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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
eating/feast, of passover, pesah, ̣ Balberg (2017) 158, 165, 178
feast Balberg (2017) 89, 134, 145, 177, 178, 181
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 438
Stavrianopoulou (2006) 285
feast, annunciation Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 525, 528
feast, baal, and his Sneed (2022) 51
feast, celebrated on 29 december, feast, of james and john Mendez (2022) 56, 113, 125
feast, communal Stavrianopoulou (2006) 83
feast, days Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 435, 437, 438, 440, 442, 449, 453, 457, 458, 459, 460, 467
Rüpke (2011) 19, 20, 21, 25, 29, 33, 34, 61, 72, 75, 76, 104, 110, 113, 114, 119, 123, 126, 142, 143, 144, 152, 161, 172
feast, days celebrating, baptism of jesus Peppard (2011) 237
feast, dedication of Geljon and Vos (2020) 37, 38
feast, eschatological Ramelli (2013) 382, 397, 405, 568, 569, 750, 767
feast, for the jews, hippodrome, and the Cosgrove (2022) 262, 289, 290
feast, in corinth Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 216
feast, in the desert Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 148
feast, liturgy as Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 335
feast, of aphrodite Braund and Most (2004) 164
feast, of booths Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 296, 297, 301
feast, of calends Geljon and Vos (2020) 44
feast, of corpus christi Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 474, 490
feast, of drunkenness, hathor Renberg (2017) 508, 736, 741
feast, of epulum iouis jupiter Mueller (2002) 26, 27, 42, 72, 73, 75
feast, of every day Martens (2003) 115, 116
feast, of ezekiel, exagoge, unleavened bread Liapis and Petrides (2019) 132, 144
feast, of feast, of stephen, stephen, celebrated on 26 december Mendez (2022) 21, 22, 23, 31, 51, 113, 114, 115, 117, 133
feast, of feast, stephen, origins of late december Mendez (2022) 114
feast, of fifty, mareotic Kraemer (2010) 59, 60, 61, 80, 81, 83
feast, of imhotep, imhotep, first Renberg (2017) 738
feast, of james and john Mendez (2022) 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 51, 56, 68
feast, of leviathan Fishbane (2003) 121, 122, 123, 203, 210, 219, 316, 317
feast, of passover Rüpke (2011) 157
feast, of paul, paul Mendez (2022) 22
feast, of pesach Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 504
feast, of peter and paul Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 453, 459
Mendez (2022) 22, 24, 41, 51, 56, 69, 113
feast, of peter and paul, celebrated on 28 december Mendez (2022) 56, 113
feast, of purim Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 349
feast, of rosh ha-shanah Cosgrove (2022) 292
feast, of saint michael Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 474
feast, of saint symeon the stylite Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 460
feast, of saints Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 425
feast, of serapis, osiris Sider (2001) 61
feast, of stephen, celebrated on 26/27 december Mendez (2022) 56, 67, 68, 113, 115, 117, 118, 150
feast, of stephen, celebrated on 27 december Mendez (2022) 21, 22, 51, 106, 107, 113, 124
feast, of stephen, celebrated on 27-29 december Mendez (2022) 56, 125, 126
feast, of suetonius, sukkoth Cosgrove (2022) 286, 287, 295, 296
feast, of superscriptions, tabernacles Trudinger (2004) 114, 125, 249
feast, of tabernacle Frey and Levison (2014) 258
feast, of tabernacles Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 496
Rüpke (2011) 29
feast, of tabernacles, sukkoth Piotrkowski (2019) 311, 373, 412
feast, of tabernacles, tamid psalms, and Trudinger (2004) 249
feast, of taberoacles Levison (2009) 372, 374, 375, 378, 379, 399
feast, of the ascension Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 116, 117, 123, 453, 459
feast, of the holy cross Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 457, 460
feast, of the tabernacles König (2012) 156, 158
feast, of the theophany Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 457, 460
feast, of the transfiguration Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 460
feast, of the, nativity Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 437, 457
feast, of therapeutae, festival of seven sevens fifty Kraemer (2010) 59, 60, 61, 80, 81
feast, offering, hạ gigah Balberg (2017) 54, 145, 158
feast, on the paschal Huttner (2013) 138, 238, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253
feast, paschal Huttner (2013) 240, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 287, 299, 337
feast, titans de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 115, 124
feast, wedding Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 32
feasted, on republic’s blood, gabinius, a. Walters (2020) 58
feasted, on, blood, of the republic Walters (2020) 58
feasting Eisenfeld (2022) 23, 37, 54, 60, 116, 120, 121, 130, 216
Gera (2014) 29, 55, 132, 231, 264, 266, 289, 368, 370, 383, 384, 469
Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 125
feasting, and, exclusive, cult community Kowalzig (2007) 135, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 205
feasting, association dining, relationship with early christian König (2012) 129
feasting, at delphic theoxenia Kowalzig (2007) 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 200, 201
feasting, christian attitudes to sacrificial meat sacrifice and sacrificial König (2012) 127
feasting, cultic ritual practice Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 16, 33, 262, 263, 265, 467, 526, 541
feasting, death and the afterlife Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 526
feasting, equipment Heymans (2021) 183
feasting, human sacrifice, sacrifice and sacrificial König (2012) 274, 297, 307
feasting, imagery of sacrifice, sacrifice and sacrificial König (2012) 284, 295
feasting, in xenia rituals Kowalzig (2007) 188, 189
feasting, julian, lack of interest in sacrificial König (2012) 197
feasting, literature see under, see also under christianity, jewish feasting, and early, responses to the greco-roman symposium König (2012) 134, 135, 136, 137
feasting, literature, christianity, early, relationship between early christian and jewish feasting, and König (2012) 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 294
feasting, meat from, sacrifice and sacrificial König (2012) 298
feasting, practices in symposia Taylor and Hay (2020) 225, 226, 246, 247, 301
feasting, practices, christianity, early König (2012) 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129
feasting, relationship with symposium, sacrifice and sacrificial König (2012) 85, 86, 87, 88
feasting, symbolic of communal identity, sacrifice and König (2012) 309
feasts Ando and Ruepke (2006) 41, 106, 117, 119
Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 30, 32, 33, 39, 60, 121, 235
feasts, and epinicians, public Cosgrove (2022) 120
feasts, and the jews, public Cosgrove (2022) 301
feasts, and the laws of charondas, public Cosgrove (2022) 28
feasts, and, jerusalem, pilgrimage Lieber (2014) 175
feasts, apostolic, celebrated on 26-28 december Mendez (2022) 23, 24
feasts, augustine, martyr Cosgrove (2022) 335, 336
feasts, basil, on martyr Cosgrove (2022) 336, 337, 338
feasts, christian, martyr Cosgrove (2022) 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339
feasts, christians, martyr Cosgrove (2022) 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339
feasts, dance/dancers, christian martyr Cosgrove (2022) 335, 336, 337, 338
feasts, egypt, martyr Cosgrove (2022) 335
feasts, epula, public Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 236, 238, 240, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 508
feasts, gregory of nyssa, on noisy Cosgrove (2022) 336
feasts, jewish, wedding Cosgrove (2022) 269, 270
feasts, of mary, mother of jesus Ernst (2009) 212, 222, 297, 298
feasts, postmortem Graf and Johnston (2007) 101, 115, 128, 157
feasts, public Cosgrove (2022) 24
feasts, tertullian, on martyr Cosgrove (2022) 333
feasts, welcome, to celebrate birthday of initiation Griffiths (1975) 318
meals/feasts, process, sacrificial, and Balberg (2017) 165, 166

List of validated texts:
157 validated results for "feast"
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 5.1, 7.9-7.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festival, • feasting

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 231, 233; Gera (2014) 384

5.1. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַתִּלְבַּשׁ אֶסְתֵּר מַלְכוּת וַתַּעֲמֹד בַּחֲצַר בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ הַפְּנִימִית נֹכַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא מַלְכוּתוֹ בְּבֵית הַמַּלְכוּת נֹכַח פֶּתַח הַבָּיִת׃
5.1. וַיִּתְאַפַּק הָמָן וַיָּבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיָּבֵא אֶת־אֹהֲבָיו וְאֶת־זֶרֶשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ׃
7.9. וַיֹּאמֶר חַרְבוֹנָה אֶחָד מִן־הַסָּרִיסִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ גַּם הִנֵּה־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָמָן לְמָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־טוֹב עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד בְּבֵית הָמָן גָּבֹהַּ חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ תְּלֻהוּ עָלָיו׃' '. None
5.1. Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther put on her royal apparel, and stood in the inner court of the king’s house, over against the king’s house; and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the entrance of the house.
7.9. Then said Harbonah, one of the chamberlains that were before the king: ‘Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman hath made for Mordecai, who spoke good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman.’ And the king said: ‘Hang him thereon.’ 7.10. So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath assuaged.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.6, 15.6-15.8, 30.7-30.8, 34.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festival • Festival of Weeks • Leviathan, Feast of • feast, • feast, days • feast, of Saint Symeon the Stylite • feast, of the Holy Cross • feast, of the Theophany • feast, of the Transfiguration • festivals, and Tamid Service

 Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 24; Balberg (2017) 156; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 458, 460; Fishbane (2003) 210; Robbins et al (2017) 153; Trudinger (2004) 32

12.6. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ כֹּל קְהַל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃
15.6. יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב׃ 15.7. וּבְרֹב גְּאוֹנְךָ תַּהֲרֹס קָמֶיךָ תְּשַׁלַּח חֲרֹנְךָ יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ׃ 15.8. וּבְרוּחַ אַפֶּיךָ נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם נִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ־נֵד נֹזְלִים קָפְאוּ תְהֹמֹת בְּלֶב־יָם׃
30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃
34.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוָה עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת''. None
12.6. and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk.
15.6. Thy right hand, O LORD, glorious in power, Thy right hand, O LORD, dasheth in pieces the enemy. 15.7. And in the greatness of Thine excellency Thou overthrowest them that rise up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble. 15.8. And with the blast of Thy nostrils the waters were piled up— The floods stood upright as a heap; The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea.
30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it. 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations.
34.6. And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Leviathan, Feast of • Mareotic Feast of Fifty • Martyrdom of Dasius disrupting festival to Saturn • enthronement festival, • feast of the righteous • festivals, and Tamid Service • intermediate days (of festivals)

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003) 317; Kraemer (2010) 83; Levine (2005) 538; Moss (2010) 59; Rubenstein(1995) 164; Trudinger (2004) 22; Waldner et al (2016) 171, 173

1.21. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃' '. None
1.21. And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good.' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.39-23.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkoth) • Feast of the Tabernacles • Festival of Tabernacles • Impression of Dionysiac Festival • enthronement festival, • festival • intermediate days (of festivals)

 Found in books: König (2012) 156; Levine (2005) 538; Neusner (2004) 293; Piotrkowski (2019) 311; Rubenstein(1995) 25, 28; Schwartz (2008) 378

23.39. אַךְ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת־תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ תָּחֹגּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שַׁבָּתוֹן וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי שַׁבָּתוֹן׃' '23.41. וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי תָּחֹגּוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 23.42. בַּסֻּכֹּת תֵּשְׁבוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כָּל־הָאֶזְרָח בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשְׁבוּ בַּסֻּכֹּת׃ 23.43. לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃''. None
23.39. Howbeit on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruits of the land, ye shall keep the feast of the LORD seven days; on the first day shall be a solemn rest, and on the eighth day shall be a solemn rest. 23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days. 23.41. And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year; it is a statute for ever in your generations; ye shall keep it in the seventh month. 23.42. Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are home-born in Israel shall dwell in booths; 23.43. that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.' '. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 9.10-9.13, 19.11-19.13, 28.1-28.8, 29.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Death, festival considerations • Feast of every day, • Festival of Tabernacles • feasting • festivals • festivals and fasts • festivals, and Tamid Service • process, sacrificial, and meals/feasts • ritual purity, rules relaxed at festival time

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 166; Gera (2014) 469; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 100; Klawans (2009) 183; Martens (2003) 115, 116; Neusner (2001) 363; Neusner (2004) 293; Reif (2006) 266; Trudinger (2004) 32, 34

9.11. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ עַל־מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 9.12. לֹא־יַשְׁאִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר וְעֶצֶם לֹא יִשְׁבְּרוּ־בוֹ כְּכָל־חֻקַּת הַפֶּסַח יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 9.13. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא טָהוֹר וּבְדֶרֶךְ לֹא־הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַפֶּסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ כִּי קָרְבַּן יְהוָה לֹא הִקְרִיב בְּמֹעֲדוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יִשָּׂא הָאִישׁ הַהוּא׃
19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.12. הוּא יִתְחַטָּא־בוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִטְהָר וְאִם־לֹא יִתְחַטָּא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לֹא יִטְהָר׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃
28.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃
28.1. עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ לָהֶם זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְמִימִם שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם עֹלָה תָמִיד׃ 28.3. שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 28.4. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 28.5. וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 28.6. עֹלַת תָּמִיד הָעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 28.7. וְנִסְכּוֹ רְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר לַיהוָה׃ 28.8. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ תַּעֲשֶׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃
29.35. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃' '. None
9.10. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If any man of you or of your generations shall be unclean by reason of a dead body, or be in a journey afar off, yet he shall keep the passover unto the LORD; 9.11. in the second month on the fourteenth day at dusk they shall keep it; they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs; 9.12. they shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break a bone thereof; according to all the statute of the passover they shall keep it. 9.13. But the man that is clean, and is not on a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, that soul shall be cut off from his people; because he brought not the offering of the LORD in its appointed season, that man shall bear his sin.
19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days; 19.12. the same shall purify himself therewith on the third day and on the seventh day, and he shall be clean; but if he purify not himself the third day and the seventh day, he shall not be clean. 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him.
28.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying: 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season. 28.3. And thou shalt say unto them: This is the offering made by fire which ye shall bring unto the LORD: he-lambs of the first year without blemish, two day by day, for a continual burnt-offering. 28.4. The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at dusk; 28.5. and the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering, mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil. 28.6. It is a continual burnt-offering, which was offered in mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD. 28.7. And the drink-offering thereof shall be the fourth part of a hin for the one lamb; in the holy place shalt thou pour out a drink-offering of strong drink unto the LORD. 28.8. And the other lamb shalt thou present at dusk; as the meal-offering of the morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt present it, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
29.35. On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no manner of servile work;' '. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.18, 8.23, 9.1-9.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast of Taberoacles • feast of the righteous • feast, days • feast, of Saint Symeon the Stylite • feast, of the Holy Cross • feast, of the Theophany • feast, of the Transfiguration • feasting

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 458, 460; Gera (2014) 289; Levison (2009) 399; Waldner et al (2016) 173

3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃
8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃
9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃
9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 9.2. טָבְחָה טִבְחָהּ מָסְכָה יֵינָהּ אַף עָרְכָה שֻׁלְחָנָהּ׃ 9.3. שָׁלְחָה נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ תִקְרָא עַל־גַּפֵּי מְרֹמֵי קָרֶת׃ 9.4. מִי־פֶתִי יָסֻר הֵנָּה חֲסַר־לֵב אָמְרָה לּוֹ׃ 9.5. לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי׃ 9.6. עִזְבוּ פְתָאיִם וִחְיוּ וְאִשְׁרוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ בִּינָה׃ 9.7. יֹסֵר לֵץ לֹקֵחַ לוֹ קָלוֹן וּמוֹכִיחַ לְרָשָׁע מוּמוֹ׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 9.9. תֵּן לְחָכָם וְיֶחְכַּם־עוֹד הוֹדַע לְצַדִּיק וְיוֹסֶף לֶקַח׃' '
9.11. כִּי־בִי יִרְבּוּ יָמֶיךָ וְיוֹסִיפוּ לְּךָ שְׁנוֹת חַיִּים׃''. None
3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast.
8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was.
9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars; 9.2. She hath prepared her meat, she hath mingled her wine; she hath also furnished her table. 9.3. She hath sent forth her maidens, she calleth, upon the highest places of the city: 9.4. ’Whoso is thoughtless, let him turn in hither’; as for him that lacketh understanding, she saith to him:' "9.5. 'Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled." '9.6. Forsake all thoughtlessness, and live; and walk in the way of understanding. 9.7. He that correcteth a scorner getteth to himself shame, and he that reproveth a wicked man, it becometh unto him a blot. 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee. 9.9. Give to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser; teach a righteous man, and he will increase in learning.
9.10. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the All-holy is understanding.
9.11. For by me thy days shall be multiplied, and the years of thy life shall be increased.''. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Baal, and his feast • Enthronement Festival • Feast of Taberoacles • Festival, • Leviathan, Feast of • Meals, festive • Nativity, feast of the • Tamid Psalms, and Feast of Tabernacles • feast, days • feast, of Pesach • feast, of Peter and Paul • feast, of the Ascension • feast, of the Holy Cross • feast, of the Theophany • festivals, and Tamid Service • festivities • superscriptions, Tabernacles, Feast of

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 212; Allen and Dunne (2022) 222; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 453, 457, 504; Fishbane (2003) 121, 122, 316; Klein and Wienand (2022) 174; Levison (2009) 375; Sneed (2022) 51; Trudinger (2004) 20, 136, 137, 139, 140, 249

24.2. כִּי־הוּא עַל־יַמִּים יְסָדָהּ וְעַל־נְהָרוֹת יְכוֹנְנֶהָ׃' '. None
24.2. For He hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.' '. None
8. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Leviathan, Feast of • feast of the righteous

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003) 203, 210, 219; Waldner et al (2016) 169, 171

9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 6.23, 7.9, 11.11, 12.16-12.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Annunciation (feast) • enthronement festival, • feasting

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 264, 368, 383; Rubenstein(1995) 24; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 528

6.23. וּלְמִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל לֹא־הָיָה לָהּ יָלֶד עַד יוֹם מוֹתָהּ׃
7.9. וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃
11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אוּרִיָּה אֶל־דָּוִד הָאָרוֹן וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה יֹשְׁבִים בַּסֻּכּוֹת וַאדֹנִי יוֹאָב וְעַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה חֹנִים וַאֲנִי אָבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִי לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִשְׁכַּב עִם־אִשְׁתִּי חַיֶּךָ וְחֵי נַפְשֶׁךָ אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃
12.16. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים בְּעַד הַנָּעַר וַיָּצָם דָּוִד צוֹם וּבָא וְלָן וְשָׁכַב אָרְצָה׃ 12.17. וַיָּקֻמוּ זִקְנֵי בֵיתוֹ עָלָיו לַהֲקִימוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא אָבָה וְלֹא־בָרָא אִתָּם לָחֶם׃ 12.18. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיָּמָת הַיָּלֶד וַיִּרְאוּ עַבְדֵי דָוִד לְהַגִּיד לוֹ כִּי־מֵת הַיֶּלֶד כִּי אָמְרוּ הִנֵּה בִהְיוֹת הַיֶּלֶד חַי דִּבַּרְנוּ אֵלָיו וְלֹא־שָׁמַע בְּקוֹלֵנוּ וְאֵיךְ נֹאמַר אֵלָיו מֵת הַיֶּלֶד וְעָשָׂה רָעָה׃ 12.19. וַיַּרְא דָּוִד כִּי עֲבָדָיו מִתְלַחֲשִׁים וַיָּבֶן דָּוִד כִּי מֵת הַיָּלֶד וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־עֲבָדָיו הֲמֵת הַיֶּלֶד וַיֹּאמְרוּ מֵת׃' '12.21. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲבָדָיו אֵלָיו מָה־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָה בַּעֲבוּר הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתָּ וַתֵּבְךְּ וְכַאֲשֶׁר מֵת הַיֶּלֶד קַמְתָּ וַתֹּאכַל לָחֶם׃ 12.22. וַיֹּאמֶר בְּעוֹד הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה כִּי אָמַרְתִּי מִי יוֹדֵעַ יחנני וְחַנַּנִי יְהוָה וְחַי הַיָּלֶד׃ 12.23. וְעַתָּה מֵת לָמָּה זֶּה אֲנִי צָם הַאוּכַל לַהֲשִׁיבוֹ עוֹד אֲנִי הֹלֵךְ אֵלָיו וְהוּא לֹא־יָשׁוּב אֵלָי׃''. None
6.23. And Mikhal the daughter of Sha᾽ul had no child to the day of her death.
7.9. and I was with thee wherever thou didst go, and have cut off all thy enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like the name of the great men that are on the earth.
11.11. And Uriyya said to David, The ark, and Yisra᾽el, and Yehuda, dwell in booths; and my lord Yo᾽av, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open fields; shall I then go into my house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my wife? as thou livest, and as thy soul lives, I will not do this thing.
12.16. David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the ground. 12.17. And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, to raise him up from the ground: but he would not, neither did he eat bread with them. 12.18. And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died. And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead: for they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spoke to him, and he would not hearken to our voice; how then shall we tell him that the child is dead, and he will do himself a mischief? 12.19. But when David saw that his servants whispered, David understood that the child was dead: therefore David said to his servants, Is the child dead? And they said, He is dead. 12.20. Then David arose from the ground, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and bowed down: then he came to his own house, and asked them to set bread before him, and he did eat. 12.21. Then his servants said to him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread. 12.22. And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell? God may be gracious to me, and the child may live? 12.23. But now he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not come back to me.''. None
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.18, 2.2, 11.2, 12.3, 49.14-49.15, 50.7-50.9, 54.1, 54.11-54.14, 60.1-60.3, 61.1, 61.10, 63.7-63.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast of Booths • Feast of Taberoacles • Festival of Tabernacles • Leviathan, Feast of • Nativity, feast of the • feast, days • feast, of Peter and Paul • feast, of Saint Symeon the Stylite • feast, of the Ascension • feast, of the Holy Cross • feast, of the Theophany • feast, of the Transfiguration • festivals, • festivals, non-Christian, in rabbinic literature • festivities

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 111; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 457, 458, 459, 460; Fishbane (2003) 317; Huttner (2013) 166; Klein and Wienand (2022) 174; Levison (2009) 372, 375; Neusner (2004) 293; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 297

1.18. לְכוּ־נָא וְנִוָּכְחָה יֹאמַר יְהוָה אִם־יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ אִם־יַאְדִּימוּ כַתּוֹלָע כַּצֶּמֶר יִהְיוּ׃
2.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃
2.2. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃
11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃
12.3. וּשְׁאַבְתֶּם־מַיִם בְּשָׂשׂוֹן מִמַּעַיְנֵי הַיְשׁוּעָה׃
49.14. וַתֹּאמֶר צִיּוֹן עֲזָבַנִי יְהוָה וַאדֹנָי שְׁכֵחָנִי׃ 49.15. הֲתִשְׁכַּח אִשָּׁה עוּלָהּ מֵרַחֵם בֶּן־בִּטְנָהּ גַּם־אֵלֶּה תִשְׁכַּחְנָה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ׃
50.7. וַאדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעֲזָר־לִי עַל־כֵּן לֹא נִכְלָמְתִּי עַל־כֵּן שַׂמְתִּי פָנַי כַּחַלָּמִישׁ וָאֵדַע כִּי־לֹא אֵבוֹשׁ׃ 50.8. קָרוֹב מַצְדִּיקִי מִי־יָרִיב אִתִּי נַעַמְדָה יָּחַד מִי־בַעַל מִשְׁפָּטִי יִגַּשׁ אֵלָי׃ 50.9. הֵן אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעֲזָר־לִי מִי־הוּא יַרְשִׁיעֵנִי הֵן כֻּלָּם כַּבֶּגֶד יִבְלוּ עָשׁ יֹאכְלֵם׃
54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃
54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃

54.11. עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃
54.12. וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃
54.13. וְכָל־בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי יְהוָה וְרַב שְׁלוֹם בָּנָיִךְ׃
54.14. בִּצְדָקָה תִּכּוֹנָנִי רַחֲקִי מֵעֹשֶׁק כִּי־לֹא תִירָאִי וּמִמְּחִתָּה כִּי לֹא־תִקְרַב אֵלָיִךְ׃
60.1. וּבָנוּ בְנֵי־נֵכָר חֹמֹתַיִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶם יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ כִּי בְקִצְפִּי הִכִּיתִיךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִי רִחַמְתִּיךְ׃
60.1. קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עָלַיִךְ זָרָח׃ 60.2. כִּי־הִנֵּה הַחֹשֶׁךְ יְכַסֶּה־אֶרֶץ וַעֲרָפֶל לְאֻמִּים וְעָלַיִךְ יִזְרַח יְהוָה וּכְבוֹדוֹ עָלַיִךְ יֵרָאֶה׃ 60.2. לֹא־יָבוֹא עוֹד שִׁמְשֵׁךְ וִירֵחֵךְ לֹא יֵאָסֵף כִּי יְהוָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וְשָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי אֶבְלֵךְ׃ 60.3. וְהָלְכוּ גוֹיִם לְאוֹרֵךְ וּמְלָכִים לְנֹגַהּ זַרְחֵךְ׃
61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃' '
61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃
63.7. חַסְדֵי יְהוָה אַזְכִּיר תְּהִלֹּת יְהוָה כְּעַל כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָנוּ יְהוָה וְרַב־טוּב לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָם כְּרַחֲמָיו וּכְרֹב חֲסָדָיו׃ 63.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אַךְ־עַמִּי הֵמָּה בָּנִים לֹא יְשַׁקֵּרוּ וַיְהִי לָהֶם לְמוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 63.9. בְּכָל־צָרָתָם לא לוֹ צָר וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ הוּא גְאָלָם וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם כָּל־יְמֵי עוֹלָם׃''. None
1.18. Come now, and let us reason together, Saith the LORD; Though your sins be as scarlet, They shall be as white as snow; Though they be red like crimson, They shall be as wool.
2.2. And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it.
11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.
12.3. Therefore with joy shall ye draw water Out of the wells of salvation.
49.14. But Zion said: ‘The LORD hath forsaken me, And the Lord hath forgotten me.’ 49.15. Can a woman forget her sucking child, That she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, these may forget, Yet will not I forget thee.
50.7. For the Lord GOD will help me; Therefore have I not been confounded; Therefore have I set my face like a flint, And I know that I shall not be ashamed. 50.8. He is near that justifieth me; Who will contend with me? let us stand up together; Who is mine adversary? let him come near to me. 50.9. Behold, the Lord GOD will help me; Who is he that shall condemn me? Behold, they all shall wax old as a garment, The moth shall eat them up.
54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.

54.11. O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires.
54.12. And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones.
54.13. And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children.
54.14. In righteousness shalt thou be established; be thou far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, And from ruin, for it shall not come near thee.
60.1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee. 60.2. For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth, And gross darkness the peoples; But upon thee the LORD will arise, And His glory shall be seen upon thee. 60.3. And nations shall walk at thy light, And kings at the brightness of thy rising.
61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;

61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.
63.7. I will make mention of the mercies of the LORD, and the praises of the LORD, according to all that the LORD hath bestowed on us; and the great goodness toward the house of Israel, which He hath bestowed on them according to His compassions, and according to the multitude of His mercies. 63.8. For He said: ‘Surely, they are My people, children that will not deal falsely’; so He was their Saviour. 63.9. In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; And He bore them, and carried them all the days of old. .''. None
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.4-2.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festival of Tabernacles • feast, days • feast, of Saint Symeon the Stylite • feast, of the Holy Cross • feast, of the Theophany • feast, of the Transfiguration

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 460; Neusner (2004) 293

2.4. שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה בֵּית יַעֲקֹב וְכָל־מִשְׁפְּחוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.5. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מַה־מָּצְאוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בִּי עָוֶל כִּי רָחֲקוּ מֵעָלָי וַיֵּלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי הַהֶבֶל וַיֶּהְבָּלוּ׃''. None
2.4. Hear ye the word of the LORD, O house of Jacob, and all the families of the house of Israel; 2.5. Thus saith the LORD: What unrighteousness have your fathers found in Me, that they are gone far from Me, and have walked after things of nought, and are become nought?''. None
12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 8.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast of Booths • festivities

 Found in books: Klein and Wienand (2022) 286; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 301

8.22. וְאֵלֶּה יָצְאוּ מִן־הָעִיר לִקְרָאתָם וַיִּהְיוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בַּתָּוֶךְ אֵלֶּה מִזֶּה וְאֵלֶּה מִזֶּה וַיַּכּוּ אוֹתָם עַד־בִּלְתִּי הִשְׁאִיר־לוֹ שָׂרִיד וּפָלִיט׃''. None
8.22. And the other came forth out of the city against them; so they were in the midst of Israel, some on this side, and some on that side; and they smote them, so that they let none of them remain or escape.''. None
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 14.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast of Taberoacles • feasting

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 384; Levison (2009) 372

14.19. וַתִּצְלַח עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה וַיֵּרֶד אַשְׁקְלוֹן וַיַּךְ מֵהֶם שְׁלֹשִׁים אִישׁ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־חֲלִיצוֹתָם וַיִּתֵּן הַחֲלִיפוֹת לְמַגִּידֵי הַחִידָה וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ וַיַּעַל בֵּית אָבִיהוּ׃''. None
14.19. And the spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he went down to Ashqelon, and slew thirty men of them, and took their clothing, and gave the changes of garments to them who had expounded the riddle. And his anger burned, and he went up to his father’s house.''. None
14. Hesiod, Works And Days, 121, 123, 126, 156-173, 465-469, 504, 564-570, 582-596, 619-620 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens, Dionysus and Dionysian festivals in • Dionysus, festivals associated with • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • agricultural cycle and festival cycle • cultic ritual practice, calendars and festivals • cultic ritual practice, feasting • feasts, postmortem • festival, • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Lenaia

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 100, 105, 108; Bowie (2021) 299, 539; Edmonds (2004) 86; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 153, 537, 541; Graf and Johnston (2007) 115; Mikalson (2010) 23; Parker (2005) 197; Simon (2021) 300

121. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,—'
123. ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων,
126. πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—,
156. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψεν, 157. αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 158. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ἄρειον, 159. ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 160. ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161. καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162. τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163. ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164. τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165. ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166. ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 167. τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 169. Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169. ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169. τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169. τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169. τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170. καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171. ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 172. ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173. τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα.
465. εὔχεσθαι δὲ Διὶ χθονίῳ Δημήτερί θʼ ἁγνῇ, 466. ἐκτελέα βρίθειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτήν, 467. ἀρχόμενος τὰ πρῶτʼ ἀρότου, ὅτʼ ἂν ἄκρον ἐχέτλης 468. χειρὶ λαβὼν ὅρπηκα βοῶν ἐπὶ νῶτον ἵκηαι 469. ἔνδρυον ἑλκόντων μεσάβων. ὁ δὲ τυτθὸς ὄπισθε
504. μῆνα δὲ Ληναιῶνα, κάκʼ ἤματα, βουδόρα πάντα,
564. εὖτʼ ἂν δʼ ἑξήκοντα μετὰ τροπὰς ἠελίοιο 565. χειμέριʼ ἐκτελέσῃ Ζεὺς ἤματα, δή ῥα τότʼ ἀστὴρ 566. Ἀρκτοῦρος προλιπὼν ἱερὸν ῥόον Ὠκεανοῖο 567. πρῶτον παμφαίνων ἐπιτέλλεται ἀκροκνέφαιος. 568. τὸν δὲ μέτʼ ὀρθογόη Πανδιονὶς ὦρτο χελιδὼν 569. ἐς φάος ἀνθρώποις, ἔαρος νέον ἱσταμένοιο. 570. τὴν φθάμενος οἴνας περταμνέμεν· ὣς γὰρ ἄμεινον.
582. ἦμος δὲ σκόλυμός τʼ ἀνθεῖ καὶ ἠχέτα τέττιξ 583. δενδρέῳ ἐφεζόμενος λιγυρὴν καταχεύετʼ ἀοιδὴν 584. πυκνὸν ὑπὸ πτερύγων, θέρεος καματώδεος ὥρῃ, 585. τῆμος πιόταταί τʼ αἶγες καὶ οἶνος ἄριστος, 586. μαχλόταται δὲ γυναῖκες, ἀφαυρότατοι δέ τοι ἄνδρες 587. εἰσίν, ἐπεὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ γούνατα Σείριος ἄζει, 588. αὐαλέος δέ τε χρὼς ὑπὸ καύματος· ἀλλὰ τότʼ ἤδη 589. εἴη πετραίη τε σκιὴ καὶ βίβλινος οἶνος, 590. μάζα τʼ ἀμολγαίη γάλα τʼ αἰγῶν σβεννυμενάων, 591. καὶ βοὸς ὑλοφάγοιο κρέας μή πω τετοκυίης 592. πρωτογόνων τʼ ἐρίφων· ἐπὶ δʼ αἴθοπα πινέμεν οἶνον, 593. ἐν σκιῇ ἑζόμενον, κεκορημένον ἦτορ ἐδωδῆς, 594. ἀντίον ἀκραέος Ζεφύρου τρέψαντα πρόσωπα, 595. κρήνης τʼ αἰενάου καὶ ἀπορρύτου, ἥτʼ ἀθόλωτος, 596. τρὶς ὕδατος προχέειν, τὸ δὲ τέτρατον ἱέμεν οἴνου.
619. εὖτʼ ἂν Πληιάδες σθένος ὄβριμον Ὠαρίωνος 620. φεύγουσαι πίπτωσιν ἐς ἠεροειδέα πόντον, '. None
121. There was no dread old age but, always rude'
123. In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued
126. They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease
156. It was self-slaughter – they descended to 157. Chill Hades’ mouldy house, without a name. 158. Yes, black death took them off, although they’d been 159. Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 160. Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161. Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162. Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163. The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164. Called demigods. It was the race before 165. Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166. And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 167. While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168. The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 169. Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170. For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171. In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 172. Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173. Carefree, among the blessed isles, content
465. In conflict in the furrows nor will break 466. The plough or leave the work undone. And now 467. A forty-year-old stalwart you should take 468. Who will, before he ventures out to plough, 469. Consume a quartered, eight-slice loaf, one who,
504. These steps, your fields of corn shall surely teem
564. The house, when in his cold and dreadful place 565. The Boneless gnaws his foot (the sun won’t show 566. Him pastures but rotate around the land 567. of black men and for all the Greeks is slow 568. To brighten). That’s the time the hornèd and 569. The unhorned beasts of the wood flee to the brush, 570. Teeth all a-chatter, with one thought in mind –
582. Be stoutly shod with ox-hide boots which you 583. Must line with felt. In winter have a care 584. To sew two young kids’ hides to the sinew 585. of an ox to keep the downpour from your back, 586. A knit cap for your head to keep your ear 587. From getting wet. It’s freezing at the crack 588. of dawn, which from the starry sky appear 589. When Boreas drops down: then is there spread 590. A fruitful mist upon the land which fall 591. Upon the blessed fields and which is fed 592. By endless rivers, raised on high by squalls. 593. Sometimes it rains at evening, then again, 594. When the thickly-compressed clouds are animated 595. By Thracian Boreas, it blows hard. Then 596. It is the time, having anticipated
619. One’s skin. Bring in your crops and don’t be slow. 620. Rise early to secure your food supply. '. None
15. Homer, Iliad, 6.132-6.133, 6.136, 6.193-6.195, 6.273, 6.300, 7.475-7.482, 12.310-12.312, 15.254, 18.570, 24.171 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Dionysus, festivals of • Festival • burial, state festival • feasts • feasts, postmortem • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Plynteria • festivals, and Apollo • festivals, and Athena • festivals, and Curetes • festivals, and Muses • festivals, and education • festivals, in Athens • festivals, of Magnesia • insomnia, and festivities • sacrifices, and festivals • trieteric festivals • women, participation in festivals • yearly festivals

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 22, 23, 24; Bernabe et al (2013) 14, 102, 106, 126, 241; Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 171; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 157, 169; Graf and Johnston (2007) 128; Gygax (2016) 61; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 33; Humphreys (2018) 636; Lyons (1997) 49; Mikalson (2010) 88; Simon (2021) 297; Verhagen (2022) 22, 23, 24

6.132. ὅς ποτε μαινομένοιο Διωνύσοιο τιθήνας 6.133. σεῦε κατʼ ἠγάθεον Νυσήϊον· αἳ δʼ ἅμα πᾶσαι
6.136. δύσεθʼ ἁλὸς κατὰ κῦμα, Θέτις δʼ ὑπεδέξατο κόλπῳ
6.193. δῶκε δέ οἱ τιμῆς βασιληΐδος ἥμισυ πάσης· 6.194. καὶ μέν οἱ Λύκιοι τέμενος τάμον ἔξοχον ἄλλων 6.195. καλὸν φυταλιῆς καὶ ἀρούρης, ὄφρα νέμοιτο.
6.273. τὸν θὲς Ἀθηναίης ἐπὶ γούνασιν ἠϋκόμοιο,
6.300. τὴν γὰρ Τρῶες ἔθηκαν Ἀθηναίης ἱέρειαν.
7.475. ἄλλοι δʼ ἀνδραπόδεσσι· τίθεντο δὲ δαῖτα θάλειαν. 7.476. παννύχιοι μὲν ἔπειτα κάρη κομόωντες Ἀχαιοὶ 7.477. δαίνυντο, Τρῶες δὲ κατὰ πτόλιν ἠδʼ ἐπίκουροι· 7.478. παννύχιος δέ σφιν κακὰ μήδετο μητίετα Ζεὺς 7.479. σμερδαλέα κτυπέων· τοὺς δὲ χλωρὸν δέος ᾕρει· 7.480. οἶνον δʼ ἐκ δεπάων χαμάδις χέον, οὐδέ τις ἔτλη 7.481. πρὶν πιέειν πρὶν λεῖψαι ὑπερμενέϊ Κρονίωνι. 7.482. κοιμήσαντʼ ἄρʼ ἔπειτα καὶ ὕπνου δῶρον ἕλοντο.
12.310. Γλαῦκε τί ἢ δὴ νῶϊ τετιμήμεσθα μάλιστα 12.311. ἕδρῃ τε κρέασίν τε ἰδὲ πλείοις δεπάεσσιν 12.312. ἐν Λυκίῃ, πάντες δὲ θεοὺς ὣς εἰσορόωσι,
15.254. θάρσει νῦν· τοῖόν τοι ἀοσσητῆρα Κρονίων
18.570. ἱμερόεν κιθάριζε, λίνον δʼ ὑπὸ καλὸν ἄειδε
24.171. θάρσει Δαρδανίδη Πρίαμε φρεσί, μὴ δέ τι τάρβει·''. None
6.132. Nay, for even the son of Dryas, mighty Lycurgus, lived not long, seeing that he strove with heavenly gods—he that on a time drave down over the sacred mount of Nysa the nursing mothers of mad Dionysus; and they all let fall to the ground their wands, smitten with an ox-goad by man-slaying Lycurgus. 6.133. Nay, for even the son of Dryas, mighty Lycurgus, lived not long, seeing that he strove with heavenly gods—he that on a time drave down over the sacred mount of Nysa the nursing mothers of mad Dionysus; and they all let fall to the ground their wands, smitten with an ox-goad by man-slaying Lycurgus. ' "
6.136. But Dionysus fled, and plunged beneath the wave of the sea, and Thetis received him in her bosom, filled with dread, for mighty terror gat hold of him at the man's threatenings. Then against Lycurgus did the gods that live at ease wax wroth, and the son of Cronos made him blind; " '
6.193. /for peerless Bellerophon slew them one and all. 6.194. for peerless Bellerophon slew them one and all. But when the king now knew that he was the valiant offspring of a god, he kept him there, and offered him his own daughter, and gave to him the half of all his kingly honour; moreover the Lycians meted out for him a demesne pre-eminent above all, 6.195. a fair tract of orchard and of plough-land, to possess it. And the lady bare to wise-hearted Bellerophon three children, Isander and Hippolochus and Laodameia. With Laodameia lay Zeus the counsellor, and she bare godlike Sarpedon, the warrior harnessed in bronze.
6.273. driver of the spoil, with burnt-offerings, when thou hast gathered together the aged wives; and the robe that seemeth to thee the fairest and amplest in thy hall, and that is dearest far to thine own self, this do thou lay upon the knees of fair-haired Athene and vow to her that thou wilt sacrifice in her temple twelve sleek heifers that have not felt the goad,
6.300. for her had the Trojans made priestess of Athene. Then with sacred cries they all lifted up their hands to Athene; and fair-cheeked Theano took the robe and laid it upon the knees of fair-haired Athene, and with vows made prayer to the daughter of great Zeus:
7.475. and some for slaves; and they made them a rich feast. So the whole night through the long-haired Achaeans feasted, and the Trojans likewise in the city, and their allies; and all night long Zeus, the counsellor, devised them evil, thundering in terrible wise. Then pale fear gat hold of them, 7.480. and they let the wine flow from their cups upon the ground, neither durst any man drink until he had made a drink-offering to the son of Cronos, supreme in might. Then they laid them down, and took the gift of sleep.
12.310. Glaucus, wherefore is it that we twain are held in honour above all with seats, and messes, and full cups in Lycia, and all men gaze upon us as on gods? Aye, and we possess a great demesne by the banks of Xanthus, a fair tract of orchard and of wheat-bearing plough-land.
15.254. on the breast with a stone, and made me cease from my furious might? Aye, and I deemed that on this day I should behold the dead and the house of Hades, when I had gasped forth my life. Then spake to him again the lord Apollo, that worketh afar:Be now of good cheer, so mighty a helper hath the son of Cronos
18.570. and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin,
24.171. oftly she uttered her voice, yet trembling gat hold of his himbs:Be of good courage, O Priam, son of Dardanus, and fear thou not at all. Not to forbode any evil to thee am I come hither, but with good intent. I am a messenger to thee from Zeus, who far away though he be, hath exceeding care for thee and pity. ''. None
16. Homeric Hymns, To Aphrodite, 117 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • festival,

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 540; Lipka (2021) 56

117. Nurtured me from a child, and that is why''. None
17. Homeric Hymns, To Demeter, 120, 268, 272 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • festival • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • trieteric festivals • yearly festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 241; Konig (2022) 23; Lipka (2021) 56, 59

120. That garland-loving Aphrodite brings,'
268. Right there. He grew like an immortal, for
272. With ambrosia as though he were the kin '. None
18. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis (goddess), Laphria festival • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • cultic ritual practice, feasting • feasts • festivals • festivals, Laphria • festivals, Panathenaia • insomnia, and festivities • sacrifice (thysia), Laphria festival • wedding feast

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 26; Edmonds (2004) 86; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 14, 265; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 30, 32; Lipka (2021) 56; Verhagen (2022) 26; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 101, 187

19. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • feasting, and (exclusive) cult community • feasting, at Delphic Theoxenia • festival • festival, festivity, festive • triennial festivals • trieteric festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 240; Kowalzig (2007) 191, 194, 196; Lipka (2021) 56, 59

20. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • festival, festivity, festive • triennial festivals • trieteric festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 240; Lipka (2021) 56

21. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival, • festivals, in Aegina

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 533, 539, 540, 541, 552, 554, 558; Gygax (2016) 81

22. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 122-144, 146 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diasia (festival) • Dipolieia (festival) • Mounichia (festival) aition for arkteia • festival • festival, festivity, festive • festivals, Artemis Brauronia • statue of goddess from, wet-nurse festival for Artemis in

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 525; Lipka (2021) 123; Parker (2005) 239; Simon (2021) 175

122. κεδνὸς δὲ στρατόμαντις ἰδὼν δύο λήμασι δισσοὺς'123. Ἀτρεΐδας μαχίμους ἐδάη λαγοδαίτας 124. πομπούς τʼ ἀρχάς· 125. οὕτω δʼ εἶπε τερᾴζων· 126. χρόνῳ μὲν ἀγρεῖ 127.
122. The prudent army-prophet seeing two '123. The Atreidai, two their tempers, knew 123. Those feasting on the hare 124. The armament-conductors were; 125. And thus he spoke, explaining signs in view. 126.
23. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival, at Theban Herakleion • festivals,, elite competition in

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 57, 58; Kowalzig (2007) 386

24. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Panhellenism, festivals propagating • festival • festival culture • festivals,, averting natural catastrophes • festivals,, elite competition in

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 69, 247; Kowalzig (2007) 130, 202, 386

25. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals, of Heracles of Marathon • burial, Tetrapolis festival • feasting • feasting, and (exclusive) cult community • feasting, at Delphic Theoxenia • feasting, in xenia rituals • festival • festival, as interpretative context for epinician • festival, in Olympian • xenia rituals, at public festivals

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 116, 120, 121, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145; Humphreys (2018) 1152; Kowalzig (2007) 189; Mikalson (2003) 204

26. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals, of Heracles of Marathon • burial, Tetrapolis festival

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 1152; Mikalson (2003) 204

27. Euripides, Bacchae, 6, 66-67, 78-82, 84, 87, 99-115, 123-134, 140, 145, 150, 157, 221, 446, 579, 582, 592, 605, 618-621, 623, 629, 632, 704-708, 726, 751-754, 976, 998, 1020, 1031, 1043-1045, 1051-1053, 1057, 1124, 1137-1139, 1145 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens, Dionysus and Dionysian festivals in • Dionysia festivals, Rural D. • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Pythian festival • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Lenaia • religions, Roman, festivals • trieteric festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47, 126, 167, 172, 273; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 363; Jenkyns (2013) 248; Konig (2022) 48, 49; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 27; Lipka (2021) 112; Simon (2021) 301, 315

6. ὁρῶ δὲ μητρὸς μνῆμα τῆς κεραυνίας
6. Βρομίῳ πόνον ἡδὺν κάματόν τʼ εὐκάματον, 67. Βάκχιον εὐαζομένα.
78. τά τε ματρὸς μεγάλας ὄργια 84. Βρόμιον παῖδα θεὸν θεοῦ
87. εὐρυχόρους ἀγυιάς, τὸν Βρόμιον· Χορός
99. ἔτεκεν δʼ, ἁνίκα Μοῖραι 100. τέλεσαν, ταυρόκερων θεὸν'101. στεφάνωσέν τε δρακόντων 102. στεφάνοις, ἔνθεν ἄγραν θηροτρόφον 6. στεφανοῦσθε κισσῷ· 107. βρύετε βρύετε χλοήρει 108. μίλακι καλλικάρπῳ 109. καὶ καταβακχιοῦσθε δρυὸς 110. ἢ ἐλάτας κλάδοισι, 111. στικτῶν τʼ ἐνδυτὰ νεβρίδων 112. στέφετε λευκοτρίχων πλοκάμων 113. μαλλοῖς· ἀμφὶ δὲ νάρθηκας ὑβριστὰς 114. ὁσιοῦσθʼ· αὐτίκα γᾶ πᾶσα χορεύσει— 115. Βρόμιος ὅστις ἄγῃ θιάσουσ—
123. ἔνθα τρικόρυθες ἄντροις 124. βυρσότονον κύκλωμα τόδε 125. μοι Κορύβαντες ηὗρον· 12
6. βακχείᾳ δʼ ἀνὰ συντόνῳ 127. κέρασαν ἁδυβόᾳ Φρυγίων 128. αὐλῶν πνεύματι ματρός τε Ῥέας ἐς 129. χέρα θῆκαν, κτύπον εὐάσμασι Βακχᾶν· 130. παρὰ δὲ μαινόμενοι Σάτυροι 131. ματέρος ἐξανύσαντο θεᾶς, 132. ἐς δὲ χορεύματα 133. συνῆψαν τριετηρίδων, 134. αἷς χαίρει Διόνυσος. Χορός
140. ἐς ὄρεα Φρύγια, Λύδιʼ, ὁ δʼ ἔξαρχος Βρόμιος,
145. ὁ Βακχεὺς ἀνέχων
145. πυρσώδη φλόγα πεύκας
150. τρυφερόν τε πλόκαμον εἰς αἰθέρα ῥίπτων.
157. βαρυβρόμων ὑπὸ τυμπάνων,
221. πλήρεις δὲ θιάσοις ἐν μέσοισιν ἑστάναι 44
6. σκιρτῶσι Βρόμιον ἀνακαλούμεναι θεόν·
579. ἀνά μʼ ἐκάλεσεν Εὐίου; Διόνυσος
582. ἰὼ ἰὼ δέσποτα δέσποτα,
592. διάδρομα τάδε; Βρόμιος ὅδʼ ἀλαλάζεται word split in text
605. πρὸς πέδῳ πεπτώκατʼ; ᾔσθησθʼ, ὡς ἔοικε, Βακχίου

618. πρὸς φάτναις δὲ ταῦρον εὑρών, οὗ καθεῖρξʼ ἡμᾶς ἄγων,
619. τῷδε περὶ βρόχους ἔβαλλε γόνασι καὶ χηλαῖς ποδῶν,
620. θυμὸν ἐκπνέων, ἱδρῶτα σώματος στάζων ἄπο,
621. χείλεσιν διδοὺς ὀδόντας· πλησίον δʼ ἐγὼ παρὼν

623. ἀνετίναξʼ ἐλθὼν ὁ Βάκχος δῶμα καὶ μητρὸς τάφῳ

629. κᾆθʼ ὁ Βρόμιος, ὡς ἔμοιγε φαίνεται, δόξαν λέγω,

632. πρὸς δὲ τοῖσδʼ αὐτῷ τάδʼ ἄλλα Βάκχιος λυμαίνεται·
704. θύρσον δέ τις λαβοῦσʼ ἔπαισεν ἐς πέτραν, 705. ὅθεν δροσώδης ὕδατος ἐκπηδᾷ νοτίς· 70
6. ἄλλη δὲ νάρθηκʼ ἐς πέδον καθῆκε γῆς, 707. καὶ τῇδε κρήνην ἐξανῆκʼ οἴνου θεός· 708. ὅσαις δὲ λευκοῦ πώματος πόθος παρῆν, 72
6. Βρόμιον καλοῦσαι· πᾶν δὲ συνεβάκχευʼ ὄρος
751. Ὑσιάς τʼ Ἐρυθράς θʼ, αἳ Κιθαιρῶνος λέπας 752. νέρθεν κατῳκήκασιν, ὥστε πολέμιοι, 753. ἐπεσπεσοῦσαι πάντʼ ἄνω τε καὶ κάτω 754. διέφερον· ἥρπαζον μὲν ἐκ δόμων τέκνα· 97
6. καὶ Βρόμιος ἔσται. τἄλλα δʼ αὐτὸ σημανεῖ. Χορός

998. περὶ σὰ Βάκχιʼ, ὄργια ματρός τε σᾶς
1020. ἴθʼ, ὦ Βάκχε, θηραγρευτᾷ βακχᾶν
1031. ὦναξ Βρόμιε, θεὸς φαίνῃ μέγας. Ἄγγελος
1043. ἐπεὶ θεράπνας τῆσδε Θηβαίας χθονὸς 1044. λιπόντες ἐξέβημεν Ἀσωποῦ ῥοάς, 1045. λέπας Κιθαιρώνειον εἰσεβάλλομεν
1051. ἦν δʼ ἄγκος ἀμφίκρημνον, ὕδασι διάβροχον, 1052. πεύκαισι συσκιάζον, ἔνθα μαινάδες 1053. καθῆντʼ ἔχουσαι χεῖρας ἐν τερπνοῖς πόνοις.
1057. βακχεῖον ἀντέκλαζον ἀλλήλαις μέλος.
1124. ἐκ Βακχίου κατείχετʼ, οὐδʼ ἔπειθέ νιν.
1137. 1138. πέτραις, τὸ δʼ ὕλης ἐν βαθυξύλῳ φόβῃ, 1139. οὐ ῥᾴδιον ζήτημα· κρᾶτα δʼ ἄθλιον, 1
145. τειχέων ἔσω τῶνδʼ, ἀνακαλοῦσα Βάκχιον '. None
6. I am here at the fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remts of her house, smouldering with the still living flame of Zeus’ fire, the everlasting insult of Hera against my mother.
6. having left sacred Tmolus, I am swift to perform for Bromius my sweet labor and toil easily borne, celebrating the god Bacchus Lit. shouting the ritual cry εὐοῖ . . Who is in the way? Who is in the way? Who? Let him get out of the way indoors, and let everyone keep his mouth pure E. R. Dodds takes this passage Let everyone come outside being sure to keep his mouth pure . He does not believe that there should be a full stop after the third τίς . ,
78. has his soul initiated into the Bacchic revels, dancing in inspired frenzy over the mountains with holy purifications, and who, revering the mysteries of great mother Kybele, 80. brandishing the thyrsos, garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus.Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, escorting the god Bromius, child of a god,
87. from the Phrygian mountains to the broad streets of Hellas—Bromius, Choru
99. received him in a chamber fit for birth, and having covered him in his thigh shut him up with golden clasps, hidden from Hera.And he brought forth, when the Fate 100. had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru'101. had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru 105. O Thebes , nurse of Semele, crown yourself with ivy, flourish, flourish with the verdant yew bearing sweet fruit, and crown yourself in honor of Bacchus with branches of oak 110. or pine. Adorn your garments of spotted fawn-skin with fleeces of white sheep, and sport in holy games with insolent thyrsoi The thyrsos is a staff that is crowned with ivy and that is sacred to Dionysus and an emblem of his worship. . At once all the earth will dance— 115. whoever leads the sacred band is Bromius—to the mountain, to the mountain, where the crowd of women waits, goaded away from their weaving by Dionysus. Choru
123. O secret chamber of the Kouretes and you holy Cretan caves, parents to Zeus, where the Korybantes with triple helmet invented for me in their caves this circle, 125. covered with stretched hide; and in their excited revelry they mingled it with the sweet-voiced breath of Phrygian pipes and handed it over to mother Rhea, resounding with the sweet songs of the Bacchae; 130. nearby, raving Satyrs were fulfilling the rites of the mother goddess, and they joined it to the dances of the biennial festivals, in which Dionysus rejoices. Choru
140. Phrygian, the Lydian mountains, and the leader of the dance is Bromius, evoe! A ritual cry of delight. The plain flows with milk, it flows with wine, it flows with the nectar of bees.
145. The Bacchic one, raising the flaming torch of pine on his thyrsos, like the smoke of Syrian incense, darts about, arousing the wanderers with his racing and dancing, agitating them with his shouts,
150. casting his rich locks into the air. And among the Maenad cries his voice rings deep: This last phrase taken verbatim from Dodds, ad loc. Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, with the luxury of Tmolus that flows with gold,
157. ing of Dionysus, beneath the heavy beat of drums, celebrating in delight the god of delight with Phrygian shouts and cries,
221. this new deity Dionysus, whoever he is. I hear that mixing-bowls stand full in the midst of their assemblies, and that they each creep off different ways into secrecy to serve the beds of men, on the pretext that they are Maenads worshipping; 44
6. are set loose and gone, and are gamboling in the meadows, invoking Bromius as their god. of their own accord, the chains were loosed from their feet and keys opened the doors without human hand. This man has come to Thebe
579. Who is here, who? From what quarter did the voice of the Joyful one summon me? Dionysu
582. Io! Io! Master, master! Come now to our company, Bromius. Dionysu
592. Revere him.—We revere him!—Did you see these stone lintels on the pillars falling apart? Bromius cries out in victory indoors. Dionysu

605. o stricken with fear? You have, so it seems, felt Bacchus shaking the house of Pentheus. But get up and take courage, putting a stop to your trembling. Chorus Leader

618. In this too I mocked him, for, thinking to bind me, he neither touched nor handled me, but fed on hope. He found a bull by the stable where he took and shut me up, and threw shackles around its knees and hooves,
620. breathing out fury, dripping sweat from his body, gnashing his teeth in his lips. But I, being near, sitting quietly, looked on. Meanwhile, Bacchus came and shook the house and kindled a flame on his mother’s tomb. When Pentheus saw this, thinking that the house was burning,

629. he ran here and there, calling to the slaves to bring water, and every servant was at work, toiling in vain.Then he let this labor drop, as I had escaped, and snatching a dark sword rushed into the house. Then Bromius, so it seems to me—I speak my opinion—

632. created a phantom in the courtyard. Pentheus rushed at it headlong, stabbing at the shining air, as though slaughtering me. Besides this, Bacchus inflicted other damage on him: he knocked his house to the ground, and everything was shattered into pieces, while he saw my bitter chains. From fatigue,
704. wolf-pup, gave them white milk, as many as had abandoned their new-born infants and had their breasts still swollen. They put on garlands of ivy, and oak, and flowering yew. One took her thyrsos and struck it against a rock, 705. from which a dewy stream of water sprang forth. Another let her thyrsos strike the ground, and there the god sent forth a fountain of wine. All who desired the white drink scratched the earth with the tips of their fingers and obtained streams of milk; 72
6. calling on Iacchus, the son of Zeus, Bromius, with united voice. The whole mountain revelled along with them and the beasts, and nothing was unmoved by their running. Agave happened to be leaping near me, and I sprang forth, wanting to snatch her,
751. produce the bountiful Theban crop. And falling like soldiers upon Hysiae and Erythrae, towns situated below the rock of Kithairon, they turned everything upside down. They were snatching children from their homes; 97
6. to a great contest, and Bromius and I will be the victors. The rest the matter itself will show. Choru

998. Whoever with wicked mind and unjust rage regarding your rites, Bacchus, and those of your mother, comes with raving heart
1020. Go, Bacchus, with smiling face throw a deadly noose around the hunter of the Bacchae as he falls beneath the flock of Maenads. Second Messenger
1031. Lord Bacchus, truly you appear to be a great god. Messenger
1043. When we left the dwellings of the Theban land and crossed the streams of Asopus, 1045. we began to ascend the heights of Kithairon, Pentheus and I—for I was following my master—and the stranger who was our guide to the sight. First we sat in a grassy vale,
1051. keeping our feet and voices quiet, so that we might see them without being seen. There was a little valley surounded by precipices, irrigated with streams, shaded by pine trees, where the Maenads were sitting, their hands busy with delightful labors. Some of them were crowning again
1057. the worn thyrsos, making it leafy with ivy, while some, like colts freed from the painted yoke, were singing a Bacchic melody to one another. And the unhappy Pentheus said, not seeing the crowd of women: Stranger,
1124. Pity me, mother, and do not kill me, your child, for my sins. But she, foaming at the mouth and twisting her eyes all about, not thinking as she ought, was possessed by Bacchus, and he did not persuade her.
1137. from their tearings. The whole band, hands bloodied, were playing a game of catch with Pentheus’ flesh.His body lies in different places, part under the rugged rocks, part in the deep foliage of the woods, not easy to be sought. His miserable head, 1
145. on the ill-fated prey, calling Bacchus her fellow hunter, her accomplice in the chase, the glorious victor—in whose service she wins a triumph of tears.And as for me, I will depart out of the way of this calamity before Agave reaches the house. '. None
28. Euripides, Ion, 457 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), Dionysia festivals • Thesmophoria festival, Thetis,shrine of • festivals, Artemis Brauronia • festivals, Panathenaia

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 184; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 136

457. κορυφᾶς Διός, ὦ μάκαιρα Νίκα,''. None
457. delivered as thou wert by Titan Prometheus from the forehead of Zeus. Come, O lady Victory, come to the Pythian shrine, winging thy way from the gilded chambers of Olympu''. None
29. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 3.1-3.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals • festivals, and Tamid Service

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 229; Trudinger (2004) 34

3.1. וְיִסְּדוּ הַבֹּנִים אֶת־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וַיַּעֲמִידוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מְלֻבָּשִׁים בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי־אָסָף בַּמְצִלְתַּיִם לְהַלֵּל אֶת־יְהוָה עַל־יְדֵי דָּוִיד מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
3.1. וַיִּגַּע הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּעָרִים וַיֵּאָסְפוּ הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 3.2. וַיָּקָם יֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־יוֹצָדָק וְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים וּזְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל וְאֶחָיו וַיִּבְנוּ אֶת־מִזְבַּח אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו עֹלוֹת כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 3.3. וַיָּכִינוּ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַל־מְכוֹנֹתָיו כִּי בְּאֵימָה עֲלֵיהֶם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת ויעל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה עֹלוֹת לַבֹּקֶר וְלָעָרֶב׃ 3.4. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת כַּכָּתוּב וְעֹלַת יוֹם בְּיוֹם בְּמִסְפָּר כְּמִשְׁפַּט דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃ 3.5. וְאַחֲרֵיכֵן עֹלַת תָּמִיד וְלֶחֳדָשִׁים וּלְכָל־מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה הַמְקֻדָּשִׁים וּלְכֹל מִתְנַדֵּב נְדָבָה לַיהוָה׃ 3.6. מִיּוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הֵחֵלּוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וְהֵיכַל יְהוָה לֹא יֻסָּד׃''. None
3.1. And when the seventh month was come, and the children of Israel were in the cities, the people gathered themselves together as one man to Jerusalem. 3.2. Then stood up Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and his brethren the priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and his brethren, and builded the altar of the God of Israel, to offer burnt-offerings thereon, as it is written in the Law of Moses the man of God. 3.3. And they set the altar upon its bases; for fear was upon them because of the people of the countries, and they offered burnt-offerings thereon unto the LORD, even burnt-offerings morning and evening. 3.4. And they kept the feast of tabernacles, as it is written, and offered the daily burnt-offerings by number, according to the ordice, as the duty of every day required; 3.5. and afterward the continual burnt-offering, and the offerings of the new moons, and of all the appointed seasons of the LORD that were hallowed, and of every one that willingly offered a freewill-offering unto the LORD. 3.6. From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt-offerings unto the LORD; but the foundation of the temple of the LORD was not yet laid.''. None
30. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 12.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast of Taberoacles • Nativity, feast of the • enthronement festival, • feast, days • feast, of the Holy Cross • feast, of the Theophany

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 457; Levison (2009) 372, 375; Rubenstein(1995) 20, 50, 164

12.10. And I will pour upon the house of David, And upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, The spirit of grace and of supplication; And they shall look unto Me because athey have thrust him through; And they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, And shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first-born.' '. None
31. Herodotus, Histories, 1.60-1.68, 1.146-1.148, 2.29, 2.38, 2.41-2.44, 2.46-2.65, 2.48.2, 2.78, 2.81, 2.83, 2.86, 2.123, 2.145-2.146, 2.156, 2.170-2.171, 3.142, 5.22, 5.55, 5.62, 5.67, 5.71, 5.83, 5.91-5.93, 6.67, 6.75, 6.105-6.106, 7.132, 7.228, 8.65, 9.11, 9.65 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apatouria, festival • Apaturia, festival • Athens, Dionysus and Dionysian festivals in • Chalcidian vases, Archaic festival for Arten of Eretria on • Daidala (festival) • Daidala festival, Plataea • Dionysiac festival • Eleusis, festival • Festival • Festivals • Festivals, Carneia of Sparta • Festivals, Eleutheria of Plataea • Festivals, Hyacinthia of Sparta • Festivals, Mounichia of Athens • Festivals, Olympic Games • Festivals, Panathenaia of Athens • Festivals, Panionia of Ionians • Festivals, Thesmophoria • Festivals, of Adrastus of Argos • Festivals, of Amun of Egypt • Festivals, of Artemis Agrotera of Athens • Festivals, of Artemis of Samos • Festivals, of Athena of Egypt • Festivals, of Athena of Libya • Festivals, of Damia and Auxesia of Aegina • Festivals, of Dionysus • Festivals, of Hera of Argos • Festivals, of Hera of Corinth • Festivals, of Isis of Egypt • Festivals, of Magna Mater of Cyzicus • Festivals, of Osiris of Egypt • Festivals, of war heroes at Sparta • Isaeum Campense, temple of Isis, and festivals • Neleis (festival) • Opet festival • Plataiai, festival of Zeus Eleutherios • Soteria (festival) • assembly and festivals • burial, state festival • character in suspended during festivals • council no sessions during festivals • feast, commemorative • festival • festival, • festival, Eleusinia, Athenian • festival, Panhellenic • festival, at Sikyon • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Apatouria • festivals, Apaturia • festivals, Artemis Brauronia • festivals, Attic abundance of • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Panionia • festivals, abused by tyrants • festivals, in Aegina • festivals, in the archaic period • festivals, misbehaviour of tyrants during • festivals, promoted by tyrants • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί • festivals,, elite competition in • festivals,, ethnic • tyrants, misbehaviour of, during festivals

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 109, 128; Bernabe et al (2013) 113, 252, 253, 422, 423, 426; Bowie (2021) 315; Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 138, 142, 212; Eidinow (2007) 300; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 264, 274, 495; Eisenfeld (2022) 160; Gygax (2016) 76, 81, 92, 102, 103, 162; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 58; Hallmannsecker (2022) 106; Humphreys (2018) 310, 636; Kowalzig (2007) 151, 385, 387; Lipka (2021) 168; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 64; Manolaraki (2012) 176; Marek (2019) 120; Mikalson (2003) 15, 16, 18, 28, 64, 65, 76, 89, 96, 101, 112, 114, 120, 124, 144, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 188, 192, 193, 212; Papazarkadas (2011) 79; Parker (2005) 160; Seaford (2018) 93; Simon (2021) 41, 174, 183, 318; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 258, 354; Sweeney (2013) 160; Torok (2014) 82; Waldner et al (2016) 158; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 186

