Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


graph

graph

All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
dionysos Benefiel and Keegan (2016), Inscriptions in the Private Sphere in the Greco-Roman World, 150, 168
Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 267, 268, 269, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 366, 369, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 379, 381, 382, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 444, 445, 446, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 492, 505, 506
Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 69
Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 9, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 218, 220
Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 91, 124, 145, 228, 230, 263, 264, 265
Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 6, 161, 298
Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013), Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians, 153
Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 231, 302, 303
Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 50
Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 161, 235, 236
Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 31, 32
Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 64, 65, 124, 272
Hallmannsecker (2022), Roman Ionia: Constructions of Cultural Identity in Western Asia Minor, 107
Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 203, 228, 243, 274, 275, 280, 288
Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 235, 239, 240
Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 20, 21, 29, 31, 37
Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 99
Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 106, 238, 249, 267, 303, 475, 483, 517, 518
Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 164, 170, 196, 198, 199, 264, 369, 370, 381
Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007), Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece, 45
Rüpke and Woolf (2013), Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE. 9, 12, 13, 14, 153, 156, 157, 161, 162, 163, 184, 255
Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 100, 103, 184, 205, 212, 213, 312, 337
Stavrianopoulou (2013), Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images, 124, 182
Williamson (2021), Urban Rituals in Sacred Landscapes in Hellenistic Asia Minor, 373
dionysos, ageta komon, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 44
dionysos, agrionios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 13
dionysos, agrios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 13
dionysos, aigobolos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 405
dionysos, aisumnetes Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 33
dionysos, aisymnetes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 402, 403, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412
dionysos, akratophoros, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 407
dionysos, alexander the great as new Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 454, 455
dionysos, and artemis Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 21
dionysos, and dionysian cult or myth, death associated with Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 11, 12, 16, 17, 40, 101, 102, 105, 106, 114, 128, 133, 134, 136, 137, 144, 145, 146, 148, 153, 166, 175, 253, 254, 281, 282, 284, 290, 292, 309, 335, 343, 359, 366, 373, 376, 379, 382, 422, 423, 426, 429, 431, 453, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 464, 471, 473, 474, 475, 478, 479, 480, 492
dionysos, and earthquakes Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 335
dionysos, and exogamy Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 55
dionysos, and hera Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 30, 32
dionysos, and kybele Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299
dionysos, and lykourgos Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 13
dionysos, and ransom McClay (2023), The Bacchic Gold Tablets and Poetic Tradition: Memory and Performance. 163, 164
dionysos, and the mysteries McClay (2023), The Bacchic Gold Tablets and Poetic Tradition: Memory and Performance. 4
dionysos, and titans Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 189, 327, 337
dionysos, anodos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 33, 408
dionysos, antheus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 405, 409, 411
dionysos, anthios Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 1070
dionysos, anthios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 74, 75, 404, 405
dionysos, anthroporrhaistes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 11
dionysos, apollo, and Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 303
dionysos, archebacchos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 44
dionysos, areopagos, theatre of Eidinow (2007), Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks, 301
dionysos, aroeus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 409, 412
dionysos, arrival Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 10, 60, 62, 161, 244, 291, 295, 312, 375, 426, 431
dionysos, arrival to the greek pantheon Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 25
dionysos, artemis, and Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 21
dionysos, as bull Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 52
dionysos, as bull, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 52, 126, 141, 280, 323, 333, 334, 340, 341, 342, 344, 345, 423, 505, 536
dionysos, as deus ex machina, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 339, 340, 354
dionysos, as epidemic god, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 72
dionysos, as feline, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 334
dionysos, as felines Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 334
dionysos, as foreign god, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 301, 317, 318
dionysos, as goat Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 132, 141
dionysos, as goat dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 132, 141
dionysos, as hunter, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 53, 164
dionysos, as lord of death identificated with the dead, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 256, 257
dionysos, as newcomer, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 25
dionysos, as outsider Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 32, 33, 34
dionysos, as sun Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 180
dionysos, as symposiast Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 505, 506
dionysos, as symposiast, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 505, 506
dionysos, as vegetation god, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 75, 262, 268, 404, 483
dionysos, at eleusis Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 145, 150, 236
dionysos, at halimous Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 137, 176
dionysos, at ikarion Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 136
dionysos, at leotykhidas, lerna, demeter and Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 150, 168, 169, 170
dionysos, at limnai Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 29, 60
dionysos, at piraeus Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 154, 229
dionysos, at thorikos Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 113, 137, 141
dionysos, athens Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 232, 233, 256
dionysos, athens, city of theatre of Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 14
dionysos, auxitès, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 410
dionysos, awakening Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 62, 100, 105, 106, 107, 109, 111, 123, 161, 204, 212, 213, 236, 237, 241, 242, 243, 245, 268, 292, 316, 334, 335, 336, 338, 343, 351, 353, 357, 359, 360, 362, 417, 424, 437, 467, 469, 470, 558, 561, 562
dionysos, axie taure, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 333, 423
dionysos, baccheastes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 45
dionysos, baccheios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 50, 51, 54, 273, 274, 275, 352, 407, 408, 411, 563
dionysos, baccheiotes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 45
dionysos, baccheus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 51, 63, 273, 274, 275, 276, 352
dionysos, baccheutes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 45
dionysos, bacchiastes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 45
dionysos, bacchios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 144, 146, 273, 274, 275, 352, 355, 358, 435
dionysos, bacchistes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 45
dionysos, bacchos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 53, 54, 209, 273, 274, 275, 341, 351, 352, 355, 476, 481, 482, 483
dionysos, bacchus, god Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 13, 93, 102, 135, 151, 160, 179, 187, 189, 218, 362, 363, 372, 384, 420, 421, 514, 525, 541, 542, 559, 596, 608
dionysos, bacchus, god, dionysia festivals Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 180, 181, 182, 184, 252, 263, 267, 469
dionysos, bacchus, god, objection to his arrival as a new god Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 32
dionysos, bacchus, god, sanctuary at the athenian acropolis Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 181
dionysos, bacchus, god, worship by women Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 248, 249, 251
dionysos, bakcheus Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 324
dionysos, bakkhos, bacchus Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 115
dionysos, bakxos Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 29
dionysos, bassareus/bassaros, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 46, 48, 54, 335, 437, 440, 441
dionysos, bes and cult, and divinatory incubation at abydos Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 485, 486, 488, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 506
dionysos, bes and cult, and fertility Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 544, 545
dionysos, bes and cult, and priestly incubation at abydos Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 494
dionysos, bes and cult, and proxy incubation at abydos Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 493, 494
dionysos, bes and cult, apotropaic function Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 496, 545
dionysos, bes and cult, chthonic aspects Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 33, 493
dionysos, bes and cult, dream-divination rituals in the magical papyri Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 434, 496
dionysos, bes and cult, issuer of oracles and dream-oracles Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 28, 494, 495, 579
dionysos, bes and cult, latin invocation for epiphany Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 493, 621
dionysos, bes and cult, oracle preserved in epitaph Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 493
dionysos, bes and cult, saqqâra bes chambers Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 544, 545, 606
dionysos, bes and cult, survival of cult as christus-bes Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 494, 495
dionysos, bes and cult, worship beyond egypt Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 363, 493
dionysos, birth of Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 119, 171, 336
dionysos, bougenes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 333
dionysos, boukeros, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 279, 280, 333
dionysos, boukolos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 333
dionysos, bromios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 53, 54, 74, 87, 161, 176, 197, 282, 286, 337, 339, 341, 350, 351, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 360, 361, 362, 381, 415, 439
dionysos, cadmeios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 90
dionysos, cadmos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 90
dionysos, calydonios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 403
dionysos, chariot Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 529, 530, 534
dionysos, chrysokomes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 331
dionysos, cult, bes and Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 545
dionysos, cults, of Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 32, 33, 34, 100, 169
dionysos, death Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 17, 65, 66, 69, 105, 106, 107, 109, 112, 389, 418, 420, 562
dionysos, dedication by moirokles Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 152, 153
dionysos, dedications Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 1119, 1151
dionysos, delos, house of Benefiel and Keegan (2016), Inscriptions in the Private Sphere in the Greco-Roman World, 61, 68, 71
dionysos, dionysos, as Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 44, 45, 47, 273, 274, 275, 294, 411, 438
dionysos, dionysos-bakchos, Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 49, 52, 53, 54
dionysos, dionysus Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 8, 26, 326, 329, 375
dionysos, dionysus, dionysiac Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 175, 176, 358, 376, 393, 431
dionysos, diosphos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 344
dionysos, dismemberment of Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 203, 211
dionysos, dithyrambos Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 182
dionysos, dithyrambos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 84, 338, 350, 357
dionysos, divinities, greek and roman Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 352, 408, 519, 541, 657
dionysos, eiraphiotes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 245
dionysos, elelichthon, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 273
dionysos, eleuthereos, athens, sanctuary of Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 181
dionysos, eleuthereus Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 33
Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 659
dionysos, eleuthereus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 29, 30, 409, 411, 560
dionysos, enyalios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 88
dionysos, epaphios/epaphian, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 441
dionysos, epiphany Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 10, 49, 96, 110, 112, 115, 172, 236, 240, 244, 246, 274, 277, 280, 291, 303, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 323, 324, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 366, 436, 461, 462, 467, 505, 506
dionysos, erga Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 239, 240, 241
dionysos, eribromos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 239, 246, 287, 437, 563
dionysos, erikepaigos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 441, 445
dionysos, erikryptos/kryptos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 15
dionysos, eriphos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 132
dionysos, euanthes εὐανθής, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 74
dionysos, euastera εὐαστῆρα, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 437
dionysos, eubulo/eubuleo, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 438
dionysos, euios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 44, 47, 53, 54, 433, 437, 461
dionysos, eustaphylos, divinities, greek and roman Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 573, 574
dionysos, festivals Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 556, 703
dionysos, first-fruits at teos Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 70, 276
dionysos, gift Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 11, 48, 49, 50, 51, 54, 179, 304, 334, 461, 475, 479
dionysos, god Geljon and Vos (2020), Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation, 84, 85
dionysos, greek god Rizzi (2010), Hadrian and the Christians, 121, 125, 130, 131, 136, 143
dionysos, gynaimanes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 247
dionysos, hera, and Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 30
dionysos, hymn to Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 52
dionysos, ikarion Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 136
dionysos, ikarion and semachidai Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 572, 768, 800, 855, 861, 1189
dionysos, in demes Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 657, 826, 865, 870, 898, 991, 1153
dionysos, in eleusis, deme Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 145, 150, 236
dionysos, in relation with egypt/, egyptian gods Bricault et al. (2007), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 373
dionysos, in satyric drama Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 181
dionysos, in teos, first-fruits, ἀπαρχή, to Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 70, 276
dionysos, in the marathonian tetrapolis Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 303
dionysos, incubation amphikleia, temple of practiced, ? Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 30, 303, 304
dionysos, isthmus Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 80
dionysos, kadmos Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 73, 74
dionysos, kadmos, mask of Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 232, 233
dionysos, kallikarpos Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 510
dionysos, kathodos κάθοδος Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 408, 439
dionysos, kemelios/dekemelios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 31
dionysos, kephalena, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 412
dionysos, kissokomes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 239, 246
dionysos, kissos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 410
dionysos, komastes κωμαστής, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 48, 54
dionysos, kresios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 268
dionysos, kybebe/le, and Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299
dionysos, laphystios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 48
dionysos, lenaios Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 34
dionysos, lenaios/lenaeus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 45, 103, 107, 108, 114, 148, 280, 415, 429, 431, 437, 441
dionysos, leneus Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 316
dionysos, liberator, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 50, 51, 82, 90, 437, 438, 454, 461
dionysos, liknites, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 62, 64, 110, 111, 291, 425, 437, 441
dionysos, limnaios/en lymnais, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 108, 115, 372, 409
dionysos, lyaios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 50
dionysos, lyseus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 50, 441
dionysos, lysios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 50, 51, 54, 103, 108, 144, 146, 211, 407, 409, 411, 415, 437, 438, 461
dionysos, magnesia on the maeander Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 158
dionysos, mainomenos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 44, 49, 123, 125, 352, 391
dionysos, mantis at amphiclea Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013), Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians, 84
dionysos, meilichios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 51
dionysos, melanaigis, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 12, 52
dionysos, melpomenos Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 659, 660
dionysos, melpomenos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 286, 410
dionysos, mesateus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 409, 411
dionysos, miracles Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 175, 356, 360, 366, 458, 476, 479
dionysos, mithraic mysteries, of Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 198, 199
dionysos, musagetes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 285
dionysos, mystagogues, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 126
dionysos, mystes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 48, 54, 406
dionysos, mystis nurse Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 82
dionysos, narthekophoros, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 48, 54
dionysos, neos Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 20, 21, 94, 98, 106
dionysos, nisio, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 441
dionysos, nurse of Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 7, 8, 28, 74, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 131, 132, 136, 137, 139, 141, 150, 160, 161, 164, 240, 246, 276, 279, 283, 284, 285, 287, 419, 420, 428, 431, 474, 475, 536
dionysos, nyktelios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 54, 407, 427
dionysos, nyktipolos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 48, 54, 407
dionysos, of teos Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 123, 135, 222
dionysos, of teos, temple Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 222
dionysos, olympia Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 107
dionysos, omadios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 11, 47, 54, 563
dionysos, omestes Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 32
dionysos, omestes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 11, 47, 179
dionysos, omophagos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 146, 147
dionysos, opposes endogamy Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 57
dionysos, orphic, dionysos, Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 145, 280, 468, 561, 574, 575
dionysos, pandemos Stavrianopoulou (2013), Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images, 326
dionysos, patrae Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 122
dionysos, patroos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 407, 410
dionysos, perikionios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 437
dionysos, persephone, mother of Edmonds (2004), Myths of the Underworld Journey: Plato, Aristophanes, and the ‘Orphic’ Gold Tablets, 58
dionysos, phales, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 32, 34
dionysos, phallen Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 286
dionysos, phleus Hallmannsecker (2022), Roman Ionia: Constructions of Cultural Identity in Western Asia Minor, 187
dionysos, ploutodotes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 103, 108, 109, 115
dionysos, pluralized Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 558, 559, 560, 561, 562
dionysos, polites, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 410
dionysos, polyonymos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 277, 279, 415, 441
dionysos, polystaphylos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 246, 277
dionysos, priest Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 1137
dionysos, prodigies Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 151, 236, 246, 329, 330, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342
dionysos, prodigies of Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 151, 236, 246, 329, 330, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342
dionysos, proitids, and Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 169, 275, 276, 277, 278
dionysos, promotes communality Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 34, 57
dionysos, protrygaios, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 375
dionysos, ptolemaic dynasty, and Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 408
dionysos, punishment Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 151, 160, 161, 177, 276, 283, 303, 306, 310, 333
dionysos, realm Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 2, 62, 69, 73, 109, 139, 307, 309, 310, 382, 492, 550
dionysos, rebirth Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 106, 111, 112, 114, 123, 133, 154, 420, 422, 562
dionysos, resurrection Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 66, 107, 112, 114
dionysos, sabos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 43, 48, 54
dionysos, saotes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 405
dionysos, sarapis, and Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 345, 352, 408
dionysos, semele, mother of Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 517
dionysos, taurometopos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 333
dionysos, tauropos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 333
dionysos, tauros diotrefes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 333
dionysos, teletarcha, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 44
dionysos, theater of Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 13, 39, 76, 115, 136, 137, 178, 193, 223, 228, 232
dionysos, theatre of Liddel (2020), Decrees of Fourth-Century Athens (403/2-322/1 BC): Volume 2, Political and Cultural Perspectives, 63, 111, 138
dionysos, thesmophoron, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 438
dionysos, thiasotes, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 48, 54
dionysos, thriambos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47
dionysos, timai Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 239, 240, 241
dionysos, tomb Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 64, 65, 111
dionysos, trietericus, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 433, 437
dionysos, use of term adyton, amphikleia, temple of Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 16
dionysos, xenos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324
dionysos, zonussos, dionysos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 146
dionysos, διόνυσος Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 197, 253
dionysos/dionysus Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 22, 23, 27, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 75, 76, 77, 78, 87, 112, 156, 157, 158
dionysos/herakles/theseus, nikaia in bithynia, today i̇znik, descent from Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 475, 518
ἄνοδος, dionysos, anodos Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 33, 408

List of validated texts:
208 validated results for "dionysos"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 174; Gera (2014), Judith, 444

sup>
15.20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus, Dionysiac Cult

 Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 444; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 378

sup>
23.40 And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.'' None
3. Hesiod, Works And Days, 168-173, 504 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens, Dionysus and Dionysian festivals in • Dionysos • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysus • Dionysus Cadmeios • Dionysus Lenaeus • Dionysus, Dodecaeterides • Dionysus, cult and rites • Dionysus, ecstasy/ enthusiasm/madness, association with • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Dionysus, origins and development • Dionysus, pillar as cult statue of • Homer, Dionysus and • Homeric Hymn to Dionysus • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • Thebes, cult of Dionysus in • awakening, Dionysos • ecstasy/enthusiasm/madness, association of Dionysus with • enthusiasm/ecstasy/madness, association of Dionysus with • madness/ecstasy/enthusiasm, association of Dionysus with • pillars/columns, Dionysus worshipped in form of

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 100; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 557; Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 232; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 300; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 297

sup>
168 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης.'169 Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169 ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169 τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169 τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169 τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170 καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171 ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 172 ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173 τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα.
504
μῆνα δὲ Ληναιῶνα, κάκʼ ἤματα, βουδόρα πάντα, ' None
sup>
168 The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea'169 Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170 For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171 In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 172 Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173 Carefree, among the blessed isles, content
504
These steps, your fields of corn shall surely teem ' None
4. Hesiod, Theogony, 1, 26-28, 328, 411-454, 459-460, 467, 473, 496, 545, 559-612, 698-699, 716-718, 886, 889-901, 921, 934-935, 937, 940-942, 947-949, 953, 975-978, 986-991 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amyclae, Dionysus Psilax at • Ares, Dionysus and • Artemis, Dionysus and • Calydon, cults of Artemis and Dionysus at • Corinth, cults of Artemis and Dionysus at • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos chrysokomes • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, andSemele • Dionysos, birth • Dionysos, death • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, iconography • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysus • Dionysus Bromios • Dionysus Cadmeios • Dionysus Psilax • Dionysus of Halicarnassus • Dionysus, Ares and • Dionysus, Artemis and • Dionysus, Thebes, association with • Dionysus, Zeus and • Dionysus, dismemberment and death of • Dionysus, heart of • Dionysus, lions, associated with • Dionysus, pillar as cult statue of • Dionysus, ruler of cosmos • Dionysus, sanctuaries and temples • Dionysus, theater, as god of • Dionysus, δίγονος, δισσοτόκος, διμήτωρ, διμήτριος, bimatris • Dionysus,birth • Homeric Hymn to Dionysus • Semele, and Dionysos • Sparta, cult of Dionysus in • Thebes, association of Ares, Dionysus, and Aphrodite with • Thebes, cult of Dionysus in • Zeus, Dionysus and • Zeus, gestates Dionysus in his thigh • anti-hero, Dionysus • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • death of Dionysus, as divine king • heroines, and Dionysos • lions, Dionysus and • pillars/columns, Dionysus worshipped in form of • theater and tragedy, Dionysus as god of

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 52, 61; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 7, 9, 17, 203, 205, 238, 331; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 301; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 93, 160, 362; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 85, 199; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 114; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 120; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 18, 33, 63, 66, 244, 245, 248, 264, 293; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 12, 62, 186, 286, 287, 288; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 210; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 168, 172; Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 79, 261; Trapp et al. (2016), In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns, 83; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 24; Welch (2015), Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth. 26; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 129

sup>
1 Μουσάων Ἑλικωνιάδων ἀρχώμεθʼ ἀείδειν,26 ποιμένες ἄγραυλοι, κάκʼ ἐλέγχεα, γαστέρες οἶον, 27 ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα, 28 ἴδμεν δʼ, εὖτʼ ἐθέλωμεν, ἀληθέα γηρύσασθαι.
328
τόν ῥʼ Ἥρη θρέψασα Διὸς κυδρὴ παράκοιτις 4
1
1
ἢ δʼ ὑποκυσαμένη Ἑκάτην τέκε, τὴν περὶ πάντων 4
12
Ζεὺς Κρονίδης τίμησε· πόρεν δέ οἱ ἀγλαὰ δῶρα, 4
13
μοῖραν ἔχειν γαίης τε καὶ ἀτρυγέτοιο θαλάσσης. 4
14
ἣ δὲ καὶ ἀστερόεντος ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ ἔμμορε τιμῆς 4
15
ἀθανάτοις τε θεοῖσι τετιμένη ἐστὶ μάλιστα. 4
16
καὶ γὰρ νῦν, ὅτε πού τις ἐπιχθονίων ἀνθρώπων 4
17
ἔρδων ἱερὰ καλὰ κατὰ νόμον ἱλάσκηται, 4
18
κικλῄσκει Ἑκάτην. πολλή τέ οἱ ἕσπετο τιμὴ 4
19
ῥεῖα μάλʼ, ᾧ πρόφρων γε θεὰ ὑποδέξεται εὐχάς, 420 καί τέ οἱ ὄλβον ὀπάζει, ἐπεὶ δύναμίς γε πάρεστιν. 42
1
ὅσσοι γὰρ Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἐξεγένοντο 422 καὶ τιμὴν ἔλαχον, τούτων ἔχει αἶσαν ἁπάντων. 423 οὐδέ τί μιν Κρονίδης ἐβιήσατο οὐδέ τʼ ἀπηύρα, 424 ὅσσʼ ἔλαχεν Τιτῆσι μετὰ προτέροισι θεοῖσιν, 425 ἀλλʼ ἔχει, ὡς τὸ πρῶτον ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς ἔπλετο δασμός, 4
26
οὐδʼ, ὅτι μουνογενής, ἧσσον θεὰ ἔμμορε τιμῆς, 427 καὶ γέρας ἐν γαίῃ τε καὶ οὐρανῷ ἠδὲ θαλάσσῃ· 428 ἀλλʼ ἔτι καὶ πολὺ μᾶλλον, ἐπεὶ Ζεὺς τίεται αὐτήν. 429 ᾧ δʼ ἐθέλει, μεγάλως παραγίγνεται ἠδʼ ὀνίνησιν· 430 ἔν τʼ ἀγορῇ λαοῖσι μεταπρέπει, ὅν κʼ ἐθέλῃσιν· 43
1
ἠδʼ ὁπότʼ ἐς πόλεμον φθεισήνορα θωρήσσωνται 432 ἀνέρες, ἔνθα θεὰ παραγίγνεται, οἷς κʼ ἐθέλῃσι 433 νίκην προφρονέως ὀπάσαι καὶ κῦδος ὀρέξαι. 434 ἔν τε δίκῃ βασιλεῦσι παρʼ αἰδοίοισι καθίζει, 435 ἐσθλὴ δʼ αὖθʼ ὁπότʼ ἄνδρες ἀεθλεύωσιν ἀγῶνι, 436 ἔνθα θεὰ καὶ τοῖς παραγίγνεται ἠδʼ ὀνίνησιν· 437 νικήσας δὲ βίῃ καὶ κάρτεϊ καλὸν ἄεθλον 438 ῥεῖα φέρει χαίρων τε, τοκεῦσι δὲ κῦδος ὀπάζει. 439 ἐσθλὴ δʼ ἱππήεσσι παρεστάμεν, οἷς κʼ ἐθέλῃσιν. 440 καὶ τοῖς, οἳ γλαυκὴν δυσπέμφελον ἐργάζονται, 44
1
εὔχονται δʼ Ἑκάτῃ καὶ ἐρικτύπῳ Ἐννοσιγαίῳ, 442 ῥηιδίως ἄγρην κυδρὴ θεὸς ὤπασε πολλήν, 443 ῥεῖα δʼ ἀφείλετο φαινομένην, ἐθέλουσά γε θυμῷ. 444 ἐσθλὴ δʼ ἐν σταθμοῖσι σὺν Ἑρμῇ ληίδʼ ἀέξειν· 445 βουκολίας δʼ ἀγέλας τε καὶ αἰπόλια πλατέʼ αἰγῶν 446 ποίμνας τʼ εἰροπόκων ὀίων, θυμῷ γʼ ἐθέλουσα, 447 ἐξ ὀλίγων βριάει κἀκ πολλῶν μείονα θῆκεν. 448 οὕτω τοι καὶ μουνογενὴς ἐκ μητρὸς ἐοῦσα 449 πᾶσι μετʼ ἀθανάτοισι τετίμηται γεράεσσιν. 450 θῆκε δέ μιν Κρονίδης κουροτρόφον, οἳ μετʼ ἐκείνην 45
1
ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδοντο φάος πολυδερκέος Ἠοῦς. 452 οὕτως ἐξ ἀρχῆς κουροτρόφος, αἳ δέ τε τιμαί. 453 Ῥείη δὲ δμηθεῖσα Κρόνῳ τέκε φαίδιμα τέκνα, 454 Ἱστίην Δήμητρα καὶ Ἥρην χρυσοπέδιλον
459
καὶ τοὺς μὲν κατέπινε μέγας Κρόνος, ὥς τις ἕκαστος 460 νηδύος ἐξ ἱερῆς μητρὸς πρὸς γούναθʼ ἵκοιτο,
467
παῖδας ἑοὺς κατέπινε· Ῥέην δʼ ἔχε πένθος ἄλαστον.
473
παίδων θʼ, οὓς κατέπινε μέγας Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτης.
496
νικηθεὶς τέχνῃσι βίηφί τε παιδὸς ἑοῖο.
545
ὣς φάτο κερτομέων Ζεὺς ἄφθιτα μήδεα εἰδώς.
559
Ἰαπετιονίδη, πάντων πέρι μήδεα εἰδώς, 560 ὦ πέπον, οὐκ ἄρα πω δολίης ἐπιλήθεο τέχνης. 56
1
ὣς φάτο χωόμενος Ζεὺς ἄφθιτα μήδεα εἰδώς· 562 ἐκ τούτου δὴ ἔπειτα δόλου μεμνημένος αἰεὶ 563 οὐκ ἐδίδου Μελίῃσι πυρὸς μένος ἀκαμάτοιο 564 θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποις, οἳ ἐπὶ χθονὶ ναιετάουσιν. 565 ἀλλά μιν ἐξαπάτησεν ἐὺς πάις Ἰαπετοῖο 566 κλέψας ἀκαμάτοιο πυρὸς τηλέσκοπον. αὐγὴν 567 ἐν κοΐλῳ νάρθηκι· δάκεν δέ ἑ νειόθι θυμόν, 568 Ζῆνʼ ὑψιβρεμέτην, ἐχόλωσε δέ μιν φίλον ἦτορ, 569 ὡς ἴδʼ ἐν ἀνθρώποισι πυρὸς τηλέσκοπον αὐγήν. 570 αὐτίκα δʼ ἀντὶ πυρὸς τεῦξεν κακὸν ἀνθρώποισιν· 57
1
γαίης γὰρ σύμπλασσε περικλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 572 παρθένῳ αἰδοίῃ ἴκελον Κρονίδεω διὰ βουλάς. 573 ζῶσε δὲ καὶ κόσμησε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη 574 ἀργυφέη ἐσθῆτι· κατὰ κρῆθεν δὲ καλύπτρην 575 δαιδαλέην χείρεσσι κατέσχεθε, θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι· 576 ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ στεφάνους, νεοθηλέος ἄνθεα ποίης, 577 ἱμερτοὺς περίθηκε καρήατι Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. 578 ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ στεφάνην χρυσέην κεφαλῆφιν ἔθηκε, 579 τὴν αὐτὸς ποίησε περικλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 580 ἀσκήσας παλάμῃσι, χαριζόμενος Διὶ πατρί. 58
1
τῇ δʼ ἐνὶ δαίδαλα πολλὰ τετεύχατο, θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι, 582 κνώδαλʼ, ὅσʼ ἤπειρος πολλὰ τρέφει ἠδὲ θάλασσα, 583 τῶν ὅ γε πόλλʼ ἐνέθηκε,—χάρις δʼ ἀπελάμπετο πολλή,— 584 θαυμάσια, ζῴοισιν ἐοικότα φωνήεσσιν. 585 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τεῦξε καλὸν κακὸν ἀντʼ ἀγαθοῖο. 586 ἐξάγαγʼ, ἔνθα περ ἄλλοι ἔσαν θεοὶ ἠδʼ ἄνθρωποι, 587 κόσμῳ ἀγαλλομένην γλαυκώπιδος ὀβριμοπάτρης. 588 θαῦμα δʼ ἔχʼ ἀθανάτους τε θεοὺς θνητούς τʼ ἀνθρώπους, 589 ὡς εἶδον δόλον αἰπύν, ἀμήχανον ἀνθρώποισιν. 590 ἐκ τῆς γὰρ γένος ἐστὶ γυναικῶν θηλυτεράων, 59
1
τῆς γὰρ ὀλώιόν ἐστι γένος καὶ φῦλα γυναικῶν, 592 πῆμα μέγʼ αἳ θνητοῖσι μετʼ ἀνδράσι ναιετάουσιν 593 οὐλομένης πενίης οὐ σύμφοροι, ἀλλὰ κόροιο. 594 ὡς δʼ ὁπότʼ ἐν σμήνεσσι κατηρεφέεσσι μέλισσαι 595 κηφῆνας βόσκωσι, κακῶν ξυνήονας ἔργων— 596 αἳ μέν τε πρόπαν ἦμαρ ἐς ἠέλιον καταδύντα 597 ἠμάτιαι σπεύδουσι τιθεῖσί τε κηρία λευκά, 598 οἳ δʼ ἔντοσθε μένοντες ἐπηρεφέας κατὰ σίμβλους 599 ἀλλότριον κάματον σφετέρην ἐς γαστέρʼ ἀμῶνται— 600 ὣς δʼ αὔτως ἄνδρεσσι κακὸν θνητοῖσι γυναῖκας 60
1
Ζεὺς ὑψιβρεμέτης θῆκεν, ξυνήονας ἔργων 602 ἀργαλέων· ἕτερον δὲ πόρεν κακὸν ἀντʼ ἀγαθοῖο· 603 ὅς κε γάμον φεύγων καὶ μέρμερα ἔργα γυναικῶν 604 μὴ γῆμαι ἐθέλῃ, ὀλοὸν δʼ ἐπὶ γῆρας ἵκοιτο 605 χήτεϊ γηροκόμοιο· ὅ γʼ οὐ βιότου ἐπιδευὴς 606 ζώει, ἀποφθιμένου δὲ διὰ κτῆσιν δατέονται 607 χηρωσταί· ᾧ δʼ αὖτε γάμου μετὰ μοῖρα γένηται, 608 κεδνὴν δʼ ἔσχεν ἄκοιτιν ἀρηρυῖαν πραπίδεσσι, 609 τῷ δέ τʼ ἀπʼ αἰῶνος κακὸν ἐσθλῷ ἀντιφερίζει 6
10
ἐμμενές· ὃς δέ κε τέτμῃ ἀταρτηροῖο γενέθλης, 6
1
1
ζώει ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν ἔχων ἀλίαστον ἀνίην 6
12
θυμῷ καὶ κραδίῃ, καὶ ἀνήκεστον κακόν ἐστιν.
698
ἄσπετος, ὄσσε δʼ ἄμερδε καὶ ἰφθίμων περ ἐόντων 699 αὐγὴ μαρμαίρουσα κεραυνοῦ τε στεροπῆς τε. 7
16
πέμπον ἐπασσυτέρας, κατὰ δʼ ἐσκίασαν βελέεσσι 7
17
Τιτῆνας, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ὑπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 7
18
πέμψαν καὶ δεσμοῖσιν ἐν ἀργαλέοισιν ἔδησαν
886
Ζεὺς δὲ θεῶν βασιλεὺς πρώτην ἄλοχον θέτο Μῆτιν
889
τέξεσθαι, τότʼ ἔπειτα δόλῳ φρένας ἐξαπατήσας 890 αἱμυλίοισι λόγοισιν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδὺν 89
1
Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσι καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος. 892 τὼς γάρ οἱ φρασάτην, ἵνα μὴ βασιληίδα τιμὴν 893 ἄλλος ἔχοι Διὸς ἀντὶ θεῶν αἰειγενετάων. 894 ἐκ γὰρ τῆς εἵμαρτο περίφρονα τέκνα γενέσθαι· 895 πρώτην μὲν κούρην γλαυκώπιδα Τριτογένειαν 896 ἶσον ἔχουσαν πατρὶ μένος καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν. 897 αὐτὰρ ἔπειτʼ ἄρα παῖδα θεῶν βασιλῆα καὶ ἀνδρῶν 898 ἤμελλεν τέξεσθαι, ὑπέρβιον ἦτορ ἔχοντα· 899 ἀλλʼ ἄρα μιν Ζεὺς πρόσθεν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδύν, 900 ὡς δή οἱ φράσσαιτο θεὰ ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 90
1
δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 92
1
λοισθοτάτην δʼ Ἥρην θαλερὴν ποιήσατʼ ἄκοιτιν·
934
ῥινοτόρῳ Κυθέρεια Φόβον καὶ Δεῖμον ἔτικτε 935 δεινούς, οἵτʼ ἀνδρῶν πυκινὰς κλονέουσι φάλαγγας
937
Ἁρμονίην θʼ, ἣν Κάδμος ὑπέρθυμος θέτʼ ἄκοιτιν.
940
Καδμείη δʼ ἄρα οἱ Σεμέλη τέκε φαίδιμον υἱὸν 94
1
μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι, Διώνυσον πολυγηθέα, 942 ἀθάνατον θνητή· νῦν δʼ ἀμφότεροι θεοί εἰσιν.
947
χρυσοκόμης δὲ Διώνυσος ξανθὴν Ἀριάδνην, 948 κούρην Μίνωος, θαλερὴν ποιήσατʼ ἄκοιτιν. 949 τὴν δέ οἱ ἀθάνατον καὶ ἀγήρω θῆκε Κρονίων.
953
αἰδοίην θέτʼ ἄκοιτιν ἐν Οὐλύμπῳ νιφόεντι,
975
Κάδμῳ δʼ Ἁρμονίη, θυγάτηρ χρυσέης Ἀφροδιτης, 976 Ἰνὼ καὶ Σεμέλην καὶ Ἀγαυὴν καλλιπάρῃον 977 Αὐτονόην θʼ, ἣν γῆμεν Ἀρισταῖος βαθυχαίτης, 978 γείνατο καὶ Πολύδωρον ἐυστεφάνῳ ἐνὶ Θήβῃ.
986
αὐτὰρ ὑπαὶ Κεφάλῳ φιτύσατο φαίδιμον υἱόν, 987 ἴφθιμον Φαέθοντα, θεοῖς ἐπιείκελον ἄνδρα. 988 τόν ῥα νέον τέρεν ἄνθος ἔχοντʼ ἐρικυδέος ἥβης 989 παῖδʼ ἀταλὰ φρονέοντα φιλομμειδὴς Ἀφροδίτη 990 ὦρτʼ ἀναρεψαμένη, καί μιν ζαθέοις ἐνὶ νηοῖς 99
1
νηοπόλον νύχιον ποιήσατο, δαίμονα δῖον. ' None
sup>
1 From the Heliconian Muses let me sing:26 of Helicon, and in those early day 27 Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me: 28 “You who tend sheep, full of iniquity,
328
Across the sea and slain Eurytion 4
1
1
In fact three thousand of them, every one 4
12
Neat-ankled, spread through his dominion, 4
13
Serving alike the earth and mighty seas, 4
14
And all of them renowned divinities. 4
15
They have as many brothers, thundering 4
16
As on they flow, begotten by the king 4
17
of seas on Tethys. Though it’s hard to tell 4
18
Their names, yet they are known from where they dwell. 4
19
Hyperion lay with Theia, and she thu 420 Bore clear Selene and great Heliu 42
1
And Eos shining on all things on earth 422 And on the gods who dwell in the wide berth 423 of heaven. Eurybia bore great Astraeu 424 And Pallas, having mingled with Crius; 425 The bright goddess to Perses, too, gave birth, 4
26
Who was the wisest man on all the earth; 427 Eos bore the strong winds to Astraeus, 428 And Boreas, too, and brightening Zephyru 429 And Notus, born of two divinities. 430 The star Eosphorus came after these, 43
1
Birthed by Eugeneia, ‘Early-Born’, 432 Who came to be the harbinger of Dawn, 433 And heaven’s gleaming stars far up above. 434 And Ocean’s daughter Styx was joined in love 435 To Pelias – thus trim-ankled Victory 436 And Zeal first saw the light of day; and she 437 Bore Strength and Force, both glorious children: they 438 Dwell in the house of Zeus; they’ve no pathway 439 Or dwelling that’s without a god as guide, 440 And ever they continue to reside 44
1
With Zeus the Thunderer; thus Styx had planned 442 That day when Lightning Zeus sent a command 443 That all the gods to broad Olympus go 444 And said that, if they helped him overthrow 445 The Titans, then he vowed not to bereave 446 Them of their rights but they would still receive 447 The rights they’d had before, and, he explained, 448 To those who under Cronus had maintained 449 No rights or office he would then entrust 450 Those very privileges, as is just. 45
1
So deathless Styx, with all her progeny, 452 Was first to go, through the sagacity 453 of her fear father, and Zeus gave her fame 454 With splendid gifts, and through him she became
459
With Coeus lay and brought forth the goddess, 460 Dark-gowned Leto, so full of gentlene
467
He gave her splendid gifts that she might keep
473
Easily gains great honour. She bestow
496
And win with ease the rich prize joyfully,
545
But then she gave the mighty heavenly king
559
Gulped down. In holy Pytho, far below 560 Parnassus’ glens, Zeus set it down to show 56
1
The marvel to all men, and he set free 562 His father’s brothers whose captivity 563 Cronus had caused in his great foolishness, 564 And they were grateful for his kindliness, 565 So lightning and loud thunder they revealed 566 To him in recompense, which were concealed 567 Before by vast Earth, and he trusts in these 568 And rules all men and all divinities. 569 Iapetus wed neat-ankled Clymene, 570 The child of Ocean, and their progeny 57
1
Were mighty Atlas, fine Menoetiu 572 And clever, treacherous Prometheus, 573 And mad Epimetheus, to mortality 574 A torment from the very first, for he 575 Married the maid whom Zeus had formed. But Zeu 576 At villainous Menoetius let loose 577 His lurid bolt because his vanity 578 And strength had gone beyond the boundary 579 of moderation: down to Erebu 580 He went headlong. Atlas was tirele 58
1
In holding up wide Heaven, forced to stand 582 Upon the borders of this earthly land 583 Before the clear-voiced daughters of the West, 584 A task assigned at wise Zeus’s behest. 585 Zeus bound clever Prometheus cruelly 586 With bonds he could not break apart, then he 587 Drove them into a pillar, setting there 588 A long-winged eagle which began to tear 589 His liver, which would regrow every day 590 So that the bird could once more take away 59
1
What had been there before. Heracles, the son 592 of trim-ankled Clymene, was the one 593 Who slew that bird and from his sore distre 594 Released Prometheus – thus his wretchedne 595 Was over, and it was with Zeus’s will, 596 Who planned that hero would be greater still 597 Upon the rich earth than he was before. 598 Lord Zeus then took these things to heart therefore; 599 He ceased the anger he had felt when he 600 Had once been matched in ingenuity 60
1
By Prometheus, for when several gods and men 602 Had wrangled at Mecone, even then 603 Prometheus calved a giant ox and set 604 A share before each one, trying to get 605 The better of Lord Zeus – before the rest 606 He set the juicy parts, fattened and dressed 607 With the ox’s paunch, then very cunningly 608 For Zeus he took the white bones up, then he 609 Marked them with shining fat. “O how unfair,” 6
10
Spoke out the lord of gods and men, “to share 6
1
1
That way, most glorious lord and progeny 6
12
of Iapetus.” Zeus, whose sagacity
698
And those who grant mortals advantages, 699 The Olympians; ten years would it abide 7
16
That you returned us from a living hell 7
17
Where we were bound in grim obscurity; 7
18
Thus we enjoyed what we’d not hoped to see.
886
Gave him in marriage to his progeny
889
Her youngest child Typhoeus with the aid 890 of golden Aphrodite, who had bade 89
1
Her lie with Tartarus. In everything 892 He did the lad was strong, untiring 893 When running, and upon his shoulders spread 894 A hundred-headed dragon, full of dread, 895 Its dark tongues flickering, and from below 896 His eyes a flashing flame was seen to glow; 897 And from each head shot fire as he glared 898 And from each head unspeakable voices blared: 899 Sometimes a god could understand the sound 900 They made, but sometimes, echoing around, 90
1
A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 92
1
of gods. An endless shaking, too, arose,
934
And from the thunder-stricken lord a flame 935 Shot forth in the dim, mountain-hollows when
937
Scorched by a terrible vapour, liquefied
940
The hardest of all things, which men subdue 94
1
With fire in mountain-glens and with the glow 942 Causes the sacred earth to melt: just so
947
For they are sent by the gods and are to all 948 A boon; the others, though, fitfully fall 949 Upon the sea, and there some overthrow
953
And blooming earth, where recklessly they spoil
975
of gods and men. Before his birth, though, he 976 Put her into his belly so that she 977 Might counsel him. And then he wed the bright 978 Themis, who bore The Hours, Order, Right
986
And fair Thaleia, whose glance lovingly 987 Melted the limbs of all. Indeed the eye 988 of all of them were fit to hypnotize 989 Those whom they looked upon; and furthermore 990 He wed nourishing Demeter, who then bore 99
1
A daughter, the fair-armed Persephone ' None
5. Homer, Iliad, 1.200, 1.399-1.400, 1.528, 1.590-1.594, 5.338, 6.130-6.141, 6.303, 6.311, 9.453-9.457, 14.246, 14.313-14.328, 18.394-18.398, 18.400-18.401, 18.405, 20.213-20.241 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, Dionysus and • Artemis, Dionysus and • Bacchic rites, conflation with wedding and burial rites • Bacchic rites, in Statius Achilleid • Bacchic rites, military imagery and • Bacchic rites, negation of marriage and domesticity in • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Bacchus/Dionysus • Birth of Dionysus, Artemis as birth goddess • Birth of Dionysus, Athena • Charites (Graces), Dionysus and • Christianity, Dionysus and • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Archebacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Eriphos • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos ageta komon • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos as goat • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos kissokomes • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos mystagogues • Dionysos, Dionysos orsibacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos teletarcha • Dionysos, Eiraphiotes • Dionysos, Omestes • Dionysos, and Lykourgos • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, and mortality • Dionysos, andSemele • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, birth • Dionysos, childhood • Dionysos, death of • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, erga • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, probation • Dionysos,punishment • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysos,timai • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus, • Dionysus, Aphrodite and • Dionysus, Artemis and • Dionysus, Charites/Graces and • Dionysus, Dionysus Aisymnetes • Dionysus, Dionysus Phallen • Dionysus, Hephaestus and • Dionysus, Hera and • Dionysus, Zeus and • Dionysus, alien qualities of • Dionysus, as vegetation deity • Dionysus, cult and rites • Dionysus, ecstasy/ enthusiasm/madness, association with • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Dionysus, images and iconography • Dionysus, in Antigone • Dionysus, maenads and • Dionysus, nymphs and satyrs/ silens, associated with • Dionysus, origins and development • Dionysus, the dead, associated with • Dionysus, theater, as god of • Dionysus, thyrsus or narthex staff of • Dionysus, wine, as god of • Dionysus, youth, portrayal as • Dionysus, δίγονος, δισσοτόκος, διμήτωρ, διμήτριος, bimatris • Dionysus,birth • Eleusis, Dionysus and • Hephaestus, Dionysus and • Hera, Dionysus and • Homer, Dionysus and • Infant Dionysus, The (Sophocles) • Makron, kylix with Dionysus carrying thyrsus and vine branch • Nilsson, Martin, on Dionysus • Nysa, Nysai, and Dionysus • Orpheus, Dionysus and • Parthenon, east pediment, Dionysus • Semele, and Dionysos • Thebes, association of Ares, Dionysus, and Aphrodite with • Zeus, Dionysus and • burials and mourning, Bacchic rites conflated with • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • ecstasy/enthusiasm/madness, association of Dionysus with • enthusiasm/ecstasy/madness, association of Dionysus with • goat, Dionysos as • heroines, and Dionysos • madness/ecstasy/enthusiasm, association of Dionysus with • mortality, and Dionysos • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac • mystery cults, Dionysus and • nymphs, Dionysus associated with • the dead, Dionysus associated with • theater and tragedy, Dionysus as god of • vegetation deities, Dionysus as • weddings and marriage, Bacchic negation of marriage and domesticity • wine, Dionysus as god of • young womens rituals, in Statius Achilleid, Bacchic rites

