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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
binary/dualism Bacchi (2022) 4, 70
dualism Blidstein (2017) 51, 114, 125, 160
Carter (2019) 7, 48, 52, 221, 223
Clay and Vergados (2022) 190, 196, 197, 198
Frede and Laks (2001) 229, 233
Frey and Levison (2014) 25, 45, 178
Garcia (2021) 15, 17, 24, 53, 54, 55, 83, 112, 113, 133, 147, 148, 151, 152, 158, 160, 162, 163, 164, 166, 167, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 180, 182, 184, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194, 226, 233, 234, 237, 241, 243, 259, 279
Hayes (2022) 409
Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 32, 91, 156, 244, 246
Levison (2009) 387
Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 47
Lieu (2004) 130, 135, 138, 284, 285, 290, 297
Osborne (2001) 47, 70, 261
Putthoff (2016) 68, 107, 118
Ramelli (2013) 244, 499, 722, 727
Rowland (2009) 80, 92, 94, 129, 150, 154, 171, 172, 173, 174, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 501, 507, 508, 509, 510, 513, 515, 537
Secunda (2014) 49, 50, 64, 76, 80, 135, 136, 183, 188, 189
Vinzent (2013) 40, 127
Yates and Dupont (2020) 90, 97, 98, 268, 269, 270, 273, 276, 277, 278
van der EIjk (2005) 128, 172, 198, 199
dualism, absent in aristotle’s theory of mixture Carter (2019) 129
dualism, and supervenience Carter (2019) 131
dualism, associative entity Carter (2019) 52, 221
dualism, astral Scopello (2008) 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287
dualism, body and soul King (2006) 41, 122, 123, 212, 214, 227, 229
dualism, boethius’s Hoenig (2018) 26
dualism, boyarin daniel, on Dawson (2001) 34, 35, 52, 53
dualism, boyarin on Dawson (2001) 34, 35, 52, 53
dualism, cartesian Carter (2019) 7, 48, 52
dualism, christ, and Yates and Dupont (2020) 97, 98, 269, 270
dualism, cosmic, and gender Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 260, 261, 262
dualism, dualist Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 4, 7, 14, 279, 280, 345, 346, 381, 382, 389, 390, 391, 396, 509, 582, 591
dualism, emergent properties Carter (2019) 101, 129, 130, 131, 139
dualism, frei, and Dawson (2001) 51, 232, 233
dualism, gnostic Osborne (2001) 55, 56, 57, 113, 118, 119
dualism, god, and Yates and Dupont (2020) 90, 97, 269, 270, 273, 276, 277, 278
dualism, in bible Feldman (2006) 19
dualism, in greek and roman thought, self/other Manolaraki (2012) 3, 5, 40, 131, 147, 200, 201, 216, 250, 260, 261, 303, 304
dualism, in manichaeism Nisula (2012) 138
dualism, in plato, timaeus Hoenig (2018) 279
dualism, in song of songs Dawson (2001) 56
dualism, in timaeus Hoenig (2018) 32, 33, 34, 282
dualism, interdependent substance Carter (2019) 221
dualism, interrelated substance Carter (2019) 223
dualism, iranian Tite (2009) 165, 176, 180
dualism, manichaean Nisula (2012) 68, 138, 150, 231, 235, 262
dualism, of allegory Dawson (2001) 59
dualism, of dead sea scrolls Feldman (2006) 20
dualism, of gnosticism Boulluec (2022) 366
dualism, of light and darknesspersian Collins (2016) 36, 192
dualism, of paul, the apostle Dawson (2001) 229
dualism, of plato Dawson (2001) 254
dualism, of plato’s metaphysics Hoenig (2018) 251
dualism, of scripture Dawson (2001) 59
dualism, of two loves Nisula (2012) 137, 138, 141, 220
dualism, of two roots Nisula (2012) 165
dualism, old testament, and Yates and Dupont (2020) 90, 97, 98, 276, 277, 278
dualism, ontological Nisula (2012) 138
dualism, origen and Dawson (2001) 51, 232, 233
dualism, pauls Dawson (2001) 229
dualism, persian apocalypticism, and Collins (2016) 24, 36, 39, 191, 210, 211
dualism, platos Dawson (2001) 254
dualism, psychological powers as not Carter (2019) 130, 139
dualism, spatial Rowland (2009) 171, 172, 173, 174, 192, 537
dualism, substance King (2006) 132
dualism, zoroastrianism Hayes (2022) 409
dualism, “earth, ” Hoenig (2018) 242, 245
dualism/dualistic Stuckenbruck (2007) 71, 231, 248, 249, 411, 423, 571, 582, 730, 731, 732, 735, 742

