Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       

Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
air/sky/earth/moon, goddess theoriesabout, hera Simon (2021) 37
earth Beck (2006) 110, 118, 247, 248
Bernabe et al (2013) 10, 420, 431, 481, 565
Bremmer (2008) 15, 109
Clay and Vergados (2022) 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 64, 65, 67, 74, 75, 79, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92, 97, 107, 111, 114, 121, 122, 125, 126, 131, 181, 226, 232, 235, 236, 237, 240, 241, 242, 246, 248, 249, 250, 253, 254, 255, 266, 310, 323
Del Lucchese (2019) 59, 90, 140, 142, 167
Dillon and Timotin (2015) 14, 38, 65, 80, 81, 111, 114, 126, 176, 178, 189
Ekroth (2013) 21, 67, 97, 176, 179, 198, 202, 225, 269, 322
Faure (2022) 14, 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 64, 65, 66, 67, 72, 74, 80, 88, 89, 90, 91, 97
Frey and Levison (2014) 81, 282, 291, 298
Garcia (2021) 23, 24, 31, 33, 38, 43, 55, 57, 59, 77, 81, 85, 109, 117, 124, 131, 133, 137, 141, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 178, 186, 187, 204, 236, 252, 270
Geljon and Runia (2019) 11, 23, 24, 45, 48, 49, 50, 56, 57, 64, 66, 68, 94, 98, 99, 100, 101, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114, 117, 130, 136, 143, 175, 176, 260, 265
Gera (2014) 149, 223, 323, 431, 466
Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 29, 30, 57, 58, 62, 64, 152, 292, 308, 330
Isaac (2004) 133
Jouanna (2012) 122, 125, 230
Levison (2009) 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 32, 33, 56, 57, 88, 96, 97, 98, 99, 104, 141, 146, 149, 150, 153, 156, 159, 160, 162, 172, 202, 204, 205, 207, 212, 214, 215, 232, 261, 268, 276, 278, 288, 291, 292, 293, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 325, 362, 368, 371, 376, 378
Long (2006) 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 171, 173, 174, 175, 211, 264, 265
Trott (2019) 89, 96, 100, 101, 122, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 178, 183, 184, 224, 225, 227, 228
de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 45, 55, 102, 124, 128, 134, 143, 148, 153, 156, 215, 223, 297, 300, 362
earth's, soul, trace, of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 175
earth, agency, of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 180, 183
earth, and autochthony Isaac (2004) 114, 115
earth, and environmental determinism Isaac (2004) 8, 69, 81, 307
earth, and starry heaven, child of Edmonds (2004) 61, 65, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 100, 149
earth, and starry sky, child, of Graf and Johnston (2007) 113, 114, 116
earth, and thauma in herodotus, edges of the Lightfoot (2021) 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65
earth, and water Gera (2014) 35, 61, 142
earth, as mother Isaac (2004) 90, 122
earth, as mother/nurse Geljon and Runia (2019) 117
earth, as nurse Isaac (2004) 122
earth, bathos t.t. for distance from Beck (2006) 245, 246, 247, 248, 249
earth, bodies in blessed or afflicted by moon-goddess Griffiths (1975) 1, 112
earth, bodies in blessed or afflicted by moon-goddess, bolts of barred by proserpina Griffiths (1975) 2, 117
earth, bodies in blessed or afflicted by moon-goddess, guided by isis Griffiths (1975) 322
earth, bodies in blessed or afflicted by moon-goddess, serpents in have awe of isis Griffiths (1975) 324
earth, born Garcia (2021) 70, 79
earth, christ, his life on O, Daly (2020) 216, 217, 220
earth, damascius, on plants and Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 181, 182, 183
earth, descent and lineage, its connection with the Isaac (2004) 129, 130, 131, 132, 133
earth, dualistic world-view, the Scopello (2008) 24, 30, 267, 268
earth, earthly, Bernabe et al (2013) 10, 33, 75, 108, 109, 128, 145, 269, 274, 281, 307, 309, 314, 316, 340, 346, 373, 386, 387, 396, 415, 478, 480, 565
earth, edges of Gera (2014) 144, 366, 408, 456
earth, edges of the Lightfoot (2021) 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 111, 123, 133, 143, 144, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155
earth, element Iribarren and Koning (2022) 43, 60, 69, 85, 149, 153, 161, 162, 201, 209, 215, 222, 273, 298, 299, 300, 306
earth, elijah, as link between heaven and Lieber (2014) 164
earth, entire Gera (2014) 47, 127, 141, 217, 224, 237, 238, 322, 349, 353, 363, 409
earth, environmental determinism, and the Isaac (2004) 114, 115, 307, 308
earth, face of Gera (2014) 50, 54, 143, 148, 208, 222, 237, 243, 456, 467
earth, flat Rohmann (2016) 188
earth, four conquerors of the Lieber (2014) 165
earth, from, out of the Garcia (2021) 10, 23, 24, 33, 37, 38, 42, 46, 72, 73, 76, 88, 186, 187, 280
earth, gaia Brule (2003) 11, 13, 85, 86
earth, gaia, ge de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 31, 36, 52, 88, 100, 108, 112, 121, 185, 298, 382, 399, 402
earth, gaia/ge, oaths invoking Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 2, 28, 29, 120, 143, 153, 197, 200, 291, 318, 321, 322, 339, 356, 357
earth, gods, as sower of the, boethius Hoenig (2018) 25
earth, heaven and Bremmer (2008) 10
earth, heaven vs. Beck (2006) 118, 213
earth, heavens, and Gera (2014) 108, 120, 206, 248, 276, 298, 408, 409
earth, herodotus, on thauma and the edges of the Lightfoot (2021) 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65
earth, homeric hymn to hermes, lyre as link between olympus and Walter (2020) 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87
earth, imagined Jenkyns (2013) 121, 122
earth, in awe of isis, with serpent on handle of golden vessel carried by her, serpents that glide in the Griffiths (1975) 324
earth, isocrates, on pure lineage and the Isaac (2004) 129
earth, miltos, red Marek (2019) 405
earth, mother Bernabe et al (2013) 565
Luck (2006) 35, 37
earth, mother, motif Pinheiro et al (2018) 84, 86
earth, mystery of heaven and Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 141
earth, nature of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 179
earth, navel of the Klawans (2009) 124
earth, of humanity, cosmology, of the gnostic world, the Scopello (2008) 92, 93, 267, 268, 275
earth, of plants, relation to Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185
earth, people generated by Isaac (2004) 131, 132, 135
earth, plants, as part of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 176
earth, poseidon, and stability of the Jim (2022) 7, 70, 72, 110, 152
earth, proclus, on Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 178
earth, proserpine, repels ghosts with threefold countenance, keeps barred the bolts of Griffiths (1975) 2, 117
earth, ruler, god, lord of heaven and Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 84, 313, 314, 337, 351
earth, separation, heaven and Bremmer (2008) 12
earth, shape of Gee (2020) 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 260
earth, shrine Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 51
earth, soul, of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 181
earth, subject index, of the mystery of heavens and Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 141
earth, tellus Jenkyns (2013) 199, 200, 216
earth, terra Lynskey (2021) 97, 111, 113, 150, 167, 181, 182, 183, 237, 238, 239, 246, 247, 248, 251, 253, 256, 259, 266, 288, 294, 296, 306, 316, 319
earth, tomis, post-apocalyptic hell on Williams and Vol (2022) 297, 302, 303
earth, touching, during oaths Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 4, 9, 10, 85, 112, 117, 143, 144, 356, 357
earth, union, heaven and Bremmer (2008) 13
earth, woman/women, daughters of men/women of the Stuckenbruck (2007) 89, 91, 276, 331, 401, 402, 607, 633, 637, 639, 655, 659
earth, worker of the Geljon and Runia (2013) 87, 88, 93, 95, 113, 119, 120, 128, 163, 164, 189, 212, 217, 218
earth, zones, of Gee (2020) 71, 72, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 131, 132, 133, 134
earth, ”, augustine, on “heaven and Hoenig (2018) 238
earth, ”, concept of “religion of the Simon (2021) 283, 284
earth, ”, heaven, “heaven and Hoenig (2018) 238, 241, 242, 243
earth, ”, word, created “heaven and Hoenig (2018) 243
earth/earth/gaea Iribarren and Koning (2022) 1, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 43, 44, 47, 49, 98, 110, 111, 145, 161, 163, 165, 167, 200, 204, 205, 214, 224, 225, 226, 229, 230, 231, 232, 241, 243, 294, 307, 319, 323, 324, 325, 327, 329, 330, 331
earth’, solon, liberates the ‘dark Papazarkadas (2011) 213, 214
“earth, ”, dualism Hoenig (2018) 242, 245

List of validated texts:
48 validated results for "earth"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.1, 15.5, 15.8, 15.10, 15.13, 15.17, 15.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • earth, and water • earth, edges of • earth, entire • earth, face of • worker of the earth

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 163; Geljon and Runia (2019) 175; Gera (2014) 142, 322, 323, 456, 466, 467

15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃
15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃
15.5. תְּהֹמֹת יְכַסְיֻמוּ יָרְדוּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־אָבֶן׃
15.8. וּבְרוּחַ אַפֶּיךָ נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם נִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ־נֵד נֹזְלִים קָפְאוּ תְהֹמֹת בְּלֶב־יָם׃' '

15.13. נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַם־זוּ גָּאָלְתָּ נֵהַלְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךָ׃

15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃
15.21. וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃''. None
15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.
15.5. The deeps cover them— They went down into the depths like a stone.
15.8. And with the blast of Thy nostrils the waters were piled up— The floods stood upright as a heap; The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea.

15.10. Thou didst blow with Thy wind, the sea covered them; They sank as lead in the mighty waters.

15.13. Thou in Thy love hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in Thy strength to Thy holy habitation.

15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established.
15.21. And Miriam sang unto them: Sing ye to the LORD, for He is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.7, 2.22, 3.19, 3.24, 4.2, 9.12, 9.20-9.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Earth, and heaven • Earth, as mother • Earth, as witness • Earth, new • Woman/Women, Daughters of Men/Women of the Earth • earth • earth, from (out of) the • heaven, and earth • heavens, and earth • mother, as earth • worker of the earth

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 136, 143, 159, 184; Garcia (2021) 10, 23, 31, 38, 42, 43, 72, 73, 76, 81, 88, 109, 270; Geljon and Runia (2013) 87, 88, 93, 95, 113, 119, 120, 128, 163, 164, 189, 212, 217, 218; Geljon and Runia (2019) 11, 45, 48, 50, 68, 94, 101, 143, 176; Gera (2014) 276, 466; Levison (2009) 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, 149, 150, 204, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313; Stuckenbruck (2007) 637, 659

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃
3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃
3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃
4.2. וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃
4.2. וַתֹּסֶף לָלֶדֶת אֶת־אָחִיו אֶת־הָבֶל וַיְהִי־הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה׃
9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם׃' '9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃''. None
1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man.
3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’
3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life.
4.2. And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
9.12. And God said: ‘This is the token of the covet which I make between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:
9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard. 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent.' '. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth, edges of • earth, face of • terra, earth

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 456; Lynskey (2021) 294

2.20. But I will remove far off from you the northern one, And will drive him into a land barren and desolate, With his face toward the eastern sea, And his hinder part toward the western sea; that his foulness may come up, and his ill savour may come up, because he hath done great things.’''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 104.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 466; Levison (2009) 18

104.30. Thou sendest forth Thy spirit, they are created; and Thou renewest the face of the earth.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.6, 65.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Woman/Women, Daughters of Men/Women of the Earth • earth, edges of • terra, earth

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 144; Levison (2009) 57; Lynskey (2021) 248; Stuckenbruck (2007) 401

43.6. אֹמַר לַצָּפוֹן תֵּנִי וּלְתֵימָן אַל־תִּכְלָאִי הָבִיאִי בָנַי מֵרָחוֹק וּבְנוֹתַי מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃
65.11. וְאַתֶּם עֹזְבֵי יְהוָה הַשְּׁכֵחִים אֶת־הַר קָדְשִׁי הַעֹרְכִים לַגַּד שֻׁלְחָן וְהַמְמַלְאִים לַמְנִי מִמְסָךְ׃''. None
43.6. I will say to the north: ‘Give up’, And to the south: ‘Keep not back, bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth;
65.11. But ye that forsake the LORD, That forget My holy mountain, That prepare a table for Fortune, And that offer mingled wine in full measure unto Destiny,''. None
6. Hesiod, Works And Days, 108, 121-126, 802-804 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • child of earth and starry heaven • child, of Earth and starry Sky • earth • earth (element) • earth, earthly • earth,touching during oaths • earth/Earth/Gaea

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 108; Clay and Vergados (2022) 235; Edmonds (2004) 76; Graf and Johnston (2007) 114; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 149, 319; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 9; Álvarez (2019) 31

108. ὡς ὁμόθεν γεγάασι θεοὶ θνητοί τʼ ἄνθρωποι.'
121. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 122. τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123. ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, 124. οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 125. ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν, 126. πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—,
802. πέμπτας δʼ ἐξαλέασθαι, ἐπεὶ χαλεπαί τε καὶ αἰναί· 803. ἐν πέμπτῃ γάρ φασιν Ἐρινύας ἀμφιπολεύειν 804. Ὅρκον γεινόμενον, τὸν Ἔρις τέκε πῆμʼ ἐπιόρκοις. '. None
108. There roam among mankind all kinds of ill,'
121. There was no dread old age but, always rude 122. of health, away from grief, they took delight 123. In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued 124. By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right, 125. Would bring forth plenteous fruit. In harmony 126. They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease
802. And prayed and washed your hands in it. If you 803. Should cross with hands and errors unpurged still, 804. The gods will visit you with pece due '. None
7. Hesiod, Theogony, 71-73, 106, 115-123, 126-127, 129, 131-133, 135, 154, 157-158, 166, 168, 172, 174, 180-181, 183-186, 188-210, 217, 226-233, 421, 434, 472, 626, 700, 721, 727-728, 792-806, 861-866, 881, 884, 886-893, 899, 901-903 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Earth,Gaia, Ge • Gaia (Earth) • child of earth and starry heaven • child, of Earth and starry Sky • earth • earth (element) • earth, earthly • earth,touching during oaths • earth/Earth/Gaea