1.60. μετὰ δὲ οὐ πολλὸν χρόνον τὠυτὸ φρονήσαντες οἵ τε τοῦ Μεγακλέος στασιῶται καὶ οἱ τοῦ Λυκούργου ἐξελαύνουσί μιν. οὕτω μὲν Πεισίστρατος ἔσχε τὸ πρῶτον Ἀθήνας, καὶ τὴν τυραννίδα οὔκω κάρτα ἐρριζωμένην ἔχων ἀπέβαλε. οἳ δὲ ἐξελάσαντες Πεισίστρατον αὖτις ἐκ νέης ἐπʼ ἀλλήλοισι ἐστασίασαν. περιελαυνόμενος δὲ τῇ στάσι ὁ Μεγακλέης ἐπεκηρυκεύετο Πεισιστράτῳ, εἰ βούλοιτό οἱ τὴν θυγατέρα ἔχειν γυναῖκα ἐπὶ τῇ τυραννίδι. ἐνδεξαμένου δὲ τὸν λόγον καὶ ὁμολογήσαντος ἐπὶ τούτοισι Πεισιστράτου, μηχανῶνται δὴ ἐπὶ τῇ κατόδῳ πρῆγμα εὐηθέστατον, ὡς ἐγὼ εὑρίσκω, μακρῷ, ἐπεί γε ἀπεκρίθη ἐκ παλαιτέρου τοῦ βαρβάρου ἔθνεος τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν ἐὸν καὶ δεξιώτερον καὶ εὐηθείης ἠλιθίου ἀπηλλαγμένον μᾶλλον, εἰ καὶ τότε γε οὗτοι ἐν Ἀθηναίοισι τοῖσι πρώτοισι λεγομένοισι εἶναι Ἑλλήνων σοφίην μηχανῶνται τοιάδε. ἐν τῷ δήμῳ τῷ Παιανιέι ἦν γυνὴ τῇ οὔνομα ἦν Φύη, μέγαθος ἀπὸ τεσσέρων πηχέων ἀπολείπουσα τρεῖς δακτύλους καὶ ἄλλως εὐειδής· ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα σκευάσαντες πανοπλίῃ, ἐς ἅρμα ἐσβιβάσαντες καὶ προδέξαντες σχῆμα οἷόν τι ἔμελλε εὐπρεπέστατον φανέεσθαι ἔχουσα, ἤλαυνον ἐς τὸ ἄστυ, προδρόμους κήρυκας προπέμψαντες· οἳ τὰ ἐντεταλμένα ἠγόρευον ἀπικόμενοι ἐς τὸ ἄστυ, λέγοντες τοιάδε· “ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι, δέκεσθε ἀγαθῷ νόῳ Πεισίστρατον, τὸν αὐτὴ ἡ Ἀηθναίη τιμήσασα ἀνθρώπων μάλιστα κατάγει ἐς τὴν ἑωυτῆς ἀκρόπολιν.” οἳ μὲν δὴ ταῦτα διαφοιτέοντες ἔλεγον· αὐτίκα δὲ ἔς τε τοὺς δήμους φάτις ἀπίκετο ὡς Ἀθηναίη Πεισίστρατον κατάγει, καὶ οἱ ἐν τῷ ἄστεϊ πειθόμενοι τὴν γυναῖκα εἶναι αὐτὴν τὴν θεὸν προσεύχοντό τε τὴν ἄνθρωπον καὶ ἐδέκοντο Πεισίστρατον. 1.61. ἀπολαβὼν δὲ τὴν τυραννίδα τρόπῳ τῷ εἰρημένῳ ὁ Πεισίστρατος κατὰ τὴν ὁμολογίην τὴν πρὸς Μεγακλέα γενομένην γαμέει τοῦ Μεγακλέος τὴν θυγατέρα. οἷα δὲ παίδων τέ οἱ ὑπαρχόντων νεηνιέων καὶ λεγομένων ἐναγέων εἶναι τῶν Ἀλκμεωνιδέων, οὐ βουλόμενός οἱ γενέσθαι ἐκ τῆς νεογάμου γυναικὸς τέκνα ἐμίσγετό οἱ οὐ κατὰ νόμον. τὰ μέν νυν πρῶτα ἔκρυπτε ταῦτα ἡ γυνή, μετὰ δὲ εἴτε ἱστορεύσῃ εἴτε καὶ οὒ φράζει τῇ ἑωυτῆς μητρί, ἣ δὲ τῷ ἀνδρί. ὀργῇ δὲ ὡς εἶχε καταλλάσσετο τὴν ἔχθρην τοῖσι στασιώτῃσι. μαθὼν δὲ ὁ Πεισίστρατος τὰ ποιεύμενα ἐπʼ ἑωυτῷ ἀπαλλάσσετο ἐκ τῆς χώρης τὸ παράπαν, ἀπικόμενος δὲ ἐς Ἐρέτριαν ἐβουλεύετο ἅμα τοῖσι παισί. Ἱππίεω δὲ γνώμῃ νικήσαντος ἀνακτᾶσθαι ὀπίσω τὴν τυραννίδα, ἐνθαῦτα ἤγειρον δωτίνας ἐκ τῶν πολίων αἵτινές σφι προαιδέοντό κού τι. πολλῶν δὲ μεγάλα παρασχόντων χρήματα, Θηβαῖοι ὑπερεβάλοντο τῇ δόσι τῶν χρημάτων. μετὰ δέ, οὐ πολλῷ λόγῳ εἰπεῖν, χρόνος διέφυ καὶ πάντα σφι ἐξήρτυτο ἐς τὴν κάτοδον· καὶ γὰρ Ἀργεῖοι μισθωτοὶ ἀπίκοντο ἐκ Πελοποννήσου, καὶ Νάξιός σφι ἀνὴρ ἀπιγμένος ἐθελοντής, τῷ οὔνομα ἦν Λύγδαμις, προθυμίην πλείστην παρείχετο, κομίσας καὶ χρήματα καὶ ἄνδρας. 1.62. ἐξ Ἐρετρίης δὲ ὁρμηθέντες διὰ ἑνδεκάτου ἔτεος ἀπίκοντο ὀπίσω, καὶ πρῶτον τῆς Ἀττικῆς ἴσχουσι Μαραθῶνα. ἐν δὲ τούτῳ τῷ χώρῳ σφι στρατοπεδευομένοισι οἵ τε ἐκ τοῦ ἄστεος στασιῶται ἀπίκοντο ἄλλοι τε ἐκ τῶν δήμων προσέρρεον, τοῖσι ἡ τυραννὶς πρὸ ἐλευθερίης ἦν ἀσπαστότερον. οὗτοι μὲν δὴ συνηλίζοντο, Ἀθηναίων δὲ οἱ ἐκ τοῦ ἄστεος, ἕως μὲν Πεισίστρατος τὰ χρήματα ἤγειρε, καὶ μεταῦτις ὡς ἔσχε Μαραθῶνα, λόγον οὐδένα εἶχον· ἐπείτε δὲ ἐπύθοντο ἐκ τοῦ Μαραθῶνος αὐτὸν πορεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τὸ ἄστυ, οὕτω δὴ βοηθέουσι ἐπʼ αὐτόν. καὶ οὗτοί τε πανστρατιῇ ἤισαν ἐπὶ τοὺς κατιόντας καὶ οἱ ἀμφὶ Πεισίστρατον, ὡς ὁρμηθέντες ἐκ Μαραθῶνος ἤισαν ἐπὶ τὸ ἄστυ, ἐς τὠυτὸ συνιόντες ἀπικνέονται ἐπὶ Παλληνίδος Ἀθηναίης ἱρόν, καὶ ἀντία ἔθεντο τὰ ὅπλα. ἐνθαῦτα θείῃ πομπῇ χρεώμενος παρίσταται Πεισιστράτῳ Ἀμφίλυτος ὁ Ἀκαρνὰν χρησμολόγος ἀνήρ, ὅς οἱ προσιὼν χρᾷ ἐν ἑξαμέτρῳ τόνῳ τάδε λέγων· ἔρριπται δʼ ὁ βόλος, τὸ δὲ δίκτυον ἐκπεπέτασται, θύννοι δʼ οἰμήσουσι σεληναίης διὰ νυκτός. 1.63. ὃ μὲν δή οἱ ἐνθεάζων χρᾷ τάδε, Πεισίστρατος δὲ συλλαβὼν τὸ χρηστήριον καὶ φὰς δέκεσθαι τὸ χρησθὲν ἐπῆγε τὴν στρατιήν. Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ οἱ ἐκ τοῦ ἄστεος πρὸς ἄριστον τετραμμένοι ἦσαν δὴ τηνικαῦτα, καὶ μετὰ τὸ ἄριστον μετεξέτεροι αὐτῶν οἳ μὲν πρὸς κύβους οἳ δὲ πρὸς ὕπνον. οἱ δὲ ἀμφὶ Πεισίστρατον ἐσπεσόντες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους τρέπουσι. φευγόντων δὲ τούτων βουλὴν ἐνθαῦτα σοφωτάτην Πεισίστρατος ἐπιτεχνᾶται, ὅκως μήτε ἁλισθεῖεν ἔτι οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι διεσκεδασμένοι τε εἶεν· ἀναβιβάσας τοὺς παῖδας ἐπὶ ἵππους προέπεμπε, οἳ δὲ καταλαμβάνοντες τοὺς φεύγοντας ἔλεγον τὰ ἐντεταλμένα ὑπὸ Πεισιστράτου, θαρσέειν τε κελεύοντες καὶ ἀπιέναι ἕκαστον ἐπὶ τὰ ἑωυτοῦ. 1.64. πειθομένων δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων, οὕτω δὴ Πεισίστρατος τὸ τρίτον σχὼν Ἀθήνας ἐρρίζωσε τὴν τυραννίδα ἐπικούροισί τε πολλοῖσι καὶ χρημάτων συνόδοισι, τῶν μὲν αὐτόθεν τῶν δὲ ἀπὸ Στρυμόνος ποταμοῦ συνιόντων, ὁμήρους τε τῶν παραμεινάντων Ἀθηναίων καὶ μὴ αὐτίκα φυγόντων παῖδας λαβὼν καὶ καταστήσας ἐς Νάξον ʽκαὶ γὰρ ταύτην ὁ Πεισίστρατος κατεστρέψατο πολέμῳ καὶ ἐπέτρεψε Λυγδάμἰ πρὸς τε ἔτι τούτοισι τὴν νῆσον Δῆλον καθήρας ἐκ τῶν λογίων καθήρας δὲ ὧδε· ἐπʼ ὅσον ἔποψις τοῦ ἱροῦ εἶχε, ἐκ τούτου τοῦ χώρου παντὸς ἐξορύξας τοὺς νεκροὺς μετεφόρεε ἐς ἄλλον χῶρον τῆς Δήλου. καὶ Πεισίστρατος μὲν ἐτυράννευε Ἀθηνέων, Ἀθηναίων δὲ οἳ μὲν ἐν τῇ μάχη ἐπεπτώκεσαν, οἳ δὲ αὐτῶν μετʼ Ἀλκμεωνιδέων ἔφευγον ἐκ τῆς οἰκηίης. 1.65. τοὺς μέν νυν Ἀθηναίους τοιαῦτα τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον ἐπυνθάνετο ὁ Κροῖσος κατέχοντα, τοὺς δὲ Λακεδαιμονίους ἐκ κακῶν τε μεγάλων πεφευγότας καὶ ἐόντας ἤδη τῷ πολέμῳ κατυπερτέρους Τεγεητέων. ἐπὶ γὰρ Λέοντος βασιλεύοντος καὶ Ἡγησικλέος ἐν Σπάρτῃ τοὺς ἄλλους πολέμους εὐτυχέοντες οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι πρὸς Τεγεήτας μούνους προσέπταιον. τὸ δὲ ἔτι πρότερον τούτων καί κακονομώτατοι ἦσαν σχεδὸν πάντων Ἑλλήνων κατά τε σφέας αὐτοὺς καὶ ξείνοισι ἀπρόσμικτοι· μετέβαλον δὲ ὧδε ἐς εὐνομίην. Λυκούργου τῶν Σπαρτιητέων δοκίμου ἀνδρὸς ἐλθόντος ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐπὶ τὸ χρηστήριον, ὡς ἐσήιε ἐς τὸ μέγαρον, εὐθὺς ἡ Πυθίη λέγει τάδε. ἥκεις ὦ Λυκόοργε ἐμὸν ποτὶ πίονα νηόν Ζηνὶ φίλος καὶ πᾶσιν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσι. δίζω ἤ σε θεὸν μαντεύσομαι ἢ ἄνθρωπον. ἀλλʼ ἔτι καὶ μᾶλλον θεὸν ἔλπομαι, ὦ Λυκόοργε. οἳ μὲν δή τινες πρὸς τούτοισι λέγουσι καὶ φράσαι αὐτῷ τὴν Πυθίην τὸν νῦν κατεστεῶτα κόσμον Σπαρτιήτῃσι. ὡς δʼ αὐτοὶ Λακεδαιμόνιοι λέγουσι, Λυκοῦργον ἐπιτροπεύσαντα Λεωβώτεω, ἀδελφιδέου μὲν ἑωυτοῦ βασιλεύοντος δὲ Σπαρτιητέων, ἐκ Κρήτης ἀγαγέσθαι ταῦτα. ὡς γὰρ ἐπετρόπευσε τάχιστα, μετέστησε τὰ νόμιμα πάντα, καὶ ἐφύλαξε ταῦτα μὴ παραβαίνειν· μετὰ δὲ τὰ ἐς πόλεμον ἔχοντα, ἐνωμοτίας καὶ τριηκάδας καὶ συσσίτια, πρός τε τούτοισι τοὺς ἐφόρους καὶ γέροντας ἔστησε Λυκοῦργος. 1.66. οὕτω μὲν μεταβαλόντες εὐνομήθησαν, τῷ δὲ Λυκούργῳ τελευτήσαντι ἱρὸν εἱσάμενοι σέβονται μεγάλως. οἷα δὲ ἐν τε χώρῃ ἀγαθῇ καὶ πλήθεϊ οὐκ ὀλίγων ἀνδρῶν, ἀνά τε ἔδραμον αὐτίκα καὶ εὐθηνήθησαν, καὶ δή σφι οὐκέτι ἀπέχρα ἡσυχίην ἄγειν, ἀλλὰ καταφρονήσαντες Ἀρκάδων κρέσσονες εἶναι ἐχρηστηριάζοντο ἐν Δελφοῖσι ἐπὶ πάσῃ τῇ Ἀρκάδων χωρῇ. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφι χρᾷ τάδε. Ἀρκαδίην μʼ αἰτεῖς· μέγα μʼ αἰτεῖς· οὐ τοι δώσω. πολλοὶ ἐν Ἀρκαδίῃ βαλανηφάγοι ἄνδρες ἔασιν, οἵ σʼ ἀποκωλύσουσιν. ἐγὼ δὲ τοι οὔτι μεγαίρω· δώσω τοί Τεγέην ποσσίκροτον ὀρχήσασθαι καὶ καλὸν πεδίον σχοίνῳ διαμετρήσασθαι. ταῦτα ὡς ἀπενειχθέντα ἤκουσαν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι,Ἀρκάδων μὲν τῶν ἄλλων ἀπείχοντο, οἳ δὲ πέδας φερόμενοι ἐπὶ Τεγεήτας ἐστρατεύοντο, χρησμῷ κιβδήλῳ πίσυνοι, ὡς δὴ ἐξανδραποδιούμενοι τοὺς Τεγεήτας. ἑσσωθέντες δὲ τῇ συμβολῇ, ὅσοι αὐτῶν ἐζωγρήθησαν, πέδας τε ἔχοντες τὰς ἐφέροντο αὐτοὶ καὶ σχοίνῳ διαμετρησάμενοι τὸ πεδίον τὸ Τεγεητέων ἐργάζοντο. αἱ δὲ πέδαι αὗται ἐν τῇσι ἐδεδέατο ἔτι καὶ ἐς ἐμὲ ἦσαν σόαι ἐν Τεγέῃ περὶ τὸν νηὸν τῆς Ἀλέης Ἀθηναίης κρεμάμεναι. 1.67. κατὰ μὲν δὴ τὸν πρότερον πόλεμον συνεχέως αἰεὶ κακῶς ἀέθλεον πρὸς τοὺς Τεγεήτας, κατὰ δὲ τὸν κατὰ Κροῖσον χρόνον καὶ τὴν Ἀναξανδρίδεώ τε καὶ Ἀρίστωνος βασιληίην ἐν Λακεδαίμονι ἤδη οἱ Σπαρτιῆται κατυπέρτεροι τῷ πολέμῳ ἐγεγόνεσαν, τρόπῳ τοιῷδε γενόμενοι. ἐπειδὴ αἰεὶ τῷ πολέμῳ ἑσσοῦντο ὑπὸ Τεγεητέων, πέμψαντες θεοπρόπους ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐπειρώτων τίνα ἂν θεῶν ἱλασάμενοι κατύπερθε τῷ πολέμῳ Τεγεητέων γενοίατο. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφι ἔχρησε τὰ Ὀρέστεω τοῦ Ἀγαμέμνονος ὀστέα ἐπαγαγομένους. ὡς δὲ ἀνευρεῖν οὐκ οἷοί τε ἐγίνοντο τὴν θήκην τοῦ Ὀρέστεω ἔπεμπον αὖτις τὴν ἐς θεὸν ἐπειρησομένους τὸν χῶρον ἐν τῷ κέοιτο Ὀρέστης. εἰρωτῶσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι θεοπρόποισι λέγει ἡ Πυθίη τάδε. ἔστι τις Ἀρκαδίης Τεγέη λευρῷ ἐνὶ χώρῳ, ἔνθʼ ἄνεμοι πνείουσι δύω κρατερῆς ὑπʼ ἀνάγκης, καὶ τύπος ἀντίτυπος, καὶ πῆμʼ ἐπὶ πήματι κεῖται. ἔνθʼ Ἀγαμεμνονίδην κατέχει φυσίζοος αἶα, τὸν σὺ κομισσάμενος Τεγέης ἐπιτάρροθος ἔσσῃ. ὡς δὲ καὶ ταῦτα ἤκουσαν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, ἀπεῖχον τῆς ἐξευρέσιος οὐδὲν ἔλασσον, πάντα διζήμενοι, ἐς οὗ δὴ Λίχης τῶν ἀγαθοεργῶν καλεομένων Σπαρτιητέων ἀνεῦρε, οἱ δὲ ἀγαθοεργοὶ εἰσὶ τῶν ἀστῶν, ἐξιόντες ἐκ τῶν ἱππέων αἰεὶ οἱ πρεσβύτατοι, πέντε ἔτεος ἑκάστου· τοὺς δεῖ τοῦτὸν τὸν ἐνιαυτόν, τὸν ἂν ἐξίωσι ἐκ τῶν ἱππέων, Σπαρτιητέων τῷ κοινῷ διαπεμπομένους μὴ ἐλινύειν ἄλλους ἄλλῃ. 1.68. τούτων ὦν τῶν ἀνδρῶν Λίχης ἀνεῦρε ἐν Τεγέῃ καὶ συντυχίῃ χρησάμενος καὶ σοφίῃ. ἐούσης γὰρ τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον ἐπιμιξίης πρὸς τοὺς Τεγεήτας, ἐλθὼν ἐς χαλκήιον ἐθηεῖτο σίδηρον ἐξελαυνόμενον, καὶ ἐν θώματι ἦν ὀρέων τὸ ποιεόμενον. μαθὼν, δέ μιν ὁ χαλκεὺς ἀποθωμάζοντα εἶπε παυσάμενος τοῦ ἔργου “ἦ κου ἄν, ὦ ξεῖνε Λάκων εἴ περ εἶδες τό περ ἐγώ, κάρτα ἂν ἐθώμαζες, ὅκου νῦν οὕτω τυγχάνεις θῶμα ποιεύμενος τὴν ἐργασίην τοῦ σιδήρου. ἐγὼ γὰρ ἐν τῇδε θέλων τῇ αὐλῇ φρέαρ ποιήσασθαι, ὀρύσσων ἐπέτυχον σορῷ ἑπταπήχεϊ· ὑπὸ δὲ ἀπιστίης μὴ μὲν γενέσθαι μηδαμὰ μέζονας ἀνθρώπους τῶν νῦν ἄνοιξα αὐτὴν καὶ εἶδον τὸν νεκρὸν μήκεϊ ἴσον ἐόντα τῇ σορῷ· μετρήσας δὲ συνέχωσα ὀπίσω.” ὃ μὲν δή οἱ ἔλεγε τά περ ὀπώπεε, ὁ δὲ ἐννώσας τὰ λεγόμενα συνεβάλλετο τὸν Ὀρέστεα κατὰ τὸ θεοπρόπιον τοῦτον εἶναι, τῇδε συμβαλλόμενος· τοῦ χαλκέος δύο ὁρέων φύσας τοὺς ἀνέμους εὕρισκε ἐόντας, τὸν δὲ ἄκμονα καὶ τὴν σφῦραν τόν τε τύπον καὶ τὸν ἀντίτυπον, τὸν δὲ ἐξελαυνόμενον σίδηρον τὸ πῆμα ἐπὶ πήματι κείμενον, κατὰ τοιόνδε τι εἰκάζων, ὡς ἐπὶ κακῷ ἀνθρώπου σίδηρος ἀνεύρηται. συμβαλόμενος δὲ ταῦτα καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἐς Σπάρτην ἔφραζε Λακεδαιμονίοσσι πᾶν τὸ πρῆγμα. οἳ δὲ ἐκ λόγου πλαστοῦ ἐπενείκαντὲς οἱ αἰτίην ἐδίωξαν. ὁ δὲ ἀπικόμενος ἐς Τεγέην καὶ φράζων τὴν ἑωυτοῦ συμφορὴν πρὸς τὸν χαλκέα ἐμισθοῦτο παρʼ οὐκ ἐκδιδόντος τὴν αὐλήν· χρόνῳ δὲ ὡς ἀνέγνωσε, ἐνοικίσθη, ἀνορύξας δὲ τὸν τάφον καὶ τὰ ὀστέα συλλέξας οἴχετο φέρων ἐς Σπάρτην. καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ χρόνου, ὅκως πειρῴατο ἀλλήλων, πολλῷ κατυπέρτεροι τῷ πολέμῳ ἐγίνοντο οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι· ἤδη δέ σφι καὶ ἡ πολλὴ τῆς Πελοποννήσου ἦν κατεστραμμένη.
1.146. τούτων δὴ εἵνεκα καὶ οἱ Ἴωνες δυώδεκα πόλιας ἐποιήσαντο· ἐπεὶ ὥς γέ τι μᾶλλον οὗτοι Ἴωνες εἰσὶ τῶν ἄλλων Ἰώνων ἢ κάλλιόν τι γεγόνασι, μωρίη πολλὴ λέγειν· τῶν Ἄβαντες μὲν ἐξ Εὐβοίες εἰσὶ οὐκ ἐλαχίστη μοῖρα, τοῖσι Ἰωνίης μέτα οὐδὲ τοῦ οὐνόματος οὐδέν, Μινύαι δὲ Ὀρχομένιοί σφι ἀναμεμίχαται καὶ Καδμεῖοι καὶ Δρύοπες καὶ Φωκέες ἀποδάσμιοι καὶ Μολοσσοὶ καὶ Ἀρκάδες Πελασγοὶ καὶ Δωριέες Ἐπιδαύριοι, ἄλλα τε ἔθνεα πολλὰ ἀναμεμίχαται· οἱ δὲ αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ πρυτανηίου τοῦ Ἀθηναίων ὁρμηθέντες καὶ νομίζοντες γενναιότατοι εἶναι Ἰώνων, οὗτοι δὲ οὐ γυναῖκας ἠγάγοντο ἐς τὴν ἀποικίην ἀλλὰ Καείρας ἔσχον, τῶν ἐφόνευσαν τοὺς γονέας. διὰ τοῦτὸν δὲ τὸν φόνον αἱ γυναῖκες αὗται νόμον θέμεναι σφίσι αὐτῇσι ὅρκους ἐπήλασαν καὶ παρέδοσαν τῇσι θυγατράσι, μή κοτε ὁμοσιτῆσαι τοῖσι ἀνδράσι μηδὲ οὐνόματι βῶσαι τὸν ἑωυτῆς ἄνδρα, τοῦδε εἵνεκα ὅτι ἐφόνευσαν σφέων τοὺς πατέρας καὶ ἄνδρας καὶ παῖδας καὶ ἔπειτα ταῦτα ποιήσαντες αὐτῇσι συνοίκεον. 1.147. ταῦτα δὲ ἦν γινόμενα ἐν Μιλήτῳ. βασιλέας δὲ ἐστήσαντο οἳ μὲν αὐτῶν Λυκίους ἀπὸ Γλαύκου τοῦ Ἱππολόχου γεγονότας, οἳ δὲ Καύκωνας Πυλίους ἀπὸ Κόδρου τοῦ Μελάνθου, οἳ δὲ καὶ συναμφοτέρους. ἀλλὰ γὰρ περιέχονται τοῦ οὐνόματος μᾶλλόν τι τῶν ἄλλων Ἰώνων, ἔστωσαν δὴ καὶ οἱ καθαρῶς γεγονότες Ἴωνες. εἰσὶ δὲ πάντες Ἴωνες ὅσοι ἀπʼ Ἀθηνέων γεγόνασι καὶ Ἀπατούρια ἄγουσι ὁρτήν. ἄγουσι δὲ πάντες πλὴν Ἐφεσίων καὶ Κολοφωνίων· οὗτοι γὰρ μοῦνοι Ἰώνων οὐκ ἄγουσι Ἀπατούρια, καὶ οὗτοι κατὰ φόνου τινὰ σκῆψιν. 1.148. τὸ δὲ Πανιώνιον ἐστὶ τῆς Μυκάλης χῶρος ἱρὸς πρὸς ἄρκτον τετραμμένος, κοινῇ ἐξαραιρημένος ὑπὸ Ἰώνων Ποσειδέωνι Ἑλικωνίῳ. ἡ δὲ Μυκάλη ἐστὶ τῆς ἠπείρου ἄκρη πρὸς ζέφυρον ἄνεμον κατήκουσα Σάμῳ καταντίον, ἐς τὴν συλλεγόμενοι ἀπὸ τῶν πολίων Ἴωνες ἄγεσκον ὁρτὴν τῇ ἔθεντο οὔνομα Πανιώνια. πεπόνθασι δὲ οὔτι μοῦναι αἱ Ἰώνων ὁρταὶ τοῦτο, ἀλλὰ καὶ Ἑλλήνων πάντων ὁμοίως πᾶσαι ἐς τὠυτὸ γράμμα τελευτῶσι, κατά περ τῶν Περσέων τὰ οὐνόματα. 1
2.29. ἄλλου δὲ οὐδενὸς οὐδὲν ἐδυνάμην πυθέσθαι. ἀλλὰ τοσόνδε μὲν ἄλλο ἐπὶ μακρότατον ἐπυθόμην, μέχρι μὲν Ἐλεφαντίνης πόλιος αὐτόπτης ἐλθών, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου ἀκοῇ ἤδη ἱστορέων. ἀπὸ Ἐλεφαντίνης πόλιος ἄνω ἰόντι ἄναντες ἐστὶ χωρίον· ταύτῃ ὦν δεῖ τὸ πλοῖον διαδήσαντας ἀμφοτέρωθεν κατά περ βοῦν πορεύεσθαι· ἢν δὲ ἀπορραγῇ τὸ πλοῖον οἴχεται φερόμενον ὑπὸ ἰσχύος τοῦ ῥόου. τὸ δὲ χωρίον τοῦτο ἐστὶ ἐπʼ ἡμέρας τέσσερας πλόος, σκολιὸς δὲ ταύτῃ κατά περ ὁ Μαίανδρος ἐστὶ ὁ Νεῖλος· σχοῖνοι δὲ δυώδεκα εἰσὶ οὗτοι τοὺς δεῖ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ διεκπλῶσαι. καὶ ἔπειτα ἀπίξεαι ἐς πεδίον λεῖον, ἐν τῷ νῆσον περιρρέει ὁ Νεῖλος· Ταχομψὼ οὔνομα αὐτῇ ἐστι. οἰκέουσι δὲ τὰ ἀπὸ Ἐλεφαντίνης ἄνω Αἰθίοπες ἤδη καὶ τῆς νήσου τὸ ἥμισυ, τὸ δὲ ἥμισυ Αἰγύπτιοι. ἔχεται δὲ τῆς νήσου λίμνην μεγάλη, τὴν πέριξ νομάδες Αἰθίοπες νέμονται· τὴν διεκπλώσας ἐς τοῦ Νείλου τὸ ῥέεθρον ἥξεις, τὸ ἐς τὴν λίμνην ταύτην ἐκδιδοῖ. καὶ ἔπειτα ἀποβὰς παρὰ τὸν ποταμὸν ὁδοιπορίην ποιήσεαι ἡμερέων τεσσεράκοντα· σκόπελοί τε γὰρ ἐν τῷ Νείλῳ ὀξέες ἀνέχουσι καὶ χοιράδες πολλαί εἰσι, διʼ ὧν οὐκ οἷά τε ἐστὶ πλέειν. διεξελθὼν δὲ ἐν τῇσι τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρῃσι τοῦτο τὸ χωρίον, αὖτις ἐς ἕτερον πλοῖον ἐσβὰς δυώδεκα ἡμέρας πλεύσεαι, καὶ ἔπειτα ἥξεις ἐς πόλιν μεγάλην τῇ οὔνομα ἐστὶ Μερόη· λέγεται δὲ αὕτη ἡ πόλις εἶναι μητρόπολις τῶν ἄλλων Αἰθιόπων. οἱ δʼ ἐν ταύτῃ Δία θεῶν καὶ Διόνυσον μούνους σέβονται, τούτους τε μεγάλως τιμῶσι, καί σφι μαντήιον Διὸς κατέστηκε· στρατεύονται δὲ ἐπεάν σφεας ὁ θεὸς οὗτος κελεύῃ διὰ θεσπισμάτων, καὶ τῇ ἂν κελεύῃ, ἐκεῖσε.
2.38. τοὺς δὲ βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας τοῦ Ἐπάφου εἶναι νομίζουσι, καὶ τούτου εἵνεκα δοκιμάζουσι αὐτοὺς ὧδε· τρίχα ἢν καὶ μίαν ἴδηται ἐπεοῦσαν μέλαιναν, οὐ καθαρὸν εἶναι νομίζει. δίζηται δὲ ταῦτα ἐπὶ τούτῳ τεταγμένος τῶν τις ἱρέων καὶ ὀρθοῦ ἑστεῶτος τοῦ κτήνεος καὶ ὑπτίου, καὶ τὴν γλῶσσαν ἐξειρύσας, εἰ καθαρὴ τῶν προκειμένων σημηίων, τὰ ἐγὼ ἐν ἄλλῳ λόγῳ ἐρέω· κατορᾷ δὲ καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῆς οὐρῆς εἰ κατὰ φύσιν ἔχει πεφυκυίας. ἢν δὲ τούτων πάντων ᾖ καθαρός, σημαίνεται βύβλῳ περὶ τὰ κέρεα εἱλίσσων καὶ ἔπειτα γῆν σημαντρίδα ἐπιπλάσας ἐπιβάλλει τὸν δακτύλιον, καὶ οὕτω ἀπάγουσι. ἀσήμαντον δὲ θύσαντι θάνατος ἡ ζημίη ἐπικέεται. δοκιμάζεται μέν νυν τὸ κτῆνος τρόπῳ τοιῷδε, θυσίη δέ σφι ἥδε κατέστηκε.
2.41. τοὺς μέν νυν καθαροὺς βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας καὶ τοὺς μόσχους οἱ πάντες Αἰγύπτιοι θύουσι, τὰς δὲ θηλέας οὔ σφι ἔξεστι θύειν, ἀλλὰ ἱραί εἰσι τῆς Ἴσιος· τὸ γὰρ τῆς Ἴσιος ἄγαλμα ἐὸν γυναικήιον βούκερων ἐστὶ κατά περ Ἕλληνες τὴν Ἰοῦν γράφουσι, καὶ τὰς βοῦς τὰς θηλέας Αἰγύπτιοι πάντες ὁμοίως σέβονται προβάτων πάντων μάλιστα μακρῷ. τῶν εἵνεκα οὔτε ἀνὴρ Αἰγύπτιος οὔτε γυνὴ ἄνδρα Ἕλληνα φιλήσειε ἂν τῷ στόματι, οὐδὲ μαχαίρῃ ἀνδρὸς Ἕλληνος χρήσεται οὐδὲ ὀβελοῖσι οὐδὲ λέβητι, οὐδὲ κρέως καθαροῦ βοὸς διατετμημένου Ἑλληνικῇ μαχαίρῃ γεύσεται. θάπτουσι δὲ τοὺς ἀποθνήσκοντας βοῦς τρόπον τόνδε· τὰς μὲν θηλέας ἐς τὸν ποταμὸν ἀπιεῖσι, τοὺς δὲ ἔρσενας κατορύσσουσι ἕκαστοι ἐν τοῖσι προαστείοισι, τὸ κέρας τὸ ἕτερον ἢ καὶ ἀμφότερα ὑπερέχοντα σημηίου εἵνεκεν· ἐπεὰν δὲ σαπῇ καὶ προσίῃ ὁ τεταγμένος χρόνος, ἀπικνέεται ἐς ἑκάστην πόλιν βᾶρις ἐκ τῆς Προσωπίτιδος καλευμένης νήσου. ἣ δʼ ἔστι μὲν ἐν τῷ Δέλτα, περίμετρον δὲ αὐτῆς εἰσὶ σχοῖνοι ἐννέα. ἐν ταύτῃ ὦ τῇ Προσωπίτιδι νήσῳ ἔνεισι μὲν καὶ ἄλλαι πόλιες συχναί, ἐκ τῆς δὲ αἱ βάριες παραγίνονται ἀναιρησόμεναι τὰ ὀστέα τῶν βοῶν, οὔνομα τῇ πόλι Ἀτάρβηχις, ἐν δʼ αὐτῇ Ἀφροδίτης ἱρὸν ἅγιον ἵδρυται. ἐκ ταύτης τῆς πόλιος πλανῶνται πολλοὶ ἄλλοι ἐς ἄλλας πόλις, ἀνορύξαντες δὲ τὰ ὀστέα ἀπάγουσι καὶ θάπτουσι ἐς ἕνα χῶρον πάντες. κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ τοῖσι βουσὶ καὶ τἆλλα κτήνεα θάπτουσι ἀποθνήσκοντα· καὶ γὰρ περὶ ταῦτα οὕτω σφι νενομοθέτηται· κτείνουσι γὰρ δὴ οὐδὲ ταῦτα. 2.42. ὅσοι μὲν δὴ Διὸς Θηβαιέος ἵδρυνται ἱρὸν ἤ νομοῦ τοῦ Θηβαίου εἰσί, οὗτοι μέν νυν πάντες ὀίων ἀπεχόμενοι αἶγας θύουσι. θεοὺς γὰρ δὴ οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς ἅπαντες ὁμοίως Αἰγύπτιοι σέβονται, πλὴν Ἴσιός τε καὶ Ὀσίριος, τὸν δὴ Διόνυσον εἶναι λέγουσι· τούτους δὲ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες σέβονται. ὅσοι δὲ τοῦ Μένδητος ἔκτηνται ἱρὸν ἢ νομοῦ τοῦ Μενδησίου εἰσί, οὗτοι δὲ αἰγῶν ἀπεχόμενοι ὄις θύουσι. Θηβαῖοι μέν νυν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ τούτους ὀίων ἀπέχονται, διὰ τάδε λέγουσι τὸν νόμον τόνδε σφίσι τεθῆναι. Ἡρακλέα θελῆσαι πάντως ἰδέσθαι τὸν Δία, καὶ τὸν οὐκ ἐθέλειν ὀφθῆναι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· τέλος δέ, ἐπείτε λιπαρέειν τὸν Ἡρακλέα, τάδε τὸν Δία μηχανήσασθαι· κριὸν ἐκδείραντα προσχέσθαι τε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποταμόντα τοῦ κριοῦ καὶ ἐνδύντα τὸ νάκος οὕτω οἱ ἑωυτὸν ἐπιδέξαι. ἀπὸ τούτου κριοπρόσωπον τοῦ Διὸς τὤγαλμα ποιεῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, ἀπὸ δὲ Αἰγυπτίων Ἀμμώνιοι, ἐόντες Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων ἄποικοι καὶ φωνὴν μεταξὺ ἀμφοτέρων νομίζοντες. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ τὸ οὔνομα Ἀμμώνιοι ἀπὸ τοῦδε σφίσι τὴν ἐπωνυμίην ἐποιήσαντο· Ἀμοῦν γὰρ Αἰγύπτιοι καλέουσι τὸν Δία. τοὺς δὲ κριοὺς οὐ θύουσι Θηβαῖοι, ἀλλʼ εἰσί σφι ἱροὶ διὰ τοῦτο. μιῇ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, ἐν ὁρτῇ τοῦ Διός, κριὸν ἕνα κατακόψαντες καὶ ἀποδείραντες κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἐνδύουσι τὤγαλμα τοῦ Διός, καὶ ἔπειτα ἄλλο ἄγαλμα Ἡρακλέος προσάγουσι πρὸς αὐτό. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τύπτονται οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱρὸν ἅπαντες τὸν κριὸν καὶ ἔπειτα ἐν ἱρῇ θήκῃ θάπτουσι αὐτόν. 2.43. Ἡρακλέος δὲ πέρι τόνδε τὸν λόγον ἤκουσα, ὅτι εἴη τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν· τοῦ ἑτέρου δὲ πέρι Ἡρακλέος, τὸν Ἕλληνες οἴδασι, οὐδαμῇ Αἰγύπτου ἐδυνάσθην ἀκοῦσαι. καὶ μὴν ὅτι γε οὐ παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον τὸ οὔνομα Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦ Ἡρακλέος, ἀλλὰ Ἕλληνες μᾶλλον παρʼ Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Ἑλλήνων οὗτοι οἱ θέμενοι τῷ Ἀμφιτρύωνος γόνῳ τοὔνομα Ἡρακλέα, πολλά μοι καὶ ἄλλα τεκμήρια ἐστὶ τοῦτο οὕτω ἔχειν, ἐν δὲ καὶ τόδε, ὅτι τε τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τούτου οἱ γονέες ἀμφότεροι ἦσαν Ἀμφιτρύων καὶ Ἀλκμήνη γεγονότες τὸ ἀνέκαθεν ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ διότι Αἰγύπτιοι οὔτε Ποσειδέωνος οὔτε Διοσκούρων τὰ οὐνόματα φασὶ εἰδέναι, οὐδέ σφι θεοὶ οὗτοι ἐν τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι ἀποδεδέχαται. καὶ μὴν εἴ γε παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον οὔνομά τευ δαίμονος, τούτων οὐκ ἥκιστα ἀλλὰ μάλιστα ἔμελλον μνήμην ἕξειν, εἴ περ καὶ τότε ναυτιλίῃσι ἐχρέωντο καὶ ἦσαν Ἑλλήνων τινὲς ναυτίλοι, ὡς ἔλπομαί τε καὶ ἐμὴ γνώμη αἱρέει· ὥστε τούτων ἂν καὶ μᾶλλον τῶν θεῶν τὰ οὐνόματα ἐξεπιστέατο Αἰγύπτιοι ἢ τοῦ Ἡρακλέος. ἀλλά τις ἀρχαῖος ἐστὶ θεὸς Αἰγυπτίοισι Ἡρακλέης· ὡς δὲ αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, ἔτεα ἐστὶ ἑπτακισχίλια καὶ μύρια ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλεύσαντα, ἐπείτε ἐκ τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν οἱ δυώδεκα θεοὶ ἐγένοντο τῶν Ἡρακλέα ἕνα νομίζουσι. 2.44. καὶ θέλων δὲ τούτων πέρι σαφές τι εἰδέναι ἐξ ὧν οἷόν τε ἦν, ἔπλευσα καὶ ἐς Τύρον τῆς Φοινίκης, πυνθανόμενος αὐτόθι εἶναι ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἅγιον. καὶ εἶδον πλουσίως κατεσκευασμένον ἄλλοισί τε πολλοῖσι ἀναθήμασι, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἦσαν στῆλαι δύο, ἣ μὲν χρυσοῦ ἀπέφθου, ἣ δὲ σμαράγδου λίθου λάμποντος τὰς νύκτας μέγαθος. ἐς λόγους δὲ ἐλθὼν τοῖσι ἱρεῦσι τοῦ θεοῦ εἰρόμην ὁκόσος χρόνος εἴη ἐξ οὗ σφι τὸ ἱρὸν ἵδρυται. εὗρον δὲ οὐδὲ τούτους τοῖσι Ἕλλησι συμφερομένους· ἔφασαν γὰρ ἅμα Τύρῳ οἰκιζομένῃ καὶ τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἱδρυθῆναι, εἶναι δὲ ἔτεα ἀπʼ οὗ Τύρον οἰκέουσι τριηκόσια καὶ δισχίλια. εἶδον δὲ ἐν τῇ Τύρῳ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντος Θασίου εἶναι· ἀπικόμην δὲ καὶ ἐς Θάσον, ἐν τῇ εὗρον ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ὑπὸ Φοινίκων ἱδρυμένον, οἳ κατʼ Εὐρώπης ζήτησιν ἐκπλώσαντες Θάσον ἔκτισαν· καὶ ταῦτα καὶ πέντε γενεῇσι ἀνδρῶν πρότερα ἐστὶ ἢ τὸν Ἀμφιτρύωνος Ἡρακλέα ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι γενέσθαι. τὰ μέν νυν ἱστορημένα δηλοῖ σαφέως παλαιὸν θεὸν Ἡρακλέα ἐόντα, καὶ δοκέουσι δέ μοι οὗτοι ὀρθότατα Ἑλλήνων ποιέειν, οἳ διξὰ Ἡράκλεια ἱδρυσάμενοι ἔκτηνται, καὶ τῷ μὲν ὡς ἀθανάτῳ Ὀλυμπίῳ δὲ ἐπωνυμίην θύουσι, τῷ δὲ ἑτέρῳ ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζουσι.
2.46. τὰς δὲ δὴ αἶγας καὶ τοὺς τράγους τῶνδε εἵνεκα οὐ θύουσι Αἰγυπτίων οἱ εἰρημένοι· τὸν Πᾶνα τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν λογίζονται εἶναι οἱ Μενδήσιοι, τοὺς δὲ ὀκτὼ θεοὺς τούτους προτέρους τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν φασι γενέσθαι. γράφουσί τε δὴ καὶ γλύφουσι οἱ ζωγράφοι καὶ οἱ ἀγαλματοποιοὶ τοῦ Πανὸς τὤγαλμα κατά περ Ἕλληνες αἰγοπρόσωπον καὶ τραγοσκελέα, οὔτι τοιοῦτον νομίζοντες εἶναί μιν ἀλλὰ ὁμοῖον τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι· ὅτευ δὲ εἵνεκα τοιοῦτον γράφουσι αὐτόν, οὔ μοι ἥδιον ἐστὶ λέγειν. σέβονται δὲ πάντας τοὺς αἶγας οἱ Μενδήσιοι, καὶ μᾶλλον τοὺς ἔρσενας τῶν θηλέων, καὶ τούτων οἱ αἰπόλοι τιμὰς μέζονας ἔχουσι· ἐκ δὲ τούτων ἕνα μάλιστα, ὅστις ἐπεὰν ἀποθάνῃ, πένθος μέγα παντὶ τῷ Μενδησίῳ νομῷ τίθεται. καλέεται δὲ ὅ τε τράγος καὶ ὁ Πὰν Αἰγυπτιστὶ Μένδης. ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ νομῷ τούτῳ ἐπʼ ἐμεῦ τοῦτο τὸ τέρας· γυναικὶ τράγος ἐμίσγετο ἀναφανδόν. τοῦτο ἐς ἐπίδεξιν ἀνθρώπων ἀπίκετο. 2.47. ὗν δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι μιαρὸν ἥγηνται θηρίον εἶναι, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν ἤν τις ψαύσῃ αὐτῶν παριὼν αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἱματίοισι ἀπʼ ὦν ἔβαψε ἑωυτὸν βὰς ἐς τὸν ποταμόν· τοῦτο δὲ οἱ συβῶται ἐόντες Αἰγύπτιοι ἐγγενέες ἐς ἱρὸν οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἐσέρχονται μοῦνοι πάντων, οὐδέ σφι ἐκδίδοσθαι οὐδεὶς θυγατέρα ἐθέλει οὐδʼ ἄγεσθαι ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἀλλʼ ἐκδίδονταί τε οἱ συβῶται καὶ ἄγονται ἐξ ἀλλήλων. τοῖσι μέν νυν ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι θύειν ὗς οὐ δικαιοῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, Σελήνῃ δὲ καὶ Διονύσῳ μούνοισι τοῦ αὐτοῦ χρόνου, τῇ αὐτῇ πανσελήνῳ, τοὺς ὗς θύσαντες πατέονται τῶν κρεῶν. διότι δὲ τοὺς ὗς ἐν μὲν τῇσι ἄλλῃσι ὁρτῇσι ἀπεστυγήκασι ἐν δὲ ταύτῃ θύουσι, ἔστι μὲν λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων λεγόμενος, ἐμοὶ μέντοι ἐπισταμένῳ οὐκ εὐπρεπέστερος ἐστὶ λέγεσθαι. θυσίη δὲ ἥδε τῶν ὑῶν τῇ Σελήνῃ ποιέεται· ἐπεὰν θύσῃ, τὴν οὐρὴν ἄκρην καὶ τὸν σπλῆνα καὶ τὸν ἐπίπλοον συνθεὶς ὁμοῦ κατʼ ὦν ἐκάλυψε πάσῃ τοῦ κτήνεος τῇ πιμελῇ τῇ περὶ τὴν νηδὺν γινομένῃ, καὶ ἔπειτα καταγίζει πυρί· τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα σιτέονται ἐν τῇ πανσελήνῳ ἐν τῇ ἂν τὰ ἱρὰ θύσωσι, ἐν ἄλλῃ δὲ ἡμέρῃ οὐκ ἂν ἔτι γευσαίατο. οἱ δὲ πένητες αὐτῶν ὑπʼ ἀσθενείης βίου σταιτίνας πλάσαντες ὗς καὶ ὀπτήσαντες ταύτας θύουσι. 2.48. τῷ δὲ Διονύσῳ τῆς ὁρτῆς τῇ δορπίῃ χοῖρον πρὸ τῶν θυρέων σφάξας ἕκαστος διδοῖ ἀποφέρεσθαι τὸν χοῖρον αὐτῷ τῷ ἀποδομένῳ τῶν συβωτέων. τὴν δὲ ἄλλην ἀνάγουσι ὁρτὴν τῷ Διονύσῳ οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι πλὴν χορῶν κατὰ ταὐτὰ σχεδὸν πάντα Ἕλλησι· ἀντὶ δὲ φαλλῶν ἄλλα σφι ἐστὶ ἐξευρημένα, ὅσον τε πηχυαῖα ἀγάλματα νευρόσπαστα, τὰ περιφορέουσι κατὰ κώμας γυναῖκες, νεῦον τὸ αἰδοῖον, οὐ πολλῷ τεῳ ἔλασσον ἐὸν τοῦ ἄλλου σώματος· προηγέεται δὲ αὐλός, αἳ δὲ ἕπονται ἀείδουσαι τὸν Διόνυσον. διότι δὲ μέζον τε ἔχει τὸ αἰδοῖον καὶ κινέει μοῦνον τοῦ σώματος, ἔστι λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ ἱρὸς λεγόμενος.' '2.49. ἤδη ὦν δοκέει μοι Μελάμπους ὁ Ἀμυθέωνος τῆς θυσίης ταύτης οὐκ εἶναι ἀδαὴς ἀλλʼ ἔμπειρος. Ἕλλησι γὰρ δὴ Μελάμπους ἐστὶ ὁ ἐξηγησάμενος τοῦ Διονύσου τό τε οὔνομα καὶ τὴν θυσίην καὶ τὴν πομπὴν τοῦ φαλλοῦ· ἀτρεκέως μὲν οὐ πάντα συλλαβὼν τὸν λόγον ἔφηνε, ἀλλʼ οἱ ἐπιγενόμενοι τούτῳ σοφισταὶ μεζόνως ἐξέφηναν· τὸν δʼ ὦν φαλλὸν τὸν τῷ Διονύσῳ πεμπόμενον Μελάμπους ἐστὶ ὁ κατηγησάμενος, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου μαθόντες ποιεῦσι τὰ ποιεῦσι Ἕλληνες. ἐγὼ μέν νυν φημὶ Μελάμποδα γενόμενον ἄνδρα σοφὸν μαντικήν τε ἑωυτῷ συστῆσαι καὶ πυθόμενον ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἄλλα τε πολλὰ ἐσηγήσασθαι Ἕλλησι καὶ τὰ περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον, ὀλίγα αὐτῶν παραλλάξαντα. οὐ γὰρ δὴ συμπεσεῖν γε φήσω τά τε ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ποιεύμενα τῷ θεῷ καὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖσι Ἕλλησι· ὁμότροπα γὰρ ἂν ἦν τοῖσι Ἕλλησι καὶ οὐ νεωστὶ ἐσηγμένα. οὐ μὲν οὐδὲ φήσω ὅκως Αἰγύπτιοι παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον ἢ τοῦτο ἢ ἄλλο κού τι νόμαιον. πυθέσθαι δέ μοι δοκέει μάλιστα Μελάμπους τὰ περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον παρὰ Κάδμου τε τοῦ Τυρίου καὶ τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ Φοινίκης ἀπικομένων ἐς τὴν νῦν Βοιωτίην καλεομένην χώρην. 2.50. σχεδὸν δὲ καὶ πάντων τὰ οὐνόματα τῶν θεῶν ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐλήλυθε ἐς τὴν Ἑλλάδα. διότι μὲν γὰρ ἐκ τῶν βαρβάρων ἥκει, πυνθανόμενος οὕτω εὑρίσκω ἐόν· δοκέω δʼ ὦν μάλιστα ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἀπῖχθαι. ὅτι γὰρ δὴ μὴ Ποσειδέωνος καὶ Διοσκούρων, ὡς καὶ πρότερόν μοι ταῦτα εἴρηται, καὶ Ἥρης καὶ Ἱστίης καὶ Θέμιος καὶ Χαρίτων καὶ Νηρηίδων, τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν Αἰγυπτίοισι αἰεί κοτε τὰ οὐνόματα ἐστὶ ἐν τῇ χώρῃ. λέγω δὲ τὰ λέγουσι αὐτοὶ Αἰγύπτιοι. τῶν δὲ οὔ φασι θεῶν γινώσκειν τὰ οὐνόματα, οὗτοι δέ μοι δοκέουσι ὑπὸ Πελασγῶν ὀνομασθῆναι, πλὴν Ποσειδέωνος· τοῦτον δὲ τὸν θεὸν παρὰ Λιβύων ἐπύθοντο· οὐδαμοὶ γὰρ ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς Ποσειδέωνος οὔνομα ἔκτηνται εἰ μὴ Λίβυες καὶ τιμῶσι τὸν θεὸν τοῦτον αἰεί. νομίζουσι δʼ ὦν Αἰγύπτιοι οὐδʼ ἥρωσι οὐδέν. 2.51. ταῦτα μέν νυν καὶ ἄλλα πρὸς τούτοισι, τὰ ἐγὼ φράσω, Ἕλληνες ἀπʼ Αἰγυπτίων νενομίκασι· τοῦ δὲ Ἑρμέω τὰ ἀγάλματα ὀρθὰ ἔχειν τὰ αἰδοῖα ποιεῦντες οὐκ ἀπʼ Αἰγυπτίων μεμαθήκασι, ἀλλʼ ἀπὸ Πελασγῶν πρῶτοι μὲν Ἑλλήνων ἁπάντων Ἀθηναῖοι παραλαβόντες, παρὰ δὲ τούτων ὧλλοι. Ἀθηναίοισι γὰρ ἤδη τηνικαῦτα ἐς Ἕλληνας τελέουσι Πελασγοὶ σύνοικοι ἐγένοντο ἐν τῇ χώρῃ, ὅθεν περ καὶ Ἕλληνες ἤρξαντο νομισθῆναι. ὅστις δὲ τὰ Καβείρων ὄργια μεμύηται, τὰ Σαμοθρήικες ἐπιτελέουσι παραλαβόντες παρὰ Πελασγῶν, οὗτος ὡνὴρ οἶδε τὸ λέγω· τὴν γὰρ Σαμοθρηίκην οἴκεον πρότερον Πελασγοὶ οὗτοι οἵ περ Ἀθηναίοισι σύνοικοι ἐγένοντο, καὶ παρὰ τούτων Σαμοθρήικες τὰ ὄργια παραλαμβάνουσι. ὀρθὰ ὦν ἔχειν τὰ αἰδοῖα τἀγάλματα τοῦ Ἑρμέω Ἀθηναῖοι πρῶτοι Ἑλλήνων μαθόντες παρὰ Πελασγῶν ἐποιήσαντο· οἱ δὲ Πελασγοὶ ἱρόν τινα λόγον περὶ αὐτοῦ ἔλεξαν, τὰ ἐν τοῖσι ἐν Σαμοθρηίκῃ μυστηρίοισι δεδήλωται. 2.52. ἔθυον δὲ πάντα πρότερον οἱ Πελασγοὶ θεοῖσι ἐπευχόμενοι, ὡς ἐγὼ ἐν Δωδώνῃ οἶδα ἀκούσας, ἐπωνυμίην δὲ οὐδʼ οὔνομα ἐποιεῦντο οὐδενὶ αὐτῶν· οὐ γὰρ ἀκηκόεσάν κω. θεοὺς δὲ προσωνόμασαν σφέας ἀπὸ τοῦ τοιούτου, ὅτι κόσμῳ θέντες τὰ πάντα πρήγματα καὶ πάσας νομὰς εἶχον. ἔπειτα δὲ χρόνου πολλοῦ διεξελθόντος ἐπύθοντο ἐκ τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἀπικόμενα τὰ οὐνόματα τῶν θεῶν τῶν ἄλλων, Διονύσου δὲ ὕστερον πολλῷ ἐπύθοντο. καὶ μετὰ χρόνον ἐχρηστηριάζοντο περὶ τῶν οὐνομάτων ἐν Δωδώνῃ· τὸ γὰρ δὴ μαντήιον τοῦτο νενόμισται ἀρχαιότατον τῶν ἐν Ἕλλησι χρηστηρίων εἶναι, καὶ ἦν τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον μοῦνον. ἐπεὶ ὦν ἐχρηστηριάζοντο ἐν τῇ Δωδώνῃ οἱ Πελασγοὶ εἰ ἀνέλωνται τὰ οὐνόματα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἥκοντα, ἀνεῖλε τὸ μαντήιον χρᾶσθαι. ἀπὸ μὲν δὴ τούτου τοῦ χρόνου ἔθυον τοῖσι οὐνόμασι τῶν θεῶν χρεώμενοι· παρὰ δὲ Πελασγῶν Ἕλληνες ἐξεδέξαντο ὕστερον. 2.53. ἔνθεν δὲ ἐγένοντο ἕκαστος τῶν θεῶν, εἴτε αἰεὶ ἦσαν πάντες, ὁκοῖοί τε τινὲς τὰ εἴδεα, οὐκ ἠπιστέατο μέχρι οὗ πρώην τε καὶ χθὲς ὡς εἰπεῖν λόγῳ. Ἡσίοδον γὰρ καὶ Ὅμηρον ἡλικίην τετρακοσίοισι ἔτεσι δοκέω μευ πρεσβυτέρους γενέσθαι καὶ οὐ πλέοσι· οὗτοι δὲ εἰσὶ οἱ ποιήσαντες θεογονίην Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῖσι θεοῖσι τὰς ἐπωνυμίας δόντες καὶ τιμάς τε καὶ τέχνας διελόντες καὶ εἴδεα αὐτῶν σημήναντες. οἱ δὲ πρότερον ποιηταὶ λεγόμενοι τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν γενέσθαι ὕστερον, ἔμοιγε δοκέειν, ἐγένοντο. τούτων τὰ μὲν πρῶτα αἱ Δωδωνίδες ἱρεῖαι λέγουσι, τὰ δὲ ὕστερα τὰ ἐς Ἡσίοδόν τε καὶ Ὅμηρον ἔχοντα ἐγὼ λέγω. 2.54. χρηστηρίων δὲ πέρι τοῦ τε ἐν Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῦ ἐν Λιβύῃ τόνδε Αἰγύπτιοι λόγον λέγουσι. ἔφασαν οἱ ἱρέες τοῦ Θηβαιέος Διὸς δύο γυναῖκας ἱρείας ἐκ Θηβέων ἐξαχθῆναι ὑπὸ Φοινίκων, καὶ τὴν μὲν αὐτέων πυθέσθαι ἐς Λιβύην πρηθεῖσαν τὴν δὲ ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας· ταύτας δὲ τὰς γυναῖκας εἶναι τὰς ἱδρυσαμένας τὰ μαντήια πρώτας ἐν τοῖσι εἰρημένοισι ἔθνεσι. εἰρομένου δέ μευ ὁκόθεν οὕτω ἀτρεκέως ἐπιστάμενοι λέγουσι, ἔφασαν πρὸς ταῦτα ζήτησιν μεγάλην ἀπὸ σφέων γενέσθαι τῶν γυναικῶν τουτέων, καὶ ἀνευρεῖν μὲν σφέας οὐ δυνατοὶ γενέσθαι, πυθέσθαι δὲ ὕστερον ταῦτα περὶ αὐτέων τά περ δὴ ἔλεγον. 2.55. ταῦτα μέν νυν τῶν ἐν Θήβῃσι ἱρέων ἤκουον, τάδε δὲ Δωδωναίων φασὶ αἱ προμάντιες· δύο πελειάδας μελαίνας ἐκ Θηβέων τῶν Αἰγυπτιέων ἀναπταμένας τὴν μὲν αὐτέων ἐς Λιβύην τὴν δὲ παρὰ σφέας ἀπικέσθαι, ἱζομένην δέ μιν ἐπὶ φηγὸν αὐδάξασθαι φωνῇ ἀνθρωπηίῃ ὡς χρεὸν εἴη μαντήιον αὐτόθι Διὸς γενέσθαι, καὶ αὐτοὺς ὑπολαβεῖν θεῖον εἶναι τὸ ἐπαγγελλόμενον αὐτοῖσι, καί σφεας ἐκ τούτου ποιῆσαι. τὴν δὲ ἐς τοὺς Λίβυας οἰχομένην πελειάδα λέγουσι Ἄμμωνος χρηστήριον κελεῦσαι τοὺς Λίβυας ποιέειν· ἔστι δὲ καὶ τοῦτο Διός. Δωδωναίων δὲ αἱ ἱρεῖαι, τῶν τῇ πρεσβυτάτῃ οὔνομα ἦν Προμένεια, τῇ δὲ μετὰ ταύτην Τιμαρέτη, τῇ δὲ νεωτάτῃ Νικάνδρη, ἔλεγον ταῦτα· συνωμολόγεον δέ σφι καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι Δωδωναῖοι οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱρόν. 2.56. ἐγὼ δʼ ἔχω περὶ αὐτῶν γνώμην τήνδε· εἰ ἀληθέως οἱ Φοίνικες ἐξήγαγον τὰς ἱρὰς γυναῖκας καὶ τὴν μὲν αὐτέων ἐς Λιβύην τὴν δὲ ἐς τὴν Ἐλλάδα ἀπέδοντο, δοκέει ἐμοί ἡ γυνὴ αὕτη τῆς νῦν Ἑλλάδος, πρότερον δὲ Πελασγίης καλευμένης τῆς αὐτῆς ταύτης, πρηθῆναι ἐς Θεσπρωτούς, ἔπειτα δουλεύουσα αὐτόθι ἱδρύσασθαι ὑπὸ φηγῷ πεφυκυίῃ ἱρὸν Διός, ὥσπερ ἦν οἰκὸς ἀμφιπολεύουσαν ἐν Θήβῃσι ἱρὸν Διός, ἔνθα ἀπίκετο, ἐνθαῦτα μνήμην αὐτοῦ ἔχειν· ἐκ δὲ τούτου χρηστήριον κατηγήσατο, ἐπείτε συνέλαβε τὴν Ἑλλάδα γλῶσσαν· φάναι δέ οἱ ἀδελφεὴν ἐν Λιβύῃ πεπρῆσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν Φοινίκων ὑπʼ ὧν καὶ αὐτὴ ἐπρήθη. 2.57. πελειάδες δέ μοι δοκέουσι κληθῆναι πρὸς Δωδωναίων ἐπὶ τοῦδε αἱ γυναῖκες, διότι βάρβαροι ἦσαν, ἐδόκεον δέ σφι ὁμοίως ὄρνισι φθέγγεσθαι· μετὰ δὲ χρόνον τὴν πελειάδα ἀνθρωπηίῃ φωνῇ αὐδάξασθαι λέγουσι, ἐπείτε συνετά σφι ηὔδα ἡ γυνή· ἕως δὲ ἐβαρβάριζε, ὄρνιθος τρόπον ἐδόκεέ σφι φθέγγεσθαι, ἐπεὶ τέῳ ἂν τρόπῳ πελειάς γε ἀνθρωπηίῃ φωνῇ φθέγξαιτο; μέλαιναν δὲ λέγοντες εἶναι τὴν πελειάδα σημαίνουσι ὅτι Αἰγυπτίη ἡ γυνὴ ἦν. ἡ δὲ μαντηίη ἥ τε ἐν Θήβῃσι τῇσι Αἰγυπτίῃσι καὶ ἐν Δωδώνῃ παραπλήσιαι ἀλλήλῃσι τυγχάνουσι ἐοῦσαι. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τῶν ἱρῶν ἡ μαντικὴ ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἀπιγμένη. 2.58. πανηγύρις δὲ ἄρα καὶ πομπὰς καὶ προσαγωγὰς πρῶτοι ἀνθρώπων Αἰγύπτιοι εἰσὶ οἱ ποιησάμενοι, καὶ παρὰ τούτων Ἕλληνες μεμαθήκασι. τεκμήριον δέ μοι τούτου τόδε· αἱ μὲν γὰρ φαίνονται ἐκ πολλοῦ τευ χρόνου ποιεύμεναι, αἱ δὲ Ἑλληνικαὶ νεωστὶ ἐποιήθησαν. 2.59. πανηγυρίζουσι δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι οὐκ ἅπαξ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, πανηγύρις δὲ συχνάς, μάλιστα μὲν καὶ προθυμότατα ἐς Βούβαστιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι, δεύτερα δὲ ἐς Βούσιριν πόλιν τῇ Ἴσι· ἐν ταύτῃ γὰρ δὴ τῇ πόλι ἐστὶ μέγιστον Ἴσιος ἱρόν, ἵδρυται δὲ ἡ πόλις αὕτη τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἐν μέσῳ τῷ Δέλτα· Ἶσις δὲ ἐστὶ κατὰ τὴν Ἑλλήνων γλῶσσαν Δημήτηρ. τρίτα δὲ ἐς Σάιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ πανηγυρίζουσι, τέταρτα δὲ ἐς Ἡλίου πόλιν τῷ Ἡλίω, πέμπτα δὲ ἐς Βουτοῦν πόλιν τῇ Λητοῖ, ἕκτα δὲ ἐς Πάπρημιν πόλιν τῷ Ἄρεϊ. 2.60. ἐς μέν νυν Βούβαστιν πόλιν ἐπεὰν κομίζωνται, ποιεῦσι τοιάδε. πλέουσί τε γὰρ δὴ ἅμα ἄνδρες γυναιξὶ καὶ πολλόν τι πλῆθος ἑκατέρων ἐν ἑκάστῃ βάρι· αἳ μὲν τινὲς τῶν γυναικῶν κρόταλα ἔχουσαι κροταλίζουσι, οἳ δὲ αὐλέουσι κατὰ πάντα τὸν πλόον, αἱ δὲ λοιπαὶ γυναῖκες καὶ ἄνδρες ἀείδουσι καὶ τὰς χεῖρας κροτέουσι. ἐπεὰν δὲ πλέοντες κατά τινα πόλιν ἄλλην γένωνται, ἐγχρίμψαντες τὴν βᾶριν τῇ γῇ ποιεῦσι τοιάδε· αἳ μὲν τινὲς τῶν γυναικῶν ποιεῦσι τά περ εἴρηκα, αἳ δὲ τωθάζουσι βοῶσαι τὰς ἐν τῇ πόλι ταύτῃ γυναῖκας, αἳ δὲ ὀρχέονται, αἳ δὲ ἀνασύρονται ἀνιστάμεναι. ταῦτα παρὰ πᾶσαν πόλιν παραποταμίην ποιεῦσι· ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀπίκωνται ἐς τὴν Βούβαστιν, ὁρτάζουσι μεγάλας ἀνάγοντες θυσίας, καὶ οἶνος ἀμπέλινος ἀναισιμοῦται πλέων ἐν τῇ ὁρτῇ ταύτῃ ἢ ἐν τῷ ἅπαντι ἐνιαυτῷ τῷ ἐπιλοίπῳ. συμφοιτῶσι δέ, ὅ τι ἀνὴρ καὶ γυνή ἐστι πλὴν παιδίων, καὶ ἐς ἑβδομήκοντα μυριάδας, ὡς οἱ ἐπιχώριοι λέγουσι. 2.61. ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ταύτῃ ποιέεται, ἐν δὲ Βουσίρι πόλι ὡς ἀνάγουσι τῇ Ἴσι τὴν ὁρτήν, εἴρηται προτερόν μοι· τύπτονται μὲν γὰρ δὴ μετὰ τὴν θυσίην πάντες καὶ πᾶσαι, μυριάδες κάρτα πολλαὶ ἀνθρώπων· τὸν δὲ τύπτονται, οὔ μοι ὅσιον ἐστὶ λέγειν. ὅσοι δὲ Καρῶν εἰσι ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ οἰκέοντες, οὗτοι δὲ τοσούτῳ ἔτι πλέω ποιεῦσι τούτων ὅσῳ καὶ τὰ μέτωπα κόπτονται μαχαίρῃσι, καὶ τούτῳ εἰσὶ δῆλοι ὅτι εἰσὶ ξεῖνοι καὶ οὐκ Αἰγύπτιοι. 2.62. ἐς Σάιν δὲ πόλιν ἐπεὰν συλλεχθέωσι, τῆς θυσίης ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ λύχνα καίουσι πάντες πολλὰ ὑπαίθρια περὶ τὰ δώματα κύκλῳ· τὰ δὲ λύχνα ἐστὶ ἐμβάφια ἔμπλεα ἁλὸς καὶ ἐλαίου, ἐπιπολῆς δὲ ἔπεστι αὐτὸ τὸ ἐλλύχνιον, καὶ τοῦτο καίεται παννύχιον, καὶ τῇ ὁρτῇ οὔνομα κέεται λυχνοκαΐη. οἳ δʼ ἂν μὴ ἔλθωσι τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἐς τὴν πανήγυριν ταύτην, φυλάσσοντες τὴν νύκτα τῆς θυσίης καίουσι καὶ αὐτοὶ πάντες τὰ λύχνα, καὶ οὕτω οὐκ ἐν Σάι μούνῃ καίεται ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀνὰ πᾶσαν Αἴγυπτον. ὅτευ δὲ εἵνεκα φῶς ἔλαχε καὶ τιμὴν ἡ νὺξ αὕτη, ἔστι ἱρὸς περὶ αὐτοῦ λόγος λεγόμενος. 2.63. ἐς δὲ Ἡλίου τε πόλιν καὶ Βουτοῦν θυσίας μούνας ἐπιτελέουσι φοιτέοντες. ἐν δὲ Παπρήμι θυσίας μὲν καὶ ἱρὰ κατά περ καὶ τῇ ἄλλῃ ποιεῦσι· εὖτʼ ἂν δὲ γίνηται καταφερὴς ὁ ἥλιος, ὀλίγοι μὲν τινὲς τῶν ἱρέων περὶ τὤγαλμα πεπονέαται, οἱ δὲ πολλοὶ αὐτῶν ξύλων κορύνας ἔχοντες ἑστᾶσι τοῦ ἱροῦ ἐν τῇ ἐσόδῳ, ἄλλοι τε εὐχωλὰς ἐπιτελέοντες πλεῦνες χιλίων ἀνδρῶν, ἕκαστοι ἔχοντες ξύλα καὶ οὗτοι, ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα ἁλέες ἑστᾶσι. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐὸν ἐν νηῷ μικρῷ ξυλίνῳ κατακεχρυσωμένῳ προεκκομίζουσι τῇ προτεραίῃ ἐς ἄλλο οἴκημα ἱρόν. οἱ μὲν δὴ ὀλίγοι οἱ περὶ τὤγαλμα λελειμμένοι ἕλκουσι τετράκυκλον ἅμαξαν ἄγουσαν τὸν νηόν τε καὶ τὸ ἐν τῷ νηῷ ἐνεὸν ἄγαλμα, οἳ δὲ οὐκ ἐῶσι ἐν τοῖσι προπυλαίοισι ἑστεῶτες ἐσιέναι, οἱ δὲ εὐχωλιμαῖοι τιμωρέοντες τῷ θεῷ παίουσι αὐτοὺς ἀλεξομένους. ἐνθαῦτα μάχη ξύλοισι καρτερὴ γίνεται κεφαλάς τε συναράσσονται, καὶ ὡς ἐγὼ δοκέω πολλοὶ καὶ ἀποθνήσκουσι ἐκ τῶν τρωμάτων· οὐ μέντοι οἵ γε Αἰγύπτιοι ἔφασαν ἀποθνήσκειν οὐδένα. τὴν δὲ πανήγυριν ταύτην ἐκ τοῦδε νομίσαι φασὶ οἱ ἐπιχώριοι· οἰκέειν ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ τούτῳ τοῦ Ἄρεος τὴν μητέρα, καὶ τὸν Ἄρεα ἀπότροφον γενόμενον ἐλθεῖν ἐξανδρωμένον ἐθέλοντα τῇ μητρὶ συμμῖξαι, καὶ τοὺς προπόλους τῆς μητρός, οἷα οὐκ ὀπωπότας αὐτὸν πρότερον, οὐ περιορᾶν παριέναι ἀλλὰ ἀπερύκειν, τὸν δὲ ἐξ ἄλλης πόλιος ἀγαγόμενον ἀνθρώπους τούς τε προπόλους τρηχέως περισπεῖν καὶ ἐσελθεῖν παρὰ τὴν μητέρα. ἀπὸ τούτου τῷ Ἄρεϊ ταύτην τὴν πληγὴν ἐν τῇ ὁρτῇ νενομικέναι φασί. 2.64. καὶ τὸ μὴ μίσγεσθαι γυναιξὶ ἐν ἱροῖσι μηδὲ ἀλούτους ἀπὸ γυναικῶν ἐς ἱρὰ ἐσιέναι οὗτοι εἰσὶ οἱ πρῶτοι θρησκεύσαντες. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι σχεδὸν πάντες ἄνθρωποι, πλὴν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Ἑλλήνων, μίσγονται ἐν ἱροῖσι καὶ ἀπὸ γυναικῶν ἀνιστάμενοι ἄλουτοι ἐσέρχονται ἐς ἱρόν, νομίζοντες ἀνθρώπους εἶναι κατά περ τὰ ἄλλα κτήνεα· καὶ γὰρ τὰ ἄλλα κτήνεα ὁρᾶν καὶ ὀρνίθων γένεα ὀχευόμενα ἔν τε τοῖσι νηοῖσι τῶν θεῶν καὶ ἐν τοῖσι τεμένεσι· εἰ ὦν εἶναι τῷ θεῷ τοῦτο μὴ φίλον, οὐκ ἂν οὐδὲ τὰ κτήνεα ποιέειν. οὗτοι μέν νυν τοιαῦτα ἐπιλέγοντες ποιεῦσι ἔμοιγε οὐκ ἀρεστά· 2.65. Αἰγύπτιοι δὲ θρησκεύουσι περισσῶς τά τε ἄλλα περὶ τὰ ἱρὰ καὶ δὴ καὶ τάδε. ἐοῦσα ἡ Αἴγυπτος ὅμουρος τῇ Λιβύῃ οὐ μάλα θηριώδης ἐστί· τὰ δὲ ἐόντα σφι ἅπαντα ἱρὰ νενόμισται, καὶ τὰ μὲν σύντροφα αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἀνθρώποισι, τὰ δὲ οὔ. τῶν δὲ εἵνεκεν ἀνεῖται τὰ θηρία ἱρὰ εἰ λέγοιμι, καταβαίην ἂν τῷ λόγῳ ἐς τὰ θεῖα πρήγματα, τὰ ἐγὼ φεύγω μάλιστα ἀπηγέεσθαι· τὰ δὲ καὶ εἴρηκα αὐτῶν ἐπιψαύσας, ἀναγκαίῃ καταλαμβανόμενος εἶπον. νόμος δὲ ἐστὶ περὶ τῶν θηρίων ὧδε ἔχων· μελεδωνοὶ ἀποδεδέχαται τῆς τροφῆς χωρὶς ἑκάστων καὶ ἔρσενες καὶ θήλεαι τῶν Αἰγυπτίων, τῶν παῖς παρὰ πατρὸς ἐκδέκεται τὴν τιμήν. οἳ δὲ ἐν τῇσι πόλισι ἕκαστοι εὐχὰς τάσδε σφι ἀποτελέουσι· εὐχόμενοι τῷ θεῷ τοῦ ἂν ᾖ τὸ θηρίον, ξυρῶντες τῶν παιδίων ἢ πᾶσαν τὴν κεφαλὴν ἢ τὸ ἥμισυ ἢ τὸ τρίτον μέρος τῆς κεφαλῆς, ἱστᾶσι σταθμῷ πρὸς ἀργύριον τὰς τρίχας· τὸ δʼ ἂν ἑλκύσῃ, τοῦτο τῇ μελεδωνῷ τῶν θηρίων διδοῖ, ἣ δὲ ἀντʼ αὐτοῦ τάμνουσα ἰχθῦς παρέχει βορὴν τοῖσι θηρίοισι. τροφὴ μὲν δὴ αὐτοῖσι τοιαύτη ἀποδέδεκται· τὸ δʼ ἄν τις τῶν θηρίων τούτων ἀποκτείνῃ, ἢν μὲν ἑκών, θάνατος ἡ ζημίη, ἢν δὲ ἀέκων, ἀποτίνει ζημίην τὴν ἂν οἱ ἱρέες τάξωνται. ὃς δʼ ἂν ἶβιν ἢ ἴρηκα ἀποκτείνῃ, ἤν τε ἑκὼν ἤν τε ἀέκων, τεθνάναι ἀνάγκη.
2.78. ἐν δὲ τῇσι συνουσίῃσι τοῖσι εὐδαίμοσι αὐτῶν, ἐπεὰν ἀπὸ δείπνου γένωνται, περιφέρει ἀνὴρ νεκρὸν ἐν σορῷ ξύλινον πεποιημένον, μεμιμημένον ἐς τὰ μάλιστα καὶ γραφῇ καὶ ἔργῳ, μέγαθος ὅσον τε πηχυαῖον 1 ἢ δίπηχυν, δεικνὺς δὲ ἑκάστῳ τῶν συμποτέων λέγει “ἐς τοῦτον ὁρέων πῖνέ τε καὶ τέρπευ· ἔσεαι γὰρ ἀποθανὼν τοιοῦτος.” ταῦτα μὲν παρὰ τὰ συμπόσια ποιεῦσι.
2.81. ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος.
2.83. μαντικὴ δὲ αὐτοῖσι ὧδε διακέεται· ἀνθρώπων μὲν οὐδενὶ προσκέεται ἡ τέχνη, τῶν δὲ θεῶν μετεξετέροισι· καὶ γὰρ Ἡρακλέος μαντήιον αὐτόθι ἐστὶ καὶ Ἀπόλλωνος καὶ Ἀθηναίης καὶ Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἄρεος καὶ Διός, καὶ τό γε μάλιστα ἐν τιμῇ ἄγονται πάντων τῶν μαντηίων, Λητοῦς ἐν Βουτοῖ πόλι ἐστί. οὐ μέντοι αἵ γε μαντηίαι σφι κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἑστᾶσι, ἀλλὰ διάφοροι εἰσί.
2.86. εἰσὶ δὲ οἳ ἐπʼ αὐτῷ τούτῳ κατέαται καὶ τέχνην ἔχουσι ταύτην. οὗτοι, ἐπεάν σφι κομισθῇ νεκρός, δεικνύουσι τοῖσι κομίσασι παραδείγματα νεκρῶν ξύλινα, τῇ γραφῇ μεμιμημένα , 1 καὶ τὴν μὲν σπουδαιοτάτην αὐτέων φασὶ εἶναι τοῦ οὐκ ὅσιον ποιεῦμαι τὸ οὔνομα ἐπὶ τοιούτῳ πρήγματι ὀνομάζειν, τὴν δὲ δευτέρην δεικνύουσι ὑποδεεστέρην τε ταύτης καὶ εὐτελεστέρην, τὴν δὲ τρίτην εὐτελεστάτην· φράσαντες δὲ πυνθάνονται παρʼ αὐτῶν κατὰ ἥντινα βούλονταί σφι σκευασθῆναι τὸν νεκρόν. οἳ μὲν δὴ ἐκποδὼν μισθῷ ὁμολογήσαντες ἀπαλλάσσονται, οἳ δὲ ὑπολειπόμενοι ἐν οἰκήμασι ὧδε τὰ σπουδαιότατα ταριχεύουσι. πρῶτα μὲν σκολιῷ σιδήρῳ διὰ τῶν μυξωτήρων ἐξάγουσι τὸν ἐγκέφαλον, τὰ μὲν αὐτοῦ οὕτω ἐξάγοντες, τὰ δὲ ἐγχέοντες φάρμακα· μετὰ δὲ λίθῳ Αἰθιοπικῷ ὀξέι παρασχίσαντες παρὰ τὴν λαπάρην ἐξ ὦν εἷλον τὴν κοιλίην πᾶσαν, ἐκκαθήραντες δὲ αὐτὴν καὶ διηθήσαντες οἴνῳ φοινικηίῳ αὖτις διηθέουσι θυμιήμασι τετριμμένοισι· ἔπειτα τὴν νηδὺν σμύρνης ἀκηράτου τετριμμένης καὶ κασίης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων θυμιημάτων, πλὴν λιβανωτοῦ, πλήσαντες συρράπτουσι ὀπίσω. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες ταριχεύουσι λίτρῳ κρύψαντες ἡμέρας ἑβδομήκοντα· πλεῦνας δὲ τουτέων οὐκ ἔξεστι ταριχεύειν. ἐπεὰν δὲ παρέλθωσι αἱ ἑβδομήκοντα, λούσαντες τὸν νεκρὸν κατειλίσσουσι πᾶν αὐτοῦ τὸ σῶμα σινδόνος βυσσίνης τελαμῶσι κατατετμημένοισι, ὑποχρίοντες τῷ κόμμι, τῷ δὴ ἀντὶ κόλλης τὰ πολλὰ χρέωνται Αἰγύπτιοι. ἐνθεῦτεν δὲ παραδεξάμενοί μιν οἱ προσήκοντες ποιεῦνται ξύλινον τύπον ἀνθρωποειδέα, ποιησάμενοι δὲ ἐσεργνῦσι τὸν νεκρόν, καὶ κατακληίσαντες οὕτω θησαυρίζουσι ἐν οἰκήματι θηκαίῳ, ἱστάντες ὀρθὸν πρὸς τοῖχον.
2.123. τοῖσι μέν νυν ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων λεγομένοισι χράσθω ὅτεῳ τὰ τοιαῦτα πιθανά ἐστι· ἐμοὶ δὲ παρὰ πάντα τὸν λόγον ὑπόκειται ὅτι τὰ λεγόμενα ὑπʼ ἑκάστων ἀκοῇ γράφω. ἀρχηγετέειν δὲ τῶν κάτω Αἰγύπτιοι λέγουσι Δήμητρα καὶ Διόνυσον. πρῶτοι δὲ καὶ τόνδε τὸν λόγον Αἰγύπτιοι εἰσὶ οἱ εἰπόντες, ὡς ἀνθρώπου ψυχὴ ἀθάνατος ἐστί, τοῦ σώματος δὲ καταφθίνοντος ἐς ἄλλο ζῷον αἰεὶ γινόμενον ἐσδύεται, ἐπεὰν δὲ πάντα περιέλθῃ τὰ χερσαῖα καὶ τὰ θαλάσσια καὶ τὰ πετεινά, αὖτις ἐς ἀνθρώπου σῶμα γινόμενον ἐσδύνει· τὴν περιήλυσιν δὲ αὐτῇ γίνεσθαι ἐν τρισχιλίοισι ἔτεσι. τούτῳ τῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶ οἳ Ἑλλήνων ἐχρήσαντο, οἳ μὲν πρότερον οἳ δὲ ὕστερον, ὡς ἰδίῳ ἑωυτῶν ἐόντι· τῶν ἐγὼ εἰδὼς τὰ οὐνόματα οὐ γράφω.
2.145. ἐν Ἕλλησι μέν νυν νεώτατοι τῶν θεῶν νομίζονται εἶναι Ἡρακλέης τε καὶ Διόνυσος καὶ Πάν, παρʼ Αἰγυπτίοισι δὲ Πὰν μὲν ἀρχαιότατος καὶ τῶν ὀκτὼ τῶν πρώτων λεγομένων θεῶν, Ἡρακλέης δὲ τῶν δευτέρων τῶν δυώδεκα λεγομένων εἶναι, Διόνυσος δὲ τῶν τρίτων, οἳ ἐκ τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν ἐγένοντο. Ἡρακλέι μὲν δὴ ὅσα αὐτοὶ Αἰγύπτιοι φασὶ εἶναι ἔτεα ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλέα, δεδήλωταί μοι πρόσθε· Πανὶ δὲ ἔτι τούτων πλέονα λέγεται εἶναι, Διονύσῳ δʼ ἐλάχιστα τούτων, καὶ τούτῳ πεντακισχίλια καὶ μύρια λογίζονται εἶναι ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλέα. καὶ ταῦτα Αἰγύπτιοι ἀτρεκέως φασὶ. ἐπίστασθαι, αἰεί τε λογιζόμενοι καὶ αἰεὶ ἀπογραφόμενοι τὰ ἔτεα. Διονύσῳ μέν νυν τῷ ἐκ Σεμέλης τῆς Κάδμου λεγομένῳ γενέσθαι κατὰ ἑξακόσια ἔτεα καὶ χίλια μάλιστα ἐστὶ ἐς ἐμέ, Ἡρακλέι δὲ τῷ Ἀλκμήνης κατὰ εἰνακόσια ἔτεα· Πανὶ δὲ τῷ ἐκ Πηνελόπης ʽἐκ ταύτης γὰρ καὶ Ἑρμέω λέγεται γενέσθαι ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων ὁ Πάν’ ἐλάσσω ἔτεα ἐστὶ τῶν Τρωικῶν, κατὰ ὀκτακόσια μάλιστα ἐς ἐμέ. 2.146. τούτων ὦν ἀμφοτέρων πάρεστι χρᾶσθαι τοῖσί τις πείσεται λεγομένοισι μᾶλλον· ἐμοὶ δʼ ὦν ἡ περὶ αὐτῶν γνώμη ἀποδέδεκται. εἰ μὲν γὰρ φανεροί τε ἐγένοντο καὶ κατεγήρασαν καὶ οὗτοι ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, κατά περ Ἡρακλέης ὁ ἐξ Ἀμφιτρύωνος γενόμενος, καὶ δὴ καὶ Διόνυσος ὁ ἐκ Σεμέλης καὶ Πὰν ὁ ἐκ Πηνελόπης γενόμενος, ἔφη ἄν τις καὶ τούτους ἄλλους ἄνδρας γενομένους ἔχειν τὰ ἐκείνων οὐνόματα τῶν προγεγονότων θεῶν. νῦν δὲ Διόνυσόν τε λέγουσι οἱ Ἕλληνες ὡς αὐτίκα γενόμενον ἐς τὸν μηρὸν ἐνερράψατο Ζεὺς καὶ ἤνεικε ἐς Νύσαν τὴν ὑπὲρ Αἰγύπτου ἐοῦσαν ἐν τῇ Αἰθιοπίῃ, καὶ Πανός γε πέρι οὐκ ἔχουσι εἰπεῖν ὅκῃ ἐτράπετο γενόμενος. δῆλά μοι γέγονε ὅτι ὕστερον ἐπύθοντο οἱ Ἕλληνες τούτων τὰ οὐνόματα ἢ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν· ἀπʼ οὗ δὲ ἐπύθοντο χρόνου, ἀπὸ τούτου γενεηλογέουσι αὐτῶν τὴν γένεσιν.
2.156. οὕτω μέν νυν ὁ νηὸς τῶν φανερῶν μοι τῶν περὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἱρὸν ἐστὶ θωμαστότατον, τῶν δὲ δευτέρων νῆσος ἡ Χέμμις καλευμένη· ἔστι μὲν ἐν λίμνῃ βαθέῃ καὶ πλατέῃ κειμένη παρὰ τὸ ἐν Βουτοῖ ἱρόν, λέγεται δὲ ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων εἶναι αὕτη ἡ νῆσος πλωτή. αὐτὸς μὲν ἔγωγε οὔτε πλέουσαν οὔτε κινηθεῖσαν εἶδον, τέθηπα δὲ ἀκούων εἰ νῆσος ἀληθέως ἐστὶ πλωτή. ἐν δὲ ὦν ταύτῃ νηός τε Ἀπόλλωνος μέγας ἔνι καὶ βωμοὶ τριφάσιοι ἐνιδρύαται, ἐμπεφύκασι δʼ ἐν αὐτῇ φοίνικες συχνοὶ καὶ ἄλλα δένδρεα καὶ καρποφόρα καὶ ἄφορα πολλά. λόγον δὲ τόνδε ἐπιλέγοντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι φασὶ εἶναι αὐτὴν πλωτήν, ὡς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ οὐκ ἐούσῃ πρότερον πλωτῇ Λητώ, ἐοῦσα τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν τῶν πρώτων γενομένων, οἰκέουσα δὲ ἐν Βουτοῖ πόλι, ἵνα δή οἱ τὸ χρηστήριον τοῦτο ἐστί, Ἀπόλλωνα παρʼ Ἴσιος παρακαταθήκην δεξαμένη διέσωσε κατακρύψασα ἐν τῇ νῦν πλωτῇ λεγομένῃ νήσῳ, ὅτε τὸ πᾶν διζήμενος ὁ Τυφῶν ἐπῆλθε, θέλων ἐξευρεῖν τοῦ Ὀσίριος τὸν παῖδα. Ἀπόλλωνα δὲ καὶ Ἄρτεμιν Διονύσου καὶ Ἴσιος λέγουσι εἶναι παῖδας, Λητοῦν δὲ τροφὸν αὐτοῖσι καὶ σώτειραν γενέσθαι. Αἰγυπτιστὶ δὲ Ἀπόλλων μὲν Ὦρος, Δημήτηρ δὲ Ἶσις, Ἄρτεμις δὲ Βούβαστις. ἐκ τούτου δὲ τοῦ λόγου καὶ οὐδενὸς ἄλλου Αἰσχύλος ὁ Εὐφορίωνος ἥρπασε τὸ ἐγὼ φράσω, μοῦνος δὴ ποιητέων τῶν προγενομένων· ἐποίησε γὰρ Ἄρτεμιν εἶναι θυγατέρα Δήμητρος. τὴν δὲ νῆσον διὰ τοῦτο γενέσθαι πλωτήν. ταῦτα μὲν οὕτω λέγουσι.
2.170. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ταφαὶ τοῦ οὐκ ὅσιον ποιεῦμαι ἐπὶ τοιούτῳ πρήγματι ἐξαγορεύειν τὸ οὔνομα ἐν Σάι, ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ τῆς Ἀθηναίης, ὄπισθε τοῦ νηοῦ, παντὸς τοῦ τῆς Ἀθηναίης ἐχόμεναι τοίχου. καὶ ἐν τῷ τεμένεϊ ὀβελοὶ ἑστᾶσι μεγάλοι λίθινοι, λίμνη τε ἐστὶ ἐχομένη λιθίνῃ κρηπῖδι κεκοσμημένη καὶ ἐργασμένη εὖ κύκλῳ καὶ μέγαθος, ὡς ἐμοὶ ἐδόκεε, ὅση περ ἡ ἐν Δήλῳ ἡ τροχοειδὴς καλεομένη. 2.171. ἐν δὲ τῇ λίμνῃ ταύτῃ τὰ δείκηλα τῶν παθέων αὐτοῦ νυκτὸς ποιεῦσι, τὰ καλέουσι μυστήρια Αἰγύπτιοι. περὶ μέν νυν τούτων εἰδότι μοι ἐπὶ πλέον ὡς ἕκαστα αὐτῶν ἔχει, εὔστομα κείσθω. καὶ τῆς Δήμητρος τελετῆς πέρι, τὴν οἱ Ἕλληνες θεσμοφόρια καλέουσι, καὶ ταύτης μοι πέρι εὔστομα κείσθω, πλὴν ὅσον αὐτῆς ὁσίη ἐστὶ λέγειν· αἱ Δαναοῦ θυγατέρες ἦσαν αἱ τὴν τελετὴν ταύτην ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐξαγαγοῦσαι καὶ διδάξασαι τὰς Πελασγιώτιδας γυναῖκας· μετὰ δὲ ἐξαναστάσης πάσης Πελοποννήσου 1 ὑπὸ Δωριέων ἐξαπώλετο ἡ τελετή, οἱ δὲ ὑπολειφθέντες Πελοποννησίων καὶ οὐκ ἐξαναστάντες Ἀρκάδες διέσωζον αὐτὴν μοῦνοι.
3.142. τῆς δὲ Σάμου Μαιάνδριος ὁ Μαιανδρίου εἶχε τὸ κράτος, ἐπιτροπαίην παρὰ Πολυκράτεος λαβὼν τὴν ἀρχήν· τῷ δικαιοτάτῳ ἀνδρῶν βουλομένῳ γενέσθαι οὐκ ἐξεγένετο. ἐπειδὴ γάρ οἱ ἐξαγγέλθη ὁ Πολυκράτεος θάνατος, ἐποίεε τοιάδε· πρῶτα μὲν Διὸς ἐλευθερίου βωμὸν ἱδρύσατο καὶ τέμενος περὶ αὐτὸν οὔρισε τοῦτο τὸ νῦν ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ ἐστί· μετὰ δέ, ὥς οἱ ἐπεποίητο, ἐκκλησίην συναγείρας πάντων τῶν ἀστῶν ἔλεξε τάδε. “ἐμοί, ὡς ἴστε καὶ ὑμεῖς, σκῆπτρον καὶ δύναμις πᾶσα ἡ Πολυκράτεος ἐπιτέτραπται, καί μοι παρέχει νῦν ὑμέων ἄρχειν. ἐγὼ δὲ τὰ τῷ πέλας ἐπιπλήσσω, αὐτὸς κατὰ δύναμιν οὐ ποιήσω· οὔτε γάρ μοι Πολυκράτης ἤρεσκε δεσπόζων ἀνδρῶν ὁμοίων ἑωυτῷ οὔτε ἄλλος ὅστις τοιαῦτα ποιέει. Πολυκράτης μέν νυν ἐξέπλησε μοῖραν τὴν ἑωυτοῦ, ἐγὼ δὲ ἐς μέσον τὴν ἀρχὴν τιθεὶς ἰσονομίην ὑμῖν προαγορεύω. τοσάδε μέντοι δικαιῶ γέρεα ἐμεωυτῷ γενέσθαι, ἐκ μέν γε τῶν Πολυκράτεος χρημάτων ἐξαίρετα ἓξ τάλαντά μοι γενέσθαι, ἱρωσύνην δὲ πρὸς τούτοισι αἱρεῦμαι αὐτῷ τέ μοι καὶ τοῖσι ἀπʼ ἐμεῦ αἰεὶ γινομένοισι τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ ἐλευθερίου· τῷ αὐτός τε ἱρὸν ἱδρυσάμην καὶ τὴν ἐλευθερίην ὑμῖν περιτίθημι.” ὃ μὲν δὴ ταῦτα τοῖσι Σαμίοισι ἐπαγγέλλετο· τῶν δέ τις ἐξαναστὰς εἶπε “ἀλλʼ οὐδʼ ἄξιος εἶς σύ γε ἡμέων ἄρχειν, γεγονώς τε κακῶς καὶ ἐὼν ὄλεθρος· ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον ὅκως λόγον δώσεις τῶν μετεχείρισας χρημάτων.”
5.22. ὁ μέν νυν τῶν Περσέων τούτων θάνατος οὕτω καταλαμφθεὶς ἐσιγήθη. Ἕλληνας δὲ εἶναι τούτους τοὺς ἀπὸ Περδίκκεω γεγονότας, κατά περ αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, αὐτός τε οὕτω τυγχάνω ἐπιστάμενος καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐν τοῖσι ὄπισθε λόγοισι ἀποδέξω ὡς εἰσὶ Ἕλληνες, πρὸς δὲ καὶ οἱ τὸν ἐν Ὀλυμπίῃ διέποντες ἀγῶνα Ἑλληνοδίκαι οὕτω ἔγνωσαν εἶναι. Ἀλεξάνδρου γὰρ ἀεθλεύειν ἑλομένου καὶ καταβάντος ἐπʼ αὐτὸ τοῦτο, οἱ ἀντιθευσόμενοι Ἑλλήνων ἐξεῖργόν μιν, φάμενοι οὐ βαρβάρων ἀγωνιστέων εἶναι τὸν ἀγῶνα ἀλλὰ Ἑλλήνων· Ἀλέξανδρος δὲ ἐπειδὴ ἀπέδεξε ὡς εἴη Ἀργεῖος, ἐκρίθη τε εἶναι Ἕλλην καὶ ἀγωνιζόμενος στάδιον συνεξέπιπτε τῷ πρώτῳ.
5.55. ἀπελαυνόμενος δὲ ὁ Ἀρισταγόρης ἐκ τῆς Σπάρτης ἤιε ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας γενομένας τυράννων ὧδε ἐλευθέρας. ἐπεὶ Ἵππαρχον τὸν Πεισιστράτου, Ἱππίεω δὲ τοῦ τυράννου ἀδελφεόν, ἰδόντα ὄψιν ἐνυπνίου τῷ ἑωυτοῦ πάθεϊ ἐναργεστάτην κτείνουσι Ἀριστογείτων καὶ Ἁρμόδιος, γένος ἐόντες τὰ ἀνέκαθεν Γεφυραῖοι, μετὰ ταῦτα ἐτυραννεύοντο Ἀθηναῖοι ἐπʼ ἔτεα τέσσερα οὐδὲν ἧσσον ἀλλὰ καὶ μᾶλλον ἢ πρὸ τοῦ.
5.62. ἡ μὲν δὴ ὄψις τοῦ Ἱππάρχου ἐνυπνίου καὶ οἱ Γεφυραῖοι ὅθεν ἐγεγόνεσαν, τῶν ἦσαν οἱ Ἱππάρχου φονέες, ἀπήγηταί μοι· δεῖ δὲ πρὸς τούτοισι ἔτι ἀναλαβεῖν τὸν κατʼ ἀρχὰς ἤια λέξων λόγον, ὡς τυράννων ἐλευθερώθησαν Ἀθηναῖοι. Ἱππίεω τυραννεύοντος καὶ ἐμπικραινομένου Ἀθηναίοισι διὰ τὸν Ἱππάρχου θάνατον, Ἀλκμεωνίδαι γένος ἐόντες Ἀθηναῖοι καὶ φεύγοντες Πεισιστρατίδας, ἐπείτε σφι ἅμα τοῖσι ἄλλοισι Ἀθηναίων φυγάσι πειρωμένοισι κατὰ τὸ ἰσχυρὸν οὐ προεχώρεε κάτοδος, ἀλλὰ προσέπταιον μεγάλως πειρώμενοι κατιέναι τε καὶ ἐλευθεροῦν τὰς Ἀθήνας, Λειψύδριον τὸ ὑπὲρ Παιονίης τειχίσαντες, ἐνθαῦτα οἱ Ἀλκμεωνίδαι πᾶν ἐπὶ τοῖσι Πεισιστρατίδῃσι μηχανώμενοι παρʼ Ἀμφικτυόνων τὸν νηὸν μισθοῦνται τὸν ἐν Δελφοῖσι, τὸν νῦν ἐόντα τότε δὲ οὔκω, τοῦτον ἐξοικοδομῆσαι. οἷα δὲ χρημάτων εὖ ἥκοντες καὶ ἐόντες ἄνδρες δόκιμοι ἀνέκαθεν ἔτι, τόν τε νηὸν ἐξεργάσαντο τοῦ παραδείγματος κάλλιον τά τε ἄλλα καὶ συγκειμένου σφι πωρίνου λίθου ποιέειν τὸν νηόν, Παρίου τὰ ἔμπροσθε αὐτοῦ ἐξεποίησαν.
5.67. ταῦτα δέ, δοκέειν ἐμοί, ἐμιμέετο ὁ Κλεισθένης οὗτος τὸν ἑωυτοῦ μητροπάτορα Κλεισθένεα τὸν Σικυῶνος τύραννον. Κλεισθένης γὰρ Ἀργείοισι πολεμήσας τοῦτο μὲν ῥαψῳδοὺς ἔπαυσε ἐν Σικυῶνι ἀγωνίζεσθαι τῶν Ὁμηρείων ἐπέων εἵνεκα, ὅτι Ἀργεῖοί τε καὶ Ἄργος τὰ πολλὰ πάντα ὑμνέαται· τοῦτο δέ, ἡρώιον γὰρ ἦν καὶ ἔστι ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἀγορῇ τῶν Σικυωνίων Ἀδρήστου τοῦ Ταλαοῦ, τοῦτον ἐπεθύμησε ὁ Κλεισθένης ἐόντα Ἀργεῖον ἐκβαλεῖν ἐκ τῆς χώρης. ἐλθὼν δὲ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐχρηστηριάζετο εἰ ἐκβάλοι τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οἱ χρᾷ φᾶσα Ἄδρηστον μὲν εἶναι Σικυωνίων βασιλέα, κεῖνον δὲ λευστῆρα. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς τοῦτό γε οὐ παρεδίδου, ἀπελθὼν ὀπίσω ἐφρόντιζε μηχανὴν τῇ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἄδρηστος ἀπαλλάξεται. ὡς δέ οἱ ἐξευρῆσθαι ἐδόκεε, πέμψας ἐς Θήβας τὰς Βοιωτίας ἔφη θέλειν ἐπαγαγέσθαι Μελάνιππον τὸν Ἀστακοῦ· οἱ δὲ Θηβαῖοι ἔδοσαν. ἐπαγαγόμενος δὲ ὁ Κλεισθένης τὸν Μελάνιππον τέμενός οἱ ἀπέδεξε ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ πρυτανηίῳ καί μιν ἵδρυσε ἐνθαῦτα ἐν τῷ ἰσχυροτάτῳ. ἐπηγάγετο δὲ τὸν Μελάνιππον ὁ Κλεισθένης ʽ καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο δεῖ ἀπηγήσασθαἰ ὡς ἔχθιστον ἐόντα Ἀδρήστῳ, ὃς τόν τε ἀδελφεόν οἱ Μηκιστέα ἀπεκτόνεε καὶ τὸν γαμβρὸν Τυδέα. ἐπείτε δέ οἱ τὸ τέμενος ἀπέδεξε, θυσίας τε καὶ ὁρτὰς Ἀδρήστου ἀπελόμενος ἔδωκε τῷ Μελανίππῳ. οἱ δὲ Σικυώνιοι ἐώθεσαν μεγαλωστὶ κάρτα τιμᾶν τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ γὰρ χώρη ἦν αὕτη Πολύβου, ὁ δὲ Ἄδρηστος ἦν Πολύβου θυγατριδέος, ἄπαις δὲ Πόλυβος τελευτῶν διδοῖ Ἀδρήστῳ τὴν ἀρχήν. τά τε δὴ ἄλλα οἱ Σικυώνιοι ἐτίμων τὸν Ἄδρηστον καὶ δὴ πρὸς τὰ πάθεα αὐτοῦ τραγικοῖσι χοροῖσι ἐγέραιρον, τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον οὐ τιμῶντες, τὸν δὲ Ἄδρηστον. Κλεισθένης δὲ χοροὺς μὲν τῷ Διονύσῳ ἀπέδωκε, τὴν δὲ ἄλλην θυσίην Μελανίππῳ.
5.71. οἱ δʼ ἐναγέες Ἀθηναίων ὧδε ὠνομάσθησαν. ἦν Κύλων τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἀνὴρ Ὀλυμπιονίκης· οὗτος ἐπὶ τυραννίδι ἐκόμησε, προσποιησάμενος δὲ ἑταιρηίην τῶν ἡλικιωτέων καταλαβεῖν τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ἐπειρήθη, οὐ δυνάμενος δὲ ἐπικρατῆσαι ἱκέτης ἵζετο πρὸς τὸ ἄγαλμα. τούτους ἀνιστᾶσι μὲν οἱ πρυτάνιες τῶν ναυκράρων, οἵ περ ἔνεμον τότε τὰς Ἀθήνας, ὑπεγγύους πλὴν θανάτου· φονεῦσαι δὲ αὐτοὺς αἰτίη ἔχει Ἀλκμεωνίδας. ταῦτα πρὸ τῆς Πεισιστράτου ἡλικίης ἐγένετο.
5.83. τοῦτον δʼ ἔτι τὸν χρόνον καὶ πρὸ τοῦ Αἰγινῆται Ἐπιδαυρίων ἤκουον τά τε ἄλλα καὶ δίκας διαβαίνοντες ἐς Ἐπίδαυρον ἐδίδοσάν τε καὶ ἐλάμβανον παρʼ ἀλλήλων οἱ Αἰγινῆται· τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦδε νέας τε πηξάμενοι καὶ ἀγνωμοσύνῃ χρησάμενοι ἀπέστησαν ἀπὸ τῶν Ἐπιδαυρίων. ἅτε δὲ ἐόντες διάφοροι ἐδηλέοντο αὐτούς, ὥστε θαλασσοκράτορες ἐόντες, καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ ἀγάλματα ταῦτα τῆς τε Δαμίης καὶ τῆς Αὐξησίης ὑπαιρέονται αὐτῶν, καί σφεα ἐκόμισάν τε καὶ ἱδρύσαντο τῆς σφετέρης χώρης ἐς τὴν μεσόγαιαν, τῇ Οἴη μὲν ἐστὶ οὔνομα, στάδια δὲ μάλιστά κῃ ἀπὸ τῆς πόλιος ὡς εἴκοσι ἀπέχει. ἱδρυσάμενοι δὲ ἐν τούτῳ τῷ χώρῳ θυσίῃσί τε σφέα καὶ χοροῖσι γυναικηίοισι κερτομίοισι ἱλάσκοντο, χορηγῶν ἀποδεικνυμένων ἑκατέρῃ τῶν δαιμόνων δέκα ἀνδρῶν· κακῶς δὲ ἠγόρευον οἱ χοροὶ ἄνδρα μὲν οὐδένα, τὰς δὲ ἐπιχωρίας γυναῖκας. ἦσαν δὲ καὶ τοῖσι Ἐπιδαυρίοισι αἱ αὐταὶ ἱροεργίαι· εἰσὶ δέ σφι καὶ ἄρρητοι ἱρουργίαι.
5.91. τότε δὲ ὡς ἀνέλαβον οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι τοὺς χρησμοὺς καὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ὥρων αὐξομένους καὶ οὐδαμῶς ἑτοίμους ἐόντας πείθεσθαι σφίσι, νόῳ λαβόντες ὡς ἐλεύθερον μὲν ἐὸν τὸ γένος τὸ Ἀττικὸν ἰσόρροπον ἂν τῷ ἑωυτῶν γίνοιτο, κατεχόμενον δὲ ὑπὸ τυραννίδος ἀσθενὲς καὶ πειθαρχέεσθαι ἕτοιμον· μαθόντες δὲ τούτων ἕκαστα μετεπέμποντο Ἱππίην τὸν Πεισιστράτου ἀπὸ Σιγείου τοῦ ἐν Ἑλλησπόντῳ ἐς ὃ καταφεύγουσι οἱ Πεισιστρατίδαι. ἐπείτε δέ σφι Ἱππίης καλεόμενος ἧκε, μεταπεμψάμενοι καὶ τῶν ἄλλων συμμάχων ἀγγέλους ἔλεγόν σφι Σπαρτιῆται τάδε. “ἄνδρες σύμμαχοι, συγγινώσκομεν αὐτοῖσι ἡμῖν οὐ ποιήσασι ὀρθῶς· ἐπαερθέντες γὰρ κιβδήλοισι μαντηίοισι ἄνδρας ξείνους ἐόντας ἡμῖν τὰ μάλιστα καὶ ἀναδεκομένους ὑποχειρίας παρέξειν τὰς Ἀθήνας, τούτους ἐκ τῆς πατρίδος ἐξηλάσαμεν, καὶ ἔπειτα ποιήσαντες ταῦτα δήμῳ ἀχαρίστῳ παρεδώκαμεν τὴν πόλιν· ὃς ἐπείτε διʼ ἡμέας ἐλευθερωθεὶς ἀνέκυψε, ἡμέας μὲν καὶ τὸν βασιλέα ἡμέων περιυβρίσας ἐξέβαλε, δόξαν δὲ φύσας αὐξάνεται, ὥστε ἐκμεμαθήκασι μάλιστα μὲν οἱ περίοικοι αὐτῶν Βοιωτοὶ καὶ Χαλκιδέες, τάχα δέ τις καὶ ἄλλος ἐκμαθήσεται ἁμαρτών. ἐπείτε δὲ ἐκεῖνα ποιήσαντες ἡμάρτομεν, νῦν πειρησόμεθα σφέας ἅμα ὑμῖν ἀπικόμενοι τίσασθαι· αὐτοῦ γὰρ τούτου εἵνεκεν τόνδε τε Ἱππίην μετεπεμψάμεθα καὶ ὑμέας ἀπὸ τῶν πολίων, ἵνα κοινῷ τε λόγῳ καὶ κοινῷ στόλῳ ἐσαγαγόντες αὐτὸν ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας ἀποδῶμεν τὰ καὶ ἀπειλόμεθα.” 5.92. Ἠετίωνι δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα ὁ παῖς ηὐξάνετο, καί οἱ διαφυγόντι τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον ἀπὸ τῆς κυψέλης ἐπωνυμίην Κύψελος οὔνομα ἐτέθη. ἀνδρωθέντι δὲ καὶ μαντευομένῳ Κυψέλῳ ἐγένετο ἀμφιδέξιον χρηστήριον ἐν Δελφοῖσι, τῷ πίσυνος γενόμενος ἐπεχείρησέ τε καὶ ἔσχε Κόρινθον. ὁ δὲ χρησμὸς ὅδε ἦν. ὄλβιος οὗτος ἀνὴρ ὃς ἐμὸν δόμον ἐσκαταβαίνει, Κύψελος Ἠετίδης, βασιλεὺς κλειτοῖο Κορίνθου αὐτὸς καὶ παῖδες, παίδων γε μὲν οὐκέτι παῖδες. τὸ μὲν δὴ χρηστήριον τοῦτο ἦν, τυραννεύσας δὲ ὁ Κύψελος τοιοῦτος δή τις ἀνὴρ ἐγένετο· πολλοὺς μὲν Κορινθίων ἐδίωξε, πολλοὺς δὲ χρημάτων ἀπεστέρησε, πολλῷ δέ τι πλείστους τῆς ψυχῆς. 5.92. Κορινθίοισι γὰρ ἦν πόλιος κατάστασις τοιήδε· ἦν ὀλιγαρχίη, καὶ οὗτοι Βακχιάδαι καλεόμενοι ἔνεμον τὴν πόλιν, ἐδίδοσαν δὲ καὶ ἤγοντο ἐξ ἀλλήλων. Ἀμφίονι δὲ ἐόντι τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν γίνεται θυγάτηρ χωλή· οὔνομα δέ οἱ ἦν Λάβδα. ταύτην Βακχιαδέων γὰρ οὐδεὶς ἤθελε γῆμαι, ἴσχει Ἠετίων ὁ Ἐχεκράτεος, δήμου μὲν ἐὼν ἐκ Πέτρης, ἀτὰρ τὰ ἀνέκαθεν Λαπίθης τε καὶ Καινείδης. ἐκ δέ οἱ ταύτης τῆς γυναικὸς οὐδʼ ἐξ ἄλλης παῖδες ἐγίνοντο. ἐστάλη ὦν ἐς Δελφοὺς περὶ γόνου. ἐσιόντα δὲ αὐτὸν ἰθέως ἡ Πυθίη προσαγορεύει τοῖσιδε τοῖσι ἔπεσι. Ἠετίων, οὔτις σε τίει πολύτιτον ἐόντα. Λάβδα κύει, τέξει δʼ ὀλοοίτροχον· ἐν δὲ πεσεῖται ἀνδράσι μουνάρχοισι, δικαιώσει δὲ Κόρινθον. ταῦτα χρησθέντα τῷ Ἠετίωνι ἐξαγγέλλεταί κως τοῖσι Βακχιάδῃσι, τοῖσι τὸ μὲν πρότερον γενόμενον χρηστήριον ἐς Κόρινθον ἦν ἄσημον, φέρον τε ἐς τὠυτὸ καὶ τὸ τοῦ Ἠετίωνος καὶ λέγον ὧδε. αἰετὸς ἐν πέτρῃσι κύει, τέξει δὲ λέοντα καρτερὸν ὠμηστήν· πολλῶν δʼ ὑπὸ γούνατα λύσει. ταῦτά νυν εὖ φράζεσθε, Κορίνθιοι, οἳ περὶ καλήν Πειρήνην οἰκεῖτε καὶ ὀφρυόεντα Κόρινθον. 5.92. Περίανδρος δὲ συνιεὶς τὸ ποιηθὲν καὶ νόῳ ἴσχων ὥς οἱ ὑπετίθετο Θρασύβουλος τοὺς ὑπειρόχους τῶν ἀστῶν φονεύειν, ἐνθαῦτα δὴ πᾶσαν κακότητα ἐξέφαινε ἐς τοὺς πολιήτας. ὅσα γὰρ Κύψελος ἀπέλιπε κτείνων τε καὶ διώκων, Περίανδρος σφέα ἀπετέλεσε, μιῇ δὲ ἡμέρῃ ἀπέδυσε πάσας τὰς Κορινθίων γυναῖκας διὰ τὴν ἑωυτοῦ γυναῖκα Μέλισσαν. πέμψαντι γάρ οἱ ἐς Θεσπρωτοὺς ἐπʼ Ἀχέροντα ποταμὸν ἀγγέλους ἐπὶ τὸ νεκυομαντήιον παρακαταθήκης πέρι ξεινικῆς οὔτε σημανέειν ἔφη ἡ Μέλισσα ἐπιφανεῖσα οὔτε κατερέειν ἐν τῷ κέεται χώρῳ ἡ παρακαταθήκη· ῥιγοῦν τε γὰρ καὶ εἶναι γυμνή· τῶν γάρ οἱ συγκατέθαψε ἱματίων ὄφελος εἶναι οὐδὲν οὐ κατακαυθέντων· μαρτύριον δέ οἱ εἶναι ὡς ἀληθέα ταῦτα λέγει, ὅτι ἐπὶ ψυχρὸν τὸν ἰπνὸν Περίανδρος τοὺς ἄρτους ἐπέβαλε. ταῦτα δὲ ὡς ὀπίσω ἀπηγγέλθη τῷ Περιάνδρῳ, πιστὸν γάρ οἱ ἦν τὸ συμβόλαιον ὃς νεκρῷ ἐούσῃ Μελίσσῃ ἐμίγη, ἰθέως δὴ μετὰ τὴν ἀγγελίην κήρυγμα ἐποιήσατο ἐς τὸ Ἥραιον ἐξιέναι πάσας τὰς Κορινθίων γυναῖκας. αἳ μὲν δὴ ὡς ἐς ὁρτὴν ἤισαν κόσμῳ τῷ καλλίστῳ χρεώμεναι, ὃ δʼ ὑποστήσας τοὺς δορυφόρους ἀπέδυσε σφέας πάσας ὁμοίως, τάς τε ἐλευθέρας καὶ τὰς ἀμφιπόλους, συμφορήσας δὲ ἐς ὄρυγμα Μελίσσῃ ἐπευχόμενος κατέκαιε. ταῦτα δέ οἱ ποιήσαντι καὶ τὸ δεύτερον πέμψαντι ἔφρασε τὸ εἴδωλον τὸ Μελίσσης ἐς τὸν κατέθηκε χῶρον τοῦ ξείνου τὴν παρακαταθήκην. τοιοῦτο μὲν ὑμῖν ἐστὶ ἡ τυραννίς, ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, καὶ τοιούτων ἔργων. ἡμέας δὲ τοὺς Κορινθίους τότε αὐτίκα θῶμα μέγα εἶχε ὅτε ὑμέας εἴδομεν μεταπεμπομένους Ἱππίην, νῦν τε δὴ καὶ μεζόνως θωμάζομεν λέγοντας ταῦτα, ἐπιμαρτυρόμεθά τε ἐπικαλεόμενοι ὑμῖν θεοὺς τοὺς Ἑλληνίους μὴ κατιστάναι τυραννίδας ἐς τὰς πόλις. οὔκων παύσεσθε ἀλλὰ πειρήσεσθε παρὰ τὸ δίκαιον κατάγοντες Ἱππίην· ἴστε ὑμῖν Κορινθίους γε οὐ συναινέοντας.” 5.92. ἄρξαντος δὲ τούτου ἐπὶ τριήκοντα ἔτεα καὶ διαπλέξαντος τὸν βίον εὖ, διάδοχός οἱ τῆς τυραννίδος ὁ παῖς Περίανδρος γίνεται. ὁ τοίνυν Περίανδρος κατʼ ἀρχὰς μὲν ἦν ἠπιώτερος τοῦ πατρός, ἐπείτε δὲ ὡμίλησε διʼ ἀγγέλων Θρασυβούλῳ τῷ Μιλήτου τυράννῳ, πολλῷ ἔτι ἐγένετο Κυψέλου μιαιφονώτερος. πέμψας γὰρ παρὰ Θρασύβουλον κήρυκα ἐπυνθάνετο ὅντινα ἂν τρόπον ἀσφαλέστατον καταστησάμενος τῶν πρηγμάτων κάλλιστα τὴν πόλιν ἐπιτροπεύοι. Θρασύβουλος δὲ τὸν ἐλθόντα παρὰ τοῦ Περιάνδρου ἐξῆγε ἔξω τοῦ ἄστεος, ἐσβὰς δὲ ἐς ἄρουραν ἐσπαρμένην ἅμα τε διεξήιε τὸ λήιον ἐπειρωτῶν τε καὶ ἀναποδίζων τὸν κήρυκα κατὰ τὴν ἀπὸ Κορίνθου ἄπιξιν, καὶ ἐκόλουε αἰεὶ ὅκως τινὰ ἴδοι τῶν ἀσταχύων ὑπερέχοντα, κολούων δὲ ἔρριπτε, ἐς ὃ τοῦ ληίου τὸ κάλλιστόν τε καὶ βαθύτατον διέφθειρε τρόπῳ τοιούτω· διεξελθὼν δὲ τὸ χωρίον καὶ ὑποθέμενος ἔπος οὐδὲν ἀποπέμπει τὸν κήρυκα. νοστήσαντος δὲ τοῦ κήρυκος ἐς τὴν Κόρινθον ἦν πρόθυμος πυνθάνεσθαι τὴν ὑποθήκην ὁ Περίανδρος· ὁ δὲ οὐδέν οἱ ἔφη Θρασύβουλον ὑποθέσθαι, θωμάζειν τε αὐτοῦ παρʼ οἷόν μιν ἄνδρα ἀποπέμψειε, ὡς παραπλῆγά τε καὶ τῶν ἑωυτοῦ σινάμωρον, ἀπηγεόμενος τά περ πρὸς Θρασυβούλου ὀπώπεε. 5.92. ἔδει δὲ ἐκ τοῦ Ἠετίωνος γόνου Κορίνθῳ κακὰ ἀναβλαστεῖν. ἡ Λάβδα γὰρ πάντα ταῦτα ἤκουε ἑστεῶσα πρὸς αὐτῇσι τῇσι θύρῃσι· δείσασα δὲ μή σφι μεταδόξῃ καὶ τὸ δεύτερον λαβόντες τὸ παιδίον ἀποκτείνωσι, φέρουσα κατακρύπτει ἐς τὸ ἀφραστότατόν οἱ ἐφαίνετο εἶναι, ἐς κυψέλην, ἐπισταμένη ὡς εἰ ὑποστρέψαντες ἐς ζήτησιν ἀπικνεοίατο πάντα ἐρευνήσειν μέλλοιεν· τὰ δὴ καὶ ἐγίνετο. ἐλθοῦσι δὲ καὶ διζημένοισι αὐτοῖσι ὡς οὐκ ἐφαίνετο, ἐδόκεε ἀπαλλάσσεσθαι καὶ λέγειν πρὸς τοὺς ἀποπέμψαντας ὡς πάντα ποιήσειαν τὰ ἐκεῖνοι ἐνετείλαντο. οἳ μὲν δὴ ἀπελθόντες ἔλεγον ταῦτα. 5.92. οἳ μὲν ταῦτα ἔλεγον, τῶν δὲ συμμάχων τὸ πλῆθος οὐκ ἐνεδέκετο τοὺς λόγους. οἱ μέν νυν ἄλλοι ἡσυχίην ἦγον, Κορίνθιος δὲ Σωκλέης ἔλεξε τάδε. 5.92. τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τοῖσι Βακχιάδῃσι πρότερον γενόμενον ἦν ἀτέκμαρτον· τότε δὲ τὸ Ἠετίωνι γενόμενον ὡς ἐπύθοντο, αὐτίκα καὶ τὸ πρότερον συνῆκαν ἐὸν συνῳδὸν τῷ Ἠετίωνος. συνέντες δὲ καὶ τοῦτο εἶχον ἐν ἡσυχίῃ, ἐθέλοντες τὸν μέλλοντα Ἠετίωνι γίνεσθαι γόνον διαφθεῖραι. ὡς δʼ ἔτεκε ἡ γυνὴ τάχιστα, πέμπουσι σφέων αὐτῶν δέκα ἐς τὸν δῆμον ἐν τῷ κατοίκητο ὁ Ἠετίων ἀποκτενέοντας τὸ παιδίον. ἀπικόμενοι δὲ οὗτοι ἐς τὴν Πέτρην καὶ παρελθόντες ἐς τὴν αὐλὴν τὴν Ἠετίωνος αἴτεον τὸ παιδίον· ἡ δὲ Λάβδα εἰδυῖά τε οὐδὲν τῶν εἵνεκα ἐκεῖνοι ἀπικοίατο, καὶ δοκέουσα σφέας φιλοφροσύνης τοῦ πατρὸς εἵνεκα αἰτέειν, φέρουσα ἐνεχείρισε αὐτῶν ἑνί. τοῖσι δὲ ἄρα ἐβεβούλευτο κατʼ ὁδὸν τὸν πρῶτον αὐτῶν λαβόντα τὸ παιδίον προσουδίσαι. ἐπεὶ ὦν ἔδωκε φέρουσα ἡ Λάβδα, τὸν λαβόντα τῶν ἀνδρῶν θείῃ τύχῃ προσεγέλασε τὸ παιδίον, καὶ τὸν φρασθέντα τοῦτο οἶκτός τις ἴσχει ἀποκτεῖναι, κατοικτείρας δὲ παραδιδοῖ τῷ δευτέρῳ, ὁ δὲ τῷ τρίτῳ. οὕτω δὴ διεξῆλθε διὰ πάντων τῶν δέκα παραδιδόμενον, οὐδενὸς βουλομένου διεργάσασθαι. ἀποδόντες ὦν ὀπίσω τῇ τεκούσῃ τὸ παιδίον καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἔξω, ἑστεῶτες ἐπὶ τῶν θυρέων ἀλλήλων ἅπτοντο καταιτιώμενοι, καὶ μάλιστα τοῦ πρώτου λαβόντος, ὅτι οὐκ ἐποίησε κατὰ τὰ δεδογμένα, ἐς ὃ δή σφι χρόνου ἐγγινομένου ἔδοξε αὖτις παρελθόντας πάντας τοῦ φόνου μετίσχειν. 5.92. ‘ἦ δὴ ὅ τε οὐρανὸς ἔνερθε ἔσται τῆς γῆς καὶ ἡ γῆ μετέωρος ὑπὲρ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ἄνθρωποι νομὸν ἐν θαλάσσῃ ἕξουσι καὶ ἰχθύες τὸν πρότερον ἄνθρωποι, ὅτε γε ὑμεῖς ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἰσοκρατίας καταλύοντες τυραννίδας ἐς τὰς πόλις κατάγειν παρασκευάζεσθε, τοῦ οὔτε ἀδικώτερον ἐστὶ οὐδὲν κατʼ ἀνθρώπους οὔτε μιαιφονώτερον. εἰ γὰρ δὴ τοῦτό γε δοκέει ὑμῖν εἶναι χρηστὸν ὥστε τυραννεύεσθαι τὰς πόλις, αὐτοὶ πρῶτοι τύραννον καταστησάμενοι παρὰ σφίσι αὐτοῖσι οὕτω καὶ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι δίζησθε κατιστάναι· νῦν δὲ αὐτοὶ τυράννων ἄπειροι ἐόντες, καὶ φυλάσσοντες τοῦτο δεινότατα ἐν τῇ Σπάρτῃ μὴ γενέσθαι, παραχρᾶσθε ἐς τοὺς συμμάχους. εἰ δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔμπειροι ἔατε κατά περ ἡμεῖς, εἴχετε ἂν περὶ αὐτοῦ γνώμας ἀμείνονας συμβαλέσθαι ἤ περ νῦν. 5.93. Σωκλέης μὲν ἀπὸ Κορίνθου πρεσβεύων ἔλεξε τάδε, Ἱππίης δὲ αὐτὸν ἀμείβετο τοὺς αὐτοὺς ἐπικαλέσας θεοὺς ἐκείνῳ, ἦ μὲν Κορινθίους μάλιστα πάντων ἐπιποθήσειν Πεισιστρατίδας, ὅταν σφι ἥκωσι ἡμέραι αἱ κύριαι ἀνιᾶσθαι ὑπʼ Ἀθηναίων. Ἱππίης μὲν τούτοισι ἀμείψατο οἷα τοὺς χρησμοὺς ἀτρεκέστατα ἀνδρῶν ἐξεπιστάμενος· οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ τῶν συμμάχων τέως μὲν εἶχον ἐν ἡσυχίῃ σφέας αὐτούς, ἐπείτε δὲ Σωκλέος ἤκουσαν εἴπαντος ἐλευθέρως, ἅπας τις αὐτῶν φωνὴν ῥήξας αἱρέετο τοῦ Κορινθίου τὴν γνώμην, Λακεδαιμονίοισί τε ἐπεμαρτυρέοντο μὴ ποιέειν μηδὲν νεώτερον περὶ πόλιν Ἑλλάδα.
