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131 results for "elements"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 88
28.30. "Thou shalt betroth a wife, and another man shall lie with her; thou shalt build a house, and thou shalt not dwell therein; thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not use the fruit thereof.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 102.13, 104.24-104.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four •philo of alexandria, on the four elements •animals, created from four elements Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 105; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 75, 76, 77, 78
102.13. "וְאַתָּה יְהוָה לְעוֹלָם תֵּשֵׁב וְזִכְרְךָ לְדֹר וָדֹר׃", 104.24. "מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃", 104.25. "זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם־רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם־גְּדֹלוֹת׃", 104.26. "שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃", 102.13. "But Thou, O LORD, sittest enthroned for ever; and Thy name is unto all generations.", 104.24. "How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures.", 104.25. "Yonder sea, great and wide, Therein are creeping things innumerable, Living creatures, both small and great.", 104.26. "There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7, 1.16, 1.20, 1.24-1.25, 1.27-1.28, 1.31, 2.1, 2.7, 2.9, 2.19, 4.2, 9.20, 11.7-11.9, 26.20-26.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •animals, created from four elements •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 94, 98, 101, 147; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 75, 77, 78
1.1. "וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃", 1.1. "בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃", 1.4. "וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃", 1.7. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃", 1.16. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃", 1.24. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְחַיְתוֹ־אֶרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃", 1.25. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃", 1.27. "וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃", 1.28. "וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 1.31. "וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃", 2.1. "וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃", 2.1. "וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃", 2.7. "וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃", 2.9. "וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃", 2.19. "וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃", 4.2. "וַתֹּסֶף לָלֶדֶת אֶת־אָחִיו אֶת־הָבֶל וַיְהִי־הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה׃", 4.2. "וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃", 11.7. "הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃", 11.8. "וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃", 11.9. "עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 26.21. "וַיַּחְפְּרוּ בְּאֵר אַחֶרֶת וַיָּרִיבוּ גַּם־עָלֶיהָ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמָהּ שִׂטְנָה׃", 26.22. "וַיַּעְתֵּק מִשָּׁם וַיַּחְפֹּר בְּאֵר אַחֶרֶת וְלֹא רָבוּ עָלֶיהָ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמָהּ רְחֹבוֹת וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־עַתָּה הִרְחִיב יְהוָה לָנוּ וּפָרִינוּ בָאָרֶץ׃", 26.23. "וַיַּעַל מִשָּׁם בְּאֵר שָׁבַע׃", 26.24. "וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ אַל־תִּירָא כִּי־אִתְּךָ אָנֹכִי וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ בַּעֲבוּר אַבְרָהָם עַבְדִּי׃", 26.25. "וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ וַיִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וַיֶּט־שָׁם אָהֳלוֹ וַיִּכְרוּ־שָׁם עַבְדֵי־יִצְחָק בְּאֵר׃", 26.26. "וַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ הָלַךְ אֵלָיו מִגְּרָר וַאֲחֻזַּת מֵרֵעֵהוּ וּפִיכֹל שַׂר־צְבָאוֹ׃", 26.27. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יִצְחָק מַדּוּעַ בָּאתֶם אֵלָי וְאַתֶּם שְׂנֵאתֶם אֹתִי וַתְּשַׁלְּחוּנִי מֵאִתְּכֶם׃", 26.28. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ רָאוֹ רָאִינוּ כִּי־הָיָה יְהוָה עִמָּךְ וַנֹּאמֶר תְּהִי נָא אָלָה בֵּינוֹתֵינוּ בֵּינֵינוּ וּבֵינֶךָ וְנִכְרְתָה בְרִית עִמָּךְ׃", 26.29. "אִם־תַּעֲשֵׂה עִמָּנוּ רָעָה כַּאֲשֶׁר לֹא נְגַעֲנוּךָ וְכַאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂינוּ עִמְּךָ רַק־טוֹב וַנְּשַׁלֵּחֲךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם אַתָּה עַתָּה בְּרוּךְ יְהוָה׃" 26.31. "וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּשָּׁבְעוּ אִישׁ לְאָחִיו וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם יִצְחָק וַיֵּלְכוּ מֵאִתּוֹ בְּשָׁלוֹם׃", 26.32. "וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיָּבֹאוּ עַבְדֵי יִצְחָק וַיַּגִּדוּ לוֹ עַל־אֹדוֹת הַבְּאֵר אֲשֶׁר חָפָרוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ מָצָאנוּ מָיִם׃", 1.1. "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.", 1.4. "And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.", 1.7. "And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.", 1.16. "And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars.", 1.20. "And God said: ‘Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.’", 1.24. "And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so.", 1.25. "And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.", 1.27. "And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.", 1.28. "And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’", 1.31. "And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.", 2.1. "And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.", 2.7. "Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.", 2.9. "And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.", 2.19. "And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof.", 4.2. "And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.", 9.20. "And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.", 11.7. "Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’", 11.8. "So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city.", 11.9. "Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.", 26.20. "And the herdmen of Gerar strove with Isaac’s herdmen, saying: ‘The water is ours.’ And he called the name of the well Esek; because they contended with him.", 26.21. "And they digged another well, and they strove for that also. And he called the name of it Sitnah.", 26.22. "And he removed from thence, and digged another well; and for that they strove not. And he called the name of it Rehoboth; and he said: ‘For now the LORD hath made room for us, and we shall be fruitful in the land.’", 26.23. "And he went up from thence to Beer-sheba.", 26.24. "And the LORD appeared unto him the same night, and said: ‘I am the God of Abraham thy father. Fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for My servant Abraham’s sake.’", 26.25. "And he builded an altar there, and called upon the name of the LORD, and pitched his tent there; and there Isaac’s servants digged a well.", 26.26. "Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath his friend, and Phicol the captain of his host.", 26.27. "And Isaac said unto them: ‘Wherefore are ye come unto me, seeing ye hate me, and have sent me away from you?’", 26.28. "And they said: ‘We saw plainly that the LORD was with thee; and we said: Let there now be an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covet with thee;", 26.29. "that thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace; thou art now the blessed of the LORD.’" 26.30. "And he made them a feast, and they did eat and drink.", 26.31. "And they rose up betimes in the morning, and swore one to another; and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace.", 26.32. "And it came to pass the same day, that Isaac’s servants came, and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him: ‘We have found water.’",
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.13, 11.29, 12.6, 19.23-19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 234; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 77, 220
11.13. "וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה׃", 11.29. "וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 12.6. "וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃", 19.23. "וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃", 19.24. "וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃", 11.13. "And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;", 11.29. "And these are they which are unclean unto you among the swarming things that swarm upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kinds,", 12.6. "And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest.", 19.23. "And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten.", 19.24. "And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 28.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 30
28.15. "וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת לַיהוָה עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵעָשֶׂה וְנִסְכּוֹ׃", 28.15. "And one he-goat for a sin-offering unto the LORD; it shall be offered beside the continual burnt-offering, and the drink-offering thereof.",
6. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 163
7. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 163
8. Anaxagoras, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 138
9. Empedocles, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Van der Horst (2014), Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 105
10. Hippocrates, Nature of Man, 4 43 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 230
11. Hippocrates, On The Diseases of Women, 336 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, theory of four Found in books: Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 336
12. Hippocrates, On Regimen In Acute Diseases, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
13. Philolaus of Croton, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Van der Horst (2014), Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 105
14. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 173
15. Plato, Epinomis, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 111