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 309; Brule (2003) 11; Clay and Vergados (2022) 75, 236, 242, 249, 250; Edmonds (2004) 77; Edmunds (2021) 166; Graf and Johnston (2007) 113; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 26, 27, 29, 35, 44, 85, 111, 149, 163, 165, 167, 200, 204, 205, 214, 222, 225, 232, 241, 294, 306; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 9, 10; Trott (2019) 122; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 100, 121; Álvarez (2019) 50, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 92, 121, 144

71. νισσομένων πατέρʼ εἰς ὅν· ὃ δʼ οὐρανῷ ἐμβασιλεύει, 72. αὐτὸς ἔχων βροντὴν ἠδʼ αἰθαλόεντα κεραυνόν, 73. κάρτει νικήσας πατέρα Κρόνον· εὖ δὲ ἕκαστα
106. οἳ Γῆς τʼ ἐξεγένοντο καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,'
115. ἐξ ἀρχῆς, καὶ εἴπαθʼ, ὅ τι πρῶτον γένετʼ αὐτῶν. 116. ἦ τοι μὲν πρώτιστα Χάος γένετʼ, αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα 117. Γαῖʼ εὐρύστερνος, πάντων ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶ 118. ἀθανάτων, οἳ ἔχουσι κάρη νιφόεντος Ὀλύμπου, 119. Τάρταρά τʼ ἠερόεντα μυχῷ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης, 120. ἠδʼ Ἔρος, ὃς κάλλιστος ἐν ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι, 121. λυσιμελής, πάντων δὲ θεῶν πάντων τʼ ἀνθρώπων 122. δάμναται ἐν στήθεσσι νόον καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν. 123. ἐκ Χάεος δʼ Ἔρεβός τε μέλαινά τε Νὺξ ἐγένοντο·
126. Γαῖα δέ τοι πρῶτον μὲν ἐγείνατο ἶσον ἑαυτῇ 127. Οὐρανὸν ἀστερόενθʼ, ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοι,
129. γείνατο δʼ Οὔρεα μακρά, θεῶν χαρίεντας ἐναύλους,
131. ἣ δὲ καὶ ἀτρύγετον πέλαγος τέκεν, οἴδματι θυῖον, 132. Πόντον, ἄτερ φιλότητος ἐφιμέρου· αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα 133. Οὐρανῷ εὐνηθεῖσα τέκʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην,
135. Θείαν τε Ῥείαν τε Θέμιν τε Μνημοσύνην τε
154. ὅσσοι γὰρ Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἐξεγένοντο,
157. πάντας ἀποκρύπτασκε, καὶ ἐς φάος οὐκ ἀνίεσκε, 158. Γαίης ἐν κευθμῶνι, κακῷ δʼ ἐπετέρπετο ἔργῳ
166. ὑμετέρου· πρότερος γὰρ ἀεικέα μήσατο ἔργα.
168. φθέγξατο. θαρσήσας δὲ μέγας Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτης
172. ἡμετέρου· πρότερος γὰρ ἀεικέα μήσατο ἔργα.
174. εἷσε δέ μιν κρύψασα λόχῳ· ἐνέθηκε δὲ χερσὶν
180. μακρὴν καρχαρόδοντα, φίλου δʼ ἀπὸ μήδεα πατρὸς 181. ἐσσυμένως ἤμησε, πάλιν δʼ ἔρριψε φέρεσθαι
183. ὅσσαι γὰρ ῥαθάμιγγες ἀπέσσυθεν αἱματόεσσαι, 184. πάσας δέξατο Γαῖα· περιπλομένων δʼ ἐνιαυτῶν 185. γείνατʼ Ἐρινῦς τε κρατερὰς μεγάλους τε Γίγαντας, 186. τεύχεσι λαμπομένους, δολίχʼ ἔγχεα χερσὶν ἔχοντας,
188. μήδεα δʼ ὡς τὸ πρῶτον ἀποτμήξας ἀδάμαντι 189. κάββαλʼ ἀπʼ ἠπείροιο πολυκλύστῳ ἐνὶ πόντῳ, 190. ὣς φέρετʼ ἂμ πέλαγος πουλὺν χρόνον, ἀμφὶ δὲ λευκὸς 191. ἀφρὸς ἀπʼ ἀθανάτου χροὸς ὤρνυτο· τῷ δʼ ἔνι κούρη 192. ἐθρέφθη· πρῶτον δὲ Κυθήροισιν ζαθέοισιν 193. ἔπλητʼ, ἔνθεν ἔπειτα περίρρυτον ἵκετο Κύπρον. 194. ἐκ δʼ ἔβη αἰδοίη καλὴ θεός, ἀμφὶ δὲ ποίη 195. ποσσὶν ὕπο ῥαδινοῖσιν ἀέξετο· τὴν δʼ Ἀφροδίτην 196. ἀφρογενέα τε θεὰν καὶ ἐυστέφανον Κυθέρειαν 197. κικλῄσκουσι θεοί τε καὶ ἀνέρες, οὕνεκʼ ἐν ἀφρῷ 198. θρέφθη· ἀτὰρ Κυθέρειαν, ὅτι προσέκυρσε Κυθήροις· 199. Κυπρογενέα δʼ, ὅτι γέντο πολυκλύστῳ ἐνὶ Κύπρῳ· 200. ἠδὲ φιλομμηδέα, ὅτι μηδέων ἐξεφαάνθη. 201. τῇ δʼ Ἔρος ὡμάρτησε καὶ Ἵμερος ἕσπετο καλὸς 202. γεινομένῃ τὰ πρῶτα θεῶν τʼ ἐς φῦλον ἰούσῃ. 203. ταύτην δʼ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τιμὴν ἔχει ἠδὲ λέλογχε 204. μοῖραν ἐν ἀνθρώποισι καὶ ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι, 205. παρθενίους τʼ ὀάρους μειδήματά τʼ ἐξαπάτας τε 206. τέρψιν τε γλυκερὴν φιλότητά τε μειλιχίην τε. 207. τοὺς δὲ πατὴρ Τιτῆνας ἐπίκλησιν καλέεσκε 208. παῖδας νεικείων μέγας Οὐρανός, οὓς τέκεν αὐτός· 210. ἔργον, τοῖο δʼ ἔπειτα τίσιν μετόπισθεν ἔσεσθαι.
217. καὶ Μοίρας καὶ Κῆρας ἐγείνατο νηλεοποίνους,
226. αὐτὰρ Ἔρις στυγερὴ τέκε μὲν Πόνον ἀλγινόεντα 227. Λήθην τε Λιμόν τε καὶ Ἄλγεα δακρυόεντα 228. Ὑσμίνας τε Μάχας τε Φόνους τʼ Ἀνδροκτασίας τε 229. Νείκεά τε ψευδέας τε Λόγους Ἀμφιλλογίας τε 230. Δυσνομίην τʼ Ἄτην τε, συνήθεας ἀλλήλῃσιν, 231. Ὅρκον θʼ, ὃς δὴ πλεῖστον ἐπιχθονίους ἀνθρώπους 232. πημαίνει, ὅτε κέν τις ἑκὼν ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ. 233. Νηρέα δʼ ἀψευδέα καὶ ἀληθέα γείνατο Πόντος,
421. ὅσσοι γὰρ Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἐξεγένοντο
434. ἔν τε δίκῃ βασιλεῦσι παρʼ αἰδοίοισι καθίζει,
472. παῖδα φίλον, τίσαιτο δʼ ἐρινῦς πατρὸς ἑοῖο
626. Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσιν ἀνήγαγον ἐς φάος αὖτις·
700. καῦμα δὲ θεσπέσιον κάτεχεν Χάος· εἴσατο δʼ ἄντα
721. τόσσον γάρ τʼ ἀπὸ γῆς ἐς Τάρταρον ἠερόεντα.
727. τριστοιχεὶ κέχυται περὶ δειρήν· αὐτὰρ ὕπερθεν 728. γῆς ῥίζαι πεφύασι καὶ ἀτρυγέτοιο θαλάσσης.
792. ἣ δὲ μίʼ ἐκ πέτρης προρέει μέγα πῆμα θεοῖσιν. 793. ὅς κεν τὴν ἐπίορκον ἀπολλείψας ἐπομόσσῃ 794. ἀθανάτων, οἳ ἔχουσι κάρη νιφόεντος Ὀλύμπου, 795. κεῖται νήυτμος τετελεσμένον εἰς ἐνιαυτόν· 796. οὐδέ ποτʼ ἀμβροσίης καὶ νέκταρος ἔρχεται ἆσσον 797. βρώσιος, ἀλλά τε κεῖται ἀνάπνευστος καὶ ἄναυδος 798. στρωτοῖς ἐν λεχέεσσι, κακὸν δέ ἑ κῶμα καλύπτει. 799. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ νοῦσον τελέσῃ μέγαν εἰς ἐνιαυτόν, 800. ἄλλος γʼ ἐξ ἄλλου δέχεται χαλεπώτερος ἄεθλος. 801. εἰνάετες δὲ θεῶν ἀπαμείρεται αἰὲν ἐόντων, 802. οὐδέ ποτʼ ἐς βουλὴν ἐπιμίσγεται οὐδʼ ἐπὶ δαῖτας 803. ἐννέα πάντα ἔτεα· δεκάτῳ δʼ ἐπιμίσγεται αὖτις 804. εἴρας ἐς ἀθανάτων, οἳ Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσιν. 805. τοῖον ἄρʼ ὅρκον ἔθεντο θεοὶ Στυγὸς ἄφθιτον ὕδωρ 806. ὠγύγιον, τὸ δʼ ἵησι καταστυφέλου διὰ χώρου.
861. πληγέντος. πολλὴ δὲ πελώρη καίετο γαῖα 862. ἀτμῇ θεσπεσίῃ καὶ ἐτήκετο κασσίτερος ὣς 863. τέχνῃ ὕπʼ αἰζηῶν ἐν ἐυτρήτοις χοάνοισι 864. θαλφθείς, ἠὲ σίδηρος, ὅ περ κρατερώτατός ἐστιν. 865. οὔρεος ἐν βήσσῃσι δαμαζόμενος πυρὶ κηλέῳ 866. τήκεται ἐν χθονὶ δίῃ ὑφʼ Ἡφαιστου παλάμῃσιν.
881. αὐτὰρ ἐπεί ῥα πόνον μάκαρες θεοὶ ἐξετέλεσσαν,
884. Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσιν Ὀλύμπιον εὐρύοπα Ζῆν
886. Ζεὺς δὲ θεῶν βασιλεὺς πρώτην ἄλοχον θέτο Μῆτιν 887. πλεῖστα τε ἰδυῖαν ἰδὲ θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων. 888. ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ ἄρʼ ἔμελλε θεὰν γλαυκῶπιν Ἀθήνην 889. τέξεσθαι, τότʼ ἔπειτα δόλῳ φρένας ἐξαπατήσας 890. αἱμυλίοισι λόγοισιν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδὺν 891. Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσι καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος. 892. τὼς γάρ οἱ φρασάτην, ἵνα μὴ βασιληίδα τιμὴν 893. ἄλλος ἔχοι Διὸς ἀντὶ θεῶν αἰειγενετάων.
899. ἀλλʼ ἄρα μιν Ζεὺς πρόσθεν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδύν,
901. δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 902. Εὐνουμίην τε Δίκην τε καὶ Εἰρήνην τεθαλυῖαν, 903. αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι, '. None
71. The Graces and Desire dwelt quite free 72. of care while singing songs delightfully 73. of the gods’ laws and all the goodly way
106. Loved by the Muses, for sweet speaking flow'
115. Hail, Zeus’s progeny, and give to me 116. A pleasing song and laud the company 117. of the immortal gods, and those created 118. In earthly regions and those generated 119. In Heaven and Night and in the briny sea. 120. Tell how the gods and Earth first came to be, 121. The streams, the swelling sea and up on high 122. The gleaming stars, broad Heaven in the sky, 123. The gods they spawned, providing generously
126. To many-valed Olympus found their way. 127. Therefore, Olympian Muses, tell to me,
129. First Chaos came, then wide Earth, ever-sound
131. Olympus dwell, then, swathed in murkine 132. Beneath the wide-pathed Earth, came Tartarus, 133. Then Eros, fairest of the deathless ones,
135. Their prudent judgment. Chaos then created
154. The wily Cronus, such a dreadful son
157. Brontes, who gave the thunderbolt to Zeus, 158. And Steropes, who also for his use
166. Though spirited – Cottus, Briareu
168. Even to be in their vicinity
172. Their perseverance or their mightiness.
174. of Earth and Heaven and earned the enmity
180. And so devised a piece of cleverness, 181. An evil ruse: a mass of flint she made
183. Her scheme to all her brood in consolation, 184. Although her heart was sore with indignation. 185. “Children, your father’s sinful, so hear me,” 186. She said, “that he might pay the penalty.”
188. But wily Cronus put aside his dread 189. And answered, “I will do what must be done, 190. Mother. I don’t respect The Evil One.” 191. At what he said vast Earth was glad at heart 192. And in an ambush set her child apart 193. And told him everything she had in mind. 194. Great Heaven brought the night and, since he pined 195. To couple, lay with Earth. Cronus revealed 196. Himself from where he had been well concealed, 197. Stretched out one hand and with the other gripped 198. The great, big, jagged sickle and then ripped 199. His father’s genitals off immediately 200. And cast them down, nor did they fruitlessly 201. Descend behind him, because Earth conceived 202. The Furies and the Giants, who all wore 203. Bright-gleaming armour, and long spears they bore, 204. And the Nymphs, called Meliae by everyone; 205. And when the flinty sickle’s work was done, 206. Then Cronus cast into the surging sea 207. His father’s genitals which were to be 208. Borne long upon the waves, and there was spread 210. White foam from the timeless flesh: from it was bred
217. Cytherea, which she’d reached. She’s known as well,
226. From the beginning and this share she gained 227. Among both men and gods – the whispering 228. of maids who are in love, their giggling, 229. Sweet loving, gentleness and trickery 230. In love affairs. Great Heaven’s progeny 231. He labelled Titans for they used huge strain 232. To do a dreadful deed, and so the pain 233. of punishment would follow. Night gave breath
421. And Eos shining on all things on earth
434. And Ocean’s daughter Styx was joined in love
472. He whom the goddess looks on favourably
626. He would not give to mortal men below
700. With no conclusion clinched by either side:
721. Against the Titans. Hearing what he said,
727. of Cronus born, and those who, strong and dread, 728. From Erebus’s gloom by Zeus were led
792. In a dank setting at the boundary 793. of the wide earth. They may not leave this snare 794. Because bronze portals had been fitted there 795. By Lord Poseidon, and upon each side 796. A wall runs round it. There those three reside, 797. Great-souled Obriareus, Cottus and Gyes, 798. The faithful guardians and orderlie 799. of aegis-bearing Zeus, and there exist 800. The springs and boundaries, filled full of mist 801. And gloom, of Earth and Hell and the barren sea 802. And starry heaven, arranged sequentially, 803. Loathsome and dank, by each divinity 804. Detested: it’s a massive cavity, 805. For once inside its gates, one must descend 806. Until a full year has achieved its end
861. He must lie breathless till an entire year 862. Has run its course, at no time coming near 863. Ambrosia or nectar, uttering 864. No words, upon a bed, and suffering 865. A heavy trance. When the long year is past, 866. Another trial, more arduous than the last,
881. of Chaos. But the glorious allie
884. Because he is upright, the clamorou
886. Gave him in marriage to his progeny 887. Cymopolea. When Zeus, in the war, 888. Drove the Titans out of Heaven, huge Earth bore 889. Her youngest child Typhoeus with the aid 890. of golden Aphrodite, who had bade 891. Her lie with Tartarus. In everything 892. He did the lad was strong, untiring 893. When running, and upon his shoulders spread
899. Sometimes a god could understand the sound
901. A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 902. Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile 903. At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear – '. None
8. Homer, Iliad, 3.90-3.100, 3.103-3.104, 3.277, 8.13-8.15, 9.457, 14.246 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth (Gaia/Ge),oaths invoking • Earth, bodies in, blessed or afflicted by moon-goddess, bolts of, barred by Proserpina • Earth,Gaia, Ge • Proserpine, repels ghosts with threefold countenance, keeps barred the bolts of earth • earth • earth (element) • earth,touching during oaths • earth/Earth/Gaea

