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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
emperor Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 103, 114, 120, 150, 168, 257
Binder (2012) 72, 78, 118, 121, 122, 129, 143, 150, 158, 186, 214, 215, 224
Borg (2008) 15, 57, 136, 137, 145, 284, 300, 307, 308, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375
Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 24, 25, 29, 35, 36, 55, 57, 80, 105, 159, 184, 267, 275, 276, 279
Czajkowski et al (2020) 21, 25, 55, 60, 89, 164, 170, 175, 176, 187, 188, 192, 202, 214, 219, 275, 277, 286, 325, 333, 335, 338, 341, 342, 419, 438, 439, 441, 442, 450
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 9
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 228
Maier and Waldner (2022) 45, 46, 59, 94, 97, 104, 169, 170, 184
emperor, 100, augustus, 104, 123-4 Galinsky (2016) 100, 104
emperor, 173, augustus Galinsky (2016) 173
emperor, 25-6, 115-16, 120-4, 125, augustus, 126-40, 178 Galinsky (2016) 121, 125, 136, 140
emperor, 55-6, augustus Galinsky (2016) 55, 56
emperor, 81-3, augustus Galinsky (2016) 81, 82
emperor, accession, tiberius Galinsky (2016) 163, 164
Peppard (2011) 78, 117
emperor, acts of peter, and statue Bremmer (2017) 188
emperor, adoption of nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 266, 353
emperor, advice of to jews of alexandria, claudius, roman Feldman (2006) 69, 582
emperor, agathe tyche of Borg (2008) 136, 137
emperor, agon, for roman Borg (2008) 145
emperor, alexander severus Levine (2005) 285, 297, 382, 422
Phang (2001) 259, 260, 328
emperor, alexander severus, roman Rizzi (2010) 12, 14
emperor, anastasius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 379, 381
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 358, 369, 373, 374, 375, 377, 379, 380, 381, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 397, 405
Klein and Wienand (2022) 30, 31, 32, 48, 113, 155, 162, 170, 217, 218, 244, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 269, 272, 273, 274
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 245
emperor, anastasius, hypatius, nephew of Klein and Wienand (2022) 31
emperor, and agrippa i, gaius Udoh (2006) 154, 157
emperor, and architect, relational paradigm Oksanish (2019) 42, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186
emperor, and comedy, hadrian Csapo (2022) 169
emperor, and constantius, julian Blum and Biggs (2019) 236, 238, 239
emperor, and empire, prayer, for Sider (2001) 54, 60
emperor, and fatum, tiberius Davies (2004) 175
emperor, and governor, roman empire Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 815, 824, 825
emperor, and imperial family, sacrifice, for health of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 115, 301, 341
emperor, and informers, tiberius Davies (2004) 183, 187
emperor, and odysseus, julian Blum and Biggs (2019) 211, 212, 236, 238, 239
emperor, and pantomime, marcus aurelius Csapo (2022) 110
emperor, and pantomime, nero Csapo (2022) 109
emperor, and people of rome, lector, pronounces prayers for Griffiths (1975) 17, 265
emperor, and seneca, nero Manolaraki (2012) 41, 81, 104, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 178, 245, 269, 285
emperor, and signs, tiberius Davies (2004) 166, 213
emperor, and the empire of galen, references to the Isaac (2004) 400, 401
emperor, anti-nicene rescript and, julian Kraemer (2020) 181
emperor, antoninus Humfress (2007) 33, 126
Jenkyns (2013) 263
emperor, antoninus pius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 16, 183, 189, 198, 244, 245, 290, 325, 338, 339, 497, 498, 506, 507, 542
Huttner (2013) 240
Kalinowski (2021) 221, 254
Marek (2019) 347, 350, 365, 430, 433, 477, 495, 536
Phang (2001) 199
Tabbernee (2007) 168
emperor, antoninus pius, roman Edmondson (2008) 37, 243
Rizzi (2010) 72, 76, 81, 93, 108, 114, 117, 150
emperor, arcadius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 370
Cain (2016) 187
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 70, 179, 180
Humfress (2007) 166
Klein and Wienand (2022) 24, 42, 51, 54, 71, 74, 101, 128
Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 175
Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 123
van , t Westeinde (2021) 46, 47
emperor, arcadius, arcadia, daughter of Klein and Wienand (2022) 144
emperor, arcadius, roman Edmondson (2008) 221, 224, 226, 227, 230, 235, 236
emperor, as citharoedus, nero Csapo (2022) 99, 107
emperor, as connoisseur Borg (2008) 373, 374, 375
emperor, as light, light Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 83, 86
emperor, as, pontifex maximus Davies (2004) 189, 197
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 7, 97, 142, 145, 146, 148, 182, 255, 318
emperor, astrologer, tiberius Davies (2004) 166, 175
emperor, astrological interests, tiberius Galinsky (2016) 104, 105
emperor, attempt gaius of to have statue erected in jerusalem temple Udoh (2006) 221
emperor, augustine, st, on pleas to the Humfress (2007) 78, 79, 80
emperor, augustus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 12, 57, 58, 92, 94, 102, 171, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 184, 185, 188, 189, 190, 192, 195, 197, 206, 254, 255, 278, 280, 281, 288, 323, 345, 402, 403, 409, 484, 522, 658, 677, 754
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 95, 96, 97, 101, 262
Galinsky (2016) 54, 55, 177
Gruen (2011) 108, 156, 193
Marek (2019) 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 320, 322, 324, 325, 326, 328, 330, 364, 380, 420, 422, 433, 491, 526, 528
Merz and Tieleman (2012) 18, 51
O, Daly (2020) 219, 220
Perry (2014) 141
Phang (2001) 16, 17, 69, 70, 71, 217, 239, 291
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 9, 10, 12, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 50, 52, 59, 60, 61, 62, 73, 80, 86, 162, 230, 239, 242, 245, 247
Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 96
emperor, augustus, 163, 164 Galinsky (2016) 163, 164
emperor, augustus, fi rst Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 65, 237, 282, 285
emperor, augustus, octavian Panoussi(2019) 42, 46, 175, 178, 186, 197, 229
emperor, augustus, roman Edmondson (2008) 12, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 38, 40, 41, 49, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 70, 80, 82, 83, 91, 96, 108, 109, 145, 162, 166, 168, 208, 211, 219, 232, 236, 246, 255
Rizzi (2010) 28, 54, 71, 72, 135
emperor, aurelian Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 411
Humfress (2007) 224, 225
Marek (2019) 359, 414, 536
Perry (2014) 184
Tabbernee (2007) 168, 169, 237
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 215, 216
emperor, aurelian, roman Rizzi (2010) 111, 119
emperor, auspicia, of the Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 22
emperor, author of marcus aurelius, stoic, roman meditations, present only of concern Sorabji (2000) 239, 240
emperor, author of marcus aurelius, stoic, roman meditations, prolongation of life of no value Sorabji (2000) 241
emperor, authority, of the Ando and Ruepke (2006) 111, 131
emperor, ašoka, indian Stavrianopoulou (2013) 396
emperor, balbinus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 191
emperor, banquet, and roman Rohland (2022) 142
emperor, basil i Klein and Wienand (2022) 216
emperor, basiliscus Klein and Wienand (2022) 245, 251, 253
emperor, basilius Huebner and Laes (2019) 14
emperor, by judean religion and texts, vespasian, confirmed as Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105, 106, 107
emperor, by, senate, flattery of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 5, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54, 172, 204, 208, 212, 213, 260, 310, 313, 314, 315, 328, 329, 330, 331, 352, 356
emperor, caligula Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 182, 188, 191, 193, 194, 198, 673
Csapo (2022) 31, 115, 116, 124, 125, 146
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 107
Huttner (2013) 181
Kraemer (2010) 68
Marek (2019) 329, 331
Phang (2001) 127, 247, 248, 293, 369
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 203, 206, 217, 234, 242, 244
Rüpke (2011) 133, 142
emperor, caligula, roman Edmondson (2008) 22, 24, 34, 36, 45, 49, 65, 116, 123
Rizzi (2010) 89
emperor, caracalla Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 16, 94, 188, 281, 285, 330, 411, 438, 652, 663, 684
Huttner (2013) 64
Marek (2019) 354, 355, 381, 412, 413, 422, 478
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 244, 245
emperor, caracalla, roman Rizzi (2010) 108, 127, 135
emperor, carus Huttner (2013) 345
emperor, celestial overseer in valerius flaccus, vespasian Manolaraki (2012) 133, 134, 135, 136, 186
emperor, character in the pseudo-senecan tragedy octauia, nero Manolaraki (2012) 77, 78
emperor, charles iv, holy roman Rohland (2022) 187, 221
emperor, christian Ando and Ruepke (2006) 69, 75, 82, 117, 118, 128, 139, 140, 144
emperor, christian practices renounced by, julian Kraemer (2020) 112
emperor, christian virtues, in a roman Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 203, 204, 210, 214
emperor, church, and the Ando and Ruepke (2006) 123, 124
emperor, claudius Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 52, 53
Bay (2022) 42, 132
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 32, 92, 95, 100, 113, 127, 128, 171, 182, 184, 185, 192, 194, 198, 253, 254, 284, 288, 305, 330, 355, 356, 357, 358, 475, 657
Csapo (2022) 98, 100, 114, 117
Czajkowski et al (2020) 197, 198, 210, 227, 249, 291, 321, 323, 326, 340, 438, 477
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 244
Gorain (2019) 50
Huttner (2013) 62, 101, 161
Jenkyns (2013) 188
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 342, 355, 387
Kraemer (2010) 67
Marek (2019) 35, 227, 330, 331, 332, 364, 416, 422, 435, 479, 501, 502
Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 173, 229
Phang (2001) 17, 20, 57, 75, 83, 98, 117, 311, 335, 339, 347
Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 602, 603
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 8, 9, 179, 202, 217, 243, 314
Roller (2018) 130, 131, 132
Rüpke (2011) 21, 142, 151, 152
Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 82, 361, 362
emperor, claudius, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 174, 179, 230, 231, 265
Edmondson (2008) 21, 22, 25, 33, 34, 35, 37, 84, 116, 222, 232
Lalone (2019) 33, 150
Rizzi (2010) 117
emperor, claudius, seneca, the younger, stoic, lampoons Sorabji (2000) 189
emperor, coin of tiberius Udoh (2006) 232
emperor, commodus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 23, 183, 188, 282, 283, 360, 477, 547, 636, 659
Csapo (2022) 31, 110, 111
Huttner (2013) 63, 64, 239, 240, 241
Marek (2019) 352, 422, 473, 479
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 245
emperor, commodus, cleander, favorite of the Marek (2019) 422
emperor, commodus, roman Edmondson (2008) 30, 116, 257, 263, 267, 268
Rizzi (2010) 134
emperor, compares moses with lycurgus, julian, roman Feldman (2006) 523
emperor, constans Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 367, 369
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 63, 70
Yates and Dupont (2020) 193
emperor, constantine Bay (2022) 146, 188
Geljon and Vos (2020) 38, 117, 180, 181
Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 160, 193
Humfress (2007) 150, 156, 225, 226, 234, 244
O, Daly (2020) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 49, 234, 235
Rüpke (2011) 164, 165, 166, 167, 168
Yates and Dupont (2020) 206
van , t Westeinde (2021) 18, 46, 198
emperor, constantine i Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 1, 48, 49, 50, 55, 63, 67, 68, 70, 71, 74, 114, 146, 170, 180, 250, 278, 279, 284
Klein and Wienand (2022) 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 40, 49, 56, 72, 74, 98, 127, 128, 132, 139, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 149, 163, 171, 172, 185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 219, 220, 228, 229, 234, 272, 273, 276, 286, 289, 296
emperor, constantine ii Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 369
Klein and Wienand (2022) 194
emperor, constantine the great Huttner (2013) 228, 284, 287, 288
Marek (2019) 2, 139, 378, 393, 541, 542, 546
emperor, constantine, crispus, son of Klein and Wienand (2022) 16, 128, 194
emperor, constantine, eutropia, mother-in-law of Klein and Wienand (2022) 17
emperor, constantine, helena, mother of Klein and Wienand (2022) 16, 17, 22, 23, 25, 117, 132, 142, 149, 172, 192, 194, 199, 228, 296
emperor, constantine, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 359, 382, 383
Rizzi (2010) 54, 97, 130, 150
emperor, constantine, roman, 324-37, and the galerian hypothesis Simmons(1995) 42
emperor, constantine, roman, 324-37, condemned porphyrys works Simmons(1995) 221
emperor, constantine, roman, 324-37, eye-witness of the persecution Simmons(1995) 42
emperor, constantine, roman, 324-37, vicennalia of Simmons(1995) 48
emperor, constantine, the great Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 16, 23, 35, 191, 361, 362, 369, 373, 379, 381
emperor, constantius Humfress (2007) 11, 44, 186, 238
Jenkyns (2013) 24, 263, 337
emperor, constantius i Klein and Wienand (2022) 194
emperor, constantius ii Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 369
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 53, 54, 56, 63, 67, 68, 70, 71, 75
Huttner (2013) 286, 291, 294, 308, 309, 348
Klein and Wienand (2022) 18, 19, 22, 40, 51, 123, 186
Marek (2019) 545
O, Daly (2020) 5, 6, 12, 13, 14
Rüpke (2011) 145
emperor, constantius, chlorus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 191
emperor, constantius, theodora, second wife of Klein and Wienand (2022) 194
emperor, controls celer’s egyptian experience, domitian Manolaraki (2012) 185, 195, 196, 198, 199, 202, 203, 204, 211, 216, 218
emperor, cult Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 150
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 98, 102
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 250
Huttner (2013) 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 97, 139, 149, 152, 160, 166, 180, 181, 215, 278
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 10, 56, 57, 63, 82, 157, 177, 196, 197, 198, 199, 209, 232, 236, 237, 238, 239, 261, 296, 330, 331, 341, 342, 343, 344
emperor, cult in germans Shannon-Henderson (2019) 80, 81, 82
emperor, cult of gods, goddesses, and heroes, of the Marek (2019) 313, 314, 416, 419, 420, 436, 526
emperor, cult of senate, attitude to Shannon-Henderson (2019) 19, 20, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 43, 196, 197, 198, 199, 281
emperor, cult, altars Huttner (2013) 61, 62, 63
emperor, cult, emperor Maier and Waldner (2022) 94, 97, 160, 162, 165, 169
emperor, cult, priest/priesthood, in Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 103, 106
emperor, cult, priests Huttner (2013) 61, 97
emperor, cult, temples Huttner (2013) 62, 63, 64, 160
emperor, death, nero Galinsky (2016) 145, 154, 223
emperor, death, tiberius Galinsky (2016) 164
emperor, deceptive nero, bad, vanus Sider (2001) 18
emperor, decius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 361
Huttner (2013) 340
Iricinschi et al. (2013) 64
Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 368
Marek (2019) 356, 536, 539
Yates and Dupont (2020) 51
emperor, decius, roman Maier and Waldner (2022) 87, 94, 108, 207
emperor, decrees, of Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 288
emperor, dedications, to Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198
emperor, deified, augustus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198
emperor, deified, commodus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198
emperor, deified, hadrian Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198
emperor, deified, marcus aurelius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198
emperor, deified, nerva Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198
emperor, deified, trajan Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198
emperor, diocletian Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 35, 191, 288, 294, 334, 364, 370
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 209, 210, 220
Humfress (2007) 44, 137, 245
Huttner (2013) 167, 274, 275, 276, 277, 288, 317, 335, 340, 343, 345, 346, 347, 350
Klein and Wienand (2022) 15, 88
Rüpke (2011) 156
emperor, diocletian, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 361
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305 Simmons(1995) 256, 261, 262, 324
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, 1st edict Simmons(1995) 7, 43, 64, 81
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, 2nd edict Simmons(1995) 82
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, 3rd edict Simmons(1995) 44
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, 4th edict Simmons(1995) 44, 84, 85, 86, 87
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, administrative skills Simmons(1995) 35
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, armys support Simmons(1995) 32
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, associated with jupiter Simmons(1995) 12
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, background of Simmons(1995) 32
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, building programme of Simmons(1995) 35
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, chief instigator of persecution Simmons(1995) 41
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, consults apollo at didyma Simmons(1995) 12, 41, 70
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, creates the tetrarchy Simmons(1995) 32
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, cruelty during the persecution Simmons(1995) 44
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, eastern military limes of Simmons(1995) 35
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, edict against incest Simmons(1995) 37, 71, 81, 91
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, edict against the manichees Simmons(1995) 37, 81
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, edict on maximum prices Simmons(1995) 81, 107, 117
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, edicts against adultery Simmons(1995) 70
emperor, diocletian, roman, 284-305, edicts against the christians Simmons(1995) 37, 90
emperor, divinity of elites, romans govern through Ando (2013) 208, 295, 296, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 385, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395
emperor, domitian Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 3, 188, 192, 198, 213, 276, 281, 284, 288, 564, 653, 689
Csapo (2022) 100, 107, 114, 116, 117
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 114
Humfress (2007) 137
Huttner (2013) 62, 63, 102, 159, 160, 161, 180, 181
Marek (2019) 339, 342, 379, 417, 422, 531, 536
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 55, 63, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 84, 86, 171, 183, 185, 218, 227, 235, 236, 243, 244
Rüpke (2011) 133
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 111, 118
emperor, domitian, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 361
Edmondson (2008) 23, 32, 76, 109, 236, 274
Rizzi (2010) 17, 73, 93
emperor, edicts/letters, hadrian Marek (2019) 381, 415, 433, 478, 479, 502, 503, 504, 537
emperor, educator of Borg (2008) 164
emperor, elagabal Marek (2019) 355, 478
emperor, elagabalus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 676
Csapo (2022) 31
Manolaraki (2012) 233, 234
emperor, elagabalus, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 303
Rizzi (2010) 115
emperor, elagabulus, roman Edmondson (2008) 36, 37, 188
emperor, elevation of patriarchs to senatorial rank and, julian Kraemer (2020) 228
emperor, empire Balberg (2017) 63, 223
emperor, ends marriage ban, septimius severus Phang (2001) 17, 18, 19, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 381
emperor, enemy of philosophy in philostratus, nero Manolaraki (2012) 263, 264
emperor, enemy to apollonius of tyana, domitian Manolaraki (2012) 262, 263, 270, 271, 272, 304, 305
emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by, claudius, roman Feldman (2006) 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 335, 336, 337, 340, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 410, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 523, 524, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570, 571, 572, 573, 574, 575, 576, 579, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 585, 586, 587, 588, 589, 590, 591, 592, 593, 594, 595, 596, 597, 598, 599, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 605, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 618, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630, 631, 632, 633, 634, 637, 638, 639, 640, 641, 642, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 648, 649, 650, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664, 665, 666, 667, 668, 669, 670, 671, 672, 677, 678, 679, 680, 681, 682, 683, 684, 685, 686, 687, 688, 689, 690, 691, 692, 693, 695, 696, 697, 698, 699, 700, 701, 702, 703, 704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710, 711, 712, 713, 714, 715, 716, 717, 718, 719, 720, 721, 723, 724, 725, 726, 727, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735, 736, 737, 738, 739, 740, 741, 742, 743, 744, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 752, 753, 754, 755, 756, 757, 758, 764, 765, 767, 768, 770, 771, 772, 773, 774, 775, 776, 777, 778, 779, 780, 785, 786, 788, 789, 790, 791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, 798, 799, 800, 801, 802, 803, 891, 892
emperor, failed student, nero Manolaraki (2012) 108, 109
emperor, flavius clemens, cousin of domitian, charged with drifting into jewish practices Feldman (2006) 298
emperor, franz joseph i Klein and Wienand (2022) 296
emperor, frederick ii Klein and Wienand (2022) 296
emperor, frederick iii Klein and Wienand (2022) 296
emperor, gaius Czajkowski et al (2020) 278
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 387
Levison (2009) 199, 356
Martens (2003) 48, 49, 50, 51, 112
emperor, gaius caligula, caesar Jenkyns (2013) 8, 19, 80, 81, 107, 188, 243
emperor, galba Bay (2022) 37, 172
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 190
Huebner and Laes (2019) 14
Jenkyns (2013) 37, 129, 138, 139, 159, 163
Marek (2019) 320, 366
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 48, 78, 79, 80, 92, 217
emperor, galerius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 191, 334, 379
Huttner (2013) 218
Marek (2019) 541, 548, 549
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 61, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 139
emperor, galerius, diocletians eastern caesar and later, caesar Simmons(1995) 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 305
emperor, galerius, diocletians eastern caesar and later, caesar, and diocletians retirement Simmons(1995) 45
emperor, galerius, diocletians eastern caesar and later, caesar, and palace fire at nicomedia Simmons(1995) 44
emperor, galerius, diocletians eastern caesar and later, caesar, edict of toleration of Simmons(1995) 49
emperor, galerius, diocletians eastern caesar and later, caesar, persian victory of Simmons(1995) 43
emperor, galerius, diocletians eastern caesar and later, caesar, so-called instigator of the persecution Simmons(1995) 6, 42
emperor, gallienus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 190
Marek (2019) 358, 359, 413, 422
emperor, generosity, hadrian Marek (2019) 493
emperor, genius, of Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 614
emperor, genius, of the Maier and Waldner (2022) 97
emperor, geta Huttner (2013) 64
emperor, geta, roman Rizzi (2010) 127
emperor, god’s son, roman Schremer (2010) 105, 107
emperor, gordian iii Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 293
Huttner (2013) 234
Marek (2019) 357, 366
emperor, gratian Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 379
Humfress (2007) 162, 210
Huttner (2013) 295
Rüpke (2011) 153
Van Nuffelen (2012) 85, 105, 199, 200
van , t Westeinde (2021) 47, 111, 127
emperor, gratian, roman Edmondson (2008) 218, 235
emperor, hadrian Bay (2022) 201
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 4, 17, 18, 25, 42, 94, 185, 190, 256, 266, 268, 281, 282, 288, 289, 291, 306, 331, 332, 336, 360, 361, 481, 542, 544, 652, 662, 687, 690
Csapo (2022) 102, 110, 111, 113, 117, 134, 147
Erler et al (2021) 47
Huttner (2013) 30, 43, 160, 214, 215, 241
Jenkyns (2013) 68, 111, 345
Marek (2019) 333, 412, 422
Nuno et al (2021) 196, 198, 199
O, Daly (2020) 115
Phang (2001) 38, 39, 40, 81, 97, 203, 215, 216, 310, 319, 320, 335
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 12, 47, 50, 75, 80, 81, 82, 237
Simon (2021) 18, 19, 32
Van Nuffelen (2012) 189
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 114, 118, 119
emperor, hadrian, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 268
Edmondson (2008) 23, 24, 33, 246
emperor, heaven-fearer, antoninus, roman Feldman (2006) 300
emperor, heliogabalus Huttner (2013) 48
emperor, henotikon, of zeno Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 369
emperor, heraclius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 373
Klein and Wienand (2022) 33, 47, 51, 54, 58, 76, 124, 263, 264, 266, 267, 275, 276, 284, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 296, 301, 302
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 319
emperor, honorius Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 70, 179, 180, 253
Humfress (2007) 166, 267
Klein and Wienand (2022) 23, 42, 71, 128
O, Daly (2020) 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 287, 288
Van Nuffelen (2012) 58, 166
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 309
van , t Westeinde (2021) 47, 69
emperor, honorius, roman Edmondson (2008) 220, 221, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 232, 235, 236
Rizzi (2010) 136
emperor, honorius, the Karfíková (2012) 172
emperor, hunting grounds in mysia, hadrian Marek (2019) 402
emperor, hymn to king helios, julian Gee (2013) 23, 150, 153, 154, 158, 161, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 171, 181, 182, 266
emperor, in egypt, vespasian, declared Rutledge (2012) 275, 278
emperor, in rome, adventus of O, Daly (2020) 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
emperor, interested in aegyptiaca, nero Manolaraki (2012) 40, 41, 42, 104, 107, 108, 110
emperor, israel’s god depicted as an Hayes (2022) 44, 352, 585
emperor, john Klein and Wienand (2022) 42, 55
emperor, josephus’ account of accession claudius, roman of sources of Feldman (2006) 330
emperor, jovian Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 51, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 63, 65, 70
Kahlos (2019) 102
Marek (2019) 2
Monnickendam (2020) 4, 130
O, Daly (2020) 115
Van Nuffelen (2012) 199, 200
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 237, 238, 239, 243
emperor, julian Bay (2022) 22, 35, 121, 201
Bloch (2022) 140, 141
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 367
Cain (2016) 161, 185
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 1, 343
Gardner (2015) 7
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 8, 9, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 76, 145, 209, 210, 220
Huebner and Laes (2019) 263, 264, 265, 266
Humfress (2007) 44, 45, 143, 201, 262
Kahlos (2019) 49, 68, 100, 101, 102, 103, 145, 151, 152, 154, 163, 164, 165, 190, 198
Kessler (2004) 71, 166
Klein and Wienand (2022) 19, 20, 40, 121, 124, 128, 150, 194
O, Daly (2012) 8, 135
O, Daly (2020) 115
Phang (2001) 373
Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 119, 148
Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 21, 31, 39, 78, 79, 81, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 146, 204, 212, 223
Russell and Nesselrath (2014) 143, 150
Rüpke (2011) 157
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 28, 41, 127, 129, 140, 144, 158, 162, 169, 178, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 215, 239, 241, 245, 250, 252, 312, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 330, 395
Van Nuffelen (2012) 69, 78, 111, 158, 159, 199, 200
Yates and Dupont (2020) 193
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 182, 216, 222, 238, 239, 240, 241, 247, 248
emperor, julian apostata Huttner (2013) 295, 306, 310
emperor, julian the, apostate Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 200
emperor, julian, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 179
Joosse (2021) 224
emperor, julian, widowhood, either sex Huebner and Laes (2019) 264, 265, 266
emperor, julians polemic, cyril of alexandria, bishop, rebuttal of Renberg (2017) 110, 755
emperor, julianus Marek (2019) 542
Monnickendam (2020) 71
emperor, justin Huebner and Laes (2019) 121
emperor, justin i Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 80
emperor, justin ii de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 251
emperor, justinian Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 288, 373, 375, 387
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 203, 211, 216, 217
Huebner and Laes (2019) 121, 123
Humfress (2007) 18, 46, 51, 64, 76, 77, 105, 106, 117, 118, 196
Huttner (2013) 289, 298, 351
Liapis and Petrides (2019) 301
Monnickendam (2020) 130
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 208, 221, 222, 223, 225, 241, 245, 246, 248, 249, 346
emperor, justinian i Lieber (2014) 88
Marek (2019) 531
emperor, justinian, roman Maier and Waldner (2022) 139
emperor, legal corpus, justinian Huebner and Laes (2019) 106
emperor, legislation favorable to jews and dissident christians by, john, usurping Kraemer (2020) 236, 249, 250
emperor, legislation of augustus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 60
emperor, leo Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 372, 373, 402
Hanghan (2019) 4, 5
Hitch (2017) 4, 5
Humfress (2007) 86, 103, 104, 105, 130
Huttner (2013) 324, 351
emperor, leo iii Tabbernee (2007) 328, 398
emperor, letter, of Borg (2008) 301
emperor, letters from, antoninus pius Kalinowski (2021) 298, 302, 304, 305, 307, 308, 310, 311, 312, 383, 399
emperor, licinius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 198, 380, 381
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 63
Humfress (2007) 255
Huttner (2013) 279
Klein and Wienand (2022) 14, 190, 194
Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 23, 53, 54, 55, 61, 74, 119
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 175, 212
emperor, limits honours, tiberius Davies (2004) 178, 182, 183, 184
emperor, lucius verus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 189, 331
Csapo (2022) 129
Huttner (2013) 241, 266, 335
Marek (2019) 313, 350, 351, 366
emperor, macrinus Marek (2019) 355
emperor, magnentius Klein and Wienand (2022) 18
emperor, mandata of augustus Phang (2001) 122
emperor, marcian Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 350, 351, 352, 356, 373, 401
Humfress (2007) 40, 90, 91
Klein and Wienand (2022) 26, 27, 28, 46, 150, 242, 244, 245, 250, 251, 254
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 264, 274, 278, 279, 284, 291, 314, 317
emperor, marcianus Huttner (2013) 322, 325
emperor, marcus aurelius Bay (2022) 146, 188
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 191
Csapo (2022) 109, 110, 129, 134, 144, 169
Huttner (2013) 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 249, 334, 351
Marek (2019) 350, 352, 366, 492, 493, 497, 528, 539, 541
Phang (2001) 199, 202, 291, 320
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 248, 249
emperor, marcus aurelius, roman Edmondson (2008) 37, 232
Rizzi (2010) 18, 72, 79, 121, 131, 134, 135, 137, 150
emperor, marriages of nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 295
emperor, maurice Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 370
Klein and Wienand (2022) 33, 46, 47, 55, 124, 267, 268, 269, 270, 275
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 250
emperor, maurice, constantia, wife of Klein and Wienand (2022) 270
emperor, maurice, peter, brother of the Klein and Wienand (2022) 267
emperor, maxentius de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 59, 216
emperor, maximian Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 191, 334, 379
Huttner (2013) 343
Marek (2019) 536, 541
Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 54, 67, 69, 80, 120
Tabbernee (2007) 194, 210
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 96
emperor, maximinus Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 250
emperor, maximinus daia Huttner (2013) 279, 281
Marek (2019) 534, 536, 541
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 38, 61, 62, 72, 136
emperor, maximinus daia, roman Maier and Waldner (2022) 185
emperor, maximinus thrax de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 168
emperor, military reforms, augustus Phang (2001) 122, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350
emperor, motives for ban, augustus Phang (2001) 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 381
emperor, murders committed by, nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 220, 230, 276, 280, 286, 291, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 353
emperor, names of cities, hadrian Marek (2019) 347
emperor, nero Bay (2022) 37, 86, 172, 173, 174, 256, 288
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 183, 188, 283, 284, 354, 546, 618, 662, 689
Cadwallader (2016) 36, 48, 250
Clark (2007) 267, 270
Csapo (2022) 3, 28, 98, 99, 100, 107, 108, 109, 114, 116, 119, 131, 135, 164, 165, 166, 171, 172, 223, 224
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 98, 100, 140
Galinsky (2016) 27, 50, 53, 54, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164
Gardner (2015) 155
Huttner (2013) 101, 207, 331, 332
Jenkyns (2013) 8, 36, 37, 47, 50, 84, 85, 104, 154, 159, 317, 343
Marek (2019) 313, 332, 334, 336, 338, 343, 344, 366, 381, 389, 418, 422, 536
Mcclellan (2019) 6, 81, 99, 110, 169, 194, 214, 215, 236, 237, 238, 268
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 9, 15, 46, 47, 74, 77, 78, 81, 84, 169, 170, 171, 174, 179, 182, 183, 185, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 229, 234, 243, 305, 311
Rüpke (2011) 133, 142, 144, 152
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 4, 26, 48, 70, 176, 225, 229, 245, 246, 247, 250, 264, 267, 353
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 108, 109, 111, 119
emperor, nero, bad Sider (2001) 17
emperor, nero, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 223
Edmondson (2008) 32, 36, 49, 83, 109, 211
Maier and Waldner (2022) 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 188
Rizzi (2010) 41, 103, 104, 119, 120, 129
emperor, nero, un, observed life Jenkyns (2013) 15, 26, 78, 79, 80, 172, 173
emperor, nerva Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 185, 263, 678
Huttner (2013) 75
Jenkyns (2013) 50
Marek (2019) 343, 379, 523
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 10, 12, 47, 48, 50, 71, 72, 73, 74, 79, 80, 84, 86, 241
emperor, nicephorus i Tabbernee (2007) 292, 328
emperor, numen of the Shannon-Henderson (2019) 40, 176, 346
emperor, numerian Van Nuffelen (2012) 112
emperor, octavian, later augustus Yona (2018) 6, 60, 167
emperor, octavian, later augustus, appearance in satires Yona (2018) 2
emperor, of persia and persians Rubenstein (2018) 185, 187, 230
emperor, of romans and rome Rubenstein (2018) 16, 17, 19
emperor, of rome, julian Azar (2016) 101, 159
emperor, on role of comedy, marcus aurelius Csapo (2022) 166, 167
emperor, on role of tragedy, marcus aurelius Csapo (2022) 166, 167
emperor, or king, theology, god as Hayes (2022) 44, 352, 585
emperor, orthodoxy, and the Ando and Ruepke (2006) 122, 123, 124
emperor, otho Bay (2022) 37
Jenkyns (2013) 47, 136, 139, 161
emperor, otho, roman Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 353
emperor, panegyric of constantius, julian Gee (2013) 172
emperor, panhellenion, hadrian Marek (2019) 474
emperor, performance and, nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 5, 304, 315, 316, 317, 334, 342
emperor, performing greek tragedy, nero Csapo (2022) 165, 166
emperor, pertinax Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 183
Clark (2007) 271
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 245
emperor, petronius maximus Hanghan (2019) 4, 23, 104, 106, 108, 116
Hitch (2017) 4, 23, 104, 106, 108, 116
emperor, philip Tabbernee (2007) 168
emperor, philippus arabs Marek (2019) 357, 366, 418, 422
emperor, philosopher king in philostratus, vespasian Manolaraki (2012) 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 277, 294
emperor, phocas Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 364, 387
Klein and Wienand (2022) 124, 264, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 275, 282
emperor, poetic rivalry with lucan, nero Manolaraki (2012) 104, 110, 111, 114
emperor, portrait Borg (2008) 16, 107
emperor, portraits of hadrian Csapo (2022) 157
emperor, possible spuriousness of letter, julian Kraemer (2020) 112
emperor, posthumous impersonations, nero Galinsky (2016) 145, 156, 157
emperor, power of Borg (2008) 13, 300, 365
emperor, praises vedius iii, antoninus pius Kalinowski (2021) 383
emperor, prayers, for the Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 196
emperor, price, simon, on sacrifices to Brodd and Reed (2011) 180
emperor, princeps, title of roman Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 182
emperor, probus Marek (2019) 548
emperor, proconsul, ulpius traianus, father of the Marek (2019) 365
emperor, procopius Klein and Wienand (2022) 40
emperor, proculus, roman Rizzi (2010) 113
emperor, prodigies and, nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 7, 12, 276, 288, 295, 298, 302, 305, 306, 307, 308, 311, 319, 324, 325, 326, 331, 334, 336, 337, 338
emperor, prophecy, concerning the Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 196, 197
emperor, proposal to rebuild jerusalem temple by, julian Kraemer (2020) 189, 355
emperor, prosperity prayed for Griffiths (1975) 17, 267
emperor, psychology of nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 318, 319
emperor, public building, role of Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 475
emperor, public responses to death, nero Galinsky (2016) 154, 155, 156, 158, 160, 161
emperor, pupienus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 191
emperor, purification performed by, nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 289, 290
emperor, recontextualization of septimius severus Perry (2014) 125, 126
emperor, relationship with agrippina the younger, nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 5, 286, 293, 294, 297
emperor, relationship with army, nero Galinsky (2016) 158, 160, 161
emperor, religious offices/activities, tiberius Galinsky (2016) 100
emperor, renovated ludus at capua, nero Kalinowski (2021) 229
emperor, revision of festival calendar, hadrian Csapo (2022) 111
emperor, roman Allison (2018) 91, 351
Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 71, 72, 87, 104, 106, 163, 185
Kalmin (2014) 118
emperor, roman, in the babylonian talmud Kalmin (2014) 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 73, 76
emperor, romanos i lekapenos Klein and Wienand (2022) 264, 276
emperor, rome, coins with the image of the Lorberbaum (2015) 172, 173
emperor, saturninus, roman Rizzi (2010) 111, 119
emperor, scribe of augustus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 132, 133
emperor, searches for the nile sources, nero Manolaraki (2012) 41, 81, 110, 285, 290
emperor, senate, and Davies (2004) 145, 147, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184, 189, 190, 191, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 201, 216
emperor, senate, and security of Fertik (2019) 165
emperor, senate, prayer, to moon-goddess, prayers for prosperity of knights, and whole roman people Griffiths (1975) 17, 267
emperor, septimius severus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 49, 94, 125, 126, 141, 183, 188, 196, 198, 282, 359, 360, 411, 438, 684
Huttner (2013) 64, 257, 260, 298
Isaac (2004) 333
Klein and Wienand (2022) 72
Perry (2014) 37
Phang (2001) 17, 18, 19, 67, 87, 381
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 245
Rüpke (2011) 163
emperor, septimius severus, grandfather ? of the Isaac (2004) 332, 333
emperor, septimius severus, roman Edmondson (2008) 24
Rizzi (2010) 135
emperor, severus Bay (2022) 121
emperor, severus alexander Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 126, 183, 330, 360
Marek (2019) 355, 378, 422, 473, 478, 523
emperor, severus alexander, roman Edmondson (2008) 27, 262
emperor, shield of virtues, augustus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 195, 196
emperor, signs recorded by suetonius, tiberius Davies (2004) 162
emperor, social legislation, augustus Phang (2001) 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 204, 381
emperor, social reforms of augustus Perry (2014) 12, 23, 29, 62, 63, 64, 66, 80, 92
emperor, statue of marcus aurelius Csapo (2022) 132, 134
emperor, statue of vespasian Csapo (2022) 134
emperor, statues of nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 311
emperor, statues, hadrian Csapo (2022) 133, 134
emperor, supports vedius iii, antoninus pius Kalinowski (2021) 372, 383
emperor, tacitus Marek (2019) 357
emperor, tacitus, the Borg (2008) 301
emperor, temple of nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 330, 331
emperor, theodosius Monnickendam (2020) 163
emperor, theodosius i Bay (2022) 22
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 367, 371, 379
Galinsky (2016) 268
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 1, 50, 51, 55, 63, 68, 70, 73, 74, 75, 116, 166, 179, 180, 299, 343, 344, 346, 349
Humfress (2007) 182, 247, 255
Huttner (2013) 338, 348
Klein and Wienand (2022) 20, 23, 24, 42, 51, 52, 142, 219, 220, 234
Marek (2019) 542
O, Daly (2020) 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 29, 287, 288
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 240, 241, 249
van , t Westeinde (2021) 31, 46, 127, 171
emperor, theodosius ii Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 288, 309, 367, 371
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 67, 179
Huttner (2013) 315
Klein and Wienand (2022) 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 42, 46, 51, 55, 56, 71, 74, 88, 101, 114, 118, 143, 144, 148, 153, 217, 296
Simon (2021) 15
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 207, 243, 264, 274, 276, 277, 278, 291, 299, 301
van , t Westeinde (2021) 47
emperor, theodosius ii, eastern roman Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 17
emperor, theodosius ii, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 208
emperor, theodosius over destruction of a synagogue, ambrose, conflict of with Feldman (2006) 201
emperor, theodosius the great roman Edmondson (2008) 211, 221, 226, 228, 229, 230, 236
emperor, theodosius, roman Rizzi (2010) 112, 136
emperor, theodosius’ flacilla wife Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 89
emperor, tiberius Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 183, 234
Bay (2022) 37
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 12, 178, 182, 186, 188, 197, 236, 276, 323, 352, 353, 355, 650, 651, 685
Cadwallader (2016) 248, 249, 253, 257, 262, 263, 265
Clark (2007) 235, 267, 268, 269, 277
Csapo (2022) 97, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 113, 115, 116, 121, 122, 142, 158, 171, 172, 221
Davies (2004) 148
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 103, 106, 262
Galinsky (2016) 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 89, 163
Huttner (2013) 61, 62
Jenkyns (2013) 18, 45, 48, 49, 78, 93, 118, 187, 216
Marek (2019) 314, 320, 324, 326, 328, 329, 330, 331, 366, 380, 405, 417, 420, 483
Mueller (2002) 9, 24, 25, 31, 32, 39, 52, 53, 56, 63, 67, 68, 71, 77, 78, 81, 87, 88, 89, 95, 96, 98, 100, 101, 104, 105, 108, 127, 175, 179, 180
Nasrallah (2019) 120, 188, 190, 201
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 8, 10, 47, 63, 81, 82, 83, 84, 107, 178, 179, 183, 206, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 253, 254
Roller (2018) 189
Rupke (2016) 43
Rüpke (2011) 98, 130, 133
Salvesen et al (2020) 264, 267, 268, 272, 273, 274, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 298
Simon (2021) 368
Udoh (2006) 86, 134, 153, 154, 155, 168, 207, 209, 223, 242
Van Nuffelen (2012) 95, 189
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 203
emperor, tiberius constantine de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 249, 250
emperor, tiberius ii Klein and Wienand (2022) 48, 263, 267
emperor, tiberius, germanicus, nephew of the Marek (2019) 328, 353
emperor, tiberius, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 179, 230, 235
Edmondson (2008) 32, 33, 34, 36, 49, 81, 82
Henderson (2020) 86
Rizzi (2010) 29, 117
emperor, titus Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 48, 52, 53
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 214
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 179, 183, 190, 194, 288, 475
Gruen (2011) 186, 193, 194
Gunderson (2022) 115, 135, 240, 242
Huttner (2013) 102, 160
Jenkyns (2013) 50, 78, 80, 92, 159
Kaster(2005) 199
Klein and Wienand (2022) 163, 176, 296
Marek (2019) 341
Nasrallah (2019) 197, 233
Peppard (2011) 89
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 76, 243
Salvesen et al (2020) 316, 318, 374
Van Nuffelen (2012) 189
emperor, titus, roman Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 3, 6, 61, 224, 226
Rizzi (2010) 90, 98, 104, 107, 138
emperor, traian Rüpke (2011) 145, 163
emperor, trajan Bay (2022) 146, 188, 201
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 4, 18, 45, 46, 127, 185, 186, 196, 281, 284, 331, 334, 358, 523, 545, 678
Cadwallader (2016) 259, 260
Clark (2007) 271
Csapo (2022) 31, 107, 108, 110, 114, 130
Galinsky (2016) 253
Huttner (2013) 63, 85, 168, 213, 214, 215, 332, 333, 334
Marek (2019) 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 379, 415, 478, 503, 504, 531, 536, 537
Phang (2001) 217, 270, 370, 371
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 10, 12, 47, 48, 50, 52, 62, 63, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 82, 84, 86, 241
emperor, trajan, roman Edmondson (2008) 23, 33, 51, 90, 232
Rizzi (2010) 7, 9, 12, 31, 54, 73, 74, 75, 77, 89, 115, 120, 121, 126, 147, 150
emperor, undermines religion, tiberius Davies (2004) 185, 187, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 204, 209
emperor, valens Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 422
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 174, 379
Cain (2016) 161
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 51, 55, 56, 59, 68, 70, 71, 77, 166, 173
Huttner (2013) 295
Klein and Wienand (2022) 29, 40, 51, 113, 123, 151
Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 35, 103, 152, 154, 155, 175
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 206, 238, 239
van , t Westeinde (2021) 47, 111
emperor, valentinian Cain (2016) 187
Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 120
emperor, valentinian i Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 174, 379
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 51, 67
Humfress (2007) 255
Klein and Wienand (2022) 40
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 239, 242, 247
van , t Westeinde (2021) 34
emperor, valentinian ii O, Daly (2020) 10, 11, 14, 15
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 241, 249
van , t Westeinde (2021) 46, 47, 111, 127
emperor, valentinian iii Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 179
Humfress (2007) 67, 87, 103
Klein and Wienand (2022) 21, 42, 118
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 207, 277
emperor, valentinian, vallebana, city of Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 35, 36
emperor, valerian Huttner (2013) 340
Marek (2019) 358, 536
Yates and Dupont (2020) 51
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 40, 93, 139, 140, 170
emperor, veneration, hadrian Marek (2019) 346, 526
emperor, verus lucius, roman Rizzi (2010) 114
emperor, vespasian Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 100, 179, 192, 193, 208, 353, 475, 519, 520, 573, 595
Csapo (2022) 106, 225
Galinsky (2016) 136
Huttner (2013) 75, 208, 209
Jenkyns (2013) 6, 35, 39, 228, 245, 259, 263
Klein and Wienand (2022) 11, 15, 163
Marek (2019) 338, 339, 341, 342, 417, 418, 433, 501
Perry (2014) 144
Phang (2001) 67, 83, 199, 287, 373
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 76, 77, 184, 203
Rüpke (2011) 144
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 118
emperor, vespasian, roman Bianchetti et al (2015) 230, 267
Rizzi (2010) 71, 73, 91, 104, 107, 116, 119, 120
emperor, villas of domitian Csapo (2022) 159
emperor, visits ephesos, antoninus pius Kalinowski (2021) 398
emperor, vitellius Bay (2022) 37
Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 192, 353
Clark (2007) 269, 270, 272, 276
Galinsky (2016) 50, 52, 54
Gruen (2011) 194
Jenkyns (2013) 48, 136, 140, 141, 187, 225
Marek (2019) 366
Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 76, 77, 179, 184, 217
emperor, wilhelm ii Klein and Wienand (2022) 296
emperor, worship Arthur-Montagne DiGiulio and Kuin (2022) 44, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171, 181
Schremer (2010) 54, 62, 106
emperor, worship, emperor, cult Novenson (2020) 24, 121, 229, 235, 237, 245, 297, 298, 299
emperor, worshipful treatment of nero Shannon-Henderson (2019) 305, 309, 344, 345, 360
emperor, x, roman Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 46, 59, 62, 63, 64, 65, 70, 71, 75, 141, 142, 200, 202, 208, 214, 215, 216, 217, 223, 224, 226, 227, 231, 232, 233
emperor, zeno Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 196, 204
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 369, 370, 373, 392, 397, 402
Hidary (2017) 110, 113
Humfress (2007) 46, 130
Klein and Wienand (2022) 28, 53, 145, 162, 245, 246, 247, 251, 252, 253, 254
Kraemer (2020) 279, 280, 315
Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 228
Tabbernee (2007) 313
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 266, 273
emperor, ‘beloved of isis’, domitian Manolaraki (2012) 124, 195
emperor/lucius, verus, vedius gaius, receives Kalinowski (2021) 183, 268
emperors Dignas (2002) 113
Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205
emperors, =valentian i, valens, valentinian valentinian dynasty, or valentinianic gratian Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 146
emperors, absence from rome of Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 45, 46
emperors, abuse of acropolis, athenian Brodd and Reed (2011) 88
emperors, acta of Shannon-Henderson (2019) 38, 341
emperors, adoratio of Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 47, 48
emperors, alexander severus Goldman (2013) 78
emperors, and alexander, severan Pinheiro et al (2015) 151
emperors, and egypt, antoninus pius Manolaraki (2012) 267, 285
emperors, and egypt, caligula, gaius Manolaraki (2012) 37, 38, 39, 40, 109, 123
emperors, and egypt, caracalla Manolaraki (2012) 232, 233
emperors, and egypt, claudius Manolaraki (2012) 37, 38, 39, 40, 108, 123, 129, 202
emperors, and egypt, commodus Manolaraki (2012) 230, 231
emperors, and egypt, domitian Manolaraki (2012) 15, 123, 124, 126
emperors, and egypt, hadrian Manolaraki (2012) 20, 130, 203, 224, 225, 229, 230, 232, 246, 247, 256, 258, 267
emperors, and egypt, marcus aurelius Manolaraki (2012) 19, 228, 229, 230, 232, 247, 248, 249, 250, 263, 264, 267
emperors, and egypt, nero Manolaraki (2012) 40, 41, 42
emperors, and egypt, octavian-augustus Manolaraki (2012) 3, 15, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 76, 77, 78, 122, 126, 146, 166, 168, 173, 174, 187, 188, 193, 198, 205, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 216, 225, 232, 310
emperors, and egypt, septimius severus Manolaraki (2012) 231, 232
emperors, and egypt, tiberius Manolaraki (2012) 36, 37, 202
emperors, and egypt, titus Manolaraki (2012) 123, 133, 191, 205
emperors, and egypt, trajan Manolaraki (2012) 20, 203, 224, 225, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 252, 256, 267
emperors, and egypt, vespasian Manolaraki (2012) 13, 122, 123, 126, 127, 130, 131, 145, 146, 173, 239, 244, 257
emperors, and members of imperial family, divi and divae, deified Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 4, 18, 23, 45, 49, 98, 99, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189, 192, 195, 196, 198, 290, 338, 352, 353, 355, 357, 435
emperors, and zeus olympios, coins, with Kalinowski (2021) 188
emperors, antoninus diadumenianusnan Goldman (2013) 51, 54, 55, 108
emperors, archaeological and cultural evidence for Peppard (2011) 42, 93
emperors, as benefactors Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 268
emperors, as gods Peppard (2011) 41, 42, 93
emperors, as human Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 138
emperors, as imperator Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 48, 49
emperors, as model benefactors Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 204, 216
emperors, as pater patriae, father, of empire Peppard (2011) 51, 62, 63, 65, 114, 115
emperors, as status vs. essence Peppard (2011) 31
emperors, asklepios of aegae in epidauros dedication, under christian Renberg (2017) 209, 210, 695
emperors, augustus Belayche and Massa (2021) 8, 78, 185
Goldman (2013) 22, 101, 102, 126, 143, 144
emperors, caligula Goldman (2013) 22, 49, 51, 52, 61, 85, 87, 90, 91, 103, 104, 128
emperors, caracalla Goldman (2013) 85, 91
emperors, cities’ modes of honoring Kalinowski (2021) 203
emperors, claudius Goldman (2013) 22, 104, 112, 121, 128
emperors, commodus Belayche and Massa (2021) 7, 14
Goldman (2013) 85, 107, 108, 114
emperors, community, and Fertik (2019) 8, 154
emperors, death of Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 67, 68, 70, 71
emperors, divinization of Jenkyns (2013) 26, 29, 50, 214, 228, 229, 250
emperors, divinization, of roman Janowitz (2002b) 65
emperors, divinized Jenkyns (2013) 26, 29, 50, 214, 228, 229, 250
emperors, divinized, gods Jenkyns (2013) 26, 29, 50, 214, 228, 229, 250
emperors, divinized, religions, roman Jenkyns (2013) 26, 29, 50, 214, 228, 229, 250
emperors, domitian Goldman (2013) 83, 85, 96, 106, 107
emperors, earliest Peppard (2011) 16
emperors, edicts, of Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 193, 194, 197, 288, 639
Czajkowski et al (2020) 9, 53, 138, 144, 149, 160, 192, 200, 226, 271, 321, 339
emperors, elagabalus Goldman (2013) 85
emperors, elites, and Fertik (2019) 154
emperors, fatum, and Davies (2004) 175, 271, 272, 278, 281
emperors, galba Goldman (2013) 105, 106
emperors, gallienus Goldman (2013) 108
emperors, gordian i Goldman (2013) 108, 109
emperors, hadrian Belayche and Massa (2021) 137
Goldman (2013) 19, 23
emperors, hellenistic monarchs, see hellenistic kings, hellenistic queens, roman Jim (2022) 9, 22, 212, 227, 254
emperors, holiness of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 198
emperors, honours, for roman Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 206
emperors, image, and invidia Kaster(2005) 98
emperors, image, invidia, and Kaster(2005) 98
emperors, imitatio Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 57, 97, 103, 109
emperors, in roman palestine Peppard (2011) 93
emperors, jovian Goldman (2013) 105
emperors, julio-claudian Bernabe et al (2013) 550
emperors, julius caesar Goldman (2013) 67, 99, 100, 108, 128, 129
emperors, legitimation options for Peppard (2011) 70, 73, 78, 135
emperors, liberalitas of Dignas (2002) 166, 220
emperors, lucius verus Goldman (2013) 20, 85, 91, 92, 107, 108
emperors, macrinus Goldman (2013) 54, 55
emperors, mandata, instructions, of Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 193, 288, 294
emperors, nero Belayche and Massa (2021) 64, 78
Goldman (2013) 22, 39, 51, 72, 79, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 104, 105, 106, 119, 156
emperors, of bishops, nicene, competing interests with Kraemer (2020) 175, 190
emperors, on continuum of humanity and divinity Peppard (2011) 41
emperors, onomastics, roman Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 182, 183, 184, 185, 186
emperors, oracles, and roman Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 27
emperors, pagan Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 134, 135, 170, 171
emperors, persecution, by good Sider (2001) 18
emperors, practice of astrologers Shannon-Henderson (2019) 52, 263, 340, 359
emperors, pre-constantinian christian attitude to Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 128, 129, 130
emperors, princeps Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 8, 9, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 86, 169, 170, 171, 178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 185, 200, 204, 205, 207, 208, 209, 216, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 253, 288, 301, 305, 314, 316
emperors, private sphere/privacy, and Fertik (2019) 8, 156
emperors, public eye, and Fertik (2019) 62, 79, 81
emperors, rejection by some, emperors, Peppard (2011) 42, 63
emperors, religio, religio, ritual, and Davies (2004) 145, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 242
emperors, rethinking jesus divine sonship through Peppard (2011) 6, 10, 28, 95
emperors, rituals of Peppard (2011) 62, 63, 65
emperors, roman Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198
Thonemann (2020) 9, 26, 27, 56, 87, 88, 108, 109, 110, 146, 168, 169, 191, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 212
emperors, roman context Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 79
emperors, roman empire/sociopolitical realm year of four Peppard (2011) 59, 90, 117
emperors, rome, and Davies (2004) 207
emperors, rome, worship of statues of the roman Lorberbaum (2015) 171, 172, 174, 175
emperors, sacrifice, for the Sider (2001) 26
emperors, scholarly reexaminations of Peppard (2011) 16, 41, 42
emperors, septimius severus Goldman (2013) 108
emperors, severan Van der Horst (2014) 201, 202
emperors, son of god as title for Peppard (2011) 18, 28, 93
emperors, son of god as title for roman Peppard (2011) 18, 28, 93
emperors, statues of Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 45, 46
emperors, statues, of Kalinowski (2021) 203
Rupke (2016) 61
emperors, teachers of the mouseion, paideutai, privileges granted to by Kalinowski (2021) 270, 401
emperors, temple, sacrifice for Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 351, 352, 571, 580
emperors, terminology of divinity Peppard (2011) 41, 42
emperors, tiberius Goldman (2013) 44, 102
emperors, tutelary deity, of kings Huttner (2013) 236, 237
emperors, valentinian Goldman (2013) 105
emperors, vedius antoninus ii, p., vedius ii, m. cl. p. vedius, as ambassador to senate and, ? Kalinowski (2021) 273
emperors, vedius antoninus iii, p., vedius iii, m. cl. p. vedius phaedrus sabinianus, ‘bauherr’, as ambassador to senate and Kalinowski (2021) 273, 274
emperors, vespasian Belayche and Massa (2021) 159
emperors, vitellius Goldman (2013) 67, 85, 94
emperors, worship of Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 164, 170, 171
emperors, worshipped in artemision Kalinowski (2021) 96
emperors, xerxes, and roman Giusti (2018) 37, 43
emperors, year of four Peppard (2011) 59, 90, 117
emperors, year of four zephyrinus, bishop Peppard (2011) 147
emperors, year of the four Bay (2022) 37, 172
emperors, ῥύομαι‎, roman emperors, see human ‘saviours’, roman Jim (2022) 9, 25, 28, 226
emperors, ῥύσια‎, roman emperors, see human ‘saviours’, roman Jim (2022) 106
emperors’, entourage, imperial representation, originating in Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 36
emperor’s, consilium, advisory council Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 276, 281
emperor’s, dress Edmondson (2008) 12, 17, 24, 33, 34, 36, 37, 43, 44, 74, 84, 92, 94, 218, 219, 225, 226, 269
emperor’s, safety, for Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 401, 411, 422, 506
emperor’s, security, one-man rule, and Fertik (2019) 165
emperor”, festivals, “for the Huttner (2013) 62
gods/emperors, acta martyrum, sacrifices to Bremmer (2017) 361