984a. ὑπολαβεῖν γεγονέναι, θεῶν αὐτῶν ἐργασαμένων· οὐ γὰρ ἀνοήτων γε οὐδὲ βραχέος ἀξίων, ἀλλʼ ὅπερ εἰρήκαμεν, τούτων ἡμῖν θάτερα θετέα, τὰ δὲ τεθέντα τιμητέον πάντων ἀγαλμάτων διαφερόντως· οὐ γὰρ μήποτε φανῇ καλλίω καὶ κοινότερα συμπάντων ἀνθρώπων ἀγάλματα, οὐδʼ ἐν διαφέρουσιν τόποις ἱδρυμένα, καθαριότητι καὶ σεμνότητι καὶ συμπάσῃ 984a. or suppose them to be images produced as likenesses of the gods, creations of the gods themselves. For they are the work of no mindless or inconsiderable beings but, as we have said, we must class them as one or other of these things; and, if classed as the latter, we must honor them far above all images: for never will fairer or more generally-known images be found among all mankind, none established in more various places, more pre-eminent in purity, majesty, and
16. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 109
202e. μεταξύ ἐστι θεοῦ τε καὶ θνητοῦ. 202e. Through it are conveyed all divination and priestcraft concerning sacrifice and ritual
17. Hippocrates, The Aphorism, 2.34, 3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mixture, of the four primary elements Found in books: Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 288
18. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 138
19. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 133
113d. τούτων δὲ οὕτως πεφυκότων, ἐπειδὰν ἀφίκωνται οἱ τετελευτηκότες εἰς τὸν τόπον οἷ ὁ δαίμων ἕκαστον κομίζει, πρῶτον μὲν διεδικάσαντο οἵ τε καλῶς καὶ ὁσίως βιώσαντες καὶ οἱ μή. καὶ οἳ μὲν ἂν δόξωσι μέσως βεβιωκέναι, πορευθέντες ἐπὶ τὸν Ἀχέροντα , ἀναβάντες ἃ δὴ αὐτοῖς ὀχήματά ἐστιν, ἐπὶ τούτων ἀφικνοῦνται εἰς τὴν λίμνην, καὶ ἐκεῖ οἰκοῦσί τε καὶ καθαιρόμενοι τῶν τε ἀδικημάτων διδόντες δίκας ἀπολύονται, εἴ τίς τι ἠδίκηκεν, τῶν τε εὐεργεσιῶν 113d. Such is the nature of these things. Now when the dead have come to the place where each is led by his genius, first they are judged and sentenced, as they have lived well and piously, or not. And those who are found to have lived neither well nor ill, go to the Acheron and, embarking upon vessels provided for them, arrive in them at the lake; there they dwell and are purified, and if they have done any wrong they are absolved by paying the penalty for their wrong doings,
20. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 129
21. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 163
22. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 168
23. Plato, Sophist, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 157
24. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 260
25. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fire, one of the four elements Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
26. Aristotle, Movement of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
27. Aristotle, Physics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Carter (2019), Aristotle on Earlier Greek Psychology: The Science of Soul, 68
28. Aristotle, Meteorology, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 30
29. Aristotle, History of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 220
30. Aristotle, Generation of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
31. Aristotle, Soul, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Carter (2019), Aristotle on Earlier Greek Psychology: The Science of Soul, 68
32. Aristotle, Categories, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
33. Aristotle, Heavens, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Carter (2019), Aristotle on Earlier Greek Psychology: The Science of Soul, 68; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 30
34. Diocles Peparethius, Fragments, 176 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four, of foodstuffs Found in books: van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 83
35. Varro, Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Van der Horst (2014), Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 105
36. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.18, 3.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements (four) Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 129
2.18. Yet even man's intelligence must lead us to infer the existence of a mind in the universe, and that a mind of surpassing ability, and in fact divine. Otherwise, whence did man 'pick up' (as Socrates says in Xenophon) the intelligence that he possesses? If anyone asks the question, whence do we get the moisture and the heat diffused throughout the body, and the actual earthy substance of the flesh, and lastly the breath of life within us, it is manifest that we have derived the one from earth, the other from water, and the other from the air which we inhale in breathing. But where did we find, whence did we abstract, that other part of us which surpasses all of these, I mean our reason, or, if you like to employ several terms to denote it, our intelligence, deliberation, thought, wisdom? Is the world to contain each of the other elements but not this one, the most precious of them all? Yet beyond question nothing exists among all things that is superior to the world, nothing that is more excellent or more beautiful; and not merely does nothing superior to it exist, but nothing superior can even be conceived. And if there be nothing superior to reason and wisdom, these faculties must necessarily be possessed by that being which we admit to be superior to all others. 3.27. "But then you tell me that Socrates in Xenophon asks the question, if the world contains no rational soul, where did we pick up ours? And I too ask the question, where did we get the faculty of speech, the knowledge of numbers, the art of music? unless indeed we suppose that the sun holds conversation with the moon when their courses approximate, or that the world makes a harmonious music, as Pythagoras believes. These faculties, Balbus, the gifts of nature — not nature 'walking in craftsmanlike manner' as Zeno says (and what this means we will consider in a moment), but nature by its own motions and mutations imparting motion and activity to all things.
37. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 100
1.28. Just as pleasure and pain are two plants growing from the body and the soul, so there are many offshoots of these plants,
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 93, 101
127. And for what reason is it built, except to serve as a shelter and protection? This is the object. Now passing on from these particular buildings, consider the greatest house or city, namely, this world, for you will find that God is the cause of it, by whom it was made. That the materials are the four elements, of which it is composed; that the instrument is the word of God, by means of which it was made; and the object of the building you will find to be the display of the goodness of the Creator. This is the discriminating opinion of men fond of truth, who desire to attain to true and sound knowledge; but they who say that they have gotten anything by means of God, conceive that the cause is the instrument, the Creator namely, and the instrument the cause, namely, the human mind. 127. And if their connections and families are very numerous, then by reason of their intermarriages and the mutual connections formed with different houses the iniquity and injury will proceed and infect the whole city all around.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 147
37. But this tree promises not only food but likewise immortality; for Moses tells us, that the tree of life was planted in the midst of the paradise, being, in fact, goodness surrounded as by a body-guard by all the particular virtues, and by the actions in accordance with them; for it is virtue which received the inheritance of the most central and excellent place in the soul.
40. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 134, 140, 153-154, 205, 22-23, 283, 152 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 99
41. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.4, 2.67, 4.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 99, 105; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
42. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 157-159, 156 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 234
156. for he commands the young plants to be nursed carefully for the space of three years, while the husbandman prunes away the superfluous off-shoots, in order that the threes may not be weighed down and exhausted by them, in which case the fruit borne by them would become small and weak through insufficiency of nourishment, and he must also dig round it and clear the ground, in order that no injurious plant may grow near it, so as to hinder its growth. And he does not allow the fruit to be gathered out of season at any one's pleasure, not only because, if that were done, it would be imperfect and produced from imperfect trees (for so also animals which are not perfect themselves cannot produce a perfect offspring), but also because the young plants themselves would be injured, and would in a manner be bowed down and kept as creepers on the earth, by being prevented from shooting up into straight and stout trunks.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.81, 1.277 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 93, 237
1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made. 1.277. And this command is a symbol of nothing else but of the fact that in the eyes of God it is not the number of things sacrificed that is accounted valuable, but the purity of the rational spirit of the sacrificer. Unless, indeed, one can suppose that a judge who is anxious to pronounce a holy judgment will never receive gifts from any of those whose conduct comes before his tribunal, or that, if he does receive such presents, he will be liable to an accusation of corruption; and that a good man will not receive gifts from a wicked person, not even though he may be poor and the other rich, and he himself perhaps in actual want of what he would so receive; and yet that God can be corrupted by bribes, who is most all-sufficient for himself and who has no need of any thing created; who, being himself the first and most perfect good thing, the everlasting fountain of wisdom, and justice, and of every virtue, rejects the gifts of the wicked.
44. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 191, 166 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 105
166. On which account an oracle of the all-merciful God has been given, full of gentleness, which shadows forth good hopes to those who love instruction, in these terms: "I will never leave thee, nor forsake Thee." For when the chains of the soul, by which it has been used to be held in bondage, are loosened, then the greatest of all calamities follows, namely, the being deserted by God, who has fastened chains which can never be broken round the universe, namely, his own powers, with which he binds everything, willing that it shall never more be released.
45. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.11.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocles, and four elements Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 141
1.11.6.  And so it is out of the sun and moon that the whole physical body of the universe is made complete; and as for the five parts just named of these bodies — the spirit, the fire, the dry, as well as the wet, and, lastly, the air-like — just as in the case of a man we enumerate head and hands and feet and the other parts, so in the same way the body of the universe is composed in its entirety of these parts.
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 153-154, 171, 21-22, 3, 47-55, 142 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Van der Horst (2014), Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 105
142. And we shall be only saying what is the plain truth, if we call the original founder of our race not only the first man, but also the first citizen of the world. For the world was his house and his city, while he had as yet no structure made by hands and wrought out of the materials of wood and stone. And in this world he lived as in his own country, in all safety, removed from any fear, inasmuch as he had been thought worthy of the dominion over all earthly things; and had everything that was mortal crouching before him, and taught to obey him as their master, or else constrained to do so by superior force, and living himself surrounded by all the joys which peace can bestow without a struggle and without reproach. L.
47. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 3.101-3.290 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses, four elements Found in books: Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 106
3.101. Ordior a cultu; cultis bene Liber ab uvis 3.102. rend= 3.103. Forma dei munus: forma quota quaeque superbit? 3.104. rend= 3.105. Cura dabit faciem; facies neglecta peribit, 3.106. rend= 3.107. Corpora si veteres non sic coluere puellae, 3.108. rend= 3.109. Si fuit Andromache tunicas induta valentes, 3.110. rend= 3.111. Scilicet Aiaci coniunx ornata venires, 3.112. rend= 3.113. Simplicitas rudis ante fuit: nunc aurea Roma est, 3.114. rend= 3.115. Aspice quae nunc sunt Capitolia, quaeque fuerunt: 3.116. rend= 3.117. Curia, concilio quae nunc dignissima tanto, 3.118. rend= 3.119. Quae nunc sub Phoebo ducibusque Palatia fulgent, 3.120. rend= 3.121. Prisca iuvent alios: ego me nunc denique natum 3.122. rend= 3.123. Non quia nunc terrae lentum subducitur aurum, 3.124. rend= 3.125. Nec quia decrescunt effosso marmore montes, 3.126. rend= 3.127. Sed quia cultus adest, nec nostros mansit in annos 3.128. rend= 3.129. Vos quoque nec caris aures onerate lapillis, 3.130. rend= 3.131. Nec prodite graves insuto vestibus auro, 3.132. rend= 3.133. Munditiis capimur: non sint sine lege capilli: 3.134. rend= 3.135. Nec genus ornatus unum est: quod quamque decebit 3.136. rend= 3.137. Longa probat facies capitis discrimina puri: 3.138. rend= 3.139. Exiguum summa nodum sibi fronte relinqui, 3.140. rend= 3.141. Alterius crines umero iactentur utroque: 3.142. rend= 3.143. Altera succinctae religetur more Dianae, 3.144. rend= 3.145. Huic decet inflatos laxe iacuisse capillos: 3.146. rend= 3.147. Hanc placet ornari testudine Cyllenea: 3.148. rend= 3.149. Sed neque ramosa numerabis in ilice glandes, 3.150. rend= 3.151. Nec mihi tot positus numero conprendere fas est: 3.152. rend= 3.153. Et neglecta decet multas coma; saepe iacere 3.154. rend= 3.155. Ars casum simulat; sic capta vidit ut urbe 3.156. rend= 3.157. Talem te Bacchus Satyris clamantibus euhoe 3.158. rend= 3.159. O quantum indulget vestro natura decori, 3.160. rend= 3.161. Nos male detegimur, raptique aetate capilli, 3.162. rend= 3.163. Femina canitiem Germanis inficit herbis, 3.164. rend= 3.165. Femina procedit densissima crinibus emptis, 3.166. rend= 3.167. Nec rubor est emisse; palam venire videmus 3.168. rend= 3.169. Quid de veste loquar? Nec vos, segmenta, requiro 3.170. rend= 3.171. Cum tot prodierint pretio leviore colores, 3.172. rend= 3.173. Aëris, ecce, color, tum cum sine nubibus aër, 3.174. rend= 3.175. Ecce, tibi similis, quae quondam Phrixon et Hellen 3.176. rend= 3.177. Hic undas imitatur, habet quoque nomen ab undis: 3.178. rend= 3.179. Ille crocum simulat: croceo velatur amictu, 3.180. rend= 3.181. Hic Paphias myrtos, hic purpureas amethystos, 3.182. rend= 3.183. Nec glandes, Amarylli, tuae, nec amygdala desunt; 3.184. rend= 3.185. Quot nova terra parit flores, cum vere tepenti 3.186. rend= 3.187. Lana tot aut plures sucos bibit; elige certos: 3.188. rend= 3.189. Pulla decent niveas: Briseïda pulla decebant: 3.190. rend= 3.191. Alba decent fuscas: albis, Cepheï, placebas: 3.192. rend= 3.193. Quam paene admonui, ne trux caper iret in alas, 3.194. rend= 3.195. Sed non Caucasea doceo de rupe puellas, 3.196. rend= 3.197. Quid si praecipiam ne fuscet inertia dentes, 3.198. rend= 3.199. Scitis et inducta candorem quaerere creta: 3.200. rend= 3.201. Arte supercilii confinia nuda repletis, 3.202. rend= 3.203. Nec pudor est oculos tenui signare favilla, 3.204. rend= 3.205. Est mihi, quo dixi vestrae medicamina formae, 3.206. rend= 3.207. Hinc quoque praesidium laesae petitote figurae; 3.208. rend= 3.209. Non tamen expositas mensa deprendat amator 3.210. rend= 3.211. Quem non offendat toto faex inlita vultu, 3.212. rend= 3.213. Oesypa quid redolent? quamvis mittatur Athenis 3.214. rend= 3.215. Nec coram mixtas cervae sumpsisse medullas, 3.216. rend= 3.217. Ista dabunt formam, sed erunt deformia visu: 3.218. rend= 3.219. Quae nunc nomen habent operosi signa Myronis 3.220. rend= 3.221. Anulus ut fiat, primo conliditur aurum; 3.222. rend= 3.223. Cum fieret, lapis asper erat: nunc, nobile signum, 3.224. rend= 3.225. Tu quoque dum coleris, nos te dormire putemus; 3.226. rend= 3.227. Cur mihi nota tuo causa est candoris in ore? 3.228. rend= 3.229. Multa viros nescire decet; pars maxima rerum 3.230. rend= 3.231. Aurea quae splendent ornato signa theatro, 3.232. rend= 3.233. Sed neque ad illa licet populo, nisi facta, venire, 3.234. rend= 3.235. At non pectendos coram praebere capillos, 3.236. rend= 3.237. Illo praecipue ne sis morosa caveto 3.238. rend= 3.239. Tuta sit ornatrix; odi, quae sauciat ora 3.240. rend= 3.241. Devovet, ut tangit, dominae caput illa, simulque 3.242. rend= 3.243. Quae male crinita est, custodem in limine ponat, 3.244. rend= 3.245. Dictus eram subito cuidam venisse puellae: 3.246. rend= 3.247. Hostibus eveniat tam foedi causa pudoris, 3.248. rend= 3.249. Turpe pecus mutilum, turpis sine gramine campus, 3.250. rend= 3.251. Non mihi venistis, Semele Ledeve, docendae, 3.252. rend= 3.253. Aut Helene, quam non stulte, Menelaë, reposcis, 3.254. rend= 3.255. Turba docenda venit, pulchrae turpesque puellae: 3.256. rend= 3.257. Formosae non artis opem praeceptaque quaerunt: 3.258. rend= 3.259. Cum mare compositum est, securus navita cessat: 3.260. rend= 3.261. Rara tamen mendo facies caret: occule mendas, 3.262. rend= 3.263. Si brevis es, sedeas, ne stans videare sedere: 3.264. rend= 3.265. Hic quoque, ne possit fieri mensura cubantis, 3.266. rend= 3.267. Quae nimium gracilis, pleno velamina filo 3.268. rend= 3.269. Pallida purpureis spargat sua corpora virgis, 3.270. rend= 3.271. Pes malus in nivea semper celetur aluta: 3.272. rend= 3.273. Conveniunt tenues scapulis analemptrides altis: 3.274. rend= 3.275. Exiguo signet gestu, quodcumque loquetur, 3.276. rend= 3.277. Cui gravis oris odor numquam ieiuna loquatur, 3.278. rend= 3.279. Si niger aut ingens aut non erit ordine natus 3.280. rend= 3.281. Quis credat? discunt etiam ridere puellae, 3.282. rend= 3.283. Sint modici rictus, parvaeque utrimque lacunae, 3.284. rend= 3.285. Nec sua perpetuo contendant ilia risu, 3.286. rend= 3.287. Est, quae perverso distorqueat ora cachinno: 3.288. rend= 3.289. Illa sonat raucum quiddam atque inamabile ridet, 3.290. rend=
48. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 34 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 110
49. Ovid, Fasti, 1.63-1.64, 1.105-1.112, 1.349-1.350, 1.384 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses, four elements Found in books: Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 176, 310