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 6, 10, 14, 44, 102, 123, 124, 125, 126, 132, 133, 137, 138, 150, 161, 208, 239, 267, 278, 283, 303, 314, 352; Del Lucchese (2019), Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture, 33; Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 90; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 172, 560; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 174; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 79, 80, 81, 108, 113, 120; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 141; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 162, 211, 240; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 62; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 33, 53, 128, 195, 246, 266, 276, 279; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 13; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 12, 180, 238, 239, 261, 288, 297, 321, 322; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 167, 169; Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 261; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 123, 129; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 20, 157, 168

sup>
1.200 Παλλάδʼ Ἀθηναίην· δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν·
1.399
ὁππότε μιν ξυνδῆσαι Ὀλύμπιοι ἤθελον ἄλλοι 1.400 Ἥρη τʼ ἠδὲ Ποσειδάων καὶ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη·
1.528
ἦ καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπʼ ὀφρύσι νεῦσε Κρονίων·
1.590
ἤδη γάρ με καὶ ἄλλοτʼ ἀλεξέμεναι μεμαῶτα 1.591 ῥῖψε ποδὸς τεταγὼν ἀπὸ βηλοῦ θεσπεσίοιο, 1.592 πᾶν δʼ ἦμαρ φερόμην, ἅμα δʼ ἠελίῳ καταδύντι 1.593 κάππεσον ἐν Λήμνῳ, ὀλίγος δʼ ἔτι θυμὸς ἐνῆεν· 1.594 ἔνθά με Σίντιες ἄνδρες ἄφαρ κομίσαντο πεσόντα.
5.338
ἀμβροσίου διὰ πέπλου, ὅν οἱ Χάριτες κάμον αὐταί,
6.130
οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ Δρύαντος υἱὸς κρατερὸς Λυκόοργος 6.131 δὴν ἦν, ὅς ῥα θεοῖσιν ἐπουρανίοισιν ἔριζεν· 6.132 ὅς ποτε μαινομένοιο Διωνύσοιο τιθήνας 6.133 σεῦε κατʼ ἠγάθεον Νυσήϊον· αἳ δʼ ἅμα πᾶσαι 6.134 θύσθλα χαμαὶ κατέχευαν ὑπʼ ἀνδροφόνοιο Λυκούργου 6.135 θεινόμεναι βουπλῆγι· Διώνυσος δὲ φοβηθεὶς 6.136 δύσεθʼ ἁλὸς κατὰ κῦμα, Θέτις δʼ ὑπεδέξατο κόλπῳ 6.137 δειδιότα· κρατερὸς γὰρ ἔχε τρόμος ἀνδρὸς ὁμοκλῇ. 6.138 τῷ μὲν ἔπειτʼ ὀδύσαντο θεοὶ ῥεῖα ζώοντες, 6.139 καί μιν τυφλὸν ἔθηκε Κρόνου πάϊς· οὐδʼ ἄρʼ ἔτι δὴν 6.140 ἦν, ἐπεὶ ἀθανάτοισιν ἀπήχθετο πᾶσι θεοῖσιν· 6.141 οὐδʼ ἂν ἐγὼ μακάρεσσι θεοῖς ἐθέλοιμι μάχεσθαι.
6.303
θῆκεν Ἀθηναίης ἐπὶ γούνασιν ἠϋκόμοιο,
6.311
ὣς ἔφατʼ εὐχομένη, ἀνένευε δὲ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη.
9.453
τῇ πιθόμην καὶ ἔρεξα· πατὴρ δʼ ἐμὸς αὐτίκʼ ὀϊσθεὶς 9.454 πολλὰ κατηρᾶτο, στυγερὰς δʼ ἐπεκέκλετʼ Ἐρινῦς, 9.455 μή ποτε γούνασιν οἷσιν ἐφέσσεσθαι φίλον υἱὸν 9.456 ἐξ ἐμέθεν γεγαῶτα· θεοὶ δʼ ἐτέλειον ἐπαρὰς 9.457 Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος καὶ ἐπαινὴ Περσεφόνεια.
14.246
Ὠκεανοῦ, ὅς περ γένεσις πάντεσσι τέτυκται·
14.313
Ἥρη κεῖσε μὲν ἔστι καὶ ὕστερον ὁρμηθῆναι, 14.314 νῶϊ δʼ ἄγʼ ἐν φιλότητι τραπείομεν εὐνηθέντε. 14.315 οὐ γάρ πώ ποτέ μʼ ὧδε θεᾶς ἔρος οὐδὲ γυναικὸς 14.316 θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσι περιπροχυθεὶς ἐδάμασσεν, 14.317 οὐδʼ ὁπότʼ ἠρασάμην Ἰξιονίης ἀλόχοιο, 14.318 ἣ τέκε Πειρίθοον θεόφιν μήστωρʼ ἀτάλαντον· 14.319 οὐδʼ ὅτε περ Δανάης καλλισφύρου Ἀκρισιώνης, 14.320 ἣ τέκε Περσῆα πάντων ἀριδείκετον ἀνδρῶν· 14.321 οὐδʼ ὅτε Φοίνικος κούρης τηλεκλειτοῖο, 14.322 ἣ τέκε μοι Μίνων τε καὶ ἀντίθεον Ῥαδάμανθυν· 14.323 οὐδʼ ὅτε περ Σεμέλης οὐδʼ Ἀλκμήνης ἐνὶ Θήβῃ, 14.324 ἥ ῥʼ Ἡρακλῆα κρατερόφρονα γείνατο παῖδα· 14.325 ἣ δὲ Διώνυσον Σεμέλη τέκε χάρμα βροτοῖσιν· 14.326 οὐδʼ ὅτε Δήμητρος καλλιπλοκάμοιο ἀνάσσης, 14.327 οὐδʼ ὁπότε Λητοῦς ἐρικυδέος, οὐδὲ σεῦ αὐτῆς, 14.328 ὡς σέο νῦν ἔραμαι καί με γλυκὺς ἵμερος αἱρεῖ.
18.394
ἦ ῥά νύ μοι δεινή τε καὶ αἰδοίη θεὸς ἔνδον, 18.395 ἥ μʼ ἐσάωσʼ ὅτε μʼ ἄλγος ἀφίκετο τῆλε πεσόντα 18.396 μητρὸς ἐμῆς ἰότητι κυνώπιδος, ἥ μʼ ἐθέλησε 18.397 κρύψαι χωλὸν ἐόντα· τότʼ ἂν πάθον ἄλγεα θυμῷ, 18.398 εἰ μή μʼ Εὐρυνόμη τε Θέτις θʼ ὑπεδέξατο κόλπῳ
18.400
τῇσι παρʼ εἰνάετες χάλκευον δαίδαλα πολλά, 18.401 πόρπας τε γναμπτάς θʼ ἕλικας κάλυκάς τε καὶ ὅρμους
18.405
ἀλλὰ Θέτις τε καὶ Εὐρυνόμη ἴσαν, αἵ μʼ ἐσάωσαν.
20.213
εἰ δʼ ἐθέλεις καὶ ταῦτα δαήμεναι, ὄφρʼ ἐῢ εἰδῇς 20.214 ἡμετέρην γενεήν, πολλοὶ δέ μιν ἄνδρες ἴσασι· 20.215 Δάρδανον αὖ πρῶτον τέκετο νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς, 20.216 κτίσσε δὲ Δαρδανίην, ἐπεὶ οὔ πω Ἴλιος ἱρὴ 20.217 ἐν πεδίῳ πεπόλιστο πόλις μερόπων ἀνθρώπων, 20.218 ἀλλʼ ἔθʼ ὑπωρείας ᾤκεον πολυπίδακος Ἴδης. 20.219 Δάρδανος αὖ τέκεθʼ υἱὸν Ἐριχθόνιον βασιλῆα, 20.220 ὃς δὴ ἀφνειότατος γένετο θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων· 20.221 τοῦ τρισχίλιαι ἵπποι ἕλος κάτα βουκολέοντο 20.222 θήλειαι, πώλοισιν ἀγαλλόμεναι ἀταλῇσι. 20.223 τάων καὶ Βορέης ἠράσσατο βοσκομενάων, 20.224 ἵππῳ δʼ εἰσάμενος παρελέξατο κυανοχαίτῃ· 20.225 αἳ δʼ ὑποκυσάμεναι ἔτεκον δυοκαίδεκα πώλους. 20.226 αἳ δʼ ὅτε μὲν σκιρτῷεν ἐπὶ ζείδωρον ἄρουραν, 20.227 ἄκρον ἐπʼ ἀνθερίκων καρπὸν θέον οὐδὲ κατέκλων· 20.228 ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ σκιρτῷεν ἐπʼ εὐρέα νῶτα θαλάσσης, 20.229 ἄκρον ἐπὶ ῥηγμῖνος ἁλὸς πολιοῖο θέεσκον. 20.230 Τρῶα δʼ Ἐριχθόνιος τέκετο Τρώεσσιν ἄνακτα· 20.231 Τρωὸς δʼ αὖ τρεῖς παῖδες ἀμύμονες ἐξεγένοντο 20.232 Ἶλός τʼ Ἀσσάρακός τε καὶ ἀντίθεος Γανυμήδης, 20.233 ὃς δὴ κάλλιστος γένετο θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων· 20.234 τὸν καὶ ἀνηρείψαντο θεοὶ Διὶ οἰνοχοεύειν 20.235 κάλλεος εἵνεκα οἷο ἵνʼ ἀθανάτοισι μετείη. 20.236 Ἶλος δʼ αὖ τέκεθʼ υἱὸν ἀμύμονα Λαομέδοντα· 20.237 Λαομέδων δʼ ἄρα Τιθωνὸν τέκετο Πρίαμόν τε 20.238 Λάμπόν τε Κλυτίον θʼ Ἱκετάονά τʼ ὄζον Ἄρηος· 20.239 Ἀσσάρακος δὲ Κάπυν, ὃ δʼ ἄρʼ Ἀγχίσην τέκε παῖδα· 20.240 αὐτὰρ ἔμʼ Ἀγχίσης, Πρίαμος δʼ ἔτεχʼ Ἕκτορα δῖον. 20.241 ταύτης τοι γενεῆς τε καὶ αἵματος εὔχομαι εἶναι.' ' None
sup>
1.200 Then he addressed her with winged words, and said:Why now, daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus, have you come? Is it so that you might see the arrogance of Agamemnon, son of Atreus? One thing I will tell you, and I think this will be brought to pass: through his own excessive pride shall he presently lose his life.
1.399
For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.400 But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory, ' "
1.528
no word of mine may be recalled, nor is false, nor unfulfilled, to which I bow my head. The son of Cronos spoke, and bowed his dark brow in assent, and the ambrosial locks waved from the king's immortal head; and he made great Olympus quake. " 1.590 he caught me by the foot and hurled me from the heavenly threshold; the whole day long I was carried headlong, and at sunset I fell in Lemnos, and but little life was in me. There the Sintian folk quickly tended me for my fall. So he spoke, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, smiled,
5.338
then the son of great-souled Tydeus thrust with his sharp spear and leapt upon her, and wounded the surface of her delicate hand, and forthwith through the ambrosial raiment that the Graces themselves had wrought for her the spear pierced the flesh upon the wrist above the palm and forth flowed the immortal blood of the goddess,
6.130
Nay, for even the son of Dryas, mighty Lycurgus, lived not long, seeing that he strove with heavenly gods—he that on a time drave down over the sacred mount of Nysa the nursing mothers of mad Dionysus; and they all let fall to the ground their wands, smitten with an ox-goad by man-slaying Lycurgus. 6.134 Nay, for even the son of Dryas, mighty Lycurgus, lived not long, seeing that he strove with heavenly gods—he that on a time drave down over the sacred mount of Nysa the nursing mothers of mad Dionysus; and they all let fall to the ground their wands, smitten with an ox-goad by man-slaying Lycurgus. ' "6.135 But Dionysus fled, and plunged beneath the wave of the sea, and Thetis received him in her bosom, filled with dread, for mighty terror gat hold of him at the man's threatenings. Then against Lycurgus did the gods that live at ease wax wroth, and the son of Cronos made him blind; " "6.139 But Dionysus fled, and plunged beneath the wave of the sea, and Thetis received him in her bosom, filled with dread, for mighty terror gat hold of him at the man's threatenings. Then against Lycurgus did the gods that live at ease wax wroth, and the son of Cronos made him blind; " '6.140 and he lived not for long, seeing that he was hated of all the immortal gods. So would not I be minded to fight against the blessed gods. But if thou art of men, who eat the fruit of the field, draw nigh, that thou mayest the sooner enter the toils of destruction. Then spake to him the glorious son of Hippolochus:
6.303
for her had the Trojans made priestess of Athene. Then with sacred cries they all lifted up their hands to Athene; and fair-cheeked Theano took the robe and laid it upon the knees of fair-haired Athene, and with vows made prayer to the daughter of great Zeus: ' "
6.311
on Troy and the Trojans' wives and their little children. So spake she praying, but Pallas Athene denied the prayer.Thus were these praying to the daughter of great Zeus, but Hector went his way to the palace of Alexander, the fair palace that himself had builded with the men " 9.453 whom himself he ever cherished, and scorned his wife, my mother. So she besought me by my knees continually, to have dalliance with that other first myself, that the old man might be hateful in her eyes. 9.454 whom himself he ever cherished, and scorned his wife, my mother. So she besought me by my knees continually, to have dalliance with that other first myself, that the old man might be hateful in her eyes. I hearkened to her and did the deed, but my father was ware thereof forthwith and cursed me mightily, and invoked the dire Erinyes 9.455 that never should there sit upon his knees a dear child begotten of me; and the gods fulfilled his curse, even Zeus of the nether world and dread Persephone. Then I took counsel to slay him with the sharp sword, but some one of the immortals stayed mine anger, bringing to my mind
14.246
Oceanus, from whom they all are sprung; but to Zeus, son of Cronos, will I not draw nigh, neither lull him to slumber, unless of himself he bid me. For ere now in another matter did a behest of thine teach me a lesson,
14.313
lest haply thou mightest wax wroth with me hereafter, if without a word I depart to the house of deep-flowing Oceanus. 14.314 lest haply thou mightest wax wroth with me hereafter, if without a word I depart to the house of deep-flowing Oceanus. Then in answer spake to her Zeus, the cloud-gatherer.Hera, thither mayest thou go even hereafter. But for us twain, come, let us take our joy couched together in love; 14.315 for never yet did desire for goddess or mortal woman so shed itself about me and overmaster the heart within my breast—nay, not when I was seized with love of the wife of Ixion, who bare Peirithous, the peer of the gods in counsel; nor of Danaë of the fair ankles, daughter of Acrisius, 14.320 who bare Perseus, pre-eminent above all warriors; nor of the daughter of far-famed Phoenix, that bare me Minos and godlike Rhadamanthys; nor of Semele, nor of Alcmene in Thebes, and she brought forth Heracles, her son stout of heart, 14.325 and Semele bare Dionysus, the joy of mortals; nor of Demeter, the fair-tressed queen; nor of glorious Leto; nay, nor yet of thine own self, as now I love thee, and sweet desire layeth hold of me. Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him:
18.394
a beautiful chair, richly-wrought, and beneath was a footstool for the feet; and she called to Hephaestus, the famed craftsman, and spake to him, saying:Hephaestus, come forth hither; Thetis hath need of thee. And the famous god of the two strong arms answered her:Verily then a dread and honoured goddess is within my halls, 18.395 even she that saved me when pain was come upon me after I had fallen afar through the will of my shameless mother, that was fain to hide me away by reason of my lameness. Then had I suffered woes in heart, had not Eurynome and Thetis received me into their bosom—Eurynome, daughter of backward-flowing Oceanus. 18.398 even she that saved me when pain was come upon me after I had fallen afar through the will of my shameless mother, that was fain to hide me away by reason of my lameness. Then had I suffered woes in heart, had not Eurynome and Thetis received me into their bosom—Eurynome, daughter of backward-flowing Oceanus. ' "
18.400
With them then for nine years' space I forged much cunning handiwork, brooches, and spiral arm-bands, and rosettes and necklaces, within their hollow cave; and round about me flowed, murmuring with foam, the stream of Oceanus, a flood unspeakable. Neither did any other know thereof, either of gods or of mortal men, " "18.401 With them then for nine years' space I forged much cunning handiwork, brooches, and spiral arm-bands, and rosettes and necklaces, within their hollow cave; and round about me flowed, murmuring with foam, the stream of Oceanus, a flood unspeakable. Neither did any other know thereof, either of gods or of mortal men, " 18.405 but Thetis knew and Eurynome, even they that saved me. And now is Thetis come to my house; wherefore it verily behoveth me to pay unto fair-tressed Thetis the full price for the saving of my life. But do thou set before her fair entertainment, while I put aside my bellows and all my tools.
20.213
of these shall one pair or the other mourn a dear son this day; for verily not with childish words, I deem, shall we twain thus part one from the other and return from out the battle. Howbeit, if thou wilt, hear this also, that thou mayest know well my lineage, and many there be that know it: 20.215 at the first Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, begat Dardanus, and he founded Dardania, for not yet was sacred Ilios builded in the plain to be a city of mortal men, but they still dwelt upon the slopes of many-fountained Ida. And Dardanus in turn begat a son, king Erichthonius, 20.220 who became richest of mortal men. Three thousand steeds had he that pastured in the marsh-land; mares were they. rejoicing in their tender foals. of these as they grazed the North Wind became enamoured, and he likened himself to a dark-maned stallion and covered them; 20.225 and they conceived, and bare twelve fillies These, when they bounded over the earth, the giver of grain, would course over the topmost ears of ripened corn and break them not, and whenso they bounded over the broad back of the sea, would course over the topmost breakers of the hoary brine. 20.230 And Erichthonius begat Tros to be king among the Trojans, and from Tros again three peerless sons were born, Ilus, and Assaracus, and godlike Ganymedes that was born the fairest of mortal men; wherefore the gods caught him up on high to be cupbearer to Zeus by reason of his beauty, that he might dwell with the immortals. 20.235 And Ilus again begat a son, peerless Laomedon, and Laomedon begat Tithonus and Priam and Clytius, and Hicetaon, scion of Ares. And Assaracus begat Capys, and he Anchises; but Anchises begat me and Priam goodly Hector. 20.240 /This then is the lineage amid the blood wherefrom I avow me sprung. 20.241 /This then is the lineage amid the blood wherefrom I avow me sprung. ' ' None
6. Homeric Hymns, To Aphrodite, 256-275 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus

 Found in books: Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 27; Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 261

sup>
256 The dance among the deathless ones and bed'257 With Hermes and Sileni, hid away 258 In pleasant caves, and on the very day 259 That they are born, up from the fruitful earth 260 Pines and high oaks also display their birth, 261 Trees so luxuriant, so very fair, 262 Called the gods’ sancta, high up in the air. 263 No mortal chops them down. When the Fates mark 264 Them out for death, they wither there, their bark 265 Shrivelling too, their twigs fall down. As one, 266 Both Nymph and tree leave the light of the sun. 267 They’ll rear my son. And at his puberty 268 The goddesses will show you him. Let me 269 Tell you what I propose – when he is near 270 His fifth year on this earth, I’ll bring him here 271 That you may gaze upon him and enjoy 272 The sight, for he will be a godlike boy. 273 Bring him to windy Ilium. If you 274 Are queried by some mortal as to who 275 Gave birth to him, then say, as I propose, ' None
7. Homeric Hymns, To Demeter, 120, 189-190, 202-203, 268, 275, 278 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, erga • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos,timai • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 131, 241, 346; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 228, 263; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 56; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 63

sup>
120 That garland-loving Aphrodite brings,189 In our fine house, she has a late-born son, 190 Much prayed for and embraced – her only one.
202
of pasture, who then bound across the lea. 203 Those maidens down the hollow pathway sped,
268
Right there. He grew like an immortal, for
275
Just like a brand. They were amazed that he
278
If the well-girdled Metaneira had ' None
8. Homeric Hymns, To Hermes, 4, 354, 389, 483 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, probation • Dionysos, suckling • Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 152; Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 26, 27; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 61; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 117, 316; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 281

sup>
4 The herald of the gods and progeny 35
4
Could be detected on the ground’s hard face.389 Who plotted ill, denying cunningly

483
To lovely dances – such festivity ' None
9. Hymn To Dionysus, To Dionysus, 7.11, 7.13-7.15 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Axie taure • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos bougenes • Dionysos, Dionysos boukeros • Dionysos, Dionysos boukolos • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos gynaimanes • Dionysos, Dionysos kissokomes • Dionysos, Dionysos polystaphylos • Dionysos, Dionysos taurometopos • Dionysos, Dionysos tauropos • Dionysos, Dionysos tauros diotrefes • Dionysos, Lysios • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, integration • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, prodigies • Dionysos,punishment • Homeric Hymn to Dionysos • prodigies of Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 246, 247, 320, 333; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 274

sup>
7.11 Whereupon the people of Antioch, when they had failed of success in this their first request, made him a second; for they desired that he would order those tables of brass to be removed on which the Jews’ privileges were engraven.
7.11
yet, he said, that he would immediately bestow rewards and dignities on those that had fought the most bravely, and with greater force, and had signalized their conduct in the most glorious manner, and had made his army more famous by their noble exploits; and that no one who had been willing to take more pains than another should miss of a just retribution for the same;
7.13
3. Hereupon Titus ordered those whose business it was to read the list of all that had performed great exploits in this war,
7.13
Then did he retire to that gate which was called the Gate of the Pomp, because pompous shows do always go through that gate; 7.14 for many of them were so made, that they were on three or even four stories, one above another. The magnificence also of their structure afforded one both pleasure and surprise; 7.14 whom he called to him by their names, and commended them before the company, and rejoiced in them in the same manner as a man would have rejoiced in his own exploits. He also put on their heads crowns of gold, and golden ornaments about their necks, and gave them long spears of gold, and ensigns that were made of silver, 7.15 and removed every one of them to a higher rank; and besides this, he plentifully distributed among them, out of the spoils, and the other prey they had taken, silver, and gold, and garments. 7.15 and the last of all the spoils, was carried the Law of the Jews.'' None
10. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus, festivals of • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, and theatre

 Found in books: Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 54; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 17

11. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amphikleia, temple of Dionysos, incubation practiced(?) • Aphrodite, Dionysus and • Ariadne, and Dionysos • Artemis, Dionysus and • Athens, and Dionysos • Bacchic • Birth of Dionysus, Artemis as birth goddess • Charites (Graces), Dionysus and • Delos, sanctuary of Apollo, altar of Dionysus • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Aisymnetes • Dionysos, Dionysos Aroeus • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Kephalena • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Lysios • Dionysos, and Ariadne • Dionysos, and Ino • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, and immortality • Dionysos, andSemele • Dionysos, childhood • Dionysos, death • Dionysos, integration • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, probation • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus, • Dionysus, Aphrodite and • Dionysus, Artemis and • Dionysus, Charites/Graces and • Dionysus, Homer shaping • Dionysus, as vegetation deity • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus-Osiris • Homer, Dionysus and • Homeric Hymn to Dionysos • Ino-Leukothea, Dionysos and • Semele, and Dionysos • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • death of Dionysus • heroines, and Dionysos • immortality, and Dionysos • marriage, of Dionysos and Ariadne • vegetation deities, Dionysus as

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 135; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 7, 17, 46, 136, 206, 302, 412; Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 546; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 529; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 95; Gazis and Hooper (2021), Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature, 62; Hunter (2018), The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad, 201; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 607; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 43; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 56; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 29; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 122, 125, 126; Maciver (2012), Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity, 28; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 63; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 62, 69; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 274, 279; Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 30; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 180, 261, 283; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 210; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 389; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 39; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 134; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 155

12. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, erga • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos,timai • Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 42, 240, 273, 563; Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 27; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 39

13. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, erga • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos,timai • Dionysus • Dionysus,birth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 138, 240, 346; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 301, 635; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 91; Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 26, 27; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 54, 56; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 58; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 123

14. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, erga • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos,timai • Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 138, 240, 346; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 54, 56

15. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apulian Painter, volute krater with Birth of Dionysus • Birth of Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus, • Dionysus, Zeus and • Dionysus, wine, as god of • Nilsson, Martin, on Dionysus • Zeus, Dionysus and • wine, Dionysus as god of

 Found in books: Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 721, 724; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 54; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 394

16. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Omestes • Dionysus,

 Found in books: Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 240, 721; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 195

17. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Proitids, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 276; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 126

18. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 146, 228-229 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, Dionysus and • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Nyktelios • Dionysos, Dionysos Thriambos • Dionysos, Dionysos choragos/choreutas/philochoreutas • Dionysos, Dionysos eriboas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribremetas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • Dionysus, Artemis and • Thrace, Dionysus associated with

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 525; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 166

sup>
146 228 λιτὰς δὲ καὶ κληδόνας πατρῴους 229 παρʼ οὐδὲν αἰῶ τε παρθένειον ' None
sup>
146 228 Prayings and callings 229 of these, and of the virgin-age, — ' None
19. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic imagery • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, realm • Dionysus • Dionysus, • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • dance, bacchic

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 62; Del Lucchese (2019), Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture, 34; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 557; Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 43, 148; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 100; Trott (2019), Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation, 129, 131

20. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, and earthquakes • Dionysos, birth of • Dionysos, childhood • Dionysos, probation

 Found in books: Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 279; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 171, 335

21. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysus

 Found in books: Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 9; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 699

22. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, and Hera • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysus • Hera, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 49; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 750; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 30

23. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, and Hera • Dionysos, bakchoi • Hera, and Dionysos • Proitids, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 275; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 237; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 30; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 43

24. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus, birth (and rebirth) of • Dionysus, god of death outside of Tablets • phallos, Dionysus and

 Found in books: Bierl (2017), Time and Space in Ancient Myth, Religion and Culture, 119; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 73; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 121

25. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amyclae, Dionysus Psilax at • Artemis, Dionysus and • Bacchic cults • Calydon, cults of Artemis and Dionysus at • Corinth, cults of Artemis and Dionysus at • Dionysos, and earthquakes • Dionysus • Dionysus Bromios • Dionysus Psilax • Dionysus, Artemis and • Dionysus, birth (and rebirth) of • Dionysus, dismemberment and death of • Dionysus, ruler of cosmos • Dionysus, sanctuaries and temples • Dionysus, theater, as god of • Persephone, mother of Dionysus • Sparta, cult of Dionysus in • Thebes, cult of Dionysus in • Zeus, father of Dionysus • death of Dionysus • lions, Dionysus and • theater and tragedy, Dionysus as god of

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 36; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 66, 68, 69, 127; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 335; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 186; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 600

26. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Boeotia, Dionysus and • Demeter, Dionysus and • Dionysos • Dionysus • Dionysus, Demeter and • Dionysus, images and iconography

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 236; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 36; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 108

27. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic cults • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, bakchoi • Dionysos, birth • Dionysos, resurrection • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus, and Midas • Dionysus, δίγονος, δισσοτόκος, διμήτωρ, διμήτριος, bimatris • Dionysus,birth • Homeric Hymn to Dionysus • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • Orphic, see Bacchic, initiation, mystery cults, rites • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 9, 86, 114; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 93, 363; Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 232; Horster and Klöckner (2014), Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period, 264; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 68; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 36; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 61; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 264, 269; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 24, 43; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 599; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 1, 129; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 356

28. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, and gender • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, and mortality • Dionysos, gestation • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, probation • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • gender, and Dionysos • heroines, and Dionysos • mortality, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 7, 9, 214, 215; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 363; Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 235, 236; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 103, 104; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 278

29. Euripides, Alcestis, 361 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysus, Hermes and • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Hermes, Dionysus and • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 153; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 331

sup>
361 eeing that I am no less chargeable with injuring him if I make him childless. This is my case; but for thee, there is one thing i.e. I am afraid, even if I prove the malice and falseness of her charges against me, you will not punish her, for your partiality and weakness in such cases is well known. I fear in thy disposition; it was a quarrel for a woman that really induced thee to destroy poor Ilium’s town. Choru'' None
30. Euripides, Bacchae, 1-169, 182, 208, 215-265, 268-301, 305-306, 308, 312-321, 325-431, 435-475, 482, 491, 498, 502, 506, 520-530, 536, 553-555, 565-647, 652, 664-665, 667, 677-774, 777, 795, 810, 821, 825, 827-838, 842-845, 859-861, 918-948, 956, 969, 976, 978, 986-987, 992, 995-998, 1006-1010, 1013, 1015-1023, 1025-1026, 1029-1031, 1037, 1043-1152, 1168, 1177-1215, 1233-1243, 1251-1258, 1264-1280, 1297, 1310, 1330-1331, 1341, 1345-1346, 1349, 1358, 1389-1390 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo, Dionysus and • Apollo, Dionysus, association with • Argos, Dionysus and • Artemis, and Dionysos • Athens, Dionysus and Dionysian festivals in • Athens, sanctuary and theater of Dionysus Eleuthereus • Bacchic • Bacchic rites • Bacchic rites, Matralia and cult of Mater Matuta in Ovids Fasti • Bacchic rites, in Statius Achilleid • Bacchic rites, in Vergils Aeneid • Bacchic rites, military imagery and • Bacchic rites, processions • Bacchic rites, purification associated with • Bacchic rites, sexuality and maenadism • Bacchic rites, slaves involved in • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Bacchic/Dionysiac inspiration • Bacchus (Dionysus) • Bacchus and Bacchic rites • Bacchus/Dionysus • Basel krater, tragic chorus in Theater of Dionysus • Boeotia, Dionysus and • Chalcidian vases, kylix with Dionysus and Ariadne in chariot (Phineus cup) • Delphi, Dionysus and • Demeter, Dionysus and • Demeter, and Dionysus • Dionysiac/Bacchic inspiration • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), worship by women • Dionysos, • Dionysos, Athens • Dionysos, Dionysos Anthroporrhaistes • Dionysos, Dionysos Axie taure • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheastes • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheiotes • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheutes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchiastes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchiotas • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchistes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Cadmeios • Dionysos, Dionysos Cadmos • Dionysos, Dionysos Diosphos • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Laphystios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Melanaigis • Dionysos, Dionysos Nyktelios • Dionysos, Dionysos Sabos • Dionysos, Dionysos Thriambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos Zonussos • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos as deus ex machina • Dionysos, Dionysos as feline • Dionysos, Dionysos as foreign god • Dionysos, Dionysos as goat • Dionysos, Dionysos as hunter • Dionysos, Dionysos bougenes • Dionysos, Dionysos boukeros • Dionysos, Dionysos boukolos • Dionysos, Dionysos choragos/choreutas/philochoreutas • Dionysos, Dionysos chrysokomes • Dionysos, Dionysos enyalios • Dionysos, Dionysos eriboas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribremetas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos komastes κωμαστής • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos mystagogues • Dionysos, Dionysos mystes • Dionysos, Dionysos narthekophoros • Dionysos, Dionysos nyktipolos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • Dionysos, Dionysos omophagos • Dionysos, Dionysos polyonymos • Dionysos, Dionysos taurometopos • Dionysos, Dionysos tauropos • Dionysos, Dionysos tauros diotrefes • Dionysos, Dionysos thiasotes • Dionysos, Dionysos-Bakchos • Dionysos, Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, Lysios • Dionysos, Orphic Dionysos • Dionysos, and Ariadne • Dionysos, and Artemis • Dionysos, and Kybele • Dionysos, and earthquakes • Dionysos, and gender • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, as outsider • Dionysos, as rescued • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, bakchoi • Dionysos, birth • Dionysos, birth of • Dionysos, chariot • Dionysos, death • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, immortal • Dionysos, integration • Dionysos, name • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, prodigies • Dionysos, promotes communality • Dionysos, realm • Dionysos, tomb • Dionysos,miracles • Dionysos,punishment • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus (Bacchus) • Dionysus (god and cult) • Dionysus Baccheus • Dionysus Eleuthereus • Dionysus Lysius • Dionysus, Apollo and • Dionysus, Demeter and • Dionysus, Tyrrhenian sea pirates and • Dionysus, Zeus and • Dionysus, animals and • Dionysus, as teacher of viticulture • Dionysus, birth of • Dionysus, birth of Dionysus • Dionysus, changes water into wine • Dionysus, cult and rites • Dionysus, cult of • Dionysus, ecstasy/ enthusiasm/madness, association with • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus, images and iconography • Dionysus, images of Heracles confused with • Dionysus, maenads and • Dionysus, origins and development • Dionysus, sanctuaries and temples • Dionysus, ship, arrival on • Dionysus, theater, as god of • Dionysus, thyrsus or narthex staff of • Dionysus, twin statues, worshipped as • Dionysus, wine, as god of • Dionysus,birth • Dionysus-Osiris • Egypt/Egyptians, Dionysus and • Euboea, Dionysus and • Exekias, amphora with Dionysus and Oinopion • Exekias, kylix with Dionysus in ship • Greek literature and practice, Bacchic rites • Heracles, images of Dionysus confusedwith • Homeric Hymn to Dionysos • Hypsipyle, hiding of Thoas in Bacchic temple (in Valerius) • Kybebe/le, and Dionysos • Matralia and cult of Mater Matuta, Bacchic rites in • Naxos, temple and cult of Dionysus on • Nilsson, Martin, on Dionysus • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • Orphic, see Bacchic, initiation, mystery cults, rites • Parthenon, east frieze, Dionysus on • Parthenon, east pediment, Dionysus • Phineus cup (Chalcidian kylix with Dionysus and Ariadne in chariot) • Semele, mother of Dionysos • Thebes, association of Ares, Dionysus, and Aphrodite with • Thebes, cult of Dionysus in • Thrace, Dionysus associated with • Vergil, Aeneid, Bacchic rites in • Zeus as father of Dionysus • Zeus, Dionysus and • animals, Dionysus and • anti-hero, Dionysus • bull, Dionysos as • chariot, Dionysos • cults, of Dionysos • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • ecstasy/enthusiasm/madness, association of Dionysus with • enthusiasm/ecstasy/madness, association of Dionysus with • felines, Dionysos as • gender, and Dionysos • goat, Dionysos as • heroines, and Dionysos • madness/ecstasy/enthusiasm, association of Dionysus with • marriage, of Dionysos and Ariadne • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac • prodigies of Dionysos • purification and Bacchic rites • rescue, of Dionysos • rituals, Bacchic • sanctuary, of Dionysus • theater and tragedy, Dionysus as god of • wine, Dionysus as god of • women and Dionysus • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi and Dionysus • young womens rituals, in Statius Achilleid, Bacchic rites