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 431; Griffiths (1975) 117; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 43, 229, 325; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 10, 144, 153; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 52, 102; Álvarez (2019) 58

3.90. αὐτὸν δʼ ἐν μέσσῳ καὶ ἀρηΐφιλον Μενέλαον 3.91. οἴους ἀμφʼ Ἑλένῃ καὶ κτήμασι πᾶσι μάχεσθαι. 3.92. ὁππότερος δέ κε νικήσῃ κρείσσων τε γένηται 3.93. κτήμαθʼ ἑλὼν εὖ πάντα γυναῖκά τε οἴκαδʼ ἀγέσθω· 3.94. οἳ δʼ ἄλλοι φιλότητα καὶ ὅρκια πιστὰ τάμωμεν. 3.95. ὣς ἔφαθʼ, οἳ δʼ ἄρα πάντες ἀκὴν ἐγένοντο σιωπῇ· 3.96. τοῖσι δὲ καὶ μετέειπε βοὴν ἀγαθὸς Μενέλαος· 3.97. κέκλυτε νῦν καὶ ἐμεῖο· μάλιστα γὰρ ἄλγος ἱκάνει 3.98. θυμὸν ἐμόν, φρονέω δὲ διακρινθήμεναι ἤδη 3.99. Ἀργείους καὶ Τρῶας, ἐπεὶ κακὰ πολλὰ πέπασθε 3.100. εἵνεκʼ ἐμῆς ἔριδος καὶ Ἀλεξάνδρου ἕνεκʼ ἀρχῆς·
3.103. οἴσετε ἄρνʼ, ἕτερον λευκόν, ἑτέρην δὲ μέλαιναν, 3.104. Γῇ τε καὶ Ἠελίῳ· Διὶ δʼ ἡμεῖς οἴσομεν ἄλλον·
3.277. Ἠέλιός θʼ, ὃς πάντʼ ἐφορᾷς καὶ πάντʼ ἐπακούεις,
8.13. ἤ μιν ἑλὼν ῥίψω ἐς Τάρταρον ἠερόεντα 8.14. τῆλε μάλʼ, ἧχι βάθιστον ὑπὸ χθονός ἐστι βέρεθρον, 8.15. ἔνθα σιδήρειαί τε πύλαι καὶ χάλκεος οὐδός,
9.457. Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος καὶ ἐπαινὴ Περσεφόνεια.
14.246. Ὠκεανοῦ, ὅς περ γένεσις πάντεσσι τέτυκται·''. None
3.90. and himself in the midst and Menelaus, dear to Ares, to do battle for Helen and all her possessions. And whichsoever of the twain shall win, and prove him the better man, let him duly take all the wealth and the woman, and bear them to his home; but for us others, let us swear friendship and oaths of faith with sacrifice. 3.95. So spake he, and they all became hushed in silence; and among them spake Menelaus, good at the war-cry:Hearken ye now also unto me, for upon my heart above all others hath sorrow come; my mind is that Argives and Trojans now be parted, seeing ye have suffered many woes 3.99. So spake he, and they all became hushed in silence; and among them spake Menelaus, good at the war-cry:Hearken ye now also unto me, for upon my heart above all others hath sorrow come; my mind is that Argives and Trojans now be parted, seeing ye have suffered many woes ' "3.100. because of my quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another; " "3.104. because of my quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another; " '
3.277. Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath;
8.13. Whomsoever I shall mark minded apart from the gods to go and bear aid either to Trojans or Danaans, smitten in no seemly wise shall he come back to Olympus, or I shall take and hurl him into murky Tartarus, 8.15. far, far away, where is the deepest gulf beneath the earth, the gates whereof are of iron and the threshold of bronze, as far beneath Hades as heaven is above earth: then shall ye know how far the mightiest am I of all gods. Nay, come, make trial, ye gods, that ye all may know. Make ye fast from heaven a chain of gold,
9.457. that never should there sit upon his knees a dear child begotten of me; and the gods fulfilled his curse, even Zeus of the nether world and dread Persephone. Then I took counsel to slay him with the sharp sword, but some one of the immortals stayed mine anger, bringing to my mind
14.246. Oceanus, from whom they all are sprung; but to Zeus, son of Cronos, will I not draw nigh, neither lull him to slumber, unless of himself he bid me. For ere now in another matter did a behest of thine teach me a lesson, ''. None
9. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • heavens, and earth

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 120; Levison (2009) 293

10. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth,Gaia, Ge • earth,touching during oaths

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 112; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 402

11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 47.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Earth, new • heavens, and earth

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 184, 196, 210; Gera (2014) 120; Levison (2009) 212, 291, 376

47.12. וְעַל־הַנַּחַל יַעֲלֶה עַל־שְׂפָתוֹ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה כָּל־עֵץ־מַאֲכָל לֹא־יִבּוֹל עָלֵהוּ וְלֹא־יִתֹּם פִּרְיוֹ לָחֳדָשָׁיו יְבַכֵּר כִּי מֵימָיו מִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הֵמָּה יוֹצְאִים והיו וְהָיָה פִרְיוֹ לְמַאֲכָל וְעָלֵהוּ לִתְרוּפָה׃' '. None
47.12. And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for food, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail; it shall bring forth new fruit every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary; and the fruit thereof shall be for food, and the leaf thereof for healing.’ .' '. None
12. Euripides, Bacchae, 242-245, 279, 284, 286-293, 526-529 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • earth, earthly

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 309, 314, 316; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 128; Álvarez (2019) 85, 86

242. '243. ἐκεῖνος ἐν μηρῷ ποτʼ ἐρράφθαι Διός, 244. ὃς ἐκπυροῦται λαμπάσιν κεραυνίαις 245. σὺν μητρί, Δίους ὅτι γάμους ἐψεύσατο.
279. βότρυος ὑγρὸν πῶμʼ ηὗρε κεἰσηνέγκατο
284. οὗτος θεοῖσι σπένδεται θεὸς γεγώς,
286. 287. μηρῷ; διδάξω σʼ ὡς καλῶς ἔχει τόδε. 288. ἐπεί νιν ἥρπασʼ ἐκ πυρὸς κεραυνίου 289. Ζεύς, ἐς δʼ Ὄλυμπον βρέφος ἀνήγαγεν θεόν, 290. Ἥρα νιν ἤθελʼ ἐκβαλεῖν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ· 291. Ζεὺς δʼ ἀντεμηχανήσαθʼ οἷα δὴ θεός. 292. ῥήξας μέρος τι τοῦ χθόνʼ ἐγκυκλουμένου 293. αἰθέρος, ἔθηκε τόνδʼ ὅμηρον ἐκδιδούς,
526. Ἴθι, Διθύραμβʼ, ἐμὰν ἄρσενα word split in text
242. I will stop him from making a noise with the thyrsos and shaking his hair, by cutting his head off.That one claims that Dionysus is a god, claims that he was once stitched into the thigh of Zeus—Dionysus, who was burnt up with his mother by the flame of lightning,'243. I will stop him from making a noise with the thyrsos and shaking his hair, by cutting his head off.That one claims that Dionysus is a god, claims that he was once stitched into the thigh of Zeus—Dionysus, who was burnt up with his mother by the flame of lightning, 245. because she had falsely claimed a marriage with Zeus. Is this not worthy of a terrible death by hanging, for a stranger to insult me with these insults, whoever he is?But here is another wonder—I see Teiresias the soothsayer in dappled fawn-skin
279. are first among men: the goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it
284. to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief, whenever they are filled with the stream of the vine, and gives them sleep, a means of forgetting their daily troubles, nor is there another cure for hardships. He who is a god is poured out in offerings to the gods,
286. o that by his means men may have good things. And do you laugh at him, because he was sewn up in Zeus’ thigh? I will teach you that this is well: when Zeus snatched him out of the lighting-flame, and led the child as a god to Olympus , 290. Hera wished to banish him from the sky, but Zeus, as a god, had a counter-contrivance. Having broken a part of the air which surrounds the earth, he gave this to Hera as a pledge protecting the real A line of text has apparently been lost here. Dionysus from her hostility. But in time,
526. crying out: Go, Dithyrambus, enter this my male womb. I will make you illustrious, Bacchus, in Thebes , so that they will call you by this name. '. None
13. Euripides, Ion, 196 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • edges of the earth

 Found in books: Edmunds (2021) 166; Lightfoot (2021) 133

196. ρει τις — ἆρ' ὃς ἐμαῖσι μυ-"". None
196. with a blazing torch uplifted; who is he? Can this be the warrior Iolaus whose story is told on my broidery, who shares with''. None
14. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.17-3.22, 4.2-4.3, 12.7 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Earth, and heaven • Earth, as witness • earth • earth, from (out of) the • heaven, and earth

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 143; Garcia (2021) 31, 33; Levison (2009) 21

3.17. אָמַרְתִּי אֲנִי בְּלִבִּי אֶת־הַצַּדִּיק וְאֶת־הָרָשָׁע יִשְׁפֹּט הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי־עֵת לְכָל־חֵפֶץ וְעַל כָּל־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה שָׁם׃ 3.18. אָמַרְתִּי אֲנִי בְּלִבִּי עַל־דִּבְרַת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם לְבָרָם הָאֱלֹהִים וְלִרְאוֹת שְׁהֶם־בְּהֵמָה הֵמָּה לָהֶם׃ 3.19. כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃' '3.21. מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃ 3.22. וְרָאִיתִי כִּי אֵין טוֹב מֵאֲשֶׁר יִשְׂמַח הָאָדָם בְּמַעֲשָׂיו כִּי־הוּא חֶלְקוֹ כִּי מִי יְבִיאֶנּוּ לִרְאוֹת בְּמֶה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אַחֲרָיו׃
4.2. וְשַׁבֵּחַ אֲנִי אֶת־הַמֵּתִים שֶׁכְּבָר מֵתוּ מִן־הַחַיִּים אֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה חַיִּים עֲדֶנָה׃ 4.3. וְטוֹב מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עֲדֶן לֹא הָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־רָאָה אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה הָרָע אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃
12.7. וְיָשֹׁב הֶעָפָר עַל־הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה וְהָרוּחַ תָּשׁוּב אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נְתָנָהּ׃''. None
3.17. I said in my heart: ‘The righteous and the wicked God will judge; for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work.’ 3.18. I said in my heart: ‘It is because of the sons of men, that God may sift them, and that they may see that they themselves are but as beasts.’ 3.19. For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity. 3.20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust. 3.21. Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth? 3.22. Wherefore I perceived that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his works; for that is his portion; for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?
4.2. Wherefore I praised the dead that are already dead more than the living that are yet alive; 4.3. but better than they both is he that hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun.
12.7. And the dust returneth to the earth as it was, and the spirit returneth unto God who gave it.''. None
15. Herodotus, Histories, 2.146, 3.98-3.116, 4.197, 8.37 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Herodotus, on thauma and the edges of the earth • earth • earth, earthly • earth, people generated by • edges of the earth • edges of the earth, and thauma in Herodotus • ends of the earth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 346; Ekroth (2013) 21; Isaac (2004) 135; Lightfoot (2021) 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 151; Torok (2014) 38, 53, 112, 114, 115; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 128