1.63. Ecce tibi faustum, Germanice, nuntiat annum 1.64. inque meo primus carmine Ianus adest. 1.105. lucidus hic aer et quae tria corpora restant, 1.106. ignis, aqua et tellus, unus acervus erat. 1.107. ut semel haec rerum secessit lite suarum 1.108. inque novas abiit massa soluta domos, 1.109. flamma petit altum, propior locus aera cepit, 1.110. sederunt medio terra fretumque solo. 1.111. tunc ego, qui fueram globus et sine imagine moles, 1.112. in faciem redii dignaque membra deo. 1.349. prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae 1.350. ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes; 1.384. lanigerumque pecus ruricolaeque boves? 1.63. See how Janus appears first in my song 1.64. To announce a happy year for you, Germanicus. 1.105. The clear air, and the three other elements, 1.106. Fire, water, earth, were heaped together as one. 1.107. When, through the discord of its components, 1.108. The mass dissolved, and scattered to new regions, 1.109. Flame found the heights: air took a lower place, 1.110. While earth and sea sank to the furthest depth. 1.111. Then I, who was a shapeless mass, a ball, 1.112. Took on the appearance, and noble limbs of a god. 1.349. Ceres was first to delight in the blood of the greedy sow, 1.350. Her crops avenged by the rightful death of the guilty creature, 1.384. Broken to the plough, lay their lives on the altar?
50. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5.341, 5.427-5.429, 5.474-5.486 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses, four elements Found in books: Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 176
5.341. “Prima Ceres unco glaebam dimovit aratro, 5.427. mente gerit tacita lacrimisque absumitur omnis, 5.428. et quarum fuerat magnum modo numen, in illas 5.429. ossa pati flexus, ungues posuisse rigorem; 5.474. Nescit adhuc, ubi sit: terras tamen increpat omnes 5.475. ingratasque vocat nec frugum munere dignas, 5.476. Trinacriam ante alias, in qua vestigia damni 5.477. repperit. Ergo illic saeva vertentia glaebas 5.478. fregit aratra manu, parilique irata colonos 5.479. ruricolasque boves leto dedit arvaque iussit 5.480. fallere depositum vitiataque semina fecit. 5.481. Fertilitas terrae latum vulgata per orbem 5.482. falsa iacet: primis segetes moriuntur in herbis, 5.483. et modo sol nimius, nimius modo corripit imber 5.484. sideraque ventique nocent, avidaeque volucres 5.485. semina iacta legunt; lolium tribulique fatigant 5.486. triticeas messes et inexpugnabile gramen.
51. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 73 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 100
73. But, some one may say, what is the use of these holes, unless the invisible mind, like the exhibition of a puppet show, does from within prompt its own powers, which at one time losing and allowing to roam, and at another time holding back and restraining by force? He gives sometimes an harmonious motion, and sometimes perfect quiet to his puppets. And having this example at home, you will easily comprehend that being, the understanding of whom you are so anxious to arrive at;
52. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 15, 75 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 105
75. Moreover, if we saw that there was no such thing as any eternal nature to be seen, those who assert the liability of the world to destruction would not appear to be so guilty of disparaging the world without any excuse, since they would have no example whatever of anything being everlasting; but since fate, according to the doctrine of those who have investigated the principles of natural philosophy most accurately, is a thing without any beginning and without any end, connecting all the causes of everything, as to leave no break and no interruption, why may we not in like manner also affirm of the nature of the world that it subsists for a great length of time, being, as it were, an arrangement of what is otherwise in no order, a harmony of what is otherwise wholly destitute of such harmony, an agreement of what is otherwise without agreement, a union of things previously separated, a condition of stocks and stones, a nature of things growing from seed and of trees, a life of all animals, the mind and reason of men, and the most perfect virtue of virtuous men? But if the nature of the world is uncreated and indestructible, then it is plain that the world is held together and powerfully preserved by an everlasting indissoluble chain.
53. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 10-18, 7-9, 6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 107
6. "And when the angels of God saw the daughters of men that they were beautiful, they took unto themselves wives of all of them whom they Chose." Those beings, whom other philosophers call demons, Moses usually calls angels; and they are souls hovering in the air.
54. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 14, 158, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 94
4. For a man without any skill may labour at taking care of the land; but if a man is called a husbandman, he, from his mere name, is believed to be no unskilful man, but a farmer of experience, inasmuch as his name (geoµrgos) has been derived from agricultural skill (geoµrgikeµ techneµ), of which he is the namesake.
55. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.39, 1.133-1.141 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 107, 109, 111, 147
1.39. Perhaps therefore some petty cavilling critics will imagine that all this statement about the digging of the wells is a superfluous piece of prolixity on the part of the lawgiver: but those who deserve a larger classification, being citizens not of some petty state but of the wide world, being men of more perfect wisdom, will know well that the real question is not about the four wells, but about the parts of the universe that the men who are gifted with sight, and are fond of contemplation exercise their powers of investigation; namely, about the earth, the water, the air, and the heaven. 1.133. Such then may be said, by way of preface, to the discussion of that description of visions which are sent from God. But it is time now to turn to the subject itself, and to investigate, with accuracy, every portion of it. The scripture therefore says, "And he dreamed a dream. And behold a ladder was planted firmly on the ground, the head of which reached to heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending along It." 1.134. By the ladder in this thing, which is called the world, is figuratively understood the air, the foundation of which is the earth, and the head is the heaven; for the large interior space, which being extended in every direction, reaches from the orb of the moon, which is described as the most remote of the order in heaven, but the nearest to us by those who contemplate sublime objects, down to the earth, which is the lowest of such bodies, is the air. 1.135. This air is the abode of incorporeal souls, since it seemed good to the Creator of the universe to fill all the parts of the world with living creatures. On this account he prepared the terrestrial animals for the earth, the aquatic animals for the sea and for the rivers, and the stars for the heaven; for every one of these bodies is not merely a living animal, but is also properly described as the very purest and most universal mind extending through the universe; so that there are living creatures in that other section of the universe, the air. And if these things are not comprehensible by the outward senses, what of that? For the soul is also invisible. 1.136. And yet it is probable that the air should nourish living animals even more than the land or the water. Why so? Because it is the air which has given vitality to those animals which live on the earth and in the water. For the Creator of the universe formed the air so that it should be the habit of those bodies which are immovable, and the nature of those which are moved in an invisible manner, and the soul of such as are able to exert an impetus and visible sense of their own. 1.137. Is it not then absurd that that element, by means of which the other elements have been filled with vitality, should itself be destitute of living things? Therefore let no one deprive the most excellent nature of living creatures of the most excellent of those elements which surrounds the earth; that is to say, of the air. For not only is it not alone deserted by all things besides, but rather, like a populous city, it is full of imperishable and immortal citizens, souls equal in number to the stars. 1.138. Now of these souls some descend upon the earth with a view to be bound up in mortal bodies, those namely which are most nearly connected with the earth, and which are lovers of the body. But some soar upwards, being again distinguished according to the definitions and times which have been appointed by nature. 1.139. of these, those which are influenced by a desire for mortal life, and which have been familiarised to it, again return to it. But others, condemning the body of great folly and trifling, have pronounced it a prison and a grave, and, flying from it as from a house of correction or a tomb, have raised themselves aloft on light wings towards the aether, and have devoted their whole lives to sublime speculations. 1.140. There are others, again, the purest and most excellent of all, which have received greater and more divine intellects, never by any chance desiring any earthly thing whatever, but being as it were lieutets of the Ruler of the universe, as though they were the eyes and ears of the great king, beholding and listening to everything. 1.141. Now philosophers in general are wont to call these demons, but the sacred scripture calls them angels, using a name more in accordance with nature. For indeed they do report (diangellousi) the injunctions of the father to his children, and the necessities of the children to the father.
