ σύμπλασσε περικλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 572. παρθένῳ αἰδοίῃ ἴκελον Κρονίδεω διὰ βουλάς. 573. ζῶσε δὲ καὶ κόσμησε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη 574. ἀργυφέη ἐσθῆτι· κατὰ κρῆθεν δὲ καλύπτρην 575. δαιδαλέην χείρεσσι κατέσχεθε, θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι· 576. ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ στεφάνους, νεοθηλέος ἄνθεα ποίης, 577. ἱμερτοὺς περίθηκε καρήατι Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. 578. ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ στεφάνην χρυσέην κεφαλῆφιν ἔθηκε, 579. τὴν αὐτὸς ποίησε περικλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 580. ἀσκήσας παλάμῃσι, χαριζόμενος Διὶ πατρί. 581. τῇ δʼ ἐνὶ δαίδαλα πολλὰ τετεύχατο, θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι, 582. κνώδαλʼ, ὅσʼ ἤπειρος πολλὰ τρέφει ἠδὲ θάλασσα, 583. τῶν ὅ γε πόλλʼ ἐνέθηκε,—χάρις δʼ ἀπελάμπετο πολλή,— 584. θαυμάσια, ζῴοισιν ἐοικότα φωνήεσσιν. 585. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τεῦξε καλὸν κακὸν ἀντʼ ἀγαθοῖο. 586. ἐξάγαγʼ, ἔνθα περ ἄλλοι ἔσαν θεοὶ ἠδʼ ἄνθρωποι, 587. κόσμῳ ἀγαλλομένην γλαυκώπιδος ὀβριμοπάτρης. 588. θαῦμα δʼ ἔχʼ ἀθανάτους τε θεοὺς θνητούς τʼ ἀνθρώπους, 589. ὡς εἶδον δόλον αἰπύν, ἀμήχανον ἀνθρώποισιν. 590. ἐκ τῆς γὰρ γένος ἐστὶ γυναικῶν θηλυτεράων, 591. τῆς γὰρ ὀλώιόν ἐστι γένος καὶ φῦλα γυναικῶν, 592. πῆμα μέγʼ αἳ θνητοῖσι μετʼ ἀνδράσι ναιετάουσιν 5
93. οὐλομένης πενίης οὐ σύμφοροι, ἀλλὰ κόροιο. 594. ὡς δʼ ὁπότʼ ἐν σμήνεσσι κατηρεφέεσσι μέλισσαι 595. κηφῆνας βόσκωσι, κακῶν ξυνήονας ἔργων— 596. αἳ μέν τε πρόπαν ἦμαρ ἐς ἠέλιον καταδύντα 597. ἠμάτιαι σπεύδουσι τιθεῖσί τε κηρία λευκά, 598. οἳ δʼ ἔντοσθε μένοντες ἐπηρεφέας κατὰ σίμβλους 599. ἀλλότριον κάματον σφετέρην ἐς γαστέρʼ ἀμῶνται— 600. ὣς δʼ αὔτως ἄνδρεσσι κακὸν θνητοῖσι γυναῖκας 601. Ζεὺς ὑψιβρεμέτης θῆκεν, ξυνήονας ἔργων 602. ἀργαλέων· ἕτερον δὲ πόρεν κακὸν ἀντʼ ἀγαθοῖο· 603. ὅς κε γάμον φεύγων καὶ μέρμερα ἔργα γυναικῶν 604. μὴ γῆμαι ἐθέλῃ, ὀλοὸν δʼ ἐπὶ γῆρας ἵκοιτο 605. χήτεϊ γηροκόμοιο· ὅ γʼ οὐ βιότου ἐπιδευὴς 606. ζώει, ἀποφθιμένου δὲ διὰ κτῆσιν δατέονται 607. χηρωσταί· ᾧ δʼ αὖτε γάμου μετὰ μοῖρα γένηται, 608. κεδνὴν δʼ ἔσχεν ἄκοιτιν ἀρηρυῖαν πραπίδεσσι, 609. τῷ δέ τʼ ἀπʼ αἰῶνος κακὸν ἐσθλῷ ἀντιφερίζει 610. ἐμμενές· ὃς δέ κε τέτμῃ ἀταρτηροῖο γενέθλης, 611. ζώει ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν ἔχων ἀλίαστον ἀνίην 612. θυμῷ καὶ κραδίῃ, καὶ ἀνήκεστον κακόν ἐστιν. 613. ὣς οὐκ ἔστι Διὸς κλέψαι νόον οὐδὲ παρελθεῖν. 614. οὐδὲ γὰρ Ἰαπετιονίδης ἀκάκητα Προμηθεὺς 615. τοῖό γʼ ὑπεξήλυξε βαρὺν χόλον, ἀλλʼ ὑπʼ ἀνάγκης 616. καὶ πολύιδριν ἐόντα μέγας κατὰ δεσμὸς ἐρύκει.
837. καί κεν ὅ γε θνητοῖσι καὶ ἀθανάτοισιν ἄναξεν, 838. εἰ μὴ ἄρʼ ὀξὺ νόησε πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε.
869. ἐκ δὲ Τυφωέος ἔστʼ ἀνέμων μένος ὑγρὸν ἀέντων, 870. νόσφι Νότου Βορέω τε καὶ ἀργέστεω Ζεφύροιο· 871. οἵ γε μὲν ἐκ θεόφιν γενεή, θνητοῖς μέγʼ ὄνειαρ· 872. οἱ δʼ ἄλλοι μαψαῦραι ἐπιπνείουσι θάλασσαν· 873. αἳ δή τοι πίπτουσαι ἐς ἠεροειδέα πόντον, 874. πῆμα μέγα θνητοῖσι, κακῇ θυίουσιν ἀέλλῃ· 875. ἄλλοτε δʼ ἄλλαι ἄεισι διασκιδνᾶσί τε νῆας 876. ναύτας τε φθείρουσι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐ γίγνεται ἀλκὴ 877. ἀνδράσιν, οἳ κείνῃσι συνάντωνται κατὰ πόντον· 878. αἳ δʼ αὖ καὶ κατὰ γαῖαν ἀπείριτον ἀνθεμόεσσαν 879. ἔργʼ ἐρατὰ φθείρουσι χαμαιγενέων ἀνθρώπων 880. πιμπλεῖσαι κόνιός τε καὶ ἀργαλέου κολοσυρτοῦ. 881. αὐτὰρ ἐπεί ῥα πόνον μάκαρες θεοὶ ἐξετέλεσσαν, 882. Τιτήνεσσι δὲ τιμάων κρίναντο βίηφι, 883. δή ῥα τότʼ ὤτρυνον βασιλευέμεν ἠδὲ ἀνάσσειν 884. Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσιν Ὀλύμπιον εὐρύοπα Ζῆν 885. ἀθανάτων· ὃ δὲ τοῖσιν ἑὰς διεδάσσατο τιμάς. '. None
27. Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me:'
93. Sweet dew upon his tongue that there may flow 94. Kind words from hm; thus all the people go 95. To see him arbitrate successfully