List of validated texts:
157 validated results for "emperor"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.7-5.9, 5.16, 17.15, 18.18, 22.1-22.3, 22.5, 25.19, 28.64, 31.10-31.13, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Gaius (emperor) • Julian (emperor), proposal to rebuild Jerusalem temple by • Julian the Emperor (Apostate) • Persia and Persians, emperor of • Roman emperor • Titus (Roman emperor) • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives • moods, verbal, imperative

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 91; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 233; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 61; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 200; Feldman (2006) 375, 397, 399, 400, 404, 405, 407, 541, 543, 588, 616, 703, 770, 794; Gera (2014) 144, 394, 412; Kraemer (2020) 355; Martens (2003) 112; Rubenstein (2018) 230

5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃
5.16. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃
17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃
18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃
22.1. לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃
22.1. לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2. וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער לַנַּעֲרָה׃ 22.2. וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.3. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃
22.5. לֹא־יִהְיֶה כְלִי־גֶבֶר עַל־אִשָּׁה וְלֹא־יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה׃
25.19. וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃
28.64. וֶהֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ עֵץ וָאָבֶן׃' '31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃''. None
5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me. 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me,
5.16. Honour thy father and thy mother, as the LORD thy God commanded thee; that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother.
18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.
22.1. Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother. 22.2. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him. 22.3. And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself.
22.5. A woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment; for whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD thy God.
25.19. Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget.
28.64. And the LORD shall scatter thee among all peoples, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou nor thy fathers, even wood and stone.
31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles, 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing. 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law; 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’
34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.10, 1.12, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 559, 599, 600; Gera (2014) 380, 387

1.12. וַתְּמָאֵן הַמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי לָבוֹא בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ׃
1.14. וְהַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו כַּרְשְׁנָא שֵׁתָר אַדְמָתָא תַרְשִׁישׁ מֶרֶס מַרְסְנָא מְמוּכָן שִׁבְעַת שָׂרֵי פָּרַס וּמָדַי רֹאֵי פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַיֹּשְׁבִים רִאשֹׁנָה בַּמַּלְכוּת׃' '. None
1.10. On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Bizzetha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that ministered in the presence of Ahasuerus the king,
1.12. But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s commandment by the chamberlains; therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him.
1.14. and the next unto him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the king’s face, and sat the first in the kingdom:''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.9, 12.12, 15.3, 15.11, 15.20, 18.25, 20.4-20.5, 20.12, 22.25, 25.10-25.22, 31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Emperor worship • Heraclius, emperor • Julian the Emperor (Apostate) • Roman emperor, God’s son • Romans and Rome, emperor of • Titus (Roman emperor) • emperor cult, emperor worship • imperative verbs, directed toward God, offerings in inclusio, in the Shivata for Dew • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives • moods, verbal, imperative

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 233; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 3; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 200; Feldman (2006) 349, 378, 379, 382, 383, 384, 404, 405, 501, 541, 581; Gera (2014) 89, 240, 279, 314, 412, 453, 454; Klein and Wienand (2022) 301; Lieber (2014) 305; Novenson (2020) 299; Rubenstein (2018) 19; Schremer (2010) 105, 106

1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־עַמּוֹ הִנֵּה עַם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל רַב וְעָצוּם מִמֶּנּוּ׃
12.12. וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה וְהִכֵּיתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מֵאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃
15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃
15.11. מִי־כָמֹכָה בָּאֵלִם יְהוָה מִי כָּמֹכָה נֶאְדָּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ נוֹרָא תְהִלֹּת עֹשֵׂה פֶלֶא׃' '
18.25. וַיִּבְחַר מֹשֶׁה אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם רָאשִׁים עַל־הָעָם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים שָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת שָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת׃
20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃
20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃
22.25. אִם־חָבֹל תַּחְבֹּל שַׂלְמַת רֵעֶךָ עַד־בֹּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ׃ 25.11. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ תְּצַפֶּנּוּ וְעָשִׂיתָ עָלָיו זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 25.12. וְיָצַקְתָּ לּוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב וְנָתַתָּה עַל אַרְבַּע פַּעֲמֹתָיו וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הָאֶחָת וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 25.13. וְעָשִׂיתָ בַדֵּי עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 25.14. וְהֵבֵאתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים בַּטַּבָּעֹת עַל צַלְעֹת הָאָרֹן לָשֵׂאת אֶת־הָאָרֹן בָּהֶם׃ 25.15. בְּטַבְּעֹת הָאָרֹן יִהְיוּ הַבַּדִּים לֹא יָסֻרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 25.16. וְנָתַתָּ אֶל־הָאָרֹן אֵת הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶיךָ׃ 25.17. וְעָשִׂיתָ כַפֹּרֶת זָהָב טָהוֹר אַמָּתַיִם וָחֵצִי אָרְכָּהּ וְאַמָּה וָחֵצִי רָחְבָּהּ׃ 25.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ שְׁנַיִם כְּרֻבִים זָהָב מִקְשָׁה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם מִשְּׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 25.19. וַעֲשֵׂה כְּרוּב אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה וּכְרוּב־אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה מִן־הַכַּפֹּרֶת תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים עַל־שְׁנֵי קְצוֹתָיו׃ 25.21. וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל־הָאָרֹן מִלְמָעְלָה וְאֶל־הָאָרֹן תִּתֵּן אֶת־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶיךָ׃ 25.22. וְנוֹעַדְתִּי לְךָ שָׁם וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אוֹתְךָ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
31.13. וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אַךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃''. None
1.9. And he said unto his people: ‘Behold, the people of the children of Israel are too many and too mighty for us;
12.12. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD.
15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name.
15.11. Who is like unto Thee, O LORD, among the mighty? Who is like unto Thee, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders?
15.20. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.
18.25. And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.
20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;
20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
22.25. If thou at all take thy neighbour’s garment to pledge, thou shalt restore it unto him by that the sun goeth down;
25.10. And they shall make an ark of acacia-wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. 25.11. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about. 25.12. And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four feet thereof; and two rings shall be on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it. 25.13. And thou shalt make staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold. 25.14. And thou shalt put the staves into the rings on the sides of the ark, wherewith to bear the ark. 25.15. The staves shall be in the rings of the ark; they shall not be taken from it. 25.16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee. 25.17. And thou shalt make an ark-cover of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof. 25.18. And thou shalt make two cherubim of gold; of beaten work shalt thou make them, at the two ends of the ark-cover. 25.19. And make one cherub at the one end, and one cherub at the other end; of one piece with the ark-cover shall ye make the cherubim of the two ends thereof. 25.20. And the cherubim shall spread out their wings on high, screening the ark-cover with their wings, with their faces one to another; toward the ark-cover shall the faces of the cherubim be. 25.21. And thou shalt put the ark-cover above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee. 25.22. And there I will meet with thee, and I will speak with thee from above the ark-cover, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.
31.13. ’Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying: Verily ye shall keep My sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ye may know that I am the LORD who sanctify you.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.7, 9.20-9.24, 14.14, 14.18-14.20, 15.12, 18.3, 19.2, 19.23, 21.17, 22.1-22.13, 24.67, 27.8, 45.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Constantine Emperor • Constantine I, emperor • Franz Joseph I, emperor • Frederick II, emperor • Frederick III, emperor • Gratian, emperor • Helena, mother of emperor Constantine • Heraclius, emperor • Julian, emperor • Roman Emperor • Theodosius II, emperor • Titus, emperor • Wilhelm II, emperor • emperors legitimation options for • emperors rethinking Jesus divine sonship through • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 71; Feldman (2006) 349, 352, 364, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 420, 491, 557, 567, 638, 639, 679; Gera (2014) 348, 387, 411, 412, 417; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 160; Kessler (2004) 166; Klein and Wienand (2022) 296, 301; Peppard (2011) 95, 135; Van Nuffelen (2012) 85

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃' '9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.22. וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃ 9.23. וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָה וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל־שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ׃ 9.24. וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה־לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן׃
14.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם כִּי נִשְׁבָּה אָחִיו וַיָּרֶק אֶת־חֲנִיכָיו יְלִידֵי בֵיתוֹ שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיִּרְדֹּף עַד־דָּן׃
14.18. וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.19. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃
15.12. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָה נָפְלָה עַל־אַבְרָם וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה חֲשֵׁכָה גְדֹלָה נֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו׃
18.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים׃
18.3. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְדֶּךָ׃
19.2. הִנֵּה־נָא הָעִיר הַזֹּאת קְרֹבָה לָנוּס שָׁמָּה וְהִיא מִצְעָר אִמָּלְטָה נָּא שָׁמָּה הֲלֹא מִצְעָר הִוא וּתְחִי נַפְשִׁי׃
19.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּה נָּא־אֲדֹנַי סוּרוּ נָא אֶל־בֵּית עַבְדְּכֶם וְלִינוּ וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם לְדַרְכְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹּא כִּי בָרְחוֹב נָלִין׃

19.23. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָצָא עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְלוֹט בָּא צֹעֲרָה׃
21.17. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־קוֹל הַנַּעַר וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָגָר מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה־לָּךְ הָגָר אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־שָׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶל־קוֹל הַנַּעַר בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא־שָׁם׃
22.1. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃
22.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃ 22.2. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֻּגַּד לְאַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה יָלְדָה מִלְכָּה גַם־הִוא בָּנִים לְנָחוֹר אָחִיךָ׃ 22.2. וַיֹּאמֶר קַח־נָא אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְלֶךְ־לְךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃ 22.3. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּחֲבֹשׁ אֶת־חֲמֹרוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו אִתּוֹ וְאֵת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיְבַקַּע עֲצֵי עֹלָה וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 22.4. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַיִּשָּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם מֵרָחֹק׃ 22.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־נְעָרָיו שְׁבוּ־לָכֶם פֹּה עִם־הַחֲמוֹר וַאֲנִי וְהַנַּעַר נֵלְכָה עַד־כֹּה וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 22.6. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֲצֵי הָעֹלָה וַיָּשֶׂם עַל־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־הָאֵשׁ וְאֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 2
2.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יִצְחָק אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אָבִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּנִּי בְנִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה הָאֵשׁ וְהָעֵצִים וְאַיֵּה הַשֶּׂה לְעֹלָה׃ 22.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהִים יִרְאֶה־לּוֹ הַשֶּׂה לְעֹלָה בְּנִי וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 22.9. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּבֶן שָׁם אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיַּעֲרֹךְ אֶת־הָעֵצִים וַיַּעֲקֹד אֶת־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִמַּעַל לָעֵצִים׃
22.11. וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃
22.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל־הַנַּעַר וְאַל־תַּעַשׂ לוֹ מְאוּמָּה כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ מִמֶּנִּי׃
22.13. וַיִּשָּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אַיִל אַחַר נֶאֱחַז בַּסְּבַךְ בְּקַרְנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאַיִל וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ לְעֹלָה תַּחַת בְּנוֹ׃
24.67. וַיְבִאֶהָ יִצְחָק הָאֹהֱלָה שָׂרָה אִמּוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־רִבְקָה וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַיֶּאֱהָבֶהָ וַיִּנָּחֵם יִצְחָק אַחֲרֵי אִמּוֹ׃
27.8. וְעַתָּה בְנִי שְׁמַע בְּקֹלִי לַאֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מְצַוָּה אֹתָךְ׃
45.26. וַיַּגִּדוּ לוֹ לֵאמֹר עוֹד יוֹסֵף חַי וְכִי־הוּא מֹשֵׁל בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וַיָּפָג לִבּוֹ כִּי לֹא־הֶאֱמִין לָהֶם׃''. None
1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard. 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. 9.22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without. 9.23. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness. 9.24. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him.
14.14. And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued as far as Dan.
14.18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High. 14.19. And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth; 14.20. and blessed be God the Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.’ And he gave him a tenth of all.
15.12. And it came to pass, that, when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, a dread, even a great darkness, fell upon him.
18.3. and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant.
19.2. and he said: ‘Behold now, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant’s house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way.’ And they said: ‘Nay; but we will abide in the broad place all night.’

19.23. The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came unto Zoar.
21.17. And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her: ‘What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is.
22.1. And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’ 22.2. And He said: ‘Take now thy son, thine only son, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.’ 22.3. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son; and he cleaved the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him. 22.4. On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. 22.5. And Abraham said unto his young men: ‘Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go yonder; and we will worship, and come back to you.’ 22.6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together. 2
2.7. And Isaac spoke unto Abraham his father, and said: ‘My father.’ And he said: ‘Here am I, my son.’ And he said: ‘Behold the fire and the wood; but where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?’ 22.8. And Abraham said: ‘God will aprovide Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son.’ So they went both of them together. 22.9. And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood.
22.10. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.
22.11. And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said: ‘Abraham, Abraham.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’
22.12. And he said: ‘Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him; for now I know that thou art a God-fearing man, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from Me.’
22.13. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in the thicket by his horns. And Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son.
24.67. And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her. And Isaac was comforted for his mother.
27.8. Now therefore, my son, hearken to my voice according to that which I command thee.
45.26. And they told him, saying: ‘Joseph is yet alive, and he is ruler over all the land of Egypt.’ And his heart fainted, for he believed them not.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.21, 5.27, 12.8, 13.17-13.21, 14.4, 23.19, 24.5, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Galerius (emperor), • Roman emperor • Roman emperor, x • Trajan, Roman Emperor • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 91; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 202; Feldman (2006) 392, 395, 463, 503, 560, 561, 563, 564, 566, 702, 703; Gera (2014) 197, 279, 412, 417; Huttner (2013) 218; Rizzi (2010) 74

5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃
5.27. וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃
12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃
13.17. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֹתָם מֹשֶׁה לָתוּר אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם עֲלוּ זֶה בַּנֶּגֶב וַעֲלִיתֶם אֶת־הָהָר׃ 13.18. וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ מַה־הִוא וְאֶת־הָעָם הַיֹּשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ הֶחָזָק הוּא הֲרָפֶה הַמְעַט הוּא אִם־רָב׃ 13.19. וּמָה הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יֹשֵׁב בָּהּ הֲטוֹבָה הִוא אִם־רָעָה וּמָה הֶעָרִים אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יוֹשֵׁב בָּהֵנָּה הַבְּמַחֲנִים אִם בְּמִבְצָרִים׃' '13.21. וַיַּעֲלוּ וַיָּתֻרוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ מִמִּדְבַּר־צִן עַד־רְחֹב לְבֹא חֲמָת׃
14.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶל־רֹאשׁ־הָהָר לֵאמֹר הִנֶּנּוּ וְעָלִינוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר יְהוָה כִּי חָטָאנוּ׃
14.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו נִתְּנָה רֹאשׁ וְנָשׁוּבָה מִצְרָיְמָה׃
23.19. לֹא אִישׁ אֵל וִיכַזֵּב וּבֶן־אָדָם וְיִתְנֶחָם הַהוּא אָמַר וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה וְדִבֶּר וְלֹא יְקִימֶנָּה׃
24.5. מַה־טֹּבוּ אֹהָלֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב מִשְׁכְּנֹתֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃''. None
5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;
5.27. And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people.
12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’
13.17. And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, and said unto them: ‘Get you up here into the South, and go up into the mountains; 13.18. and see the land, what it is; and the people that dwelleth therein, whether they are strong or weak, whether they are few or many; 13.19. and what the land is that they dwell in, whether it is good or bad; and what cities they are that they dwell in, whether in camps, or in strongholds; 13.20. and what the land is, whether it is fat or lean, whether there is wood therein, or not. And be ye of good courage, and bring of the fruit of the land.’—Now the time was the time of the first-ripe grapes.— 13.21. So they went up, and spied out the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, at the entrance to Hamath.
14.4. And they said one to another: ‘Let us make a captain, and let us return into Egypt.’
23.19. God is not a man, that He should lie; Neither the son of man, that He should repent: When He hath said, will He not do it? Or when He hath spoken, will He not make it good?
24.5. How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, Thy dwellings, O Israel!
24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth.''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine , interaction with emperors • Constantine I, emperor • Theodosius II, emperor

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 1110; Klein and Wienand (2022) 143

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃''. None
8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old.''. None
7. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Constantine, Roman Emperor • emperors, pagan • imperative verbs, directed toward God, offerings in inclusio, in the Shivata for Dew

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 305, 306; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 134; Rizzi (2010) 130

8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 18.19, 19.21, 19.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 353, 354, 454; Gera (2014) 141, 177, 216

18.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם רַב־שָׁקֵה אִמְרוּ־נָא אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כֹּה־אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר מָה הַבִּטָּחוֹן הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּטָחְתָּ׃
19.21. זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עָלָיו בָּזָה לְךָ לָעֲגָה לְךָ בְּתוּלַת בַּת־צִיּוֹן אַחֲרֶיךָ רֹאשׁ הֵנִיעָה בַּת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃
19.34. וְגַנּוֹתִי אֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת לְהוֹשִׁיעָהּ לְמַעֲנִי וּלְמַעַן דָּוִד עַבְדִּי׃''. None
18.19. And Rab-shakeh said unto them: ‘Say ye now to Hezekiah: Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria: What confidence is this wherein thou trustest?
19.21. This is the word that the LORD hath spoken concerning him: The virgin daughter of Zion Hath despised thee and laughed thee to scorn; The daughter of Jerusalem Hath shaken her head at thee.
19.34. For I will defend this city to save it, for Mine own sake, and for My servant David’s sake.’''. None
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.14, 16.7, 20.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Constantine, Emperor, • Marcus Aurelius, Emperor, • Trajan, Emperor, • emperors legitimation options for • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 188; Feldman (2006) 436, 483; Gera (2014) 402, 411; Peppard (2011) 135

7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃
16.7. וְכֹה־אָמַר שִׁמְעִי בְּקַלְלוֹ צֵא צֵא אִישׁ הַדָּמִים וְאִישׁ הַבְּלִיָּעַל׃
20.19. אָנֹכִי שְׁלֻמֵי אֱמוּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהָמִית עִיר וְאֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לָמָּה תְבַלַּע נַחֲלַת יְהוָה׃''. None
7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:
16.7. And thus said Shim῾i when he cursed, Come out, come out, thou bloody man, and thou base man:
20.19. I am of the peaceable and faithful in Yisra᾽el: thou seekest to destroy a city and a mother in Yisra᾽el: why wilt thou swallow up the inheritance of the Lord?''. None
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.3, 11.6-11.8, 11.11-11.12, 27.13, 43.6, 49.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Constantine the Great (emperor), • Constantine, Roman Emperor • Julian, Emperor of Rome • Justinian (emperor), Chalcedonian identity of Palestine and • Marcian (emperor) • Temple, Sacrifice for Emperors • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Azar (2016) 159; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 571; Farag (2021) 167; Feldman (2006) 751; Gera (2014) 144; Huttner (2013) 228; Rizzi (2010) 97

2.3. וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃
11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 11.7. וּפָרָה וָדֹב תִּרְעֶינָה יַחְדָּו יִרְבְּצוּ יַלְדֵיהֶן וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן׃ 11.8. וְשִׁעֲשַׁע יוֹנֵק עַל־חֻר פָּתֶן וְעַל מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי גָּמוּל יָדוֹ הָדָה׃
11.11. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יוֹסִיף אֲדֹנָי שֵׁנִית יָדוֹ לִקְנוֹת אֶת־שְׁאָר עַמּוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁאֵר מֵאַשּׁוּר וּמִמִּצְרַיִם וּמִפַּתְרוֹס וּמִכּוּשׁ וּמֵעֵילָם וּמִשִּׁנְעָר וּמֵחֲמָת וּמֵאִיֵּי הַיָּם׃ 11.12. וְנָשָׂא נֵס לַגּוֹיִם וְאָסַף נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְפֻצוֹת יְהוּדָה יְקַבֵּץ מֵאַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃
27.13. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃
43.6. אֹמַר לַצָּפוֹן תֵּנִי וּלְתֵימָן אַל־תִּכְלָאִי הָבִיאִי בָנַי מֵרָחוֹק וּבְנוֹתַי מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃
49.17. מִהֲרוּ בָּנָיִךְ מְהָרְסַיִךְ וּמַחֲרִבַיִךְ מִמֵּךְ יֵצֵאוּ׃''. None
2.3. And many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them. 11.7. And the cow and the bear feed; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. 11.8. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk’s den.
11.11. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the Lord will set His hand again the second time To recover the remt of His people, That shall remain from Assyria, and from Egypt, And from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, And from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. 11.12. And He will set up an ensign for the nations, And will assemble the dispersed of Israel, And gather together the scattered of Judah From the four corners of the earth.
27.13. And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great horn shall be blown; And they shall come that were lost in the land of Assyria, And they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; And they shall worship the LORD in the holy mountain at Jerusalem.
43.6. I will say to the north: ‘Give up’, And to the south: ‘Keep not back, bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth;
49.17. Thy children make haste; Thy destroyers and they that made thee waste shall go forth from thee.''. None
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 30.3, 31.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Temple, Sacrifice for Emperors • imperative verbs, directed toward God, offerings in inclusio, in the Shivata for Dew

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 571; Feldman (2006) 752; Lieber (2014) 305

30.3. כִּי הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־שְׁבוּת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה אָמַר יְהוָה וַהֲשִׁבֹתִים אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לַאֲבוֹתָם וִירֵשׁוּהָ׃
31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃''. None
30.3. For, lo, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will turn the captivity of My people Israel and Judah, saith the LORD; and I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.’
31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;''. None
12. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 4.6, 4.8-4.10, 4.14, 8.10, 19.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 481, 611, 614, 618, 620, 657; Gera (2014) 141, 411, 412

4.6. וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתִּקְרָא לְבָרָק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹעַם מִקֶּדֶשׁ נַפְתָּלִי וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הֲלֹא צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵךְ וּמָשַׁכְתָּ בְּהַר תָּבוֹר וְלָקַחְתָּ עִמְּךָ עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי נַפְתָּלִי וּמִבְּנֵי זְבֻלוּן׃
4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ בָּרָק אִם־תֵּלְכִי עִמִּי וְהָלָכְתִּי וְאִם־לֹא תֵלְכִי עִמִּי לֹא אֵלֵךְ׃ 4.9. וַתֹּאמֶר הָלֹךְ אֵלֵךְ עִמָּךְ אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא תִהְיֶה תִּפְאַרְתְּךָ עַל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ כִּי בְיַד־אִשָּׁה יִמְכֹּר יְהוָה אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתָּקָם דְּבוֹרָה וַתֵּלֶך עִם־בָּרָק קֶדְשָׁה׃' '
4.14. וַתֹּאמֶר דְּבֹרָה אֶל־בָּרָק קוּם כִּי זֶה הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה אֶת־סִיסְרָא בְּיָדֶךָ הֲלֹא יְהוָה יָצָא לְפָנֶיךָ וַיֵּרֶד בָּרָק מֵהַר תָּבוֹר וַעֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ אַחֲרָיו׃
19.26. וַתָּבֹא הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנוֹת הַבֹּקֶר וַתִּפֹּל פֶּתַח בֵּית־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֲדוֹנֶיהָ שָּׁם עַד־הָאוֹר׃''. None
4.6. And she sent and called Baraq the son of Avino῾am out of Qedesh-naftali, and said to him, Has not the Lord God of Yisra᾽el commanded, saying, Go and gather your men to mount Tavor, and take with thee ten thousand men of the children of Naftali and of the children of Zevulun?
4.8. And Baraq said to her, If thou wilt go with me, then I will go: but if thou wilt not go with me, then I will not go. 4.9. And she said, I will surely go with thee: however thou shalt scarcely attain honour on the journey that thou goest; for the Lord shall yield Sisera into the hand of a woman. And Devora arose, and went with Baraq to Qedesh. 4.10. And Baraq summoned Zevulun and Naftali to Qedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Devora went up with him.
4.14. And Devora said to Baraq, Up; for this is the day on which the Lord has delivered Sisera into thy hand: is not the Lord gone out before thee? So Baraq went down from mount Tavor, and ten thousand men after him.
8.10. Now Zevaĥ and Żalmunna were in Qarqor, and their hosts with them, about fifteen thousand men, all that were left of all the camp of the children of the east: for there fell a hundred and twenty thousand men that drew sword.
19.26. Then came the woman in the dawning of the day, and fell down at the door of the man’s house where her lord was, till it was light.''. None
13. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Roman emperor, x • Titus (Roman emperor)

 Found in books: Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 226; Feldman (2006) 686

1.5. הָיוּ צָרֶיהָ לְרֹאשׁ אֹיְבֶיהָ שָׁלוּ כִּי־יְהוָה הוֹגָהּ עַל רֹב־פְּשָׁעֶיהָ עוֹלָלֶיהָ הָלְכוּ שְׁבִי לִפְנֵי־צָר׃''. None
1.5. Her adversaries have become the head, her enemies are at ease; for the Lord has afflicted her because of the multitude of her sins; her young children went into captivity before the enemy. (PAUSE FOR REFLECTIONS)''. None
14. Hesiod, Works And Days, 212 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Nero, emperor, and Seneca • Nero, emperor, interested in Aegyptiaca • Nero, emperor, poetic rivalry with Lucan • Nero, emperor, searches for the Nile sources

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 437; Manolaraki (2012) 110

212. ὣς ἔφατʼ ὠκυπέτης ἴρηξ, τανυσίπτερος ὄρνις.''. None
212. No safeguard. Now I’ll tell, for lords who know''. None
15. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Julian (emperor) • Roman emperors, see human ‘saviours’, Roman emperors, ῥύομαι‎

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 683; Jim (2022) 25; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 17

16. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 11.5-11.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Constantine, Emperor, • Marcus Aurelius, Emperor, • Trajan, Emperor,

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 188; Feldman (2006) 680

11.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ יֹשְׁבֵי יְבוּס לְדָוִיד לֹא תָבוֹא הֵנָּה וַיִּלְכֹּד דָּוִיד אֶת־מְצֻדַת צִיּוֹן הִיא עִיר דָּוִיד׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד כָּל־מַכֵּה יְבוּסִי בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וּלְשָׂר וַיַּעַל בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה וַיְהִי לְרֹאשׁ׃ 11.7. וַיֵּשֶׁב דָּוִיד בַּמְצָד עַל־כֵּן קָרְאוּ־לוֹ עִיר דָּוִיד׃''. None
11.5. And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David: ‘Thou shalt not come in hither.’ Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion; the same is the city of David. 11.6. And David said: ‘Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain.’ And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and was made chief. 11.7. And David dwelt in the stronghold; therefore they called it the city of David.''. None
17. Herodotus, Histories, 2.81, 7.3, 8.98 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, emperor • Charles V (Holy Roman emperor) • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Tiberius emperor • Vespasian, emperor, philosopher king in Philostratus • astrologers, emperors practice of

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 493, 695, 741; Goldhill (2022) 173; Manolaraki (2012) 265; Marek (2019) 380; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 359

2.81. ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος.
7.3. Δαρείου δὲ οὐκ ἀποδεικνυμένου κω γνώμην, ἐτύγχανε κατὰ τὠυτὸ τούτοισι καὶ Δημάρητος ὁ Ἀρίστωνος ἀναβεβηκὼς ἐς Σοῦσα, ἐστερημένος τε τῆς ἐν Σπάρτῃ βασιληίης καὶ φυγὴν ἐπιβαλὼν ἑωυτῷ ἐκ Λακεδαίμονος. οὗτος ὡνὴρ πυθόμενος τῶν Δαρείου παίδων τὴν διαφορήν, ἐλθών, ὡς ἡ φάτις μιν ἔχει, Ξέρξῃ συνεβούλευε λέγειν πρὸς τοῖσι ἔλεγε ἔπεσι, ὡς αὐτὸς μὲν γένοιτο Δαρείῳ ἤδη βασιλεύοντι καὶ ἔχοντι τὸ Περσέων κράτος, Ἀρτοβαζάνης δὲ ἔτι ἰδιώτῃ ἐόντι Δαρείῳ· οὔκων οὔτε οἰκὸς εἴη οὔτε δίκαιον ἄλλον τινὰ τὸ γέρας ἔχειν πρὸ ἑωυτοῦ· ἐπεί γε καὶ ἐν Σπάρτῃ ἔφη ὁ Δημάρητος ὑποτιθέμενος οὕτω νομίζεσθαι, ἢν οἳ μὲν προγεγονότες ἔωσι πρὶν ἢ τὸν πατέρα σφέων βασιλεῦσαι, ὁ δὲ βασιλεύοντι ὀψίγονος ἐπιγένηται, τοῦ ἐπιγενομένου τὴν ἔκδεξιν τῆς βασιληίης γίνεσθαι. χρησαμένου δὲ Ξέρξεω τῇ Δημαρήτου ὑποθήκῃ, γνοὺς ὁ Δαρεῖος ὡς λέγοι δίκαια βασιλέα μιν ἀπέδεξε. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ ἄνευ ταύτης τῆς ὑποθήκης βασιλεῦσαι ἂν Ξέρξης· ἡ γὰρ Ἄτοσσα εἶχε τὸ πᾶν κράτος.
8.98. ταῦτά τε ἅμα Ξέρξης ἐποίεε καὶ ἔπεμπε ἐς Πέρσας ἀγγελέοντα τὴν παρεοῦσάν σφι συμφορήν. τούτων δὲ τῶν ἀγγέλων ἐστὶ οὐδὲν ὅ τι θᾶσσον παραγίνεται θνητὸν ἐόν· οὕτω τοῖσι Πέρσῃσι ἐξεύρηται τοῦτο. λέγουσι γὰρ ὡς ὁσέων ἂν ἡμερέων ᾖ ἡ πᾶσα ὁδός, τοσοῦτοι ἵπποι τε καὶ ἄνδρες διεστᾶσι κατὰ ἡμερησίην ὁδὸν ἑκάστην ἵππος τε καὶ ἀνὴρ τεταγμένος· τοὺς οὔτε νιφετός, οὐκ ὄμβρος, οὐ καῦμα, οὐ νὺξ ἔργει μὴ οὐ κατανύσαι τὸν προκείμενον αὐτῷ δρόμον τὴν ταχίστην. ὁ μὲν δὴ πρῶτος δραμὼν παραδιδοῖ τὰ ἐντεταλμένα τῷ δευτέρῳ, ὁ δὲ δεύτερος τῷ τρίτῳ· τὸ δὲ ἐνθεῦτεν ἤδη κατʼ ἄλλον καὶ ἄλλον διεξέρχεται παραδιδόμενα, κατά περ ἐν Ἕλλησι ἡ λαμπαδηφορίη τὴν τῷ Ἡφαίστῳ ἐπιτελέουσι. τοῦτο τὸ δράμημα τῶν ἵππων καλέουσι Πέρσαι ἀγγαρήιον.''. None
2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this.
7.3. While Darius delayed making his decision, it chanced that at this time Demaratus son of Ariston had come up to Susa, in voluntary exile from Lacedaemonia after he had lost the kingship of Sparta. ,Learning of the contention between the sons of Darius, this man, as the story goes, came and advised Xerxes to add this to what he said: that he had been born when Darius was already king and ruler of Persia, but Artobazanes when Darius was yet a subject; ,therefore it was neither reasonable nor just that anyone should have the royal privilege before him. At Sparta too (advised Demaratus) it was customary that if sons were born before their father became king, and another son born later when the father was king, the succession to the kingship belongs to the later-born. ,Xerxes followed Demaratus advice, and Darius judged his plea to be just and declared him king. But to my thinking Xerxes would have been made king even without this advice, for Atossa held complete sway. ' "
8.98. While Xerxes did thus, he sent a messenger to Persia with news of his present misfortune. Now there is nothing mortal that accomplishes a course more swiftly than do these messengers, by the Persians' skillful contrivance. It is said that as many days as there are in the whole journey, so many are the men and horses that stand along the road, each horse and man at the interval of a day's journey. These are stopped neither by snow nor rain nor heat nor darkness from accomplishing their appointed course with all speed. ,The first rider delivers his charge to the second, the second to the third, and thence it passes on from hand to hand, even as in the Greek torch-bearers' race in honor of Hephaestus. This riding-post is called in Persia, angareion. "'. None
18. Sophocles, Philoctetes, 1209 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • ἀλλά, before imperative