6.67. κατὰ μὲν δὴ Δημαρήτου τὴν κατάπαυσιν τῆς βασιληίης οὕτω ἐγένετο, ἔφυγε δὲ Δημάρητος ἐκ Σπάρτης ἐς Μήδους ἐκ τοιοῦδε ὀνείδεος. μετὰ τῆς βασιληίης τὴν κατάπαυσιν ὁ Δημάρητος ἦρχε αἱρεθεὶς ἀρχήν. ἦσαν μὲν δὴ γυμνοπαιδίαι, θεωμένου δὲ τοῦ Δημαρήτου ὁ Λευτυχίδης γεγονὼς ἤδη βασιλεὺς αὐτὸς ἀντʼ ἐκείνου, πέμψας τὸν θεράποντα ἐπὶ γέλωτί τε καὶ λάσθῃ εἰρώτα τὸν Δημάρητον ὁκοῖόν τι εἴη τὸ ἄρχειν μετὰ τὸ βασιλεύειν. ὁ δὲ ἀλγήσας τῷ ἐπειρωτήματι εἶπε φὰς αὐτὸς μὲν ἀμφοτέρων ἤδη πεπειρῆσθαι, κεῖνον δὲ οὔ, τὴν μέντοι ἐπειρώτησιν ταύτην ἄρξειν Λακεδαιμονίοισι ἢ μυρίης κακότητος ἢ μυρίης εὐδαιμονίης. ταῦτα δὲ εἴπας καὶ κατακαλυψάμενος ἤιε ἐκ τοῦ θεήτρου ἐς τὰ ἑωυτοῦ οἰκία, αὐτίκα δὲ παρασκευασάμενος ἔθυε τῷ Διὶ βοῦν, θύσας δὲ τὴν μητέρα ἐκάλεσε.
6.75. μαθόντες δὲ Κλεομένεα Λακεδαιμόνιοι ταῦτα πρήσσοντα, κατῆγον αὐτὸν δείσαντες ἐπὶ τοῖσι αὐτοῖσι ἐς Σπάρτην τοῖσι καὶ πρότερον ἦρχε. κατελθόντα δὲ αὐτὸν αὐτίκα ὑπέλαβε μανίη νοῦσος, ἐόντα καὶ πρότερον ὑπομαργότερον· ὅκως γὰρ τεῷ ἐντύχοι Σπαρτιητέων, ἐνέχραυε ἐς τὸ πρόσωπον τὸ σκῆπτρον. ποιέοντα δὲ αὐτὸν ταῦτα καὶ παραφρονήσαντα ἔδησαν οἱ προσήκοντες ἐν ξύλω· ὁ δὲ δεθεὶς τὸν φύλακον μουνωθέντα ἰδὼν τῶν ἄλλων αἰτέει μάχαιραν· οὐ βουλομένου δὲ τὰ πρῶτα τοῦ φυλάκου διδόναι ἀπείλεε τά μιν αὖτις ποιήσει, ἐς ὁ δείσας τὰς ἀπειλὰς ὁ φύλακος ʽἦν γὰρ τῶν τις εἱλωτέων’ διδοῖ οἱ μάχαιραν. Κλεομένης δὲ παραλαβὼν τὸν σίδηρον ἄρχετο ἐκ τῶν κνημέων ἑωυτὸν λωβώμενος· ἐπιτάμνων γὰρ κατὰ μῆκος τὰς σάρκας προέβαινε ἐκ τῶν κνημέων ἐς τοὺς μηρούς, ἐκ δὲ τῶν μηρῶν ἔς τε τὰ ἰσχία καὶ τὰς λαπάρας, ἐς ὃ ἐς τὴν γαστέρα ἀπίκετο, καὶ ταύτην καταχορδεύων ἀπέθανε τρόπῳ τοιούτῳ, ὡς μὲν οἱ πολλοὶ λέγουσι Ἐλλήνων, ὅτι τὴν Πυθίην ἀνέγνωσε τὰ περὶ Δημαρήτου λέγειν γενόμενα, ὡς δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι μοῦνοι λέγουσι, διότι ἐς Ἐλευσῖνα ἐσβαλὼν ἔκειρε τὸ τέμενος τῶν θεῶν, ὡς δὲ Ἀργεῖοι, ὅτι ἐξ ἱροῦ αὐτῶν τοῦ Ἄργου Ἀργείων τοὺς καταφυγόντας ἐκ τῆς μάχης καταγινέων κατέκοπτε καὶ αὐτὸ τὸ ἄλσος ἐν ἀλογίῃ ἔχων ἐνέπρησε.
6.105. καὶ πρῶτα μὲν ἐόντες ἔτι ἐν τῷ ἄστεϊ οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἀποπέμπουσι ἐς Σπάρτην κήρυκα Φειδιππίδην Ἀθηναῖον μὲν ἄνδρα, ἄλλως δὲ ἡμεροδρόμην τε καὶ τοῦτο μελετῶντα· τῷ δή, ὡς αὐτός τε ἔλεγε Φειδιππίδης καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι ἀπήγγελλε, περὶ τὸ Παρθένιον ὄρος τὸ ὑπὲρ Τεγέης ὁ Πὰν περιπίπτει· βώσαντα δὲ τὸ οὔνομα τοῦ Φειδιππίδεω τὸν Πᾶνα Ἀθηναίοισι κελεῦσαι ἀπαγγεῖλαι, διʼ ὅ τι ἑωυτοῦ οὐδεμίαν ἐπιμελείην ποιεῦνται ἐόντος εὐνόου Ἀθηναίοισι καὶ πολλαχῇ γενομένου σφι ἤδη χρησίμου, τὰ δʼ ἔτι καὶ ἐσομένου. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι, καταστάντων σφι εὖ ἤδη τῶν πρηγμάτων, πιστεύσαντες εἶναι ἀληθέα ἱδρύσαντο ὑπὸ τῇ ἀκροπόλι Πανὸς ἱρόν, καὶ αὐτὸν ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς ἀγγελίης θυσίῃσι ἐπετείοισι καὶ λαμπάδι ἱλάσκονται. 6.106. τότε δὲ πεμφθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν στρατηγῶν ὁ Φειδιππίδης οὗτος, ὅτε πέρ οἱ ἔφη καὶ τὸν Πᾶνα φανῆναι, δευτεραῖος ἐκ τοῦ Ἀθηναίων ἄστεος ἦν ἐν Σπάρτῃ, ἀπικόμενος δὲ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας ἔλεγε “ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, Ἀθηναῖοι ὑμέων δέονται σφίσι βοηθῆσαι καὶ μὴ περιιδεῖν πόλιν ἀρχαιοτάτην ἐν τοῖσι Ἕλλησι δουλοσύνῃ περιπεσοῦσαν πρὸς ἀνδρῶν βαρβάρων· καὶ γὰρ νῦν Ἐρέτριά τε ἠνδραπόδισται καὶ πόλι λογίμῳ ἡ Ἑλλὰς γέγονε ἀσθενεστέρη.” ὃ μὲν δή σφι τὰ ἐντεταλμένα ἀπήγγελλε, τοῖσι δὲ ἕαδε μὲν βοηθέειν Ἀθηναίοισι, ἀδύνατα δέ σφι ἦν τὸ παραυτίκα ποιέειν ταῦτα, οὐ βουλομένοισι λύειν τὸν νόμον· ἦν γὰρ ἱσταμένου τοῦ μηνὸς εἰνάτη, εἰνάτῃ δὲ οὐκ ἐξελεύσεσθαι ἔφασαν μὴ οὐ πλήρεος ἐόντος τοῦ κύκλου.
7.132. τῶν δὲ δόντων ταῦτα ἐγένοντο οἵδε, Θεσσαλοὶ Δόλοπες Ἐνιῆνες Περραιβοὶ Λοκροὶ Μάγνητες Μηλιέες Ἀχαιοὶ οἱ Φθιῶται καὶ Θηβαῖοι καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι Βοιωτοὶ πλὴν Θεσπιέων τε καὶ Πλαταιέων. ἐπὶ τούτοισι οἱ Ἕλληνες ἔταμον ὅρκιον οἱ τῷ βαρβάρῳ πόλεμον ἀειράμενοι· τὸ δὲ ὅρκιον ὧδε εἶχε, ὅσοι τῷ Πέρσῃ ἔδοσαν σφέας αὐτοὺς Ἕλληνες ἐόντες μὴ ἀναγκασθέντες, καταστάντων σφι εὖ τῶν πρηγμάτων, τούτους δεκατεῦσαι τῷ ἐν Δελφοῖσι θεῷ. τὸ μὲν δὴ ὅρκιον ὧδε εἶχε τοῖσι Ἕλλησι.
7.228. θαφθεῖσι δέ σφι αὐτοῦ ταύτῃ τῇ περ ἔπεσον, καὶ τοῖσι πρότερον τελευτήσασι ἢ ὑπὸ Λεωνίδεω ἀποπεμφθέντας οἴχεσθαι, ἐπιγέγραπται γράμματα λέγοντα τάδε. μυριάσιν ποτὲ τῇδε τριηκοσίαις ἐμάχοντο ἐκ Πελοποννάσου χιλιάδες τέτορες. ταῦτα μὲν δὴ τοῖσι πᾶσι ἐπιγέγραπται, τοῖσι δὲ Σπαρτιήτῃσι ἰδίῃ. ὦ ξεῖνʼ, ἀγγέλλειν Λακεδαιμονίοις ὅτι τῇδε κείμεθα τοῖς κείνων ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι. Λακεδαιμονίοισι μὲν δὴ τοῦτο, τῷ δὲ μάντι τόδε. μνῆμα τόδε κλεινοῖο Μεγιστία, ὅν ποτε Μῆδοι Σπερχειὸν ποταμὸν κτεῖναν ἀμειψάμενοι, μάντιος, ὃς τότε κῆρας ἐπερχομένας σάφα εἰδώς οὐκ ἔτλη Σπάρτης ἡγεμόνα προλιπεῖν. ἐπιγράμμασι μέν νυν καὶ στήλῃσι, ἔξω ἢ τὸ τοῦ μάντιος ἐπίγραμμα, Ἀμφικτύονες εἰσὶ σφέας οἱ ἐπικοσμήσαντες· τὸ δὲ τοῦ μάντιος Μεγιστίεω Σιμωνίδης ὁ Λεωπρέπεος ἐστὶ κατὰ ξεινίην ὁ ἐπιγράψας.
8.65. ἔφη δὲ Δίκαιος ὁ Θεοκύδεος, ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος φυγάς τε καὶ παρὰ Μήδοισι λόγιμος γενόμενος τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον, ἐπείτε ἐκείρετο ἡ Ἀττικὴ χώρη ὑπὸ τοῦ πεζοῦ στρατοῦ τοῦ Ξέρξεω ἐοῦσα ἔρημος Ἀθηναίων, τυχεῖν τότε ἐὼν ἅμα Δημαρήτῳ τῷ Λακεδαιμονίῳ ἐν τῷ Θριασίῳ πεδίῳ, ἰδεῖν δὲ κονιορτὸν χωρέοντα ἀπʼ Ἐλευσῖνος ὡς ἀνδρῶν μάλιστά κῃ τρισμυρίων, ἀποθωμάζειν τε σφέας τὸν κονιορτὸν ὅτεων κοτὲ εἴη ἀνθρώπων, καὶ πρόκατε φωνῆς ἀκούειν, καί οἱ φαίνεσθαι τὴν φωνὴν εἶναι τὸν μυστικὸν ἴακχον. εἶναι δʼ ἀδαήμονα τῶν ἱρῶν τῶν ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι γινομένων τὸν Δημάρητον, εἰρέσθαί τε αὐτὸν ὅ τι τὸ φθεγγόμενον εἴη τοῦτο. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰπεῖν “Δημάρητε, οὐκ ἔστι ὅκως οὐ μέγα τι σίνος ἔσται τῇ βασιλέος στρατιῇ· τάδε γὰρ ἀρίδηλα, ἐρήμου ἐούσης τῆς Ἀττικῆς, ὅτι θεῖον τὸ φθεγγόμενον, ἀπʼ Ἐλευσῖνος ἰὸν ἐς τιμωρίην Ἀθηναίοισί τε καὶ τοῖσι συμμάχοισι. καὶ ἢν μέν γε κατασκήψῃ ἐς τὴν Πελοπόννησον, κίνδυνος αὐτῷ τε βασιλέι καὶ τῇ στρατιῇ τῇ ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ ἔσται, ἢν δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς νέας τράπηται τὰς ἐν Σαλαμῖνι, τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατὸν κινδυνεύσει βασιλεὺς ἀποβαλεῖν. τὴν δὲ ὁρτὴν ταύτην ἄγουσι Ἀθηναῖοι ἀνὰ πάντα ἔτεα τῇ Μητρὶ καὶ τῇ Κούρῃ, καὶ αὐτῶν τε ὁ βουλόμενος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων μυεῖται· καὶ τὴν φωνὴν τῆς ἀκούεις ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ὁρτῇ ἰακχάζουσι.” πρὸς ταῦτα εἰπεῖν Δημάρητον “σίγα τε καὶ μηδενὶ ἄλλῳ τὸν λόγον τοῦτον εἴπῃς· ἢν γάρ τοι ἐς βασιλέα ἀνενειχθῇ τὰ ἔπεα ταῦτα, ἀποβαλέεις τὴν κεφαλήν, καὶ σε οὔτε ἐγὼ δυνήσομαι ῥύσασθαι οὔτʼ ἄλλος ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ εἶς. ἀλλʼ ἔχʼ ἥσυχος, περὶ δὲ στρατιῆς τῆσδε θεοῖσι μελήσει.” τὸν μὲν δὴ ταῦτα παραινέειν, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ κονιορτοῦ καὶ τῆς φωνῆς γενέσθαι νέφος καὶ μεταρσιωθὲν φέρεσθαι ἐπὶ Σαλαμῖνος ἐπὶ τὸ στρατόπεδον τὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων. οὕτω δὴ αὐτοὺς μαθεῖν ὅτι τὸ ναυτικὸν τὸ Ξέρξεω ἀπολέεσθαι μέλλοι. ταῦτα μὲν Δίκαιος ὁ Θεοκύδεος ἔλεγε, Δημαρήτου τε καὶ ἄλλων μαρτύρων καταπτόμενος.
9.11. οἳ μὲν δὴ σὺν Παυσανίῃ ἐξεληλύθεσαν ἔξω Σπάρτης· οἱ δὲ ἄγγελοι, ὡς ἡμέρη ἐγεγόνεε, οὐδὲν εἰδότες περὶ τῆς ἐξόδου ἐπῆλθον ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐφόρους, ἐν νόῳ δὴ ἔχοντες ἀπαλλάσσεσθαι καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἑωυτοῦ ἕκαστος· ἐπελθόντες δὲ ἔλεγον τάδε. “ὑμεῖς μὲν, ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι αὐτοῦ τῇδε μένοντες Ὑακίνθιά τε ἄγετε καὶ παίζετε, καταπροδόντες τοὺς συμμάχους· Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ ὡς ἀδικεόμενοι ὑπὸ ὑμέων χήτεΐ τε συμμάχων καταλύσονται τῷ Πέρσῃ οὕτω ὅκως ἄν δύνωνται· καταλυσάμενοι δέ, δῆλα γὰρ ὅτι σύμμαχοι βασιλέος γινόμεθα, συστρατευσόμεθα ἐπʼ ἣν ἂν ἐκεῖνοι ἐξηγέωνται. ὑμεῖς δὲ τὸ ἐνθεῦτεν μαθήσεσθε ὁκοῖον ἄν τι ὑμῖν ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἐκβαίνῃ.” ταῦτα λεγόντων τῶν ἀγγέλων, οἱ ἔφοροι εἶπαν ἐπʼ ὅρκου καὶ δὴ δοκέειν εἶναι ἐν Ὀρεσθείῳ στείχοντας ἐπὶ τοὺς ξείνους. ξείνους γὰρ ἐκάλεον τοὺς βαρβάρους. οἳ δὲ ὡς οὐκ εἰδότες ἐπειρώτων τὸ λεγόμενον, ἐπειρόμενοι δὲ ἐξέμαθον πᾶν τὸ ἐόν, ὥστε ἐν θώματι γενόμενοι ἐπορεύοντο τὴν ταχίστην διώκοντες· σὺν δέ σφι τῶν περιοίκων Λακεδαιμονίων λογάδες πεντακισχίλιοι ὁπλῖται τὠυτὸ τοῦτο ἐποίεον.
9.65. ἐν δὲ Πλαταιῇσι οἱ Πέρσαι ὡς ἐτράποντο ὑπὸ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων, ἔφευγον οὐδένα κόσμον ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον τὸ ἑωυτῶν καὶ ἐς τὸ τεῖχος τὸ ξύλινον τὸ ἐποιήσαντο ἐν μοίρῃ τῇ Θηβαΐδι. θῶμα δέ μοι ὅκως παρὰ τῆς Δήμητρος τὸ ἄλσος μαχομένων οὐδὲ εἷς ἐφάνη τῶν Περσέων οὔτε ἐσελθὼν ἐς τὸ τέμενος οὔτε ἐναποθανών, περί τε τὸ ἱρὸν οἱ πλεῖστοι ἐν τῷ βεβήλῳ ἔπεσον. δοκέω δέ, εἴ τι περὶ τῶν θείων πρηγμάτων δοκέειν δεῖ, ἡ θεὸς αὐτή σφεας οὐκ ἐδέκετο ἐμπρήσαντας τὸ ἱρὸν τὸ ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι ἀνάκτορον.''. None
1.60. But after a short time the partisans of Megacles and of Lycurgus made common cause and drove him out. In this way Pisistratus first got Athens and, as he had a sovereignty that was not yet firmly rooted, lost it. Presently his enemies who together had driven him out began to feud once more. ,Then Megacles, harassed by factional strife, sent a message to Pisistratus offering him his daughter to marry and the sovereign power besides. ,When this offer was accepted by Pisistratus, who agreed on these terms with Megacles, they devised a plan to bring Pisistratus back which, to my mind, was so exceptionally foolish that it is strange (since from old times the Hellenic stock has always been distinguished from foreign by its greater cleverness and its freedom from silly foolishness) that these men should devise such a plan to deceive Athenians, said to be the subtlest of the Greeks. ,There was in the Paeanian deme a woman called Phya, three fingers short of six feet, four inches in height, and otherwise, too, well-formed. This woman they equipped in full armor and put in a chariot, giving her all the paraphernalia to make the most impressive spectacle, and so drove into the city; heralds ran before them, and when they came into town proclaimed as they were instructed: ,“Athenians, give a hearty welcome to Pisistratus, whom Athena herself honors above all men and is bringing back to her own acropolis.” So the heralds went about proclaiming this; and immediately the report spread in the demes that Athena was bringing Pisistratus back, and the townsfolk, believing that the woman was the goddess herself, worshipped this human creature and welcomed Pisistratus. ' "1.61. Having got back his sovereignty in the manner which I have described, Pisistratus married Megacles' daughter according to his agreement with Megacles. But as he already had young sons, and as the Alcmeonid family were said to be under a curse, he had no wish that his newly-wedded wife bear him children, and therefore had unusual intercourse with her. ,At first the woman hid the fact: presently she told her mother (whether interrogated or not, I do not know) and the mother told her husband. Megacles was very angry to be dishonored by Pisistratus; and in his anger he patched up his quarrel with the other faction. Pisistratus, learning what was going on, went alone away from the country altogether, and came to Eretria where he deliberated with his sons. ,The opinion of Hippias prevailing, that they should recover the sovereignty, they set out collecting contributions from all the cities that owed them anything. Many of these gave great amounts, the Thebans more than any, ,and in course of time, not to make a long story, everything was ready for their return: for they brought Argive mercenaries from the Peloponnese, and there joined them on his own initiative a man of Naxos called Lygdamis, who was most keen in their cause and brought them money and men. " '1.62. So after ten years they set out from Eretria and returned home. The first place in Attica which they took and held was Marathon: and while encamped there they were joined by their partisans from the city, and by others who flocked to them from the country—demesmen who loved the rule of one more than freedom. These, then, assembled; ,but the Athenians in the city, who while Pisistratus was collecting money and afterwards when he had taken Marathon took no notice of it, did now, and when they learned that he was marching from Marathon against Athens, they set out to attack him. ,They came out with all their force to meet the returning exiles. Pisistratus\' men encountered the enemy when they had reached the temple of Pallenian Athena in their march from Marathon towards the city, and encamped face to face with them. ,There (by the providence of heaven) Pisistratus met Amphilytus the Acarian, a diviner, who came to him and prophesied as follows in hexameter verses: 1.146. For this reason, and for no other, the Ionians too made twelve cities; for it would be foolishness to say that these are more truly Ionian or better born than the other Ionians; since not the least part of them are Abantes from Euboea, who are not Ionians even in name, and there are mingled with them Minyans of Orchomenus, Cadmeans, Dryopians, Phocian renegades from their nation, Molossians, Pelasgian Arcadians, Dorians of Epidaurus, and many other tribes; ,and as for those who came from the very town-hall of Athens and think they are the best born of the Ionians, these did not bring wives with them to their settlements, but married Carian women whose parents they had put to death. ,For this slaughter, these women made a custom and bound themselves by oath (and enjoined it on their daughters) that no one would sit at table with her husband or call him by his name, because the men had married them after slaying their fathers and husbands and sons. This happened at Miletus . 1.147. And as kings, some of them chose Lycian descendants of Glaucus son of Hippolochus, and some Caucones of Pylus, descendants of Codrus son of Melanthus, and some both. Yet since they set more store by the name than the rest of the Ionians, let it be granted that those of pure birth are Ionians; ,and all are Ionians who are of Athenian descent and keep the feast 2.29. I was unable to learn anything from anyone else, but this much further I did learn by the most extensive investigation that I could make, going as far as the city of Elephantine to look myself, and beyond that by question and hearsay. ,Beyond Elephantine, as one travels inland, the land rises. Here one must pass with the boat roped on both sides as men harness an ox; and if the rope breaks, the boat will be carried away by the strength of the current. ,This part of the river is a four days' journey by boat, and the Nile here is twisty just as the Maeander ; a distance of twelve schoeni must be passed in the foregoing manner. After that, you come to a level plain, where there is an island in the Nile, called Takhompso. ,The country above Elephantine now begins to be inhabited by Ethiopians: half the people of the island are Ethiopians, and half Egyptians. Near the island is a great lake, on whose shores live nomadic Ethiopians. After crossing this, you come to the stream of the Nile, which empties into this lake. ,Then you disembark and journey along the river bank for forty days; for there are sharp projecting rocks in the Nile and many reefs, through which no boat can pass. ,Having traversed this part in forty days as I have said, you take boat again and so travel for twelve days until you come to a great city called Meroe, which is said to be the capital of all Ethiopia . ,The people of the place worship no other gods but Zeus and Dionysus; these they greatly honor, and they have a place of divination sacred to Zeus; they send out armies whenever and wherever this god through his oracle commands them. " '
2.38. They believe that bulls belong to Epaphus, and for this reason scrutinize them as follows; if they see even one black hair on them, the bull is considered impure. ,One of the priests, appointed to the task, examines the beast, making it stand and lie, and drawing out its tongue, to determine whether it is clean of the stated signs which I shall indicate hereafter. He looks also to the hairs of the tail, to see if they grow naturally. ,If it is clean in all these respects, the priest marks it by wrapping papyrus around the horns, then smears it with sealing-earth and stamps it with his ring; and after this they lead the bull away. But the penalty is death for sacrificing a bull that the priest has not marked. Such is the manner of approving the beast; I will now describe how it is sacrificed.' "
2.41. All Egyptians sacrifice unblemished bulls and bull-calves; they may not sacrifice cows: these are sacred to Isis. ,For the images of Isis are in woman's form, horned like a cow, exactly as the Greeks picture Io, and cows are held by far the most sacred of all beasts of the herd by all Egyptians alike. ,For this reason, no Egyptian man or woman will kiss a Greek man, or use a knife, or a spit, or a cauldron belonging to a Greek, or taste the flesh of an unblemished bull that has been cut up with a Greek knife. ,Cattle that die are dealt with in the following way. Cows are cast into the river, bulls are buried by each city in its suburbs, with one or both horns uncovered for a sign; then, when the carcass is decomposed, and the time appointed is at hand, a boat comes to each city from the island called Prosopitis, ,an island in the Delta, nine schoeni in circumference. There are many other towns on Prosopitis; the one from which the boats come to gather the bones of the bulls is called Atarbekhis; a temple of Aphrodite stands in it of great sanctity. ,From this town many go out, some to one town and some to another, to dig up the bones, which they then carry away and all bury in one place. As they bury the cattle, so do they all other beasts at death. Such is their ordice respecting these also; for they, too, may not be killed. " "2.42. All that have a temple of Zeus of Thebes or are of the Theban district sacrifice goats, but will not touch sheep. ,For no gods are worshipped by all Egyptians in common except Isis and Osiris, who they say is Dionysus; these are worshipped by all alike. Those who have a temple of Mendes or are of the Mendesian district sacrifice sheep, but will not touch goats. ,The Thebans, and those who by the Theban example will not touch sheep, give the following reason for their ordice: they say that Heracles wanted very much to see Zeus and that Zeus did not want to be seen by him, but that finally, when Heracles prayed, Zeus contrived ,to show himself displaying the head and wearing the fleece of a ram which he had flayed and beheaded. It is from this that the Egyptian images of Zeus have a ram's head; and in this, the Egyptians are imitated by the Ammonians, who are colonists from Egypt and Ethiopia and speak a language compounded of the tongues of both countries. ,It was from this, I think, that the Ammonians got their name, too; for the Egyptians call Zeus “Amon”. The Thebans, then, consider rams sacred for this reason, and do not sacrifice them. ,But one day a year, at the festival of Zeus, they cut in pieces and flay a single ram and put the fleece on the image of Zeus, as in the story; then they bring an image of Heracles near it. Having done this, all that are at the temple mourn for the ram, and then bury it in a sacred coffin. " '2.43. Concerning Heracles, I heard it said that he was one of the twelve gods. But nowhere in Egypt could I hear anything about the other Heracles, whom the Greeks know. ,I have indeed a lot of other evidence that the name of Heracles did not come from Hellas to Egypt, but from Egypt to Hellas (and in Hellas to those Greeks who gave the name Heracles to the son of Amphitryon), besides this: that Amphitryon and Alcmene, the parents of this Heracles, were both Egyptian by descent ; and that the Egyptians deny knowing the names Poseidon and the Dioscuri, nor are these gods reckoned among the gods of Egypt . ,Yet if they got the name of any deity from the Greeks, of these not least but in particular would they preserve a recollection, if indeed they were already making sea voyages and some Greeks, too, were seafaring men, as I expect and judge; so that the names of these gods would have been even better known to the Egyptians than the name of Heracles. ,But Heracles is a very ancient god in Egypt ; as the Egyptians themselves say, the change of the eight gods to the twelve, one of whom they acknowledge Heracles to be, was made seventeen thousand years before the reign of Amasis. 2.44. Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero.
2.46. This is why the Egyptians of whom I have spoken sacrifice no goats, male or female: the Mendesians reckon Pan among the eight gods who, they say, were before the twelve gods. ,Now in their painting and sculpture, the image of Pan is made with the head and the legs of a goat, as among the Greeks; not that he is thought to be in fact such, or unlike other gods; but why they represent him so, I have no wish to say. ,The Mendesians consider all goats sacred, the male even more than the female, and goatherds are held in special estimation: one he-goat is most sacred of all; when he dies, it is ordained that there should be great mourning in all the Mendesian district. ,In the Egyptian language Mendes is the name both for the he-goat and for Pan. In my lifetime a strange thing occurred in this district: a he-goat had intercourse openly with a woman. This came to be publicly known. 2.47. Swine are held by the Egyptians to be unclean beasts. In the first place, if an Egyptian touches a hog in passing, he goes to the river and dips himself in it, clothed as he is; and in the second place, swineherds, though native born Egyptians, are alone of all men forbidden to enter any Egyptian temple; nor will any give a swineherd his daughter in marriage, nor take a wife from their women; but swineherds intermarry among themselves. ,Nor do the Egyptians think it right to sacrifice swine to any god except the Moon and Dionysus; to these, they sacrifice their swine at the same time, in the same season of full moon; then they eat the meat. The Egyptians have an explanation of why they sacrifice swine at this festival, yet abominate them at others; I know it, but it is not fitting that I relate it. ,But this is how they sacrifice swine to the Moon: the sacrificer lays the end of the tail and the spleen and the caul together and covers them up with all the fat that he finds around the belly, then consigns it all to the fire; as for the rest of the flesh, they eat it at the time of full moon when they sacrifice the victim; but they will not taste it on any other day. Poor men, with but slender means, mold swine out of dough, which they then take and sacrifice.
2.48.2. The rest of the festival of Dionysus is observed by the Egyptians much as it is by the Greeks, except for the dances; but in place of the phallus, they have invented the use of puppets two feet high moved by strings, the male member nodding and nearly as big as the rest of the body, which are carried about the villages by women; a flute-player goes ahead, the women follow behind singing of Dionysus. 2.48. To Dionysus, on the evening of his festival, everyone offers a piglet which he kills before his door and then gives to the swineherd who has sold it, for him to take away. ,The rest of the festival of Dionysus is observed by the Egyptians much as it is by the Greeks, except for the dances; but in place of the phallus, they have invented the use of puppets two feet high moved by strings, the male member nodding and nearly as big as the rest of the body, which are carried about the villages by women; a flute-player goes ahead, the women follow behind singing of Dionysus. ,Why the male member is so large and is the only part of the body that moves, there is a sacred legend that explains. 2.49. Now then, it seems to me that Melampus son of Amytheon was not ignorant of but was familiar with this sacrifice. For Melampus was the one who taught the Greeks the name of Dionysus and the way of sacrificing to him and the phallic procession; he did not exactly unveil the subject taking all its details into consideration, for the teachers who came after him made a fuller revelation; but it was from him that the Greeks learned to bear the phallus along in honor of Dionysus, and they got their present practice from his teaching. ,I say, then, that Melampus acquired the prophetic art, being a discerning man, and that, besides many other things which he learned from Egypt, he also taught the Greeks things concerning Dionysus, altering few of them; for I will not say that what is done in Egypt in connection with the god and what is done among the Greeks originated independently: for they would then be of an Hellenic character and not recently introduced. ,Nor again will I say that the Egyptians took either this or any other custom from the Greeks. But I believe that Melampus learned the worship of Dionysus chiefly from Cadmus of Tyre and those who came with Cadmus from Phoenicia to the land now called Boeotia . 2.50. In fact, the names of nearly all the gods came to Hellas from Egypt . For I am convinced by inquiry that they have come from foreign parts, and I believe that they came chiefly from Egypt . ,Except the names of Poseidon and the Dioscuri, as I have already said, and Hera, and Hestia, and Themis, and the Graces, and the Nereids, the names of all the gods have always existed in Egypt . I only say what the Egyptians themselves say. The gods whose names they say they do not know were, as I think, named by the Pelasgians, except Poseidon, the knowledge of whom they learned from the Libyans. ,Alone of all nations the Libyans have had among them the name of Poseidon from the beginning, and they have always honored this god. The Egyptians, however, are not accustomed to pay any honors to heroes. 2.51. These customs, then, and others besides, which I shall indicate, were taken by the Greeks from the Egyptians. It was not so with the ithyphallic images of Hermes; the production of these came from the Pelasgians, from whom the Athenians were the first Greeks to take it, and then handed it on to others. ,For the Athenians were then already counted as Greeks when the Pelasgians came to live in the land with them and thereby began to be considered as Greeks. Whoever has been initiated into the rites of the Cabeiri, which the Samothracians learned from the Pelasgians and now practice, understands what my meaning is. ,Samothrace was formerly inhabited by those Pelasgians who came to live among the Athenians, and it is from them that the Samothracians take their rites. ,The Athenians, then, were the first Greeks to make ithyphallic images of Hermes, and they did this because the Pelasgians taught them. The Pelasgians told a certain sacred tale about this, which is set forth in the Samothracian mysteries. 2.52. Formerly, in all their sacrifices, the Pelasgians called upon gods without giving name or appellation to any (I know this, because I was told at Dodona ); for as yet they had not heard of such. They called them gods from the fact that, besides setting everything in order, they maintained all the dispositions. ,Then, after a long while, first they learned the names of the rest of the gods, which came to them from Egypt, and, much later, the name of Dionysus; and presently they asked the oracle at Dodona about the names; for this place of divination, held to be the most ancient in Hellas, was at that time the only one. ,When the Pelasgians, then, asked at Dodona whether they should adopt the names that had come from foreign parts, the oracle told them to use the names. From that time onwards they used the names of the gods in their sacrifices; and the Greeks received these later from the Pelasgians. 2.53. But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say. 2.54. But about the oracles in Hellas, and that one which is in Libya, the Egyptians give the following account. The priests of Zeus of Thebes told me that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas ; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries. ,When I asked them how it was that they could speak with such certain knowledge, they said in reply that their people had sought diligently for these women, and had never been able to find them, but had learned later the story which they were telling me. 2.55. That, then, I heard from the Theban priests; and what follows, the prophetesses of Dodona say: that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona ; ,the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. ,The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true. 2.56. But my own belief about it is this. If the Phoenicians did in fact carry away the sacred women and sell one in Libya and one in Hellas, then, in my opinion, the place where this woman was sold in what is now Hellas, but was formerly called Pelasgia, was Thesprotia ; ,and then, being a slave there, she established a shrine of Zeus under an oak that was growing there; for it was reasonable that, as she had been a handmaid of the temple of Zeus at Thebes , she would remember that temple in the land to which she had come. ,After this, as soon as she understood the Greek language, she taught divination; and she said that her sister had been sold in Libya by the same Phoenicians who sold her. 2.57. I expect that these women were called “doves” by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; ,then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian . ,The fashions of divination at Thebes of Egypt and at Dodona are like one another; moreover, the practice of divining from the sacrificed victim has also come from Egypt . 2.58. It would seem, too, that the Egyptians were the first people to establish solemn assemblies, and processions, and services; the Greeks learned all that from them. I consider this proved, because the Egyptian ceremonies are manifestly very ancient, and the Greek are of recent origin. 2.59. The Egyptians hold solemn assemblies not once a year, but often. The principal one of these and the most enthusiastically celebrated is that in honor of Artemis at the town of Bubastis , and the next is that in honor of Isis at Busiris. ,This town is in the middle of the Egyptian Delta, and there is in it a very great temple of Isis, who is Demeter in the Greek language. ,The third greatest festival is at Saïs in honor of Athena; the fourth is the festival of the sun at Heliopolis, the fifth of Leto at Buto, and the sixth of Ares at Papremis. 2.60. When the people are on their way to Bubastis, they go by river, a great number in every boat, men and women together. Some of the women make a noise with rattles, others play flutes all the way, while the rest of the women, and the men, sing and clap their hands. ,As they travel by river to Bubastis, whenever they come near any other town they bring their boat near the bank; then some of the women do as I have said, while some shout mockery of the women of the town; others dance, and others stand up and lift their skirts. They do this whenever they come alongside any riverside town. ,But when they have reached Bubastis, they make a festival with great sacrifices, and more wine is drunk at this feast than in the whole year besides. It is customary for men and women (but not children) to assemble there to the number of seven hundred thousand, as the people of the place say. 2.61. This is what they do there; I have already described how they keep the feast of Isis at Busiris. There, after the sacrifice, all the men and women lament, in countless numbers; but it is not pious for me to say who it is for whom they lament. ,Carians who live in Egypt do even more than this, inasmuch as they cut their foreheads with knives; and by this they show that they are foreigners and not Egyptians. 2.62. When they assemble at Saïs on the night of the sacrifice, they keep lamps burning outside around their houses. These lamps are saucers full of salt and oil on which the wick floats, and they burn all night. This is called the Feast of Lamps. ,Egyptians who do not come to this are mindful on the night of sacrifice to keep their own lamps burning, and so they are alight not only at Saïs but throughout Egypt . A sacred tale is told showing why this night is lit up thus and honored. 2.63. When the people go to Heliopolis and Buto, they offer sacrifice only. At Papremis sacrifice is offered and rites performed just as elsewhere; but when the sun is setting, a few of the priests hover about the image, while most of them go and stand in the entrance to the temple with clubs of wood in their hands; others, more than a thousand men fulfilling vows, who also carry wooden clubs, stand in a mass opposite. ,The image of the god, in a little gilded wooden shrine, they carry away on the day before this to another sacred building. The few who are left with the image draw a four-wheeled wagon conveying the shrine and the image that is in the shrine; the others stand in the space before the doors and do not let them enter, while the vow-keepers, taking the side of the god, strike them, who defend themselves. ,A fierce fight with clubs breaks out there, and they are hit on their heads, and many, I expect, even die from their wounds; although the Egyptians said that nobody dies. ,The natives say that they made this assembly a custom from the following incident: the mother of Ares lived in this temple; Ares had been raised apart from her and came, when he grew up, wishing to visit his mother; but as her attendants kept him out and would not let him pass, never having seen him before, Ares brought men from another town, manhandled the attendants, and went in to his mother. From this, they say, this hitting for Ares became a custom in the festival. 2.64. Furthermore, it was the Egyptians who first made it a matter of religious observance not to have intercourse with women in temples or to enter a temple after such intercourse without washing. Nearly all other peoples are less careful in this matter than are the Egyptians and Greeks, and consider a man to be like any other animal; ,for beasts and birds (they say) are seen to mate both in the temples and in the sacred precincts; now were this displeasing to the god, the beasts would not do so. This is the reason given by others for practices which I, for my part, dislike; ' "2.65. but the Egyptians in this and in all other matters are exceedingly strict against desecration of their temples. ,Although Egypt has Libya on its borders, it is not a country of many animals. All of them are held sacred; some of these are part of men's households and some not; but if I were to say why they are left alone as sacred, I should end up talking of matters of divinity, which I am especially averse to treating; I have never touched upon such except where necessity has compelled me. ,But I will indicate how it is customary to deal with the animals. Men and women are appointed guardians to provide nourishment for each kind respectively; a son inherits this office from his father. ,Townsfolk in each place, when they pay their vows, pray to the god to whom the animal is dedicated, shaving all or one half or one third of their children's heads, and weighing the hair in a balance against a sum of silver; then the weight in silver of the hair is given to the female guardian of the creatures, who buys fish with it and feeds them. ,Thus, food is provided for them. Whoever kills one of these creatures intentionally is punished with death; if he kills accidentally, he pays whatever penalty the priests appoint. Whoever kills an ibis or a hawk, intentionally or not, must die for it. " "
2.78. After rich men's repasts, a man carries around an image in a coffin, painted and carved in exact imitation of a corpse two or four feet long. This he shows to each of the company, saying “While you drink and enjoy, look on this; for to this state you must come when you die.” Such is the custom at their symposia. " '
2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this.
2.83. As to the art of divination among them, it belongs to no man, but to some of the gods; there are in their country oracles of Heracles, Apollo, Athena, Artemis, Ares, and Zeus, and of Leto (the most honored of all) in the town of Buto . Nevertheless, they have several ways of divination, not just one.
2.86. There are men whose sole business this is and who have this special craft. ,When a dead body is brought to them, they show those who brought it wooden models of corpses, painted likenesses; the most perfect way of embalming belongs, they say, to One whose name it would be impious for me to mention in treating such a matter; the second way, which they show, is less perfect than the first, and cheaper; and the third is the least costly of all. Having shown these, they ask those who brought the body in which way they desire to have it prepared. ,Having agreed on a price, the bearers go away, and the workmen, left alone in their place, embalm the body. If they do this in the most perfect way, they first draw out part of the brain through the nostrils with an iron hook, and inject certain drugs into the rest. ,Then, making a cut near the flank with a sharp knife of Ethiopian stone, they take out all the intestines, and clean the belly, rinsing it with palm wine and bruised spices; ,they sew it up again after filling the belly with pure ground myrrh and casia and any other spices, except frankincense. After doing this, they conceal the body for seventy days, embalmed in saltpetre; no longer time is allowed for the embalming; ,and when the seventy days have passed, they wash the body and wrap the whole of it in bandages of fine linen cloth, anointed with gum, which the Egyptians mostly use instead of glue; ,then they give the dead man back to his friends. These make a hollow wooden figure like a man, in which they enclose the corpse, shut it up, and keep it safe in a coffin-chamber, placed erect against a wall.
2.123. These Egyptian stories are for the benefit of whoever believes such tales: my rule in this history is that I record what is said by all as I have heard it. The Egyptians say that Demeter and Dionysus are the rulers of the lower world. ,The Egyptians were the first who maintained the following doctrine, too, that the human soul is immortal, and at the death of the body enters into some other living thing then coming to birth; and after passing through all creatures of land, sea, and air, it enters once more into a human body at birth, a cycle which it completes in three thousand years. ,There are Greeks who have used this doctrine, some earlier and some later, as if it were their own; I know their names, but do not record them.
2.145. Among the Greeks, Heracles, Dionysus, and Pan are held to be the youngest of the gods. But in Egypt, Pan is the most ancient of these and is one of the eight gods who are said to be the earliest of all; Heracles belongs to the second dynasty (that of the so-called twelve gods); and Dionysus to the third, which came after the twelve. ,How many years there were between Heracles and the reign of Amasis, I have already shown; Pan is said to be earlier still; the years between Dionysus and Amasis are the fewest, and they are reckoned by the Egyptians at fifteen thousand. ,The Egyptians claim to be sure of all this, since they have reckoned the years and chronicled them in writing. ,Now the Dionysus who was called the son of Semele, daughter of Cadmus, was about sixteen hundred years before my time, and Heracles son of Alcmene about nine hundred years; and Pan the son of Penelope (for according to the Greeks Penelope and Hermes were the parents of Pan) was about eight hundred years before me, and thus of a later date than the Trojan war. 2.146. With regard to these two, Pan and Dionysus, one may follow whatever story one thinks most credible; but I give my own opinion concerning them here. Had Dionysus son of Semele and Pan son of Penelope appeared in Hellas and lived there to old age, like Heracles the son of Amphitryon, it might have been said that they too (like Heracles) were but men, named after the older Pan and Dionysus, the gods of antiquity; ,but as it is, the Greek story has it that no sooner was Dionysus born than Zeus sewed him up in his thigh and carried him away to Nysa in Ethiopia beyond Egypt ; and as for Pan, the Greeks do not know what became of him after his birth. It is therefore plain to me that the Greeks learned the names of these two gods later than the names of all the others, and trace the birth of both to the time when they gained the knowledge.
2.156. Thus, then, the shrine is the most marvellous of all the things that I saw in this temple; but of things of second rank, the most wondrous is the island called Khemmis . ,This lies in a deep and wide lake near the temple at Buto, and the Egyptians say that it floats. I never saw it float, or move at all, and I thought it a marvellous tale, that an island should truly float. ,However that may be, there is a great shrine of Apollo on it, and three altars stand there; many palm trees grow on the island, and other trees too, some yielding fruit and some not. ,This is the story that the Egyptians tell to explain why the island moves: that on this island that did not move before, Leto, one of the eight gods who first came to be, who was living at Buto where this oracle of hers is, taking charge of Apollo from Isis, hid him for safety in this island which is now said to float, when Typhon came hunting through the world, keen to find the son of Osiris. ,Apollo and Artemis were (they say) children of Dionysus and Isis, and Leto was made their nurse and preserver; in Egyptian, Apollo is Horus, Demeter Isis, Artemis Bubastis. ,It was from this legend and no other that Aeschylus son of Euphorion took a notion which is in no poet before him: that Artemis was the daughter of Demeter. For this reason the island was made to float. So they say.
2.170. There is also at Saïs the burial-place of one whose name I think it impious to mention in speaking of such a matter; it is in the temple of Athena, behind and close to the length of the wall of the shrine. ,Moreover, great stone obelisks stand in the precinct; and there is a lake nearby, adorned with a stone margin and made in a complete circle; it is, as it seemed to me, the size of the lake at Delos which they call the Round Pond. ' "2.171. On this lake they enact by night the story of the god's sufferings, a rite which the Egyptians call the Mysteries. I could say more about this, for I know the truth, but let me preserve a discreet silence. ,Let me preserve a discreet silence, too, concerning that rite of Demeter which the Greeks call 3.142. Now Samos was ruled by Maeandrius, son of Maeandrius, who had authority delegated by Polycrates. He wanted to be the justest of men, but that was impossible. ,For when he learned of Polycrates' death, first he set up an altar to Zeus the Liberator and marked out around it that sacred enclosure which is still to be seen in the suburb of the city; when this had been done, he called an assembly of all the citizens, and addressed them thus: ,“To me, as you know, have come Polycrates' scepter and all of his power, and it is in my power now to rule you. But I, so far as it lies in me, shall not do myself what I blame in my neighbor. I always disliked it that Polycrates or any other man should lord it over men like himself. Polycrates has fulfilled his destiny, and inviting you to share his power I proclaim equality. ,Only I claim for my own privilege that six talents of Polycrates' wealth be set apart for my use, and that I and my descendants keep the priesthood of Zeus the Liberator, whose temple I have founded, and now I give you freedom.” ,Such was Maeandrius' promise to the Samians. But one of them arose and answered: “But you are not even fit to rule us, low-born and vermin, but you had better give an account of the monies that you have handled.” " '
5.22. Now that these descendants of Perdiccas are Greeks, as they themselves say, I myself chance to know and will prove it in the later part of my history. Furthermore, the Hellenodicae who manage the contest at Olympia determined that it is so, ,for when Alexander chose to contend and entered the lists for that purpose, the Greeks who were to run against him wanted to bar him from the race, saying that the contest should be for Greeks and not for foreigners. Alexander, however, proving himself to be an Argive, was judged to be a Greek. He accordingly competed in the furlong race and tied step for first place. This, then, is approximately what happened.
5.55. When he was forced to leave Sparta, Aristagoras went to Athens, which had been freed from its ruling tyrants in the manner that I will show. First Hipparchus, son of Pisistratus and brother of the tyrant Hippias, had been slain by Aristogiton and Harmodius, men of Gephyraean descent. This was in fact an evil of which he had received a premonition in a dream. After this the Athenians were subject for four years to a tyranny not less but even more absolute than before. ' "
5.62. I have told both of the vision of Hipparchus' dream and of the first origin of the Gephyreans, to whom the slayers of Hipparchus belonged. Now I must go further and return to the story which I began to tell, namely how the Athenians were freed from their tyrants. ,Hippias, their tyrant, was growing ever more bitter in enmity against the Athenians because of Hipparchus' death, and the Alcmeonidae, a family of Athenian stock banished by the sons of Pisistratus, attempted with the rest of the exiled Athenians to make their way back by force and free Athens. They were not successful in their return and suffered instead a great reverse. After fortifying Lipsydrium north of Paeonia, they, in their desire to use all devices against the sons of Pisistratus, hired themselves to the Amphictyons for the building of the temple at Delphi which exists now but was not there yet then. ,Since they were wealthy and like their fathers men of reputation, they made the temple more beautiful than the model showed. In particular, whereas they had agreed to build the temple of tufa, they made its front of Parian marble. " "
5.67. In doing this, to my thinking, this Cleisthenes was imitating his own mother's father, Cleisthenes the tyrant of Sicyon, for Cleisthenes, after going to war with the Argives, made an end of minstrels' contests at Sicyon by reason of the Homeric poems, in which it is the Argives and Argos which are primarily the theme of the songs. Furthermore, he conceived the desire to cast out from the land Adrastus son of Talaus, the hero whose shrine stood then as now in the very marketplace of Sicyon because he was an Argive. ,He went then to Delphi, and asked the oracle if he should cast Adrastus out, but the priestess said in response: “Adrastus is king of Sicyon, and you but a stone thrower.” When the god would not permit him to do as he wished in this matter, he returned home and attempted to devise some plan which might rid him of Adrastus. When he thought he had found one, he sent to Boeotian Thebes saying that he would gladly bring Melanippus son of Astacus into his country, and the Thebans handed him over. ,When Cleisthenes had brought him in, he consecrated a sanctuary for him in the government house itself, where he was established in the greatest possible security. Now the reason why Cleisthenes brought in Melanippus, a thing which I must relate, was that Melanippus was Adrastus' deadliest enemy, for Adrastus had slain his brother Mecisteus and his son-in-law Tydeus. ,Having then designated the precinct for him, Cleisthenes took away all Adrastus' sacrifices and festivals and gave them to Melanippus. The Sicyonians had been accustomed to pay very great honor to Adrastus because the country had once belonged to Polybus, his maternal grandfather, who died without an heir and bequeathed the kingship to him. ,Besides other honors paid to Adrastus by the Sicyonians, they celebrated his lamentable fate with tragic choruses in honor not of Dionysus but of Adrastus. Cleisthenes, however, gave the choruses back to Dionysus and the rest of the worship to Melanippus. " "
5.71. How the Accursed at Athens had received their name, I will now relate. There was an Athenian named Cylon, who had been a winner at Olympia. This man put on the air of one who aimed at tyranny, and gathering a company of men of like age, he attempted to seize the citadel. When he could not win it, he took sanctuary by the goddess' statue. ,He and his men were then removed from their position by the presidents of the naval boards, the rulers of Athens at that time. Although they were subject to any penalty save death, they were slain, and their death was attributed to the Alcmaeonidae. All this took place before the time of Pisistratus." '
5.83. Now at this time, as before it, the Aeginetans were in all matters still subject to the Epidaurians and even crossed to Epidaurus for the hearing of their own private lawsuits. From this time, however, they began to build ships, and stubbornly revolted from the Epidaurians. ,In the course of this struggle, they did the Epidaurians much damage and stole their images of Damia and Auxesia. These they took away and set them up in the middle of their own country at a place called Oea, about twenty furlongs distant from their city. ,Having set them up in this place they sought their favor with sacrifices and female choruses in the satirical and abusive mode. Ten men were appointed providers of a chorus for each of the deities, and the choruses aimed their raillery not at any men but at the women of the country. The Epidaurians too had the same rites, and they have certain secret rites as well. ' "
5.91. Now the Lacedaemonians, when they regained the oracles and saw the Athenians increasing in power and in no way inclined to obey them, realized that if the Athenians remained free, they would be equal in power with themselves, but that if they were held down under tyranny, they would be weak and ready to serve a master. Perceiving all this, they sent to bring Pisistratus' son Hippias from Sigeum on the Hellespont, the Pisistratidae's place of refuge. ,When Hippias arrived, the Spartans sent for envoys from the rest of their allies and spoke to them as follows: “Sirs, our allies, we do acknowledge that we have acted wrongly, for, led astray by lying divinations, we drove from their native land men who were our close friends and promised to make Athens subject to us. Then we handed that city over to a thankless people which had no sooner lifted up its head in the freedom which we gave it, than it insolently cast out us and our king. Now it has bred such a spirit of pride and is growing so much in power, that its neighbors in Boeotia and Chalcis have really noticed it, and others too will soon recognize their error. ,Since we erred in doing what we did, we will now attempt with your aid to avenge ourselves on them. It is on this account and no other that we have sent for Hippias, whom you see, and have brought you from your cities, namely that uniting our counsels and our power, we may bring him to Athens and restore that which we took away.” " '5.92. These were the words of the Lacedaemonians, but their words were ill-received by the greater part of their allies. The rest then keeping silence, Socles, a Corinthian, said, ,“In truth heaven will be beneath the earth and the earth aloft above the heaven, and men will dwell in the sea and fishes where men dwelt before, now that you, Lacedaemonians, are destroying the rule of equals and making ready to bring back tyranny into the cities, tyranny, a thing more unrighteous and bloodthirsty than anything else on this earth. ,If indeed it seems to you to be a good thing that the cities be ruled by tyrants, set up a tyrant among yourselves first and then seek to set up such for the rest. As it is, however, you, who have never made trial of tyrants and take the greatest precautions that none will arise at Sparta, deal wrongfully with your allies. If you had such experience of that thing as we have, you would be more prudent advisers concerning it than you are now.” ,The Corinthian state was ordered in such manner as I will show.There was an oligarchy, and this group of men, called the Bacchiadae, held sway in the city, marrying and giving in marriage among themselves. Now Amphion, one of these men, had a crippled daughter, whose name was Labda. Since none of the Bacchiadae would marry her, she was wedded to Eetion son of Echecrates, of the township of Petra, a Lapith by lineage and of the posterity of Caeneus. ,When no sons were born to him by this wife or any other, he set out to Delphi to enquire concerning the matter of acquiring offspring. As soon as he entered, the Pythian priestess spoke these verses to him: 6.67. So it was concerning Demaratus' loss of the kingship, and from Sparta he went into exile among the Medes because of the following reproach: after he was deposed from the kingship, he was elected to office. ,When it was the time of the 6.75. When the Lacedaemonians learned that Cleomenes was doing this, they took fright and brought him back to Sparta to rule on the same terms as before. Cleomenes had already been not entirely in his right mind, and on his return from exile a mad sickness fell upon him: any Spartan that he happened to meet he would hit in the face with his staff. ,For doing this, and because he was out of his mind, his relatives bound him in the stocks. When he was in the stocks and saw that his guard was left alone, he demanded a dagger; the guard at first refused to give it, but Cleomenes threatened what he would do to him when he was freed, until the guard, who was a helot, was frightened by the threats and gave him the dagger. ,Cleomenes took the weapon and set about slashing himself from his shins upwards; from the shin to the thigh he cut his flesh lengthways, then from the thigh to the hip and the sides, until he reached the belly, and cut it into strips; thus he died, as most of the Greeks say, because he persuaded the Pythian priestess to tell the tale of Demaratus. The Athenians alone say it was because he invaded Eleusis and laid waste the precinct of the gods. The Argives say it was because when Argives had taken refuge after the battle in their temple of Argus he brought them out and cut them down, then paid no heed to the sacred grove and set it on fire. ' "
6.105. While still in the city, the generals first sent to Sparta the herald Philippides, an Athenian and a long-distance runner who made that his calling. As Philippides himself said when he brought the message to the Athenians, when he was in the Parthenian mountain above Tegea he encountered Pan. ,Pan called out Philippides' name and bade him ask the Athenians why they paid him no attention, though he was of goodwill to the Athenians, had often been of service to them, and would be in the future. ,The Athenians believed that these things were true, and when they became prosperous they established a sacred precinct of Pan beneath the Acropolis. Ever since that message they propitiate him with annual sacrifices and a torch-race. " "6.106. This Philippides was in Sparta on the day after leaving the city of Athens, that time when he was sent by the generals and said that Pan had appeared to him. He came to the magistrates and said, ,“Lacedaemonians, the Athenians ask you to come to their aid and not allow the most ancient city among the Hellenes to fall into slavery at the hands of the foreigners. Even now Eretria has been enslaved, and Hellas has become weaker by an important city.” ,He told them what he had been ordered to say, and they resolved to send help to the Athenians, but they could not do this immediately, for they were unwilling to break the law. It was the ninth day of the rising month, and they said that on the ninth they could not go out to war until the moon's circle was full." '
7.132. Among those who paid that tribute were the Thessalians, Dolopes, Enienes, Perrhaebians, Locrians, Magnesians, Melians, Achaeans of Phthia, Thebans, and all the Boeotians except the men of Thespiae and Plataea. ,Against all of these the Greeks who declared war with the foreigner entered into a sworn agreement, which was this: that if they should be victorious, they would dedicate to the god of Delphi the possessions of all Greeks who had of free will surrendered themselves to the Persians. Such was the agreement sworn by the Greeks.
7.228. There is an inscription written over these men, who were buried where they fell, and over those who died before the others went away, dismissed by Leonidas. It reads as follows: 8.65. Dicaeus son of Theocydes, an Athenian exile who had become important among the Medes, said that at the time when the land of Attica was being laid waste by Xerxes' army and there were no Athenians in the country, he was with Demaratus the Lacedaemonian on the Thriasian plain and saw advancing from Eleusis a cloud of dust as if raised by the feet of about thirty thousand men. They marvelled at what men might be raising such a cloud of dust and immediately heard a cry. The cry seemed to be the “Iacchus” of the mysteries, ,and when Demaratus, ignorant of the rites of Eleusis, asked him what was making this sound, Dicaeus said, “Demaratus, there is no way that some great disaster will not befall the king's army. Since Attica is deserted, it is obvious that this voice is divine and comes from Eleusis to help the Athenians and their allies. ,If it descends upon the Peloponnese, the king himself and his army on the mainland will be endangered. If, however, it turns towards the ships at Salamis, the king will be in danger of losing his fleet. ,Every year the Athenians observe this festival for the Mother and the Maiden, and any Athenian or other Hellene who wishes is initiated. The voice which you hear is the ‘Iacchus’ they cry at this festival.” To this Demaratus replied, “Keep silent and tell this to no one else. ,If these words of yours are reported to the king, you will lose your head, and neither I nor any other man will be able to save you, so be silent. The gods will see to the army.” ,Thus he advised, and after the dust and the cry came a cloud, which rose aloft and floated away towards Salamis to the camp of the Hellenes. In this way they understood that Xerxes' fleet was going to be destroyed. Dicaeus son of Theocydes used to say this, appealing to Demaratus and others as witnesses. " "
9.11. So Pausanias' army had marched away from Sparta; but as soon as it was day, the envoys came before the ephors, having no knowledge of the expedition, and being minded themselves too to depart each one to his own place. When they arrived, “You Lacedaemonians,” they said, “remain where you are, observing your 9.65. At Plataea, however, the Persians, routed by the Lacedaemonians, fled in disorder to their own camp and inside the wooden walls which they had made in the territory of Thebes. ,It is indeed a marvel that although the battle was right by the grove of Demeter, there was no sign that any Persian had been killed in the precinct or entered into it; most of them fell near the temple in unconsecrated ground. I think—if it is necessary to judge the ways of the gods—that the goddess herself denied them entry, since they had burnt her temple, the shrine at Eleusis. ''. None
32. Plato, Alcibiades Ii, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, festivals of • Epicurus, and festivals • festivals • festivals, Attic abundance of • festivals, Epicurus on • festivals, and education • festivals, established by divination • festivals, honouring the gods • festivals, in Athens • sacrifices, and festivals