56. Ovid, Epistulae Ex Ponto, 1.8.54 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses, four elements Found in books: Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 176
57. Mishnah, Kilayim, 17.13-17.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •animals, created from four elements Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 220
58. Plutarch, On Common Conceptions Against The Stoics, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
59. Plutarch, On Stoic Self-Contradictions, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
60. Plutarch, Placita Philosophorum (874D-911C), None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Van der Horst (2014), Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 105
61. Seneca The Younger, Natural Questions, 3.12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocles, and four elements Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 141
62. Cornutus, De Natura Deorum, 1.1-1.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 100
63. Tosefta, Kilayim, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •animals, created from four elements Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 220
64. Pseudo-Galenus, Definitiones Medicae, 122 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 110
65. Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Mixture, 3.216, 10.224 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
66. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.487 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
67. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 1.5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 106
68. Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism, 15.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 99
69. Hierocles Stoicus, , 1.5-1.33 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fire, one of the four elements Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
70. Aelian, Nature of Animals, 2.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •philo of alexandria, on the four elements •animals, created from four elements Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 76
71. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •animals, created from four elements Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 220
72. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 3.15, 4.30 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocles, and four elements Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 141
73. Apuleius, On The God of Socrates, 10-11, 8-9, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 155
74. Apuleius, Apology, 64 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocles, and four elements Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 141
75. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 8.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •empedocles, and four elements Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 141
8.3. To Sparsus. You hint to me that the book I sent you last pleases you more than any of my previous works. A very learned friend of mine is of precisely the same opinion, and that makes me think that neither of you is mistaken, for it is hardly possible that you both are wrong. Then again, I like to flatter myself you are right, for it is my wish that people should think my last book is always the most perfect, and for that reason I even now prefer - in comparison with the book I sent you - the speech which I lately published, and which I shall send on to you as soon as I find a trustworthy messenger. I have raised your expectations to such a pitch that I am afraid the speech will disappoint you when you pick it up to read, but in the meantime look out for its coming, as though it were sure to please you. After all, perhaps it will. Farewell.
76. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
77. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 9.78-9.79 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 88
78. Sextus Empiricus, Against Those In The Disciplines, 7.234, 9.71-9.72, 9.110 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
79. Plotinus, Enneads, a b c d\n0 4.8 [6] 4.8 [6] 4 8 [6] (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 246
80. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
7.136. In the beginning he was by himself; he transformed the whole of substance through air into water, and just as in animal generation the seed has a moist vehicle, so in cosmic moisture God, who is the seminal reason of the universe, remains behind in the moisture as such an agent, adapting matter to himself with a view to the next stage of creation. Thereupon he created first of all the four elements, fire, water, air, earth. They are discussed by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, and by Archedemus in a work On Elements. An element is defined as that from which particular things first come to be at their birth and into which they are finally resolved.
81. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.48 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
4.48. In the next place, as if he had devoted himself solely to the manifestation of his hatred and dislike of the Jewish and Christian doctrine, he says: The more modest of Jewish and Christian writers give all these things an allegorical meaning; and, Because they are ashamed of these things, they take refuge in allegory. Now one might say to him, that if we must admit fables and fictions, whether written with a concealed meaning or with any other object, to be shameful narratives when taken in their literal acceptation, of what histories can this be said more truly than of the Grecian? In these histories, gods who are sons castrate the gods who are their fathers, and gods who are parents devour their own children, and a goddess-mother gives to the father of gods and men a stone to swallow instead of his own son, and a father has intercourse with his daughter, and a wife binds her own husband, having as her allies in the work the brother of the fettered god and his own daughter! But why should I enumerate these absurd stories of the Greeks regarding their gods, which are most shameful in themselves, even though invested with an allegorical meaning? (Take the instance) where Chrysippus of Soli, who is considered to be an ornament of the Stoic sect, on account of his numerous and learned treatises, explains a picture at Samos, in which Juno was represented as committing unspeakable abominations with Jupiter. This reverend philosopher says in his treatises, that matter receives the spermatic words of the god, and retains them within herself, in order to ornament the universe. For in the picture at Samos Juno represents matter, and Jupiter god. Now it is on account of these, and of countless other similar fables, that we would not even in word call the God of all things Jupiter, or the sun Apollo, or the moon Diana. But we offer to the Creator a worship which is pure, and speak with religious respect of His noble works of creation, not contaminating even in word the things of God; approving of the language of Plato in the Philebus, who would not admit that pleasure was a goddess, so great is my reverence, Protarchus, he says, for the very names of the gods. We verily entertain such reverence for the name of God, and for His noble works of creation, that we would not, even under pretext of an allegorical meaning, admit any fable which might do injury to the young.
82. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •animals, created from four elements Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 75
127a. ת"ל (ויקרא יא, כט) השורץ כל מקום ששורץ,או אינו אלא השורץ (יכול) כל המשריץ יטמא שאין משריץ לא יטמא אוציא עכבר שחציו בשר וחציו אדמה שאין פרה ורבה,ודין הוא טימא בחולדה וטימא בעכבר מה חולדה כל ששמה חולדה אף עכבר כל ששמו עכבר אביא עכבר שחציו בשר וחציו אדמה,או כלך לדרך זו מה חולדה פרה ורבה אף עכבר פרה ורבה ת"ל (ויקרא יא, כט) בשרץ,אמר ליה ההוא מדרבנן לרבא אימא בשרץ לאתויי עכבר שחציו בשר וחציו אדמה השורץ כל שהוא שורץ ואפילו עכבר שבים ואי משום על הארץ על הארץ יטמא ירד לים לא יטמא,אמר ליה ומאחר דשויתיה לים מקום טומאה מה לי הכא מה לי הכא,והאי על הארץ מיבעי ליה להוציא ספק טומאה צפה דא"ר יצחק בר אבדימי על הארץ להוציא ספק טומאה צפה,תרתי על הארץ כתיבי,ת"ר (ויקרא יא, כט) הצב למינהו להביא הערוד וכן הנפילים וסלמנדרא,וכשהיה ר"ע מגיע לפסוק זה אומר (תהלים קד, כד) מה רבו מעשיך ה' יש לך בריות גדלות בים ויש לך בריות גדלות ביבשה שבים אילמלי עולות ביבשה מיד מתות שביבשה אילמלי יורדות לים מיד מתות,יש לך בריות גדלות באור ויש לך בריות גדלות באויר שבאור אילמלי עולות לאויר מיד מתות שבאויר אילמלי יורדות לאור מיד מתות מה רבו מעשיך ה',תנו רבנן כל שיש ביבשה יש בים חוץ מן החולדה אמר ר' זירא מאי קראה (תהלים מט, ב) האזינו כל יושבי חלד,אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע ביברי דנרש אינן מן הישוב,אמר רב פפא בשמתא נרש תרביה משכיה ואליתיה (ירמיהו כב, כט) ארץ ארץ ארץ שמעי דבר ה' אמר רב פפא לא אבה נרש שמוע דבר ה',אמר רב גידל אמר רב נרשאה נשקיך מני ככיך נהר פקודאה לוייך מגלימא שפירא דחזי עלך פומבדיתאה לוייך אשני אושפיזך,אמר רב הונא בר תורתא פעם אחת הלכתי לוועד וראיתי נחש שהוא כרוך על הצב לימים יצא ערוד מביניהם,וכשבאתי לפני ר' שמעון החסיד אמר לי אמר הקב"ה הם הביאו בריה שלא בראתי בעולמי אף אני אביא עליהם בריה שלא בראתי בעולמי,והאמר מר כל שתשמישן ועיבורן שוה יולדין ומגדלין זה מזה וכל שאין תשמישן ועיבורן שוה אין יולדין ומגדלין זה מזה,אמר רב נס בתוך נס האי פורענותא הוא מאי נס בתוך נס לפורענות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האבר והבשר המדולדלין בבהמה מטמאין טומאת אוכלין במקומן וצריכין הכשר 127a. Therefore, b the verse states: “That creep,” /b indicating that creeping animals impart impurity b anywhere that /b they b creep, /b including the sea, as these animals can float in the sea. Consequently, the phrase “upon the earth” is understood as indicating that a sea mouse does not impart impurity.,The i baraita /i raises an alternative interpretation: b Or /b perhaps the term b “that creep [ i hashoretz /i ]” /b should b not /b be interpreted in this manner, as it b could rather /b be interpreted to mean that b any /b creeping animal b that breeds [ i hammashritz /i ] imparts impurity, /b but a creeping animal b that does not breed does not impart impurity. I shall /b therefore b exclude a mouse that is half /b - b flesh half-earth, /b i.e., that generates spontaneously from the earth, b as it does not breed /b and therefore does not impart impurity., b But /b ostensibly, the i halakha /i of a mouse that is half-flesh half-earth is subject to b logical inference: /b Since the verse b deems a weasel impure and deems a mouse impure, /b then b just as “weasel” /b is referring to b any /b animal b whose name is weasel, so too, “mouse” /b is referring to b any /b animal b whose name is mouse, even a mouse that is half-flesh half-earth. /b , b Or /b perhaps b go this way: /b One might think that b just as a weasel breeds, so too, “mouse” /b is referring to a mouse that b breeds, /b excluding one that generates from the earth, which does not impart impurity. Therefore, b the verse states: /b “And these are they which are impure to you b among the creeping animals /b that creep upon the earth.” The term “among the creeping animals” is interpreted as including a spontaneously generated mouse. Therefore, the term “that creep” is interpreted as indicating that creeping animals impart impurity on land and in the sea, and the phrase “upon the earth” teaches that a sea mouse is not included in the category of mouse and does not impart impurity., b One of the Sages said to Rava: Say /b the interpretation of the verse differently. The term b “among the creeping animals” /b serves b to include a mouse that is half-flesh half-earth /b among those that impart impurity. The term b “that creep” /b teaches that b any /b animal b that creeps /b imparts impurity, b and even a sea mouse. And if /b one should reject this interpretation b due to /b the phrase b “upon the earth,” /b which seems to indicate that a sea mouse does not impart impurity, that phrase teaches that a creeping animal b imparts impurity /b only when it is b on land, /b but if it b descended to the sea /b it b does not impart impurity. /b ,Rava b said to him: /b Your suggestion is not logical. According to your opinion, a sea mouse, which is in the sea, imparts impurity. b And since you consider the sea a location of impurity, /b it is impossible to suggest that a mouse does not impart impurity when it is located in the sea. Since both land and sea are places of impurity, b what /b difference does it make b for me /b if the mouse is located b here /b on land, and b what /b difference does it make b for me /b if it is located b there /b in the sea?,The Gemara asks: How can the i baraita /i interpret the phrase “upon the earth” as teaching that a sea mouse does not impart impurity? Isn’t b this /b phrase: b “Upon the earth,” necessary to exclude /b a case of b uncertainty /b involving b a floating /b source of b impurity? /b If a person is uncertain whether he touched a source of impurity that is floating in the water, he remains pure even if the incident took place in a private domain, where a case of uncertain impurity is generally deemed impure. b As Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: /b The phrase b “upon the earth” /b is written b to exclude /b a case of b uncertainty /b involving b a floating /b source of b impurity. /b ,The Gemara answers: The phrase b “upon the earth” is written two /b times in the passage. One instance is written to exclude a case of uncertainty involving a source of impurity that is floating, and the other instance teaches that a sea mouse does not impart impurity.,§With regard to the topic of the eight creeping animals mentioned in the Torah, b the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse: b “The great lizard after its kinds” /b (Leviticus 11:29) b includes /b in the category of creeping animals b the i arvad /i , /b a type of snake, b and also /b the creeping animals called b i nefilim /i and salamander [ i salamandera /i ]. /b ,Apropos the salamander, which was thought to generate from fire, the i baraita /i continues: b When Rabbi Akiva would reach this verse /b in Leviticus, he would b say /b in exclamation: b “How great are Your works, O Lord” /b (Psalms 104:24). b You have creatures /b that b grow in the sea and you have creatures /b that b grow on land. If those in the sea would ascend to the land they would immediately die. If those that are on land would descend to the sea they would immediately die. /b ,Similarly, b you have creatures /b that b grow in the fire and you have creatures /b that b grow in the air. If those in the fire would ascend to the air they would immediately die. If those in the air would descend to the fire they would immediately die. /b Therefore, b “how great are Your works, O Lord.” /b ,§The Gemara continues to discuss creatures living in a particular environment. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Kilayim /i 5:10): For b every /b animal b that exists on land there is /b an equivalent animal b in the sea, except for the weasel, /b which exists only on land. b Rabbi Zeira said: What is the verse /b from which it is derived? It is written: b “Listen all you inhabitants of the world [ i ḥeled /i ]” /b (Psalms 49:2). Dry land is called i ḥeled /i because it is the sole habitat for the weasel [ i ḥulda /i ].,In continuation of the discussion of creatures living in a particular environment, b Rav Huna the son of Rav Yehoshua said: The beavers /b of the region b of Neresh are not from the settled area, /b because they live only in the water and not on dry land. Consequently, one who eats their meat is not liable to receive lashes for violating the prohibition: “And every creeping animal that creeps upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten” (Leviticus 11:41).,§Apropos the region surrounding Neresh, b Rav Pappa said: /b The people of the city of b Neresh /b shall be placed b under excommunication, /b as they are all wicked, including b its fat, its hide, and its tail, /b i.e., all types of people, both old and young. The Gemara continues to discuss Neresh. The verse states: b “Oh land, land, land hear the word of the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 22:29). b Rav Pappa said: /b This verse is appropriate with regard to the inhabitants of Neresh, as b Neresh does not want to listen to the word of the Lord. /b ,Furthermore, b Rav Giddel said /b that b Rav said: /b If b a resident of Neresh kisses you, count your teeth /b to make sure he did not steal one. And if b a resident of /b the city of b Nehar Pekod accompanies you /b on a journey, it is b because of the beautiful jacket that he sees on you /b and wants to steal from you. If b a resident of Pumbedita accompanies you /b on a journey, b change your lodging place /b because there is a concern that he will rob you.,§The Gemara returns to discussing different types of creatures. b Rav Huna bar Torta said: Once I went to /b the city of b Va’ad and I saw /b that the locals were in the practice of placing b a snake wrapped around a great lizard /b in order to breed the two. b After a period of time, an i arvad /i , /b a snake that bites and kills people, b emerged from between them. /b , b And when I came before Rabbi Shimon the Righteous, he /b explained why this crossbreeding created an i arvad /i and b said to me: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: /b These residents of Va’ad b caused the emergence of a creature that I did not create in My world /b by crossbreeding a snake and a great lizard; b so too, I will bring upon them /b a punishment, the hazard of this uniquely dangerous b creature that I did not create in My world, /b i.e., an i arvad /i .,The Gemara objects: b But didn’t the Master say: All /b different animals b whose /b method of b procreation and /b period of b gestation are the same /b are able to b reproduce and raise offspring together. But all /b animals b whose /b method of b procreation and /b period of b gestation are not the same cannot reproduce and raise offspring together. /b And the gestation period for a great lizard and a snake are not equal., b Rav says: /b It was b a miracle within a miracle /b that they were able to reproduce and a new creature was born. The Gemara asks: Why is b this /b considered a miracle? b It was a calamity /b because an i arvad /i was born. The Gemara answers: b What /b is meant by b a miracle within a miracle? /b It was a miraculous b calamity /b for the wicked people, to punish them for their actions., strong MISHNA: /strong b The limb /b of an animal, with flesh, sinews, and bones, b and the flesh /b of an animal, b that were /b partially severed and remain b hanging from the animal /b do not have the halakhic status of a limb severed from a living animal, which imparts impurity like an unslaughtered carcass, or of flesh severed from a living animal, which is ritually pure, respectively. If one had intent to eat the limb or the flesh, the limb or flesh becomes impure if it comes in contact with a source of impurity, and they b impart impurity as food /b to other foods and liquids, although they remain b in their place /b attached to the animal. b But /b in order for them to become impure, b they need /b to be b rendered susceptible /b to impurity through contact with one of the seven liquids that facilitate susceptibility.