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 430; Meister (2019) 140

1209. Why, why ever would you— Philoctete''. None
19. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Julian (emperor)

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 448; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 129

20. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Emperors, Commodus

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 497, 608; Goldman (2013) 114

21. Cicero, On Duties, 2.69 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) • imperative

 Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 541; Yona (2018) 167

2.69. Sed cum in hominibus iuvandis aut mores spectari aut fortuna soleat, dictu quidem est proclive, itaque volgo loquuntur, se in beneficiis collocandis mores hominum, non fortunam sequi. Honesta oratio est; sed quis est tandem, qui inopis et optimi viri causae non anteponat in opera danda gratiam fortunati et potentis? a quo enim expeditior et celerior remuneratio fore videtur, in eum fere est voluntas nostra propensior. Sed animadvertendum est diligentius, quae natura rerum sit. Nimirum enim inops ille, si bonus est vir, etiamsi referre gratiam non potest, habere certe potest. Commode autem, quicumque dixit, pecuniam qui habeat, non reddidisse, qui reddiderit, non habere, gratiam autem et, qui rettulerit, habere et, qui habeat, rettulisse. At qui se locupletes, honoratos, beatos putant, ii ne obligari quidem beneficio volunt; quin etiam beneficium se dedisse arbitrantur, cum ipsi quamvis magnum aliquod acceperint, atque etiam a se aut postulari aut exspectari aliquid suspicantur, patrocinio vero se usos aut clientes appellari mortis instar putant.''. None
2.69. \xa0Now in rendering helpful service to people, we usually consider either their character or their circumstances. And so it is an easy remark, and one commonly made, to say that in investing kindnesses we look not to people\'s outward circumstances, but to their character. The phrase is admirable! But who is there, pray, that does not in performing a service set the favour of a rich and influential man above the cause of a poor, though most worthy, person? For, as a rule, our will is more inclined to the one from whom we expect a prompter and speedier return. But we should observe more carefully how the matter really stands: the poor man of whom we spoke cannot return a favour in kind, of course, but if he is a good man he can do it at least in thankfulness of heart. As someone has happily said, "A\xa0man has not repaid money, if he still has it; if he has repaid it, he has ceased to have it. But a man still has the sense of favour, if he has returned the favour; and if he has the sense of the favour, he has repaid it." On the other hand, they who consider themselves wealthy, honoured, the favourites of fortune, do not wish even to be put under obligations by our kind services. Why, they actually think that they have conferred a favour by accepting one, however great; and they even suspect that a claim is thereby set up against them or that something is expected in return. Nay more, it is bitter as death to them to have accepted a patron or to be called clients. <''. None
22. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Constantine I, emperor • Constantius II, emperor • Julian, emperor

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 719, 720; Klein and Wienand (2022) 19

9.26. וְאַחֲרֵי הַשָּׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם יִכָּרֵת מָשִׁיחַ וְאֵין לוֹ וְהָעִיר וְהַקֹּדֶשׁ יַשְׁחִית עַם נָגִיד הַבָּא וְקִצּוֹ בַשֶּׁטֶף וְעַד קֵץ מִלְחָמָה נֶחֱרֶצֶת שֹׁמֵמוֹת׃''. None
9.26. And after the threescore and two weeks shall an anointed one be cut off, and be no more; and the people of a prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; but his end shall be with a flood; and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.''. None
23. Polybius, Histories, 6.53 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Tiberius, Emperor

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 38; Jenkyns (2013) 49

6.53. 1. \xa0Whenever any illustrious man dies, he is carried at his funeral into the forum to the soâ\x80\x91called rostra, sometimes conspicuous in an upright posture and more rarely reclined.,2. \xa0Here with all the people standing round, a grown-up son, if he has left one who happens to be present, or if not some other relative mounts the rostra and discourses on the virtues and success­ful achievements of the dead.,3. \xa0As a consequence the multitude and not only those who had a part in these achievements, but those also who had none, when the facts are recalled to their minds and brought before their eyes, are moved to such sympathy that the loss seems to be not confined to the mourners, but a public one affecting the whole people.,4. \xa0Next after the interment and the performance of the usual ceremonies, they place the image of the departed in the most conspicuous position in the house, enclosed in a wooden shrine.,5. \xa0This image is a mask reproducing with remarkable fidelity both the features and complexion of the deceased.,6. \xa0On the occasion of public sacrifices they display these images, and decorate them with much care, and when any distinguished member of the family dies they take them to the funeral, putting them on men who seem to them to bear the closest resemblance to the original in stature and carriage.,7. \xa0These representatives wear togas, with a purple border if the deceased was a consul or praetor, whole purple if he was a censor, and embroidered with gold if he had celebrated a triumph or achieved anything similar.,8. \xa0They all ride in chariots preceded by the fasces, axes, and other insignia by which the different magistrates are wont to be accompanied according to the respective dignity of the offices of state held by each during his life;,9. \xa0and when they arrive at the rostra they all seat themselves in a row on ivory chairs. There could not easily be a more ennobling spectacle for a young man who aspires to fame and virtue.,10. \xa0For who would not be inspired by the sight of the images of men renowned for their excellence, all together and as if alive and breathing? What spectacle could be more glorious than this?''. None
24. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Roman emperor • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 351; Gera (2014) 314

6.4. Pharaoh with his abundance of chariots, the former ruler of this Egypt, exalted with lawless insolence and boastful tongue, you destroyed together with his arrogant army by drowning them in the sea, manifesting the light of your mercy upon the nation of Israel.
6.4. Then they feasted, provided with everything by the king, until the fourteenth day, on which also they made the petition for their dismissal.''. None
25. Septuagint, Judith, 9.2-9.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • language and style, Book of Judith, imperatives

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 304, 307, 308; Gera (2014) 197, 402, 453

9.2. "O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done\' -- yet they did it. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 9.4. and thou gavest their wives for a prey and their daughters to captivity, and all their booty to be divided among thy beloved sons, who were zealous for thee, and abhorred the pollution of their blood, and called on thee for help -- O God, my God, hear me also, a widow. ''. None
26. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Julian (Emperor), Hymn to King Helios • Julian (emperor)

 Found in books: Gee (2013) 23; Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 118

27. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Nero (Emperor), (un)observed life • emperor and architect, relational paradigm • imperator

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 332, 346, 526; Jenkyns (2013) 173; Konrad (2022) 69, 70; Oksanish (2019) 148

28. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Caligula, Emperor (Gaius Caesar) • Emperors and Egypt, Titus

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 19; Manolaraki (2012) 191

29. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Commodus (Roman emperor) • Constantine, Roman Emperor • Nero (Emperor) • Nerva, Emperor • Tiberius (Emperor) • Titus, Emperor • Vespasian (Emperor) • divinization of emperors • emperors divinized • gods, emperors divinized • religions, Roman, emperors divinized

 Found in books: Bianchetti et al (2015) 359; Csapo (2022) 106; Edmondson (2008) 268; Jenkyns (2013) 50

30. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius (emperor) • Hellenistic monarchs, see Hellenistic kings, Hellenistic queens, Roman emperors

 Found in books: Czajkowski et al (2020) 210; Jim (2022) 254

31. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, emperor • Augustus, emperor ( • Hadrian, emperor • Marcus Aurelius, Stoic, Roman emperor, author of Meditations, Prolongation of life of no value • Tiberius, Emperor

 Found in books: Bowersock (1997) 71; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 240; Sorabji (2000) 241; Waldner et al (2016) 76

32. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 5.28-5.29 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Roman emperor, x

 Found in books: Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 216; Feldman (2006) 776

5.28. But after a long time shall he transmit 5.29. His power unto another, who shall have''. None
33. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.10.1, 1.10.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Julian (emperor) • Nero, emperor, character in the pseudo-Senecan tragedy Octauia

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 78; Stephens and Winkler (1995) 460

1.10.1. \xa0Now the Egyptians have an account like this: When in the beginning the universe came into being, men first came into existence in Egypt, both because of the favourable climate of the land and because of the nature of the Nile. For this stream, since it produces much life and provides a spontaneous supply of food, easily supports whatever living things have been engendered; for both the root of the reed and the lotus, as well as the Egyptian bean and corsaeon, as it is called, and many other similar plants, supply the race of men with nourishment all ready for use.
1.10.3. \xa0And from this fact it is manifest that, when the world was first taking shape, the land of Egypt could better than any other have been the place where mankind came into being because of the well-tempered nature of its soil; for even at the present time, while the soil of no other country generates any such things, in it alone certain living creatures may be seen coming into being in a marvellous fashion.''. None
34. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.70.5 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Nero (emperor)

 Found in books: Feldman (2006) 355, 548; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 4

2.70.5. \xa0Whether I\xa0have been well advised or not in giving them this appellation, anyone who pleases may gather from their actions. For they execute their movements in arms, keeping time to a flute, sometimes all together, sometimes by turns, and while dancing sing certain traditional hymns. But this dance and exercise performed by armed men and the noise they make by striking their bucklers with their daggers, if we may base any conjectures on the ancient accounts, was originated by the Curetes. I\xa0need not mention the legend which is related concerning them, since almost everybody is acquainted with it. <''. None
35. Ovid, Fasti, 5.492, 5.549-5.568, 6.639-6.647 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (Octavian, emperor) • Claudius (emperor) • Nero (Emperor) • Nerva, Emperor • Tiberius (emperor) • Tiberius, emperor • Titus, Emperor • divinization of emperors • emperors divinized • gods, emperors divinized • religions, Roman, emperors divinized

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 29, 50; Mueller (2002) 100; Panoussi(2019) 197; Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 361; Waldner et al (2016) 118

5.492. inter se nulla continuata die.
5.549. fallor, an arma sot? non fallimur, arma sonabant: 5.550. Mars venit et veniens bellica signa dedit. 5.551. Ultor ad ipse suos caelo descendit honores 5.552. templaque in Augusto conspicienda foro. 5.553. et deus est ingens et opus: debebat in urbe 5.554. non aliter nati Mars habitare sui. 5.555. digna Giganteis haec sunt delubra tropaeis: 5.556. hinc fera Gradivum bella movere decet, 5.557. seu quis ab Eoo nos impius orbe lacesset, 5.558. seu quis ab occiduo sole domandus erit. 5.559. prospicit armipotens operis fastigia summi 5.560. et probat invictos summa tenere deos. 5.561. prospicit in foribus diversae tela figurae 5.562. armaque terrarum milite victa suo. 5.563. hinc videt Aenean oneratum pondere caro 5.564. et tot Iuleae nobilitatis avos: 5.565. hinc videt Iliaden humeris ducis arma ferentem, 5.566. claraque dispositis acta subesse viris, 5.567. spectat et Augusto praetextum nomine templum, 5.568. et visum lecto Caesare maius opus.
6.639. disce tamen, veniens aetas, ubi Livia nunc est 6.640. porticus, immensae tecta fuisse domus; 6.641. urbis opus domus una fuit, spatiumque tenebat, 6.642. quo brevius muris oppida multa tenent, 6.643. haec aequata solo est, nullo sub crimine regni, 6.644. sed quia luxuria visa nocere sua, 6.645. sustinuit tantas operum subvertere moles 6.646. totque suas heres perdere Caesar opes, 6.647. sic agitur censura et sic exempla parantur,''. None
5.492. People say unlucky women wed in the month of May.
5.549. Why does bright day, presaged by the Morning Star, 5.550. Lift its radiance more swiftly from the ocean waves? 5.551. Am I wrong, or did weapons clash? I’m not: they clashed, 5.552. Mars comes, giving the sign for war as he comes. 5.553. The Avenger himself descends from the sky 5.554. To view his shrine and honours in Augustus’ forum. 5.555. The god and the work are mighty: Mar 5.556. Could not be housed otherwise in his son’s city. 5.557. The shrine is worthy of trophies won from Giants: 5.558. From it the Marching God initiates fell war, 5.559. When impious men attack us from the East, 5.560. Or those from the setting sun must be conquered. 5.561. The God of Arms sees the summits of the work, 5.562. And approves of unbeaten gods holding the heights. 5.563. He sees the various weapons studding the doors, 5.564. Weapons from lands conquered by his armies. 5.565. Here he views Aeneas bowed by his dear burden, 5.566. And many an ancestor of the great Julian line: 5.567. There he views Romulus carrying Acron’s weapon 5.568. And famous heroes’ deeds below their ranked statues.
6.639. And Livia, this day dedicated a magnificent shrine to you, 6.640. Concordia, that she offered to her dear husband. 6.641. Learn this, you age to come: where Livia’s Colonnade 6.642. Now stands, there was once a vast palace. 6.643. A site that was like a city: it occupied a space 6.644. Larger than that of many a walled town. 6.645. It was levelled to the soil, not because of its owner’s treason, 6.646. But because its excess was considered harmful. 6.647. Caesar counteced the demolition of such a mass,''. None
36. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 9.666-9.699, 9.701-9.707, 9.709-9.721, 9.723-9.733, 9.735-9.739, 9.741-9.752, 9.754-9.764, 9.766-9.785, 9.787-9.797 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (Octavian, emperor) • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 166; Manolaraki (2012) 35; Panoussi(2019) 42, 46

9.666. Fama novi centum Cretaeas forsitan urbes 9.667. implesset monstri, si non miracula nuper 9.668. Iphide mutata Crete propiora tulisset. 9.669. Proxima Cnosiaco nam quondam Phaestia regno 9.670. progenuit tellus ignotum nomine Ligdum, 9.671. ingenua de plebe virum. Nec census in illo 9.672. nobilitate sua maior, sed vita fidesque 9.673. inculpata fuit. Gravidae qui coniugis aures 9.674. vocibus his monuit, cum iam prope partus adesset: 9.675. “Quae voveam, duo sunt; minimo ut relevere dolore, 9.676. utque marem parias; onerosior altera sors est, 9.677. et vires fortuna negat. Quod abominor, ergo 9.678. edita forte tuo fuerit si femina partu, 9.679. (invitus mando: pietas, ignosce!) necetur.” 9.680. Dixerat, et lacrimis vultus lavere profusis, 9.681. tam qui mandabat, quam cui mandata dabantur. 9.682. Sed tamen usque suum vanis Telethusa maritum 9.683. sollicitat precibus, ne spem sibi ponat in arto. 9.684. Certa sua est Ligdo sententia. Iamque ferendo 9.685. vix erat illa gravem maturo pondere ventrem, 9.686. cum medio noctis spatio sub imagine somni 9.688. aut stetit aut visa est. Inerant lunaria fronti 9.689. cornua cum spicis nitido flaventibus auro 9.690. et regale decus. Cum qua latrator Anubis 9.691. sanctaque Bubastis variusque coloribus Apis, 9.692. quique premit vocem digitoque silentia suadet, 9.693. sistraque erant numquamque satis quaesitus Osiris 9.694. plenaque somniferis serpens peregrina venenis. 9.695. Tum velut excussam somno et manifesta videntem 9.696. sic adfata dea est: “Pars o Telethusa mearum, 9.697. pone graves curas mandataque falle mariti. 9.698. Nec dubita, cum te partu Lucina levarit, 9.699. tollere quidquid erit. Dea sum auxiliaris opemque
9.701. ingratum numen.” Monuit thalamoque recessit. 9.702. Laeta toro surgit purasque ad sidera supplex 9.703. Cressa manus tollens, rata sint sua visa, precatur. 9.704. Ut dolor increvit, seque ipsum pondus in auras 9.705. expulit et nata est ignaro femina patre, 9.706. iussit ali mater puerum mentita: fidemque 9.707. res habuit, neque erat ficti nisi conscia nutrix.
9.709. Iphis avus fuerat. Gavisa est nomine mater, 9.710. quod commune foret nec quemquam falleret illo. 9.711. Inde incepta pia mendacia fraude latebant: 9.712. cultus erat pueri, facies, quam sive puellae, 9.713. sive dares puero, fuerat formosus uterque. 9.714. Tertius interea decimo successerat annus, 9.715. cum pater, Iphi, tibi flavam despondet Ianthen, 9.716. inter Phaestiadas quae laudatissima formae 9.717. dote fuit virgo, Dictaeo nata Teleste. 9.718. Par aetas, par forma fuit, primasque magistris 9.719. accepere artes, elementa aetatis, ab isdem. 9.720. Hinc amor ambarum tetigit rude pectus et aequum 9.721. vulnus utrique dedit. Sed erat fiducia dispar:
9.723. quamque virum putat esse, virum fore credit Ianthe; 9.724. Iphis amat, qua posse frui desperat, et auget 9.725. hoc ipsum flammas, ardetque in virgine virgo; 9.726. vixque tenens lacrimas “quis me manet exitus” inquit, 9.727. “cognita quam nulli, quam prodigiosa novaeque 9.728. cura tenet Veneris? Si di mihi parcere vellent, 9.729. parcere debuerant; si non, et perdere vellent, 9.730. naturale malum saltem et de more dedissent. 9.731. Nec vaccam vaccae, nec equas amor urit equarum: 9.732. urit oves aries, sequitur sua femina cervum. 9.733. Sic et aves coeunt, interque animalia cuncta
9.735. Vellem nulla forem! Ne non tamen omnia Crete 9.736. monstra ferat, taurum dilexit filia Solis, 9.737. femina nempe marem: meus est furiosior illo, 9.738. si verum profitemur, amor! Tamen illa secuta est 9.739. spem Veneris, tamen illa dolis et imagine vaccae
9.741. Huc licet e toto sollertia confluat orbe, 9.742. ipse licet revolet ceratis Daedalus alis, 9.743. quid faciet? Num me puerum de virgine doctis 9.744. artibus efficiet? num te mutabit, Ianthe? 9.745. Quin animum firmas, teque ipsa reconligis, Iphi, 9.746. consiliique inopes et stultos excutis ignes? 9.747. Quid sis nata, vide, nisi te quoque decipis ipsa, 9.748. et pete quod fas est, et ama quod femina debes! 9.749. Spes est, quae capiat, spes est, quae pascit amorem: 9.750. hanc tibi res adimit. Non te custodia caro 9.751. arcet ab amplexu nec cauti cura mariti, 9.752. non patris asperitas, non se negat ipsa roganti:
9.754. esse potes felix, ut dique hominesque laborent. 9.755. Nunc quoque votorum nulla est pars vana meorum, 9.756. dique mihi faciles, quidquid valuere, dederunt; 9.757. quodque ego, vult genitor, vult ipsa socerque futurus. 9.758. At non vult natura, potentior omnibus istis, 9.759. quae mihi sola nocet. Venit ecce optabile tempus, 9.760. luxque iugalis adest, et iam mea fiet Ianthe— 9.761. nec mihi continget: mediis sitiemus in undis. 9.762. Pronuba quid Iuno, quid ad haec, Hymenaee, venitis 9.763. sacra, quibus qui ducat abest, ubi nubimus ambae?” 9.764. Pressit ab his vocem. Nec lenius altera virgo
9.766. Quod petit haec, Telethusa timens modo tempora differt, 9.767. nunc ficto languore moram trahit, omina saepe 9.768. visaque causatur. Sed iam consumpserat omnem 9.769. materiam ficti, dilataque tempora taedae 9.770. institerant, unusque dies restabat. At illa 9.771. crinalem capiti vittam nataeque sibique 9.772. detrahit et passis aram complexa capillis 9.773. “Isi, Paraetonium Mareoticaque arva Pharonque 9.774. quae colis et septem digestum in cornua Nilum: 9.775. fer, precor” inquit “opem nostroque medere timori! 9.776. Te, dea, te quondam tuaque haec insignia vidi 9.777. cunctaque cognovi, sonitum comitantiaque aera 9.778. sistrorum, memorique animo tua iussa notavi. 9.779. Quod videt haec lucem, quod non ego punior, ecce 9.780. consilium munusque tuum est. Miserere duarum 9.781. auxilioque iuva!” Lacrimae sunt verba secutae. 9.782. Visa dea est movisse suas (et moverat) aras, 9.783. et templi tremuere fores, imitataque lunam 9.784. cornua fulserunt, crepuitque sonabile sistrum. 9.785. Non secura quidem, fausto tamen omine laeta
9.787. quam solita est, maiore gradu, nec candor in ore 9.788. permanet, et vires augentur, et acrior ipse est 9.789. vultus, et incomptis brevior mensura capillis, 9.790. plusque vigoris adest, habuit quam femina. Nam quae 9.791. femina nuper eras, puer es. Date munera templis 9.792. nec timida gaudete fide! Dant munera templis, 9.793. addunt et titulum; titulus breve carmen habebat: 9.794. DONA PUER SOLVIT QUAE FEMINA VOVERAT IPHIS 9.795. Postera lux radiis latum patefecerat orbem, 9.796. cum Venus et Iuno sociosque Hymenaeus ad ignes 9.797. conveniunt, potiturque sua puer Iphis Ianthe.' '. None
9.666. of youthful manhood. Then shall Jupiter 9.667. let Hebe, guardian of ungathered days,' "9.668. grant from the future to Callirhoe's sons," '9.669. the strength of manhood in their infancy.' "9.670. Do not let their victorious father's death" '9.671. be unavenged a long while. Jove prevailed 9.672. upon, will claim beforehand all the gift 9.673. of Hebe, who is his known daughter-in-law, 9.674. and his step-daughter, and with one act change' "9.675. Callirhoe's beardless boys to men of size.”" '9.676. When Themis, prophesying future days, 9.677. had said these words, the Gods of Heaven complained 9.678. because they also could not grant the gift 9.679. of youth to many others in this way. 9.680. Aurora wept because her husband had 9.681. white hair; and Ceres then bewailed the age 9.682. of her Iasion, grey and stricken old; 9.683. and Mulciber demanded with new life 9.684. his Erichthonius might again appear; 9.685. and Venus , thinking upon future days,' "9.686. aid old Anchises' years must be restored." '9.688. until vexed with the clamor, Jupiter 9.689. implored, “If you can have regard for me, 9.690. consider the strange blessings you desire: 9.691. does any one of you believe he can 9.692. prevail against the settled will of Fate? 9.693. As Iolaus has returned by fate, 9.694. to those years spent by him; so by the Fate' "9.695. Callirhoe's sons from infancy must grow" '9.696. to manhood with no struggle on their part, 9.697. or force of their ambition. And you should 9.698. endure your fortune with contented minds: 9.699. I, also, must give all control to Fate.
9.701. I would not let advancing age break down 9.702. my own son Aeacus, nor bend his back 9.703. with weight of year; and Rhadamanthus should 9.704. retain an everlasting flower of youth, 9.705. together with my own son Minos, who 9.706. is now despised because of his great age, 9.707. o that his scepter has lost dignity.”
9.709. and none continued to complain, when they 9.710. aw Aeacus and Rhadamanthus old, 9.711. and Minos also, weary of his age. 9.712. And they remembered Minos in his prime, 9.713. had warred against great nations, till his name 9.714. if mentioned was a certain cause of fear. 9.715. But now, enfeebled by great age, he feared' "9.716. Miletus , Deione's son, because" '9.717. of his exultant youth and strength derived 9.718. from his great father Phoebus. And although' "9.719. he well perceived Miletus ' eye was fixed" '9.720. upon his throne, he did not dare to drive 9.721. him from his kingdom.
9.723. Miletus of his own accord did fly, 9.724. by swift ship, over to the Asian shore, 9.725. across the Aegean water, where he built 9.726. the city of his name. 9.727. Cyane, who 9.728. was known to be the daughter of the stream 9.729. Maeander , which with many a twist and turn 9.730. flows wandering there—Cyane said to be 9.731. indeed most beautiful, when known by him, 9.732. gave birth to two; a girl called Byblis, who 9.733. was lovely, and the brother Caunus—twins.
9.735. of every maiden must be within law. 9.736. Seized with a passion for her brother, she 9.737. loved him, descendant of Apollo, not 9.738. as sister loves a brother; not in such 9.739. a manner as the law of man permits.
9.741. to kiss him passionately, while her arm' "9.742. were thrown around her brother's neck, and so" '9.743. deceived herself. And, as the habit grew, 9.744. her sister-love degenerated, till 9.745. richly attired, she came to see her brother, 9.746. with all endeavors to attract his eye; 9.747. and anxious to be seen most beautiful, 9.748. he envied every woman who appeared 9.749. of rival beauty. But she did not know 9.750. or understand the flame, hot in her heart, 9.751. though she was agitated when she saw 9.752. the object of her swiftly growing love.
9.754. he hated to say brother, and she said, 9.755. “Do call me Byblis—never call me sister!” 9.756. And yet while feeling love so, when awake 9.757. he does not dwell upon impure desire; 9.758. but when dissolved in the soft arms of sleep, 9.759. he sees the very object of her love, 9.760. and blushing, dreams she is embraced by him, 9.761. till slumber has departed. For a time 9.762. he lies there silent, as her mind recall 9.763. the loved appearance of her lovely dream, 9.764. until her wavering heart, in grief exclaims:—
9.766. Ah wretched me! I cannot count it true. 9.767. And, if he were not my own brother, he 9.768. why is my fond heart tortured with this dream? 9.769. He is so handsome even to envious eyes, 9.770. it is not strange he has filled my fond heart; 9.771. o surely would be worthy of my love. 9.772. But it is my misfortune I am hi 9.773. own sister. Let me therefore strive, awake, 9.774. to stand with honor, but let sleep return 9.775. the same dream often to me.—There can be 9.776. no fear of any witness to a shade 9.777. which phantoms my delight.—O Cupid, swift 9.778. of love-wing with your mother, and O my 9.779. beloved Venus! wonderful the joy 9.780. of my experience in the transport. All 9.781. as if reality sustaining, lifted me 9.782. up to elysian pleasure, while in truth 9.783. I lay dissolving to my very marrow: 9.784. the pleasure was so brief, and Night, headlong 9.785. ped from me, envious of my coming joys.
9.787. how good a daughter I would prove to your 9.788. dear father, and how good a son would you 9.789. be to my father. If the Gods agreed, 9.790. then everything would be possessed by u 9.791. in common, but this must exclude ancestors. 9.792. For I should pray, compared with mine yours might 9.793. be quite superior. But, oh my love, 9.794. ome other woman by your love will be 9.795. a mother; but because, unfortunate, 9.796. my parents are the same as yours, you must 9.797. be nothing but a brother. Sorrows, then,' '. None
37. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 33-42, 45-46, 49-50, 54-55, 97, 103, 105, 135-139, 151, 181 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander Severus (emperor) • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Emperors and Egypt, Caligula (Gaius) • Emperors and Egypt, Claudius • Emperors and Egypt, Nero • Emperors and Egypt, Trajan • Emperors and Egypt, Vespasian • Nero (Emperor) • Nero, emperor, interested in Aegyptiaca • Roman Empire, emperor and governor • elites, Romans govern through, emperor, divinity of

 Found in books: Ando (2013) 370, 392; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 824; Csapo (2022) 3; Feldman (2006) 692, 696; Levine (2005) 285; Manolaraki (2012) 38, 39, 40, 239

33. for he encouraged the idle and lazy mob of the city (and the mob of Alexandria is one accustomed to great license of speech, and one which delights above measure in calumny and evil-speaking), to abuse the king, either beginning to revile him in his own person, or else exhorting and exciting others to do so by the agency of persons who were accustomed to serve him in business of this kind. 34. And they, having had the cue given them, spent all their days reviling the king in the public schools, and stringing together all sorts of gibes to turn him into ridicule. And at times they employed poets who compose farces, and managers of puppet shows, displaying their natural aptitude for every kind of disgraceful employment, though they were very slow at learning anything that was creditable, but very acute, and quick, and ready at learning anything of an opposite nature. 35. For why did he not show his indignation, why did he not commit them to prison, why did he not chastise them for their insolent and disloyal evil speaking? And even if he had not been a king but only one of the household of Caesar, ought he not to have had some privileges and especial honours? The fact is that all these circumstances are an undeniable evidence that Flaccus was a participator in all this abuse; for he who might have punished it with the most extreme severity, and entirely checked it, and who yet took no steps to restrain it, was clearly convicted of having permitted and encouraged it; but whenever an ungoverned multitude begins a course of evil doing it never desists, but proceeds from one wickedness to another, continually doing some monstrous thing. VI. 36. There was a certain madman named Carabbas, afflicted not with a wild, savage, and dangerous madness (for that comes on in fits without being expected either by the patient or by bystanders), but with an intermittent and more gentle kind; this man spent all this days and nights naked in the roads, minding neither cold nor heat, the sport of idle children and wanton youths; 37. and they, driving the poor wretch as far as the public gymnasium, and setting him up there on high that he might be seen by everybody, flattened out a leaf of papyrus and put it on his head instead of a diadem, and clothed the rest of his body with a common door mat instead of a cloak and instead of a sceptre they put in his hand a small stick of the native papyrus which they found lying by the way side and gave to him; 38. and when, like actors in theatrical spectacles, he had received all the insignia of royal authority, and had been dressed and adorned like a king, the young men bearing sticks on their shoulders stood on each side of him instead of spear-bearers, in imitation of the bodyguards of the king, and then others came up, some as if to salute him, and others making as though they wished to plead their causes before him, and others pretending to wish to consult with him about the affairs of the state. 39. Then from the multitude of those who were standing around there arose a wonderful shout of men calling out Maris; and this is the name by which it is said that they call the kings among the Syrians; for they knew that Agrippa was by birth a Syrian, and also that he was possessed of a great district of Syria of which he was the sovereign; 40. when Flaccus heard, or rather when he saw this, he would have done right if he had apprehended the maniac and put him in prison, that he might not give to those who reviled him any opportunity or excuse for insulting their superiors, and if he had chastised those who dressed him up for having dared both openly and disguisedly, both with words and actions, to insult a king and a friend of Caesar, and one who had been honoured by the Roman senate with imperial authority; but he not only did not punish them, but he did not think fit even to check them, but gave complete license and impunity to all those who designed ill, and who were disposed to show their enmity and spite to the king, pretending not to see what he did see, and not to hear what he did hear. 41. And when the multitude perceived this, I do not mean the ordinary and well-regulated population of the city, but the mob which, out of its restlessness and love of an unquiet and disorderly life, was always filling every place with tumult and confusion, and who, because of their habitual idleness and laziness, were full of treachery and revolutionary plans, they, flocking to the theatre the first thing in the morning, having already purchased Flaccus for a miserable price, which he with his mad desire for glory and with his slavish disposition, condescended to take to the injury not only of himself, but also of the safety of the commonwealth, all cried out, as if at a signal given, to erect images in the synagogues, 42. proposing a most novel and unprecedented violation of the law. And though they knew this (for they are very shrewd in their wickedness), they adopted a deep design, putting forth the name of Caesar as a screen, to whom it would be impiety to attribute the deeds of the guilty;
45. for it was sufficiently evident that the report about the destruction of the synagogues, which took its rise in Alexandria would be immediately spread over all the districts of Egypt, and would extend from that country to the east and to the oriental nations, and from the borders of the land in the other direction, and from the Mareotic district which is the frontier of Libya, towards the setting of the sun and the western nations. For no one country can contain the whole Jewish nation, by reason of its populousness; 46. on which account they frequent all the most prosperous and fertile countries of Europe and Asia, whether islands or continents, looking indeed upon the holy city as their metropolis in which is erected the sacred temple of the most high God, but accounting those regions which have been occupied by their fathers, and grandfathers, and great grandfathers, and still more remote ancestors, in which they have been born and brought up, as their country; and there are even some regions to which they came the very moment that they were originally settled, sending a colony of their people to do a pleasure to the founders of the colony.
49. You, without being aware of it, are taking away honour from your lords instead of conferring any on them. Our houses of prayer are manifestly incitements to all the Jews in every part of the habitable world to display their piety and loyalty towards the house of Augustus; and if they are destroyed from among us, what other place, or what other manner of showing that honour, will be left to us? 50. For if we were to neglect the opportunity of adhering to our national customs when it is afforded to us, we should deserve to meet with the severest punishment, as not giving any proper or adequate return for the benefits which we have received; but if, while it is in our power to do so, we, in conformity with our own laws which Augustus himself is in the habit of confirming, obey in everything, then I do not see what great, or even what small offence can be laid to our charge; unless any one were to impute to us that we do not transgress the laws of deliberate purpose, and that we do not intentionally take care to depart from our national customs, which practices, even if they at first attack others, do often in the end visit those who are guilty of them.
54. for a few days afterwards he issued a notice in which he called us all foreigners and aliens, without giving us an opportunity of being heard in our own defence, but condemning us without a trial; and what command can be more full of tyranny than this? He himself being everything--accuser, enemy, witness, judge, and executioner, added then to the two former appellations a third also, allowing any one who was inclined to proceed to exterminate the Jews as prisoners of war. 55. So when the people had received this license, what did they do? There are five districts in the city, named after the first five letters of the written alphabet, of these two are called the quarters of the Jews, because the chief portion of the Jews lives in them. There are also a few scattered Jews, but only a very few, living in some of the other districts. What then did they do? They drove the Jews entirely out of four quarters, and crammed them all into a very small portion of one;
97. But it was not out of his own head alone, but also because of the commands and in consequence of the situation of the emperor that he sought and devised means to injure and oppress us; for after we had decreed by our votes and carried out by our actions all the honours to the emperor Gaius, which were either within our power or allowable by our laws, we brought the decree to him, entreating him that, as it was not permitted to us to send an embassy ourselves to bear it to the emperor, he would vouchsafe to forward it himself.
103. For when Agrippa, the king, came into the country, we set before him all the designs which Flaccus had entertained against us; and he set himself to rectify the business, and, having promised to forward the decree to the emperor, he taking it, as we hear, did send it, accompanied with a defence relating to the time at which it was passed, showing that it was not lately only that we had learnt to venerate the family of our benefactors, but that we had from the very first beginning shown our zeal towards them, though we had been deprived of the opportunity of making any seasonable demonstration of it by the insolence of our governor. '
105. for some men of those who, in the time of Tiberius, and of Caesar his father, had the government, seeking to convert their governorship and viceroyalty into a sovereignty and tyranny, filled all the country with intolerable evils, with corruption, and rapine, and condemnation of persons who had done no wrong, and with banishment and exile of such innocent men, and with the slaughter of the nobles without a trial; and then, after the appointed period of their government had expired, when they returned to Rome, the emperors exacted of them an account and relation of all that they had done, especially if by chance the cities which they had been oppressing sent any embassy to complain;
135. Such, then, was the character of Lampo, who was now one of the accusers of Flaccus. And Isidorus was in no respect inferior to him in wickedness, being a man of the populace, a low demagogue, one who had continually studied to throw everything into disorder and confusion, an enemy to all peace and stability, very clever at exciting seditions and tumults which had no existence before, and at inflaming and exaggerating such as were already excited, taking care always to keep about him a disorderly and promiscuous mob of all the refuse of the people, ready for every kind of atrocity, which he had divided into regular sections as so many companies of soldiers. 136. There are a vast number of parties in the city whose association is founded in no one good principle, but who are united by wine, and drunkenness, and revelry, and the offspring of those indulgencies, insolence; and their meetings are called synods and couches by the natives. 137. In all these parties or the greater number of them Isidorus is said to have borne the bell, the leader of the feast, the chief of the supper, the disturber of the city. Then, whenever it was determined to do some mischief, at one signal they all went forth in a body, and did and said whatever they were told. 138. And on one occasion, being indigt with Flaccus because, after he had appeared originally to be a person of some weight with him, he afterwards was no longer courted in an equal degree, having hired a gang of fellows from the training schools and men accustomed to vociferate loudly, who well their outcries as if in regular market to those who are inclined to buy them, he ordered them all to assemble at the gymnasium; 139. and they, having filled it, began to heap accusations on Flaccus without any particular grounds, inventing all kinds of monstrous accusations and all sorts of falsehoods in ridiculous language, stringing long sentences together, so that not only was Flaccus himself alarmed but all the others who were there at this unexpected attack, and especially, as it may be conjectured, from the idea that there must certainly have been some one behind the scenes whom they were studying to gratify, since they themselves had suffered no evil, and since they were well aware that the rest of the city had not been ill-treated by him.
151. And after he had been deprived of all his property, he was condemned to banishment, and was exiled from the whole continent, and that is the greatest and most excellent portion of the inhabited world, and from every island that has any character for fertility or richness; for he was commanded to be sent into that most miserable of all the islands in the Aegaean Sea, called Gyara, and he would have been left there if he had not availed himself of the intercession of Lepidus, by whose means he obtained leave to exchange Gyara for Andros, which was very near it.
181. and he often repented that he had condemned him to banishment and not to death, and though he had a great respect for Lepidus who had interceded for him, he blamed him, so that he was kept in a state of great alarm from fear of punishment impending over him, for he feared lest, as was very likely, he, because he had been the cause of another person having been visited by a lighter punishment, might himself have a more severe one inflicted upon him. '. None
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 155, 166-167, 278, 281, 287, 317, 355-357 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander Severus (emperor) • Augustus (emperor) • Caligula (emperor) • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Emperors and Egypt, Caligula (Gaius) • Emperors and Egypt, Claudius • Emperors and Egypt, Nero • Gaius (emperor), and Agrippa I • Nero, emperor, interested in Aegyptiaca • Price, Simon, on sacrifices to emperor • Tiberius (emperor) • empire, emperor

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 63, 223; Brodd and Reed (2011) 180; Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 101, 107; Feldman (2006) 691, 768; Levine (2005) 285; Manolaraki (2012) 38, 40; Salvesen et al (2020) 295, 296; Udoh (2006) 157

155. How then did he look upon the great division of Rome which is on the other side of the river Tiber, which he was well aware was occupied and inhabited by the Jews? And they were mostly Roman citizens, having been emancipated; for, having been brought as captives into Italy, they were manumitted by those who had bought them for slaves, without ever having been compelled to alter any of their hereditary or national observances. '
166. The greater portion of these men ere Egyptians, wicked, worthless men, who had imprinted the venom and evil disposition of their native asps and crocodiles on their own souls, and gave a faithful representation of them there. And the leader of the whole Egyptian troops, like the coryphaeus of a chorus, was a man of the name of Helicon, an accursed and infamous slave, who had been introduced into the imperial household to its ruin; for he had acquired a slight smattering of the encyclical sciences, by imitation of and rivalry with his former master, who gave him to Tiberius Caesar. 167. And at that time he had no especial privilege, since Tiberius had a perfect hatred of all youthful sallies of wit for the mere purposes of amusement, as he, from almost his earliest youth, was of a solemn and austere disposition.
278. And I am, as you know, a Jew; and Jerusalem is my country, in which there is erected the holy temple of the most high God. And I have kings for my grandfathers and for my ancestors, the greater part of whom have been called high priests, looking upon their royal power as inferior to their office as priests; and thinking that the high priesthood is as much superior to the power of a king, as God is superior to man; for that the one is occupied in rendering service to God, and the other has only the care of governing them.
281. "Concerning the holy city I must now say what is necessary. It, as I have already stated, is my native country, and the metropolis, not only of the one country of Judaea, but also of many, by reason of the colonies which it has sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria in general, and especially that part of it which is called Coelo-Syria, and also with those more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the furthermost corners of Pontus. And in the same manner into Europe, into Thessaly, and Boeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica, and Argos, and Corinth and all the most fertile and wealthiest districts of Peloponnesus.
287. both because that is my natural disposition, and also in consequence of the number of benefits with which you have enriched me; so that if I in consequence had felt confidence to implore you myself on behalf of my country, if not to grant to it the Roman constitution, at least to confer freedom and a remission of taxes on it, I should not have thought that I had any reason to fear your displeasure for preferring such a petition to you, and for requesting that most desirable of all things, your favour, which it can do you no harm to grant, and which is the most advantageous of all things for my country to receive.
317. "There is also another piece of evidence, in no respect inferior to this one, and which is the most undeniable proof of the will of Augustus, for he commanded perfect sacrifices of whole burnt offerings to be offered up to the most high God every day, out of his own revenues, which are performed up to the present time, and the victims are two sheep and a bull, with which Caesar honoured the altar of God, well knowing that there is in the temple no image erected, either in open sight or in any secret part of it.
355. And while he was triumphing in these super-human appellations, the sycophant Isidorus, seeing the temper in which he was, said, "O master, you will hate with still juster vehemence these men whom you see before you and their fellow countrymen, if you are made acquainted with their disaffection and disloyalty towards yourself; for when all other men were offering up sacrifices of thanksgiving for your safety, these men alone refused to offer any sacrifice at all; and when I say, \'these men,\' I comprehend all the rest of the Jews." 356. And when we all cried out with one accord, "O Lord Gaius, we are falsely accused; for we did sacrifice, and we offered up entire hecatombs, the blood of which we poured in a libation upon the altar, and the flesh we did not carry to our homes to make a feast and banquet upon it, as it is the custom of some people to do, but we committed the victims entire to the sacred flame as a burnt offering: and we have done this three times already, and not once only; on the first occasion when you succeeded to the empire, and the second time when you recovered from that terrible disease with which all the habitable world was afflicted at the same time, and the third time we sacrificed in hope of your victory over the Germans." 357. "Grant," said he, "that all this is true, and that you did sacrifice; nevertheless you sacrificed to another god and not for my sake; and then what good did you do me? Moreover you did not sacrifice to me." Immediately a profound shuddering came upon us the first moment that we heard this expression, similar to that which overwhelmed us when we first came into his presence. '. None
39. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, emperor • Claudius (emperor) • Tiberius, emperor • edicts, of emperors • elites, Romans govern through, emperor, divinity of • emperor and architect, relational paradigm • emperors, Roman