List of validated texts:
18 validated results for "dualism"
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism • Dualism, dualist • Dualism/Dualistic • Dualistic theology • dualism • theodicy, dualistic

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 4, 7, 14, 382; Garcia (2021) 53, 151, 237, 279; Levison (2009) 387; Lieu (2004) 285; Putthoff (2016) 68; Rowland (2009) 510; Secunda (2014) 135; Sneed (2022) 149; Stuckenbruck (2007) 582

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃' '. None
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.' '. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 45.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Persian apocalypticism, and dualism • dualism

 Found in books: Collins (2016) 191; Secunda (2014) 188

45.7. יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּבוֹרֵא חֹשֶׁךְ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע אֲנִי יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃''. None
45.7. I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil; I am the LORD, that doeth all these things.''. None
3. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism • Dualistic theology • dualism

 Found in books: Rowland (2009) 193, 200; Werline et al. (2008) 128

4. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism • dualism • dualism, interrelated substance

 Found in books: Carter (2019) 223; Frey and Levison (2014) 45

5. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91-105 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism/Dualistic • dualism

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 17; Stuckenbruck (2007) 248, 249

91. And now, my son Methuselah, call to me all thy brothers And gather together to me all the sons of thy mother; For the word calls me, And the spirit is poured out upon me, That I may show you everything That shall befall you for ever.\',And there upon Methuselah went and summoned to him all his brothers and assembled his relatives.",And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said:",Hear,ye sons of Enoch, all the words of your father, And hearken aright to the voice of my mouth; For I exhort you and say unto you, beloved:,Love uprightness and walk therein. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, And associate not with those of a double heart,But walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths, And righteousness shall be your companion.,For I know that violence must increase on the earth, And a great chastisement be executed on the earth, And all unrighteousness come to an end:Yea, it shall be cut off from its roots, And its whole structure be destroyed.,And unrighteousness shall again be consummated on the earth, And all the deeds of unrighteousness and of violence And transgression shall prevail in a twofold degree.,And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth.,In those days violence shall be cut off from its roots, And the roots of unrighteousness together with deceit, And they shall be destroyed from under heaven.,And all the idols of the heathen shall be abandoned, And the temples burned with fire, And they shall remove them from the whole earth,And they (i.e. the heathen) shall be cast into the judgement of fire, And shall perish in wrath and in grievous judgement for ever.,And the righteous shall arise from their sleep, And wisdom shall arise and be given unto them.,after that the roots of unrighteousness shall be cut off, and the sinners shall be destroyed by the sword . . . shall be cut off from the blasphemers in every place, and those who plan violence and those who commit blasphemy shall perish by the sword.,And now I tell you, my sons, and show you The paths of righteousness and the paths of violence. Yea, I will show them to you again That ye may know what will come to pass.,And now, hearken unto me, my sons, And walk in the paths of righteousness, And walk not in the paths of violence; For all who walk in the paths of unrighteousness shall perish for ever.\',And after that there shall be another, the eighth week, that of righteousness, And a sword shall be given to it that a righteous judgement may be executed on the oppressors, And sinners shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous.,And at its close they shall acquire houses through their righteousness, And a house shall be built for the Great King in glory for evermore,,And all mankind shall look to the path of uprightness.",And after that, in the ninth week, the righteous judgement shall be revealed to the whole world, b And all the works of the godless shall vanish from all the earth, c And the world shall be written down for destruction.,And after this, in the tenth week in the seventh part, There shall be the great eternal judgement, In which He will execute vengeance amongst the angels.,And the first heaven shall depart and pass away, And a new heaven shall appear, And all the powers of the heavens shall give sevenfold light.,And after that there will be many weeks without number for ever, And all shall be in goodness and righteousness, And sin shall no more be mentioned for ever.
91. Hear,ye sons of Enoch, all the words of your father, And hearken aright to the voice of my mouth; For I exhort you and say unto you, beloved: 92. The book written by Enoch-Enoch indeed wrote this complete doctrine of wisdom, (which is) praised of all men and a judge of all the earth for all my children who shall dwell on the earth. And for the future generations who shall observe uprightness and peace.,Let not your spirit be troubled on account of the times; For the Holy and Great One has appointed days for all things.",And the righteous one shall arise from sleep, Shall arise and walk in the paths of righteousness, And all his path and conversation shall be in eternal goodness and grace.,He will be gracious to the righteous and give him eternal uprightness, And He will give him power so that he shall be (endowed) with goodness and righteousness. And he shall walk in eternal light.,And sin shall perish in darkness for ever, And shall no more be seen from that day for evermore. 93. And after that Enoch both gave and began to recount from the books. And Enoch said:",Concerning the children of righteousness and concerning the elect of the world, And concerning the plant of uprightness, I will speak these things, Yea, I Enoch will declare (them) unto you, my sons:According to that which appeared to me in the heavenly vision, And which I have known through the word of the holy angels, And have learnt from the heavenly tablets.