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 86; Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 53; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 7, 9, 11, 17, 40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 64, 84, 88, 90, 110, 126, 141, 144, 146, 160, 161, 162, 164, 166, 167, 171, 172, 173, 175, 177, 179, 192, 201, 273, 279, 280, 282, 289, 291, 301, 302, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 346, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 456, 458, 459, 460, 467, 530, 536; Bierl (2017), Time and Space in Ancient Myth, Religion and Culture, 109, 110, 111, 112, 131, 211; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 49, 54, 220; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 635; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 228, 230, 294, 295, 297; Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 26, 27, 28; Chrysanthou (2018), Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement. 117; Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 353; Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 231; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 248, 363; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 237; Hawes (2014), Rationalizing Myth in Antiquity, 14, 15; Hawes (2021), Pausanias in the World of Greek Myth, 30, 31; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 248; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 691; Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 48, 49; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 112, 113, 114; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 109, 110; Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 517; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 18, 107, 108, 109; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 112; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 152; Michalopoulos et al. (2021), The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature, 221; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 81, 82, 91; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 28, 29, 31, 36, 118, 126, 128, 129; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 117, 154, 155, 191, 192, 215, 216, 239, 242, 249, 251; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 23, 27, 64, 65, 70; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 325; Peels (2016), Hosios: A Semantic Study of Greek Piety, 230, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240; Pillinger (2019), Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature, 204; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 237, 265, 268, 274; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 149, 153, 157, 167, 185, 187; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 465; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 21, 34, 103, 119, 171, 182, 205, 312, 335, 336; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 301, 315, 319, 395; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 256; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 168, 171, 172, 176; Stephens and Winkler (1995), Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary, 429; Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 334; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 43; Williams (2023), Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement. 159, 163, 164, 166, 167, 171; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 3, 24, 63, 128; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 20, 46, 117, 267, 356

sup>
1 ἥκω Διὸς παῖς τήνδε Θηβαίων χθόνα'2 Διόνυσος, ὃν τίκτει ποθʼ ἡ Κάδμου κόρη 3 Σεμέλη λοχευθεῖσʼ ἀστραπηφόρῳ πυρί· 4 μορφὴν δʼ ἀμείψας ἐκ θεοῦ βροτησίαν 5 πάρειμι Δίρκης νάματʼ Ἰσμηνοῦ θʼ ὕδωρ. 6 ὁρῶ δὲ μητρὸς μνῆμα τῆς κεραυνίας 7 τόδʼ ἐγγὺς οἴκων καὶ δόμων ἐρείπια 8 τυφόμενα Δίου πυρὸς ἔτι ζῶσαν φλόγα, 9 ἀθάνατον Ἥρας μητέρʼ εἰς ἐμὴν ὕβριν.
10
αἰνῶ δὲ Κάδμον, ἄβατον ὃς πέδον τόδε
1
1
τίθησι, θυγατρὸς σηκόν· ἀμπέλου δέ νιν
12
πέριξ ἐγὼ ʼκάλυψα βοτρυώδει χλόῃ.
13

14
Φρυγῶν τε, Περσῶν θʼ ἡλιοβλήτους πλάκας
15
Βάκτριά τε τείχη τήν τε δύσχιμον χθόνα
16
Μήδων ἐπελθὼν Ἀραβίαν τʼ εὐδαίμονα
17
Ἀσίαν τε πᾶσαν, ἣ παρʼ ἁλμυρὰν ἅλα
18
κεῖται μιγάσιν Ἕλλησι βαρβάροις θʼ ὁμοῦ
19
πλήρεις ἔχουσα καλλιπυργώτους πόλεις, 20 ἐς τήνδε πρῶτον ἦλθον Ἑλλήνων πόλιν, 2
1
τἀκεῖ χορεύσας καὶ καταστήσας ἐμὰς 22 τελετάς, ἵνʼ εἴην ἐμφανὴς δαίμων βροτοῖς. 24 ἀνωλόλυξα, νεβρίδʼ ἐξάψας χροὸς 25 θύρσον τε δοὺς ἐς χεῖρα, κίσσινον βέλος· 26 ἐπεί μʼ ἀδελφαὶ μητρός, ἃς ἥκιστα χρῆν, 27 Διόνυσον οὐκ ἔφασκον ἐκφῦναι Διός, 28 Σεμέλην δὲ νυμφευθεῖσαν ἐκ θνητοῦ τινος 29 ἐς Ζῆνʼ ἀναφέρειν τὴν ἁμαρτίαν λέχους, 30 Κάδμου σοφίσμαθʼ, ὧν νιν οὕνεκα κτανεῖν 3
1
Ζῆνʼ ἐξεκαυχῶνθʼ, ὅτι γάμους ἐψεύσατο. 32 τοιγάρ νιν αὐτὰς ἐκ δόμων ᾤστρησʼ ἐγὼ 33 μανίαις, ὄρος δʼ οἰκοῦσι παράκοποι φρενῶν· 34 σκευήν τʼ ἔχειν ἠνάγκασʼ ὀργίων ἐμῶν, 35 καὶ πᾶν τὸ θῆλυ σπέρμα Καδμείων, ὅσαι 36 γυναῖκες ἦσαν, ἐξέμηνα δωμάτων· 37 ὁμοῦ δὲ Κάδμου παισὶν ἀναμεμειγμέναι 38 χλωραῖς ὑπʼ ἐλάταις ἀνορόφοις ἧνται πέτραις. 39 δεῖ γὰρ πόλιν τήνδʼ ἐκμαθεῖν, κεἰ μὴ θέλει, 40 ἀτέλεστον οὖσαν τῶν ἐμῶν βακχευμάτων, 4
1
Σεμέλης τε μητρὸς ἀπολογήσασθαί μʼ ὕπερ 42 φανέντα θνητοῖς δαίμονʼ ὃν τίκτει Διί. 45 ὃς θεομαχεῖ τὰ κατʼ ἐμὲ καὶ σπονδῶν ἄπο 46 ὠθεῖ μʼ, ἐν εὐχαῖς τʼ οὐδαμοῦ μνείαν ἔχει. 47 ὧν οὕνεκʼ αὐτῷ θεὸς γεγὼς ἐνδείξομαι 48 πᾶσίν τε Θηβαίοισιν. ἐς δʼ ἄλλην χθόνα, 50 δεικνὺς ἐμαυτόν· ἢν δὲ Θηβαίων πόλις 5
1
ὀργῇ σὺν ὅπλοις ἐξ ὄρους βάκχας ἄγειν 52 ζητῇ, ξυνάψω μαινάσι στρατηλατῶν. 53 ὧν οὕνεκʼ εἶδος θνητὸν ἀλλάξας ἔχω 54 μορφήν τʼ ἐμὴν μετέβαλον εἰς ἀνδρὸς φύσιν. 57 ἐκόμισα παρέδρους καὶ ξυνεμπόρους ἐμοί, 58 αἴρεσθε τἀπιχώριʼ ἐν πόλει Φρυγῶν 59 τύμπανα, Ῥέας τε μητρὸς ἐμά θʼ εὑρήματα, 62 ἐγὼ δὲ βάκχαις, ἐς Κιθαιρῶνος πτυχὰς 64 Ἀσίας ἀπὸ γᾶς 65 ἱερὸν Τμῶλον ἀμείψασα θοάζω 66 Βρομίῳ πόνον ἡδὺν κάματόν τʼ εὐκάματον, 67 Βάκχιον εὐαζομένα. 68 τίς ὁδῷ τίς ὁδῷ; τίς; 69 μελάθροις ἔκτοπος ἔστω, στόμα τʼ εὔφημον 70 ἅπας ἐξοσιούσθω· 7
1
τὰ νομισθέντα γὰρ αἰεὶ 72 Διόνυσον ὑμνήσω. Χορός 73 μάκαρ, ὅστις εὐδαίμων 7374 βιοτὰν ἁγιστεύει καὶ 74 τελετὰς θεῶν εἰδὼς 75 θιασεύεται ψυχὰν 76 ἐν ὄρεσσι βακχεύων 77 ὁσίοις καθαρμοῖσιν, 78 τά τε ματρὸς μεγάλας ὄργια 79 Κυβέλας θεμιτεύων, 80 ἀνὰ θύρσον τε τινάσσων, 8
1
κισσῷ τε στεφανωθεὶς 82 Διόνυσον θεραπεύει. 83 ἴτε βάκχαι, ἴτε βάκχαι, 84 Βρόμιον παῖδα θεὸν θεοῦ 85 Διόνυσον κατάγουσαι 86 Φρυγίων ἐξ ὀρέων Ἑλλάδος εἰς 87 εὐρυχόρους ἀγυιάς, τὸν Βρόμιον· Χορός 88 ὅν 88 ποτʼ ἔχουσʼ ἐν ὠδίνων 89 λοχίαις ἀνάγκαισι 90 πταμένας Διὸς βροντᾶς νηδύος 9
1 ἔκβολον μάτηρ 92 ἔτεκεν, λιποῦσʼ αἰῶνα 93 κεραυνίῳ πληγᾷ· 94 λοχίοις δʼ αὐτίκα νιν δέξατο 95 θαλάμαις Κρονίδας Ζεύς, 96 κατὰ μηρῷ δὲ καλύψας 97 χρυσέαισιν συνερείδει 98 περόναις κρυπτὸν ἀφʼ Ἥρας. 99 ἔτεκεν δʼ, ἁνίκα Μοῖραι
100
τέλεσαν, ταυρόκερων θεὸν
10
1
στεφάνωσέν τε δρακόντων
102
στεφάνοις, ἔνθεν ἄγραν θηροτρόφον
103 μαινάδες ἀμφιβάλλονται
104 πλοκάμοις. Χορός
105
ὦ Σεμέλας τροφοὶ Θῆβαι, word split in text
106 στεφανοῦσθε κισσῷ·
107
βρύετε βρύετε χλοήρει
108
μίλακι καλλικάρπῳ
109
καὶ καταβακχιοῦσθε δρυὸς
1
10
ἢ ἐλάτας κλάδοισι,
1
1
1
στικτῶν τʼ ἐνδυτὰ νεβρίδων
1
12
στέφετε λευκοτρίχων πλοκάμων
1
13
μαλλοῖς· ἀμφὶ δὲ νάρθηκας ὑβριστὰς
1
14
ὁσιοῦσθʼ· αὐτίκα γᾶ πᾶσα χορεύσει—
1
15
Βρόμιος ὅστις ἄγῃ θιάσουσ—
1
16
εἰς ὄρος εἰς ὄρος, ἔνθα μένει
1
17
θηλυγενὴς ὄχλος
1
18
ἀφʼ ἱστῶν παρὰ κερκίδων τʼ
1
19
οἰστρηθεὶς Διονύσῳ. Χορός
120
ὦ θαλάμευμα Κουρήτων word split in text
12
1 ζάθεοί τε Κρήτας
122
Διογενέτορες ἔναυλοι,
123
ἔνθα τρικόρυθες ἄντροις
124
βυρσότονον κύκλωμα τόδε
125
μοι Κορύβαντες ηὗρον·
126
βακχείᾳ δʼ ἀνὰ συντόνῳ
127
κέρασαν ἁδυβόᾳ Φρυγίων
128
αὐλῶν πνεύματι ματρός τε Ῥέας ἐς
129
χέρα θῆκαν, κτύπον εὐάσμασι Βακχᾶν·
130
παρὰ δὲ μαινόμενοι Σάτυροι
13
1
ματέρος ἐξανύσαντο θεᾶς,
132
ἐς δὲ χορεύματα
133
συνῆψαν τριετηρίδων,
134
αἷς χαίρει Διόνυσος. Χορός
135
ἡδὺς ἐν ὄρεσιν, ὅταν ἐκ θιάσων δρομαίων
136 πέσῃ πεδόσε, νεβρίδος
138 ἔχων ἱερὸν ἐνδυτόν, ἀγρεύων
139
αἷμα τραγοκτόνον, ὠμοφάγον χάριν, ἱέμενος
140 ἐς ὄρεα Φρύγια, Λύδιʼ, ὁ δʼ ἔξαρχος Βρόμιος,
14
1
εὐοἷ.
142
ῥεῖ δὲ γάλακτι πέδον, ῥεῖ δʼ οἴνῳ, ῥεῖ δὲ μελισσᾶν
143
νέκταρι.
144
Συρίας δʼ ὡς λιβάνου καπνὸν
145 ὁ Βακχεὺς ἀνέχων
145
πυρσώδη φλόγα πεύκας
146
ἐκ νάρθηκος ἀίσσει
147
δρόμῳ καὶ χοροῖσιν
148
πλανάτας ἐρεθίζων
149
ἰαχαῖς τʼ ἀναπάλλων,
150
τρυφερόν τε πλόκαμον εἰς αἰθέρα ῥίπτων.
15
1
ἅμα δʼ εὐάσμασι τοιάδʼ ἐπιβρέμει·
152
Ὦ ἴτε βάκχαι,
153
ὦ ἴτε βάκχαι,
154
Τμώλου χρυσορόου χλιδᾷ
155
μέλπετε τὸν Διόνυσον
157
βαρυβρόμων ὑπὸ τυμπάνων,
158
εὔια τὸν εὔιον ἀγαλλόμεναι θεὸν
159
ἐν Φρυγίαισι βοαῖς ἐνοπαῖσί τε,
160
λωτὸς ὅταν εὐκέλαδος
164
ἱερὸς ἱερὰ παίγματα βρέμῃ, σύνοχα
165
φοιτάσιν εἰς ὄρος εἰς ὄρος· ἡδομένα
166 δʼ ἄρα, πῶλος ὅπως ἅμα ματέρι

182
Διόνυσον ὃς πέφηνεν ἀνθρώποις θεὸς
208
ἀλλʼ ἐξ ἁπάντων βούλεται τιμὰς ἔχειν 2
15
ἔκδημος ὢν μὲν τῆσδʼ ἐτύγχανον χθονός, 2
16
κλύω δὲ νεοχμὰ τήνδʼ ἀνὰ πτόλιν κακά, 2
17
γυναῖκας ἡμῖν δώματʼ ἐκλελοιπέναι 2
18
πλασταῖσι βακχείαισιν, ἐν δὲ δασκίοις 2
19
ὄρεσι θοάζειν, τὸν νεωστὶ δαίμονα 220 Διόνυσον, ὅστις ἔστι, τιμώσας χοροῖς· 22
1
πλήρεις δὲ θιάσοις ἐν μέσοισιν ἑστάναι 222 κρατῆρας, ἄλλην δʼ ἄλλοσʼ εἰς ἐρημίαν 223 πτώσσουσαν εὐναῖς ἀρσένων ὑπηρετεῖν, 224 πρόφασιν μὲν ὡς δὴ μαινάδας θυοσκόους, 225 τὴν δʼ Ἀφροδίτην πρόσθʼ ἄγειν τοῦ Βακχίου. 227 σῴζουσι πανδήμοισι πρόσπολοι στέγαις· 228 ὅσαι δʼ ἄπεισιν, ἐξ ὄρους θηράσομαι, 229 Ἰνώ τʼ Ἀγαύην θʼ, ἥ μʼ ἔτικτʼ Ἐχίονι, 230 Ἀκταίονός τε μητέρʼ, Αὐτονόην λέγω. 23
1
καὶ σφᾶς σιδηραῖς ἁρμόσας ἐν ἄρκυσιν 232 παύσω κακούργου τῆσδε βακχείας τάχα. 234 γόης ἐπῳδὸς Λυδίας ἀπὸ χθονός, 235 ξανθοῖσι βοστρύχοισιν εὐοσμῶν κόμην, 236 οἰνῶπας ὄσσοις χάριτας Ἀφροδίτης ἔχων, 237 ὃς ἡμέρας τε κεὐφρόνας συγγίγνεται 238 τελετὰς προτείνων εὐίους νεάνισιν. 239 εἰ δʼ αὐτὸν εἴσω τῆσδε λήψομαι στέγης, 240 παύσω κτυποῦντα θύρσον ἀνασείοντά τε 24
1
κόμας, τράχηλον σώματος χωρὶς τεμών. 243 ἐκεῖνος ἐν μηρῷ ποτʼ ἐρράφθαι Διός, 244 ὃς ἐκπυροῦται λαμπάσιν κεραυνίαις 245 σὺν μητρί, Δίους ὅτι γάμους ἐψεύσατο. 246 ταῦτʼ οὐχὶ δεινῆς ἀγχόνης ἔστʼ ἄξια, 247 ὕβρεις ὑβρίζειν, ὅστις ἔστιν ὁ ξένος; 249 ἐν ποικίλαισι νεβρίσι Τειρεσίαν ὁρῶ 250 πατέρα τε μητρὸς τῆς ἐμῆσ—πολὺν γέλων— 25
1
νάρθηκι βακχεύοντʼ· ἀναίνομαι, πάτερ, 252 τὸ γῆρας ὑμῶν εἰσορῶν νοῦν οὐκ ἔχον. 253 οὐκ ἀποτινάξεις κισσόν; οὐκ ἐλευθέραν 254 θύρσου μεθήσεις χεῖρʼ, ἐμῆς μητρὸς πάτερ; 256 τὸν δαίμονʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ἐσφέρων νέον 257 σκοπεῖν πτερωτοὺς κἀμπύρων μισθοὺς φέρειν. 258 εἰ μή σε γῆρας πολιὸν ἐξερρύετο, 259 καθῆσʼ ἂν ἐν βάκχαισι δέσμιος μέσαις, 260 τελετὰς πονηρὰς εἰσάγων· γυναιξὶ γὰρ 26
1
ὅπου βότρυος ἐν δαιτὶ γίγνεται γάνος, 262 οὐχ ὑγιὲς οὐδὲν ἔτι λέγω τῶν ὀργίων. Χορός 263 τῆς δυσσεβείας. ὦ ξένʼ, οὐκ αἰδῇ θεοὺς 264 Κάδμον τε τὸν σπείραντα γηγενῆ στάχυν, 265 Ἐχίονος δʼ ὢν παῖς καταισχύνεις γένος; Τειρεσίας
268
σὺ δʼ εὔτροχον μὲν γλῶσσαν ὡς φρονῶν ἔχεις, 269 ἐν τοῖς λόγοισι δʼ οὐκ ἔνεισί σοι φρένες. 270 θράσει δὲ δυνατὸς καὶ λέγειν οἷός τʼ ἀνὴρ 27
1
κακὸς πολίτης γίγνεται νοῦν οὐκ ἔχων. 273 οὐκ ἂν δυναίμην μέγεθος ἐξειπεῖν ὅσος 274 καθʼ Ἑλλάδʼ ἔσται. δύο γάρ, ὦ νεανία, 275 τὰ πρῶτʼ ἐν ἀνθρώποισι· Δημήτηρ θεά— 276 γῆ δʼ ἐστίν, ὄνομα δʼ ὁπότερον βούλῃ κάλει· 277 αὕτη μὲν ἐν ξηροῖσιν ἐκτρέφει βροτούς· 278 ὃς δʼ ἦλθʼ ἔπειτʼ, ἀντίπαλον ὁ Σεμέλης γόνος 279 βότρυος ὑγρὸν πῶμʼ ηὗρε κεἰσηνέγκατο 280 θνητοῖς, ὃ παύει τοὺς ταλαιπώρους βροτοὺς 28
1
λύπης, ὅταν πλησθῶσιν ἀμπέλου ῥοῆς, 282 ὕπνον τε λήθην τῶν καθʼ ἡμέραν κακῶν 283 δίδωσιν, οὐδʼ ἔστʼ ἄλλο φάρμακον πόνων. 284 οὗτος θεοῖσι σπένδεται θεὸς γεγώς, 285 ὥστε διὰ τοῦτον τἀγάθʼ ἀνθρώπους ἔχειν. 287 μηρῷ; διδάξω σʼ ὡς καλῶς ἔχει τόδε. 288 ἐπεί νιν ἥρπασʼ ἐκ πυρὸς κεραυνίου 289 Ζεύς, ἐς δʼ Ὄλυμπον βρέφος ἀνήγαγεν θεόν, 290 Ἥρα νιν ἤθελʼ ἐκβαλεῖν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ· 29
1
Ζεὺς δʼ ἀντεμηχανήσαθʼ οἷα δὴ θεός. 292 ῥήξας μέρος τι τοῦ χθόνʼ ἐγκυκλουμένου 293 αἰθέρος, ἔθηκε τόνδʼ ὅμηρον ἐκδιδούς, 294 Διόνυσον Ἥρας νεικέων· χρόνῳ δέ νιν 295 βροτοὶ ῥαφῆναί φασιν ἐν μηρῷ Διός, 296 ὄνομα μεταστήσαντες, ὅτι θεᾷ θεὸς 297 Ἥρᾳ ποθʼ ὡμήρευσε, συνθέντες λόγον. 299 καὶ τὸ μανιῶδες μαντικὴν πολλὴν ἔχει· 300 ὅταν γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ἐς τὸ σῶμʼ ἔλθῃ πολύς, 30
1
λέγειν τὸ μέλλον τοὺς μεμηνότας ποιεῖ.
305
μανία δὲ καὶ τοῦτʼ ἐστὶ Διονύσου πάρα. 306 ἔτʼ αὐτὸν ὄψῃ κἀπὶ Δελφίσιν πέτραις
308
πάλλοντα καὶ σείοντα βακχεῖον κλάδον, 3
12
φρονεῖν δόκει τι· τὸν θεὸν δʼ ἐς γῆν δέχου 3
13
καὶ σπένδε καὶ βάκχευε καὶ στέφου κάρα. 3
15
γυναῖκας ἐς τὴν Κύπριν, ἀλλʼ ἐν τῇ φύσει 3
16
τὸ σωφρονεῖν ἔνεστιν εἰς τὰ πάντʼ ἀεί 3
17
τοῦτο σκοπεῖν χρή· καὶ γὰρ ἐν βακχεύμασιν 3
18
οὖσʼ ἥ γε σώφρων οὐ διαφθαρήσεται. 320 πολλοί, τὸ Πενθέως δʼ ὄνομα μεγαλύνῃ πόλις· 32
1
κἀκεῖνος, οἶμαι, τέρπεται τιμώμενος.
325
κοὐ θεομαχήσω σῶν λόγων πεισθεὶς ὕπο. 326 μαίνῃ γὰρ ὡς ἄλγιστα, κοὔτε φαρμάκοις 327 ἄκη λάβοις ἂν οὔτʼ ἄνευ τούτων νοσεῖς. Χορός 328 ὦ πρέσβυ, Φοῖβόν τʼ οὐ καταισχύνεις λόγοις, 329 τιμῶν τε Βρόμιον σωφρονεῖς, μέγαν θεόν. Κάδμος 330 ὦ παῖ, καλῶς σοι Τειρεσίας παρῄνεσεν. 33
1
οἴκει μεθʼ ἡμῶν, μὴ θύραζε τῶν νόμων. 332 νῦν γὰρ πέτῃ τε καὶ φρονῶν οὐδὲν φρονεῖς. 333 κεἰ μὴ γὰρ ἔστιν ὁ θεὸς οὗτος, ὡς σὺ φῄς, 334 παρὰ σοὶ λεγέσθω· καὶ καταψεύδου καλῶς 335 ὡς ἔστι, Σεμέλη θʼ ἵνα δοκῇ θεὸν τεκεῖν, 336 ἡμῖν τε τιμὴ παντὶ τῷ γένει προσῇ. 338 ὃν ὠμόσιτοι σκύλακες ἃς ἐθρέψατο 339 διεσπάσαντο, κρείσσονʼ ἐν κυναγίαις 340 Ἀρτέμιδος εἶναι κομπάσαντʼ, ἐν ὀργάσιν. 34
1
ὃ μὴ πάθῃς σύ· δεῦρό σου στέψω κάρα 342 κισσῷ· μεθʼ ἡμῶν τῷ θεῷ τιμὴν δίδου. Πενθεύς 343 οὐ μὴ προσοίσεις χεῖρα, βακχεύσεις δʼ ἰών, 344 μηδʼ ἐξομόρξῃ μωρίαν τὴν σὴν ἐμοί; 345 τῆς σῆς δʼ ἀνοίας τόνδε τὸν διδάσκαλον 346 δίκην μέτειμι. στειχέτω τις ὡς τάχος, 347 ἐλθὼν δὲ θάκους τοῦδʼ ἵνʼ οἰωνοσκοπεῖ 348 μοχλοῖς τριαίνου κἀνάτρεψον ἔμπαλιν, 349 ἄνω κάτω τὰ πάντα συγχέας ὁμοῦ, 350 καὶ στέμματʼ ἀνέμοις καὶ θυέλλαισιν μέθες. 35
1
μάλιστα γάρ νιν δήξομαι δράσας τάδε. 353 τὸν θηλύμορφον ξένον, ὃς ἐσφέρει νόσον 354 καινὴν γυναιξὶ καὶ λέχη λυμαίνεται. 355 κἄνπερ λάβητε, δέσμιον πορεύσατε 356 δεῦρʼ αὐτόν, ὡς ἂν λευσίμου δίκης τυχὼν 357 θάνῃ, πικρὰν βάκχευσιν ἐν Θήβαις ἰδών. Τειρεσίας 358 ὦ σχέτλιʼ, ὡς οὐκ οἶσθα ποῦ ποτʼ εἶ λόγων. 359 μέμηνας ἤδη· καὶ πρὶν ἐξέστης φρενῶν. 360 στείχωμεν ἡμεῖς, Κάδμε, κἀξαιτώμεθα 36
1
ὑπέρ τε τούτου καίπερ ὄντος ἀγρίου 362 ὑπέρ τε πόλεως τὸν θεὸν μηδὲν νέον 363 δρᾶν. ἀλλʼ ἕπου μοι κισσίνου βάκτρου μέτα, 364 πειρῶ δʼ ἀνορθοῦν σῶμʼ ἐμόν, κἀγὼ τὸ σόν· 365 γέροντε δʼ αἰσχρὸν δύο πεσεῖν· ἴτω δʼ ὅμως, 366 τῷ Βακχίῳ γὰρ τῷ Διὸς δουλευτέον. 367 Πενθεὺς δʼ ὅπως μὴ πένθος εἰσοίσει δόμοις 368 τοῖς σοῖσι, Κάδμε· μαντικῇ μὲν οὐ λέγω, 369 τοῖς πράγμασιν δέ· μῶρα γὰρ μῶρος λέγει. Χορός 370 Ὁσία πότνα θεῶν, 37
1
Ὁσία δʼ ἃ κατὰ γᾶν 372 χρυσέαν πτέρυγα φέρεις, 373 τάδε Πενθέως ἀίεις; 374 ἀίεις οὐχ ὁσίαν 375 ὕβριν ἐς τὸν Βρόμιον, τὸν 376 Σεμέλας, τὸν παρὰ καλλιστεφάνοις 377 εὐφροσύναις δαίμονα 378 πρῶτον μακάρων; ὃς τάδʼ ἔχει, 379 θιασεύειν τε χοροῖς 380 μετά τʼ αὐλοῦ γελάσαι 38
1
ἀποπαῦσαί τε μερίμνας, 382 ὁπόταν βότρυος ἔλθῃ 383 γάνος ἐν δαιτὶ θεῶν, κισσοφόροις 384 δʼ ἐν θαλίαις ἀνδράσι 385 κρατὴρ ὕπνον ἀμφιβάλλῃ Χορός 386 ἀχαλίνων στομάτων 387 ἀνόμου τʼ ἀφροσύνας 388 τὸ τέλος δυστυχία· 389 ὁ δὲ τᾶς ἡσυχίας 390 βίοτος καὶ τὸ φρονεῖν 39
1
ἀσάλευτόν τε μένει καὶ 392 συνέχει δώματα· πόρσω 393 γὰρ ὅμως αἰθέρα ναίοντες 394 ὁρῶσιν τὰ βροτῶν οὐρανίδαι. 395 τὸ σοφὸν δʼ οὐ σοφία 396 τό τε μὴ θνητὰ φρονεῖν. 397 βραχὺς αἰών· ἐπὶ τούτῳ 398 δέ τις ἂν μεγάλα διώκων 399 τὰ παρόντʼ οὐχὶ φέροι. μαινομένων 400 οἵδε τρόποι καὶ 40
1
κακοβούλων παρʼ ἔμοιγε φωτῶν. Χορός 402 ἱκοίμαν ποτὶ Κύπρον, 403 νᾶσον τᾶς Ἀφροδίτας, 404 ἵνʼ οἱ θελξίφρονες νέμονται 405 θνατοῖσιν Ἔρωτες, 406 Πάφον θʼ ἃν ἑκατόστομοι 407 βαρβάρου ποταμοῦ ῥοαὶ 408 καρπίζουσιν ἄνομβροι. 409 οὗ δʼ ἁ καλλιστευομένα 4
10
Πιερία μούσειος ἕδρα, 4
1
1
σεμνὰ κλιτὺς Ὀλύμπου, 4
12
ἐκεῖσʼ ἄγε με, Βρόμιε Βρόμιε, 4
13
πρόβακχʼ εὔιε δαῖμον. 4
14
ἐκεῖ Χάριτες, 4
15
ἐκεῖ δὲ Πόθος· ἐκεῖ δὲ βάκχαις 4
16 θέμις ὀργιάζειν. Χορός 4
17
ὁ δαίμων ὁ Διὸς παῖς 4
18
χαίρει μὲν θαλίαισιν, 4
19
φιλεῖ δʼ ὀλβοδότειραν Εἰρήναν, 420 κουροτρόφον θεάν. 42
1
ἴσαν δʼ ἔς τε τὸν ὄλβιον 422 τόν τε χείρονα δῶκʼ ἔχειν 423 οἴνου τέρψιν ἄλυπον· 424 μισεῖ δʼ ᾧ μὴ ταῦτα μέλει, 425 κατὰ φάος νύκτας τε φίλας 426 εὐαίωνα διαζῆν, 427 σοφὰν δʼ ἀπέχειν πραπίδα φρένα τε 428 περισσῶν παρὰ φωτῶν· 430 τὸ πλῆθος ὅ τι 43
1
τὸ φαυλότερον ἐνόμισε χρῆταί
435 ἐφʼ ἣν ἔπεμψας, οὐδʼ ἄκρανθʼ ὡρμήσαμεν. 436 ὁ θὴρ δʼ ὅδʼ ἡμῖν πρᾶος οὐδʼ ὑπέσπασεν 437 φυγῇ πόδʼ, ἀλλʼ ἔδωκεν οὐκ ἄκων χέρας 438 οὐδʼ ὠχρός, οὐδʼ ἤλλαξεν οἰνωπὸν γένυν, 439 γελῶν δὲ καὶ δεῖν κἀπάγειν ἐφίετο 440 ἔμενέ τε, τοὐμὸν εὐτρεπὲς ποιούμενος. 44
1
κἀγὼ διʼ αἰδοῦς εἶπον· Ὦ ξένʼ, οὐχ ἑκὼν 442 ἄγω σε, Πενθέως δʼ ὅς μʼ ἔπεμψʼ ἐπιστολαῖς. 444 κἄδησας ἐν δεσμοῖσι πανδήμου στέγης, 445 φροῦδαί γʼ ἐκεῖναι λελυμέναι πρὸς ὀργάδας 446 σκιρτῶσι Βρόμιον ἀνακαλούμεναι θεόν· 447 αὐτόματα δʼ αὐταῖς δεσμὰ διελύθη ποδῶν 448 κλῇδές τʼ ἀνῆκαν θύρετρʼ ἄνευ θνητῆς χερός. 449 πολλῶν δʼ ὅδʼ ἁνὴρ θαυμάτων ἥκει πλέως 450 ἐς τάσδε Θήβας. σοὶ δὲ τἄλλα χρὴ μέλειν. Πενθεύς 45
1
μέθεσθε χειρῶν τοῦδʼ· ἐν ἄρκυσιν γὰρ ὢν 452 οὐκ ἔστιν οὕτως ὠκὺς ὥστε μʼ ἐκφυγεῖν. 454 ὡς ἐς γυναῖκας, ἐφʼ ὅπερ ἐς Θήβας πάρει· 455 πλόκαμός τε γάρ σου ταναός, οὐ πάλης ὕπο, 456 γένυν παρʼ αὐτὴν κεχυμένος, πόθου πλέως· 457 λευκὴν δὲ χροιὰν ἐκ παρασκευῆς ἔχεις, 458 οὐχ ἡλίου βολαῖσιν, ἀλλʼ ὑπὸ σκιᾶς, 459 τὴν Ἀφροδίτην καλλονῇ θηρώμενος. 460 πρῶτον μὲν οὖν μοι λέξον ὅστις εἶ γένος. Διόνυσος 46
1
οὐ κόμπος οὐδείς· ῥᾴδιον δʼ εἰπεῖν τόδε. 462 τὸν ἀνθεμώδη Τμῶλον οἶσθά που κλύων. Πενθεύς 463 οἶδʼ, ὃς τὸ Σάρδεων ἄστυ περιβάλλει κύκλῳ. Διόνυσος 464 ἐντεῦθέν εἰμι, Λυδία δέ μοι πατρίς. Πενθεύς 465 πόθεν δὲ τελετὰς τάσδʼ ἄγεις ἐς Ἑλλάδα; Διόνυσος 466 Διόνυσος ἡμᾶς εἰσέβησʼ, ὁ τοῦ Διός. Πενθεύς 467 Ζεὺς δʼ ἔστʼ ἐκεῖ τις, ὃς νέους τίκτει θεούς; Διόνυσος 468 οὔκ, ἀλλʼ ὁ Σεμέλην ἐνθάδε ζεύξας γάμοις. Πενθεύς 469 πότερα δὲ νύκτωρ σʼ ἢ κατʼ ὄμμʼ ἠνάγκασεν; Διόνυσος 470 ὁρῶν ὁρῶντα, καὶ δίδωσιν ὄργια. Πενθεύς 47
1
τὰ δʼ ὄργιʼ ἐστὶ τίνʼ ἰδέαν ἔχοντά σοι; Διόνυσος 472 ἄρρητʼ ἀβακχεύτοισιν εἰδέναι βροτῶν. Πενθεύς 473 ἔχει δʼ ὄνησιν τοῖσι θύουσιν τίνα; Διόνυσος 474 οὐ θέμις ἀκοῦσαί σʼ, ἔστι δʼ ἄξιʼ εἰδέναι. Πενθεύς 475 εὖ τοῦτʼ ἐκιβδήλευσας, ἵνʼ ἀκοῦσαι θέλω. Διόνυσος
482
πᾶς ἀναχορεύει βαρβάρων τάδʼ ὄργια. Πενθεύς 49
1
ὡς θρασὺς ὁ βάκχος κοὐκ ἀγύμναστος λόγων. Διόνυσος
498
λύσει μʼ ὁ δαίμων αὐτός, ὅταν ἐγὼ θέλω. Πενθεύς
502
παρʼ ἐμοί· σὺ δʼ ἀσεβὴς αὐτὸς ὢν οὐκ εἰσορᾷς. Πενθεύς
506
οὐκ οἶσθʼ ὅ τι ζῇς, οὐδʼ ὃ δρᾷς, οὐδʼ ὅστις εἶ. Πενθεύς
520
πότνιʼ εὐπάρθενε Δίρκα, 52
1
σὺ γὰρ ἐν σαῖς ποτε παγαῖς 522 τὸ Διὸς βρέφος ἔλαβες, 523 ὅτε μηρῷ πυρὸς ἐξ ἀθανάτου word split in text 524 Ζεὺς ὁ τεκὼν ἥρπασέ word split in text 525 νιν, τάδʼ ἀναβοάσας· 526 Ἴθι, Διθύραμβʼ, ἐμὰν ἄρσενα word split in text 527 τάνδε βᾶθι νηδύν· 528 ἀναφαίνω σε τόδʼ, ὦ Βάκχιε, word split in text 529 Θήβαις ὀνομάζειν. 530 σὺ δέ μʼ, ὦ μάκαιρα Δίρκα,
536
ἔτι σοι τοῦ Βρομίου μελήσει. Χορός
553
μόλε, χρυσῶπα τινάσσων, 554 ἄνα, θύρσον κατʼ Ὄλυμπον, 555 φονίου δʼ ἀνδρὸς ὕβριν κατάσχες. Χορός
565
μάκαρ ὦ Πιερία, 566 σέβεταί σʼ Εὔιος, ἥξει 567 τε χορεύσων ἅμα βακχεύμασι, word split in text 568 τόν τʼ ὠκυρόαν 569 διαβὰς Ἀξιὸν εἱλισσομένας word split in text 570 Μαινάδας ἄξει, 57
1
Λυδίαν πατέρα τε, τὸν 572 τᾶς εὐδαιμονίας βροτοῖς 573 ὀλβοδόταν, τὸν ἔκλυον 574 εὔιππον χώραν ὕδασιν 575 καλλίστοισι λιπαίνειν. Διόνυσος 576 ἰώ, 576 κλύετʼ ἐμᾶς κλύετʼ αὐδᾶς, 577 ἰὼ βάκχαι, ἰὼ βάκχαι. Χορός 578 τίς ὅδε, τίς ὅδε πόθεν ὁ κέλαδος 579 ἀνά μʼ ἐκάλεσεν Εὐίου; Διόνυσος 580 ἰὼ ἰώ, πάλιν αὐδῶ, 58
1
ὁ Σεμέλας, ὁ Διὸς παῖς. Χορός 582 ἰὼ ἰὼ δέσποτα δέσποτα, 583 μόλε νυν ἡμέτερον ἐς 584 θίασον, ὦ Βρόμιε Βρόμιε. Διόνυσος 585 σεῖε πέδον χθονὸς Ἔννοσι πότνια. Χορός 586 ἆ ἆ, 587 τάχα τὰ Πενθέως μέλαθρα διατινάξεται word split in text 588 πεσήμασιν. 589 — ὁ Διόνυσος ἀνὰ μέλαθρα· 590 σέβετέ νιν. — σέβομεν ὤ. 59
1
— εἴδετε λάινα κίοσιν ἔμβολα 592 διάδρομα τάδε; Βρόμιος ὅδʼ ἀλαλάζεται word split in text 593 λάζεται στέγας ἔσω. Διόνυσος 594 ἅπτε κεραύνιον αἴθοπα λαμπάδα· 595 σύμφλεγε σύμφλεγε δώματα Πενθέος. Χορός 596 ἆ ἆ, 596 πῦρ οὐ λεύσσεις, οὐδʼ αὐγάζῃ, 597 Σεμέλας ἱερὸν ἀμφὶ τάφον, ἅν 598 ποτε κεραυνόβολος ἔλιπε φλόγα 599 Δίου βροντᾶς; 600 δίκετε πεδόσε τρομερὰ σώματα 60
1
δίκετε, Μαινάδες· ὁ γὰρ ἄναξ 602 ἄνω κάτω τιθεὶς ἔπεισι 603 μέλαθρα τάδε Διὸς γόνος. Διόνυσος 604 βάρβαροι γυναῖκες, οὕτως ἐκπεπληγμέναι φόβῳ 605 πρὸς πέδῳ πεπτώκατʼ; ᾔσθησθʼ, ὡς ἔοικε, Βακχίου 606 διατινάξαντος δῶμα Πενθέως· ἀλλʼ ἐξανίστατε 607 σῶμα καὶ θαρσεῖτε σαρκὸς ἐξαμείψασαι τρόμον. Χορός 608 ὦ φάος μέγιστον ἡμῖν εὐίου βακχεύματος, 609 ὡς ἐσεῖδον ἀσμένη σε, μονάδʼ ἔχουσʼ ἐρημίαν. Διόνυσος 6
10
εἰς ἀθυμίαν ἀφίκεσθʼ, ἡνίκʼ εἰσεπεμπόμην, 6
1
1
Πενθέως ὡς ἐς σκοτεινὰς ὁρκάνας πεσούμενος; Χορός 6
12
πῶς γὰρ οὔ; τίς μοι φύλαξ ἦν, εἰ σὺ συμφορᾶς τύχοις; 6
13
ἀλλὰ πῶς ἠλευθερώθης ἀνδρὸς ἀνοσίου τυχών; Διόνυσος 6
14
αὐτὸς ἐξέσῳσʼ ἐμαυτὸν ῥᾳδίως ἄνευ πόνου. Χορός 6
15
οὐδέ σου συνῆψε χεῖρε δεσμίοισιν ἐν βρόχοις; Διόνυσος 6
16
ταῦτα καὶ καθύβρισʼ αὐτόν, ὅτι με δεσμεύειν δοκῶν 6
17
οὔτʼ ἔθιγεν οὔθʼ ἥψαθʼ ἡμῶν, ἐλπίσιν δʼ ἐβόσκετο. 6
18
πρὸς φάτναις δὲ ταῦρον εὑρών, οὗ καθεῖρξʼ ἡμᾶς ἄγων, 6
19
τῷδε περὶ βρόχους ἔβαλλε γόνασι καὶ χηλαῖς ποδῶν, 620 θυμὸν ἐκπνέων, ἱδρῶτα σώματος στάζων ἄπο, 62
1
χείλεσιν διδοὺς ὀδόντας· πλησίον δʼ ἐγὼ παρὼν 622 ἥσυχος θάσσων ἔλευσσον. ἐν δὲ τῷδε τῷ χρόνῳ 623 ἀνετίναξʼ ἐλθὼν ὁ Βάκχος δῶμα καὶ μητρὸς τάφῳ 624 πῦρ ἀνῆψʼ· ὃ δʼ ὡς ἐσεῖδε, δώματʼ αἴθεσθαι δοκῶν, 625 ᾖσσʼ ἐκεῖσε κᾆτʼ ἐκεῖσε, δμωσὶν Ἀχελῷον φέρειν 626 ἐννέπων, ἅπας δʼ ἐν ἔργῳ δοῦλος ἦν, μάτην πονῶν. 627 διαμεθεὶς δὲ τόνδε μόχθον, ὡς ἐμοῦ πεφευγότος, 628 ἵεται ξίφος κελαινὸν ἁρπάσας δόμων ἔσω. 629 κᾆθʼ ὁ Βρόμιος, ὡς ἔμοιγε φαίνεται, δόξαν λέγω, 630 φάσμʼ ἐποίησεν κατʼ αὐλήν· ὃ δʼ ἐπὶ τοῦθʼ ὡρμημένος 63
1
ᾖσσε κἀκέντει φαεννὸν αἰθέρʼ, ὡς σφάζων ἐμέ. 632 πρὸς δὲ τοῖσδʼ αὐτῷ τάδʼ ἄλλα Βάκχιος λυμαίνεται· 633 δώματʼ ἔρρηξεν χαμᾶζε· συντεθράνωται δʼ ἅπαν 634 πικροτάτους ἰδόντι δεσμοὺς τοὺς ἐμούς· κόπου δʼ ὕπο 635 διαμεθεὶς ξίφος παρεῖται· πρὸς θεὸν γὰρ ὢν ἀνὴρ 636 ἐς μάχην ἐλθεῖν ἐτόλμησε. ἥσυχος δʼ ἐκβὰς ἐγὼ 637 δωμάτων ἥκω πρὸς ὑμᾶς, Πενθέως οὐ φροντίσας. 639 ἐς προνώπιʼ αὐτίχʼ ἥξει. τί ποτʼ ἄρʼ ἐκ τούτων ἐρεῖ; 640 ῥᾳδίως γὰρ αὐτὸν οἴσω, κἂν πνέων ἔλθῃ μέγα. 64
1
πρὸς σοφοῦ γὰρ ἀνδρὸς ἀσκεῖν σώφρονʼ εὐοργησίαν. Πενθεύς 642 πέπονθα δεινά· διαπέφευγέ μʼ ὁ ξένος, 643 ὃς ἄρτι δεσμοῖς ἦν κατηναγκασμένος. 644 ἔα ἔα· 645 ὅδʼ ἐστὶν ἁνήρ· τί τάδε; πῶς προνώπιος 646 φαίνῃ πρὸς οἴκοις τοῖς ἐμοῖς, ἔξω βεβώς; Διόνυσος 647 στῆσον πόδʼ, ὀργῇ δʼ ὑπόθες ἥσυχον πόδα. Πενθεύς
652
ὠνείδισας δὴ τοῦτο Διονύσῳ καλόν. Πενθεύς
664
βάκχας ποτνιάδας εἰσιδών, αἳ τῆσδε γῆς 665 οἴστροισι λευκὸν κῶλον ἐξηκόντισαν,
667
ὡς δεινὰ δρῶσι θαυμάτων τε κρείσσονα.
677
ἀγελαῖα μὲν βοσκήματʼ ἄρτι πρὸς λέπας 678 μόσχων ὑπεξήκριζον, ἡνίχʼ ἥλιος 679 ἀκτῖνας ἐξίησι θερμαίνων χθόνα. 680 ὁρῶ δὲ θιάσους τρεῖς γυναικείων χορῶν, 68
1
ὧν ἦρχʼ ἑνὸς μὲν Αὐτονόη, τοῦ δευτέρου 682 μήτηρ Ἀγαύη σή, τρίτου δʼ Ἰνὼ χοροῦ. 683 ηὗδον δὲ πᾶσαι σώμασιν παρειμέναι, 684 αἳ μὲν πρὸς ἐλάτης νῶτʼ ἐρείσασαι φόβην, 685 αἳ δʼ ἐν δρυὸς φύλλοισι πρὸς πέδῳ κάρα 686 εἰκῇ βαλοῦσαι σωφρόνως, οὐχ ὡς σὺ φῂς 687 ᾠνωμένας κρατῆρι καὶ λωτοῦ ψόφῳ 688 θηρᾶν καθʼ ὕλην Κύπριν ἠρημωμένας. 690 σταθεῖσα βάκχαις, ἐξ ὕπνου κινεῖν δέμας, 69
1
μυκήμαθʼ ὡς ἤκουσε κεροφόρων βοῶν. 692 αἳ δʼ ἀποβαλοῦσαι θαλερὸν ὀμμάτων ὕπνον 693 ἀνῇξαν ὀρθαί, θαῦμʼ ἰδεῖν εὐκοσμίας, 694 νέαι παλαιαὶ παρθένοι τʼ ἔτʼ ἄζυγες. 695 καὶ πρῶτα μὲν καθεῖσαν εἰς ὤμους κόμας 696 νεβρίδας τʼ ἀνεστείλανθʼ ὅσαισιν ἁμμάτων 697 σύνδεσμʼ ἐλέλυτο, καὶ καταστίκτους δορὰς 698 ὄφεσι κατεζώσαντο λιχμῶσιν γένυν. 699 αἳ δʼ ἀγκάλαισι δορκάδʼ ἢ σκύμνους λύκων 700 ἀγρίους ἔχουσαι λευκὸν ἐδίδοσαν γάλα, 70
1
ὅσαις νεοτόκοις μαστὸς ἦν σπαργῶν ἔτι 702 βρέφη λιπούσαις· ἐπὶ δʼ ἔθεντο κισσίνους 703 στεφάνους δρυός τε μίλακός τʼ ἀνθεσφόρου. 704 θύρσον δέ τις λαβοῦσʼ ἔπαισεν ἐς πέτραν, 705 ὅθεν δροσώδης ὕδατος ἐκπηδᾷ νοτίς· 706 ἄλλη δὲ νάρθηκʼ ἐς πέδον καθῆκε γῆς, 707 καὶ τῇδε κρήνην ἐξανῆκʼ οἴνου θεός· 708 ὅσαις δὲ λευκοῦ πώματος πόθος παρῆν, 709 ἄκροισι δακτύλοισι διαμῶσαι χθόνα 7
10
γάλακτος ἑσμοὺς εἶχον· ἐκ δὲ κισσίνων 7
1
1
θύρσων γλυκεῖαι μέλιτος ἔσταζον ῥοαί. 7
12
ὥστʼ, εἰ παρῆσθα, τὸν θεὸν τὸν νῦν ψέγεις 7
13
εὐχαῖσιν ἂν μετῆλθες εἰσιδὼν τάδε. 7
15
κοινῶν λόγων δώσοντες ἀλλήλοις ἔριν 7
16
ὡς δεινὰ δρῶσι θαυμάτων τʼ ἐπάξια· 7
17
καί τις πλάνης κατʼ ἄστυ καὶ τρίβων λόγων 7
18
ἔλεξεν εἰς ἅπαντας· Ὦ σεμνὰς πλάκας 7
19
ναίοντες ὀρέων, θέλετε θηρασώμεθα 720 Πενθέως Ἀγαύην μητέρʼ ἐκ βακχευμάτων 72
1
χάριν τʼ ἄνακτι θώμεθα; εὖ δʼ ἡμῖν λέγειν 722 ἔδοξε, θάμνων δʼ ἐλλοχίζομεν φόβαις 723 κρύψαντες αὑτούς· αἳ δὲ τὴν τεταγμένην 724 ὥραν ἐκίνουν θύρσον ἐς βακχεύματα, 725 Ἴακχον ἀθρόῳ στόματι τὸν Διὸς γόνον 726 Βρόμιον καλοῦσαι· πᾶν δὲ συνεβάκχευʼ ὄρος 727 καὶ θῆρες, οὐδὲν δʼ ἦν ἀκίνητον δρόμῳ. 729 κἀγὼ ʼξεπήδησʼ ὡς συναρπάσαι θέλων, 730 λόχμην κενώσας ἔνθʼ ἐκρυπτόμην δέμας. 73
1
ἣ δʼ ἀνεβόησεν· Ὦ δρομάδες ἐμαὶ κύνες, 732 θηρώμεθʼ ἀνδρῶν τῶνδʼ ὕπʼ· ἀλλʼ ἕπεσθέ μοι, 733 ἕπεσθε θύρσοις διὰ χερῶν ὡπλισμέναι. 735 βακχῶν σπαραγμόν, αἳ δὲ νεμομέναις χλόην 736 μόσχοις ἐπῆλθον χειρὸς ἀσιδήρου μέτα. 737 καὶ τὴν μὲν ἂν προσεῖδες εὔθηλον πόριν 738 μυκωμένην ἔχουσαν ἐν χεροῖν δίχα, 739 ἄλλαι δὲ δαμάλας διεφόρουν σπαράγμασιν. 740 εἶδες δʼ ἂν ἢ πλεύρʼ ἢ δίχηλον ἔμβασιν 74
1
ῥιπτόμενʼ ἄνω τε καὶ κάτω· κρεμαστὰ δὲ 742 ἔσταζʼ ὑπʼ ἐλάταις ἀναπεφυρμένʼ αἵματι. 743 ταῦροι δʼ ὑβρισταὶ κἀς κέρας θυμούμενοι 744 τὸ πρόσθεν ἐσφάλλοντο πρὸς γαῖαν δέμας, 745 μυριάσι χειρῶν ἀγόμενοι νεανίδων. 746 θᾶσσον δὲ διεφοροῦντο σαρκὸς ἐνδυτὰ 747 ἢ σὲ ξυνάψαι βλέφαρα βασιλείοις κόραις. 748 χωροῦσι δʼ ὥστʼ ὄρνιθες ἀρθεῖσαι δρόμῳ 749 πεδίων ὑποτάσεις, αἳ παρʼ Ἀσωποῦ ῥοαῖς 750 εὔκαρπον ἐκβάλλουσι Θηβαίων στάχυν· 75
1
Ὑσιάς τʼ Ἐρυθράς θʼ, αἳ Κιθαιρῶνος λέπας 752 νέρθεν κατῳκήκασιν, ὥστε πολέμιοι, 753 ἐπεσπεσοῦσαι πάντʼ ἄνω τε καὶ κάτω 754 διέφερον· ἥρπαζον μὲν ἐκ δόμων τέκνα· 755 ὁπόσα δʼ ἐπʼ ὤμοις ἔθεσαν, οὐ δεσμῶν ὕπο 756 προσείχετʼ οὐδʼ ἔπιπτεν ἐς μέλαν πέδον, 757 οὐ χαλκός, οὐ σίδηρος· ἐπὶ δὲ βοστρύχοις 758 πῦρ ἔφερον, οὐδʼ ἔκαιεν. οἳ δʼ ὀργῆς ὕπο 759 ἐς ὅπλʼ ἐχώρουν φερόμενοι βακχῶν ὕπο· 760 οὗπερ τὸ δεινὸν ἦν θέαμʼ ἰδεῖν, ἄναξ. 76
1
τοῖς μὲν γὰρ οὐχ ᾕμασσε λογχωτὸν βέλος, 762 κεῖναι δὲ θύρσους ἐξανιεῖσαι χερῶν 763 ἐτραυμάτιζον κἀπενώτιζον φυγῇ 764 γυναῖκες ἄνδρας, οὐκ ἄνευ θεῶν τινος. 765 πάλιν δʼ ἐχώρουν ὅθεν ἐκίνησαν πόδα, 766 κρήνας ἐπʼ αὐτὰς ἃς ἀνῆκʼ αὐταῖς θεός. 767 νίψαντο δʼ αἷμα, σταγόνα δʼ ἐκ παρηίδων 768 γλώσσῃ δράκοντες ἐξεφαίδρυνον χροός. 770 δέχου πόλει τῇδʼ· ὡς τά τʼ ἄλλʼ ἐστὶν μέγας, 77
1
κἀκεῖνό φασιν αὐτόν, ὡς ἐγὼ κλύω, 772 τὴν παυσίλυπον ἄμπελον δοῦναι βροτοῖς. 773 οἴνου δὲ μηκέτʼ ὄντος οὐκ ἔστιν Κύπρις 774 οὐδʼ ἄλλο τερπνὸν οὐδὲν ἀνθρώποις ἔτι. Χορός
777
Διόνυσος ἥσσων οὐδενὸς θεῶν ἔφυ. Πενθεύς
795
πρὸς κέντρα λακτίζοιμι θνητὸς ὢν θεῷ. Πενθεύς 8
10
ἆ. 82
1
στεῖλαί νυν ἀμφὶ χρωτὶ βυσσίνους πέπλους. Πενθεύς
825
Διόνυσος ἡμᾶς ἐξεμούσωσεν τάδε. Πενθεύς
827
ἐγὼ στελῶ σε δωμάτων ἔσω μολών. Πενθεύς 828 τίνα στολήν; ἦ θῆλυν; ἀλλʼ αἰδώς μʼ ἔχει. Διόνυσος 829 οὐκέτι θεατὴς μαινάδων πρόθυμος εἶ. Πενθεύς 830 στολὴν δὲ τίνα φῂς ἀμφὶ χρῶτʼ ἐμὸν βαλεῖν; Διόνυσος 83
1
κόμην μὲν ἐπὶ σῷ κρατὶ ταναὸν ἐκτενῶ. Πενθεύς 832 τὸ δεύτερον δὲ σχῆμα τοῦ κόσμου τί μοι; Διόνυσος 833 πέπλοι ποδήρεις· ἐπὶ κάρᾳ δʼ ἔσται μίτρα. Πενθεύς 834 ἦ καί τι πρὸς τοῖσδʼ ἄλλο προσθήσεις ἐμοί; Διόνυσος 835 θύρσον γε χειρὶ καὶ νεβροῦ στικτὸν δέρας. Πενθεύς 836 οὐκ ἂν δυναίμην θῆλυν ἐνδῦναι στολήν. Διόνυσος 837 ἀλλʼ αἷμα θήσεις συμβαλὼν βάκχαις μάχην. Πενθεύς 838 ὀρθῶς· μολεῖν χρὴ πρῶτον εἰς κατασκοπήν. Διόνυσος
842
πᾶν κρεῖσσον ὥστε μὴ ʼγγελᾶν βάκχας ἐμοί. 843 ἐλθόντʼ ἐς οἴκους Διόνυσος 844 ἔξεστι· πάντῃ τό γʼ ἐμὸν εὐτρεπὲς πάρα. Πενθεύς 845 στείχοιμʼ ἄν· ἢ γὰρ ὅπλʼ ἔχων πορεύσομαι
859
Πενθεῖ προσάψων· γνώσεται δὲ τὸν Διὸς 860 Διόνυσον, ὃς πέφυκεν ἐν τέλει θεός, 86
1
δεινότατος, ἀνθρώποισι δʼ ἠπιώτατος. Χορός 9
18
καὶ μὴν ὁρᾶν μοι δύο μὲν ἡλίους δοκῶ, 9
19
δισσὰς δὲ Θήβας καὶ πόλισμʼ ἑπτάστομον· 920 καὶ ταῦρος ἡμῖν πρόσθεν ἡγεῖσθαι δοκεῖς 92
1
καὶ σῷ κέρατα κρατὶ προσπεφυκέναι. 922 ἀλλʼ ἦ ποτʼ ἦσθα θήρ; τεταύρωσαι γὰρ οὖν. Διόνυσος 923 ὁ θεὸς ὁμαρτεῖ, πρόσθεν ὢν οὐκ εὐμενής, 924 ἔνσπονδος ἡμῖν· νῦν δʼ ὁρᾷς ἃ χρή σʼ ὁρᾶν. Πενθεύς 925 τί φαίνομαι δῆτʼ; οὐχὶ τὴν Ἰνοῦς στάσιν 926 ἢ τὴν Ἀγαύης ἑστάναι, μητρός γʼ ἐμῆς; Διόνυσος 927 αὐτὰς ἐκείνας εἰσορᾶν δοκῶ σʼ ὁρῶν. 928 ἀλλʼ ἐξ ἕδρας σοι πλόκαμος ἐξέστηχʼ ὅδε, 929 οὐχ ὡς ἐγώ νιν ὑπὸ μίτρᾳ καθήρμοσα. Πενθεύς 930 ἔνδον προσείων αὐτὸν ἀνασείων τʼ ἐγὼ 93
1
καὶ βακχιάζων ἐξ ἕδρας μεθώρμισα. Διόνυσος 932 ἀλλʼ αὐτὸν ἡμεῖς, οἷς σε θεραπεύειν μέλει, 933 πάλιν καταστελοῦμεν· ἀλλʼ ὄρθου κάρα. Πενθεύς 934 ἰδού, σὺ κόσμει· σοὶ γὰρ ἀνακείμεσθα δή. Διόνυσος 935 ζῶναί τέ σοι χαλῶσι κοὐχ ἑξῆς πέπλων 936 στολίδες ὑπὸ σφυροῖσι τείνουσιν σέθεν. Πενθεύς 937 κἀμοὶ δοκοῦσι παρά γε δεξιὸν πόδα· 938 τἀνθένδε δʼ ὀρθῶς παρὰ τένοντʼ ἔχει πέπλος. Διόνυσος 939 ἦ πού με τῶν σῶν πρῶτον ἡγήσῃ φίλων, 940 ὅταν παρὰ λόγον σώφρονας βάκχας ἴδῃς. Πενθεύς 94
1
πότερα δὲ θύρσον δεξιᾷ λαβὼν χερὶ 942 ἢ τῇδε, βάκχῃ μᾶλλον εἰκασθήσομαι; Διόνυσος 943 ἐν δεξιᾷ χρὴ χἅμα δεξιῷ ποδὶ 944 αἴρειν νιν· αἰνῶ δʼ ὅτι μεθέστηκας φρενῶν. Πενθεύς 945 ἆρʼ ἂν δυναίμην τὰς Κιθαιρῶνος πτυχὰς 946 αὐταῖσι βάκχαις τοῖς ἐμοῖς ὤμοις φέρειν; Διόνυσος 947 δύναιʼ ἄν, εἰ βούλοιο· τὰς δὲ πρὶν φρένας 948 οὐκ εἶχες ὑγιεῖς, νῦν δʼ ἔχεις οἵας σε δεῖ. Πενθεύς
956
ἐλθόντα δόλιον μαινάδων κατάσκοπον. Πενθεύς
969
Διόνυσος
969
Πενθεύς
976
καὶ Βρόμιος ἔσται. τἄλλα δʼ αὐτὸ σημανεῖ. Χορός
978
θίασον ἔνθʼ ἔχουσι Κάδμου κόραι,
986
μαστὴρ Καδμείων ἐς ὄρος ἐς ὄρος ἔμολʼ 987 ἔμολεν, ὦ βάκχαι; τίς ἄρα νιν ἔτεκεν; 996 γόνον γηγενῆ. Χορός 997 ὃς ἀδίκῳ γνώμᾳ παρανόμῳ τʼ ὀργᾷ 998 περὶ σὰ Βάκχιʼ, ὄργια ματρός τε σᾶς