468. A portion of the earth and barren deep. 469. Even now, when a man, according to convention, 470. offers great sacrifices, his intention 471. To beg good will he calls on Hecate. 472. He whom the goddess looks on favourably 473. Easily gains great honour. She bestow 474. Prosperity upon him. Among those 475. Born of both Earth and Ocean who possessed 476. Illustriousness she was likewise blest. 477. Lord Zeus, the son of Cronus, did not treat 478. Her grievously and neither did he cheat 479. Her of what those erstwhile divinities, 480. The Titans, gave her: all the libertie 481. They had from the beginning in the sea 482. And on the earth and in the heavens, she 483. Still holds. And since Hecate does not posse 484. Siblings, of honour she receives no less, 485. Since Zeus esteems her, nay, she gains yet more. 486. To those she chooses she provides great store 487. of benefits. As intermediary, 488. She sits beside respected royalty. 489. In the assembly those who are preferred 490. By her she elevates, and when men gird 491. Themselves for deadly battle, there she’ll be
567. Before by vast Earth, and he trusts in these 568. And rules all men and all divinities. 569. Iapetus wed neat-ankled Clymene, 570. The child of Ocean, and their progeny 571. Were mighty Atlas, fine Menoetiu 572. And clever, treacherous Prometheus, 573. And mad Epimetheus, to mortality 574. A torment from the very first, for he 575. Married the maid whom Zeus had formed. But Zeu 576. At villainous Menoetius let loose 577. His lurid bolt because his vanity 578. And strength had gone beyond the boundary 579. of moderation: down to Erebu 580. He went headlong. Atlas was tirele 581. In holding up wide Heaven, forced to stand 582. Upon the borders of this earthly land 583. Before the clear-voiced daughters of the West, 584. A task assigned at wise Zeus’s behest. 585. Zeus bound clever Prometheus cruelly 586. With bonds he could not break apart, then he 587. Drove them into a pillar, setting there 588. A long-winged eagle which began to tear 589. His liver, which would regrow every day 590. So that the bird could once more take away 591. What had been there before. Heracles, the son 592. of trim-ankled Clymene, was the one 5
93. Who slew that bird and from his sore distre 594. Released Prometheus – thus his wretchedne 595. Was over, and it was with Zeus’s will, 596. Who planned that hero would be greater still 597. Upon the rich earth than he was before. 598. Lord Zeus then took these things to heart therefore; 599. He ceased the anger he had felt when he 600. Had once been matched in ingenuity 601. By Prometheus, for when several gods and men 602. Had wrangled at Mecone, even then 603. Prometheus calved a giant ox and set 604. A share before each one, trying to get 605. The better of Lord Zeus – before the rest 606. He set the juicy parts, fattened and dressed 607. With the ox’s paunch, then very cunningly 608. For Zeus he took the white bones up, then he 609. Marked them with shining fat. “O how unfair,” 610. Spoke out the lord of gods and men, “to share 611. That way, most glorious lord and progeny 612. of Iapetus.” Zeus, whose sagacity 613. Is endless, thus rebuked him. With a smile 614. Prometheus, not forgetting his shrewd wile, 615. Said cleverly, “Take any part that you 616. Would have, great lord of all.” But Zeus well knew
837. Tail tucked, ears back, but blocks them if they try 838. To leave: indeed he keeps a watchful eye
869. To miss the feasts and councils that they hold. 870. But on the tenth he’s welcomed to the fold 871. Once more. The oath for all eternity 872. Was by the gods thus authorized to be 873. In Styx’s primal water, where it stream 874. In a rugged place. There are the dark extreme 875. of Earth, the barren sea, dim Tartaru 876. And starry Heaven, dank and hideous, 877. Which even the gods abhor; and gates that glow 878. And a firm, bronze sill, with boundless roots below, 879. Its metal native; far away from all 880. The gods the Titans dwell, beyond the pall 881. of Chaos. But the glorious allie 882. of thunderous Zeus dwell where the Ocean lies, 883. Even Cottus and Gyes. But Briareus, 884. Because he is upright, the clamorou 885. Earth-Shaker made his son-in-law, for he '. None
12. Homer, Iliad, 3.125-3.128 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Odysseus, female slave of • gaze, female • maids and female servants, Greek