\',And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: \' I was born the seventh in the first week, While judgement and righteousness still endured.,And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore.,And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them.,And after that in the fifth week, at its close, The house of glory and dominion shall be built for ever.,And after that in the sixth week all who live in it shall be blinded, And the hearts of all of them shall godlessly forsake wisdom.And in it a man shall ascend; And at its close the house of dominion shall be burnt with fire, And the whole race of the chosen root shall be dispersed.,And after that in the seventh week shall an apostate generation arise, And many shall be its deeds, And all its deeds shall be apostate.,And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation.,For who is there of all the children of men that is able to hear the voice of the Holy One without being troubled And who can think His thoughts and who is there that can behold all the works",of heaven And how should there be one who could behold the heaven, and who is there that could understand the things of heaven and see a soul or a spirit and could tell thereof, or ascend and see,all their ends and think them or do like them And who is there of all men that could know what is the breadth and the length of the earth, and to whom has been shown the measure of all of them,Or is there any one who could discern the length of the heaven and how great is its height, and upon what it is founded, and how great is the number of the stars, and where all the luminaries rest 94. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish.,And to certain men of a generation shall the paths of violence and of death be revealed, And they shall hold themselves afar from them, And shall not follow them.,And now I say unto you the righteous: Walk not in the paths of wickedness, nor in the paths of death, And draw not nigh to them, lest ye be destroyed.,But seek and choose for yourselves righteousness and an elect life, And walk in the paths of peace, And ye shall live and prosper.,And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish.,Woe to those who build unrighteousness and oppression And lay deceit as a foundation; For they shall be suddenly overthrown, And they shall have no peace.,Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.,Woe to you, ye rich, for ye have trusted in your riches, And from your riches shall ye depart, Because ye have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches.,Ye have committed blasphemy and unrighteousness, And have become ready for the day of slaughter, And the day of darkness and the day of the great judgement.,Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction.,And your righteous ones in those days shall be A reproach to the sinners and the godless." 95. Oh that mine eyes were a cloud of waters That I might weep over you, And pour down my tears as a cloud of waters: That so I might rest from my trouble of heart!,who has permitted you to practice reproaches and wickedness And so judgement shall overtake you, sinners.,Fear not the sinners, ye righteous; For again will the Lord deliver them into your hands, That ye may execute judgement upon them according to your desires.,Woe to you who fulminate anathemas which cannot be reversed: Healing shall therefore be far from you because of your sins.",Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works.",Woe to you, lying witnesses, And to those who weigh out injustice, For suddenly shall ye perish.,Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you. 96. Be hopeful, ye righteous; for suddenly shall the sinners perish before you, And ye shall have lordship over them according to your desires.,And in the day of the tribulation of the sinners, Your children shall mount and rise as eagles, And higher than the vultures will be your nest, And ye shall ascend and enter the crevices of the earth, And the clefts of the rock for ever as coneys before the unrighteous, And the sirens shall sigh because of you-and weep.,Wherefore fear not, ye that have suffered; For healing shall be your portion, And a bright light shall enlighten you, And the voice of rest ye shall hear from heaven.,Woe unto you, ye sinners, for your riches make you appear like the righteous, But your hearts convict you of being sinners, And this fact shall be a testimony against you for a memorial of (your) evil deeds.,Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat, And drink wine in large bowls, And tread under foot the lowly with your might.,Woe to you who drink water from every fountain, For suddenly shall ye be consumed and wither away, Because ye have forsaken the fountain of life.,Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil.",Woe to you, ye mighty, Who with might oppress the righteous; For the day of your destruction is coming.In those days many and good days shall come to the righteous-in the day of your judgement.' "97. Believe, ye righteous, that the sinners will become a shame And perish in the day of unrighteousness.,Be it known unto you (ye sinners) that the Most High is mindful of your destruction, And the angels of heaven rejoice over your destruction.,What will ye do, ye sinners, And whither will ye flee on that day of judgement, When ye hear the voice of the prayer of the righteous,Yea, ye shall fare like unto them, Against whom this word shall be a testimony: ' Ye have been companions of sinners.,And in those days the prayer of the righteous shall reach unto the Lord, And for you the days of your judgement shall come.,And all the words of your unrighteousness shall be read out before the Great Holy One, And your faces shall be covered with shame, And He will reject every work which is grounded on unrighteousness.,Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you.,Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired.,And now let us do what we purposed: For we have gathered silver,,And many are the husbandmen in our houses.,And our granaries are (brim) full as with water,,Yea and like water your lies shall flow away; For your riches shall not abide But speedily ascend from you;For ye have acquired it all in unrighteousness, And ye shall be given over to a great curse." '98. And now I swear unto you, to the wise and to the foolish, For ye shall have manifold experiences on the earth.,For ye men shall put on more adornments than a woman, And coloured garments more than a virgin: In royalty and in grandeur and in power, And in silver and