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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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For a list of book indices included, see here.


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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
ennius Augoustakis (2014) 220, 252
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 291
Borg (2008) 119, 165
Cornelli (2013) 168
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 83
Edmondson (2008) 36, 170, 247
Gorain (2019) 93, 94, 162, 164
Greensmith (2021) 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 284, 285, 288, 289, 291, 292, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341
Howley (2018) 20, 116, 132, 222, 223, 230, 231, 233, 234
Hunter and de Jonge (2018) 257, 258, 259
Jenkyns (2013) 262, 266
Johnson and Parker (2009) 191
Johnston and Struck (2005) 136
Ker and Wessels (2020) 122, 124, 284, 321, 323
Kirichenko (2022) 238
Kneebone (2020) 276
Konig (2022) 146
König (2012) 44
Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 85
Maso (2022) 81
Meister (2019) 166
Miller and Clay (2019) 211
Oksanish (2019) 36, 39, 41, 42, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 179, 180, 189
Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 173
Radicke (2022) 165, 186, 301, 302, 441
Rutledge (2012) 40
Santangelo (2013) 24, 39, 117, 121, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 159, 218
Van Nuffelen (2012) 102
Verhagen (2022) 220, 252
Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 31, 295, 296
Williams and Vol (2022) 23, 36, 37, 51, 58, 246
Xinyue (2022) 9, 10, 24, 140, 141
Yona (2018) 33, 105, 111, 136, 203
Čulík-Baird (2022) 15, 22, 25, 26, 27, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 45, 48, 50, 55, 57, 58, 59, 63, 65, 67, 70, 73, 82, 91, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 105, 106, 108, 113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 123, 136, 143, 144, 146, 150, 164, 175, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 225, 227, 228, 229
ennius, accius, and Čulík-Baird (2022) 73
ennius, achilles Čulík-Baird (2022) 22
ennius, africa, in Giusti (2018) 62
ennius, ajax Čulík-Baird (2022) 45
ennius, alcmeo Čulík-Baird (2022) 25, 106, 113, 150
ennius, alexander Pillinger (2019) 147
Čulík-Baird (2022) 143
ennius, alignment with / adaptation of homer Joseph (2022) 25, 30, 31, 48, 49, 50, 79, 91, 92, 100, 126, 127
ennius, ambracia Čulík-Baird (2022) 105
ennius, and accius Čulík-Baird (2022) 73
ennius, and cato the elder Čulík-Baird (2022) 32
ennius, and naevius Čulík-Baird (2022) 47
ennius, and petrarch Čulík-Baird (2022) 228
ennius, and petronius Cueva et al. (2018b) 18
ennius, and recitations Johnson and Parker (2009) 210, 211
ennius, and scipio africanus Oksanish (2019) 51, 52, 53, 54
ennius, and solon Čulík-Baird (2022) 36, 73, 210
ennius, andromacha Čulík-Baird (2022) 26, 70, 143, 144, 146, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195
ennius, annales Johnson and Parker (2009) 210
ennius, as authority Čulík-Baird (2022) 34, 220, 221, 222, 223, 225
ennius, as victorious racehorse Čulík-Baird (2022) 34
ennius, as wisdom figure Čulík-Baird (2022) 34
ennius, as witness Čulík-Baird (2022) 220, 221, 222, 223, 225
ennius, athamas Čulík-Baird (2022) 115
ennius, cyclops, cyclopes, in Giusti (2018) 54
ennius, euhemerus, of Rüpke (2011) 92, 106, 107
ennius, eumenides Čulík-Baird (2022) 100, 113
ennius, europe, in Giusti (2018) 62
ennius, funerary epitaphs Čulík-Baird (2022) 36, 73, 219
ennius, grammarian Santangelo (2013) 24
ennius, his aiax mastigophorus Rutledge (2012) 30, 231
ennius, homer, aligned with Joseph (2022) 25, 30, 31, 48, 49, 50, 79, 91, 92, 100
ennius, imago on scipionic tomb Oksanish (2019) 31
ennius, in pompeian graffiti Johnson and Parker (2009) 299
ennius, influence Hickson (1993) 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 48, 81
ennius, iphigeneia Johnson and Parker (2009) 322
ennius, iphigenia Čulík-Baird (2022) 215
ennius, lucius Fertik (2019) 160
ennius, medea Čulík-Baird (2022) 15, 27, 70, 95, 97, 120, 134, 136, 144, 146, 150
ennius, medea, in Giusti (2018) 72, 89, 123, 124, 126
ennius, melanippa Čulík-Baird (2022) 45
ennius, model / anti-model for lucan Joseph (2022) 9, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 49, 50, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 78, 79, 80, 81, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 148, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 234
ennius, naevius, and Čulík-Baird (2022) 47
ennius, petronius, and Cueva et al. (2018b) 18
ennius, playwrights, tragedy, roman Liapis and Petrides (2019) 142, 215
ennius, poetry Johnson and Parker (2009) 219
ennius, q. Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 18, 54, 137
Rüpke (2011) 90, 92, 100, 106, 107
ennius, quintus Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 127
ennius, quintus, achilles Giusti (2018) 72, 76, 77
ennius, quintus, ajax Giusti (2018) 137
ennius, quintus, alba longa Giusti (2018) 248
ennius, quintus, and the aeneid Giusti (2018) 213, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 276
ennius, quintus, andromacha Giusti (2018) 69, 135
ennius, quintus, annales Blum and Biggs (2019) 174, 175
Giusti (2018) 99, 123, 260
ennius, quintus, concilium deorum Giusti (2018) 231
ennius, quintus, cyclops simile Giusti (2018) 54, 55
ennius, quintus, drama Giusti (2018) 63, 77, 91
ennius, quintus, in horace’s ode Giusti (2018) 24
ennius, quintus, on the second punic war Giusti (2018) 61, 62, 63, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246
ennius, quintus, proem Giusti (2018) 258, 260
ennius, quintus, scipio’s arrival in libya Giusti (2018) 62
ennius, quintus, sophoniba Giusti (2018) 244, 245, 246
ennius, quintus, xerxes fragments Giusti (2018) 55, 73
ennius, roman poet Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 24, 58
ennius, scipio Čulík-Baird (2022) 27, 57, 217
ennius, scipio africanus, commemorated by Oksanish (2019) 44, 45, 46
ennius, scipio africanus, publius cornelius, in Giusti (2018) 62
ennius, silius italicus, and Augoustakis (2014) 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324
Verhagen (2022) 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324
ennius, social status Oksanish (2019) 51, 52, 53, 54
ennius, standing in antiquity Joseph (2022) 16, 17, 91, 92, 106, 107, 126, 127, 135, 140, 144, 148
ennius, telamo Čulík-Baird (2022) 71, 215
ennius, through seneca the younger, citations of cicero, in Keeline (2018) 197
ennius, thyestes Čulík-Baird (2022) 26, 188, 215
ennius, time and space in Joseph (2022) 29, 34, 35, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117
ennius, xerxes, in Giusti (2018) 55, 73
ennius’, annales Čulík-Baird (2022) 22, 25, 27, 30, 32, 33, 39, 46, 47, 48, 55, 57, 59, 63, 99, 101, 113, 116, 119, 144, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 217, 221, 222, 223, 225
ennius’, annales, rejection of fauns and prophets Čulík-Baird (2022) 46

List of validated texts:
56 validated results for "ennius"
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 289-292 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 298; Verhagen (2022) 298


289. τῆς δʼ ἀρετῆς ἱδρῶτα θεοὶ προπάροιθεν ἔθηκαν'290. ἀθάνατοι· μακρὸς δὲ καὶ ὄρθιος οἶμος ἐς αὐτὴν 291. καὶ τρηχὺς τὸ πρῶτον· ἐπὴν δʼ εἰς ἄκρον ἵκηται, 292. ῥηιδίη δὴ ἔπειτα πέλει, χαλεπή περ ἐοῦσα. '. None
289. of force. The son of Cronus made this act'290. For men - that fish, wild beasts and birds should eat 291. Each other, being lawless, but the pact 292. He made with humankind is very meet – '. None
2. Homer, Iliad, 1.1, 1.247-1.248, 2.484-2.487, 2.816, 7.213, 11.57, 16.102-16.111, 19.217-19.219 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius (Quintus Ennius) • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, influence • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, standing in antiquity • Silius Italicus, and Ennius • narrative, battle, in Ennius’ Annals

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 295; Farrell (2021) 122, 191, 262; Gale (2000) 19; Hickson (1993) 18; Joseph (2022) 41, 93, 126; Verhagen (2022) 295


1.1. μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
1.247. Ἀτρεΐδης δʼ ἑτέρωθεν ἐμήνιε· τοῖσι δὲ Νέστωρ 1.248. ἡδυεπὴς ἀνόρουσε λιγὺς Πυλίων ἀγορητής,
2.484. ἔσπετε νῦν μοι Μοῦσαι Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσαι· 2.485. ὑμεῖς γὰρ θεαί ἐστε πάρεστέ τε ἴστέ τε πάντα, 2.486. ἡμεῖς δὲ κλέος οἶον ἀκούομεν οὐδέ τι ἴδμεν· 2.487. οἵ τινες ἡγεμόνες Δαναῶν καὶ κοίρανοι ἦσαν·
2.816. Τρωσὶ μὲν ἡγεμόνευε μέγας κορυθαίολος Ἕκτωρ
7.213. ἤϊε μακρὰ βιβάς, κραδάων δολιχόσκιον ἔγχος.
11.57. Ἕκτορά τʼ ἀμφὶ μέγαν καὶ ἀμύμονα Πουλυδάμαντα
16.102. Αἴας δʼ οὐκ ἔτʼ ἔμιμνε· βιάζετο γὰρ βελέεσσι· 16.103. δάμνα μιν Ζηνός τε νόος καὶ Τρῶες ἀγαυοὶ 16.104. βάλλοντες· δεινὴν δὲ περὶ κροτάφοισι φαεινὴ 16.105. πήληξ βαλλομένη καναχὴν ἔχε, βάλλετο δʼ αἰεὶ 16.106. κὰπ φάλαρʼ εὐποίηθʼ· ὃ δʼ ἀριστερὸν ὦμον ἔκαμνεν 16.107. ἔμπεδον αἰὲν ἔχων σάκος αἰόλον· οὐδὲ δύναντο 16.108. ἀμφʼ αὐτῷ πελεμίξαι ἐρείδοντες βελέεσσιν. 16.109. αἰεὶ δʼ ἀργαλέῳ ἔχετʼ ἄσθματι, κὰδ δέ οἱ ἱδρὼς 16.110. πάντοθεν ἐκ μελέων πολὺς ἔρρεεν, οὐδέ πῃ εἶχεν 16.111. ἀμπνεῦσαι· πάντῃ δὲ κακὸν κακῷ ἐστήρικτο.
19.217. κρείσσων εἰς ἐμέθεν καὶ φέρτερος οὐκ ὀλίγον περ 19.218. ἔγχει, ἐγὼ δέ κε σεῖο νοήματί γε προβαλοίμην 19.219. πολλόν, ἐπεὶ πρότερος γενόμην καὶ πλείονα οἶδα.' '. None
1.1. The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, " '
1.247. the staff studded with golden nails, and himself sat down, while over against him the son of Atreus continued to vent his wrath. Then among them arose Nestor, sweet of speech, the clear-voiced orator of the Pylians, from whose tongue flowed speech sweeter than honey. Two generations of mortal men had passed away in his lifetime,
2.484. Even as a bull among the herd stands forth far the chiefest over all, for that he is pre-eminent among the gathering kine, even such did Zeus make Agamemnon on that day, pre-eminent among many, and chiefest amid warriors.Tell me now, ye Muses that have dwellings on Olympus— 2.485. for ye are goddesses and are at hand and know all things, whereas we hear but a rumour and know not anything—who were the captains of the Danaans and their lords. But the common folk I could not tell nor name, nay, not though ten tongues were mine and ten mouths
2.816. There on this day did the Trojans and their allies separate their companies.The Trojans were led by great Hector of the flashing helm, the son of Priam, and with him were marshalled the greatest hosts by far and the goodliest, raging with the spear.
7.213. hath brought together to contend in the fury of soul-devouring strife. Even in such wise sprang forth huge Aias, the bulwark of the Achaeans, with a smile on his grim face; and he went with long strides of his feet beneath him, brandishing his far-shadowing spear. Then were the Argives glad as they looked upon him,
11.57. to send forth to Hades many a valiant head.And the Trojans over against them on the rising ground of the plain mustered about great Hector and peerless Polydamas and Aeneas that was honoured of the folk of the Trojans even as a god, and the three sons of Antenor, Polybus and goodly Agenor
16.102. that alone we might loose the sacred diadem of Troy. On this wise spake they one to the other, but Aias no longer abode, for he was sore beset with darts; the will of Zeus was overmastering him, and the lordly Trojans with their missiles; and terribly did the bright helm about his temples 16.105. ring continually, as it was smitten, for smitten it ever was upon the well-wrought cheek-pieces, and his left shoulder grew weary as he ever firmly held his flashing shield; nor might they beat it back about him, for all they pressed him hard with darts. And evermore was he distressed by laboured breathing, 16.110. and down from his limbs on every side abundant sweat kept streaming, nor had he any wise respite to get his breath withal, but every way evil was heaped upon evil.
19.217. Then Odysseus of many wiles answered him, and said:O Achilles, son of Peleus, far the mightiest of the Achaeans, better art thou than I and mightier not a little with the spear, howbeit in counsel might I surpass thee by far, seeing I am the elder-born and know the more; 19.219. Then Odysseus of many wiles answered him, and said:O Achilles, son of Peleus, far the mightiest of the Achaeans, better art thou than I and mightier not a little with the spear, howbeit in counsel might I surpass thee by far, seeing I am the elder-born and know the more; ' ". None
3. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, time and space in • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 295, 301, 302, 303; Greensmith (2021) 324, 327, 340; Joseph (2022) 18, 19, 96; Verhagen (2022) 295, 301, 302, 303