 Found in books: Ando (2013) 208, 391; Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 197; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 355; Oksanish (2019) 154, 156, 160, 162, 163

1.7.1. 1. The lanes and streets of the city being set out, the choice of sites for the convenience and use of the state remains to be decided on; for sacred edifices, for the forum, and for other public buildings. If the place adjoin the sea, the forum should be placed close to the harbour: if inland, it should be in the centre of the town. The temples of the gods, protectors of the city, also those of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, should be on some eminence which commands a view of the greater part of the city. The temple of Mercury should be either in the forum, or, as also the temple of Isis and Serapis, in the great public square. Those of Apollo and Father Bacchus near the theatre. If there be neither amphitheatre nor gymnasium, the temple of Hercules should be near the circus. The temple of Mars should be out of the city, in the neighbouring country. That of Venus near to the gate. According to the regulations of the Hetrurian Haruspices, the temples of Venus, Vulcan, and Mars should be so placed that those of the first not be in the way of contaminating the matrons and youth with the influence of lust; that those of Vulcan be away from the city, which would consequently be freed from the danger of fire; the divinity presiding over that element being drawn away by the rites and sacrifices performing in his temple. The temple of Mars should be also out of the city, that no armed frays may disturb the peace of the citizens, and that this divinity may, moreover, be ready to preserve them from their enemies and the perils of war.' "2.9.16. 16. As soon as the flames, reaching almost to the heavens, began to encompass the tower, every one expected to see its demolition. But as soon as the fire was extinct, the tower appeared still unhurt; and Cæsar, wondering at the cause of it, ordered it to be blockaded out of arrow's flight, and thus carried the town, which was delivered up to him by its trembling inhabitants. They were then asked where they obtained this sort of wood, which would not burn. They shewed him the trees, which are in great abundance in those parts. Thus, as the fortress was called Larignum, so the wood, whereof the tower was built, is called larigna (larch). It is brought down the\xa0Po to Ravenna, for the use of the municipalities of Fano, Pesaro, Ancona, and the other cities in that district. If there were a possibility of transporting it to Rome, it would be very useful in the buildings there; if not generally, at least it would be excellent for the plates under the eaves of those houses in Rome which are insulated, as they would be thus secured from catching fire, since they would neither ignite nor consume, nor burn into charcoal." '5.1.10. 10. Thus the two-fold direction of the roof gives an agreeable effect outside, and to the lofty vault within. Thus the omission of the cornices and parapets, and the upper range of columns, saves considerable labour, and greatly diminishes the cost of the work; and the columns in one height brought up to the architrave of the arch, give an appearance of magnificence and dignity to the building.' '. None
40. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (emperor) • Augustus (emperor), military reforms • Augustus (emperor), motives for ban • Augustus, emperor • Caligula (Emperor) • Caligula, emperor • Caracalla, emperor • Claudius, emperor • Emperor • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Hadrian, emperor • Septimius Severus, emperor • Tiberius emperor • Tiberius, Emperor • Tiberius, emperor • Vitellius, Emperor • divi and divae, deified emperors and members of imperial family • edicts, of emperors • emperors, Roman • imperial ideology, the emperor as a provider of hope • onomastics, Roman, emperors • praenomen “ Imperator,” • princeps, title of Roman emperor

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 94, 182, 197; Csapo (2022) 125; Czajkowski et al (2020) 342; Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 97; Esler (2000) 35; Jenkyns (2013) 48; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 187; Manolaraki (2012) 76; Marek (2019) 324; Phang (2001) 349

41. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, Emperor • Domitian, emperor, controls Celer’s Egyptian experience • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • emperor cult

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 31, 76, 185, 187, 209, 211, 212; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 32; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 209

42. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) • emperor and architect, relational paradigm

 Found in books: Oksanish (2019) 154; Yona (2018) 167

43. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (emperor) social reforms of • Claudius, Emperor, • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Emperors and Egypt, Trajan • Galba, Emperor • Jupiter, Imperator • Nero (Emperor) • Nero (emperor) • Nero (emperor), performance and • Nero (emperor), prodigies and • Nero (emperor), purification performed by • Nero, emperor, and Seneca • Roman emperor, x • Tiberius, Emperor • Tiberius, emperor • Vespasian, Emperor • Vitellius, Emperor • imperator

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 132; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 231; Feldman (2006) 301; Jenkyns (2013) 37, 48, 225, 245; Konrad (2022) 64; Manolaraki (2012) 245; Perry (2014) 12; Rutledge (2012) 34; Rüpke (2011) 98; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 4, 247, 290, 317, 326

44. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, Emperor • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Emperors and Egypt, Trajan • Emperors and Egypt, Vespasian

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 31, 187, 209, 212, 239; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 28, 33, 36

45. Anon., Didache, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • emperor cult, emperor worship • moods, verbal, imperative

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 55; Novenson (2020) 121

8.2. But let not your fasts be with the hypocrites; Matthew 6:16 for they fast on the second and fifth day of the week; but fast on the fourth day and the Preparation (Friday). Neither pray as the hypocrites; but as the Lord commanded in His Gospel, thus pray: Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. Give us today our daily (needful) bread, and forgive us our debt as we also forgive our debtors. And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one (or, evil); for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Thrice in the day thus pray. ''. None
46. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.214, 4.287, 10.266, 11.303, 11.326-11.340, 12.62, 12.139, 13.74-13.79, 14.74, 14.77, 14.313, 15.300, 16.401, 18.1, 18.63-18.64, 18.66-18.79, 18.82-18.84, 18.259-18.260, 19.81, 19.276, 20.100, 20.200 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander Severus (emperor) • Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor • Caligula (Emperor) • Claudius, Roman Emperor • Claudius, Roman Emperor, Josephus’ account of accession of, sources of • Claudius, Roman Emperor, advice of to Jews of Alexandria • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Cyril of Alexandria (bishop), rebuttal of emperor Julians polemic • Emperor • Emperors and Egypt, Caligula (Gaius) • Emperors and Egypt, Claudius • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Emperors and Egypt, Tiberius • Gaius (emperor), and Agrippa I • Gaius, Emperor • Galba, Emperor, • Nero, Emperor, • Otho, Emperor, • Roman Empire, emperor and governor • Temple, Sacrifice for Emperors • Tiberius (Emperor) • Tiberius (emperor) • Tiberius, Emperor, • Tiberius, Roman Emperor • Vitellius, Emperor, • Year of the Four Emperors,

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 37; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 351, 352, 824; Csapo (2022) 115; Czajkowski et al (2020) 89; Feldman (2006) 69, 296, 305, 307, 328, 329, 330, 344, 402, 407, 435, 466, 512, 553, 597, 622, 650, 665, 677, 678, 689, 692, 697, 713, 718, 730, 768; Levine (2005) 382; Levison (2009) 199; Manolaraki (2012) 37, 38; Renberg (2017) 110; Rizzi (2010) 117; Salvesen et al (2020) 264, 267, 268, 272, 282, 283, 287, 289; Udoh (2006) 155, 157, 207

4.214. ̓Αρχέτωσαν δὲ καθ' ἑκάστην πόλιν ἄνδρες ἑπτὰ οἱ καὶ τὴν ἀρετὴν καὶ τὴν περὶ τὸ δίκαιον σπουδὴν προησκηκότες: ἑκάστῃ δὲ ἀρχῇ δύο ἄνδρες ὑπηρέται διδόσθωσαν ἐκ τῆς τῶν Λευιτῶν φυλῆς." '
4.287. εἰ δὲ μηδὲν ἐπίβουλον δρῶν ὁ πιστευθεὶς ἀπολέσειεν, ἀφικόμενος ἐπὶ τοὺς ἑπτὰ κριτὰς ὀμνύτω τὸν θεόν, ὅτι μηδὲν παρὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ βούλησιν ἀπόλοιτο καὶ κακίαν οὐδὲ χρησαμένου τινὶ μέρει αὐτῆς, καὶ οὕτως ἀνεπαιτίατος ἀπίτω. χρησάμενος δὲ κἂν ἐλαχίστῳ μέρει τῶν πεπιστευμένων ἂν ἀπολέσας τύχῃ τὰ λοιπὰ πάντα ἃ ἔλαβεν ἀποδοῦναι κατεγνώσθω.' "
10.266. ἄξιον δὲ τἀνδρὸς τούτου καὶ ὃ μάλιστ' ἂν θαυμάσαι τις ἀκούσας διελθεῖν: ἀπαντᾷ γὰρ αὐτῷ παραδόξως ὡς ἑνί τινι τῶν μεγίστων καὶ παρὰ τὸν τῆς ζωῆς χρόνον τιμή τε καὶ δόξα ἡ παρὰ τῶν βασιλέων καὶ τοῦ πλήθους, καὶ τελευτήσας δὲ μνήμην αἰώνιον ἔχει." '
11.303. εἰδὼς λαμπρὰν οὖσαν τὴν πόλιν ̔Ιεροσόλυμα καὶ πολλὰ τοῖς ̓Ασσυρίοις καὶ τοῖς ἐν τῇ κοίλῃ Συρίᾳ κατοικοῦσιν τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ βασιλεῖς πράγματα παρασχόντας, ἀσμένως συνῴκισεν τὴν αὐτοῦ θυγατέρα Νικασὼ καλουμένην, οἰόμενος τὴν ἐπιγαμίαν ὅμηρον αὐτῷ γενήσεσθαι πρὸς τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἔθνους παντὸς εὔνοιαν.' "
11.326. ὁ δ' ἀρχιερεὺς ̓Ιαδδοῦς τοῦτ' ἀκούσας ἦν ἐν ἀγωνίᾳ καὶ δέει, πῶς ἀπαντήσει τοῖς Μακεδόσιν ἀμηχανῶν ὀργιζομένου τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπὶ τῇ πρότερον ἀπειθείᾳ. παραγγείλας οὖν ἱκεσίαν τῷ λαῷ καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ μετ' αὐτοῦ προσφέρων ἐδεῖτο ὑπερασπίσαι τοῦ ἔθνους καὶ τῶν ἐπερχομένων κινδύνων ἀπαλλάξαι." '11.327. κατακοιμηθέντι δὲ μετὰ τὴν θυσίαν ἐχρημάτισεν αὐτῷ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ὁ θεὸς θαρρεῖν καὶ στεφανοῦντας τὴν πόλιν ἀνοίγειν τὰς πύλας, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἄλλους λευκαῖς ἐσθῆσιν, αὐτὸν δὲ μετὰ τῶν ἱερέων ταῖς νομίμοις στολαῖς ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ὑπάντησιν μηδὲν προσδοκῶντας πείσεσθαι δεινὸν προνοουμένου τοῦ θεοῦ. 11.328. διαναστὰς δὲ ἐκ τοῦ ὕπνου ἔχαιρέν τε μεγάλως αὐτὸς καὶ τὸ χρηματισθὲν αὐτῷ πᾶσι μηνύσας καὶ ποιήσας ὅσα κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους αὐτῷ παρηγγέλη τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως παρουσίαν ἐξεδέχετο.' "11.329. Πυθόμενος δ' αὐτὸν οὐ πόρρω τῆς πόλεως ὄντα πρόεισι μετὰ τῶν ἱερέων καὶ τοῦ πολιτικοῦ πλήθους, ἱεροπρεπῆ καὶ διαφέρουσαν τῶν ἄλλων ἐθνῶν ποιούμενος τὴν ὑπάντησιν εἰς τόπον τινὰ Σαφειν λεγόμενον. τὸ δὲ ὄνομα τοῦτο μεταφερόμενον εἰς τὴν ̔Ελληνικὴν γλῶτταν σκοπὸν σημαίνει: τά τε γὰρ ̔Ιεροσόλυμα καὶ τὸν ναὸν συνέβαινεν ἐκεῖθεν ἀφορᾶσθαι." "11.331. ὁ γὰρ ̓Αλέξανδρος ἔτι πόρρωθεν ἰδὼν τὸ μὲν πλῆθος ἐν ταῖς λευκαῖς ἐσθῆσιν, τοὺς δὲ ἱερεῖς προεστῶτας ἐν ταῖς βυσσίναις αὐτῶν, τὸν δὲ ἀρχιερέα ἐν τῇ ὑακινθίνῳ καὶ διαχρύσῳ στολῇ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς ἔχοντα τὴν κίδαριν καὶ τὸ χρυσοῦν ἐπ' αὐτῆς ἔλασμα, ᾧ τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγέγραπτο ὄνομα, προσελθὼν μόνος προσεκύνησεν τὸ ὄνομα καὶ τὸν ἀρχιερέα πρῶτος ἠσπάσατο." '11.332. τῶν δὲ ̓Ιουδαίων ὁμοῦ πάντων μιᾷ φωνῇ τὸν ̓Αλέξανδρον ἀσπασαμένων καὶ κυκλωσαμένων αὐτόν, οἱ μὲν τῆς Συρίας βασιλεῖς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ τοῦτο ποιήσαντος κατεπλάγησαν καὶ διεφθάρθαι τῷ βασιλεῖ τὴν διάνοιαν ὑπελάμβανον, 11.333. Παρμενίωνος δὲ μόνου προσελθόντος αὐτῷ καὶ πυθομένου, τί δήποτε προσκυνούντων αὐτὸν ἁπάντων αὐτὸς προσκυνήσειεν τὸν ̓Ιουδαίων ἀρχιερέα; “οὐ τοῦτον, εἶπεν, προσεκύνησα, τὸν δὲ θεόν, οὗ τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην οὗτος τετίμηται: 11.334. τοῦτον γὰρ καὶ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους εἶδον ἐν τῷ νῦν σχήματι ἐν Δίῳ τῆς Μακεδονίας τυγχάνων, καὶ πρὸς ἐμαυτὸν διασκεπτομένῳ μοι, πῶς ἂν κρατήσαιμι τῆς ̓Ασίας, παρεκελεύετο μὴ μέλλειν ἀλλὰ θαρσοῦντα διαβαίνειν: αὐτὸς γὰρ ἡγήσεσθαί μου τῆς στρατιᾶς καὶ τὴν Περσῶν παραδώσειν ἀρχήν.' "11.335. ὅθεν ἄλλον μὲν οὐδένα θεασάμενος ἐν τοιαύτῃ στολῇ, τοῦτον δὲ νῦν ἰδὼν καὶ τῆς κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ἀναμνησθεὶς ὄψεώς τε καὶ παρακελεύσεως, νομίζω θείᾳ πομπῇ τὴν στρατείαν πεποιημένος Δαρεῖον νικήσειν καὶ τὴν Περσῶν καταλύσειν δύναμιν καὶ πάνθ' ὅσα κατὰ νοῦν ἐστί μοι προχωρήσειν.”" "11.336. ταῦτ' εἰπὼν πρὸς τὸν Παρμενίωνα καὶ δεξιωσάμενος τὸν ἀρχιερέα τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων παραθεόντων εἰς τὴν πόλιν παραγίνεται. καὶ ἀνελθὼν ἐπὶ τὸ ἱερὸν θύει μὲν τῷ θεῷ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως ὑφήγησιν, αὐτὸν δὲ τὸν ἀρχιερέα καὶ τοὺς ἱερεῖς ἀξιοπρεπῶς ἐτίμησεν." "11.337. δειχθείσης δ' αὐτῷ τῆς Δανιήλου βίβλου, ἐν ᾗ τινα τῶν ̔Ελλήνων καταλύσειν τὴν Περσῶν ἀρχὴν ἐδήλου, νομίσας αὐτὸς εἶναι ὁ σημαινόμενος τότε μὲν ἡσθεὶς ἀπέλυσε τὸ πλῆθος, τῇ δ' ἐπιούσῃ προσκαλεσάμενος ἐκέλευσεν αὐτοὺς αἰτεῖσθαι δωρεάς, ἃς ἂν αὐτοὶ θέλωσιν." "11.338. τοῦ δ' ἀρχιερέως αἰτησαμένου χρήσασθαι τοῖς πατρίοις νόμοις καὶ τὸ ἕβδομον ἔτος ἀνείσφορον εἶναι, συνεχώρησεν πάντα. παρακαλεσάντων δ' αὐτόν, ἵνα καὶ τοὺς ἐν Βαβυλῶνι καὶ Μηδίᾳ ̓Ιουδαίους τοῖς ἰδίοις ἐπιτρέψῃ νόμοις χρῆσθαι, ἀσμένως ὑπέσχετο ποιήσειν ἅπερ ἀξιοῦσιν." "11.339. εἰπόντος δ' αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος, εἴ τινες αὐτῷ βούλονται συστρατεύειν τοῖς πατρίοις ἔθεσιν ἐμμένοντες καὶ κατὰ ταῦτα ζῶντες, ἑτοίμως ἔχειν ἐπάγεσθαι, πολλοὶ τὴν σὺν αὐτῷ στρατείαν ἠγάπησαν." "
12.62. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο λογισάμενος σύμμετρον κατεσκευάσθαι τὴν προτέραν τράπεζαν, ἀλλ' οὐ διὰ σπάνιν χρυσοῦ, τῷ μεγέθει μὲν οὐκ ἔγνω τὴν προϋπάρχουσαν ὑπερβαλεῖν, τῇ δὲ ποικιλίᾳ καὶ τῷ κάλλει τῆς ὕλης ἀξιολογωτέραν κατασκευάσαι." '
12.139. ἠξιώσαμεν καὶ αὐτοὶ τούτων αὐτοὺς ἀμείψασθαι καὶ τὴν πόλιν αὐτῶν ἀναλαβεῖν κατεφθαρμένην ὑπὸ τῶν περὶ τοὺς πολέμους συμπεσόντων καὶ συνοικίσαι τῶν διεσπαρμένων εἰς αὐτὴν πάλιν συνελθόντων.' "
13.74. Τοὺς δ' ἐν ̓Αλεξανδρείᾳ ̓Ιουδαίους καὶ Σαμαρεῖς, οἳ τὸ ἐν Γαριζεὶν προσεκύνουν ἱερόν, κατὰ τοὺς ̓Αλεξάνδρου χρόνους συνέβη στασιάσαι πρὸς ἀλλήλους, καὶ περὶ τῶν ἱερῶν ἐπ' αὐτοῦ Πτολεμαίου διεκρίνοντο, τῶν μὲν ̓Ιουδαίων λεγόντων κατὰ τοὺς Μωυσέος νόμους ᾠκοδομῆσθαι τὸ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις, τῶν δὲ Σαμαρέων τὸ ἐν Γαριζείν." "13.75. παρεκάλεσάν τε σὺν τοῖς φίλοις καθίσαντα τὸν βασιλέα τοὺς περὶ τούτων ἀκοῦσαι λόγους καὶ τοὺς ἡττηθέντας θανάτῳ ζημιῶσαι. τὸν μὲν οὖν ὑπὲρ τῶν Σαμαρέων λόγον Σαββαῖος ἐποιήσατο καὶ Θεοδόσιος, τοὺς δ' ὑπὲρ τῶν ̔Ιεροσολυμιτῶν καὶ ̓Ιουδαίων ̓Ανδρόνικος ὁ Μεσαλάμου." '13.76. ὤμοσαν δὲ τὸν θεὸν καὶ τὸν βασιλέα ἦ μὴν ποιήσεσθαι τὰς ἀποδείξεις κατὰ τὸν νόμον, παρεκάλεσάν τε τὸν Πτολεμαῖον, ὅπως ὃν ἂν λάβῃ παραβαίνοντα τοὺς ὅρκους ἀποκτείνῃ. ὁ μὲν οὖν βασιλεὺς πολλοὺς τῶν φίλων εἰς συμβουλίαν παραλαβὼν ἐκάθισεν ἀκουσόμενος τῶν λεγόντων.' "13.77. οἱ δ' ἐν τῇ ̓Αλεξανδρείᾳ τυγχάνοντες ̓Ιουδαῖοι σφόδρα ἠγωνίων περὶ τῶν ἀνδρῶν, οἷς ἀγανακτεῖν περὶ τοῦ ἐν τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις συνέβαινεν ἱεροῦ: χαλεπῶς γὰρ ἔφερον, εἰ τοῦτό τινες καταλύσουσιν οὕτως ἀρχαῖον καὶ διασημότατον τῶν κατὰ τὴν οἰκουμένην ὑπάρχον." "13.78. τοῦ δὲ Σαββαίου καὶ Θεοδοσίου συγχωρησάντων τῷ ̓Ανδρονίκῳ πρώτῳ ποιήσασθαι τοὺς λόγους, ἤρξατο τῶν ἀποδείξεων ἐκ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν διαδοχῶν τῶν ἀρχιερέων, ὡς ἕκαστος παρὰ πατρὸς τὴν τιμὴν ἐκδεξάμενος ἦρξε τοῦ ναοῦ, καὶ ὅτι πάντες οἱ τῆς ̓Ασίας βασιλεῖς τὸ ἱερὸν ἐτίμησαν ἀναθήμασιν καὶ λαμπροτάταις δωρεαῖς, τοῦ δ' ἐν Γαριζεὶν ὡς οὐδὲ ὄντος οὐδεὶς λόγον οὐδ' ἐπιστροφὴν ἐποιήσατο." '13.79. ταῦτα λέγων ̓Ανδρόνικος καὶ πολλὰ τούτοις ὅμοια πείθει τὸν βασιλέα κρῖναι μὲν κατὰ τοὺς Μωυσέος νόμους οἰκοδομηθῆναι τὸ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἱερόν, ἀποκτεῖναι δὲ τοὺς περὶ τὸν Σαββαῖον καὶ Θεοδόσιον. καὶ τὰ μὲν γενόμενα τοῖς ἐν ̓Αλεξανδρείᾳ ̓Ιουδαίοις κατὰ Πτολεμαῖον τὸν Φιλομήτορα ταῦτα ἦν.
14.74. καὶ τὰ μὲν ̔Ιεροσόλυμα ὑποτελῆ φόρου ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐποίησεν, ἃς δὲ πρότερον οἱ ἔνοικοι πόλεις ἐχειρώσαντο τῆς κοίλης Συρίας ἀφελόμενος ὑπὸ τῷ σφετέρῳ στρατηγῷ ἔταξεν καὶ τὸ σύμπαν ἔθνος ἐπὶ μέγα πρότερον αἰρόμενον ἐντὸς τῶν ἰδίων ὅρων συνέστειλεν.
14.77. Τούτου τοῦ πάθους τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις αἴτιοι κατέστησαν ̔Υρκανὸς καὶ ̓Αριστόβουλος πρὸς ἀλλήλους στασιάσαντες: τήν τε γὰρ ἐλευθερίαν ἀπεβάλομεν καὶ ὑπήκοοι ̔Ρωμαίοις κατέστημεν καὶ τὴν χώραν, ἣν τοῖς ὅπλοις ἐκτησάμεθα τοὺς Σύρους ἀφελόμενοι, ταύτην ἠναγκάσθημεν ἀποδοῦναι τοῖς Σύροις,' "
14.313. ἐξέθηκα δὲ καὶ γράμματα κατὰ πόλεις, ὅπως εἴ τινες ἐλεύθεροι ἢ δοῦλοι ὑπὸ δόρυ ἐπράθησαν ὑπὸ Γαί̈ου Κασσίου ἢ τῶν ὑπ' αὐτῷ τεταγμένων ἀπολυθῶσιν οὗτοι, τοῖς τε ὑπ' ἐμοῦ δοθεῖσιν καὶ Δολαβέλλα φιλανθρώποις χρῆσθαι ὑμᾶς βούλομαι. Τυρίους τε κωλύω βιαίους εἶναι περὶ ὑμᾶς καὶ ὅσα κατέχουσιν ̓Ιουδαίων ταῦτα ἀποκαταστῆσαι κελεύω. τὸν δὲ στέφανον ὃν ἔπεμψας ἐδεξάμην." "
16.401. τούτων γὰρ ἁπάντων μετεῖχον, ̓Αλέξανδρος δὲ καὶ μᾶλλον ὁ πρεσβύτερος: ἤρκει γάρ, εἰ καὶ κατέγνω, καὶ ζῶντας ὅμως ἐν δεσμοῖς ἢ ξενιτεύοντας ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἔχειν μεγάλην ἀσφάλειαν αὐτῷ περιβεβλημένῳ τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων δύναμιν, δι' ἣν οὐδὲν οὐδ' ἐξ ἐφόδου καὶ βίας παθεῖν ἐδύνατο." '
18.1. Κυρίνιος δὲ τῶν εἰς τὴν βουλὴν συναγομένων ἀνὴρ τάς τε ἄλλας ἀρχὰς ἐπιτετελεκὼς καὶ διὰ πασῶν ὁδεύσας ὕπατος γενέσθαι τά τε ἄλλα ἀξιώματι μέγας σὺν ὀλίγοις ἐπὶ Συρίας παρῆν, ὑπὸ Καίσαρος δικαιοδότης τοῦ ἔθνους ἀπεσταλμένος καὶ τιμητὴς τῶν οὐσιῶν γενησόμενος,' "
18.1. καὶ νομίζων καὶ ὁπόσον αὐτῷ καθαρῶς συνειστήκει καὶ τόδε ἤτοι ἐφθαρμένον ἐπὶ δόλῳ τὴν εὔνοιαν προσποιεῖσθαι ἢ πείρας αὐτῷ γενομένης μετατάξεσθαι πρὸς τοὺς προαφεστηκότας, εἴς τι τῶν ἄνω σατραπειῶν ἔσωζεν αὑτόν. καὶ πολλὴν μετὰ ταῦτα στρατιὰν ἀθροίσας Δαῶν τε καὶ Σακῶν καὶ πολεμήσας τοὺς ἀνθεστηκότας κατέσχε τὴν ἀρχήν.
18.1. περὶ ἧς ὀλίγα βούλομαι διελθεῖν, ἄλλως τε ἐπεὶ καὶ τῷ κατ' αὐτῶν σπουδασθέντι τοῖς νεωτέροις ὁ φθόρος τοῖς πράγμασι συνέτυχε." '
18.63. Γίνεται δὲ κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον ̓Ιησοῦς σοφὸς ἀνήρ, εἴγε ἄνδρα αὐτὸν λέγειν χρή: ἦν γὰρ παραδόξων ἔργων ποιητής, διδάσκαλος ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἡδονῇ τἀληθῆ δεχομένων, καὶ πολλοὺς μὲν ̓Ιουδαίους, πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ τοῦ ̔Ελληνικοῦ ἐπηγάγετο: ὁ χριστὸς οὗτος ἦν.' "18.64. καὶ αὐτὸν ἐνδείξει τῶν πρώτων ἀνδρῶν παρ' ἡμῖν σταυρῷ ἐπιτετιμηκότος Πιλάτου οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο οἱ τὸ πρῶτον ἀγαπήσαντες: ἐφάνη γὰρ αὐτοῖς τρίτην ἔχων ἡμέραν πάλιν ζῶν τῶν θείων προφητῶν ταῦτά τε καὶ ἄλλα μυρία περὶ αὐτοῦ θαυμάσια εἰρηκότων. εἰς ἔτι τε νῦν τῶν Χριστιανῶν ἀπὸ τοῦδε ὠνομασμένον οὐκ ἐπέλιπε τὸ φῦλον." "
18.66. Παυλῖνα ἦν τῶν ἐπὶ ̔Ρώμης προγόνων τε ἀξιώματι τῶν καθ' ἑαυτὴν ἐπιτηδεύοντι κόσμον ἀρετῆς ἐπὶ μέγα προϊοῦσα τῷ ὀνόματι, δύναμίς τε αὐτῇ χρημάτων ἦν καὶ γεγονυῖα τὴν ὄψιν εὐπρεπὴς καὶ τῆς ὥρας ἐν ᾗ μάλιστα ἀγάλλονται αἱ γυναῖκες εἰς τὸ σωφρονεῖν ἀνέκειτο ἡ ἐπιτήδευσις τοῦ βίου. ἐγεγάμητο δὲ Σατορνίνῳ τῶν εἰς τὰ πάντα ἀντισουμένων τῷ περὶ αὐτὴν ἀξιολόγῳ." '18.67. ταύτης ἐρᾷ Δέκιος Μοῦνδος τῶν τότε ἱππέων ἐν ἀξιώματι μεγάλῳ, καὶ μείζονα οὖσαν ἁλῶναι δώροις διὰ τὸ καὶ πεμφθέντων εἰς πλῆθος περιιδεῖν ἐξῆπτο μᾶλλον, ὥστε καὶ εἴκοσι μυριάδας δραχμῶν ̓Ατθίδων ὑπισχνεῖτο εὐνῆς μιᾶς.' "18.68. καὶ μηδ' ὣς ἐπικλωμένης, οὐ φέρων τὴν ἀτυχίαν τοῦ ἔρωτος ἐνδείᾳ σιτίων θάνατον ἐπιτιμᾶν αὑτῷ καλῶς ἔχειν ἐνόμισεν ἐπὶ παύλῃ κακοῦ τοῦ κατειληφότος. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐπεψήφιζέν τε τῇ οὕτω τελευτῇ καὶ πράσσειν οὐκ ἀπηλλάσσετο." '18.69. καὶ ἦν γὰρ ὄνομα ̓́Ιδη πατρῷος ἀπελευθέρα τῷ Μούνδῳ παντοίων ἴδρις κακῶν, δεινῶς φέρουσα τοῦ νεανίσκου τῷ ψηφίσματι τοῦ θανεῖν, οὐ γὰρ ἀφανὴς ἦν ἀπολούμενος, ἀνεγείρει τε αὐτὸν ἀφικομένη διὰ λόγου πιθανή τε ἦν ἐλπίδων τινῶν ὑποσχέσεσιν, ὡς διαπραχθησομένων ὁμιλιῶν πρὸς τὴν Παυλῖναν αὐτῷ.' "18.71. τῶν ἱερέων τισὶν ἀφικομένη διὰ λόγων ἐπὶ πίστεσιν μεγάλαις τὸ δὲ μέγιστον δόσει χρημάτων τὸ μὲν παρὸν μυριάδων δυοῖν καὶ ἡμίσει, λαβόντος δ' ἔκβασιν τοῦ πράγματος ἑτέρῳ τοσῷδε, διασαφεῖ τοῦ νεανίσκου τὸν ἔρωτα αὐτοῖς, κελεύουσα παντοίως ἐπὶ τῷ ληψομένῳ τὴν ἄνθρωπον σπουδάσαι." "18.72. οἱ δ' ἐπὶ πληγῇ τοῦ χρυσίου παραχθέντες ὑπισχνοῦντο. καὶ αὐτῶν ὁ γεραίτατος ὡς τὴν Παυλῖναν ὠσάμενος γενομένων εἰσόδων καταμόνας διὰ λόγων ἐλθεῖν ἠξίου. καὶ συγχωρηθὲν πεμπτὸς ἔλεγεν ἥκειν ὑπὸ τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος ἔρωτι αὐτῆς ἡσσημένου τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύοντός τε ὡς αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν." "18.73. τῇ δὲ εὐκτὸς ὁ λόγος ἦν καὶ ταῖς τε φίλαις ἐνεκαλλωπίζετο τῇ ἐπὶ τοιούτοις ἀξιώσει τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος καὶ φράζει πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα, δεῖπνόν τε αὐτῇ καὶ εὐνὴν τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος εἰσηγγέλθαι, συνεχώρει δ' ἐκεῖνος τὴν σωφροσύνην τῆς γυναικὸς ἐξεπιστάμενος." '18.74. χωρεῖ οὖν εἰς τὸ τέμενος, καὶ δειπνήσασα, ὡς ὕπνου καιρὸς ἦν, κλεισθεισῶν τῶν θυρῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἱερέως ἔνδον ἐν τῷ νεῷ καὶ τὰ λύχνα ἐκποδὼν ἦν καὶ ὁ Μοῦνδος, προεκέκρυπτο γὰρ τῇδε, οὐχ ἡμάρτανεν ὁμιλιῶν τῶν πρὸς αὐτήν, παννύχιόν τε αὐτῷ διηκονήσατο ὑπειληφυῖα θεὸν εἶναι.' "18.75. καὶ ἀπελθόντος πρότερον ἢ κίνησιν ἄρξασθαι τῶν ἱερέων, οἳ τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν ᾔδεσαν, ἡ Παυλῖνα πρωὶ̈ ὡς τὸν ἄνδρα ἐλθοῦσα τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν ἐκδιηγεῖται τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος καὶ πρὸς τὰς φίλας ἐνελαμπρύνετο λόγοις τοῖς ἐπ' αὐτῷ." "18.76. οἱ δὲ τὰ μὲν ἠπίστουν εἰς τὴν φύσιν τοῦ πράγματος ὁρῶντες, τὰ δ' ἐν θαύματι καθίσταντο οὐκ ἔχοντες, ὡς χρὴ ἄπιστα αὐτὰ κρίνειν, ὁπότε εἴς τε τὴν σωφροσύνην καὶ τὸ ἀξίωμα ἀπίδοιεν αὐτῆς." "18.77. τρίτῃ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ μετὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν ὑπαντιάσας αὐτὴν ὁ Μοῦνδος “Παυλῖνα, φησίν, ἀλλά μοι καὶ εἴκοσι μυριάδας διεσώσω δυναμένη οἴκῳ προσθέσθαι τῷ σαυτῆς διακονεῖσθαί τε ἐφ' οἷς προεκαλούμην οὐκ ἐνέλιπες. ἃ μέντοι εἰς Μοῦνδον ὑβρίζειν ἐπειρῶ, μηδέν μοι μελῆσαν τῶν ὀνομάτων, ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐκ τοῦ πράγματος ἡδονῆς, ̓Ανούβιον ὄνομα ἐθέμην αὐτῷ.”" '18.78. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἀπῄει ταῦτα εἰπών, ἡ δὲ εἰς ἔννοιαν τότε πρῶτον ἐλθοῦσα τοῦ τολμήματος περιρρήγνυταί τε τὴν στολὴν καὶ τἀνδρὶ δηλώσασα τοῦ παντὸς ἐπιβουλεύματος τὸ μέγεθος ἐδεῖτο μὴ περιῶφθαι βοηθείας τυγχάνειν:' "18.79. ὁ δὲ τῷ αὐτοκράτορι ἐπεσήμηνε τὴν πρᾶξιν. καὶ ὁ Τιβέριος μαθήσεως ἀκριβοῦς αὐτῷ γενομένης ἐξετάσει τῶν ἱερέων ἐκείνους τε ἀνεσταύρωσεν καὶ τὴν ̓́Ιδην ὀλέθρου γενομένην αἰτίαν καὶ τὰ πάντα ἐφ' ὕβρει συνθεῖσαν τῆς γυναικός, τόν τε ναὸν καθεῖλεν καὶ τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς ̓́Ισιδος εἰς τὸν Θύβριν ποταμὸν ἐκέλευσεν ἐμβαλεῖν. Μοῦνδον δὲ φυγῆς ἐτίμησε," "
18.82. προσποιησάμενος δὲ τρεῖς ἄνδρας εἰς τὰ πάντα ὁμοιοτρόπους τούτοις ἐπιφοιτήσασαν Φουλβίαν τῶν ἐν ἀξιώματι γυναικῶν καὶ νομίμοις προσεληλυθυῖαν τοῖς ̓Ιουδαϊκοῖς πείθουσι πορφύραν καὶ χρυσὸν εἰς τὸ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἱερὸν διαπέμψασθαι, καὶ λαβόντες ἐπὶ χρείας τοῖς ἰδίοις ἀναλώμασιν αὐτὰ ποιοῦνται, ἐφ' ὅπερ καὶ τὸ πρῶτον ἡ αἴτησις ἐπράσσετο." '18.83. καὶ ὁ Τιβέριος, ἀποσημαίνει γὰρ πρὸς αὐτὸν φίλος ὢν Σατορνῖνος τῆς Φουλβίας ἀνὴρ ἐπισκήψει τῆς γυναικός, κελεύει πᾶν τὸ ̓Ιουδαϊκὸν τῆς ̔Ρώμης ἀπελθεῖν. 18.84. οἱ δὲ ὕπατοι τετρακισχιλίους ἀνθρώπους ἐξ αὐτῶν στρατολογήσαντες ἔπεμψαν εἰς Σαρδὼ τὴν νῆσον, πλείστους δὲ ἐκόλασαν μὴ θέλοντας στρατεύεσθαι διὰ φυλακὴν τῶν πατρίων νόμων. καὶ οἱ μὲν δὴ διὰ κακίαν τεσσάρων ἀνδρῶν ἠλαύνοντο τῆς πόλεως.' "
18.259. πολλὰ δὲ καὶ χαλεπὰ ̓Απίωνος εἰρηκότος, ὑφ' ὧν ἀρθῆναι ἤλπιζεν τὸν Γάιον καὶ εἰκὸς ἦν, Φίλων ὁ προεστὼς τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων τῆς πρεσβείας, ἀνὴρ τὰ πάντα ἔνδοξος ̓Αλεξάνδρου τε τοῦ ἀλαβάρχου ἀδελφὸς ὢν καὶ φιλοσοφίας οὐκ ἄπειρος, οἷός τε ἦν ἐπ' ἀπολογίᾳ χωρεῖν τῶν κατηγορημένων. διακλείει δ' αὐτὸν Γάιος κελεύσας ἐκποδὼν ἀπελθεῖν," '
19.81. ἐπὶ γὰρ ̓Αλεξανδρείας παρεσκεύαστο πλεῖν κατὰ θεωρίαν τῆς Αἰγύπτου. “καλὸν δὲ ἡμῖν προέσθαι τῶν χειρῶν τὸ ὄνειδος τῇ ̔Ρωμαίων μεγαλαυχίᾳ πομπεῦσον διά τε γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης.
19.276. ̓Αντίοχον δὲ ἣν εἶχεν βασιλείαν ἀφελόμενος Κιλικίας μέρει τινὶ καὶ Κομμαγηνῇ δωρεῖται. λύει δὲ καὶ ̓Αλέξανδρον τὸν ἀλαβάρχην φίλον ἀρχαῖον αὐτῷ γεγονότα καὶ ̓Αντωνίαν αὐτοῦ ἐπιτροπεύσαντα τὴν μητέρα ὀργῇ τῇ Γαί̈ου δεδεμένον, καὶ αὐτοῦ υἱὸς Βερενίκην τὴν ̓Αγρίππου γαμεῖ θυγατέρα.' ". None
4.214. 14. Let there be seven men to judge in every city, and these such as have been before most zealous in the exercise of virtue and righteousness. Let every judge have two officers allotted him out of the tribe of Levi.
4.287. but if he in whom the trust was reposed, without any deceit of his own, lose what he was intrusted withal, let him come before the seven judges, and swear by God that nothing hath been lost willingly, or with a wicked intention, and that he hath not made use of any part thereof, and so let him depart without blame; but if he hath made use of the least part of what was committed to him, and it be lost, let him be condemned to repay all that he had received.
10.266. But it is fit to give an account of what this man did, which is most admirable to hear, for he was so happy as to have strange revelations made to him, and those as to one of the greatest of the prophets, insomuch, that while he was alive he had the esteem and applause both of the kings and of the multitude; and now he is dead, he retains a remembrance that will never fail,
11.303. This man knew that the city Jerusalem was a famous city, and that their kings had given a great deal of trouble to the Assyrians, and the people of Celesyria; so that he willingly gave his daughter, whose name was Nicaso, in marriage to Manasseh, as thinking this alliance by marriage would be a pledge and security that the nation of the Jews should continue their good-will to him.
11.326. and Jaddua the high priest, when he heard that, was in an agony, and under terror, as not knowing how he should meet the Macedonians, since the king was displeased at his foregoing disobedience. He therefore ordained that the people should make supplications, and should join with him in offering sacrifice to God, whom he besought to protect that nation, and to deliver them from the perils that were coming upon them; 11.327. whereupon God warned him in a dream, which came upon him after he had offered sacrifice, that he should take courage, and adorn the city, and open the gates; that the rest should appear in white garments, but that he and the priests should meet the king in the habits proper to their order, without the dread of any ill consequences, which the providence of God would prevent. 11.328. Upon which, when he rose from his sleep, he greatly rejoiced, and declared to all the warning he had received from God. According to which dream he acted entirely, and so waited for the coming of the king. 11.329. 5. And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha, which name, translated into Greek, signifies a prospect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple. 11.331. for Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the high priest in purple and scarlet clothing, with his mitre on his head, having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first saluted the high priest. 11.332. The Jews also did all together, with one voice, salute Alexander, and encompass him about; whereupon the kings of Syria and the rest were surprised at what Alexander had done, and supposed him disordered in his mind. 11.333. However, Parmenio alone went up to him, and asked him how it came to pass that, when all others adored him, he should adore the high priest of the Jews? To whom he replied, “I did not adore him, but that God who hath honored him with his high priesthood; 11.334. for I saw this very person in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering with myself how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but boldly to pass over the sea thither, for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians; 11.335. whence it is that, having seen no other in that habit, and now seeing this person in it, and remembering that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians, and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind.” 11.336. And when he had said this to Parmenio, and had given the high priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him, and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the high priest’s direction, and magnificently treated both the high priest and the priests. 11.337. And when the Book of Daniel was showed him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present; but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favors they pleased of him; 11.338. whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they entreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. 11.339. And when he said to the multitude, that if any of them would enlist themselves in his army, on this condition, that they should continue under the laws of their forefathers, and live according to them, he was willing to take them with him, many were ready to accompany him in his wars.
12.62. According to which reasoning, that the former table was made of so moderate a size for use, and not for want of gold, he resolved that he would not exceed the former table in largeness; but would make it exceed it in the variety and elegancy of its materials.
12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city.
13.74. 4. Now it came to pass that the Alexandrian Jews, and those Samaritans who paid their worship to the temple that was built in the days of Alexander at Mount Gerizzim, did now make a sedition one against another, and disputed about their temples before Ptolemy himself; the Jews saying that, according to the laws of Moses, the temple was to be built at Jerusalem; and the Samaritans saying that it was to be built at Gerizzim. 13.75. They desired therefore the king to sit with his friends, and hear the debates about these matters, and punish those with death who were baffled. Now Sabbeus and Theodosius managed the argument for the Samaritans, and Andronicus, the son of Messalamus, for the people of Jerusalem; 13.76. and they took an oath by God and the king to make their demonstrations according to the law; and they desired of Ptolemy, that whomsoever he should find that transgressed what they had sworn to, he would put him to death. Accordingly, the king took several of his friends into the council, and sat down, in order to hear what the pleaders said. 13.77. Now the Jews that were at Alexandria were in great concern for those men, whose lot it was to contend for the temple at Jerusalem; for they took it very ill that any should take away the reputation of that temple, which was so ancient and so celebrated all over the habitable earth. 13.78. Now when Sabbeus and Tlteodosius had given leave to Andronicus to speak first, he began to demonstrate out of the law, and out of the successions of the high priests, how they every one in succession from his father had received that dignity, and ruled over the temple; and how all the kings of Asia had honored that temple with their donations, and with the most splendid gifts dedicated thereto. But as for that at Gerizzm, he made no account of it, and regarded it as if it had never had a being. 13.79. By this speech, and other arguments, Andronicus persuaded the king to determine that the temple at Jerusalem was built according to the laws of Moses, and to put Sabbeus and Theodosius to death. And these were the events that befell the Jews at Alexandria in the days of Ptolemy Philometor.
14.74. and he made Jerusalem tributary to the Romans, and took away those cities of Celesyria which the inhabitants of Judea had subdued, and put them under the government of the Roman president, and confined the whole nation, which had elevated itself so high before, within its own bounds.
14.77. 5. Now the occasions of this misery which came upon Jerusalem were Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, by raising a sedition one against the other; for now we lost our liberty, and became subject to the Romans, and were deprived of that country which we had gained by our arms from the Syrians, and were compelled to restore it to the Syrians.
14.313. I have also sent epistles in writing to the several cities, that if any persons, whether free-men or bond-men, have been sold under the spear by Caius Cassius, or his subordinate officers, they may be set free. And I will that you kindly make use of the favors which I and Dolabella have granted you. I also forbid the Tyrians to use any violence with you; and for what places of the Jews they now possess, I order them to restore them. I have withal accepted of the crown which thou sentest me.”
16.401. for in all these they were skillful, and especially Alexander, who was the eldest; for certainly it had been sufficient, even though he had condemned them, to have kept them alive in bonds, or to let them live at a distance from his dominions in banishment, while he was surrounded by the Roman forces, which were a strong security to him, whose help would prevent his suffering any thing by a sudden onset, or by open force;
18.1. 1. Now Cyrenius, a Roman senator, and one who had gone through other magistracies, and had passed through them till he had been consul, and one who, on other accounts, was of great dignity, came at this time into Syria, with a few others, being sent by Caesar to be a judge of that nation, and to take an account of their substance.
18.1. concerning which I will discourse a little, and this the rather because the infection which spread thence among the younger sort, who were zealous for it, brought the public to destruction.
18.1. when he had estimated the number of those that were truly faithful to him, as also of those who were already corrupted, but were deceitful in the kindness they professed to him, and were likely, upon trial, to go over to his enemies, he made his escape to the upper provinces, where he afterwards raised a great army out of the Dahae and Sacae, and fought with his enemies, and retained his principality.
18.63. 3. Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Christ. 18.64. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.
18.66. There was at Rome a woman whose name was Paulina; one who, on account of the dignity of her ancestors, and by the regular conduct of a virtuous life, had a great reputation: she was also very rich; and although she was of a beautiful countece, and in that flower of her age wherein women are the most gay, yet did she lead a life of great modesty. She was married to Saturninus, one that was every way answerable to her in an excellent character. 18.67. Decius Mundus fell in love with this woman, who was a man very high in the equestrian order; and as she was of too great dignity to be caught by presents, and had already rejected them, though they had been sent in great abundance, he was still more inflamed with love to her, insomuch that he promised to give her two hundred thousand Attic drachmae for one night’s lodging; 18.68. and when this would not prevail upon her, and he was not able to bear this misfortune in his amours, he thought it the best way to famish himself to death for want of food, on account of Paulina’s sad refusal; and he determined with himself to die after such a manner, and he went on with his purpose accordingly. 18.69. Now Mundus had a freed-woman, who had been made free by his father, whose name was Ide, one skillful in all sorts of mischief. This woman was very much grieved at the young man’s resolution to kill himself, (for he did not conceal his intentions to destroy himself from others,) and came to him, and encouraged him by her discourse, and made him to hope, by some promises she gave him, that he might obtain a night’s lodging with Paulina; 18.71. She went to some of Isis’s priests, and upon the strongest assurances of concealment, she persuaded them by words, but chiefly by the offer of money, of twenty-five thousand drachmae in hand, and as much more when the thing had taken effect; and told them the passion of the young man, and persuaded them to use all means possible to beguile the woman. 18.72. So they were drawn in to promise so to do, by that large sum of gold they were to have. Accordingly, the oldest of them went immediately to Paulina; and upon his admittance, he desired to speak with her by herself. When that was granted him, he told her that he was sent by the god Anubis, who was fallen in love with her, and enjoined her to come to him. 18.73. Upon this she took the message very kindly, and valued herself greatly upon this condescension of Anubis, and told her husband that she had a message sent her, and was to sup and lie with Anubis; so he agreed to her acceptance of the offer, as fully satisfied with the chastity of his wife. 18.74. Accordingly, she went to the temple, and after she had supped there, and it was the hour to go to sleep, the priest shut the doors of the temple, when, in the holy part of it, the lights were also put out. Then did Mundus leap out, (for he was hidden therein,) and did not fail of enjoying her, who was at his service all the night long, as supposing he was the god; 18.75. and when he was gone away, which was before those priests who knew nothing of this stratagem were stirring, Paulina came early to her husband, and told him how the god Anubis had appeared to her. Among her friends, also, she declared how great a value she put upon this favor, 18.76. who partly disbelieved the thing, when they reflected on its nature, and partly were amazed at it, as having no pretense for not believing it, when they considered the modesty and the dignity of the person. 18.77. But now, on the third day after what had been done, Mundus met Paulina, and said, “Nay, Paulina, thou hast saved me two hundred thousand drachmae, which sum thou sightest have added to thy own family; yet hast thou not failed to be at my service in the manner I invited thee. As for the reproaches thou hast laid upon Mundus, I value not the business of names; but I rejoice in the pleasure I reaped by what I did, while I took to myself the name of Anubis.” 18.78. When he had said this, he went his way. But now she began to come to the sense of the grossness of what she had done, and rent her garments, and told her husband of the horrid nature of this wicked contrivance, and prayed him not to neglect to assist her in this case. So he discovered the fact to the emperor; 18.79. whereupon Tiberius inquired into the matter thoroughly by examining the priests about it, and ordered them to be crucified, as well as Ide, who was the occasion of their perdition, and who had contrived the whole matter, which was so injurious to the woman. He also demolished the temple of Isis, and gave order that her statue should be thrown into the river Tiber;
18.82. He procured also three other men, entirely of the same character with himself, to be his partners. These men persuaded Fulvia, a woman of great dignity, and one that had embraced the Jewish religion, to send purple and gold to the temple at Jerusalem; and when they had gotten them, they employed them for their own uses, and spent the money themselves, on which account it was that they at first required it of her. 18.83. Whereupon Tiberius, who had been informed of the thing by Saturninus, the husband of Fulvia, who desired inquiry might be made about it, ordered all the Jews to be banished out of Rome; 18.84. at which time the consuls listed four thousand men out of them, and sent them to the island Sardinia; but punished a greater number of them, who were unwilling to become soldiers, on account of keeping the laws of their forefathers. Thus were these Jews banished out of the city by the wickedness of four men.
18.259. Many of these severe things were said by Apion, by which he hoped to provoke Caius to anger at the Jews, as he was likely to be. But Philo, the principal of the Jewish embassage, a man eminent on all accounts, brother to Alexander the alabarch, and one not unskillful in philosophy, was ready to betake himself to make his defense against those accusations;
19.81. for he is preparing to sail to Alexandria, in order to see Egypt. Is it therefore for your honor to let a man go out of your hands who is a reproach to mankind, and to permit him to go, after a pompous manner, triumphing both at land and sea?
19.276. he also took away from Antiochus that kingdom which he was possessed of, but gave him a certain part of Cilicia and Commagena: he also set Alexander Lysimachus, the alabarch, at liberty, who had been his old friend, and steward to his mother Antonia, but had been imprisoned by Caius, whose son Marcus married Bernice, the daughter of Agrippa.' '. None
47. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.2-1.4, 2.365, 2.409, 3.352-3.356, 3.530, 5.205, 5.231-5.236, 6.310-6.313, 6.333, 6.335, 6.442, 7.132-7.157, 7.253 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Constantine the Great, emperor • Constantine, Emperor, • Diocletian, emperor • Gaius (emperor), and Agrippa I • Galba, Emperor, • Marcus Aurelius, Emperor, • Nero, Emperor, • Otho, Emperor, • Roman emperor, x • Temple, Sacrifice for Emperors • Theodosius II, emperor • Tiberius (emperor) • Tiberius, Emperor, • Titus, Emperor • Titus, emperor • Trajan, Emperor, • Vespasian, confirmed as emperor by Judean religion and texts • Vespasian, declared emperor in Egypt • Vitellius, Emperor, • Year of the Four Emperors,