in gold and in purple, And in splendour and in food they shall be poured out as water.,Therefore they shall be wanting in doctrine and wisdom, And they shall perish thereby together with their possessions; And with all their glory and their splendour, And in shame and in slaughter and in great destitution, Their spirits shall be cast into the furnace of fire.,I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it.,And barrenness has not been given to the woman, But on account of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children.,I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, by the Holy Great One, That all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens, And that none of your deeds of oppression are covered and hidden.,And do not think in your spirit nor say in your heart that ye do not know and that ye do not see",that every sin is every day recorded in heaven in the presence of the Most High. From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith ye oppress is written down every day till the day of your judgement.",Woe to you, ye fools, for through your folly shall ye perish: and ye transgress against the wise,,and so good hap shall not be your portion. And now, know ye that ye are prepared for the day of destruction: wherefore do not hope to live, ye sinners, but ye shall depart and die; for ye know no ransom; for ye are prepared for the day of the great judgement, for the day of tribulation and great shame for your spirits.,Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace.,Woe to you who love the deeds of unrighteousness: wherefore do ye hope for good hap unto yourselves know that ye shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they shall cut,off your necks and slay you, and have no mercy upon you. Woe to you who rejoice in the tribulation of the righteous; for no grave shall be dug for you. Woe to you who set at nought the words of,the righteous; for ye shall have no hope of life. Woe to you who write down lying and godless words; for they write down their lies that men may hear them and act godlessly towards (their)",neighbour. Therefore they shall have no peace but die a sudden death." 99. Woe to you who work godlessness, And glory in lying and extol them: Ye shall perish, and no happy life shall be yours.,Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not into sinners: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth.,In those days make ready, ye righteous, to raise your prayers as a memorial, And place them as a testimony before the angels, That they may place the sin of the sinners for a memorial before the Most High.,In those days the nations shall be stirred up, And the families of the nations shall arise on the day of destruction.,And in those days the destitute shall go forth and carry off their children, And they shall abandon them, so that their children shall perish through them: Yea, they shall abandon their children (that are still) sucklings, and not return to them, And shall have no pity on their beloved ones.,And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them.,And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams.,Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish.,But in those days blessed are all they who accept the words of wisdom, and understand them, And observe the paths of the Most High, and walk in the path of His righteousness, And become not godless with the godless; For they shall be saved.,Woe to you who spread evil to your neighbours; For you shall be slain in Sheol.",Woe to you who make deceitful and false measures, And (to them) who cause bitterness on the earth; For they shall thereby be utterly consumed.,Woe to you who build your houses through the grievous toil of others, And all their building materials are the bricks and stones of sin; I tell you ye shall have no peace.,Woe to them who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers And whose souls follow after idols; For they shall have no rest.",Woe to them who work unrighteousness and help oppression, And slay their neighbours until the day of the great judgement.,For He shall cast down your glory, And bring affliction on your hearts, And shall arouse His fierce indignation And destroy you all with the sword; And all the holy and righteous shall remember your sins. 100. And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall be smitten And brothers one with another shall fall in death Till the streams flow with their blood.",For a man shall not withhold his hand from slaying his sons and his sons\' sons, And the sinner shall not withhold his hand from his honoured brother: From dawn till sunset they shall slay one another.,And the horse shall walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, And the chariot shall be submerged to its height.,In those days the angels shall descend into the secret places And gather together into one place all those who brought down sin And the Most High will arise on that day of judgement To execute great judgement amongst sinners.",And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint guardians from amongst the holy angels To guard them as the apple of an eye, Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have nought to fear.,And (then) the children of the earth shall see the wise in security, And shall understand all the words of this book, And recognize that their riches shall not be able to save them In the overthrow of their sins.,Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works.,Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you.,Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn.,And now, know ye that from the angels He will inquire as to your deeds in heaven, from the sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to your sins because upon the earth ye execute,judgement on the righteous. And He will summon to testify against you every cloud and mist and dew and rain; for they shall all be withheld because of you from descending upon you, and they,shall be mindful of your sins. And now give presents to the rain that it be not withheld from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, when it has received gold and silver from you that it may descend. When the hoar-frost and snow with their chilliness, and all the snow-storms with all their plagues fall upon you, in those days ye shall not be able to stand before them.'101. Observe the heaven, ye children of heaven, and every work of the Most High, and fear ye Him,and work no evil in His presence. If He closes the windows of heaven, and withholds