4. Xenophon, Memoirs, 2.1.21-2.1.34 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 316; Verhagen (2022) 316


2.1.21. καὶ Πρόδικος δὲ ὁ σοφὸς ἐν τῷ συγγράμματι τῷ περὶ Ἡρακλέους, ὅπερ δὴ καὶ πλείστοις ἐπιδείκνυται, ὡσαύτως περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἀποφαίνεται, ὧδέ πως λέγων, ὅσα ἐγὼ μέμνημαι. φησὶ γὰρ Ἡρακλέα, ἐπεὶ ἐκ παίδων εἰς ἥβην ὡρμᾶτο, ἐν ᾗ οἱ νέοι ἤδη αὐτοκράτορες γιγνόμενοι δηλοῦσιν εἴτε τὴν διʼ ἀρετῆς ὁδὸν τρέψονται ἐπὶ τὸν βίον εἴτε τὴν διὰ κακίας, ἐξελθόντα εἰς ἡσυχίαν καθῆσθαι ἀποροῦντα ποτέραν τῶν ὁδῶν τράπηται· 2.1.22. καὶ φανῆναι αὐτῷ δύο γυναῖκας προσιέναι μεγάλας, τὴν μὲν ἑτέραν εὐπρεπῆ τε ἰδεῖν καὶ ἐλευθέριον φύσει, κεκοσμημένην τὸ μὲν σῶμα καθαρότητι, τὰ δὲ ὄμματα αἰδοῖ, τὸ δὲ σχῆμα σωφροσύνῃ, ἐσθῆτι δὲ λευκῇ, τὴν δʼ ἑτέραν τεθραμμένην μὲν εἰς πολυσαρκίαν τε καὶ ἁπαλότητα, κεκαλλωπισμένην δὲ τὸ μὲν χρῶμα ὥστε λευκοτέραν τε καὶ ἐρυθροτέραν τοῦ ὄντος δοκεῖν φαίνεσθαι, τὸ δὲ σχῆμα ὥστε δοκεῖν ὀρθοτέραν τῆς φύσεως εἶναι, τὰ δὲ ὄμματα ἔχειν ἀναπεπταμένα, ἐσθῆτα δὲ ἐξ ἧς ἂν μάλιστα ὥρα διαλάμποι· κατασκοπεῖσθαι δὲ θαμὰ ἑαυτήν, ἐπισκοπεῖν δὲ καὶ εἴ τις ἄλλος αὐτὴν θεᾶται, πολλάκις δὲ καὶ εἰς τὴν ἑαυτῆς σκιὰν ἀποβλέπειν. 2.1.23. ὡς δʼ ἐγένοντο πλησιαίτερον τοῦ Ἡρακλέους, τὴν μὲν πρόσθεν ῥηθεῖσαν ἰέναι τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον, τὴν δʼ ἑτέραν φθάσαι βουλομένην προσδραμεῖν τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ καὶ εἰπεῖν· ὁρῶ σε, ὦ Ἡράκλεις, ἀποροῦντα ποίαν ὁδὸν ἐπὶ τὸν βίον τράπῃ. ἐὰν οὖν ἐμὲ φίλην ποιησάμενος, ἐπὶ τὴν ἡδίστην τε καὶ ῥᾴστην ὁδὸν ἄξω σε, καὶ τῶν μὲν τερπνῶν οὐδενὸς ἄγευστος ἔσει, τῶν δὲ χαλεπῶν ἄπειρος διαβιώσῃ. 2.1.24. πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ οὐ πολέμων οὐδὲ πραγμάτων φροντιεῖς, ἀλλὰ σκοπούμενος διέσῃ τί ἂν κεχαρισμένον ἢ σιτίον ἢ ποτὸν εὕροις, ἢ τί ἂν ἰδὼν ἢ ἀκούσας τερφθείης ἢ τίνων ὀσφραινόμενος ἢ ἁπτόμενος, τίσι δὲ παιδικοῖς ὁμιλῶν μάλιστʼ ἂν εὐφρανθείης, καὶ πῶς ἂν μαλακώτατα καθεύδοις, καὶ πῶς ἂν ἀπονώτατα τούτων πάντων τυγχάνοις. 2.1.25. ἐὰν δέ ποτε γένηταί τις ὑποψία σπάνεως ἀφʼ ὧν ἔσται ταῦτα, οὐ φόβος μή σε ἀγάγω ἐπὶ τὸ πονοῦντα καὶ ταλαιπωροῦντα τῷ σώματι καὶ τῇ ψυχῇ ταῦτα πορίζεσθαι, ἀλλʼ οἷς ἂν οἱ ἄλλοι ἐργάζωνται, τούτοις σὺ χρήσῃ, οὐδενὸς ἀπεχόμενος ὅθεν ἂν δυνατὸν ᾖ τι κερδᾶναι. πανταχόθεν γὰρ ὠφελεῖσθαι τοῖς ἐμοὶ συνοῦσιν ἐξουσίαν ἐγὼ παρέχω. 2.1.26. καὶ ὁ Ἡρακλῆς ἀκούσας ταῦτα, ὦ γύναι, ἔφη, ὄνομα δέ σοι τί ἐστιν; ἡ δέ, οἱ μὲν ἐμοὶ φίλοι, ἔφη, καλοῦσί με Εὐδαιμονίαν, οἱ δὲ μισοῦντές με ὑποκοριζόμενοι ὀνομάζουσι Κακίαν. 2.1.27. καὶ ἐν τούτῳ ἡ ἑτέρα γυνὴ προσελθοῦσα εἶπε· καὶ ἐγὼ ἥκω πρὸς σέ, ὦ Ἡράκλεις, εἰδυῖα τοὺς γεννήσαντάς σε καὶ τὴν φύσιν τὴν σὴν ἐν τῇ παιδείᾳ καταμαθοῦσα, ἐξ ὧν ἐλπίζω, εἰ τὴν πρὸς ἐμὲ ὁδὸν τράποιο, σφόδρʼ ἄν σε τῶν καλῶν καὶ σεμνῶν ἀγαθὸν ἐργάτην γενέσθαι καὶ ἐμὲ ἔτι πολὺ ἐντιμοτέραν καὶ ἐπʼ ἀγαθοῖς διαπρεπεστέραν φανῆναι. οὐκ ἐξαπατήσω δέ σε προοιμίοις ἡδονῆς, ἀλλʼ ᾗπερ οἱ θεοὶ διέθεσαν τὰ ὄντα διηγήσομαι μετʼ ἀληθείας. 2.1.28. τῶν γὰρ ὄντων ἀγαθῶν καὶ καλῶν οὐδὲν ἄνευ πόνου καὶ ἐπιμελείας θεοὶ διδόασιν ἀνθρώποις, ἀλλʼ εἴτε τοὺς θεοὺς ἵλεως εἶναί σοι βούλει, θεραπευτέον τοὺς θεούς, εἴτε ὑπὸ φίλων ἐθέλεις ἀγαπᾶσθαι, τοὺς φίλους εὐεργετητέον, εἴτε ὑπό τινος πόλεως ἐπιθυμεῖς τιμᾶσθαι, τὴν πόλιν ὠφελητέον, εἴτε ὑπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος πάσης ἀξιοῖς ἐπʼ ἀρετῇ θαυμάζεσθαι, τὴν Ἑλλάδα πειρατέον εὖ ποιεῖν, εἴτε γῆν βούλει σοι καρποὺς ἀφθόνους φέρειν, τὴν γῆν θεραπευτέον, εἴτε ἀπὸ βοσκημάτων οἴει δεῖν πλουτίζεσθαι, τῶν βοσκημάτων ἐπιμελητέον, εἴτε διὰ πολέμου ὁρμᾷς αὔξεσθαι καὶ βούλει δύνασθαι τούς τε φίλους ἐλευθεροῦν καὶ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς χειροῦσθαι, τὰς πολεμικὰς τέχνας αὐτάς τε παρὰ τῶν ἐπισταμένων μαθητέον καὶ ὅπως αὐταῖς δεῖ χρῆσθαι ἀσκητέον· εἰ δὲ καὶ τῷ σώματι βούλει δυνατὸς εἶναι, τῇ γνώμῃ ὑπηρετεῖν ἐθιστέον τὸ σῶμα καὶ γυμναστέον σὺν πόνοις καὶ ἱδρῶτι. 2.1.29. καὶ ἡ Κακία ὑπολαβοῦσα εἶπεν, ὥς φησι Πρόδικος· ἐννοεῖς, ὦ Ἡράκλεις, ὡς χαλεπὴν καὶ μακρὰν ὁδὸν ἐπὶ τὰς εὐφροσύνας ἡ γυνή σοι αὕτη διηγεῖται; ἐγὼ δὲ ῥᾳδίαν καὶ βραχεῖαν ὁδὸν ἐπὶ τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν ἄξω σε. 2.1.30. καὶ ἡ Ἀρετὴ εἶπεν· ὦ τλῆμον, τί δὲ σὺ ἀγαθὸν ἔχεις; ἢ τί ἡδὺ οἶσθα μηδὲν τούτων ἕνεκα πράττειν ἐθέλουσα; ἥτις οὐδὲ τὴν τῶν ἡδέων ἐπιθυμίαν ἀναμένεις, ἀλλὰ πρὶν ἐπιθυμῆσαι πάντων ἐμπίμπλασαι, πρὶν μὲν πεινῆν ἐσθίουσα, πρὶν δὲ διψῆν πίνουσα, ἵνα μὲν ἡδέως φάγῃς, ὀψοποιοὺς μηχανωμένη, ἵνα δὲ ἡδέως πίῃς, οἴνους τε πολυτελεῖς παρασκευάζῃ καὶ τοῦ θέρους χιόνα περιθέουσα ζητεῖς, ἵνα δὲ καθυπνώσῃς ἡδέως, οὐ μόνον τὰς στρωμνὰς μαλακάς, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς κλίνας καὶ τὰ ὑπόβαθρα ταῖς κλίναις παρασκευάζῃ· οὐ γὰρ διὰ τὸ πονεῖν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸ μηδὲν ἔχειν ὅ τι ποιῇς ὕπνου ἐπιθυμεῖς· τὰ δʼ ἀφροδίσια πρὸ τοῦ δεῖσθαι ἀναγκάζεις, πάντα μηχανωμένη καὶ γυναιξὶ τοῖς ἀνδράσι χρωμένη· οὕτω γὰρ παιδεύεις τοὺς σεαυτῆς φίλους, τῆς μὲν νυκτὸς ὑβρίζουσα, τῆς δʼ ἡμέρας τὸ χρησιμώτατον κατακοιμίζουσα. 2.1.31. ἀθάνατος δὲ οὖσα ἐκ θεῶν μὲν ἀπέρριψαι, ὑπὸ δὲ ἀνθρώπων ἀγαθῶν ἀτιμάζῃ· τοῦ δὲ πάντων ἡδίστου ἀκούσματος, ἐπαίνου σεαυτῆς, ἀνήκοος εἶ, καὶ τοῦ πάντων ἡδίστου θεάματος ἀθέατος· οὐδὲν γὰρ πώποτε σεαυτῆς ἔργον καλὸν τεθέασαι. τίς δʼ ἄν σοι λεγούσῃ τι πιστεύσειε; τίς δʼ ἂν δεομένῃ τινὸς ἐπαρκέσειεν; ἢ τίς ἂν εὖ φρονῶν τοῦ σοῦ θιάσου τολμήσειεν εἶναι; οἳ νέοι μὲν ὄντες τοῖς σώμασιν ἀδύνατοί εἰσι, πρεσβύτεροι δὲ γενόμενοι ταῖς ψυχαῖς ἀνόητοι, ἀπόνως μὲν λιπαροὶ διὰ νεότητος τρεφόμενοι, ἐπιπόνως δὲ αὐχμηροὶ διὰ γήρως περῶντες, τοῖς μὲν πεπραγμένοις αἰσχυνόμενοι, τοῖς δὲ πραττομένοις βαρυνόμενοι, τὰ μὲν ἡδέα ἐν τῇ νεότητι διαδραμόντες, τὰ δὲ χαλεπὰ εἰς τὸ γῆρας ἀποθέμενοι. 2.1.32. ἐγὼ δὲ σύνειμι μὲν θεοῖς, σύνειμι δὲ ἀνθρώποις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς· ἔργον δὲ καλὸν οὔτε θεῖον οὔτʼ ἀνθρώπειον χωρὶς ἐμοῦ γίγνεται. τιμῶμαι δὲ μάλιστα πάντων καὶ παρὰ θεοῖς καὶ παρὰ ἀνθρώποις οἷς προσήκω, ἀγαπητὴ μὲν συνεργὸς τεχνίταις, πιστὴ δὲ φύλαξ οἴκων δεσπόταις, εὐμενὴς δὲ παραστάτις οἰκέταις, ἀγαθὴ δὲ συλλήπτρια τῶν ἐν εἰρήνῃ πόνων, βεβαία δὲ τῶν ἐν πολέμῳ σύμμαχος ἔργων, ἀρίστη δὲ φιλίας κοινωνός. 2.1.33. ἔστι δὲ τοῖς μὲν ἐμοῖς φίλοις ἡδεῖα μὲν καὶ ἀπράγμων σίτων καὶ ποτῶν ἀπόλαυσις· ἀνέχονται γὰρ ἕως ἂν ἐπιθυμήσωσιν αὐτῶν· ὕπνος δʼ αὐτοῖς πάρεστιν ἡδίων ἢ τοῖς ἀμόχθοις, καὶ οὔτε ἀπολείποντες αὐτὸν ἄχθονται οὔτε διὰ τοῦτον μεθιᾶσι τὰ δέοντα πράττειν. καὶ οἱ μὲν νέοι τοῖς τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ἐπαίνοις χαίρουσιν, οἱ δὲ γεραίτεροι ταῖς τῶν νέων τιμαῖς ἀγάλλονται· καὶ ἡδέως μὲν τῶν παλαιῶν πράξεων μέμνηνται, εὖ δὲ τὰς παρούσας ἥδονται πράττοντες, διʼ ἐμὲ φίλοι μὲν θεοῖς ὄντες, ἀγαπητοὶ δὲ φίλοις, τίμιοι δὲ πατρίσιν· ὅταν δʼ ἔλθῃ τὸ πεπρωμένον τέλος, οὐ μετὰ λήθης ἄτιμοι κεῖνται, ἀλλὰ μετὰ μνήμης τὸν ἀεὶ χρόνον ὑμνούμενοι θάλλουσι. τοιαῦτά σοι, ὦ παῖ τοκέων ἀγαθῶν Ἡράκλεις, ἔξεστι διαπονησαμένῳ τὴν μακαριστοτάτην εὐδαιμονίαν κεκτῆσθαι. 2.1.34. οὕτω πως διώκει Πρόδικος τὴν ὑπʼ Ἀρετῆς Ἡρακλέους παίδευσιν· ἐκόσμησε μέντοι τὰς γνώμας ἔτι μεγαλειοτέροις ῥήμασιν ἢ ἐγὼ νῦν. σοὶ δʼ οὖν ἄξιον, ὦ Ἀρίστιππε, τούτων ἐνθυμουμένῳ πειρᾶσθαί τι καὶ τῶν εἰς τὸν μέλλοντα χρόνον τοῦ βίου φροντίζειν.''. None
2.1.21. Aye, and Prodicus the wise expresses himself to the like effect concerning Virtue in the essay On Heracles that he recites to throngs of listeners. This, so far as I remember, is how he puts it: When Heracles was passing from boyhood to youth’s estate, wherein the young, now becoming their own masters, show whether they will approach life by the path of virtue or the path of vice, he went out into a quiet place, 2.1.22. and sat pondering which road to take. And there appeared two women of great stature making towards him. The one was fair to see and of high bearing; and her limbs were adorned with purity, her eyes with modesty; sober was her figure, and her robe was white. The other was plump and soft, with high feeding. Her face was made up to heighten its natural white and pink, her figure to exaggerate her height. Open-eyed was she; and dressed so as to disclose all her charms. Now she eyed herself; anon looked whether any noticed her; and often stole a glance at her own shadow. 2.1.23. When they drew nigh to Heracles, the first pursued the even tenor of her way: but the other, all eager to outdo her, ran to meet him, crying: Heracles, I see that you are in doubt which path to take towards life. Make me your friend; follow me, and I will lead you along the pleasantest and easiest road. You shall taste all the sweets of life; and hardship you shall never know. 2.1.24. First, of wars and worries you shall not think, but shall ever be considering what choice food or drink you can find, what sight or sound will delight you, what touch or perfume; what tender love can give you most joy, what bed the softest slumbers; and how to come by all these pleasures with least trouble. 2.1.25. And should there arise misgiving that lack of means may stint your enjoyments, never fear that I may lead you into winning them by toil and anguish of body and soul. Nay; you shall have the fruits of others’ toil, and refrain from nothing that can bring you gain. For to my companions I give authority to pluck advantage where they will. 2.1.26. Now when Heracles heard this, he asked, Lady, pray what is your name? My friends call me Happiness, she said, but among those that hate me I am nicknamed Vice. 2.1.27. Meantime the other had drawn near, and she said: I, too, am come to you, Heracles: I know your parents and I have taken note of your character during the time of your education. Therefore I hope that, if you take the road that leads to me, you will turn out a right good doer of high and noble deeds, and I shall be yet more highly honoured and more illustrious for the blessings I bestow. But I will not deceive you by a pleasant prelude: I will rather tell you truly the things that are, as the gods have ordained them. 2.1.28. For of all things good and fair, the gods give nothing to man without toil and effort. If you want the favour of the gods, you must worship the gods: if you desire the love of friends, you must do good to your friends: if you covet honour from a city, you must aid that city: if you are fain to win the admiration of all Hellas for virtue, you must strive to do good to Hellas : if you want land to yield you fruits in abundance, you must cultivate that land: if you are resolved to get wealth from flocks, you must care for those flocks: if you essay to grow great through war and want power to liberate your friends and subdue your foes, you must learn the arts of war from those who know them and must practise their right use: and if you want your body to be strong, you must accustom your body to be the servant of your mind, and train it with toil and sweat. 2.1.29. And Vice, as Prodicus tells, answered and said: Heracles, mark you how hard and long is that road to joy, of which this woman tells? but I will lead you by a short and easy road to happiness. And Virtue said: 2.1.30. What good thing is thine, poor wretch, or what pleasant thing dost thou know, if thou wilt do nought to win them? Thou dost not even tarry for the desire of pleasant things, but fillest thyself with all things before thou desirest them, eating before thou art hungry, drinking before thou art thirsty, getting thee cooks, to give zest to eating, buying thee costly wines and running to and fro in search of snow in summer, to give zest to drinking; to soothe thy slumbers it is not enough for thee to buy soft coverlets, but thou must have frames for thy beds. For not toil, but the tedium of having nothing to do, makes thee long for sleep. Thou dost rouse lust by many a trick, when there is no need, using men as women: thus thou trainest thy friends, waxing wanton by night, consuming in sleep the best hours of day. 2.1.31. Immortal art thou, yet the outcast of the gods, the scorn of good men. Praise, sweetest of all things to hear, thou hearest not: the sweetest of all sights thou beholdest not, for never yet hast thou beheld a good work wrought by thyself. Who will believe what thou dost say? who will grant what thou dost ask? Or what sane man will dare join thy throng? While thy votaries are young their bodies are weak, when they wax old, their souls are without sense; idle and sleek they thrive in youth, withered and weary they journey through old age, and their past deeds bring them shame, their present deeds distress. Pleasure they ran through in their youth: hardship they laid up for their old age. 2.1.32. But I company with gods and good men, and no fair deed of god or man is done without my aid. I am first in honour among the gods and among men that are akin to me: to craftsmen a beloved fellow-worker, to masters a faithful guardian of the house, to servants a kindly protector: good helpmate in the toils of peace, staunch ally in the deeds of war, best partner in friendship. 2.1.33. To my friends meat and drink bring sweet and simple enjoyment: for they wait till they crave them. And a sweeter sleep falls on them than on idle folk: they are not vexed at awaking from it, nor for its sake do they neglect to do their duties. The young rejoice to win the praise of the old; the elders are glad to be honoured by the young; with joy they recall their deeds past, and their present well-doing is joy to them, for through me they are dear to the gods, lovely to friends, precious to their native land. And when comes the appointed end, they lie not forgotten and dishonoured, but live on, sung and remembered for all time. O Heracles, thou son of goodly parents, if thou wilt labour earnestly on this wise, thou mayest have for thine own the most blessed happiness. 2.1.34. Such, in outline, is Prodicus’ story of the training of Heracles by Virtue; only he has clothed the thoughts in even finer phrases than I have done now. But anyhow, Aristippus, it were well that you should think on these things and try to show some regard for the life that lies before you. ''. None
5. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, Roman poet • Ennius, and Cato the Elder • Ennius, and Naevius • Ennius, and Petrarch • Ennius, and Scipio Africanus • Ennius, and Solon • Ennius, influence • Ennius, social status • Ennius’ Annales • Ennius’ Annales, rejection of Fauns and prophets • Euhemerus, of Ennius • Naevius, and Ennius • Q. Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 293, 294, 298, 312; Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 58; Hickson (1993) 23, 24, 26, 27, 81; Oksanish (2019) 50, 51, 54; Rutledge (2012) 40; Rüpke (2011) 90, 92, 100, 106, 107; Santangelo (2013) 152, 153; Verhagen (2022) 293, 294, 298, 312; Williams and Vol (2022) 36; Čulík-Baird (2022) 32, 46, 47, 210, 211, 228


6. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 295, 299, 301; Verhagen (2022) 295, 299, 301


7. Cicero, On Divination, 1.66, 1.114, 1.132, 2.24, 2.115-2.116 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius (Quintus Ennius) • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius’ Annales • Homer, aligned with Ennius • narrative, battle, in Ennius’ Annals

 Found in books: Farrell (2021) 189; Johnston and Struck (2005) 136; Joseph (2022) 30; Maso (2022) 81; Mowat (2021) 45; Santangelo (2013) 39, 151, 152, 155; Čulík-Baird (2022) 213


1.66. Inest igitur in animis praesagitio extrinsecus iniecta atque inclusa divinitus. Ea si exarsit acrius, furor appellatur, cum a corpore animus abstractus divino instinctu concitatur. H. Séd quid oculis rábere visa es dérepente ardéntibus? U/bi paulo ante sápiens illa vírginalis modéstia? C. Máter, optumárum multo múlier melior múlierum, Míssa sum supérstitiosis háriolatiónibus; Námque Apollo fátis fandis démentem invitám ciet. Vírgines vereór aequalis, pátris mei meum factúm pudet, O/ptumi viri/; mea mater, túi me miseret, méi piget. O/ptumam progéniem Priamo péperisti extra me; hóc dolet. Mén obesse, illós prodesse, me óbstare, illos óbsequi? O poe+ma tenerum et moratum atque molle! Sed hoc minus ad rem;
1.114. Ergo et ii, quorum animi spretis corporibus evolant atque excurrunt foras, ardore aliquo inflammati atque incitati cernunt illa profecto, quae vaticites pronuntiant, multisque rebus inflammantur tales animi, qui corporibus non inhaerent, ut ii, qui sono quodam vocum et Phrygiis cantibus incitantur. Multos nemora silvaeque, multos amnes aut maria commovent, quorum furibunda mens videt ante multo, quae sint futura. Quo de genere illa sunt: Eheú videte! Iúdicabit ínclitum iudícium inter deás tris aliquis, Quó iudicio Lácedaemonia múlier, Furiarum úna, adveniet. Eodem enim modo multa a vaticitibus saepe praedicta sunt, neque solum verbis, sed etiam Versibus, quos olim Fauni vatesque canebant. Similiter Marcius et Publicius vates cecinisse dicuntur;
1.132. Nunc illa testabor, non me sortilegos neque eos, qui quaestus causa hariolentur, ne psychomantia quidem, quibus Appius, amicus tuus, uti solebat, agnoscere; non habeo denique nauci Marsum augurem, non vicanos haruspices, non de circo astrologos, non Isiacos coniectores, non interpretes somniorum; non enim sunt ii aut scientia aut arte divini, Séd superstitiósi vates ínpudentesque hárioli Aút inertes aút insani aut quíbus egestas ímperat, Quí sibi semitám non sapiunt, álteri monstránt viam; Quíbus divitias póllicentur, áb iis drachumam ipsí petunt. De hís divitiis síbi deducant dráchumam, reddant cétera. Atque haec quidem Ennius, qui paucis ante versibus esse deos censet, sed eos non curare opinatur, quid agat humanum genus. Ego autem, qui et curare arbitror et monere etiam ac multa praedicere, levitate, vanitate, malitia exclusa divinationem probo. Quae cum dixisset Quintus, Praeclare tu quidem, inquam, paratus
2.24. Nam illud quidem dici, praesertim a Stoicis, nullo modo potest: Non isset ad arma Pompeius, non transisset Crassus Euphratem, non suscepisset bellum civile Caesar. Non igitur fatalis exitus habuerunt; vultis autem evenire omnia fato; nihil ergo illis profuisset divinare; atque etiam omnem fructum vitae superioris perdidissent; quid enim posset iis esse laetum exitus suos cogitantibus? Ita, quoquo sese verterint Stoici, iaceat necesse est omnis eorum sollertia. Si enim id, quod eventurum est, vel hoc vel illo modo potest evenire, fortuna valet plurimum; quae autem fortuita sunt, certa esse non possunt. Sin autem certum est, quid quaque de re quoque tempore futurum sit, quid est, quod me adiuvent haruspices? qui cum res tristissimas portendi dixerunt, addunt ad extremum omnia levius casura rebus divinis procuratis;
2.115. Sed iam ad te venio, O/ sancte Apollo, qui úmbilicum cértum terrarum óbsides, U/nde superstitiósa primum saéva evasit vóx fera. Tuis enim oraculis Chrysippus totum volumen inplevit partim falsis, ut ego opinor, partim casu veris, ut fit in omni oratione saepissime, partim flexiloquis et obscuris, ut interpres egeat interprete et sors ipsa ad sortes referenda sit, partim ambiguis, et quae ad dialecticum deferendae sint. Nam cum illa sors edita est opulentissumo regi Asiae: Croesus Halyn penetrans magnam pervertet opum vim, hostium vim se perversurum putavit, pervertit autem suam. 2.116. Utrum igitur eorum accidisset, verum oraclum fuisset. Cur autem hoc credam umquam editum Croeso? aut Herodotum cur veraciorem ducam Ennio? Num minus ille potuit de Croeso quam de Pyrrho fingere Ennius? Quis enim est, qui credat Apollinis ex oraculo Pyrrho esse responsum: Aio te, Aeacida, Romanos vincere posse? Primum Latine Apollo numquam locutus est; deinde ista sors inaudita Graecis est; praeterea Pyrrhi temporibus iam Apollo versus facere desierat; postremo, quamquam semper fuit, ut apud Ennium est, stolidum genus Aeacidarum, Bellipotentes sunt magis quam sapientipotentes, tamen hanc amphiboliam versus intellegere potuisset, vincere te Romanos nihilo magis in se quam in Romanos valere; nam illa amphibolia, quae Croesum decepit, vel Chrysippum potuisset fallere, haec vero ne Epicurum quidem.''. None
1.66. Therefore the human soul has an inherent power of presaging or of foreknowing infused into it from without, and made a part of it by the will of God. If that power is abnormally developed, it is called frenzy or inspiration, which occurs when the soul withdraws itself from the body and is violently stimulated by a divine impulse, as in the following instance, where Hecuba says to Cassandra:But why those flaming eyes, that sudden rage?And whither fled that sober modesty,Till now so maidenly and yet so wise?and Cassandra answers:O mother, noblest of thy noble sex!I have been sent to utter prophecies:Against my will Apollo drives me madTo revelation make of future ills.O virgins! comrades of my youthful hours,My mission shames my father, best of men.O mother dear! great loathing for myselfAnd grief for thee I feel. For thou hast borneTo Priam goodly issue — saving me,Tis sad that unto thee the rest bring weal,I woe; that they obey, but I oppose.What a tender and pathetic poem, and how suitable to her character! though it is not altogether relevant, I admit.
1.114. Those then, whose souls, spurning their bodies, take wings and fly abroad — inflamed and aroused by a sort of passion — these men, I say, certainly see the things which they foretell in their prophecies. Such souls do not cling to the body and are kindled by many different influences. For example, some are aroused by certain vocal tones, as by Phrygian songs, many by groves and forests, and many others by rivers and seas. I believe, too, that there were certain subterranean vapours which had the effect of inspiring persons to utter oracles. In all these cases the frenzied soul sees the future long in advance, as Cassandra did in the following instance:Alas! behold! some mortal will decideA famous case between three goddesses:Because of that decision there will comeA Spartan woman, but a Fury too.It is in this state of exaltation that many predictions have been made, not only in prose but alsoIn verse which once the fauns and bards did sing.
1.132. I will assert, however, in conclusion, that I do not recognize fortune-tellers, or those who prophesy for money, or necromancers, or mediums, whom your friend Appius makes it a practice to consult.In fine, I say, I do not care a figFor Marsian augurs, village mountebanks,Astrologers who haunt the circus grounds,Or Isis-seers, or dream interpreters:— for they are not diviners either by knowledge or skill, —But superstitious bards, soothsaying quacks,Averse to work, or mad, or ruled by want,Directing others how to go, and yetWhat road to take they do not know themselves;From those to whom they promise wealth they begA coin. From what they promised let them takeTheir coin as toll and pass the balance on.Such are the words of Ennius who only a few lines further back expresses the view that there are gods and yet says that the gods do not care what human beings do. But for my part, believing as I do that the gods do care for man, and that they advise and often forewarn him, I approve of divination which is not trivial and is free from falsehood and trickery.When Quintus had finished I remarked, My dear Quintus, you have come admirably well prepared.
2.24. For, assuming that men knew the future it cannot in any wise be said — certainly not by the Stoics — that Pompey would not have taken up arms, that Crassus would not have crossed the Euphrates, or that Caesar would not have embarked upon the civil war. If so, then, the deaths that befell these men were not determined by Fate. But you will have it that everything happens by Fate; consequently, knowledge of the future would have done these men no good. In reality it would have entirely deprived the earlier portion of their lives of enjoyment; for how could they have been happy in reflecting what their ends would be? And so, however the Stoics turn and twist, all their shrewdness must come to naught. For, if a thing that is going to happen, may happen in one way or another, indifferently, chance is predomit; but things that happen by chance cannot be certain. But if it is certain what is going to befall me in reference to any matter and on every occasion, how do the soothsayers help me by saying that the greatest misfortunes await me? 10
2.115. But now I come to you,Apollo, sacred guard of earths true core,Whence first came frenzied, wild prophetic words.Chrysippus filled a whole volume with your oracles; of these some, as I think, were false; some came true by chance, as happens very often even in ordinary speech; some were so intricate and obscure that their interpreter needs an interpreter and the oracles themselves must be referred back to the oracle; and some so equivocal that they require a dialectician to construe them. For example, when the following oracular response was made to Asias richest king:When Croesus oer the river Halys goesHe will a mighty kingdom overthrow,Croesus thought that he would overthrow his enemys kingdom, whereas he overthrew his own. 2.116. But in either event the oracle would have been true. Besides, why need I believe that this oracle was ever given to Croesus? or why should I consider Herodotus more truthful than Ennius? and was the former less able to invent stories about Croesus than Ennius was about Pyrrhus? For instance, nobody believes Ennius when he says that Apollos oracle gave the following response to Pyrrhus:O son of Aeacus, my prediction isThat you the Roman army will defeat.In the first place Apollo never spoke in Latin; second, that oracle is unknown to the Greeks; third, in the days of Pyrrhus Apollo had already ceased making verses, and, finally, although the sons of Aeacus have ever been, as Ennius says,a stolid race,And more for valour than for wisdom famed,still Pyrrhus would have had sense enough to see that the equivocal line — You the Roman army will defeat — was no more favourable to him than to the Romans. As for that equivocal response which deceived Croesus, it might have deceived — Chrysippus, for example; but the one made to Pyrrhus wouldnt have fooled — even Epicurus! 57''. None
8. Cicero, De Finibus, 2.118, 3.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 299, 321; Verhagen (2022) 299, 321