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 71; Gera (2014) 334; Ker and Wessels (2020) 203

3.125. τὴν δʼ εὗρʼ ἐν μεγάρῳ· ἣ δὲ μέγαν ἱστὸν ὕφαινε 3.126. δίπλακα πορφυρέην, πολέας δʼ ἐνέπασσεν ἀέθλους 3.127. Τρώων θʼ ἱπποδάμων καὶ Ἀχαιῶν χαλκοχιτώνων, 3.128. οὕς ἑθεν εἵνεκʼ ἔπασχον ὑπʼ Ἄρηος παλαμάων·''. None
3.125. She found Helen in the hall, where she was weaving a great purple web of double fold, and thereon was broidering many battles of the horse-taming Trojans and the brazen-coated Achaeans, that for her sake they had endured at the hands of Ares. Close to her side then came Iris, swift of foot, and spake to her, saying: 3.128. She found Helen in the hall, where she was weaving a great purple web of double fold, and thereon was broidering many battles of the horse-taming Trojans and the brazen-coated Achaeans, that for her sake they had endured at the hands of Ares. Close to her side then came Iris, swift of foot, and spake to her, saying: ''. None
13. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Odysseus, female slave of • gender, female • marriage, female wedding gifts

 Found in books: Ker and Wessels (2020) 202, 203, 205; Lipka (2021) 29, 39; Satlow (2013) 165

14. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Receptivity, and the female • female, gods • male/female opposition

 Found in books: Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 47; Seaford (2018) 138, 139; Trott (2019) 128, 129

15. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • gender, female • women, female diviners/seers (manteis)

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 485; Lipka (2021) 39

16. Herodotus, Histories, 1.8-1.12 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Herodotus\n, female characters of • maids and female servants, Greek

 Found in books: Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 68; Gera (2014) 71