1006
χαίρω θηρεύουσα· τὰ δʼ ἕτερα μεγάλα
1007
φανερά τʼ· ὤ, νάει ν ἐπὶ τὰ καλὰ βίον,
1008
ἦμαρ ἐς νύκτα τʼ εὐαγοῦντʼ word split in text
1009 εὐσεβεῖν, τὰ δʼ ἔξω νόμιμα
10
10
δίκας ἐκβαλόντα τιμᾶν θεούς.
10
13
ἴτω δίκα φανερός, ἴτω ξιφηφόρος
10
15
τὸν ἄθεον ἄνομον ἄδικον Ἐχίονος
10
16
τόκον γηγενῆ. Χορός' 10
18
φάνηθι ταῦρος ἢ πολύκρανος ἰδεῖν
10
19
δράκων ἢ πυριφλέγων ὁρᾶσθαι λέων.
1020
ἴθʼ, ὦ Βάκχε, θηραγρευτᾷ βακχᾶν
102
1
γελῶντι προσώπῳ περίβαλε βρόχον
1022
θανάσιμον ὑπʼ ἀγέλαν πεσόντι word split in text
1023 τὰν μαινάδων. Ἄγγελος Β

1025
Σιδωνίου γέροντος, ὃς τὸ γηγενὲς
1026
δράκοντος ἔσπειρʼ Ὄφεος ἐν γαίᾳ θέρος,

1029
τί δʼ ἔστιν; ἐκ βακχῶν τι μηνύεις νέον; Ἄγγελος
1030
Πενθεὺς ὄλωλεν, παῖς Ἐχίονος πατρός. Χορός
103
1
ὦναξ Βρόμιε, θεὸς φαίνῃ μέγας. Ἄγγελος

1037
ὁ Διόνυσος ὁ Διόνυσος, οὐ Θῆβαι

1043
ἐπεὶ θεράπνας τῆσδε Θηβαίας χθονὸς
1044
λιπόντες ἐξέβημεν Ἀσωποῦ ῥοάς,
1045
λέπας Κιθαιρώνειον εἰσεβάλλομεν
1046
Πενθεύς τε κἀγώ—δεσπότῃ γὰρ εἱπόμην—
1047
ξένος θʼ ὃς ἡμῖν πομπὸς ἦν θεωρίας.
1048

1049
τά τʼ ἐκ ποδῶν σιγηλὰ καὶ γλώσσης ἄπο
1050
σῴζοντες, ὡς ὁρῷμεν οὐχ ὁρώμενοι.
105
1
ἦν δʼ ἄγκος ἀμφίκρημνον, ὕδασι διάβροχον,
1052
πεύκαισι συσκιάζον, ἔνθα μαινάδες
1053
καθῆντʼ ἔχουσαι χεῖρας ἐν τερπνοῖς πόνοις.
1054
αἳ μὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν θύρσον ἐκλελοιπότα
1055
κισσῷ κομήτην αὖθις ἐξανέστεφον,
1056
αἳ δʼ, ἐκλιποῦσαι ποικίλʼ ὡς πῶλοι ζυγά,
1057
βακχεῖον ἀντέκλαζον ἀλλήλαις μέλος.
1058
Πενθεὺς δʼ ὁ τλήμων θῆλυν οὐχ ὁρῶν ὄχλον
1059
ἔλεξε τοιάδʼ· Ὦ ξένʼ, οὗ μὲν ἕσταμεν,
1060
οὐκ ἐξικνοῦμαι μαινάδων ὄσσοις νόθων·
106
1
ὄχθων δʼ ἔπʼ, ἀμβὰς ἐς ἐλάτην ὑψαύχενα,
1062
ἴδοιμʼ ἂν ὀρθῶς μαινάδων αἰσχρουργίαν.
1064
λαβὼν γὰρ ἐλάτης οὐράνιον ἄκρον κλάδον
1065
κατῆγεν, ἦγεν, ἦγεν ἐς μέλαν πέδον·
1066
κυκλοῦτο δʼ ὥστε τόξον ἢ κυρτὸς τροχὸς
1067
τόρνῳ γραφόμενος περιφορὰν ἕλκει δρόμον·
1068
ὣς κλῶνʼ ὄρειον ὁ ξένος χεροῖν ἄγων
1069
ἔκαμπτεν ἐς γῆν, ἔργματʼ οὐχὶ θνητὰ δρῶν.
1070
Πενθέα δʼ ἱδρύσας ἐλατίνων ὄζων ἔπι,
107
1
ὀρθὸν μεθίει διὰ χερῶν βλάστημʼ ἄνω
1072
ἀτρέμα, φυλάσσων μὴ ἀναχαιτίσειέ νιν,
1073
ὀρθὴ δʼ ἐς ὀρθὸν αἰθέρʼ ἐστηρίζετο,
1074
ἔχουσα νώτοις δεσπότην ἐφήμενον·
1075
ὤφθη δὲ μᾶλλον ἢ κατεῖδε μαινάδας.
1076
ὅσον γὰρ οὔπω δῆλος ἦν θάσσων ἄνω,
1077
καὶ τὸν ξένον μὲν οὐκέτʼ εἰσορᾶν παρῆν,
1078
ἐκ δʼ αἰθέρος φωνή τις, ὡς μὲν εἰκάσαι
1079
Διόνυσος, ἀνεβόησεν· Ὦ νεάνιδες,
1080
ἄγω τὸν ὑμᾶς κἀμὲ τἀμά τʼ ὄργια
108
1
γέλων τιθέμενον· ἀλλὰ τιμωρεῖσθέ νιν.
1082
καὶ ταῦθʼ ἅμʼ ἠγόρευε καὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν
1083
καὶ γαῖαν ἐστήριξε φῶς σεμνοῦ πυρός.
1085
φύλλʼ εἶχε, θηρῶν δʼ οὐκ ἂν ἤκουσας βοήν.
1086
αἳ δʼ ὠσὶν ἠχὴν οὐ σαφῶς δεδεγμέναι
1087
ἔστησαν ὀρθαὶ καὶ διήνεγκαν κόρας.
1088
ὃ δʼ αὖθις ἐπεκέλευσεν· ὡς δʼ ἐγνώρισαν
1089
σαφῆ κελευσμὸν Βακχίου Κάδμου κόραι,
1090
ᾖξαν πελείας ὠκύτητʼ οὐχ ἥσσονες
109
1
ποδῶν τρέχουσαι συντόνοις δραμήμασι,
1092
μήτηρ Ἀγαύη σύγγονοί θʼ ὁμόσποροι
1093
πᾶσαί τε βάκχαι· διὰ δὲ χειμάρρου νάπης
1094
ἀγμῶν τʼ ἐπήδων θεοῦ πνοαῖσιν ἐμμανεῖς.
1095
ὡς δʼ εἶδον ἐλάτῃ δεσπότην ἐφήμενον,
1096
πρῶτον μὲν αὐτοῦ χερμάδας κραταιβόλους
1097
ἔρριπτον, ἀντίπυργον ἐπιβᾶσαι πέτραν,
1098
ὄζοισί τʼ ἐλατίνοισιν ἠκοντίζετο.
1099
ἄλλαι δὲ θύρσους ἵεσαν διʼ αἰθέρος
1
100
Πενθέως, στόχον δύστηνον· ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἤνυτον.
1
10
1
κρεῖσσον γὰρ ὕψος τῆς προθυμίας ἔχων
1
102
καθῆσθʼ ὁ τλήμων, ἀπορίᾳ λελημμένος.
1
103
τέλος δὲ δρυΐνους συγκεραυνοῦσαι κλάδους
1
104
ῥίζας ἀνεσπάρασσον ἀσιδήροις μοχλοῖς.
1
105
ἐπεὶ δὲ μόχθων τέρματʼ οὐκ ἐξήνυτον,
1
106
ἔλεξʼ Ἀγαύη· Φέρε, περιστᾶσαι κύκλῳ
1
107
πτόρθου λάβεσθε, μαινάδες, τὸν ἀμβάτην
1
108
θῆρʼ ὡς ἕλωμεν, μηδʼ ἀπαγγείλῃ θεοῦ
1
109
χοροὺς κρυφαίους. αἳ δὲ μυρίαν χέρα
1
1
10
προσέθεσαν ἐλάτῃ κἀξανέσπασαν χθονός·
1
1
1
1
ὑψοῦ δὲ θάσσων ὑψόθεν χαμαιριφὴς
1
1
12
πίπτει πρὸς οὖδας μυρίοις οἰμώγμασιν
1
1
13
Πενθεύς· κακοῦ γὰρ ἐγγὺς ὢν ἐμάνθανεν.
1
1
15
καὶ προσπίτνει νιν· ὃ δὲ μίτραν κόμης ἄπο
1
1
16
ἔρριψεν, ὥς νιν γνωρίσασα μὴ κτάνοι
1
1
17
τλήμων Ἀγαύη, καὶ λέγει, παρηίδος
1
1
18
ψαύων· Ἐγώ τοι, μῆτερ, εἰμί, παῖς σέθεν
1
1
19
Πενθεύς, ὃν ἔτεκες ἐν δόμοις Ἐχίονος·
1
120
οἴκτιρε δʼ ὦ μῆτέρ με, μηδὲ ταῖς ἐμαῖς
1
12
1
ἁμαρτίαισι παῖδα σὸν κατακτάνῃς.
1
123
κόρας ἑλίσσουσʼ, οὐ φρονοῦσʼ ἃ χρὴ φρονεῖν,
1
124
ἐκ Βακχίου κατείχετʼ, οὐδʼ ἔπειθέ νιν.
1
125
λαβοῦσα δʼ ὠλένης ἀριστερὰν χέρα,
1
126
πλευραῖσιν ἀντιβᾶσα τοῦ δυσδαίμονος
1
127
ἀπεσπάραξεν ὦμον, οὐχ ὑπὸ σθένους,
1
128
ἀλλʼ ὁ θεὸς εὐμάρειαν ἐπεδίδου χεροῖν·
1
129
Ἰνὼ δὲ τἀπὶ θάτερʼ ἐξειργάζετο,
1
130
ῥηγνῦσα σάρκας, Αὐτονόη τʼ ὄχλος τε πᾶς
1
13
1
ἐπεῖχε βακχῶν· ἦν δὲ πᾶσʼ ὁμοῦ βοή,
1
132
ὃ μὲν στενάζων ὅσον ἐτύγχανʼ ἐμπνέων,
1
133
αἳ δʼ ἠλάλαζον. ἔφερε δʼ ἣ μὲν ὠλένην,
1
134
ἣ δʼ ἴχνος αὐταῖς ἀρβύλαις· γυμνοῦντο δὲ
1
135
πλευραὶ σπαραγμοῖς· πᾶσα δʼ ᾑματωμένη
1
136
χεῖρας διεσφαίριζε σάρκα Πενθέως.
1
138
πέτραις, τὸ δʼ ὕλης ἐν βαθυξύλῳ φόβῃ,
1
139
οὐ ῥᾴδιον ζήτημα· κρᾶτα δʼ ἄθλιον,
1
140
ὅπερ λαβοῦσα τυγχάνει μήτηρ χεροῖν,
1
14
1
πήξασʼ ἐπʼ ἄκρον θύρσον ὡς ὀρεστέρου
1
142
φέρει λέοντος διὰ Κιθαιρῶνος μέσου,
1
143
λιποῦσʼ ἀδελφὰς ἐν χοροῖσι μαινάδων.
1
144
χωρεῖ δὲ θήρᾳ δυσπότμῳ γαυρουμένη
1
145
τειχέων ἔσω τῶνδʼ, ἀνακαλοῦσα Βάκχιον
1
146
τὸν ξυγκύναγον, τὸν ξυνεργάτην ἄγρας,
1
147
τὸν καλλίνικον, ᾧ δάκρυα νικηφορεῖ.
1
149
ἄπειμʼ, Ἀγαύην πρὶν μολεῖν πρὸς δώματα.
1
150
τὸ σωφρονεῖν δὲ καὶ σέβειν τὰ τῶν θεῶν
1
15
1
κάλλιστον· οἶμαι δʼ αὐτὸ καὶ σοφώτατον
1
152
θνητοῖσιν εἶναι κτῆμα τοῖσι χρωμένοις. Χορός
1
177
Χορός
1
177
Ἀγαύη
1
178
κατεφόνευσέ νιν. Χορός
1
179
part=
1
180
μάκαιρʼ Ἀγαύη κλῃζόμεθʼ ἐν θιάσοις. Χορός
1

182
μετʼ ἐμὲ μετʼ ἐμὲ τοῦδʼ
1
183
Ἀγαύη
1
183
ἔθιγε θηρός· εὐτυχής γʼ ἅδʼ ἄγρα. Χορός
1
184
Ἀγαύη
1
184
Χορός
1
185
νέος ὁ μόσχος ἄρτι word split in text
1
186 γένυν ὑπὸ κόρυθʼ ἁπαλότριχα
1
187
κατάκομον θάλλει. Χορός
1
188
πρέπει γʼ ὥστε θὴρ ἄγραυλος φόβῃ. Ἀγαύη
1
189
ὁ Βάκχιος κυναγέτας
1
190
σοφὸς σοφῶς ἀνέπηλʼ ἐπὶ θῆρα
1
19
1
τόνδε μαινάδας. Χορός
1
192
ὁ γὰρ ἄναξ ἀγρεύς. Ἀγαύη
1
194
τάχα δὲ Καδμεῖοι Χορός
1
196
λαβοῦσαν ἄγραν τάνδε λεοντοφυῆ. Χορός
1
198
μεγάλα μεγάλα καὶ
1
199
φανερὰ τᾷδʼ ἄγρᾳ κατειργασμένα. Χορός
1200
δεῖξόν νυν, ὦ τάλαινα, σὴν νικηφόρον
120
1
ἀστοῖσιν ἄγραν ἣν φέρουσʼ ἐλήλυθας. Ἀγαύη
1202
ὦ καλλίπυργον ἄστυ Θηβαίας χθονὸς
1203
ναίοντες, ἔλθεθʼ ὡς ἴδητε τήνδʼ ἄγραν,
1204
Κάδμου θυγατέρες θηρὸς ἣν ἠγρεύσαμεν,
1205
οὐκ ἀγκυλητοῖς Θεσσαλῶν στοχάσμασιν,
1206
οὐ δικτύοισιν, ἀλλὰ λευκοπήχεσι
1207
χειρῶν ἀκμαῖσιν. κᾆτα κομπάζειν χρεὼν
1
208
καὶ λογχοποιῶν ὄργανα κτᾶσθαι μάτην;
1209
ἡμεῖς δέ γʼ αὐτῇ χειρὶ τόνδε θʼ εἵλομεν,
12
10
χωρίς τε θηρὸς ἄρθρα διεφορήσαμεν.
12
12
Πενθεύς τʼ ἐμὸς παῖς ποῦ ʼστιν; αἰρέσθω λαβὼν
12
13
πηκτῶν πρὸς οἴκους κλιμάκων προσαμβάσεις,
12
14
ὡς πασσαλεύσῃ κρᾶτα τριγλύφοις τόδε
12
15
λέοντος ὃν πάρειμι θηράσασʼ ἐγώ. Κάδμος

1233
πάτερ, μέγιστον κομπάσαι πάρεστί σοι,
1234
πάντων ἀρίστας θυγατέρας σπεῖραι μακρῷ
1235
θνητῶν· ἁπάσας εἶπον, ἐξόχως δʼ ἐμέ,
1236
ἣ τὰς παρʼ ἱστοῖς ἐκλιποῦσα κερκίδας
1237
ἐς μείζονʼ ἥκω, θῆρας ἀγρεύειν χεροῖν.
1238
φέρω δʼ ἐν ὠλέναισιν, ὡς ὁρᾷς, τάδε
1239
λαβοῦσα τἀριστεῖα, σοῖσι πρὸς δόμοις
1240
ὡς ἀγκρεμασθῇ· σὺ δέ, πάτερ, δέξαι χεροῖν·
124
1
γαυρούμενος δὲ τοῖς ἐμοῖς ἀγρεύμασιν
1242
κάλει φίλους ἐς δαῖτα· μακάριος γὰρ εἶ,
1243
μακάριος, ἡμῶν τοιάδʼ ἐξειργασμένων. Κάδμος
125
1
ὡς δύσκολον τὸ γῆρας ἀνθρώποις ἔφυ
1252
ἔν τʼ ὄμμασι σκυθρωπόν. εἴθε παῖς ἐμὸς
1253
εὔθηρος εἴη, μητρὸς εἰκασθεὶς τρόποις,
1254
ὅτʼ ἐν νεανίαισι Θηβαίοις ἅμα
1255
θηρῶν ὀριγνῷτʼ· ἀλλὰ θεομαχεῖν μόνον
1256
οἷός τʼ ἐκεῖνος. νουθετητέος, πάτερ,
1257
σοὐστίν. τίς αὐτὸν δεῦρʼ ἂν ὄψιν εἰς ἐμὴν
1258
καλέσειεν, ὡς ἴδῃ με τὴν εὐδαίμονα; Κάδμος