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 49, 61, 95, 177; Parker (2005) 379

148e. χρὴ μηχανῇ τῶν παρόντων κακῶν ἀποτροπὴν εὑρεῖν, βουλευομένοις αὐτοῖς δοκεῖν κράτιστον εἶναι πέμψαντας πρὸς Ἄμμωνα ἐκεῖνον ἐπερωτᾶν· ἔτι δὲ πρὸς τούτοις τάδε, καὶ ἀνθʼ ὅτου ποτὲ Λακεδαιμονίοις οἱ θεοὶ μᾶλλον νίκην διδόασιν ἢ σφίσιν αὐτοῖς, οἳ πλείστας, φάναι, μὲν θυσίας καὶ καλλίστας τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἄγομεν, ἀναθήμασί τε κεκοσμήκαμεν τὰ ἱερὰ αὐτῶν ὡς οὐδένες ἄλλοι, πομπάς τε πολυτελεστάτας καὶ σεμνοτάτας ἐδωρούμεθα τοῖς θεοῖς ἀνʼ ἕκαστον ἔτος, καὶ''. None
148e. took counsel together and decided that the best thing they could do was to send and inquire of Ammon ; and moreover, to ask also for what reason the gods granted victory to the Spartans rather than to themselves: for we —such was the message— offer up to them more and finer sacrifices than any of the Greeks, and have adorned their temples with votive emblems as no other people have done, and presented to the gods the costliest and stateliest processions year by year, and spent more money thus than''. None
33. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on festivals • Artemis (goddess), Laphria festival • Demetrieia (festival), Kataibates • Demetrieia (festival), Rhodes, siege of • Demetrieia (festival), removal of honours for • festival, Panathenaea • festivals, Laphria • festivals, established by divination • festivals, honouring the gods • festivals, of Magnesia • festivals, officials of • sacrifice (thysia), Laphria festival

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 136; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 14; Jim (2022) 17; Mikalson (2010) 56, 104, 108, 170, 177

14b. ΣΩ. ἦ πολύ μοι διὰ βραχυτέρων, ὦ Εὐθύφρων, εἰ ἐβούλου, εἶπες ἂν τὸ κεφάλαιον ὧν ἠρώτων· ἀλλὰ γὰρ οὐ'14c. ΕΥΘ. ἔγωγε. ΣΩ. οὐκοῦν τὸ θύειν δωρεῖσθαί ἐστι τοῖς θεοῖς, τὸ δʼ εὔχεσθαι αἰτεῖν τοὺς θεούς; ΕΥΘ. καὶ μάλα, ὦ Σώκρατες.' ''. None
4c. Naxos, he was working there on our land. Now he got drunk, got angry with one of our house slaves, and butchered him. So my father bound him hand and foot, threw him into a ditch, and sent a man here to Athens to ask the religious adviser what he ought 14b. Socrates. You might, if you wished, Euthyphro, have answered much more briefly the chief part of my question. But it is plain that you do not care to instruct me.' 14c. Euthyphro. Yes. Socrates. And sacrificing is making gifts to the god '. None
34. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epicurus, and festivals • festivals • festivals, Epicurus on • festivals, and education • festivals, honouring the gods • festivals, of Apollo (Delos)

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 152; Mikalson (2010) 95

472a. ἀλήθειαν· ἐνίοτε γὰρ ἂν καὶ καταψευδομαρτυρηθείη τις ὑπὸ πολλῶν καὶ δοκούντων εἶναί τι. καὶ νῦν περὶ ὧν σὺ λέγεις ὀλίγου σοι πάντες συμφήσουσιν ταὐτὰ Ἀθηναῖοι καὶ οἱ ξένοι, ἐὰν βούλῃ κατʼ ἐμοῦ μάρτυρας παρασχέσθαι ὡς οὐκ ἀληθῆ λέγω· μαρτυρήσουσί σοι, ἐὰν μὲν βούλῃ, Νικίας ὁ Νικηράτου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ, ὧν οἱ τρίποδες οἱ ἐφεξῆς ἑστῶτές εἰσιν ἐν τῷ Διονυσίῳ, ἐὰν δὲ βούλῃ, Ἀριστοκράτης''. None
472a. for getting at the truth; since occasionally a man may actually be crushed by the number and reputation of the false witnesses brought against him. And so now you will find almost everybody, Athenians and foreigners, in agreement with you on the points you state, if you like to bring forward witnesses against the truth of what I say: if you like, there is Nicias, son of Niceratus, with his brothers, whose tripods are standing in a row in the Dionysium; or else Aristocrates, son of Scellias, whose goodly offering again is well known at Delphi ;''. None
35. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cultic ritual practice, feasting • feasts • festival, of Leukophryena • festivals • festivals, Thesmophoria • sanctuaries/temples, festivals and courtship

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 16; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 60; Mikalson (2010) 23; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 185

955e. ἂν χρῆσθαι βούληται, χρῆται, κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἕκαστον βουλευομένων, ἐάντε τοῦ τιμήματος ὅλου μέρει ἐάντε τῆς γενομένης ἐπʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἑκάστοτε προσόδου, χωρὶς τῶν εἰς τὰ συσσίτια τελουμένων. ΑΘ.' '. None
955e. and may determine year by year whether it will require a proportion of the whole assessed value, or a proportion of the current yearly income, exclusive of the taxes paid for the common meals. Ath.' '. None
36. Plato, Menexenus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • dramatic festivals, discursive parameters

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 179; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 291

239b. καὶ ἰδίᾳ καὶ δημοσίᾳ, οἰόμενοι δεῖν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας καὶ Ἕλλησιν ὑπὲρ Ἑλλήνων μάχεσθαι καὶ βαρβάροις ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων τῶν Ἑλλήνων. Εὐμόλπου μὲν οὖν καὶ Ἀμαζόνων ἐπιστρατευσάντων ἐπὶ τὴν χώραν καὶ τῶν ἔτι προτέρων ὡς ἠμύναντο, καὶ ὡς ἤμυναν Ἀργείοις πρὸς Καδμείους καὶ Ἡρακλείδαις πρὸς Ἀργείους, ὅ τε χρόνος βραχὺς ἀξίως διηγήσασθαι, ποιηταί τε αὐτῶν ἤδη καλῶς τὴν ἀρετὴν ἐν μουσικῇ ὑμνήσαντες εἰς πάντας μεμηνύκασιν· ἐὰν οὖν ἡμεῖς''. None
239b. deeming it their duty to fight in the cause of freedom alike with Greeks on behalf of Greeks and with barbarians on behalf of the whole of Greece . The story of how they repulsed Eumolpus and the Amazons, and still earlier invaders, when they marched upon our country, and how they defended the Argives against the Cadmeians and the Heracleidae against the Argives, is a story which our time is too short to relate as it deserves, and already their valor has been adequately celebrated in song by poets who have made it known throughout the world;''. None
37. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on festivals • Dionysus, festivals of • Pythagoras and Pythagoreans, on athletic festivals • festivals • festivals, Pythagoras on • festivals, and Bendis • festivals, and Zeus • festivals, in Athens • festivals, of Magnesia • theoria, festival attendance

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 86; Ward (2021) 54

58a. ΦΑΙΔ. οὐδὲ τὰ περὶ τῆς δίκης ἄρα ἐπύθεσθε ὃν τρόπον ἐγένετο; γ ΕΧ. ναί, ταῦτα μὲν ἡμῖν ἤγγειλέ τις, καὶ ἐθαυμάζομέν γε ὅτι πάλαι γενομένης αὐτῆς πολλῷ ὕστερον φαίνεται ἀποθανών. τί οὖν ἦν τοῦτο, ὦ Φαίδων ; ΦΑΙΔ. τύχη τις αὐτῷ, ὦ Ἐχέκρατες, συνέβη: ἔτυχεν γὰρ τῇ προτεραίᾳ τῆς δίκης ἡ πρύμνα ἐστεμμένη τοῦ πλοίου ὃ εἰς Δῆλον Ἀθηναῖοι πέμπουσιν. ΕΧ. τοῦτο δὲ δὴ τί ἐστιν; ΦΑΙΔ. τοῦτ’ ἔστι τὸ πλοῖον, ὥς φασιν Ἀθηναῖοι, ἐν ᾧ Θησεύς ποτε εἰς Κρήτην τοὺς δὶς ἑπτὰ ἐκείνους ᾤχετο''. None
58a. Phaedo. Did you not even hear about the trial and how it was conducted? Echecrates. Yes, some one told us about that, and we wondered that although it took place a long time ago, he was put to death much later. Now why was that, Phaedo? Phaedo. It was a matter of chance, Echecrates. It happened that the stern of the ship which the Athenians send to Delos was crowned on the day before the trial. Echecrates. What ship is this? Phaedo. This is the ship, as the Athenians say, in which Theseus once went to Crete with the fourteen''. None
38. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals, of Magnesia • festivals, officials of • festivals, prizes for victorious competitors • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 104; Papazarkadas (2011) 79, 270

290e. ἄρχειν, ἀλλʼ ἐὰν ἄρα καὶ τύχῃ πρότερον ἐξ ἄλλου γένους βιασάμενος, ὕστερον ἀναγκαῖον εἰς τοῦτο εἰστελεῖσθαι αὐτὸν τὸ γένος· ἔτι δὲ καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων πολλαχοῦ ταῖς μεγίσταις ἀρχαῖς τὰ μέγιστα τῶν περὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα θύματα εὕροι τις ἂν προσταττόμενα θύειν. καὶ δὴ καὶ παρʼ ὑμῖν οὐχ ἥκιστα δῆλον ὃ λέγω· τῷ γὰρ λαχόντι βασιλεῖ φασιν τῇδε τὰ σεμνότατα καὶ μάλιστα πάτρια τῶν ἀρχαίων θυσιῶν ἀποδεδόσθαι. ΝΕ. ΣΩ. καὶ πάνυ γε.''. None
290e. and if he happens to have forced his way to the throne from some other class, he must enroll himself in the class of priests afterwards; and among the Greeks, too, you would find that in many states the performance of the greatest public sacrifices is a duty imposed upon the highest officials. Yes, among you Athenians this is very plain, for they say the holiest and most national of the ancient sacrifices are performed by the man whom the lot has chosen to be the King. Y. Soc. Yes, certainly.''. None
39. Sophocles, Antigone, 1115-1152 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • festival, festivity, festive

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 8, 243, 273; Lipka (2021) 112

1115. God of many names, glory of the Cadmeian bride and offspring of loud-thundering Zeus, you who watch over far-famed Italy and reign'1116. God of many names, glory of the Cadmeian bride and offspring of loud-thundering Zeus, you who watch over far-famed Italy and reign 1120. in the valleys of Eleusinian Deo where all find welcome! O Bacchus, denizen of Thebes , the mother-city of your Bacchants, dweller by the wet stream of Ismenus on the soil 1125. of the sowing of the savage dragon’s teeth! 1126. The smoky glare of torches sees you above the cliffs of the twin peaks, where the Corycian nymphs move inspired by your godhead, 1130. and Castalia’s stream sees you, too. The ivy-mantled slopes of Nysa ’s hills and the shore green with many-clustered vines send you, when accompanied by the cries of your divine words, 1135. you visit the avenues of Thebes . 1137. Thebes of all cities you hold foremost in honor, together with your lightning-struck mother. 1140. And now when the whole city is held subject to a violent plague, come, we ask, with purifying feet over steep Parnassus , 1145. or over the groaning straits! 1146. O Leader of the chorus of the stars whose breath is fire, overseer of the chants in the night, son begotten of Zeus, 1150. appear, my king, with your attendant Thyiads, who in night-long frenzy dance and sing you as Iacchus the Giver! '. None
40. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.113, 1.126.6, 2.38.1, 2.71.2, 3.104, 3.104.1-3.104.2, 4.92, 4.99, 6.56 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on festivals • Democritus, on festivals • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), Dionysia festivals • Dionysus, festivals of • Festival • Festivals, and Boiotian regional identity • Festivals, of Artemis Agrotera of Athens • Plataiai, festival of Zeus Eleutherios • Skambonidai festivals mentioned in decree of • dramatic festivals, discursive parameters • eudaimonia, and festivals • festivals • festivals, Attic abundance of • festivals, Attic confined to Athens • festivals, Attic confined to demes • festivals, Democritus on • festivals, Dionysia • festivals, Ephesia • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, and Apollo • festivals, and Muses • festivals, and charis • festivals, and education • festivals, and eudaimonia • festivals, annual • festivals, established by divination • festivals, funding of • festivals, honouring the gods • festivals, of Magnesia • festivals, promoted by tyrants • festivals, propitiating a deity • festivals,, elite competition in • married women at festivals at Panathenaea • married women at festivals parthenoi at festivals • sacrifices, and festivals • theoria, festival attendance

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 194; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 180; Gygax (2016) 102, 162; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 181; Kowalzig (2007) 387; Mikalson (2003) 220; Mikalson (2010) 80, 83, 84; Papazarkadas (2011) 47; Parker (2005) 74, 258, 379; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 212; Sweeney (2013) 177; Ward (2021) 2; Wilding (2022) 128, 167

1.126.6. εἰ δὲ ἐν τῇ Ἀττικῇ ἢ ἄλλοθί που ἡ μεγίστη ἑορτὴ εἴρητο, οὔτε ἐκεῖνος ἔτι κατενόησε τό τε μαντεῖον οὐκ ἐδήλου ʽἔστι γὰρ καὶ Ἀθηναίοις Διάσια ἃ καλεῖται Διὸς ἑορτὴ Μειλιχίου μεγίστη ἔξω τῆς πόλεως, ἐν ᾗ πανδημεὶ θύουσι πολλὰ οὐχ ἱερεῖα, ἀλλ’ <ἁγνὰ> θύματα ἐπιχώριἀ, δοκῶν δὲ ὀρθῶς γιγνώσκειν ἐπεχείρησε τῷ ἔργῳ.
2.38.1. ‘καὶ μὴν καὶ τῶν πόνων πλείστας ἀναπαύλας τῇ γνώμῃ ἐπορισάμεθα, ἀγῶσι μέν γε καὶ θυσίαις διετησίοις νομίζοντες, ἰδίαις δὲ κατασκευαῖς εὐπρεπέσιν, ὧν καθ’ ἡμέραν ἡ τέρψις τὸ λυπηρὸν ἐκπλήσσει.
2.71.2. ‘Ἀρχίδαμε καὶ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, οὐ δίκαια ποιεῖτε οὐδ’ ἄξια οὔτε ὑμῶν οὔτε πατέρων ὧν ἐστέ, ἐς γῆν τὴν Πλαταιῶν στρατεύοντες. Παυσανίας γὰρ ὁ Κλεομβρότου Λακεδαιμόνιος ἐλευθερώσας τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἀπὸ τῶν Μήδων μετὰ Ἑλλήνων τῶν ἐθελησάντων ξυνάρασθαι τὸν κίνδυνον τῆς μάχης ἣ παρ’ ἡμῖν ἐγένετο, θύσας ἐν τῇ Πλαταιῶν ἀγορᾷ ἱερὰ Διὶ ἐλευθερίῳ καὶ ξυγκαλέσας πάντας τοὺς ξυμμάχους ἀπεδίδου Πλαταιεῦσι γῆν καὶ πόλιν τὴν σφετέραν ἔχοντας αὐτονόμους οἰκεῖν, στρατεῦσαί τε μηδένα ποτὲ ἀδίκως ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς μηδ’ ἐπὶ δουλείᾳ: εἰ δὲ μή, ἀμύνειν τοὺς παρόντας ξυμμάχους κατὰ δύναμιν.

3.104.1. τοῦ δ’ αὐτοῦ χειμῶνος καὶ Δῆλον ἐκάθηραν Ἀθηναῖοι κατὰ χρησμὸν δή τινα. ἐκάθηρε μὲν γὰρ καὶ Πεισίστρατος ὁ τύραννος πρότερον αὐτήν, οὐχ ἅπασαν, ἀλλ’ ὅσον ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἐφεωρᾶτο τῆς νήσου: τότε δὲ πᾶσα ἐκαθάρθη τοιῷδε τρόπῳ.
3.104.2. θῆκαι ὅσαι ἦσαν τῶν τεθνεώτων ἐν Δήλῳ, πάσας ἀνεῖλον, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν προεῖπον μήτε ἐναποθνῄσκειν ἐν τῇ νήσῳ μήτε ἐντίκτειν, ἀλλ’ ἐς τὴν Ῥήνειαν διακομίζεσθαι. ἀπέχει δὲ ἡ Ῥήνεια τῆς Δήλου οὕτως ὀλίγον ὥστε Πολυκράτης ὁ Σαμίων τύραννος ἰσχύσας τινὰ χρόνον ναυτικῷ καὶ τῶν τε ἄλλων νήσων ἄρξας καὶ τὴν Ῥήνειαν ἑλὼν ἀνέθηκε τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι τῷ Δηλίῳ ἁλύσει δήσας πρὸς τὴν Δῆλον. καὶ τὴν πεντετηρίδα τότε πρῶτον μετὰ τὴν κάθαρσιν ἐποίησαν οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι τὰ Δήλια.' '. None
1.126.6. Whether the grand festival that was meant was in Attica or elsewhere was a question which he never thought of, and which the oracle did not offer to solve. For the Athenians also have a festival which is called the grand festival of Zeus Meilichios or Gracious, viz. the Diasia. It is celebrated outside the city, and the whole people sacrifice not real victims but a number of bloodless offerings peculiar to the country. However, fancying he had chosen the right time, he made the attempt.
2.38.1. Further, we provide plenty of means for the mind to refresh itself from business. We celebrate games and sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen;
2.71.2. ‘Archidamus and Lacedaemonians, in invading the Plataean territory, you do what is wrong in itself, and worthy neither of yourselves nor of the fathers who begot you. Pausanias, son of Cleombrotus, your countryman, after freeing Hellas from the Medes with the help of those Hellenes who were willing to undertake the risk of the battle fought near our city, offered sacrifice to Zeus the Liberator in the market-place of Plataea, and calling all the allies together restored to the Plataeans their city and territory, and declared it independent and inviolate against aggression or conquest. Should any such be attempted, the allies present were to help according to their power.

3.104.1. The same winter the Athenians purified Delos, in compliance, it appears, with a certain oracle. It had been purified before by Pisistratus the tyrant; not indeed the whole island, but as much of it as could be seen from the temple. All of it was, however, now purified in the following way.
3.104.2. All the sepulchres of those that had died in Delos were taken up, and for the future it was commanded that no one should be allowed either to die or to give birth to a child in the island; but that they should be carried over to Rhenea, which is so near to Delos that Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, having added Rhenea to his other island conquests during his period of naval ascendancy, dedicated it to the Delian Apollo by binding it to Delos with a chain. The Athenians, after the purification, celebrated, for the first time, the quinquennial festival of the Delian games. ' '. None
41. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 3.2.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals, Mounichia of Athens • Festivals, of Artemis Agrotera of Athens • festival,

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 625; Mikalson (2003) 29, 30, 127

3.2.12. καὶ εὐξάμενοι τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι ὁπόσους κατακάνοιεν τῶν πολεμίων τοσαύτας χιμαίρας καταθύσειν τῇ θεῷ, ἐπεὶ οὐκ εἶχον ἱκανὰς εὑρεῖν, ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν πεντακοσίας θύειν, καὶ ἔτι νῦν ἀποθύουσιν.''. None
3.2.12. And while they had vowed to Artemis that for every man they might slay of the enemy they would sacrifice a goat to the goddess, they were unable to find goats enough; According to Herodotus ( Hdt. 6.117 ) the Persian dead numbered 6,400. so they resolved to offer five hundred every year, and this sacrifice they are paying even to this day. ''. None
42. Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.4.12, 2.4.20 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, Athens and festivals in • festivals • festivals and social roles • festivals, Apatouria • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Plynteria • sacrifice by individuals during public festivals • women, participation in festivals

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 169, 264; Fabian Meinel (2015) 176; Parker (2005) 163, 373

1.4.12. And when he found that the temper of the Athenians was kindly, that they had chosen him general, and that his friends were urging him by personal messages to return, he sailed in to Piraeus, arriving on the day when the city was celebrating the Plynteria When the clothing of the ancient wooden statue of Athena Polias was removed and washed ( πλύνειν ). and the statue of Athena was veiled from sight,—a circumstance which some people imagined was of ill omen, both for him and for the state; for on that day no Athenian would venture to engage in any serious business.
2.4.20. And Cleocritus, the herald of the initiated, i.e. in the Eleusinian mysteries. a man with a very fine voice, obtained silence and said: Fellow citizens, why do you drive us out of the city? why do you wish to kill us? For we never did you any harm, but we have shared with you in the most solemn rites and sacrifices and the most splendid festivals, we have been companions in the dance and schoolmates and comrades in arms, and we have braved many dangers with you both by land and by sea in defense of the 404 B.C. common safety and freedom of us both.''. None
43. Xenophon, On Household Management, 2.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, festivals of • festivals, Roman • festivals, for Antiochus III • sacrifices, and festivals

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 260; Mikalson (2010) 61

2.5. How can that be? exclaimed Critobulus. Because, in the first place, explained Socrates , I notice that you are bound to offer many large sacrifices; else, I fancy, you would get into trouble with gods and men alike. Secondly, it is your duty to entertain many strangers, on a generous scale too. Thirdly, you have to give dinners and play the benefactor to the citizens, or you lose your following.''. None
44. Xenophon, Symposium, 8.40 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Panathenaic festival • festival, festivity, festive

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 113; Edmunds (2021) 83

8.40. You may regard it as certain, therefore, that our city would be quick to entrust itself to your hands, if you so desire. For you possess the highest qualifications for such a trust: you are of aristocratic birth, of Erechtheus’ line, Callias’s family belonged to the priestly clan of the Ceryces, who traced their lineage back to Ceryx, son of Hermes and Aglaurus. The latter, however, was not a descendant of Erechtheus, but one of his nurses. a priest serving the gods who under the leadership of Iacchus took the field against the barbarian; Herodotus (VIII, 65) and Plutarch ( Life of Themistocles, XV) report the tradition that while the Greek fleet was at anchor near Salamis just before the critical sea-fight, great elation was caused at sight of a big cloud of dust (or, in the later version, a brilliant light) off toward Eleusis , and a wonderful sound as of the Eleusinian festival with its cries to Iacchus, followed by a cloud that drifted directly toward the fleet. and in our day you outshine your predecessors in the splendour of your priestly office in the festival; In addition to being one of the priestly Ceryces, Callias was an hereditary torch-bearer in the Eleusinian festival. and you possess a person more goodly to the eye than any other in the city and one at the same time able to withstand effort and hardship.''. None
45. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Theopompus, and festivals • festivals, Theopompus on • proper respect for gods, through festivals • sacrifice by individuals during public festivals

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 154; Parker (2005) 163

46. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes festivals in • cavalry at festivals • festival • festival, Dionysia

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 134; Parker (2005) 262, 317

47. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adonia (festival) • Anthesteria (festival) • Aristophanes festivals in • Athenians, at the festivals • Brauronia (festival) • Cronia (festival) • Diasia (festival) • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • Dipolieia (festival) • Panathenaea (festival) • Theseia (festival) • Thesmophoria (festival) • audience, at the festivals • burial, state festival • dramatic festivals, Great Dionysia • dramatic festivals, Lenaea • dramatic festivals, performances of old plays • festival • festival, festivity, festive • festivals, Anthesteria • festivals, Panathenaea • festivals, of Dionysus • foreigners, at the festivals • judges, of the Dionysian festival • tetralogy, in the Dionysian festival

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 26; Bernabe et al (2013) 108, 273, 375; Cosgrove (2022) 145; Humphreys (2018) 310; Jouanna (2018) 181, 182, 650; Lipka (2021) 22; Parker (2005) 293, 316

48. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adonia (festival) • Anthesteria (festival) • Aristophanes, festivals • Athenians, at the festivals • Brauronia (festival) • Cronia (festival) • Diasia (festival) • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • Dionysus, festivals • Dipolieia (festival) • Panathenaea (festival) • Theseia (festival) • Thesmophoria (festival) • audience, at the festivals • choruses, festivals • festival • festivals, Greek • festivals, Panathenaea • festivals, of Dionysus • foreigners, at the festivals • married women at festivals at Panathenaea • married women at festivals parthenoi at festivals • tetralogy, in the Dionysian festival

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 242; Jouanna (2018) 181, 182; Lipka (2021) 22; Parker (2005) 258

49. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adonia (festival) • Anthesteria (festival) • Brauronia (festival) • Cronia (festival) • Diasia (festival) • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • Dipolieia (festival) • Panathenaea (festival) • Theseia (festival) • Thesmophoria (festival) • festival • married women at festivals at Panathenaea • married women at festivals parthenoi at festivals

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 22; Parker (2005) 258

50. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ares Gynaecothoenas (festival) • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), Dionysia festivals • festivals, Adonia • festivals, Ares Gynaecothoenas • festivals, Dionysia • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Thesmophoria • women festivals of • women, basket bearers at festivals (kanephorai) • women, participation in festivals • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 16; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 252; Parker (2005) 283, 286

51. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals, Antheia • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί

 Found in books: Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 16, 17; Papazarkadas (2011) 78

52. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adonia (festival) • Anthesteria (festival) • Aristophanes festivals in • Aristophanes, Athens and festivals in • Aristotle, on festivals • Brauronia (festival) • Cronia (festival) • Diasia (festival) • Diisoteria (festival) • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • Dipolieia (festival) • Epicurus, and festivals • Panathenaea (festival) • Theseia (festival) • Thesmophoria (festival) • cultic ritual practice, feasting • eudaimonia, and festivals • festival • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Artemis Brauronia • festivals, Epicurus on • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, and Bendis • festivals, and eudaimonia • festivals, established by divination • festivals, honouring the gods • festivals, in Athens • festivals, propitiating a deity • propitiousness of gods, through festivals • sacrifice by individuals during public festivals • women, basket bearers at festivals (kanephorai)

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 381; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 33, 167; Fabian Meinel (2015) 175, 176; Lipka (2021) 22, 123, 125; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 16; Mikalson (2010) 85; Parker (2005) 42, 148

53. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adonia (festival) • Anthesteria (festival) • Brauronia (festival) • Cronia (festival) • Diasia (festival) • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • Dipolieia (festival) • Panathenaea (festival) • Theseia (festival) • Thesmophoria (festival) • festival • festivals • gene, role in festivals Pythaides • women festivals of • women private festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi private festivals of

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 22; Parker (2005) 87, 284; Steiner (2001) 165; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 186

54. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diasia (festival) • Dipolieia (festival) • festival • festival, festivity, festive

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 379; Lipka (2021) 123

55. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lenaia comic festival • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • festival • festival, Dionysia • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Thesmophoria • trieteric festivals

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 134; Bernabe et al (2013) 111, 112, 372; Edmonds (2004) 133, 140, 141, 237; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 242, 560; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 187

56. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia, Great and Rural (festivals) • festival, festivity, festive

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47, 273, 381; Lipka (2021) 112

57. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • competitions, festival • festivals, contests/competitions • judges, of the Dionysian festival

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 230; Jouanna (2018) 653

58. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes festivals in • Mounichia (festival) • festival, festivity, festive • festivals, Artemis Brauronia

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 273; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 188, 189; Parker (2005) 242, 293

59. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thorikos, calendar festivals in • festivals • festivals, Apatouria • festivals, Attic common to Athens and demes • festivals, Attic confined to demes • festivals, Thesmophoria • theoria to festivals • women festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 242, 531; Martin (2009) 267, 268, 269; Parker (2005) 44, 75, 274, 276

60. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • feasts, postmortem

 Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 140; Graf and Johnston (2007) 128, 157

61. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on festivals • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), Dionysia festivals • burial, Tetrapolis festival • festival, • festival, festivity, festive • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Apatouria • festivals, Asklepeia • festivals, Dionysia • festivals, Lenaia • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Thargelia • festivals, administration of • festivals, civic • festivals, prizes for victorious competitors • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί • theoria, festival attendance

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 103, 113; Bowie (2021) 624; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 267, 530; Humphreys (2018) 1151; Jouanna (2018) 691; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 22; Papazarkadas (2011) 36, 79, 90, 270; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 145; Ward (2021) 3

62. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, festivals of • festivals, and Apollo • festivals, and charis • festivals, established by divination • festivals, funding of • festivals, of Magnesia • festivals, officials of • festivals, prizes for victorious competitors • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 1, 104, 107, 246; Papazarkadas (2011) 39, 80

63. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ares Gynaecothoenas (festival) • festivals, Ares Gynaecothoenas • festivals, Attic activities at • women festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 16; Parker (2005) 182, 283

64. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • insomnia, and festivities

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 26; Verhagen (2022) 26

65. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1, 1.14, 6.17-6.22, 6.32, 22.6-22.9, 22.16, 22.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festival of Unleavened Bread • Festivals • Jewish people, the, festivals • Weber, Max, Weeks, Festival of • feasting • festivals • festivals and fasts • festivals, Jewish

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 173, 177; Cosgrove (2022) 302; Frey and Levison (2014) 71; Gera (2014) 266, 370; Klawans (2019) 101, 102, 103, 104; Reif (2006) 167

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount."r) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying:

1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there).
6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth, 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.20. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; 6.21. every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth.
6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it.
22.6. and Rebecca made new cakes from the new grain, and gave them to Jacob, her son, to take them to Abraham, his father, from the first-fruits of the land, that he might eat and bless the Creator of all things before he died. 22.7. And Isaac, too, sent by the hand of Jacob to Abraham a best thank-offering, that he might eat and drink. 22.8. And he ate and drank, and blessed the Most High God, Who hath created heaven and earth, Who hath made all the fat things of the earth, And given them to the children of men That they might eat and drink and bless their Creator. 22.9. "And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because Thou hast caused me to see this day:
22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed.
22.20. And may He strengthen thee, And bless thee. And mayest thou inherit the whole earth,rAnd may He renew His covet with thee, That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance for all the ages,''. None
66. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.5-1.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Incubation (ancient Near Eastern), during festivals • feasting • festivals

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 267, 370; Renberg (2017) 53

1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃' '1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃''. None
1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king. 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah. 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego. 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself. 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers. 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’ 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah: 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink. 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’''. None
67. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.3-2.4, 6.3, 6.30, 6.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athenaeus, on festivals, hymns • Christian meals, festival for Augustus’ birthday • Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkoth) • Jewish people, the, festivals • Libanius, ekphrasis of a festival • Tertullian, festival for Augustus’ birthday • choruses, and Jewish festivals • ekphrasis, of a festival • feasting • festival • festival, festivity, festive • festivals, Jewish • festivals, Roman • festivals, for Augustus • hippodrome, and the feast for the Jews • hymns, festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 456, 460; Cosgrove (2022) 262, 289; Gera (2014) 55, 231; Piotrkowski (2019) 311

2.3. For you, the creator of all things and the governor of all, are a just Ruler, and you judge those who have done anything in insolence and arrogance.
2.3. In order that he might not appear to be an enemy to all, he inscribed below: "But if any of them prefer to join those who have been initiated into the mysteries, they shall have equal citizenship with the Alexandrians." 2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood.
6.3. look upon the descendants of Abraham, O Father, upon the children of the sainted Jacob, a people of your consecrated portion who are perishing as foreigners in a foreign land.
6.3. Then the king, when he had returned to the city, summoned the official in charge of the revenues and ordered him to provide to the Jews both wines and everything else needed for a festival of seven days, deciding that they should celebrate their rescue with all joyfulness in that same place in which they had expected to meet their destruction.