83. Calcidius (Chalcidius), Platonis Timaeus Commentaria, 131-132, 272 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 178
84. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 7.13.3-7.13.6, 15.14.2, 15.20.2, 15.20.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 106; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
85. Augustine, On The Holy Trinity, 4.18.24 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •timaeus, on four elements Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 260
86. Augustine, De Consensu Evangelistarum Libri Quatuor, 1.35.53 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •timaeus, on four elements Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 260
87. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 7.34 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Van der Horst (2014), Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 105
88. Syrianus, In Aristotelis Metaphysica Commentaria, 85.35-86.5, 86.29, 86.30, 86.31, 86.32, 86.33, 86.34, 88.13, 88.14, 88.15, 88.16, 88.17, 88.18, 88.19, 95.31, 95.32, 96.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 166
89. Servius, Commentary On The Aeneid, 8.70 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fire, one of the four elements Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
90. Didymus, Commentarii In Zachariam, 1.52 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 88
91. Nemesius, On The Nature of Man, 2.67, 2.70 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
92. Proclus, Hypotyposis Astronomicarum Positionum, 7.5, 214.17-18 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
93. Proclus, In Platonis Parmenidem Commentarii, 3.831.17-3.831.19, 4.844.11-4.844.26, 4.888.12-4.888.28, 4.973.12-4.973.23, 6.1123.9-6.1123.10, 7.512.23-7.512.33, 7.1194.9-7.1194.12 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 114
94. Proclus, In Primum Euclidis Librum Commentarius, 26.10-27.10, 55.23-56.4, 143.21-145.11 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 71
95. Proclus, On The Existence of Evils, 7.30-7.31, 7.42-7.46, 38.17-38.19 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 252
96. Proclus, Institutio Theologica, 66, 67, 68, 68.24-5, 69, 70, 71, 72, 101, 106, 107, 115, 170, 173, 178.31-180.2, 190, 192, 193, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 134
97. Proclus, On Sacrifice And Magic, 148.3-148.10 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 71
98. Proclus, Theologia Platonica ( ), 1.1, 1.14, 3.8, 3.10, 5.1-12, 5.17, 6.8, 6.10, 35.23-4, 40.10-41.15, 40.14-16, 41.8-12, 46.8-14, 46.16-23, 62.1-6, 62.17-63.5 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 165
99. Proclus, In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii, 1.137.7-1.137.26, 1.209.13-1.209.24, 1.262.16-1.262.25, 1.352.11-1.352.19, 1.370.24-1.370.26, 1.387.11, 1.399.20-1.399.24, 1.446.5-1.446.13, 2.2.9-2.2.23, 2.4.20-2.4.21, 2.5.20-2.5.21, 2.25.1-2.25.23, 2.26.25-2.26.28, 2.28.1-2.28.7, 2.46.16-2.46.18, 2.68.14-2.68.19, 2.88.13-2.88.31, 2.105.30-2.105.31, 2.106.2-2.106.3, 2.106.15-2.106.23, 2.139.19-2.139.20, 2.139.30, 2.166.15, 2.275.6-2.275.13, 2.302, 3.244.14-3.244.16, 3.254.6-3.254.10, 3.258.1-3.258.6, 3.264.11-3.264.19, 3.279.11-3.279.30, 3.322.2-3.322.17 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 155, 178, 260
100. Stobaeus, Anthology, 1.317.21-1.317.24 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fire, one of the four elements Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
101. Proclus, In Platonis Alcibiadem, 87.13-87.17 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 71
102. Proclus, Commentary On Plato'S Republic, 34.6-34.15 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 245
103. Olympiodorus The Younger of Alexandria, In Platonis Alcibiadem Commentarii, 109.18-111.2 (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 156
104. Simplicius of Cilicia, In Aristotelis Physicorum Libros Commentaria, 531.5-531.7, 623.14-623.18 (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 165
106. Simplicius of Cilicia, In Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium, 272.8-272.14 (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 165
107. Hippocrates, Epidemiarum 2, 6.1  Tagged with subjects: •elements, theory of four Found in books: Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 336
109. Iamblichus, Commentary On Plato’S Phaedo, 5  Tagged with subjects: •element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 133
110. Iamblichus, Commentary On Plato’S Timaeus, 87, 81  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 138
111. Simplicius of Cilicia, In Aristotelis De Caelo Libros Commentaria, 567.11, 567.12, 567.13, 567.14, 567.15, 567.16, 567.17, 640.32, 640.33, 640.34, 640.35, 640.36, 640.37, 640.38, 640.39, 640.40, 640.41, 640.42, 640.43, 640.44, 640.45, 640.46, 640.47, 640.48, 640.49, 640.50, 640.51, 640.52, 640.53, 640.54, 640.55, 640.56, 640.57, 640.58, 640.59, 640.60, 640.61, 640.62, 640.63, 640.64, 640.65, 640.66, 640.67, 640.68, 640.69, 640.70, 640.71, 640.72, 640.73, 640.74, 640.75, 640.76, 640.77, 640.78, 640.79, 640.80, 640.81, 640.82, 640.83, 640.84, 640.85, 640.86, 640.87, 640.88, 640.89, 640.90, 640.91, 640.92, 640.93, 640.94, 640.95, 640.96, 640.97, 640.98, 640.99, 640.100, 640.101, 640.102, 640.103, 640.104, 640.105, 640.106, 640.107, 640.108, 640.109, 640.110, 640.111, 640.112, 640.113, 640.114, 640.115, 640.116, 640.117, 640.118, 640.119, 640.120, 640.121, 640.122, 640.123, 640.124, 640.125, 640.126, 640.127, 640.128, 640.129, 640.130, 640.131, 640.132, 640.133, 640.134, 640.135, 640.136, 640.137, 640.138, 640.139, 640.140, 640.141, 640.142, 640.143, 640.144, 640.145, 640.146, 640.147, 640.148, 640.149, 640.150, 640.151, 640.152, 640.153, 640.154, 640.155, 640.156, 640.157, 640.158, 640.159, 640.160, 640.161, 640.162, 640.163, 640.164, 640.165, 640.166, 640.167, 640.168, 640.169, 640.170, 640.171, 640.172, 640.173, 640.174, 640.175, 640.176, 640.177, 640.178, 640.179, 640.180, 640.181, 640.182, 