1264
πρῶτον μὲν ἐς τόνδʼ αἰθέρʼ ὄμμα σὸν μέθες. Ἀγαύη
1265
ἰδού· τί μοι τόνδʼ ἐξυπεῖπας εἰσορᾶν; Κάδμος
1266
ἔθʼ αὑτὸς ἤ σοι μεταβολὰς ἔχειν δοκεῖ; Ἀγαύη
1267
λαμπρότερος ἢ πρὶν καὶ διειπετέστερος. Κάδμος
1
268
τὸ δὲ πτοηθὲν τόδʼ ἔτι σῇ ψυχῇ πάρα; Ἀγαύη
1269
οὐκ οἶδα τοὔπος τοῦτο. γίγνομαι δέ πως
1270
ἔννους, μετασταθεῖσα τῶν πάρος φρενῶν. Κάδμος
127
1
κλύοις ἂν οὖν τι κἀποκρίναιʼ ἂν σαφῶς; Ἀγαύη
1272
ὡς ἐκλέλησμαί γʼ ἃ πάρος εἴπομεν, πάτερ. Κάδμος
1273
ἐς ποῖον ἦλθες οἶκον ὑμεναίων μέτα; Ἀγαύη
1274
Σπαρτῷ μʼ ἔδωκας, ὡς λέγουσʼ, Ἐχίονι. Κάδμος
1275
τίς οὖν ἐν οἴκοις παῖς ἐγένετο σῷ πόσει; Ἀγαύη
1276
Πενθεύς, ἐμῇ τε καὶ πατρὸς κοινωνίᾳ. Κάδμος
1277
τίνος πρόσωπον δῆτʼ ἐν ἀγκάλαις ἔχεις; Ἀγαύη
1278
λέοντος, ὥς γʼ ἔφασκον αἱ θηρώμεναι. Κάδμος
1279
σκέψαι νυν ὀρθῶς· βραχὺς ὁ μόχθος εἰσιδεῖν. Ἀγαύη
1280
ἔα, τί λεύσσω; τί φέρομαι τόδʼ ἐν χεροῖν; Κάδμος

1297
ὕβριν γʼ ὑβρισθείς· θεὸν γὰρ οὐχ ἡγεῖσθέ νιν. Ἀγαύη

1330
δράκων γενήσῃ μεταβαλών, δάμαρ τε σὴ
133
1
ἐκθηριωθεῖσʼ ὄφεος ἀλλάξει τύπον,
134
1
Διόνυσος, ἀλλὰ Ζηνός· εἰ δὲ σωφρονεῖν

1345
ὄψʼ ἐμάθεθʼ ἡμᾶς, ὅτε δὲ χρῆν, οὐκ ᾔδετε. Κάδμος
1346
ἐγνώκαμεν ταῦτʼ· ἀλλʼ ἐπεξέρχῃ λίαν. Διόνυσος

1349
πάλαι τάδε Ζεὺς οὑμὸς ἐπένευσεν πατήρ. Ἀγαύη ' None
sup>
1 I, the son of Zeus, have come to this land of the Thebans—Dionysus, whom once Semele, Kadmos’ daughter, bore, delivered by a lightning-bearing flame. And having taken a mortal form instead of a god’s,' 2 I, the son of Zeus, have come to this land of the Thebans—Dionysus, whom once Semele, Kadmos’ daughter, bore, delivered by a lightning-bearing flame. And having taken a mortal form instead of a god’s, 5 I am here at the fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remts of her house, smouldering with the still living flame of Zeus’ fire, the everlasting insult of Hera against my mother.
10
I praise Kadmos, who has made this place hallowed, the shrine of his daughter; and I have covered it all around with the cluster-bearing leaf of the vine.I have left the wealthy lands of the Lydians and Phrygians, the sun-parched plains of the Persians,
15
and the Bactrian walls, and have passed over the wintry land of the Medes, and blessed Arabia , and all of Asia which lies along the coast of the salt sea with its beautifully-towered cities full of Hellenes and barbarians mingled together; 20 and I have come to this Hellene city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my mysteries there, so that I might be a deity manifest among men. In this land of Hellas , I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and 25 taking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother’s sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin of her bed to Zeus, 30 a trick of Kadmos’, for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my mysteries. 35 And all the female offspring of Thebes , as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling, 40 that it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the case of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus. Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter’s son, 45 who fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from sacrifices, and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god. And when I have set matters here right, I will move on to another land, 50 revealing myself. But if ever the city of Thebes should in anger seek to drive the the Bacchae down from the mountains with arms, I, the general of the Maenads, will join battle with them. On which account I have changed my form to a mortal one and altered my shape into the nature of a man. 55 But, you women who have left Tmolus, the bulwark of Lydia , my sacred band, whom I have brought from among the barbarians as assistants and companions to me, take your drums, native instruments of the city of the Phrygians, the invention of mother Rhea and myself, 62 and going about this palace of Pentheus beat them, so that Kadmos’ city may see. I myself will go to the folds of Kithairon, where the Bacchae are, to share in their dances. Choru 64 From the land of Asia , 65 having left sacred Tmolus, I am swift to perform for Bromius my sweet labor and toil easily borne, celebrating the god Bacchus Lit. shouting the ritual cry εὐοῖ . . Who is in the way? Who is in the way? Who? Let him get out of the way indoors, and let everyone keep his mouth pure E. R. Dodds takes this passage Let everyone come outside being sure to keep his mouth pure . He does not believe that there should be a full stop after the third τίς . , 70 peaking propitious things. For I will celebrate Dionysus with hymns according to eternal custom. Choru 73 Blessed is he who, being fortunate and knowing the rites of the gods, keeps his life pure and 75 has his soul initiated into the Bacchic revels, dancing in inspired frenzy over the mountains with holy purifications, and who, revering the mysteries of great mother Kybele, 80 brandishing the thyrsos, garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus.Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, escorting the god Bromius, child of a god, 85 from the Phrygian mountains to the broad streets of Hellas—Bromius, Choru 88 Whom once, in the compulsion of birth pains, 90 the thunder of Zeus flying upon her, his mother cast from her womb, leaving life by the stroke of a thunderbolt. Immediately Zeus, Kronos’ son, 95 received him in a chamber fit for birth, and having covered him in his thigh shut him up with golden clasps, hidden from Hera.And he brought forth, when the Fate
100
had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru
105
O Thebes , nurse of Semele, crown yourself with ivy, flourish, flourish with the verdant yew bearing sweet fruit, and crown yourself in honor of Bacchus with branches of oak
1
10
or pine. Adorn your garments of spotted fawn-skin with fleeces of white sheep, and sport in holy games with insolent thyrsoi The thyrsos is a staff that is crowned with ivy and that is sacred to Dionysus and an emblem of his worship. . At once all the earth will dance—
1
15
whoever leads the sacred band is Bromius—to the mountain, to the mountain, where the crowd of women waits, goaded away from their weaving by Dionysus. Choru
120
O secret chamber of the Kouretes and you holy Cretan caves, parents to Zeus, where the Korybantes with triple helmet invented for me in their caves this circle,
125
covered with stretched hide; and in their excited revelry they mingled it with the sweet-voiced breath of Phrygian pipes and handed it over to mother Rhea, resounding with the sweet songs of the Bacchae;
130
nearby, raving Satyrs were fulfilling the rites of the mother goddess, and they joined it to the dances of the biennial festivals, in which Dionysus rejoices. Choru
135
He is sweet in the mountains cf. Dodds, ad loc. , whenever after the running dance he falls on the ground, wearing the sacred garment of fawn skin, hunting the blood of the slain goat, a raw-eaten delight, rushing to the
140
Phrygian, the Lydian mountains, and the leader of the dance is Bromius, evoe! A ritual cry of delight. The plain flows with milk, it flows with wine, it flows with the nectar of bees.
145
The Bacchic one, raising the flaming torch of pine on his thyrsos, like the smoke of Syrian incense, darts about, arousing the wanderers with his racing and dancing, agitating them with his shouts,
150
casting his rich locks into the air. And among the Maenad cries his voice rings deep: This last phrase taken verbatim from Dodds, ad loc. Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, with the luxury of Tmolus that flows with gold,
155
ing of Dionysus, beneath the heavy beat of drums, celebrating in delight the god of delight with Phrygian shouts and cries,
160
when the sweet-sounding sacred pipe sounds a sacred playful tune suited
165
to the wanderers, to the mountain, to the mountain! And the Bacchante, rejoicing like a foal with its grazing mother, rouses her swift foot in a gamboling dance. Teiresia

182
I have come prepared with this equipment of the god. For we must extol him, the child of my daughter, Dionysus, who has appeared as a god to men as much as is in our power. Where must I dance, where set my feet
208
being about to dance with my head covered in ivy? No, for the god has made no distinction as to whether it is right for men young or old to dance, but wishes to have common honors from all and to be extolled, setting no one apart. Kadmo 2
15
I happened to be at a distance from this land, when I heard of strange evils throughout this city, that the women have left our homes in contrived Bacchic rites, and rush about in the shadowy mountains, honoring with dance 220 this new deity Dionysus, whoever he is. I hear that mixing-bowls stand full in the midst of their assemblies, and that they each creep off different ways into secrecy to serve the beds of men, on the pretext that they are Maenads worshipping; 225 but they consider Aphrodite before Bacchus.As many of them as I have caught, servants keep in the public strongholds with their hands bound, and as many as are absent I will hunt from the mountains, I mean Ino and Agave, who bore me to Echion, and 230 Autonoe, the mother of Actaeon. And having bound them in iron fetters, I will soon stop them from this ill-working revelry. And they say that some stranger has come, a sorcerer, a conjuror from the Lydian land, 235 fragrant in hair with golden curls, having in his eyes the wine-dark graces of Aphrodite. He is with the young girls day and night, alluring them with joyful mysteries. If I catch him within this house, 240 I will stop him from making a noise with the thyrsos and shaking his hair, by cutting his head off.That one claims that Dionysus is a god, claims that he was once stitched into the thigh of Zeus—Dionysus, who was burnt up with his mother by the flame of lightning, 245 because she had falsely claimed a marriage with Zeus. Is this not worthy of a terrible death by hanging, for a stranger to insult me with these insults, whoever he is?But here is another wonder—I see Teiresias the soothsayer in dappled fawn-skin 250 and my mother’s father—a great absurdity—raging about with a thyrsos. I shrink, father, from seeing your old age devoid of sense. Won’t you cast away the ivy? Grandfather, will you not free your hand of the thyrsos? 255 You persuaded him to this, Teiresias. Do you wish, by introducing another new god to men, to examine birds and receive rewards for sacrifices? If your gray old age did not defend you, you would sit in chains in the midst of the Bacchae, 260 for introducing wicked rites. For where women have the delight of the grape-cluster at a feast, I say that none of their rites is healthy any longer. Chorus Leader 263 Oh, what impiety! O stranger, do you not reverence the gods and Kadmos who sowed the earth-born crop? 265 Do you, the child of Echion, bring shame to your race? Teiresia
268
Whenever a wise man takes a good occasion for his speech, it is not a great task to speak well. You have a rapid tongue as though you were sensible, but there is no sense in your words. 270 A man powerful in his boldness, one capable of speaking well, becomes a bad citizen in his lack of sense. This new god, whom you ridicule, I am unable to express how great he will be throughout Hellas . For two things, young man, 275 are first among men: the goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it 280 to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief, whenever they are filled with the stream of the vine, and gives them sleep, a means of forgetting their daily troubles, nor is there another cure for hardships. He who is a god is poured out in offerings to the gods, 285 o that by his means men may have good things. And do you laugh at him, because he was sewn up in Zeus’ thigh? I will teach you that this is well: when Zeus snatched him out of the lighting-flame, and led the child as a god to Olympus , 290 Hera wished to banish him from the sky, but Zeus, as a god, had a counter-contrivance. Having broken a part of the air which surrounds the earth, he gave this to Hera as a pledge protecting the real A line of text has apparently been lost here. Dionysus from her hostility. But in time, 295 mortals say that he was nourished in the thigh of Zeus, changing the word, because a god he had served as a hostage for the goddess Hera, and composing the story. The account given in lines 292f. of the development of this legend is based on the similarity between the Greek words for hostage ( ὅμηρος ) and thigh ( μηρός ). But this god is a prophet—for Bacchic revelry and madness have in them much prophetic skill. 300 For whenever the god enters a body in full force, he makes the frantic to foretell the future. He also possesses a share of Ares’ nature. For terror sometimes flutters an army under arms and in its ranks before it even touches a spear;
305
and this too is a frenzy from Dionysus. You will see him also on the rocks of Delphi , bounding with torches through the highland of two peaks, leaping and shaking the Bacchic branch, mighty throughout Hellas . But believe me, Pentheus; 3
12
do not boast that sovereignty has power among men, nor, even if you think so, and your mind is diseased, believe that you are being at all wise. Receive the god into your land, pour libations to him, celebrate the Bacchic rites, and garland your head.Dionysus will not compel women 3
15
to be modest in regard to Aphrodite, but in nature modesty dwells always you must look for that. For she who is modest will not be corrupted in Bacchic revelry. Do you see? You rejoice whenever many people are at your gates, 320 and the city extols the name of Pentheus. He too, I think, delights in being honored. Kadmos, whom you mock, and I will crown our heads with ivy and dance, a gray yoke-team but still we must dance;
325
and I will not be persuaded by your words to fight against the god. For you are mad in a most grievous way, and you will not be cured by drugs, nor are you sick without them. Chorus Leader 328 Old man, you do not shame Phoebus with your words, and honoring Dionysus, a great god, you are prudent. Kadmo 330 My child, Teiresias has advised you well. Dwell with us, not apart from the laws. For now you flit about and have thoughts without thinking. Even if, as you say, he is not a god, call him one; and tell a glorious falsehood, 335 o that Semele might seem to have borne a god, and honor might come to all our race. You see the wretched fate of Actaeon, who was torn apart in the meadows by the blood-thirsty hounds he had raised, 340 having boasted that he was superior in the hunt to Artemis. May you not suffer this. Come, let me crown your head with ivy; honor the god along with us. Pentheu 343 Don’t lay a hand on me! Go off and hold your revels, but don’t wipe your foolishness off on me. I will seek the punishment of thi 345 teacher of your folly. Let someone go quickly to the seat where he watches the flights of birds, upset and overturn it with levers, turning everything upside down; 350 and release his garlands to the winds and storms. In this way I will especially wound him. And some of you hunt throughout the city for this effeminate stranger, who introduces a new disease to women and pollutes our beds. 355 If you catch him, bring him here bound, so that he might suffer as punishment a death by stoning, having seen a bitter Bacchic revelry in Thebes . Teiresia 358 O wretched man, how little you know what you are saying! You are mad now, and even before you were out of your wits. 360 Let us go, Kadmos, and entreat the god, on behalf of him, though he is savage, and on behalf of the city, to do no ill. But follow me with the ivy-clad staff, and try to support my body, and I will try to support yours; 365 it would be shameful for two old men to fall down. But let that pass, for we must serve Bacchus, the son of Zeus. Beware lest Pentheus bring trouble to your house, Kadmos; I do not speak in prophecy, but judging from the state of things; for a foolish man speaks foolishness. Choru 370 Holiness, queen of the gods, Holiness, who bear your golden wings along the earth, do you hear these words from Pentheus? Do you hear his unholy 375 insolence against Bromius, the child of Semele, the first deity of the gods at the banquets where guests wear beautiful garlands? He holds this office, to join in dances, 380 to laugh with the flute, and to bring an end to cares, whenever the delight of the grape comes at the feasts of the gods, and in ivy-bearing banquet 385 the goblet sheds sleep over men. Choru 386 Misfortune is the result of unbridled mouths and lawless folly; but the life of quiet 390 and wisdom remain unshaken and hold houses together. Though they dwell far off in the heavens the gods see the deeds of mortals. 395 But cleverness is not wisdom, nor is thinking on things unfit for mortals. Life is short, and on this account the one who pursues great things does not achieve that which is present. In my opinion, 400 these are the ways of mad and ill-advised men. Choru 402 Would that I could go to Cyprus , the island of Aphrodite, where the Loves, who soothe 405 mortals’ hearts, dwell, and to Paphos , fertilized without rain by the streams of a foreign river flowing with a hundred mouths. Lead me there, Bromius, Bromius, god of joy who leads the Bacchae, 4
10
to Pieria , beautiful seat of the Muses, the holy slope of Olympus . There are the Graces, there is Desire; there it i 4
15
lawful for the Bacchae to celebrate their rites. Choru 4
17
The god, the son of Zeus, delights in banquets, and loves Peace, giver of riches, 420 goddess who nourishes youths. To the blessed and to the less fortunate, he gives an equal pleasure from wine that banishes grief. He hates the one who does not care about this: 425 to lead a happy life by day and friendly Because the Dionysiac ἱερά take place νύκτωρ τὰ πολλά (486) Dodds, ad loc. night and to keep his wise mind and intellect away from over-curious men. 430 What the common people think and adopt, that would I accept. Enter a servant Servant
435
for which you sent us, nor have we set out in vain. This beast was docile in our hands and did not withdraw in flight, but yielded not unwillingly. He did not turn pale or change the wine-dark complexion of his cheek, but laughed and allowed us to bind him and lead him away. 440 He remained still, making my work easy, and I in shame said: Stranger, I do not lead you away willingly, but by order of Pentheus, who sent me. And the Bacchae whom you shut up, whom you carried off and bound in the chains of the public prison, 445 are set loose and gone, and are gamboling in the meadows, invoking Bromius as their god. of their own accord, the chains were loosed from their feet and keys opened the doors without human hand. This man has come to Thebe 450 full of many wonders. You must take care of the rest. Pentheu 45
1
Release his hands, for caught in the nets he is not so swift as to escape me. But your body is not ill-formed, stranger, for women’s purposes, for which reason you have come to Thebes . 455 For your hair is long, not through wrestling, scattered over your cheeks, full of desire; and you have a white skin from careful preparation, hunting after Aphrodite by your beauty not exposed to strokes of the sun, but beneath the shade. 460 First then tell me who your family is. Dionysu 46
1
I can tell you this easily, without boasting. I suppose you are familiar with flowery Tmolus. Pentheu 463 I know of it; it surrounds the city of Sardis . Dionysu 464 I am from there, and Lydia is my fatherland. Pentheu 465 Why do you bring these rites to Hellas ? Dionysu 466 Dionysus, the child of Zeus, sent me. Pentheu 467 Is there a Zeus who breeds new gods there? Dionysu 468 No, but the one who married Semele here. Pentheu 469 Did he compel you at night, or in your sight? Dionysu 470 Seeing me just as I saw him, he gave me sacred rites. Pentheu 47
1
What appearance do your rites have? Dionysu 472 They can not be told to mortals uninitiated in Bacchic revelry. Pentheu 473 And do they have any profit to those who sacrifice? Dionysu 474 It is not lawful for you to hear, but they are worth knowing. Pentheu 475 You have counterfeited this well, so that I desire to hear. Dionysu
482
All the barbarians celebrate these rites. Pentheu 49
1
How bold the Bacchant is, and not unpracticed in speaking! Dionysu
498
The god himself will release me, whenever I want. Pentheu
502
Near me; but you, being impious, do not see him. Pentheu
506
You do not know why you live, or what you are doing, or who you are. Pentheu
520
venerable Dirce, happy virgin, you once received the child of Zeus in your streams, when Zeus his father snatched him up from the immortal fire and saved him in his thigh, 525 crying out: Go, Dithyrambus, enter this my male womb. I will make you illustrious, Bacchus, in Thebes , so that they will call you by this name. 530 But you, blessed Dirce, reject me with my garland-bearing company about you. Why do you refuse me, why do you flee me? I swear by the cluster-bearing
536
delight of Dionysus’ vine that you will have a care for Bromius. Choru
553
Do you see this, O Dionysus, son of Zeus, your priests in the dangers of restraint? Come, lord, down from Olympus , brandishing your golden thyrsos, 555 and restrain the insolence of the blood-thirsty man. Choru
565
Blessed Pieria , the Joyful one reveres you and will come to lead the dance in revelry; having crossed the swiftly flowing Axius he will bring the 570 whirling Maenads, leaving Lydias, giver of wealth to mortals, the father who they say fertilizes the land of beautiful horses with 575 fairest streams. Dionysu 576 within Io! Hear my voice, hear it, Io Bacchae, Io Bacchae! Choru 578 Who is here, who? From what quarter did the voice of the Joyful one summon me? Dionysu 580 Io! Io! I say again; it is I, the child of Zeus and Semele. Choru 582 Io! Io! Master, master! Come now to our company, Bromius. Dionysu 585 Shake the world’s plain, lady Earthquake! Choru 586 Oh! Oh! Soon the palace of Pentheus will be shaken in ruin. The following lines are probably delivered by individual chorus members. —Dionysus is in the halls. 590 Revere him.—We revere him!—Did you see these stone lintels on the pillars falling apart? Bromius cries out in victory indoors. Dionysu 594 Light the fiery lamp of lightning! 595 Burn, burn Pentheus’ home! Choru 596 Oh! Oh! Do you not see the the fire, do you not perceive, about the sacred tomb of Semele, the flame that Zeus’ thunderbolt left? 600 Cast on the ground your trembling bodies, Maenads, cast them down, for our lord, Zeus’ son, is coming against this palace, turning everything upside down. Enter Dionysus Dionysu 604 Barbarian women, have you fallen on the ground 605 o stricken with fear? You have, so it seems, felt Bacchus shaking the house of Pentheus. But get up and take courage, putting a stop to your trembling. Chorus Leader 608 Oh greatest light for us in our joyful revelry, how happy I am to see you—I who was alone and desolate before. Dionysu 6
10
Did you despair when I was sent to fall into Pentheus’ dark dungeon? Chorus Leader 6
12
How not? Who was my guardian, if you met with misfortune? But how were you freed, having met with an impious man? Dionysu 6
14
By myself I saved myself easily, without trouble. Chorus Leader 6
15
Did he not tie your hands in binding knots? Dionysu 6
16
In this too I mocked him, for, thinking to bind me, he neither touched nor handled me, but fed on hope. He found a bull by the stable where he took and shut me up, and threw shackles around its knees and hooves, 620 breathing out fury, dripping sweat from his body, gnashing his teeth in his lips. But I, being near, sitting quietly, looked on. Meanwhile, Bacchus came and shook the house and kindled a flame on his mother’s tomb. When Pentheus saw this, thinking that the house was burning, 625 he ran here and there, calling to the slaves to bring water, and every servant was at work, toiling in vain.Then he let this labor drop, as I had escaped, and snatching a dark sword rushed into the house. Then Bromius, so it seems to me—I speak my opinion— 630 created a phantom in the courtyard. Pentheus rushed at it headlong, stabbing at the shining air, as though slaughtering me. Besides this, Bacchus inflicted other damage on him: he knocked his house to the ground, and everything was shattered into pieces, while he saw my bitter chains. From fatigue, 635 dropping his sword, he is exhausted. For he, a man, dared to join battle with a god. Now I have quietly left the house and come to you, with no thought of Pentheus.But I think—at any rate I hear the tramping of feet inside—he will soon come to the front of the house. What will he say after this? 640 I shall easily bear him, even if he comes boasting greatly. For it is the part of a wise man to practice restrained good temper. Enter Pentheus Pentheu 642 I have suffered terrible things; the stranger, who was recently constrained in bonds, has escaped me. Ah! 645 Here is the man. What is this? How do you appear in front of my house, having come out? Dionysu 647 Stop, and put a stop to your anger. Pentheu
652
You reproach Dionysus for what is his glory. Pentheu
664
Having seen the holy Bacchae, who 665 goaded to madness have darted from this land with their fair feet, I have come to tell you and the city, lord, that they are doing terrible things, beyond marvel. I wish to hear whether I should tell you in free speech the situation there or whether I should repress my report,
677
The herds of grazing cattle were just climbing up the hill, at the time when the sun sends forth its rays, warming the earth. 680 I saw three companies of dancing women, one of which Autonoe led, the second your mother Agave, and the third Ino. All were asleep, their bodies relaxed, some resting their backs against pine foliage, 685 others laying their heads at random on the oak leaves, modestly, not as you say drunk with the goblet and the sound of the flute, hunting out Aphrodite through the woods in solitude.Your mother raised a cry, 690 tanding up in the midst of the Bacchae, to wake their bodies from sleep, when she heard the lowing of the horned cattle. And they, casting off refreshing sleep from their eyes, sprang upright, a marvel of orderliness to behold, old, young, and still unmarried virgins. 695 First they let their hair loose over their shoulders, and secured their fawn-skins, as many of them as had released the fastenings of their knots, girding the dappled hides with serpents licking their jaws. And some, holding in their arms a gazelle or wild 700 wolf-pup, gave them white milk, as many as had abandoned their new-born infants and had their breasts still swollen. They put on garlands of ivy, and oak, and flowering yew. One took her thyrsos and struck it against a rock, 705 from which a dewy stream of water sprang forth. Another let her thyrsos strike the ground, and there the god sent forth a fountain of wine. All who desired the white drink scratched the earth with the tips of their fingers and obtained streams of milk; 7
10
and a sweet flow of honey dripped from their ivy thyrsoi; so that, had you been present and seen this, you would have approached with prayers the god whom you now blame.We herdsmen and shepherds gathered in order to 7
15
debate with one another concerning what strange and amazing things they were doing. Some one, a wanderer about the city and practised in speaking, said to us all: You who inhabit the holy plains of the mountains, do you wish to hunt 720 Pentheus’ mother Agave out from the Bacchic revelry and do the king a favor? We thought he spoke well, and lay down in ambush, hiding ourselves in the foliage of bushes. They, at the appointed hour, began to wave the thyrsos in their revelries, 725 calling on Iacchus, the son of Zeus, Bromius, with united voice. The whole mountain revelled along with them and the beasts, and nothing was unmoved by their running. Agave happened to be leaping near me, and I sprang forth, wanting to snatch her, 730 abandoning the ambush where I had hidden myself. But she cried out: O my fleet hounds, we are hunted by these men; but follow me! follow armed with your thyrsoi in your hands! We fled and escaped 735 from being torn apart by the Bacchae, but they, with unarmed hands, sprang on the heifers browsing the grass. and you might see one rending asunder a fatted lowing calf, while others tore apart cows. 740 You might see ribs or cloven hooves tossed here and there; caught in the trees they dripped, dabbled in gore. Bulls who before were fierce, and showed their fury with their horns, stumbled to the ground, 745 dragged down by countless young hands. The garment of flesh was torn apart faster then you could blink your royal eyes. And like birds raised in their course, they proceeded along the level plains, which by the streams of the Asopu 750 produce the bountiful Theban crop. And falling like soldiers upon Hysiae and Erythrae, towns situated below the rock of Kithairon, they turned everything upside down. They were snatching children from their homes; 755 and whatever they put on their shoulders, whether bronze or iron, was not held on by bonds, nor did it fall to the ground. They carried fire on their locks, but it did not burn them. Some people in rage took up arms, being plundered by the Bacchae, 760 and the sight of this was terrible to behold, lord. For their pointed spears drew no blood, but the women, hurling the thyrsoi from their hands, kept wounding them and turned them to flight—women did this to men, not without the help of some god. 765 And they returned where they had come from, to the very fountains which the god had sent forth for them, and washed off the blood, and snakes cleaned the drops from the women’s cheeks with their tongues.Receive this god then, whoever he is, 770 into this city, master. For he is great in other respects, and they say this too of him, as I hear, that he gives to mortals the vine that puts an end to grief. Without wine there is no longer Aphrodite or any other pleasant thing for men. Chorus Leader
777
I fear to speak freely to the king, but I will speak nevertheless: Dionysus is inferior to none of the gods. Pentheu
795
than kick against his spurs in anger, a mortal against a god. Pentheu 8
10
Ah! Do you wish to see them sitting together in the mountains? Pentheu 82
1
Put linen clothes on your body then. Pentheu
825
Dionysus taught me these things fully. Pentheu
827
I will go inside and dress you. Pentheu 828 In what clothing? Female? But shame holds me back. Dionysu 829 Are you no longer eager to view the maenads? Pentheu 830 What clothing do you bid me to put on my body? Dionysu 83
1
I will spread out hair at length on your head. Pentheu 832 What is the second part of my outfit? Dionysu 833 A robe down to your feet. And you will wear a headband. Pentheu 834 And what else will you add to this for me? Dionysu 835 A thyrsos in your hand, and a dappled fawn-skin. Pentheu 836 I could not put on a woman’s dress. Dionysu 837 But you will shed blood if you join battle with the Bacchae. Pentheu 838 True. We must go first and spy. Dionysu
842
Anything is better than to be mocked by the Bacchae. We two will go into the house . . . and I will consider what seems best. Dionysu 844 It will be so; in any case I am ready. Pentheu 845 I will go in. For either I will go bearing arms, or I will obey your counsels. Dionysu
859
women’s guise after making such terrible threats in the past. But now I will go to fit on Pentheus the dress he will wear to the house of Hades, slaughtered by his mother’s hands. He will recognize the son of Zeus, 860 Dionysus, who is in fact a god, the most terrible and yet most mild to men. Choru 9
18
Oh look! I think I see two suns, and twin Thebes , the seven-gated city. 920 And you seem to lead me, being like a bull and horns seem to grow on your head. But were you ever before a beast? For you have certainly now become a bull. Dionysu 923 The god accompanies us, now at truce with us, though formerly not propitious. Now you see what you should see. Pentheu 925 How do I look? Don’t I have the posture of Ino, or of my mother Agave? Dionysu 927 Looking at you I think I see them. But this lock of your hair has come out of place, not the way I arranged it under your headband. Pentheu 930 I displaced it indoors, shaking my head forwards and backwards and practising my Bacchic revelry. Dionysu 932 But I who ought to wait on you will re-arrange it. Hold up your head. Pentheu 933 Here, you arrange it; for I depend on you, indeed. Dionysu 935 Your girdle has come loose, and the pleats of your gown do not extend regularly down around your ankles. Pentheu 937 At least on my right leg, I believe they don’t. But on this side the robe sits well around the back of my leg. Dionysu 939 You will surely consider me the best of your friends, 940 when contrary to your expectation you see the Bacchae acting modestly. Pentheu 94
1
But shall I be more like a maenad holding the thyrsos in my right hand, or in my left? Dionysu 943 You must hold it in your right hand and raise your right foot in unison with it. I praise you for having changed your mind. Pentheu 945 Could I carry on my shoulders the glens of Kithairon, Bacchae and all? Dionysu 947 You could if you were willing. The state of mind you had before was unsound, but now you think as you ought. Pentheu
956
You will hide yourself as you should be hidden, coming as a crafty spy on the Maenads. Pentheu
969
In the arms of your mother. Pentheu
976
to a great contest, and Bromius and I will be the victors. The rest the matter itself will show. Choru
978
Go to the mountain, go, fleet hounds of Madness, where the daughters of Kadmos hold their company, and drive them raving
986
Who is this seeker of the mountain-going Kadmeans who has come to the mountain, to the mountain, Bacchae? Who bore him? For he was not born from a woman’s blood, but is the offspring of some lione
992
or of Libyan Gorgons. Let manifest justice go forth, let it go with sword in hand, slaying through the throat 997 Whoever with wicked mind and unjust rage regarding your rites, Bacchus, and those of your mother, comes with raving heart

1006
I do not envy wisdom, but rejoice in hunting it. But other things are great and manifest. Oh, for life to flow towards the good, to be pure and pious day and night, and to honor the gods,
10
10
banishing customs that are outside of justice.Let manifest justice go forth, let it go with sword in hand, slaying through the throat
10
15
this godless, lawless, unjust, earth-born offspring of Echion. Choru
10
17
Appear as a bull or many-headed serpent or raging lion to see.
1020
Go, Bacchus, with smiling face throw a deadly noose around the hunter of the Bacchae as he falls beneath the flock of Maenads. Second Messenger

1025
house of the Sidonian old man who once sowed in the ground the earth-born harvest of the serpent Ophis, how I groan for you, though I am a slave, but still the masters’ affairs are a concern to good servants . This line is most likely interpolated from Eur. Med. 54 . Chorus Leader

1029
What is it? Do you bring some news from the Bacchae? Messenger
1030
Pentheus, the child of Echion, is dead. sung Chorus Leader
103
1
Lord Bacchus, truly you appear to be a great god. Messenger

1037
Dionysus, Dionysus, not Thebes , holds my allegiance. Messenger

1043
When we left the dwellings of the Theban land and crossed the streams of Asopus,
1045
we began to ascend the heights of Kithairon, Pentheus and I—for I was following my master—and the stranger who was our guide to the sight. First we sat in a grassy vale,
1050
keeping our feet and voices quiet, so that we might see them without being seen. There was a little valley surounded by precipices, irrigated with streams, shaded by pine trees, where the Maenads were sitting, their hands busy with delightful labors. Some of them were crowning again
1055
the worn thyrsos, making it leafy with ivy, while some, like colts freed from the painted yoke, were singing a Bacchic melody to one another. And the unhappy Pentheus said, not seeing the crowd of women: Stranger,
1060
from where we are standing I cannot see these false Maenads. But on the hill, ascending a lofty pine, I might view properly the shameful acts of the Maenads. And then I saw the stranger perform a marvelous deed. For seizing hold of the lofty top-most branch of the pine tree,
1065
he pulled it down, pulled it, pulled it to the dark earth. It was bent just as a bow or a curved wheel, when it is marked out by a compass, describes a circular course The sense of the text here is not clear. The translation (which follows Dodds) assumes that the curved wheel is not a hollow circle connected to the hub by spokes, but a single piece of wood which has been cut into the shape of a circle. In the action described, a peg ( τόρνος ) is fixed into the center of the word-section. A string with a piece of chalk on one end is then attached to the peg, and the chalk, held tight against the string, is able to mark out an even circle. The bending of the tree thus resembles the circular path taken by the chalk. : in this way the stranger drew the mountain bough with his hands and bent it to the earth, doing no mortal’s deed.
1070
He sat Pentheus down on the pine branch, and let it go upright through his hands steadily, taking care not to shake him off. The pine stood firmly upright into the sky, with my master seated on its back.
1075
He was seen by the Maenads more than he saw them, for sitting on high he was all but apparent, and the stranger was no longer anywhere to be seen, when a voice, Dionysus as I guess, cried out from the air: Young women,
1080
I bring the one who has made you and me and my rites a laughing-stock. Now punish him! And as he said this a light of holy fire was placed between heaven and earth. The air became quiet and the woody glen
1085
kept its leaves silent, nor would you have heard the sounds of animals. But they, not having heard the sound clearly, stood upright and looked all around. He repeated his order, and when the daughters of Kadmos recognized the clear command of Bacchus,
1090
they rushed forth, swift as a dove, running with eager speed of feet, his mother Agave, and her sisters, and all the Bacchae. They leapt through the torrent-streaming valley and mountain cliffs, frantic with the inspiration of the god.
1095
When they saw my master sitting in the pine, first they climbed a rock towering opposite the tree and began to hurl at him boulders violently thrown. Some aimed with pine branches and other women hurled their thyrsoi through the air
1
100
at Pentheus, a sad target indeed. But they did not reach him, for the wretched man, caught with no way out, sat at a height too great for their eagerness. Finally like lightning they smashed oak branches and began to tear up the roots of the tree with ironless levers.
1
105
When they did not succeed in their toils, Agave said: Come, standing round in a circle, each seize a branch, Maenads, so that we may catch the beast who has climbed aloft, and so that he does not make public the secret dances of the god. They applied countless hand
1
1
10
to the pine and dragged it up from the earth. Pentheus fell crashing to the ground from his lofty seat, wailing greatly: for he knew he was in terrible trouble. His mother, as priestess, began the slaughter,
1
1
15
and fell upon him. He threw the headband from his head so that the wretched Agave might recognize and not kill him. Touching her cheek, he said: It is I, mother, your son, Pentheus, whom you bore in the house of Echion.
1
120
Pity me, mother, and do not kill me, your child, for my sins. But she, foaming at the mouth and twisting her eyes all about, not thinking as she ought, was possessed by Bacchus, and he did not persuade her.
1
125
Seizing his left arm at the elbow and propping her foot against the unfortunate man’s side, she tore out his shoulder, not by her own strength, but the god gave facility to her hands. Ino began to work on the other side,
1
130
tearing his flesh, while Autonoe and the whole crowd of the Bacchae pressed on. All were making noise together, he groaning as much as he had life left in him, while they shouted in victory. One of them bore his arm, another a foot, boot and all. His ribs were stripped bare
1
135
from their tearings. The whole band, hands bloodied, were playing a game of catch with Pentheus’ flesh.His body lies in different places, part under the rugged rocks, part in the deep foliage of the woods, not easy to be sought. His miserable head,
1
140
which his mother happened to take in her hands, she fixed on the end of a thyrsos and carries through the midst of Kithairon like that of a savage lion, leaving her sisters among the Maenads’ dances. She is coming inside these walls, preening herself
1
145
on the ill-fated prey, calling Bacchus her fellow hunter, her accomplice in the chase, the glorious victor—in whose service she wins a triumph of tears.And as for me, I will depart out of the way of this calamity before Agave reaches the house.
1
150
Soundness of mind and reverence for the affairs of the gods is best; and this, I think, is the wisest possession for those mortals who adopt it. Choru
1
177
Kithairon— Choru
1
178
Slew him. Choru
1
179
Who struck him? Agave
1
180
I am called blessed Agave in the revels. Choru
1
18
1
Who else? Agave
1

182
Kadmos’ what? Agave
1
184
Share in the feast then. Choru
1
185
The bull is young; his cheek is just growing downy under his soft-haired crest. Choru
1
188
Yes, his hair looks like a wild beast’s. Agave
1
189
Bacchus, a wise huntsman,
1
190
wisely set the Maenads against this beast. Choru
1
192
Our lord is a hunter. Agave
1
193
Do you praise me? Choru
1
194
Soon the Kadmeans— Choru
1
195
And your son Pentheus, too— Agave
1
197
Extraordinary. Agave
1
198
Are you proud? Agave
1200
Now show the citizens, wretched woman, the booty which you have brought in victory. Agave
1202
You who dwell in this fair-towered city of the Theban land, come to see this prey which we the daughters of Kadmos hunted down,
1205
not with thonged Thessalian javelins, or with nets, but with the fingers of our white arms. And then should huntsmen boast and use in vain the work of spear-makers? But we caught and
12
10
tore apart the limbs of this beast with our very own hands. Where is my old father? Let him approach. And where is my son Pentheus? Let him take a ladder and raise its steps against the house so that he can fasten to the triglyphs thi
12
15
lion’s head which I have captured and brought here. Enter Kadmos and his servants, carrying the remains of Pentheus’ body Kadmo

1233
Father, you may make a great boast, that you have born daughters the best by far of all
1235
mortals. I mean all of us, but myself especially, who have left my shuttle at the loom and gone on to greater things, to catch wild animals with my two hands. And having taken him, I carry these spoils of honor in my arms, as you see,
1240
o that they may hang from your house. You father, receive them in your hands. Preening yourself in my catch, call your friends to a feast. For you are blessed, blessed, now that we have performed these deeds. Kadmo
125
1
How morose and sullen in its countece is man’s old age! I hope that my son is a good hunter, taking after his mother’s ways, when he goes after wild beast
1255
together with the young men of Thebes . But all he can do is fight with the gods. You must admonish him, father. Who will call him here to my sight, so that he may see how lucky I am? Kadmo