1.8. οὗτος δὴ ὦν ὁ Κανδαύλης ἠράσθη τῆς ἑωυτοῦ γυναικός, ἐρασθεὶς δὲ ἐνόμιζέ οἱ εἶναι γυναῖκα πολλὸν πασέων καλλίστην. ὥστε δὲ ταῦτα νομίζων, ἦν γάρ οἱ τῶν αἰχμοφόρων Γύγης ὁ Δασκύλου ἀρεσκόμενος μάλιστα, τούτῳ τῷ Γύγῃ καὶ τὰ σπουδαιέστερα τῶν πρηγμάτων ὑπερετίθετο ὁ Κανδαύλης καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ εἶδος τῆς γυναικὸς ὑπερεπαινέων. χρόνου δὲ οὐ πολλοῦ διελθόντος ʽχρῆν γὰρ Κανδαύλῃ γενέσθαι κακῶσ̓ ἔλεγε πρὸς τὸν Γύγην τοιάδε. “Γύγη, οὐ γὰρ σε δοκέω πείθεσθαι μοι λέγοντι περὶ τοῦ εἴδεος τῆς γυναικός ʽὦτα γὰρ τυγχάνει ἀνθρώποισι ἐόντα ἀπιστότερα ὀφθαλμῶν̓, ποίεε ὅκως ἐκείνην θεήσεαι γυμνήν.” ὃ δʼ ἀμβώσας εἶπε “δέσποτα, τίνα λέγεις λόγον οὐκ ὑγιέα, κελεύων με δέσποιναν τὴν ἐμὴν θεήσασθαι γυμνήν; ἅμα δὲ κιθῶνι ἐκδυομένῳ συνεκδύεται καὶ τὴν αἰδῶ γυνή. πάλαι δὲ τὰ καλὰ ἀνθρώποισι ἐξεύρηται, ἐκ τῶν μανθάνειν δεῖ· ἐν τοῖσι ἓν τόδε ἐστί, σκοπέειν τινὰ τὰ ἑωυτοῦ. ἐγὼ δὲ πείθομαι ἐκείνην εἶναι πασέων γυναικῶν καλλίστην, καὶ σέο δέομαι μὴ δέεσθαι ἀνόμων.” 1.9. ὃ μὲν δὴ λέγων τοιαῦτα ἀπεμάχετο, ἀρρωδέων μὴ τί οἱ ἐξ αὐτῶν γένηται κακόν, ὃ δʼ ἀμείβετο τοῖσιδε. “θάρσεε, Γύγη, καὶ μὴ φοβεῦ μήτε ἐμέ, ὡς σέο πειρώμενος 1 λέγω λόγον τόνδε, μήτε γυναῖκα τὴν ἐμήν, μὴ τὶ τοι ἐξ αὐτῆς γένηται βλάβος. ἀρχήν γὰρ ἐγὼ μηχανήσομαι οὕτω ὥστε μηδέ μαθεῖν μιν ὀφθεῖσαν ὑπὸ σεῦ. ἐγὼ γάρ σε ἐς τὸ οἴκημα ἐν τῷ κοιμώμεθα ὄπισθε τῆς ἀνοιγομένης θύρης στήσω. μετὰ δʼ ἐμὲ ἐσελθόντα παρέσται καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἐμὴ ἐς κοῖτον. κεῖται δὲ ἀγχοῦ τῆς ἐσόδου θρόνος· ἐπὶ τοῦτον τῶν ἱματίων κατὰ ἕν ἕκαστον ἐκδύνουσα θήσει, καὶ κατʼ ἡσυχίην πολλὴν παρέξει τοι θεήσασθαι. ἐπεὰν δέ ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου στείχῃ ἐπὶ τὴν εὐνήν κατὰ νώτου τε αὐτῆς γένῃ, σοὶ μελέτω τὸ ἐνθεῦτεν ὅκως μὴ σε ὄψεται ἰόντα διὰ θυρέων.” 1.10. ὃ μὲν δὴ ὡς οὐκ ἐδύνατο διαφυγεῖν, ἦν ἕτοιμος· ὁ δὲ Κανδαύλης, ἐπεὶ ἐδόκεε ὥρη τῆς κοίτης εἶναι, ἤγαγε τὸν Γύγεα ἐς τὸ οἴκημα. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα αὐτίκα παρῆν καὶ ἡ γυνή. ἐσελθοῦσαν δὲ καὶ τιθεῖσαν τὰ εἵματα ἐθηεῖτο ὁ Γύγης. ὡς δὲ κατὰ νώτου ἐγένετο ἰούσης τῆς γυναικός ἐς τὴν κοίτην, ὑπεκδὺς ἐχώρεε ἔξω, καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἐπορᾷ μιν ἐξιόντα. μαθοῦσὰ δὲ τὸ ποιηθέν ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς οὔτε ἀνέβωσε αἰσχυνθεῖσα οὔτε ἔδοξε μαθεῖν, ἐν νοῶ ἔχουσα τίσεσθαι τὸν Κανδαύλεα. παρὰ γὰρ τοῖσι Λυδοῖσι, σχεδὸν δὲ καὶ παρὰ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι βαρβάροισι καὶ ἄνδρα ὀφθῆναι γυμνόν ἐς αἰσχύνην μεγάλην φέρει. 1.11. τότε μὲν δὴ οὕτω οὐδέν δηλώσασα ἡσυχίην εἶχε. ὡς δὲ ἡμέρη τάχιστα ἐγεγόνεε, τῶν οἰκετέων τοὺς μάλιστα ὥρα πιστοὺς ἐόντας ἑωυτῇ, ἑτοίμους ποιησαμένη ἐκάλεε τὸν Γύγεα. ὁ δὲ οὐδὲν δοκέων αὐτήν τῶν πρηχθέντων ἐπίστασθαι ἦλθε καλεόμενος· ἐώθεε γὰρ καὶ πρόσθε, ὅκως ἡ βασίλεια καλέοι, φοιτᾶν. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γύγης ἀπίκετο, ἔλεγε ἡ γυνὴ τάδε. “νῦν τοί δυῶν ὁδῶν παρεουσέων Γύγη δίδωμί αἵρεσιν, ὁκοτέρην βούλεαι τραπέσθαι. ἢ γὰρ Κανδαύλεα ἀποκτείνας ἐμέ τε καὶ τὴν βασιληίην ἔχε τὴν Λυδῶν, ἢ αὐτόν σε αὐτίκα οὕτω ἀποθνήσκειν δεῖ, ὡς ἂν μὴ πάντα πειθόμενος Κανδαύλῃ τοῦ λοιποῦ ἴδῃς τὰ μὴ σε δεῖ. ἀλλʼ ἤτοι κεῖνόν γε τὸν ταῦτα βουλεύσαντα δεῖ ἀπόλλυσθαι, ἢ σε τὸν ἐμὲ γυμνήν θεησάμενον καὶ ποιήσαντα οὐ νομιζόμενα.” ὁ δὲ Γύγης τέως μὲν ἀπεθώμαζε τὰ λεγόμενα, μετὰ δὲ ἱκέτευε μὴ μιν ἀναγκαίῃ ἐνδέειν διακρῖναι τοιαύτην αἵρεσιν. οὔκων δὴ ἔπειθε, ἀλλʼ ὥρα ἀναγκαίην ἀληθέως προκειμένην ἢ τὸν δεσπότεα ἀπολλύναι ἢ αὐτὸν ὑπʼ ἄλλων ἀπόλλυσθαι· αἱρέεται αὐτὸς περιεῖναι. ἐπειρώτα δὴ λέγων τάδε. “ἐπεί με ἀναγκάζεις δεσπότεα τὸν ἐμὸν κτείνειν οὐκ ἐθέλοντα, φέρε ἀκούσω τέῳ καὶ τρόπῳ ἐπιχειρήσομεν αὐτῷ.” ἣ δὲ ὑπολαβοῦσα ἔφη “ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ μὲν χωρίου ἡ ὁρμή ἔσται ὅθεν περ καὶ ἐκεῖνος ἐμέ ἐπεδέξατο γυμνήν, ὑπνωμένῳ δὲ ἡ ἐπιχείρησις ἔσται.” 1.12. ὡς δὲ ἤρτυσαν τὴν ἐπιβουλήν, νυκτὸς γενομένης ʽοὐ γὰρ ἐμετίετο ὁ Γύγης, οὐδέ οἱ ἦν ἀπαλλαγὴ οὐδεμία, ἀλλʼ ἔδεε ἤ αὐτὸν ἀπολωλέναι ἢ Κανδαύλεἀ εἵπετο ἐς τὸν θάλαμον τῇ γυναικί, καί μιν ἐκείνη, ἐγχειρίδιον δοῦσα, κατακρύπτει ὑπὸ τὴν αὐτὴν θύρην. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἀναπαυομένου Κανδαύλεω ὑπεκδύς τε καὶ ἀποκτείνας αὐτὸν ἔσχε καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ τὴν βασιληίην Γύγης τοῦ καὶ Ἀρχίλοχος ὁ Πάριος κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον γενόμενος ἐν ἰάμβῳ τριμέτρῳ ἐπεμνήσθη. 1''. None