the rain and,the dew from descending on the earth on your account, what will ye do then And if He sends His anger upon you because of your deeds, ye cannot petition Him; for ye spake proud and insolent,words against His righteousness: therefore ye shall have no peace. And see ye not the sailors of the ships, how their ships are tossed to and fro by the waves, and are shaken by the winds, and are,in sore trouble And therefore do they fear because all their goodly possessions go upon the sea with them, and they have evil forebodings of heart that the sea will swallow them and they will,perish therein. Are not the entire sea and all its waters, and all its movements, the work of the Most,High, and has He not set limits to its doings, and confined it throughout by the sand And at His reproof it is afraid and dries up, and all its fish die and all that is in it; But ye sinners that are,on the earth fear Him not. Has He not made the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein Who has given understanding and wisdom to everything that moves on the earth and in the sea.,Do not the sailors of the ships fear the sea Yet sinners fear not the Most High."' "102. In those days when He hath brought a grievous fire upon you, Whither will ye flee, and where will ye find deliverance And when He launches forth His Word against you Will you not be affrighted and fear,And all the luminaries shall be affrighted with great fear, And all the earth shall be affrighted and tremble and be alarmed.,And all the angels shall execute their commandst And shall seek to hide themselves from the presence of the Great Glory, And the children of earth shall tremble and quake; And ye sinners shall be cursed for ever, And ye shall have no peace.,Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness.,And grieve not if your soul into Sheol has descended in grief, And that in your life your body fared not according to your goodness, But wait for the day of the judgement of sinners And for the day of cursing and chastisement.,And yet when ye die the sinners speak over you: ' As we die, so die the righteous, And what benefit do they reap for their deeds,Behold, even as we, so do they die in grief and darkness, And what have they more than we From henceforth we are equal.,And what will they receive and what will they see for ever Behold, they too have died, And henceforth for ever shall they see no light.,I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content to eat and drink, and rob and sin, and strip men naked, and,acquire wealth and see good days. Have ye seen the righteous how their end falls out, that no manner,of violence is found in them till their death ' Nevertheless they perished and became as though they had not been, and their spirits descended into Sheol in tribulation." '103. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by the glory of the Great and Honoured and,Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them:,That all goodness and joy and glory are prepared for them, And written down for the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, And that manifold good shall be given to you in recompense for your labours, And that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the living.,And the spirits of you who have died in righteousness shall live and rejoice, And their spirits shall not perish, nor their memorial from before the face of the Great One Unto all the generations of the world: wherefore no longer fear their contumely.,Woe to you, ye sinners, when ye have died, If ye die in the wealth of your sins, And those who are like you say regarding you: \' Blessed are the sinners: they have seen all their days.,And how they have died in prosperity and in wealth, And have not seen tribulation or murder in their life; And they have died in honour, And judgement has not been executed on them during their life.,Know ye, that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol And they shall be wretched in their great tribulation.,And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace.,Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: \' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small.,And we have been destroyed and have not found any to help us even with a word: We have been tortured and destroyed, and not hoped to see life from day to day.,We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us.,They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not.",We desired to get away from them that we might escape and be at rest, But found no place whereunto we should flee and be safe from them.,And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice.,And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us. 104. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great,One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven,,ye shall shine and ye shall be seen, and the portals of heaven shall be opened to you. And in your cry, cry for judgement, and it shall appear to you; for all your tribulation shall be visited on the,rulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal,judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them,,but keep afar from their violence; for ye shall become companions of the hosts of heaven. And, although ye sinners say: \' All our sins shall not be searched out and be written down, nevertheless",they shall write down all your sins every day. And now I show unto you that light and darkness,,day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your,idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning,their words. But when they write down truthfully all my words in their languages, and do not change or minish ought from my words but write them all down truthfully -all that I first testified,concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the,wise to become a cause of joy and uprightness and much wisdom. And to them shall the books be given, and they shall believe in them and rejoice over them, and then shall all the righteous who have learnt therefrom all the paths of uprightness be recompensed.\' 105. In those days the Lord bade (them) to summon and testify to the children of earth concerning their wisdom: Show (it) unto them; for ye are their guides, and a recompense over the whole earth.,For I and My son will be united with them for ever in the paths of uprightness in their lives; and ye shall have peace: rejoice, ye children of uprightness. Amen.Fragment of the Book of Noah '. None
6. Anon., Jubilees, 10.1-10.7, 10.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dualism