2.118. \xa0Not to bring forward further arguments (for they are countless in number), any sound commendation of Virtue must needs keep Pleasure at arm's length. Do not expect me further to argue the point; look within, study your own consciousness. Then after full and careful introspection, ask yourself the question, would you prefer to pass your whole life in that state of calm which you spoke of so often, amidst the enjoyment of unceasing pleasures, free from all pain, and even (an addition which your school is fond of postulating but which is really impossible) free from all fear of pain, or to be a benefactor of the entire human race, and to bring succour and safety to the distressed, even at the cost of enduring the dolours of a Hercules? Dolours â\x80\x94 that was indeed the sad and gloomy name which our ancestors bestowed, even in the case of a god, upon labours which were not to be evaded. <" '
3.11. \xa0"That all sounds very fine, Cato," I\xa0replied, "but are you aware that you share your lofty pretensions with Pyrrho and with Aristo, who make all things equal in value? I\xa0should like to know what your opinion is of them." "My opinion?" he said. "You ask what my opinion is? That those good, brave, just and temperate men, of whom history tells us, or whom we have ourselves seen in our public life, who under the guidance of Nature herself, without the aid of any learning, did many glorious deeds, â\x80\x94 that these men were better educated by nature than they could possibly have been by philosophy had they accepted any other system of philosophy than the one that counts Moral Worth the only good and Moral Baseness the only evil. All other philosophical systems â\x80\x94 in varying degrees no doubt, but still all, â\x80\x94 which reckon anything of which virtue is not an element either as a good or an evil, do not merely, as I\xa0hold, give us no assistance or support towards becoming better men, but are actually corrupting to the character. Either this point must be firmly maintained, that Moral Worth is the sole good, or it is absolutely impossible to prove that virtue constitutes happiness. And in that case I\xa0do not see why we should trouble to study philosophy. For if anyone who is wise could be miserable, why, I\xa0should not set much value on your vaunted and belauded virtue." <'". None
9. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 2.118, 3.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 299, 321; Verhagen (2022) 299, 321


2.118. Ac ne plura complectar—sunt enim innumerabilia—, bene laudata virtus voluptatis aditus intercludat necesse est. quod iam a me expectare noli. tute introspice in mentem tuam ipse eamque omni cogitatione pertractans percontare ipse te perpetuisne malis voluptatibus perfruens in ea, quam saepe usurpabas, tranquillitate degere omnem aetatem sine dolore, adsumpto etiam illo, quod vos quidem adiungere soletis, sed fieri non potest, sine doloris metu, an, cum de omnibus gentibus optime mererere, mererere cod. Paris. Madvigii merere cum opem indigentibus salutemque ferres, vel Herculis perpeti aerumnas. sic enim maiores nostri labores non fugiendos fugiendos RNV figiendos A fingendo BE tristissimo tamen verbo aerumnas etiam in deo nominaverunt.' "
3.11. de quibus cupio scire quid sentias. Egone quaeris, inquit, inquit N inquam quid sentiam? quos bonos viros, fortes, iustos, moderatos aut audivimus in re publica fuisse aut ipsi vidimus, qui sine ulla doctrina naturam ipsam secuti multa laudabilia fecerunt, eos melius a natura institutos fuisse, quam institui potuissent a philosophia, si ullam aliam probavissent praeter eam, quae nihil aliud in bonis haberet nisi honestum, nihil nisi turpe in malis; ceterae philosophorum disciplinae, omnino alia magis alia, sed tamen omnes, quae rem ullam virtutis expertem expertem virtutis BE aut in bonis aut in malis numerent, eas non modo nihil adiuvare arbitror neque firmare, firmare affirmare (adfirmare A). ' Aut confirmare cum Or. scribendum est aut potius firmare, cui ex altero verbo (adiuvare) praepositio adhaesit' Mdv. quo meliores simus, sed ipsam depravare naturam. nam nisi hoc optineatur, id solum bonum esse, quod honestum sit, nullo modo probari possit beatam vitam virtute effici. quod si ita sit, cur cur N om. ABERV opera philosophiae sit danda nescio. si enim sapiens aliquis miser esse possit, ne ego istam gloriosam memorabilemque virtutem non magno aestimandam putem."'. None
2.118. \xa0Not to bring forward further arguments (for they are countless in number), any sound commendation of Virtue must needs keep Pleasure at arm's length. Do not expect me further to argue the point; look within, study your own consciousness. Then after full and careful introspection, ask yourself the question, would you prefer to pass your whole life in that state of calm which you spoke of so often, amidst the enjoyment of unceasing pleasures, free from all pain, and even (an addition which your school is fond of postulating but which is really impossible) free from all fear of pain, or to be a benefactor of the entire human race, and to bring succour and safety to the distressed, even at the cost of enduring the dolours of a Hercules? Dolours â\x80\x94 that was indeed the sad and gloomy name which our ancestors bestowed, even in the case of a god, upon labours which were not to be evaded. <" '
3.11. \xa0"That all sounds very fine, Cato," I\xa0replied, "but are you aware that you share your lofty pretensions with Pyrrho and with Aristo, who make all things equal in value? I\xa0should like to know what your opinion is of them." "My opinion?" he said. "You ask what my opinion is? That those good, brave, just and temperate men, of whom history tells us, or whom we have ourselves seen in our public life, who under the guidance of Nature herself, without the aid of any learning, did many glorious deeds, â\x80\x94 that these men were better educated by nature than they could possibly have been by philosophy had they accepted any other system of philosophy than the one that counts Moral Worth the only good and Moral Baseness the only evil. All other philosophical systems â\x80\x94 in varying degrees no doubt, but still all, â\x80\x94 which reckon anything of which virtue is not an element either as a good or an evil, do not merely, as I\xa0hold, give us no assistance or support towards becoming better men, but are actually corrupting to the character. Either this point must be firmly maintained, that Moral Worth is the sole good, or it is absolutely impossible to prove that virtue constitutes happiness. And in that case I\xa0do not see why we should trouble to study philosophy. For if anyone who is wise could be miserable, why, I\xa0should not set much value on your vaunted and belauded virtue." <'". None
10. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.119, 2.62 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Euhemerus, of Ennius • Q. Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 299; Gorain (2019) 93; Rüpke (2011) 107; Verhagen (2022) 299; Xinyue (2022) 9, 140


1.119. Or those who teach that brave or famous or powerful men have been deified after death, and that it is these who are the real objects of the worship, prayers and adoration which we are accustomed to offer — are not they entirely devoid of all sense of religion? This theory was chiefly developed by Euhemerus, who was translated and imitated especially by our poet Ennius. Yet Euhemerus describes the death and burial of certain gods; are we then to think of him as upholding religion, or rather as utterly and entirely destroying it? I say nothing of the holy and awe‑inspiring sanctuary of Eleusis, Where tribes from earth's remotest confines seek Initiation, and I pass over Samothrace and those occult mysteries Which throngs of worshippers at dead of night In forest coverts deep do celebrate at Lemnos, since such mysteries when interpreted and rationalized prove to have more to do with natural science than with theology. " '
2.62. Those gods therefore who were the authors of various benefits owned their deification to the value of the benefits which they bestowed, and indeed the names that I just now enumerated express the various powers of the gods that bear them. "Human experience moreover and general custom have made it a practice to confer the deification of renown and gratitude upon of distinguished benefactors. This is the origin of Hercules, of Castor and Pollux, of Aesculapius, and also of Liber (I mean Liber the son of Semele, not the Liber whom our ancestors solemnly and devoutly consecrated with Ceres and Libera, the import of which joint consecration may be gathered from the mysteries; but Liber and Libera were so named as Ceres\' offspring, that being the meaning of our Latin word liberi — a use which has survived in the case of Libera but not of Liber) — and this is also the origin of Romulus, who is believed to be the same as Quirinus. And these benefactors were duly deemed divine, as being both supremely good and immortal, because their souls survived and enjoyed eternal life. '". None
11. Cicero, On Duties, 1.77, 1.118, 2.31-2.51, 3.16, 3.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, as authority • Ennius, as witness • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 299, 316, 317, 318, 321; Oksanish (2019) 47; Verhagen (2022) 299, 316, 317, 318, 321; Čulík-Baird (2022) 220