1264
First cast your eye up to this sky. Agave
1265
All right; why do you tell me to look at it? Kadmo
1266
Is it still the same, or does it appear to have changed? Agave
1267
It is brighter than before and more translucent. Kadmo
1
268
Is your soul still quivering? Agave
1269
I don’t understand your words. I have become somehow
1270
obered, changing from my former state of mind. Kadmo
127
1
Can you hear and respond clearly? Agave
1272
Yes, for I forget what we said before, father. Kadmo
1273
To whose house did you come in marriage? Agave
1274
You gave me, as they say, to Echion, the sown man. Kadmo
1275
What son did you bear to your husband in the house? Agave
1276
Pentheus, from my union with his father. Kadmo
1277
Whose head do you hold in your hands? Agave
1278
A lion’s, as they who hunted him down said. Kadmo
1279
Examine it correctly then; it takes but little effort to see. Agave
1280
Ah! What do I see? What is this that I carry in my hands? Kadmo

1297
Being insulted with insolence, for you did not consider him a god. Agave

1330
. . . changing your form, you will become a dragon, and your wife, Harmonia, Ares’ daughter, whom you though mortal held in marriage, will be turned into a beast, and will receive in exchange the form of a serpent. And as the oracle of Zeus says, you will drive along with your wife a chariot of heifers, ruling over barbarians.
134
1
That is what I, Dionysus, born not from a mortal father, but from Zeus, say. And if you had known how to be wise when you did not wish to be, you would have acquired Zeus’ son as an ally, and would now be happy. Kadmo

1345
You have learned it too late; you did not know it when you should have. Kadmo
1346
Now we know, but you go too far against us. Dionysu

1349
My father Zeus approved this long ago. Agave ' None
31. Euripides, Hippolytus, 145-147, 612, 953 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aelius Dionysus • Dionysos • Dionysus • Dionysus, as “releaser” • Dionysus, oaths sworn by • women and Dionysus • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi and Dionysus

 Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 69; Faraone (1999), Ancient Greek Love Magic, 47; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 145; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 325; Peels (2016), Hosios: A Semantic Study of Greek Piety, 238; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 110, 246, 292

sup>
145 †σὺ δ'† ἀμφὶ τὰν πολύθη-"146 ρον Δίκτυνναν ἀμπλακίαις 147 ἀνίερος ἀθύτων πελάνων τρύχῃ;' "
612
ἡ γλῶσς' ὀμώμοχ', ἡ δὲ φρὴν ἀνώμοτος." "
953
σίτοις καπήλευ' ̓Ορφέα τ' ἄνακτ' ἔχων" "' None
sup>
145 Or maybe thou hast sinned against Dictynna, huntress-queen, and art wasting for thy guilt in sacrifice unoffered. For she doth range o’er lakes’ expanse and past the bounds of earth'146 Or maybe thou hast sinned against Dictynna, huntress-queen, and art wasting for thy guilt in sacrifice unoffered. For she doth range o’er lakes’ expanse and past the bounds of earth
612
My tongue an oath did take, but not my heart. Nurse
953
Thy boasts will never persuade me to be guilty of attributing ignorance to gods. Go then, vaunt thyself, and drive1 Hippolytus is here taunted with being an exponent of the Orphic mysteries. Apparently Orpheus, like Pythagoras, taught the necessity of total abstinence from animal food. thy petty trade in viands formed of lifeless food; take Orpheus for thy chief and go a-revelling, with all honour for the vapourings of many a written scroll, ' None
32. Euripides, Ion, 714-718 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo, Dionysus, association with • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos Laphystios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Sabos • Dionysos, Dionysos komastes κωμαστής • Dionysos, Dionysos mystes • Dionysos, Dionysos narthekophoros • Dionysos, Dionysos nyktipolos • Dionysos, Dionysos thiasotes • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos,miracles • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 48, 63, 110, 175, 273, 291; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 157

sup>
714 ἰὼ δειράδες Παρνασοῦ πέτρας'715 ἔχουσαι σκόπελον οὐράνιόν θ' ἕδραν," '716 ἵνα Βάκχιος ἀμφιπύρους ἀνέχων πεύκας 717 λαιψηρὰ πηδᾷ νυκτιπόλοις ἅμα σὺν Βάκχαις,' '" None
sup>
714 Ho! ye peaks of Parnassu'715 that rear your rocky heads to heaven, where Bacchus with uplifted torch of blazing pine bounds nimbly amid his bacchanals, that range by night! Never to my city come this boy! ' None
33. Euripides, Iphigenia At Aulis, 948-954 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus, oaths invoking • Dionysus, oaths sworn by

 Found in books: Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 152; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 324

sup>
948 I a thing of nothing, and Menelaus counting for a man! No son of Peleus I, but the issue of a vengeful fiend, if my name shall Reading φονεύσει with Schäfer. serve your husband for the murder. No! by Nereus, who begot my mother Thetis, in his home amid the flowing waves,'949 I a thing of nothing, and Menelaus counting for a man! No son of Peleus I, but the issue of a vengeful fiend, if my name shall Reading φονεύσει with Schäfer. serve your husband for the murder. No! by Nereus, who begot my mother Thetis, in his home amid the flowing waves, 950 never shall king Agamemnon touch your daughter, no! not even to the laying of a finger-tip upon her robe; or Sipylus A mountain in Lycia , near which was shown the grave of Tantalus, the ancestor of the Atridae; the town of the same name was swallowed up in very early times by an earthquake. , that frontier town of barbarism, the cradle of those chieftains’ line, will be henceforth a city indeed, while Phthia ’s name will nowhere find mention. ' None
34. Euripides, Phoenician Women, 685-686, 784-785 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ares, Dionysus and • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Epaphios/Epaphian • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Nyktelios • Dionysos, Dionysos Thriambos • Dionysos, Dionysos choragos/choreutas/philochoreutas • Dionysos, Dionysos eriboas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribremetas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysus, Ares and • Dionysus, Hermes and • Dionysus, masks of • Hermes, Dionysus and • Parthenon, east frieze, Dionysus on • Zeus as father of Dionysus • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • masks, of Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 376, 431; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 149; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 292

sup>
685 Δαμάτηρ θεά,'686 πάντων ἄνασσα, πάντων δὲ Γᾶ τροφός,' "
784
ὦ πολύμοχθος ̓́Αρης, τί ποθ' αἵματι" '785 καὶ θανάτῳ κατέχῃ Βρομίου παράμουσος ἑορταῖς; ' None
sup>
685 goddess Demeter the queen of all, Earth the nurse of all, won it for themselves; send to the help of this land those torch-bearing goddesses; for to gods all things are easy. Eteocles to an attendant'686 goddess Demeter the queen of all, Earth the nurse of all, won it for themselves; send to the help of this land those torch-bearing goddesses; for to gods all things are easy. Eteocles to an attendant
784
O Ares, god of much suffering! Why, why are you possessed by a love of blood and 785 death, out of harmony with the festivals of Bromius? Not for young girls crowned in the lovely dance do you toss your curls, singing to the flute’s breath a song to charm the dancers’ feet; no, with warriors clad in armor you inspire the Argive army with a lust ' None
35. Herodotus, Histories, 1.23-1.24, 1.44, 2.29, 2.38, 2.40-2.45, 2.47-2.49, 2.52-2.54, 2.59, 2.81-2.82, 2.123, 2.144-2.146, 2.156, 2.171, 3.8, 3.97, 4.36, 4.76-4.80, 5.7, 5.67, 6.137, 9.34 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, Dionysus and • Athens, Dionysus and Dionysian festivals in • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Bacchus/Dionysus • Boeotia, Dionysus and • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos Axie taure • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos Epaphios/Epaphian • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Eiraphiotes • Dionysos, Eleuthereus • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, Melpomenos • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, birth • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus (Bacchus) • Dionysus (god and cult) • Dionysus, Artemis and • Dionysus, Hera and • Dionysus, alien qualities of • Dionysus, as conqueror • Dionysus, as vegetation deity • Dionysus, birth (and rebirth) of • Dionysus, cult and rites • Dionysus, dismemberment and death of • Dionysus, ecstasy/ enthusiasm/madness, association with • Dionysus, festivals of • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus, maenads and • Dionysus, of Borysthenes • Dionysus, of Ethiopia • Dionysus, of Scythia • Dionysus, origins and development • Dionysus, wine, as god of • Dionysus, youth, portrayal as • Dionysus,birth • Festivals, of Dionysus • Hera, Dionysus and • Herodotos, on Orphic-Bacchic cults • Hittite deities, Dionysus and • Homer, Dionysus and • Leotykhidas, Lerna, Demeter and Dionysos at • Proitids, and Dionysos • Thrace, Dionysus associated with • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, and theatre • cults, of Dionysus • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • death of Dionysus • ecstasy/enthusiasm/madness, association of Dionysus with • enthusiasm/ecstasy/madness, association of Dionysus with • madness/ecstasy/enthusiasm, association of Dionysus with • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac • vegetation deities, Dionysus as • wine, Dionysus as god of

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 135; Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 14, 44; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 46, 49, 134, 148, 154, 252, 253, 261, 273, 352, 422, 423, 426, 563; Bierl (2017), Time and Space in Ancient Myth, Religion and Culture, 211; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 871; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 145; Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 70, 142; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 17; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 13, 151, 372; Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 161; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 76; Gygax (2016), Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism, 103; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 261; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 659; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 150, 169, 170, 277; Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 106; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 110; McClay (2023), The Bacchic Gold Tablets and Poetic Tradition: Memory and Performance. 79; Mikalson (2003), Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars, 146, 173, 175, 178, 180, 183, 184, 185, 236; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 235; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 42; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 22, 23; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 266; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 41, 166, 318, 322; Stavrianopoulou (2013), Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images, 124; Torok (2014), Herodotus In Nubia, 37; Zanker (1996), The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity, 19; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 128; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 51, 66, 161, 162, 167