1.8. This Candaules, then, fell in love with his own wife, so much so that he believed her to be by far the most beautiful woman in the world; and believing this, he praised her beauty beyond measure to Gyges son of Dascylus, who was his favorite among his bodyguard; for it was to Gyges that he entrusted all his most important secrets. ,After a little while, Candaules, doomed to misfortune, spoke to Gyges thus: “Gyges, I do not think that you believe what I say about the beauty of my wife; men trust their ears less than their eyes: so you must see her naked.” Gyges protested loudly at this. ,“Master,” he said, “what an unsound suggestion, that I should see my mistress naked! When a woman's clothes come off, she dispenses with her modesty, too. ,Men have long ago made wise rules from which one ought to learn; one of these is that one should mind one's own business. As for me, I believe that your queen is the most beautiful of all women, and I ask you not to ask of me what is lawless.” " "1.9. Speaking thus, Gyges resisted: for he was afraid that some evil would come of it for him. But this was Candaules' answer: “Courage, Gyges! Do not be afraid of me, that I say this to test you, or of my wife, that you will have any harm from her. I will arrange it so that she shall never know that you have seen her. ,I will bring you into the chamber where she and I lie and conceal you behind the open door; and after I have entered, my wife too will come to bed. There is a chair standing near the entrance of the room: on this she will lay each article of her clothing as she takes it off, and you will be able to look upon her at your leisure. ,Then, when she moves from the chair to the bed, turning her back on you, be careful she does not see you going out through the doorway.” " '1.10. As Gyges could not escape, he consented. Candaules, when he judged it to be time for bed, brought Gyges into the chamber; his wife followed presently, and when she had come in and was laying aside her garments, Gyges saw her; ,when she turned her back upon him to go to bed, he slipped from the room. The woman glimpsed him as he went out, and perceived what her husband had done. But though shamed, she did not cry out or let it be seen that she had perceived anything, for she meant to punish Candaules; ,since among the Lydians and most of the foreign peoples it is felt as a great shame that even a man be seen naked. ' "1.11. For the present she made no sign and kept quiet. But as soon as it was day, she prepared those of her household whom she saw were most faithful to her, and called Gyges. He, supposing that she knew nothing of what had been done, answered the summons; for he was used to attending the queen whenever she summoned him. ,When Gyges came, the lady addressed him thus: “Now, Gyges, you have two ways before you; decide which you will follow. You must either kill Candaules and take me and the throne of Lydia for your own, or be killed yourself now without more ado; that will prevent you from obeying all Candaules' commands in the future and seeing what you should not see. ,One of you must die: either he, the contriver of this plot, or you, who have outraged all custom by looking on me uncovered.” Gyges stood awhile astonished at this; presently, he begged her not to compel him to such a choice. ,But when he could not deter her, and saw that dire necessity was truly upon him either to kill his master or himself be killed by others, he chose his own life. Then he asked: “Since you force me against my will to kill my master, I would like to know how we are to lay our hands on him.” ,She replied, “You shall come at him from the same place where he made you view me naked: attack him in his sleep.” " "1.12. When they had prepared this plot, and night had fallen, Gyges followed the woman into the chamber (for Gyges was not released, nor was there any means of deliverance, but either he or Candaules must die). She gave him a dagger and hid him behind the same door; ,and presently he stole out and killed Candaules as he slept. Thus he made himself master of the king's wife and sovereignty. He is mentioned in the iambic verses of Archilochus of Parus who lived about the same time. "". None
17. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollonius Rhodius, male and female