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105, 107; Bay (2022) 37, 188; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 352; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 63; Feldman (2006) 297, 306, 317, 318, 348, 349, 355, 383, 384, 395, 424, 432, 445, 455, 471, 526, 553, 677, 693, 699, 720, 738, 774, 777; Gruen (2011) 186; Klein and Wienand (2022) 88, 176; Marek (2019) 393; Rutledge (2012) 278; Salvesen et al (2020) 264; Udoh (2006) 157

1.2. ὅπως τε ὁ λαὸς μετὰ τὴν ̔Ηρώδου τελευτὴν κατεστασίασεν Αὐγούστου μὲν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονεύοντος, Κυιντιλίου δὲ Οὐάρου κατὰ τὴν χώραν ὄντος, καὶ ὡς ἔτει δωδεκάτῳ τῆς Νέρωνος ἀρχῆς ὁ πόλεμος ἀνερράγη τά τε συμβάντα κατὰ Κέστιον καὶ ὅσα κατὰ τὰς πρώτας ὁρμὰς ἐπῆλθον οἱ ̓Ιουδαῖοι τοῖς ὅπλοις,
1.2. οἱ παραγενόμενοι δὲ ἢ κολακείᾳ τῇ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους ἢ μίσει τῷ πρὸς ̓Ιουδαίους καταψεύδονται τῶν πραγμάτων, περιέχει δὲ αὐτοῖς ὅπου μὲν κατηγορίαν ὅπου δὲ ἐγκώμιον τὰ συγγράμματα, τὸ δ' ἀκριβὲς τῆς ἱστορίας οὐδαμοῦ," '
1.2. τὰς μὲν δὴ τιμὰς ταύτας Καῖσαρ ἐπέστελλεν ἐν τῷ Καπετωλίῳ χαραχθῆναι τῆς τε αὐτοῦ δικαιοσύνης σημεῖον καὶ τῆς τἀνδρὸς ἐσομένας ἀρετῆς. 1.3. Ταῦτα πάντα περιλαβὼν ἐν ἑπτὰ βιβλίοις καὶ μηδεμίαν τοῖς ἐπισταμένοις τὰ πράγματα καὶ παρατυχοῦσι τῷ πολέμῳ καταλιπὼν ἢ μέμψεως ἀφορμὴν ἢ κατηγορίας, τοῖς γε τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἀγαπῶσιν, ἀλλὰ μὴ πρὸς ἡδονὴν ἀνέγραψα. ποιήσομαι δὲ ταύτην τῆς ἐξηγήσεως ἀρχήν, ἣν καὶ τῶν κεφαλαίων ἐποιησάμην.' "1.3. προυθέμην ἐγὼ τοῖς κατὰ τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίαν ̔Ελλάδι γλώσσῃ μεταβαλὼν ἃ τοῖς ἄνω βαρβάροις τῇ πατρίῳ συντάξας ἀνέπεμψα πρότερον ἀφηγήσασθαι ̓Ιώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ἐξ ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἱερεύς, αὐτός τε ̔Ρωμαίους πολεμήσας τὰ πρῶτα καὶ τοῖς ὕστερον παρατυχὼν ἐξ ἀνάγκης: 1.3. ταῦτ' ἀκούσας ̓Αντίγονος διέπεμψεν περὶ τὴν χώραν εἴργειν καὶ λοχᾶν τοὺς σιτηγοὺς κελεύων. οἱ δ' ὑπήκουον, καὶ πολὺ πλῆθος ὁπλιτῶν ὑπὲρ τὴν ̔Ιεριχοῦντα συνηθροίσθη: διεκαθέζοντο δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρῶν παραφυλάσσοντες τοὺς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἐκκομίζοντας." "1.4. γενομένου γάρ, ὡς ἔφην, μεγίστου τοῦδε τοῦ κινήματος ἐν ̔Ρωμαίοις μὲν ἐνόσει τὰ οἰκεῖα, ̓Ιουδαίων δὲ τὸ νεωτερίζον τότε τεταραγμένοις ἐπανέστη τοῖς καιροῖς ἀκμάζον κατά τε χεῖρα καὶ χρήμασιν, ὡς δι' ὑπερβολὴν θορύβων τοῖς μὲν ἐν ἐλπίδι κτήσεως τοῖς δ' ἐν ἀφαιρέσεως δέει γίνεσθαι τὰ πρὸς τὴν ἀνατολήν," '1.4. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτα Ζηνόδωρος, προσένειμεν αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν μεταξὺ Τράχωνος καὶ τῆς Γαλιλαίας γῆν ἅπασαν. ὃ δὲ τούτων ̔Ηρώδῃ μεῖζον ἦν, ὑπὸ μὲν Καίσαρος ἐφιλεῖτο μετ' ̓Αγρίππαν, ὑπ' ̓Αγρίππα δὲ μετὰ Καίσαρα. ἔνθεν ἐπὶ πλεῖστον μὲν εὐδαιμονίας προύκοψεν, εἰς μεῖζον δ' ἐξήρθη φρόνημα καὶ τὸ πλέον τῆς μεγαλονοίας ἐπέτεινεν εἰς εὐσέβειαν." "1.4. λαμβανούσης δὲ ἄρτι τὸ ἱερὸν κατάστημα τῆς πόλεως τελευτᾷ μὲν ̓Αντίοχος, κληρονόμος δὲ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς πρὸς ̓Ιουδαίους ἀπεχθείας ὁ υἱὸς ̓Αντίοχος γίνεται.' "
2.365. πόσῳ μᾶλλον ̔́Ελλησιν, οἳ τῶν ὑφ' ἡλίῳ πάντων προύχοντες εὐγενείᾳ καὶ τοσαύτην νεμόμενοι χώραν ἓξ ̔Ρωμαίων ὑπείκουσιν ῥάβδοις, τοσαύταις δὲ καὶ Μακεδόνες οἱ δικαιότερον ὑμῶν ὀφείλοντες ἐλευθερίας ἀντιποιεῖσθαι." "
2.409. ἅμα δὲ καὶ κατὰ τὸ ἱερὸν ̓Ελεάζαρος υἱὸς ̓Ανανία τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, νεανίας θρασύτατος, στρατηγῶν τότε τοὺς κατὰ τὴν λατρείαν λειτουργοῦντας ἀναπείθει μηδενὸς ἀλλοτρίου δῶρον ἢ θυσίαν προσδέχεσθαι. τοῦτο δ' ἦν τοῦ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους πολέμου καταβολή: τὴν γὰρ ὑπὲρ τούτων θυσίαν Καίσαρος ἀπέρριψαν." '
3.352. ἦν δὲ καὶ περὶ κρίσεις ὀνείρων ἱκανὸς συμβαλεῖν τὰ ἀμφιβόλως ὑπὸ τοῦ θείου λεγόμενα, τῶν γε μὴν ἱερῶν βίβλων οὐκ ἠγνόει τὰς προφητείας ὡς ἂν αὐτός τε ὢν ἱερεὺς καὶ ἱερέων ἔγγονος: 3.353. ὧν ἐπὶ τῆς τότε ὥρας ἔνθους γενόμενος καὶ τὰ φρικώδη τῶν προσφάτων ὀνείρων σπάσας φαντάσματα προσφέρει τῷ θεῷ λεληθυῖαν εὐχήν, 3.354. κἀπειδὴ τὸ ̓Ιουδαίων, ἔφη, φῦλον ὀκλάσαι δοκεῖ σοι τῷ κτίσαντι, μετέβη δὲ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους ἡ τύχη πᾶσα, καὶ τὴν ἐμὴν ψυχὴν ἐπελέξω τὰ μέλλοντα εἰπεῖν, δίδωμι μὲν ̔Ρωμαίοις τὰς χεῖρας ἑκὼν καὶ ζῶ, μαρτύρομαι δὲ ὡς οὐ προδότης, ἀλλὰ σὸς εἶμι διάκονος.”' "3.355. Ταῦτ' εἰπὼν ἐνεδίδου τῷ Νικάνορι. καὶ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων οἱ συγκαταφυγόντες ὡς τὸν ̓Ιώσηπον συνίεσαν εἴκοντα τοῖς παρακαλοῦσιν," "3.356. ἀθρόοι περιστάντες, “ἦ μεγάλα γ' ἂν στενάξειαν, ἐβόων, οἱ πάτριοι νόμοι, οὓς κατέφησεν θεὸς ̓Ιουδαίοις ὁ κτίσας ψυχὰς θανάτου καταφρονούσας." '
5.205. πεντήκοντα γὰρ πηχῶν οὖσα τὴν ἀνάστασιν τεσσαρακονταπήχεις τὰς θύρας εἶχε καὶ τὸν κόσμον πολυτελέστερον ἐπὶ δαψιλὲς πάχος ἀργύρου τε καὶ χρυσοῦ. τοῦτον δὲ ταῖς ἐννέα πύλαις ἐπέχεεν ὁ Τιβερίου πατὴρ ̓Αλέξανδρος.' "
5.231. ἐλειτούργει δὲ τοὺς μηροὺς μέχρις αἰδοίου διαζώματι καλύπτων λινοῦν τε ὑποδύτην ἔνδοθεν λαμβάνων καὶ ποδήρη καθύπερθεν ὑακίνθινον, ἔνδυμα στρογγύλον θυσανωτόν: τῶν δὲ θυσάνων ἀπήρτηντο κώδωνες χρύσεοι καὶ ῥοαὶ παράλληλοι, βροντῆς μὲν οἱ κώδωνες, ἀστραπῆς δ' αἱ ῥοαὶ σημεῖον." "5.232. ἡ δὲ τὸ ἔνδυμα τῷ στέρνῳ προσηλοῦσα ταινία πέντε διηνθισμένη ζώναις πεποίκιλτο, χρυσοῦ τε καὶ πορφύρας καὶ κόκκου πρὸς δὲ βύσσου καὶ ὑακίνθου, δι' ὧν ἔφαμεν καὶ τὰ τοῦ ναοῦ καταπετάσματα συνυφάνθαι." "5.233. τούτοις δὲ καὶ ἐπωμίδα κεκραμένην εἶχεν, ἐν ᾗ πλείων χρυσὸς ἦν. σχῆμα μὲν οὖν ἐνδυτοῦ θώρακος εἶχεν, δύο δ' αὐτὴν ἐνεπόρπων ἀσπιδίσκαι χρυσαῖ, κατεκέκλειντο δ' ἐν ταύταις κάλλιστοί τε καὶ μέγιστοι σαρδόνυχες, τοὺς ἐπωνύμους τῶν τοῦ ἔθνους φυλῶν ἐπιγεγραμμέναι." "5.234. κατὰ δὲ θάτερον ἄλλοι προσήρτηντο λίθοι δώδεκα, κατὰ τρεῖς εἰς τέσσαρα μέρη διῃρημένοι, σάρδιον τόπαζος σμάραγδος, ἄνθραξ ἴασπις σάπφειρος, ἀχάτης ἀμέθυστος λιγύριον, ὄνυξ βήρυλλος χρυσόλιθος, ὧν ἐφ' ἑκάστου πάλιν εἷς τῶν ἐπωνύμων ἐγέγραπτο." "5.235. τὴν δὲ κεφαλὴν βυσσίνη μὲν ἔσκεπεν τιάρα, κατέστεπτο δ' ὑακίνθῳ, περὶ ἣν χρυσοῦς ἄλλος ἦν στέφανος ἔκτυπα φέρων τὰ ἱερὰ γράμματα: ταῦτα δ' ἐστὶ φωνήεντα τέσσαρα." "5.236. ταύτην μὲν οὖν τὴν ἐσθῆτα οὐκ ἐφόρει χρόνιον, λιτοτέραν δ' ἀνελάμβανεν, ὁπότε δ' εἰσίοι εἰς τὸ ἄδυτον: εἰσῄει δ' ἅπαξ κατ' ἐνιαυτὸν μόνος ἐν ᾗ νηστεύειν ἔθος ἡμέρᾳ πάντας τῷ θεῷ." '6.311. ὅπου γε ̓Ιουδαῖοι καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν μετὰ τὴν καθαίρεσιν τῆς ̓Αντωνίας τετράγωνον ἐποίησαν, ἀναγεγραμμένον ἐν τοῖς λογίοις ἔχοντες ἁλώσεσθαι τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸν ναόν, ἐπειδὰν τὸ ἱερὸν γένηται τετράγωνον.' "6.312. τὸ δ' ἐπᾶραν αὐτοὺς μάλιστα πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον ἦν χρησμὸς ἀμφίβολος ὁμοίως ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς εὑρημένος γράμμασιν, ὡς κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον ἀπὸ τῆς χώρας αὐτῶν τις ἄρξει τῆς οἰκουμένης." "6.313. τοῦθ' οἱ μὲν ὡς οἰκεῖον ἐξέλαβον καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν σοφῶν ἐπλανήθησαν περὶ τὴν κρίσιν, ἐδήλου δ' ἄρα τὴν Οὐεσπασιανοῦ τὸ λόγιον ἡγεμονίαν ἀποδειχθέντος ἐπὶ ̓Ιουδαίας αὐτοκράτορος." '
6.333. τοιγαροῦν ὑμᾶς ἐπήγειρε κατὰ ̔Ρωμαίων ἡ ̔Ρωμαίων φιλανθρωπία, οἳ πρῶτον μὲν ὑμῖν τήν τε χώραν ἔδομεν νέμεσθαι καὶ βασιλεῖς ὁμοφύλους ἐπεστήσαμεν,' "
6.335. τὸ δὲ μέγιστον, δασμολογεῖν τε ὑμῖν ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἀναθήματα συλλέγειν ἐπετρέψαμεν, καὶ τοὺς ταῦτα φέροντας οὔτε ἐνουθετήσαμεν οὔτε ἐκωλύσαμεν, ἵν' ἡμῖν γένησθε πλουσιώτεροι καὶ παρασκευάσησθε τοῖς ἡμετέροις χρήμασιν καθ' ἡμῶν." "
6.442. ἀλλὰ γὰρ οὔθ' ἡ ἀρχαιότης οὔθ' ὁ πλοῦτος ὁ βαθὺς οὔτε τὸ διαπεφοιτηκὸς ὅλης τῆς οἰκουμένης ἔθνος οὔθ' ἡ μεγάλη δόξα τῆς θρησκείας ἤρκεσέ τι πρὸς ἀπώλειαν αὐτῇ. τοιοῦτο μὲν δὴ τὸ τέλος τῆς ̔Ιεροσολύμων πολιορκίας." '
7.132. ̓Αμήχανον δὲ κατὰ τὴν ἀξίαν εἰπεῖν τῶν θεαμάτων ἐκείνων τὸ πλῆθος καὶ τὴν μεγαλοπρέπειαν ἐν ἅπασιν οἷς ἄν τις ἐπινοήσειεν ἢ τεχνῶν ἔργοις ἢ πλούτου μέρεσιν ἢ φύσεως σπανιότησιν:' "7.133. σχεδὸν γὰρ ὅσα τοῖς πώποτε ἀνθρώποις εὐδαιμονήσασιν ἐκτήθη κατὰ μέρος ἄλλα παρ' ἄλλοις θαυμαστὰ καὶ πολυτελῆ, ταῦτα ἐπὶ τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης ἀθρόα τῆς ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίας ἔδειξε τὸ μέγεθος." "7.134. ἀργύρου γὰρ καὶ χρυσοῦ καὶ ἐλέφαντος ἐν παντοίαις ἰδέαις κατασκευασμάτων ἦν ὁρᾶν οὐχ ὥσπερ ἐν πομπῇ κομιζόμενον πλῆθος, ἀλλ' ὡς ἂν εἴποι τις ῥέοντα ποταμόν, καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐκ πορφύρας ὑφάσματα τῆς σπανιωτάτης φερόμενα, τὰ δ' εἰς ἀκριβῆ ζωγραφίαν πεποικιλμένα τῇ Βαβυλωνίων τέχνῃ:" "7.135. λίθοι τε διαφανεῖς, οἱ μὲν χρυσοῖς ἐμπεπλεγμένοι στεφάνοις, οἱ δὲ κατ' ἄλλας ποιήσεις, τοσοῦτοι παρηνέχθησαν, ὥστε μαθεῖν ὅτι μάτην εἶναί τι τούτων σπάνιον ὑπειλήφαμεν." "7.136. ἐφέρετο δὲ καὶ θεῶν ἀγάλματα τῶν παρ' αὐτοῖς μεγέθεσι θαυμαστὰ καὶ κατὰ τὴν τέχνην οὐ παρέργως πεποιημένα, καὶ τούτων οὐδέν, ὅ τι μὴ τῆς ὕλης τῆς πολυτελοῦς, ζῴων τε πολλαὶ φύσεις παρήγοντο κόσμον οἰκεῖον ἁπάντων περικειμένων." "7.137. ἦν δὲ καὶ τὸ κομίζον ἕκαστα τούτων πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων ἁλουργαῖς ἐσθῆσι καὶ διαχρύσοις κεκοσμημένον, οἵ τ' εἰς αὐτὸ τὸ πομπεύειν διακριθέντες ἐξαίρετον εἶχον καὶ καταπληκτικὴν περὶ αὐτοὺς τοῦ κόσμου τὴν πολυτέλειαν." "7.138. ἐπὶ τούτοις οὐδὲ τὸν αἰχμάλωτον ἦν ἰδεῖν ὄχλον ἀκόσμητον, ἀλλ' ἡ τῶν ἐσθήτων ποικιλία καὶ τὸ κάλλος αὐτοῖς τὴν ἀπὸ τῆς κακώσεως τῶν σωμάτων ἀηδίαν ἔκλεπτε τῆς ὄψεως." "7.139. θαῦμα δ' ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα παρεῖχεν ἡ τῶν φερομένων πηγμάτων κατασκευή: καὶ γὰρ διὰ μέγεθος ἦν δεῖσαι τῷ βεβαίῳ τῆς φορᾶς ἀπιστήσαντα," '7.141. καὶ γὰρ ὑφάσματα πολλοῖς διάχρυσα περιβέβλητο, καὶ χρυσὸς καὶ ἐλέφας οὐκ ἀποίητος πᾶσι περιεπεπήγει. 7.142. διὰ πολλῶν δὲ μιμημάτων ὁ πόλεμος ἄλλος εἰς ἄλλα μεμερισμένος ἐναργεστάτην ὄψιν αὑτοῦ παρεῖχεν:' "7.143. ἦν γὰρ ὁρᾶν χώραν μὲν εὐδαίμονα δῃουμένην, ὅλας δὲ φάλαγγας κτεινομένας πολεμίων, καὶ τοὺς μὲν φεύγοντας τοὺς δ' εἰς αἰχμαλωσίαν ἀγομένους, τείχη δ' ὑπερβάλλοντα μεγέθει μηχαναῖς ἐρειπόμενα καὶ φρουρίων ἁλισκομένας ὀχυρότητας καὶ πόλεων πολυανθρώπους περιβόλους κατ' ἄκρας ἐχομένους," '7.144. καὶ στρατιὰν ἔνδον τειχῶν εἰσχεομένην, καὶ πάντα φόνου πλήθοντα τόπον, καὶ τῶν ἀδυνάτων χεῖρας ἀνταίρειν ἱκεσίας, πῦρ τε ἐνιέμενον ἱεροῖς καὶ κατασκαφὰς οἴκων ἐπὶ τοῖς δεσπόταις, 7.145. καὶ μετὰ πολλὴν ἐρημίαν καὶ κατήφειαν ποταμοὺς ῥέοντας οὐκ ἐπὶ γῆν γεωργουμένην, οὐδὲ ποτὸν ἀνθρώποις ἢ βοσκήμασιν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἐπιπανταχόθεν φλεγομένης: ταῦτα γὰρ ̓Ιουδαῖοι πεισομένους αὑτοὺς τῷ πολέμῳ παρέδοσαν.' "7.146. ἡ τέχνη δὲ καὶ τῶν κατασκευασμάτων ἡ μεγαλουργία τοῖς οὐκ ἰδοῦσι γινόμενα τότ' ἐδείκνυεν ὡς παροῦσι." "7.147. τέτακτο δ' ἐφ' ἑκάστῳ τῶν πηγμάτων ὁ τῆς ἁλισκομένης πόλεως στρατηγὸς ὃν τρόπον ἐλήφθη." "7.148. πολλαὶ δὲ καὶ νῆες εἵποντο. λάφυρα δὲ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα χύδην ἐφέρετο, διέπρεπε δὲ πάντων τὰ ἐγκαταληφθέντα τῷ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἱερῷ, χρυσῆ τε τράπεζα τὴν ὁλκὴν πολυτάλαντος καὶ λυχνία χρυσῆ μὲν ὁμοίως πεποιημένη, τὸ δ' ἔργον ἐξήλλακτο τῆς κατὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν χρῆσιν συνηθείας." "7.149. ὁ μὲν γὰρ μέσος ἦν κίων ἐκ τῆς βάσεως πεπηγώς, λεπτοὶ δ' ἀπ' αὐτοῦ μεμήκυντο καυλίσκοι τριαίνης σχήματι παραπλησίαν τὴν θέσιν ἔχοντες, λύχνον ἕκαστος αὐτῶν ἐπ' ἄκρον κεχαλκευμένος: ἑπτὰ δ' ἦσαν οὗτοι τῆς παρὰ τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις ἑβδομάδος τὴν τιμὴν ἐμφανίζοντες." "7.151. ἐπὶ τούτοις παρῄεσαν πολλοὶ Νίκης ἀγάλματα κομίζοντες: ἐξ ἐλέφαντος δ' ἦν πάντων καὶ χρυσοῦ ἡ κατασκευή." "7.152. μεθ' ἃ Οὐεσπασιανὸς ἤλαυνε πρῶτος καὶ Τίτος εἵπετο, Δομετιανὸς δὲ παρίππευεν, αὐτός τε διαπρεπῶς κεκοσμημένος καὶ τὸν ἵππον παρέχων θέας ἄξιον." "7.153. ̓͂Ην δὲ τῆς πομπῆς τὸ τέλος ἐπὶ τὸν νεὼ τοῦ Καπετωλίου Διός, ἐφ' ὃν ἐλθόντες ἔστησαν: ἦν γὰρ παλαιὸν πάτριον περιμένειν, μέχρις ἂν τὸν τοῦ στρατηγοῦ τῶν πολεμίων θάνατον ἀπαγγείλῃ τις." "7.154. Σίμων οὗτος ἦν ὁ Γιώρα, τότε πεπομπευκὼς ἐν τοῖς αἰχμαλώτοις, βρόχῳ δὲ περιβληθεὶς εἰς τὸν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς ἐσύρετο τόπον αἰκιζομένων αὐτὸν ἅμα τῶν ἀγόντων: νόμος δ' ἐστὶ ̔Ρωμαίοις ἐκεῖ κτείνειν τοὺς ἐπὶ κακουργίᾳ θάνατον κατεγνωσμένους." "7.155. ἐπεὶ δ' ἀπηγγέλθη τέλος ἔχων καὶ πάντες εὐφήμησαν, ἤρχοντο τῶν θυσιῶν, ἃς ἐπὶ ταῖς νομιζομέναις καλλιερήσαντες εὐχαῖς ἀπῄεσαν εἰς τὸ βασίλειον." "7.156. καὶ τοὺς μὲν αὐτοὶ πρὸς εὐωχίαν ὑπεδέχοντο, τοῖς δ' ἄλλοις ἅπασιν εὐτρεπεῖς κατὰ τὸ οἰκεῖον αἱ τῆς ἑστιάσεως ἦσαν παρασκευαί." '7.157. ταύτην γὰρ τὴν ἡμέραν ἡ ̔Ρωμαίων πόλις ἑώρταζεν ἐπινίκιον μὲν τῆς κατὰ τῶν πολεμίων στρατείας, πέρας δὲ τῶν ἐμφυλίων κακῶν, ἀρχὴν δὲ τῶν ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐδαιμονίας ἐλπίδων.
7.253. προειστήκει δὲ τῶν κατειληφότων αὐτὸ σικαρίων δυνατὸς ἀνὴρ ̓Ελεάζαρος, ἀπόγονος ̓Ιούδα τοῦ πείσαντος ̓Ιουδαίους οὐκ ὀλίγους, ὡς πρότερον δεδηλώκαμεν, μὴ ποιεῖσθαι τὰς ἀπογραφάς, ὅτε Κυρίνιος τιμητὴς εἰς τὴν ̓Ιουδαίαν ἐπέμφθη.' ". None
1.2. These honorary grants Caesar sent orders to have engraved in the Capitol, that they might stand there as indications of his own justice, and of the virtue of Antipater.
1.2. and while those that were there present have given false accounts of things, and this either out of a humor of flattery to the Romans, or of hatred towards the Jews; and while their writings contain sometimes accusations, and sometimes encomiums, but nowhere the accurate truth of the facts,
1.2. as also how our people made a sedition upon Herod’s death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quintilius Varus was in that country; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what happened to Cestius; and what places the Jews assaulted in a hostile manner in the first sallies of the war. 1.3. 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves with fictitious relations. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter. 1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward am the author of this work. 1.3. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions. 1.4. 2. Now at the time when this great concussion of affairs happened, the affairs of the Romans were themselves in great disorder. Those Jews also, who were for innovations, then arose when the times were disturbed; they were also in a flourishing condition for strength and riches, insomuch that the affairs of the East were then exceeding tumultuous, while some hoped for gain, and others were afraid of loss in such troubles; 1.4. and when the city had already received its sacred constitution again, Antiochus died; whose son Antiochus succeeded him in the kingdom, and in his hatred to the Jews also. 1.4. but when Zenodorus was dead, Caesar bestowed on him all that land which lay between Trachonitis and Galilee. Yet, what was still of more consequence to Herod, he was beloved by Caesar next after Agrippa, and by Agrippa next after Caesar; whence he arrived at a very great degree of felicity. Yet did the greatness of his soul exceed it, and the main part of his magimity was extended to the promotion of piety.
2.365. Perhaps it will be said, It is hard to endure slavery. Yes; but how much harder is this to the Greeks, who were esteemed the noblest of all people under the sun! These, though they inhabit in a large country, are in subjection to six bundles of Roman rods. It is the same case with the Macedonians, who have juster reason to claim their liberty than you have.
2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account;
3.352. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests: 3.353. and just then was he in an ecstasy; and setting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God, 3.354. and said, “Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewish nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and since thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretell what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live. And I protest openly that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.” 3.355. 4. When he had said this, he complied with Nicanor’s invitation. But when those Jews who had fled with him understood that he yielded to those that invited him to come up, they came about him in a body, and cried out, 3.356. “Nay, indeed, now may the laws of our forefathers, which God ordained himself, well groan to purpose; that God we mean who hath created the souls of the Jews of such a temper, that they despise death.
5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius.
5.231. When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment, round, without seam, with fringework, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. 5.232. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast was embroidered with five rows of various colors, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colors we told you before the veils of the temple were embroidered also. 5.233. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment; in these buttons were enclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: 5.234. on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. 5.235. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribbon, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name of God: it consists of four vowels. 5.236. However, the high priest did not wear these garments at other times, but a more plain habit; he only did it when he went into the most sacred part of the temple, which he did but once in a year, on that day when our custom is for all of us to keep a fast to God. 6.311. for the Jews, by demolishing the tower of Antonia, had made their temple foursquare, while at the same time they had it written in their sacred oracles, “That then should their city be taken, as well as their holy house, when once their temple should become foursquare.” 6.312. But now, what did most elevate them in undertaking this war, was an ambiguous oracle that was also found in their sacred writings, how, “about that time, one from their country should become governor of the habitable earth.” 6.313. The Jews took this prediction to belong to themselves in particular, and many of the wise men were thereby deceived in their determination. Now, this oracle certainly denoted the government of Vespasian, who was appointed emperor in Judea.
6.333. It can therefore be nothing certainly but the kindness of us Romans which hath excited you against us; who, in the first place, have given you this land to possess; and, in the next place, have set over you kings of your own nation; and, in the third place, have preserved the laws of your forefathers to you,
6.335. And what is our chief favor of all we have given you leave to gather up that tribute which is paid to God with such other gifts that are dedicated to him; nor have we called those that carried these donations to account, nor prohibited them; till at length you became richer than we ourselves, even when you were our enemies; and you made preparations for war against us with our own money;
6.442. yet hath not its great antiquity, nor its vast riches, nor the diffusion of its nation over all the habitable earth, nor the greatness of the veneration paid to it on a religious account, been sufficient to preserve it from being destroyed. And thus ended the siege of Jerusalem.
7.132. 5. Now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shows as they deserve, and the magnificence of them all; such indeed as a man could not easily think of as performed, either by the labor of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature; 7.133. for almost all such curiosities as the most happy men ever get by piecemeal were here one heaped on another, and those both admirable and costly in their nature; and all brought together on that day demonstrated the vastness of the dominions of the Romans; 7.134. for there was here to be seen a mighty quantity of silver, and gold, and ivory, contrived into all sorts of things, and did not appear as carried along in pompous show only, but, as a man may say, running along like a river. Some parts were composed of the rarest purple hangings, and so carried along; and others accurately represented to the life what was embroidered by the arts of the Babylonians. 7.135. There were also precious stones that were transparent, some set in crowns of gold, and some in other ouches, as the workmen pleased; and of these such a vast number were brought, that we could not but thence learn how vainly we imagined any of them to be rarities. 7.136. The images of the gods were also carried, being as well wonderful for their largeness, as made very artificially, and with great skill of the workmen; nor were any of these images of any other than very costly materials; and many species of animals were brought, every one in their own natural ornaments. 7.137. The men also who brought every one of these shows were great multitudes, and adorned with purple garments, all over interwoven with gold; those that were chosen for carrying these pompous shows having also about them such magnificent ornaments as were both extraordinary and surprising. 7.138. Besides these, one might see that even the great number of the captives was not unadorned, while the variety that was in their garments, and their fine texture, concealed from the sight the deformity of their bodies. 7.139. But what afforded the greatest surprise of all was the structure of the pageants that were borne along; for indeed he that met them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be able firmly enough to support them, such was their magnitude; 7.141. for upon many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wrought gold and ivory fastened about them all; 7.142. and many resemblances of the war, and those in several ways, and variety of contrivances, affording a most lively portraiture of itself. 7.143. For there was to be seen a happy country laid waste, and entire squadrons of enemies slain; while some of them ran away, and some were carried into captivity; with walls of great altitude and magnitude overthrown and ruined by machines; with the strongest fortifications taken, and the walls of most populous cities upon the tops of hills seized on, 7.144. and an army pouring itself within the walls; as also every place full of slaughter, and supplications of the enemies, when they were no longer able to lift up their hands in way of opposition. Fire also sent upon temples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and falling upon their owners: 7.145. rivers also, after they came out of a large and melancholy desert, ran down, not into a land cultivated, nor as drink for men, or for cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergone during this war. 7.146. Now the workmanship of these representations was so magnificent and lively in the construction of the things, that it exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as if they had been there really present. 7.147. On the top of every one of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. Moreover, there followed those pageants a great number of ships; 7.148. and for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is, the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction were now changed from that which we made use of; 7.149. for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews; 7.151. After these spoils passed by a great many men, carrying the images of Victory, whose structure was entirely either of ivory or of gold. 7.152. After which Vespasian marched in the first place, and Titus followed him; Domitian also rode along with them, and made a glorious appearance, and rode on a horse that was worthy of admiration. 7.153. 6. Now the last part of this pompous show was at the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, whither when they were come, they stood still; for it was the Romans’ ancient custom to stay till somebody brought the news that the general of the enemy was slain. 7.154. This general was Simon, the son of Gioras, who had then been led in this triumph among the captives; a rope had also been put upon his head, and he had been drawn into a proper place in the forum, and had withal been tormented by those that drew him along; and the law of the Romans required that malefactors condemned to die should be slain there. 7.155. Accordingly, when it was related that there was an end of him, and all the people had sent up a shout for joy, they then began to offer those sacrifices which they had consecrated, in the prayers used in such solemnities; which when they had finished, they went away to the palace. 7.156. And as for some of the spectators, the emperors entertained them at their own feast; and for all the rest there were noble preparations made for their feasting at home; 7.157. for this was a festival day to the city of Rome, as celebrated for the victory obtained by their army over their enemies, for the end that was now put to their civil miseries, and for the commencement of their hopes of future prosperity and happiness.
7.253. It was one Eleazar, a potent man, and the commander of these Sicarii, that had seized upon it. He was a descendant from that Judas who had persuaded abundance of the Jews, as we have formerly related, not to submit to the taxation when Cyrenius was sent into Judea to make one;' '. None
48. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37, 1.40, 2.14, 2.17-2.18, 2.70, 2.77, 2.80, 2.91-2.96, 2.109, 2.112, 2.142, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Temple, Sacrifice for Emperors • Tiberius (emperor) • Vespasian, confirmed as emperor by Judean religion and texts • empire, emperor

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105; Balberg (2017) 223; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 352; Feldman (2006) 336, 505, 548, 554, 724, 731, 749; Salvesen et al (2020) 288, 291, 292, 293, 294