sup>
1.23 Περίανδρος δὲ ἦν Κυψέλου παῖς οὗτος ὁ τῷ Θρασυβούλῳ τὸ χρηστήριον μηνύσας· ἐτυράννευε δὲ ὁ Περίανδρος Κορίνθου· τῷ δὴ λέγουσι Κορίνθιοι ʽὁμολογέουσι δέ σφι Λέσβιοἰ ἐν τῷ βίῳ θῶμα μέγιστον παραστῆναι, Ἀρίονα τὸν Μηθυμναῖον ἐπὶ δελφῖνος ἐξενειχθέντα ἐπὶ Ταίναρον, ἐόντα κιθαρῳδὸν τῶν τότε ἐόντων οὐδενὸς δεύτερον, καὶ διθύραμβον πρῶτον ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν ποιήσαντά τε καὶ ὀνομάσαντα καὶ διδάξαντα ἐν Κορίνθῳ. 1.24 τοῦτον τὸν Ἀρίονα λέγουσι, τὸν πολλὸν τοῦ χρόνου διατρίβοντα παρὰ Περιάνδρῳ ἐπιθυμῆσαι πλῶσαι ἐς Ἰταλίην τε καὶ Σικελίην, ἐργασάμενον δὲ χρήματα μεγάλα θελῆσαι ὀπίσω ἐς Κόρινθον ἀπικέσθαι. ὁρμᾶσθαι μέν νυν ἐκ Τάραντος, πιστεύοντα δὲ οὐδαμοῖσι μᾶλλον ἢ Κορινθίοισι μισθώσασθαι πλοῖον ἀνδρῶν Κορινθίων. τοὺς δὲ ἐν τῷ πελάγεϊ ἐπιβουλεύειν τὸν Ἀρίονα ἐκβαλόντας ἔχειν τὰ χρήματα. τὸν δὲ συνέντα τοῦτο λίσσεσθαι, χρήματα μὲν σφι προϊέντα, ψυχὴν δὲ παραιτεόμενον. οὔκων δὴ πείθειν αὐτὸν τούτοισι, ἀλλὰ κελεύειν τοὺς πορθμέας ἢ αὐτὸν διαχρᾶσθαί μιν, ὡς ἂν ταφῆς ἐν γῇ τύχῃ, ἢ ἐκπηδᾶν ἐς τὴν θάλασσαν τὴν ταχίστην· ἀπειληθέντα δὴ τὸν Ἀρίονα ἐς ἀπορίην παραιτήσασθαι, ἐπειδή σφι οὕτω δοκέοι, περιιδεῖν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ σκευῇ πάσῃ στάντα ἐν τοῖσι ἑδωλίοισι ἀεῖσαι· ἀείσας δὲ ὑπεδέκετο ἑωυτὸν κατεργάσασθαι. καὶ τοῖσι ἐσελθεῖν γὰρ ἡδονὴν εἰ μέλλοιεν ἀκούσεσθαι τοῦ ἀρίστου ἀνθρώπων ἀοιδοῦ, ἀναχωρῆσαι ἐκ τῆς πρύμνης ἐς μέσην νέα. τὸν δὲ ἐνδύντα τε πᾶσαν τὴν σκευὴν καὶ λαβόντα τὴν κιθάρην, στάντα ἐν τοῖσι ἑδωλίοισι διεξελθεῖν νόμον τὸν ὄρθιον, τελευτῶντος δὲ τοῦ νόμου ῥῖψαί μιν ἐς τὴν θάλασσαν ἑωυτὸν ὡς εἶχε σὺν τῇ σκευῇ πάσῃ. καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἀποπλέειν ἐς Κόρινθον, τὸν δὲ δελφῖνα λέγουσι ὑπολαβόντα ἐξενεῖκαι ἐπὶ Ταίναρον. ἀποβάντα δέ αὐτὸν χωρέειν ἐς Κόρινθον σὺν τῇ σκευῇ, καὶ ἀπικόμενον ἀπηγέεσθαι πᾶν τὸ γεγονός. Περίανδρον δὲ ὑπὸ ἀπιστίης Ἀρίονα μὲν ἐν φυλακῇ ἔχειν οὐδαμῇ μετιέντα, ἀνακῶς δὲ ἔχειν τῶν πορθμέων. ὡς δὲ ἄρα παρεῖναι αὐτούς, κληθέντας ἱστορέεσθαι εἴ τι λέγοιεν περὶ Ἀρίονος. φαμένων δὲ ἐκείνων ὡς εἴη τε σῶς περὶ Ἰταλίην καί μιν εὖ πρήσσοντα λίποιεν ἐν Τάραντι, ἐπιφανῆναί σφι τὸν Ἀρίονα ὥσπερ ἔχων ἐξεπήδησε· καὶ τοὺς ἐκπλαγέντας οὐκ ἔχειν ἔτι ἐλεγχομένους ἀρνέεσθαι. ταῦτα μέν νυν Κορίνθιοί τε καὶ Λέσβιοι λέγουσι, καὶ Ἀρίονος ἐστὶ ἀνάθημα χάλκεον οὐ μέγα ἐπὶ Ταινάρῳ, ἐπὶ δελφῖνος ἐπὲων ἄνθρωπος.
1.44
ὁ δὲ Κροῖσος τῳ θανάτῳ τοῦ παιδὸς συντεταραγμένος μᾶλλον τι ἐδεινολογέετο ὅτι μιν ἀπέκτεινε τὸν αὐτὸς φόνου ἐκάθηρε· περιημεκτέων δὲ τῇ συμφορῇ δεινῶς ἐκάλεε μὲν Δία καθάρσιον μαρτυρόμενος τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ ξείνου πεπονθὼς εἴη ἐκάλεε δὲ ἐπίστιόν τε καὶ ἑταιρήιον, τὸν αὐτὸν τοῦτον ὀνομάζων θεόν, τὸν μὲν ἐπίστιον καλέων, διότι δὴ οἰκίοισι ὑποδεξάμενος τὸν ξεῖνον φονέα τοῦ παιδὸς ἐλάνθανε βόσκων, τὸν δὲ ἑταιρήιον, ὡς φύλακα συμπέμψας αὐτὸν εὑρήκοι πολεμιώτατον.
2.29
ἄλλου δὲ οὐδενὸς οὐδὲν ἐδυνάμην πυθέσθαι. ἀλλὰ τοσόνδε μὲν ἄλλο ἐπὶ μακρότατον ἐπυθόμην, μέχρι μὲν Ἐλεφαντίνης πόλιος αὐτόπτης ἐλθών, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου ἀκοῇ ἤδη ἱστορέων. ἀπὸ Ἐλεφαντίνης πόλιος ἄνω ἰόντι ἄναντες ἐστὶ χωρίον· ταύτῃ ὦν δεῖ τὸ πλοῖον διαδήσαντας ἀμφοτέρωθεν κατά περ βοῦν πορεύεσθαι· ἢν δὲ ἀπορραγῇ τὸ πλοῖον οἴχεται φερόμενον ὑπὸ ἰσχύος τοῦ ῥόου. τὸ δὲ χωρίον τοῦτο ἐστὶ ἐπʼ ἡμέρας τέσσερας πλόος, σκολιὸς δὲ ταύτῃ κατά περ ὁ Μαίανδρος ἐστὶ ὁ Νεῖλος· σχοῖνοι δὲ δυώδεκα εἰσὶ οὗτοι τοὺς δεῖ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ διεκπλῶσαι. καὶ ἔπειτα ἀπίξεαι ἐς πεδίον λεῖον, ἐν τῷ νῆσον περιρρέει ὁ Νεῖλος· Ταχομψὼ οὔνομα αὐτῇ ἐστι. οἰκέουσι δὲ τὰ ἀπὸ Ἐλεφαντίνης ἄνω Αἰθίοπες ἤδη καὶ τῆς νήσου τὸ ἥμισυ, τὸ δὲ ἥμισυ Αἰγύπτιοι. ἔχεται δὲ τῆς νήσου λίμνην μεγάλη, τὴν πέριξ νομάδες Αἰθίοπες νέμονται· τὴν διεκπλώσας ἐς τοῦ Νείλου τὸ ῥέεθρον ἥξεις, τὸ ἐς τὴν λίμνην ταύτην ἐκδιδοῖ. καὶ ἔπειτα ἀποβὰς παρὰ τὸν ποταμὸν ὁδοιπορίην ποιήσεαι ἡμερέων τεσσεράκοντα· σκόπελοί τε γὰρ ἐν τῷ Νείλῳ ὀξέες ἀνέχουσι καὶ χοιράδες πολλαί εἰσι, διʼ ὧν οὐκ οἷά τε ἐστὶ πλέειν. διεξελθὼν δὲ ἐν τῇσι τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρῃσι τοῦτο τὸ χωρίον, αὖτις ἐς ἕτερον πλοῖον ἐσβὰς δυώδεκα ἡμέρας πλεύσεαι, καὶ ἔπειτα ἥξεις ἐς πόλιν μεγάλην τῇ οὔνομα ἐστὶ Μερόη· λέγεται δὲ αὕτη ἡ πόλις εἶναι μητρόπολις τῶν ἄλλων Αἰθιόπων. οἱ δʼ ἐν ταύτῃ Δία θεῶν καὶ Διόνυσον μούνους σέβονται, τούτους τε μεγάλως τιμῶσι, καί σφι μαντήιον Διὸς κατέστηκε· στρατεύονται δὲ ἐπεάν σφεας ὁ θεὸς οὗτος κελεύῃ διὰ θεσπισμάτων, καὶ τῇ ἂν κελεύῃ, ἐκεῖσε.
2.38
τοὺς δὲ βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας τοῦ Ἐπάφου εἶναι νομίζουσι, καὶ τούτου εἵνεκα δοκιμάζουσι αὐτοὺς ὧδε· τρίχα ἢν καὶ μίαν ἴδηται ἐπεοῦσαν μέλαιναν, οὐ καθαρὸν εἶναι νομίζει. δίζηται δὲ ταῦτα ἐπὶ τούτῳ τεταγμένος τῶν τις ἱρέων καὶ ὀρθοῦ ἑστεῶτος τοῦ κτήνεος καὶ ὑπτίου, καὶ τὴν γλῶσσαν ἐξειρύσας, εἰ καθαρὴ τῶν προκειμένων σημηίων, τὰ ἐγὼ ἐν ἄλλῳ λόγῳ ἐρέω· κατορᾷ δὲ καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῆς οὐρῆς εἰ κατὰ φύσιν ἔχει πεφυκυίας. ἢν δὲ τούτων πάντων ᾖ καθαρός, σημαίνεται βύβλῳ περὶ τὰ κέρεα εἱλίσσων καὶ ἔπειτα γῆν σημαντρίδα ἐπιπλάσας ἐπιβάλλει τὸν δακτύλιον, καὶ οὕτω ἀπάγουσι. ἀσήμαντον δὲ θύσαντι θάνατος ἡ ζημίη ἐπικέεται. δοκιμάζεται μέν νυν τὸ κτῆνος τρόπῳ τοιῷδε, θυσίη δέ σφι ἥδε κατέστηκε.
2.40
ἡ δὲ δὴ ἐξαίρεσις τῶν ἱρῶν καὶ ἡ καῦσις ἄλλη περὶ ἄλλο ἱρόν σφι κατέστηκε· τὴν δʼ ὦν μεγίστην τε δαίμονα ἥγηνται εἶναι καὶ μεγίστην οἱ ὁρτὴν ἀνάγουσι, ταύτην ἔρχομαι ἐρέων ἐπεὰν ἀποδείρωσι τὸν βοῦν, κατευξάμενοι κοιλίην μὲν κείνην πᾶσαν ἐξ ὦν εἷλον, σπλάγχνά δὲ αὐτοῦ λείπουσι ἐν τῷ σώματι καὶ τὴν πιμελήν, σκέλεα δὲ ἀποτάμνουσι καὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν ἄκρην καὶ τοὺς ὤμους τε καὶ τὸν τράχηλον. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τὸ ἄλλο σῶμα τοῦ βοὸς πιμπλᾶσι ἄρτων καθαρῶν καὶ μέλιτος καὶ ἀσταφίδος καὶ σύκων καὶ λιβανωτοῦ καὶ σμύρνης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων θυωμάτων, πλήσαντες δὲ τούτων καταγίζουσι, ἔλαιον ἄφθονον καταχέοντες· προνηστεύσαντες δὲ θύουσι, καιομένων δὲ τῶν ἱρῶν τύπτονται πάντες, ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀποτύψωνται, δαῖτα προτίθενται τὰ ἐλίποντο τῶν ἱρῶν. 2.41 τοὺς μέν νυν καθαροὺς βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας καὶ τοὺς μόσχους οἱ πάντες Αἰγύπτιοι θύουσι, τὰς δὲ θηλέας οὔ σφι ἔξεστι θύειν, ἀλλὰ ἱραί εἰσι τῆς Ἴσιος· τὸ γὰρ τῆς Ἴσιος ἄγαλμα ἐὸν γυναικήιον βούκερων ἐστὶ κατά περ Ἕλληνες τὴν Ἰοῦν γράφουσι, καὶ τὰς βοῦς τὰς θηλέας Αἰγύπτιοι πάντες ὁμοίως σέβονται προβάτων πάντων μάλιστα μακρῷ. τῶν εἵνεκα οὔτε ἀνὴρ Αἰγύπτιος οὔτε γυνὴ ἄνδρα Ἕλληνα φιλήσειε ἂν τῷ στόματι, οὐδὲ μαχαίρῃ ἀνδρὸς Ἕλληνος χρήσεται οὐδὲ ὀβελοῖσι οὐδὲ λέβητι, οὐδὲ κρέως καθαροῦ βοὸς διατετμημένου Ἑλληνικῇ μαχαίρῃ γεύσεται. θάπτουσι δὲ τοὺς ἀποθνήσκοντας βοῦς τρόπον τόνδε· τὰς μὲν θηλέας ἐς τὸν ποταμὸν ἀπιεῖσι, τοὺς δὲ ἔρσενας κατορύσσουσι ἕκαστοι ἐν τοῖσι προαστείοισι, τὸ κέρας τὸ ἕτερον ἢ καὶ ἀμφότερα ὑπερέχοντα σημηίου εἵνεκεν· ἐπεὰν δὲ σαπῇ καὶ προσίῃ ὁ τεταγμένος χρόνος, ἀπικνέεται ἐς ἑκάστην πόλιν βᾶρις ἐκ τῆς Προσωπίτιδος καλευμένης νήσου. ἣ δʼ ἔστι μὲν ἐν τῷ Δέλτα, περίμετρον δὲ αὐτῆς εἰσὶ σχοῖνοι ἐννέα. ἐν ταύτῃ ὦ τῇ Προσωπίτιδι νήσῳ ἔνεισι μὲν καὶ ἄλλαι πόλιες συχναί, ἐκ τῆς δὲ αἱ βάριες παραγίνονται ἀναιρησόμεναι τὰ ὀστέα τῶν βοῶν, οὔνομα τῇ πόλι Ἀτάρβηχις, ἐν δʼ αὐτῇ Ἀφροδίτης ἱρὸν ἅγιον ἵδρυται. ἐκ ταύτης τῆς πόλιος πλανῶνται πολλοὶ ἄλλοι ἐς ἄλλας πόλις, ἀνορύξαντες δὲ τὰ ὀστέα ἀπάγουσι καὶ θάπτουσι ἐς ἕνα χῶρον πάντες. κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ τοῖσι βουσὶ καὶ τἆλλα κτήνεα θάπτουσι ἀποθνήσκοντα· καὶ γὰρ περὶ ταῦτα οὕτω σφι νενομοθέτηται· κτείνουσι γὰρ δὴ οὐδὲ ταῦτα. 2.42 ὅσοι μὲν δὴ Διὸς Θηβαιέος ἵδρυνται ἱρὸν ἤ νομοῦ τοῦ Θηβαίου εἰσί, οὗτοι μέν νυν πάντες ὀίων ἀπεχόμενοι αἶγας θύουσι. θεοὺς γὰρ δὴ οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς ἅπαντες ὁμοίως Αἰγύπτιοι σέβονται, πλὴν Ἴσιός τε καὶ Ὀσίριος, τὸν δὴ Διόνυσον εἶναι λέγουσι· τούτους δὲ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες σέβονται. ὅσοι δὲ τοῦ Μένδητος ἔκτηνται ἱρὸν ἢ νομοῦ τοῦ Μενδησίου εἰσί, οὗτοι δὲ αἰγῶν ἀπεχόμενοι ὄις θύουσι. Θηβαῖοι μέν νυν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ τούτους ὀίων ἀπέχονται, διὰ τάδε λέγουσι τὸν νόμον τόνδε σφίσι τεθῆναι. Ἡρακλέα θελῆσαι πάντως ἰδέσθαι τὸν Δία, καὶ τὸν οὐκ ἐθέλειν ὀφθῆναι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· τέλος δέ, ἐπείτε λιπαρέειν τὸν Ἡρακλέα, τάδε τὸν Δία μηχανήσασθαι· κριὸν ἐκδείραντα προσχέσθαι τε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποταμόντα τοῦ κριοῦ καὶ ἐνδύντα τὸ νάκος οὕτω οἱ ἑωυτὸν ἐπιδέξαι. ἀπὸ τούτου κριοπρόσωπον τοῦ Διὸς τὤγαλμα ποιεῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, ἀπὸ δὲ Αἰγυπτίων Ἀμμώνιοι, ἐόντες Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων ἄποικοι καὶ φωνὴν μεταξὺ ἀμφοτέρων νομίζοντες. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ τὸ οὔνομα Ἀμμώνιοι ἀπὸ τοῦδε σφίσι τὴν ἐπωνυμίην ἐποιήσαντο· Ἀμοῦν γὰρ Αἰγύπτιοι καλέουσι τὸν Δία. τοὺς δὲ κριοὺς οὐ θύουσι Θηβαῖοι, ἀλλʼ εἰσί σφι ἱροὶ διὰ τοῦτο. μιῇ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, ἐν ὁρτῇ τοῦ Διός, κριὸν ἕνα κατακόψαντες καὶ ἀποδείραντες κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἐνδύουσι τὤγαλμα τοῦ Διός, καὶ ἔπειτα ἄλλο ἄγαλμα Ἡρακλέος προσάγουσι πρὸς αὐτό. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τύπτονται οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱρὸν ἅπαντες τὸν κριὸν καὶ ἔπειτα ἐν ἱρῇ θήκῃ θάπτουσι αὐτόν. 2.43 Ἡρακλέος δὲ πέρι τόνδε τὸν λόγον ἤκουσα, ὅτι εἴη τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν· τοῦ ἑτέρου δὲ πέρι Ἡρακλέος, τὸν Ἕλληνες οἴδασι, οὐδαμῇ Αἰγύπτου ἐδυνάσθην ἀκοῦσαι. καὶ μὴν ὅτι γε οὐ παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον τὸ οὔνομα Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦ Ἡρακλέος, ἀλλὰ Ἕλληνες μᾶλλον παρʼ Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Ἑλλήνων οὗτοι οἱ θέμενοι τῷ Ἀμφιτρύωνος γόνῳ τοὔνομα Ἡρακλέα, πολλά μοι καὶ ἄλλα τεκμήρια ἐστὶ τοῦτο οὕτω ἔχειν, ἐν δὲ καὶ τόδε, ὅτι τε τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τούτου οἱ γονέες ἀμφότεροι ἦσαν Ἀμφιτρύων καὶ Ἀλκμήνη γεγονότες τὸ ἀνέκαθεν ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ διότι Αἰγύπτιοι οὔτε Ποσειδέωνος οὔτε Διοσκούρων τὰ οὐνόματα φασὶ εἰδέναι, οὐδέ σφι θεοὶ οὗτοι ἐν τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι ἀποδεδέχαται. καὶ μὴν εἴ γε παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον οὔνομά τευ δαίμονος, τούτων οὐκ ἥκιστα ἀλλὰ μάλιστα ἔμελλον μνήμην ἕξειν, εἴ περ καὶ τότε ναυτιλίῃσι ἐχρέωντο καὶ ἦσαν Ἑλλήνων τινὲς ναυτίλοι, ὡς ἔλπομαί τε καὶ ἐμὴ γνώμη αἱρέει· ὥστε τούτων ἂν καὶ μᾶλλον τῶν θεῶν τὰ οὐνόματα ἐξεπιστέατο Αἰγύπτιοι ἢ τοῦ Ἡρακλέος. ἀλλά τις ἀρχαῖος ἐστὶ θεὸς Αἰγυπτίοισι Ἡρακλέης· ὡς δὲ αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, ἔτεα ἐστὶ ἑπτακισχίλια καὶ μύρια ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλεύσαντα, ἐπείτε ἐκ τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν οἱ δυώδεκα θεοὶ ἐγένοντο τῶν Ἡρακλέα ἕνα νομίζουσι. 2.44 καὶ θέλων δὲ τούτων πέρι σαφές τι εἰδέναι ἐξ ὧν οἷόν τε ἦν, ἔπλευσα καὶ ἐς Τύρον τῆς Φοινίκης, πυνθανόμενος αὐτόθι εἶναι ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἅγιον. καὶ εἶδον πλουσίως κατεσκευασμένον ἄλλοισί τε πολλοῖσι ἀναθήμασι, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἦσαν στῆλαι δύο, ἣ μὲν χρυσοῦ ἀπέφθου, ἣ δὲ σμαράγδου λίθου λάμποντος τὰς νύκτας μέγαθος. ἐς λόγους δὲ ἐλθὼν τοῖσι ἱρεῦσι τοῦ θεοῦ εἰρόμην ὁκόσος χρόνος εἴη ἐξ οὗ σφι τὸ ἱρὸν ἵδρυται. εὗρον δὲ οὐδὲ τούτους τοῖσι Ἕλλησι συμφερομένους· ἔφασαν γὰρ ἅμα Τύρῳ οἰκιζομένῃ καὶ τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἱδρυθῆναι, εἶναι δὲ ἔτεα ἀπʼ οὗ Τύρον οἰκέουσι τριηκόσια καὶ δισχίλια. εἶδον δὲ ἐν τῇ Τύρῳ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντος Θασίου εἶναι· ἀπικόμην δὲ καὶ ἐς Θάσον, ἐν τῇ εὗρον ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ὑπὸ Φοινίκων ἱδρυμένον, οἳ κατʼ Εὐρώπης ζήτησιν ἐκπλώσαντες Θάσον ἔκτισαν· καὶ ταῦτα καὶ πέντε γενεῇσι ἀνδρῶν πρότερα ἐστὶ ἢ τὸν Ἀμφιτρύωνος Ἡρακλέα ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι γενέσθαι. τὰ μέν νυν ἱστορημένα δηλοῖ σαφέως παλαιὸν θεὸν Ἡρακλέα ἐόντα, καὶ δοκέουσι δέ μοι οὗτοι ὀρθότατα Ἑλλήνων ποιέειν, οἳ διξὰ Ἡράκλεια ἱδρυσάμενοι ἔκτηνται, καὶ τῷ μὲν ὡς ἀθανάτῳ Ὀλυμπίῳ δὲ ἐπωνυμίην θύουσι, τῷ δὲ ἑτέρῳ ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζουσι. 2.45 λέγουσι δὲ πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα ἀνεπισκέπτως οἱ Ἕλληνες, εὐήθης δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ ὅδε ὁ μῦθος ἐστὶ τὸν περὶ τοῦ Ἡρακλέος λέγουσι, ὡς αὐτὸν ἀπικόμενον ἐς Αἴγυπτον στέψαντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ὑπὸ πομπῆς ἐξῆγον ὡς θύσοντες τῷ Διί· τὸν δὲ τέως μὲν ἡσυχίην ἔχειν, ἐπεὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τῷ βωμῷ κατάρχοντο, ἐς ἀλκὴν τραπόμενον πάντας σφέας καταφονεῦσαι. ἐμοὶ μέν νυν δοκέουσι ταῦτα λέγοντες τῆς Αἰγυπτίων φύσιος καὶ τῶν νόμων πάμπαν ἀπείρως ἔχειν οἱ Ἕλληνες· τοῖσι γὰρ οὐδὲ κτήνεα ὁσίη θύειν ἐστὶ χωρὶς ὑῶν καὶ ἐρσένων βοῶν καὶ μόσχων, ὅσοι ἂν καθαροὶ ἔωσι, καὶ χηνῶν, κῶς ἂν οὗτοι ἀνθρώπους θύοιεν; ἔτι δὲ ἕνα ἐόντα τὸν Ἡρακλέα καὶ ἔτι ἄνθρωπον, ὡς δὴ φασί, κῶς φύσιν ἔχει πολλὰς μυριάδας φονεῦσαι; καὶ περὶ μὲν τούτων τοσαῦτα ἡμῖν εἰποῦσι καὶ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν καὶ παρὰ τῶν ἡρώων εὐμένεια εἴη.
2.47
ὗν δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι μιαρὸν ἥγηνται θηρίον εἶναι, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν ἤν τις ψαύσῃ αὐτῶν παριὼν αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἱματίοισι ἀπʼ ὦν ἔβαψε ἑωυτὸν βὰς ἐς τὸν ποταμόν· τοῦτο δὲ οἱ συβῶται ἐόντες Αἰγύπτιοι ἐγγενέες ἐς ἱρὸν οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἐσέρχονται μοῦνοι πάντων, οὐδέ σφι ἐκδίδοσθαι οὐδεὶς θυγατέρα ἐθέλει οὐδʼ ἄγεσθαι ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἀλλʼ ἐκδίδονταί τε οἱ συβῶται καὶ ἄγονται ἐξ ἀλλήλων. τοῖσι μέν νυν ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι θύειν ὗς οὐ δικαιοῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, Σελήνῃ δὲ καὶ Διονύσῳ μούνοισι τοῦ αὐτοῦ χρόνου, τῇ αὐτῇ πανσελήνῳ, τοὺς ὗς θύσαντες πατέονται τῶν κρεῶν. διότι δὲ τοὺς ὗς ἐν μὲν τῇσι ἄλλῃσι ὁρτῇσι ἀπεστυγήκασι ἐν δὲ ταύτῃ θύουσι, ἔστι μὲν λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων λεγόμενος, ἐμοὶ μέντοι ἐπισταμένῳ οὐκ εὐπρεπέστερος ἐστὶ λέγεσθαι. θυσίη δὲ ἥδε τῶν ὑῶν τῇ Σελήνῃ ποιέεται· ἐπεὰν θύσῃ, τὴν οὐρὴν ἄκρην καὶ τὸν σπλῆνα καὶ τὸν ἐπίπλοον συνθεὶς ὁμοῦ κατʼ ὦν ἐκάλυψε πάσῃ τοῦ κτήνεος τῇ πιμελῇ τῇ περὶ τὴν νηδὺν γινομένῃ, καὶ ἔπειτα καταγίζει πυρί· τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα σιτέονται ἐν τῇ πανσελήνῳ ἐν τῇ ἂν τὰ ἱρὰ θύσωσι, ἐν ἄλλῃ δὲ ἡμέρῃ οὐκ ἂν ἔτι γευσαίατο. οἱ δὲ πένητες αὐτῶν ὑπʼ ἀσθενείης βίου σταιτίνας πλάσαντες ὗς καὶ ὀπτήσαντες ταύτας θύουσι. 2.48 τῷ δὲ Διονύσῳ τῆς ὁρτῆς τῇ δορπίῃ χοῖρον πρὸ τῶν θυρέων σφάξας ἕκαστος διδοῖ ἀποφέρεσθαι τὸν χοῖρον αὐτῷ τῷ ἀποδομένῳ τῶν συβωτέων. τὴν δὲ ἄλλην ἀνάγουσι ὁρτὴν τῷ Διονύσῳ οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι πλὴν χορῶν κατὰ ταὐτὰ σχεδὸν πάντα Ἕλλησι· ἀντὶ δὲ φαλλῶν ἄλλα σφι ἐστὶ ἐξευρημένα, ὅσον τε πηχυαῖα ἀγάλματα νευρόσπαστα, τὰ περιφορέουσι κατὰ κώμας γυναῖκες, νεῦον τὸ αἰδοῖον, οὐ πολλῷ τεῳ ἔλασσον ἐὸν τοῦ ἄλλου σώματος· προηγέεται δὲ αὐλός, αἳ δὲ ἕπονται ἀείδουσαι τὸν Διόνυσον. διότι δὲ μέζον τε ἔχει τὸ αἰδοῖον καὶ κινέει μοῦνον τοῦ σώματος, ἔστι λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ ἱρὸς λεγόμενος. 2.49 ἤδη ὦν δοκέει μοι Μελάμπους ὁ Ἀμυθέωνος τῆς θυσίης ταύτης οὐκ εἶναι ἀδαὴς ἀλλʼ ἔμπειρος. Ἕλλησι γὰρ δὴ Μελάμπους ἐστὶ ὁ ἐξηγησάμενος τοῦ Διονύσου τό τε οὔνομα καὶ τὴν θυσίην καὶ τὴν πομπὴν τοῦ φαλλοῦ· ἀτρεκέως μὲν οὐ πάντα συλλαβὼν τὸν λόγον ἔφηνε, ἀλλʼ οἱ ἐπιγενόμενοι τούτῳ σοφισταὶ μεζόνως ἐξέφηναν· τὸν δʼ ὦν φαλλὸν τὸν τῷ Διονύσῳ πεμπόμενον Μελάμπους ἐστὶ ὁ κατηγησάμενος, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου μαθόντες ποιεῦσι τὰ ποιεῦσι Ἕλληνες. ἐγὼ μέν νυν φημὶ Μελάμποδα γενόμενον ἄνδρα σοφὸν μαντικήν τε ἑωυτῷ συστῆσαι καὶ πυθόμενον ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἄλλα τε πολλὰ ἐσηγήσασθαι Ἕλλησι καὶ τὰ περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον, ὀλίγα αὐτῶν παραλλάξαντα. οὐ γὰρ δὴ συμπεσεῖν γε φήσω τά τε ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ποιεύμενα τῷ θεῷ καὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖσι Ἕλλησι· ὁμότροπα γὰρ ἂν ἦν τοῖσι Ἕλλησι καὶ οὐ νεωστὶ ἐσηγμένα. οὐ μὲν οὐδὲ φήσω ὅκως Αἰγύπτιοι παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον ἢ τοῦτο ἢ ἄλλο κού τι νόμαιον. πυθέσθαι δέ μοι δοκέει μάλιστα Μελάμπους τὰ περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον παρὰ Κάδμου τε τοῦ Τυρίου καὶ τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ Φοινίκης ἀπικομένων ἐς τὴν νῦν Βοιωτίην καλεομένην χώρην.
2.52
ἔθυον δὲ πάντα πρότερον οἱ Πελασγοὶ θεοῖσι ἐπευχόμενοι, ὡς ἐγὼ ἐν Δωδώνῃ οἶδα ἀκούσας, ἐπωνυμίην δὲ οὐδʼ οὔνομα ἐποιεῦντο οὐδενὶ αὐτῶν· οὐ γὰρ ἀκηκόεσάν κω. θεοὺς δὲ προσωνόμασαν σφέας ἀπὸ τοῦ τοιούτου, ὅτι κόσμῳ θέντες τὰ πάντα πρήγματα καὶ πάσας νομὰς εἶχον. ἔπειτα δὲ χρόνου πολλοῦ διεξελθόντος ἐπύθοντο ἐκ τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἀπικόμενα τὰ οὐνόματα τῶν θεῶν τῶν ἄλλων, Διονύσου δὲ ὕστερον πολλῷ ἐπύθοντο. καὶ μετὰ χρόνον ἐχρηστηριάζοντο περὶ τῶν οὐνομάτων ἐν Δωδώνῃ· τὸ γὰρ δὴ μαντήιον τοῦτο νενόμισται ἀρχαιότατον τῶν ἐν Ἕλλησι χρηστηρίων εἶναι, καὶ ἦν τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον μοῦνον. ἐπεὶ ὦν ἐχρηστηριάζοντο ἐν τῇ Δωδώνῃ οἱ Πελασγοὶ εἰ ἀνέλωνται τὰ οὐνόματα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἥκοντα, ἀνεῖλε τὸ μαντήιον χρᾶσθαι. ἀπὸ μὲν δὴ τούτου τοῦ χρόνου ἔθυον τοῖσι οὐνόμασι τῶν θεῶν χρεώμενοι· παρὰ δὲ Πελασγῶν Ἕλληνες ἐξεδέξαντο ὕστερον. 2.53 ἔνθεν δὲ ἐγένοντο ἕκαστος τῶν θεῶν, εἴτε αἰεὶ ἦσαν πάντες, ὁκοῖοί τε τινὲς τὰ εἴδεα, οὐκ ἠπιστέατο μέχρι οὗ πρώην τε καὶ χθὲς ὡς εἰπεῖν λόγῳ. Ἡσίοδον γὰρ καὶ Ὅμηρον ἡλικίην τετρακοσίοισι ἔτεσι δοκέω μευ πρεσβυτέρους γενέσθαι καὶ οὐ πλέοσι· οὗτοι δὲ εἰσὶ οἱ ποιήσαντες θεογονίην Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῖσι θεοῖσι τὰς ἐπωνυμίας δόντες καὶ τιμάς τε καὶ τέχνας διελόντες καὶ εἴδεα αὐτῶν σημήναντες. οἱ δὲ πρότερον ποιηταὶ λεγόμενοι τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν γενέσθαι ὕστερον, ἔμοιγε δοκέειν, ἐγένοντο. τούτων τὰ μὲν πρῶτα αἱ Δωδωνίδες ἱρεῖαι λέγουσι, τὰ δὲ ὕστερα τὰ ἐς Ἡσίοδόν τε καὶ Ὅμηρον ἔχοντα ἐγὼ λέγω. 2.54 χρηστηρίων δὲ πέρι τοῦ τε ἐν Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῦ ἐν Λιβύῃ τόνδε Αἰγύπτιοι λόγον λέγουσι. ἔφασαν οἱ ἱρέες τοῦ Θηβαιέος Διὸς δύο γυναῖκας ἱρείας ἐκ Θηβέων ἐξαχθῆναι ὑπὸ Φοινίκων, καὶ τὴν μὲν αὐτέων πυθέσθαι ἐς Λιβύην πρηθεῖσαν τὴν δὲ ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας· ταύτας δὲ τὰς γυναῖκας εἶναι τὰς ἱδρυσαμένας τὰ μαντήια πρώτας ἐν τοῖσι εἰρημένοισι ἔθνεσι. εἰρομένου δέ μευ ὁκόθεν οὕτω ἀτρεκέως ἐπιστάμενοι λέγουσι, ἔφασαν πρὸς ταῦτα ζήτησιν μεγάλην ἀπὸ σφέων γενέσθαι τῶν γυναικῶν τουτέων, καὶ ἀνευρεῖν μὲν σφέας οὐ δυνατοὶ γενέσθαι, πυθέσθαι δὲ ὕστερον ταῦτα περὶ αὐτέων τά περ δὴ ἔλεγον.
2.59
πανηγυρίζουσι δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι οὐκ ἅπαξ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, πανηγύρις δὲ συχνάς, μάλιστα μὲν καὶ προθυμότατα ἐς Βούβαστιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι, δεύτερα δὲ ἐς Βούσιριν πόλιν τῇ Ἴσι· ἐν ταύτῃ γὰρ δὴ τῇ πόλι ἐστὶ μέγιστον Ἴσιος ἱρόν, ἵδρυται δὲ ἡ πόλις αὕτη τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἐν μέσῳ τῷ Δέλτα· Ἶσις δὲ ἐστὶ κατὰ τὴν Ἑλλήνων γλῶσσαν Δημήτηρ. τρίτα δὲ ἐς Σάιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ πανηγυρίζουσι, τέταρτα δὲ ἐς Ἡλίου πόλιν τῷ Ἡλίω, πέμπτα δὲ ἐς Βουτοῦν πόλιν τῇ Λητοῖ, ἕκτα δὲ ἐς Πάπρημιν πόλιν τῷ Ἄρεϊ.
2.81
ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος. 2.82 καὶ τάδε ἄλλα Αἰγυπτίοισι ἐστὶ ἐξευρημένα, μείς τε καὶ ἡμέρη ἑκάστη θεῶν ὅτευ ἐστί, καὶ τῇ ἕκαστος ἡμέρῃ γενόμενος ὁτέοισι ἐγκυρήσει καὶ ὅκως τελευτήσει καὶ ὁκοῖός τις ἔσται. καὶ τούτοισι τῶν Ἑλλήνων οἱ ἐν ποιήσι γενόμενοι ἐχρήσαντο. τέρατά τε πλέω σφι ἀνεύρηται ἢ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι ἅπασι ἀνθρώποισι· γενομένου γὰρ τέρατος φυλάσσουσι γραφόμενοι τὠποβαῖνον, καὶ ἤν κοτε ὕστερον παραπλήσιον τούτῳ γένηται, κατὰ τὠυτὸ νομίζουσι ἀποβήσεσθαι.
2.123
τοῖσι μέν νυν ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων λεγομένοισι χράσθω ὅτεῳ τὰ τοιαῦτα πιθανά ἐστι· ἐμοὶ δὲ παρὰ πάντα τὸν λόγον ὑπόκειται ὅτι τὰ λεγόμενα ὑπʼ ἑκάστων ἀκοῇ γράφω. ἀρχηγετέειν δὲ τῶν κάτω Αἰγύπτιοι λέγουσι Δήμητρα καὶ Διόνυσον. πρῶτοι δὲ καὶ τόνδε τὸν λόγον Αἰγύπτιοι εἰσὶ οἱ εἰπόντες, ὡς ἀνθρώπου ψυχὴ ἀθάνατος ἐστί, τοῦ σώματος δὲ καταφθίνοντος ἐς ἄλλο ζῷον αἰεὶ γινόμενον ἐσδύεται, ἐπεὰν δὲ πάντα περιέλθῃ τὰ χερσαῖα καὶ τὰ θαλάσσια καὶ τὰ πετεινά, αὖτις ἐς ἀνθρώπου σῶμα γινόμενον ἐσδύνει· τὴν περιήλυσιν δὲ αὐτῇ γίνεσθαι ἐν τρισχιλίοισι ἔτεσι. τούτῳ τῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶ οἳ Ἑλλήνων ἐχρήσαντο, οἳ μὲν πρότερον οἳ δὲ ὕστερον, ὡς ἰδίῳ ἑωυτῶν ἐόντι· τῶν ἐγὼ εἰδὼς τὰ οὐνόματα οὐ γράφω.
2.144
ἤδη ὦν τῶν αἱ εἰκόνες ἦσαν, τοιούτους ἀπεδείκνυσαν σφέας πάντας ἐόντας, θεῶν δὲ πολλὸν ἀπαλλαγμένους. τὸ δὲ πρότερον τῶν ἀνδρῶν τούτων θεοὺς εἶναι τοὺς ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἄρχοντας, οὐκ ἐόντας ἅμα τοῖσι ἀνθρώποισι, καὶ τούτων αἰεὶ ἕνα τὸν κρατέοντα εἶναι· ὕστατον δὲ αὐτῆς βασιλεῦσαι ὦρον τὸν Ὀσίριος παῖδα, τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα Ἕλληνες ὀνομάζουσι· τοῦτον καταπαύσαντα Τυφῶνα βασιλεῦσαι ὕστατον Αἰγύπτου. Ὄσιρις δὲ ἐστὶ Διόνυσος κατὰ Ἑλλάδα γλῶσσαν. 2.145 ἐν Ἕλλησι μέν νυν νεώτατοι τῶν θεῶν νομίζονται εἶναι Ἡρακλέης τε καὶ Διόνυσος καὶ Πάν, παρʼ Αἰγυπτίοισι δὲ Πὰν μὲν ἀρχαιότατος καὶ τῶν ὀκτὼ τῶν πρώτων λεγομένων θεῶν, Ἡρακλέης δὲ τῶν δευτέρων τῶν δυώδεκα λεγομένων εἶναι, Διόνυσος δὲ τῶν τρίτων, οἳ ἐκ τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν ἐγένοντο. Ἡρακλέι μὲν δὴ ὅσα αὐτοὶ Αἰγύπτιοι φασὶ εἶναι ἔτεα ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλέα, δεδήλωταί μοι πρόσθε· Πανὶ δὲ ἔτι τούτων πλέονα λέγεται εἶναι, Διονύσῳ δʼ ἐλάχιστα τούτων, καὶ τούτῳ πεντακισχίλια καὶ μύρια λογίζονται εἶναι ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλέα. καὶ ταῦτα Αἰγύπτιοι ἀτρεκέως φασὶ. ἐπίστασθαι, αἰεί τε λογιζόμενοι καὶ αἰεὶ ἀπογραφόμενοι τὰ ἔτεα. Διονύσῳ μέν νυν τῷ ἐκ Σεμέλης τῆς Κάδμου λεγομένῳ γενέσθαι κατὰ ἑξακόσια ἔτεα καὶ χίλια μάλιστα ἐστὶ ἐς ἐμέ, Ἡρακλέι δὲ τῷ Ἀλκμήνης κατὰ εἰνακόσια ἔτεα· Πανὶ δὲ τῷ ἐκ Πηνελόπης ʽἐκ ταύτης γὰρ καὶ Ἑρμέω λέγεται γενέσθαι ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων ὁ Πάν’ ἐλάσσω ἔτεα ἐστὶ τῶν Τρωικῶν, κατὰ ὀκτακόσια μάλιστα ἐς ἐμέ. 2.146 τούτων ὦν ἀμφοτέρων πάρεστι χρᾶσθαι τοῖσί τις πείσεται λεγομένοισι μᾶλλον· ἐμοὶ δʼ ὦν ἡ περὶ αὐτῶν γνώμη ἀποδέδεκται. εἰ μὲν γὰρ φανεροί τε ἐγένοντο καὶ κατεγήρασαν καὶ οὗτοι ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, κατά περ Ἡρακλέης ὁ ἐξ Ἀμφιτρύωνος γενόμενος, καὶ δὴ καὶ Διόνυσος ὁ ἐκ Σεμέλης καὶ Πὰν ὁ ἐκ Πηνελόπης γενόμενος, ἔφη ἄν τις καὶ τούτους ἄλλους ἄνδρας γενομένους ἔχειν τὰ ἐκείνων οὐνόματα τῶν προγεγονότων θεῶν. νῦν δὲ Διόνυσόν τε λέγουσι οἱ Ἕλληνες ὡς αὐτίκα γενόμενον ἐς τὸν μηρὸν ἐνερράψατο Ζεὺς καὶ ἤνεικε ἐς Νύσαν τὴν ὑπὲρ Αἰγύπτου ἐοῦσαν ἐν τῇ Αἰθιοπίῃ, καὶ Πανός γε πέρι οὐκ ἔχουσι εἰπεῖν ὅκῃ ἐτράπετο γενόμενος. δῆλά μοι γέγονε ὅτι ὕστερον ἐπύθοντο οἱ Ἕλληνες τούτων τὰ οὐνόματα ἢ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν· ἀπʼ οὗ δὲ ἐπύθοντο χρόνου, ἀπὸ τούτου γενεηλογέουσι αὐτῶν τὴν γένεσιν.
2.156
οὕτω μέν νυν ὁ νηὸς τῶν φανερῶν μοι τῶν περὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἱρὸν ἐστὶ θωμαστότατον, τῶν δὲ δευτέρων νῆσος ἡ Χέμμις καλευμένη· ἔστι μὲν ἐν λίμνῃ βαθέῃ καὶ πλατέῃ κειμένη παρὰ τὸ ἐν Βουτοῖ ἱρόν, λέγεται δὲ ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων εἶναι αὕτη ἡ νῆσος πλωτή. αὐτὸς μὲν ἔγωγε οὔτε πλέουσαν οὔτε κινηθεῖσαν εἶδον, τέθηπα δὲ ἀκούων εἰ νῆσος ἀληθέως ἐστὶ πλωτή. ἐν δὲ ὦν ταύτῃ νηός τε Ἀπόλλωνος μέγας ἔνι καὶ βωμοὶ τριφάσιοι ἐνιδρύαται, ἐμπεφύκασι δʼ ἐν αὐτῇ φοίνικες συχνοὶ καὶ ἄλλα δένδρεα καὶ καρποφόρα καὶ ἄφορα πολλά. λόγον δὲ τόνδε ἐπιλέγοντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι φασὶ εἶναι αὐτὴν πλωτήν, ὡς ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ οὐκ ἐούσῃ πρότερον πλωτῇ Λητώ, ἐοῦσα τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν τῶν πρώτων γενομένων, οἰκέουσα δὲ ἐν Βουτοῖ πόλι, ἵνα δή οἱ τὸ χρηστήριον τοῦτο ἐστί, Ἀπόλλωνα παρʼ Ἴσιος παρακαταθήκην δεξαμένη διέσωσε κατακρύψασα ἐν τῇ νῦν πλωτῇ λεγομένῃ νήσῳ, ὅτε τὸ πᾶν διζήμενος ὁ Τυφῶν ἐπῆλθε, θέλων ἐξευρεῖν τοῦ Ὀσίριος τὸν παῖδα. Ἀπόλλωνα δὲ καὶ Ἄρτεμιν Διονύσου καὶ Ἴσιος λέγουσι εἶναι παῖδας, Λητοῦν δὲ τροφὸν αὐτοῖσι καὶ σώτειραν γενέσθαι. Αἰγυπτιστὶ δὲ Ἀπόλλων μὲν Ὦρος, Δημήτηρ δὲ Ἶσις, Ἄρτεμις δὲ Βούβαστις. ἐκ τούτου δὲ τοῦ λόγου καὶ οὐδενὸς ἄλλου Αἰσχύλος ὁ Εὐφορίωνος ἥρπασε τὸ ἐγὼ φράσω, μοῦνος δὴ ποιητέων τῶν προγενομένων· ἐποίησε γὰρ Ἄρτεμιν εἶναι θυγατέρα Δήμητρος. τὴν δὲ νῆσον διὰ τοῦτο γενέσθαι πλωτήν. ταῦτα μὲν οὕτω λέγουσι.
2.171
ἐν δὲ τῇ λίμνῃ ταύτῃ τὰ δείκηλα τῶν παθέων αὐτοῦ νυκτὸς ποιεῦσι, τὰ καλέουσι μυστήρια Αἰγύπτιοι. περὶ μέν νυν τούτων εἰδότι μοι ἐπὶ πλέον ὡς ἕκαστα αὐτῶν ἔχει, εὔστομα κείσθω. καὶ τῆς Δήμητρος τελετῆς πέρι, τὴν οἱ Ἕλληνες θεσμοφόρια καλέουσι, καὶ ταύτης μοι πέρι εὔστομα κείσθω, πλὴν ὅσον αὐτῆς ὁσίη ἐστὶ λέγειν· αἱ Δαναοῦ θυγατέρες ἦσαν αἱ τὴν τελετὴν ταύτην ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐξαγαγοῦσαι καὶ διδάξασαι τὰς Πελασγιώτιδας γυναῖκας· μετὰ δὲ ἐξαναστάσης πάσης Πελοποννήσου 1 ὑπὸ Δωριέων ἐξαπώλετο ἡ τελετή, οἱ δὲ ὑπολειφθέντες Πελοποννησίων καὶ οὐκ ἐξαναστάντες Ἀρκάδες διέσωζον αὐτὴν μοῦνοι.
3.8
σέβονται δὲ Ἀράβιοι πίστις ἀνθρώπων ὅμοια τοῖσι μάλιστα, ποιεῦνται δὲ αὐτὰς τρόπῳ τοιῷδε· τῶν βουλομένων τὰ πιστὰ ποιέεσθαι ἄλλος ἀνήρ, ἀμφοτέρων αὐτῶν ἐν μέσῳ ἑστεώς, λίθῳ ὀξέι τὸ ἔσω τῶν χειρῶν παρὰ τοὺς δακτύλους τοὺς μεγάλους ἐπιτάμνει τῶν ποιευμένων τὰς πίστις, καὶ ἔπειτα λαβὼν ἐκ τοῦ ἱματίου ἑκατέρου κροκύδα ἀλείφει τῷ αἵματι ἐν μέσῳ κειμένους λίθους ἑπτά· τοῦτο δὲ ποιέων ἐπικαλέει τε τὸν Διόνυσον καὶ τὴν Οὐρανίην. ἐπιτελέσαντος δὲ τούτου ταῦτα, ὁ τὰς πίστις ποιησάμενος τοῖσι φίλοισι παρεγγυᾷ τὸν ξεῖνον ἢ καὶ τὸν ἀστόν, ἢν πρὸς ἀστὸν ποιέηται· οἱ δὲ φίλοι καὶ αὐτοὶ τὰς πίστις δικαιεῦσι σέβεσθαι. Διόνυσον δὲ θεῶν μοῦνον καὶ τὴν Οὐρανίην ἡγέονται εἶναι, καὶ τῶν τριχῶν τὴν κουρὴν κείρεσθαι φασὶ κατά περ αὐτὸν τὸν Διόνυσον κεκάρθαι· κείρονται δὲ περιτρόχαλα, ὑποξυρῶντες τοὺς κροτάφους. ὀνομάζουσι δὲ τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον Ὀροτάλτ, τὴν δὲ Οὐρανίην Ἀλιλάτ.
3.97
αὗται μὲν ἀρχαί τε ἦσαν καὶ φόρων ἐπιτάξιες. ἡ Περσὶς δὲ χώρη μούνη μοι οὐκ εἴρηται δασμοφόρος· ἀτελέα γὰρ Πέρσαι νέμονται χώρην. οἵδε δὲ φόρον μὲν οὐδένα ἐτάχθησαν φέρειν, δῶρα δὲ ἀγίνεον· Αἰθίοπες οἱ πρόσουροι Αἰγύπτῳ, τοὺς Καμβύσης ἐλαύνων ἐπὶ τοὺς μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας κατεστρέψατο, οἵ τε 1 περί τε Νύσην τὴν ἱρὴν κατοίκηνται καὶ τῷ Διονύσῳ ἀνάγουσι τὰς ὁρτάς· οὗτοι οἱ Αἰθίοπες καὶ οἱ πλησιόχωροι τούτοισι σπέρματι μὲν χρέωνται τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ καὶ οἱ Καλλαντίαι Ἰνδοί, οἰκήματα δὲ ἔκτηνται κατάγαια. 2 οὗτοι συναμφότεροι διὰ τρίτου ἔτεος ἀγίνεον, ἀγινέουσι δὲ καὶ τὸ μέχρι ἐμεῦ, δύο χοίνικας ἀπύρου χρυσίου καὶ διηκοσίας φάλαγγας ἐβένου καὶ πέντε παῖδας Αἰθίοπας καὶ ἐλέφαντος ὀδόντας μεγάλους εἴκοσι. Κόλχοι δὲ τὰ ἐτάξαντο ἐς τὴν δωρεὴν καὶ οἱ προσεχέες μέχρι Καυκάσιος ὄρεος ʽἐς τοῦτο γὰρ τὸ ὄρος ὑπὸ Πέρσῃσι ἄρχεται, τὰ δὲ πρὸς βορέην ἄνεμον τοῦ Καυκάσιος Περσέων οὐδὲν ἔτι φροντίζει ʽ, οὗτοι ὦν δῶρα τὰ ἐτάξαντο ἔτι καὶ ἐς ἐμὲ διὰ πεντετηρίδος ἀγίνεον, ἑκατὸν παῖδας καὶ ἑκατὸν παρθένους. Ἀράβιοι δὲ χίλια τάλαντα ἀγίνεον λιβανωτοῦ ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος. ταῦτα μὲν οὗτοι δῶρα πάρεξ τοῦ φόρου βασιλέι ἐκόμιζον.
4.36
καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Ὑπερβορέων πέρι εἰρήσθω· τὸν γὰρ περὶ Ἀβάριος λόγον τοῦ λεγομένου εἶναι Ὑπερβορέου οὐ λέγω, ὡς 1 τὸν ὀιστὸν περιέφερε κατὰ πᾶσαν γῆν οὐδὲν σιτεόμενος. εἰ δὲ εἰσὶ ὑπερβόρεοι τινὲς ἄνθρωποι, εἰσὶ καὶ ὑπερνότιοι ἄλλοι. γελῶ δὲ ὁρέων γῆς περιόδους γράψαντας πολλοὺς ἤδη καὶ οὐδένα νοονεχόντως ἐξηγησάμενον· οἳ Ὠκεανόν τε ῥέοντα γράφουσι πέριξ τὴν γῆν ἐοῦσαν κυκλοτερέα ὡς ἀπὸ τόρνου, καὶ τὴν Ἀσίην τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ποιεύντων ἴσην. ἐν ὀλίγοισι γὰρ ἐγὼ δηλώσω μέγαθός τε ἑκάστης αὐτέων καὶ οἵη τις ἐστὶ ἐς γραφὴν ἑκάστη.
4.76
ξεινικοῖσι δὲ νομαίοισι καὶ οὗτοι φεύγουσι αἰνῶς χρᾶσθαι, μήτε τεῶν ἄλλων, Ἑλληνικοῖσι δὲ καὶ ἥκιστα, ὡς διέδεξαν Ἀνάχαρσις τε καὶ δεύτερα αὖτις Σκύλης. τοῦτο μὲν γὰρ Ἀνάχαρσις ἐπείτε γῆν πολλὴν θεωρήσας καὶ ἀποδεξάμενος κατʼ αὐτὴν σοφίην πολλὴν ἐκομίζετο ἐς ἤθεα τὰ Σκυθέων, πλέων διʼ Ἑλλησπόντου προσίσχει ἐς Κύζικον. καὶ εὗρε γὰρ τῇ μητρὶ τῶν θεῶν ἀνάγοντας τοὺς Κυζικηνοὺς ὁρτὴν μεγαλοπρεπέως κάρτα, εὔξατο τῇ μητρὶ ὁ Ἀνάχαρσις, ἢν σῶς καὶ ὑγιὴς ἀπονοστήσῃ ἐς ἑωυτοῦ, θύσειν τε κατὰ ταὐτὰ κατὰ ὥρα τοὺς Κυζικηνοὺς ποιεῦντας καὶ παννυχίδα στήσειν. ὡς δὲ ἀπίκετο ἐς τὴν Σκυθικήν καταδὺς ἐς τὴν καλεομένην Ὑλαίην ʽἡ δʼ ἔστι μὲν παρὰ τὸν Ἀχιλλήιον δρόμον, τυγχάνει δὲ πᾶσα ἐοῦσα δενδρέων παντοίων πλέἠ, ἐς ταύτην δὴ καταδὺς ὁ Ἀνάχαρσις τὴν ὁρτὴν ἐπετέλεε πᾶσαν τῇ θεῷ, τύμπανον τε ἔχων καὶ ἐκδησάμενος ἀγάλματα. καὶ τῶν τις Σκυθέων καταφρασθεὶς αὐτὸν ταῦτα ποιεῦντα ἐσήμηνε τῷ βασιλέι Σαυλίω· ὁ δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ἀπικόμενος ὡς εἶδε τὸν Ἀνάχαρσιν ποιεῦντα ταῦτα, τοξεύσας αὐτὸν ἀπέκτεινε. καὶ νῦν ἤν τις εἴρηται περὶ Ἀναχάρσιος, οὐ φασί μιν Σκύθαι γινώσκειν, διὰ τοῦτο ὅτι ἐξεδήμησέ τε ἐς τὴν Ἑλλάδα καὶ ξεινικοῖσι ἔθεσι διεχρήσατο. ὡς δʼ ἐγὼ ἤκουσα Τύμνεω τοῦ Ἀριαπείθεος ἐπιτρόπου, εἶναι αὐτὸν Ἰδανθύρσου τοῦ Σκυθέων βασιλέος πάτρων, παῖδα δὲ εἶναι Γνούρου τοῦ Λύκου τοῦ Σπαργαπείθεος. εἰ ὦν ταύτης ἦν τῆς οἰκίης ὁ Ἀνάχαρσις, ἴστω ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφεοῦ ἀποθανών· Ἰδάνθυρσος γὰρ ἦν παῖς Σαυλίου, Σαύλιος δὲ ἦν ὁ ἀποκτείνας Ἀνάχαρσιν. 4.77 καίτοι τινὰ ἤδη ἤκουσα λόγον ἄλλον ὑπὸ Πελοποννησίων λεγόμενον, ὡς ὑπὸ τοῦ Σκυθέων βασιλέος Ἀνάχαρσις ἀποπεμφθεὶς τῆς Ἑλλάδος μαθητὴς γένοιτο, ὀπίσω τε ἀπονοστήσας φαίη πρὸς τὸν ἀποπέμψαντα Ἕλληνας πάντας ἀσχόλους εἶναι ἐς πᾶσαν σοφίην πλὴν Λακεδαιμονίων, τούτοισι δὲ εἶναι μούνοισι σωφρόνως δοῦναι τε καὶ δέξασθαι λόγον. ἀλλʼ οὗτος μὲν ὁ λόγος ἄλλως πέπλασται ὑπʼ αὐτῶν Ἑλλήνων, ὁ δʼ ὧν ἀνὴρ ὥσπερ πρότερον εἰρέθη διεφθάρη. 4.78 οὗτος μέν νυν οὕτω δὴ ἔπρηξε διὰ ξεινικά τε νόμαια καὶ Ἑλληνικὰς ὁμιλίας. πολλοῖσι δὲ κάρτα ἔτεσι ὕστερον Σκύλης ὁ Ἀριαπείθεος ἔπαθε παραπλήσια τούτῳ. Ἀριαπείθεϊ γὰρ τῷ Σκυθέων βασιλέι γίνεται μετʼ ἄλλων παίδων Σκύλης· ἐξ Ἰστριηνῆς δὲ γυναικὸς οὗτος γίνεται καὶ οὐδαμῶς ἐγχωρίης· τὸν ἡ μήτηρ αὕτη γλῶσσάν τε Ἑλλάδα καὶ γράμματα ἐδίδαξε. μετὰ δὲ χρόνῳ ὕστερον Ἀριαπείθης μὲν τελευτᾷ δόλῳ ὑπὸ Σπαργαπείθεος τοῦ Ἀγαθύρσων βασιλέος, Σκύλης δὲ τήν τε βασιληίην παρέλαβε καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ πατρός, τῇ οὔνομα ἦν Ὀποίη· ἦν δὲ αὕτη ἡ Ὀποίη ἀστή, ἐξ ἧς ἦν Ὄρικος Ἀριαπείθεϊ παῖς. βασιλεύων δὲ Σκυθέων ὁ Σκύλης διαίτῃ οὐδαμῶς ἠρέσκετο Σκυψικῇ, ἀλλὰ πολλὸν πρὸς τὰ Ἑλληνικὰ μᾶλλον τετραμμένος ἦν ἀπὸ παιδεύσιος τῆς ἐπεπαίδευτο, ἐποίεέ τε τοιοῦτο· εὖτε ἀγάγοι τὴν στρατιὴν τὴν Σκυθέων ἐς τὸ Βορυσθενειτέων ἄστυ ʽοἱ δὲ Βορυσθενεῗται οὗτοι λέγουσι σφέας αὐτοὺς εἶναι Μιλησίουσ̓, ἐς τούτους ὅκως ἔλθοι ὁ Σκύλης, τὴν μὲν στρατιὴν καταλίπεσκε ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ, αὐτὸς δὲ ὅκως ἔλθοι ἐς τὸ τεῖχος καὶ τὰς πύλας ἐγκλῄσειε, τὴν στολὴν ἀποθέμενος τὴν Σκυθικὴν λάβεσκε ἂν Ἑλληνίδα ἐσθῆτα, ἔχων δʼ ἂν ταύτην ἠγόραζε οὔτε δορυφόρων ἑπομένων οὔτε ἄλλου οὐδενός· τὰς δὲ πύλας ἐφύλασσον, μή τίς μιν Σκυθέων ἴδοι ἔχοντα ταύτην τὴν στολήν· καὶ τά τε ἄλλα ἐχρᾶτο διαίτη Ἑλληνικῇ καὶ θεοῖσι ἱρὰ ἐποίεε κατὰ νόμους τοὺς Ἑλλήνων. ὅτε δὲ διατρίψειε μῆνα ἡ πλέον τούτου, ἀπαλλάσσετο ἐνδὺς τὴν Σκυθικὴν στολήν. ταῦτα ποιέεσκε πολλάκις καὶ οἰκία τε ἐδείματο ἐν Βορυσθένεϊ καὶ γυναῖκα ἔγημε ἐς αὐτὰ ἐπιχωρίην. 4.79 ἐπείτε δὲ ἔδεέ οἱ κακῶς γενέσθαι, ἐγίνετο ἀπὸ προφάσιος τοιῆσδε. ἐπεθύμησε Διονύσῳ Βακχείῳ τελεσθῆναι· μέλλοντι δέ οἱ ἐς χεῖρας ἄγεσθαι τὴν τελετὴν ἐγένετο φάσμα μέγιστον. ἦν οἱ ἐν Βορυσθενεϊτέων τῇ πόλι οἰκίης μεγάλης καὶ πολυτελέος περιβολή, τῆς καὶ ὀλίγῳ τι πρότερον τούτων μνήμην εἶχον, τὴν πέριξ λευκοῦ λίθου σφίγγες τε καὶ γρῦπες ἕστασαν· ἐς ταύτην ὁ θεὸς ἐνέσκηψε βέλος. καὶ ἣ μὲν κατεκάη πᾶσα, Σκύλης δὲ οὐδὲν τούτου εἵνεκα ἧσσον ἐπετέλεσε τὴν τελετήν. Σκύθαι δὲ τοῦ βακχεύειν πέρι Ἕλλησι ὀνειδίζουσι· οὐ γὰρ φασὶ οἰκὸς εἶναι θεὸν ἐξευρίσκειν τοῦτον ὅστις μαίνεσθαι ἐνάγει ἀνθρώπους. ἐπείτε δὲ ἐτελέσθη τῷ Βακχείῳ ὁ Σκύλης, διεπρήστευσε τῶν τις Βορυσθενειτέων πρὸς τοὺς Σκύθας λέγων “ἡμῖν γὰρ καταγελᾶτε, ὦ Σκύθαι, ὅτι βακχεύομεν καὶ ἡμέας ὁ θεὸς λαμβάνει· νῦν οὗτος ὁ δαίμων καὶ τὸν ὑμέτερον βασιλέα λελάβηκε, καὶ βακχεύει τε καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ μαίνεται. εἰ δέ μοι ἀπιστέετε, ἕπεσθε, καὶ ὑμῖν ἐγὼ δέξω.” εἵποντο τῶν Σκύθεων οἱ προεστεῶτες, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἀναγαγὼν ὁ Βορυσθενεΐτης λάθρῃ ἐπὶ πύργον κατεῖσε. ἐπείτε δὲ παρήιε σὺν τῷ θιάσῳ ὁ Σκύλης καὶ εἶδόν μιν βακχεύοντα οἱ Σκύθαι, κάρτα συμφορὴν μεγάλην ἐποιήσαντο, ἐξελθόντες δὲ ἐσήμαινον πάσῃ τῇ στρατιῇ τὰ ἴδοιεν. 4.80 ὡς δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐξήλαυνε ὁ Σκύλης ἐς ἤθεα τὰ ἑωυτοῦ, οἱ Σκύθαι προστησάμενοι τὸν ἀδελφεὸν αὐτοῦ Ὀκταμασάδην, γεγονότα ἐκ τῆς Τήρεω θυγατρός, ἐπανιστέατο τῷ Σκύλῃ. ὁ δὲ μαθὼν τὸ γινόμενον ἐπʼ ἑωυτῷ καὶ τὴν αἰτίην διʼ ἣν ἐποιέετο, καταφεύγει ἐς τὴν Θρηίκην. πυθόμενος δὲ ὁ Ὀκταμασάδης ταῦτα ἐστρατεύετο ἐπὶ τὴν Θρηίκην. ἐπείτε δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ Ἴστρῳ ἐγένετο, ἠντίασάν μιν οἱ Θρήικες, μελλόντων δὲ αὐτῶν συνάψειν ἔπεμψε Σιτάλκης παρὰ τὸν Ὀκταμασάδην λέγων τοιάδε. “τι δεῖ ἡμέας ἀλλήλων πειρηθῆναι; εἶς μέν μευ τῆς ἀδελφεῆς παῖς, ἔχεις δέ μευ ἀδελφεόν. σὺ δέ μοι ἀπόδος τοῦτον, καὶ ἐγὼ σοὶ τὸν σὸν Σκύλην παραδίδωμι· στρατιῇ δὲ μήτε σὺ κινδυνεύσῃς μήτʼ ἐγώ.” ταῦτά οἱ πέμψας ὁ Σιτάλκης ἐπεκηρυκεύετο· ἦν γὰρ παρὰ τῷ Ὀκταμασάδη ἀδελφεὸς Σιτάλκεω πεφευγώς. ὁ δὲ Ὀκταμασάδης καταινέει ταῦτα, ἐκδοὺς δὲ τὸν ἑωυτοῦ μήτρωα Σιτάλκη ἔλαβε τὸν ἀδελφεὸν Σκύλην. καὶ Σιτάλκης μὲν παραλαβὼν τὸν ἀδελφεὸν ἀπήγετο, Σκύλεω δὲ Ὀκταμασάδης αὐτοῦ ταύτῃ ἀπέταμε τὴν κεφαλήν. οὕτω μὲν περιστέλλουσι τὰ σφέτερα νόμαια Σκύθαι, τοῖσι δὲ παρακτωμένοισι ξεινικοὺς νόμους τοιαῦτα ἐπιτίμια διδοῦσι.
5.7
οὗτοι μὲν σφέων οἱ ἐπιφανέστατοι νόμοι εἰσί, θεοὺς δὲ σέβονται μούνους τούσδε, Ἄρεα καὶ Διόνυσον καὶ Ἄρτεμιν. οἱ δὲ βασιλέες αὐτῶν, πάρεξ τῶν ἄλλων πολιητέων, σέβονται Ἑρμέην μάλιστα θεῶν, καὶ ὀμνύουσι μοῦνον τοῦτον, καὶ λέγουσι γεγονέναι ἀπὸ Ἑρμέω ἑωυτούς.
5.67
ταῦτα δέ, δοκέειν ἐμοί, ἐμιμέετο ὁ Κλεισθένης οὗτος τὸν ἑωυτοῦ μητροπάτορα Κλεισθένεα τὸν Σικυῶνος τύραννον. Κλεισθένης γὰρ Ἀργείοισι πολεμήσας τοῦτο μὲν ῥαψῳδοὺς ἔπαυσε ἐν Σικυῶνι ἀγωνίζεσθαι τῶν Ὁμηρείων ἐπέων εἵνεκα, ὅτι Ἀργεῖοί τε καὶ Ἄργος τὰ πολλὰ πάντα ὑμνέαται· τοῦτο δέ, ἡρώιον γὰρ ἦν καὶ ἔστι ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἀγορῇ τῶν Σικυωνίων Ἀδρήστου τοῦ Ταλαοῦ, τοῦτον ἐπεθύμησε ὁ Κλεισθένης ἐόντα Ἀργεῖον ἐκβαλεῖν ἐκ τῆς χώρης. ἐλθὼν δὲ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐχρηστηριάζετο εἰ ἐκβάλοι τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οἱ χρᾷ φᾶσα Ἄδρηστον μὲν εἶναι Σικυωνίων βασιλέα, κεῖνον δὲ λευστῆρα. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς τοῦτό γε οὐ παρεδίδου, ἀπελθὼν ὀπίσω ἐφρόντιζε μηχανὴν τῇ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἄδρηστος ἀπαλλάξεται. ὡς δέ οἱ ἐξευρῆσθαι ἐδόκεε, πέμψας ἐς Θήβας τὰς Βοιωτίας ἔφη θέλειν ἐπαγαγέσθαι Μελάνιππον τὸν Ἀστακοῦ· οἱ δὲ Θηβαῖοι ἔδοσαν. ἐπαγαγόμενος δὲ ὁ Κλεισθένης τὸν Μελάνιππον τέμενός οἱ ἀπέδεξε ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ πρυτανηίῳ καί μιν ἵδρυσε ἐνθαῦτα ἐν τῷ ἰσχυροτάτῳ. ἐπηγάγετο δὲ τὸν Μελάνιππον ὁ Κλεισθένης ʽ καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο δεῖ ἀπηγήσασθαἰ ὡς ἔχθιστον ἐόντα Ἀδρήστῳ, ὃς τόν τε ἀδελφεόν οἱ Μηκιστέα ἀπεκτόνεε καὶ τὸν γαμβρὸν Τυδέα. ἐπείτε δέ οἱ τὸ τέμενος ἀπέδεξε, θυσίας τε καὶ ὁρτὰς Ἀδρήστου ἀπελόμενος ἔδωκε τῷ Μελανίππῳ. οἱ δὲ Σικυώνιοι ἐώθεσαν μεγαλωστὶ κάρτα τιμᾶν τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ γὰρ χώρη ἦν αὕτη Πολύβου, ὁ δὲ Ἄδρηστος ἦν Πολύβου θυγατριδέος, ἄπαις δὲ Πόλυβος τελευτῶν διδοῖ Ἀδρήστῳ τὴν ἀρχήν. τά τε δὴ ἄλλα οἱ Σικυώνιοι ἐτίμων τὸν Ἄδρηστον καὶ δὴ πρὸς τὰ πάθεα αὐτοῦ τραγικοῖσι χοροῖσι ἐγέραιρον, τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον οὐ τιμῶντες, τὸν δὲ Ἄδρηστον. Κλεισθένης δὲ χοροὺς μὲν τῷ Διονύσῳ ἀπέδωκε, τὴν δὲ ἄλλην θυσίην Μελανίππῳ.
6.137
Λῆμνον δὲ Μιλτιάδης ὁ Κίμωνος ὧδε ἔσχε. Πελασγοὶ ἐπείτε ἐκ τῆς Ἀττικῆς ὑπὸ Ἀθηναίων ἐξεβλήθησαν, εἴτε ὦν δὴ δικαίως εἴτε ἀδίκως· τοῦτο γὰρ οὐκ ἔχω φράσαι, πλὴν τὰ λεγόμενα, ὅτι Ἑκαταῖος μὲν ὁ Ἡγησάνδρου ἔφησε ἐν τοῖσι λόγοισι λέγων ἀδίκως· ἐπείτε γὰρ ἰδεῖν τοὺς Ἀθηναίους τὴν χώρην, τὴν σφίσι αὐτοῖσι ὑπὸ τὸν Ὑμησσὸν ἐοῦσαν ἔδοσαν Πελασγοῖσι οἰκῆσαι μισθὸν τοῦ τείχεος τοῦ περὶ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν κοτὲ ἐληλαμένου, ταύτην ὡς ἰδεῖν τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἐξεργασμένην εὖ, τὴν πρότερον εἶναι κακήν τε καὶ τοῦ μηδενὸς ἀξίην, λαβεῖν φθόνον τε καὶ ἵμερον τῆς γῆς, καὶ οὕτω ἐξελαύνειν αὐτοὺς οὐδεμίαν ἄλλην πρόφασιν προϊσχομένους τοὺς Ἀθηναίους. ὡς δὲ αὐτοὶ Ἀθηναῖοι λέγουσι, δικαίως ἐξελάσαι. κατοικημένους γὰρ τοὺς Πελασγοὺς ὑπὸ τῷ Ὑμησσῷ, ἐνθεῦτεν ὁρμωμένους ἀδικέειν τάδε. φοιτᾶν γὰρ αἰεὶ τὰς σφετέρας θυγατέρας τε καὶ τοὺς παῖδας ἐπʼ ὕδωρ ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐννεάκρουνον· οὐ γὰρ εἶναι τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον σφίσι κω οὐδὲ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι Ἕλλησι οἰκέτας· ὅκως δὲ ἔλθοιεν αὗται, τοὺς Πελασγοὺς ὑπὸ ὕβριός τε καὶ ὀλιγωρίης βιᾶσθαι σφέας. καὶ ταῦτα μέντοι σφι οὐκ ἀποχρᾶν ποιέειν, ἀλλὰ τέλος καὶ ἐπιβουλεύοντας ἐπιχείρησιν φανῆναι ἐπʼ αὐτοφώρῳ. ἑωυτοὺς δὲ γενέσθαι τοσούτῳ ἐκείνων ἄνδρας ἀμείνονας, ὅσῳ, παρεὸν ἑωυτοῖσι ἀποκτεῖναι τοὺς Πελασγούς, ἐπεί σφεας ἔλαβον ἐπιβουλεύοντας, οὐκ ἐθελῆσαι, ἀλλά σφι προειπεῖν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐξιέναι. τοὺς δὲ οὕτω δὴ ἐκχωρήσαντας ἄλλα τε σχεῖν χωρία καὶ δὴ καὶ Λῆμνον. ἐκεῖνα μὲν δὴ Ἑκαταῖος ἔλεξε, ταῦτα δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι λέγουσι.
9.34
ταῦτα δὲ λέγων οὗτος ἐμιμέετο Μελάμποδα, ὡς εἰκάσαι βασιληίην τε καὶ πολιτηίην αἰτεομένους. καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ Μελάμπους τῶν ἐν Ἄργεϊ γυναικῶν μανεισέων, ὥς μιν οἱ Ἀργεῖοι ἐμισθοῦντο ἐκ Πύλου παῦσαι τὰς σφετέρας γυναῖκας τῆς νούσου, μισθὸν προετείνατο τῆς βασιληίης τὸ ἥμισυ. οὐκ ἀνασχομένων δὲ τῶν Ἀργείων ἀλλʼ ἀπιόντων, ὡς ἐμαίνοντο πλεῦνες τῶν γυναικῶν, οὕτω δὴ ὑποστάντες τὰ ὁ Μελάμπους προετείνατο ἤισαν δώσοντές οἱ ταῦτα. ὁ δὲ ἐνθαῦτα δὴ ἐπορέγεται ὁρέων αὐτοὺς τετραμμένους, φάς, ἢν μὴ καὶ τῷ ἀδελφεῷ Βίαντι μεταδῶσι τὸ τριτημόριον τῆς βασιληίης, οὐ ποιήσειν τὰ βούλονται. οἱ δὲ Ἀργεῖοι ἀπειληθέντες ἐς στεινὸν καταινέουσι καὶ ταῦτα.'' None
sup>
1.23 Periander, who disclosed the oracle's answer to Thrasybulus, was the son of Cypselus, and sovereign of Corinth . The Corinthians say (and the Lesbians agree) that the most marvellous thing that happened to him in his life was the landing on Taenarus of Arion of Methymna, brought there by a dolphin. This Arion was a lyre-player second to none in that age; he was the first man whom we know to compose and name the dithyramb which he afterwards taught at Corinth . " "1.24 They say that this Arion, who spent most of his time with Periander, wished to sail to Italy and Sicily, and that after he had made a lot of money there he wanted to come back to Corinth . ,Trusting none more than the Corinthians, he hired a Corinthian vessel to carry him from Tarentum . But when they were out at sea, the crew plotted to take Arion's money and cast him overboard. Discovering this, he earnestly entreated them, asking for his life and offering them his money. ,But the crew would not listen to him, and told him either to kill himself and so receive burial on land or else to jump into the sea at once. ,Abandoned to this extremity, Arion asked that, since they had made up their minds, they would let him stand on the half-deck in all his regalia and sing; and he promised that after he had sung he would do himself in. ,The men, pleased at the thought of hearing the best singer in the world, drew away toward the waist of the vessel from the stern. Arion, putting on all his regalia and taking his lyre, stood up on the half-deck and sang the “Stirring Song,” and when the song was finished he threw himself into the sea, as he was with all his regalia. ,So the crew sailed away to Corinth ; but a dolphin (so the story goes) took Arion on his back and bore him to Taenarus. Landing there, he went to Corinth in his regalia, and when he arrived, he related all that had happened. ,Periander, skeptical, kept him in confinement, letting him go nowhere, and waited for the sailors. When they arrived, they were summoned and asked what news they brought of Arion. While they were saying that he was safe in Italy and that they had left him flourishing at Tarentum, Arion appeared before them, just as he was when he jumped from the ship; astonished, they could no longer deny what was proved against them. ,This is what the Corinthians and Lesbians say, and there is a little bronze memorial of Arion on Taenarus, the figure of a man riding upon a dolphin. " 1.44 Distraught by the death of his son, Croesus cried out the more vehemently because the killer was one whom he himself had cleansed of blood, ,and in his great and terrible grief at this mischance he called on Zeus by three names—Zeus the Purifier, Zeus of the Hearth, Zeus of Comrades: the first, because he wanted the god to know what evil his guest had done him; the second, because he had received the guest into his house and thus unwittingly entertained the murderer of his son; and the third, because he had found his worst enemy in the man whom he had sent as a protector. ' "
2.29
I was unable to learn anything from anyone else, but this much further I did learn by the most extensive investigation that I could make, going as far as the city of Elephantine to look myself, and beyond that by question and hearsay. ,Beyond Elephantine, as one travels inland, the land rises. Here one must pass with the boat roped on both sides as men harness an ox; and if the rope breaks, the boat will be carried away by the strength of the current. ,This part of the river is a four days' journey by boat, and the Nile here is twisty just as the Maeander ; a distance of twelve schoeni must be passed in the foregoing manner. After that, you come to a level plain, where there is an island in the Nile, called Takhompso. ,The country above Elephantine now begins to be inhabited by Ethiopians: half the people of the island are Ethiopians, and half Egyptians. Near the island is a great lake, on whose shores live nomadic Ethiopians. After crossing this, you come to the stream of the Nile, which empties into this lake. ,Then you disembark and journey along the river bank for forty days; for there are sharp projecting rocks in the Nile and many reefs, through which no boat can pass. ,Having traversed this part in forty days as I have said, you take boat again and so travel for twelve days until you come to a great city called Meroe, which is said to be the capital of all Ethiopia . ,The people of the place worship no other gods but Zeus and Dionysus; these they greatly honor, and they have a place of divination sacred to Zeus; they send out armies whenever and wherever this god through his oracle commands them. " 2.38 They believe that bulls belong to Epaphus, and for this reason scrutinize them as follows; if they see even one black hair on them, the bull is considered impure. ,One of the priests, appointed to the task, examines the beast, making it stand and lie, and drawing out its tongue, to determine whether it is clean of the stated signs which I shall indicate hereafter. He looks also to the hairs of the tail, to see if they grow naturally. ,If it is clean in all these respects, the priest marks it by wrapping papyrus around the horns, then smears it with sealing-earth and stamps it with his ring; and after this they lead the bull away. But the penalty is death for sacrificing a bull that the priest has not marked. Such is the manner of approving the beast; I will now describe how it is sacrificed.
2.40
But in regard to the disembowelling and burning of the victims, there is a different way for each sacrifice. I shall now, however, speak of that goddess whom they consider the greatest, and in whose honor they keep highest festival. ,After praying in the foregoing way, they take the whole stomach out of the flayed bull, leaving the entrails and the fat in the carcass, and cut off the legs, the end of the loin, the shoulders, and the neck. ,Having done this, they fill what remains of the carcass with pure bread, honey, raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh, and other kinds of incense, and then burn it, pouring a lot of oil on it. ,They fast before the sacrifice, and while it is burning, they all make lamentation; and when their lamentation is over, they set out a meal of what is left of the victim. ' "2.41 All Egyptians sacrifice unblemished bulls and bull-calves; they may not sacrifice cows: these are sacred to Isis. ,For the images of Isis are in woman's form, horned like a cow, exactly as the Greeks picture Io, and cows are held by far the most sacred of all beasts of the herd by all Egyptians alike. ,For this reason, no Egyptian man or woman will kiss a Greek man, or use a knife, or a spit, or a cauldron belonging to a Greek, or taste the flesh of an unblemished bull that has been cut up with a Greek knife. ,Cattle that die are dealt with in the following way. Cows are cast into the river, bulls are buried by each city in its suburbs, with one or both horns uncovered for a sign; then, when the carcass is decomposed, and the time appointed is at hand, a boat comes to each city from the island called Prosopitis, ,an island in the Delta, nine schoeni in circumference. There are many other towns on Prosopitis; the one from which the boats come to gather the bones of the bulls is called Atarbekhis; a temple of Aphrodite stands in it of great sanctity. ,From this town many go out, some to one town and some to another, to dig up the bones, which they then carry away and all bury in one place. As they bury the cattle, so do they all other beasts at death. Such is their ordice respecting these also; for they, too, may not be killed. " "2.42 All that have a temple of Zeus of Thebes or are of the Theban district sacrifice goats, but will not touch sheep. ,For no gods are worshipped by all Egyptians in common except Isis and Osiris, who they say is Dionysus; these are worshipped by all alike. Those who have a temple of Mendes or are of the Mendesian district sacrifice sheep, but will not touch goats. ,The Thebans, and those who by the Theban example will not touch sheep, give the following reason for their ordice: they say that Heracles wanted very much to see Zeus and that Zeus did not want to be seen by him, but that finally, when Heracles prayed, Zeus contrived ,to show himself displaying the head and wearing the fleece of a ram which he had flayed and beheaded. It is from this that the Egyptian images of Zeus have a ram's head; and in this, the Egyptians are imitated by the Ammonians, who are colonists from Egypt and Ethiopia and speak a language compounded of the tongues of both countries. ,It was from this, I think, that the Ammonians got their name, too; for the Egyptians call Zeus “Amon”. The Thebans, then, consider rams sacred for this reason, and do not sacrifice them. ,But one day a year, at the festival of Zeus, they cut in pieces and flay a single ram and put the fleece on the image of Zeus, as in the story; then they bring an image of Heracles near it. Having done this, all that are at the temple mourn for the ram, and then bury it in a sacred coffin. " '2.43 Concerning Heracles, I heard it said that he was one of the twelve gods. But nowhere in Egypt could I hear anything about the other Heracles, whom the Greeks know. ,I have indeed a lot of other evidence that the name of Heracles did not come from Hellas to Egypt, but from Egypt to Hellas (and in Hellas to those Greeks who gave the name Heracles to the son of Amphitryon), besides this: that Amphitryon and Alcmene, the parents of this Heracles, were both Egyptian by descent ; and that the Egyptians deny knowing the names Poseidon and the Dioscuri, nor are these gods reckoned among the gods of Egypt . ,Yet if they got the name of any deity from the Greeks, of these not least but in particular would they preserve a recollection, if indeed they were already making sea voyages and some Greeks, too, were seafaring men, as I expect and judge; so that the names of these gods would have been even better known to the Egyptians than the name of Heracles. ,But Heracles is a very ancient god in Egypt ; as the Egyptians themselves say, the change of the eight gods to the twelve, one of whom they acknowledge Heracles to be, was made seventeen thousand years before the reign of Amasis. 2.44 Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero. 2.45 And the Greeks say many other ill-considered things, too; among them, this is a silly story which they tell about Heracles: that when he came to Egypt, the Egyptians crowned him and led him out in a procession to sacrifice him to Zeus; and for a while (they say) he followed quietly, but when they started in on him at the altar, he resisted and killed them all. ,Now it seems to me that by this story the Greeks show themselves altogether ignorant of the character and customs of the Egyptians; for how should they sacrifice men when they are forbidden to sacrifice even beasts, except swine and bulls and bull-calves, if they are unblemished, and geese? ,And furthermore, as Heracles was alone, and, still, only a man, as they say, how is it natural that he should kill many myriads? In talking so much about this, may I keep the goodwill of gods and heroes!
2.47
Swine are held by the Egyptians to be unclean beasts. In the first place, if an Egyptian touches a hog in passing, he goes to the river and dips himself in it, clothed as he is; and in the second place, swineherds, though native born Egyptians, are alone of all men forbidden to enter any Egyptian temple; nor will any give a swineherd his daughter in marriage, nor take a wife from their women; but swineherds intermarry among themselves. ,Nor do the Egyptians think it right to sacrifice swine to any god except the Moon and Dionysus; to these, they sacrifice their swine at the same time, in the same season of full moon; then they eat the meat. The Egyptians have an explanation of why they sacrifice swine at this festival, yet abominate them at others; I know it, but it is not fitting that I relate it. ,But this is how they sacrifice swine to the Moon: the sacrificer lays the end of the tail and the spleen and the caul together and covers them up with all the fat that he finds around the belly, then consigns it all to the fire; as for the rest of the flesh, they eat it at the time of full moon when they sacrifice the victim; but they will not taste it on any other day. Poor men, with but slender means, mold swine out of dough, which they then take and sacrifice. 2.48 To Dionysus, on the evening of his festival, everyone offers a piglet which he kills before his door and then gives to the swineherd who has sold it, for him to take away. ,The rest of the festival of Dionysus is observed by the Egyptians much as it is by the Greeks, except for the dances; but in place of the phallus, they have invented the use of puppets two feet high moved by strings, the male member nodding and nearly as big as the rest of the body, which are carried about the villages by women; a flute-player goes ahead, the women follow behind singing of Dionysus. ,Why the male member is so large and is the only part of the body that moves, there is a sacred legend that explains. 2.49 Now then, it seems to me that Melampus son of Amytheon was not ignorant of but was familiar with this sacrifice. For Melampus was the one who taught the Greeks the name of Dionysus and the way of sacrificing to him and the phallic procession; he did not exactly unveil the subject taking all its details into consideration, for the teachers who came after him made a fuller revelation; but it was from him that the Greeks learned to bear the phallus along in honor of Dionysus, and they got their present practice from his teaching. ,I say, then, that Melampus acquired the prophetic art, being a discerning man, and that, besides many other things which he learned from Egypt, he also taught the Greeks things concerning Dionysus, altering few of them; for I will not say that what is done in Egypt in connection with the god and what is done among the Greeks originated independently: for they would then be of an Hellenic character and not recently introduced. ,Nor again will I say that the Egyptians took either this or any other custom from the Greeks. But I believe that Melampus learned the worship of Dionysus chiefly from Cadmus of Tyre and those who came with Cadmus from Phoenicia to the land now called Boeotia .
2.52
Formerly, in all their sacrifices, the Pelasgians called upon gods without giving name or appellation to any (I know this, because I was told at Dodona ); for as yet they had not heard of such. They called them gods from the fact that, besides setting everything in order, they maintained all the dispositions. ,Then, after a long while, first they learned the names of the rest of the gods, which came to them from Egypt, and, much later, the name of Dionysus; and presently they asked the oracle at Dodona about the names; for this place of divination, held to be the most ancient in Hellas, was at that time the only one. ,When the Pelasgians, then, asked at Dodona whether they should adopt the names that had come from foreign parts, the oracle told them to use the names. From that time onwards they used the names of the gods in their sacrifices; and the Greeks received these later from the Pelasgians. 2.53 But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say. 2.54 But about the oracles in Hellas, and that one which is in Libya, the Egyptians give the following account. The priests of Zeus of Thebes told me that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas ; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries. ,When I asked them how it was that they could speak with such certain knowledge, they said in reply that their people had sought diligently for these women, and had never been able to find them, but had learned later the story which they were telling me.
2.59
The Egyptians hold solemn assemblies not once a year, but often. The principal one of these and the most enthusiastically celebrated is that in honor of Artemis at the town of Bubastis , and the next is that in honor of Isis at Busiris. ,This town is in the middle of the Egyptian Delta, and there is in it a very great temple of Isis, who is Demeter in the Greek language. ,The third greatest festival is at Saïs in honor of Athena; the fourth is the festival of the sun at Heliopolis, the fifth of Leto at Buto, and the sixth of Ares at Papremis.
2.81
They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this. ' "2.82 Other things originating with the Egyptians are these. Each month and day belong to one of the gods, and according to the day of one's birth are determined how one will fare and how one will end and what one will be like; those Greeks occupied with poetry exploit this. ,More portents have been discovered by them than by all other peoples; when a portent occurs, they take note of the outcome and write it down; and if something of a like kind happens again, they think it will have a like result. " 2.123 These Egyptian stories are for the benefit of whoever believes such tales: my rule in this history is that I record what is said by all as I have heard it. The Egyptians say that Demeter and Dionysus are the rulers of the lower world. ,The Egyptians were the first who maintained the following doctrine, too, that the human soul is immortal, and at the death of the body enters into some other living thing then coming to birth; and after passing through all creatures of land, sea, and air, it enters once more into a human body at birth, a cycle which it completes in three thousand years. ,There are Greeks who have used this doctrine, some earlier and some later, as if it were their own; I know their names, but do not record them. ' "
2.144
Thus they showed that all those whose statues stood there had been good men, but quite unlike gods. ,Before these men, they said, the rulers of Egypt were gods, but none had been contemporary with the human priests. of these gods one or another had in succession been supreme; the last of them to rule the country was Osiris' son Horus, whom the Greeks call Apollo; he deposed Typhon, and was the last divine king of Egypt . Osiris is, in the Greek language, Dionysus. " '2.145 Among the Greeks, Heracles, Dionysus, and Pan are held to be the youngest of the gods. But in Egypt, Pan is the most ancient of these and is one of the eight gods who are said to be the earliest of all; Heracles belongs to the second dynasty (that of the so-called twelve gods); and Dionysus to the third, which came after the twelve. ,How many years there were between Heracles and the reign of Amasis, I have already shown; Pan is said to be earlier still; the years between Dionysus and Amasis are the fewest, and they are reckoned by the Egyptians at fifteen thousand. ,The Egyptians claim to be sure of all this, since they have reckoned the years and chronicled them in writing. ,Now the Dionysus who was called the son of Semele, daughter of Cadmus, was about sixteen hundred years before my time, and Heracles son of Alcmene about nine hundred years; and Pan the son of Penelope (for according to the Greeks Penelope and Hermes were the parents of Pan) was about eight hundred years before me, and thus of a later date than the Trojan war. 2.146 With regard to these two, Pan and Dionysus, one may follow whatever story one thinks most credible; but I give my own opinion concerning them here. Had Dionysus son of Semele and Pan son of Penelope appeared in Hellas and lived there to old age, like Heracles the son of Amphitryon, it might have been said that they too (like Heracles) were but men, named after the older Pan and Dionysus, the gods of antiquity; ,but as it is, the Greek story has it that no sooner was Dionysus born than Zeus sewed him up in his thigh and carried him away to Nysa in Ethiopia beyond Egypt ; and as for Pan, the Greeks do not know what became of him after his birth. It is therefore plain to me that the Greeks learned the names of these two gods later than the names of all the others, and trace the birth of both to the time when they gained the knowledge.
2.156
Thus, then, the shrine is the most marvellous of all the things that I saw in this temple; but of things of second rank, the most wondrous is the island called Khemmis . ,This lies in a deep and wide lake near the temple at Buto, and the Egyptians say that it floats. I never saw it float, or move at all, and I thought it a marvellous tale, that an island should truly float. ,However that may be, there is a great shrine of Apollo on it, and three altars stand there; many palm trees grow on the island, and other trees too, some yielding fruit and some not. ,This is the story that the Egyptians tell to explain why the island moves: that on this island that did not move before, Leto, one of the eight gods who first came to be, who was living at Buto where this oracle of hers is, taking charge of Apollo from Isis, hid him for safety in this island which is now said to float, when Typhon came hunting through the world, keen to find the son of Osiris. ,Apollo and Artemis were (they say) children of Dionysus and Isis, and Leto was made their nurse and preserver; in Egyptian, Apollo is Horus, Demeter Isis, Artemis Bubastis. ,It was from this legend and no other that Aeschylus son of Euphorion took a notion which is in no poet before him: that Artemis was the daughter of Demeter. For this reason the island was made to float. So they say. ' "
2.171
On this lake they enact by night the story of the god's sufferings, a rite which the Egyptians call the Mysteries. I could say more about this, for I know the truth, but let me preserve a discreet silence. ,Let me preserve a discreet silence, too, concerning that rite of Demeter which the Greeks call 3.8 There are no men who respect pledges more than the Arabians. This is how they give them: a man stands between the two pledging parties, and with a sharp stone cuts the palms of their hands, near the thumb; then he takes a piece of wood from the cloak of each and smears with their blood seven stones that lie between them, meanwhile calling on Dionysus and the Heavenly Aphrodite; ,after this is done, the one who has given his pledge commends the stranger (or his countryman if the other be one) to his friends, and his friends hold themselves bound to honor the pledge. ,They believe in no other gods except Dionysus and the Heavenly Aphrodite; and they say that they wear their hair as Dionysus does his, cutting it round the head and shaving the temples. They call Dionysus, Orotalt; and Aphrodite, Alilat.' "
3.97
These were the governments and appointments of tribute. The Persian country is the only one which I have not recorded as tributary; for the Persians live free from all taxes. ,As for those on whom no tribute was laid, but who rendered gifts instead, they were, firstly, the Ethiopians nearest to Egypt, whom Cambyses conquered in his march towards the long-lived Ethiopians; and also those who dwell about the holy Nysa, where Dionysus is the god of their festivals. These Ethiopians and their neighbors use the same seed as the Indian Callantiae, and they live underground. ,These together brought every other year and still bring a gift of two choenixes of unrefined gold, two hundred blocks of ebony, five Ethiopian boys, and twenty great elephants' tusks. ,Gifts were also required of the Colchians and their neighbors as far as the Caucasus mountains (which is as far as the Persian rule reaches, the country north of the Caucasus paying no regard to the Persians); these were rendered every four years and are still rendered, namely, a hundred boys and as many maids. ,The Arabians rendered a thousand talents' weight of frankincense yearly. Such were the gifts of these peoples to the king, besides the tribute. " 4.36 I have said this much of the Hyperboreans, and let it suffice; for I do not tell the story of that Abaris, alleged to be a Hyperborean, who carried the arrow over the whole world, fasting all the while. But if there are men beyond the north wind, then there are others beyond the south. ,And I laugh to see how many have before now drawn maps of the world, not one of them reasonably; for they draw the world as round as if fashioned by compasses, encircled by the Ocean river, and Asia and Europe of a like extent. For myself, I will in a few words indicate the extent of the two, and how each should be drawn. ' "
4.76
But as regards foreign customs, the Scythians (like others) very much shun practising those of any other country, and particularly of Hellas, as was proved in the case of Anacharsis and also of Scyles. ,For when Anacharsis was coming back to the Scythian country after having seen much of the world in his travels and given many examples of his wisdom, he sailed through the Hellespont and put in at Cyzicus; ,where, finding the Cyzicenes celebrating the feast of the Mother of the Gods with great ceremony, he vowed to this same Mother that if he returned to his own country safe and sound he would sacrifice to her as he saw the Cyzicenes doing, and establish a nightly rite of worship. ,So when he came to Scythia, he hid himself in the country called Woodland (which is beside the Race of Achilles, and is all overgrown with every kind of timber); hidden there, Anacharsis celebrated the goddess' ritual with exactness, carrying a small drum and hanging images about himself. ,Then some Scythian saw him doing this and told the king, Saulius; who, coming to the place himself and seeing Anacharsis performing these rites, shot an arrow at him and killed him. And now the Scythians, if they are asked about Anacharsis, say they have no knowledge of him; this is because he left his country for Hellas and followed the customs of strangers. ,But according to what I heard from Tymnes, the deputy for Ariapithes, Anacharsis was an uncle of Idanthyrsus king of Scythia, and he was the son of Gnurus, son of Lycus, son of Spargapithes. Now if Anacharsis was truly of this family, then let him know he was slain by his own brother; for Idanthyrsus was the son of Saulius, and it was Saulius who killed Anacharsis. " '4.77 It is true that I have heard another story told by the Peloponnesians; namely, that Anacharsis had been sent by the king of Scythia and had been a student of the ways of Hellas, and after his return told the king who sent him that all Greeks were keen for every kind of learning, except the Lacedaemonians; but that these were the only Greeks who spoke and listened with discretion. ,But this is a tale pointlessly invented by the Greeks themselves; and be this as it may, the man was put to death as I have said. ' "4.78 This, then, was how Anacharsis fared, owing to his foreign ways and consorting with Greeks; and a great many years afterward, Scyles, son of Ariapithes, suffered a like fate. Scyles was one of the sons born to Ariapithes, king of Scythia; but his mother was of Istria, and not native-born; and she taught him to speak and read Greek. ,As time passed, Ariapithes was treacherously killed by Spargapithes, king of the Agathyrsi, and Scyles inherited the kingship and his father's wife, a Scythian woman whose name was Opoea, and she bore Scyles a son, Oricus. ,So Scyles was king of Scythia; but he was in no way content with the Scythian way of life, and was much more inclined to Greek ways, from the upbringing that he had received. So this is what he would do: he would lead the Scythian army to the city of the Borysthenites (who say that they are Milesians), and when he arrived there would leave his army in the suburb of the city, ,while he himself, entering within the walls and shutting the gates, would take off his Scythian apparel and put on Greek dress; and in it he would go among the townsfolk unattended by spearmen or any others (who would guard the gates, lest any Scythian see him wearing this apparel), and in every way follow the Greek manner of life, and worship the gods according to Greek usage. ,When he had spent a month or more like this, he would put on Scythian dress and leave the city. He did this often; and he built a house in Borysthenes, and married a wife of the people of the country and brought her there. " '4.79 But when things had to turn out badly for him, they did so for this reason: he conceived a desire to be initiated into the rites of the Bacchic Dionysus; and when he was about to begin the sacred mysteries, he saw the greatest vision. ,He had in the city of the Borysthenites a spacious house, grand and costly (the same house I just mentioned), all surrounded by sphinxes and griffins worked in white marble; this house was struck by a thunderbolt. And though the house burnt to the ground, Scyles none the less performed the rite to the end. ,Now the Scythians reproach the Greeks for this Bacchic revelling, saying that it is not reasonable to set up a god who leads men to madness. ,So when Scyles had been initiated into the Bacchic rite, some one of the Borysthenites scoffed at the Scythians: “You laugh at us, Scythians, because we play the Bacchant and the god possesses us; but now this deity has possessed your own king, so that he plays the Bacchant and is maddened by the god. If you will not believe me, follow me now and I will show him to you.” ,The leading men among the Scythians followed him, and the Borysthenite brought them up secretly onto a tower; from which, when Scyles passed by with his company of worshippers, they saw him playing the Bacchant; thinking it a great misfortune, they left the city and told the whole army what they had seen. ' "4.80 After this Scyles rode off to his own place; but the Scythians rebelled against him, setting up his brother Octamasades, son of the daughter of Teres, for their king. ,Scyles, learning what had happened concerning him and the reason why it had happened, fled into Thrace; and when Octamasades heard this he led his army there. But when he was beside the Ister, the Thracians barred his way; and when the armies were about to engage, Sitalces sent this message to Octamasades: ,“Why should we try each other's strength? You are my sister's son, and you have my brother with you; give him back to me, and I will give up your Scyles to you; and let us not endanger our armies.” ,Such was the offer Sitalces sent to him; for Sitalces' brother had fled from him and was with Octamasades. The Scythian agreed to this, and took his brother Scyles, giving up his own uncle to Sitalces. ,Sitalces then took his brother and carried him away, but Octamasades beheaded Scyles on the spot. This is how closely the Scythians guard their customs, and these are the penalties they inflict on those who add foreign customs to their own. " 5.7 These are most notable of their usages. They worship no gods but Ares, Dionysus, and Artemis. Their princes, however, unlike the rest of their countrymen, worship Hermes above all gods and swear only by him, claiming him for their ancestor. ' "
5.67
In doing this, to my thinking, this Cleisthenes was imitating his own mother's father, Cleisthenes the tyrant of Sicyon, for Cleisthenes, after going to war with the Argives, made an end of minstrels' contests at Sicyon by reason of the Homeric poems, in which it is the Argives and Argos which are primarily the theme of the songs. Furthermore, he conceived the desire to cast out from the land Adrastus son of Talaus, the hero whose shrine stood then as now in the very marketplace of Sicyon because he was an Argive. ,He went then to Delphi, and asked the oracle if he should cast Adrastus out, but the priestess said in response: “Adrastus is king of Sicyon, and you but a stone thrower.” When the god would not permit him to do as he wished in this matter, he returned home and attempted to devise some plan which might rid him of Adrastus. When he thought he had found one, he sent to Boeotian Thebes saying that he would gladly bring Melanippus son of Astacus into his country, and the Thebans handed him over. ,When Cleisthenes had brought him in, he consecrated a sanctuary for him in the government house itself, where he was established in the greatest possible security. Now the reason why Cleisthenes brought in Melanippus, a thing which I must relate, was that Melanippus was Adrastus' deadliest enemy, for Adrastus had slain his brother Mecisteus and his son-in-law Tydeus. ,Having then designated the precinct for him, Cleisthenes took away all Adrastus' sacrifices and festivals and gave them to Melanippus. The Sicyonians had been accustomed to pay very great honor to Adrastus because the country had once belonged to Polybus, his maternal grandfather, who died without an heir and bequeathed the kingship to him. ,Besides other honors paid to Adrastus by the Sicyonians, they celebrated his lamentable fate with tragic choruses in honor not of Dionysus but of Adrastus. Cleisthenes, however, gave the choruses back to Dionysus and the rest of the worship to Melanippus. " 6.137 Miltiades son of Cimon took possession of Lemnos in this way: When the Pelasgians were driven out of Attica by the Athenians, whether justly or unjustly I cannot say, beyond what is told; namely, that Hecataeus the son of Hegesandrus declares in his history that the act was unjust; ,for when the Athenians saw the land under Hymettus, formerly theirs, which they had given to the Pelasgians as a dwelling-place in reward for the wall that had once been built around the acropolis—when the Athenians saw how well this place was tilled which previously had been bad and worthless, they were envious and coveted the land, and so drove the Pelasgians out on this and no other pretext. But the Athenians themselves say that their reason for expelling the Pelasgians was just. ,The Pelasgians set out from their settlement at the foot of Hymettus and wronged the Athenians in this way: Neither the Athenians nor any other Hellenes had servants yet at that time, and their sons and daughters used to go to the Nine Wells for water; and whenever they came, the Pelasgians maltreated them out of mere arrogance and pride. And this was not enough for them; finally they were caught in the act of planning to attack Athens. ,The Athenians were much better men than the Pelasgians, since when they could have killed them, caught plotting as they were, they would not so do, but ordered them out of the country. The Pelasgians departed and took possession of Lemnos, besides other places. This is the Athenian story; the other is told by Hecataeus.
9.34
By so saying he imitated Melampus, in so far as one may compare demands for kingship with those for citizenship. For when the women of Argos had gone mad, and the Argives wanted him to come from Pylos and heal them of that madness, Melampus demanded half of their kingship for his wages. ,This the Argives would not put up with and departed. When, however, the madness spread among their women, they promised what Melampus demanded and were ready to give it to him. Thereupon, seeing their purpose changed, he demanded yet more and said that he would not do their will except if they gave a third of their kingship to his brother Bias; now driven into dire straits, the Argives consented to that also. '" None
36. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites • Dionysos • Dionysus • Dionysus, imitation of in Magnesia • death of Dionysus