640.183, 640.184, 640.185, 640.186, 640.187, 640.188, 640.189, 640.190, 640.191, 640.192, 640.193, 640.194, 640.195, 640.196, 640.197, 640.198, 640.199, 640.200, 640.201, 640.202, 640.203, 640.204, 640.205, 640.206, 640.207, 640.208, 640.209, 640.210, 640.211, 640.212, 640.213, 640.214, 640.215, 640.216, 640.217, 640.218, 640.219, 640.220, 640.221, 640.222, 640.223, 640.224, 640.225, 640.226, 640.227, 640.228, 640.229, 640.230, 640.231, 640.232, 640.233, 640.234, 640.235, 640.236, 640.237, 640.238, 640.239, 640.240, 640.241, 640.242, 640.243, 640.244, 640.245, 640.246, 640.247, 640.248, 640.249, 640.250, 640.251, 640.252, 640.253, 640.254, 640.255, 640.256, 640.257, 640.258, 640.259, 640.260, 640.261, 640.262, 640.263, 640.264, 640.265, 640.266, 640.267, 640.268, 640.269, 640.270, 640.271, 640.272, 640.273, 640.274, 640.275, 640.276, 640.277, 640.278, 640.279, 640.280, 640.281, 640.282, 640.283, 640.284, 640.285, 640.286, 640.287, 640.288, 640.289, 640.290, 640.291, 640.292, 640.293, 640.294, 640.295, 640.296, 640.297, 640.298, 640.299, 640.300, 640.301, 640.302, 640.303, 640.304, 640.305, 640.306, 640.307, 640.308, 640.309, 640.310, 640.311, 640.312, 640.313, 640.314, 640.315, 640.316, 640.317, 640.318, 640.319, 640.320, 640.321, 640.322, 640.323, 640.324, 640.325, 640.326, 640.327, 640.328, 640.329, 640.330, 640.331, 640.332, 640.333, 640.334, 640.335, 640.336, 640.337, 640.338, 640.339, 640.340, 640.341, 640.342, 640.343, 640.344, 640.345, 640.346, 640.347, 640.348, 640.349, 640.350, 640.351, 640.352, 640.353, 640.354, 640.355, 640.356, 640.357, 640.358, 640.359, 640.360, 640.361, 640.362, 640.363, 640.364, 640.365, 640.366, 640.367, 640.368, 640.369, 640.370, 640.371, 640.372, 640.373, 640.374, 640.375, 640.376, 640.377, 640.378, 640.379, 640.380, 640.381, 640.382, 640.383, 640.384, 640.385, 640.386, 640.387, 640.388, 640.389, 640.390, 640.391, 640.392, 640.393, 640.394, 640.395, 640.396, 640.397, 640.398, 640.399, 640.400, 640.401, 640.402, 640.403, 640.404, 640.405, 640.406, 640.407, 640.408, 640.409, 640.410, 640.411, 640.412, 640.413, 640.414, 640.415, 640.416, 640.417, 640.418, 640.419, 640.420, 640.421, 640.422, 640.423, 640.424, 640.425, 640.426, 640.427, 640.428, 640.429, 640.430, 640.431, 640.432, 640.433, 640.434, 640.435, 640.436, 640.437, 640.438, 640.439, 640.440, 640.441, 640.442, 640.443, 640.444, 640.445, 640.446, 640.447, 640.448, 640.449, 640.450, 640.451, 640.452, 640.453, 640.454, 640.455, 640.456, 640.457, 640.458, 640.459, 640.460, 640.461, 640.462, 640.463, 640.464, 640.465, 640.466, 640.467, 640.468, 640.469, 640.470, 640.471, 640.472, 640.473, 640.474, 640.475, 640.476, 640.477, 640.478, 640.479, 640.480, 640.481, 640.482, 640.483, 640.484, 640.485, 640.486, 640.487, 640.488, 640.489, 640.490, 640.491, 640.492, 640.493, 640.494, 640.495, 640.496, 640.497, 640.498, 640.499, 640.500, 640.501, 640.502, 640.503, 640.504, 640.505, 640.506, 640.507, 640.508, 640.509, 640.510, 640.511, 640.512, 640.513, 640.514, 640.515, 640.516, 640.517, 640.518, 640.519, 640.520, 640.521, 640.522, 640.523, 640.524, 640.525, 640.526, 640.527, 640.528, 640.529, 640.530, 640.531, 640.532, 640.533, 640.534, 640.535, 640.536, 640.537, 640.538, 640.539, 640.540, 640.541, 640.542, 640.543, 640.544, 640.545, 640.546, 640.547, 640.548, 640.549, 640.550, 640.551, 640.552, 640.553, 640.554, 640.555, 640.556, 640.557, 640.558, 640.559, 640.560, 640.561, 640.562, 640.563, 640.564, 640.565, 640.566, 640.567, 640.568, 640.569, 640.570, 640.571, 640.572, 640.573, 640.574, 640.575, 640.576, 640.577, 640.578, 640.579, 640.580, 640.581, 640.582, 640.583, 640.584, 640.585, 640.586, 640.587, 640.588, 640.589, 640.590, 640.591, 640.592, 640.593, 640.594, 640.595, 640.596, 640.597, 640.598, 640.599, 640.600, 640.601, 640.602, 640.603, 640.604, 640.605, 640.606, 640.607, 640.608, 640.609, 640.610, 640.611, 640.612, 640.613, 640.614, 640.615, 640.616, 640.617, 640.618, 640.619, 640.620, 640.621, 640.622, 640.623, 640.624, 640.625, 640.626, 640.627, 640.628, 640.629, 640.630, 640.631, 640.632, 640.633, 640.634, 640.635, 640.636, 640.637, 640.638, 640.639, 640.640, 640.641, 644.11, 644.12, 644.13, 644.14, 644.15, 644.16, 644.17, 644.18, 649.29-650.3 (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 161
112. Pseudo-Simplicius, Commentary On Aristotle’S ‘De Anima’, 38.7-38.9  Tagged with subjects: •elements (four) Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 174
113. Anon., Chaldean Oracles, 3, 32-33, 5, 7, 35  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 217
114. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Anonymus Londiniensis, 21.13-21.18  Tagged with subjects: •elements (four) Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 47
116. Galen, Medical Introduction, 14.726  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
118. Fds, Fds, 680, 699, 255  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
119. Plutarch, Synopsis, None  Tagged with subjects: •fire, one of the four elements Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
120. Physiologus, Physiologus, 47  Tagged with subjects: •animals, created from four elements Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 220
121. Papyri, P.Oxy., 11.183  Tagged with subjects: •empedocles, and four elements Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 141
122. Anon., Old Scholia On Alcibiades, None  Tagged with subjects: •fire, one of the four elements Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
123. Pseudo-Galenus, Commentarii, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 288
125. Cleanthes, Hymn To Zeus, None  Tagged with subjects: •elements, four-element physics Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
126. Long And Sedley, The Hellenistic Philosophers, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74
127. Stobaeus, Eclogues, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 225
129. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Brouwer (2013), The Stoic Sage: The Early Stoics on Wisdom, Sagehood and Socrates, 74