1.37. εἰκότως οὖν, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀναγκαίως, ἅτε μήτε τὸ ὑπογράφειν αὐτεξουσίου πᾶσιν ὄντος μήτε τινὸς ἐν τοῖς γραφομένοις ἐνούσης διαφωνίας, ἀλλὰ μόνον τῶν προφητῶν τὰ μὲν ἀνωτάτω καὶ παλαιότατα κατὰ τὴν ἐπίπνοιαν τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ μαθόντων, τὰ δὲ καθ' αὑτοὺς ὡς ἐγένετο σαφῶς συγγραφόντων," '
2.14. ἐπισταμένοις αὐτὸν καὶ συγγενομένοις. καὶ περὶ μὲν ̔Ομήρου τοῦ ποιητοῦ γραμματικὸς ὢν αὐτὸς οὐκ ἂν ἔχοι, τίς αὐτοῦ πατρίς ἐστι, διαβεβαιωσάμενος εἰπεῖν οὐδὲ περὶ Πυθαγόρου μόνον οὐκ ἐχθὲς καὶ πρῴην γεγονότος, περὶ δὲ Μωσέως τοσούτῳ πλήθει προάγοντος ἐκείνους ἐτῶν οὕτως ἀποφαίνεται ῥᾳδίως πιστεύων ἀκοῇ πρεσβυτέρων, ὡς δῆλός ἐστι καταψευσάμενος.
2.14. καὶ μὴν εἴ τις αὐτὸν ἤρετο, τῶν πάντων Αἰγυπτίων τίνας εἶναι καὶ σοφωτάτους καὶ θεοσεβεῖς νομίζει, πάντως ἂν ὡμολόγησε' "
2.17. ὁ δέ γε πάντων πιστότατος ̓Απίων ὡρίσατο τὴν ἔξοδον ἀκριβῶς κατὰ τὴν ἑβδόμην ὀλυμπιάδα καὶ ταύτης ἔτος εἶναι πρῶτον, ἐν ᾧ, φησί, Καρχηδόνα Φοίνικες ἔκτισαν. τοῦτο δὲ πάντως προσέθηκε τὸ Καρχηδόνα τεκμήριον οἰόμενος αὑτῷ γενέσθαι τῆς ἀληθείας ἐναργέστατον, οὐ συνῆκε δὲ καθ' ἑαυτοῦ τὸν ἔλεγχον ἐπισπώμενος." "
2.17. τὴν περὶ θεοῦ πίστιν ἐνέφυσεν ἀμετακίνητον. αἴτιον δ' ὅτι καὶ τῷ τρόπῳ τῆς νομοθεσίας πρὸς τὸ χρήσιμον πάντων ἀεὶ πολὺ διήνεγκεν: οὐ γὰρ μέρος ἀρετῆς ἐποίησεν τὴν εὐσέβειαν, ἀλλὰ ταύτης μέρη τἆλλα, λέγω δὲ τὴν δικαιοσύνην τὴν σωφροσύνην τὴν καρτερίαν τὴν τῶν πολιτῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐν ἅπασι συμφωνίαν:" '2.18. εἰ γὰρ περὶ τῆς ἀπιστίας πιστεύειν δεῖ ταῖς Φοινίκων ἀναγραφαῖς, ἐν ἐκείναις Εἴρωμος ὁ βασιλεὺς γέγραπται πρεσβύτερος τῆς Καρχηδόνος κτίσεως ἔτεσι πλείοσι πρὸς τοῖς πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑκατόν, περὶ οὗ τὰς πίστεις ἀνωτέρω παρέσχον ἐκ τῶν Φοινίκων' "2.18. παρ' ἡμῖν γὰρ μόνοις οὔτε περὶ θεοῦ λόγους ἀκούσεταί τις ἀλλήλοις ὑπεναντίους, ὁποῖα πολλὰ παρ' ἑτέροις οὐχ ὑπὸ τῶν τυχόντων μόνον κατὰ τὸ προσπεσὸν ἑκάστῳ λέγεται πάθος, ἀλλὰ καὶ παρά τισι τῶν φιλοσόφων ἀποτετόλμηται, τῶν μὲν τὴν ὅλην τοῦ θεοῦ φύσιν ἀναιρεῖν τοῖς λόγοις ἐπικεχειρηκότων, ἄλλων δὲ τὴν ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων αὐτὸν" '
2.77. φαξιμυς αυτεμ προ εις ξοντινυα σαξριφιξια ετ νον σολυμ ξοτιδιανις διεβυς εχ ιμπενσα ξομμυνι ομνιυμ ιυδαεορυμ ταλια ξελεβραμυς, υερυμ ξυμ νυλλας αλιας ηοστιας εχ ξομμυνι νεθυε προ φιλιις περαγαμυς, σολις ιμπερατοριβυς ηυνξ ηονορεμ πραεξιπυυμ παριτερ εχηιβεμυς, θυεμ ηομινυμ νυλλι περσολυιμυς.
2.91. προπηετα υερο αλιορυμ φαξτυς εστ απιον ετ διχιτ αντιοξηυμ ιν τεμπλο ινυενισσε λεξτυμ ετ ηομινεμ ιν εο ιαξεντεμ ετ προποσιταμ ει μενσαμ μαριτιμις τερρενισθυε ετ υολατιλιυμ δαπιβυς πλεναμ, ετ οβστιπυισσετ ηις ηομο. 2.92. ιλλυμ υερο μοχ αδορασσε ρεγις ινγρεσσυμ ταμθυαμ μαχιμυμ ει σολαξιυμ πραεβιτυρυμ αξ προξιδεντεμ αδ ειυς γενυα εχτενσα δεχτρα ποποσξισσε λιβερτατεμ; ετ ιυβεντε ρεγε, υτ ξονφιδερετ ετ διξερετ, θυις εσσετ υελ ξυρ ιβιδεμ ηαβιταρετ υελ θυαε εσσετ ξαυσα ξιβορυμ ειυς, τυνξ ηομινεμ ξυμ γεμιτυ ετ λαξριμις λαμενταβιλιτερ συαμ ναρρασσε νεξεσσιτατεμ αιτ. 2.93. ινθυιτ εσσε θυιδεμ σε γραεξυμ, ετ δυμ περαγραρετ προυινξιαμ προπτερ υιταε ξαυσαμ διρεπτυμ σε συβιτο αβ αλιενιγενις ηομινιβυς ατθυε δεδυξτυμ αδ τεμπλυμ ετ ινξλυσυμ ιλλιξ, ετ α νυλλο ξονσπιξι σεδ ξυνξτα δαπιυμ πραεπαρατιονε σαγιναρι. 2.94. ετ πριμυμ θυιδεμ ηαεξ σιβι ινοπιναβιλια βενεφιξια προδιδισσε ετ δετυλισσε λαετιτιαμ δεινδε συσπιξιονεμ ποστεα στυπορεμ, αξ ποστρεμυμ ξονσυλεντεμ α μινιστρις αδ σε αξξεδεντιβυς αυδισσε λεγεμ ινεφφαβιλεμ ιυδαεορυμ, προ θυα νυτριεβατυρ, ετ ηοξ ιλλος φαξερε σινγυλις αννις θυοδαμ τεμπορε ξονστιτυτο. 2.95. ετ ξομπραεηενδερε θυιδεμ γραεξυμ περεγρινυμ ευμθυε ανναλι τεμπορε σαγιναρε ετ δεδυξτυμ αδ θυανδαμ σιλυαμ οξξιδερε θυιδεμ ευμ ηομινεμ ειυσθυε ξορπυς σαξριφιξαρε σεξυνδυμ συας σολλεμνιτατες ετ γυσταρε εχ ειυς υισξεριβυς ετ ιυσιυρανδυμ φαξερε ιν ιμμολατιονε γραεξι, υτ ινιμιξιτιας ξοντρα γραεξος ηαβερεντ, ετ τυνξ ιν θυανδαμ φουεαμ ρελιθυα ηομινις περευντις αβιξερε. 2.96. δεινδε ρεφερτ ευμ διχισσε παυξος ιαμ διες δεβιτα σιβιμετ συπερεσσε ατθυε ρογασσε, υτ ερυβεσξενς γραεξορυμ δεος ετ συπεραντες ιν συο σανγυινε ινσιδιας ιυδαεορυμ δε μαλις ευμ ξιρξυμασταντιβυς λιβεραρετ.
2.109. ταλια ναμθυε ετιαμ αδ αλταρε οφφερρε προηιβιτυμ εστ πραετερ ιλλα, θυαε αδ σαξριφιξια πραεπαραντυρ. θυιδ εργο απιονεμ εσσε διξιμυς νισι νιηιλ ηορυμ εχαμιναντεμ υερβα ινξρεδυλα προτυλισσε? σεδ τυρπε εστ; ηιστοριαε ενιμ υεραμ νοτιτιαμ σε προφερρε γραμματιξυς νον προμισιτ.
2.112. ρυρσυμθυε ταμθυαμ πιισσιμυς δεριδετ αδιξιενς φαβυλαε συαε μνασεαμ. αιτ ενιμ ιλλυμ ρετυλισσε, δυμ βελλυμ ιυδαει ξοντρα ιυδαεος ηαβερεντ λονγο θυοδαμ τεμπορε ιν αλιθυα ξιυιτατε ιυδαεορυμ, θυι δοριι νομιναντυρ, θυενδαμ εορυμ θυι ιν εα απολλινεμ ξολεβατ υενισσε αδ ιυδαεος, ξυιυς ηομινις νομεν διξιτ ζαβιδον δεινδε θυι εις προμισισσετ τραδιτυρυμ σε εις απολλινεμ δευμ δοριενσιυμ υεντυρυμθυε ιλλυμ αδ νοστρυμ τεμπλυμ, σι ομνες αβσξεδερεντ.' "

2.142. οὐδὲ εἷς ὗν θύει τοῖς θεοῖς. ἆρ' οὖν τυφλὸς ἦν τὸν νοῦν ̓Απίων ὑπὲρ Αἰγυπτίων ἡμῖν λοιδορεῖν συνθέμενος, ἐκείνων δὲ κατηγορῶν, οἵ γε μὴ μόνον χρῶνται τοῖς ὑπὸ τούτου λοιδορουμένοις ἔθεσιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ἐδίδαξαν περιτέμνεσθαι, καθάπερ εἴρηκεν ̔Ηρόδοτος;" '
2.215. Ζημία γὰρ ἐπὶ τοῖς πλείστοις τῶν παραβαινόντων ὁ θάνατος, ἂν μοιχεύσῃ τις, ἂν βιάσηται κόρην, ἂν ἄρρενι τολμήσῃ πεῖραν προσφέρειν, ἂν ὑπομείνῃ παθεῖν ὁ πειρασθείς. ἔστι δὲ' "2.216. καὶ ἐπὶ δούλοις ὁμοίως ὁ νόμος ἀπαραίτητος. ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ μέτρων ἤν τις κακουργήσῃ ἢ σταθμῶν ἢ περὶ πράσεως ἀδίκου καὶ δόλῳ γενομένης, κἂν ὑφέληταί τις ἀλλότριον, κἂν ὃ μὴ κατέθηκεν ἀνέληται, πάντων εἰσὶ κολάσεις οὐχ οἷαι παρ' ἑτέροις, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ" ". None
1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8.
2.14. However, if any one should ask Apion which of the Egyptians he thinks to be the most wise, and most pious of them all, he would certainly acknowledge the priests to be so;
2.14. Now, this man, grammarian as he was, could not certainly tell which was the poet Homer’s country, no more than he could which was the country of Pythagoras, who lived comparatively but a little while ago; yet does he thus easily determine the age of Moses, who preceded them such a vast number of years, as depending on his ancient men’s relation, which shows how notorious a liar he was.
2.17. Molo and some others determined it as every one pleased; but this Apion of ours, as deserving to be believed before them, hath determined it exactly to have been in the seventh olympiad, and the first year of that olympiad; the very same year in which he says that Carthage was built by the Phoenicians. The reason why he added this building of Carthage was, to be sure, in order, as he thought, to strengthen his assertion by so evident a character of chronology. But he was not aware that this character confutes his assertion;
2.17. The reason why the constitution of this legislation was ever better directed to the utility of all than other legislations were, is this, that Moses did not make religion a part of virtue, but he saw and he ordained other virtues to be parts of religion; I mean justice, and fortitude, and temperance, and a universal agreement of the members of the community with one another; 2.18. for if we may give credit to the Phoenician records as to the time of the first coming of their colony to Carthage, they relate that Hirom their king was above one hundred and fifty years earlier than the building of Carthage; concerning whom I have formerly produced testimonials out of those Phoenician records, 2.18. for no other people but we Jews have avoided all discourses about God that any way contradict one another, which yet are frequent among other nations; and this is true not only among ordinary persons, according as every one is affected, but some of the philosophers have been insolent enough to indulge such contradictions, while some of them have undertaken to use such words as entirely take away the nature of God, as others of them have taken away his providence over mankind.
2.77. we also offer perpetual sacrifices for them; nor do we only offer them every day at the common expenses of all the Jews, but although we offer no other such sacrifices out of our common expenses, no, not for our own children, yet do we this as a peculiar honor to the emperors, and to them alone, while we do the same to no other person whomsoever.
2.91. Apion becomes other men’s prophet upon this occasion, and says, that “Antiochus found in our temple a bed and a man lying upon it, with a small table before him, full of dainties, from the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the dry land; that this man was amazed at these dainties thus set before him; 2.92. that he immediately adored the king, upon his coming in, as hoping that he would afford him all possible assistance; that he fell down upon his knees, and stretched out to him his right hand, and begged to be released: and that when the king bade him sit down, and tell him who he was, and why he dwelt there, and what was the meaning of those various sorts of food that were set before him, the man made a lamentable complaint, and with sighs, and tears in his eyes, gave him this account of the distress he was in: 2.93. and said that he was a Greek, and that as he went over this province, in order to get his living, he was seized upon by foreigners, on a sudden, and brought to this temple, and shut up therein, and was seen by nobody, but was fattened by these curious provisions thus set before him: 2.94. and that truly at the first such unexpected advantages seemed to him matter of great joy; that, after a while they brought a suspicion upon him, and at length astonishment, what their meaning should be; that at last he inquired of the servants that came to him, and was by them informed that it was in order to the fulfilling a law of the Jews, which they must not tell him, that he was thus fed; and that they did the same at a set time every year: 2.95. that they used to catch a Greek foreigner, and fat him thus up every year, and then lead him to a certain wood, and kill him, and sacrifice with their accustomed solemnities, and taste of his entrails, and take an oath upon this sacrificing a Greek, that they would ever be at enmity with the Greeks; and that then they threw the remaining parts of the miserable wretch into a certain pit.” 2.96. Apion adds farther, that “the man said there were but a few days to come ere he was to be slain, and implored Antiochus that, out of the reverence he bore to the Grecian gods, he would disappoint the snares the Jews laid for his blood, and would deliver him from the miseries with which he was encompassed.”
2.109. nay, we are not allowed to offer such things at the altar, excepting what is prepared for the sacrifices.2.112. 10. Nay, this miracle of piety derides us farther, and adds the following pretended facts to his former fable; for he says that this man related how, “while the Jews were once in a long war with the Idumeans, there came a man out of one of the cities of the Idumeans, who there had worshipped Apollo. This man, whose name is said to have been Zabidus, came to the Jews, and promised that he would deliver Apollo, the god of Dora into their hands, and that he would come to our temple, if they would all come up with him,

2.142. Apion was therefore quite blinded in his mind when, for the sake of the Egyptians, he contrived to reproach us, and to accuse such others as not only make use of that conduct of life which he so much abuses, but have also taught other men to be circumcised, as says Herodotus;
2.215. 31. Now the greatest part of offenses with us are capital, as if any one be guilty of adultery; if any one force a virgin; if any one be so impudent as to attempt sodomy with a male; or if, upon another’s making an attempt upon him, he submits to be so used. There is also a law for slaves of the like nature that can never be avoided. 2.216. Moreover, if any one cheats another in measures or weights, or makes a knavish bargain and sale, in order to cheat another; if any one steals what belongs to another, and takes what he never deposited; all these have punishments allotted them, not such as are met with among other nations, but more severe ones. ' '. None
49. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.33-1.66, 10.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Augustus, Emperor • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Emperors and Egypt, Titus • Nero (Roman emperor) • Theodosius the Great (Roman emperor) • apotheosis and emperor worship

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 211; Gruen (2011) 108; Manolaraki (2012) 76, 191, 209; Volk and Williams (2006) 196

1.33. No guard is found, and in the ancient streets so Scarce seen the passer by. The fields in vain, Rugged with brambles and unploughed for years, Ask for the hand of man; for man is not. Nor savage Pyrrhus nor the Punic horde E'er caused such havoc: to no foe was given To strike thus deep; but civil strife alone Dealt the fell wound and left the death behind. Yet if the fates could find no other way For Nero coming, nor the gods with ease " "1.40. Gain thrones in heaven; and if the Thunderer Prevailed not till the giant's war was done, Complaint is silent. For this boon supreme Welcome, ye gods, be wickedness and crime; Thronged with our dead be dire Pharsalia's fields, Be Punic ghosts avenged by Roman blood; Add to these ills the toils of Mutina; Perusia's dearth; on Munda's final field The shock of battle joined; let Leucas' Cape Shatter the routed navies; servile hands " "1.50. Unsheath the sword on fiery Etna's slopes: Still Rome is gainer by the civil war. Thou, Caesar, art her prize. When thou shalt choose, Thy watch relieved, to seek divine abodes, All heaven rejoicing; and shalt hold a throne, Or else elect to govern Phoebus' car And light a subject world that shall not dread To owe her brightness to a different Sun; All shall concede thy right: do what thou wilt, Select thy Godhead, and the central clime " "1.59. Unsheath the sword on fiery Etna's slopes: Still Rome is gainer by the civil war. Thou, Caesar, art her prize. When thou shalt choose, Thy watch relieved, to seek divine abodes, All heaven rejoicing; and shalt hold a throne, Or else elect to govern Phoebus' car And light a subject world that shall not dread To owe her brightness to a different Sun; All shall concede thy right: do what thou wilt, Select thy Godhead, and the central clime " '1.60. Whence thou shalt rule the world with power divine. And yet the Northern or the Southern Pole We pray thee, choose not; but in rays direct Vouchsafe thy radiance to thy city Rome. Press thou on either side, the universe Should lose its equipoise: take thou the midst, And weight the scales, and let that part of heaven Where Caesar sits, be evermore serene And smile upon us with unclouded blue. Then may all men lay down their arms, and peace 1.66. Whence thou shalt rule the world with power divine. And yet the Northern or the Southern Pole We pray thee, choose not; but in rays direct Vouchsafe thy radiance to thy city Rome. Press thou on either side, the universe Should lose its equipoise: take thou the midst, And weight the scales, and let that part of heaven Where Caesar sits, be evermore serene And smile upon us with unclouded blue. Then may all men lay down their arms, and peace ' "
10.63. The Parthia fatal to our Roman arms. Now from the stream Pelusian of the Nile, Was come the boyish king, taming the rage of his effeminate people: pledge of peace; And Caesar safely trod Pellaean halls; When Cleopatra bribed her guard to break The harbour chains, and borne in little boat Within the Macedonian palace gates, Caesar unknowing, entered: Egypt's shame; Fury of Latium; to the bane of Rome"". None
50. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.5, 11.26, 13.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Nero, emperor • Roman emperor, x • Roman emperors, see human ‘saviours’, Roman emperors, ῥύομαι‎ • emperor cult, emperor worship • imperative

 Found in books: Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 65, 202; Cadwallader (2016) 36, 48; Jim (2022) 226; Malherbe et al (2014) 531; Novenson (2020) 298

8.5. καὶ γὰρ εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς, ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοί,
11.26. ὁσάκις γὰρ ἐὰν ἐσθίητε τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον καὶ τὸ ποτήριον πίνητε, τὸν θάνατον τοῦ κυρίου καταγγέλλετε, ἄχρι οὗ ἔλθῃ.
13.13. νυνὶ δὲ μένει πίστις, ἐλπίς, ἀγάπη· τὰ τρία ταῦτα, μείζων δὲ τούτων ἡ ἀγάπη.''. None
8.5. For though there are things that are called "gods,"whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many "gods" and many"lords;"' "
11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes." '
13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love.''. None
51. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9-1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Roman emperors, see human ‘saviours’, Roman emperors, ῥύομαι‎ • emperor cult, emperor worship • imperative

 Found in books: Jim (2022) 226; Malherbe et al (2014) 698; Novenson (2020) 229

1.9. αὐτοὶ γὰρ περὶ ἡμῶν ἀπαγγέλλουσιν ὁποίαν εἴσοδον ἔσχομεν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ πῶς ἐπεστρέψατε πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἀπὸ τῶν εἰδώλων δουλεύειν θεῷ ζῶντι καὶ ἀληθινῷ, 1.10. καὶ ἀναμένειν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν, ὃν ἤγειρεν ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, Ἰησοῦν τὸν ῥυόμενον ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῆς ὀργῆς τῆς ἐρχομένης.''. None
1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God, 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. ''. None
52. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Titus (emperor) • imperative

 Found in books: Gunderson (2022) 115; Malherbe et al (2014) 531

4.13. τὸν φελόνην, ὃν ἀπέλειπον ἐν Τρῳάδι παρὰ Κάρπῳ, ἐρχόμενος φέρε, καὶ τὰ βιβλία, μάλιστα τὰς μεμβράνας.''. None
4.13. Bring the cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus when you come, and the books, especially the parchments. ''. None
53. New Testament, Acts, 10.22, 11.28, 12.12, 12.19, 13.5, 13.7-13.12, 13.15, 15.39, 17.7, 18.2, 23.23, 25.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Claudius, emperor • Emperors, Charlemagne • Nero, emperor • Roman Empire, emperor and governor • Tiberius, emperor • Titus (emperor) • Trajan, emperor • Zeno, emperor

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 825; Cadwallader (2016) 248, 249, 250, 253, 257, 259, 260, 262, 263, 265; Dijkstra (2020) 17; Feldman (2006) 297, 299, 516, 576, 686, 749; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 228; Peppard (2011) 89; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 602, 603

10.22. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Κορνήλιος ἑκατοντάρχης, ἀνὴρ δίκαιος καὶ φοβούμενος τὸν θεὸν μαρτυρούμενός τε ὑπὸ ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἐχρηματίσθη ὑπὸ ἀγγέλου ἁγίου μεταπέμψασθαί σε εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀκοῦσαι ῥήματα παρὰ σοῦ.
11.28. ἀναστὰς δὲ εἷς ἐξ αὐτῶν ὀνόματι Ἄγαβος ἐσήμαινεν διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος λιμὸν μεγάλην μέλλειν ἔσεσθαι ἐφʼ ὅλην τὴν οἰκουμένην· ἥτις ἐγένετο ἐπὶ Κλαυδίου.
12.12. συνιδών τε ἦλθεν ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν τῆς Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς Ἰωάνου τοῦ ἐπικαλουμένου Μάρκου, οὗ ἦσαν ἱκανοὶ συνηθροισμένοι καὶ προσευχόμενοι.
12.19. Ἡρῴδης δὲ ἐπιζητήσας αὐτὸν καὶ μὴ εὑρὼν ἀνακρίνας τοὺς φύλακας ἐκέλευσεν ἀπαχθῆναι, καὶ κατελθὼν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας εἰς Καισαρίαν διέτριβεν.
13.5. καὶ γενόμενοι ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κατήγγελλον τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων· εἶχον δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννην ὑπηρέτην.
13.7. ὃς ἦν σὺν τῷ ἀνθυπάτῳ Σεργίῳ Παύλῳ, ἀνδρὶ συνετῷ. οὗτος προσκαλεσάμενος Βαρνάβαν καὶ Σαῦλον ἐπεζήτησεν ἀκοῦσαι τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ· 13.8. ἀνθίστατο δὲ αὐτοῖς Ἐλύμας ὁ μάγος, οὕτως γὰρ μεθερμηνεύεται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, ζητῶν διαστρέψαι τὸν ἀνθύπατον ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως. 13.9. Σαῦλος δέ, ὁ καὶ Παῦλος, πλησθεὶς πνεύματος ἁγίου ἀτενίσας εἰς αὐτὸν εἶπεν 13.10. Ὦ πλήρης παντὸς δόλου καὶ πάσης ῥᾳδιουργίας, υἱὲ διαβόλου, ἐχθρὲ πάσης δικαιοσύνης, οὐ παύσῃ διαστρέφων τὰς ὁδοὺς τοῦ κυρίου τὰς εὐθείας; καὶ νῦν ἰδοὺ χεὶρ Κυρίου ἐπὶ σέ, 13.11. καὶ ἔσῃ τυφλὸς μὴ βλέπων τὸν ἥλιον ἄχρι καιροῦ. παραχρῆμα δὲ ἔπεσεν ἐπʼ αὐτὸν ἀχλὺς καὶ σκότος, καὶ περιάγων ἐζήτει χειραγωγούς. 13.12. τότε ἰδὼν ὁ ἀνθύπατος τὸ γεγονὸς ἐπίστευσεν ἐκπληττόμενος ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ τοῦ κυρίου.
13.15. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τις ἔστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε.
15.39. ἐγένετο δὲ παροξυσμὸς ὥστε ἀποχωρισθῆναι αὐτοὺς ἀπʼ ἀλλήλων, τόν τε Βαρνάβαν παραλαβόντα τὸν Μάρκον ἐκπλεῦσαι εἰς Κύπρον.
17.7. οὓς ὑποδέδεκται Ἰάσων· καὶ οὗτοι πάντες ἀπέναντι τῶν δογμάτων Καίσαρος πράσσουσι, βασιλέα ἕτερον λέγοντες εἶναι Ἰησοῦν.
18.2. καὶ εὑρών τινα Ἰουδαῖον ὀνόματι Ἀκύλαν, Ποντικὸν τῷ γένει, προσφάτως ἐληλυθότα ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰταλίας καὶ Πρίσκιλλαν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ διὰ τὸ διατεταχέναι Κλαύδιον χωρίζεσθαι πάντας τοὺς Ἰουδαίους ἀπὸ τῆς Ῥώμης, προσῆλθεν αὐτοῖς,
23.23. Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενός τινας δύο τῶν ἑκατονταρχῶν εἶπεν Ἑτοιμάσατε στρατιώτας διακοσίους ὅπως πορευθῶσιν ἕως Καισαρίας, καὶ ἱππεῖς ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ δεξιολάβους διακοσίους, ἀπὸ τρίτης ὥρας τῆς νυκτός,
25.16. πρὸς οὓς ἀπεκρίθην ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ἔθος Ῥωμαίοις χαρίζεσθαί τινα ἄνθρωπον πρὶν ἢ ὁ κατηγορούμενος κατὰ πρόσωπον ἔχοι τοὺς κατηγόρους τόπον τε ἀπολογίας λάβοι περὶ τοῦ ἐγκλήματος.''. None
10.22. They said, "Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God, and well spoken of by all the nation of the Jews, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you say.
11.28. One of them named Agabus stood up, and indicated by the Spirit that there should be a great famine over all the world, which also happened in the days of Claudius.
12.12. Thinking about that, he came to the house of Mary, the mother of John whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together and were praying. ' "
12.19. When Herod had sought for him, and didn't find him, he examined the guards, and commanded that they should be put to death. He went down from Judea to Caesarea, and stayed there. " '
13.5. When they were at Salamis, they proclaimed the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. They had also John as their attendant.
13.7. who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of understanding. The same summoned Barnabas and Saul, and sought to hear the word of God. 13.8. But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn aside the proconsul from the faith. 13.9. But Saul, who is also called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, fastened his eyes on him, 13.10. and said, "Full of all deceit and all cunning, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord? 13.11. Now, behold, the hand of the Lord is on you, and you will be blind, not seeing the sun for a season!"Immediately there fell on him a mist and darkness. He went around seeking someone to lead him by the hand. 13.12. Then the proconsul, when he saw what was done, believed, being astonished at the teaching of the Lord.
13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak."
15.39. Then there arose a sharp contention, so that they separated from each other. Barnabas took Mark with him, and sailed away to Cyprus,
17.7. whom Jason has received. These all act contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus!"
18.2. He found a certain Jew named Aquila, a man of Pontus by race, who had recently come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome. He came to them,
23.23. He called to himself two of the centurions, and said, "Prepare two hundred soldiers to go as far as Caesarea, with seventy horsemen, and two hundred men armed with spears, at the third hour of the night."
25.16. To whom I answered that it is not the custom of the Romans to give up any man to destruction, before the accused have met the accusers face to face, and have had opportunity to make his defense concerning the matter laid against him. ''. None
54. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.3, 2.14, 13.5, 16.9, 16.11, 17.14, 19.16, 22.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Anastasius, emperor • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Constantine the Great (emperor), • Emperor Cult in Asia Minor • Hadrian (emperor) • Hadrian, emperor, edicts/letters • Justin (emperor) • Marcian, emperor • Nero (Roman emperor) • Roman emperor, x • Trajan, emperor • Valerian (emperor) • emperor • emperor cult, • emperor cult, emperor worship • moods, verbal, imperative

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 11, 16; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 55; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 63, 65, 216; Farag (2021) 170, 264; Feldman (2006) 589; Huttner (2013) 149, 152, 228; Klein and Wienand (2022) 250; Maier and Waldner (2022) 41, 59; Marek (2019) 537; Novenson (2020) 229

1.3. μακάριος ὁ ἀναγινώσκων καὶ οἱ ἀκούοντες τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας καὶ τηροῦντες τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ γεγραμμένα, ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς ἐγγύς.
2.14. ἀλλὰ ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ ὀλίγα, ὅτι ἔχεις ἐκεῖ κρατοῦντας τὴν διδαχὴνΒαλαάμ,ὃς ἐδίδασκεν τῷ Βαλὰκ βαλεῖν σκάνδαλον ἐνώπιοντῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, φαγεῖν εἰδωλόθυτα καὶ πορνεῦσαι·
13.5. καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷστόμα λαλοῦν μεγάλακαὶ βλασφημίας, καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαποιῆσαιμῆνας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ δύο.
16.9. καὶ ἐκαυματίσθησαν οἱ ἄνθρωποι καῦμα μέγα· καὶ ἐβλασφήμησαν τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἔχοντος τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τὰς πληγὰς ταύτας, καὶ οὐ μετενόησαν δοῦναι αὐτῷ δόξαν.
16.11. καὶ ἐβλασφήμησαντὸν θεὸν τοῦ οὐρανοῦἐκ τῶν πόνων αὐτῶν καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἑλκῶν αὐτῶν, καὶ οὐ μετενόησαν ἐκ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῶν.
17.14. οὗτοι μετὰ τοῦ ἀρνίου πολεμήσουσιν, καὶ τὸ ἀρνίον νικήσει αὐτούς, ὅτικύριος κυρίων ἐστὶν καὶ βασιλεὺς βασιλέων,καὶ οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ κλητοὶ καὶ ἐκλεκτοὶ καὶ πιστοί.
19.16. καὶ ἔχει ἐπὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν μηρὸν αὐτοῦ ὄνομα γεγραμμένον ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ ΚΥΡΙΩΝ.
22.2. ἐν μέσῳτῆς πλατείας αὐτῆς· καὶτοῦ ποταμοῦ ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ξύλον ζωῆςποιοῦν καρποὺς δώδεκα,κατὰ μῆναἕκαστον ἀποδιδοῦντὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ φύλλατοῦ ξύλουεἰς θεραπείαντῶν ἐθνῶν.' '. None
1.3. Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written in it, for the time is at hand.
2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality.
13.5. A mouth speaking great things and blasphemy was given to him. Authority to make war for forty-two months was given to him. ' "
16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory." "
16.11. and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores. They didn't repent of their works. " '
17.14. These will war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings. They also will overcome who are with him, called and chosen and faithful."
19.16. He has on his garment and on his thigh a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS."
22.2. in the midst of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.' '. None
55. New Testament, Philippians, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Tiberius, emperor • emperor cult, emperor worship

 Found in books: Nasrallah (2019) 120; Novenson (2020) 24

2.11. καὶ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσηταιὅτι ΚΥΡΙΟΣ ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ εἰς δόξανθεοῦπατρός.''. None
2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. ''. None
56. New Testament, Romans, 13.1-13.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Anastasius, emperor • Hadrian, emperor • Jovian, emperor • Julian, emperor • Marcian, emperor

 Found in books: Klein and Wienand (2022) 250; O, Daly (2020) 115

13.1. Πᾶσα ψυχὴ ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις ὑποτασσέσθω, οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν ἐξουσία εἰ μὴ ὑπὸ θεοῦ, αἱ δὲ οὖσαι ὑπὸ θεοῦ τεταγμέναι εἰσίν· 13.2. ὥστε ὁ ἀντιτασσόμενος τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ διαταγῇ ἀνθέστηκεν, οἱ δὲ ἀνθεστηκότες ἑαυτοῖς κρίμα λήμψονται. 13.3. οἱ γὰρ ἄρχοντες οὐκ εἰσὶν φόβος τῷ ἀγαθῷ ἔργῳ ἀλλὰ τῷ κακῷ. θέλεις δὲ μὴ φοβεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξουσίαν; 13.4. τὸ ἀγαθὸν ποίει, καὶ ἕξεις ἔπαινον ἐξ αὐτῆς· θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστιν σοὶ εἰς τὸ ἀγαθόν. ἐὰν δὲ τὸ κακὸν ποιῇς, φοβοῦ· οὐ γὰρ εἰκῇ τὴν μάχαιραν φορεῖ· θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστιν, ἔκδικος εἰς ὀργὴν τῷ τὸ κακὸν πράσσοντι. 13.5. διὸ ἀνάγκη ὑποτάσσεσθαι, οὐ μόνον διὰ τὴν ὀργὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν, 13.6. διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ φόρους τελεῖτε, λειτουργοὶ γὰρ θεοῦ εἰσὶν εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο προσκαρτεροῦντες. 13.7. ἀπόδοτε πᾶσι τὰς ὀφειλάς, τῷ τὸν φόρον τὸν φόρον, τῷ τὸ τέλος τὸ τέλος, τῷ τὸν φόβον τὸν φόβον, τῷ τὴν τιμὴν τὴν τιμήν.''. None
13.1. Let every soul be in subjection to the higher authorities, for there is no authority except from God, and those who exist are ordained by God. 13.2. Therefore he who resists the authority, withstands the ordice of God; and those who withstand will receive to themselves judgment. 13.3. For rulers are not a terror to the good work, but to the evil. Do you desire to have no fear of the authority? Do that which is good, and you will have praise from the same, ' "13.4. for he is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do that which is evil, be afraid, for he doesn't bear the sword in vain; for he is a minister of God, an avenger for wrath to him who does evil. " "13.5. Therefore you need to be in subjection, not only because of the wrath, but also for conscience' sake. " "13.6. For this reason you also pay taxes, for they are ministers of God's service, attending continually on this very thing. " '13.7. Give therefore to everyone what you owe: taxes to whom taxes are due; customs to whom customs; respect to whom respect; honor to whom honor. ''. None
57. New Testament, Luke, 2.1-2.3, 3.23-3.38, 19.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, emperor • Constantine I, emperor • Constantius II, emperor • Julian (emperor) • Julian, emperor • Julianus (emperor) • Tiberius (emperor) • emperors legitimation options for • emperors, Roman

 Found in books: Bloch (2022) 141; Esler (2000) 33; Klein and Wienand (2022) 19; Monnickendam (2020) 71; Peppard (2011) 135; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 602; Udoh (2006) 155

2.1. Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα παρὰ Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην· 2.2. ?̔αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου·̓ 2.3. καὶ ἐπορεύοντο πάντες ἀπογράφεσθαι, ἔκαστος εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν.
3.23. Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Ἰησοῦς ἀρχόμενος ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα, ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσήφ τοῦ Ἡλεί 3.24. τοῦ Ματθάτ τοῦ Λευεί τοῦ Μελχεί τοῦ Ἰανναί τοῦ Ἰωσήφ 3.25. τοῦ Ματταθίου τοῦ Ἀμώς τοῦ Ναούμ τοῦ Ἐσλεί τοῦ Ναγγαί 3.26. τοῦ Μαάθ τοῦ Ματταθίου τοῦ Σεμεείν τοῦ Ἰωσήχ τοῦ Ἰωδά 3.27. τοῦ Ἰωανάν τοῦ Ῥησά τοῦ Ζοροβάβελ τοῦ Σαλαθιήλ τοῦ Νηρεί 3.28. τοῦ Μελχεί τοῦ Ἀδδεί τοῦ Κωσάμ τοῦ Ἐλμαδάμ τοῦ Ἤρ 3.29. τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ τοῦ Ἰωρείμ τοῦ Μαθθάτ τοῦ Λευεί 3.30. τοῦ Συμεών τοῦ Ἰούδα τοῦ Ἰωσήφ τοῦ Ἰωνάμ τοῦ Ἐλιακείμ 3.31. τοῦ Μελεά τοῦ Μεννά τοῦ Ματταθά τοῦ Ναθάμ τοῦ Δαυείδ 3.32. τοῦ Ἰεσσαί τοῦ Ἰωβήλ τοῦ Βοός τοῦ Σαλά τοῦ Ναασσών 3.33. τοῦ Ἀδμείν τοῦ Ἀρνεί τοῦ Ἑσρών τοῦ Φαρές τοῦ Ἰούδα 3.34. τοῦ Ἰακώβ τοῦ Ἰσαάκ τοῦ Ἀβραάμ τοῦ Θαρά τοῦ Ναχώρ 3.35. τοῦ Σερούχ τοῦ Ῥαγαύ τοῦ Φάλεκ τοῦ Ἔβερ τοῦ Σαλά 3.36. τοῦ Καινάμ τοῦ Ἀρφαξάδ τοῦ Σήμ τοῦ Νῶε τοῦ Λάμεχ 3.37. τοῦ Μαθουσαλά τοῦ Ἑνώχ τοῦ Ἰάρετ τοῦ Μαλελεήλ τοῦ Καινάμ 3.38. τοῦ Ἐνώς τοῦ Σήθ τοῦ Ἀδάμ τοῦ θεοῦ.
19.44. καὶ ἐδαφιοῦσίν σε καὶ τὰ τέκνα σου ἐν σοί, καὶ οὐκ ἀφήσουσιν λίθον ἐπὶ λίθον ἐν σοί, ἀνθʼ ὧν οὐκ ἔγνως τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς σου.''. None
2.1. Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 2.2. This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. 2.3. All went to enroll themselves, everyone to his own city.
3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli, 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai, 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah, 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er, 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim, 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon, 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 3.37. the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalaleel, the son of Cai, 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.
19.44. and will dash you and your children within you to the ground. They will not leave in you one stone on another, because you didn\'t know the time of your visitation."''. None
58. New Testament, Mark, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Decius (Emperor) • emperors as pater patriae (father) of Empire

 Found in books: Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 368; Peppard (2011) 114

13.11. καὶ ὅταν ἄγωσιν ὑμᾶς παραδιδόντες, μὴ προμεριμνᾶτε τί λαλήσητε, ἀλλʼ ὃ ἐὰν δοθῇ ὑμῖν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ τοῦτο λαλεῖτε, οὐ γάρ ἐστε ὑμεῖς οἱ λαλοῦντες ἀλλὰ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον.''. None
13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. "". None
59. New Testament, Matthew, 2.12-2.13, 2.22, 6.9-6.10, 10.3, 27.11-27.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Decius (Emperor) • Emperor, Roman, in the Babylonian Talmud • Emperors • Emperors, Roman • Emperors, Vespasian • Roman emperor • Tiberias, emperor • Tiberius (emperor) • imperatives, as optatives • moods, verbal, imperative

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 91; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 55; Dijkstra (2020) 43, 89; James (2021) 174; Kalmin (2014) 73; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 368; Ruzer (2020) 92; Udoh (2006) 155

2.12. καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατʼ ὄναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς Ἡρῴδην διʼ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν. 2.13. Ἀναχωρησάντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἰδοὺ ἄγγελος Κυρίου φαίνεται κατʼ ὄναρ τῷ Ἰωσὴφ λέγων Ἐγερθεὶς παράλαβε τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ φεῦγε εἰς Αἴγυπτον, καὶ ἴσθι ἐκεῖ ἕως ἂν εἴπω σοι· μέλλει γὰρ Ἡρῴδης ζητεῖν τὸ παιδίον τοῦ ἀπολέσαι αὐτό.
2.22. ἀκούσας δὲ ὅτι Ἀρχέλαος βασιλεύει τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἀντὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ Ἡρῴδου ἐφοβήθη ἐκεῖ ἀπελθεῖν· χρηματισθεὶς δὲ κατʼ ὄναρ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὰ μέρη τῆς Γαλιλαίας,
6.9. Οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου, 6.10. ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου, γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
10.3. Φίλιππος καὶ Βαρθολομαῖος, Θωμᾶς καὶ Μαθθαῖος ὁ τελώνης, Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖος,
27.11. Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοὺς ἐστάθη ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ ἡγεμόνος· καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτὸν ὁ ἡγεμὼν λέγων Σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη Σὺ λέγεις. 27.12. καὶ ἐν τῷ κατηγορεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ πρεσβυτέρων οὐδὲν ἀπεκρίνατο. 27.13. τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πειλᾶτος Οὐκ ἀκούεις πόσα σου καταμαρτυροῦσιν; 27.14. καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ πρὸς οὐδὲ ἓν ῥῆμα, ὥστε θαυμάζειν τὸν ἡγεμόνα λίαν. 27.15. Κατὰ δὲ ἑορτὴν εἰώθει ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἀπολύειν ἕνα τῷ ὄχλῳ δέσμιον ὃν ἤθελον. 27.16. εἶχον δὲ τότε δέσμιον ἐπίσημον λεγόμενον Βαραββᾶν. 27.17. συνηγμένων οὖν αὐτῶν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πειλᾶτος Τίνα θέλετε ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν, τὸν Βαραββᾶν ἢ Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν; 27.18. ᾔδει γὰρ ὅτι διὰ φθόνον παρέδωκαν αὐτόν. 27.19. Καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ λέγουσα Μηδὲν σοὶ καὶ τῷ δικαίῳ ἐκείνῳ, πολλὰ γὰρ ἔπαθον σήμερον κατʼ ὄναρ διʼ αὐτόν. 27.20. Οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεισαν τοὺς ὄχλους ἵνα αἰτήσωνται τὸν Βαραββᾶν τὸν δὲ Ἰησοῦν ἀπολέσωσιν. 27.21. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἡγεμὼν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τίνα θέλετε ἀπὸ τῶν δύο ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Τὸν Βαραββᾶν. 27.22. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πειλᾶτος Τί οὖν ποιήσω Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν; λέγουσιν πάντες Σταυρωθήτω. 27.23. ὁ δὲ ἔφη Τί γὰρ κακὸν ἐποίησεν; οἱ δὲ περισσῶς ἔκραζον λέγοντες Σταυρωθήτω. 27.24. ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Πειλᾶτος ὅτι οὐδὲν ὠφελεῖ ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον θόρυβος γίνεται λαβὼν ὕδωρ ἀπενίψατο τὰς χεῖρας κατέναντι τοῦ ὄχλου λέγων Ἀθῷός εἰμι ἀπὸ τοῦ αἵματος τούτου· ὑμεῖς ὄψεσθε. 27.25. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πᾶς ὁ λαὸς εἶπεν Τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ. ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν. 27.26. τότε ἀπέλυσεν αὐτοῖς τὸν Βαραββᾶν, τὸν δὲ Ἰησοῦν φραγελλώσας παρέδωκεν ἵνα σταυρωθῇ.''. None
2.12. Being warned in a dream that they shouldn't return to Herod, they went back to their own country another way. " '2.13. Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him."
2.22. But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Being warned in a dream, he withdrew into the region of Galilee, ' "
6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. " '6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth.
10.3. Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus;
27.11. Now Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, "Are you the King of the Jews?"Jesus said to him, "So you say." 27.12. When he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. 27.13. Then Pilate said to him, "Don\'t you hear how many things they testify against you?" 27.14. He gave him no answer, not even one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. 27.15. Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release to the multitude one prisoner, whom they desired. 27.16. They had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. 27.17. When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ?" 27.18. For he knew that because of envy they had delivered him up. 27.19. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him." 27.20. Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the multitudes to ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. 27.21. But the governor answered them, "Which of the two do you want me to release to you?"They said, "Barabbas!" 27.22. Pilate said to them, "What then shall I do to Jesus, who is called Christ?"They all said to him, "Let him be crucified!" 27.23. But the governor said, "Why? What evil has he done?"But they cried out exceedingly, saying, "Let him be crucified!" 27.24. So when Pilate saw that nothing was being gained, but rather that a disturbance was starting, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it." 27.25. All the people answered, "May his blood be on us, and on our children!" 27.26. Then he released to them Barabbas, but Jesus he flogged and delivered to be crucified. '". None
60. Plutarch, Mark Antony, 75.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • divinization of emperors • emperors divinized • gods, emperors divinized • pontifex maximus, emperor as • religions, Roman, emperors divinized