6.32. They ceased their chanting of dirges and took up the song of their fathers, praising God, their Savior and worker of wonders. Putting an end to all mourning and wailing, they formed choruses as a sign of peaceful joy.' '. None
68. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1-1.9, 1.18, 1.27, 1.29, 2.9, 2.16, 2.18, 6.7, 6.19-6.20, 7.1, 7.33, 10.1-10.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals • Hannukah (Festival of Lights) • Hanukkah, Holiday of, Festival of Lights • Impression of Dionysiac Festival • Jewish people, the, festivals • Suetonius, Sukkoth, Feast of • feast, • feasting • festival • festivals, Jewish • prayer, Festival

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 6, 223, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232; Cosgrove (2022) 295; Gera (2014) 370; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 164, 165, 166; Piotrkowski (2019) 241, 242, 243, 255; Robbins et al (2017) 155; Schwartz (2008) 143, 150, 378

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'" "1.2. May God do good to you, and may he remember his covet with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, his faithful servants.'" '1.3. May he give you all a heart to worship him and to do his will with a strong heart and a willing spirit."' "1.4. May he open your heart to his law and his commandments, and may he bring peace.'" "1.5. May he hear your prayers and be reconciled to you, and may he not forsake you in time of evil.'" '1.6. We are now praying for you here."' "1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom'" "1.8. and burned the gate and shed innocent blood. We besought the Lord and we were heard, and we offered sacrifice and cereal offering, and we lighted the lamps and we set out the loaves.'" "1.9. And now see that you keep the feast of booths in the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and eighty-eighth year.'" "

1.18. Since on the twenty-fifth day of Chislev we shall celebrate the purification of the temple, we thought it necessary to notify you, in order that you also may celebrate the feast of booths and the feast of the fire given when Nehemiah, who built the temple and the altar, offered sacrifices.'" "
1.27. Gather together our scattered people, set free those who are slaves among the Gentiles, look upon those who are rejected and despised, and let the Gentiles know that thou art our God.'" "
1.29. Plant thy people in thy holy place, as Moses said.'" '
2.9. It was also made clear that being possessed of wisdom Solomon offered sacrifice for the dedication and completion of the temple."' "
2.16. Since, therefore, we are about to celebrate the purification, we write to you. Will you therefore please keep the days?'" "
2.18. as he promised through the law. For we have hope in God that he will soon have mercy upon us and will gather us from everywhere under heaven into his holy place, for he has rescued us from great evils and has purified the place.'" "
6.7. On the monthly celebration of the king's birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when the feast of Dionysus came, they were compelled to walk in the procession in honor of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy.'" "
6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,'" "6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.'" "
7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'" "
7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.'" "
10.1. Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city;'" "10.2. and they tore down the altars which had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.'" "10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.'" "10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.'" "10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.'" "10.6. And they celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the feast of booths, remembering how not long before, during the feast of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.'" "10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.'" '10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year."'". None
69. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.8, 47.10, 50.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Annunciation (feast) • Feast of Taberoacles • Festivals • festivals, and Tamid Service

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 5, 170; Levison (2009) 399; Trudinger (2004) 20; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 525

24.8. "Then the Creator of all things gave me a commandment,and the one who created me assigned a place for my tent. And he said, `Make your dwelling in Jacob,and in Israel receive your inheritance.
50.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High.' '. None
70. Septuagint, Judith, 2.1, 4.3, 15.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals • Impression of Dionysiac Festival • feasting

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 156, 157; Gera (2014) 29, 231, 469; Schwartz (2008) 378

2.1. In the eighteenth year, on the twenty-second day of the first month, there was talk in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians about carrying out his revenge on the whole region, just as he said.
4.3. For they had only recently returned from the captivity, and all the people of Judea were newly gathered together, and the sacred vessels and the altar and the temple had been consecrated after their profanation.
15.12. Then all the women of Israel gathered to see her, and blessed her, and some of them performed a dance for her; and she took branches in her hands and gave them to the women who were with her; ''. None
71. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 16.55.1, 17.16.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander III (‘the Great’) of Macedon, and theatre festivals • Olympia (festival, at Macedon) • Zeus and the Muses, festival of • festivals with tragic performances (other than Dionysia), Olympia, at Dion • festivals, Zeus Hypsistos

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 160; Csapo (2022) 32; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 152

16.55.1. \xa0After the capture of Olynthus, he celebrated the Olympian festival to the gods in commemoration of his victory, and offered magnificent sacrifices; and he organized a great festive assembly at which he held splendid competitions and thereafter invited many of the visiting strangers to his banquets.
17.16.3. \xa0He then proceeded to show them where their advantage lay and by appeals aroused their enthusiasm for the contests which lay ahead. He made lavish sacrifices to the gods at Dium in Macedonia and held the dramatic contests in honour of Zeus and the Muses which Archelaüs, one of his predecessors, had instituted.''. None
72. Ovid, Fasti, 5.355-5.356, 6.249, 6.251-6.256 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Anna Perenna (festival of) • festivals • festivals (Roman) • ludi (public festivals) • religions, Roman, festivals

 Found in books: Bierl (2017) 299, 304; Edmondson (2008) 12; Jenkyns (2013) 212; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 4

5.355. cur tamen, ut dantur vestes Cerialibus albae, 5.356. sic haec est cultu versicolore decens?
6.249. Vesta, fave! tibi nunc operata resolvimus ora,
6.251. in prece totus eram: caelestia numina sensi, 6.252. laetaque purpurea luce refulsit humus, 6.253. non equidem vidi (valeant mendacia vatum) 6.254. te, dea, nec fueras aspicienda viro; 6.255. sed quae nescieram, quorumque errore tenebar, 6.256. cognita sunt nullo praecipiente mihi.''. None
5.355. And warns us to use life’s beauty while it’s in bloom: 5.356. The thorn is spurned when the rose has fallen.
6.249. Vesta, favour me! I’ll open my lips now in your service,
6.251. I was rapt in prayer: I felt the heavenly deity, 6.252. And the happy earth shone with radiant light. 6.253. Not that I saw you, goddess (away with poets’ lies!) 6.254. Nor were you to be looked on by any man: 6.255. But I knew what I’d not known, and the error 6.256. I’d held to were corrected without instruction.''. None
73. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.190-1.193, 2.42, 2.148 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast of every day, • Meals, festive • Passover (pesah)̣, eating/feast of • feast • festivals • festivals, Greek, in Philo • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 212; Balberg (2017) 178; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 97, 98, 100; Martens (2003) 115; Petropoulou (2012) 121, 183

1.190. The sacrifices which are whole burnt offerings and are joint offerings on behalf of the nation or--to speak more accurately--on behalf of the entire race of humanity have been addressed to the best of my ability. However, a he-goat accompanies the whole burnt offerings on each day of the feast. He is called "concerning sins" and is sacrificed for the forgiveness of sins. His meat is Distributed{25}{although S. Daniel included a negative in her edition (PAPM 24 1.191. What is the reason for this? Is it because a feast is a time of good cheer, and undeceiving and true good cheer is good sense firmly established in the soul, and this unwavering good sense is impossible to receive without a cure from sins and cutting off of the passions? For it would be out of place if each of the animals of the whole burnt offerings is sacrificed only when it is found undamaged and unhurt, but the mind of the sacrificer has not been purified in every way and cleansed by making use of washings and lustrations which the right reason of nature pours into God-loving souls through healthy and uncorrupt ears. 1.192. In addition the following ought to be said. These festal and holiday rests have in the past often opened up countless avenues to sins. For unmixed beverage and luxurious diets with excessive drinking arouse the insatiable desires of the stomach and also kindle the desires of the parts beneath the stomach. As these desires both flow and stream out in every way, they produce a surge of unspeakable evils using the fearless stimulant of the feast as a refuge to avoid suffering anything. 1.193. Knowing these things, he did not allow them to celebrate a feast in the same way as other peoples, but at the very time of good cheer he first commanded that they purify themselves by bridling the impulses of pleasure. Then he summoned them into the temple for participation in hymns and prayers and sacrifices so that both from the place and from the things seen and said through the most powerful of senses, sight and hearing, they might come to love self-control and piety. Last of all, he reminded them not to sin through the sacrifice for sin. For the one who is asking for anmesty for the sins he has committed is not so dominated by evil that at the very time he is asking for release from old wrongs he should begin other new ones.XXXVI. ' "
2.42. The law sets down every day as a festival, adapting itself to an irreproachable life, as if men continually obeyed nature and her injunctions. And if wickedness did not prosper, subduing by their predomit influence all those reasonings about what things might be expedient, which they have driven out of the soul of each individual, but if all the powers of the virtues remained in all respects unsubdued, then the whole time from a man's birth to his death would be one uninterrupted festival, and all houses and every city would pass their time in continual fearlessness and peace, being full of every imaginable blessing, enjoying perfect tranquillity. " '
2.148. And each house is at that time invested with the character and dignity of a temple, the victim being sacrificed so as to make a suitable feast for the man who has provided it and of those who are collected to share in the feast, being all duly purified with holy ablutions. And those who are to share in the feast come together not as they do to other entertainments, to gratify their bellies with wine and meat, but to fulfil their hereditary custom with prayer and songs of praise. ''. None
74. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 36-37, 75, 80, 84 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, festivals • Jewish feasting and feasting literature See under (see also under Christianity, early), responses to the Greco-Roman symposium • Jewish people, the, festivals • Mareotic Feast of Fifty • Meals, festive • Therapeutae,festival of seven sevens (Feast of Fifty) • festivals • festivals, Jewish • festivals, Lagynophoria

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 47, 212; Cosgrove (2022) 297; Gera (2014) 265; Kraemer (2010) 59; König (2012) 136

36. And they, looking upon the seventh day as one of perfect holiness and a most complete festival, have thought it worthy of a most especial honour, and on it, after taking due care of their soul, they tend their bodies also, giving them, just as they do to their cattle, a complete rest from their continual labours; '37. and they eat nothing of a costly character, but plain bread and a seasoning of salt, which the more luxurious of them to further season with hyssop; and their drink is water from the spring; for they oppose those feelings which nature has made mistresses of the human race, namely, hunger and thirst, giving them nothing to flatter or humour them, but only such useful things as it is not possible to exist without. On this account they eat only so far as not to be hungry, and they drink just enough to escape from thirst, avoiding all satiety, as an enemy of and a plotter against both soul and body.
75. These, then, are the first circumstances of the feast; but after the guests have sat down to the table in the order which I have been describing, and when those who minister to them are all standing around in order, ready to wait upon them, and when there is nothing to drink, some one will say ... but even more so than before, so that no one ventures to mutter, or even to breathe at all hard, and then some one looks out some passage in the sacred scriptures, or explains some difficulty which is proposed by some one else, without any thoughts of display on his own part, for he is not aiming at reputation for cleverness and eloquence, but is only desirous to see some points more accurately, and is content when he has thus seen them himself not to bear ill will to others, who, even if they did not perceive the truth with equal acuteness, have at all events an equal desire of learning.
80. and then some one rising up sings a hymn which has been made in honour of God, either such as he has composed himself, or some ancient one of some old poet, for they have left behind them many poems and songs in trimetre iambics, and in psalms of thanksgiving and in hymns, and songs at the time of libation, and at the altar, and in regular order, and in choruses, admirably measured out in various and well diversified strophes. And after him then others also arise in their ranks, in becoming order, while every one else listens in decent silence, except when it is proper for them to take up the burden of the song, and to join in at the end; for then they all, both men and women, join in the hymn.
84. Then they sing hymns which have been composed in honour of God in many metres and tunes, at one time all singing together, and at another moving their hands and dancing in corresponding harmony, and uttering in an inspired manner songs of thanksgiving, and at another time regular odes, and performing all necessary strophes and antistrophes. '. None
75. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.41-2.42 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jewish people, the, festivals • Philo Judaeus, on festivals • beaches, as site of Jewish festivals • festivals, Jewish • translation, of LXX, in history, commemorative festival of

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 300; Honigman (2003) 135

2.41. On which account, even to this very day, there is every year a solemn assembly held and a festival celebrated in the island of Pharos, to which not only the Jews but a great number of persons of other nations sail across, reverencing the place in which the first light of interpretation shone forth, and thanking God for that ancient piece of beneficence which was always young and fresh. ' "2.42. And after the prayers and the giving of thanks some of them pitched their tents on the shore, and some of them lay down without any tents in the open air on the sand of the shore, and feasted with their relations and friends, thinking the shore at that time a more beautiful abode than the furniture of the king's palace. "'. None
76. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judaea, and theatres/festivals • Kaisareia (festival) • Sebasta (festival) at Naples • feast days

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 125; Rüpke (2011) 126

77. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • festivals • religions, Roman, festivals

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 84; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 121

78. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ludi Romani (festival) • festivals

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 89; Lipka (2021) 154; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 7

79. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arbor intrat (festival) • festivals • religions, Roman, festivals

 Found in books: Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 167, 285; Jenkyns (2013) 248

80. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eisiteria (festival) • Leucophryeneia (festival) • festival • trieteric festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 242; Lipka (2021) 185

81. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.4.3, 3.5.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thyia, feast • festival, festivity, festive • festivals, Lenaia • trieteric festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 8, 15, 242; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 363; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 278

3.4.3. Σεμέλης δὲ Ζεὺς ἐρασθεὶς Ἥρας κρύφα συνευνάζεται. ἡ δὲ ἐξαπατηθεῖσα ὑπὸ Ἥρας, κατανεύσαντος αὐτῇ Διὸς πᾶν τὸ αἰτηθὲν ποιήσειν, αἰτεῖται τοιοῦτον αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν οἷος ἦλθε μνηστευόμενος Ἥραν. Ζεὺς δὲ μὴ δυνάμενος ἀνανεῦσαι παραγίνεται εἰς τὸν θάλαμον αὐτῆς ἐφʼ ἅρματος ἀστραπαῖς ὁμοῦ καὶ βρονταῖς, καὶ κεραυνὸν ἵησιν. Σεμέλης δὲ διὰ τὸν φόβον ἐκλιπούσης, ἑξαμηνιαῖον τὸ βρέφος ἐξαμβλωθὲν ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς ἁρπάσας ἐνέρραψε τῷ μηρῷ. ἀποθανούσης δὲ Σεμέλης, αἱ λοιπαὶ Κάδμου θυγατέρες διήνεγκαν λόγον, συνηυνῆσθαι θνητῷ τινι Σεμέλην καὶ καταψεύσασθαι Διός, καὶ ὅτι 1 -- διὰ τοῦτο ἐκεραυνώθη. κατὰ δὲ τὸν χρόνον τὸν καθήκοντα Διόνυσον γεννᾷ Ζεὺς λύσας τὰ ῥάμματα, καὶ δίδωσιν Ἑρμῇ. ὁ δὲ κομίζει πρὸς Ἰνὼ καὶ Ἀθάμαντα καὶ πείθει τρέφειν ὡς κόρην. ἀγανακτήσασα δὲ Ἥρα μανίαν αὐτοῖς ἐνέβαλε, καὶ Ἀθάμας μὲν τὸν πρεσβύτερον παῖδα Λέαρχον ὡς ἔλαφον θηρεύσας ἀπέκτεινεν, Ἰνὼ δὲ τὸν Μελικέρτην εἰς πεπυρωμένον λέβητα ῥίψασα, εἶτα βαστάσασα μετὰ νεκροῦ τοῦ παιδὸς ἥλατο κατὰ βυθοῦ. 1 -- καὶ Λευκοθέα μὲν αὐτὴν καλεῖται, Παλαίμων δὲ ὁ παῖς, οὕτως ὀνομασθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν πλεόντων· τοῖς χειμαζομένοις γὰρ βοηθοῦσιν. ἐτέθη δὲ ἐπὶ Μελικέρτῃ ὁ 2 -- ἀγὼν τῶν Ἰσθμίων, Σισύφου θέντος. Διόνυσον δὲ Ζεὺς εἰς ἔριφον ἀλλάξας τὸν Ἥρας θυμὸν ἔκλεψε, καὶ λαβὼν αὐτὸν Ἑρμῆς πρὸς νύμφας ἐκόμισεν ἐν Νύσῃ κατοικούσας τῆς Ἀσίας, ἃς ὕστερον Ζεὺς καταστερίσας ὠνόμασεν Ὑάδας.
3.5.3. βουλόμενος δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰκαρίας εἰς Νάξον διακομισθῆναι, Τυρρηνῶν λῃστρικὴν ἐμισθώσατο τριήρη. οἱ δὲ αὐτὸν ἐνθέμενοι Νάξον μὲν παρέπλεον, ἠπείγοντο δὲ εἰς τὴν Ἀσίαν ἀπεμπολήσοντες. ὁ δὲ τὸν μὲν ἱστὸν 4 -- καὶ τὰς κώπας ἐποίησεν ὄφεις, τὸ δὲ σκάφος ἔπλησε κισσοῦ καὶ βοῆς αὐλῶν· οἱ δὲ ἐμμανεῖς γενόμενοι κατὰ τῆς θαλάττης ἔφυγον καὶ ἐγένοντο δελφῖνες. ὣς δὲ 1 -- αὐτὸν θεὸν ἄνθρωποι ἐτίμων, ὁ δὲ ἀναγαγὼν ἐξ Ἅιδου τὴν μητέρα, καὶ προσαγορεύσας Θυώνην, μετʼ αὐτῆς εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀνῆλθεν.''. None
3.4.3. But Zeus loved Semele and bedded with her unknown to Hera. Now Zeus had agreed to do for her whatever she asked, and deceived by Hera she asked that he would come to her as he came when he was wooing Hera. Unable to refuse, Zeus came to her bridal chamber in a chariot, with lightnings and thunderings, and launched a thunderbolt. But Semele expired of fright, and Zeus, snatching the sixth-month abortive child from the fire, sewed it in his thigh. On the death of Semele the other daughters of Cadmus spread a report that Semele had bedded with a mortal man, and had falsely accused Zeus, and that therefore she had been blasted by thunder. But at the proper time Zeus undid the stitches and gave birth to Dionysus, and entrusted him to Hermes. And he conveyed him to Ino and Athamas, and persuaded them to rear him as a girl. But Hera indigtly drove them mad, and Athamas hunted his elder son Learchus as a deer and killed him, and Ino threw Melicertes into a boiling cauldron, then carrying it with the dead child she sprang into the deep. And she herself is called Leucothea, and the boy is called Palaemon, such being the names they get from sailors; for they succour storm-tossed mariners. And the Isthmian games were instituted by Sisyphus in honor of Melicertes. But Zeus eluded the wrath of Hera by turning Dionysus into a kid, and Hermes took him and brought him to the nymphs who dwelt at Nysa in Asia, whom Zeus afterwards changed into stars and named them the Hyades.
3.5.3. And wishing to be ferried across from Icaria to Naxos he hired a pirate ship of Tyrrhenians. But when they had put him on board, they sailed past Naxos and made for Asia, intending to sell him. Howbeit, he turned the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes. And the pirates went mad, and leaped into the sea, and were turned into dolphins. Thus men perceived that he was a god and honored him; and having brought up his mother from Hades and named her Thyone, he ascended up with her to heaven.''. None
82. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander III (‘the Great’) of Macedon, and theatre festivals • Olympia (festival, at Macedon) • Zeus and the Muses, festival of • festivals with tragic performances (other than Dionysia), Olympia, at Dion

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 32; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 152

2.2. \xa0It is true that sometimes, because of their youth and enthusiasm, they spoil the sport by barking and starting the game too soon, but sometimes too they bring down the game themselves by bounding ahead. This, in fact, happened to Alexander at the very beginning, so that they say he brought about the battle and victory of Chaeronea when his father shrank from taking the risk. Now it was on this occasion, when they were at Dium in Pieria on their way home from the campaign and were sacrificing to the Muses and celebrating the Olympic festival, which is said to be an ancient institution in that country, <''. None
83. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.224, 3.226 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals, and Tamid Service • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as

 Found in books: Petropoulou (2012) 188; Trudinger (2004) 31

3.224. Νυνὶ δ' ὀλίγων τινῶν ἐπιμνησθήσομαι τῶν ἐφ' ἁγνείαις καὶ ἱερουργίαις κειμένων: καὶ γὰρ τὸν λόγον μοι περὶ τῶν θυσιῶν ἐνεστάναι συμβέβηκε. δύο μὲν γάρ εἰσιν ἱερουργίαι, τούτων δ' ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδιωτῶν ἑτέρα δ' ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου συντελούμεναι κατὰ δύο γίνονται τρόπους:" '
3.226. ἀνὴρ ἰδιώτης ὁλοκαυτῶν θύει μὲν βοῦν καὶ ἀρνίον καὶ ἔριφον: ταῦτα μὲν ἐπέτεια, τοὺς δὲ βοῦς ἐφεῖται θύειν καὶ προήκοντας: ἄρρενα δὲ ὁλοκαυτεῖται τὰ πάντα. σφαγέντων δὲ τούτων τὸν κύκλον τῷ αἵματι δεύουσι τοῦ βωμοῦ οἱ ἱερεῖς,'". None
3.224. 1. I will now, however, make mention of a few of our laws which belong to purifications, and the like sacred offices, since I am accidentally come to this matter of sacrifices. These sacrifices were of two sorts; of those sorts one was offered for private persons, and the other for the people in general; and they are done in two different ways.
3.226. Suppose a private man offer a burnt-offering, he must slay either a bull, a lamb, or a kid of the goats, and the two latter of the first year, though of bulls he is permitted to sacrifice those of a greater age; but all burnt-offerings are to be of males. When they are slain, the priests sprinkle the blood round about the altar;''. None
84. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.365 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • saeculum festival • taxes, Roman, reduction at festivals

 Found in books: Crabb (2020) 102; Marek (2019) 392

2.365. πόσῳ μᾶλλον ̔́Ελλησιν, οἳ τῶν ὑφ' ἡλίῳ πάντων προύχοντες εὐγενείᾳ καὶ τοσαύτην νεμόμενοι χώραν ἓξ ̔Ρωμαίων ὑπείκουσιν ῥάβδοις, τοσαύταις δὲ καὶ Μακεδόνες οἱ δικαιότερον ὑμῶν ὀφείλοντες ἐλευθερίας ἀντιποιεῖσθαι."". None
2.365. Perhaps it will be said, It is hard to endure slavery. Yes; but how much harder is this to the Greeks, who were esteemed the noblest of all people under the sun! These, though they inhabit in a large country, are in subjection to six bundles of Roman rods. It is the same case with the Macedonians, who have juster reason to claim their liberty than you have.''. None
85. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.53-2.55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jewish people, the, festivals • choruses, and Jewish festivals • festival • festivals, Jewish • hippodrome, and the feast for the Jews

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 289; Piotrkowski (2019) 258

2.53. τεστις αυτεμ δευς ιυστιτιαε ειυς μανιφεστυς αππαρυιτ; ναμ φψσξον πτολομαευς ξυμ αδυερσυμ εχερξιτυμ θυιδεμ ονιαε πυγναρε πραεσυμερετ, ομνες υερο ιυδαεος ιν ξιυιτατε ποσιτος ξυμ φιλιις ετ υχοριβυς ξαπιενς νυδος ατθυε υινξτος ελεπηαντις συβιεξισσετ, υτ αβ εις ξονξυλξατι δεφιξερεντ, ετ αδ ηοξ ετιαμ βεστιας ιπσας δεβριασσετ, ιν ξοντραριυμ θυαε πραεπαραυερατ ευενερυντ. 2.54. ελεπηαντι ενιμ ρελινθυεντες σιβι απποσιτος ιυδαεος ιμπετυ φαξτο συπερ αμιξος ειυς μυλτος εχ ιπσις ιντερεμερυντ. ετ ποστ ηαεξ πτολομαευς θυιδεμ ασπεξτυμ τερριβιλεμ ξοντεμπλατυς εστ προηιβεντεμ σε, υτ ιλλις νοξερετ 2.55. ηομινιβυς, ξονξυβινα υερο συα ξαρισσιμα, θυαμ αλιι θυιδεμ ιτηαξαμ, αλιι υερο ηιρενεν δενομιναντ, συππλιξαντε νε τανταμ ιμπιετατεμ περαγερετ, ει ξονξεσσιτ ετ εχ ηις θυαε ιαμ εγερατ υελ αξτυρυς ερατ παενιτεντιαμ εγιτ. υνδε ρεξτε ηανξ διεμ ιυδαει αλεχανδρια ξονστιτυτι εο θυοδ απερτε α δεο σαλυτεμ προμερυερυντ ξελεβραρε νοσξυντυρ.''. None
2.53. Accordingly, God gave a remarkable attestation to his righteous procedure; for when Ptolemy Physco had the presumption to fight against Onias’s army, and had caught all the Jews that were in the city Alexandria, with their children and wives, and exposed them naked and in bonds to his elephants, that they might be trodden upon and destroyed, and when he had made those elephants drunk for that purpose, the event proved contrary to his preparations; 2.54. for these elephants left the Jews who were exposed to them, and fell violently upon Physco’s friends, and slew a great number of them; nay, after this, Ptolemy saw a terrible ghost, which prohibited his hurting those men; 2.55. his very concubine, whom he loved so well (some call her Ithaca, and others Irene), making supplication to him, that he would not perpetrate so great a wickedness. So he complied with her request, and repented of what he either had already done, or was about to do; whence it is well known that the Alexandrian Jews do with good reason celebrate this day, on the account that they had thereon been vouchsafed such an evident deliverance from God. ''. None
86. Mishnah, Hagigah, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • feast • feast offering (hạ gigah) • offering, designation of, in Jewish festivals

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 145; Petropoulou (2012) 198, 199

1.2. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הָרְאִיָּה שְׁתֵּי כֶסֶף, וַחֲגִיגָה מָעָה כֶסֶף. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, הָרְאִיָּה מָעָה כֶסֶף, וַחֲגִיגָה שְׁתֵּי כָסֶף:''. None
1.2. Bet Shammai say: the pilgrimage-offering (re’eyah) must be worth at least two pieces of silver and the hagigah one piece (ma’ah) of silver. But Bet Hillel say: the pilgrimage-offering must be worth at least one ma'ah of silver and the hagigah two pieces of silver."". None
87. Mishnah, Hulin, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 231; Petropoulou (2012) 201

5.3. הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה, הַשּׁוֹחֵט לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט פָּרַת חַטָּאת, וְשׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל, וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר, וַחֲכָמִים מְחַיְּבִין. הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְיָדוֹ, וְהַנּוֹחֵר, וְהַמְּעַקֵּר, פָּטוּר מִשּׁוּם אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ פָרָה וּבְנָהּ, אֵיזֶה שֶׁלָּקַח רִאשׁוֹן, יִשְׁחֹט רִאשׁוֹן. וְאִם קָדַם הַשֵּׁנִי, זָכָה. שָׁחַט פָּרָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. שָׁחַט שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁחָטָהּ, סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. שְׁחָטָהּ וְאֶת בִּתָּהּ וְאֶת בַּת בִּתָּהּ, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. שְׁחָטָהּ וְאֶת בַּת בִּתָּהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁחַט אֶת בִּתָּהּ, סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. סוּמְכוֹס אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְרָקִים בַּשָּׁנָה הַמּוֹכֵר בְּהֵמָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ, אִמָּהּ מָכַרְתִּי לִשְׁחֹט, בִּתָּהּ מָכַרְתִּי לִשְׁחֹט. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל חָג, וְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח, וְעֶרֶב עֲצֶרֶת, וְעֶרֶב רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, וּכְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי, אַף עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בַּגָּלִיל. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ רֶוַח. אֲבָל יֶשׁ לוֹ רֶוַח, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּמוֹכֵר אֶת הָאֵם לֶחָתָן וְאֶת הַבַּת לַכַּלָּה, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ, בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שׁוֹחֲטִין בְּיוֹם אֶחָד:''. None
5.3. If a person slaughtered an animal and it was found to be terefah, or if he slaughtered it as an offering to idols, or if he slaughtered the red cow, or an ox which was condemned to be stoned, or a heifer whose neck was to be broken: Rabbi Shimon exempts him from having transgressed the law of “it and its young”; But the sages make him liable. If a person slaughtered an animal and it became nevelah under his hand, or if he stabbed it, or tore away the organs of the throat, he does not thereby transgress the law of it and its young. If two people bought a cow and its young, he who bought first can slaughter first; but if the second preceded him, he holds his advantage. If a person slaughtered a cow and then two of its calves, he is liable for eighty lashes. If he slaughtered its two calves and then the cow, he is liable for forty lashes. If he slaughtered it and then its calf and then the calf's offspring, he is liable for eighty lashes. If he slaughtered it and then its calf's offspring and then the calf, he is liable for forty lashes. Symmachos says in the name of r. Meir: he is liable for eighty lashes. At four periods in the year he who sells a beast to another must inform him, “I sold today its mother to be slaughtered,” or “I sold today its young to be slaughtered,” and these are they: on the eve of the last day of the feast of Sukkot, on the eve of the first day of Pesah, on the eve of Shavuot, and on the eve of Rosh Hashanah. According to Rabbi Yose the Galilean, also on the eve of Yom Kippur, in the Galilee. Rabbi Judah says, this is so, only when there was no time in between the sales, but if there was time, he need not inform him. Rabbi Judah agrees that if he sold the mother to the bridegroom and the young to the bride, he must inform them of it, for it is certain that they will each slaughter on the same day."". None
88. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • feast, • festivals, and Tamid Service

 Found in books: Robbins et al (2017) 155; Trudinger (2004) 20

5.4. חֲסִידִים וְאַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה הָיוּ מְרַקְּדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם בַּאֲבוּקוֹת שֶׁל אוֹר שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶן, וְאוֹמְרִים לִפְנֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי שִׁירוֹת וְתִשְׁבָּחוֹת. וְהַלְוִיִּם בְּכִנּוֹרוֹת וּבִנְבָלִים וּבִמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וּבִכְלֵי שִׁיר בְּלֹא מִסְפָּר, עַל חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת הַיּוֹרְדוֹת מֵעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים, כְּנֶגֶד חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת שֶׁבַּתְּהִלִּים, שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן לְוִיִּים עוֹמְדִין בִּכְלֵי שִׁיר וְאוֹמְרִים שִׁירָה. וְעָמְדוּ שְׁנֵי כֹהֲנִים בַּשַּׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיּוֹרֵד מֵעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים, וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת בִּידֵיהֶן. קָרָא הַגֶּבֶר, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הִגִּיעוּ לְמַעְלָה עֲשִׂירִית, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הִגִּיעוּ לָעֲזָרָה, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הָיוּ תוֹקְעִין וְהוֹלְכִין, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין לַשַּׁעַר הַיּוֹצֵא מִזְרָח. הִגִּיעוּ לַשַּׁעַר הַיּוֹצֵא מִמִּזְרָח, הָפְכוּ פְנֵיהֶן לַמַּעֲרָב, וְאָמְרוּ, אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁהָיוּ בַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֲחוֹרֵיהֶם אֶל הֵיכַל ה' וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה, וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ, וְאָנוּ לְיָהּ עֵינֵינוּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָיוּ שׁוֹנִין וְאוֹמְרִין, אָנוּ לְיָהּ, וּלְיָהּ עֵינֵינוּ:"". None
5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these steps that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah drawn-out blast, a teru'ah staccato note and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court of the Women they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat the last words and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"". None
89. Mishnah, Zevahim, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals and fasts • festivals, and Tamid Service • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as

 Found in books: Petropoulou (2012) 192; Reif (2006) 178, 179; Trudinger (2004) 20

10.1. כֹּל הַתָּדִיר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. הַתְּמִידִים קוֹדְמִים לַמּוּסָפִין, מוּסְפֵי שַׁבָּת קוֹדְמִין לְמוּסְפֵי רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, מוּסְפֵי רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ קוֹדְמִין לְמוּסְפֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כח), מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַבֹּקֶר אֲשֶׁר לְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת אֵלֶּה:' '. None
10.1. Whatever is more frequent than another, takes precedence over the other. The daily offerings precede the additional offerings; The additional offerings of Shabbat precede the additional offerings of Rosh Hodesh; The additional offerings of Rosh Hodesh precede the additional offerings of Rosh Hashanah. As it is said, “You shall present these in addition to the morning portion of the regular burnt offering” (Numbers 28:23).' '. None
90. Mishnah, Shekalim, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festival of Weeks • festivals, and Tamid Service

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 149; Trudinger (2004) 20

2.5. מוֹתַר שְׁקָלִים, חֻלִּין. מוֹתַר עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵפָה, מוֹתַר קִנֵּי זָבִין, קִנֵּי זָבוֹת, קִנֵּי יוֹלְדוֹת, וְחַטָאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת, מוֹתְרֵיהֶן נְדָבָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁהוּא בָּא לְשֵׁם חַטָאת וּלְשֵׁם אַשְׁמָה, מוֹתָרָן נְדָבָה. מוֹתַר עוֹלָה, לָעוֹלָה. מוֹתַר מִנְחָה, לַמִּנְחָה. מוֹתַר שְׁלָמִים, לַשְּׁלָמִים. מוֹתַר פֶּסַח, לַשְּׁלָמִים. מוֹתַר נְזִירִים, לַנְּזִירִים. מוֹתַר נָזִיר, לַנְּדָבָה. מוֹתַר עֲנִיִּים, לָעֲנִיִּים. מוֹתַר עָנִי, לְאוֹתוֹ עָנִי. מוֹתַר שְׁבוּיִים, לַשְּׁבוּיִים. מוֹתַר שָׁבוּי, לְאוֹתוֹ שָׁבוּי. מוֹתַר הַמֵּתִים, לַמֵּתִים. מוֹתַר הַמֵּת, לְיוֹרְשָׁיו. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, מוֹתַר הַמֵּת, יְהֵא מֻנָּח עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר, מוֹתַר הַמֵּת בּוֹנִין לוֹ נֶפֶשׁ עַל קִבְרוֹ:''. None
2.5. The surplus of money set aside for shekels is non-sacred property. The surplus of money set aside for the tenth of the ephah, and the surplus of money set aside for bird-offerings of zavim, for bird-offerings of zavot, for bird-offerings of women after childbirth, and sin-offerings and guilt-offerings, their surplus is used to purchase freewill-offerings. This is the general rule: all money set aside for a sin-offering or for a guilt-offering, the surplus is used to purchase freewill-offerings. The surplus of money set aside for a burnt-offering must be used for a burnt-offering. The surplus of money set aside for a meal-offering must be used for a meal-offering. The surplus of money set aside for a peace-offering must be used for a peace-offering. The surplus of money set aside for a pesach must be used for a wellbeing offering. The surplus of money set aside for the offerings of nazirites must be used for the offerings of other nazirites. The surplus of money set aside for the offerings of a particular nazirite is used to purchase freewill-offerings. The surplus of money raised for the poor must be used for other poor. The surplus of money raised for a particular poor person must be given to that poor person. The surplus of money raised for the ransom of captives must be used for the ransom of other captives. The surplus of money raised for the ransom of a particular captive must be given to that captive. The surplus of the money raised for the burial of the dead must be used for the burial of other dead. The surplus of the money raised for the burial of a particular dead person must be given to his heirs. Rabbi Meir says: the surplus of money raised for the burial of a particular dead person must be laid aside until Elijah comes. Rabbi Natan says: the surplus of money raised for the burial of a particular dead person must be used for building a monument for him over his grave.''. None
91. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.6, 10.16-10.17, 11.20-11.21, 11.23-11.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, early, feasting practices • Christianity, early, relationship between early Christian and Jewish feasting and feasting literature • Meals, festive • association dining, relationship with early Christian feasting • contradictions, Corpus Christi, feast of • feast • festivals • festivals, Dionysian • sacrifice and sacrificial feasting, Christian attitudes to sacrificial meat

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 58; Balberg (2017) 89; Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 87; Estes (2020) 325; König (2012) 123, 124, 127, 129

8.6. ἀλλʼ ἡμῖν εἷς θεὸς ὁ πατήρ, ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, καὶ εἷς κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, διʼ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς διʼ αὐτοῦ. Ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐν πᾶσιν ἡ γνῶσις·
10.16. Τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ὃ εὐλογοῦμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία ἐστὶν τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ χριστοῦ; τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐστίν; 10.17. ὅτι εἷς ἄρτος, ἓν σῶμα οἱ πολλοί ἐσμεν, οἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν. βλέπετε τὸν Ἰσραὴλ κατὰ σάρκα·
11.20. Συνερχομένων οὖν ὑμῶν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ οὐκ ἔστιν κυριακὸν δεῖπνον φαγεῖν, 11.21. ἕκαστος γὰρ τὸ ἴδιον δεῖπνον προλαμβάνει ἐν τῷ φαγεῖν, καὶ ὃς μὲν πεινᾷ, ὃς δὲ μεθύει.
11.23. ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, ὃ καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ παρεδίδετο ἔλαβεν ἄρτον καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ εἶπεν 11.24. Τοῦτό μού ἐστιν τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων 11.25. Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴδιαθήκηἐστὶν ἐντῷἐμῷαἵματι·τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 11.26. ὁσάκις γὰρ ἐὰν ἐσθίητε τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον καὶ τὸ ποτήριον πίνητε, τὸν θάνατον τοῦ κυρίου καταγγέλλετε, ἄχρι οὗ ἔλθῃ. 11.27. ὥστε ὃς ἂν ἐσθίῃ τὸν ἄρτον ἢ πίνῃ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ κυρίου ἀναξίως, ἔνοχος ἔσται τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου. 11.28. δοκιμαζέτω δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἑαυτόν, καὶ οὕτως ἐκ τοῦ ἄρτου ἐσθιέτω καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ποτηρίου πινέτω·''. None
8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him.' "
10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist?" '10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread.' "
11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper." '11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken.
11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme." 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me."' "11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes." "11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord." '11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup.''. None
92. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast days, Peter and Paul (29 June) • festival of abiding traces

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 283; Grove (2021) 119, 120

1.13. τὸ πρότερον ὄντα βλάσφημον καὶ διώκτην καὶ ἱβριστήν· ἀλλὰ ἠλεήθην, ὅτι ἀγνοῶν ἐποίησα ἐν ἀπιστίᾳ,''. None
1.13. although I was before a blasphemer, a persecutor, and insolent. However, I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. ''. None
93. New Testament, Acts, 2.1, 2.22-2.40, 4.25-4.26, 6.2, 7.2-7.53, 7.56, 8.9-8.10, 17.34 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Feast days, Peter and Paul (29 June) • Feast of, Stephen, Feast of, Stephen, celebrated on 26 December • Feast of, Stephen, celebrated on 26/27 December • Feast of, Stephen, celebrated on 27-29 December • Feast, of James and John • Feast, of James and John, feast celebrated on 29 December • Feasts, apostolic, celebrated on 26-28 December • Festival of Unleavened Bread • Meals, festive • Weber, Max, Weeks, Festival of • feast, of the Ascension • festivals, Dionysian • festivals, Panathenaean • festivals, pagan • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as • saeculum festival

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 47; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 116, 117, 123, 209; Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 255; Crabb (2020) 102; Dijkstra (2020) 287; Frey and Levison (2014) 71; Klawans (2019) 101; Mendez (2022) 18, 23, 67, 68, 117, 118, 125; Petropoulou (2012) 239

2.1. Καὶ ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς πεντηκοστῆς ἦσαν πάντες ὁμοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό,
2.22. Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τούτους. Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον, ἄνδρα ἀποδεδειγμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς δυνάμεσι καὶ τέρασι καὶ σημείοις οἷς ἐποίησεν διʼ αὐτοῦ ὁ θεὸς ἐν μέσῳ ὑμῶν, καθὼς αὐτοὶ οἴδατε, 2.23. τοῦτον τῇ ὡρισμένῃ βουλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τοῦ θεοῦ ἔκδοτον διὰ χειρὸς ἀνόμων προσπήξαντες ἀνείλατε, 2.24. ὃν ὁ θεὸς ἀνέστησεν λύσας τὰς ὠδῖνας τοῦ θανάτου, καθότι οὐκ ἦν δυνατὸν κρατεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· 2.25. Δαυεὶδ γὰρ λέγει εἰς αὐτόν 2.26. 2.28. 2.29. Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἐξὸν εἰπεῖν μετὰ παρρησίας πρὸς ὑμᾶς περὶ τοῦ πατριάρχου Δαυείδ, ὅτι καὶ ἐτελεύτησεν καὶ ἐτάφη καὶ τὸ μνῆμα αὐτοῦ ἔστιν ἐν ἡμῖν ἄχρι τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης· 2.30. προφήτης οὖν ὑπάρχων, καὶ εἰδὼς ὅτι ὅρκῳ ὤμοσεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸςἐκ καρποῦ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτοῦ καθίσαι ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον αὐτοῦ, 2.31. προιδὼν ἐλάλησεν περὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ χριστοῦ ὅτι οὔτε ἐνκατελείφθη εἰς ᾄδην οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ αὐτοῦεἶδεν διαφθοράν. 2.32. τοῦτον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀνέστησεν ὁ θεός, οὗ πάντες ἡμεῖς ἐσμὲν μάρτυρες. 2.33. τῇ δεξιᾷ οὖν τοῦ θεοῦ ὑψωθεὶς τήν τε ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου λαβὼν παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐξέχεεν τοῦτο ὃ ὑμεῖς καὶ βλέπετε καὶ ἀκούετε. 2.34. οὐ γὰρ Δαυεὶδ ἀνέβη εἰς τοὺς οὐρανούς, λέγει δὲ αὐτός 2.36. ἀσφαλῶς οὖν γινωσκέτω πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ ὅτι καὶ κύριον αὐτὸν καὶ χριστὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ θεός, τοῦτον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὃν ὑμεῖς ἐσταυρώσατε. 2.37. Ἀκούσαντες δὲ κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν, εἶπάν τε πρὸς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀποστόλους Τί ποιήσωμεν, 2.38. ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί; Πέτρος δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Μετανοήσατε, καὶ βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν, καὶ λήμψεσθε τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος· 2.39. ὑμῖν γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ἐπαγγελία καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις ὑμῶν καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς εἰς μακρὰν ὅσους ἂν προσκαλέσηται Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν. 2.40. ἑτέροις τε λόγοις πλείοσιν διεμαρτύρατο, καὶ παρεκάλει αὐτοὺς λέγων Σώθητε ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς τῆς σκολιᾶς ταύτης.
4.25. τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς, ὁ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου στόματος Δαυεὶδ παιδός σου εἰπών
6.2. προσκαλεσάμενοι δὲ οἱ δώδεκα τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μαθητῶν εἶπαν Οὐκ ἀρεστόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς καταλείψαντας τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ διακονεῖν τραπέζαις·
7.2. ὁ δὲ ἔφη Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοὶ καὶ πατέρες, ἀκούσατε. Ὁ θεὸς τῆς δόξης ὤφθη τῷ πατρὶ ἡμῶν Ἀβραὰμ ὄντι ἐν τῇ Μεσοποταμίᾳ πρὶν ἢ κατοικῆσαι αὐτὸν ἐν Χαρράν, 7.3. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Ἔξελθε ἐκ τῆς γῆς σου καὶ τῆς συγγενείας σου, καὶ δεῦρο εἰς τὴν γῆν ἣν ἄν σοι δείξω· 7.4. τότε ἐξελθὼν ἐκ γῆς Χαλδαίων κατῴκησεν ἐν Χαρράν. κἀκεῖθεν μετὰ τὸ ἀποθανεῖν τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ μετῴκισεν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν γῆν ταύτην εἰς ἣν ὑμεῖς νῦν κατοικεῖτε, 7.5. καὶοὐκ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ κληρονομίαν ἐν αὐτῇ οὐδὲ βῆμα ποδός, καὶ ἐπηγγείλατο δοῦναι αὐτῷ εἰς κατάσχεσιν αὐτὴν καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ μετʼ αὐτόν, οὐκ ὄντος αὐτῷ τέκνου. 7.6. ἐλάλησεν δὲ οὕτως ὁ θεὸς ὅτιἔσται τὸ σπέρμα αὐτοῦ πάροικον ἐν γῇ ἀλλοτρίᾳ, καὶ δουλώσουσιν αὐτὸ καὶ κακώσουσιν ἔτη τετρακόσια· 7.7. καὶ τὸ ἔθνος ᾧ ἂν δουλεύσουσιν κρινῶ ἐγώ, ὁ θεὸς εἶπεν, καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐξελεύσονται καὶ λατρεύσουσίν μοι ἐν τῷ τόπῳτούτῳ. 7.8. καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ διαθήκην περιτομῆς· καὶ οὕτως ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰσαὰκ καὶ περιέτεμεν αὐτὸν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ, καὶ Ἰσαὰκ τὸν Ἰακώβ, καὶ Ἰακὼβ τοὺς δώδεκα πατριάρχας. 7.9. Καὶ οἱ πατριάρχαιζηλώσαντες τὸν Ἰωσὴφ ἀπέδοντο εἰς Αἴγυπτον· καὶ ἦν ὁ θεὸς μετʼ αὐτοῦ, 7.10. καὶ ἐξείλατο αὐτὸν ἐκ πασῶν τῶν θλίψεων αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ χάριν καὶ σοφίαν ἐναντίον Φαραὼ βασιλέως Αἰγύπτου, καὶ κατέστησεν αὐτὸν ἡγούμενον ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον καὶ ὅλον τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ 7.11. ἦλθεν δὲ λιμὸς ἐφʼ ὅλην τὴν Αἴγυπτον καὶΧαναὰν καὶ θλίψις μεγάλη, καὶ οὐχ ηὕρισκον χορτάσματα οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν· 7.12. ἀκούσας δὲ Ἰακὼβ ὄντα σιτία εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἐξαπέστειλεν τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν πρῶτον· 7.13. καὶ ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ ἐγνωρίσθη Ἰωσὴφ τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς αὐτοῦ, καὶ φανερὸν ἐγένετο τῷ Φαραὼ τὸ γένος Ἰωσήφ. 7.14. ἀποστείλας δὲ Ἰωσὴφ μετεκαλέσατο Ἰακὼβ τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν συγγένειαν ἐν ψυχαῖς ἑβδομήκοντα πέντε, 7.15. κατέβη δὲ Ἰακὼβ εἰς Αἴγυπτον. καὶ ἐτελεύτησεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν, 7.16. καὶ μετετέθησαν εἰς Συχὲμ καὶ ἐτέθησαν ἐν τῷ μνήματι ᾧ ὠνήσατο Ἀβραὰμ τιμῆς ἀργυρίου παρὰ τῶν υἱῶν Ἑμμὼρ ἐν Συχέμ. 7.17. Καθὼς δὲ ἤγγιζεν ὁ χρόνος τῆς ἐπαγγελίας ἧς ὡμολόγησεν ὁ θεὸς τῷ Ἀβραάμ, ηὔξησεν ὁ λαὸς καὶ ἐπληθύνθη ἐν Ἀἰγύπτῳ, 7.18. ἄχρι οὗἀνέστη βασιλεὺς ἕτερος ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον, ὃς οὐκ ᾔδει τὸν Ἰωσήφ. 7.19. οὗτος κατασοφισάμενος τὸ γένος ἡμῶν ἐκάκωσεν τοὺς πατέρας τοῦ ποιεῖν τὰ βρέφη ἔκθετα αὐτῶν εἰς τὸ μὴ ζωογονεῖσθαι.
7.20. ἐν ᾧ καιρῷ ἐγεννήθη Μωυσῆς, καὶ ἦνἀστεῖος τῷ θεῷ· ὃς ἀνετράφη μῆνας τρεῖς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ πατρός·
7.21. ἐκτεθέντος δὲ αὐτοῦἀνείλατο αὐτὸν ἡ θυγάτηρ Φαραὼ καὶ ἀνεθρέψατο αὐτὸν ἑαυτῇ εἰς υἱόν.
7.22. καὶ ἐπαιδεύθη Μωυσῆς πάσῃ σοφίᾳ Αἰγυπτίων, ἦν δὲ δυνατὸς ἐν λόγοις καὶ ἔργοις αὐτοῦ.
7.23. Ὡς δὲ ἐπληροῦτο αὐτῷ τεσσερακονταετὴς χρόνος, ἀνέβη ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ ἐπισκέψασθαι τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ.
7.24. καὶ ἰδών τινα ἀδικούμενον ἠμύνατο καὶ ἐποίησεν ἐκδίκησιν τῷ καταπονουμένῳ πατάξας τὸν Αἰγύπτιον.
7.25. ἐνόμιζεν δὲ συνιέναι τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὅτι ὁ θεὸς διὰ χειρὸς αὐτοῦ δίδωσιν σωτηρίαν αὐτοῖς, οἱ δὲ οὐ συνῆκαν.
7.26. τῇ τε ἐπιούσῃ ἡμέρᾳ ὤφθη αὐτοῖς μαχομένοις καὶ συνήλλασσεν αὐτοὺς εἰς εἰρήνην εἰπών Ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί ἐστε· ἵνα τί ἀδικεῖτε ἀλλήλους;
7.27. ὁ δὲ ἀδικῶν τὸν πλησίον ἀπώσατο αὐτὸν εἰπών Τίς σὲ κατέστησεν ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστὴν ἐφʼ ἡμῶν;
7.28. μὴ ἀνελεῖν με σὺ θέλεις ὃν τρόπον ἀνεῖλες ἐχθὲς τὸν Αἰγύπτιον;
7.29. ἔφυγεν δὲ Μωυσῆς ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ, καὶ ἐγένετο πάροικος ἐν γῇ Μαδιάμ, οὗ ἐγέννησεν υἱοὺς δύο. 7.30. Καὶ πληρωθέντων ἐτῶν τεσσεράκονταὤφθη αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τοῦ ὄρους Σινὰ ἄγγελος ἐν φλογὶ πυρὸς βάτου· 7.31. ὁ δὲ Μωυσῆς ἰδὼν ἐθαύμασεν τὸ ὅραμα· προσερχομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ κατανοῆσαι ἐγένετο φωνὴ Κυρίου 7.32. Ἐγὼ ὁ θεὸς τῶν πατέρων σου, ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακώβ. ἔντρομος δὲ γενόμενος Μωυσῆς οὐκ ἐτόλμα κατανοῆσαι. 7.33. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ κύριος Λῦσον τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν σου, ὁ γὰρ τόπος ἐφʼ ᾧ ἕστηκας γῆ ἁγία ἐστίν. 7.34. ἰδὼν εἶδον τὴν κάκωσιν τοῦ λαοῦ μου τοῦ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, καὶ τοῦ στεναγμοῦ αὐτοῦ ἤκουσα, καὶ κατέβην ἐξελέσθαι αὐτούς· καὶ νῦν δεῦρο ἀποστείλω σε εἰς Αἴγυπτον. 7.35. Τοῦτον τὸν Μωυσῆν, ὃν ἠρνήσαντο εἰπόντεςΤίς σε κατέστησεν ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστήν; τοῦτον ὁ θεὸς καὶ ἄρχοντα καὶ λυτρωτὴν ἀπέσταλκεν σὺν χειρὶ ἀγγέλου τοῦ ὀφθέντος αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ βάτῳ. 7.36. οὗτος ἐξήγαγεν αὐτοὺς ποιήσαςτέρατα καὶ σημεῖα ἐν τῇ Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ ἐν Ἐρυθρᾷ Θαλάσσῃ καὶἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἔτη τεσσεράκοντα. 7.37. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ Μωυσῆς ὁ εἴπας τοῖς υἱοῖς Ἰσραήλ Προφήτην ὑμῖν ἀναστήσει ὁ θεὸς ἐκ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ὑμῶν 7.38. ὡς ἐμέ. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ γενόμενος ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου τοῦ λαλοῦντος αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ ὄρει Σινὰ καὶ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν, ὃς ἐδέξατο λόγια ζῶντα δοῦναι ὑμῖν, 7.39. ᾧ οὐκ ἠθέλησαν ὑπήκοοι γενέσθαι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν ἀλλὰ ἀπώσαντο καὶ ἐστράφησαν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν εἰς Αἴγυπτον, 7.40. εἰπόντες τῷ Ἀαρών Ποίησον ἡμῖν θεοὺς οἳ προπορεύσονται ἡμῶν· ὁ γὰρ Μωυσῆς οὗτος, ὃς ἐξήγαγεν ἡμᾶς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, οὐκ οἴδαμεν τί ἐγένετο αὐτῷ. 7.41. καὶ ἐμοσχοποίησαν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις καὶ ἀνήγαγον θυσίαν τῷ εἰδώλῳ, καὶ εὐφραίνοντο ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις τῶν χειρῶν αὐτῶν. 7.42. ἔστρεψεν δὲ ὁ θεὸς καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς λατρεύειν τῇ στρατιᾷ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν Βίβλῳ τῶν προφητῶν 7.44. Ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἦν τοῖς πατράσιν ἡμῶν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, καθὼς διετάξατο ὁ λαλῶν τῷ Μωυσῇ ποιῆσαι αὐτὴνκατὰ τὸν τύπον ὃν ἑωράκει, 7.45. ἣν καὶ εἰσήγαγον διαδεξάμενοι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν μετὰ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῇ κατασχέσει τῶν ἐθνῶν ὧν ἐξῶσεν ὁ θεὸς ἀπὸ προσώπου τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν ἕως τῶν ἡμερῶν Δαυείδ· 7.46. ὃς εὗρεν χάριν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ᾐτήσατο εὑρεῖν σκήνωμα τῷ θεῷ Ἰακώβ. 7.47. Σολομῶν δὲ οἰκοδόμησεν αὐτῷ οἶκον. 7.48. ἀλλʼ οὐχ ὁ ὕψιστος ἐν χειροποιήτοις κατοικεῖ· καθὼς ὁ προφήτης λέγει 7.51. Σκληροτράχηλοι καὶ ἀπερίτμητοι καρδίαις καὶ τοῖς ὠσίν, ὑμεῖς ἀεὶ τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ ἀντιπίπτετε, ὡς οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν καὶ ὑμεῖς. 7.52. τίνα τῶν προφητῶν οὐκ ἐδίωξαν οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν; καὶ ἀπέκτειναν τοὺς προκαταγγείλαντας περὶ τῆς ἐλεύσεως τοῦ δικαίου οὗ νῦν ὑμεῖς προδόται καὶ φονεῖς ἐγένεσθε, 7.53. οἵτινες ἐλάβετε τὸν νόμον εἰς διαταγὰς ἀγγέλων, καὶ οὐκ ἐφυλάξατε.
7.56. καὶ εἶπεν Ἰδοὺ θεωρῶ τοὺς οὐρανοὺς διηνοιγμένους καὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ δεξιῶν ἑστῶτα τοῦ θεοῦ.
8.9. Ἀνὴρ δέ τις ὀνόματι Σίμων προυπῆρχεν ἐν τῇ πόλει μαγεύων καὶ ἐξιστάνων τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρίας, λέγων εἶναί τινα ἑαυτὸν μέγαν, 8.10. ᾧ προσεῖχον πάντες ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου λέγοντες Οὗτός ἐστιν ἡ Δύναμις τοῦ θεοῦ ἡ καλουμένη Μεγάλη.
17.34. τινὲς δὲ ἄνδρες κολληθέντες αὐτῷ ἐπίστευσαν, ἐν οἷς καὶ Διονύσιος ὁ Ἀρεοπαγίτης καὶ γυνὴ ὀνόματι Δάμαρις καὶ ἕτεροι σὺν αὐτοῖς.
2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place.
2.22. "You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know, 2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it. ' "2.25. For David says concerning him, 'I saw the Lord always before my face, For he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved. " '2.26. Therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced. Moreover my flesh also will dwell in hope; 2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. ' "2.28. You made known to me the ways of life. You will make me full of gladness with your presence.' " '2.29. "Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2.30. Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, he would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne, 2.31. he foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was his soul left in Hades, nor did his flesh see decay. 2.32. This Jesus God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 2.33. Being therefore exalted by the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this, which you now see and hear. 2.34. For David didn\'t ascend into the heavens, but he says himself, \'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit by my right hand, 2.35. Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."\ '2.36. "Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified." 2.37. Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Brothers, what shall we do?" 2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.39. For to you is the promise, and to your children, and to all who are far off, even as many as the Lord our God will call to himself." 2.40. With many other words he testified, and exhorted them, saying, "Save yourselves from this crooked generation!"' "
4.25. who by the mouth of your servant, David, said, 'Why do the nations rage, And the peoples plot a vain thing? " "4.26. The kings of the earth take a stand, And the rulers take council together, Against the Lord, and against his Christ.' " '
6.2. The twelve summoned the multitude of the disciples and said, "It is not appropriate for us to forsake the word of God and serve tables.
7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran, ' "7.3. and said to him, 'Get out of your land, and from your relatives, and come into a land which I will show you.' " '7.4. Then he came out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and lived in Haran. From there, when his father was dead, God moved him into this land, where you are now living. 7.5. He gave him no inheritance in it, no, not so much as to set his foot on. He promised that he would give it to him in possession, and to his seed after him, when he still had no child. 7.6. God spoke in this way: that his seed would live as aliens in a strange land, and that they would be enslaved and mistreated for four hundred years. ' "7.7. 'I will judge the nation to which they will be in bondage,' said God, 'and after that will they come out, and serve me in this place.' " '7.8. He gave him the covet of circumcision. So Abraham became the father of Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day. Isaac became the father of Jacob, and Jacob became the father of the twelve patriarchs. 7.9. "The patriarchs, moved with jealousy against Joseph, sold him into Egypt. God was with him, 7.10. and delivered him out of all his afflictions, and gave him favor and wisdom before Pharaoh, king of Egypt. He made him governor over Egypt and all his house. 7.11. Now a famine came over all the land of Egypt and Canaan, and great affliction. Our fathers found no food. 7.12. But when Jacob heard that there was grain in Egypt, he sent out our fathers the first time. ' "7.13. On the second time Joseph was made known to his brothers, and Joseph's race was revealed to Pharaoh. " '7.14. Joseph sent, and summoned Jacob, his father, and all his relatives, seventy-five souls. 7.15. Jacob went down into Egypt, and he died, himself and our fathers, 7.16. and they were brought back to Shechem, and laid in the tomb that Abraham bought for a price in silver from the sons of Hamor of Shechem. 7.17. "But as the time of the promise came close which God swore to Abraham, the people grew and multiplied in Egypt, ' "7.18. until there arose a different king, who didn't know Joseph. " "7.19. The same dealt slyly with our race, and mistreated our fathers, that they should throw out their babies, so that they wouldn't stay alive. " "
7.20. At that time Moses was born, and was exceedingly handsome. He was nourished three months in his father's house. " "
7.21. When he was thrown out, Pharaoh's daughter took him up, and reared him as her own son. " '
7.22. Moses was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. He was mighty in his words and works.
7.23. But when he was forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brothers, the children of Israel.
7.24. Seeing one of them suffer wrong, he defended him, and avenged him who was oppressed, striking the Egyptian. ' "
7.25. He supposed that his brothers understood that God, by his hand, was giving them deliverance; but they didn't understand. " '
7.26. "The day following, he appeared to them as they fought, and urged them to be at peace again, saying, \'Sirs, you are brothers. Why do you wrong one to another?\ "
7.27. But he who did his neighbor wrong pushed him away, saying, 'Who made you a ruler and a judge over us? " "
7.28. Do you want to kill me, as you killed the Egyptian yesterday?' " '
7.29. Moses fled at this saying, and became a stranger in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons. 7.30. "When forty years were fulfilled, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai , in a flame of fire in a bush. 7.31. When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight. As he came close to see, a voice of the Lord came to him, ' "7.32. 'I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' Moses trembled, and dared not look. " "7.33. The Lord said to him, 'Take your sandals off of your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground. " "7.34. I have surely seen the affliction of my people that is in Egypt , and have heard their groaning. I have come down to deliver them. Now come, I will send you into Egypt.' " '7.35. "This Moses, whom they refused, saying, \'Who made you a ruler and a judge?\' -- God has sent him as both a ruler and a deliverer with the hand of the angel who appeared to him in the bush. 7.36. This man led them out, having worked wonders and signs in Egypt, in the Red Sea, and in the wilderness forty years. ' "7.37. This is that Moses, who said to the children of Israel , 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me.' " '7.38. This is he who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to give to us, ' "7.39. to whom our fathers wouldn't be obedient, but rejected him, and turned back in their hearts to Egypt , " "7.40. saying to Aaron, 'Make us gods that will go before us, for as for this Moses, who led us out of the land of Egypt , we don't know what has become of him.' " '7.41. They made a calf in those days, and brought a sacrifice to the idol, and rejoiced in the works of their hands. ' "7.42. But God turned, and gave them up to serve the host of the sky, as it is written in the book of the prophets, 'Did you offer to me slain animals and sacrifices Forty years in the wilderness, O house of Israel ? " "7.43. You took up the tent of Moloch, The star of your god Rephan, The figures which you made to worship. I will carry you away beyond Babylon.' " '7.44. "Our fathers had the tent of the testimony in the wilderness, even as he who spoke to Moses appointed, that he should make it according to the pattern that he had seen; 7.45. which also our fathers, in their turn, brought in with Joshua when they entered into the possession of the nations, whom God drove out before the face of our fathers, to the days of David, 7.46. who found favor in the sight of God, and asked to find a habitation for the God of Jacob. 7.47. But Solomon built him a house. ' "7.48. However, the Most High doesn't dwell in temples made with hands, as the prophet says, " "7.49. 'heaven is my throne, And the earth the footstool of my feet. What kind of house will you build me?' says the Lord; 'Or what is the place of my rest? " "7.50. Didn't my hand make all these things?' " '7.51. "You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers did, so you do. ' "7.52. Which of the prophets didn't your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers. " '7.53. You received the law as it was ordained by angels, and didn\'t keep it!"
7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God!"
8.9. But there was a certain man, Simon by name, who had used sorcery in the city before, and amazed the people of Samaria, making himself out to be some great one, 8.10. to whom they all listened, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is that great power of God."
17.34. But certain men joined with him, and believed, among whom also was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with them. ''. None
94. New Testament, Colossians, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • feast, • festivals

 Found in books: Robbins et al (2017) 80; Vinzent (2013) 201

2.17. ἅ ἐστιν σκιὰ τῶν μελλόντων, τὸ δὲ σῶμα τοῦ χριστοῦ.''. None
2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. "". None
95. New Testament, Galatians, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, early, feasting practices • Christianity, early, relationship between early Christian and Jewish feasting and feasting literature • association dining, relationship with early Christian feasting • festivals, non-Christian, in early Christian literature • festivals, non-Christian, in rabbinic literature • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 48; König (2012) 129; Petropoulou (2012) 238

2.13. καὶ συνυπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ Ἰουδαῖοι, ὥστε καὶ Βαρνάβας συναπήχθη αὐτῶν τῇ ὑποκρίσει. 2.14. ἀλλʼ ὅτε εἶδον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθοποδοῦσιν πρὸς τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, εἶπον τῷ Κηφᾷ ἔμπροσθεν πάντων Εἰ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ὑπάρχων ἐθνικῶς καὶ οὐκ Ἰουδαϊκῶς ζῇς, πῶς τὰ ἔθνη ἀναγκάζεις Ἰουδαΐζειν;''. None
2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn\'t walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? ''. None
96. New Testament, Romans, 14.5-14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, early, feasting practices • Christianity, early, relationship between early Christian and Jewish feasting and feasting literature • association dining, relationship with early Christian feasting • festivals, Jewish

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 441; König (2012) 129

14.5. ὃς μὲν γὰρ κρίνει ἡμέραν παρʼ ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει πᾶσαν ἡμέραν· ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ νοῒ πληροφορείσθω· 14.6. ὁ φρονῶν τὴν ἡμέραν κυρίῳ φρονεῖ. καὶ ὁ ἐσθίων κυρίῳ ἐσθίει, εὐχαριστεῖ γὰρ τῷ θεῷ· καὶ ὁ μὴ ἐσθίων κυρίῳ οὐκ ἐσθίει, καὶ εὐχαριστεῖ τῷ θεῷ.''. None
14.5. One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. ' "14.6. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks. He who doesn't eat, to the Lord he doesn't eat, and gives God thanks. "'. None
97. New Testament, John, 1.1, 4.11-4.15, 4.20, 4.23-4.24, 10.22-10.42, 12.13, 21.15-21.22, 21.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dedication (feast of) • Feast days, Peter and Paul (29 June) • Feast of Taberoacles • Feast of, Stephen, celebrated on 26/27 December • Feast of, Stephen, celebrated on 27-29 December • Feast, of James and John • Feast, of James and John, feast celebrated on 29 December • Feast, of Peter and Paul • Feast, of Peter and Paul, celebrated on 28 December • Impression of Dionysiac Festival • Meals, festive • feast, • festival,

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 47; Dijkstra (2020) 279, 283, 288; Geljon and Vos (2020) 37; Levison (2009) 372, 374, 379, 399; Mendez (2022) 56; Robbins et al (2017) 113, 122, 144, 148, 149, 153, 155, 157, 158, 167; Schwartz (2008) 378

1.1. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.
4.11. λέγει αὐτῷ Κύριε, οὔτε ἄντλημα ἔχεις καὶ τὸ φρέαρ ἐστὶν βαθύ· πόθεν οὖν ἔχεις τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ ζῶν; 4.12. μὴ σὺ μείζων εἶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἰακώβ, ὃς ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν τὸ φρέαρ καὶ αὐτὸς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἔπιεν καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ θρέμματα αὐτοῦ; 4.13. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Πᾶς ὁ πίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος τούτου διψήσει πάλιν· 4.14. ὃς δʼ ἂν πίῃ ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος οὗ ἐγὼ δώσω αὐτῷ, οὐ μὴ διψήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ ὃ δώσω αὐτῷ γενήσεται ἐν αὐτῷ πηγὴ ὕδατος ἁλλομένου εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 4.15. λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ γυνή Κύριε, δός μοι τοῦτο τὸ ὕδωρ, ἵνα μὴ διψῶ μηδὲ διέρχωμαι ἐνθάδε ἀντλεῖν.
4.20. οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ προσεκύνησαν· καὶ ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι ἐν Ἰεροσολύμοις ἐστὶν ὁ τόπος ὅπου προσκυνεῖν δεῖ.
4.23. ἀλλὰ ἔρχεται ὥρα καὶ νῦν ἐστίν, ὅτε οἱ ἀληθινοὶ προσκυνηταὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ πατρὶ ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ, καὶ γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ τοιούτους ζητεῖ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας αὐτόν· 4.24. πνεῦμα ὁ θεός, καὶ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας αὐτὸν ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ δεῖ προσκυνεῖν.
10.22. Ἐγένετο τότε τὰ ἐνκαίνια ἐν τοῖς Ἰεροσολύμοις· χειμὼν ἦν, 10.23. καὶ περιεπάτει ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐν τῇ στοᾷ τοῦ Σολομῶνος. 10.24. ἐκύκλωσαν οὖν αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ ἔλεγον αὐτῷ Ἕως πότε τὴν ψυχὴν ἡμῶν αἴρεις; εἰ σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός, εἰπὸν ἡμῖν παρρησίᾳ. 10.25. ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε· τὰ ἔργα ἃ ἐγὼ ποιῶ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρός μου ταῦτα μαρτυρεῖ περὶ ἐμοῦ· 10.26. ἀλλὰ ὑμεῖς οὐ πιστεύετε, ὅτι οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐκ τῶν προβάτων τῶν ἐμῶν. 10.27. τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἐμὰ τῆς φωνῆς μου ἀκούουσιν, κἀγὼ γινώσκω αὐτά, καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσίν μοι, 10.28. κἀγὼ δίδωμι αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀπόλωνται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ οὐχ ἁρπάσει τις αὐτὰ ἐκ τῆς χειρός μου. 10.29. ὁ πατήρ μου ὃ δέδωκέν μοι πάντων μεῖζόν ἐστιν, καὶ οὐδεὶς δύναται ἁρπάζειν ἐκ τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ πατρός. 10.30. ἐγὼ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἕν ἐσμεν. 10.31. Ἐβάστασαν πάλιν λίθους οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἵνα λιθάσωσιν αὐτόν. 10.32. ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Πολλὰ ἔργα ἔδειξα ὑμῖν καλὰ ἐκ τοῦ πατρός· διὰ ποῖον αὐτῶν ἔργον ἐμὲ λιθάζετε; 10.33. ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι Περὶ καλοῦ ἔργου οὐ λιθάζομέν σε ἀλλὰ περὶ βλασφημίας, καὶ ὅτι σὺ ἄνθρωπος ὢν ποιεῖς σεαυτὸν θεόν. 10.34. ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐκ ἔστιν γεγραμμένον ἐν τῷ νόμῳ ὑμῶν ὅτι Ἐγὼ εἶπα Θεοί ἐστε; 10.35. εἰ ἐκείνους εἶπεν θεοὺς πρὸς οὓς ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ οὐ δύναται λυθῆναι ἡ γραφή, 10.36. ὃν ὁ πατὴρ ἡγίασεν καὶ ἀπέστειλεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι Βλασφημεῖς, ὅτι εἶπον Υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ εἰμί; 10.37. εἰ οὐ ποιῶ τὰ ἔργα τοῦ πατρός μου, μὴ πιστεύετέ μοι· 10.38. εἰ δὲ ποιῶ, κἂν ἐμοὶ μὴ πιστεύητε τοῖς ἔργοις πιστεύετε, ἵνα γνῶτε καὶ γινώσκητε ὅτι ἐν ἐμοὶ ὁ πατὴρ κἀγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρί. 10.39. Ἐζήτουν οὖν αὐτὸν πάλιν πιάσαι· καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν. 10.40. Καὶ ἀπῆλθεν πάλιν πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου εἰς τὸν τόπον ὅπου ἦν Ἰωάνης τὸ πρῶτον βαπτίζων, καὶ ἔμενεν ἐκεῖ. 10.41. καὶ πολλοὶ ἦλθον πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἰωάνης μὲν σημεῖον ἐποίησεν οὐδέν, πάντα δὲ ὅσα εἶπεν Ἰωάνης περὶ τούτου ἀληθῆ ἦν. 10.42. καὶ πολλοὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ.
12.13. ἔλαβον τὰ βαΐα τῶν φοινίκων καὶ ἐξῆλθον εἰς ὑπάντησιν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἐκραύγαζον Ὡσαννά, εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου, καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. 2
1.15. Ὅτε οὖν ἠρίστησαν λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Σίμων Ἰωάνου, ἀγαπᾷς με πλέον τούτων; λέγει αὐτῷ Ναί, κύριε, σὺ οἶδας ὅτι φιλῶ σε. λέγει αὐτῷ Βόσκε τὰ ἀρνία μου. 2
1.16. λέγει αὐτῷ πάλιν δεύτερον Σίμων Ἰωάνου, ἀγαπᾷς με; λέγει αὐτῷ Ναί, κύριε, σὺ οἶδας ὅτι φιλῶ σε. λέγει αὐτῷ Ποίμαινε τὰ προβάτιά μου. 2
1.17. λέγει αὐτῷ τὸ τρίτον Σίμων Ἰωάνου, φιλεῖς με; ἐλυπήθη ὁ Πέτρος ὅτι εἶπεν αὐτῷ τὸ τρίτον Φιλεῖς με; καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Κύριε, πάντα σὺ οἶδας, σὺ γινώσκεις ὅτι φιλῶ σε. λέγει αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς Βόσκε τὰ προβάτιά μου. 2
1.18. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ὅτε ἦς νεώτερος, ἐζώννυες σεαυτὸν καὶ περιεπάτεις ὅπου ἤθελες· ὅταν δὲ γηράσῃς, ἐκτενεῖς τὰς χεῖράς σου, καὶ ἄλλος ζώσει σε καὶ οἴσει ὅπου οὐ θέλεις. 2
1.19. τοῦτο δὲ εἶπεν σημαίνων ποίῳ θανάτῳ δοξάσει τὸν θεόν. καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν λέγει αὐτῷ Ἀκολούθει μοι. 21.20. Ἐπιστραφεὶς ὁ Πέτρος βλέπει τὸν μαθητὴν ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀκολουθοῦντα, ὃς καὶ ἀνέπεσεν ἐν τῷ δείπνῳ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος αὐτοῦ καὶ εἶπεν Κύριε, τίς ἐστιν ὁ παραδιδούς σε; 21.21. τοῦτον οὖν ἰδὼν ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ Κύριε, οὗτος δὲ τί; 21.22. λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἐὰν αὐτὸν θέλω μένειν ἕως ἔρχομαι, τί πρὸς σέ; σύ μοι ἀκολούθει.
21.25. Ἔστιν δὲ καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ ἃ ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ἅτινα ἐὰν γράφηται καθʼ ἕν, οὐδʼ αὐτὸν οἶμαι τὸν κόσμον χωρήσειν τὰ γραφόμενα βιβλία.' '. None
1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
4.11. The woman said to him, "Sir, you have nothing to draw with, and the well is deep. From where then have you that living water? 4.12. Are you greater than our father, Jacob, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself, as did his sons, and his cattle?" 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again, 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life." 4.15. The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, so that I don\'t get thirsty, neither come all the way here to draw."
4.20. Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you Jews say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship."
4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth."
10.22. It was the Feast of the Dedication at Jerusalem. ' "10.23. It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the temple, in Solomon's porch. " '10.24. The Jews therefore came around him and said to him, "How long will you hold us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly." 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don\'t believe. The works that I do in my Father\'s name, these testify about me. ' "10.26. But you don't believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. " '10.27. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. 10.28. I give eternal life to them. They will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. ' "10.29. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them out of my Father's hand. " '10.30. I and the Father are one." 10.31. Therefore Jews took up stones again to stone him. 10.32. Jesus answered them, "I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of those works do you stone me?" 10.33. The Jews answered him, "We don\'t stone you for a good work, but for blasphemy: because you, being a man, make yourself God." 10.34. Jesus answered them, "Isn\'t it written in your law, \'I said, you are gods?\ "10.35. If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture can't be broken), " "10.36. Do you say of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, 'You blaspheme,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God?' " "10.37. If I don't do the works of my Father, don't believe me. " '10.38. But if I do them, though you don\'t believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father." 10.39. They sought again to seize him, and he went out of their hand. 10.40. He went away again beyond the Jordan into the place where John was baptizing at first, and there he stayed. 10.41. Many came to him. They said, "John indeed did no sign, but everything that John said about this man is true." 10.42. Many believed in him there.
12.13. they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!" 2
1.15. So when they had eaten their breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me more than these?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Feed my lambs." 2
1.16. He said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Tend my sheep." 2
1.17. He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you have affection for me?"Peter was grieved because he asked him the third time, "Do you have affection for me?" He said to him, "Lord, you know everything. You know that I have affection for you."Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep. 2
1.18. Most assuredly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself, and walked where you wanted to. But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you, and carry you where you don\'t want to go." 2
1.19. Now he said this, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. When he had said this, he said to him, "Follow me." 21.20. Then Peter, turning around, saw a disciple following. This was the disciple whom Jesus sincerely loved, the one who had also leaned on Jesus\' breast at the supper and asked, "Lord, who is going to betray You?" 21.21. Peter seeing him, said to Jesus, "Lord, what about this man?" 21.22. Jesus said to him, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? You follow me."' "
21.25. There are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they would all be written, I suppose that even the world itself wouldn't have room for the books that would be written. " '. None
98. New Testament, Luke, 11.37-11.44, 22.18-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, early, feasting practices • contradictions, Corpus Christi, feast of • festival • sacrifice and sacrificial feasting, imagery of sacrifice