1.77. Illud autem optimum est, in quod invadi solere ab improbis et invidis audio: Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi. Ut enim alios omittam, nobis rem publicam gubertibus nonne togae arma cesserunt? neque enim periculum in re publica fuit gravius umquam nec maius otium. Ita consiliis diligentiaque nostra celeriter de manibus audacissimorum civium delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt.
1.118. Nam quodHerculem Prodicus dicit, ut est apud Xenophontem, cum primum pubesceret, quod tempus a natura ad deligendum, quam quisque viam vivendi sit ingressurus, datum est, exisse in solitudinem atque ibi sedentem diu secum multumque dubitasse, cum duas cerneret vias, unam Voluptatis, alteram Virtutis, utram ingredi melius esset, hoc Herculi Iovis satu edito potuit fortasse contingere, nobis non item, qui imitamur, quos cuique visum est, atque ad eorum studia institutaque impellimur; plerumque autem parentium praeceptis imbuti ad eorum consuetudinem moremque deducimur; alii multitudinis iudicio feruntur, quaeque maiori parti pulcherrima videntur, ea maxime exoptant; non nulli tamen sive felicitate quadam sive bonitate naturae sine parentium disciplina rectam vitae secuti sunt viam.
2.31. Honore et gloria et benivolentia civium fortasse non aeque omnes egent, sed tamen, si cui haec suppetunt, adiuvant aliquantum cum ad cetera, tum ad amicitias comparandas. Sed de amicitia alio libro dictum est, qui inscribitur Laelius; nunc dicamus de gloria, quamquam ea quoque de re duo sunt nostri libri, sed attingamus, quandoquidem ea in rebus maioribus administrandis adiuvat plurimum. Summa igitur et perfecta gloria constat ex tribus his: si diligit multitudo, si fidem habet, si cum admiratione quadam honore dignos putat. Haec autem, si est simpliciter breviterque dicendum, quibus rebus pariuntur a singulis, eisdem fere a multitudine. Sed est alius quoque quidam aditus ad multitudinem, ut in universorum animos tamquam influere possimus. 2.32. Ac primum de illis tribus, quae ante dixi, benivolentiae praecepta videamus; quae quidem capitur beneficiis maxime, secundo autem loco voluntate benefica benivolentia movetur, etiamsi res forte non suppetit; vehementer autem amor multitudinis commovetur ipsa fama et opinione liberalitatis, beneficentiae, iustitiae, fidei omniumque earum virtutum, quae pertinent ad mansuetudinem morum ac facilitatem. Etenim illud ipsum, quod honestum decorumque dicimus, quia per se nobis placet animosque omnium natura et specie sua commovet maximeque quasi perlucet ex iis, quas commemoravi, virtutibus, idcirco illos, in quibus eas virtutes esse remur, a natura ipsa diligere cogimur. Atque hae quidem causae diligendi gravissimae; possunt enim praetcrea non nullae esse leviores. 2.33. Fides autem ut habeatur, duabus rebus effici potest, si existimabimur adepti coniunctam cum iustitia prudentiam. Nam et iis fidem habemus, quos plus intellegere quam nos arbitramur quosque et futura prospicere credimus et, cum res agatur in discrimenque ventum sit, expedire rem et consilium ex tempore capere posse; hanc enim utilem homines existimant veramque prudentiam. Iustis autem et fidis hominibus, id est bonis viris, ita fides habetur, ut nulla sit in iis fraudis iniuriaeque suspicio. Itaque his salutem nostram, his fortunas, his liberos rectissime committi arbitramur. 2.34. Harum igitur duarum ad fidem faciendam iustitia plus pollet, quippe cum ea sine prudentia satis habeat auctoritatis, prudentia sine iustitia nihil valet ad faciendam fidem. Quo enim quis versutior et callidior, hoc invisior et suspectior est detracta opinione probitatis. Quam ob rem intellegentiae iustitia coniuncta, quantum volet, habebit ad faciendam fidem virium; iustitia sine prudentia multum poterit, sine iustitia nihil valebit prudentia. 2.35. Sed ne quis sit admiratus, cur, cum inter omnes philosophos constet a meque ipso saepe disputatum sit, qui unam haberet, omnes habere virtutes, nune ita seiungam, quasi possit quisquam, qui non idem prudens sit, iustus esse, alia est illa, cum veritas ipsa limatur in disputatione, subtilitas, alia, cum ad opinionem communem omnis accommodatur oratio. Quam ob rem, ut volgus, ita nos hoc loco loquimur, ut alios fortes, alios viros bonos, alios prudentes esse dicamus; popularibus enim verbis est agendum et usitatis, cum loquimur de opinione populari, idque eodem modo fecit Panaetius. Sed ad propositum revertamur. 2.36. Erat igitur ex iis tribus, quae ad gloriam pertinerent, hoc tertium, ut cum admiratione hominum honore ab iis digni iudicaremur. Admirantur igitur communiter illi quidem omnia, quae magna et praeter opinionem suam animadverterunt, separatim autem, in singulis si perspiciunt necopinata quaedam bona. Itaque eos viros suspiciunt maximisque efferunt laudibus, in quibus existimant se excellentes quasdam et singulares perspicere virtutes, despiciunt autem eos et contemnunt, in quibus nihil virtutis, nihil animi, nihil nervorum putant. Non enim omnes eos contemnunt, de quibus male existimant. Nam quos improbos, maledicos, fraudulentos putant et ad faciendam iniuriam instructos, eos haud contemnunt quidem, sed de iis male existimant. Quam ob rem, ut ante dixi, contemnuntur ii, qui nec sibi nec alteri, ut dicitur, in quibus nullus labor, nulla industria, nulla cura est. 2.37. Admiratione autem afficiuntur ii, qui anteire ceteris virtute putantur et cum omni carere dedecore, tum vero iis vitiis, quibus alii non facile possunt obsistere. Nam et voluptates, blandissimae dominae. maioris partis animos a virtute detorquent et, dolorum cum admoventur faces, praeter modum plerique exterrentur; vita mors, divitiae paupertas omnes homines vehementissime permovent. Quae qui in utramque partem excelso animo magnoque despiciunt, cumque aliqua iis ampla et honesta res obiecta est, totos ad se convertit et rapit, tum quis non admiretur splendorem pulchritudinemque virtutis? 2.38. Ergo et haec animi despicientia admirabilitatem magnam facit et maxime iustitia, ex qua una virtute viri boni appellantur, mirifica quaedam multitudini videtur, nec iniuria; nemo enim iustus esse potest, qui mortem, qui dolorem, qui exsilium, qui egestatem timet, aut qui ea, quae sunt his contraria, aequitati anteponit. Maximeque admirantur eum, qui pecunia non movetur; quod in quo viro perspectum sit, hunc igni spectatum arbitrantur. Itaque illa tria, quae proposita sunt ad gloriarm omnia iustitia conficit, et benivolentiam, quod prodesse vult plurimis, et ob eandem causam fidem et admirationem, quod eas res spernit et neglegit, ad quas plerique inflammati aviditate rapiuntur. 2.39. Ac mea quidem sententia omnis ratio atque institutio vitae adiumenta hominum desiderat, in primisque ut habeat, quibuscum possit familiares conferre sermones; quod est difficile, nisi speciem prae te boni viri feras. Ergo etiam solitario homini atque in agro vitam agenti opinio iustitiae necessaria est, eoque etiam magis, quod, eam si non habebunt, iniusti habebuntur, nullis praesidiis saepti multis afficientur iniuriis. 2.40. Atque iis etiam, qui vendunt emunt, conducunt locant contrahendisque negotiis implicantur, iustitia ad rem gerendam necessaria est, cuius tanta vis est, ut ne illi quidem, qui maleficio et scelere pascuntur, possint sine ulla particula iustitiae vivere. Nam qui eorum cuipiam, qui una latrocitur, furatur aliquid aut eripit, is sibi ne in latrocinio quidem relinquit locum, ille autem, qui archipirata dicitur, nisi aequabiliter praedam dispertiat, aut interficiatur a sociis aut relinquatur; quin etiam leges latronum esse dicuntur, quibus pareant, quas observent. Itaque propter aequabilem praedae partitionem et Bardulis Illyrius latro, de quo est apud Theopompum, magnas opes habuit et multo maiores Viriathus Lusitanus; cui quidem etiam exercitus nostri imperatoresque cesserunt; quem C. Laelius, is qui Sapiens usurpatur, praetor fregit et comminuit ferocitatemque eius ita repressit, ut facile bellum reliquis traderet. Cum igitur tanta vis iustitiae sit, ut ea etiam latronum opes firmet atque augeat, quantam eius vim inter leges et iudicia et in constituta re publica fore putamus? 2.41. Mihi quidem non apud Medos solum, ut ait Herodotus, sed etiam apud maiores nostros iustitiae fruendae causa videntur olim bene morati reges constituti. Nam cum premeretur inops multitudo ab iis, qui maiores opes habebant, ad unum aliquem confugiebant virtute praestantem; qui cum prohiberet iniuria tenuiores, aequitate constituenda summos cum infimis pari iure retinebat. Eademque constituendarum legum fuit causa, quae regum. 2.42. Ius enim semper est quaesitum aequabile; neque enim aliter esset ius. Id si ab uno iusto et bono viro consequebantur, erant eo contenti; cum id minus contingeret, leges sunt inventae, quae cum omnibus semper una atque eadem voce loquerentur. Ergo hoc quidem perspicuum est, eos ad imperandum deligi solitos, quorum de iustitia magna esset opinio multitudinis. Adiuncto vero, ut idem etiam prudentes haberentur, nihil erat, quod homines iis auctoribus non posse consequi se arbitrarentur. Omni igitur ratione colenda et retinenda iustitia est cum ipsa per sese (nam aliter iustitia non esset), tum propter amplificationem honoris et gloriae. Sed ut pecuniae non quaerendae solum ratio est, verum etiam collocandae, quae perpetuos sumptus suppeditet, nec solum necessaries, sed etiam liberales, sic gloria et quaerenda et collocanda ratione est. 2.43. Quamquam praeclare Socrates hanc viam ad gloriam proximam et quasi compendiariam dicebat esse, si quis id ageret, ut, qualis haberi vellet, talis esset. Quodsi qui simulatione et ii ostentatione et ficto non modo sermone, sed etiam voltu stabilem se gloriam consequi posse rentur, vehementer errant. Vera gloria radices agit atque etiam propagatur, ficta omnia celeriter tamquam flosculi decidunt, nee simulatum potest quicquam esse diuturnum. Testes sunt permulti in utramque partem, sed brevitatis causa familia contenti erimus una. Ti. enim Gracchus P. f. tam diu laudabitur, dum memoria rerum Romanarum manebit; at eius filii nec vivi probabantur bonis et mortui numerum optinent iure caesorum. Qui igitur adipisci veram gloriam volet, iustitiae fungatur officiis. Ea quae essent, dictum est in libro superiore. 2.44. Sed ut facillime, quales simus, tales esse videamur, etsi in eo ipso vis maxima est, ut simus ii, qui haberi velimus, tamen quaedam praecepta danda sunt. Nam si quis ab ineunte aetate habet causam celebritatis et nominis aut a patre acceptam, quod tibi, mi Cicero, arbitror contigisse, aut aliquo casu atque fortuna, in hunc oculi omnium coniciuntur atque in eum, quid agat, quem ad modum vivat, inquiritur et, tamquam in clarissima luce versetur, ita nullum obscurum potest nec dictum eius esse nec factum. 2.45. Quorum autem prima aetas propter humilitatem et obscuritatem in hominum ignoratione versatur, ii, simul ac iuvenes esse coeperunt, magna spectare et ad ea rectis studiis debent contendere; quod eo firmiore animo facient, quia non modo non invidetur illi aetati, verum etiam favetur. Prima igitur est adulescenti commendatio ad gloriam, si qua ex bellicis rebus comparari potest, in qua multi apud maiores nostros exstiterunt; semper enim fere bella gerebantur. Tua autem aetas incidit in id bellum, cuius altera pars sceleris nimium habuit, altera felicitatis parum. Quo tamen in bello cum te Pompeius alae alteri praefecisset, magnam laudem et a summo viro et ab exercitu consequebare equitando, iaculando, omni militari labore tolerando. Atque ea quidem tua laus pariter cum re publica cecidit. Mihi autem haec oratio suscepta non de te est, sed de genere toto; quam ob rein pergarnus ad ea, quae restant. 2.46. Ut igitur in reliquis rebus multo maiora opera sunt animi quam corporis, sic eae res, quas ingenio ac ratione persequimur, gratiores sunt quam illae, quas viribus. Prima igitur commendatio proficiscitur a modestia cum pietate in parentes, in suos benivolentia. Facillime autem et in optimam partem cognoscuntur adulescentes, qui se ad claros et sapientes viros bene consulentes rei publicae contulerunt; quibuscum si frequentes sunt, opinionem afferunt populo eorum fore se similes, quos sibi ipsi delegerint ad imitandum. 2.47. P. Rutili adulescentiam ad opinionem et innocentiae et iuris scientiae P. Muci commendavit domus. Nam L. quidem Crassus, cum esset admodum adulescens, non aliunde mutuatus est, sed sibi ipse peperit maximam laudem ex illa accusatione nobili et gloriosa, et, qua aetate qui exercentur, laude affici solent, ut de Demosthene accepimus, ea aetate L. Crassus ostendit id se in foro optime iam facere, quod etiam tum poterat domi cum laude meditari. 2.48. Sed cum duplex ratio sit orationis, quarum in altera sermo sit, in altera contentio, non est id quidem dubium, quin contentio orationis maiorem vim habeat ad gloriam (ea est enim, quam eloquentiam dicimus); sed tamen difficile dictu est, quantopere conciliet animos comitas affabilitasque sermonis. Exstant epistulae et Philippi ad Alexandrum et Antipatri ad Cassandrum et Antigoni ad Philippum filium, trium prudentissimorum (sic enim accepimus); quibus praecipiunt, ut oratione benigna multitudinis animos ad benivolentiam alliciant militesque blande appellando sermone deliniant. Quae autem in multitudine cum contentione habetur oratio, ea saepe universam excitat gloriam ; magna est enim admiratio copiose sapienterque dicentis; quem qui audiunt, intellegere etiam et sapere plus quam ceteros arbitrantur. Si vero inest in oratione mixta modestia gravitas, nihil admirabilius fieri potest, eoque magis, si ea sunt in adulescente. 2.49. Sed cum sint plura causarum genera, quae eloquentiam desiderent, multique in nostra re publica adulescentes et apud iudices et apud populum et apud senatum dicendo laudem assecuti sint, maxima est admiratio in iudiciis. Quorum ratio duplex est. Nam ex accusatione et ex defensione constat; quarum etsi laudabilior est defensio, tamen etiam accusatio probata persaepe est. Dixi paulo ante de Crasso; idem fecit adulescens M. Antonius. Etiam P. Sulpici eloquentiam accusatio illustravit, cum seditiosum et inutilem civem, C. Norbanum, in iudicium vocavit.' "2.50. Sed hoc quidem non est saepe faciendum nec umquam nisi aut rei publicae causa, ut ii, quos ante dixi, aut ulciscendi, ut duo Luculli, aut patrocinii, ut nos pro Siculis, pro Sardis in Albucio Iulius. In accusando etiam M'. Aquilio L. Fufi cognita industria est. Semel igitur aut non saepe certe. Sin erit, cui faciendum sit saepius, rei publicae tribuat hoc muneris, cuius inimicos ulcisci saepius non est reprehendendum; modus tamen adsit. Duri enim hominis vel potius vix hominis videtur periculum capitis inferre multis. Id cum periculosum ipsi est, tum etiam sordidum ad famam, committere, ut accusator nominere; quod contigit M. Bruto summo genere nato, illius filio, qui iuris civilis in primis peritus fuit." '2.51. Atque etiam hoc praeceptum officii diligenter tenendum est, ne quem umquam innocentem iudicio capitis arcessas; id enim sine scelere fieri nullo pacto potest. Nam quid est tam inhumanum quam eloquentiam a natura ad salutem hominum et ad conservationem datam ad bonorum pestem perniciemque convertere? Nec tamen, ut hoc fugiendum est, item est habendum religioni nocentem aliquando, modo ne nefarium impiumque, defendere; vult hoc multitudo, patitur consuetudo, fert etiam humanitas. Iudicis est semper in causis verum sequi, patroni non numquam veri simile, etiamsi minus sit verum, defendere; quod scribere, praesertim cum de philosophia scriberem, non auderem, nisi idem placeret gravissimo Stoicorum, Panaetio. Maxime autem et gloria paritur et gratia defensionibus, eoque maior, si quando accidit, ut ei subveniatur, qui potentis alicuius opibus circumveniri urguerique videatur, ut nos et saepe alias et adulescentes contra L. Sullae domitis opes pro Sex. Roscio Amerino fecimus, quae, ut scis, exstat oratio.
3.16. Itaque iis omnes, in quibus est virtutis indoles, commoventur. Nec vero, cum duo Decii aut duo Scipiones fortes viri commemorantur, aut cum Fabricius aut Aristides iustus nominatur, aut ab illis fortitudinis aut ab hoc iustitiae tamquam a sapiente petitur exemplum; nemo enim horum sic sapiens, ut sapientem volumus intellegi, nec ii, qui sapientes habiti et nominati, M. Cato et C. Laelius, sapientes fuerunt, ne illi quidem septem, sed ex mediorum officiorum frequentia similitudinem quandam gerebant speciemque sapientium.
3.25. Itemque magis est secundum naturam pro omnibus gentibus, si fieri possit, conservandis aut iuvandis maximos labores molestiasque suscipere imitantem Herculem illum, quem hominum fama beneficiorum memor in concilio caelestium collocavit, quam vivere in solitudine non modo sine ullis molestiis, sed etiam in maximis voluptatibus abundantem omnibus copiis, ut excellas etiam pulchritudine et viribus. Quocirca optimo quisque et splendidissimo ingenio longe illam vitam huic anteponit. Ex quo efficitur hominem naturae oboedientem homini nocere non posse.''. None
1.77. \xa0The whole truth, however, is in this verse, against which, I\xa0am told, the malicious and envious are wont to rail: "Yield, ye arms, to the toga; to civic praises, ye laurels." Not to mention other instances, did not arms yield to the toga, when I\xa0was at the helm of state? For never was the republic in more serious peril, never was peace more profound. Thus, as the result of my counsels and my vigilance, their weapons slipped suddenly from the hands of the most desperate traitors â\x80\x94 dropped to the ground of their own accord! What achievement in war, then, was ever so great? <
1.118. \xa0For we cannot all have the experience of Hercules, as we find it in the words of Prodicus in Xenophon; "When Hercules was just coming into youth\'s estate (the time which Nature has appointed unto every man for choosing the path of life on which he would enter), he went out into a desert place. And as he saw two paths, the path of Pleasure and the path of Virtue, he sat down and debated long and earnestly which one it were better for him to take." This might, perhaps, happen to a Hercules, "scion of the seed of Jove"; but it cannot well happen to us; for we copy each the model he fancies, and we are constrained to adopt their pursuits and vocations. But usually, we are so imbued with the teachings of our parents, that we fall irresistibly into their manners and customs. Others drift with the current of popular opinion and make especial choice of those callings which the majority find most attractive. Some, however, as the result either of some happy fortune or of natural ability, enter upon the right path of life, without parental guidance. <
2.31. \xa0All men do not, perhaps, stand equally in need of political honour, fame and the good-will of their fellow-citizens; nevertheless, if these honours come to a man, they help in many ways, and especially in the acquisition of friends. But friendship has been discussed in another book of mine, entitled "Laelius." Let us now take up the discussion of Glory, although I\xa0have published two books on that subject also. Still, let us touch briefly on it here, since it is of very great help in the conduct of more important business. The highest, truest glory depends upon the following three things: the affection, the confidence, and the mingled admiration and esteem of the people. Such sentiments, if I\xa0may speak plainly and concisely, are awakened in the masses in the same way as in individuals. But there is also another avenue of approach to the masses, by which we can, as it were, steal into the hearts of all at once. <' "2.32. \xa0But of the three above-named requisites, let us look first at good-will and the rules for securing it. Good-will is won principally through kind services; next to that, it is elicited by the will to do a kind service, even though nothing happen to come of it. Then, too, the love of people generally is powerfully attracted by a man's mere name and reputation for generosity, kindness, justice, honour, and all those virtues that belong to gentleness of character and affability of manner. And because that very quality which we term moral goodness and propriety is pleasing to us by and of itself and touches all our hearts both by its inward essence and its outward aspect and shines forth with most lustre through those virtues named above, we are, therefore, compelled by Nature herself to love those in whom we believe those virtues to reside. Now these are only the most powerful motives to love â\x80\x94 not all of them; there may be some minor ones besides. <" '2.33. \xa0Secondly, the command of confidence can be secured on two conditions: (1)\xa0if people think us possessed of practical wisdom combined with a sense of justice. For we have confidence in those who we think have more understanding than ourselves, who, we believe, have better insight into the future, and who, when an emergency arises and a crisis comes, can clear away the difficulties and reach a safe decision according to the exigencies of the occasion; for that kind of wisdom the world accounts genuine and practical. But (2)\xa0confidence is reposed in men who are just and true â\x80\x94 that is, good men â\x80\x94 on the definite assumption that their characters admit of no suspicion of dishonesty or wrong-doing. And so we believe that it is perfectly safe to entrust our lives, our fortunes, and our children to their care. < 2.34. \xa0of these two qualities, then, justice has the greater power to inspire confidence; for even without the aid of wisdom, it has considerable weight; but wisdom without justice is of no avail to inspire confidence; for take from a man his reputation for probity, and the more shrewd and clever he is, the more hated and mistrusted he becomes. Therefore, justice combined with practical wisdom will command all the confidence we can desire; justice without wisdom will be able to do much; wisdom without justice will be of no avail at all. < 2.35. \xa0But I\xa0am afraid someone may wonder why I\xa0am now separating the virtues â\x80\x94 as if it were possible for anyone to be just who is not at the same time wise; for it is agreed upon among all philosophers, and I\xa0myself have often argued, that he who has one virtue has them all. The explanation of my apparent inconsistency is that the precision of speech we employ, when abstract truth is critically investigated in philosophic discussion, is one thing; and that employed, when we are adapting our language entirely to popular thinking, is another. And therefore I\xa0am speaking here in the popular sense, when I\xa0call some men brave, others good, and still others wise; for in dealing with popular conceptions we must employ familiar words in their common acceptation; and this was the practice of Panaetius likewise. But let us return to the subject. < 2.36. \xa0The third, then, of the three conditions I\xa0name as essential to glory is that we be accounted worthy of the esteem and admiration of our fellow-men. While people admire in general everything that is great or better than they expect, they admire in particular the good qualities that they find unexpectedly in individuals. And so they reverence and extol with the highest praises those men in whom they see certain pre-eminent and extraordinary talents; and they look down with contempt upon those who they think have no ability, no spirit, no energy. For they do not despise all those of whom they think ill. For some men they consider unscrupulous, slanderous, fraudulent, and dangerous; they do not despise them, it may be; but they do think ill of them. And therefore, as I\xa0said before, those are despised who are "of no use to themselves or their neighbours," as the saying is, who are idle, lazy, and indifferent. < 2.37. \xa0On the other hand, those are regarded with admiration who are thought to excel others in ability and to be free from all dishonour and also from those vices which others do not easily resist. For sensual pleasure, a most seductive mistress, turns the hearts of the greater part of humanity away from virtue; and when the fiery trial of affliction draws near, most people are terrified beyond measure. Life and death, wealth and want affect all men most powerfully. But when men, with a spirit great and exalted, can look down upon such outward circumstances, whether prosperous or adverse, and when some noble and virtuous purpose, presented to their minds, converts them wholly to itself and carries them away in its pursuit, who then could fail to admire in them the splendour and beauty of virtue? < 2.38. \xa0As, then, this superiority of mind to such externals inspires great admiration, so justice, above all, on the basis of which alone men are called "good men," seems to people generally a quite marvellous virtue â\x80\x94 and not without good reason; for no one can be just who fears death or pain or exile or poverty, or who values their opposites above equity. And people admire especially the man who is uninfluenced by money; and if a man has proved himself in this direction, they think him tried as by fire. Those three requisites, therefore, which were presupposed as the means of obtaining glory, are all secured by justice: (1)\xa0good-will, for it seeks to be of help to the greatest number; (2)\xa0confidence, for the same reason; and (3)\xa0admiration, because it scorns and cares nothing for those things, with a consuming passion for which most people are carried away. < 2.39. \xa0Now, in my opinion at least, every walk and vocation in life calls for human coâ\x80\x91operation â\x80\x94 first and above all, in order that one may have friends with whom to enjoy social intercourse. And this is not easy, unless he is looked upon as a good man. So, even to a man who shuns society and to one who spends his life in the country a reputation for justice is essential â\x80\x94 even more so than to others; for they who do not have it but are considered unjust will have no defence to protect them and so will be the victims of many kinds of wrong. < 2.40. \xa0So also to buyers and sellers, to employers and employed, and to those who are engaged in commercial dealings generally, justice is indispensable for the conduct of business. Its importance is so great, that not even those who live by wickedness and crime can get on without some small element of justice. For if a robber takes anything by force or by fraud from another member of the gang, he loses his standing even in a band of robbers; and if the one called the "Pirate Captain" should not divide the plunder impartially, he would be either deserted or murdered by his comrades. Why, they say that robbers even have a code of laws to observe and obey. And so, because of his impartial division of booty, Bardulis, the Illyrian bandit, of whom we read in Theopompus, acquired great power, Viriathus, of Lusitania, much greater. He actually defied even our armies and generals. But Gaius Laelius â\x80\x94 the one surnamed "the Wise" â\x80\x94 in his praetorship crushed his power, reduced him to terms, and so checked his intrepid daring, that he left to his successors an easy conquest. Since, therefore, the efficacy of justice is so great that it strengthens and augments the power even of robbers, how great do we think its power will be in a constitutional government with its laws and courts? < 2.41. \xa0Now it seems to me, at least, that not only among the Medes, as Herodotus tells us, but also among our own ancestors, men of high moral character were made kings in order that the people might enjoy justice. For, as the masses in their helplessness were oppressed by the strong, they appealed for protection to some one man who was conspicuous for his virtue; and, as he shielded the weaker classes from wrong, he managed by establishing equitable conditions to hold the higher and the lower classes in an equality of right. The reason for making constitutional laws was the same as that for making kings. < 2.42. \xa0For what people have always sought is equality of rights before the law. For rights that were not open to all alike would be no rights. If the people secured their end at the hands of one just and good man, they were satisfied with that; but when such was not their good fortune, laws were invented, to speak to all men at all times in one and the same voice. This, then, is obvious: nations used to select for their rulers those men whose reputation for justice was high in the eyes of the people. If in addition they were also thought wise, there was nothing that men did not think they could secure under such leadership. Justice is, therefore, in every way to be cultivated and maintained, both for its own sake (for otherwise it would not be justice) and for the enhancement of personal honour and glory. But as there is a method not only of acquiring money but also of investing it so as to yield an income to meet our continuously recurring expenses â\x80\x94 both for the necessities and for the more refined comforts of life â\x80\x94 so there must be a method of gaining glory and turning it to account. And yet, as Socrates used to express it so admirably, < 2.43. \xa0"the nearest way to glory â\x80\x94 a\xa0short cut, as it were â\x80\x94 is to strive to be what you wish to be thought to be." For if anyone thinks that he can win lasting glory by pretence, by empty show, by hypocritical talk and looks, he is very much mistaken. True glory strikes deep root and spreads its branches wide; but all pretences soon fall to the ground like fragile flowers, and nothing counterfeit can be lasting. There are very many witnesses to both facts; but, for brevity\'s sake: I\xa0shall confine myself to one family: Tiberius Gracchus, Publius\'s son, will be held in honour as long as the memory of Rome shall endure; but his sons were not approved by patriots while they lived, and since they are dead they are numbered among those whose murder was justifiable. If, therefore, anyone wishes to win true glory, let him discharge the duties required by justice. And what they are has been set forth in the course of the preceding book. 2.44. \xa0But, although the very essence of the problem is that we actually be what we wish to be thought to be, still some rules may be laid down to enable us most easily to secure the reputation of being what we are. For, if anyone in his early youth has the responsibility of living up to a distinguished name acquired either by inheritance from his father (as, I\xa0think, my dear Cicero, is your good fortune) or by some chance or happy combination of circumstances, the eyes of the world are turned upon him; his life and character are scrutinized; and, as if he moved in a blaze of light, not a word and not a deed of his can be kept a secret. <' "2.45. \xa0Those, on the other hand, whose humble and obscure origin has kept them unknown to the world in their early years ought, as soon as they approach young manhood, to set a high ideal before their eyes and to strive with unswerving zeal towards its realization. This they will do with the better heart, because that time of life is accustomed to find favour rather than to meet with opposition. Well, then, the first thing to recommend to a young man in his quest for glory is that he try to win it, if he can, in a military career. Among our forefathers many distinguished themselves as soldiers; for warfare was almost continuous then. The period of your own youth, however, has coincided with that war in which the one side was too prolific in crime, the other in failure. And yet, when Pompey placed you in command of a cavalry squadron in this war, you won the applause of that great man and of the army for your skill in riding and spear-throwing and for endurance of all the hardships of the soldier's life. But that credit accorded to you came to nothing along with the fall of the republic. The subject of this discussion, however, is not your personal history, but the general theme. Let us, therefore, proceed to the sequel. <" '2.46. \xa0As, then, in everything else brain-work is far more important than mere hand-work, so those objects which we strive to attain through intellect and reason gain for us a higher degree of gratitude than those which we strive to gain by physical strength. The best recommendation, then, that a young man can have to popular esteem proceeds from self-restraint, filial affection, and devotion to kinsfolk. Next to that, young men win recognition most easily and most favourably, if they attach themselves to men who are at once wise and renowned as well as patriotic counsellors in public affairs. And if they associate constantly with such men, they inspire in the public the expectation that they will be like them, seeing that they have themselves selected them for imitation. < 2.47. \xa0His frequent visits to the home of Publius Mucius assisted young Publius Rutilius to gain a reputation for integrity of character and for ability as a jurisconsult. Not so, however, Lucius Crassus; for, though he was a mere boy, he looked to no one else for assistance, but by his own unaided ability he won for himself in that brilliant and famous prosecution a splendid reputation as an orator. And at an age when young men are accustomed with their school exercises to win applause as students of oratory, this Roman Demosthenes, Lucius Crassus, was already proving himself in the law-courts a master of the art which he might even then have been studying at home with credit to himself. < 2.48. \xa0But as the classification of discourse is a twofold one â\x80\x94 conversation, on the one side; oratory, on the other â\x80\x94 there can be no doubt that of the two this debating power (for that is what we mean by eloquence) counts for more toward the attainment of glory; and yet, it is not easy to say how far an affable and courteous manner in conversation may go toward winning the affections. We have, for instance, the letters of Philip to Alexander, of Antipater to Cassander, and of Antigonus to Philip the Younger. The authors of these letters were, as we are informed, three of the wisest men in history; and in them they instruct their sons to woo the hearts of the populace to affection by words of kindness and to keep their soldiers loyal by a winning address. But the speech that is delivered in a debate before an assembly often stirs the hearts of thousands at once; for the eloquent and judicious speaker is received with high admiration, and his hearers think him understanding and wise beyond all others. And, if his speech have also dignity combined with moderation, he will be admired beyond all measure, especially if these qualities are found in a young man. < 2.49. \xa0But while there are occasions of many kinds that call for eloquence, and while many young men in our republic have obtained distinction by their speeches in the courts, in the popular assemblies, and in the senate, yet it is the speeches before our courts that excite the highest admiration. The classification of forensic speeches also is a twofold one: they are divided into arguments for the prosecution and arguments for the defence. And while the side of the defence is more honourable, still that of the prosecution also has very often established a reputation. I\xa0spoke of Crassus a moment ago; Marcus Antonius, when a youth, had the same success. A\xa0prosecution brought the eloquence of Publius Sulpicius into favourable notice, when he brought an action against Gaius Norbanus, a seditious and dangerous citizen. < 2.50. \xa0But this should not be done often â\x80\x94 never, in fact, except in the interest of the state (as in the cases of those above mentioned) or to avenge wrongs (as the two Luculli, for example, did) or for the protection of our provincials (as I\xa0did in the defence of the Sicilians, or Julius in the prosecution of Albucius in behalf of the Sardinians). The activity of Lucius Fufius in the impeachment of Manius Aquilius is likewise famous. This sort of work, then, may be done once in a lifetime, or at all events not often. But if it shall be required of anyone to conduct more frequent prosecutions, let him do it as a service to his country; for it is no disgrace to be often employed in the prosecution of her enemies. And yet a limit should be set even to that. For it requires a heartless man, it seems, or rather one who is well-nigh inhuman, to be arraigning one person after another on capital charges. It is not only fraught with danger to the prosecutor himself, but is damaging to his reputation, to allow himself to be called a prosecutor. Such was the effect of this epithet upon Marcus Brutus, the scion of a very noble family and the son of that Brutus who was an eminent authority in the civil law. < 2.51. \xa0Again, the following rule of duty is to be carefully observed: never prefer a capital charge against any person who may be innocent. For that cannot possibly be done without making oneself a criminal. For what is so unnatural as to turn to the ruin and destruction of good men the eloquence bestowed by Nature for the safety and protection of our fellowmen? And yet, while we should never prosecute the innocent, we need not have scruples against undertaking on occasion the defence of a guilty person, provided he be not infamously depraved and wicked. For people expect it; custom sanctions it; humanity also accepts it. It is always the business of the judge in a trial to find out the truth; it is sometimes the business of the advocate to maintain what is plausible, even if it be not strictly true, though I\xa0should not venture to say this, especially in an ethical treatise, if it were not also the position of Panaetius, that strictest of Stoics. Then, too, briefs for the defence are most likely to bring glory and popularity to the pleader, and all the more so, if ever it falls to him to lend his aid to one who seems to be oppressed and persecuted by the influence of someone in power. This I\xa0have done on many other occasions; and once in particular, in my younger days, I\xa0defended Sextus Roscius of Ameria against the power of Lucius Sulla when he was acting the tyrant. The speech is published, as you know. <
3.16. \xa0Accordingly, such duties appeal to all men who have a natural disposition to virtue. And when the two Decii or the two Scipios are mentioned as "brave men" or Fabricius is called "the just," it is not at all that the former are quoted as perfect models of courage or the latter as a perfect model of justice, as if we had in one of them the ideal "wise man." For no one of them was wise in the sense in which we wish to have "wise" understood; neither were Marcus Cato and Gaius Laelius wise, though they were so considered and were surnamed "the wise." Not even the famous Seven were "wise." But because of their constant observance of "mean" duties they bore a certain semblance and likeness to wise men. <
3.25. \xa0In like manner it is more in accord with Nature to emulate the great Hercules and undergo the greatest toil and trouble for the sake of aiding or saving the world, if possible, than to live in seclusion, not only free from all care, but revelling in pleasures and abounding in wealth, while excelling others also in beauty and strength. Thus Hercules denied himself and underwent toil and tribulation for the world, and, out of gratitude for his services, popular belief has given him a place in the council of the gods. The better and more noble, therefore, the character with which a man is endowed, the more does he prefer the life of service to the life of pleasure. Whence it follows that man, if he is obedient to Nature, cannot do harm to his fellow-man. <''. None
12. Polybius, Histories, 10.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 315; Verhagen (2022) 315