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 250; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 255

75.4. εἶναι δὲ τὴν ὁρμὴν ὁμοῦ τι διὰ τῆς πόλεως μέσης ἐπὶ τὴν πύλην ἔξω τὴν τετραμμένην πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους, καὶ ταύτῃ τὸν θόρυβον ἐκπεσεῖν πλεῖστον γενόμενον. ἐδόκει δὲ τοῖς ἀναλογιζομένοις τὸ σημεῖον ἀπολείπειν ὁ θεὸς Ἀντώνιον, ᾧ μάλιστα συνεξομοιῶν καὶ συνοικειῶν ἑαυτὸν διετέλεσεν.''. None
75.4. ''. None
61. Plutarch, Numa Pompilius, 8.7-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Domitian, emperor, enemy to Apollonius of Tyana • divinization of emperors • emperors divinized • gods, emperors divinized • religions, Roman, emperors divinized

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 250; Manolaraki (2012) 304

8.7. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ περὶ τῶν ἀφιδρυμάτων νομοθετήματα παντάπασιν ἀδελφὰ τῶν Πυθαγόρου δογμάτων, οὔτε γὰρ ἐκεῖνος αἰσθητὸν ἢ παθητόν, ἀόρατον δὲ καὶ ἄκτιστον ἄκτιστον Sintenis 1 with AC, followed by Bekker: ἀκήρατον ( unmixed ). καὶ νοητὸν ὑπελάμβανεν εἶναι τὸ πρῶτον, οὗτός τε διεκώλυσεν ἀνθρωποειδῆ καὶ ζῳόμορφον εἰκόνα θεοῦ Ῥωμαίους νομίζειν. οὐδʼ ἦν παρʼ αὑτοῖς οὔτε γραπτὸν οὔτε πλαστὸν εἶδος θεοῦ πρότερον, 8.8. ἀλλʼ ἐν ἑκατὸν ἑβδομήκοντα τοῖς πρώτοις ἔτεσι ναοὺς μὲν οἰκοδομού μεν οι καὶ καλιάδας ἱερὰς ἱστῶντες, ἄγαλμα δὲ οὐδὲν ἔμμορφον ποιούμενοι διετέλουν, ὡς οὔτε ὅσιον ἀφομοιοῦν τὰ βελτίονα τοῖς χείροσιν οὔτε ἐφάπτεσθαι θεοῦ δυνατὸν ἄλλως ἢ νοήσει, κομιδῆ δὲ καὶ τὰ τῶν θυσιῶν ἔχεται τῆς Πυθαγορικῆς ἁγιστείας· ἀναίμακτοι γάρ ἦσαν αἵ γε πολλαί, διʼ ἀλφίτου καὶ σπονδῆς καὶ τῶν εὐτελεστάτων πεποιημέναι.''. None
8.7. Furthermore, his ordices concerning images are altogether in harmony with the doctrines of Pythagoras. For that philosopher maintained that the first principle of being was beyond sense or feeling, was invisible and uncreated, and discernible only by the mind. And in like manner Numa forbade the Romans to revere an image of God which had the form of man or beast. Nor was there among them in this earlier time any painted or graven likeness of Deity,
8.7. Furthermore, his ordices concerning images are altogether in harmony with the doctrines of Pythagoras. For that philosopher maintained that the first principle of being was beyond sense or feeling, was invisible and uncreated, and discernible only by the mind. And in like manner Numa forbade the Romans to revere an image of God which had the form of man or beast. Nor was there among them in this earlier time any painted or graven likeness of Deity, 8.8. but while for the first hundred and seventy years they were continually building temples and establishing sacred shrines, they made no statues in bodily form for them, convinced that it was impious to liken higher things to lower, and that it was impossible to apprehend Deity except by the intellect. Their sacrifices, too, were altogether appropriate to the Pythagorean worship; for most of them involved no bloodshed, but were made with flour, drink-offerings, and the least costly gifts.''. None
62. Suetonius, Caligula, 6.1, 22.2, 55.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antoninus Pius (Roman emperor) • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Augustus, Emperor • Augustus, Emperor, 163, 164 • Caligula (Roman emperor) • Caligula, Emperor • Caligula, Emperor (Gaius Caesar) • Claudius (Roman emperor) • Domitian, Emperor • Elagabulus (Roman emperor) • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Emperors and Egypt, Trajan • Emperors, Caligula • Emperors, Nero • Galba, Emperor • Marcus Aurelius (Roman emperor) • Nero (Emperor) • Nero (Roman emperor) • Nero, Emperor • Nero, emperor, and Seneca • Roman emperor, x • Tiberius (Roman emperor) • Tiberius, Emperor • Tiberius, Emperor, accession • Titus (emperor) • Titus, Emperor • dress, emperor’s • emperor cult • emperor(s), princeps • emperor,, condemned • emperor,, makes relatio • imperial ideology, the emperor as a provider of hope • prayer; for emperor and empire • senate, in Latin and Greek,, and emperor condemns

 Found in books: Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 59; Edmondson (2008) 22, 34, 36, 37, 45; Galinsky (2016) 163; Goldman (2013) 90; Gunderson (2022) 135; Jenkyns (2013) 159, 243; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 270, 271; Manolaraki (2012) 208, 245; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 227, 242; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 238; Sider (2001) 54; Talbert (1984) 236, 357

6.1. At Rome when the community, in grief and consternation at the first report of his illness, was awaiting further news, and suddenly after nightfall a report at last spread abroad, on doubtful authority, that he had recovered, a general rush was made from every side to the Capitol with torches and victims, and the temple gates were all but torn off, that nothing might hinder them in their eagerness to pay their vows. Tiberius was roused from sleep by the cries of the rejoicing throng, who all united in singing:â\x80\x94 "Safe is Rome, safe too our country, for Germanicus is safe."
22.2. But on being reminded that he had risen above the elevation both of princes and kings, he began from that time on to lay claim to divine majesty; for after giving orders that such statues of the gods as were especially famous for their sanctity or their artistic merit, including that of Jupiter of Olympia, should be brought from Greece, in order to remove their heads and put his own in their place, he built out a part of the Palace as far as the Forum, and making the temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, he often took his place between the divine brethren, and exhibited himself there to be worshipped by those who presented themselves; and some hailed him as Jupiter Latiaris.
55.2. He gave some Thracian gladiators command of his German body-guard. He reduced the amount of armour of the murmillones. When one Columbus had won a victory, but had suffered from a slight wound, he had the place rubbed with a poison which he henceforth called "Columbinum"; at least that name was found included in his list of poisons. He was so passionately devoted to the green faction that he constantly dined and spent the night in their stable, and in one of his revels with them he gave the driver Eutychus two million sesterces in gifts.' '. None
63. Suetonius, Claudius, 25.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Augustus, Emperor • Basilius emperor • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Claudius, emperor (A.D. . • Emperor • Galba, emperor • Nero, emperor (A.D • Tiberius, emperor • consilium (of the emperor) • emperor,, oversees

 Found in books: Bowersock (1997) 119; Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 279; Edmondson (2008) 108; Feldman (2006) 296; Gruen (2011) 156; Huebner and Laes (2019) 14; Nasrallah (2019) 188; Talbert (1984) 74, 441

25.4. \xa0Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he expelled them from Rome. He allowed the envoys of the Germans to sit in the orchestra, led by their naïve self-confidence; for when they had been taken to the seats occupied by the common people and saw the Parthian and Armenian envoys sitting with the senate, they moved of their own accord to the same part of the theatre, protesting that their merits and rank were no whit inferior.' '. None
64. Suetonius, Domitianus, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antoninus Pius, emperor • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Claudius (Emperor) • Claudius (emperor) • Domitian (Emperor) • Domitian (Roman emperor) • Domitian, emperor • Emperor • Hadrian, emperor • Nero (Emperor) • Nero (Emperor), as citharoedus • Nero (Roman emperor) • Tiberius (Emperor) • Trajan (Emperor) • Vespasian, emperor

 Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 275; Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 542; Csapo (2022) 100, 107; Edmondson (2008) 109; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 355; Marek (2019) 342

4.4. \xa0He also established a quinquennial contest in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus of a threefold character, comprising music, riding, and gymnastics, and with considerably more prizes than are awarded nowadays. For there were competitions in prose declamation both in Greek and in Latin; and in addition to those of the lyre-players, between choruses of such players and in the lyre alone, without singing; while in the stadium there were races even between maidens. He presided at the competitions in half-boots, clad in a purple toga in the Greek fashion, and wearing upon his head a golden crown with figures of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, while by his side sat the priest of Jupiter and the college of the Flaviales, similarly dressed, except that their crowns bore his image as well. He celebrated the Quinquatria too every year in honour of Minerva at his Alban villa, and established for her a college of priests, from which men were chosen by lot to act as officers and give splendid shows of wild beasts and stage plays, besides holding contests in oratory and poetry.' '. None
65. Suetonius, Nero, 20.3, 21.3, 32.3, 34.4, 47.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Caligula (Roman emperor) • Domitian (Roman emperor) • Elagabulus (Roman emperor) • Emperors and Egypt, Nero • Emperors, Antoninus Diadumenianusnan • Emperors, Caligula • Emperors, Claudius • Emperors, Nero • Julio-Claudian Emperors • Marcus Aurelius (Emperor) • Nero (Emperor) • Nero (Emperor), and pantomime • Nero (Emperor), performing Greek tragedy • Nero (Roman emperor) • Nero (emperor) • Nero (emperor), murders committed by • Nero, Emperor • Nero, Emperor, • Nero, emperor, and Seneca • Nero, emperor, interested in Aegyptiaca • Nero, emperor, searches for the Nile sources • Tiberius (Emperor) • Tiberius (Roman emperor) • dress, emperor’s • emperor(s), princeps • emperor,, concern to maintain attendance

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 256; Belayche and Massa (2021) 64; Bernabe et al (2013) 550; Csapo (2022) 3, 109, 165; Edmondson (2008) 32, 36, 45; Goldman (2013) 39, 51, 104; Manolaraki (2012) 41; Mcclellan (2019) 6; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 197, 198, 204, 209, 214; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 300; Talbert (1984) 151

20.3. He was greatly taken too with the rhythmic applause of some Alexandrians, who had flocked to Naples from a fleet that had lately arrived, and summoned more men from Alexandria. Not content with that, he selected some young men of the order of knights and more than five thousand sturdy young commoners, to be divided into groups and learn the Alexandrian styles of applause (they called them "the bees," "the roof-tiles," and "the bricks"), and to ply them vigorously whenever he sang. These men were noticeable for their thick hair and fine apparel; their left hands were bare and without rings, and the leaders were paid four hundred thousand sesterces each.
21.3. He also put on the mask and sang tragedies representing gods and heroes and even heroines and goddesses, having the masks fashioned in the likeness of his own features or those of the women of whom he chanced to be enamoured. Among other themes he sang "Canace in Labor," "Orestes the Matricide," "The Blinding of Oedipus" and the "Frenzy of Hercules." At the last named performance they say that a young recruit, seeing the emperor in mean attire and bound with chains, as the subject required, rushed forward to lend him aid.
32.3. He demanded the return of the rewards which he had given in recognition of the prizes conferred on him by any city in competition. Having forbidden the use of amethystine or Tyrian purple dyes, he secretly sent a man to sell a\xa0few ounces on a market day and then closed the shops of all the dealers. It is even said that when he saw a matron in the audience at one of his recitals clad in the forbidden colour he pointed her out to his agents, who dragged her out and stripped her on the spot, not only of her garment, but also of her property.' "
34.4. Trustworthy authorities add still more gruesome details: that he hurried off to view the corpse, handled her limbs, criticising some and commending others, and that becoming thirsty meanwhile, he took a drink. Yet he could not either then or ever afterwards endure the stings of conscience, though soldiers, senate and people tried to hearten him with their congratulations; for he often owned that he was hounded by his mother's ghost and by the whips and blazing torches of the Furies. He even had rites performed by the Magi, in the effort to summon her shade and entreat it for forgiveness. Moreover, in his journey through Greece he did not venture to take part in the Eleusinian mysteries, since at the beginning the godless and wicked are warned by the herald's proclamation to go hence." '
47.2. But when some gave evasive answers and some openly refused, one even cried: "Is it so dreadful a thing then to die?" Whereupon he turned over various plans in his mind, whether to go as a suppliant to the Parthians or Galba, or to appear to the people on the rostra, dressed in black, and beg as pathetically as he could for pardon for his past offences; and if he could not soften their hearts, to entreat them at least to allow him the prefecture of Egypt. Afterwards a speech composed for this purpose was found in his writing desk; but it is thought that he did not dare to deliver it for fear of being torn to pieces before he could reach the Forum.' '. None
66. Suetonius, Tiberius, 32.2, 37.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, Emperor • Augustus, Emperor, 100, 104, 123-4 • Augustus, Emperor, 163, 164 • Augustus, emperor • Caligula, Emperor • Caligula, emperor • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Nero, Emperor • Nero, emperor • Septimius Severus, emperor • Tiberius (emperor) • Tiberius emperor • Tiberius, Emperor • Tiberius, Emperor, accession • Tiberius, Emperor, astrological interests • Tiberius, Emperor, death • Tiberius, emperor • Tiberius, emperor, limits honours • Traian, emperor • Vitellius (emperor),, speaks • Vitellius, emperor • elites, Romans govern through, emperor, divinity of • emperor(s), princeps • emperor,, honors • emperor,, jurisdiction • emperor,, record of speeches by • emperor,, relationship • emperor,, uses acta senatus • imperial ideology, the emperor as a provider of hope • senate, and emperor

 Found in books: Ando (2013) 369; Cadwallader (2016) 253; Clark (2007) 269, 270; Davies (2004) 182; Feldman (2006) 512; Galinsky (2016) 104, 105, 164; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 261, 262; Marek (2019) 326, 329; Nasrallah (2019) 188; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 234, 247; Rupke (2016) 43; Rüpke (2011) 163; Salvesen et al (2020) 281, 284; Talbert (1984) 265, 323, 324, 479; Udoh (2006) 209

32.2. \xa0He showed equal modesty towards persons of lower rank and in matters of less moment. When he had summoned the magistrates of Rhodes, because they had written him letters on public business without the concluding formula, he uttered not a word of censure, but merely dismissed them with orders to supply the omission. The grammarian Diogenes, who used to lecture every Sabbath at Rhodes, would not admit Tiberius when he came to hear him on a different day, but sent a message by a common slave of his, putting him off to the seventh day. When this man waited before the Emperor's door at Rome to pay his respects, Tiberius took no further revenge than to bid him return seven years later. To the governors who recommended burdensome taxes for his provinces, he wrote in answer that it was the part of a good shepherd to shear his flock, not skin it." '
37.4. \xa0He undertook no campaign after his accession, but quelled outbreaks of the enemy through his generals; and even this he did only reluctantly and of necessity. Such kings as were disaffected and objects of his suspicion he held in check rather by threats and remonstrances than by force; some he lured to Rome by flattering promises and detained there, such as Marobodus the German, Rhascuporis the Thracian, and Archelaus of Cappadocia, whose realm he also reduced to the form of a province.' ". None
67. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Emperors and Egypt, Trajan • Emperors and Egypt, Vespasian • Nero, emperor, and Seneca • Titus (emperor) • Vespasian, Emperor • Vespasian, confirmed as emperor by Judean religion and texts

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105; Jenkyns (2013) 39, 245; Kaster(2005) 199; Manolaraki (2012) 122, 245

4.5. There had spread over all the Orient an old and established belief, that it was fated at that time for men coming from Judaea to rule the world. This prediction, referring to the emperor of Rome, as afterwards appeared from the event, the people of Judaea took to themselves; accordingly they revolted and after killing their governor, they routed the consular ruler of Syria as well, when he came to the rescue, and took one of his eagles. Since to put down this rebellion required a considerable army with a leader of no little enterprise, yet one to whom so great power could be entrusted without risk, Vespasian was chosen for the task, both as a man of tried energy and as one in no wise to be feared because of the obscurity of his family and name.' '. None
68. Tacitus, Annals, 1.3, 1.7-1.15, 1.8.5-1.8.6, 1.10.6, 1.11.1, 1.33-1.34, 1.33.2, 1.39, 1.43.3, 1.46, 1.52, 1.62.2, 1.73-1.77, 1.73.1, 1.73.4, 1.76.4, 1.79-1.80, 2.22.1, 2.28-2.29, 2.30.1-2.30.2, 2.32-2.33, 2.32.2-2.32.3, 2.41-2.43, 2.41.1, 2.47, 2.50.2, 2.59, 2.71, 2.82-2.83, 2.83.1, 2.85, 3.2, 3.2.3, 3.3.1, 3.5.2, 3.6, 3.18.2, 3.33-3.34, 3.55, 3.57.2, 3.58, 3.58.1, 3.60, 3.61.2, 3.63.4, 3.64.3-3.64.4, 3.65-3.66, 3.66.1, 3.71.2, 4.1.2, 4.6, 4.9.2, 4.13-4.14, 4.15.3, 4.16, 4.17.1, 4.26, 4.37-4.38, 4.37.1-4.37.3, 4.43, 4.52.2, 4.53.1, 4.56.1, 4.57.1, 4.58.2, 4.70.1-4.70.4, 4.74.2, 5.2.1, 6.20.2, 6.21, 6.25.3, 6.28, 6.28.1, 6.41, 6.46.3, 11.11, 11.11.1, 11.11.3, 11.21, 11.23-11.24, 12.5-12.6, 12.8.1-12.8.2, 12.25, 12.26.2, 12.27.1, 12.43, 12.49, 12.53, 12.64.1, 12.66, 13.2, 13.2.3, 13.3.2, 13.4.1, 13.5, 13.10.1, 13.12.1, 13.24.2, 13.41.4-13.41.5, 13.50, 13.57.3, 13.58, 14.1.1, 14.3, 14.3.3, 14.4.1, 14.4.3, 14.6.1, 14.9-14.12, 14.9.3, 14.10.1-14.10.3, 14.12.1-14.12.2, 14.14, 14.15.1, 14.15.5, 14.17-14.18, 14.20, 14.22.1, 14.49, 14.49.1, 14.51.2, 14.57, 14.61, 14.63-14.64, 14.64.3, 15.22-15.23, 15.22.2, 15.23.2, 15.23.4, 15.34, 15.36-15.37, 15.36.1, 15.39, 15.42, 15.44.2-15.44.5, 15.47.2, 15.51, 15.53, 15.71.1, 15.74, 15.74.2, 16.6.1-16.6.2, 16.7.1, 16.9-16.11, 16.12.2, 16.13, 16.13.1-16.13.2, 16.16.2, 16.21-16.35, 16.21.1-16.21.2, 16.22.2-16.22.3, 16.31.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus (Roman emperor) • Augustus (emperor) • Augustus, Emperor • Augustus, Emperor, 163, 164 • Augustus, Emperor, 55-6 • Augustus, emperor • Caligula (Roman emperor) • Caligula, Emperor • Caligula, Emperor (Gaius Caesar) • Caligula, emperor • Caracalla, emperor • Claudius (Emperor) • Claudius (emperor) • Claudius, Emperor • Claudius, Emperor, • Claudius, Roman Emperor, expulsion of Jews from Rome by • Claudius, emperor • Claudius, emperor (A.D. . • Cleander, favorite of the emperor Commodus • Commodus, emperor • Domitian (Roman emperor) • Domitian, Emperor • Domitian, emperor • Domitian, emperor, controls Celer’s Egyptian experience • Domitian, emperor, ‘beloved of Isis’ • Emperor • Emperors and Egypt, Caligula (Gaius) • Emperors and Egypt, Caracalla • Emperors and Egypt, Claudius • Emperors and Egypt, Hadrian • Emperors and Egypt, Marcus Aurelius • Emperors and Egypt, Nero • Emperors and Egypt, Octavian-Augustus • Emperors and Egypt, Septimius Severus • Emperors and Egypt, Tiberius • Emperors and Egypt, Titus • Emperors and Egypt, Trajan • Emperors, Nero • Gaius (emperor), and Agrippa I • Galba, Emperor • Gallienus, emperor • Hadrian (Emperor) • Hadrian, emperor • Julio-Claudian Emperors • Jupiter, Imperator • Marcus Aurelius (Emperor) • Marcus Aurelius, Emperor • Nero (Emperor) • Nero (Emperor), (un)observed life • Nero (Emperor), and pantomime • Nero (Emperor), as citharoedus • Nero (Roman emperor) • Nero (emperor) • Nero (emperor), adoption of • Nero (emperor), marriages of • Nero (emperor), murders committed by • Nero (emperor), performance and • Nero (emperor), prodigies and • Nero (emperor), psychology of • Nero (emperor), purification performed by • Nero (emperor), relationship with Agrippina the Younger • Nero (emperor), statues of • Nero (emperor), temple of • Nero (emperor), worshipful treatment of • Nero, Emperor • Nero, emperor • Nero, emperor (A.D • Nero, emperor, and Seneca • Nero, emperor, failed student • Nero, emperor, interested in Aegyptiaca • Nero, emperor, searches for the Nile sources • Nerva, Emperor • Otho, Emperor • Otho, Roman emperor • Petronius Maximus (emperor) • Philippus Arabs, emperor • Pontifex Maximus, emperor as • Priest/Priesthood, in emperor cult • Senate, and security of emperor • Senate, attitude to emperor cult of • Senate, flattery of emperor by • Septimius Severus (emperor),, deifies Commodus • Septimius Severus (emperor),, honors • Septimius Severus (emperor),, routine • Septimius Severus (emperor),, senatorial embassy to • Severus Alexander, emperor • Tiberius (Emperor) • Tiberius (Roman emperor) • Tiberius (emperor) • Tiberius (emperor) accession • Tiberius (emperor), • Tiberius emperor • Tiberius, Emperor • Tiberius, Emperor, accession • Tiberius, Emperor, astrological interests • Tiberius, emperor • Tiberius, emperor, and fatum • Tiberius, emperor, and informers • Tiberius, emperor, and signs • Tiberius, emperor, astrologer • Tiberius, emperor, limits honours • Tiberius, emperor, signs recorded by Suetonius • Tiberius, emperor, undermines religion • Titus, Emperor • Trajan (Roman emperor) • Trajan, Emperor • Vespasian, Emperor • Vespasian, emperor • Vitellius (emperor),, career • Vitellius (emperor),, honors • Vitellius (emperor),, measure • Vitellius (emperor),, speaks • Vitellius, Emperor • Vitellius, emperor • acta of emperors • astrologers, emperors practice of • auctoritas (of the emperor) • community, and emperors • consilium (of the emperor) • cult of gods, goddesses, and heroes, of the emperor • divi and divae, deified emperors and members of imperial family • divinization of emperors • dress, emperor’s • edicts, of emperors • elites, Romans govern through, emperor, divinity of • elites, and emperors • emperor • emperor cult • emperor cult, • emperor cult,altars, • emperor cult,priests, • emperor(s), princeps • emperor,, accession • emperor,, and offices bestows consulship • emperor,, as privatus • emperor,, at elections • emperor,, attends and participates • emperor,, communicates • emperor,, concern to maintain attendance • emperor,, diplomacy • emperor,, honors • emperor,, items referred to • emperor,, jurisdiction • emperor,, oath to • emperor,, opposed • emperor,, oversees • emperor,, position • emperor,, provinces • emperor,, record of speeches by • emperor,, recruits • emperor,, rejects proposals • emperor,, relationship • emperor,, right to speak • emperor,, role in elections • emperor,, senatorial embassies to • emperor,, supports candidates • emperor,, uses veto • emperors • emperors divinized • emperors legitimation options for • emperors, Roman • fatum, and emperors • gods, emperors divinized • imperial ideology, the emperor as a provider of hope • numen of the emperor • one-man rule, and emperor’s security • pontifex maximus, emperor as • portrait, emperor • private sphere/privacy, and emperors • privatus attendance of emperor as • privatus attendance of emperor as,, position of • religio, religio, ritual, and emperors • religions, Roman, emperors divinized • sacrifice, for health of emperor and imperial family • senate, and emperor • senators absences,, relationship with emperor

 Found in books: Ando (2013) 369, 390; Bay (2022) 132; Belayche and Massa (2021) 64; Bernabe et al (2013) 550; Borg (2008) 16; Bowersock (1997) 119; Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 197, 352, 353, 354, 546; Cadwallader (2016) 248, 263; Clark (2007) 267, 268, 269; Csapo (2022) 3, 98, 99, 109, 113, 122; Czajkowski et al (2020) 214; Davies (2004) 145, 162, 166, 175, 178, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184, 187, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 213, 216; Dignas (2002) 113; Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 95, 100, 101, 106, 262; Edmondson (2008) 26, 32, 43, 45, 90; Feldman (2006) 296, 328, 512; Fertik (2019) 154, 156, 165; Galinsky (2016) 50, 55, 56, 57, 58, 105, 163; Gruen (2011) 193, 194; Hanghan (2019) 108; Heller and van Nijf (2017) 204; Hitch (2017) 108; Huttner (2013) 61; Jenkyns (2013) 36, 47, 50, 79, 80, 85, 159, 343; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 262, 266, 267, 269, 271, 272; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 355; Manolaraki (2012) 29, 30, 36, 37, 41, 42, 107, 109, 195, 202, 205, 211, 232, 245; Marek (2019) 326, 389, 420, 422, 473; Mcclellan (2019) 194; Merz and Tieleman (2012) 18; Mueller (2002) 31, 32, 53, 78, 175; Nasrallah (2019) 188; Peppard (2011) 78; Perry (2014) 141; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 8, 9, 15, 84, 169, 170, 171, 174, 178, 182, 183, 197, 198, 201, 203, 204, 206, 209, 213, 215, 216, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 243, 247, 248, 301, 305; Rupke (2016) 43; Rutledge (2012) 34; Rüpke (2011) 130, 133, 142, 152; Salvesen et al (2020) 280, 281, 282, 284, 298; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 10, 19, 20, 26, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 56, 63, 70, 97, 142, 145, 146, 148, 157, 172, 176, 177, 182, 196, 197, 198, 199, 204, 208, 209, 212, 213, 220, 225, 229, 230, 232, 236, 238, 239, 245, 247, 250, 260, 261, 263, 264, 266, 276, 281, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 301, 302, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314, 315, 317, 318, 319, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329, 330, 331, 334, 336, 337, 338, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 352, 353, 356, 360; Talbert (1984) 15, 22, 47, 54, 136, 161, 166, 170, 172, 175, 177, 178, 184, 189, 201, 231, 237, 238, 255, 263, 264, 265, 284, 285, 309, 342, 371, 388, 393, 398, 401, 404, 410, 411, 412, 421, 435, 439, 441, 472, 475, 477, 481; Udoh (2006) 134, 154, 209, 242; Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 362; de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 108, 109

1.3. Ceterum Augustus subsidia dominationi Claudium Marcellum sororis filium admodum adulescentem pontificatu et curuli aedilitate, M. Agrippam, ignobilem loco, bonum militia et victoriae socium, geminatis consulatibus extulit, mox defuncto Marcello generum sumpsit; Tiberium Neronem et Claudium Drusum privignos imperatoriis nominibus auxit, integra etiam tum domo sua. nam genitos Agrippa Gaium ac Lucium in familiam Caesarum induxerat, necdum posita puerili praetexta principes iuventutis appellari, destinari consules specie recusantis flagrantissime cupiverat. ut Agrippa vita concessit, Lucium Caesarem euntem ad Hispaniensis exercitus, Gaium remeantem Armenia et vulnere invalidum mors fato propera vel novercae Liviae dolus abstulit, Drusoque pridem extincto Nero solus e privignis erat, illuc cuncta vergere: filius, collega imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnisque per exercitus ostentatur, non obscuris, ut antea, matris artibus, sed palam hortatu. nam senem Augustum devinxerat adeo, uti nepotem unicum, Agrippam Postumum, in insulam Planasiam proiecerit, rudem sane bonarum artium et robore corporis stolide ferocem, nullius tamen flagitii conpertum. at hercule Germanicum Druso ortum octo apud Rhenum legionibus inposuit adscirique per adoptionem a Tiberio iussit, quamquam esset in domo Tiberii filius iuvenis, sed quo pluribus munimentis insisteret. bellum ea tempestate nullum nisi adversus Germanos supererat, abolendae magis infamiae ob amissum cum Quintilio Varo exercitum quam cupidine proferendi imperii aut dignum ob praemium. domi res tranquillae, eadem magistratuum vocabula; iuniores post Actiacam victoriam, etiam senes plerique inter bella civium nati: quotus quisque reliquus qui rem publicam vidisset?
1.3. Tum ut quisque praecipuus turbator conquisiti, et pars, extra castra palantes, a centurionibus aut praetoriarum cohortium militibus caesi: quosdam ipsi manipuli documentum fidei tradidere. auxerat militum curas praematura hiems imbribus continuis adeoque saevis, ut non egredi tentoria, congregari inter se, vix tutari signa possent, quae turbine atque unda raptabantur. durabat et formido caelestis irae, nec frustra adversus impios hebescere sidera, ruere tempestates: non aliud malorum levamentum, quam si linquerent castra infausta temerataque et soluti piaculo suis quisque hibernis redderentur. primum octava, dein quinta decuma legio rediere: nous opperiendas Tiberii epistulas clamitaverat, mox desolatus aliorum discessione imminentem necessitatem sponte praevenit. et Drusus non exspectato legatorum regressu, quia praesentia satis consederant, in urbem rediit.
1.7. At Germanicus legionum, quas navibus vexerat, secundam et quartam decimam itinere terrestri P. Vitellio ducendas tradit, quo levior classis vadoso mari innaret vel reciproco sideret. Vitellius primum iter sicca humo aut modice adlabente aestu quietum habuit: mox inpulsu aquilonis, simul sidere aequinoctii, quo maxime tumescit Oceanus, rapi agique agmen. et opplebantur terrae: eadem freto litori campis facies, neque discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia a profundis. sternuntur fluctibus, hauriuntur gurgitibus; iumenta, sarcinae, corpora exanima interfluunt, occursant. permiscentur inter se manipuli, modo pectore, modo ore tenus extantes, aliquando subtracto solo disiecti aut obruti. non vox et mutui hortatus iuvabant adversante unda; nihil strenuus ab ignavo, sapiens ab inprudenti, consilia a casu differre: cuncta pari violentia involvebantur. tandem Vitellius in editiora enisus eodem agmen subduxit. pernoctavere sine utensilibus, sine igni, magna pars nudo aut mulcato corpore, haud minus miserabiles quam quos hostis circumsidet: quippe illic etiam honestae mortis usus, his inglorium exitium. lux reddidit terram, penetratumque ad amnem Visurgin, quo Caesar classe contenderat. inpositae dein legiones, vagante fama submersas; nec fides salutis, antequam Caesarem exercitumque reducem videre.
1.7. At Romae ruere in servitium consules, patres, eques. quanto quis inlustrior, tanto magis falsi ac festites, vultuque composito ne laeti excessu principis neu tristiores primordio, lacrimas gaudium, questus adulationem miscebant. Sex. Pompeius et Sex. Appuleius consules primi in verba Tiberii Caesaris iuravere, aputque eos Seius Strabo et C. Turranius, ille praetoriarum cohortium praefectus, hic annonae; mox senatus milesque et populus. nam Tiberius cuncta per consules incipiebat tamquam vetere re publica et ambiguus imperandi: ne edictum quidem, quo patres in curiam vocabat, nisi tribuniciae potestatis praescriptione posuit sub Augusto acceptae. verba edicti fuere pauca et sensu permodesto: de honoribus parentis consulturum, neque abscedere a corpore idque unum ex publicis muneribus usurpare. sed defuncto Augusto signum praetoriis cohortibus ut imperator dederat; excubiae, arma, cetera aulae; miles in forum, miles in curiam comitabatur. litteras ad exercitus tamquam adepto principatu misit, nusquam cunctabundus nisi cum in senatu loqueretur. causa praecipua ex formidine ne Germanicus, in cuius manu tot legiones, immensa sociorum auxilia, mirus apud populum favor, habere imperium quam exspectare mallet. dabat et famae ut vocatus electusque potius a re publica videretur quam per uxorium ambitum et senili adoptione inrepsisse. postea cognitum est ad introspiciendas etiam procerum voluntates inductam dubitationem: nam verba vultus in crimen detorquens recondebat. 1.8. Nihil primo senatus die agi passus est nisi de supre- mis Augusti, cuius testamentum inlatum per virgines Vestae Tiberium et Liviam heredes habuit. Livia in familiam Iuliam nomenque Augustum adsumebatur; in spem secundam nepotes pronepotesque, tertio gradu primores civitatis scripserat, plerosque invisos sibi sed iactantia gloriaque ad posteros. legata non ultra civilem modum, nisi quod populo et plebi quadringenties tricies quinquies, praetoriarum cohortium militibus singula nummum milia, urbanis quingenos, legionariis aut cohortibus civium Romanorum trecenos nummos viritim dedit. tum consultatum de honoribus; ex quis qui maxime insignes visi, ut porta triumphali duceretur funus Gallus Asinius, ut legum latarum tituli, victarum ab eo gentium vocabula anteferrentur L. Arruntius censuere. addebat Messala Valerius renovandum per annos sacramentum in nomen Tiberii; interrogatusque a Tiberio num se mandante eam sententiam prompsisset, sponte dixisse respondit, neque in iis quae ad rem publicam pertinerent consilio nisi suo usurum vel cum periculo offensionis: ea sola species adulandi supererat. conclamant patres corpus ad rogum umeris senatorum ferendum. remisit Caesar adroganti moderatione, populumque edicto monuit ne, ut quondam nimiis studiis funus divi Iulii turbassent, ita Augustum in foro potius quam in campo Martis, sede destinata, cremari vellent. die funeris milites velut praesidio stetere, multum inridentibus qui ipsi viderant quique a parentibus acceperant diem illum crudi adhuc servitii et libertatis inprospere repetitae, cum occisus dictator Caesar aliis pessimum aliis pulcherrimum facinus videretur: nunc senem principem, longa potentia, provisis etiam heredum in rem publicam opibus, auxilio scilicet militari tuendum, ut sepultura eius quieta foret. 1.8. Prorogatur Poppaeo Sabino provincia Moesia, additis Achaia ac Macedonia. id quoque morum Tiberii fuit, continuare imperia ac plerosque ad finem vitae in isdem exercitibus aut iurisdictionibus habere. causae variae traduntur: alii taedio novae curae semel placita pro aeternis servavisse, quidam invidia, ne plures fruerentur; sunt qui existiment, ut callidum eius ingenium, ita anxium iudicium; neque enim eminentis virtutes sectabatur, et rursum vitia oderat: ex optimis periculum sibi, a pessimis dedecus publicum metuebat. qua haesitatione postremo eo provectus est ut mandaverit quibusdam provincias, quos egredi urbe non erat passurus.' '1.9. Multus hinc ipso de Augusto sermo, plerisque vana mirantibus quod idem dies accepti quondam imperii princeps et vitae supremus, quod Nolae in domo et cubiculo in quo pater eius Octavius vitam finivisset. numerus etiam consulatuum celebrabatur, quo Valerium Corvum et C. Marium simul aequaverat; continuata per septem et triginta annos tribunicia potestas, nomen inperatoris semel atque vicies partum aliaque honorum multiplicata aut nova. at apud prudentis vita eius varie extollebatur arguebaturve. hi pietate erga parentem et necessitudine rei publicae, in qua nullus tunc legibus locus, ad arma civilia actum quae neque parari possent neque haberi per bonas artis. multa Antonio, dum interfectores patris ulcisceretur, multa Lepido concessisse. postquam hic socordia senuerit, ille per libidines pessum datus sit, non aliud discordantis patriae remedium fuisse quam ut ab uno regeretur. non regno tamen neque dictatura sed principis nomine constitutam rem publicam; mari Oceano aut amnibus longinquis saeptum imperium; legiones, provincias, classis, cuncta inter se conexa; ius apud civis, modestiam apud socios; urbem ipsam magnifico ornatu; pauca admodum vi tractata quo ceteris quies esset. 1.11. Versae inde ad Tiberium preces. et ille varie disserebat de magnitudine imperii sua modestia. solam divi Augusti mentem tantae molis capacem: se in partem curarum ab illo vocatum experiendo didicisse quam arduum, quam subiectum fortunae regendi cuncta onus. proinde in civitate tot inlustribus viris subnixa non ad unum omnia deferrent: plures facilius munia rei publicae sociatis laboribus exsecuturos. plus in oratione tali dignitatis quam fidei erat; Tiberioque etiam in rebus quas non occuleret, seu natura sive adsuetudine, suspensa semper et obscura verba: tunc vero nitenti ut sensus suos penitus abderet, in incertum et ambiguum magis implicabantur. at patres, quibus unus metus si intellegere viderentur, in questus lacrimas vota effundi; ad deos, ad effigiem Augusti, ad genua ipsius manus tendere, cum proferri libellum recitarique iussit. opes publicae continebantur, quantum civium sociorumque in armis, quot classes, regna, provinciae, tributa aut vectigalia, et necessitates ac largitiones. quae cuncta sua manu perscripserat Augustus addideratque consilium coercendi intra terminos imperii, incertum metu an per invidiam.' "1.12. Inter quae senatu ad infimas obtestationes procumbente, dixit forte Tiberius se ut non toti rei publicae parem, ita quaecumque pars sibi mandaretur eius tutelam suscepturum. tum Asinius Gallus 'interrogo' inquit, 'Caesar, quam partem rei publicae mandari tibi velis.' perculsus inprovisa interrogatione paulum reticuit: dein collecto animo respondit nequaquam decorum pudori suo legere aliquid aut evitare ex eo cui in universum excusari mallet. rursum Gallus (etenim vultu offensionem coniectaverat) non idcirco interrogatum ait, ut divideret quae separari nequirent sed ut sua confessione argueretur unum esse rei publicae corpus atque unius animo regendum. addidit laudem de Augusto Tiberiumque ipsum victoriarum suarum quaeque in toga per tot annos egregie fecisset admonuit. nec ideo iram eius lenivit, pridem invisus, tamquam ducta in matrimonium Vipsania M. Agrippae filia, quae quondam Tiberii uxor fuerat, plus quam civilia agitaret Pollionisque Asinii patris ferociam retineret." "1.13. Post quae L. Arruntius haud multum discrepans a Galli oratione perinde offendit, quamquam Tiberio nulla vetus in Arruntium ira: sed divitem, promptum, artibus egregiis et pari fama publice, suspectabat. quippe Augustus supremis sermonibus cum tractaret quinam adipisci principem locum suffecturi abnuerent aut inpares vellent vel idem possent cuperentque, M'. Lepidum dixerat capacem sed aspertem, Gallum Asinium avidum et minorem, L. Arruntium non indignum et si casus daretur ausurum. de prioribus consentitur, pro Arruntio quidam Cn. Pisonem tradidere; omnesque praeter Lepidum variis mox criminibus struente Tiberio circumventi sunt. etiam Q. Haterius et Mamercus Scaurus suspicacem animum perstrinxere, Haterius cum dixisset 'quo usque patieris, Caesar, non adesse caput rei publicae?' Scaurus quia dixerat spem esse ex eo non inritas fore senatus preces quod relationi consulum iure tribuniciae potestatis non intercessisset. in Haterium statim invectus est; Scaurum, cui inplacabilius irascebatur, silentio tramisit. fessusque clamore omnium, expostulatione singulorum flexit paulatim, non ut fateretur suscipi a se imperium, sed ut negare et rogari desineret. constat Haterium, cum deprecandi causa Palatium introisset ambulantisque Tiberii genua advolveretur, prope a militibus interfectum quia Tiberius casu an manibus eius inpeditus prociderat. neque tamen periculo talis viri mitigatus est, donec Haterius Augustam oraret eiusque curatissimis precibus protegeretur." "1.14. Multa patrum et in Augustam adulatio. alii parentem, alii matrem patriae appellandam, plerique ut nomini Caesaris adscriberetur 'Iuliae filius' censebant. ille moderan- dos feminarum honores dictitans eademque se temperantia usurum in iis quae sibi tribuerentur, ceterum anxius invidia et muliebre fastigium in deminutionem sui accipiens ne lictorem quidem ei decerni passus est aramque adoptionis et alia huiusce modi prohibuit. at Germanico Caesari proconsulare imperium petivit, missique legati qui deferrent, simul maestitiam eius ob excessum Augusti solarentur. quo minus idem pro Druso postularetur, ea causa quod designatus consul Drusus praesensque erat. candidatos praeturae duodecim nominavit, numerum ab Augusto traditum; et hortante senatu ut augeret, iure iurando obstrinxit se non excessurum." '1.15. Tum primum e campo comitia ad patres translata sunt: nam ad eam diem, etsi potissima arbitrio principis, quaedam tamen studiis tribuum fiebant. neque populus ademptum ius questus est nisi ii rumore, et senatus largitionibus ac precibus sordidis exsolutus libens tenuit, moderante Tiberio ne plures quam quattuor candidatos commendaret sine repulsa et ambitu desigdos. inter quae tribuni plebei petivere ut proprio sumptu ederent ludos qui de nomine Augusti fastis additi Augustales vocarentur. sed decreta pecunia ex aerario, utque per circum triumphali veste uterentur: curru vehi haud permissum. mox celebratio annua ad praetorem translata cui inter civis et peregrinos iurisdictio evenisset.