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 74, 75, 76; Verhagen (2022) 74, 75, 76

18. Cicero, On Duties, 1.85 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • oikoumene, female personification of

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 38; König and Wiater (2022) 38

1.85. Omnino qui rei publicae praefuturi sunt, duo Platonis praecepta teneant, unum, ut utilitatem civium sic tueantur, ut, quaecumque agunt, ad eam referant obliti commodorum suorum, alterum, ut totum corpus rei publicae curent, ne, dum partem aliquam tuentur, reliquas deserant. Ut enim tutela, sic procuratio rei publicae ad eorum utilitatem, qui commissi sunt, non ad eorum, quibus commissa est, gerenda est. Qui autem parti civium consulunt, partem neglegunt, rem perniciosissimam in civitatem inducunt, seditionem atque discordiam; ex quo evenit, ut alii populares, alii studiosi optimi cuiusque videantur, pauci universorum.''. None
1.85. \xa0Those who propose to take charge of the affairs of government should not fail to remember two of Plato's rules: first, to keep the good of the people so clearly in view that regardless of their own interests they will make their every action conform to that; second, to care for the welfare of the whole body politic and not in serving the interests of some one party to betray the rest. For the administration of the government, like the office of a trustee, must be conducted for the benefit of those entrusted to one's care, not of those to whom it is entrusted. Now, those who care for the interests of a part of the citizens and neglect another part, introduce into the civil service a dangerous element â\x80\x94 dissension and party strife. The result is that some are found to be loyal supporters of the democratic, others of the aristocratic party, and few of the nation as a whole. <"". None
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Wisdom (female) • female,

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008) 253; Robbins et al (2017) 332

7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness.''. None
20. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • oikoumene, female personification of

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 38; König and Wiater (2022) 38

21. Catullus, Poems, 64.251-64.265, 64.267-64.268 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • female • female object • gaze, female

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 188; Elsner (2007) 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74

64.251. But from the further side came flitting bright-faced Iacchu 64.252. Girded by Satyr-crew and Nysa-reared Sileni 64.253. Burning with love unto thee (Ariadne!) and greeting thy presence. 64.254. Who flocking eager to fray did rave with infuriate spirit, 64.255. "Evoe" frenzying loud, with heads at "Evoe" rolling. 64.256. Brandisht some of the maids their thyrsi sheathed of spear-point, 64.257. Some snatcht limbs and joints of sturlings rended to pieces, 64.258. These girt necks and waists with writhing bodies of vipers, 64.259. Those with the gear enwombed in crates dark orgies ordained—' "64.260. Orgies that ears profane must vainly lust for o'er hearing—" '64.261. Others with palms on high smote hurried strokes on the cymbal, 64.262. Or from the polisht brass woke thin-toned tinkling music, 64.263. While from the many there boomed and blared hoarse blast of the horn-trump, 64.264. And with its horrid skirl loud shrilled the barbarous bag-pipe 64.265. Showing such varied forms, that richly-decorated couch-cloth
64.267. This when the Thessalan youths had eyed with eager inspection 64.268. Fulfilled, place they began to provide for venerate Godheads,''. None
22. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 4.3.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • female • gender, female

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 46; Lipka (2021) 118

4.3.2. \xa0And the Boeotians and other Greeks and the Thracians, in memory of the campaign in India, have established sacrifices every other year to Dionysus, and believe that at that time the god reveals himself to human beings.''. None
23. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 3.210 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dress, female • gaze, female • nude, female • sexuality, xv–xvi, female • subjectivity, female

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 190; Elsner (2007) 218

3.210. rend=''. None
3.210. The losses they sustain by various ways.''. None
24. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 2.413 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancilla (female slave) (Andromeda • dress, female

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 170; Radicke (2022) 435

2.413. vitta coercuerat neglectos alba capillos,''. None
2.413. that she prevailed, and pleased that she secured'
2.413. the universe confused will plunge once more '. None
25. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 51 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Organism, male and female components • reason, as female

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 245; Sly (1990) 50

51. And he calls Bethuel the father of Rebekkah. How, then, can the daughter of God, namely, wisdom, be properly called a father? is it because the name indeed of wisdom is feminine but the sex masculine? For indeed all the virtues bear the names of women, but have the powers and actions of full-grown men, since whatever is subsequent to God, even if it be the most ancient of all other things, still has only the second place when compared with that omnipotent Being, and appears not so much masculine as feminine, in accordance with its likeness to the other creatures; for as the male always has the precedence, the female falls short, and is inferior in rank. ''. None
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 103 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, male and female • passions, female

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 131; Geljon and Runia (2019) 277

103. But of the ideas which are brought forth by the mind, some are male and some female, as in the case of animals. Now the female offspring of the soul are wickedness and passion, by which we are made effeminate in every one of our pursuits; but a healthy state of the passions and virtue is male, by which we are excited and invigorated. Now of these, whatever belongs to the fellowship of men must be attributed to God, and everything that relates to the similarity to women must be imputed to one\'s self, on which account the command was delivered, "of everything which openeth the womb the males belong to the Lord." XXXII. ''. None
27. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Forum, male and female spheres of activity • dress, female • female spheres of activity

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 170; Jenkyns (2013) 160

28. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • First Clement, and female leadership • Judaism/Jewish, Female heroes