2.146. τούτων ὦν ἀμφοτέρων πάρεστι χρᾶσθαι τοῖσί τις πείσεται λεγομένοισι μᾶλλον· ἐμοὶ δʼ ὦν ἡ περὶ αὐτῶν γνώμη ἀποδέδεκται. εἰ μὲν γὰρ φανεροί τε ἐγένοντο καὶ κατεγήρασαν καὶ οὗτοι ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, κατά περ Ἡρακλέης ὁ ἐξ Ἀμφιτρύωνος γενόμενος, καὶ δὴ καὶ Διόνυσος ὁ ἐκ Σεμέλης καὶ Πὰν ὁ ἐκ Πηνελόπης γενόμενος, ἔφη ἄν τις καὶ τούτους ἄλλους ἄνδρας γενομένους ἔχειν τὰ ἐκείνων οὐνόματα τῶν προγεγονότων θεῶν. νῦν δὲ Διόνυσόν τε λέγουσι οἱ Ἕλληνες ὡς αὐτίκα γενόμενον ἐς τὸν μηρὸν ἐνερράψατο Ζεὺς καὶ ἤνεικε ἐς Νύσαν τὴν ὑπὲρ Αἰγύπτου ἐοῦσαν ἐν τῇ Αἰθιοπίῃ, καὶ Πανός γε πέρι οὐκ ἔχουσι εἰπεῖν ὅκῃ ἐτράπετο γενόμενος. δῆλά μοι γέγονε ὅτι ὕστερον ἐπύθοντο οἱ Ἕλληνες τούτων τὰ οὐνόματα ἢ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν· ἀπʼ οὗ δὲ ἐπύθοντο χρόνου, ἀπὸ τούτου γενεηλογέουσι αὐτῶν τὴν γένεσιν.
3.98. τὸν δὲ χρυσὸν τοῦτον τὸν πολλὸν οἱ Ἰνδοί, ἀπʼ οὗ τὸ ψῆγμα τῷ βασιλέι τὸ εἰρημένον κομίζουσι, τρόπῳ τοιῷδε κτῶνται. ἔστι τῆς Ἰνδικῆς χώρης τὸ πρὸς ἥλιον ἀνίσχοντα ψάμμος· τῶν γὰρ ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν, τῶν καὶ πέρι ἀτρεκές τι λέγεται, πρῶτοι πρὸς ἠῶ καὶ ἡλίου ἀνατολὰς οἰκέουσι ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ Ἰνδοί· Ἰνδῶν γὰρ τὸ πρὸς τὴν ἠῶ ἐρημίη ἐστὶ διὰ τὴν ψάμμον. ἔστι δὲ πολλὰ ἔθνεα Ἰνδῶν καὶ οὐκ ὁμόφωνα σφίσι, καὶ οἳ μὲν αὐτῶν νομάδες εἰσὶ οἳ δὲ οὔ, οἳ δὲ ἐν τοῖσι ἕλεσι οἰκέουσι τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ ἰχθύας σιτέονται ὠμούς, τοὺς αἱρέουσι ἐκ πλοίων καλαμίνων ὁρμώμενοι· καλάμου δὲ ἓν γόνυ πλοῖον ἕκαστον ποιέεται. οὗτοι μὲν δὴ τῶν Ἰνδῶν φορέουσι ἐσθῆτα φλοΐνην· ἐπεὰν ἐκ τοῦ ποταμοῦ φλοῦν ἀμήσωσι καὶ κόψωσι, τὸ ἐνθεῦτεν φορμοῦ τρόπον καταπλέξαντες ὡς θώρηκα ἐνδύνουσι. 3.99. ἄλλοι δὲ τῶν Ἰνδῶν πρὸς ἠῶ οἰκέοντες τούτων νομάδες εἰσὶ κρεῶν ἐδεσταὶ ὠμῶν, καλέονται δὲ Παδαῖοι, νομαίοισι δὲ τοιοῖσιδε λέγονται χρᾶσθαι· ὃς ἂν κάμῃ τῶν ἀστῶν, ἤν τε γυνὴ ἤν τε ἀνήρ, τὸν μὲν ἄνδρα ἄνδρες οἱ μάλιστά οἱ ὁμιλέοντες κτείνουσι, φάμενοι αὐτὸν τηκόμενον τῇ νούσῳ τὰ κρέα σφίσι διαφθείρεσθαι· ὁ δὲ ἄπαρνος ἐστὶ μὴ μὲν νοσέειν, οἱ δὲ οὐ συγγινωσκόμενοι ἀποκτείναντες κατευωχέονται. ἣ δὲ ἂν γυνὴ κάμῃ, ὡσαύτως αἱ ἐπιχρεώμεναι μάλιστα γυναῖκες ταὐτὰ τοῖσι ἀνδράσι ποιεῦσι. τὸν γὰρ δὴ ἐς γῆρας ἀπικόμενον θύσαντες κατευωχέονται· ἐς δὲ τούτου λόγον οὐ πολλοί τινες αὐτῶν ἀπικνέονται· πρὸ γὰρ τοῦ τὸν ἐς νοῦσον πίπτοντα πάντα κτείνουσι. 3.100. ἑτέρων δὲ ἐστὶ Ἰνδῶν ὅδε ἄλλος τρόπος· οὔτε κτείνουσι οὐδὲν ἔμψυχον οὔτε τι σπείρουσι οὔτε οἰκίας νομίζουσι ἐκτῆσθαι ποιηφαγέουσί τε· καὶ αὐτοῖσι ἐστὶ ὅσον κέγχρος τὸ μέγαθος ἐν κάλυκι, αὐτόματον ἐκ τῆς γῆς γινόμενον, τὸ συλλέγοντες αὐτῇ τῇ κάλυκι ἕψουσί τε καὶ σιτέονται. ὃς δʼ ἂν ἐς νοῦσον αὐτῶν πέσῃ, ἐλθὼν ἐς τὴν ἔρημον κεῖται· φροντίζει δὲ οὐδεὶς οὔτε ἀποθανόντος οὔτε κάμνοντος. 3.101. μίξις δὲ τούτων τῶν Ἰνδῶν τῶν κατέλεξα πάντων ἐμφανής ἐστι κατά περ τῶν προβάτων, καὶ τὸ χρῶμα φορέουσι ὅμοιον πάντες καὶ παραπλήσιον Αἰθίοψι. ἡ γονὴ δὲ αὐτῶν, τὴν ἀπίενται ἐς τὰς γυναῖκας, οὐ κατά περ τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπων ἐστὶ λευκή, ἀλλὰ μέλαινα κατά περ τὸ χρῶμα. τοιαύτην δὲ καὶ Αἰθίοπες ἀπίενται θορήν. οὗτοι μὲν τῶν Ἰνδῶν ἑκαστέρω τῶν Περσέων οἰκέουσι καὶ πρὸς νότου ἀνέμου, καὶ Δαρείου βασιλέος οὐδαμὰ ὑπήκουσαν. 3.102. ἄλλοι δὲ τῶν Ἰνδῶν Κασπατύρῳ τε πόλι καὶ τῇ Πακτυϊκῇ χώρῃ εἰσὶ πρόσουροι, πρὸς ἄρκτου τε καὶ βορέω ἀνέμου κατοικημένοι τῶν ἄλλων Ἰνδῶν, οἳ Βακτρίοισι παραπλησίην ἔχουσι δίαιταν. οὗτοι καὶ μαχιμώτατοι εἰσὶ Ἰνδῶν καὶ οἱ ἐπὶ τὸν χρυσὸν στελλόμενοι εἰσὶ οὗτοι· κατὰ γὰρ τοῦτο ἐστὶ ἐρημίη διὰ τὴν ψάμμον. ἐν δὴ ὦν τῇ ἐρημίῃ ταύτῃ καὶ τῇ ψάμμῳ γίνονται μύρμηκες μεγάθεα ἔχοντες κυνῶν μὲν ἐλάσσονα ἀλωπέκων δὲ μέζονα· εἰσὶ γὰρ αὐτῶν καὶ παρὰ βασιλέι τῷ Περσέων ἐνθεῦτεν θηρευθέντες. οὗτοι ὦν οἱ μύρμηκες ποιεύμενοι οἴκησιν ὑπὸ γῆν ἀναφορέουσι τὴν ψάμμον κατά περ οἱ ἐν τοῖσι Ἕλλησι μύρμηκες κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον, εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ τὸ εἶδος ὁμοιότατοι· ἡ δὲ ψάμμος ἡ ἀναφερομένη ἐστὶ χρυσῖτις. ἐπὶ δὴ ταύτην τὴν ψάμμον στέλλονται ἐς τὴν ἔρημον οἱ Ἰνδοί, ζευξάμενος ἕκαστος καμήλους τρεῖς, σειρηφόρον μὲν ἑκατέρωθεν ἔρσενα παρέλκειν, θήλεαν δὲ ἐς μέσον· ἐπὶ ταύτην δὴ αὐτὸς ἀναβαίνει, ἐπιτηδεύσας ὅκως ἀπὸ τέκνων ὡς νεωτάτων ἀποσπάσας ζεύξει. αἱ γάρ σφι κάμηλοι ἵππων οὐκ ἥσσονες ἐς ταχυτῆτα εἰσί, χωρὶς δὲ ἄχθεα δυνατώτεραι πολλὸν φέρειν. 3.103. τὸ μὲν δὴ εἶδος ὁκοῖόν τι ἔχει ἡ κάμηλος, ἐπισταμένοισι τοῖσι Ἕλλησι οὐ συγγράφω· τὸ δὲ μὴ ἐπιστέαται αὐτῆς, τοῦτο φράσω· κάμηλος ἐν τοῖσι ὀπισθίοισι σκέλεσι ἔχει τέσσερας μηροὺς καὶ γούνατα τέσσερα, τά τε αἰδοῖα διὰ τῶν ὀπισθίων σκελέων πρὸς τὴν οὐρὴν τετραμμένα. 3.104. οἱ δὲ δὴ Ἰνδοὶ τρόπῳ τοιούτῳ καὶ ζεύξι τοιαύτῃ χρεώμενοι ἐλαύνουσι ἐπὶ τὸν χρυσὸν λελογισμένως ὅκως καυμάτων τῶν θερμοτάτων ἐόντων ἔσονται ἐν τῇ ἁρπαγῇ· ὑπὸ γὰρ τοῦ καύματος οἱ μύρμηκες ἀφανέες γίνονται ὑπὸ γῆν. θερμότατος δὲ ἐστὶ ὁ ἥλιος τούτοισι τοῖσι ἀνθρώποισι τὸ ἑωθινόν, οὐ κατά περ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι μεσαμβρίης, ἀλλʼ ὑπερτείλας μέχρι οὗ ἀγορῆς διαλύσιος. τοῦτον δὲ τὸν χρόνον καίει πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἢ τῇ μεσαμβρίῃ τὴν Ἑλλάδα, οὕτω ὥστʼ ἐν ὕδατι λόγος αὐτούς ἐστι βρέχεσθαι τηνικαῦτα. μεσοῦσα δὲ ἡ ἡμέρη σχεδὸν παραπλησίως καίει τούς τε ἄλλους ἀνθρώπους καὶ τοὺς Ἰνδούς. ἀποκλινομένης δὲ τῆς μεσαμβρίης γίνεταί σφι ὁ ἥλιος κατά περ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι ὁ ἑωθινός, καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τούτου ἀπιὼν ἐπὶ μᾶλλον ψύχει, ἐς ὃ ἐπὶ δυσμῇσι ἐὼν καὶ τὸ κάρτα ψύχει. 3.105. ἐπεὰν δὲ ἔλθωσι ἐς τὸν χῶρον οἱ Ἰνδοὶ ἔχοντες θυλάκια, ἐμπλήσαντες ταῦτα τῆς ψάμμου τὴν ταχίστην ἐλαύνουσι ὀπίσω· αὐτίκα γὰρ οἱ μύρμηκες ὀδμῇ, ὡς δὴ λέγεται ὑπὸ Περσέων, μαθόντες διώκουσι. εἶναι δὲ ταχυτῆτα οὐδενὶ ἑτέρῳ ὅμοιον, οὕτω ὥστε, εἰ μὴ προλαμβάνειν τοὺς Ἰνδοὺς τῆς ὁδοῦ ἐν ᾧ τοὺς μύρμηκας συλλέγεσθαι, οὐδένα ἂν σφέων ἀποσώζεσθαι. τοὺς μέν νυν ἔρσενας τῶν καμήλων, εἶναι γὰρ ἥσσονας θέειν τῶν θηλέων, παραλύεσθαι ἐπελκομένους, οὐκ ὁμοῦ ἀμφοτέρους· τὰς δὲ θηλέας ἀναμιμνησκομένας τῶν ἔλιπον τέκνων ἐνδιδόναι μαλακὸν οὐδέν. τὸν μὲν δὴ πλέω τοῦ χρυσοῦ οὕτω οἱ Ἰνδοὶ κτῶνται, ὡς Πέρσαι φασί· ἄλλος δὲ σπανιώτερος ἐστι ἐν τῇ χώρῃ ὀρυσσόμενος. 3.106. αἱ δʼ ἐσχατιαί κως τῆς οἰκεομένης τὰ κάλλιστα ἔλαχον, κατά περ ἡ Ἑλλὰς τὰς ὥρας πολλόν τι κάλλιστα κεκρημένας ἔλαχε. τοῦτο μὲν γὰρ πρὸς τὴν ἠῶ ἐσχάτη τῶν οἰκεομενέων ἡ Ἰνδική ἐστι, ὥσπερ ὀλίγῳ πρότερον εἴρηκα· ἐν ταύτῃ τοῦτο μὲν τὰ ἔμψυχα, τετράποδά τε καὶ τὰ πετεινά, πολλῷ μέζω ἢ ἐν τοῖσι ἄλλοισι χωρίοισι ἐστί, πάρεξ τῶν ἵππων ʽοὗτοι δὲ ἑσσοῦνται ὑπὸ τῶν Μηδικῶν, Νησαίων δὲ καλευμένων ἵππων̓, τοῦτο δὲ χρυσὸς ἄπλετος αὐτόθι ἐστί, ὃ μὲν ὀρυσσόμενος, ὁ δὲ καταφορεύμενος ὑπὸ ποταμῶν, ὁ δὲ ὥσπερ ἐσήμηνα ἁρπαζόμενος. τὰ δὲ δένδρεα τὰ ἄγρια αὐτόθι φέρει καρπὸν εἴρια καλλονῇ τε προφέροντα καὶ ἀρετῇ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ὀίων· καὶ ἐσθῆτι Ἰνδοὶ ἀπὸ τούτων τῶν δενδρέων χρέωνται. 3.107. πρὸς δʼ αὖ μεσαμβρίης ἐσχάτη Ἀραβίη τῶν οἰκεομενέων χωρέων ἐστί, ἐν δὲ ταύτῃ λιβανωτός τε ἐστὶ μούνῃ χωρέων πασέων φυόμενος καὶ σμύρνη καὶ κασίη καὶ κινάμωμον καὶ λήδανον. ταῦτα πάντα πλὴν τῆς σμύρνης δυσπετέως κτῶνται οἱ Ἀράβιοι. τὸν μέν γε λιβανωτὸν συλλέγουσι τὴν στύρακα θυμιῶντες, τὴν ἐς Ἕλληνας Φοίνικες ἐξάγουσι· ταύτην θυμιῶντες λαμβάνουσι· τὰ γὰρ δένδρεα ταῦτα τὰ λιβανωτοφόρα ὄφιες ὑπόπτεροι, μικροὶ τὰ μεγάθεα, ποικίλοι τὰ εἴδεα, φυλάσσουσι πλήθεϊ πολλοὶ περὶ δένδρον ἕκαστον, οὗτοι οἵ περ ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον ἐπιστρατεύονται, οὐδενὶ δὲ ἄλλῳ ἀπελαύνονται ἀπὸ τῶν δενδρέων ἢ τῆς στύρακος τῷ καπνῷ. 3.108. λέγουσι δὲ καὶ τόδε Ἀράβιοι, ὡς πᾶσα ἂν γῆ ἐπίμπλατο τῶν ὀφίων τούτων, εἰ μὴ γίνεσθαι κατʼ αὐτοὺς οἷόν τι κατὰ τὰς ἐχίδνας ἠπιστάμην γίνεσθαι. καί κως τοῦ θείου ἡ προνοίη, ὥσπερ καὶ οἰκός ἐστι, ἐοῦσα σοφή, ὅσα μὲν 1 ψυχήν τε δειλὰ καὶ ἐδώδιμα, ταῦτα μὲν πάντα πολύγονα πεποίηκε, ἵνα μὴ ἐπιλίπῃ κατεσθιόμενα, ὅσα δὲ σχέτλια καὶ ἀνιηρά, ὀλιγόγονα. τοῦτο μέν, ὅτι ὁ λαγὸς ὑπὸ παντὸς θηρεύεται θηρίου καὶ ὄρνιθος καὶ ἀνθρώπου, οὕτω δή τι πολύγονον ἐστί· ἐπικυΐσκεται μοῦνον πάντων θηρίων, καὶ τὸ μὲν δασὺ τῶν τέκνων ἐν τῇ γαστρὶ τὸ δὲ ψιλόν, τὸ δὲ ἄρτι ἐν τῇσι μήτρῃσι πλάσσεται, τὸ δὲ ἀναιρέεται. τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τοιοῦτο ἐστί· ἡ δὲ δὴ λέαινα ἐὸν ἰσχυρότατον καὶ θρασύτατον ἅπαξ ἐν τῷ βίῳ τίκτει ἕν· τίκτουσα γὰρ συνεκβάλλει τῷ τέκνῳ τὰς μήτρας. τὸ δὲ αἴτιον τούτου τόδε ἐστί· ἐπεὰν ὁ σκύμνος ἐν τῇ μητρὶ ἐὼν ἄρχηται διακινεόμενος, ὁ δὲ ἔχων ὄνυχας θηρίων πολλὸν πάντων ὀξυτάτους ἀμύσσει τὰς μήτρας, αὐξόμενός τε δὴ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἐσικνέεται καταγράφων· πέλας τε δὴ ὁ τόκος ἐστί, καὶ τὸ παράπαν λείπεται αὐτέων ὑγιὲς οὐδέν. 3.109. ὣς δὲ καὶ οἱ ἔχιδναί τε καὶ οἱ ἐν Ἀραβίοισι ὑπόπτεροι ὄφιες εἰ ἐγίνοντο ὡς ἡ φύσις αὐτοῖσι ὑπάρχει, οὐκ ἂν ἦν βιώσιμα ἀνθρώποισι· νῦν δʼ ἐπεὰν θορνύωνται κατὰ ζεύγεα καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ ᾖ ὁ ἔρσην τῇ ἐκποιήσι, ἀπιεμένου αὐτοῦ τὴν γονὴν ἡ θήλεα ἅπτεται τῆς δειρῆς, καὶ ἐμφῦσα οὐκ ἀνιεῖ πρὶν ἂν διαφάγῃ. ὁ μὲν δὴ ἔρσην ἀποθνήσκει τρόπῳ τῷ εἰρημένῳ, ἡ δὲ θήλεα τίσιν τοιήνδε ἀποτίνει τῷ ἔρσενι· τῷ γονέι τιμωρέοντα ἔτι ἐν τῇ γαστρὶ ἐόντα τὰ τέκνα διεσθίει τὴν μητέρα, διαφαγόντα δὲ τὴν νηδὺν αὐτῆς οὕτω τὴν ἔκδυσιν ποιέεται. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ὄφιες ἐόντες ἀνθρώπων οὐ δηλήμονες τίκτουσί τε ᾠὰ καὶ ἐκλέπουσι πολλόν τι χρῆμα τῶν τέκνων. αἱ μέν νυν ἔχιδναι κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν εἰσί, οἱ δὲ ὑπόπτεροι ὄφιες ἀθρόοι εἰσὶ ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίῃ καὶ οὐδαμῇ ἄλλῃ· κατὰ τοῦτο δοκέουσι πολλοὶ εἶναι. 3.110. τὸν μὲν δὴ λιβανωτὸν τοῦτον οὕτω κτῶνται Ἀράβιοι, τὴν δὲ κασίην ὧδε. ἐπεὰν καταδήσωνται βύρσῃσι καὶ δέρμασι ἄλλοισι πᾶν τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον πλὴν αὐτῶν τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν, ἔρχονται ἐπὶ τὴν κασίην· ἣ δὲ ἐν λίμνῃ φύεται οὐ βαθέῃ, περὶ δὲ αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ αὐλίζεταί κου θηρία πτερωτά, τῇσι νυκτερίσι προσείκελα μάλιστα, καὶ τέτριγε δεινόν, καὶ ἐς ἀλκὴν ἄλκιμα· τὰ δεῖ ἀπαμυνομένους ἀπὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν οὕτω δρέπειν τὴν κασίην. 3.111. τὸ δὲ δὴ κινάμωμον ἔτι τούτων θωμαστότερον συλλέγουσι. ὅκου μὲν γὰρ γίνεται καὶ ἥτις μιν γῆ ἡ τρέφουσα ἐστί, οὐκ ἔχουσι εἰπεῖν, πλὴν ὅτι λόγῳ οἰκότι χρεώμενοι ἐν τοῖσιδε χωρίοισι φασὶ τινὲς αὐτὸ φύεσθαι ἐν τοῖσι ὁ Διόνυσος ἐτράφη· ὄρνιθας δὲ λέγουσι μεγάλας φορέειν ταῦτα τὰ κάρφεα τὰ ἡμεῖς ἀπὸ Φοινίκων μαθόντες κινάμωμον καλέομεν, φορέειν δὲ τὰς ὄρνιθας ἐς νεοσσιὰς προσπεπλασμένας ἐκ πηλοῦ πρὸς ἀποκρήμνοισι ὄρεσι, ἔνθα πρόσβασιν ἀνθρώπῳ οὐδεμίαν εἶναι. πρὸς ὦν δὴ ταῦτα τοὺς Ἀραβίους σοφίζεσθαι τάδε· βοῶν τε καὶ ὄνων τῶν ἀπογινομένων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὑποζυγίων τὰ μέλεα διαταμόντας ὡς μέγιστα κομίζειν ἐς ταῦτα τὰ χωρία, καί σφεα θέντας ἀγχοῦ τῶν νεοσσιέων ἀπαλλάσσεσθαι ἑκὰς αὐτέων· τὰς δὲ ὄρνιθας καταπετομένας 1 τὰ μέλεα τῶν ὑποζυγίων ἀναφορέειν ἐπὶ τὰς νεοσσιάς, τὰς δὲ οὐ δυναμένας ἴσχειν καταρρήγνυσθαι ἐπὶ γῆν, τοὺς δὲ ἐπιόντας συλλέγειν. οὕτω μὲν τὸ κινάμωμον συλλεγόμενον ἐκ τούτων ἀπικνέεσθαι ἐς τὰς ἄλλας χώρας. 3.112. τὸ δὲ δὴ λήδανον, τὸ καλέουσι Ἀράβιοι λάδανον, ἔτι τούτου θωμασιώτερον γίνεται· ἐν γὰρ δυσοδμοτάτῳ γινόμενον εὐωδέστατον ἐστί· τῶν γὰρ αἰγῶν τῶν τράγων ἐν τοῖσι πώγωσι εὑρίσκεται ἐγγινόμενον οἷον γλοιὸς ἀπὸ τῆς ὕλης. χρήσιμον δʼ ἐς πολλὰ τῶν μύρων ἐστί, θυμιῶσί τε μάλιστα τοῦτο Ἀράβιοι. 3.113. τοσαῦτα μὲν θυωμάτων πέρι εἰρήσθω, ἀπόζει δὲ τῆς χώρης τῆς Ἀραβίης θεσπέσιον ὡς ἡδύ. δύο δὲ γένεα ὀίων σφι ἐστὶ θώματος ἄξια, τὰ οὐδαμόθι ἑτέρωθι ἐστί. τὸ μὲν αὐτῶν ἕτερον ἔχει τὰς οὐρὰς μακράς, τριῶν πηχέων οὐκ ἐλάσσονας, τὰς εἴ τις ἐπείη σφι ἐπέλκειν, ἕλκεα ἂν ἔχοιεν ἀνατριβομενέων πρὸς τῇ γῇ τῶν οὐρέων· νῦν δʼ ἅπας τις τῶν ποιμένων ἐπίσταται ξυλουργέειν ἐς τοσοῦτο· ἁμαξίδας γὰρ ποιεῦντες ὑποδέουσι αὐτὰς τῇσι οὐρῇσι, ἑνὸς ἑκάστου κτήνεος τὴν οὐρὴν ἐπὶ ἁμαξίδα ἑκάστην καταδέοντες. τὸ δὲ ἕτερον γένος τῶν ὀίων τὰς οὐρὰς πλατέας φορέουσι καὶ ἐπὶ πῆχυν πλάτος. 3.114. ἀποκλινομένης δὲ μεσαμβρίης παρήκει πρὸς δύνοντα ἥλιον ἡ Αἰθιοπίη χώρη ἐσχάτη τῶν οἰκεομενέων· αὕτη δὲ χρυσόν τε φέρει πολλὸν καὶ ἐλέφαντας ἀμφιλαφέας καὶ δένδρεα πάντα ἄγρια καὶ ἔβενον καὶ ἄνδρας μεγίστους καὶ καλλίστους καὶ μακροβιωτάτους. 3.115. αὗται μέν νυν ἔν τε τῇ Ἀσίῃ ἐσχατιαί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῇ Λιβύῃ. περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ τῶν πρὸς ἑσπέρην ἐσχατιέων ἔχω μὲν οὐκ ἀτρεκέως λέγειν· οὔτε γὰρ ἔγωγε ἐνδέκομαι Ἠριδανὸν καλέεσθαι πρὸς βαρβάρων ποταμὸν ἐκδιδόντα ἐς θάλασσαν τὴν πρὸς βορέην ἄνεμον, ἀπʼ ὅτευ τὸ ἤλεκτρον φοιτᾶν λόγος ἐστί, οὔτε νήσους οἶδα Κασσιτερίδας ἐούσας, ἐκ τῶν ὁ κασσίτερος ἡμῖν φοιτᾷ. τοῦτο μὲν γὰρ ὁ Ἠριδανὸς αὐτὸ κατηγορέει τὸ οὔνομα ὡς ἔστι Ἑλληνικὸν καὶ οὐ βάρβαρον, ὑπὸ ποιητέω δὲ τινὸς ποιηθέν· τοῦτο δὲ οὐδενὸς αὐτόπτεω γενομένου δύναμαι ἀκοῦσαι, τοῦτο μελετῶν, ὅκως θάλασσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἐπέκεινα Εὐρώπης. ἐξ ἐσχάτης δʼ ὦν ὁ κασσίτερος ἡμῖν φοιτᾷ καὶ τὸ ἤλεκτρον. 3.116. πρὸς δὲ ἄρκτου τῆς Εὐρώπης πολλῷ τι πλεῖστος χρυσὸς φαίνεται ἐών· ὅκως μὲν γινόμενος, οὐκ ἔχω οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀτρεκέως εἶπαι, λέγεται δὲ ὑπὲκ τῶν γρυπῶν ἁρπάζειν Ἀριμασποὺς ἄνδρας μουνοφθάλμους. πείθομαι δὲ οὐδὲ τοῦτο ὅκως μουνόφθαλμοι ἄνδρες φύονται, φύσιν ἔχοντες τὴν ἄλλην ὁμοίην τοῖσι ἄλλοισι ἀνθρώποισι· αἱ δὲ ὦν ἐσχατιαὶ οἴκασι, περικληίουσαι τὴν ἄλλην χώρην καὶ ἐντὸς ἀπέργουσαι, τὰ κάλλιστα δοκέοντα ἡμῖν εἶναι καὶ σπανιώτατα ἔχειν αὗται.
4.197. οὗτοι μὲν εἶσὶ τοὺς ἡμεῖς ἔχομεν Λιβύων ὀνομάσαι, καὶ τούτων οἱ πολλοὶ βασιλέος τοῦ Μήδων οὔτε τι νῦν οὔτε τότε ἐφρόρτιζον οὐδέν. τοσόνδε δὲ ἔτι ἔχω εἰπεῖν περὶ τῆς χώρης ταύτης, ὅτι τέσσερα ἔθνεα νέμεται αὐτὴν καὶ οὐ πλέω τούτων, ὅσον ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν, καὶ τὰ μὲν δύο αὐτόχθονα τῶν ἐθνέων τὰ δὲ δύο οὔ, Λίβυες μὲν καὶ Αἰθίοπες αὐτόχθονες, οἳ μὲν τὰ πρὸς βορέω οἳ δὲ τὰ πρὸς νότου τῆς Λιβύης οἰκέοντες, Φοίνικες δὲ καὶ Ἕλληνες ἐπήλυδες.
8.37. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀγχοῦ ἦσαν οἱ βάρβαροι ἐπιόντες καὶ ἀπώρων τὸ ἱρόν, ἐν τούτῳ ὁ προφήτης, τῷ οὔνομα ἦν Ἀκήρατος, ὁρᾷ πρὸ τοῦ νηοῦ ὅπλα προκείμενα ἔσωθεν ἐκ τοῦ μεγάρου ἐξενηνειγμένα ἱρά, τῶν οὐκ ὅσιον ἦν ἅπτεσθαι ἀνθρώπων οὐδενί. ὃ μὲν δὴ ἤιε Δελφῶν τοῖσι παρεοῦσι σημανέων τὸ τέρας· οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι ἐπειδὴ ἐγίνοντο ἐπειγόμενοι κατὰ τὸ ἱρὸν τῆς Προναίης Ἀθηναίης, ἐπιγίνεταί σφι τέρεα ἔτι μέζονα τοῦ πρὶν γενομένου τέρεος. θῶμα μὲν γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο κάρτα ἐστί, ὅπλα ἀρήια αὐτόματα φανῆναι ἔξω προκείμενα τοῦ νηοῦ· τὰ δὲ δὴ ἐπὶ τούτῳ δεύτερα ἐπιγενόμενα καὶ διὰ πάντων φασμάτων ἄξια θωμάσαι μάλιστα. ἐπεὶ γὰρ δὴ ἦσαν ἐπιόντες οἱ βάρβαροι κατὰ τὸ ἱρὸν τῆς Προναίης Ἀθηναίης, ἐν τούτῳ ἐκ μὲν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κεραυνοὶ αὐτοῖσι ἐνέπιπτον, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Παρνησοῦ ἀπορραγεῖσαι δύο κορυφαὶ ἐφέροντο πολλῷ πατάγῳ ἐς αὐτοὺς καὶ κατέβαλον συχνούς σφεων, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ ἱροῦ τῆς Προναίης βοή τε καὶ ἀλαλαγμὸς ἐγίνετο.''. None