10.3. 1. \xa0It is generally agreed that Scipio was beneficent and magimous, but that he was also shrewd and discreet with a mind always concentrated on the object he had in view would be conceded by none except those who associated with him and to whom his character stood clearly revealed.,2. \xa0One of these was Gaius Laelius, who from his youth up to the end had participated in his every word and deed, and who has produced the above impression upon myself, as his account seems both probable on the face of it and in accordance with the actual performances of Scipio.,3. \xa0For he tells us that Scipio first distinguished himself on the occasion of the cavalry engagement between his father and Hannibal in the neighbourhood of the\xa0Po.,4. \xa0He was at the time seventeen years of age, this being his first campaign, and his father had placed him in command of a picked troop of horse in order to ensure his safety, but when he caught sight of his father in the battle, surrounded by the enemy and escorted only by two or three horsemen and dangerously wounded,,5. \xa0he at first endeavoured to urge those with him to go to the rescue, but when they hung back for a time owing to the large numbers of the enemy round them, he is said with reckless daring to have charged the encircling force alone.,6. \xa0Upon the rest being now forced to attack, the enemy were terror-struck and broke up, and Publius Scipio, thus unexpectedly delivered, was the first to salute his son in the hearing of all as his preserver.,7. \xa0Having by this service gained a universally acknowledged reputation for bravery, he in subsequent times refrained from exposing his person without sufficient reason, when his country reposed her hopes of success on him â\x80\x94 conduct characteristic not of a commander who relies on luck, but on one gifted with intelligence. ''. None
13. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Homer, aligned with Ennius