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 325; Grabbe (2010) 52; König (2012) 123, 284

11.37. Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος ὅπως ἀριστήσῃ παρʼ αὐτῷ· εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν. 11.38. ὁ δὲ Φαρισαῖος ἰδὼν ἐθαύμασεν ὅτι οὐ πρῶτον ἐβαπτίσθη πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου. 11.39. εἶπεν δὲ ὁ κύριος πρὸς αὐτόν Νῦν ὑμεῖς οἱ Φαρισαῖοι τὸ ἔσωθεν τοῦ ποτηρίου καὶ τοῦ πίνακος καθαρίζετε, τὸ δὲ ἔσωθεν ὑμῶν γέμει ἁρπαγῆς καὶ πονηρίας. 11.40. ἄφρονες, οὐχ ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔξωθεν καὶ τὸ ἔσωθεν ἐποίησεν; 11.41. πλὴν τὰ ἐνόντα δότε ἐλεημοσύνην, καὶ ἰδοὺ πάντα καθαρὰ ὑμῖν ἐστίν. 11.42. ἀλλὰ οὐαὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς Φαρισαίοις, ὅτι ἀποδεκατοῦτε τὸ ἡδύοσμον καὶ τὸ πήγανον καὶ πᾶν λάχανον, καὶ παρέρχεσθε τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ θεοῦ· ταῦτα δὲ ἔδει ποιῆσαι κἀκεῖνα μὴ παρεῖναι. 11.43. οὐαὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς Φαρισαίοις, ὅτι ἀγαπᾶτε τὴν πρωτοκαθεδρίαν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ τοὺς ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς. 11.44. οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, ὅτι ἐστὲ ὡς τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα, καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ περιπατοῦντες ἐπάνω οὐκ οἴδασιν.
22.18. λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως οὗ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἔλθῃ. 22.19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου ⟦τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 22.20. καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὡσαύτως μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον⟧.''. None
11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 11.39. The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. ' "11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? " '11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don\'t know it."
22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes." 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me." 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. ''. None
99. New Testament, Mark, 14.22-14.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, early, feasting practices • contradictions, Corpus Christi, feast of

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 325; König (2012) 123

14.22. Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν Λάβετε, τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου. 14.23. καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες. 14.24. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶν·''. None
14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body." 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. ''. None
100. New Testament, Matthew, 15.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival • festivals, non-Christian, in early Christian literature • festivals, non-Christian, in rabbinic literature

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 48; Grabbe (2010) 52

15.2. Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταί σου παραβαίνουσιν τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων; οὐ γὰρ νίπτονται τὰς χεῖρας ὅταν ἄρτον ἐσθίωσιν.''. None
15.2. "Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don\'t wash their hands when they eat bread."''. None
101. Plutarch, Alcibiades, 34.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival, Plynteria, Athenian • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Plynteria • women, participation in festivals

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 138; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 169

34.1. οὕτω δὲ τοῦ Ἀλκιβιάδου λαμπρῶς εὐημεροῦντος ὑπέθραττεν ἐνίους ὅμως ὁ τῆς καθόδου καιρός. ᾗ γὰρ ἡμέρᾳ κατέπλευσεν, ἐδρᾶτο τὰ Πλυντήρια τῇ θεῷ. δρῶσι δὲ τὰ ὄργια Πραξιεργίδαι Θαργηλιῶνος ἕκτῃ φθίνοντος ἀπόρρητα, τόν τε κόσμον καθελόντες καὶ τὸ ἕδος κατακαλύψαντες. ὅθεν ἐν ταῖς μάλιστα τῶν ἀποφράδων τὴν ἡμέραν ταύτην ἄπρακτον Ἀθηναῖοι νομίζουσιν.''. None
34.1. But while Alcibiades was thus prospering brilliantly, some were nevertheless disturbed at the particular season of his return. For he had put into harbor on the very day when the Plynteria of the goddess Athena were being celebrated. The Praxiergidae celebrate these rites on the twenty-fifth day of Thargelion in strict secrecy, removing the robes of the goddess and covering up her image. Wherefore the Athenians regard this day as the unluckiest of all days for business of any sort. ''. None
102. Plutarch, Aristides, 21.3-21.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eleutheria (Plataean festival) • Festival • Festivals, Eleutheria of Plataea • Festivals, of Artemis Agrotera of Athens

 Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 106, 220; Nuno et al (2021) 372; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 223

21.3. ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ τῶν Πλαταιέων ὁ ἄρχων, ᾧ τὸν ἄλλον χρόνον οὔτε σιδήρου θιγεῖν ἔξεστιν οὔθʼ ἑτέραν ἐσθῆτα πλὴν λευκῆς ἀναλαβεῖν, τότε χιτῶνα φοινικοῦν ἐνδεδυκὼς ἀράμενός τε ὑδρίαν ἀπὸ τοῦ γραμματοφυλακίου ξιφήρης ἐπὶ τοὺς τάφους προάγει διὰ μέσης τῆς πόλεως. 21.4. εἶτα λαβὼν ὕδωρ ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης αὐτὸς ἀπολούει τε τὰς στήλας καὶ μύρῳ χρίει, καὶ τὸν ταῦρον εἰς τὴν πυρὰν σφάξας καὶ κατευξάμενος Διῒ καὶ Ἑρμῇ χθονίῳ παρακαλεῖ τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἄνδρας τοὺς ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀποθανόντας ἐπὶ τὸ δεῖπνον καὶ τὴν αἱμοκουρίαν. ἔπειτα κρατῆρα κεράσας οἴνου καὶ χεάμενος ἐπιλέγει· προπίνω τοῖς ἀνδράσι τοῖς ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἀποθανοῦσι. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἔτι καὶ νῦν διαφυλάττουσιν οἱ Πλαταεῖς.''. None
21.3. 21.4. ''. None
103. Plutarch, Cimon, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, and Athenian dramatic festivals • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • judges, of the Dionysian festival • tetralogy, in the Dionysian festival

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 76, 77, 78, 79, 80; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 342, 343

8.7. ἔθεντο δʼ εἰς μνήμην αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν τῶν τραγῳδῶν κρίσιν ὀνομαστὴν γενομένην. πρώτην γὰρ διδασκαλίαν τοῦ Σοφοκλέους ἔτι νέου καθέντος, Ἀψεφίων ὁ ἄρχων, φιλονεικίας οὔσης καὶ παρατάξεως τῶν θεατῶν, κριτὰς μὲν οὐκ ἐκλήρωσε τοῦ ἀγῶνος, ὡς δὲ Κίμων μετὰ τῶν συστρατήγων προελθὼν εἰς τὸ θέατρον ἐποιήσατο τῷ θεῷ τὰς νενομισμένας σπονδάς, οὐκ ἀφῆκεν αὐτοὺς ἀπελθεῖν, ἀλλʼ ὁρκώσας ἠνάγκασε καθίσαι καὶ κρῖναι δέκα ὄντας, ἀπὸ φυλῆς μιᾶς ἕκαστον.''. None
8.7. ''. None
104. Plutarch, Demetrius, 10.4, 30.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, and Athenian dramatic festivals • Demetrieia (festival) • Demetrieia (festival), Soter, in Athens • Demetrieia (festival), removal of honours for • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • Festival • Romaia festival • Sylleia festival • festival, civic • festivals • women festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 87, 88; Jim (2022) 173, 174, 177; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 343; Parker (2005) 274; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 276; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 340

10.4. ἐνυφαίνεσθαι δὲ τῷ πέπλῳ μετὰ τῶν θεῶν αὐτοὺς ἐψηφίσαντο· καὶ τὸν τόπον ὅπου πρῶτον ἀπέβη τοῦ ἅρματος, καθιερώσαντες καὶ βωμὸν ἐπιθέντες Δημητρίου Καταιβάτου προσηγόρευσαν· ταῖς δὲ φυλαῖς δύο προσέθεσαν, Δημητριάδα καὶ Ἀντιγονίδα, καὶ τὴν βουλὴν τῶν πεντακοσίων πρότερον ἑξακοσίων ἐποίησαν, ἅτε δὴ φυλῆς ἑκάστης πεντήκοντα βουλευτὰς παρεχομένης.
30.5. διόπερ οἱ νοῦν ἔχοντες οὐκ εἰς ἀνδριάντας οὐδὲ γραφὰς οὐδὲ ἀποθεώσεις, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εἰς τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὰς πράξεις τὰς ἑαυτῶν ἀποβλέποντες ἢ πιστεύουσιν, ὡς τιμαῖς, ἢ ἀπιστοῦσιν, ὡς ἀνάγκαις· ὡς οἵ γε δῆμοι πολλάκις ἐν αὐταῖς μάλιστα ταῖς τιμαῖς μισοῦσι τοὺς ἀμέτρως καὶ ὑπερόγκως καὶ παρʼ ἀκόντων λαμβάνοντας.' '. None
30.5. ' '. None
105. Plutarch, Demosthenes, 30.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Demetrieia (festival) • Demetrieia (festival), Soter, in Athens • Demetrieia (festival), removal of honours for • women festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of

 Found in books: Jim (2022) 177; Parker (2005) 274

30.5. τούτῳ μὲν ὀλίγον ὕστερον ὁ τῶν Ἀθηναίων δῆμος ἀξίαν ἀποδιδοὺς τιμήν εἰκόνα τε χαλκῆν ἀνέστησε καὶ τὸν πρεσβύτατον ἐψηφίσατο τῶν ἀπὸ γένους ἐν Πρυτανείῳ σίτησιν ἔχειν. καὶ τὸ ἐπίγραμμα τὸ θρυλούμενον ἐπεγράφη τῇ βάσει τοῦ ἀνδριάντος· εἴπερ ἴσην ῥώμην γνώμῃ, Δημόσθενες, εἶχες, οὔποτʼ ἂν Ἑλλήνων ἦρξεν Ἄρης Μακεδών. οἱ γὰρ αὐτὸν τὸν Δημοσθένην τοῦτο ποιῆσαι λέγοντες ἐν Καλαυρίᾳ, μέλλοντα τὸ φάρμακον προσφέρεσθαι, κομιδῇ φλυαροῦσι.''. None
30.5. ''. None
106. Plutarch, Solon, 21.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Salamis festival of unknown god on • Salamis, unknown festival • cultic ritual practice, feasting • death and the afterlife, feasting • festival, festivity, festive • festivals dissolution of normal time at? • historical events, as aitia for festivals • unknown festival for Kykhreus (?)

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 113; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 526; Henderson (2020) 251; Parker (2005) 377

21.5. ἐναγίζειν δὲ βοῦν οὐκ εἴασεν, οὐδὲ συντιθέναι πλέον ἱματίων τριῶν, οὐδʼ ἐπʼ ἀλλότρια μνήματα βαδίζειν χωρὶς ἐκκομιδῆς. ὧν τὰ πλεῖστα καὶ τοῖς ἡμετέροις νόμοις ἀπηγόρευται· πρόσκειται δὲ τοῖς ἡμετέροις ζημιοῦσθαι τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα ποιοῦντας ὑπὸ τῶν γυναικονόμων, ὡς ἀνάνδροις καὶ γυναικώδεσι τοῖς περὶ τὰ πένθη πάθεσι καὶ ἁμαρτήμασιν ἐνεχομένους.' '. None
21.5. The sacrifice of an ox at the grave was not permitted, nor the burial with the dead of more than three changes of raiment, nor the visiting of other tombs than those of their own family, except at the time of interment. Most of these practices are also forbidden by our laws, but ours contain the additional proviso that such offenders shall be punished by the board of censors for women, because they indulge in unmanly and effeminate extravagances of sorrow when they mourn' '. None
107. Suetonius, Domitianus, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sebasta (festival) at Naples • festival, annual/multiannual, names

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 100; Rüpke (2011) 53

4.4. \xa0He also established a quinquennial contest in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus of a threefold character, comprising music, riding, and gymnastics, and with considerably more prizes than are awarded nowadays. For there were competitions in prose declamation both in Greek and in Latin; and in addition to those of the lyre-players, between choruses of such players and in the lyre alone, without singing; while in the stadium there were races even between maidens. He presided at the competitions in half-boots, clad in a purple toga in the Greek fashion, and wearing upon his head a golden crown with figures of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, while by his side sat the priest of Jupiter and the college of the Flaviales, similarly dressed, except that their crowns bore his image as well. He celebrated the Quinquatria too every year in honour of Minerva at his Alban villa, and established for her a college of priests, from which men were chosen by lot to act as officers and give splendid shows of wild beasts and stage plays, besides holding contests in oratory and poetry.''. None
108. Tacitus, Annals, 3.62, 4.55-4.56 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals, Hekatesia, Hekatesia-Romaia • Festivals, Kleidos agoge • First Mithridatic War, festivals in the aftermath of • festivals

 Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 315; Wilding (2022) 240; Williamson (2021) 251, 316, 338

3.62. Proximi hos Magnetes L. Scipionis et L. Sullae constitutis nitebantur, quorum ille Antiocho, hic Mithridate pulsis fidem atque virtutem Magnetum decoravere, uti Dianae Leucophrynae perfugium inviolabile foret. Aphrodisienses posthac et Stratonicenses dictatoris Caesaris ob vetusta in partis merita et recens divi Augusti decretum adtulere, laudati quod Parthorum inruptionem nihil mutata in populum Romanum constantia pertulissent. sed Aphrodisiensium civitas Veneris, Stratonicensium Iovis et Triviae religionem tuebantur. altius Hierocaesarienses exposuere, Persicam apud se Dianam, delubrum rege Cyro dicatum; et memorabantur Perpennae, Isaurici multaque alia imperatorum nomina qui non modo templo sed duobus milibus passuum eandem sanctitatem tribuerant. exim Cy- prii tribus de delubris, quorum vetustissimum Paphiae Veneri auctor Ae+rias, post filius eius Amathus Veneri Amathusiae et Iovi Salaminio Teucer, Telamonis patris ira profugus, posuissent.
4.55. Sed Caesar quo famam averteret adesse frequens senatui legatosque Asiae ambigentis quanam in civitate templum statueretur pluris per dies audivit. undecim urbes certabant, pari ambitione, viribus diversae. neque multum distantia inter se memorabant de vetustate generis, studio in populum Romanum per bella Persi et Aristonici aliorumque regum. verum Hypaepeni Trallianique Laodicenis ac Magnetibus simul tramissi ut parum validi; ne Ilienses quidem, cum parentem urbis Romae Troiam referrent, nisi antiquitatis gloria pollebant. paulum addubitatum quod Halicarnasii mille et ducentos per annos nullo motu terrae nutavisse sedes suas vivoque in saxo fundamenta templi adseveraverant. Pergamenos (eo ipso nitebantur) aede Augusto ibi sita satis adeptos creditum. Ephesii Milesiique, hi Apollinis, illi Dianae caerimonia occupavisse civitates visi. ita Sardianos inter Zmyrnaeosque deliberatum. Sardiani decretum Etruriae recitavere ut consanguinei: nam Tyrrhenum Lydumque Atye rege genitos ob multitudinem divisisse gentem; Lydum patriis in terris resedisse, Tyrrheno datum novas ut conderet sedes; et ducum e nominibus indita vocabula illis per Asiam, his in Italia; auctamque adhuc Lydorum opulentiam missis in Graeciam populis cui mox a Pelope nomen. simul litteras imperatorum et icta nobiscum foedera bello Macedonum ubertatemque fluminum suorum, temperiem caeli ac ditis circum terras memorabant.' "4.56. At Zmyrnaei repetita vetustate, seu Tantalus Iove ortus illos, sive Theseus divina et ipse stirpe, sive una Amazonum condidisset, transcendere ad ea, quis maxime fidebant, in populum Romanum officiis, missa navali copia non modo externa ad bella sed quae in Italia tolerabantur; seque primos templum urbis Romae statuisse, M. Porcio consule, magnis quidem iam populi Romani rebus, nondum tamen ad summum elatis, stante adhuc Punica urbe et validis per Asiam regibus. simul L. Sullam testem adferebant, gravissimo in discrimine exercitus ob asperitatem hiemis et penuriam vestis, cum id Zmyrnam in contionem nuntiatum foret, omnis qui adstabant detraxisse corpori tegmina nostrisque legionibus misisse. ita rogati sententiam patres Zmyrnaeos praetulere. censuitque Vibius Marsus ut M'. Lepido, cui ea provincia obvenerat, super numerum legaretur qui templi curam susciperet. et quia Lepidus ipse deligere per modestiam abnuebat, Valerius Naso e praetoriis sorte missus est."'. None
3.62. \xa0The Magnesians, who followed, rested their case on the rulings of Lucius Scipio and Lucius Sulla, who, after their defeats of Antiochus and Mithridates respectively, had honoured the loyalty and courage of Magnesia by making the shrine of Leucophryne Diana an inviolable refuge. Next, Aphrodisias and Stratonicea adduced a decree of the dictator Julius in return for their early services to his cause, together with a modern rescript of the deified Augustus, who praised the unchanging fidelity to the Roman nation with which they had sustained the Parthian inroad. Aphrodisias, however, was championing the cult of Venus; Stratonicea, that of Jove and Diana of the Crossways. The statement of Hierocaesarea went deeper into the past: the community owned a Persian Diana with a temple dedicated in the reign of Cyrus; and there were references to Perpenna, Isauricus, and many other commanders who had allowed the same sanctity not only to the temple but to the neighbourhood for two miles round. The Cypriotes followed with an appeal for three shrines â\x80\x94 the oldest erected by their founder Aërias to the Paphian Venus; the second by his son Amathus to the Amathusian Venus; and a\xa0third by Teucer, exiled by the anger of his father Telamon, to Jove of Salamis. <
4.55. \xa0To divert criticism, the Caesar attended the senate with frequency, and for several days listened to the deputies from Asia debating which of their communities was to erect his temple. Eleven cities competed, with equal ambition but disparate resources. With no great variety each pleaded national antiquity, and zeal for the Roman cause in the wars with Perseus, Aristonicus, and other kings. But Hypaepa and Tralles, together with Laodicea and Magnesia, were passed over as inadequate to the task: even Ilium, though it appealed to Troy as the parent of Rome, had no significance apart from the glory of its past. Some little hesitation was caused by the statement of the Halicarnassians that for twelve hundred years no tremors of earthquake had disturbed their town, and the temple foundations would rest on the living rock. The Pergamenes were refuted by their main argument: they had already a sanctuary of Augustus, and the distinction was thought ample. The state-worship in Ephesus and Miletus was considered to be already centred on the cults of Diana and Apollo respectively: the deliberations turned, therefore, on Sardis and Smyrna. The Sardians read a decree of their "kindred country" of Etruria. "Owing to its numbers," they explained, "Tyrrhenus and Lydus, sons of King Atys, had divided the nation. Lydus had remained in the territory of his fathers, Tyrrhenus had been allotted the task of creating a new settlement; and the Asiatic and Italian branches of the people had received distinctive titles from the names of the two leaders; while a further advance in the Lydian power had come with the despatch of colonists to the peninsula which afterwards took its name from Pelops." At the same time, they recalled the letters from Roman commanders, the treaties concluded with us in the Macedonian war, their ample rivers, tempered climate, and the richness of the surrounding country. < 4.56. \xa0The deputies from Smyrna, on the other hand, after retracing the antiquity of their town â\x80\x94 whether founded by Tantalus, the seed of Jove; by Theseus, also of celestial stock; or by one of the Amazons â\x80\x94 passed on to the arguments in which they rested most confidence: their good offices towards the Roman people, to whom they had sent their naval force to aid not merely in foreign wars but in those with which we had to cope in Italy, while they had also been the first to erect a temple to the City of Rome, at a period (the consulate of Marcus Porcius) when the Roman fortunes stood high indeed, but had not yet mounted to their zenith, as the Punic capital was yet standing and the kings were still powerful in Asia. At the same time, Sulla was called to witness that "with his army in a most critical position through the inclement winter and scarcity of clothing, the news had only to be announced at a public meeting in Smyrna, and the whole of the bystanders stripped the garments from their bodies and sent them to our legions." The Fathers accordingly, when their opinion was taken, gave Smyrna the preference. Vibius Marsus proposed that a supernumerary legate, to take responsibility for the temple, should be assigned to Manius Lepidus, to whom the province of Asia had fallen; and since Lepidus modestly declined to make the selection himself, Valerius Naso was chosen by lot among the ex-praetors and sent out.''. None
109. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judaea, and theatres/festivals • Pythia (festival), at Delos • Roman era, festivals • Sebasta (festival) at Naples • festivals, Roman • insomnia, and festivities • periodos (festival circuit)

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 22, 24, 25, 26; Cosgrove (2022) 259; Csapo (2022) 118; Verhagen (2022) 22, 24, 25, 26

110. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • insomnia, and festivities

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 22, 23, 24, 25, 26; Verhagen (2022) 22, 23, 24, 25, 26

111. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals and fasts • prayer, Festival

 Found in books: Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 166; Reif (2006) 159

112. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander III (‘the Great’) of Macedon, and theatre festivals • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • festivals with tragic performances (other than Dionysia), Olympia, at Dion

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 33; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 153

113. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, early, feasting practices • Christianity, early, relationship between early Christian and Jewish feasting and feasting literature • Festivals • sacrifice and sacrificial feasting, Christian attitudes to sacrificial meat

 Found in books: Binder (2012) 78; König (2012) 127

114. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mounichion (month), festivals of • Pyanopsion (month name), festivals of • Theseus as aition for festivals • festival, • festivals, Anthesteria • festivals, administration of • women festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 55; Lyons (1997) 114; Papazarkadas (2011) 90; Parker (2005) 208

115. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 3.22, 4.8, 4.22, 6.26, 11.8-11.13, 11.15 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Agatha, St., festival of • Festival-days, in Rome • Hathor, in solar barque, festivals of • Hecatesia (festival) in Lagina, in Lagina • Hecatesia (festival) in Lagina, in Phrygia • Isis, Navigium Isidis (festival) • Libanius, ekphrasis of a festival • ekphrasis, of a festival • feast • festival (festivals), Festival of Risus (Risus Festival) • festivals • festivals, ekphrasis of, by Libanius • sacrifice and sacrificial feasting, imagery of sacrifice

 Found in books: Belayche and Massa (2021) 127, 143, 156; Cosgrove (2022) 189; Griffiths (1975) 210, 339; Jim (2022) 136; König (2012) 284; Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 281; Steiner (2001) 107; Stephens and Winkler (1995) 322, 323

11.8. Behold, then more and more there appeared the parades and processions. The people were attired in regal manner and singing joyfully. One was girded about the middle like a man of arms. Another was bare and spare, and had a cloak and high shoes like a hunter! Another was attired in a robe of silk and socks of gold, having his hair laid out and dressed like a woman! There was another who wore leg harnesses and bore a shield, a helmet, and a spear like a martial soldier. After him marched one attired in purple, with vergers before him like a magistrate! After him followed one with a cloak, a staff, a pair of sandals, and a gray beard, signifying that he was a philosopher. After him came one with a line, betokening a fowler. Another came with hooks, declaring him a fisherman. I saw there a meek and tame bear which, dressed like a matron, was carried on a stool. An ape, with a bonnet on his head and covered with a Phrygian garment, resembled a shepherd, and bore a cup of gold in his hand. There was an ass, which had wings glued to his back and followed an old man: you would judge the one to be Pegasus, and the other Bellerophon. 11.9. Amongst the pleasures and popular delights which wandered hither and thither, you might see the procession of the goddess triumphantly marching forward. The women, attired in white vestments and rejoicing because they wore garlands and flowers upon their heads, bedspread the road with herbs which they bare in their aprons. This marked the path this regal and devout procession would pass. Others carried mirrors on their backs to testify obeisance to the goddess who came after. Other bore combs of ivory and declared by the gesture and motions of their arms that they were ordained and ready to dress the goddess. Others dropped balm and other precious ointments as they went. Then came a great number of men as well as women with candles, torches, and other lights, doing honor to the celestial goddess. After that sounded the musical harmony of instruments. Then came a fair company of youths, appareled in white vestments, singing both meter and verse a comely song which some studious poet had made in honor of the Muses. In the meantime there arrived the blowers of trumpets, who were dedicated to the god Serapis. Before them were officers who prepared room for the goddess to pass. 11.11. By and by, after the goddess, there followed gods on foot. There was Anubis, the messenger of the gods infernal and celestial, with his face sometimes black, sometimes faire, lifting up the head of a dog and bearing in his left hand his verge, and in his right hand the branches of a palm tree. After whom followed a cow with an upright gait, representing the figure of the great goddess. He who guided her marched on with much gravity. Another carried the secrets of their religion closed in a coffer. There was one who bore on his stomach a figure of his god, not formed like any beast, bird, savage thing or humane shape, but made by a new invention. This signified that such a religion could not be discovered or revealed to any person. There was a vessel wrought with a round bottom, having on the one side pictures figured in the manner of the Egyptians, and on the other side was an ear on which stood the serpent Aspis, holding out his scaly neck. 11.12. Finally came he who was appointed to my good fortune, according to the promise of the goddess. For the great priest, who bore the restoration of my human shape by the command of the goddess, approached ever closer bearing in his left hand the rattle, and in the other a garland of roses to give me. This was to deliver me from cruel fortune, which was always my enemy after I had suffered so much calamity and pain and had endured so many perils. I did not approach hastily, though I was seized by sudden joy, lest I disturb the quiet procession by my eagerness. But going softly through the press of the people (which gave way to me on every side) I went up to the priest. 11.13. The priest, having been advised the night before, stood still and holding out his hand, and thrust out the garland of roses into my mouth. I (trembling) devoured it with a great eagerness. And as soon as I had eaten them, I found that the promise made to me had not been in vain. For my deformed face changed, and first the rugged hair of my body fell off, my thick skin grew soft and tender, the hooves of my feet changed into toes, my hands returned again, my neck grew short, my head and mouth became round, my long ears were made little, my great and stony teeth grew more like the teeth of men, and my tail, which had burdened me most, disappeared. Then the people began to marvel. The religious honored the goddess for so evident a miracle. They wondered at the visions which they saw in the night, and the ease of my restoration, whereby they rendered testimony of so great a benefit that I had received from the goddess.
11.15. “O my friend Lucius, after the enduring so many labors and escaping so many tempests of fortune, you have at length come to the port and haven of rest and mercy. Your noble linage, your dignity, your education, or any thing else did not avail you. But you have endured so many servile pleasures due to the folly of youth. Thusly you have had an unpleasant reward for your excessive curiosity. But however the blindness of Fortune has tormented you in various dangers, so it is now that, unbeknownst to her, you have come to this present felicity. Let Fortune go and fume with fury in another place. Let her find some other matter on which to execute her cruelty. Fortune has no power against those who serve and honor our goddess. What good did it do her that you endured thieves, savage beasts, great servitude, dangerous waits, long journeys, and fear of death every day? Know that now you are safe and under the protection of her who, by her clear light, brightens the other gods. Wherefore rejoice and take a countece appropriate to your white garment. Follow the parade of this devout and honorable procession so that those who do not worship the goddess may see and acknowledge their error. Behold Lucius, you are delivered from so great miseries by the providence of the goddess Isis. Rejoice therefore and triumph in the victory over fortune. And so that you may live more safe and sure, make yourself one of this holy order. Dedicate your mind to our religion and take upon yourself the voluntary yoke of ministry. And when you begin to serve and honor the goddess, then you shall feel the fruit of your liberty.”' '. None
116. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 51.20.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals • festivals, Panionia

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 106; Marek (2019) 416

51.20.7. \xa0He commanded that the Romans resident in these cities should pay honour to these two divinities; but he permitted the aliens, whom he styled Hellenes, to consecrate precincts to himself, the Asians to have theirs in Pergamum and the Bithynians theirs in Nicomedia. This practice, beginning under him, has been continued under other emperors, not only in the case of the Hellenic nations but also in that of all the others, in so far as they are subject to the Romans.''. None
117. Justin, First Apology, 67 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Nativity, feast of the • feast, days • festivals

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 437, 438; Vinzent (2013) 208

67. And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration. ''. None
118. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 49 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis (goddess), Laphria festival • festivals • festivals, Laphria • sacrifice (thysia), Laphria festival

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 15; Elsner (2007) 18

49. The greatest of the festivals that they celebrate is that held in the opening of spring; some call this the Pyre, others the Lamp. On this occasion the sacrifice is performed in this way. They cut down tall trees and set them up in the court; then they bring goats and sheep and cattle and hang them living to the trees; they add to these birds and garments and gold and silver work. After all is finished, they carry the gods around the trees and set fire under; in a moment all is in a blaze. To this solemn rite a great multitude flocks from Syria and all the regions around. Each brings his own god and the statues which each has of his own gods.''. None
119. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.4.4, 1.15.3, 1.21.1, 1.22.8, 1.28.2, 1.28.4, 1.32.4-1.32.5, 1.36.1, 1.38.2, 1.38.6, 1.40.2-1.40.3, 2.17.4, 2.31.5, 2.35.5-2.35.8, 2.37.2, 2.37.5, 3.20.3, 3.22.12, 4.1.6-4.1.7, 5.16.5-5.16.7, 6.26.1, 7.18.9-7.18.13, 9.3.1, 9.22.1, 9.34.1, 9.39.5, 10.4.3, 10.7.6, 10.32.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Basileia, festival • Charilla festival • Daidala (festival) • Daidala festival, Plataea • Demetrieia (festival), in drinking rituals • Dionysos, festivals • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Festival • Festivals, Mounichia of Athens • Festivals, Panathenaia of Athens • Festivals, Thesmophoria • Festivals, of Artemis Agrotera of Athens • Festivals, of Heracles of Marathon • Herois (festival) • Neleis (festival) • Pamboiotia, festival • Partheneia (festival), προστατοῦσα‎ • Pythia (festival), at Delos • Salamis, unknown festival • Seleuceia (festival) • Soteria (festival) • Tanagra, festival of Hermes at • Thyia (festival) • Thyia, feast • burial, Tetrapolis festival • ennaeteric festivals • epinikia, in civic festivals • feasting, and (exclusive) cult community • feasting, at Delphic Theoxenia • festival • festival, • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Andania • festivals, Artemis Brauronia • festivals, Daidala • festivals, Oreibasia • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Thesmophoria • festivals, civic • festivals, in Delphi • festivals, prizes for victorious competitors • festivals,, ethnic • judges, of the Dionysian festival • periodos (festival circuit) • soteria (festival), in Akraiphia • soteria (festival), in Delphi • soteria (festival), in Megalopolis • soteria (festival), in Priene • trieteric festivals • unknown festival for Kykhreus (?) • women, basket bearers at festivals (kanephorai)

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 8, 104, 111, 167, 168, 292; Bowie (2021) 539, 652, 684; Csapo (2022) 119; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 34, 44, 167, 242, 496; Elsner (2007) 18, 19; Gygax (2016) 71, 229; Henderson (2020) 251; Humphreys (2018) 703, 1153; Jim (2022) 11, 19, 51, 56, 57, 145; Jouanna (2018) 76; Kowalzig (2007) 151, 198, 200; Lalone (2019) 159; Lipka (2021) 143, 166, 168; Lyons (1997) 116, 118, 121; Martin (2009) 155; Mikalson (2003) 28, 30, 124, 127, 192, 204; Papazarkadas (2011) 39; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 184, 278; Simon (2021) 41, 174, 316, 328; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 114; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 4

1.4.4. οὗτοι μὲν δὴ τοὺς Ἕλληνας τρόπον τὸν εἰρημένον ἔσωζον, οἱ δὲ Γαλάται Πυλῶν τε ἐντὸς ἦσαν καὶ τὰ πολίσματα ἑλεῖν ἐν οὐδενὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ποιησάμενοι Δελφοὺς καὶ τὰ χρήματα. τοῦ θεοῦ διαρπάσαι μάλιστα εἶχον σπουδήν. καί σφισιν αὐτοί τε Δελφοὶ καὶ Φωκέων ἀντετάχθησαν οἱ τὰς πόλεις περὶ τὸν Παρνασσὸν οἰκοῦντες, ἀφίκετο δὲ καὶ δύναμις Αἰτωλῶν· τὸ γὰρ Αἰτωλικὸν προεῖχεν ἀκμῇ νεότητος τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον. ὡς δὲ ἐς χεῖρας συνῄεσαν, ἐνταῦθα κεραυνοί τε ἐφέροντο ἐς τοὺς Γαλάτας καὶ ἀπορραγεῖσαι πέτραι τοῦ Παρνασσοῦ, δείματά τε ἄνδρες ἐφίσταντο ὁπλῖται τοῖς βαρβάροις· τούτων τοὺς μὲν ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων λέγουσιν ἐλθεῖν, Ὑπέροχον καὶ Ἀμάδοκον, τὸν δὲ τρίτον Πύρρον εἶναι τὸν Ἀχιλλέως· ἐναγίζουσι δὲ ἀπὸ ταύτης Δελφοὶ τῆς συμμαχίας Πύρρῳ, πρότερον ἔχοντες ἅτε ἀνδρὸς πολεμίου καὶ τὸ μνῆμα ἐν ἀτιμίᾳ.
1.15.3. τελευταῖον δὲ τῆς γραφῆς εἰσιν οἱ μαχεσάμενοι Μαραθῶνι· Βοιωτῶν δὲ οἱ Πλάταιαν ἔχοντες καὶ ὅσον ἦν Ἀττικὸν ἴασιν ἐς χεῖρας τοῖς βαρβάροις. καὶ ταύτῃ μέν ἐστιν ἴσα τὰ παρʼ ἀμφοτέρων ἐς τὸ ἔργον· τὸ δὲ ἔσω τῆς μάχης φεύγοντές εἰσιν οἱ βάρβαροι καὶ ἐς τὸ ἕλος ὠθοῦντες ἀλλήλους, ἔσχαται δὲ τῆς γραφῆς νῆές τε αἱ Φοίνισσαι καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων τοὺς ἐσπίπτοντας ἐς ταύτας φονεύοντες οἱ Ἕλληνες. ἐνταῦθα καὶ Μαραθὼν γεγραμμένος ἐστὶν ἥρως, ἀφʼ οὗ τὸ πεδίον ὠνόμασται, καὶ Θησεὺς ἀνιόντι ἐκ γῆς εἰκασμένος Ἀθηνᾶ τε καὶ Ἡρακλῆς· Μαραθωνίοις γάρ, ὡς αὐτοὶ λέγουσιν, Ἡρακλῆς ἐνομίσθη θεὸς πρώτοις. τῶν μαχομένων δὲ δῆλοι μάλιστά εἰσιν ἐν τῇ γραφῇ Καλλίμαχός τε, ὃς Ἀθηναίοις πολεμαρχεῖν ᾕρητο, καὶ Μιλτιάδης τῶν στρατηγούντων, ἥρως τε Ἔχετλος καλούμενος, οὗ καὶ ὕστερον ποιήσομαι μνήμην.
1.21.1. εἰσὶ δὲ Ἀθηναίοις εἰκόνες ἐν τῷ θεάτρῳ καὶ τραγῳδίας καὶ κωμῳδίας ποιητῶν, αἱ πολλαὶ τῶν ἀφανεστέρων· ὅτι μὴ γὰρ Μένανδρος, οὐδεὶς ἦν ποιητὴς κωμῳδίας τῶν ἐς δόξαν ἡκόντων. τραγῳδίας δὲ κεῖνται τῶν φανερῶν Εὐριπίδης καὶ Σοφοκλῆς. λέγεται δὲ Σοφοκλέους τελευτήσαντος ἐσβαλεῖν ἐς τὴν Ἀττικὴν Λακεδαιμονίους, καὶ σφῶν τὸν ἡγούμενον ἰδεῖν ἐπιστάντα οἱ Διόνυσον κελεύειν τιμαῖς, ὅσαι καθεστήκασιν ἐπὶ τοῖς τεθνεῶσι, τὴν Σειρῆνα τὴν νέαν τιμᾶν· καί οἱ τὸ ὄναρ ἐς Σοφοκλέα καὶ τὴν Σοφοκλέους ποίησιν ἐφαίνετο ἔχειν, εἰώθασι δὲ καὶ νῦν ἔτι ποιημάτων καὶ λόγων τὸ ἐπαγωγὸν Σειρῆνι εἰκάζειν.
1.22.8. κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἔσοδον αὐτὴν ἤδη τὴν ἐς ἀκρόπολιν Ἑρμῆν ὃν Προπύλαιον ὀνομάζουσι καὶ Χάριτας Σωκράτην ποιῆσαι τὸν Σωφρονίσκου λέγουσιν, ᾧ σοφῷ γενέσθαι μάλιστα ἀνθρώπων ἐστὶν ἡ Πυθία μάρτυς, ὃ μηδὲ Ἀνάχαρσιν ἐθέλοντα ὅμως καὶ διʼ αὐτὸ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἀφικόμενον προσεῖπεν.
1.28.2. χωρὶς δὲ ἢ ὅσα κατέλεξα δύο μὲν Ἀθηναίοις εἰσὶ δεκάται πολεμήσασιν, ἄγαλμα Ἀθηνᾶς χαλκοῦν ἀπὸ Μήδων τῶν ἐς Μαραθῶνα ἀποβάντων τέχνη Φειδίου —καί οἱ τὴν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀσπίδος μάχην Λαπιθῶν πρὸς Κενταύρους καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα ἐστὶν ἐπειργασμένα λέγουσι τορεῦσαι Μῦν, τῷ δὲ Μυῒ ταῦτά τε καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν ἔργων Παρράσιον καταγράψαι τὸν Εὐήνορος· ταύτης τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἡ τοῦ δόρατος αἰχμὴ καὶ ὁ λόφος τοῦ κράνους ἀπὸ Σουνίου προσπλέουσίν ἐστιν ἤδη σύνοπτα—, καὶ ἅρμα κεῖται χαλκοῦν ἀπὸ Βοιωτῶν δεκάτη καὶ Χαλκιδέων τῶν ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ. δύο δὲ ἄλλα ἐστὶν ἀναθήματα, Περικλῆς ὁ Ξανθίππου καὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν Φειδίου θέας μάλιστα ἄξιον Ἀθηνᾶς ἄγαλμα ἀπὸ τῶν ἀναθέντων καλουμένης Λημνίας.
1.28.4. καταβᾶσι δὲ οὐκ ἐς τὴν κάτω πόλιν ἀλλʼ ὅσον ὑπὸ τὰ προπύλαια πηγή τε ὕδατός ἐστι καὶ πλησίον Ἀπόλλωνος ἱερὸν ἐν σπηλαίῳ· Κρεούσῃ δὲ θυγατρὶ Ἐρεχθέως Ἀπόλλωνα ἐνταῦθα συγγενέσθαι νομίζουσι. ὡς πεμφθείη Φιλιππίδης ἐς Λακεδαίμονα ἄγγελος ἀποβεβηκότων Μήδων ἐς τὴν γῆν, ἐπανήκων δὲ Λακεδαιμονίους ὑπερβαλέσθαι φαίη τὴν ἔξοδον, εἶναι γὰρ δὴ νόμον αὐτοῖς μὴ πρότερον μαχουμένους ἐξιέναι πρὶν ἢ πλήρη τὸν κύκλον τῆς σελήνης γενέσθαι· τὸν δὲ Πᾶνα ὁ Φιλιππίδης ἔλεγε περὶ τὸ ὄρος ἐντυχόντα οἱ τὸ Παρθένιον φάναι τε ὡς εὔνους Ἀθηναίοις εἴη καὶ ὅτι ἐς Μαραθῶνα ἥξει συμμαχήσων. οὗτος μὲν οὖν ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ ἀγγελίᾳ τετίμηται·
1.32.4. καὶ ἀνδρός ἐστιν ἰδίᾳ μνῆμα Μιλτιάδου τοῦ Κίμωνος, συμβάσης ὕστερόν οἱ τῆς τελευτῆς Πάρου τε ἁμαρτόντι καὶ διʼ αὐτὸ ἐς κρίσιν Ἀθηναίοις καταστάντι. ἐνταῦθα ἀνὰ πᾶσαν νύκτα καὶ ἵππων χρεμετιζόντων καὶ ἀνδρῶν μαχομένων ἔστιν αἰσθέσθαι· καταστῆναι δὲ ἐς ἐναργῆ θέαν ἐπίτηδες μὲν οὐκ ἔστιν ὅτῳ συνήνεγκεν, ἀνηκόῳ δὲ ὄντι καὶ ἄλλως συμβὰν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τῶν δαιμόνων ὀργή. σέβονται δὲ οἱ Μαραθώνιοι τούτους τε οἳ παρὰ τὴν μάχην ἀπέθανον ἥρωας ὀνομάζοντες καὶ Μαραθῶνα ἀφʼ οὗ τῷ δήμῳ τὸ ὄνομά ἐστι καὶ Ἡρακλέα, φάμενοι πρώτοις Ἑλλήνων σφίσιν Ἡρακλέα θεὸν νομισθῆναι. 1.32.5. συνέβη δὲ ὡς λέγουσιν ἄνδρα ἐν τῇ μάχῃ παρεῖναι τὸ εἶδος καὶ τὴν σκευὴν ἄγροικον· οὗτος τῶν βαρβάρων πολλοὺς καταφονεύσας ἀρότρῳ μετὰ τὸ ἔργον ἦν ἀφανής· ἐρομένοις δὲ Ἀθηναίοις ἄλλο μὲν ὁ θεὸς ἐς αὐτὸν ἔχρησεν οὐδέν, τιμᾶν δὲ Ἐχετλαῖον ἐκέλευσεν ἥρωα. πεποίηται δὲ καὶ τρόπαιον λίθου λευκοῦ. τοὺς δὲ Μήδους Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν θάψαι λέγουσιν ὡς πάντως ὅσιον ἀνθρώπου νεκρὸν γῇ κρύψαι, τάφον δὲ οὐδένα εὑρεῖν ἐδυνάμην· οὔτε γὰρ χῶμα οὔτε ἄλλο σημεῖον ἦν ἰδεῖν, ἐς ὄρυγμα δὲ φέροντες σφᾶς ὡς τύχοιεν ἐσέβαλον.
1.36.1. ἐν Σαλαμῖνι δὲ—ἐπάνειμι γὰρ ἐς τὸν προκείμενον λόγον—τοῦτο μὲν Ἀρτέμιδός ἐστιν ἱερόν, τοῦτο δὲ τρόπαιον ἕστηκεν ἀπὸ τῆς νίκης ἣν Θεμιστοκλῆς ὁ Νεοκλέους αἴτιος ἐγένετο γενέσθαι τοῖς Ἕλλησι· καὶ Κυχρέως ἐστὶν ἱερόν. ναυμαχούντων δὲ Ἀθηναίων πρὸς Μήδους δράκοντα ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶ λέγεται φανῆναι· τοῦτον ὁ θεὸς ἔχρησεν Ἀθηναίοις Κυχρέα εἶναι τὸν ἥρωα.
1.38.2. Κρόκων, ἔνθα καὶ νῦν ἔτι βασίλεια καλεῖται Κρόκωνος. τοῦτον Ἀθηναῖοι τὸν Κρόκωνα Κελεοῦ θυγατρί συνοικῆσαι Σαισάρᾳ λέγουσι· λέγουσι δὲ οὐ πάντες, ἀλλʼ ὅσοι τοῦ δήμου τοῦ Σκαμβωνιδῶν εἰσιν· ἐγὼ δὲ Κρόκωνος μὲν ἀνευρεῖν τάφον οὐχ οἷός τε ἐγενόμην, τὸ δὲ Εὐμόλπου μνῆμα κατὰ ταὐτὰ Ἐλευσινίοις ἀπέφαινον καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι. τοῦτον τὸν Εὔμολπον ἀφικέσθαι λέγουσιν ἐκ Θρᾴκης Ποσειδῶνος παῖδα ὄντα καὶ Χιόνης· τὴν δὲ Χιόνην Βορέου θυγατέρα τοῦ ἀνέμου καὶ Ὠρειθυίας φασὶν εἶναι. Ὁμήρῳ δὲ ἐς μὲν τὸ γένος ἐστὶν οὐδὲν αὐτοῦ πεποιημένον, ἐπονομάζει δὲ ἀγήνορα ἐν τοῖς ἔπεσι τὸν Εὔμολπον.
1.38.6. Ἐλευσινίοις δὲ ἔστι μὲν Τριπτολέμου ναός, ἔστι δὲ Προπυλαίας Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ποσειδῶνος Πατρός, φρέαρ τε καλούμενον Καλλίχορον, ἔνθα πρῶτον Ἐλευσινίων αἱ γυναῖκες χορὸν ἔστησαν καὶ ᾖσαν ἐς τὴν θεόν. τὸ δὲ πεδίον τὸ Ῥάριον σπαρῆναι πρῶτον λέγουσι καὶ πρῶτον αὐξῆσαι καρπούς, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο οὐλαῖς ἐξ αὐτοῦ χρῆσθαί σφισι καὶ ποιεῖσθαι πέμματα ἐς τὰς θυσίας καθέστηκεν. ἐνταῦθα ἅλως καλουμένη Τριπτολέμου καὶ βωμὸς δείκνυται·
1.40.2. τῆς δὲ κρήνης οὐ πόρρω ταύτης ἀρχαῖόν ἐστιν ἱερόν, εἰκόνες δὲ ἐφʼ ἡμῶν ἑστᾶσιν ἐν αὐτῷ βασιλέων Ῥωμαίων καὶ ἄγαλμα τε κεῖται χαλκοῦν Ἀρτέμιδος ἐπίκλησιν Σωτείρας. φασὶ δὲ ἄνδρας τοῦ Μαρδονίου στρατοῦ καταδραμόντας τὴν Μεγαρίδα ἀποχωρεῖν ἐς Θήβας ὀπίσω παρὰ Μαρδόνιον ἐθέλειν, γνώμῃ δὲ Ἀρτέμιδος νύκτα τε ὁδοιποροῦσιν ἐπιγενέσθαι καὶ τῆς ὁδοῦ σφᾶς ἁμαρτόντας ἐς τὴν ὀρεινὴν τραπέσθαι τῆς χώρας· πειρωμένους δὲ εἰ στράτευμα ἐγγὺς εἴη πολέμιον ἀφιέναι τῶν βελῶν, καὶ τὴν πλησίον πέτραν στένειν βαλλομένην, τοὺς δὲ αὖθις τοξεύειν προθυμίᾳ πλέονι. 1.40.3. τέλος δὲ αὐτοῖς ἀναλωθῆναι τοὺς ὀιστοὺς ἐς ἄνδρας πολεμίους τοξεύειν προθυμίᾳ πλέονι νομίζουσιν· ἡμέρα τε ὑπεφαίνετο καὶ οἱ Μεγαρεῖς ἐπῄεσαν, μαχόμενοι δὲ ὁπλῖται πρὸς ἀνόπλους καὶ οὐδὲ βελῶν εὐποροῦντας ἔτι φονεύουσιν αὐτῶν τοὺς πολλούς· καὶ ἐπὶ τῷδε Σωτείρας ἄγαλμα ἐποιήσαντο Ἀρτέμιδος. ἐνταῦθα καὶ τῶν δώδεκα ὀνομαζομένων θεῶν ἐστιν ἀγάλματα ἔργα εἶναι λεγόμενα Πραξιτέλους · τὴν δὲ Ἄρτεμιν αὐτὴν Στρογγυλίων ἐποίησε.
2.17.4. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἥρας ἐπὶ θρόνου κάθηται μεγέθει μέγα, χρυσοῦ μὲν καὶ ἐλέφαντος, Πολυκλείτου δὲ ἔργον· ἔπεστι δέ οἱ στέφανος Χάριτας ἔχων καὶ Ὥρας ἐπειργασμένας, καὶ τῶν χειρῶν τῇ μὲν καρπὸν φέρει ῥοιᾶς, τῇ δὲ σκῆπτρον. τὰ μὲν οὖν ἐς τὴν ῥοιὰν—ἀπορρητότερος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ λόγος—ἀφείσθω μοι· κόκκυγα δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ σκήπτρῳ καθῆσθαί φασι λέγοντες τὸν Δία, ὅτε ἤρα παρθένου τῆς Ἥρας, ἐς τοῦτον τὸν ὄρνιθα ἀλλαγῆναι, τὴν δὲ ἅτε παίγνιον θηρᾶσαι. τοῦτον τὸν λόγον καὶ ὅσα ἐοικότα εἴρηται περὶ θεῶν οὐκ ἀποδεχόμενος γράφω, γράφω δὲ οὐδὲν ἧσσον.
2.31.5. εἰσὶ δὲ οὐ μακρὰν τῆς Λυκείας Ἀρτέμιδος βωμοὶ διεστηκότες οὐ πολὺ ἀπʼ ἀλλήλων· ὁ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν αὐτῶν Διονύσου κατὰ δή τι μάντευμα ἐπίκλησιν Σαώτου, δεύτερος δὲ Θεμίδων ὀνομαζόμενος· Πιτθεὺς τοῦτον ἀνέθηκεν, ὡς λέγουσιν. Ἡλίου δὲ Ἐλευθερίου καὶ σφόδρα εἰκότι λόγῳ δοκοῦσί μοι ποιῆσαι βωμόν, ἐκφυγόντες δουλείαν ἀπὸ Ξέρξου τε καὶ Περσῶν.
2.35.5. Χθονία δʼ οὖν ἡ θεός τε αὐτὴ καλεῖται καὶ Χθόνια ἑορτὴν κατὰ ἔτος ἄγουσιν ὥρᾳ θέρους, ἄγουσι δὲ οὕτως. ἡγοῦνται μὲν αὐτοῖς τῆς πομπῆς οἵ τε ἱερεῖς τῶν θεῶν καὶ ὅσοι τὰς ἐπετείους ἀρχὰς ἔχουσιν, ἕπονται δὲ καὶ γυναῖκες καὶ ἄνδρες. τοῖς δὲ καὶ παισὶν ἔτι οὖσι καθέστηκεν ἤδη τὴν θεὸν τιμᾶν τῇ πομπῇ· οὗτοι λευκὴν ἐσθῆτα καὶ ἐπὶ ταῖς κεφαλαῖς ἔχουσι στεφάνους. πλέκονται δὲ οἱ στέφανοί σφισιν ἐκ τοῦ ἄνθους ὃ καλοῦσιν οἱ ταύτῃ κοσμοσάνδαλον, ὑάκινθον ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν ὄντα καὶ μεγέθει καὶ χρόᾳ· ἔπεστι δέ οἱ καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῷ θρήνῳ γράμματα. 2.35.6. τοῖς δὲ τὴν πομπὴν πέμπουσιν ἕπονται τελείαν ἐξ ἀγέλης βοῦν ἄγοντες διειλημμένην δεσμοῖς τε καὶ ὑβρίζουσαν ἔτι ὑπὸ ἀγριότητος. ἐλάσαντες δὲ πρὸς τὸν ναὸν οἱ μὲν ἔσω φέρεσθαι τὴν βοῦν ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν ἀνῆκαν ἐκ τῶν δεσμῶν, ἕτεροι δὲ ἀναπεπταμένας ἔχοντες τέως τὰς θύρας, ἐπειδὰν τὴν βοῦν ἴδωσιν ἐντὸς τοῦ ναοῦ, προσέθεσαν τὰς θύρας. 2.35.7. τέσσαρες δὲ ἔνδον ὑπολειπόμεναι γρᾶες, αὗται τὴν βοῦν εἰσιν αἱ κατεργαζόμεναι· δρεπάνῳ γὰρ ἥτις ἂν τύχῃ τὴν φάρυγγα ὑπέτεμε τῆς βοός. μετὰ δὲ αἱ θύραι τε ἠνοίχθησαν καὶ προσελαύνουσιν οἷς ἐπιτέτακται βοῦν δὲ δευτέραν καὶ τρίτην ἐπὶ ταύτῃ καὶ ἄλλην τετάρτην. κατεργάζονταί τε δὴ πάσας κατὰ ταὐτὰ αἱ γρᾶες καὶ τόδε ἄλλο πρόσκειται τῇ θυσίᾳ θαῦμα· ἐφʼ ἥντινα γὰρ ἂν πέσῃ τῶν πλευρῶν ἡ πρώτη βοῦς, ἀνάγκη πεσεῖν καὶ πάσας. 2.35.8. θυσία μὲν δρᾶται τοῖς Ἑρμιονεῦσι τὸν εἰρημένον τρόπον· πρὸ δὲ τοῦ ναοῦ γυναικῶν ἱερασαμένων τῇ Δήμητρι εἰκόνες ἑστήκασιν οὐ πολλαί, καὶ παρελθόντι ἔσω θρόνοι τέ εἰσιν, ἐφʼ ὧν αἱ γρᾶες ἀναμένουσιν ἐσελαθῆναι καθʼ ἑκάστην τῶν βοῶν, καὶ ἀγάλματα οὐκ ἄγαν ἀρχαῖα Ἀθηνᾶ καὶ Δημήτηρ. αὐτὸ δὲ ὃ σέβουσιν ἐπὶ πλέον ἢ τἄλλα, ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ εἶδον, οὐ μὴν οὐδὲ ἀνὴρ ἄλλος οὔτε ξένος οὔτε Ἑρμιονέων αὐτῶν· μόναι δὲ ὁποῖόν τί ἐστιν αἱ γρᾶες ἴστωσαν.
2.37.2. ταῦτα μὲν λίθου πεποιημένα, ἑτέρωθι δʼ ἐν ναῷ Διόνυσος Σαώτης καθήμενον ξόανον καὶ Ἀφροδίτης ἄγαλμα ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ λίθου· ἀναθεῖναι δὲ αὐτὸ τὰς θυγατέρας λέγουσι τὰς Δαναοῦ, Δαναὸν δὲ αὐτὸν τὸ ἱερὸν ἐπὶ Ποντίνῳ ποιῆσαι τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς. καταστήσασθαι δὲ τῶν Λερναίων τὴν τελετὴν Φιλάμμωνά φασι. τὰ μὲν οὖν λεγόμενα ἐπὶ τοῖς δρωμένοις δῆλά ἐστιν οὐκ ὄντα ἀρχαῖα·
2.37.5. εἶδον δὲ καὶ πηγὴν Ἀμφιαράου καλουμένην καὶ τὴν Ἀλκυονίαν λίμνην, διʼ ἧς φασιν Ἀργεῖοι Διόνυσον ἐς τὸν Ἅιδην ἐλθεῖν Σεμέλην ἀνάξοντα, τὴν δὲ ταύτῃ κάθοδον δεῖξαί οἱ Πόλυμνον. τῇ δὲ Ἀλκυονίᾳ πέρας τοῦ βάθους οὐκ ἔστιν οὐδέ τινα οἶδα ἄνθρωπον ἐς τὸ τέρμα αὐτῆς οὐδεμιᾷ μηχανῇ καθικέσθαι δυνηθέντα, ὅπου καὶ Νέρων σταδίων πολλῶν κάλους ποιησάμενος καὶ συνάψας ἀλλήλοις, ἀπαρτήσας δὲ καὶ μόλυβδον ἀπʼ αὐτῶν καὶ εἰ δή τι χρήσιμον ἄλλο ἐς τὴν πεῖραν, οὐδὲ οὗτος οὐδένα ἐξευρεῖν ἐδυνήθη ὅρον τοῦ βάθους.
3.20.3. διαβᾶσι δὲ αὐτόθεν ποταμὸν Φελλίαν, παρὰ Ἀμύκλας ἰοῦσιν εὐθεῖαν ὡς ἐπὶ θάλασσαν Φᾶρις πόλις ἐν τῇ Λακωνικῇ ποτε ᾠκεῖτο· ἀποτρεπομένῳ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Φελλίας ἐς δεξιὰν ἡ πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τὸ Ταΰγετόν ἐστιν ὁδός. ἔστι δὲ ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ Διὸς Μεσσαπέως τέμενος· γενέσθαι δέ οἱ τὴν ἐπίκλησιν ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς λέγουσιν ἱερασαμένου τῷ θεῷ. ἐντεῦθέν ἐστιν ἀπιοῦσιν ἐκ τοῦ Ταϋγέτου χωρίον ἔνθα πόλις ποτὲ ᾠκεῖτο Βρυσίαι· καὶ Διονύσου ναὸς ἐνταῦθα ἔτι λείπεται καὶ ἄγαλμα ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ. τὸ δὲ ἐν τῷ ναῷ μόναις γυναιξὶν ἔστιν ὁρᾶν· γυναῖκες γὰρ δὴ μόναι καὶ τὰ ἐς τὰς θυσίας δρῶσιν ἐν ἀπορρήτῳ.
3.22.12. ἀπὸ δὴ τούτων τῶν πόλεων ἀναστάντες ἐζήτουν ἔνθα οἰκῆσαι σφᾶς χρεὼν εἴη· καί τι καὶ μάντευμα ἦν αὐτοῖς Ἄρτεμιν ἔνθα οἰκήσουσιν ἐπιδείξειν. ὡς οὖν ἐκβᾶσιν ἐς τὴν γῆν λαγὼς ἐπιφαίνεται, τὸν λαγὼν ἐποιήσαντο ἡγεμόνα τῆς ὁδοῦ· καταδύντος δὲ ἐς μυρσίνην πόλιν τε οἰκίζουσιν ἐνταῦθα, οὗπερ ἡ μυρσίνη ἦν, καὶ τὸ δένδρον ἔτι ἐκείνην σέβουσι τὴν μυρσίνην καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ὀνομάζουσι Σώτειραν.
4.1.6. τὴν δὲ τελετὴν τῶν Μεγάλων θεῶν Λύκος ὁ Πανδίονος πολλοῖς ἔτεσιν ὕστερον Καύκωνος προήγαγεν ἐς πλέον τιμῆς· καὶ Λύκου δρυμὸν ἔτι ὀνομάζουσιν ἔνθα ἐκάθηρε τοὺς μύστας. καὶ ὅτι μὲν δρυμός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ γῇ ταύτῃ Λύκου καλούμενος, Ῥιανῷ τῷ Κρητί ἐστι πεποιημένον πάρ τε τρηχὺν Ἐλαιὸν ὑπὲρ δρυμόν τε Λύκοιο· Rhianus of Bene in Crete. See note on Paus. 4.6.1 . 4.1.7. ὡς δὲ ὁ Πανδίονος οὗτος ἦν Λύκος, δηλοῖ τὰ ἐπὶ τῇ εἰκόνι ἔπη τῇ Μεθάπου. μετεκόσμησε γὰρ καὶ Μέθαπος τῆς τελετῆς ἔστιν ἅ· ὁ δὲ Μέθαπος γένος μὲν ἦν Ἀθηναῖος, τελεστὴς δὲ καὶ ὀργίων καὶ παντοίων συνθέτης. οὗτος καὶ Θηβαίοις τῶν Καβείρων τὴν τελετὴν κατεστήσατο, ἀνέθηκε δὲ καὶ ἐς τὸ κλίσιον τὸ Λυκομιδῶν εἰκόνα ἔχουσαν ἐπίγραμμα ἄλλα τε λέγον καὶ ὅσα ἡμῖν ἐς πίστιν συντελεῖ τοῦ λόγου·
5.16.5. ἐς δὲ τὰς ἑκκαίδεκα γυναῖκας καὶ ἄλλον τοιόνδε λέγουσιν ἐπὶ τῷ προτέρῳ λόγον. Δαμοφῶντά φασι τυραννοῦντα ἐν Πίσῃ πολλά τε ἐργάσασθαι καὶ χαλεπὰ Ἠλείους· ὡς δὲ ἐτελεύτησεν ὁ Δαμοφῶν—οὐ γὰρ δὴ οἱ Πισαῖοι συνεχώρουν μετέχειν δημοσίᾳ τοῦ τυράννου τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων, καί πως ἀρεστὰ καὶ Ἠλείοις ἐγένετο καταλύεσθαι τὰ ἐς αὐτοὺς ἐγκλήματα—, οὕτως ἑκκαίδεκα οἰκουμένων τηνικαῦτα ἔτι ἐν τῇ Ἠλείᾳ πόλεων γυναῖκα ἀφʼ ἑκάστης εἵλοντο διαλύειν τὰ διάφορά σφισιν, ἥτις ἡλικίᾳ τε ἦν πρεσβυτάτη καὶ ἀξιώματι καὶ δόξῃ τῶν γυναικῶν προεῖχεν. 5.16.6. αἱ πόλεις δὲ ἀφʼ ὧν τὰς γυναῖκας εἵλοντο, ἦσαν Ἦλις . ἀπὸ τούτων μὲν αἱ γυναῖκες οὖσαι τῶν πόλεων Πισαίοις διαλλαγὰς πρὸς Ἠλείους ἐποίησαν· ὕστερον δὲ καὶ τὸν ἀγῶνα ἐπετράπησαν ὑπʼ αὐτῶν θεῖναι τὰ Ἡραῖα καὶ ὑφήνασθαι τῇ Ἥρᾳ τὸν πέπλον. αἱ δὲ ἑκκαίδεκα γυναῖκες καὶ χοροὺς δύο ἱστᾶσι καὶ τὸν μὲν Φυσκόας τῶν χορῶν, τὸν δὲ Ἱπποδαμείας καλοῦσι· τὴν Φυσκόαν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην φασὶν ἐκ τῆς Ἤλιδος τῆς Κοίλης, τῷ δήμῳ δὲ ἔνθα ᾤκησεν ὄνομα μὲν Ὀρθίαν εἶναι. 5.16.7. ταύτῃ τῇ Φυσκόᾳ Διόνυσον συγγενέσθαι λέγουσι, Φυσκόαν δὲ ἐκ Διονύσου τεκεῖν παῖδα Ναρκαῖον· τοῦτον, ὡς ηὐξήθη, πολεμεῖν τοῖς προσοίκοις καὶ δυνάμεως ἐπὶ μέγα ἀρθῆναι, καὶ δὴ καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς ἱερὸν ἐπίκλησιν Ναρκαίας αὐτὸν ἱδρύσασθαι· Διονύσῳ τε τιμὰς λέγουσιν ὑπὸ Ναρκαίου καὶ Φυσκόας δοθῆναι πρώτων. Φυσκόας μὲν δὴ γέρα καὶ ἄλλα καὶ χορὸς ἐπώνυμος παρὰ τῶν ἑκκαίδεκα γυναικῶν, φυλάσσουσι δὲ οὐδὲν ἧσσον Ἠλεῖοι καὶ τἄλλα καταλυθεισῶν ὅμως τῶν πόλεων· νενεμημένοι γὰρ ἐς ὀκτὼ φυλὰς ἀφʼ ἑκάστης αἱροῦνται γυναῖκας δύο.
6.26.1. θέατρον δὲ ἀρχαῖον, μεταξὺ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καὶ τοῦ Μηνίου τὸ θέατρόν τε καὶ ἱερόν ἐστι Διονύσου· τέχνη τὸ ἄγαλμα Πραξιτέλους, θεῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα Διόνυσον σέβουσιν Ἠλεῖοι καὶ τὸν θεόν σφισιν ἐπιφοιτᾶν ἐς τῶν Θυίων τὴν ἑορτὴν λέγουσιν. ἀπέχει μέν γε τῆς πόλεως ὅσον τε ὀκτὼ στάδια ἔνθα τὴν ἑορτὴν ἄγουσι Θυῖα ὀνομάζοντες· λέβητας δὲ ἀριθμὸν τρεῖς ἐς οἴκημα ἐσκομίσαντες οἱ ἱερεῖς κατατίθενται κενούς, παρόντων καὶ τῶν ἀστῶν καὶ ξένων, εἰ τύχοιεν ἐπιδημοῦντες· σφραγῖδας δὲ αὐτοί τε οἱ ἱερεῖς καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὅσοις ἂν κατὰ γνώμην ᾖ ταῖς θύραις τοῦ οἰκήματος ἐπιβάλλουσιν, ἐς δὲ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν τά τε
7.18.9. ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα ἀγάλματα ἔκ τε Αἰτωλίας καὶ παρὰ Ἀκαρνάνων, τὰ μὲν πολλὰ ἐς τὴν Νικόπολιν κομισθῆναι, Πατρεῦσι δὲ ὁ Αὔγουστος ἄλλα τε τῶν ἐκ Καλυδῶνος λαφύρων καὶ δὴ καὶ τῆς Λαφρίας ἔδωκε τὸ ἄγαλμα, ὃ δὴ καὶ ἐς ἐμὲ ἔτι ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει τῇ Πατρέων εἶχε τιμάς. γενέσθαι δὲ ἐπίκλησιν τῇ θεῷ Λαφρίαν ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς Φωκέως φασί· Λάφριον γὰρ τὸν Κασταλίου τοῦ Δελφοῦ Καλυδωνίοις ἱδρύσασθαι τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος τὸ ἀρχαῖον, οἱ δὲ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος τὸ μήνιμα τὸ 7.18.10. ἐς Οἰνέα ἀνὰ χρόνον τοῖς Καλυδωνίοις ἐλαφρότερον γενέσθαι λέγουσι καὶ αἰτίαν τῇ θεῷ τῆς ἐπικλήσεως ἐθέλουσιν εἶναι ταύτην. τὸ μὲν σχῆμα τοῦ ἀγάλματος θηρεύουσά ἐστιν, ἐλέφαντος δὲ καὶ χρυσοῦ πεποίηται, Ναυπάκτιοι δὲ Μέναιχμος καὶ Σοΐδας εἰργάσαντο· τεκμαίρονται σφᾶς Κανάχου τοῦ Σικυωνίου καὶ τοῦ Αἰγινήτου Κάλλωνος οὐ πολλῷ γενέσθαι τινὶ ἡλικίαν ὑστέρους. 7.18.11. ἄγουσι δὲ καὶ Λάφρια ἑορτὴν τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι οἱ Πατρεῖς ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος, ἐν ᾗ τρόπος ἐπιχώριος θυσίας ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς. περὶ μὲν τὸν βωμὸν ἐν κύκλῳ ξύλα ἱστᾶσιν ἔτι χλωρὰ καὶ ἐς ἑκκαίδεκα ἕκαστον πήχεις· ἐντὸς δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ τὰ αὐότατά σφισι τῶν ξύλων κεῖται. μηχανῶνται δὲ ὑπὸ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ἑορτῆς καὶ ἄνοδον ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν λειοτέραν, ἐπιφέροντες γῆν ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ τοὺς ἀναβασμούς. 7.18.12. πρῶτα μὲν δὴ πομπὴν μεγαλοπρεπεστάτην τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι πομπεύουσι, καὶ ἡ ἱερωμένη παρθένος ὀχεῖται τελευταία τῆς πομπῆς ἐπὶ ἐλάφων ὑπὸ τὸ ἅρμα ἐζευγμένων· ἐς δὲ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν τηνικαῦτα ἤδη δρᾶν τὰ ἐς τὴν θυσίαν νομίζουσι, δημοσίᾳ τε ἡ πόλις καὶ οὐχ ἧσσον ἐς τὴν ἑορτὴν οἱ ἰδιῶται φιλοτίμως ἔχουσιν. ἐσβάλλουσι γὰρ ζῶντας ἐς τὸν βωμὸν ὄρνιθάς τε τοὺς ἐδωδίμους καὶ ἱερεῖα ὁμοίως ἅπαντα, ἔτι δὲ ὗς ἀγρίους καὶ ἐλάφους τε καὶ δορκάδας, οἱ δὲ καὶ λύκων καὶ ἄρκτων σκύμνους, οἱ δὲ καὶ τὰ τέλεια τῶν θηρίων· κατατιθέασι δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν καὶ δένδρων καρπὸν τῶν ἡμέρων. 7.18.13. τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου πῦρ ἐνιᾶσιν ἐς τὰ ξύλα. ἐνταῦθά που καὶ ἄρκτον καὶ ἄλλο τι ἐθεασάμην τῶν ζῴων, τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ τὴν πρώτην ὁρμὴν τοῦ πυρὸς βιαζόμενα ἐς τὸ ἐκτός, τὰ δὲ καὶ ἐκφεύγοντα ὑπὸ ἰσχύος· ταῦτα οἱ ἐμβαλόντες ἐπανάγουσιν αὖθις ἐς τὴν πυράν. τρωθῆναι δὲ οὐδένα ὑπὸ τῶν θηρίων μνημονεύουσιν.
9.3.1. Ἥραν ἐφʼ ὅτῳ δὴ πρὸς τὸν Δία ὠργισμένην ἐς Εὔβοιάν φασιν ἀναχωρῆσαι, Δία δέ, ὡς οὐκ ἔπειθεν αὐτήν, παρὰ Κιθαιρῶνα λέγουσιν ἐλθεῖν δυναστεύοντα ἐν Πλαταιαῖς τότε· εἶναι γὰρ τὸν Κιθαιρῶνα οὐδενὸς σοφίαν ὕστερον. οὗτος οὖν κελεύει τὸν Δία ἄγαλμα ξύλου ποιησάμενον ἄγειν ἐπὶ βοῶν ζεύγους ἐγκεκαλυμμένον, λέγειν δὲ ὡς ἄγοιτο γυναῖκα Πλάταιαν τὴν Ἀσωποῦ.
9.22.1. ἐν Τανάγρᾳ δὲ παρὰ τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Διονύσου Θέμιδός ἐστιν, ὁ δὲ Ἀφροδίτης, καὶ ὁ τρίτος τῶν ναῶν Ἀπόλλωνος, ὁμοῦ δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ Ἄρτεμίς τε καὶ Λητώ. ἐς δὲ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ τὰ ἱερὰ τοῦ τε Κριοφόρου καὶ ὃν Πρόμαχον καλοῦσι, τοῦ μὲν ἐς τὴν ἐπίκλησιν λέγουσιν ὡς ὁ Ἑρμῆς σφισιν ἀποτρέψαι νόσον λοιμώδη περὶ τὸ τεῖχος κριὸν περιενεγκών, καὶ ἐπὶ τούτῳ Κάλαμις ἐποίησεν ἄγαλμα Ἑρμοῦ φέροντα κριὸν ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων· ὃς δʼ ἂν εἶναι τῶν ἐφήβων προκριθῇ τὸ εἶδος κάλλιστος, οὗτος ἐν τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ τῇ ἑορτῇ περίεισιν ἐν κύκλῳ τὸ τεῖχος ἔχων ἄρνα ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων·
9.34.1. πρὶν δὲ ἐς Κορώνειαν ἐξ Ἀλαλκομενῶν ἀφικέσθαι, τῆς Ἰτωνίας Ἀθηνᾶς ἐστι τὸ ἱερόν· καλεῖται δὲ ἀπὸ Ἰτωνίου τοῦ Ἀμφικτύονος, καὶ ἐς τὸν κοινὸν συνίασιν ἐνταῦθα οἱ Βοιωτοὶ σύλλογον. ἐν δὲ τῷ ναῷ χαλκοῦ πεποιημένα Ἀθηνᾶς Ἰτωνίας καὶ Διός ἐστιν ἀγάλματα· τέχνη δὲ Ἀγορακρίτου, μαθητοῦ τε καὶ ἐρωμένου Φειδίου. ἀνέθεσαν δὲ καὶ Χαρίτων ἀγάλματα ἐπʼ ἐμοῦ.
9.39.5. κατὰ δὲ τὸ μαντεῖον τοιάδε γίνεται. ἐπειδὰν ἀνδρὶ ἐς τοῦ Τροφωνίου κατιέναι δόξῃ, πρῶτα μὲν τεταγμένων ἡμερῶν δίαιταν ἐν οἰκήματι ἔχει, τὸ δὲ οἴκημα Δαίμονός τε ἀγαθοῦ καὶ Τύχης ἱερόν ἐστιν ἀγαθῆς· διαιτώμενος δὲ ἐνταῦθα τά τε ἄλλα καθαρεύει καὶ λουτρῶν εἴργεται θερμῶν, τὸ δὲ λουτρὸν ὁ ποταμός ἐστιν ἡ Ἕρκυνα· καί οἱ καὶ κρέα ἄφθονά ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῶν θυσιῶν, θύει γὰρ δὴ ὁ κατιὼν αὐτῷ τε τῷ Τροφωνίῳ καὶ τοῦ Τροφωνίου τοῖς παισί, πρὸς δὲ Ἀπόλλωνί τε καὶ Κρόνῳ καὶ Διὶ ἐπίκλησιν Βασιλεῖ καὶ Ἥρᾳ τε Ἡνιόχῃ καὶ Δήμητρι ἣν ἐπονομάζοντες Εὐρώπην τοῦ Τροφωνίου φασὶν εἶναι τροφόν.
10.4.3. τὸ ἕτερον δὲ οὐκ ἐδυνήθην συμβαλέσθαι πρότερον, ἐφʼ ὅτῳ καλλίχορον τὸν Πανοπέα εἴρηκε, πρὶν ἢ ἐδιδάχθην ὑπὸ τῶν παρʼ Ἀθηναίοις καλουμένων Θυιάδων. αἱ δὲ Θυιάδες γυναῖκες μέν εἰσιν Ἀττικαί, φοιτῶσαι δὲ ἐς τὸν Παρνασσὸν παρὰ ἔτος αὐταί τε καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες Δελφῶν ἄγουσιν ὄργια Διονύσῳ. ταύταις ταῖς Θυιάσι κατὰ τὴν ἐξ Ἀθηνῶν ὁδὸν καὶ ἀλλαχοῦ χοροὺς ἱστάναι καὶ παρὰ τοῖς Πανοπεῦσι καθέστηκε· καὶ ἡ ἐπίκλησις ἡ ἐς τὸν Πανοπέα Ὁμήρου ὑποσημαίνειν τῶν Θυιάδων δοκεῖ τὸν χορόν.
10.7.6. μαρτυρεῖ δέ μοι καὶ τοῦ Ἐχεμβρότου τὸ ἀνάθημα, τρίπους χαλκοῦς ἀνατεθεὶς τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ τῷ ἐν Θήβαις· ἐπίγραμμα δὲ ὁ τρίπους εἶχεν· Ἐχέμβροτος Ἀρκὰς θῆκε τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ νικήσας τόδʼ ἄγαλμʼ Ἀμφικτυόνων ἐν ἀέθλοις, Ἕλλησι δʼ ἀείδων μέλεα καὶ ἐλέγους. κατὰ τοῦτο μὲν τῆς αὐλῳδίας ἐπαύσθη τὸ ἀγώνισμα· προσέθεσαν δὲ καὶ ἵππων δρόμον, ἀνηγορεύθη δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ ἅρματι Κλεισθένης ὁ Σικυῶνος τυραννήσας.
10.32.7. τὸ δὲ ἄντρον τὸ Κωρύκιον μεγέθει τε ὑπερβάλλει τὰ εἰρημένα καὶ ἔστιν ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ὁδεῦσαι διʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἄνευ λαμπτήρων· ὅ τε ὄροφος ἐς αὔταρκες ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐδάφους ἀνέστηκε, καὶ ὕδωρ τὸ μὲν ἀνερχόμενον ἐκ πηγῶν, πλέον δὲ ἔτι ἀπὸ τοῦ ὀρόφου στάζει, ὥστε καὶ δῆλα ἐν τῷ ἐδάφει σταλαγμῶν τὰ ἴχνη διὰ παντός ἐστι τοῦ ἄντρου. ἱερὸν δὲ αὐτὸ οἱ περὶ τὸν Παρνασσὸν Κωρυκίων τε εἶναι Νυμφῶν καὶ Πανὸς μάλιστα ἥγηνται. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Κωρυκίου χαλεπὸν ἤδη καὶ ἀνδρὶ εὐζώνῳ πρὸς τὰ ἄκρα ἀφικέσθαι τοῦ Παρνασσοῦ· τὰ δὲ νεφῶν τέ ἐστιν ἀνωτέρω τὰ ἄκρα καὶ αἱ Θυιάδες ἐπὶ τούτοις τῷ Διονύσῳ καὶ τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι μαίνονται.''. None
1.4.4. So they tried to save Greece in the way described, but the Gauls, now south of the Gates, cared not at all to capture the other towns, but were very eager to sack Delphi and the treasures of the god. They were opposed by the Delphians themselves and the Phocians of the cities around Parnassus ; a force of Aetolians also joined the defenders, for the Aetolians at this time were pre-eminent for their vigorous activity. When the forces engaged, not only were thunderbolts and rocks broken off from Parnassus hurled against the Gauls, but terrible shapes as armed warriors haunted the foreigners. They say that two of them, Hyperochus and Amadocus, came from the Hyperboreans, and that the third was Pyrrhus son of Achilles. Because of this help in battle the Delphians sacrifice to Pyrrhus as to a hero, although formerly they held even his tomb in dishonor, as being that of an enemy.
1.15.3. At the end of the painting are those who fought at Marathon; the Boeotians of Plataea and the Attic contingent are coming to blows with the foreigners. In this place neither side has the better, but the center of the fighting shows the foreigners in flight and pushing one another into the morass, while at the end of the painting are the Phoenician ships, and the Greeks killing the foreigners who are scrambling into them. Here is also a portrait of the hero Marathon, after whom the plain is named, of Theseus represented as coming up from the under-world, of Athena and of Heracles. The Marathonians, according to their own account, were the first to regard Heracles as a god. of the fighters the most conspicuous figures in the painting are Callimachus, who had been elected commander-in-chief by the Athenians, Miltiades, one of the generals, and a hero called Echetlus, of whom I shall make mention later.
1.21.1. In the theater the Athenians have portrait statues of poets, both tragic and comic, but they are mostly of undistinguished persons. With the exception of Meder no poet of comedy represented here won a reputation, but tragedy has two illustrious representatives, Euripides and Sophocles. There is a legend that after the death of Sophocles the Lacedaemonians invaded Attica, and their commander saw in a vision Dionysus, who bade him honor, with all the customary honors of the dead, the new Siren. He interpreted the dream as referring to Sophocles and his poetry, and down to the present day men are wont to liken to a Siren whatever is charming in both poetry and prose.
1.22.8. Right at the very entrance to the Acropolis are a Hermes (called Hermes of the Gateway) and figures of Graces, which tradition says were sculptured by Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus, who the Pythia testified was the wisest of men, a title she refused to Anacharsis, although he desired it and came to Delphi to win it.
1.28.2. In addition to the works I have mentioned, there are two tithes dedicated by the Athenians after wars. There is first a bronze Athena, tithe from the Persians who landed at Marathon. It is the work of Pheidias, but the reliefs upon the shield, including the fight between Centaurs and Lapithae, are said to be from the chisel of Mys fl. 430 B.C., for whom they say Parrhasius the son of Evenor, designed this and the rest of his works. The point of the spear of this Athena and the crest of her helmet are visible to those sailing to Athens, as soon as Sunium is passed. Then there is a bronze chariot, tithe from the Boeotians and the Chalcidians in Euboea c. 507 B.C. . There are two other offerings, a statue of Pericles, the son of Xanthippus, and the best worth seeing of the works of Pheidias, the statue of Athena called Lemnian after those who dedicated it.
1.28.4. On descending, not to the lower city, but to just beneath the Gateway, you see a fountain and near it a sanctuary of Apollo in a cave. It is here that Apollo is believed to have met Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus.... when the Persians had landed in Attica Philippides was sent to carry the tidings to Lacedaemon . On his return he said that the Lacedacmonians had postponed their departure, because it was their custom not to go out to fight before the moon was full. Philippides went on to say that near Mount Parthenius he had been met by Pan, who told him that he was friendly to the Athenians and would come to Marathon to fight for them. This deity, then, has been honored for this announcement.
1.32.4. here is also a separate monument to one man, Miltiades, the son of Cimon, although his end came later, after he had failed to take Paros and for this reason had been brought to trial by the Athenians. At Marathon every night you can hear horses neighing and men fighting. No one who has expressly set himself to behold this vision has ever got any good from it, but the spirits are not wroth with such as in ignorance chance to be spectators. The Marathonians worship both those who died in the fighting, calling them heroes, and secondly Marathon, from whom the parish derives its name, and then Heracles, saying that they were the first among the Greeks to acknowledge him as a god. 1.32.5. They say too that there chanced to be present in the battle a man of rustic appearance and dress. Having slaughtered many of the foreigners with a plough he was seen no more after the engagement. When the Athenians made enquiries at the oracle the god merely ordered them to honor Echetlaeus (He of the Plough-tail) as a hero. A trophy too of white marble has been erected. Although the Athenians assert that they buried the Persians, because in every case the divine law applies that a corpse should be laid under the earth, yet I could find no grave. There was neither mound nor other trace to be seen, as the dead were carried to a trench and thrown in anyhow.
1.36.1. But I will return to my subject. In Salamis is a sanctuary of Artemis, and also a trophy erected in honor of the victory which Themistocles the son of Neocles won for the Greeks. 480 B.C. There is also a sanctuary of Cychreus. When the Athenians were fighting the Persians at sea, a serpent is said to have appeared in the fleet, and the god in an oracle told the Athenians that it was Cychreus the hero.
1.38.2. and the first to dwell on the other side of the Rheiti was Crocon, where at the present day is what is called the palace of Crocon. This Crocon the Athenians say married Saesara, daughter of Celeus. Not all of them say this, but only those who belong to the parish of Scambonidae. I could not find the grave of Crocon, but Eleusinians and Athenians agreed in identifying the tomb of Eumolpus. This Eumolpus they say came from Thrace, being the son of Poseidon and Chione. Chione they say was the daughter of the wind Boreas and of Oreithyia. Homer says nothing about the family of Eumolpus, but in his poems styles him “manly.”
1.38.6. The Eleusinians have a temple of Triptolemus, of Artemis of the Portal, and of Poseidon Father, and a well called Callichorum (Lovely dance), where first the women of the Eleusinians danced and sang in praise of the goddess. They say that the plain called Rharium was the first to be sown and the first to grow crops, and for this reason it is the custom to use sacrificial barley and to make cakes for the sacrifices from its produce. Here there is shown a threshing-floor called that of Triptolemus and an altar.
1.40.2. Not far from this fountain is an ancient sanctuary, and in our day likenesses stand in it of Roman emperors, and a bronze image is there of Artemis surnamed Saviour. There is a story that a detachment of the army of Mardonius, having over run Megaris 479 B.C., wished to return to Mardonius at Thebes, but that by the will of Artemis night came on them as they marched, and missing their way they turned into the hilly region. Trying to find out whether there was a hostile force near they shot some missiles. The rock near groaned when struck, and they shot again with greater eagerness, 1.40.3. until at last they used up all their arrows thinking that they were shooting at the enemy. When the day broke, the Megarians attacked, and being men in armour fighting against men without armour who no longer had even a supply of missiles, they killed the greater number of their opponents. For this reason they had an image made of Artemis Saviour. Here are also images of the gods named the Twelve, said to be the work of Praxiteles. But the image of Artemis herself was made by Strongylion.
2.17.4. The statue of Hera is seated on a throne; it is huge, made of gold and ivory, and is a work of Polycleitus. She is wearing a crown with Graces and Seasons worked upon it, and in one hand she carries a pomegranate and in the other a sceptre. About the pomegranate I must say nothing, for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery. The presence of a cuckoo seated on the sceptre they explain by the story that when Zeus was in love with Hera in her maidenhood he changed himself into this bird, and she caught it to be her pet. This tale and similar legends about the gods I relate without believing them, but I relate them nevertheless.
2.31.5. Not far from Artemis Lycea are altars close to one another. The first of them is to Dionysus, surnamed, in accordance with an oracle, Saotes (Saviour); the second is named the altar of the Themides (Laws), and was dedicated, they say, by Pittheus. They had every reason, it seems to me, for making an altar to Helius Eleutherius (Sun, God of Freedom), seeing that they escaped being enslaved by Xerxes and the Persians.
2.35.5. At any rate, the goddess herself is called Chthonia, and Chthonia is the name of the festival they hold in the summer of every year. The manner of it is this. The procession is headed by the priests of the gods and by all those who hold the annual magistracies; these are followed by both men and women. It is now a custom that some who are still children should honor the goddess in the procession. These are dressed in white, and wear wreaths upon their heads. Their wreaths are woven of the flower called by the natives cosmosandalon, which, from its size and color, seems to me to be an iris; it even has inscribed upon it the same letters of mourning. The letters AI, an exclamation of woe supposed to be inscribed on the flower. 2.35.6. Those who form the procession are followed by men leading from the herd a full-grown cow, fastened with ropes, and still untamed and frisky. Having driven the cow to the temple, some loose her from the ropes that she may rush into the sanctuary, others, who hitherto have been holding the doors open, when they see the cow within the temple, close the doors. 2.35.7. Four old women, left behind inside, are they who dispatch the cow. Whichever gets the chance cuts the throat of the cow with a sickle. Afterwards the doors are opened, and those who are appointed drive up a second cow, and a third after that, and yet a fourth. All are dispatched in the same way by the old women, and the sacrifice has yet another strange feature. On whichever of her sides the first cow falls, all the others must fall on the same. 2.35.8. Such is the manner in which the sacrifice is performed by the Hermionians. Before the temple stand a few statues of the women who have served Demeter as her priestess, and on passing inside you see seats on which the old women wait for the cows to be driven in one by one, and images, of no great age, of Athena and Demeter. But the thing itself that they worship more than all else, I never saw, nor yet has any other man, whether stranger or Hermionian. The old women may keep their knowledge of its nature to themselves.
2.37.2. Both are of stone, but in another temple is a seated wooden image of Dionysus Saotes (Savior), while by the sea is a stone image of Aphrodite. They say that the daughters of Danaus dedicated it, while Danaus himself made the sanctuary of Athena by the Pontinus. The mysteries of the Lernaeans were established, they say, by Philammon. Now the words which accompany the ritual are evidently of no antiquity
2.37.5. I saw also what is called the Spring of Amphiaraus and the Alcyonian Lake, through which the Argives say Dionysus went down to Hell to bring up Semele, adding that the descent here was shown him by Palymnus. There is no limit to the depth of the Alcyonian Lake, and I know of nobody who by any contrivance has been able to reach the bottom of it since not even Nero, who had ropes made several stades long and fastened them together, tying lead to them, and omitting nothing that might help his experiment, was able to discover any limit to its depth.
3.20.3. Crossing from here a river Phellia, and going past Amyclae along a road leading straight towards the sea, you come to the site of Pharis, which was once a city of Laconia . Turning away from the Phellia to the right is the road that leads to Mount Taygetus. On the plain is a precinct of Zeus Messapeus, who is surnamed, they say, after a man who served the god as his priest. Leaving Taygetus from here you come to the site of the city Bryseae . There still remains here a temple of Dionysus with an image in the open. But the image in the temple women only may see, for women by themselves perform in secret the sacrificial rites.
3.22.12. When the inhabitants of these cities were expelled, they were anxious to know where they ought to settle, and an oracle was given them that Artemis would show them where they were to dwell. When therefore they had gone on shore, and a hare appeared to them, they looked upon the hare as their guide on the way. When it dived into a myrtle tree, they built a city on the site of the myrtle, and down to this day they worship that myrtle tree, and name Artemis Saviour.' "
4.1.6. But the mysteries of the Great Goddesses were raised to greater honor many years later than Caucon by Lycus, the son of Pandion, an oak-wood, where he purified the celebrants, being still called Lycus' wood. That there is a wood in this land so called is stated by Rhianus the Cretan:— By rugged Elaeum above Lycus' wood. Rhianus of Bene in Crete . See note on Paus. 4.6.1 ." '4.1.7. That this Lycus was the son of Pandion is made clear by the lines on the statue of Methapus, who made certain improvements in the mysteries. Methapus was an Athenian by birth, an expert in the mysteries and founder of all kinds of rites. It was he who established the mysteries of the Cabiri at Thebes, and dedicated in the hut of the Lycomidae a statue with an inscription that amongst other things helps to confirm my account:—' "
5.16.5. Besides the account already given they tell another story about the Sixteen Women as follows. Damophon, it is said, when tyrant of Pisa did much grievous harm to the Eleans. But when he died, since the people of Pisa refused to participate as a people in their tyrant's sins, and the Eleans too became quite ready to lay aside their grievances, they chose a woman from each of the sixteen cities of Elis still inhabited at that time to settle their differences, this woman to be the oldest, the most noble, and the most esteemed of all the women." '5.16.6. The cities from which they chose the women were Elis, The women from these cities made peace between Pisa and Elis . Later on they were entrusted with the management of the Heraean games, and with the weaving of the robe for Hera. The Sixteen Women also arrange two choral dances, one called that of Physcoa and the other that of Hippodameia. This Physcoa they say came from Elis in the Hollow, and the name of the parish where she lived was Orthia. 5.16.7. She mated they say with Dionysus, and bore him a son called Narcaeus. When he grew up he made war against the neighboring folk, and rose to great power, setting up moreover a sanctuary of Athena surnamed Narcaea. They say too that Narcaeus and Physcoa were the first to pay worship to Dionysus. So various honors are paid to Physcoa, especially that of the choral dance, named after her and managed by the Sixteen Women. The Eleans still adhere to the other ancient customs, even though some of the cities have been destroyed. For they are now divided into eight tribes, and they choose two women from each.
6.26.1. Between the market-place and the Menius is an old theater and a shrine of Dionysus. The image is the work of Praxiteles. of the gods the Eleans worship Dionysus with the greatest reverence, and they assert that the god attends their festival, the Thyia. The place where they hold the festival they name the Thyia is about eight stades from the city. Three pots are brought into the building by the priests and set down empty in the presence of the citizens and of any strangers who may chance to be in the country. The doors of the building are sealed by the priests themselves and by any others who may be so inclined.' "
7.18.9. Most of the images out of Aetolia and from Acaria were brought by Augustus' orders to Nicopolis, but to Patrae he gave, with other spoils from Calydon, the image of Laphria, which even in my time was still worshipped on the acropolis of Patrae . It is said that the goddess was surnamed Laphria after a man of Phocis, because the ancient image of Artemis was set up at Calydon by Laphrius, the son of Castalius, the son of Delphus." '7.18.10. Others say that the wrath of Artemis against Oeneus weighed as time went on more lightly ( elaphroteron) on the Calydonians, and they believe that this was why the goddess received her surname. The image represents her in the guise of a huntress; it is made of ivory and gold, and the artists were Menaechmus and Soldas of Naupactus, who, it is inferred, lived not much later than Canachus of Sicyon and Callon of Aegina . 7.18.11. Every year too the people of Patrae celebrate the festival Laphria in honor of their Artemis, and at it they employ a method of sacrifice peculiar to the place. Round the altar in a circle they set up logs of wood still green, each of them sixteen cubits long. On the altar within the circle is placed the driest of their wood. Just before the time of the festival they construct a smooth ascent to the altar, piling earth upon the altar steps. 7.18.12. The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis, and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a car yoked to deer. It is, however, not till the next day that the sacrifice is offered, and the festival is not only a state function but also quite a popular general holiday. For the people throw alive upon the altar edible birds and every kind of victim as well; there are wild boars, deer and gazelles; some bring wolf-cubs or bear-cubs, others the full-grown beasts. They also place upon the altar fruit of cultivated trees. 7.18.13. Next they set fire to the wood. At this point I have seen some of the beasts, including a bear, forcing their way outside at the first rush of the flames, some of them actually escaping by their strength. But those who threw them in drag them back again to the pyre. It is not remembered that anybody has ever been wounded by the beasts.
9.3.1. Hera, they say, was for some reason or other angry with Zeus, and had retreated to Euboea . Zeus, failing to make her change her mind, visited Cithaeron, at that time despot in Plataea, who surpassed all men for his cleverness. So he ordered Zeus to make an image of wood, and to carry it, wrapped up, in a bullock wagon, and to say that he was celebrating his marriage with Plataea, the daughter of Asopus.
9.22.1. Beside the sanctuary of Dionysus at Tanagra are three temples, one of Themis, another of Aphrodite, and the third of Apollo; with Apollo are joined Artemis and Leto. There are sanctuaries of Hermes Ram-bearer and of Hermes called Champion. They account for the former surname by a story that Hermes averted a pestilence from the city by carrying a ram round the walls; to commemorate this Calamis made an image of Hermes carrying a ram upon his shoulders. Whichever of the youths is judged to be the most handsome goes round the walls at the feast of Hermes, carrying a lamb on his shoulders.
9.34.1. Before reaching Coroneia from Alalcomenae we come to the sanctuary of Itonian Athena. It is named after Itonius the son of Amphictyon, and here the Boeotians gather for their general assembly. In the temple are bronze images of Itonian Athena and Zeus; the artist was Agoracritus, pupil and loved one of Pheidias. In my time they dedicated too images of the Graces.
9.39.5. What happens at the oracle is as follows. When a man has made up his mind to descend to the oracle of Trophonius, he first lodges in a certain building for an appointed number of days, this being sacred to the good Spirit and to good Fortune. While he lodges there, among other regulations for purity he abstains from hot baths, bathing only in the river Hercyna. Meat he has in plenty from the sacrifices, for he who descends sacrifices to Trophonius himself and to the children of Trophonius, to Apollo also and Cronus, to Zeus surnamed King, to Hera Charioteer, and to Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonius.
10.4.3. The former passage, in which Homer speaks of the beautiful dancing-floors of Panopeus, I could not understand until I was taught by the women whom the Athenians call Thyiads. The Thyiads are Attic women, who with the Delphian women go to Parnassus every other year and celebrate orgies in honor of Dionysus. It is the custom for these Thyiads to hold dances at places, including Panopeus, along the road from Athens . The epithet Homer applies to Panopeus is thought to refer to the dance of the Thyiads.
10.7.6. What I say is confirmed by the votive offering of Echembrotus, a bronze tripod dedicated to the Heracles at Thebes . The tripod has as its inscription:— Echembrotus of Arcadia dedicated this pleasant gift to Heracles When he won a victory at the games of the Amphictyons, Singing for the Greeks tunes and lamentations. In this way the competition in singing to the flute was dropped. But they added a chariot-race, and Cleisthenes, the tyrant of Sicyon, was proclaimed victor in the chariot-race.' "
10.32.7. But the Corycian cave exceeds in size those I have mentioned, and it is possible to make one's way through the greater part of it even without lights. The roof stands at a sufficient height from the floor, and water, rising in part from springs but still more dripping from the roof, has made clearly visible the marks of drops on the floor throughout the cave. The dwellers around Parnassus believe it to be sacred to the Corycian nymphs, and especially to Pan. From the Corycian cave it is difficult even for an active walker to reach the heights of Parnassus . The heights are above the clouds, and the Thyiad women rave there in honor of Dionysus and Apollo."'. None
120. Tertullian, Apology, 39.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christians, martyr feasts • Meals, festive • Tertullian, on martyr feasts • martyr feasts, Christian