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021) 192; Tite (2009) 159

55. To bring forward some examples from among the heathen: Many kings and princes, in times of pestilence, when they had been instructed by an oracle, have given themselves up to death, in order that by their own blood they might deliver their fellow citizens from destruction. Many have gone forth from their own cities, that so sedition might be brought to an end within them. We know many among ourselves who have given themselves up to bonds, in order that they might ransom others. Many, too, have surrendered themselves to slavery, that with the price which they received for themselves, they might provide food for others. Many women also, being strengthened by the grace of God, have performed numerous manly exploits. The blessed Judith, when her city was besieged, asked of the elders permission to go forth into the camp of the strangers; and, exposing herself to danger, she went out for the love which she bare to her country and people then besieged; and the Lord delivered Holofernes into the hands of a woman. Judith 8:30 Esther also, being perfect in faith, exposed herself to no less danger, in order to deliver the twelve tribes of Israel from impending destruction. For with fasting and humiliation she entreated the everlasting God, who sees all things; and He, perceiving the humility of her spirit, delivered the people for whose sake she had encountered peril. ''. None
29. Lucan, Pharsalia, 2.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dress, female • female spheres of activity

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 170; Jenkyns (2013) 162

2.31. The stiffening limbs and gazes on the face, In nameless dread, not sorrow, and in awe of death approaching: and with mind distraught Clings to the dying in a last embrace. The matrons laid aside their wonted garb: Crowds filled the temples — on the unpitying stones Some dashed their bosoms; others bathed with tears The statues of the gods; some tore their hair Upon the holy threshold, and with shrieks And vows unceasing called upon the names ''. None
30. Mishnah, Sotah, 1.2, 1.5-1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Body, female • Female • Female, body • Male Mouth, versus female breast • body, female

 Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 277; Hasan Rokem (2003) 69; Kosman (2012) 142; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 228

1.2. כֵּיצַד מְקַנֵּא לָהּ. אָמַר לָהּ בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם, אַל תְּדַבְּרִי עִם אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, וְדִבְּרָה עִמּוֹ, עֲדַיִן הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת לְבֵיתָהּ וּמֻתֶּרֶת לֶאֱכֹל בַּתְּרוּמָה. נִכְנְסָה עִמּוֹ לְבֵית הַסֵּתֶר וְשָׁהֲתָה עִמּוֹ כְדֵי טֻמְאָה, אֲסוּרָה לְבֵיתָהּ וַאֲסוּרָה לֶאֱכֹל בַּתְּרוּמָה. וְאִם מֵת, חוֹלֶצֶת וְלֹא מִתְיַבָּמֶת:
1.5. אִם אָמְרָה טְמֵאָה אָנִי, שׁוֹבֶרֶת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ וְיוֹצֵאת. וְאִם אָמְרָה טְהוֹרָה אָנִי, מַעֲלִין אוֹתָהּ לְשַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח שֶׁעַל פֶּתַח שַׁעַר נִקָּנוֹר, שֶׁשָּׁם מַשְׁקִין אֶת הַסּוֹטוֹת, וּמְטַהֲרִין אֶת הַיּוֹלְדוֹת, וּמְטַהֲרִין אֶת הַמְּצֹרָעִים. וְכֹהֵן אוֹחֵז בִּבְגָדֶיהָ, אִם נִקְרְעוּ נִקְרָעוּ, אִם נִפְרְמוּ נִפְרָמוּ, עַד שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֶּה אֶת לִבָּהּ, וְסוֹתֵר אֶת שְׂעָרָהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיָה לִבָּהּ נָאֶה, לֹא הָיָה מְגַלֵּהוּ. וְאִם הָיָה שְׂעָרָהּ נָאֶה, לֹא הָיָה סוֹתְרוֹ: 1.6. הָיְתָה מִתְכַּסָּה בִלְבָנִים, מְכַסָּהּ בִּשְׁחוֹרִים. הָיוּ עָלֶיהָ כְלֵי זָהָב וְקַטְלָיאוֹת, נְזָמִים וְטַבָּעוֹת, מַעֲבִירִים מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי לְנַוְּלָהּ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵבִיא חֶבֶל מִצְרִי וְקוֹשְׁרוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִדַּדֶּיהָ. וְכָל הָרוֹצֶה לִרְאוֹת בָּא לִרְאוֹת, חוּץ מֵעֲבָדֶיהָ וְשִׁפְחוֹתֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלִּבָּהּ גַּס בָּהֶן. וְכָל הַנָּשִׁים מֻתָּרוֹת לִרְאוֹתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל כג) וְנִוַּסְּרוּ כָּל הַנָּשִׁים וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂינָה כְּזִמַּתְכֶנָה:''. None
1.2. How does he warn her? If he says to her in front of two witnesses, “Do not speak with that man”, and she spoke with him, she is still permitted to her husband and permitted to eat terumah. If she entered a private place with him and stayed with him a time sufficient for her to be defiled by having sexual intercourse with him, she is forbidden to her husband and forbidden to eat terumah. If her husband died, she performs halitzah but cannot contract yibbum.
1.5. If she said, “I am defiled to you”, she gives him a receipt for her ketubah and goes out with a get. But if she says, “I am pure”, they bring her up to the east gate, Nicanor’s gate, where they give women suspected of adultery the water to drink, purify women after childbirth and purify lepers. A priest seizes her clothing if they are torn, then they are torn, and if they become unstitched, then they are unstitched, until he uncovers her bosom, and he undoes the braids of her hair. Rabbi Judah says: if her bosom was beautiful he does not uncover it, and if her hair was beautiful he does not undo it. 1.6. If she was clothed in white, he clothes her in black. If she wore gold jewelry or necklaces, ear-rings and finger-rings, they remove them from her in order to make her repulsive. After that the priest takes a rope made of twigs and binds it over her breasts. Whoever wishes to look upon her comes to look with the exception of her male and female slaves, since she has no shame in front of them. All of the women are permitted to look upon her, as it is said, “That all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness” (Ezekiel 23:48).''. None
31. New Testament, Colossians, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Woman [ Femaleness ] • female,