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 120; Joseph (2022) 30; Santangelo (2013) 152, 153


14. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius, and Naevius • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius’ Annales • Naevius, and Ennius

 Found in books: Joseph (2022) 159; Čulík-Baird (2022) 47


15. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 321; Verhagen (2022) 321


16. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 299, 316; Verhagen (2022) 299, 316


17. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 298, 299, 316, 317, 318, 321; Verhagen (2022) 298, 299, 316, 317, 318, 321; Xinyue (2022) 9


18. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 324; Verhagen (2022) 324


19. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, and Scipio Africanus • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, social status • Ennius, standing in antiquity • Scipio Africanus, commemorated by Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 290, 313, 321; Joseph (2022) 16, 126, 132, 135; Oksanish (2019) 42, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52; Verhagen (2022) 290, 313, 321


20. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 299; Verhagen (2022) 299


21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Accius, and Ennius • Ennius • Ennius, • Ennius, and Accius • Ennius, and Solon • Ennius, funerary epitaphs • Ennius, imago on Scipionic tomb • Q. Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 8; Augoustakis (2014) 299, 321; Gorain (2019) 162; Oksanish (2019) 31, 42; Rüpke (2011) 90; Santangelo (2013) 154; Verhagen (2022) 299, 321; Xinyue (2022) 140; Čulík-Baird (2022) 36, 73, 219, 229


22. Horace, Sermones, 1.4.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius

 Found in books: Hunter and de Jonge (2018) 257, 258; Yona (2018) 136


1.4.62. As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary.
1.4.62. but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. ''. None
23. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 2.740 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 294; Verhagen (2022) 294


2.740. rend=''. None
2.740. Or plough the seas, or cultivate the land,''. None
24. Ovid, Fasti, 1.509 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, influence

 Found in books: Hickson (1993) 25; Santangelo (2013) 159


1.509. di que petitorum dixit ‘salve te locorum,''. None
1.509. ‘Hail, you gods of the land we sought’ she cried,''. None
25. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 8.744, 15.147-15.152, 15.871-15.872, 15.875-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, time and space in • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 293, 298, 301; Edmondson (2008) 170; Joseph (2022) 28, 29, 80, 81; Verhagen (2022) 293, 298, 301


8.744. una nemus; vittae mediam memoresque tabellae 15.148. astra, iuvat terris et inerti sede relicta 15.149. nube vehi validique umeris insistere Atlantis 15.150. palantesque homines passim ac rationis egentes 15.151. despectare procul trepidosque obitumque timentes 15.152. sic exhortari seriemque evolvere fati:
15.871. Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis 15.872. nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas.
15.875. parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 15.876. astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 15.877. quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 15.878. ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 15.879. siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.' '. None
8.744. in the great fame of his victorious son, 15.148. of ‘Golden,’ was so blest in fruit of trees, 15.149. and in the good herbs which the earth produced 15.150. that it never would pollute the mouth with blood. 15.151. The birds then safely moved their wings in air, 15.152. the timid hares would wander in the field
15.871. that I should pass my life in exile than 15.872. be seen a king throned in the capitol.”
15.875. But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which 15.876. betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound 15.877. raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer 15.878. after the ancient mode, and then he said, 15.879. “There is one here who will be king, if you' '. None
26. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 220, 290, 293, 298, 299, 301; Bowditch (2001) 96; Verhagen (2022) 220, 290, 293, 298, 299, 301; Xinyue (2022) 9, 140, 141


27. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 290, 299; Oksanish (2019) 179; Verhagen (2022) 290, 299; Xinyue (2022) 9


28. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, influence • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 310, 315, 323; Hickson (1993) 25, 81; Verhagen (2022) 310, 315, 323; Xinyue (2022) 9, 10


29. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, poetry • Ennius, standing in antiquity • Ennius, time and space in • Homer, aligned with Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius • Virgil, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 288, 289, 290, 291, 294, 298, 303, 312; Gale (2000) 13, 14, 120, 208, 230, 236; Johnson and Parker (2009) 219; Joseph (2022) 16, 49, 50, 117; Oksanish (2019) 179, 180; Verhagen (2022) 288, 289, 290, 291, 294, 298, 303, 312


30. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, poetry • Ennius, standing in antiquity • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 220, 293, 294, 301; Johnson and Parker (2009) 219; Joseph (2022) 16; Verhagen (2022) 220, 293, 294, 301


31. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 294; Verhagen (2022) 294


32. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, standing in antiquity • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 220, 290, 293; Joseph (2022) 148; Konig (2022) 146; Verhagen (2022) 220, 290, 293; Williams and Vol (2022) 58; Xinyue (2022) 24


33. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 1.7, 1.70, 2.6, 2.26 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 309, 312, 314, 316, 318, 319, 320; Borg (2008) 165; Verhagen (2022) 309, 312, 314, 316, 318, 319, 320


2.6. \xa0The poetry of Homer, however, I\xa0look upon as alone truly noble and lofty and suited to a king, worthy of the attention of a real man, particularly if he expects to rule over all the peoples of the earth â\x80\x94 or at any rate over most of them, and those the most prominent â\x80\x94 if he is to be, in the strict sense of the term, what Homer calls a 'shepherd of the people.' Or would it not be absurd for a king to refuse to use any horse but the best and yet, when it is a question of poets, to read the poorer ones as though he had nothing else to do? <" '
2.26. \xa0Nor, again, is it necessary that he study philosophy to the point of perfecting himself in it; he need only live simply and without affectation, to give proof by his very conduct of a character that is humane, gentle, just, lofty, and brave as well, and, above all, one that takes delight in bestowing benefits â\x80\x94 a\xa0trait which approaches most nearly to the nature divine. He should, indeed, lend a willing ear to the teachings of philosophy whenever opportunity offers, inasmuch as these are manifestly not opposed to his own character but in accord with it; <' ". None
34. Lucan, Pharsalia, 9.961-9.999, 10.20-10.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, time and space in • Homer, aligned with Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 292, 293, 294, 299, 310, 313; Fabre-Serris et al (2021) 146; Joseph (2022) 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 234; Verhagen (2022) 292, 293, 294, 299, 310, 313


9.961. No draught in poisonous cups from ripened plants of direst growth Sabaean wizards brew. Lo! Upon branchless trunk a serpent, named By Libyans Jaculus, rose in coils to dart His venom from afar. Through Paullus' brain It rushed, nor stayed; for in the wound itself Was death. Then did they know how slowly flies, Flung from a sling, the stone; how gently speed Through air the shafts of Scythia. What availed, Murrus, the lance by which thou didst transfix " "9.970. A Basilisk? Swift through the weapon ran The poison to his hand: he draws his sword And severs arm and shoulder at a blow: Then gazed secure upon his severed hand Which perished as he looked. So had'st thou died, And such had been thy fate! Whoe'er had thought A scorpion had strength o'er death or fate? Yet with his threatening coils and barb erect He won the glory of Orion slain; So bear the stars their witness. And who would fear " "9.979. A Basilisk? Swift through the weapon ran The poison to his hand: he draws his sword And severs arm and shoulder at a blow: Then gazed secure upon his severed hand Which perished as he looked. So had'st thou died, And such had been thy fate! Whoe'er had thought A scorpion had strength o'er death or fate? Yet with his threatening coils and barb erect He won the glory of Orion slain; So bear the stars their witness. And who would fear " '9.980. Thy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept. 9.990. Nor did they know the measure of their march Accomplished, nor their path; the stars in heaven Their only guide. "Return, ye gods," they cried, In frequent wail, "the arms from which we fled. Give back Thessalia. Sworn to meet the sword Why, lingering, fall we thus? In Caesar\'s place The thirsty Dipsas and the horned snakeNow wage the warfare. Rather let us seek That region by the horses of the sun Scorched, and the zone most torrid: let us fall 9.999. Nor did they know the measure of their march Accomplished, nor their path; the stars in heaven Their only guide. "Return, ye gods," they cried, In frequent wail, "the arms from which we fled. Give back Thessalia. Sworn to meet the sword Why, lingering, fall we thus? In Caesar\'s place The thirsty Dipsas and the horned snakeNow wage the warfare. Rather let us seek That region by the horses of the sun Scorched, and the zone most torrid: let us fall ' "
10.20. Nor city ramparts: but in greed of gain He sought the cave dug out amid the tombs. The madman offspring there of Philip lies The famed Pellaean robber, fortune's friend, Snatched off by fate, avenging so the world. In sacred sepulchre the hero's limbs, Which should be scattered o'er the earth, repose, Still spared by Fortune to these tyrant days: For in a world to freedom once recalled, All men had mocked the dust of him who set " "10.29. Nor city ramparts: but in greed of gain He sought the cave dug out amid the tombs. The madman offspring there of Philip lies The famed Pellaean robber, fortune's friend, Snatched off by fate, avenging so the world. In sacred sepulchre the hero's limbs, Which should be scattered o'er the earth, repose, Still spared by Fortune to these tyrant days: For in a world to freedom once recalled, All men had mocked the dust of him who set " '10.30. The baneful lesson that so many lands Can serve one master. Macedon he left His home obscure; Athena he despised The conquest of his sire, and spurred by fate Through Asia rushed with havoc of mankind, Plunging his sword through peoples; streams unknown Ran red with Persian and with Indian blood. Curse of all earth and thunderbolt of ill To every nation! On the outer sea He launched his fleet to sail the ocean wave: 10.39. The baneful lesson that so many lands Can serve one master. Macedon he left His home obscure; Athena he despised The conquest of his sire, and spurred by fate Through Asia rushed with havoc of mankind, Plunging his sword through peoples; streams unknown Ran red with Persian and with Indian blood. Curse of all earth and thunderbolt of ill To every nation! On the outer sea He launched his fleet to sail the ocean wave: ' "10.40. Nor flame nor flood nor sterile Libyan sands Stayed back his course, nor Hammon's pathless shoals; Far to the west, where downward slopes the world He would have led his armies, and the poles Had compassed, and had drunk the fount of Nile: But came his latest day; such end alone Could nature place upon the madman king, Who jealous in death as when he won the world His empire with him took, nor left an heir. Thus every city to the spoiler's hand " "10.49. Nor flame nor flood nor sterile Libyan sands Stayed back his course, nor Hammon's pathless shoals; Far to the west, where downward slopes the world He would have led his armies, and the poles Had compassed, and had drunk the fount of Nile: But came his latest day; such end alone Could nature place upon the madman king, Who jealous in death as when he won the world His empire with him took, nor left an heir. Thus every city to the spoiler's hand " '10.50. Was victim made: Yet in his fall was his Babylon; and Parthia feared him. Shame on us That eastern nations dreaded more the lance of Macedon than now the Roman spear. True that we rule beyond where takes its rise The burning southern breeze, beyond the homes of western winds, and to the northern star; But towards the rising of the sun, we yield To him who kept the Arsacids in awe; And puny Pella held as province sure 10.52. Was victim made: Yet in his fall was his Babylon; and Parthia feared him. Shame on us That eastern nations dreaded more the lance of Macedon than now the Roman spear. True that we rule beyond where takes its rise The burning southern breeze, beyond the homes of western winds, and to the northern star; But towards the rising of the sun, we yield To him who kept the Arsacids in awe; And puny Pella held as province sure '". None
35. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 82.4-82.5, 91.17, 94.62-94.63, 108.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Seneca the Younger, citations of Ennius (through Cicero) in • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 298, 310, 311; Keeline (2018) 197; Verhagen (2022) 298, 310, 311; Čulík-Baird (2022) 227


82.4. Do you ask who are my pacemakers? One is enough for me, – the slave Pharius, a pleasant fellow, as you know; but I shall exchange him for another. At my time of life I need one who is of still more tender years. Pharius, at any rate, says that he and I are at the same period of life; for we are both losing our teeth.3 Yet even now I can scarcely follow his pace as he runs, and within a very short time I shall not be able to follow him at all; so you see what profit we get from daily exercise. Very soon does a wide interval open between two persons who travel different ways. My slave is climbing up at the very moment when I am coming down, and you surely know how much quicker the latter is. Nay, I was wrong; for now my life is not coming down; it is falling outright.
82.4. What then is the advantage of retirement? As if the real causes of our anxieties did not follow us across the seas! What hiding-place is there, where the fear of death does not enter? What peaceful haunts are there, so fortified and so far withdrawn that pain does not fill them with fear? Wherever you hide yourself, human ills will make an uproar all around. There are many external things which compass us about, to deceive us or to weigh upon us; there are many things within which, even amid solitude, fret and ferment. 82.5. Do you ask, for all that, how our race resulted to-day? We raced to a tie,4– something which rarely happens in a running contest. After tiring myself out in this way (for I cannot call it exercise), I took a cold bath; this, at my house, means just short of hot. I, the former cold-water enthusiast, who used to celebrate the new year by taking a plunge into the canal, who, just as naturally as I would set out to do some reading or writing, or to compose a speech, used to inaugurate the first of the year with a plunge into the Virgo aqueduct,5 have changed my allegiance, first to the Tiber, and then to my favourite tank, which is warmed only by the sun, at times when I am most robust and when there is not a flaw in my bodily processes. I have very little energy left for bathing. ' "82.5. Therefore, gird yourself about with philosophy, an impregnable wall. Though it be assaulted by many engines, Fortune can find no passage into it. The soul stands on unassailable ground, if it has abandoned external things; it is independent in its own fortress; and every weapon that is hurled falls short of the mark. Fortune has not the long reach with which we credit her; she can seize none except him that clings to her.
94.62. Alexander was hounded into misfortune and dispatched to unknown countries by a mad desire to lay waste other men's territory. Do you believe that the man was in his senses who could begin by devastating Greece, the land where he received his education? One who snatched away the dearest guerdon of each nation, bidding Spartans be slaves, and Athenians hold their tongues? Not content with the ruin of all the states which Philip had either conquered or bribed into bondage,31 he overthrew various commonwealths in various places and carried his weapons all over the world; his cruelty was tired, but it never ceased – like a wild beast that tears to pieces more than its hunger demands. " '
94.62. That which leads to a general agreement, and likewise to a perfect one,27 is an assured belief in certain facts; but if, lacking this assurance, all things are adrift in our minds, then doctrines are indispensable; for they give to our minds the means of unswerving decision. 94.63. Already he has joined many kingdoms into one kingdom; already Greeks and Persians fear the same lord; already nations Darius had left free submit to the yoke:32 yet he passes beyond the Ocean and the Sun, deeming it shame that he should shift his course of victory from the paths which Hercules and Bacchus had trod;33 he threatens violence to Nature herself. He does not wish to go; but he cannot stay; he is like a weight that falls headlong, its course ending only when it lies motionless. 94.63. Furthermore, when we advise a man to regard his friends as highly as himself, to reflect that an enemy may become a friend,28 to stimulate love in the friend, and to check hatred in the enemy, we add: "This is just and honourable." Now the just and honourable element in our doctrines is embraced by reason; hence reason is necessary; for without it the doctrines cannot exist, either. ' "
108.34. Next, he congratulates himself on finding the source of Vergil's words: Over whose head the mighty gate of Heaven Thunders,23 remarking that Ennius stole the idea from Homer, and Vergil from Ennius. For there is a couplet by Ennius, preserved in this same book of Cicero's, On the State:24 If it be right for a mortal to scale the regions of Heaven, Then the huge gate of the sky opens in glory to me. " '. None
36. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 299, 300, 310, 315; Verhagen (2022) 299, 300, 310, 315


37. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 314; Verhagen (2022) 314


38. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, standing in antiquity • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 252, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 308, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 322, 323; Joseph (2022) 17; Verhagen (2022) 252, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 308, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 322, 323


39. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 296, 301; Verhagen (2022) 296, 301


40. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 220, 297, 298, 301, 302, 314; Verhagen (2022) 220, 297, 298, 301, 302, 314


41. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Euhemerus, of Ennius • Q. Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 315; Rutledge (2012) 40; Rüpke (2011) 92; Verhagen (2022) 315


42. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 309, 312, 320, 321, 323; Verhagen (2022) 309, 312, 320, 321, 323


43. Lucian, Dialogues of The Dead, 25 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 324; Verhagen (2022) 324


25. Nireus. Thersites. MenippusNi . Here we are; Menippus shall award the palm of beauty. Menippus, am I not better looking than he?Me . Well, who are you? I must know that first, mustn\'t I?Ni . Nireus and Thersites.Me . Which is which? I cannot tell that yet.Ther . One to me; I am like you; you have no such superiority as Homer (blind, by the way) gave you when he called you the handsomest of men; he might peak my head and thin my hair, our judge finds me none the worse. Now, Menippus, make up your mind which is handsomer.Ni . I, of course, I, the son of Aglaia and Charopus,Comeliest of all that came \'neath Trojan walls.Me . But not comeliest of all that come \'neath the earth, as far as I know. Your bones are much like other people\'s; and the only difference between your two skulls is that yours would not take much to stove it in. It is a tender article, something short of masculine.Ni . Ask Homer what I was, when I sailed with the Achaeans.Me . Dreams, dreams. I am looking at what you are; what you were is ancient history.Ni . Am I not handsomer here, Menippus?Me . You are not handsome at all, nor anyone else either. Hades is a democracy; one man is as good as another here.Ther . And a very tolerable arrangement too, if you ask me.H.

44. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 315; Verhagen (2022) 315


45. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, Iphigeneia • Ennius, and Scipio Africanus • Ennius, and recitations • Ennius, social status • Iphigeneia (Ennius) • Q. Ennius

 Found in books: Howley (2018) 116, 222, 223, 230, 231, 233, 234; Johnson and Parker (2009) 211, 322; Oksanish (2019) 50, 51; Rüpke (2011) 90


46. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius (Quintus Ennius) • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Ennius, standing in antiquity • Homer, aligned with Ennius • narrative, battle, in Ennius’ Annals

 Found in books: Farrell (2021) 191, 262; Joseph (2022) 91, 92


47. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 5.4.2, 8.14.1
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 291, 315; Verhagen (2022) 291, 315


5.4.2. The same piety roused the elder Africanus, when he was hardly past the age of childhood, to go to the aid of his father, and armed him with manly strength in the midst of battle. For he saved the consul, who was desperately wounded in the battle which he lost to Hannibal upon the river Ticinus. He was not terrified either by the tenderness of his age, the rawness of his skill in warfare, or the outcome of an unfortunate fight, which would have daunted an older soldier. By this he merited a crown conspicuous for its double honour, having rescued from the jaws of death, a father and a general.' "
8.14.1. The elder Africanus wished the effigy of Ennius to be placed among the monuments of the Cornelian family, because he thought that his deeds had been illuminated by the poet's genius. He was aware, that as long as the Roman empire might flourish, and Africa lay captive at the feet of Italy, and the Capitol possessed the peak of the whole world, the memory of his deeds could not be extinguished; but he also thought it important that they were lit up by the rays of learning. He was a man more worthy of praise from Homer, than of a clumsy and unpolished eulogy."'. None
48. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.8, 1.259-1.260, 1.373, 1.453-1.457, 1.488-1.493, 1.495, 1.588-1.589, 2.296, 2.590, 3.462, 3.497-3.498, 6.662-6.668, 6.679-6.683, 6.791-6.800, 6.806, 6.860-6.869, 8.301, 8.698-8.700, 9.446-9.449, 9.806-9.814
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius (Quintus Ennius) • Ennius, Q • Ennius, alignment with / adaptation of Homer • Ennius, influence • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Homer, aligned with Ennius • Silius Italicus, and Ennius • narrative, battle, in Ennius’ Annals

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 301, 302, 312, 314; Edmondson (2008) 170; Farrell (2021) 92, 122, 191, 262; Hickson (1993) 18; Joseph (2022) 48, 50, 93, 156, 173; Rosa and Santangelo (2020) 123; Verhagen (2022) 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 301, 302, 312, 314


1.8. Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
1.259. moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli 1.260. magimum Aenean; neque me sententia vertit.
1.373. et vacet annalis nostrorum audire laborum,
1.453. Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo, 1.454. reginam opperiens, dum, quae fortuna sit urbi, 1.455. artificumque manus inter se operumque laborem 1.456. miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas, 1.457. bellaque iam fama totum volgata per orbem,
1.488. Se quoque principibus permixtum adgnovit Achivis, 1.489. Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma. 1.490. Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 1.491. Penthesilea furens, mediisque in milibus ardet, 1.492. aurea subnectens exsertae cingula mammae, 1.493. bellatrix, audetque viris concurrere virgo.
1.495. dum stupet, obtutuque haeret defixus in uno,
1.588. Restitit Aeneas claraque in luce refulsit, 1.589. os umerosque deo similis; namque ipsa decoram
2.296. Sic ait, et manibus vittas Vestamque potentem
2.590. obtulit et pura per noctem in luce refulsit
3.462. Vade age, et ingentem factis fer ad aethera Troiam.
3.497. quaerenda. Effigiem Xanthi Troiamque videtis 3.498. quam vestrae fecere manus, melioribus, opto,
6.662. quique pii vates et Phoebo digna locuti, 6.663. inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artes, 6.664. quique sui memores alios fecere merendo, 6.665. omnibus his nivea cinguntur tempora vitta. 6.666. Quos circumfusos sic est adfata Sybilla, 6.667. Musaeum ante omnes, medium nam plurima turba 6.668. hunc habet, atque umeris exstantem suspicit altis:
6.679. At pater Anchises penitus convalle virenti 6.680. inclusas animas superumque ad lumen ituras 6.681. lustrabat studio recolens, omnemque suorum 6.682. forte recensebat numerum carosque nepotes, 6.683. fataque fortunasque virum moresque manusque.
6.791. Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 6.792. Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea condet 6.793. saecula qui rursus Latio regnata per arva 6.794. Saturno quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 6.795. proferet imperium: iacet extra sidera tellus, 6.796. extra anni solisque vias, ubi caelifer Atlas 6.797. axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 6.798. Huius in adventum iam nunc et Caspia regna 6.799. responsis horrent divom et Maeotia tellus, 6.800. et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili.
6.806. Et dubitamus adhuc virtute extendere vires,
6.860. Atque hic Aeneas; una namque ire videbat 6.861. egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis, 6.862. sed frons laeta parum, et deiecto lumina voltu: 6.863. Quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem? 6.864. Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum? 6.865. Quis strepitus circa comitum! Quantum instar in ipso! 6.866. Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra. 6.867. Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis: 6.868. O gnate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuorum; 6.869. ostendent terris hunc tantum fata, neque ultra
8.301. Salve, vera Iovis proles, decus addite divis,
8.698. omnigenumque deum monstra et latrator Anubis 8.699. contra Neptunum et Venerem contraque Minervam 8.700. tela tenent. Saevit medio in certamine Mavors
9.446. Fortunati ambo! Siquid mea carmina possunt, 9.447. nulla dies umquam memori vos eximet aevo, 9.448. dum domus Aeneae Capitoli immobile saxum 9.449. accolet imperiumque pater Romanus habebit.
9.806. Ergo nec clipeo iuvenis subsistere tantum 9.807. nec dextra valet: iniectis sic undique telis 9.808. obruitur. Strepit adsiduo cava tempora circum 9.809. tinnitu galea, et saxis solida aera fatiscunt, 9.810. discussaeque iubae capiti, nec sufficit umbo 9.812. fulmineus Mnestheus. Tum toto corpore sudor 9.813. liquitur et piceum, nec respirare potestas, 9.814. flumen agit; fessos quatit aeger anhelitus artus.' '. None
1.8. the city, and bring o'er his fathers' gods " '
1.259. lay seven huge forms, one gift for every ship. 1.260. Then back to shore he sped, and to his friends
1.373. then Romulus, wolf-nursed and proudly clad ' "
1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph, " "1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art, " '1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies, ' "1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! " '
1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept, ' "1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came, " '1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare 1.491. his heart with dagger pierced, disclosing so 1.492. the blood-stained altar and the infamy 1.493. that darkened now their house. His counsel was ' "
1.495. and for her journey's aid, he whispered where " '
1.588. the bastioned gates; the uproar of the throng. 1.589. The Tyrians toil unwearied; some up-raise
2.296. each dragon coiled, and on the shrinking flesh
2.590. The Greek besiegers to the roof-tops fled;
3.462. I, the slave-wife, to Helenus was given,
3.497. while favoring breezes beckoned us to sea, 3.498. and swelled the waiting canvas as they blew.
6.662. The shades of thy Deiphobus received. ' "6.663. My fate it was, and Helen's murderous wrong, " '6.664. Wrought me this woe; of her these tokens tell. 6.665. For how that last night in false hope we passed, 6.666. Thou knowest,—ah, too well we both recall! 6.667. When up the steep of Troy the fateful horse 6.668. Came climbing, pregt with fierce men-at-arms,
6.679. Then loud on Menelaus did she call, 6.680. And with her own false hand unbarred the door; 6.681. Such gift to her fond lord she fain would send 6.682. To blot the memory of his ancient wrong! 6.683. Why tell the tale, how on my couch they broke,
6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape ' "6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. " '6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels, 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud, 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking
6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues,
6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng, ' "6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: " '6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves
8.301. the cavern door, and broken the big chains,
8.698. Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart, 8.699. mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. ' "8.700. But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen " '
9.446. that no man smite behind us. I myself 9.447. will mow the mighty fieid, and lead thee on 9.448. in a wide swath of slaughter.” With this word 9.449. he shut his lips; and hurled him with his sword
9.806. of merciful Palicus, blest and fair. 9.807. But, lo! Mezentius his spear laid by, 9.808. and whirled three times about his head the thong 9.809. of his loud sling: the leaden bullet clove ' "9.810. the youth's mid-forehead, and his towering form " "9.812. 'T was then Ascanius first shot forth in war " '9.813. the arrow swift from which all creatures wild 9.814. were wont to fly in fear: and he struck down ' ". None
49. Vergil, Eclogues, 6.1-6.2, 8.9-8.10
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 290, 294; Verhagen (2022) 290, 294


6.1. first my Thalia stooped in sportive mood 6.2. to Syracusan strains, nor blushed within
8.9. thou now art passing, or dost skirt the shore 8.10. of the Illyrian main,—will ever dawn''. None
50. Vergil, Georgics, 1.466-1.468, 2.173-2.176, 3.8-3.48, 4.450-4.452
 Tagged with subjects: • Ennius • Ennius, model / anti-model for Lucan • Silius Italicus, and Ennius • Virgil, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 220, 290, 293, 294; Gale (2000) 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 208, 230, 249; Joseph (2022) 9; Oksanish (2019) 179, 180; Santangelo (2013) 153; Verhagen (2022) 220, 290, 293, 294


1.466. Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam, 1.467. cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit 1.468. inpiaque aeternam timuerunt saecula noctem.
2.173. Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, 2.174. magna virum; tibi res antiquae laudis et artem 2.175. ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis, 2.176. Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen.
3.8. acer equis? Temptanda via est, qua me quoque possim 3.9. tollere humo victorque virum volitare per ora. 3.10. Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 3.11. Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas; 3.12. primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas, 3.13. et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 3.14. propter aquam. Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 3.15. Mincius et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 3.16. In medio mihi Caesar erit templumque tenebit: 3.17. illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro 3.18. centum quadriiugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 3.19. Cuncta mihi Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi 3.20. cursibus et crudo decernet Graecia caestu. 3.21. Ipse caput tonsae foliis ornatus olivae 3.22. dona feram. Iam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas 3.23. ad delubra iuvat caesosque videre iuvencos, 3.24. vel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus utque 3.25. purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 3.26. In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto 3.27. Gangaridum faciam victorisque arma Quirini, 3.28. atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem 3.29. Nilum ac navali surgentis aere columnas. 3.30. Addam urbes Asiae domitas pulsumque Niphaten 3.31. fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis, 3.32. et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea 3.33. bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentes. 3.34. Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa, 3.35. Assaraci proles demissaeque ab Iove gentis 3.36. nomina, Trosque parens et Troiae Cynthius auctor. 3.37. Invidia infelix Furias amnemque severum 3.38. Cocyti metuet tortosque Ixionis anguis 3.39. immanemque rotam et non exsuperabile saxum. 3.40. Interea Dryadum silvas saltusque sequamur 3.41. intactos, tua, Maecenas, haud mollia iussa. 3.42. Te sine nil altum mens incohat; en age segnis 3.43. rumpe moras; vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron 3.44. Taygetique canes domitrixque Epidaurus equorum 3.45. et vox adsensu nemorum ingeminata remugit. 3.46. Mox tamen ardentis accingar dicere pugnas 3.47. Caesaris et nomen fama tot ferre per annos, 3.48. Tithoni prima quot abest ab origine Caesar.
4.450. Tantum effatus. Ad haec vates vi denique multa 4.451. ardentes oculos intorsit lumine glauco 4.452. et graviter frendens sic fatis ora resolvit.''. None
1.466. Or light chaff flit in air with fallen leaves, 1.467. Or feathers on the wave-top float and play. 1.468. But when from regions of the furious North
2.173. With it the Medes for sweetness lave the lips, 2.174. And ease the panting breathlessness of age. 2.175. But no, not Mede-land with its wealth of woods, 2.176. Nor Ganges fair, and Hermus thick with gold,
3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young, 3.9. Latonian Delos and Hippodame, 3.10. And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed, 3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried, 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust, 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure, 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, 4.450. Amazement held them all; but Arethuse 4.451. Before the rest put forth her auburn head, 4.452. Peering above the wave-top, and from far''. None
51. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 291; Verhagen (2022) 291


52. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 293; Verhagen (2022) 293


53. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 298; Verhagen (2022) 298


54. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 320; Verhagen (2022) 320


55. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 311, 312; Verhagen (2022) 311, 312


56. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Silius Italicus, and Ennius

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 306; Verhagen (2022) 306





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