2.146. With regard to these two, Pan and Dionysus, one may follow whatever story one thinks most credible; but I give my own opinion concerning them here. Had Dionysus son of Semele and Pan son of Penelope appeared in Hellas and lived there to old age, like Heracles the son of Amphitryon, it might have been said that they too (like Heracles) were but men, named after the older Pan and Dionysus, the gods of antiquity; ,but as it is, the Greek story has it that no sooner was Dionysus born than Zeus sewed him up in his thigh and carried him away to Nysa in Ethiopia beyond Egypt ; and as for Pan, the Greeks do not know what became of him after his birth. It is therefore plain to me that the Greeks learned the names of these two gods later than the names of all the others, and trace the birth of both to the time when they gained the knowledge.
3.98. All this abundance of gold, from which the Indians send the aforementioned gold-dust to the king, they obtain in the following way. ,To the east of the Indian country is sand. of all the people of Asia whom we know - even those about whom something is said with precision - the Indians dwell nearest to the dawn and the rising sun; for on the eastern side of India all is desolate because of the sand. ,There are many Indian nations, none speaking the same language; some of them are nomads, some not; some dwell in the river marshes and live on raw fish, which they catch from reed boats. Each boat is made of one joint of reed. ,These Indians wear clothes of bullrushes; they mow and cut these from the river, then weave them crosswise like a mat, and wear them like a breastplate. ' "3.99. Other Indians, to the east of these, are nomads and eat raw flesh; they are called Padaei. It is said to be their custom that when anyone of their fellows, whether man or woman, is sick, a man's closest friends kill him, saying that if wasted by disease he will be lost to them as meat; though he denies that he is sick, they will not believe him, but kill and eat him. ,When a woman is sick, she is put to death like the men by the women who are her close acquaintances. As for one that has come to old age, they sacrifice him and feast on his flesh; but not many reach this reckoning, for before that everyone who falls ill they kill. " '3.100. There are other Indians, again, who kill no living creature, nor plant anything, nor are accustomed to have houses; they eat grass, and they have a grain growing naturally from the earth in its husk, about the size of a millet-seed, which they gather with the husk and boil and eat. When any one of them falls sick, he goes into the desert and lies there, and no one notices whether he is sick or dies. ' "3.101. These Indians whom I have described have intercourse openly like cattle; they are all black-skinned, like the Ethiopians. ,Their semen too, which they ejaculate into the women, is not white like other men's, but black like their skin, and resembles in this respect that of the Ethiopians. These Indians dwell far away from the Persians southwards, and were not subjects of King Darius. " '3.102. Other Indians dwell near the town of Caspatyrus and the Pactyic country, north of the rest of India ; these live like the Bactrians; they are of all Indians the most warlike, and it is they who are sent for the gold; for in these parts all is desolate because of the sand. ,In this sandy desert are ants, not as big as dogs but bigger than foxes; the Persian king has some of these, which have been caught there. These ants live underground, digging out the sand in the same way as the ants in Greece, to which they are very similar in shape, and the sand which they carry from the holes is full of gold. ,It is for this sand that the Indians set forth into the desert. They harness three camels apiece, males on either side sharing the drawing, and a female in the middle: the man himself rides on the female, that when harnessed has been taken away from as young an offspring as may be. Their camels are as swift as horses, and much better able to bear burdens besides. ' "3.103. I do not describe the camel's appearance to Greeks, for they know it; but I shall tell them something that they do not know concerning it: the hindlegs of the camel have four thighbones and four knee-joints; its genitals are turned towards the tail between the hindlegs. " "3.104. Thus and with teams so harnessed the Indians ride after the gold, being careful to be engaged in taking it when the heat is greatest; for the ants are then out of sight underground. ,Now in these parts the sun is hottest in the morning, not at midday as elsewhere, but from sunrise to the hour of market-closing. Through these hours it is much hotter than in Hellas at noon, so that men are said to sprinkle themselves with water at this time. ,At midday the sun's heat is nearly the same in India as elsewhere. As it goes to afternoon, the sun of India has the power of the morning sun in other lands; as day declines it becomes ever cooler, until at sunset it is exceedingly cold. " '3.105. So when the Indians come to the place with their sacks, they fill these with the sand and drive back as fast as possible; for the ants at once scent them out, the Persians say, and give chase. They say nothing is equal to them for speed, so that unless the Indians have a headstart while the ants were gathering, not one of them would get away. ,They cut loose the male trace-camels, which are slower than the females, as they begin to lag, one at a time; the mares never tire, for they remember the young that they have left. Such is the tale. Most of the gold (say the Persians) is got in this way by the Indians; they dig some from mines in their country, too, but it is less abundant. ' "3.106. The most outlying nations of the world have somehow drawn the finest things as their lot, exactly as Greece has drawn the possession of far the best seasons. ,As I have lately said, India lies at the world's most distant eastern limit; and in India all living creatures four-footed and flying are much bigger than those of other lands, except the horses, which are smaller than the Median horses called Nesaean; moreover, the gold there, whether dug from the earth or brought down by rivers or got as I have described, is very abundant. ,There, too, wool more beautiful and excellent than the wool of sheep grows on wild trees; these trees supply the Indians with clothing. " '3.107. Again, Arabia is the most distant to the south of all inhabited countries: and this is the only country which produces frankincense and myrrh and casia and cinnamon and gum-mastich. All these except myrrh are difficult for the Arabians to get. ,They gather frankincense by burning that storax which Phoenicians carry to Hellas ; they burn this and so get the frankincense; for the spice-bearing trees are guarded by small winged snakes of varied color, many around each tree; these are the snakes that attack Egypt . Nothing except the smoke of storax will drive them away from the trees. 3.108. The Arabians also say that the whole country would be full of these snakes if the same thing did not occur among them that I believe occurs among vipers. ,Somehow the forethought of God (just as is reasonable) being wise has made all creatures prolific that are timid and edible, so that they do not become extinct through being eaten, whereas few young are born to hardy and vexatious creatures. ,On the one hand, because the hare is hunted by every beast and bird and man, therefore it is quite prolific; alone of all creatures it conceives during pregcy; some of the unborn young are hairy, some still naked, some are still forming in the womb while others are just conceived. ,On the one hand there is this sort of thing, but on the other hand the lioness, that is so powerful and so bold, once in her life bears one cub; for in the act of bearing she casts her uterus out with her cub. The explanation of this is that when the cub first begins to stir in the mother, its claws, much sharper than those of any other creature, tear the uterus, and the more it grows the more it scratches and tears, so that when the hour of birth is near seldom is any of the uterus left intact. 3.109. So too if the vipers and the winged serpents of Arabia were born in the natural manner of serpents life would be impossible for men; but as it is, when they copulate, while the male is in the act of procreation and as soon as he has ejaculated his seed, the female seizes him by the neck, and does not let go until she has bitten through. ,The male dies in the way described, but the female suffers in return for the male the following punishment: avenging their father, the young while they are still within the womb gnaw at their mother and eating through her bowels thus make their way out. ,Other snakes, that do no harm to men, lay eggs and hatch out a vast number of young. The Arabian winged serpents do indeed seem to be numerous; but that is because (although there are vipers in every land) these are all in Arabia and are found nowhere else. 3.110. The Arabians get frankincense in the foregoing way, and casia in the following way: when they go after it they bind oxhides and other skins all over their bodies and faces except for the eyes. Casia grows in a shallow lake; around this and in it live winged creatures, very like bats, that squeak similarly and make a fierce resistance; these have to be kept away from the eyes in order to take the casia. 3.111. As for cinnamon, they gather it in an even stranger way. Where it comes from and what land produces it they cannot say, except that it is reported, reasonably enough, to grow in the places where Dionysus was reared. ,There are great birds, it is said, that take these dry sticks which we have learned from the Phoenicians to call cinnamon and carry them off to nests stuck with mud to precipitous cliffs, where man has no means of approach. ,The Arabian solution to this is to cut dead oxen and asses and other beasts of burden into the largest possible pieces, then to set these near the eyries and withdraw far off. The birds then fly down (it is said) and carry the pieces of the beasts up to their nests, while these, not being able to bear the weight, break and fall down the mountain side, and then the Arabians come and gather them up. Thus is cinnamon said to be gathered, and so to come from Arabia to other lands. ' "3.112. But ledanon, which the Arabians call ladanon, is produced yet more strangely than this. For it is the most fragrant thing produced in the most malodorous; for it is found in he-goats' beards, forming in them like gum among timber. This is used in the manufacture of many perfumes; there is nothing that the Arabians burn so often as incense. " '3.113. Enough of marvels, and yet the land of Arabia gives off a scent as sweet as if divine. They have besides two marvellous kinds of sheep, found nowhere else. One of these has tails no less than nine feet long. Were the sheep to trail these after them they would suffer by the chafing of the tails on the ground; ,but every shepherd there knows enough of carpentry to make little carts which they fix under the tails, binding the tail of each sheep on its own cart. The other kind of sheep has a tail a full three feet broad. 3.114. Where south inclines westwards, the part of the world stretching farthest towards the sunset is Ethiopia ; this produces gold in abundance, and huge elephants, and all sorts of wild trees, and ebony, and the tallest and handsomest and longest-lived people. 3.115. These then are the most distant lands in Asia and Libya . But concerning those in Europe that are the farthest away towards evening, I cannot speak with assurance; for I do not believe that there is a river called by foreigners Eridanus issuing into the northern sea, where our amber is said to come from, nor do I have any knowledge of Tin Islands, where our tin is brought from. ,The very name Eridanus betrays itself as not a foreign but a Greek name, invented by some poet; nor for all my diligence have I been able to learn from one who has seen it that there is a sea beyond Europe . All we know is that our tin and amber come from the most distant parts. 3.116. But in the north of Europe there is by far the most gold. In this matter again I cannot say with assurance how the gold is produced, but it is said that one-eyed men called Arimaspians steal it from griffins. ,But I do not believe this, that there are one-eyed men who have a nature otherwise the same as other men. ,The most outlying lands, though, as they enclose and wholly surround all the rest of the world, are likely to have those things which we think the finest and the rarest.
4.197. These are all the Libyans whom we can name, and the majority of their kings cared nothing for the king of the Medes at the time of which I write, nor do they care for him now. ,I have this much further to say of this country: four nations and no more, as far as we know, inhabit it, two of which are aboriginal and two not; the Libyans in the north and the Ethiopians in the south of Libya are aboriginal; the Phoenicians and Greeks are later settlers.
8.37. Now when the barbarians drew near and could see the temple, the prophet, whose name was Aceratus, saw certain sacred arms, which no man might touch without sacrilege, brought out of the chamber within and laid before the shrine. ,So he went to tell the Delphians of this miracle, but when the barbarians came with all speed near to the temple of Athena Pronaea, they were visited by miracles yet greater than the aforesaid. Marvellous indeed it is, that weapons of war should of their own motion appear lying outside in front of the shrine, but the visitation which followed was more wondrous than anything else ever seen. ,When the barbarians were near to the temple of Athena Pronaea, they were struck by thunderbolts from the sky, and two peaks broken off from Parnassus came rushing among them with a mighty noise and overwhelmed many of them. In addition to this a shout and a cry of triumph were heard from the temple of Athena. ''. None
16. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019) 101; Lloyd (1989) 137