 Found in books: Linjamaa (2019) 86; Robbins et al (2017) 192

2.15. ἀπεκδυσάμενος τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὰς ἐξουσίας ἐδειγμάτισεν ἐν παρρησίᾳ θριαμβεύσας αὐτοὺς ἐν αὐτῷ.''. None
2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. ''. None
32. New Testament, Galatians, 3.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Femaleness [ Woman ] • ascetic celibacy of Christian women, female autonomy • female,

 Found in books: Kraemer (2010) 150; Linjamaa (2019) 109; Robbins et al (2017) 41

3.28. οὐκ ἔνι Ἰουδαῖος οὐδὲ Ἕλλην, οὐκ ἔνι δοῦλος οὐδὲ ἐλεύθερος, οὐκ ἔνι ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ· πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς εἷς ἐστὲ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.''. None
3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. ''. None
33. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • collective action, female • female • war dead, burial of, social unity and cohesion, female ritual as force for • womens rituals and agency in Roman literature, collective action, female

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 139; Panoussi(2019) 105

34. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Isaeum Campense, temple of Isis, female devotees of • dress, female

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 45; Manolaraki (2012) 36

35. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 21.2, 43.14.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • oikoumene, female personification of

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 49; König and Wiater (2022) 49

43.14.6. \xa0And they decreed that a chariot of his should be placed on the Capitol facing the statue of Jupiter, that his statue in bronze should be mounted upon a likeness of the inhabited world, with an inscription to the effect that he was a demigod, and that his name should be inscribed upon the Capitol in place of that of Catulus on the ground that he had completed this temple after undertaking to call Catulus to account for the building of it.' '. None
36. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.13.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sparta, female athletics • female

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 168; Hubbard (2014) 258

3.13.7. ἀπαντικρὺ δὲ ἥ τε ὀνομαζομένη Κολώνα καὶ Διονύσου Κολωνάτα ναός, πρὸς αὐτῷ δὲ τέμενός ἐστιν ἥρωος, ὃν τῆς ὁδοῦ τῆς ἐς Σπάρτην Διονύσῳ φασὶ γενέσθαι ἡγεμόνα· τῷ δὲ ἥρωι τούτῳ πρὶν ἢ τῷ θεῷ θύουσιν αἱ Διονυσιάδες καὶ αἱ Λευκιππίδες. τὰς δὲ ἄλλας ἕνδεκα ἃς καὶ αὐτὰς Διονυσιάδας ὀνομάζουσι, ταύταις δρόμου προτιθέασιν ἀγῶνα·''. None
3.13.7. Opposite is what is called the Knoll, with a temple of Dionysus of the Knoll, by which is a precinct of the hero who they say guided Dionysus on the way to Sparta . To this hero sacrifices are offered before they are offered to the god by the daughters of Dionysus and the daughters of Leucippus. For the other eleven ladies who are named daughters of Dionysus there is held a footrace; this custom came to Sparta from Delphi .''. None
37. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • suffering, female, and voyeurism • torture, female

 Found in books: Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 31; Pinheiro et al (2012a) 113, 153

38. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 114 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Femaleness [ Woman ] • maleness/femaleness

 Found in books: Ernst (2009) 243; Linjamaa (2019) 109

114. Simon Peter said to them, "Make Mary leave us, for females don\'t deserve life." Jesus said, "Look, I will guide her to make her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling you males. For every female who makes herself male will enter the kingdom of Heaven."''. None
39. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Body, conceptually related to femaleness • Receptivity, and the female • Subordination (and inferiority), of the female as a metaphysical principle • female

 Found in books: Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 33; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 48, 223

40. Vergil, Aeneis, 11.480-11.481
 Tagged with subjects: • dress, female • female spheres of activity

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 170; Jenkyns (2013) 162

11.480. causa mali tanti, oculos deiecta decoros. 11.481. Succedunt matres et templum ture vaporant''. None
11.480. for peace, O Turnus! and, not less than peace, 11.481. its one inviolable pledge. Behold, ''. None
41. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollonius Rhodius, male and female • Hypsipyle, as female exemplum of pietas • collective action, female • womens rituals and agency in Roman literature, collective action, female

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 74, 75, 76; Panoussi(2019) 147, 148, 149, 151, 158; Verhagen (2022) 74, 75, 76

42. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Ptolemaios Archive, Taous (female ward of Ptolemaios) • Ptolemaios Archive, Tawe (female ward of Ptolemaios) • paterfamilias traditions, and female chastity

 Found in books: Huebner and Laes (2019) 42; Renberg (2017) 399, 732

43. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • female animal victims • lambs, female

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 133, 161, 162; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 179, 180, 181, 182, 222

44. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • female labour • mimes, female • piscatrices, female fish sellers • spectacles, public, female performers

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 593, 673; Tacoma (2016) 192

45. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • agency, female sexual • gender, female

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 214; Pinheiro et al (2012a) 188, 189

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