1.33. Interea Germanico per Gallias, ut diximus, census accipienti excessisse Augustum adfertur. neptem eius Agrippinam in matrimonio pluresque ex ea liberos habebat, ipse Druso fratre Tiberii genitus, Augustae nepos, set anxius occultis in se patrui aviaeque odiis quorum causae acriores quia iniquae. quippe Drusi magna apud populum Romanum memoria, credebaturque, si rerum potitus foret, libertatem redditurus; unde in Germanicum favor et spes eadem. nam iuveni civile ingenium, mira comitas et diversa ab Tiberii sermone vultu, adrogantibus et obscuris. accedebant muliebres offensiones novercalibus Liviae in Agrippinam stimulis, atque ipsa Agrippina paulo commotior, nisi quod castitate et mariti amore quamvis indomitum animum in bonum vertebat.
1.34. Sed Germanicus quanto summae spei propior, tanto impensius pro Tiberio niti. Sequanos proximos et Belgarum civitates in verba eius adigit. dehinc audito legionum tumultu raptim profectus obvias extra castra habuit, deiectis in terram oculis velut paenitentia. postquam vallum iniit dissoni questus audiri coepere. et quidam prensa manu eius per speciem exosculandi inseruerunt digitos ut vacua dentibus ora contingeret; alii curvata senio membra ostendebant. adsistentem contionem, quia permixta videbatur, discedere in manipulos iubet: sic melius audituros responsum; vexilla praeferri ut id saltem discerneret cohortis: tarde obtemperavere. tunc a veneratione Augusti orsus flexit ad victorias triumphosque Tiberii, praecipuis laudibus celebrans quae apud Germanias illis cum legionibus pulcherrima fecisset. Italiae inde consensum, Galliarum fidem extollit; nil usquam turbidum aut discors. silentio haec vel murmure modico audita sunt.

1.39. Interea legati ab senatu regressum iam apud aram Vbiorum Germanicum adeunt. duae ibi legiones, prima atque vicesima, veteranique nuper missi sub vexillo hiemabant. pavidos et conscientia vaecordes intrat metus venisse patrum iussu qui inrita facerent quae per seditionem expresserant. utque mos vulgo quamvis falsis reum subdere, Munatium Plancum consulatu functum, principem legationis, auctorem senatus consulti incusant; et nocte concubia vexillum in domo Germanici situm flagitare occipiunt, concursuque ad ianuam facto moliuntur foris, extra- ctum cubili Caesarem tradere vexillum intento mortis metu subigunt. mox vagi per vias obvios habuere legatos, audita consternatione ad Germanicum tendentis. ingerunt contumelias, caedem parant, Planco maxime, quem dignitas fuga impediverat; neque aliud periclitanti subsidium quam castra primae legionis. illic signa et aquilam amplexus religione sese tutabatur, ac ni aquilifer Calpurnius vim extremam arcuisset, rarum etiam inter hostis, legatus populi Romani Romanis in castris sanguine suo altaria deum commaculavisset. luce demum, postquam dux et miles et facta noscebantur, ingressus castra Germanicus perduci ad se Plancum imperat recepitque in tribunal. tum fatalem increpans rabiem, neque militum sed deum ira resurgere, cur venerint legati aperit; ius legationis atque ipsius Planci gravem et immeritum casum, simul quantum dedecoris adierit legio, facunde miseratur, attonitaque magis quam quieta contione legatos praesidio auxiliarium equitum dimittit.
1.46. At Romae nondum cognito qui fuisset exitus in Illyrico, et legionum Germanicarum motu audito, trepida civitas incusare Tiberium quod, dum patres et plebem, invalida et inermia, cunctatione ficta ludificetur, dissideat interim miles neque duorum adulescentium nondum adulta auctoritate comprimi queat. ire ipsum et opponere maiestatem imperatoriam debuisse cessuris ubi principem longa experientia eundemque severitatis et munificentiae summum vidissent. an Augustum fessa aetate totiens in Ger- manias commeare potuisse: Tiberium vigentem annis sedere in senatu, verba patrum cavillantem? satis prospectum urbanae servituti: militaribus animis adhibenda fomenta ut ferre pacem velint.
1.52. Nuntiata ea Tiberium laetitia curaque adfecere: gaudebat oppressam seditionem, sed quod largiendis pecuniis et missione festinata favorem militum quaesivisset, bellica quoque Germanici gloria angebatur. rettulit tamen ad senatum de rebus gestis multaque de virtute eius memoravit, magis in speciem verbis adornata quam ut penitus sentire crederetur. paucioribus Drusum et finem Illyrici motus laudavit, sed intentior et fida oratione. cunctaque quae Germanicus indulserat servavit etiam apud Pannonicos exercitus.

1.73. Haud pigebit referre in Falanio et Rubrio, modicis equitibus Romanis, praetemptata crimina, ut quibus initiis, quanta Tiberii arte gravissimum exitium inrepserit, dein repressum sit, postremo arserit cunctaque corripuerit, noscatur. Falanio obiciebat accusator, quod inter cultores Augusti, qui per omnis domos in modum collegiorum habebantur, Cassium quendam mimum corpore infamem adscivisset, quodque venditis hortis statuam Augusti simul mancipasset. Rubrio crimini dabatur violatum periurio numen Augusti. quae ubi Tiberio notuere, scripsit consulibus non ideo decretum patri suo caelum, ut in perniciem civium is honor verteretur. Cassium histrionem solitum inter alios eiusdem artis interesse ludis, quos mater sua in memoriam Augusti sacrasset; nec contra religiones fieri quod effigies eius, ut alia numinum simulacra, venditionibus hortorum et domuum accedant. ius iurandum perinde aestimandum quam si Iovem fefellisset: deorum iniurias dis curae.' "
1.74. Nec multo post Granium Marcellum praetorem Bithyniae quaestor ipsius Caepio Crispinus maiestatis postulavit, subscribente Romano Hispone: qui formam vitae iniit, quam postea celebrem miseriae temporum et audaciae hominum fecerunt. nam egens, ignotus, inquies, dum occultis libellis saevitiae principis adrepit, mox clarissimo cuique periculum facessit, potentiam apud unum, odium apud omnis adeptus dedit exemplum, quod secuti ex pauperibus divites, ex contemptis metuendi perniciem aliis ac postremum sibi invenere. sed Marcellum insimulabat sinistros de Tiberio sermones habuisse, inevitabile crimen, cum ex moribus principis foedissima quaeque deligeret accusator obiectaretque reo. nam quia vera erant, etiam dicta credebantur. addidit Hispo statuam Marcelli altius quam Caesarum sitam, et alia in statua amputato capite Augusti effigiem Tiberii inditam. ad quod exarsit adeo, ut rupta taciturnitate proclamaret se quoque in ea causa laturum sententiam palam et iuratum, quo ceteris eadem necessitas fieret. manebant etiam tum vestigia morientis libertatis. igitur Cn. Piso 'quo' inquit 'loco censebis, Caesar? si primus, habebo quod sequar: si post omnis, vereor ne inprudens dissentiam.' permotus his, quantoque incautius efferverat, paenitentia patiens tulit absolvi reum criminibus maiestatis: de pecuniis repetundis ad reciperatores itum est." '
1.75. Nec patrum cognitionibus satiatus iudiciis adsidebat in cornu tribunalis, ne praetorem curuli depelleret; multaque eo coram adversus ambitum et potentium preces constituta. set dum veritati consulitur, libertas corrumpebatur. inter quae Pius Aurelius senator questus mole publicae viae ductuque aquarum labefactas aedis suas, auxilium patrum invocabat. resistentibus aerarii praetoribus subvenit Caesar pretiumque aedium Aurelio tribuit, erogandae per honesta pecuniae cupiens, quam virtutem diu retinuit, cum ceteras exueret. Propertio Celeri praetorio, veniam ordinis ob paupertatem petenti, decies sestertium largitus est, satis conperto paternas ei angustias esse. temptantis eadem alios probare causam senatui iussit, cupidine severitatis in iis etiam quae rite faceret acerbus. unde ceteri silentium et paupertatem confessioni et beneficio praeposuere.
1.76. Eodem anno continuis imbribus auctus Tiberis plana urbis stagnaverat; relabentem secuta est aedificiorum et hominum strages. igitur censuit Asinius Gallus ut libri Sibyllini adirentur. renuit Tiberius, perinde divina humanaque obtegens; sed remedium coercendi fluminis Ateio Capitoni et L. Arruntio mandatum. Achaiam ac Macedoniam onera deprecantis levari in praesens proconsulari imperio tradique Caesari placuit. edendis gladiatoribus, quos Germanici fratris ac suo nomine obtulerat, Drusus praesedit, quamquam vili sanguine nimis gaudens; quod in vulgus formidolosum et pater arguisse dicebatur. cur abstinuerit spectaculo ipse, varie trahebant; alii taedio coetus, quidam tristitia ingenii et metu conparationis, quia Augustus comiter interfuisset. non crediderim ad ostentandam saevitiam movendasque populi offensiones concessam filio materiem, quamquam id quoque dictum est.
1.77. At theatri licentia, proximo priore anno coepta, gravius tum erupit, occisis non modo e plebe set militibus et centurione, vulnerato tribuno praetoriae cohortis, dum probra in magistratus et dissensionem vulgi prohibent. actum de ea seditione apud patres dicebanturque sententiae, ut praetoribus ius virgarum in histriones esset. intercessit Haterius Agrippa tribunus plebei increpitusque est Asinii Galli oratione, silente Tiberio, qui ea simulacra libertatis senatui praebebat. valuit tamen intercessio, quia divus Augustus immunis verberum histriones quondam responderat, neque fas Tiberio infringere dicta eius. de modo lucaris et adversus lasciviam fautorum multa decernuntur; ex quis maxime insignia, ne domos pantomimorum senator introiret, ne egredientis in publicum equites Romani cingerent aut alibi quam in theatro spectarentur, et spectantium immodestiam exilio multandi potestas praetoribus fieret.

1.79. Actum deinde in senatu ab Arruntio et Ateio an ob moderandas Tiberis exundationes verterentur flumina et lacus, per quos augescit; auditaeque municipiorum et coloniarum legationes, orantibus Florentinis ne Clanis solito alveo demotus in amnem Arnum transferretur idque ipsis perniciem adferret. congruentia his Interamnates disseruere: pessum ituros fecundissimos Italiae campos, si amnis Nar (id enim parabatur) in rivos diductus superstagnavisset. nec Reatini silebant, Velinum lacum, qua in Narem effunditur, obstrui recusantes, quippe in adiacentia erupturum; optume rebus mortalium consuluisse naturam, quae sua ora fluminibus, suos cursus utque originem, ita finis dederit; spectandas etiam religiones sociorum, qui sacra et lucos et aras patriis amnibus dicaverint: quin ipsum Tiberim nolle prorsus accolis fluviis orbatum minore gloria fluere. seu preces coloniarum seu difficultas operum sive superstitio valuit, ut in sententiam Pisonis concederetur, qui nil mutandum censuerat.
2.28. Vt satis testium et qui servi eadem noscerent repperit, aditum ad principem postulat, demonstrato crimine et reo per Flaccum Vescularium equitem Romanum, cui propior cum Tiberio usus erat. Caesar indicium haud aspernatus congressus abnuit: posse enim eodem Flacco internuntio sermones commeare. atque interim Libonem ornat praetura, convictibus adhibet, non vultu alienatus, non verbis commotior (adeo iram condiderat); cunctaque eius dicta factaque, cum prohibere posset, scire malebat, donec Iunius quidam, temptatus ut infernas umbras carminibus eliceret, ad Fulcinium Trionem indicium detulit. celebre inter accusatores Trionis ingenium erat avidumque famae malae. statim corripit reum, adit consules, cognitionem senatus poscit. et vocantur patres, addito consultandum super re magna et atroci. 2.29. Libo interim veste mutata cum primoribus feminis circumire domos, orare adfinis, vocem adversum pericula poscere, abnuentibus cunctis, cum diversa praetenderent, eadem formidine. die senatus metu et aegritudine fessus, sive, ut tradidere quidam, simulato morbo, lectica delatus ad foris curiae innisusque fratri et manus ac supplices voces ad Tiberium tendens immoto eius vultu excipitur. mox libellos et auctores recitat Caesar ita moderans ne lenire neve asperare crimina videretur.
2.32. Bona inter accusatores dividuntur, et praeturae extra ordinem datae iis qui senatorii ordinis erant. tunc Cotta Messalinus, ne imago Libonis exequias posterorum comitaretur, censuit, Cn. Lentulus, ne quis Scribonius cognomentum Drusi adsumeret. supplicationum dies Pomponii Flacci sententia constituti, dona Iovi, Marti, Concordiae, utque iduum Septembrium dies, quo se Libo interfecerat, dies festus haberetur, L. Piso et Gallus Asinius et Papius Mutilus et L. Apronius decrevere; quorum auctoritates adulationesque rettuli ut sciretur vetus id in re publica malum. facta et de mathematicis magisque Italia pellendis senatus consulta; quorum e numero L. Pituanius saxo deiectus est, in P. Marcium consules extra portam Esquilinam, cum classicum canere iussissent, more prisco advertere. 2.33. Proximo senatus die multa in luxum civitatis dicta a Q. Haterio consulari, Octavio Frontone praetura functo; decretumque ne vasa auro solida ministrandis cibis fierent, ne vestis serica viros foedaret. excessit Fronto ac postulavit modum argento, supellectili, familiae: erat quippe adhuc frequens senatoribus, si quid e re publica crederent, loco sententiae promere. contra Gallus Asinius disseruit: auctu imperii adolevisse etiam privatas opes, idque non novum, sed e vetustissimis moribus: aliam apud Fabricios, aliam apud Scipiones pecuniam; et cuncta ad rem publicam referri, qua tenui angustas civium domos, postquam eo magnificentiae venerit, gliscere singulos. neque in familia et argento quaeque ad usum parentur nimium aliquid aut modicum nisi ex fortuna possidentis. distinctos senatus et equitum census, non quia diversi natura, sed ut locis ordi- nibus dignationibus antistent, ita iis quae ad requiem animi aut salubritatem corporum parentur, nisi forte clarissimo cuique pluris curas, maiora pericula subeunda, delenimentis curarum et periculorum carendum esse. facilem adsensum Gallo sub nominibus honestis confessio vitiorum et similitudo audientium dedit. adiecerat et Tiberius non id tempus censurae nec, si quid in moribus labaret, defuturum corrigendi auctorem.
2.41. Fine anni arcus propter aedem Saturni ob recepta signa cum Varo amissa ductu Germanici, auspiciis Tiberii, et aedes Fortis Fortunae Tiberim iuxta in hortis, quos Caesar dictator populo Romano legaverat, sacrarium genti Iuliae effigiesque divo Augusto apud Bovillas dicantur. C. Caelio L. Pomponio consulibus Germanicus Caesar a. d. VII. Kal. Iunias triumphavit de Cheruscis Chattisque et Angrivariis quaeque aliae nationes usque ad Albim colunt. vecta spolia, captivi, simulacra montium, fluminum, proeliorum; bellumque, quia conficere prohibitus erat, pro confecto accipiebatur. augebat intuentium visus eximia ipsius species currusque quinque liberis onustus. sed suberat occulta formido, reputantibus haud prosperum in Druso patre eius favorem vulgi, avunculum eiusdem Marcellum flagrantibus plebis studiis intra iuventam ereptum, brevis et infaustos populi Romani amores. 2.42. Ceterum Tiberius nomine Germanici trecenos plebi sestertios viritim dedit seque collegam consulatui eius destinavit. nec ideo sincerae caritatis fidem adsecutus amoliri iuvenem specie honoris statuit struxitque causas aut forte oblatas arripuit. rex Archelaus quinquagesimum annum Cappadocia potiebatur, invisus Tiberio quod eum Rhodi agentem nullo officio coluisset. nec id Archelaus per superbiam omiserat, sed ab intimis Augusti monitus, quia florente Gaio Caesare missoque ad res Orientis intuta Tiberii amicitia credebatur. ut versa Caesarum subole imperium adeptus est, elicit Archelaum matris litteris, quae non dissimulatis filii offensionibus clementiam offerebat, si ad precandum veniret. ille ignarus doli vel, si intellegere crederetur, vim metuens in urbem properat; exceptusque immiti a principe et mox accusatus in senatu, non ob crimina quae fingebantur sed angore, simul fessus senio et quia regibus aequa, nedum infima insolita sunt, finem vitae sponte an fato implevit. regnum in provinciam redactum est, fructibusque eius levari posse centesimae vectigal professus Caesar ducentesimam in posterum statuit. per idem tempus Antiocho Commagenorum, Philopatore Cilicum regibus defunctis turbabantur nationes, plerisque Romanum, aliis regium imperium cupientibus; et provinciae Syria atque Iudaea, fessae oneribus, deminutionem tributi orabant. 2.43. Igitur haec et de Armenia quae supra memoravi apud patres disseruit, nec posse motum Orientem nisi Germanici sapientia conponi: nam suam aetatem vergere, Drusi nondum satis adolevisse. tunc decreto patrum permissae Germanico provinciae quae mari dividuntur, maiusque imperium, quoquo adisset, quam iis qui sorte aut missu principis obtinerent. sed Tiberius demoverat Syria Creticum Silanum, per adfinitatem conexum Germanico, quia Silani filia Neroni vetustissimo liberorum eius pacta erat, praefeceratque Cn. Pisonem, ingenio violentum et obsequii ignarum, insita ferocia a patre Pisone qui civili bello resurgentis in Africa partis acerrimo ministerio adversus Caesarem iuvit, mox Brutum et Cassium secutus concesso reditu petitione honorum abstinuit, donec ultro ambiretur delatum ab Augusto consulatum accipere. sed praeter paternos spiritus uxoris quoque Plancinae nobilitate et opibus accendebatur; vix Tiberio concedere, liberos eius ut multum infra despectare. nec dubium habebat se delectum qui Syriae imponeretur ad spes Germanici coercendas. credidere quidam data et a Tiberio occulta mandata; et Plancinam haud dubie Augusta monuit aemulatione muliebri Agrippinam insectandi. divisa namque et discors aula erat tacitis in Drusum aut Germanicum studiis. Tiberius ut proprium et sui sanguinis Drusum fovebat: Germanico alienatio patrui amorem apud ceteros auxerat, et quia claritudine materni generis anteibat, avum M. Antonium, avunculum Augustum ferens. contra Druso proavus eques Romanus Pomponius Atticus dedecere Claudiorum imagines videbatur: et coniunx Germanici Agrippina fecunditate ac fama Liviam uxorem Drusi praecellebat. sed fratres egregie concordes et proximorum certaminibus inconcussi.
2.47. Eodem anno duodecim celebres Asiae urbes conlapsae nocturno motu terrae, quo inprovisior graviorque pestis fuit. neque solitum in tali casu effugium subveniebat in aperta prorumpendi, quia diductis terris hauriebantur. sedisse inmensos montis, visa in arduo quae plana fuerint, effulsisse inter ruinam ignis memorant. asperrima in Sardianos lues plurimum in eosdem misericordiae traxit: nam centies sestertium pollicitus Caesar, et quantum aerario aut fisco pendebant in quinquennium remisit. Magnetes a Sipylo proximi damno ac remedio habiti. Temnios, Philadelphenos, Aegeatas, Apollonidenses, quique Mosteni aut Macedones Hyrcani vocantur, et Hierocaesariam, Myrinam, Cymen, Tmolum levari idem in tempus tributis mittique ex senatu placuit, qui praesentia spectaret refoveretque. delectus est M. Ateius e praetoriis, ne consulari obtinente Asiam aemulatio inter pares et ex eo impedimentum oreretur.' "
2.71. Caesar paulisper ad spem erectus, dein fesso corpore, ubi finis aderat, adsistentis amicos in hunc modum adloquitur: 'si fato concederem, iustus mihi dolor etiam adversus deos esset, quod me parentibus liberis patriae intra iuventam praematuro exitu raperent: nunc scelere Pisonis et Plancinae interceptus ultimas preces pectoribus vestris relinquo: referatis patri ac fratri, quibus acerbitatibus dilaceratus, quibus insidiis circumventus miserrimam vitam pessima morte finierim. si quos spes meae, si quos propinquus sanguis, etiam quos invidia erga viventem movebat, inlacrimabunt quondam florentem et tot bellorum superstitem muliebri fraude cecidisse. erit vobis locus querendi apud senatum, invocandi leges. non hoc praecipuum amicorum munus est, prosequi defunctum ignavo questu, sed quae voluerit meminisse, quae mandaverit exequi. flebunt Germanicum etiam ignoti: vindicabitis vos, si me potius quam fortunam meam fovebatis. ostendite populo Romano divi Augusti neptem eandemque coniugem meam, numerate sex liberos. misericordia cum accusantibus erit fingentibusque scelesta mandata aut non credent homines aut non ignoscent.' iuravere amici dextram morientis contingentes spiritum ante quam ultionem amissuros." '
2.82. At Romae, postquam Germanici valetudo percrebuit cunctaque ut ex longinquo aucta in deterius adferebantur, dolor ira, et erumpebant questus. ideo nimirum in extremas terras relegatum, ideo Pisoni permissam provinciam; hoc egisse secretos Augustae cum Plancina sermones. vera prorsus de Druso seniores locutos: displicere regtibus civilia filiorum ingenia, neque ob aliud interceptos quam quia populum Romanum aequo iure complecti reddita libertate agitaverint. hos vulgi sermones audita mors adeo incendit ut ante edictum magistratuum, ante senatus consultum sumpto iustitio desererentur fora, clauderentur domus. passim silentia et gemitus, nihil compositum in ostentationem; et quamquam neque insignibus lugentium abstinerent, altius animis maerebant. forte negotiatores vivente adhuc Germanico Syria egressi laetiora de valetudine eius attulere. statim credita, statim vulgata sunt: ut quisque obvius, quamvis leviter audita in alios atque illi in plures cumulata gaudio transferunt. cursant per urbem, moliuntur templorum foris; iuvat credulitatem nox et promptior inter tenebras adfirmatio. nec obstitit falsis Tiberius donec tempore ac spatio vanescerent: et populus quasi rursum ereptum acrius doluit. 2.83. Honores ut quis amore in Germanicum aut ingenio validus reperti decretique: ut nomen eius Saliari carmine caneretur; sedes curules sacerdotum Augustalium locis superque eas querceae coronae statuerentur; ludos circensis eburna effigies praeiret neve quis flamen aut augur in locum Germanici nisi gentis Iuliae crearetur. arcus additi Romae et apud ripam Rheni et in monte Syriae Amano cum inscriptione rerum gestarum ac mortem ob rem publicam obisse. sepulchrum Antiochiae ubi crematus, tribunal Epidaphnae quo in loco vitam finierat. statuarum locorumve in quis coleretur haud facile quis numerum inierit. cum censeretur clipeus auro et magni- tudine insignis inter auctores eloquentiae, adseveravit Tiberius solitum paremque ceteris dicaturum: neque enim eloquentiam fortuna discerni et satis inlustre si veteres inter scriptores haberetur. equester ordo cuneum Germanici appellavit qui iuniorum dicebatur, instituitque uti turmae idibus Iuliis imaginem eius sequerentur. pleraque manent: quaedam statim omissa sunt aut vetustas oblitteravit.
2.85. Eodem anno gravibus senatus decretis libido feminarum coercita cautumque ne quaestum corpore faceret cui avus aut pater aut maritus eques Romanus fuisset. nam Vistilia praetoria familia genita licentiam stupri apud aedilis vulgaverat, more inter veteres recepto, qui satis poenarum adversum impudicas in ipsa professione flagitii credebant. exactum et a Titidio Labeone Vistiliae marito cur in uxore delicti manifesta ultionem legis omisisset. atque illo praetendente sexaginta dies ad consultandum datos necdum praeterisse, satis visum de Vistilia statuere; eaque in insulam Seriphon abdita est. actum et de sacris Aegyptiis Iudaicisque pellendis factumque patrum consultum ut quattuor milia libertini generis ea superstitione infecta quis idonea aetas in insulam Sardiniam veherentur, coercendis illic latrociniis et, si ob gravitatem caeli interissent, vile damnum; ceteri cederent Italia nisi certam ante diem profanos ritus exuissent.
3.2. Eodem anno Tacfarinas, quem priore aestate pulsum a Camillo memoravi, bellum in Africa renovat, vagis primum populationibus et ob pernicitatem inultis, dein vicos excindere, trahere gravis praedas; postremo haud procul Pagyda flumine cohortem Romanam circumsedit. praeerat castello Decrius impiger manu, exercitus militia et illam obsidionem flagitii ratus. is cohortatus milites, ut copiam pugnae in aperto faceret aciem pro castris instruit. primoque impetu pulsa cohorte promptus inter tela occursat fugientibus, increpat signiferos quod inconditis aut desertoribus miles Romanus terga daret; simul exceptat vulnera et quamquam transfosso oculo adversum os in hostem intendit neque proelium omisit donec desertus suis caderet.
3.2. Miserat duas praetorias cohortis Caesar, addito ut magistratus Calabriae Apulique et Campani suprema erga memoriam filii sui munera fungerentur. igitur tribunorum centurionumque umeris cineres portabantur; praecedebant incompta signa, versi fasces; atque ubi colonias transgrederentur, atrata plebes, trabeati equites pro opibus loci vestem odores aliaque funerum sollemnia cremabant. etiam quorum diversa oppida, tamen obvii et victimas atque aras dis Manibus statuentes lacrimis et conclamationibus dolorem testabantur. Drusus Tarracinam progressus est cum Claudio fratre liberisque Germanici, qui in urbe fuerant. consules M. Valerius et M. Aurelius (iam enim magistratum occeperant) et senatus ac magna pars populi viam complevere, disiecti et ut cuique libitum flentes; aberat quippe adulatio, gnaris omnibus laetam Tiberio Germanici mortem male dissimulari.
3.6. Gnarum id Tiberio fuit; utque premeret vulgi sermones, monuit edicto multos inlustrium Romanorum ob rem publicam obisse, neminem tam flagranti desiderio celebratum. idque et sibi et cunctis egregium si modus adiceretur. non enim eadem decora principibus viris et imperatori populo quae modicis domibus aut civitatibus. convenisse recenti dolori luctum et ex maerore solacia; sed referendum iam animum ad firmitudinem, ut quondam divus Iulius amissa unica filia, ut divus Augustus ereptis nepotibus abstruserint tristitiam. nil opus vetustioribus exemplis, quotiens populus Romanus cladis exercituum, interitum ducum, funditus amissas nobilis familias constanter tulerit. principes mortalis, rem publicam aeternam esse. proin repeterent sollemnia, et quia ludorum Megalesium spectaculum suberat, etiam voluptates resumerent.
3.6. Sed Tiberius, vim principatus sibi firmans, imaginem antiquitatis senatui praebebat postulata provinciarum ad disquisitionem patrum mittendo. crebrescebat enim Graecas per urbes licentia atque impunitas asyla statuendi; complebantur templa pessimis servitiorum; eodem subsidio obaerati adversum creditores suspectique capitalium criminum receptabantur, nec ullum satis validum imperium erat coercendis seditionibus populi flagitia hominum ut caerimonias deum protegentis. igitur placitum ut mitterent civitates iura atque legatos. et quaedam quod falso usurpaverant sponte omisere; multae vetustis superstitioni- bus aut meritis in populum Romanum fidebant. magnaque eius diei species fuit quo senatus maiorum beneficia, sociorum pacta, regum etiam qui ante vim Romanam valuerant decreta ipsorumque numinum religiones introspexit, libero, ut quondam, quid firmaret mutaretve.
3.33. Inter quae Severus Caecina censuit ne quem magistratum cui provincia obvenisset uxor comitaretur, multum ante repetito concordem sibi coniugem et sex partus enixam, seque quae in publicum statueret domi servavisse, cohibita intra Italiam, quamquam ipse pluris per provincias quadraginta stipendia explevisset. haud enim frustra placitum olim ne feminae in socios aut gentis externas traherentur: inesse mulierum comitatui quae pacem luxu, bellum formidine morentur et Romanum agmen ad similitudinem barbari incessus convertant. non imbecillum tantum et imparem laboribus sexum sed, si licentia adsit, saevum, ambitiosum, potestatis avidum; incedere inter milites, habere ad manum centuriones; praesedisse nuper feminam exercitio cohortium, decursu legionum. cogitarent ipsi quotiens repetundarum aliqui arguerentur plura uxoribus obiectari: his statim adhaerescere deterrimum quemque provincialium, ab his negotia suscipi, transigi; duorum egressus coli, duo esse praetoria, pervicacibus magis et impotentibus mulierum iussis quae Oppiis quondam aliisque legibus constrictae nunc vinclis exolutis domos, fora, iam et exercitus regerent. 3.34. Paucorum haec adsensu audita: plures obturbabant neque relatum de negotio neque Caecinam dignum tantae rei censorem. mox Valerius Messalinus, cui parens Mes- sala ineratque imago paternae facundiae, respondit multa duritiae veterum in melius et laetius mutata; neque enim, ut olim, obsideri urbem bellis aut provincias hostilis esse. et pauca feminarum necessitatibus concedi quae ne coniugum quidem penatis, adeo socios non onerent; cetera promisca cum marito nec ullum in eo pacis impedimentum. bella plane accinctis obeunda: sed revertentibus post laborem quod honestius quam uxorium levamentum? at quasdam in ambitionem aut avaritiam prolapsas. quid? ipsorum magistratuum nonne plerosque variis libidinibus obnoxios? non tamen ideo neminem in provinciam mitti. corruptos saepe pravitatibus uxorum maritos: num ergo omnis caelibes integros? placuisse quondam Oppias leges, sic temporibus rei publicae postulantibus: remissum aliquid postea et mitigatum, quia expedierit. frustra nostram ignaviam alia ad vocabula transferri: nam viri in eo culpam si femina modum excedat. porro ob unius aut alterius imbecillum animum male eripi maritis consortia rerum secundarum adversarumque. simul sexum natura invalidum deseri et exponi suo luxu, cupidinibus alienis. vix praesenti custodia manere inlaesa coniugia: quid fore si per pluris annos in modum discidii oblitterentur? sic obviam irent iis quae alibi peccarentur ut flagitiorum urbis meminissent. addidit pauca Drusus de matrimonio suo; nam principibus adeunda saepius longinqua imperii. quoties divum Augustum in Occidentem atque Orientem meavisse comite Livia! se quoque in Illyricum profectum et, si ita conducat, alias ad gentis iturum, haud semper aequo animo si ab uxore carissima et tot communium liberorum parente divelleretur. sic Caecinae sententia elusa.
3.55. Auditis Caesaris litteris remissa aedilibus talis cura; luxusque mensae a fine Actiaci belli ad ea arma quis Servius Galba rerum adeptus est per annos centum pro- fusis sumptibus exerciti paulatim exolevere. causas eius mutationis quaerere libet. dites olim familiae nobilium aut claritudine insignes studio magnificentiae prolabebantur. nam etiam tum plebem socios regna colere et coli licitum; ut quisque opibus domo paratu speciosus per nomen et clientelas inlustrior habebatur. postquam caedibus saevitum et magnitudo famae exitio erat, ceteri ad sapientiora convertere. simul novi homines e municipiis et coloniis atque etiam provinciis in senatum crebro adsumpti domesticam parsimoniam intulerunt, et quamquam fortuna vel industria plerique pecuniosam ad senectam pervenirent, mansit tamen prior animus. sed praecipuus adstricti moris auctor Vespasianus fuit, antiquo ipse cultu victuque. obsequium inde in principem et aemulandi amor validior quam poena ex legibus et metus. nisi forte rebus cunctis inest quidam velut orbis, ut quem ad modum temporum vices ita morum vertantur; nec omnia apud priores meliora, sed nostra quoque aetas multa laudis et artium imitanda posteris tulit. verum haec nobis in maiores certamina ex honesto maneant.
3.58. Inter quae provincia Africa Iunio Blaeso prorogata, Servius Maluginensis flamen Dialis ut Asiam sorte haberet postulavit, frustra vulgatum dictitans non licere Dialibus egredi Italia neque aliud ius suum quam Martialium Quirinaliumque flaminum: porro, si hi duxissent provincias, cur Dialibus id vetitum? nulla de eo populi scita, non in libris caerimoniarum reperiri. saepe pontifices Dialia sacra fecisse si flamen valetudine aut munere publico impediretur. quinque et septuaginta annis post Cornelii Merulae caedem neminem suffectum neque tamen cessavisse religiones. quod si per tot annos possit non creari nullo sacrorum damno, quanto facilius afuturum ad unius anni proconsulare imperium? privatis olim simultatibus effectum ut a pontificibus maximis ire in provincias prohiberentur: nunc deum munere summum pontificum etiam summum hominum esse, non aemulationi, non odio aut privatis adfectionibus obnoxium.' "

3.65. Exequi sententias haud institui nisi insignis per honestum aut notabili dedecore, quod praecipuum munus annalium reor ne virtutes sileantur utque pravis dictis factisque ex posteritate et infamia metus sit. ceterum tempora illa adeo infecta et adulatione sordida fuere ut non modo primores civitatis, quibus claritudo sua obsequiis protegenda erat, sed omnes consulares, magna pars eorum qui praetura functi multique etiam pedarii senatores certatim exsurgerent foedaque et nimia censerent. memoriae proditur Tiberium, quoties curia egrederetur, Graecis verbis in hunc modum eloqui solitum 'o homines ad servitutem paratos!' scilicet etiam illum qui libertatem publicam nollet tam proiectae servientium patientiae taedebat." '
3.66. Paulatim dehinc ab indecoris ad infesta transgrediebantur. C. Silanum pro consule Asiae repetundarum a sociis postulatum Mamercus Scaurus e consularibus, Iunius Otho praetor, Bruttedius Niger aedilis simul corripiunt obiectantque violatum Augusti numen, spretam Tiberii maiestatem, Mamercus antiqua exempla iaciens, L. Cottam a Scipione Africano, Servium Galbam a Catone censorio, P. Rutilium a M. Scauro accusatos. videlicet Scipio et Cato talia ulciscebantur aut ille Scaurus, quem proavum suum obprobrium maiorum Mamercus infami opera dehonestabat. Iunio Othoni litterarium ludum exercere vetus ars fuit: mox Seiani potentia senator obscura initia impudentibus ausis propolluebat. Bruttedium artibus honestis copiosum et, si rectum iter pergeret, ad clarissima quaeque iturum festinatio extimulabat, dum aequalis, dein superiores, postremo suasmet ipse spes antire parat: quod multos etiam bonos pessum dedit, qui spretis quae tarda cum securitate praematura vel cum exitio properant.
4.6. Congruens crediderim recensere ceteras quoque rei publicae partis, quibus modis ad eam diem habitae sint, quoniam Tiberio mutati in deterius principatus initium ille annus attulit. iam primum publica negotia et privatorum maxima apud patres tractabantur, dabaturque primoribus disserere et in adulationem lapsos cohibebat ipse; mandabatque honores, nobilitatem maiorum, claritudinem militiae, inlustris domi artes spectando, ut satis constaret non alios potiores fuisse. sua consulibus, sua praetoribus species; minorum quoque magistratuum exercita potestas; legesque, si maiestatis quaestio eximeretur, bono in usu. at frumenta et pecuniae vectigales, cetera publicorum fructuum societatibus equitum Romanorum agitabantur. res suas Caesar spectatissimo cuique, quibusdam ignotis ex fama mandabat, semelque adsumpti tenebantur prorsus sine modo, cum plerique isdem negotiis insenescerent. plebes acri quidem annona fatigabatur, sed nulla in eo culpa ex principe: quin infecunditati terrarum aut asperis maris obviam iit, quantum impendio diligentiaque poterat. et ne provinciae novis oneribus turbarentur utque vetera sine avaritia aut crudelitate magistratuum tolerarent providebat: corporum verbera, ademptiones bonorum aberant. rari per Italiam Caesaris agri, modesta servitia, intra paucos libertos domus; ac si quando cum privatis disceptaret, forum et ius.
4.6. Haec atque talia audienti nihil quidem pravae cogitationis, sed interdum voces procedebant contumaces et inconsultae, quas adpositi custodes exceptas auctasque cum deferrent neque Neroni defendere daretur, diversae insuper sollicitudinum formae oriebantur. nam alius occursum eius vitare, quidam salutatione reddita statim averti, plerique inceptum sermonem abrumpere, insistentibus contra inridentibusque qui Seiano fautores aderant. enimvero Tiberius torvus aut falsum renidens vultu: seu loqueretur seu taceret iuvenis, crimen ex silentio, ex voce. ne nox quidem secura, cum uxor vigilias somnos suspiria matri Liviae atque illa Seiano patefaceret; qui fratrem quoque Neronis Drusum traxit in partis, spe obiecta principis loci si priorem aetate et iam labefactum demovisset. atrox Drusi ingenium super cupidinem potentiae et solita fratribus odia accendebatur invidia quod mater Agrippina promptior Neroni erat. neque tamen Seianus ita Drusum fovebat ut non in eum quoque semina futuri exitii meditaretur, gnarus praeferocem et insidiis magis opportunum.
4.13. At Tiberius nihil intermissa rerum cura, negotia pro solaciis accipiens, ius civium, preces sociorum tractabat; factaque auctore eo senatus consulta ut civitati Cibyraticae apud Asiam, Aegiensi apud Achaiam, motu terrae labefactis, subveniretur remissione tributi in triennium. et Vibius Serenus pro consule ulterioris Hispaniae de vi publica damnatus ob atrocitatem morum in insulam Amorgum deportatur. Carsidius Sacerdos, reus tamquam frumento hostem Tacfarinatem iuvisset, absolvitur, eiusdemque criminis C. Gracchus. hunc comitem exilii admodum infantem pater Sempronius in insulam Cercinam tulerat. illic adultus inter extorris et liberalium artium nescios, mox per Africam ac Siciliam mutando sordidas merces sustentabatur; neque tamen effugit magnae fortunae pericula. ac ni Aelius Lamia et L. Apronius qui Africam obtinuerant insontem protexissent, claritudine infausti generis et paternis adversis foret abstractus. 4.14. Is quoque annus legationes Graecarum civitatium habuit, Samiis Iunonis, Cois Aesculapii delubro vetustum asyli ius ut firmaretur petentibus. Samii decreto Amphictyonum nitebantur, quis praecipuum fuit rerum omnium iudicium, qua tempestate Graeci conditis per Asiam urbibus ora maris potiebantur. neque dispar apud Coos antiquitas, et accedebat meritum ex loco: nam civis Romanos templo Aesculapii induxerant, cum iussu regis Mithridatis apud cunctas Asiae insulas et urbes trucidarentur. variis dehinc et saepius inritis praetorum questibus, postremo Caesar de immodestia histrionum rettulit: multa ab iis in publicum seditiose, foeda per domos temptari; Oscum quondam ludicrum, levissimae apud vulgum oblectationis, eo flagitiorum et virium venisse ut auctoritate patrum coercendum sit. pulsi tum histriones Italia.
4.16. Sub idem tempus de flamine Diali in locum Servi Maluginensis defuncti legendo, simul roganda nova lege disseruit Caesar. nam patricios confarreatis parentibus genitos tres simul nominari, ex quis unus legeretur, vetusto more; neque adesse, ut olim, eam copiam, omissa confarreandi adsuetudine aut inter paucos retenta (pluresque eius rei causas adferebat, potissimam penes incuriam virorum feminarumque; accedere ipsius caerimoniae difficultates quae consulto vitarentur) et quoniam exiret e iure patrio qui id flamonium apisceretur quaeque in manum flaminis conveniret. ita medendum senatus decreto aut lege, sicut Augustus quaedam ex horrida illa antiquitate ad praesentem usum flexisset. igitur tractatis religionibus placitum instituto flaminum nihil demutari: sed lata lex qua flaminica Dialis sacrorum causa in potestate viri, cetera promisco feminarum iure ageret. et filius Maluginensis patri suffectus. utque glisceret dignatio sacerdotum atque ipsis promptior animus foret ad capessendas caerimonias decretum Corneliae virgini, quae in locum Scantiae capiebatur, sestertium viciens, et quotiens Augusta theatrum introisset ut sedes inter Vestalium consideret.
4.26. Dolabellae petenti abnuit triumphalia Tiberius, Seiano tribuens, ne Blaesi avunculi eius laus obsolesceret. sed neque Blaesus ideo inlustrior et huic negatus honor gloriam intendit: quippe minore exercitu insignis captivos, caedem ducis bellique confecti famam deportarat. sequebantur et Garamantum legati, raro in urbe visi, quos Tacfarinate caeso perculsa gens set culpae nescia ad satis facien- dum populo Romano miserat. cognitis dehinc Ptolemaei per id bellum studiis repetitus ex vetusto more honos missusque e senatoribus qui scipionem eburnum, togam pictam, antiqua patrum munera, daret regemque et socium atque amicum appellaret.' "
4.37. Per idem tempus Hispania ulterior missis ad senatum legatis oravit ut exemplo Asiae delubrum Tiberio matrique eius extrueret. qua occasione Caesar, validus alioqui spernendis honoribus et respondendum ratus iis quorum rumore arguebatur in ambitionem flexisse, huiusce modi orationem coepit: 'scio, patres conscripti, constantiam meam a plerisque desideratam quod Asiae civitatibus nuper idem istud petentibus non sim adversatus. ergo et prioris silentii defensionem et quid in futurum statuerim simul aperiam. cum divus Augustus sibi atque urbi Romae templum apud Pergamum sisti non prohibuisset, qui omnia facta dictaque eius vice legis observem, placitum iam exemplum promptius secutus sum quia cultui meo veneratio senatus adiungebatur. ceterum ut semel recepisse veniam habuerit, ita per omnis provincias effigie numinum sacrari ambitiosum, superbum; et vanescet Augusti honor si promiscis adulationibus vulgatur." "4.38. Ego me, patres conscripti, mortalem esse et hominum officia fungi satisque habere si locum principem impleam et vos testor et meminisse posteros volo; qui satis superque memoriae meae tribuent, ut maioribus meis dignum, rerum vestrarum providum, constantem in periculis, offensionum pro utilitate publica non pavidum credant. haec mihi in animis vestris templa, hae pulcherrimae effigies et mansurae. nam quae saxo struuntur, si iudicium posterorum in odium vertit, pro sepulchris spernuntur. proinde socios civis et deos ipsos precor, hos ut mihi ad finem usque vitae quietam et intellegentem humani divinique iuris mentem duint, illos ut, quandoque concessero, cum laude et bonis recordationibus facta atque famam nominis mei prosequantur.' perstititque posthac secretis etiam sermonibus aspernari talem sui cultum. quod alii modestiam, multi, quia diffideret, quidam ut degeneris animi interpretabantur. optumos quippe mortalium altissima cupere: sic Herculem et Liberum apud Graecos, Quirinum apud nos deum numero additos: melius Augustum, qui speraverit. cetera principibus statim adesse: unum insatiabiliter parandum, prosperam sui memoriam; nam contemptu famae contemni virtutes." '
4.43. Auditae dehinc Lacedaemoniorum et Messeniorum legationes de iure templi Dianae Limnatidis, quod suis a maioribus suaque in terra dicatum Lacedaemonii firmabant annalium memoria vatumque carminibus, sed Macedonis Philippi cum quo bellassent armis ademptum ac post C. Caesaris et M. Antonii sententia redditum. contra Messenii veterem inter Herculis posteros divisionem Peloponnesi protulere, suoque regi Denthaliatem agrum in quo id delubrum cessisse; monimentaque eius rei sculpta saxis et aere prisco manere. quod si vatum, annalium ad testimonia vocentur, pluris sibi ac locupletiores esse; neque Philippum potentia sed ex vero statuisse: idem regis Antigoni, idem imperatoris Mummii iudicium; sic Milesios permisso publice arbitrio, postremo Atidium Geminum praetorem Achaiae decrevisse. ita se