28a. ἀεί, ὂν δὲ οὐδέποτε; τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν, ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν, τὸ δʼ αὖ δόξῃ μετʼ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν, γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, ὄντως δὲ οὐδέποτε ὄν. πᾶν δὲ αὖ τὸ γιγνόμενον ὑπʼ αἰτίου τινὸς ἐξ ἀνάγκης γίγνεσθαι· παντὶ γὰρ ἀδύνατον χωρὶς αἰτίου γένεσιν σχεῖν. ὅτου μὲν οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργὸς πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον βλέπων ἀεί, τοιούτῳ τινὶ προσχρώμενος παραδείγματι, τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται, καλὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης''. None
28a. and has no Becoming? And what is that which is Becoming always and never is Existent? Now the one of these is apprehensible by thought with the aid of reasoning, since it is ever uniformly existent; whereas the other is an object of opinion with the aid of unreasoning sensation, since it becomes and perishes and is never really existent. Again, everything which becomes must of necessity become owing to some Cause; for without a cause it is impossible for anything to attain becoming. But when the artificer of any object, in forming its shape and quality, keeps his gaze fixed on that which is uniform, using a model of this kind, that object, executed in this way, must of necessity''. None
17. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth • earth (element)

 Found in books: Faure (2022) 57; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 153; Lloyd (1989) 113; Trott (2019) 135; Álvarez (2019) 113

18. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth

 Found in books: Lloyd (1989) 217; Álvarez (2019) 112

19. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • earth (element)

 Found in books: Hankinson (1998) 60, 61; Trott (2019) 132

20. Anon., 1 Enoch, 9.6-9.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth, new • Woman/Women, Daughters of Men/Women of the Earth • earth

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 184; Garcia (2021) 144, 146; Stuckenbruck (2007) 89, 276, 402, 607, 633

6. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto",them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: \'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men,and beget us children.\' And Semjaza, who was their leader, said unto them: \'I fear ye will not,indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.\' And they all answered him and said: \'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations,not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.\' Then sware they all together and bound themselves",by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn,and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And these are the names of their leaders: Samlazaz, their leader, Araklba, Rameel, Kokablel, Tamlel, Ramlel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal,,Asael, Armaros, Batarel, Ael, Zaq1el, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel. These are their chiefs of tens.' "7. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms,and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they,became pregt, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed,all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against,them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and,fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones." "8. And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all,colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they,were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . ." "
9.6. things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which 9.7. men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the' "9.8. And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being,shed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. And they said one to another: 'The earth made without inhabitant cries the voice of their cryingst up to the gates of heaven.,And now to you, the holy ones of heaven, the souls of men make their suit, saying, 'Bring our cause,before the Most High.' And they said to the Lord of the ages: 'Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings, and God of the ages, the throne of Thy glory (standeth) unto all the generations of the,ages, and Thy name holy and glorious and blessed unto all the ages! Thou hast made all things, and power over all things hast Thou: and all things are naked and open in Thy sight, and Thou seest all,things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which,men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the,women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have,borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are,wrought on the earth. And Thou knowest all things before they come to pass, and Thou seest these things and Thou dost suffer them, and Thou dost not say to us what we are to do to them in regard to these.'" '9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 10. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: \'Go to Noah and tell him in my name \'Hide thyself!\' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.\' And again the Lord said to Raphael: \'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.\' And to Gabriel said the Lord: \'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy the children of fornication and the children of the Watchers from amongst men and cause them to go forth: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.\' And the Lord said unto Michael: \'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth\' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.'11. And in those days I will open the store chambers of blessing which are in the heaven, so as to send,them down upon the earth over the work and labour of the children of men. And truth and peace shall be associated together throughout all the days of the world and throughout all the generations of men.\'"' "12. Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of men knew where he was,hidden, and where he abode, and what had become of him. And his activities had to do with the Watchers, and his days were with the holy ones.,And I Enoch was blessing the Lord of majesty and the King of the ages, and lo! the Watchers,called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselves,wives: 'Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth: And ye shall have no peace nor forgiveness,of sin: and inasmuch as they delight themselves in their children, The murder of their beloved ones shall they see, and over the destruction of their children shall they lament, and shall make supplication unto eternity, but mercy and peace shall ye not attain.'" '13. And Enoch went and said: \'Azazel, thou shalt have no peace: a severe sentence has gone forth,against thee to put thee in bonds: And thou shalt not have toleration nor request granted to thee, because of the unrighteousness which thou hast taught, and because of all the works of godlessness,and unrighteousness and sin which thou hast shown to men.\' Then I went and spoke to them all",together, and they were all afraid, and fear and trembling seized them. And they besought me to draw up a petition for them that they might find forgiveness, and to read their petition in the presence,of the Lord of heaven. For from thenceforward they could not speak (with Him) nor lift up their",eyes to heaven for shame of their sins for which they had been condemned. Then I wrote out their petition, and the prayer in regard to their spirits and their deeds individually and in regard to their,requests that they should have forgiveness and length. And I went off and sat down at the waters of Dan, in the land of Dan, to the south of the west of Hermon: I read their petition till I fell,asleep. And behold a dream came to me, and visions fell down upon me, and I saw visions of chastisement, and a voice came bidding (me) I to tell it to the sons of heaven, and reprimand them.,And when I awaked, I came unto them, and they were all sitting gathered together, weeping in,Abelsjail, which is between Lebanon and Seneser, with their faces covered. And I recounted before them all the visions which I had seen in sleep, and I began to speak the words of righteousness, and to reprimand the heavenly Watchers. 14. The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance,with the command of the Holy Great One in that vision. I saw in my sleep what I will now say with a tongue of flesh and with the breath of my mouth: which the Great One has given to men to",converse therewith and understand with the heart. As He has created and given to man the power of understanding the word of wisdom, so hath He created me also and given me the power of reprimanding,the Watchers, the children of heaven. I wrote out your petition, and in my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be granted unto you throughout all the days of eternity, and that judgement,has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree,has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before,you by the sword. And your petition on their behalf shall not be granted, nor yet on your own: even though you weep and pray and speak all the words contained in the writing which I have,written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in,the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright,me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork was,of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were,fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and its,portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there,were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked,and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater,than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to,you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path,of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of,cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look",thereon. And the Great Glory sat thereon, and His raiment shone more brightly than the sun and,was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason",of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand times,ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were,nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: \' Come hither,,Enoch, and hear my word.\' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards.' "15. And He answered and said to me, and I heard His voice: 'Fear not, Enoch, thou righteous,man and scribe of righteousness: approach hither and hear my voice. And go, say to the Watchers of heaven, who have sent thee to intercede for them: 'You should intercede' for men, and not men,for you: Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children,of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those also do who die,and perish. Therefore have I given them wives also that they might impregnate them, and beget,children by them, that thus nothing might be wanting to them on earth. But you were formerly,spiritual, living the eternal life, and immortal for all generations of the world. And therefore I have not appointed wives for you; for as for the spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their dwelling.,And now, the giants, who are produced from the spirits and flesh, shall be called evil spirits upon,the earth, and on the earth shall be their dwelling. Evil spirits have proceeded from their bodies; because they are born from men and from the holy Watchers is their beginning and primal origin;,they shall be evil spirits on earth, and evil spirits shall they be called. As for the spirits of heaven, in heaven shall be their dwelling, but as for the spirits of the earth which were born upon the earth, on the earth shall be their dwelling. And the spirits of the giants afflict, oppress, destroy, attack, do battle, and work destruction on the earth, and cause trouble: they take no food, but nevertheless,hunger and thirst, and cause offences. And these spirits shall rise up against the children of men and against the women, because they have proceeded from them." "16. From the days of the slaughter and destruction and death of the giants, from the souls of whose flesh the spirits, having gone forth, shall destroy without incurring judgement -thus shall they destroy until the day of the consummation, the great judgement in which the age shall be,consummated, over the Watchers and the godless, yea, shall be wholly consummated.' And now as to the watchers who have sent thee to intercede for them, who had been aforetime in heaven, (say,to them): 'You have been in heaven, but all the mysteries had not yet been revealed to you, and you knew worthless ones, and these in the hardness of your hearts you have made known to the women, and through these mysteries women and men work much evil on earth.,Say to them therefore: ' You have no peace.'" "24. And from thence I went to another place of the earth, and he showed me a mountain range of,fire which burnt day and night. And I went beyond it and saw seven magnificent mountains all differing each from the other, and the stones (thereof) were magnificent and beautiful, magnificent as a whole, of glorious appearance and fair exterior: three towards the east, one founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon the other, and deep rough ravines, no one of which,joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them,in height, resembling the seat of a throne: and fragrant trees encircled the throne. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet smelt, neither was any amongst them nor were others like it: it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood wither not for ever:,and its fruit is beautiful, and its fruit n resembles the dates of a palm. Then I said: 'How beautiful is this tree, and fragrant, and its leaves are fair, and its blooms very delightful in appearance.',Then answered Michael, one of the holy and honoured angels who was with me, and was their leader." '25. And he said unto me: \'Enoch, why dost thou ask me regarding the fragrance of the tree,,and why dost thou wish to learn the truth\' Then I answered him saying: \'I wish to",know about everything, but especially about this tree.\' And he answered saying: \'This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit,the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgement, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring (everything) to its consummation,for ever. It shall then be given to the righteous and holy. Its fruit shall be for food to the elect: it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King.,Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, And into the holy place shall they enter; And its fragrance shall be in their bones, And they shall live a long life on earth, Such as thy fathers lived:And in their days shall no sorrow or plague Or torment or calamity touch them.\',Then blessed I the God of Glory, the Eternal King, who hath prepared such things for the righteous, and hath created them and promised to give to them. 26. And I went from thence to the middle of the earth, and I saw a blessed place in which there were,trees with branches abiding and blooming of a dismembered tree. And there I saw a holy mountain,,and underneath the mountain to the east there was a stream and it flowed towards the south. And I saw towards the east another mountain higher than this, and between them a deep and narrow,ravine: in it also ran a stream underneath the mountain. And to the west thereof there was another mountain, lower than the former and of small elevation, and a ravine deep and dry between them: and another deep and dry ravine was at the extremities of the three mountains. And all the ravines were deep rand narrow, (being formed) of hard rock, and trees were not planted upon,them. And I marveled at the rocks, and I marveled at the ravine, yea, I marveled very much. '. None
21. Anon., Jubilees, 12.19-12.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • earth, from (out of) the • heavens, and earth

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 186; Gera (2014) 206

12.19. Why do I search (them) out? If He desireth, He causeth it to rain, morning and evening; And if He desireth, He withholdeth it, And all things are in His hand." 12.20. And he prayed that night and said "My God, God Most High, Thou alone art my God, And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen. And Thou hast created all things, And all things that are are the work of Thy hands.''. None
22. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Woman/Women, Daughters of Men/Women of the Earth • heavens, and earth

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 298; Stuckenbruck (2007) 633

2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood.''. None
23. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Woman/Women, Daughters of Men/Women of the Earth • earth

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 43, 137; Stuckenbruck (2007) 659

17.32. He marshals the host of the height of heaven;but all men are dust and ashes.''. None
24. Septuagint, Judith, 16.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Woman/Women, Daughters of Men/Women of the Earth • earth, face of

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 222; Stuckenbruck (2007) 633

16.6. But the Lord Almighty has foiled them by the hand of a woman.''. None
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 9.1, 15.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 57, 59; Gera (2014) 466; Levison (2009) 371

9.1. "O God of my fathers and Lord of mercy,who hast made all things by thy word,
9.1. When Israel was led away captive into a strange land, When they fell away from the Lord who redeemed them,
15.11. And the inheritance of sinners is destruction and darkness, And their iniquities shall pursue them unto Sheol beneath.
15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit."''. None
26. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 109; Levison (2009) 205

27. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth, new • earth see Ge, Geb, Eden, garden of

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 210; Waldner et al (2016) 174

28. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 17 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 282; Geljon and Runia (2019) 107

17. And the expression used by the writer of the psalm, in the following verse, testifies to the truth of my assertion, for he says, "He sent upon them the fury of His wrath, anger, and rage, and affliction, and he sent evil angels among Them." These are the wicked who, assuming the name of angels, not being acquainted with the daughters of right reason, that is with the sciences and the virtues, but which pursue the mortal descendants of mortal men, that is the pleasures, which can confer no genuine beauty, which is perceived by the intellect alone, but only a bastard sort of elegance of form, by means of which the outward sense is beguiled; ''. None
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 69, 134-135, 137, 139 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • dualism, “earth,” • earth • earth, as mother/nurse • earth, born • earth, from (out of) the • heaven, “heaven and earth,”

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 70, 72, 73, 76; Geljon and Runia (2019) 117, 136; Hoenig (2018) 242; Levison (2009) 146, 309, 311, 371

69. So then after all the other things, as has been said before, Moses says that man was made in the image and likeness of God. And he says well; for nothing that is born on the earth is more resembling God than man. And let no one think that he is able to judge of this likeness from the characters of the body: for neither is God a being with the form of a man, nor is the human body like the form of God; but the resemblance is spoken of with reference to the most important part of the soul, namely, the mind: for the mind which exists in each individual has been created after the likeness of that one mind which is in the universe as its primitive model, being in some sort the God of that body which carries it about and bears its image within it. In the same rank that the great Governor occupies in the universal world, that same as it seems does the mind of man occupy in man; for it is invisible, though it sees everything itself; and it has an essence which is undiscernible, though it can discern the essences of all other things, and making for itself by art and science all sorts of roads leading in divers directions, and all plain; it traverses land and sea, investigating everything which is contained in either element.
134. After this, Moses says that "God made man, having taken clay from the earth, and he breathed into his face the breath of life." And by this expression he shows most clearly that there is a vast difference between man as generated now, and the first man who was made according to the image of God. For man as formed now is perceptible to the external senses, partaking of qualities, consisting of body and soul, man or woman, by nature mortal. But man, made according to the image of God, was an idea, or a genus, or a seal, perceptible only by the intellect, incorporeal, neither male nor female, imperishable by nature. '135. But he asserts that the formation of the individual man, perceptible by the external senses is a composition of earthy substance, and divine spirit. For that the body was created by the Creator taking a lump of clay, and fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from no created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things. For when he uses the expression, "he breathed into," etc., he means nothing else than the divine spirit proceeding form that happy and blessed nature, sent to take up its habitation here on earth, for the advantage of our race, in order that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is visible, he may at all events be immortal according to that portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature, partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that he was born at the same time, both mortal and the immortal. Mortal as to his body, but immortal as to his intellect. XLVII.
137. The second consideration is that it is not likely that God made this figure in the present form of a man, working with the most sublime care, after he had taken the clay from any chance portion of earth, but that he selected carefully the most excellent clay of all the earth, of the pure material choosing the finest and most carefully sifted portion, such as was especially fit for the formation of the work which he had in hand. For it was an abode or sacred temple for a reasonable soul which was being made, the image of which he was about to carry in his heart, being the most God-like looking of images.
139. And that he is superior to all these animals in regard of his soul, is plain. For God does not seem to have availed himself of any other animal existing in creation as his model in the formation of man; but to have been guided, as I have said before, by his own reason alone. On which account, Moses affirms that this man was an image and imitation of God, being breathed into in his face in which is the place of the sensations, by which the Creator endowed the body with a soul. Then, having placed the mind in the domit part as king, he gave him as a body of satellites, the different powers calculated to perceive colours and sounds, and flavours and odours, and other things of similar kinds, which man could never have distinguished by his own resources without the sensations. And it follows of necessity that an imitation of a perfectly beautiful model must itself be perfectly beautiful, for the word of God surpasses even that beauty which exists in the nature which is perceptible only by the external senses, not being embellished by any adventitious beauty, but being itself, if one must speak the truth, its most exquisite embellishment. XLIX. '. None
30. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 57 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 77; Levison (2009) 146, 150

57. So that the race of mankind also is twofold, the one being the race of those who live by the divine Spirit and reason; the other of those who exist according to blood and the pleasure of the flesh. This species is formed of the earth, but that other is an accurate copy of the divine image; ''. None
31. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 134, 152-154, 185 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • worker of the earth

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 218; Geljon and Runia (2019) 98, 99, 101, 136