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 58; Cosgrove (2022) 333

39.18. I shall at once go on, then, to exhibit the peculiarities of the Christian society, that, as I have refuted the evil charged against it, I may point out its positive good. We are a body knit together as such by a common religious profession, by unity of discipline, and by the bond of a common hope. We meet together as an assembly and congregation, that, offering up prayer to God as with united force, we may wrestle with Him in our supplications. This violence God delights in. We pray, too, for the emperors, for their ministers and for all in authority, for the welfare of the world, for the prevalence of peace, for the delay of the final consummation. We assemble to read our sacred writings, if any peculiarity of the times makes either forewarning or reminiscence needful. However it be in that respect, with the sacred words we nourish our faith, we animate our hope, we make our confidence more steadfast; and no less by inculcations of God's precepts we confirm good habits. In the same place also exhortations are made, rebukes and sacred censures are administered. For with a great gravity is the work of judging carried on among us, as befits those who feel assured that they are in the sight of God; and you have the most notable example of judgment to come when any one has sinned so grievously as to require his severance from us in prayer, in the congregation and in all sacred intercourse. The tried men of our elders preside over us, obtaining that honour not by purchase, but by established character. There is no buying and selling of any sort in the things of God. Though we have our treasure chest, it is not made up of purchase-money, as of a religion that has its price. On the monthly day, if he likes, each puts in a small donation; but only if it be his pleasure, and only if he be able: for there is no compulsion; all is voluntary. These gifts are, as it were, piety's deposit fund. For they are not taken thence and spent on feasts, and drinking-bouts, and eating-houses, but to support and bury poor people, to supply the wants of boys and girls destitute of means and parents, and of old persons confined now to the house; such, too, as have suffered shipwreck; and if there happen to be any in the mines, or banished to the islands, or shut up in the prisons, for nothing but their fidelity to the cause of God's Church, they become the nurslings of their confession. But it is mainly the deeds of a love so noble that lead many to put a brand upon us. See, they say, how they love one another, for themselves are animated by mutual hatred; how they are ready even to die for one another, for they themselves will sooner put to death. And they are angry with us, too, because we call each other brethren; for no other reason, as I think, than because among themselves names of consanguinity are assumed in mere pretence of affection. But we are your brethren as well, by the law of our common mother nature, though you are hardly men, because brothers so unkind. At the same time, how much more fittingly they are called and counted brothers who have been led to the knowledge of God as their common Father, who have drunk in one spirit of holiness, who from the same womb of a common ignorance have agonized into the same light of truth! But on this very account, perhaps, we are regarded as having less claim to be held true brothers, that no tragedy makes a noise about our brotherhood, or that the family possessions, which generally destroy brotherhood among you, create fraternal bonds among us. One in mind and soul, we do not hesitate to share our earthly goods with one another. All things are common among us but our wives. We give up our community where it is practised alone by others, who not only take possession of the wives of their friends, but most tolerantly also accommodate their friends with theirs, following the example, I believe, of those wise men of ancient times, the Greek Socrates and the Roman Cato, who shared with their friends the wives whom they had married, it seems for the sake of progeny both to themselves and to others; whether in this acting against their partners' wishes, I am not able to say. Why should they have any care over their chastity, when their husbands so readily bestowed it away? O noble example of Attic wisdom, of Roman gravity - the philosopher and the censor playing pimps! What wonder if that great love of Christians towards one another is desecrated by you! For you abuse also our humble feasts, on the ground that they are extravagant as well as infamously wicked. To us, it seems, applies the saying of Diogenes: The people of Megara feast as though they were going to die on the morrow; they build as though they were never to die! But one sees more readily the mote in another's eye than the beam in his own. Why, the very air is soured with the eructations of so many tribes, and curi, and decuri . The Salii cannot have their feast without going into debt; you must get the accountants to tell you what the tenths of Hercules and the sacrificial banquets cost; the choicest cook is appointed for the Apaturia, the Dionysia, the Attic mysteries; the smoke from the banquet of Serapis will call out the firemen. Yet about the modest supper-room of the Christians alone a great ado is made. Our feast explains itself by its name. The Greeks call it agapè, i.e., affection. Whatever it costs, our outlay in the name of piety is gain, since with the good things of the feast we benefit the needy; not as it is with you, do parasites aspire to the glory of satisfying their licentious propensities, selling themselves for a belly-feast to all disgraceful treatment - but as it is with God himself, a peculiar respect is shown to the lowly. If the object of our feast be good, in the light of that consider its further regulations. As it is an act of religious service, it permits no vileness or immodesty. The participants, before reclining, taste first of prayer to God. As much is eaten as satisfies the cravings of hunger; as much is drunk as befits the chaste. They say it is enough, as those who remember that even during the night they have to worship God; they talk as those who know that the Lord is one of their auditors. After manual ablution, and the bringing in of lights, each is asked to stand forth and sing, as he can, a hymn to God, either one from the holy Scriptures or one of his own composing - a proof of the measure of our drinking. As the feast commenced with prayer, so with prayer it is closed. We go from it, not like troops of mischief-doers, nor bands of vagabonds, nor to break out into licentious acts, but to have as much care of our modesty and chastity as if we had been at a school of virtue rather than a banquet. Give the congregation of the Christians its due, and hold it unlawful, if it is like assemblies of the illicit sort: by all means let it be condemned, if any complaint can be validly laid against it, such as lies against secret factions. But who has ever suffered harm from our assemblies? We are in our congregations just what we are when separated from each other; we are as a community what we are individuals; we injure nobody, we trouble nobody. When the upright, when the virtuous meet together, when the pious, when the pure assemble in congregation, you ought not to call that a faction, but a curia- i.e., the court of God. "". None
121. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival, festivity, festive • pantomimes, excluded from Greek festivals • trieteric festivals

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 111; Csapo (2022) 112

122. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival, festivity, festive • festivals, funding of • festivals, in Aegina • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 103, 114; Gygax (2016) 81; Papazarkadas (2011) 80

123. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Leviathan, Feast of • feast of the righteous

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003) 123, 203, 219, 316, 317; Waldner et al (2016) 170

74b. בר אמוראי לאתויה ורגש ובעי לשמטיה לאטמיה ושדא זיקא דחלא ונחת נפק בת קלא אמר לן מאי אית לכו בהדי קרטליתא דדביתהו דר"ח בן דוסא דעתידה דשדיא תכלתא בה לצדיקי לעלמא דאתי,רב יהודה הינדוא משתעי זימנא חדא הוה אזלינן בספינתא וחזינן ההוא אבן טבא דהוה הדיר לה תנינא נחית בר אמוראי לאתויה אתא תנינא קא בעי למבלע לה לספינתא אתא פישקנצא פסקיה לרישיה אתהפיכו מיא והוו דמא אתא תנינא חבריה שקליה ותליה ליה וחיה הדר אתא קא בעי בלעא לספינתא הדר אתא ציפרא פסקיה לרישיה שקלוה לההיא אבן טבא שדיוה לספינתא הוה הני ציפרי מליחי בהדן אותבינהו עלייהו שקלוה ופרחו להו בהדה,תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע שהיו באין בספינה והיה ר"א ישן ור\' יהושע נעור נזדעזע ר\' יהושע וננער ר"א אמר לו מה זה יהושע מפני מה נזדעזעת אמר לו מאור גדול ראיתי בים אמר לו שמא עיניו של לויתן ראית דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עיניו כעפעפי שחר,אמר רב אשי אמר לי הונא בר נתן זימנא חדא הוה קא אזלינן במדברא והואי אטמא דבשרא בהדן פתחנא ונקרינא ואנחנא אעשבי אדמייתינן ציבי חלם אטמא וטוינן כי הדרן לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא חזינהו להנהו גומרי דהוו קא מלחשי כי אתאי לקמיה דאמימר אמר לי ההוא עישבא סמתרי הוה הנהו גומרי דריתמא הוו,(בראשית א, כא) ויברא אלהים את התנינים הגדולים הכא תרגימו ארזילי דימא ר\' יוחנן אמר זה לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) ביום ההוא יפקוד ה\' בחרבו הקשה וגו\':,(סימן כל שעה ירדן): אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שברא הקב"ה בעולמו זכר ונקבה בראם אף לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס את הזכר והרג הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) והרג את התנין אשר בים,ואף בהמות בהררי אלף זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס הזכר וצינן הנקבה ושמרה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (איוב מ, טז) הנה נא כחו במתניו זה זכר ואונו בשרירי בטנו זו נקבה,התם נמי ליסרסיה לזכר וליצננה לנקבה דגים פריצי וליעביד איפכא איבעית אימא נקבה מליחא מעלי איבעית אימא כיון דכתיב (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו בהדי נקבה לאו אורח ארעא הכא נמי לימלחה לנקבה כוורא מליחא מעלי בשרא מליחא לא מעלי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שביקש הקב"ה לבראות את העולם אמר לו לשר של ים פתח פיך ובלע כל מימות שבעולם אמר לפניו רבש"ע די שאעמוד בשלי מיד בעט בו והרגו שנאמר (איוב כו, יב) בכחו רגע הים ובתבונתו מחץ רהב,אמר ר\' יצחק ש"מ שרו של ים רהב שמו ואלמלא מים מכסין אותו אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (ישעיהו יא, ט) לא ירעו ולא ישחיתו בכל הר קדשי וגו\' כמים לים מכסים אל תקרי לים מכסים אלא לשרה של ים מכסים,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס תניא נמי הכי ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס ומהלך בימה של סיבכי ובימה של טבריא ומתגלגל ויורד לים הגדול ומתגלגל ויורד עד שמגיע לפיו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כג) יבטח כי יגיח ירדן אל פיהו מתקיף לה רבא בר עולא האי בבהמות בהררי אלף כתיב אלא אמר רבא בר עולא אימתי בהמות בהררי אלף בטוחות בזמן שמגיח ירדן בפיו של לויתן,(סימן ימים גבריאל רעב) כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים כד, ב) כי הוא על ימים יסדה ועל נהרות יכוננה אלו שבעה ימים וארבעה נהרות שמקיפין את ארץ ישראל ואלו הן שבעה ימים ימה של טבריא וימה של סדום וימה של חילת וימה של חילתא וימה של סיבכי וים אספמיא וים הגדול ואלו הן ארבעה נהרות ירדן וירמוך וקירומיון ופיגה,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יונתן עתיד גבריאל לעשות''. None
74b. i.e., a diver bar amoraei went into the water to bring up this chest, and the fish became angry and sought to sever his thigh, but the diver threw upon it a flask of vinegar and they descended and swam away. A Divine Voice emerged and said to us: What right do you have to touch the crate of the wife of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, as she is destined to insert sky-blue wool in it to be used in the ritual fringes of the righteous in the World-to-Come?,Rav Yehuda from India relates: Once we were traveling in a ship and we saw a certain precious stone that was encircled by a snake. A diver descended to bring it up, and the snake came and sought to swallow the ship. A raven came and cut off its head, and the water turned into blood due to the enormousness of the snake. Another snake came, took the precious stone, and hung it on the dead snake, and it recovered. It returned and again sought to swallow the ship, and yet again a bird came and cut off its head, took that precious stone, and threw it onto the ship. We had with us these salted birds; we placed the stone on them, and they took the stone and flew away with it.,§ Apropos the stories of large sea creatures, the Gemara discusses the large sea creatures mentioned in the Bible. The Sages taught: There was an incident involving Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, who were traveling on a ship, and Rabbi Eliezer was sleeping and Rabbi Yehoshua was awake. Rabbi Yehoshua trembled, and Rabbi Eliezer awoke. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: What is this, Yehoshua; for what reason did you tremble? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: I saw a great light in the sea. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Perhaps you saw the eyes of the leviathan, as it is written: “And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning” (Job 41:10).,Rav Ashi said: Huna bar Natan said to me: Once we were traveling in the desert, and we had a thigh of meat with us. We cut open the thigh and tore off the sciatic nerve and the forbidden fat and put it on the grass. By the time that we brought wood, the thigh had repaired itself, and we roasted it. When we returned to that place after twelve months of the year had passed, we saw that those coals were still glowing. When I came before Ameimar, he said to me: That grass was a drug of life samterei, while those coals were of broom.,The verse states: “And God created the great sea monsters” (Genesis 1:21). Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted this as a reference to the sea oryx. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent, as it is stated: “In that day the Lord with His sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent” (Isaiah 27:1).,§ The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the following statements of Rav Yehuda citing Rav: Everything; time; Jordan. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, He created male and female. Even leviathan the slant serpent and leviathan the tortuous serpent He created male and female. And if they would have coupled and produced offspring, they would have destroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and killed the female, and salted the female to preserve it for the banquet for the righteous in the future. As it is stated: “And He will slay the serpent that is in the sea” (Isaiah 27:1).,And He created even the beasts on the thousand hills (see Psalms 50:10) male and female. And they were so enormous that if they would have coupled and produced offspring, they would have destroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and cooled the sexual desire of the female and preserved it for the righteous in the future. As it is stated about the beasts: “Lo now, his strength is in his loins” (Job 40:16); this is referring to the male. The continuation of the verse: “And his force is in the stays of his body”; this is the female, alluding to the idea that they did not use their genitals for the purpose of procreation.,The Gemara asks: There too, with regard to the leviathan, let Him castrate the male and cool the female; why was it necessary to kill the female? The Gemara answers: Fish are unrestrained, and therefore even if the female was cooled, the female would still procreate. The Gemara suggests: And let Him do the opposite, and kill and preserve the male leviathan. The Gemara responds: If you wish, say that the salted female is better; if you wish, say instead that since it is written: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with” (Psalms 104:26), the male must be left alive for sport, because it is not proper conduct to sport with a female. The Gemara asks: Here too, with regard to the beasts, let Him preserve the female in salt, instead of cooling it. The Gemara answers: Salted fish is good, but salted meat is not good.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: At the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create the world, He said to the minister of the sea: Open your mouth and swallow all the waters of the world, so that there will be room for land. The minister of the sea said before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enough that I will stay within my own waters. God immediately struck him and killed him; as it is stated: “He stirs up the sea with His power, and by His understanding He smites through Rahab” (Job 26:12).,Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Conclude from here that the name of the minister of the sea is Rahab, and were it not for waters of the sea that cover him, no creature could withstand his smell, as his corpse emits a terrible stench. As it is stated: “They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea” (Isaiah 11:9). Do not read this phrase as “cover the sea”; rather read it as: Cover the minister of the sea, i.e., the term sea is referring to the minister of the sea, not to the sea itself.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: The Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas. That is also taught in a baraita: The Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas, and travels in the Sea of Sivkhi, i.e., the Hula Lake, and in the Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Galilee, and rolls down to the Great Sea, and rolls down until it reaches the mouth of the leviathan. As it is stated: “He is confident, though the Jordan rush forth to his mouth” (Job 40:23). Rava bar Ulla strongly objects to this explanation of the verse, stating: But this verse is written about the beasts on the thousand hills. Rather, Rava bar Ulla said that this is the meaning of the verse: When are the beasts on the thousand hills confident? When the Jordan rushes forth into the mouth of the leviathan.,§ The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the upcoming statements of Rav Dimi: Seas; Gabriel; hungry. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For He has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods” (Psalms 24:2)? These are the seven seas and four rivers that surround Eretz Yisrael. And these are the seven seas: The Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Sodom, i.e., the Dead Sea, the Sea of Ḥeilat, the Sea of Ḥeilata, the Sea of Sivkhi, the Sea of Aspamya, and the Great Sea, i.e., the Mediterranean. And these are the four rivers: The Jordan, the Jarmuth, and the Keiromyon, and the Piga, which are the rivers of Damascus.,When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Yonatan says: In the future, Gabriel will perform''. None
124. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • feast of the righteous • festivals and fasts

 Found in books: Reif (2006) 168; Waldner et al (2016) 168

17a. בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה ובין התלמידים העוסקים בתורתך בין עוסקין לשמה בין עוסקין שלא לשמה וכל העוסקין שלא לשמה יהי רצון שיהו עוסקין לשמה.,ר\' אלכסנדרי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה\' אלהינו שתעמידנו בקרן אורה ואל תעמידנו בקרן חשכה ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו איכא דאמרי הא רב המנונא מצלי לה ור\' אלכסנדרי בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי וידוע לפניך שרצוננו לעשות רצונך ומי מעכב שאור שבעיסה ושעבוד מלכיות יהי רצון מלפניך שתצילנו מידם ונשוב לעשות חוקי רצונך בלבב שלם.,רבא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי עד שלא נוצרתי איני כדאי ועכשיו שנוצרתי כאלו לא נוצרתי עפר אני בחיי ק"ו במיתתי הרי אני לפניך ככלי מלא בושה וכלימה יהי רצון מלפניך ה\' אלהי שלא אחטא עוד ומה שחטאתי לפניך מרק ברחמיך הרבים אבל לא ע"י יסורין וחלאים רעים והיינו וידוי דרב המנונא זוטי ביומא דכפורי.,מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מסיים צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי נצור לשוני מרע ושפתותי מדבר מרמה ולמקללי נפשי תדום ונפשי כעפר לכל תהיה פתח לבי בתורתך ובמצותיך תרדוף נפשי ותצילני מפגע רע מיצר הרע ומאשה רעה ומכל רעות המתרגשות לבא בעולם וכל החושבים עלי רעה מהרה הפר עצתם וקלקל מחשבותם יהיו לרצון אמרי פי והגיון לבי לפניך ה\' צורי וגואלי.,רב ששת כי הוה יתיב בתעניתא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי לפניך בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אדם חוטא ומקריב קרבן ואין מקריבין ממנו אלא חלבו ודמו ומתכפר לו ועכשיו ישבתי בתענית ונתמעט חלבי ודמי יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא חלבי ודמי שנתמעט כאילו הקרבתיו לפניך על גבי המזבח ותרצני.,ר\' יוחנן כי הוה מסיים ספרא דאיוב אמר הכי סוף אדם למות וסוף בהמה לשחיטה והכל למיתה הם עומדים אשרי מי שגדל בתורה ועמלו בתורה ועושה נחת רוח ליוצרו וגדל בשם טוב ונפטר בשם טוב מן העולם ועליו אמר שלמה (קהלת ז, א) טוב שם משמן טוב ויום המות מיום הולדו.,מרגלא בפומיה דר"מ גמור בכל לבבך ובכל נפשך לדעת את דרכי ולשקוד על דלתי תורתי נצור תורתי בלבך ונגד עיניך תהיה יראתי שמור פיך מכל חטא וטהר וקדש עצמך מכל אשמה ועון ואני אהיה עמך בכל מקום.,מרגלא בפומייהו דרבנן דיבנה אני בריה וחברי בריה אני מלאכתי בעיר והוא מלאכתו בשדה אני משכים למלאכתי והוא משכים למלאכתו כשם שהוא אינו מתגדר במלאכתי כך אני איני מתגדר במלאכתו ושמא תאמר אני מרבה והוא ממעיט שנינו אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין לבו לשמים.,מרגלא בפומיה דאביי לעולם יהא אדם ערום ביראה (משלי טו, א) מענה רך משיב חמה ומרבה שלום עם אחיו ועם קרוביו ועם כל אדם ואפילו עם נכרי בשוק כדי שיהא אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ויהא מקובל על הבריות,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הקדימו אדם שלום מעולם ואפילו נכרי בשוק.,מרגלא בפומיה דרבא תכלית חכמה תשובה ומעשים טובים שלא יהא אדם קורא ושונה ובועט באביו ובאמו וברבו ובמי שהוא גדול ממנו בחכמה ובמנין שנאמר (תהלים קיא, י) ראשית חכמה יראת ה\' שכל טוב לכל עושיהם לעושים לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם לעושים לשמה ולא לעושים שלא לשמה וכל העושה שלא לשמה נוח לו שלא נברא.,מרגלא בפומיה דרב לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הבא אין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה ולא פריה ורביה ולא משא ומתן ולא קנאה ולא שנאה ולא תחרות אלא צדיקים יושבין ועטרותיהם בראשיהם ונהנים מזיו השכינה שנאמר (שמות כד, יא) ויחזו את האלהים ויאכלו וישתו:,גדולה הבטחה שהבטיחן הקב"ה לנשים יותר מן האנשים שנא\' (ישעיהו לב, ט) נשים שאננות קומנה שמענה קולי בנות בוטחות האזנה אמרתי,א"ל רב לר\' חייא נשים במאי זכיין באקרויי בנייהו לבי כנישתא ובאתנויי גברייהו בי רבנן ונטרין לגברייהו עד דאתו מבי רבנן.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי ר\' אמי ואמרי לה מבי ר\' חנינא אמרי ליה הכי עולמך תראה בחייך ואחריתך לחיי העולם הבא ותקותך לדור דורים לבך יהגה תבונה פיך ידבר חכמות ולשונך ירחיש רננות עפעפיך יישירו נגדך עיניך יאירו במאור תורה ופניך יזהירו כזוהר הרקיע שפתותיך יביעו דעת וכליותיך תעלוזנה מישרים ופעמיך ירוצו לשמוע דברי עתיק יומין.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי רב חסדא ואמרי לה מבי ר\' שמואל בר נחמני אמרו ליה הכי (תהלים קמד, יד) אלופינו מסובלים וגו\',אלופינו מסובלים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ור\' אלעזר חד אמר אלופינו בתורה ומסובלים במצות וחד אמר אלופינו בתורה ובמצות ומסובלים ביסורים''. None
17a. in the heavenly entourage pamalia of angels each of whom ministers to a specific nation (see Daniel 10), and whose infighting causes war on earth; rand in the earthly entourage, the Sages, rand among the disciples engaged in the study of Your Torah, rwhether they engage in its study for its own sake or not for its own sake. rAnd all those engaged in Torah study not for its own sake, rmay it be Your will that they will come to engage in its study for its own sake.,After his prayer, Rabbi Alexandri said the following: rMay it be Your will, Lord our God, rthat You station us in a lighted corner and not in a darkened corner, rand do not let our hearts become faint nor our eyes dim. rSome say that this was the prayer that Rav Hamnuna would recite, and that after Rabbi Alexandri prayed, he would say the following: rMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You rthat our will is to perform Your will, and what prevents us? rOn the one hand, the yeast in the dough, the evil inclination that is within every person; rand the subjugation to the kingdoms on the other. rMay it be Your will rthat You will deliver us from their hands, of both the evil inclination and the foreign kingdoms, rso that we may return to perform the edicts of Your will with a perfect heart.,After his prayer, Rava said the following: rMy God, before I was created I was worthless, rand now that I have been created it is as if I had not been created, I am no more significant. rI am dust in life, all the more so in my death. rI am before You as a vessel filled with shame and humiliation. rTherefore, may it be Your will, Lord my God, that I will sin no more, rand that those transgressions that I have committed, rcleanse in Your abundant mercy; rbut may this cleansing not be by means of suffering and serious illness, but rather in a manner I will be able to easily endure. rAnd this is the confession of Rav Hamnuna Zuti on Yom Kippur.,When Mar, son of Ravina, would conclude his prayer, he said the following: rMy God, guard my tongue from evil and my lips from speaking deceit. rTo those who curse me let my soul be silent rand may my soul be like dust to all. rOpen my heart to Your Torah, rand may my soul pursue your mitzvot. rAnd save me from a bad mishap, from the evil inclination, rfrom a bad woman, and from all evils that suddenly come upon the world. rAnd all who plan evil against me, rswiftly thwart their counsel, and frustrate their plans. rMay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart find favor before You, rLord, my Rock and my Redeemer.,The Gemara recounts that when Rav Sheshet would sit in observance of a fast, after he prayed he said as follows: rMaster of the Universe, it is revealed before You rthat when the Temple is standing, one sins and offers a sacrifice. rAnd although only its fat and blood were offered from that sacrifice on the altar, his transgression is atoned for him. rAnd now, I sat in observance of a fast and my fat and blood diminished. rMay it be Your will that my fat and blood that diminished be considered as if I offered a sacrifice before You on the altar, rand may I find favor in Your eyes.rHaving cited statements that various Sages would recite after their prayers, the Gemara cites additional passages recited by the Sages on different occasions.,When Rabbi Yoḥa would conclude study of the book of Job, he said the following: rA person will ultimately die and an animal will ultimately be slaughtered, and all are destined for death. Therefore, death itself is not a cause for great anguish. rRather, happy is he who grew up in Torah, whose labor is in Torah, rwho gives pleasure to his Creator, rwho grew up with a good name and who took leave of the world with a good name. rSuch a person lived his life fully, and about him, Solomon said: r“A good name is better than fine oil, and the day of death than the day of one’s birth” (Ecclesiastes 7:1); one who was faultless in life reaches the day of his death on a higher level than he was at the outset.,Rabbi Meir was wont to say the following idiom: rStudy with all your heart and with all your soul to know My ways rand to be diligent at the doors of My Torah. rKeep My Torah in your heart, rand fear of Me should be before your eyes. rGuard your mouth from all transgression, rand purify and sanctify yourself from all fault and iniquity. rAnd if you do so, I, God, will be with you everywhere.,The Sages in Yavne were wont to say: rI who learn Torah am God’s creature and my counterpart who engages in other labor is God’s creature. rMy work is in the city and his work is in the field. rI rise early for my work and he rises early for his work. rAnd just as he does not presume to perform my work, so I do not presume to perform his work. rLest you say: I engage in Torah study a lot, while he only engages in Torah study a little, so I am better than he, rit has already been taught: rOne who brings a substantial sacrifice and one who brings a meager sacrifice have equal merit, ras long as he directs his heart towards Heaven (Rav Hai Gaon, Arukh).,Abaye was wont to say: rOne must always be shrewd and utilize every strategy in order to achieve fear of Heaven and performance of mitzvot. rOne must fulfill the verse: “A soft answer turns away wrath” (Proverbs 15:1) rand take steps to increase peace with one’s brethren and with one’s relatives, rand with all people, even with a non-Jew in the marketplace, despite the fact that he is of no importance to him and does not know him at all (Me’iri), rso that he will be loved above in God’s eyes, rpleasant below in the eyes of the people, rand acceptable to all of God’s creatures.,Tangentially, the Gemara mentions that they said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai that no one ever preceded him in issuing a greeting, not even a non-Jew in the marketplace, as Rabban Yoḥa would always greet him first.,Rava was wont to say: rThe objective of Torah wisdom is to achieve repentance and good deeds; rthat one should not read the Torah and study mishna and become arrogant rand spurn his father and his mother and his teacher rand one who is greater than he in wisdom or in the number of students who study before him, ras it is stated: “The beginning of wisdom is fear of the Lord, a good understanding have all who fulfill them” (Psalms 111:10). rIt is not stated simply: All who fulfill, but rather: All who fulfill them, those who perform these actions as they ought to be performed, meaning those who do such deeds for their own sake, for the sake of the deeds themselves, not those who do them not for their own sake. rRava continued: One who does them not for their own sake, it would have been preferable for him had he not been created.,Rav was wont to say: rThe World-to-Come is not like this world. rIn the World-to-Come there is no eating, no drinking, rno procreation, no business negotiations, rno jealousy, no hatred, and no competition. rRather, the righteous sit with their crowns upon their heads, enjoying the splendor of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: r“And they beheld God, and they ate and drank” (Exodus 24:11), meaning that beholding God’s countece is tantamount to eating and drinking.,The Gemara states: Greater is the promise for the future made by the Holy One, Blessed be He, to women than to men, as it is stated: “Rise up, women at ease; hear My voice, confident daughters, listen to what I say” (Isaiah 32:9). This promise of ease and confidence is not given to men.,Rav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: By what virtue do women merit to receive this reward? Rabbi Ḥiyya answered: They merit this reward for bringing their children to read the Torah in the synagogue, and for sending their husbands to study mishna in the study hall, and for waiting for their husbands until they return from the study hall.,When the Sages who had been studying there took leave of the study hall of Rabbi Ami, and some say it was the study hall of Rabbi Ḥanina, they would say to him the following blessing: rMay you see your world, may you benefit from all of the good in the world, in your lifetime, rand may your end be to life in the World-to-Come, rand may your hope be sustained for many generations. rMay your heart meditate understanding, ryour mouth speak wisdom, and your tongue whisper with praise. rMay your eyelids look directly before you, ryour eyes shine in the light of Torah, rand your face radiate like the brightness of the firmament. rMay your lips express knowledge, ryour kidneys rejoice in the upright, rand your feet run to hear the words of the Ancient of Days, God (see Daniel 7).,When the Sages took leave of the study hall of Rav Ḥisda, and some say it was the study hall of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, they would say to him the following, in accordance with the verse: “Our leaders are laden, there is no breach and no going forth and no outcry in our open places” (Psalms 144:14).,Our leaders are laden. Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, disputed the proper understanding of this verse. One said: Our leaders in Torah are laden with mitzvot. And one said: Our leaders in Torah and mitzvot are laden with suffering.''. None
125. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals and fasts • festivals, and Tamid Service

 Found in books: Reif (2006) 266; Trudinger (2004) 22

47a. לברוכי למ"ד שביעי לסוכה ברוכי נמי מברכינן למ"ד שמיני לזה ולזה ברוכי לא מברכינן אמר רב יוסף נקוט דר\' יוחנן בידך דרב הונא בר ביזנא וכל גדולי הדור איקלעו בסוכה בשמיני ספק שביעי מיתב הוו יתבי ברוכי לא בריכי,ודלמא סבירא להו כמ"ד כיון שבירך יו"ט ראשון שוב אינו מברך גמירי דמאפר אתו,איכא דאמרי ברוכי כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מברכינן כי פליגי למיתב למ"ד שבעה לסוכה מיתב יתבינן ולמ"ד שמיני לזה ולזה מיתב נמי לא יתבינן אמר רב יוסף נקוט דר\' יוחנן בידך דמרא דשמעת\' מני רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת ובשמיני ספק שביעי לבר מסוכה יתיב והלכתא מיתב יתבינן ברוכי לא מברכינן,אמר ר\' יוחנן אומרים זמן בשמיני של חג ואין אומרים זמן בשביעי של פסח,וא"ר לוי בר חמא ואיתימא ר\' חמא בר חנינא תדע שהרי חלוק בג\' דברים בסוכה ולולב וניסוך המים ולרבי יהודה דאמר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה הרי חלוק בב\' דברים,אי הכי שביעי של פסח נמי הרי חלוק באכילת מצה דאמר מר לילה ראשונה חובה מכאן ואילך רשות הכי השתא התם מלילה חלוק מיום אינו חלוק הכא אפילו מיום נמי חלוק,רבינא אמר זה חלוק משלפניו וזה חלוק משלפני פניו,(אמר רב פפא) הכא כתיב פר התם כתיב פרים,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר הכא כתיב ביום התם כתיב וביום,רב אשי אמר הכא כתיב (במדבר כט, ו) כמשפט התם כתיב כמשפטם,לימא מסייע ליה הפרים האילים והכבשים מעכבין זה את זה ורבי יהודה אומר פרים אין מעכבין זה את זה שהרי מתמעטין והולכין,אמרו לו והלא כולן מתמעטין והולכין בשמיני אמר להן שמיני רגל בפני עצמו הוא שכשם ששבעת ימי החג טעונין קרבן ושיר וברכה ולינה אף שמיני טעון קרבן ושיר וברכה ולינה''. None
47a. with regard to whether or not to recite the blessing over residing in the sukka. According to the one who says that the status of the eighth day is like that of the seventh day with regard to the mitzva of sukka, we also recite the blessing: To reside in the sukka. However, according to the one who says that its status is like that of the eighth day both with regard to this and to that, we do not recite the blessing. Rav Yosef said: Take the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa that on the eighth day outside Eretz Yisrael one does not recite the blessing: To reside in the sukka, in your hand, i.e., adopt it as your practice. As Rav Huna bar Bizna and all the prominent scholars of the generation happened to visit a sukka on the eighth day, with regard to which there was uncertainty that it might be the seventh day, and they were sitting in the sukka, but they did not recite the blessing.,The Gemara suggests: And perhaps the reason they did not recite a blessing is that they hold in accordance with the opinion of the one who said: Once he recited the blessing on the first Festival day he does not recite it again on the subsequent days, and not because it was the eighth day. The Gemara answers: That is not the reason that they did not recite the blessing, as the Sages learned through tradition that these Sages were coming from the fields, where they had been herding their flocks, and that was the first time during the Festival that they sat in a sukka.,Some say a different version of the dispute: Everyone agrees that we do not recite the blessing; when they disagree it is with regard to whether to reside in the sukka. According to the one who says that the status of the eighth day is like that of the seventh day with regard to the mitzva of sukka, we reside in the sukka. However, according to the one who says that its status is like that of the eighth day both with regard to this and to that, neither do we reside in the sukka. Rav Yosef said: Take the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa in your hand, as who is the Master responsible for dissemination of the halakha? It is Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, and on the eighth day, with regard to which there is uncertainty that it might be the seventh day, he himself resides outside of the sukka. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is that we reside in the sukka on the eighth day, with regard to which there is uncertainty that it might be the seventh day, but we do not recite the blessing.Rabbi Yoḥa said that one recites the blessing: Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time, on the eighth day of the Festival, as the eighth day is a Festival distinct from Sukkot, and one does not recite the blessing of time on the seventh day of Passover because it is not a Festival distinct from Passover.,And Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama said, and some say it was Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina who said: Know that the eighth day of Sukkot is a Festival in and of itself and therefore requires its own blessing, as it is distinct from the seven days of Sukkot with regard to three matters: With regard to sukka, as one is not obligated to sit in the sukka on the eighth day; and with regard to lulav, as one is not obligated to take the four species on the eighth day; and with regard to the water libation, as one does not pour the water libation on the altar on the eighth day. The Gemara notes: And according to Rabbi Yehuda, who said: With a vessel measuring one log the priest pours the water libation all eight days, including the eighth day, the eighth day is nevertheless distinct from the rest of the Festival with regard to the other two matters.,The Gemara asks: If so, the seventh day of Passover should be considered distinct as well, as it is distinct from the first day in terms of the obligation of eating matza, as the Master said: On the first night of Passover, it is an obligation to eat matza. From that point onward, it is optional; if one chooses, he eats matza, and if he chooses not to eat matza, he need not, provided that he does not eat leavened foods. The Gemara retorts: How can these cases be compared? There, in the case of Passover, the halakha of the seventh day is distinct from the first night; however, it is not distinct from the first day, as on the first day there is no obligation to eat matza. Here, in the case of Sukkot, the eighth day of the Festival is distinct even from the first day.,Ravina said a different reason for the distinction between the two Festivals: This, the eighth day of Sukkot, is distinct in terms of its halakhot, even from the day just before it, the seventh day. However, that, the seventh day of Passover, is distinct in terms of its halakhot, only from a day previous to the day before, i.e., the first day alone. There is no distinction between the sixth and seventh days.,Rav Pappa said another reason why the eighth day of Sukkot is considered a distinct Festival. Here, with regard to the additional offering sacrificed on the Eighth Day of Assembly, it is written: “And you shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord: One bull” (Numbers 29:36). There, with regard to the additional offering sacrificed on the first day of Sukkot, it is written: “And you shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord: Thirteen bulls” (Numbers 29:13), and on each subsequent day one bull fewer is sacrificed: Twelve on the second day, eleven on the third day, and so on, until seven are sacrificed on the seventh day. Were the eighth day part of the festival of Sukkot, the additional offering on that day should have included six bulls. The fact that it includes only one bull indicates that it is a distinct Festival.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Here, it is written: “On the eighth day you shall have a solemn assembly; you shall do no manner of servile labor” (Numbers 29:35). This indicates that this day is distinct from the others, as there, with regard to the other days of Sukkot, it is written: And on the day, indicating that each of the days from the second through the seventh are all continuations of the first day.,Rav Ashi said: Here, with regard to the eighth day, it is written: “Their meal-offering and their libations, for the bull, for the ram, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, as per the regulation” (Numbers 29:37). However, there, with regard to the seventh day, it is written: “And their meal-offering and their libations, for the bulls, and for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, as per their regulation” (Numbers 29:33). The Gemara understands the use of the plural pronoun: Their, to indicate that the offerings sacrificed on all seven days are related.,The Gemara asks: Let us say that the following supports the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa that one recites the blessing of time on the eighth day. Failure to bring either the bulls, or the rams, or the sheep on the Festival prevents fulfillment of one’s obligation with the other animals, as they are considered one offering. Rabbi Yehuda says: Failure to bring the bulls does not prevent fulfillment of one’s obligation with the other animals, since they decrease progressively each day. The Torah displays flexibility with regard to the bulls. Therefore, apparently, even if they are not brought at all one fulfills his obligation with the others.,The Sages said to Rabbi Yehuda: But don’t the numbers of all the animals eventually decrease on the eighth day, as on the other days two rams and fourteen sheep are sacrificed and on the eighth day it is one ram and seven sheep? Rabbi Yehuda said to them: The Eighth Day of Assembly is a Festival in and of itself. As just as the seven days of the festival of Sukkot require an offering, and a song sung by the Levites, and a blessing unique to the festival of Sukkot, and there is a mitzva of staying overnight in Jerusalem after the first Festival day, so too, the eighth day requires an offering, and a song sung by the Levites, and a blessing unique to the Eighth Day of Assembly, and there is a mitzva of staying overnight in Jerusalem at its conclusion.''. None
126. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 5.26 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • judges, of the Dionysian festival • public feasts, and the laws of Charondas

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 28; Jouanna (2018) 653

5.26. Prognostics of Storms, one book.Concerning Astronomy, one book.Concerning Optics, one book.On Motion, one book.On Music, one book.Concerning Memory, one book.Six books of Homeric Problems.Poetics, one book.Thirty-eight books of Physics according to the lettering.Two books of Problems which have been examined.Two books of Routine Instruction.Mechanics, one book.Problems taken from the works of Democritus, two books.On the Magnet, one book.Analogies, one book.Miscellaneous Notes, twelve books.Descriptions of Genera, fourteen books.Claims advanced, one book.Victors at Olympia, one book.Victors at the Pythian Games, one book.On Music, one book.Concerning Delphi, one book.Criticism of the List of Pythian Victors, one book.Dramatic Victories at the Dionysia, one book.of Tragedies, one book.Dramatic Records, one book.Proverbs, one book.Laws of the Mess-table, one book.Four books of Laws.Categories, one book.De Interpretatione, one book.''. None
127. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • festival, • festivals, promoted by tyrants

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 679; Gygax (2016) 102

128. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals • Festivals, Private • Hanukkah, Holiday of, Festival of Lights • Rome, festivals • festivals, Roman • paganism, Roman festivals

 Found in books: Binder (2012) 124, 172, 183, 222, 223; Hayes (2022) 599; Schwartz (2008) 151