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 51; Garcia (2021) 186, 194; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 47

10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them.' "10.2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were, leading astray and blinding and slaying his sons' sons." '10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.4. For Thy grace hath been great towards me, And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul; 10.5. Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons, 10.6. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day:

10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them;''. None
7. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 8.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dualism

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 51; Garcia (2021) 168

8.3. For as the sun is not defiled by shining on dung and mire, but rather drieth up both and driveth away the evil smell; so also the pure mind, though encompassed by the defilements of earth, rather cleanseth (them) and is not itself defiled.''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9, 7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism • Dualism/Dualistic • Dualistic theology • Persian apocalypticism, and dualism • Spatial dualism • dualism

 Found in books: Collins (2016) 24; Rowland (2009) 92, 197, 537; Stuckenbruck (2007) 735; Werline et al. (2008) 143

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃
7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃' '. None
7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire.
7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.' '. None
9. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 33.7-33.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism/Dualistic • dualism

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 54, 55; Stuckenbruck (2007) 249

33.7. Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.8. By the Lords decision they were distinguished,and he appointed the different seasons and feasts; 33.9. some of them he exalted and hallowed,and some of them he made ordinary days. 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12. some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other.' '. None
10. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism • Light and DarknessPersian dualism of • Persian apocalypticism, and dualism • dualism

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 51; Collins (2016) 191, 192; Frey and Levison (2014) 25, 178; Garcia (2021) 54, 233, 234, 237, 241; Levison (2009) 387; Lieu (2004) 284, 285; Putthoff (2016) 107, 118

11. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dualism

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 51; Garcia (2021) 160

12. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism/Dualistic • dualism

 Found in books: Lieu (2004) 130; Stuckenbruck (2007) 735

5.8. ἦτε γάρ ποτε σκότος, νῦν δὲ φῶς ἐν κυρίῳ·''. None
5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light, ''. None
13. New Testament, Galatians, 5.19, 5.22-5.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Iranian dualism • dualism

 Found in books: Lieu (2004) 130; Tite (2009) 165

5.19. φανερὰ δέ ἐστιν τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινά ἐστιν πορνεία, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀσέλγεια,
5.22. ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη, χαρά, εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία, χρηστότης, ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις, 5.23. πραΰτης, ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος.''. None
5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness,
5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. ''. None
14. New Testament, Hebrews, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism • Dualism, Origen and • Frei, and dualism • Spatial dualism

 Found in books: Dawson (2001) 232; Rowland (2009) 172

10.1. Σκιὰν γὰρ ἔχων ὁ νόμος τῶν μελλόντων ἀγαθῶν, οὐκ αὐτὴν τὴν εἰκόνα τῶν πραγμάτων, κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ταῖς αὐταῖς θυσίαις ἃς προσφέρουσιν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς οὐδέποτε δύνανται τοὺς προσερχομένους τελειῶσαι·''. None
10.1. For the law, having a shadow of the good to come, not the very image of the things, can never with the same sacrifices year by year, which they offer continually, make perfect those who draw near. ''. None
15. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, asceticism and dualism • Dualistic spiritualism

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 808; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 237

16. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Boyarin, Daniel, on dualism • Dualism • Dualism, Boyarin on • dualism

 Found in books: Dawson (2001) 34, 35; Garcia (2021) 83; Lieu (2004) 130; Rowland (2009) 150

17. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.20.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dualism • Dualistic theology • dualism

 Found in books: Osborne (2001) 47; Rowland (2009) 510

4.20.1. As regards His greatness, therefore, it is not possible to know God, for it is impossible that the Father can be measured; but as regards His love (for this it is which leads us to God by His Word), when we obey Him, we do always learn that there is so great a God, and that it is He who by Himself has established, and selected, and adorned, and contains all things; and among the all things, both ourselves and this our world. We also then were made, along with those things which are contained by Him. And this is He of whom the Scripture says, "And God formed man, taking clay of the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life." It was not angels, therefore, who made us, nor who formed us, neither had angels power to make an image of God, nor any one else, except the Word of the Lord, nor any Power remotely distant from the Father of all things. For God did not stand in need of these beings, in order to the accomplishing of what He had Himself determined with Himself beforehand should be done, as if He did not possess His own hands. For with Him were always present the Word and Wisdom, the Son and the Spirit, by whom and in whom, freely and spontaneously, He made all things, to whom also He speaks, saying, "Let Us make man after Our image and likeness;" He taking from Himself the substance of the creatures formed, and the pattern of things made, and the type of all the adornments in the world.''. None
18. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Zoroastrianism, dualism • dualism