134. In some of the best governed cities of the world they say that such a custom as this prevails. When any man who has not lived well attempts to deliver his opinion, either in the council or in the assembly of the people, he is not permitted to do so by his own mouth, but is compelled by the magistrates to deliver his opinion to some virtuous and honourable man to explain in his behalf; and then he, when he has heard what he wishes said, rises up and unfolds the meaning of the sewn up mouth of his instructor, becoming his extempore pupil; and he displays the imaginations of another, scarcely considering the original concern for them even in the rank of a hearer or spectator. So some people do not choose to receive even benefits from unworthy persons, but look upon the injury accruing from the shame of taking their advice as greater than the advantage which can be derived from it. XXXVII. '
152. If, therefore you, being a man, should be cast out from the land, whither will you turn? Will you dive under water, imitating the nature of aquatic animals? But you will die the moment that you are underneath the water. Or will you take wings and raise yourself aloft, and so attempt to traverse the regions of the air, changing your character of a terrestrial, for that of a flying animal? But, if it is in your power, change and re-fashion the divine impress that you bear. You cannot do so. For in proportion as you raise yourself to a greater height, so much the more rapidly will you descend from that higher region and with the greater impetuosity to the earth, which is your appropriate place. XLII. 153. Can a man, then, or any other created animal, hide himself from God? Where can he do so? Where can he hide himself from that being who pervades all places, whose look reaches to the very boundaries of the world, who fills the whole universe, of whom not even the smallest portion of existing things is deficient? And what is there extraordinary in the fact, that it is not practicable for any created being to conceal himself from the living God, when it is not even in his power to escape from all the material elements by which he is surrounded, but he must, if he abandon me, by that very act enter into another? 154. At all events, if the Creator, employing that act by which he created amphibious animals, had chosen also by the same act to create a new animal, one capable of living in any element, then, this animal, if it forsook the weighty elements of earth and water, would necessarily have gone to those which are naturally light, namely, air and fire. And, on the other hand, supposing that it had originally dwelt among those elements whose place is on high, if it had sought to effect a migration from them, it would have changed to the opposite region; for it was at all events necessary for it to appear steadily in one portion of the world, since it was not possible for it to run away out of every element: since, in order that nothing external might be omitted, the Creator scattered the whole of the four principles of everything over the universe, in order to create the existing condition of the world, in order to make a most perfect universe of perfect parts. '. None
32. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Heaven and Earth • Tomis, post-apocalyptic hell on earth • earth • epilepsy, as a metaphor for the earth’s ailing body • mother, the earth as a • multiple, wombs in the earth

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 10; Clay and Vergados (2022) 111, 114, 122, 181, 323; Faure (2022) 88, 89, 90, 91; Kazantzidis (2021) 9, 106, 115; Long (2006) 174, 175, 211; Williams and Vol (2022) 297

33. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth, from (out of) the

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 76; Levison (2009) 310

34. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • earth (element) • worker of the earth

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 93, 95; Geljon and Runia (2019) 99, 136; Hankinson (1998) 344

35. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth

 Found in books: Trott (2019) 122; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 128

3.4.3. Σεμέλης δὲ Ζεὺς ἐρασθεὶς Ἥρας κρύφα συνευνάζεται. ἡ δὲ ἐξαπατηθεῖσα ὑπὸ Ἥρας, κατανεύσαντος αὐτῇ Διὸς πᾶν τὸ αἰτηθὲν ποιήσειν, αἰτεῖται τοιοῦτον αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν οἷος ἦλθε μνηστευόμενος Ἥραν. Ζεὺς δὲ μὴ δυνάμενος ἀνανεῦσαι παραγίνεται εἰς τὸν θάλαμον αὐτῆς ἐφʼ ἅρματος ἀστραπαῖς ὁμοῦ καὶ βρονταῖς, καὶ κεραυνὸν ἵησιν. Σεμέλης δὲ διὰ τὸν φόβον ἐκλιπούσης, ἑξαμηνιαῖον τὸ βρέφος ἐξαμβλωθὲν ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς ἁρπάσας ἐνέρραψε τῷ μηρῷ. ἀποθανούσης δὲ Σεμέλης, αἱ λοιπαὶ Κάδμου θυγατέρες διήνεγκαν λόγον, συνηυνῆσθαι θνητῷ τινι Σεμέλην καὶ καταψεύσασθαι Διός, καὶ ὅτι 1 -- διὰ τοῦτο ἐκεραυνώθη. κατὰ δὲ τὸν χρόνον τὸν καθήκοντα Διόνυσον γεννᾷ Ζεὺς λύσας τὰ ῥάμματα, καὶ δίδωσιν Ἑρμῇ. ὁ δὲ κομίζει πρὸς Ἰνὼ καὶ Ἀθάμαντα καὶ πείθει τρέφειν ὡς κόρην. ἀγανακτήσασα δὲ Ἥρα μανίαν αὐτοῖς ἐνέβαλε, καὶ Ἀθάμας μὲν τὸν πρεσβύτερον παῖδα Λέαρχον ὡς ἔλαφον θηρεύσας ἀπέκτεινεν, Ἰνὼ δὲ τὸν Μελικέρτην εἰς πεπυρωμένον λέβητα ῥίψασα, εἶτα βαστάσασα μετὰ νεκροῦ τοῦ παιδὸς ἥλατο κατὰ βυθοῦ. 1 -- καὶ Λευκοθέα μὲν αὐτὴν καλεῖται, Παλαίμων δὲ ὁ παῖς, οὕτως ὀνομασθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν πλεόντων· τοῖς χειμαζομένοις γὰρ βοηθοῦσιν. ἐτέθη δὲ ἐπὶ Μελικέρτῃ ὁ 2 -- ἀγὼν τῶν Ἰσθμίων, Σισύφου θέντος. Διόνυσον δὲ Ζεὺς εἰς ἔριφον ἀλλάξας τὸν Ἥρας θυμὸν ἔκλεψε, καὶ λαβὼν αὐτὸν Ἑρμῆς πρὸς νύμφας ἐκόμισεν ἐν Νύσῃ κατοικούσας τῆς Ἀσίας, ἃς ὕστερον Ζεὺς καταστερίσας ὠνόμασεν Ὑάδας.''. None
3.4.3. But Zeus loved Semele and bedded with her unknown to Hera. Now Zeus had agreed to do for her whatever she asked, and deceived by Hera she asked that he would come to her as he came when he was wooing Hera. Unable to refuse, Zeus came to her bridal chamber in a chariot, with lightnings and thunderings, and launched a thunderbolt. But Semele expired of fright, and Zeus, snatching the sixth-month abortive child from the fire, sewed it in his thigh. On the death of Semele the other daughters of Cadmus spread a report that Semele had bedded with a mortal man, and had falsely accused Zeus, and that therefore she had been blasted by thunder. But at the proper time Zeus undid the stitches and gave birth to Dionysus, and entrusted him to Hermes. And he conveyed him to Ino and Athamas, and persuaded them to rear him as a girl. But Hera indigtly drove them mad, and Athamas hunted his elder son Learchus as a deer and killed him, and Ino threw Melicertes into a boiling cauldron, then carrying it with the dead child she sprang into the deep. And she herself is called Leucothea, and the boy is called Palaemon, such being the names they get from sailors; for they succour storm-tossed mariners. And the Isthmian games were instituted by Sisyphus in honor of Melicertes. But Zeus eluded the wrath of Hera by turning Dionysus into a kid, and Hermes took him and brought him to the nymphs who dwelt at Nysa in Asia, whom Zeus afterwards changed into stars and named them the Hyades.''. None
36. New Testament, Apocalypse, 22.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Earth, new

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 184, 210, 313; Levison (2009) 376

22.2. ἐν μέσῳτῆς πλατείας αὐτῆς· καὶτοῦ ποταμοῦ ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ξύλον ζωῆςποιοῦν καρποὺς δώδεκα,κατὰ μῆναἕκαστον ἀποδιδοῦντὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ φύλλατοῦ ξύλουεἰς θεραπείαντῶν ἐθνῶν.''. None
22.2. in the midst of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.''. None
37. New Testament, Matthew, 24.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Woman/Women, Daughters of Men/Women of the Earth • terra, earth

 Found in books: Lynskey (2021) 181; Stuckenbruck (2007) 401

24.15. Ὅταν οὖν ἴδητε τὸ Βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Δανιὴλ τοῦ προφήτου ἑστὸς ἐν τόπῳ ἁγίῳ, ὁ ἀναγινώσκων νοείτω,''. None
24.15. "When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), ''. None
38. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 159; Álvarez (2019) 31

431e. For if the souls which have been severed from a body, or have had no part with one at all, are demigods according to you and the divine Hesiod, Holy dwellers on earth and the guardian spirits of mortals, why deprive souls in bodies of that power by virtue of which the demigods possess the natural faculty of knowing and revealing future events before they happen? For it is not likely that any power or portion accrues to souls when they have left the body, if they did not possess them before; but the souls always possess them; only they possess them to a slight degree while conjoined with the body, some of them being completely imperceptible and hidden, others weak and dim, and about as ineffectual and slow in operation as person''. None
39. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 133; Levison (2009) 261

40. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth imagined • ends of the earth

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 122; Torok (2014) 114

41. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • Earth, axis • earth (planet) • earth (planet), rotation of

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 612; Hankinson (1998) 364, 365

42. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth, as a point • Earth, centrality • Earth, motion to center • earth (planet), rotation of

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 88; Hankinson (1998) 367

43. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.7.1-1.7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, the earth of humanity • dualistic world-view, the earth • earth • earth (planet)

 Found in books: Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 64; Hankinson (1998) 21; Scopello (2008) 268

1.7.1. When all the seed shall have come to perfection, they state that then their mother Achamoth shall pass from the intermediate place, and enter in within the Pleroma, and shall receive as her spouse the Saviour, who sprang from all the AEons, that thus a conjunction may be formed between the Saviour and Sophia, that is, Achamoth. These, then, are the bridegroom and bride, while the nuptial chamber is the full extent of the Pleroma. The spiritual seed, again, being divested of their animal souls, and becoming intelligent spirits, shall in an irresistible and invisible manner enter in within the Pleroma, and be bestowed as brides on those angels who wait upon the Saviour. The Demiurge himself will pass into the place of his mother Sophia; that is, the intermediate habitation. In this intermediate place, also, shall the souls of the righteous repose; but nothing of an animal nature shall find admittance to the Pleroma. When these things have taken place as described, then shall that fire which lies hidden in the world blaze forth and bum; and while destroying all matter, shall also be extinguished along with it, and have no further existence. They affirm that the Demiurge was acquainted with none of these things before the advent of the Saviour. 1.7.2. There are also some who maintain that he also produced Christ as his own proper son, but of an animal nature, and that mention was made of him by the prophets. This Christ passed through Mary just as water flows through a tube; and there descended upon him in the form of a dove it the time of his baptism, that Saviour who belonged to the Pleroma, and was formed by the combined efforts of all its inhabit ants. In him there existed also that spiritual seed which proceeded from Achamoth. They hold, accordingly, that our Lord, while preserving the type of the first-begotten and primary tetrad, was compounded of these four substances,--of that which is spiritual, in so far as He was from Achamoth; of that which is animal, as being from the Demiurge by a special dispensation, inasmuch as He was formed corporeally with unspeakable skill; and of the Saviour, as respects that dove which descended upon Him. He also continued free from all suffering, since indeed it was not possible that He should suffer who was at once incomprehensible and invisible. And for this reason the Spirit of Christ, who had been placed within Him, was taken away when He was brought before Pilate. They maintain, further, that not even the seed which He had received from the mother Achamoth was subject to suffering; for it, too, was impassible, as being spiritual, and invisible even to the Demiurge himself. It follows, then, according to them, that the animal Christ, and that which had been formed mysteriously by a special dispensation, underwent suffering, that the mother might exhibit through him a type of the Christ above, namely, of him who extended himself through Stauros, and imparted to Achamoth shape, so far as substance was concerned. For they declare that all these transactions were counterparts of what took place above.''. None
44. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth • earth (element)

 Found in books: Faure (2022) 52; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 149

45. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • plants, relation to earth of

 Found in books: Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 30; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 174

46. Augustine, The City of God, 5.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth, bodies in, blessed or afflicted by moon-goddess • earth

 Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 112; Long (2006) 135

5.6. But even in the very conception of twins, which certainly occurs at the same moment in the case of both, it often happens that the one is conceived a male, and the other a female. I know two of different sexes who are twins. Both of them are alive, and in the flower of their age; and though they resemble each other in body, as far as difference of sex will permit, still they are very different in the whole scope and purpose of their lives (consideration being had of those differences which necessarily exist between the lives of males and females) - the one holding the office of a count, and being almost constantly away from home with the army in foreign service, the other never leaving her country's soil, or her native district. Still more - and this is more incredible, if the destinies of the stars are to be believed in, though it is not wonderful if we consider the wills of men, and the free gifts of God - he is married; she is a sacred virgin: he has begotten a numerous offspring; she has never even married. But is not the virtue of the horoscope very great? I think I have said enough to show the absurdity of that. But, say those astrologers, whatever be the virtue of the horoscope in other respects, it is certainly of significance with respect to birth. But why not also with respect to conception, which takes place undoubtedly with one act of copulation? And, indeed, so great is the force of nature, that after a woman has once conceived, she ceases to be liable to conception. Or were they, perhaps, changed at birth, either he into a male, or she into a female, because of the difference in their horoscopes? But, while it is not altogether absurd to say that certain sidereal influences have some power to cause differences in bodies alone - as, for instance, we see that the seasons of the year come round by the approaching and receding of the sun, and that certain kinds of things are increased in size or diminished by the waxings and wanings of the moon, such as sea-urchins, oysters, and the wonderful tides of the ocean - it does not follow that the wills of men are to be made subject to the position of the stars. The astrologers, however, when they wish to bind our actions also to the constellations, only set us on investigating whether, even in these bodies, the changes may not be attributable to some other than a sidereal cause. For what is there which more intimately concerns a body than its sex? And yet, under the same position of the stars, twins of different sexes may be conceived. Wherefore, what greater absurdity can be affirmed or believed than that the position of the stars, which was the same for both of them at the time of conception, could not cause that the one child should not have been of a different sex from her brother, with whom she had a common constellation, while the position of the stars which existed at the hour of their birth could cause that she should be separated from him by the great distance between marriage and holy virginity? "". None
47. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • earth • earth/Earth/Gaea

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 323, 324, 325, 327, 331; Álvarez (2019) 22, 39, 85, 112, 117

48. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Earth,Gaia, Ge • earth

 Found in books: de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 31, 36; Álvarez (2019) 54, 55, 58, 67

Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.