8a. רבי יהושע סבר ילפינן ממשה ור"א סבר לא ילפינן ממשה שאני משה דרב גובריה וחכ"א לא כדברי זה ולא כדברי זה אלא שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אבל אם בא לומר בסוף כל ברכה וברכה מעין כל ברכה וברכה אומר,א"ר חייא בר אשי אמר רב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אם יש לו חולה בתוך ביתו אומר בברכת חולים ואם צריך לפרנסה אומר בברכת השנים,אמר ר\' יהושע בן לוי אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אבל אם בא לומר אחר תפלתו אפילו כסדר יוה"כ אומר:,
8a. Rabbi Yehoshua holds that we derive from the case of Moses that one should first praise God in prayer and only afterward issue personal requests. And Rabbi Eliezer holds that we do not derive from Moses how to act, since Moses is different, as his might is great, i.e., he knew how to pray to God in this order. And the Rabbis say: The halakha is not in accordance with the statement of this Sage, who says that one should issue personal requests before praying, nor is it in accordance with the statement of that Sage, who says that personal requests should follow prayer. Rather, a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer. Therefore, when Naḥum the Mede stated that this is the halakha, he was merely concurring with the opinion of the Rabbis.,With regard to the halakhic ruling, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The halakha is that a person requests his own needs during the Amida prayer in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, says in the name of Rav: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer, that is not the only option. Rather, if he wishes to recite at the conclusion of each and every blessing personal requests that reflect the nature of each and every blessing, he may recite them.,Similarly, Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says that Rav says: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer, if he has a sick person in his house he recites a special prayer for him during the blessing of the sick. And if he is in need of sustece, he recites a request during the blessing of the years.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer; but if one wishes to recite prayers and supplications after finishing his Amida prayer, even if his personal requests are as long as the order of the confession of Yom Kippur, he may recite them.,And these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the birthday of the king, and the anniversary of the day of the death of the king. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Every death that includes public burning is a festival that includes idol worship, and any death that does not include public burning is not a festival that includes idol worship. But in the case of the day of shaving his, i.e., a gentile’s, beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, and also in the case of a gentile who prepared a wedding feast for his son and celebrates on that day, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day and with that man.,Rav Ḥa bar Rava says: When are these festivals celebrated? Kalenda is celebrated during the eight days after the winter solstice, and Saturnalia is celebrated during the eight days before the winter solstice. And your mnemonic to remember which festival is that the one that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first in the mishna, and the festival that takes place before the solstice is mentioned after, as in the verse: “You have hemmed me in behind and before, and laid Your Hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5), where the word “before” appears after the term “behind.”,With regard to the dates of these festivals, the Sages taught: When Adam the first man saw that the day was progressively diminishing, as the days become shorter from the autumnal equinox until the winter solstice, he did not yet know that this is a normal phenomenon, and therefore he said: Woe is me; perhaps because I sinned the world is becoming dark around me and will ultimately return to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven, as it is written: “And to dust shall you return” (Genesis 3:19). He arose and spent eight days in fasting and in prayer.,Once he saw that the season of Tevet, i.e., the winter solstice, had arrived, and saw that the day was progressively lengthening after the solstice, he said: Clearly, the days become shorter and then longer, and this is the order of the world. He went and observed a festival for eight days. Upon the next year, he observed both these eight days on which he had fasted on the previous year, and these eight days of his celebration, as days of festivities. He, Adam, established these festivals for the sake of Heaven, but they, the gentiles of later generations, established them for the sake of idol worship.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: Granted, according to the one who says that the world was created in the month of Tishrei, one can understand why Adam believed that the days were becoming shorter as part of his punishment, as he saw the short days of the winter and had not yet seen the long days of summer. But according to the one who says that the world was created in the month of Nisan, he had already seen the difference between the short days and the long days, as the days in the month of Nisan become progressively longer with the passage of time. The Gemara answers: Although Adam had experienced short days, he had not seen days that were this short, as in the days before the winter solstice.,The Sages taught: On the day that Adam the first man was created, when the sun set upon him he said: Woe is me, as because I sinned, the world is becoming dark around me, and the world will return to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven. He spent all night fasting and crying, and Eve was crying opposite him. Once dawn broke, he said: Evidently, the sun sets and night arrives, and this is the order of the world. He arose and sacrificed a bull whose horns preceded its hoofs in the order that they were created, as it is stated: “And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns and hoofs” (Psalms 69:32). This verse is referring to the one particular bull whose horns preceded its hoofs.,And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The bull that Adam the first man sacrificed had one horn in its forehead, as it is stated: “And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns makrin and hooves.” The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn’t makrin plural, which indicates two horns? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Mikkeren is written, i.e., the letter yod is missing from the word, indicating that there was only one horn.,§ Rav Mattana says: Since Rome established the festival of Kalenda on a specific date, and all of the nearby towns are ruled by Rome, i.e., they pay their tax to Rome and provide its needs but do not themselves celebrate the festival, is it prohibited or permitted to engage in business transactions with the gentile residents of those towns? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is prohibited to engage in business during the time of the Kalenda with everyone. Rabbi Yoḥa says: It is prohibited to engage in business only with its worshippers, whereas it is permitted to engage in business transactions with gentiles who do not celebrate the festival.,The Sage taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa: Although they said that Rome has established the festival of Kalenda and all of the nearby towns are ruled by Rome, it is prohibited to engage in business only with its worshippers.,The baraita continues: With regard to the festivals Saturnalia and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the day on which the king was crowned, the halakha is that before the festival it is prohibited to engage in business transactions, whereas after the festival it is permitted. But in the case of a gentile who prepared a feast for his son and celebrates on that day, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day itself and with that man.,Rav Ashi said: We learn in the mishna as well in accordance with Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement that the prohibition applies only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to people who are ruled by them. As the mishna teaches: With regard to the day of shaving his beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day and with that man.,Rav Ashi explains the proof: Granted, the mishna specifies that the prohibition is limited to that day alone, in order to exclude the days before and after it. But when it states that the prohibition applies only to that man, what does the mishna exclude? Obviously the prohibition does not extend to all gentiles, as it is a personal festival. Doesn’t the mishna’s ruling serve to exclude those who are ruled by him? Therefore, conclude from the language of the mishna that a prohibition extends only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to those who are ruled by them.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael says: Jews who are outside of Eretz Yisrael are considered to engage in idol worship in purity, i.e., unwittingly. How does this occur? In the case of a gentile who prepared a feast for the marriage of his son, and invited all of the Jews in his town, even though they eat of their own kosher food and drink of their own kosher beverages, and their own attendant stands before them, the verse ascribes guilt to them as though they ate of the offerings to the dead, i.e., idols, as it is stated: “And sacrifice to their gods, and they call you, and you eat of their sacrifice” (Exodus 34:15). Since Jews participate in a feast in which the gentile sacrifices offerings to his idol, it is as though they partook of the offering themselves.,The Gemara asks: But why not say that the verse is criticizing the Jews only once they eat from the sacrifice? Rava said: If that is what is meant, let the verse say only: And you eat of their sacrifice. What is meant by the additional phrase: “And they call you”? This indicates that the prohibition occurs from the time of the call. Therefore,'8b. during all the thirty days that follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, whether he said to the Jew that the feast is due to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is prohibited to attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. From this point forward, if he said to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is prohibited to participate, but if he did not say to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is permitted to do so.,The Gemara asks: And in a case where he said to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, until when is the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? Rav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the year have passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: And initially, before the wedding, from when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: From the time when they cast barley into the mortars ba’asintei to prepare beer for the wedding.,The Gemara asks: And after the twelve months of the year have passed since the wedding, is it always permitted to participate in a feast? But Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happened to come to the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the year had passed since his son’s wedding, and he heard the gentile giving thanks to his idol for the marriage of his son, and he withdrew from the feast and did not eat there. The Gemara answers: Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important person and therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.,§ The mishna teaches: And Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: What is the festival of Kratesis? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It commemorates the day when Rome seized control of an empire. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: Two festivals are Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire? This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. Rav Yosef said: On two separate occasions Rome seized control of an empire. One occurred in the days of Queen Cleopatra, when they conquered Egypt, and one happened much earlier, when Rome seized control in the days of the Greeks.,The Gemara elaborates: As when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael he said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable to defeat them, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish people and finally vanquished the Greeks. And this is the condition that they stipulated with the Jewish people: If the kings come from among us, the governors hiparkhei will come from among you; and if the kings come from among you, the governors will come from among us.,And the Romans sent the following message to the Greeks: Until now, we attempted to resolve our conflict through fighting battles; now, let us settle the matter by means of judgment. In the case of a pearl and a precious stone, which one of them should serve as a base for the other? The Greeks sent them in response: The pearl should serve as the base for the precious stone, which has a greater value.,The Romans further inquired: If there was a precious stone and an onyx innakh, a particularly valuable precious stone, which one of them should serve as a base for the other? The Greeks answered: The precious stone should serve as the base for the onyx. Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of an onyx and a Torah scroll, which one of them should be serve as a base for the other? The Greeks responded: The onyx should serve as the base for the Torah scroll.,The Romans sent this response to them: If that is so, then you should submit to us, as we have the Torah scroll with us, and the Jewish people are with us. The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore forced the Greeks to surrender and took over their world domice. For twenty-six years the Romans stood faithfully with the Jewish people; from that point forward, they subjugated them.,The Gemara asks: Initially, when the Romans acted faithfully, what verse did they interpret, and ultimately, when they subjugated the Jews, what verse did they interpret? Initially, they interpreted the verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: “Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you” (Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. And ultimately, they interpreted the verse that recites Jacob’s response to Esau: “Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant” (Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob’s subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the twenty-six years during which the Romans stood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do we know that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. As Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill, the Sages sent the following message to him: Our teacher, tell us two or three statements that you once told us in the name of your father, Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.,Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to them the following statements that were passed down to him by his father: One hundred and eighty years before the Second Temple was destroyed, the evil Roman Empire stretched forth over Israel and ruled over them. Eighty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sages decreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone and sat in the store near the Temple Mount.,The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: It is necessary in order to say that they no longer judged cases of fines. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged cases of fines? But doesn’t Rav Yehuda say that Rav says: Indeed beram, that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten from among the Jewish people. The Gemara challenges that assertion: Would the laws of fines actually have been forgotten? Let the scholars study them, so they will not be forgotten.,Rather, his intention was to say that the laws of fines would have ceased to be implemented from among the Jewish people, as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these halakhot due to a lack of ordained judges. This is because at one time the wicked kingdom of Rome issued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish people with the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that anyone who ordains judges will be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordain the judges will be destroyed, and the areas around the boundary of the city in which they ordain judges will be uprooted. These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population.,What did Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities, and between two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram, i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, and there he ordained five Elders, namely: Rabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya adds that Rabbi Neḥemya was also among those ordained.,When their enemies discovered them, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava said to the newly ordained rabbis: My sons, run for your lives. They said to him: Our teacher, and what will be with you? Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He said to them: In any case, I am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned; even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People said about this incident: The Roman soldiers did not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears lulniot into his body, making his body appear like a sieve pierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s statement.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says in explanation: Do not say that after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of fines; rather, emend the statement to say that they no longer judged cases of capital law, as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.,The Gemara explains: What is the reason that the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? Once they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judge them and punish them with death, they said: It is better that we should be exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move from place to place, so that offenders will not be deemed liable to receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.,The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. As it is written: “And you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place” (Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse teaches that it is the place where the Sanhedrin resides that causes the judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.,The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for one hundred and eighty years before the destruction of the Temple and no more? But didn’t Rabbi Yosei the Great, i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta himself, teach: '. None
129. Demosthenes, Orations, 18.180, 44.37, 59.73-59.78, 59.80-59.85, 60.8
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens, festivals • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • Dionysos, festivals • Skambonidai festivals mentioned in decree of • Thesmophoria festival • Thesmophoria festival, Thetis,shrine of • burial, deme festival • dramatic festivals, Lenaea • dramatic festivals, Rural Dionysia • dramatic festivals, discursive parameters • dramatic festivals, number of plays • festival, festivity, festive • festivals • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Attic confined to Athens • festivals, Attic confined to demes • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Prerosia • festivals, Theoinia

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 27, 179; Bernabe et al (2013) 113; Humphreys (2018) 703, 803; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 182, 291; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 67; Martin (2009) 268; Parker (2005) 74; Rutter and Sparkes (2012) 167; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 136, 158

18.180. What part do you wish me to assign to you, Aeschines, and what to myself, in the drama of that great day? Am I to be cast for the part of Battalus, Battalus, perhaps stammerer, a nickname of the nursery; capable also of an indecent interpretation, and therefore maliciously revived by Aeschines. as you dub me when you scold me so scornfully, and you for no vulgar role but to play some hero of legendary tragedy, Cresphontes, or Creon, or, shall we say, Oenomaus, whom you once murdered by your bad acting at Collytus? Anyhow, on that occasion Battalus of Paeania deserved better of his country than Oenomaus of Cothocidae. You were utterly useless; I did everything that became a good citizen. Please read the decree.
44.37. He got together some of the Otrynians with the demarch, and persuaded them at the opening of the adult register to inscribe his name. And after that on the occasion of the great Panathenaea The great Panathenea, the most important of all Athenian festivals, was held every four years in the month of Hecatombaeon (July). at the time of the distribution, he came to get his admission fee, and when the other demesmen were receiving it, he demanded that it be given him also, and that he should be entered on the register under the name of Archiades. But when we entered a solemn protest, and all the others declared that what he was doing was an outrage, he went away without either having his name inscribed or receiving the admission fee.
59.73. And this woman offered on the city’s behalf the sacrifices which none may name, and saw what it was not fitting for her to see, being an alien; and despite her character she entered where no other of the whole host of the Athenians enters save the wife of the king only; and she administered the oath to the venerable priestesses These were women whose duty was to minister at the altars of Dionysus. who preside over the sacrifices, and was given as bride to Dionysus At the festival of the Anthesteria, in order to symbolize the union of the god with the people, the (presumably) noblest woman in the land—the wife of the king—was given as bride to Dionysus. ; and she conducted on the city’s behalf the rites which our fathers handed down for the service of the gods, rites many and solemn and not to be named. If it be not permitted that anyone even hear of them, how can it be consot with piety for a chance-comer to perform them, especially a woman of her character and one who has done what she has done? 59.74. I wish, however, to go back farther and explain these matters to you in greater detail, that you may be more careful in regard to the punishment, and may be assured that you are to cast your votes, not only in the interest of your selves and the laws, but also in the interest of reverence towards the gods, by exacting the penalty for acts of impiety, and by punishing those who have done the wrong. In ancient times, men of Athens, there was sovereignty in our state, and the kingship belonged to those who were from time to time preeminent by reason of their being children of the soil, and the king offered all the sacrifices, and those which were holiest and which none might name his wife performed, as was natural, she being queen. 59.75. But when Theseus settled the people in one city and established the democracy, and the city became populous, the people none the less continued to elect the king as before, choosing him from among those most distinguished by valor; and they established a law that his wife should be of Athenian birth, and that he should marry a virgin who had never known another man, to the end that after the custom of our fathers the sacred rites that none may name may be celebrated on the city’s behalf, and that the approved sacrifices may be made to the gods as piety demands, without omission or innovation. 59.76. This law they wrote on a pillar of stone, and set it up in the sanctuary of Dionysus by the altar in Limnae A district in the southern part of Athens, though topographers differ widely as to its location. It was doubtless originally a swamp ( λίμνη ). (and this pillar even now stands, showing the inscription in Attic characters, nearly effaced). Thus the people testified to their own piety toward the god, and left it as a deposit for future generations, showing what type of woman we demand that she shall be who is to be given in marriage to the god, and is to perform the sacrifices. For this reason they set it up in the most ancient and most sacred sanctuary of Dionysus in Limnae, in order that few only might have knowledge of the inscription; for once only in each year is the sanctuary opened, on the twelfth day of the month Anthesterion. Anthesterion corresponds to the latter half of February and the prior half of March. It was in this month that the Feast of Flowers ( τὰ Ἀνθεστήρια ) was celebrated in honor of Dionysus. 59.77. These sacred and holy rites for the celebration of which your ancestors provided so well and so magnificently, it is your duty, men of Athens, to maintain with devotion, and likewise to punish those who insolently defy your laws and have been guilty of shameless impiety toward the gods; and this for two reasons: first, that they may pay the penalty for their crimes; and, secondly, that others may take warning, and may fear to commit any sin against the gods and against the state. 59.78. I wish now to call before you the sacred herald who waits upon the wife of the king, when she administers the oath to the venerable priestesses as they carry their baskets The baskets contained the salt meal which was sprinkled upon the heads of the victims. in front of the altar before they touch the victims, in order that you may hear the oath and the words that are pronounced, at least as far as it is permitted you to hear them; and that you may understand how august and holy and ancient the rites are. The Oath of the Venerable Priestesses I live a holy life and am pure and unstained by all else that pollutes and by commerce with man, and I will celebrate the feast of the wine god and the Iobacchic feast These festivals derived their names from epithets applied to the God, and belonged to the ancient worship of Dionysus. in honor of Dionysus in accordance with custom and at the appointed times.
59.80. When these rites had been solemnized and the nine archons had gone up on the Areopagus on the appointed days, the council of the Areopagus, which in other matters also is of high worth to the city in what pertains to piety, forthwith undertook an inquiry as to who this wife of Theogenes was and established the truth; and being deeply concerned for the sanctity of the rites, the council was for imposing upon Theogenes the highest fine in its power, but in secret and with due regard for appearances; for they have not the power to punish any of the Athenians as they see fit. 59.81. Conferences were held, and, seeing that the council of the Areopagus was deeply incensed and was disposed to fine Theogenes for having married a wife of such character and having permitted her to administer on the city’s behalf the rites that none may name, Theogenes besought them with prayers and entreaties, declaring that he did not know that she was the daughter of Neaera, but that he had been deceived by Stephanus, and had married her according to law as being the latter’s legitimate daughter; and that it was because of his own inexperience in affairs and the guilelessness of his character that he had made Stephanus his assessor to attend to the business of his office; for he considered him a friend, and on that account had become his son-in-law. 59.82. And, he said, I will show you by a convincing and manifest proof that I am telling the truth. I will send the woman away from my house, since she is the daughter, not of Stephanus, but of Neaera. If I do this, then let my statement that I was deceived be accepted as true; but, if I fail to do it, then punish me as a vile fellow who is guilty of impiety toward the gods. 59.83. When Theogenes had made this promise and this plea, the council of the Areopagus, through compassion also for the guilelessness of his character and in the belief that he had really been deceived by Stephanus, refrained from action. And Theogenes immediately on coming down from the Areopagus cast out of his house the woman, the daughter of this Neaera, and expelled this man Stephanus, who had deceived him, from the board of magistrates. Thus it was that the members of the Areopagus desisted from their action against Theogenes and from their anger against him; for they forgave him, because he had been deceived. 59.84. To prove the truth of these statements of mine, I will call before you as witness to these facts Theogenes himself, and will compel him to testify. (To the clerk.) Call, please, Theogenes of Erchia. Erchia, a deme of the tribe Aegeïs; but see note a on Dem. 59.72 . The Deposition Theogenes of Erchia deposes that when he was king he married Phano, believing her to be the daughter of Stephanus, and that, when he found he had been deceived, he cast the woman away and ceased to live with her, and that he expelled Stephanus from his post of assessor, and no longer allowed him to serve in that capacity. 59.85. (To the clerk.) Now take, please, the law bearing upon these matters, and read it; for I would have you know that a woman of her character, who has done what she has done, ought not only to have kept aloof from these sacred rites, to have abstained from beholding them, from offering sacrifices, and from performing on the city’s behalf any of the ancestral rites which usage demands, but that she should have been excluded also from all other religious ceremonials in Athens. For a woman who has been taken in adultery is not permitted to attend any of the public sacrifices, although the laws have given both to the alien woman and the slave the right to attend these, whether to view the spectacle or to offer prayer.
60.8. They so prevailed over the invading host of the Amazons as to expel them beyond the Phasis, and the host of Eumolpus and of many another foeman they drove not only out of their own land but also from the lands of all the other Greeks—invaders whom all those dwelling on our front to the westward neither withstood nor possessed the power to halt. The female warriors known as Amazons were repelled by Theseus. The Phasis River in Colchis, now the Rion, was the legendary boundary between Europe and Asia. Eumolpus invaded Greece from Thrace but was halted by Erechtheus at Eleusis. The route to all parts of the mainland issued from Athens on the west side. Moreover, they were styled the saviors of the sons of Heracles, who himself was the savior of the rest of mankind, when they arrived in this land as suppliants, fleeing before Eurystheus. In addition to all these and many other noble deeds they refused to suffer the lawful rites of the departed to be treated with despite when Creon forbade the burial of the seven against Thebes. This phrase became proverbial as the title of a drama by Aeschylus. Theseus, king of Athens, gave aid to the suppliant wives of the Argive heroes when Creon, king of Thebes, refused burial to their slain husbands: Eur. Supp. ''. None
130. Epigraphy, Ig I , 82, 84, 250, 255, 258, 375
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos, festivals • Itonia, festival, on Amorgos • burial, Tetrapolis festival • burial, deme festival • festivals • festivals and festivities, associations, • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Anthesteria • festivals, Chloaia • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Erosantheia • festivals, Prerosia • festivals, Theoinia • festivals, administration of • festivals, funding of • festivals, penteteric (quadrennial) • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί

 Found in books: Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 153; Gygax (2016) 173; Humphreys (2018) 556, 767, 803, 869; Lalone (2019) 228; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 17, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68; Papazarkadas (2011) 36, 80, 86, 141, 144

82. Gods. Prokles son of Atarbos of Euonymon was secretary, in the archonship of Aristion (421/0). The Council and the People decided, Hippothontis was the prytany, Prokles was secretary, (5) . . . was chairman, Aristion was archon (421/0), Hyperbolos? proposed: . . . quadrennial festival (pentet-) (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . (10) . . . . . . in the agora . . . . . . to the demesmen (demotesi) . . . . . . one hundred and fif?ty . . . . . . of the music just as . . . (15) . . . of Hephaistos and Athena . . . . . . for the Athenians, from where they must take the money . . . . . . religious officials who hold office . . . shall be chosen by lot . . . from the - one from each tribe, from the . . . (?) the -archs (-choi) shall choose them by lot with those from the Council; and they shall choose by lot . . . (20) . . . of the Council; and those chosen by lot shall receive a salary just as . . . they manage these things; and the payment officers (kolakretai) shall pay them the money; and the Council shall choose by lot among themselves ten men as religious officials, one from each tribe; and they shall give three oxen to the metics; of these three the religious officials shall distribute the meat to them raw; and the religious officials shall take care of the procession, (25) so that it is conducted in the most beautiful way possible, and if anyone behaves at all disorderly, they shall have the authority to impose fines of up to fifty drachmas and communicate it in writing to the -; and if anyone deserves a higher punishment, they shall set the fine as high as they think right and introduce the case to the law court of the archon; and the oxen . . . shall be lead to the altar to the sound of the trumpet; and the religious officials (30) shall - two hundred Athenians to lift them . . . ; and the torch- . . . at the quadrennial festival . . . the Hephaistia; and the religious officials . . . shall make the . . . lay on the torch-race and the rest of the competitions just as the . . . gymnasiarchs? make the spectacle (?); and for the future, if it seems good . . . to Poseidon . . . the religious officials, and to Apollo . . . (35) . . . ; and the gymnasiarchs that were chosen for the Promethia . . . . . . they shall choose . . . ; and the altar for Hephaistos . . . . . . the Council shall make it as seems to it best . . . . . . and . . . daily on the last day (?) . . . . . . and announce the results of each competition; (40) and the religious officials and the competitors . . . ; and those selected . . . . . . and the religious officials shall take care of? the writing up of the prizes . . . proposed: in other respects as proposed by the Council; but to write up this decree on a stone stele and set it down in the sanctuary; and the secretary of the Council shall take care of the writing up; and the payment officers shall pay? the money . . . (45) . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
82 - Decree concerning the festival (of Hephaistos?)

84. Gods. Decree 1 The Council and the People decided. Pandionis was in prytany, Aristoxenos was secretary, Antiochides was chairman, Antiphon was archon (418/7); Adosios proposed: to fence in the sanctuary (hieron) of Kodros and Neleus and Basile and (5) to lease (misthōsai) the sacred precinct (temenos) according to the specifications (suggraphas). Let the official sellers (pōlētai) make the contract (apomisthōsantōn) for the fencing in. Let the king (basileus) lease (apomisthōsatō) the sacred precinct according to the specifications, and let him despatch the boundary-commissioners (horistas) to demarcate these sanctuaries (hiera) so that they may be in the best and most pious condition. The money for the fencing in shall come from the sacred precinct. They shall carry out these provisions before the end of this Council\'s term of office, (10) otherwise each shall be liable to a fine of one thousand drachmas according to what has been proposed (eiremena). Decree 2 Adosios proposed: in other respects in accordance with the Council’s proposal, but let the king (basileus) and the official sellers (pōlētai) lease (misthōsatō) the sacred precinct of Neleus and Basile for twenty years according to the specifications. The lessee (misthōsamenos) shall fence in the sanctuary (hieron) of Kodros and Neleus and Basile at his own expense. Whatever (15) rent the sacred precinct may produce in each year, let him deposit the money in the ninth prytany (prutaneias) with the receivers (apodektai), and let the receivers (apodektais) hand it over to the treasurers of the Other Gods according to the law. If the king (basileus) or anyone else of those instructed about these matters does not carry out what has been decreed in the prytany (prutaneias) of Aigeis, (20) let him be liable to a fine of 10,000 drachmas. The purchaser of the mud (ilun) shall remove it from the ditch (taphro) during this very Council after paying to Neleus the price at which he made the purchase. Let the king (basileus) erase the name of the purchaser of the mud (ilun) once he has paid the fee (misthōsin). Let the king (basileus) write up instead (anteggraphsato) on the wall the name of the lessee (misthōsamenos) of the sacred precinct and for how much he has rented (misthōsētai) it (25) and the names of the guarantors in accordance with the law that concerns the sacred precincts (temenōn). So that anyone who wishes may be able to know, let the secretary (grammateus) of the Council inscribe this decree on a stone stele and place it in the Neleion next to the railings (ikria).10 Let the payment officers (kolakretai) give the money to this end. The king (basileus) shall lease (misthoun) the sacred precinct of Neleus and of Basile on the following terms: (30) that the lessee (misthōsamenos) fence in the sanctuary (hieron) of Kodros and Neleus and Basile according to the specifications (suggraphas) during the term of the Council that is about to enter office, and that he work the sacred precinct of Neleus and Basile on the following terms: that he plant young sprouts of olive trees, no fewer than 200, and more if he wishes; that the lessee (misthōsamenos) have control of the ditch (taphro) and the water from Zeus,11 (35) as much as flows in between the Dionysion and the gates whence the initiates march out to the sea, and as much as flows in between the public building (oikias tes demosias)12 and the gates leading out to the bath of Isthmonikos; lease (misthoun) it for twenty years. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
84 - Decree on the administration of the property of Kodros, Neleus and Basile

250. Face A . . . . . . if anyone does any of these things, let him pay . . . to the deme (5) . . . the priestess shall provide for the - boiling meat and roasting meat; for the Antheia and Proerosia: spits, a bronze pot; the religious officials (10) and whoever they require shall carry rods. It is not permitted to put these stipulations to the vote again unless one hundred demesmen are present. (15) Here (?) (teide), a piglet; to the Eleusinion, for Daira, a female lamb, leader of the Proerosia (preroarchos); to the Eleusinion, for the Proerosia, a full-grown female animal, a male piglet; priestly (20) perquisites (apometra), a quart (tetarteus); here, half a quart of barley for the Proerosia, two pigs, one male and one female; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, (25) half a quart; to the Eleusinion, for the Chloia, two piglets, one male and one female; priestly perquisites, 3 (drachmas), 3 obols. For the Antheia, a select sow, (30) pregt, a piglet, male; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart. . . . . . . (35) female . . . . . . Face B . . . priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; barley for the Proerosia, (5) two pigs, one female and one male; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; . . . to the Eleusinion . . . (10) . . . . . . . . . two -, one female and one male; priestly perquisites, three (drachmas) of Hekate (?) . . . (15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (20) priestly perquisites . . . . . . full-grown; for Zeus Herkeios -; for the two goddesses - a full-grown female animal, a piglet?; priestly perquisites, (25) a quart; here, half a quart . . . sow . . . piglet . . . priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; (30) to the Eleusinion, for the Chloia, two piglets, one female, one male; priestly perquisites, 3 (drachmas), 3 obols. For the priestess of Hekate, from whatever sacrifices are made to Hekate shall be given (35) a thigh, a flank; whoever (the priestess) nominates to be temple attendant shall leave behind pea soup and cup(s?) of gruel (?) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
250 - Deme decree relating to cult at Paiania
255. Face A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for Aphrodi?te . . . (5) . . . for Eros . . . . . . strew a couch? . . . a table . . . . . . for Hippolytos . . . . . . each . . . the . . . . . . trittys . . . (10) . . . at the Posidea . . . for Apollo Apo?tropaios in Kynosoura . . . for Herakles in Elaious, a table . . . for Xouthos, a lamb _ for Glaukos, a lamb (15) for Apollo Pythios . . . strew a couch?, . . . a table . . . _ hold up (?) a lamb (arna anasches-) . . . _ For Poseidon a goat with budding horns . . . for the Nymphs and Acheloos . . . . . . Face B . . . . . . . . . from the flayed . . . from each? cow five . . . dining room (?) . . . (5) . . . the portions . . . the priest shall take for each offering . . . from the flayed animals? the skins; . . . shall provide . . . the tongue (?) for the Founder-hero (Archegetei) . . . just as the (10) . . . for the perquisites (apometra), 10 dr. . . . let the priestess of -a take . . . 1 dr. for each offering (?) . . . but if a bovine is sacrificed, flesh (?) . . . but the priestess shall provide (15) . . . from the flayed private offerings the skin . . . from those not flayed the leg; the priestess of Artemis . . . from the public flayed offerings the skin . . . for each offering (?), but from the . . . the leg, but from the unflayed (20) . . . shall take, like the one of Artemis . . . shall take from the public sacrifices . . . 1 dr. for each offering . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
255 - Sacrifices and perquisites

258. Capital totals (kephalaia): for the demarch, 1,000 dr. for the two treasurers for the sacred rites through the year, 5,000 dr. to the Herakleion, 7,000 dr. (5) to the Aphrodisia, 1,200 dr. to the Anakia, 1,200 dr. to exemption from contributions (ateleian), 5,000 dr. to the Apollonia, 1,100 dr. to the Pandia, 600 dr. (10) from rents, 134 dr. 2½ ob.. The Plotheians decided. Aristotimos proposed: to allot (kuameuen) the officials worthily of the money that each office controls; and these are to provide the money securely (15) for the Plotheians. Concerning whatever loan there is a decree or setting of interest, they are to lend and exact interest according to the decree, lending as much as is lent annually to whoever (20) offers the greatest interest, whoever persuades the lending officials by their wealth (timēmati) or guarantor; and from the interest, and the rents on whatever rent-bearing purchases may have been made from capital (kephalaiōn), (25) they shall sacrifice the rites (hiera), both the common rites for the Plotheians, and for the Athenians on behalf of the community (koino) of the Plotheians, and for the quadrennial festivals; and for the other rites, for which all the Plotheians have to contribute money for (30) rites, whether to the Plotheians or to the Epakrians or to the Athenians, the officials from the community who are in charge of the money for the exemption from contributions (ateleian) shall pay on behalf of the demesmen; and for all the common rites in which (35) the Plotheians feast, they shall provide sweet wine at the community’s expense, for other rites up to half a chous for each Plotheian present, but for the trainer (didaskalōi) at or of the - a jar (kadon) . . . burning . . . (40) . . . practitioner (?) (dēmiourg-) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
258 - Decree of the deme Plotheia

375. The Athenians expended in the archonship of Glaukippos (410/9), and under the Council for which Kleigenes of Halai was first secretary. The treasurers of the sacred funds (hierog chrematon) of Athena, Kallistratros of Marathon, and his fellow officials handed over from the annual income (epeteion), the People having voted it, in the first prytany, of AiantisIX: to the hellenotamiai was handed over, to Kallimachos of Hagnous, Phrasiteleides (?) of Ikarion, for the horses was given for fodder (sitos), of Athena Polias (5) 3 talents 3,237 drachmas ½ obol, of Nike 91 dr. 3¼ ob.. In the second prytany, of AigeisII, to the Games-masters (athlothetais) was handed over for the Great Panathenaia, to Philon of Kydathenaion and his fellow officials, of Athena Polias 5 tal. 1,000 dr.; to the annual religious officials (hieropoiois), to Diyllos of Erchia and his fellow officials for the hekatomb, 5,114 dr.. In the third prytany, of OineisVI, to the hellenotamiai was handed over, to Perikles of Cholargos and his fellow officials, for the horses was given for fodder, 2 tal. 5,420 dr.; another payment to the same hellenotamiai, for the horses was given 2 tal. 5,400 dr.; another payment to the same hellenotamiai was given (10) for Hermon, the archon at Pylos, 6 tal.; another payment to the same hellenotamiai for the two-obol grant (diobelian), 2 tal.. In the fourth prytany, of AkamantisV, to the hellenotamiai was handed over, to Perikles of Cholargos and his fellow officials, fodder was given for the horses, 3 tal.; another payment to the same hellenotamiai for the two-obol grant was given 8 tal. 1,355 dr.. In the fifth prytany, of KekropisVII, to the hellenotamiai was handed over, to Perikles of Cholargos and his fellow officials, for the two-obol grant, 4 tal. 2,200 dr. In the sixth prytany, of LeontisIV, on the third day of the prytany (15) was handed over to the hellenotamiai, to Dionysios of Kydathenaion and his fellow officials, 1,2
84 dr.; on the ninth of the prytany to the hellenotamiai, to Thrason of Boutadai and his fellow officials, 3 tal. 1,083 dr. 2 ob.; on the eleventh of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was handed over, to Proxenos of Aphidna and his fellow officials, for the general from Eretria, Eukleides, acknowledgement (anomologema), 3740 dr. 1¼ ob.; on the thirteenth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai, Perikles of Cholargos and his fellow officials, one digit (≥) 4,906 dr.; on the twenty-eighth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai, Spoudias of Phlya and his fellow officials, 2 tal. 2,000 one or two digits (≥) 100 dr.; (20) on the thirtieth of the prytany, the (money) from Samos acknowledged (anomologethe), to the hellenotamias Anaitios of Sphettos and his deputy (paredroi), Polyaratos of Cholargos, 57 tal. 1,000 dr.. In the seventh prytany, of AntiochisX, on the fifth of the prytany, was handed over to Dionysios of Kydathenaion and his fellow officials, for the two-obol grant, 1 tal; on the seventh of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai Thrason of Boutadai and his fellow officials, for the two-obol grant, 1 tal. 1,232 dr. 3¼ ob.; on the same day, to the hellenotamiai Phalanthos of Alopeke and his fellow officials, fodder for the horses, 4 tal. (?); on the sixteenth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai Proxenos (25) of Aphidna and his fellow officials, 1,534 dr. 3 ob.; on the twenty-fourth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai Eupolis of Aphidna and his fellow officials, 5,400 dr.; on the twenty-seventh of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai Kallias of Euonymon and his fellow officials, 1 tal. 2,565 dr. 4½ ob.. In the eighth prytany, of HippothontisVIII, on the twelfth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was handed over, to Proxenos of Aphidna and his fellow officials, 3 tal. 634 dr. 4 ob.; on the twenty-fourth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given, to Dionysios of Kydathenaion and his fellow officials, 3 tal. 4,318 dr. 1½ ob.; on the thirty-sixth (30) of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given, to Thrason of Boutadai and his fellow officials, 1 tal. 3,329 dr. 3 ob.. In the ninth prytany, of ErechtheisI, on the twelfth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given, to Proxenos of Aphidna and his fellow officials, 2,188 dr. 1 ob.; on the twenty-third of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given, to Dionysios of Kydathenaion and his fellow officials, one digit (≥) 3 tal. 793 dr. 3 ob.; on the thirty-sixth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given, to Thrason of Boutadai and his fellow officials, 2 tal. 3,850 dr. 2½ ob.; on the thirty-sixth of the prytany, the allies acknowledged (anomologesanto) (money) from Samos, (35) to the generals on Samos, to Dexikrates of Aigilia, 21 tal. 1,000 dr., to Pasiphon of Phrearrhioi, 6 tal., to Aristokrates of Trinemeia?, 5 tal., to Eumachos? of Euonymon, 5 tal. 3,896 dr., to Nikeratos of Kydantidai the trierarch, 3,000 dr., to Aristophanes of Anagyrous or phlystos the trierarch . . . In the tenth prytany, of PandionisIII, on the eleventh of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given, to Proxenos of Aphidna and his fellow officials, 5 tal. 442 dr. 5 ob.; on the twenty-third of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given . . . . . . and his fellow officials, 2 tal. 5,090 dr. 3 ob.; on the thirty-sixth of the prytany, to the hellenotamiai was given . . . (40) . . . and his fellow officials, 5 tal. 4,656 dr. 4 ob.. Whole total of the money which Kallistratos of Marathon and his fellow officials handed over, -?. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
375 - Payments from the treasury of Athena, 410/9 BC
'. None
131. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 223, 380, 1177, 1183-1184, 1361, 1368, 1672, 1938, 2318, 2320, 2490, 3092
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, and Athenian dramatic festivals • Athens,, Arrephoria, festival of • Athens,, Dipolieia, festival of • Athens,, Thesmophoria, festival of • Cult regulations, on behaviour during festivals • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • Dionysia festivals, Rural D. • Dionysos, festivals • First Mithridatic War, festivals in the aftermath of • Haloa, festival of (Eleusis) • Ptolemaia (festival) • Ptolemaia festival • Rhomaia (festival) • Romaia festival • Sarapieia (festival) • Sylleia festival • burial, Tetrapolis festival • burial, deme festival • dramatic festivals, Great Dionysia • dramatic festivals, Lenaea • dramatic festivals, Rural Dionysia • dramatic festivals, number of plays • dramatic festivals, performances of old plays • festival, Panhellenic • festival, and political tensions • festivals • festivals and festivities, associations, • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Anthesteria • festivals, Chloaia • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Erosantheia • festivals, Prerosia • festivals, Pyanopsia • festivals, Theoinia • festivals, administration of • festivals, annual • festivals, funding of • festivals, penteteric (quadrennial) • festivals, prizes for victorious competitors • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί • satyrplay/satyr drama, festivals performed at

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 26, 27; Brodd and Reed (2011) 90; Connelly (2007) 200, 202, 215; Csapo (2022) 72; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 64, 68, 136, 150, 153, 155, 157; Gygax (2016) 173; Humphreys (2018) 556, 767, 806, 811; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 27, 181, 182, 326; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 36, 59, 61, 67, 290; Papazarkadas (2011) 35, 39, 47, 80, 81, 86, 128, 144; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 232; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 331; Wilding (2022) 241

223. Face A (front) The Council in the archonship of Pythodotos (343/2) dedicated to Hephaistos, having been crowned by the People for its excellence and justice. Decree 3 Deinostratos son of Deiniades of Ankyle proposed: since the Council in the archonship of Pythodotos (343/2) resolved to make a judgement of those speaking in the Council in the ninth (5) prytany and to honour the man who seemed to it to have spoken and acted best and incorruptibly on behalf of the Athenian Council and People throughout the year, and since the Council voted about this and chose Phanodemos son of Diyllos of Thymaitadai, the Council shall decide: for the good fortune of the Athenian People and Council, to praise Phanodemos son of Diyllos of Thymaitadai for his excellence and justice towards the Athenian Council and People and to crown him with a gold crown of 500 drachmas; and the money for the crown shall come from the Council’s fund for expenditure on decrees; and those elected to make the dedication of the Council shall also inscribe this resolution on the dedication; and in order that the People may know what the Council has resolved about Phanodemos, and may itself honour and crown him if the People share the Council’s opinion, the presiding committee (proedrous) allotted to preside (10) in the People at the next Assembly shall put the subject of Phanodemos on the agenda, and the secretary to the People (grammatea tōi dēmōi) shall read out this decree and submit to the People the opinion of the Council, that it seems good to the Council, since Phanodemos son of Diyllos of Thymaitadai has held office as councillor well and with love of honour (philotimōs) and incorruptibly, and has spoken and acted excellently on behalf of the Athenian Council and People and the allies, to praise him for his excellence and justice towards the Athenian Council and People and the allies, and crown him with a gold crown of 1,000 drachmas when he has rendered his accounts; and the money for the crown shall come from whatever source the People decides; and in order that everyone else or all other officials may also be aware that the People and Council know how to give thanks to those who speak and act excellently on behalf of the Council and the People, the prytany secretary (grammatea ton kata prutaneian) (15) shall inscribe this decree on a stone stele and stand it on the acropolis; and the treasurer of the People shall give 20 or 30 drachmas for inscribing the stele from the People’s fund for expenditure on decrees. Face B (left) Decree 2 Phanodemos son of Diyllos of Thymaitadai proposed: . . . . . . that the Council shall elect immediately . . . . . . as it seems best to them . . . to set up the statue . . . (20) . . . to Hephaistos and Athena Hephaistia; and to inscribe on it . . . the councillors with their father’s name and deme . . . . . . for the health and preservation of the Athenian Council and People; and also to inscribe on it the decree by which the Council was crowned by the People at the Assembly in the theatre of Dionysos (en Dionusou), when it was deemed that they had managed public order (eukosmias) well at the festival of Dionysos in the city. Decree 1 Kephisophon son of Kallibios of Paiania proposed: since the Council in the archonship of Pythodotos (343/2) managed (25) public order (eukosmias) in the theatre well and justly, to praise it and crown it with a gold crown of 500 drachmas; and the treasurers specified in the law shall immediately give 50 drachmas for a sacrifice to the councillors who are deemed to have best managed public order (eukosmias). Decree 4 - son of Antikrates of Pambotadai proposed: for good fortune, the Council shall resolve: since Eudoxos son of Theangelos of Sypalettos, who was elected to manage the Council\'s administration (dioikēseōs), did so well and justly, and otherwise ensured the orderly operation (eukosmias) of the Council with the prytanies (prutaneōn) in office at any time, to praise him and crown him with a gold (30) crown of 500 drachmas when he has rendered his accounts; and in order that the crown may be made and the award of the Council may be evident, the Council shall immediately elect five men to have the crown made; and the treasurers shall give the money from the Council’s fund for expenditure on decrees; and to inscribe this decree on the dedication of the Council in the archonship of Pythodotos (343/2). Face C (right) Prytany secretary (grammateus kata prutaneian): (35) Kleostratos son of Timosthenes of Aigilia In charge of decrees (epi ta psēphismata): Demophilos son of Pantaleon of Agryle In charge of the theoric fund (epi to theōrikon): Kephisophon son of Kephalion of Aphidna (40) Treasurers of the Council: Antikles son of Aristokrates of Kydathenaion Dromokleides son of Thrasymedes of Hagnous Decree 5 Brachyllos son of Bathyllos of Erchia proposed: since Eudoxos managed well and justly those things which the Council assigned to him, both the Council\'s administration (dioikēseōs) and its orderly operation (eukosmias) with the prytanies (prutaneōn) in office at any time, and (45) gave the best advice throughout, the Council shall decide: to praise Eudoxos son of Theangelos of Sypalettos for his excellence and justice towards the Council and crown him with a gold crown of 500 drachmas when he has rendered his accounts; and the money for the crown shall be contributed by each of the councillors; and he shall also be permitted to obtain from the People whatever benefit he can; and to inscribe this decree on the dedication of the Council in the archonship of Pythodotos (343/2); and for inscribing and making the . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
223 - Honours for the Council, councillors and Council officials

1177. . . . the demarch in office at any time shall take care of the Thesmophorion together with the priestess, that no-one releases anything or gathers a thiasos or installs sacred objects (5) or performs purification rites or approaches the altars or the pit (megaron) without the priestess except when it is the festival of the Thesmophoria or the Plerosia or the Kalamaia (10) or the Skira or another day on which the women come together according to ancestral tradition; that the Piraeans shall resolve: if anyone does any of these things in contravention of these provisions, the demarch (15) shall impose a penalty and bring him before a law court under the laws that are in place with respect to these things; and concerning the gathering of wood in the sanctuaries, if anyone gathers wood, may the old laws (archaious nomous) (20) be valid, those that are in place with respect to these matters; and the boundary officers (horistas) shall inscribe this decree together with the demarch and stand it by the way up to the Thesmophorion. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1177 - Decree of deme Piraeus concerning the Thesmophorion
' 1184. . . . the sacred remembrancers. Both (female) officials together shall give to the priestess for (5) the festival and for managing the Thesmophoria: a half-sixth of barley, a half-sixth of wheat, a half- sixth of barley groats, a half-sixth of wheatmeal, a half-sixth of figs, a chous (10) of wine, half a chous of olive-oil, two cups of honey, a choinix of white sesame, a choinix of black, a choinix of poppy seeds, two fresh cheeses (weighing) no less than a stater each, (15) and two staters of garlic, and a torch worth no less than two obols and 4 drachmas of silver. The (female) officials shall give these things. And in order that this will take place on behalf of the deme of Cholargos (20) according to what is written for all time, those (male) in office in the archonship of Ktesikles (334/3) shall erect a stele and inscribe this decree on a stone stele in the Pythion, and they shall give an account of their (25) expenditure to the demesmen of Cholargos. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2 1184 - Sacrificial regulation for the Thesmophoria at Cholargos
1361. . . . those who are inscribed on the stele or their descendants. If any of the orgeones who share in the sanctuary sacrifices to the goddess, they shall sacrifice without charge; but if a non-member (idiōtēs) sacrifices to the goddess, they shall give to the priestess for a young animal (galathēnou) 1½ obols (5) and the skin and the whole right thigh, for a full-grown animal 3 obols and the skin and thigh in the same way, for a bovine 1 drachma and the skin. They shall give the priestly dues for females (scil. animals) to the priestess, for males to the priest. No one is to make offerings in the sanctuary beside the altar (parabōmia), or be fined 50 drachmas. In order that the house and the sanctuary may be repaired, the rent for the house and the water, whatever they are leased out for, (10) shall be spent on the repair of the sanctuary and the house, and on nothing else, until the sanctuary and house are repaired, unless the orgeones make a different decision . . . to the sanctuary; but water shall be left for the use of the lessee. If anyone proposes or puts to the vote anything contrary to this law, let the proposer and the one who puts it to the vote owe 50 drachmas to the goddess and be excluded from the common activities; (15) and the managers (epimelētas) shall inscribe him on the stele as owing this money to the goddess. The managers and the religious officials (hieropoious) shall convene an assembly (agoran) and meeting (xullogon) in the sanctuary about the affairs of the society on the second of each month. Each of the orgeones who share in the sanctuary shall give to the sacred officials two drachmas for the sacrifice in Thargelion before the sixteenth. Anyone who is present in Athens (20) and in good health and does not contribute shall owe 2 drachmas sacred to the goddess. In order that there may be as many orgeones of the sanctuary as possible, let anyone who wishes pay - drachmas and share in the sanctuary and be inscribed on the stele. The orgeones shall check (dokimazein) those who are being inscribed on the stele and hand over the names of those who have been checked to the secretary in Thargelion10 . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1361 - Decree of the orgeones of Bendis (ca. 330-324/3 BC)

3092. A Front Left Mnesistratos son of Misgon (and) Diopeithes son of Diodoros were sponsors (echorēgon), Dikaiogenes was director (edidasken). A Front Right Mnesimachos son of Mnesistratos (and) Theotimos son of Diotimos were sponsors (echorēgon), Ariphron was director (edidasken), Polychares son of Komon was director (edidasken). B Right Side Theotimos son of Diotimos, Mnesi- . . . were sponsors (echorēgon), Thersandros was director (edidasken). text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
3092 - Choregic dedication (Acharnai)
'. None
132. Epigraphy, Seg, 21.541, 24.151, 26.121, 28.6, 31.122, 32.1243, 33.147, 38.1462, 50.168, 50.1101, 52.48, 54.239, 54.516
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia festivals, outside Attica • Festival • Festival, interruption • Festival, organisation of • Festival, restoration • First Mithridatic War, festivals in the aftermath of • Sarapieia (festival) • burial, Tetrapolis festival • burial, deme festival • burial, state festival • coins, to mark festivals • cultic ritual practice, calendars and festivals • feasts • festival, Panhellenic • festival, and political tensions • festival, civic • festival, of Leukophryena • festivals • festivals and festivities, associations, • festivals with tragic performances (other than Dionysia), Ptolemaia, at Delos • festivals, Agoreia • festivals, Andania • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Anthesteria • festivals, Apollo • festivals, Boukatia • festivals, Chloaia • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Erosantheia • festivals, Karneion • festivals, Panhellenic • festivals, Prerosia • festivals, administration of • festivals, funding of • festivals, penteteric (quadrennial) • festivals, prizes for victorious competitors • festivals, public • festivals, triennial • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί • satyrplay/satyr drama, festivals performed at • women, clothing required at festivals

 Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 91; Csapo (2022) 73, 82; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 102, 544; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 153, 155, 157; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 235, 248; Humphreys (2018) 355, 636, 767, 807, 811, 886, 887, 896, 985, 991, 992, 1151, 1152, 1153, 1162; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 174; Lyons (1997) 46, 47; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 61, 63, 64, 65, 291; Papazarkadas (2011) 22, 39, 44, 46, 61, 81, 86, 101, 190; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 231, 276, 284; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 326, 331, 340; Wilding (2022) 241

21.541. Gods The Greater Demarchy (dēmarchia hē mezōn) Α Metageitnion, on the twelfth, for Apollo Lykeios, in the city, (5) a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the twentieth (dekatei proterai), for Hera Thelchinia, on the hill (em pagōi) at Erchia, a lamb (arna), (10) all black, no taking away (ou phora), 7 dr.; - Boedromion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for the Nymphs, (15) on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Pyanopsion, on the fourteenth, for the heroines (20) in the hollow (en aulōni) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; - Gamelion, on the seventh, (25) for Kourotrophos, in the Delphinion at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Apollo Delphinios, at Erchia, (30) a sheep, 12 dr.; - on the eighth, for Apollo Apotropaios, at Erchia (35) towards Paiania, a goat, 12 dr.; - Anthesterion, at the Diasia, in the city (en astei) at Agrai, (40) for Zeus Meilichios, a sheep, wineless (nēphalios) up until (the roasting of) the innards, 12 dr.; - Elaphebolion, (45) on the sixteenth, for Semele, at the same altar, a goat, to be handed over to the women, (50) for the priestess the skin, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for Leto, at the (55) Pythion at Erchia, a goat, 10 dr.; - Skirophorion, on the third, for Kourotrophos, (60) on the acropolis (em polei) at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Athena Polias, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep (65) instead of a bovine (antibous), 10 dr.; total 111 dr. Β Metageitnion, on the twelfth, at the Eleusinion in the city, for Demeter, (5) a sheep, 10 dr.; - on the sixteenth, for Kourotrophos, in Hekate’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a piglet, (10) 3 dr.; - for Artemis Hekate, at Erchia, a goat, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, (15) on the fourth, for Basile, at Erchia, a ewe-lamb (amnē), white, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (20) 7 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos) on the hill at Erchia, for Acheloos, (25) a sheep, 12 dr.; - Gamelion on the ninth, at the Erosouria (?), on the acropolis (30) at Erchia, for Athena, a ewe-lamb, 7 dr.; - on the twenty- seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Kourotrophos, in (35) Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Hera, at Erchia, a sheep, for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; (40) - Mounichion, on the fourth, for the Herakleidai, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), at Erchia, 12 dr.; (45) - Thargelion on the fourth, for Apollo Pythios, at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over (50) to the Pythaistai, 12 dr.; - for Apollo Paion, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; (55) - Skirophorion, on the third, for Aglauros, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; (60) - total 108 dr. Γ Hekatombaion, on the twenty- first (dekatei husterai), for Kourotrophos, at (5) Sotidai at Erchia, a piglet, no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - for Artemis at Sotidai at Erchia, (10) a goat, no taking away (ou phora), the skin to be consecrated, 10 dr.; - Metageitnion, on the twelfth, (15) for Zeus Polieus, on the acropolis in the city, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the twenty-fifth (hektei phthinontos), (20) for Zeus Epopetes, on the hill at Erchia, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (25) 3 dr.; - Boedromion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Alochos, on the hill (30) at Erchia, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Gamelion, on the eighth, for Apollo Apotropaios, (35) at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over to the Pythaistai, 12 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Zeus (40) Teleios, in Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Anthesterion, on the second, (45) for Dionysos, at Erchia, a kid (eriphos), very young (proptorthi(os)), 5 dr.; - Mounichion, on the twentieth (dekatei proterai), (50) for Leukaspis, at Erchia, a sheep, wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - Thargelion, (55) on the fourth, for Zeus, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Skirophorion, (60) on the third, for Zeus Polieus, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; (65) - on the sixteenth, . . . Δ Hekatombaion, on the twenty- first (dekatei husterai), for Kourotrophos, on (5) the peak (epi to akro) at Erchia, a piglet, no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - for Artemis on the peak at Erchia, (10) a goat, no taking away (ou phora), the skin to be consecrated, 10 dr.; - Metageitnion, on the twelfth; (15) for Athena Polias, on the acropolis in the city, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, on the fifth, (20) for Epops, at Erchia, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphali(os)), 3 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), (25) for Hermes, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Gamelion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos) (30) for Poseidon, in Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Elaphebolion, on the sixteenth, (35) for Dionysos, at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over to the women, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess (40) the skin, 12 dr.; - Mounichion, on the twenty-first (dekatei husterai), for the Tritopatreis, at Erchia, (45) a sheep, wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for the Anakes, (50) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - on the nineteenth, for Menedeios, at Erchia, (55) a sheep, no taking away, 12 dr.; - Skirophorion, on the third, for Poseidon, on the acropolis (60) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; total 110 dr. Ε Metageitnion, on the nine- teenth, for the heroines at (5) the rush-bed (epi schoinōi) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, (10) on the fifth, at Erchia, for Epops, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (15) 3 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Earth (Gēi), on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, (20) pregt, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; - Posideon, on the sixteenth, for Zeus, on the (25) rock or rocky place (em petrēi) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - for Zeus Horios, at Erchia, a piglet, (30) no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - Gamelion, on the seventh, for Apollo Lykeios, (35) at Erchia, a sheep, to be handed over to the Pythaistai, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the eighth, (40) for Apollo Nymphegetes, at Erchia, a goat, 12 dr.; - for the Nymphs, at (45) the same altar, a goat, 10 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for Hermes, (50) in the agora at Erchia, a ram, let the herald make the sacrifice to him (55) and receive the perquisites (gera) just like the demarch, 10 dr.; - on the sixteenth, (60) for Zeus Epakrios, on Hymettos, a lamb (arēn), wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 7 dr.; - Skirophorion, . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
21.541 - Sacrificial calendar of Erchia

33.147. Face A (front) . . . Hekatombaion: . . . and for the . . . to provide lunch (aristom) . . . a drachma each (5) . . . the Proerosia offering (?) (tēn prēro-), . . . the Delphinion, a goat . . . for Hekate . . . _ . . . a full-grown victim (teleom), to be sold (praton). (10) Metageitnion: for Zeus Kataibates in the sacred enclosure (sēkōi) by the Delphini?on, a full-grown victim (teleon), to be sold (praton). _ An oath victim (horkōmosion) is to be provided for the audits (euthunas). Boedromion: the Proerosia; for Zeus Polieus, a select (kriton) sheep, a select piglet; at Automenai (?) (ep&
50.168. Face A col. 1 . . . fourth quarter, (5) Mounichion, for - Prakterios, a ram, 12 dr.; Thargelion, . . . by the tower, a sheep, 12 dr.; Skirophorion, (10) . . . in the agora, a ram, 12 dr., on the eleventh or twelfth?, for Zeus Horios, a sheep, 12 dr., for . . . , a sheep, 11 dr., ...? the following . . . . . . in the year of the - in (?) . . . each (15) . . . in order as is written . . . the one on the . . . by the Eleusinion . . . in Kynosoura . . . by the Herakleion;11 (20) ...? fourth quarter, Mounichion, . . . a sheep, 12 dr.; ...? first quarter, Hekatombaion, (25) on the date, for Apollo? Apotropaios, a goat, 12 dr.; second quarter, Pyanopsion, . . . a pregt sheep, 17 dr.; fourth quarter, Mounichion, (30) . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . 12 dr.; ...? fourth quarter, Mounichion, . . . -aios, a goat, 12 dr., (35) . . . , a sheep, 12 dr., . . . , a sheep, 12 dr., . . . , a sheep, 12 dr.; . . . prior? sequence (dramosunē), (40) second quarter, Pyanopsion, . . . , a bovine, 90 dr.; third quarter, Gamelion, . . . -idai, a pregt sow, 70 (?) dr.; fourth quarter, Mounichion, (45) . . . Nymphagetes, a goat, 12 dr.; Thargelion? . . . river (?), a ram, 12 dr., . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . a ram, 12 dr., (50) . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . a sheep, 12 dr., . . . a sheep, 11 dr.; Skirophorion?, . . . a sheep, 12 dr., (55) for Athena Hellotis,10 a piglet, 3 dr., . . . col. 2 . . . these the demarch of Marathon sacrifices . . . within ten days, for the hero . . . a piglet, 3 dr., table for the hero, 1 dr.?; (5) Boedromion, before the Mysteries . . . a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos a sheep, 11 dr.?; second quarter, Posideon . . . a bovine, 150 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for the heroine a sheep, 11 dr.?, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr., for Earth in the fields (Gēi eg guais), a pregt bovine, 90 (?) dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 4 dr.?, (10) at the rite (teletēi), baskets (?) (spuridia??), 40 dr.; third quarter, Gamelion . . . for Daira, a pregt sheep, 16 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Earth at the oracle (Gēi epi tōi manteiōi), a sheep, 11 dr., for Zeus Hypatos? . . . for Ioleus, a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., a table, (15) 1 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr. 1½ ob., for the hero Pheraios a sheep, 12 dr. ?, for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 3 dr.; Elaphebolion, on the tenth, for Earth at the oracle (Gēi epi tōi manteiōi), a completely black he-goat, 15 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna) . . . ; fourth quarter, Mounichion, for Aristomachos, (20) a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr., for the Youth (Neaniai), a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., a piglet 3 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr. 1½ ob.; these the demarch of Marathon sacrifices, for the hero in Drasileia, a sheep, 12 dr., a table, 1 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., (25) for the hero by the marsh sanctuary (Hellōtion), a sheep, 12 dr., a table, 1 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr.; Thargelion, for Achaia, a ram, 12 dr., a female (i.e. a ewe), 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 3 dr., for the Fates (Moirais), a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1½ ob.; (30) Skirophorion, before Skira, for Hyttenios, the annual offerings (hōraia), a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr. 1½ ob., for the Tritopatreis, a sheep, 12 dr.?, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr., for the Akamantes, a sheep, 12 dr., priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 2 dr.; these every other year, prior sequence (protera dramosunē), (35) Hekatombaion, for Athena Hellotis,10 a bovine, 90 dr., three sheep, 33 dr., a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr. 1½ ob., for Kourotrophos, a sheep, 11 dr., a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr. 1½ ob., for the laurel-bearers (daphnēphorois), 7 dr.; these are sacrificed every other year, after the archonship of Euboulos (40) for the Tetrapoleis, posterior sequence (hustera dramosunē), Hekatombaion, for Athena Hellotis,10 a sheep, 11 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr. 1½ ob.; Metageitnion, for Eleusinia, a bovine, 90 dr., for the Girl (Korēi), a ram, 12 dr., 3 piglets, 9 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), (45) 6 dr. 4½ ob., a sixth (hekteus) of barley, 4 ob., a chous of wine 1 dr., for Kourotrophos, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Zeus Anthaleus, a sheep, 12 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr.; Anthesterion, for Eleusinia, a pregt sow, 70 (?) dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Chloe by the property of Meidylos, a pregt sow, 70 dr.?, (50) priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., a sixth (hekteus) of barley, 4 ob., a chous of wine 1 dr.; Skirophorion, before Skira, for Galios, a ram, 12 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr., for the well (?) (phreatos), 6 dr., for the Tritopatreis, a table, 1 dr.. At Trikorynthos these every year, first quarter, (55) Metageitnion, for Hera,12 a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 11 dr. . . . for Kourotrophos . . . Face B . . . -sistratos of Marathon . . . of Marathon, 20 dr., Archenautes of Marathon, 22 (?) dr., . . . (≥) 10 dr., Hegesistratos of Marathon, . . . -doros . . . Isodikos of Oinoe, (≥) 10 dr., (5) . . . -gonos, Hagnostratos of Marathon, . . . , Patrokles of Oinoe, (≥) 10 dr., . . . 612 dr. 3 ob. (?), . . . of Marathon, . . . of Oinoe, . . . . . . -chos . . . of Marathon . . . . . . (≥) 30 dr. (?) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) (10) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) . . . . . . of Marathon . . . . . . (≥) 11 dr. (?) . . . (15) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) . . . . . . . . . (≥) 3 dr. (?) . . . of Marathon, 60 dr. (?) . . . of Marathon, 12 dr. (?) (20) . . . . . . About 28 lines illegible (50) . . . Hagetor of Probalinthos (?) . . . . . . (≥) 70 dr. . . . . . . . of Marathon, 11 dr. (?), . . . About 8 lines illegible (61) . . . (≥) 2 dr. (?) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
50.168 - The sacrificial calendar of the Marathonian Tetrapolis
' '. None
133. Strabo, Geography, 9.1.22, 11.8.4
 Tagged with subjects: • Prymnessus, Sacaea festival • burial, deme festival • festival, Sacaea • festivals, Artemis Brauronia • festivals, Sakaia

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 189; Humphreys (2018) 985; Marek (2019) 242; Rojas(2019) 119

9.1.22. On doubling the cape of Sounion one comes to Sounion, a noteworthy deme; then to Thoricus; then to a deme called Potamus, whose inhabitants are called Potamii; then to Prasia, to Steiria, to Brauron, where is the sanctuary of the Artemis Brauronia, to Halae Araphenides, where is the sanctuary of Artemis Tauropolos, to Myrrinus, to Probalinthus, and to Marathon, where Miltiades utterly destroyed the forces under Datis the Persian, without waiting for the Lacedemonians, who came too late because they wanted the full moon. Here, too, is the scene of the myth of the Marathonian bull, which was slain by Theseus. After Marathon one comes to Tricorynthus; then to Rhamnus, the sanctuary of Nemesis; then to Psaphis, the land of the Oropians. In the neighborhood of Psaphis is the Amphiaraeium, an oracle once held in honor, where in his flight Amphiaraus, as Sophocles says, with four-horse chariot, armour and all, was received by a cleft that was made in the Theban dust. Oropus has often been disputed territory; for it is situated on the common boundary of Attica and Boeotia. off this coast are islands: off Thoricus and Sounion lies the island Helene; it is rugged and deserted, and in its length of about sixty stadia extends parallel to the coast. This island, they say, is mentioned by the poet where Alexander says to Helen: Not even when first I snatched thee from lovely Lacedemon and sailed with thee on the seafaring ships, and in the island Cranae joined with thee in love and couch; for he calls Cranae the island now called Helene from the fact that the intercourse took place there. And after Helene comes Euboea, which lies off the next stretch of coast; it likewise is narrow and long and in length lies parallel to the mainland, like Helene. The voyage from Sounion to the southerly promontory of Euboea, which is called Leuce Acte, is three hundred stadia. However, I shall discuss Euboea later; but as for the demes in the interior of Attica, it would be tedious to recount them because of their great number.
11.8.4. The Sacae, however, made raids like those of Cimmerians and Treres, some into regions close to their own country, others into regions farther away. For instance, they occupied Bactriana, and acquired possession of the best land in Armenia, which they left named after themselves, Sacasene; and they advanced as far as the country of the Cappadocians, particularly those situated close to the Euxine, who are now called the Pontici. But when they were holding a general festival and enjoying their booty, they were attacked by night by the Persian generals who were then in that region and utterly wiped out. And these generals, heaping up a mound of earth over a certain rock in the plain, completed it in the form of a hill, and erected on it a wall, and established the sanctuary of Anaitis and the gods who share her altar — Omanus and Anadatus, Persian deities; and they instituted an annual sacred festival, the Sacaea, which the inhabitants of Zela (for thus the place is called) continue to celebrate to the present day. It is a small city belonging for the most part to the temple slaves. But Pompey added considerable territory to it, settled the inhabitants thereof within the walls, and made it one of the cities which he organized after his overthrow of Mithridates.''. None
134. Vergil, Aeneis, 9.165-9.175
 Tagged with subjects: • insomnia, and festivities

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 23; Verhagen (2022) 23

9.165. indulgent vino et vertunt crateras aenos. 9.166. Conlucent ignes, noctem custodia ducit 9.167. insomnem ludo. 9.168. Haec super e vallo prospectant Troes et armis 9.169. alta tenent, nec non trepidi formidine portas 9.170. explorant pontisque et propugnacula iungunt, 9.171. tela gerunt. Instat Mnestheus acerque Serestus, 9.172. quos pater Aeneas, siquando adversa vocarent, 9.173. rectores iuvenum et rerum dedit esse magistros. 9.174. Omnis per muros legio, sortita periclum, 9.175. excubat exercetque vices, quod cuique tuendum est.''. None
9.165. of Father Tiber, harshly murmuring, 9.166. held back his flood and checked his seaward way. ' "9.167. But Turnus' courage failed not; he alone " '9.168. his followers roused, and with reproachful words 9.169. alone spoke forth: “These signs and prodigies 9.170. threaten the Trojan only. Jove himself 9.171. has stripped them of their wonted strength: no more 9.172. can they abide our deadly sword and fire. 9.173. The Trojan path to sea is shut. What hope 9.174. of flight is left them now? The half their cause 9.175. is fallen. The possession of this land ''. None
135. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • insomnia, and festivities

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 22, 24, 25, 26; Verhagen (2022) 22, 24, 25, 26

136. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Caesarea (festival at Corinth) • Dionysia festivals, outside Attica • Ptoia (festival) • Sebasta (festival) at Naples • feasts • festivals • festivals, royal • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as • ‘appended’ festivals

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 121; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 181, 184, 235; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 168; Petropoulou (2012) 77

137. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia festivals, Great or City D. • Sarapieia (festival) • satyrplay/satyr drama, festivals performed at

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 73; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 121

138. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • burial, Tetrapolis festival • festivals • festivals, of Amphiaraus

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 211, 246; Humphreys (2018) 1151

139. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • festival • festivals, Artemis Brauronia • festivals, Epidemia • festivals, Theophania

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 494; Lipka (2021) 59

140. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Dedication (feast of) • festivities

 Found in books: Geljon and Vos (2020) 37; Klein and Wienand (2022) 191

141. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens,, Panathenaia, festival of • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), Dionysia festivals • Festival • Festival, commemorative • Koreia (festival) • Panamareia (festival) • Partheneia (festival), προστατοῦσα‎ • cultic ritual practice, feasting • festival, Panhellenic • festival, and political tensions • festival, of Leukophryena • festivals, "religious" vs. "non-religious," • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Arrhephoria • festivals, Asklepeia • festivals, Dionysia • festivals, Lenaia • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Thargelia • festivals, agonistic • festivals, commemorative • festivals, documents • festivals, new • festivals, refinancing of • festivals, revival • loans, festival of Zeus Sosipolis • loans, festivals of Artemis • sacrifice, at festivals • sanctuaries/temples, festivals and courtship • soteria (festival), in Cyzicus

 Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 31; Connelly (2007) 182; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 262, 265, 267; Jim (2022) 51, 64, 76; Lupu(2005) 8, 97, 98, 99, 102, 106, 107, 108, 351; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 20, 21, 22, 33; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 213, 223; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 326, 331

142. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Athena, festivals at Ilium • Athens,, Arrephoria, festival of • Athens,, Dipolieia, festival of • Athens,, Panathenaia, festival of • Chalkeia, festival of (Athens) • Delphi, sanctuary of Apollo, festival foundation at • Kallynteria, feast of (Athens) • Plynteria, festivals of • Skambonidai festivals mentioned in decree of • Skira, festival of • calendar, festival • feasting, and (exclusive) cult community • feasting, at Delphic Theoxenia • festivals • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Athenian • festivals, Attic confined to Athens • festivals, Attic confined to demes • festivals, Panhellenic • festivals, administration of • festivals, agonistic • festivals, modifications to • festivals, refinancing of • festivals, revival • festivals, sacrificial calendars and • food, specially eaten at festivals • loans, festival of Zeus Sosipolis • loans, festivals of Artemis • sacrifice by individuals during public festivals • sacrifice, at festivals • women festivals of • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi festivals of

 Found in books: Connelly (2007) 61, 182, 200, 305; Dignas (2002) 149; Kowalzig (2007) 190; Lupu(2005) 68, 69, 84, 99, 100, 104, 108, 109, 354; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 18, 22; Papazarkadas (2011) 90; Parker (2005) 74, 165, 470

143. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Asclepius, festival at Lampsacus • Asclepius, festival at the Piraeus • Delphi, sanctuary of Apollo, festival foundation at • Dionysus, festival at Eretria • Eros, festival of • calendar, festival • cultic ritual practice, feasting • festivals • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Anthesteria • festivals, Chloaia • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Erosantheia • festivals, Panathenaea • festivals, Panathenaia • festivals, Prerosia • festivals, Theoinia • festivals, agonistic • festivals, documents • festivals, modifications to • festivals, sacrificial calendars and • sacrifice, at festivals

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 265; Lupu(2005) 68, 69, 84, 85, 90, 91, 93, 96, 100, 110; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 18, 22, 30, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68

144. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Chloaia • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, penteteric (quadrennial) • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί

 Found in books: Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 65, 66; Papazarkadas (2011) 81, 144

145. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, festivals in • Artemisia (festival), celebration of • Artemisia (festival), competitions (agones) in • festivals, Deia, • festivals, central to civic life • festivals, modeled on Greek prototypes • festivals, motives for competition in

 Found in books: Huttner (2013) 43; Kalinowski (2021) 104, 180

146. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals, and Boiotian regional identity • First Mithridatic War, festivals in the aftermath of • Sarapieia (festival) • festivals, annual • festivals, funding of • festivals, penteteric (quadrennial)

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 82; Papazarkadas (2011) 44, 47, 49; Wilding (2022) 130, 240, 242, 248, 249, 250, 252, 253, 265

147. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, festivals in • Artemisia (festival), celebration of • Artemisia (festival), competitions (agones) in • Artemisia (festival), described (by Xenophon of Ephesos) • Asclepius, festival at Lampsacus • Delphi, sanctuary of Apollo, festival foundation at • Dionysus, festival at Eretria • Festival • festivals, central to civic life

 Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 185; Kalinowski (2021) 94, 98, 102, 104, 106, 107, 110; Lupu(2005) 95, 96

148. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysia festivals, outside Attica • Sarapieia (festival) • satyrplay/satyr drama, festivals performed at

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 73; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 168

149. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos, festivals • Itonia, festival, on Amorgos • burial, Tetrapolis festival • burial, deme festival • festivals • festivals and festivities, associations, • festivals, Antheia • festivals, Anthesteria • festivals, Chloaia • festivals, Eleusinia • festivals, Erosantheia • festivals, Prerosia • festivals, Theoinia • festivals, administration of • festivals, funding of • festivals, penteteric (quadrennial) • festivals, ἐπίθετοι ἑορταί

 Found in books: Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 153; Gygax (2016) 173; Humphreys (2018) 556, 767, 803, 869; Lalone (2019) 228; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 17, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68; Papazarkadas (2011) 36, 80, 86, 141, 144

150. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Skambonidai festivals mentioned in decree of • festivals, Attic confined to Athens • festivals, Attic confined to demes • soteria (festival), in Akraiphia • soteria (festival), in Delphi • soteria (festival), in Megalopolis • soteria (festival), in Priene

 Found in books: Jim (2022) 145; Parker (2005) 74

151. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals, and Boiotian regional identity • First Mithridatic War, festivals in the aftermath of • Pamboiotia, festival • festival • soteria (festival), in Akraiphia • soteria (festival), in Delphi • soteria (festival), in Megalopolis • soteria (festival), in Priene

 Found in books: Chaniotis (2012) 106; Jim (2022) 145; Lalone (2019) 153, 158, 160, 161, 162; Wilding (2022) 129, 130, 249

152. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Itonia, festival, on Amorgos • architectural evidence of the Itonia, joint shrine and festival of Arkesine andMinoa? • festivals and festivities, associations,

 Found in books: Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 46; Lalone (2019) 205, 225, 228, 230, 234, 237, 239, 240

153. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • feasting • festival, Panhellenic • festival, civic • festival, of Leukophryena

 Found in books: Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 125; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 319, 323, 324, 325, 326

154. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Basileia (festival) • Ptolemaia (festival) • Pythia (festival), at Delos • Theadelphia (festival) • festivals with tragic performances (other than Dionysia), Agrionia, at Thebes • festivals with tragic performances (other than Dionysia), Mouseia, at Thespiae • festivals with tragic performances (other than Dionysia), Pythia, at Delphi

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 39, 45, 46; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 165

155. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Basileia, festival • Festival • Festivals, Genethlea • Festivals, Hekatesia, Hekatesia-Romaia • Festivals, Hekatesia-Kaisareia-Romaia • Festivals, Heraia (Panamara) • Festivals, Kleidos agoge • Festivals, Komyria (Panamara) • Festivals, Panamareia (Panamara) • Festivals, Romaia ( Hekate ) • Festivals, Triakades • Hecatesia (festival) in Lagina • Hecatesia (festival) in Lagina, in Lagina • Hecatesia (festival) in Lagina, in Phrygia • Hecatesia (festival) in Lagina, standardized use of • Panamareia (festival) • Partheneia (festival) • Partheneia (festival), saving epiphanies of • Penteteric festivals • Romaia (festival) • festival • festivals, Antheia • meat-eating / feast / meal, sacrifice and/as

 Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 31, 38; Jim (2022) 13, 62, 63, 64, 136, 161; Lipka (2021) 191; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 45; Petropoulou (2012) 79; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 184; Williamson (2021) 251, 258, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 299, 302, 310, 311, 313, 316, 317, 318, 324, 337, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 375, 383, 387, 398, 408

156. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Pythia (festival) • festivals, Soteria • soteria (festival), in Delphi

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 500; Jim (2022) 54, 55

157. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysiac festival • festivals • festivals, Antheia • festivals, funding of

 Found in books: Eidinow (2007) 300; Gygax (2016) 173; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 244; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 16; Martin (2009) 55

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