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 409; Secunda (2014) 80

72a. והאידנא הוא דליוה פרסאי אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף להא גיסא דפרת עד היכא אמר ליה מאי דעתיך משום בירם מייחסי דפומבדיתא מבירם נסבי,אמר רב פפא כמחלוקת ליוחסין כך מחלוקת לענין גיטין ורב יוסף אמר מחלוקת ליוחסין אבל לגיטין דברי הכל עד ארבא תניינא דגישרא,אמר רמי בר אבא חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא תכילתא דחביל ימא רבינא אמר אף ציצורא תניא נמי הכי חנן בן פנחס אומר חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא וציצורא תכילתא דחביל ימא אמר רב פפא והאידנא איערבי בהו כותאי ולא היא איתתא הוא דבעא מינייהו ולא יהבו ליה מאי חביל ימא אמר רב פפא זו פרת דבורסי,ההוא גברא דאמר להו אנא מן שוט מישוט עמד רבי יצחק נפחא על רגליו ואמר שוט מישוט בין הנהרות עומדת וכי בין הנהרות עומדת מאי הוי אמר אביי אמר ר\' חמא בר עוקבא אמר רבי יוסי בר\' חנינא בין הנהרות הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין והיכא קיימא אמר ר\' יוחנן מאיהי דקירא ולעיל והא אמר רבי יוחנן עד מעברתא דגיזמא אמר אביי רצועה נפקא,אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין א"ל אביי לא תציתו ליה יבמה היא דנפלה ליה התם א"ל אטו דידי היא דרב חננאל היא אזיל שיילוה לרב חננאל אמר להו הכי אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין,ופליגא דר\' אבא בר כהנא דאמר ר\' אבא בר כהנא מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, יא) וינחם בחלח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי חלח זו חלזון חבור זו הדייב נהר גוזן זו גינזק ערי מדי זו חמדן וחברותיה ואמרי לה זו נהוונד וחברותיה,מאי חברותיה אמר שמואל כרך מושכי חוסקי ורומקי אמר רבי יוחנן וכולם לפסול קסלקא דעתא מושכי היינו מושכני והאמר ר\' חייא בר אבין אמר שמואל מושכני הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין אלא מושכי לחוד ומושכני לחוד,(דניאל ז, ה) ותלת עלעין בפומה בין שיניה אמר רבי יוחנן זו חלזון הדייב ונציבין שפעמים בולעתן ופעמים פולטתן,(דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוא אחרי תנינא דמיה לדוב תני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב ר\' אמי כי הוה חזי פרסא דרכיב אמר היינו דובא ניידא,א"ל רבי ללוי הראני פרסיים אמר ליה דומים לחיילות של בית דוד הראני חברין דומין למלאכי חבלה הראני ישמעאלים דומין לשעירים של בית הכסא הראני תלמידי חכמים שבבבל דומים למלאכי השרת,כי הוה ניחא נפשיה דרבי אמר הומניא איכא בבבל כולה עמונאי היא מסגריא איכא בבבל כולה דממזירא היא בירקא איכא בבבל שני אחים יש שמחליפים נשותיהם זה לזה בירתא דסטיא איכא בבבל היום סרו מאחרי המקום דאקפי פירא בכוורי בשבתא ואזיל וצדו בהו בשבתא ושמתינהו ר\' אחי ברבי יאשיה ואישתמוד אקרא דאגמא איכא בבבל אדא בר אהבה יש בה''. None
72a. And it is only now that the Persians moved the bridge further up northward. Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Until where does the border extend on this western side of the Euphrates? Rav Yosef said to him: What are you thinking? Why do you ask? Is it due to the town of Biram? Even those of pure lineage who live in Pumbedita marry women from Biram, which demonstrates that the residents of Biram are presumed to have unflawed lineage.,Rav Pappa says: Just as there is a dispute between Rav and Shmuel as to the northern border of Babylonia with regard to lineage, so is there a dispute with regard to bills of divorce. An agent bringing a bill of divorce from a country overseas to Eretz Yisrael must state that it was written and signed in his presence. If he brought it from Babylonia, there is no requirement for him to state this. Rav Pappa is teaching that the borders that define Babylonia with regard to this issue are the same as the borders with regard to lineage. And Rav Yosef says: This dispute is with regard to lineage, but with regard to bills of divorce, everyone agrees that it is considered Babylonia up to the second lake of the bridge that Shmuel mentioned.,Rami bar Abba said: The province of Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia with regard to lineage; Shunya and Guvya are the glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Ravina said: The town of Tzitzora is also like Shunya and Guvya. This is also taught in a baraita: Ḥa ben Pineḥas says: Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia; Shunya and Guvya and Tzitzora are the glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Rav Pappa says: And nowadays, Samaritans have assimilated with them, and their lineage is problematic. The Gemara comments: And that is not so. Rather, one Samaritan requested to marry a woman from them and they would not give her to him, which led to the rumor that Samaritans had assimilated with them. The Gemara asks: What is this region called Ḥaveil Yamma? Rav Pappa said: This is the area near the Euphrates adjacent to Bursi.,The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who said to the Sages: I am from a place called Shot Mishot. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa stood on his feet and said: Shot Mishot is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Gemara asks: And if it is located between the rivers, what of it? What halakha is this relevant for? Abaye said that Rabbi Ḥama bar Ukva says that Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The area between the rivers is like the exile, meaning Pumbedita, with regard to lineage. The Gemara inquires: And where is the area between the rivers located for the purpose of this halakha? Rabbi Yoḥa said: From Ihi Dekira and upward, i.e., northward. The Gemara asks: But doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Until the crossing at Gizma but no further? Abaye said: A strip extends from that region past Ihi Dekira.,Rav Ika bar Avin says that Rav Ḥael says that Rav says: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. Abaye said to them: Do not listen to Rav Ika bar Avin about this, as it was a yevama who fell before him from there to perform levirate marriage, and he said that its lineage was unflawed because he wished to marry her. Rav Ika bar Avin said to him: Is that to say that this halakha is mine? It is Rav Ḥael’s, and it is not reasonable to say that I was influenced by my own interests in stating it. They went and asked Rav Ḥael. He said to them: Rav said as follows: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage.,The Gemara comments: And this disagrees with the statement of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana, as Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: What is the meaning of that which is written with regard to the exile of the ten tribes of the kingdom of Israel: “And he put them in Halah, and in Habor, on the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes” (II\xa0Kings 18:11)? Halah is Ḥillazon; Habor is Hadyav; the river of Gozan is Ginzak; the cities of the Medes are Ḥamadan and its neighboring towns, and some say: This is Nihavnad and its neighboring towns. Since the ten tribes assimilated with the gentiles, the lineage of Jews from those places is flawed, unlike that which was taught before.,The Gemara asks: What are the neighboring towns of Nihavnad? Shmuel said: The city of Mushekhei, Ḥosekei, and Rumekei. Rabbi Yoḥa says: And all of these are the same with regard to flawed lineage. It was assumed that Mushekhei is the same as Mushekanei. The Gemara therefore asks: But doesn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin say that Shmuel says: Mushekanei is like the exile with regard to lineage? Rather, it must be that Mushekhei is discrete, and Mushekanei is discrete.,In connection to the aforementioned places, the Gemara analyzes the following verse, describing a vision of a bear-like animal: “And it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth” (Daniel 7:5). Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is Ḥillazon, Hadyav, and Netzivin, which the Persian government sometimes swallows and sometimes discharges. In other words, control over these places passed from the Persians to the Romans and back again several times.,The first part of that verse stated: “And behold a second beast, similar to a bear” (Daniel 7:5). Rav Yosef taught: These are Persians, who eat and drink copious amounts like a bear, and are corpulent like a bear, and grow hair like a bear, and have no rest like a bear, which is constantly on the move from one place to another. When Rabbi Ami saw a Persian riding, he would say: This is a bear on the move.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Levi: Show me Persians, i.e., describe a typical Persian to me. Levi said to him: They are similar to the legions of the house of David. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Show me Ḥabbarin, Persian priests. Levi said to him: They are similar to angels of destruction. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Show me Ishmaelites. Levi said to him: They are similar to demons of an outhouse. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Show me Torah scholars of Babylonia. Levi said to him: They are similar to ministering angels.,When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was dying, he said prophetically: There is a place called Homanya in Babylonia, and all its people are the sons of Ammon. There is a place called Masgariya in Babylonia, and all its people are mamzerim. There is a place called Bireka in Babylonia, and there are two brothers there who exchange wives with each other, and their children are therefore mamzerim. There is a place called Bireta DeSatya in Babylonia. Today they turned away from the Omnipresent. What did they do? A ditch with fish overflowed, and they went and trapped the fish on Shabbat. Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, excommunicated them, and they all became apostates. There is a place called Akra DeAgma in Babylonia. There is a man named Adda bar Ahava there.''. None

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