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 36; Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 176; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 394, 396; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 257

400c σῆμά τινές φασιν αὐτὸ εἶναι τῆς ψυχῆς, ὡς τεθαμμένης ἐν τῷ νῦν παρόντι· καὶ διότι αὖ τούτῳ σημαίνει ἃ ἂν σημαίνῃ ἡ ψυχή, καὶ ταύτῃ σῆμα ὀρθῶς καλεῖσθαι. δοκοῦσι μέντοι μοι μάλιστα θέσθαι οἱ ἀμφὶ Ὀρφέα τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα, ὡς δίκην διδούσης τῆς ψυχῆς ὧν δὴ ἕνεκα δίδωσιν, τοῦτον δὲ περίβολον ἔχειν, ἵνα σῴζηται, δεσμωτηρίου εἰκόνα· εἶναι οὖν τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦτο, ὥσπερ αὐτὸ ὀνομάζεται, ἕως ἂν ἐκτείσῃ τὰ ὀφειλόμενα, τὸ σῶμα, καὶ οὐδὲν δεῖν παράγειν οὐδʼ ἓν γράμμα.' ' None400c ign ( σῆμα ). But I think it most likely that the Orphic poets gave this name, with the idea that the soul is undergoing punishment for something; they think it has the body as an enclosure to keep it safe, like a prison, and this is, as the name itself denotes, the safe ( σῶμα ) for the soul, until the penalty is paid, and not even a letter needs to be changed.' ' None
37. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysus, festivals of

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 46; Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 92

6b ΕΥΘ. καὶ ἔτι γε τούτων θαυμασιώτερα, ὦ Σώκρατες, ἃ οἱ πολλοὶ οὐκ ἴσασιν. ΣΩ. καὶ πόλεμον ἆρα ἡγῇ σὺ εἶναι τῷ ὄντι ἐν τοῖς θεοῖς πρὸς ἀλλήλους, καὶ ἔχθρας γε δεινὰς καὶ μάχας καὶ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα πολλά, οἷα λέγεταί τε ὑπὸ τῶν ποιητῶν, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν'' None6b Euthyphro. Yes, and still more wonderful things than these, Socrates, which most people do not know. Socrates. And so you believe that there was really war between the gods, and fearful enmities and battles and other things of the sort, such as are told of by the poets and represented in varied design'' None
38. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites • Dionysus

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 257; Trapp et al. (2016), In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns, 75

493a καὶ ἡμεῖς τῷ ὄντι ἴσως τέθναμεν· ἤδη γάρ του ἔγωγε καὶ ἤκουσα τῶν σοφῶν ὡς νῦν ἡμεῖς τέθναμεν καὶ τὸ μὲν σῶμά ἐστιν ἡμῖν σῆμα, τῆς δὲ ψυχῆς τοῦτο ἐν ᾧ ἐπιθυμίαι εἰσὶ τυγχάνει ὂν οἷον ἀναπείθεσθαι καὶ μεταπίπτειν ἄνω κάτω, καὶ τοῦτο ἄρα τις μυθολογῶν κομψὸς ἀνήρ, ἴσως Σικελός τις ἢ Ἰταλικός, παράγων τῷ ὀνόματι διὰ τὸ πιθανόν τε καὶ πειστικὸν ὠνόμασε πίθον, τοὺς δὲ ἀνοήτους ἀμυήτους,'' None493a and we really, it may be, are dead; in fact I once heard sages say that we are now dead, and the body is our tomb, and the part of the soul in which we have desires is liable to be over-persuaded and to vacillate to and fro, and so some smart fellow, a Sicilian, I daresay, or Italian, made a fable in which—by a play of words—he named this part, as being so impressionable and persuadable, a jar, and the thoughtless he called uninitiate:'' None
39. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, realm • Dionysos,miracles • Dionysus • Dionysus, and wine • Dionysus, festivals of • Dionysus, imitation of in Magnesia • Dionysus, the chorus of • Technitai of Dionysus • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • women and Dionysus • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi and Dionysus

 Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 177; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 73, 175; Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 86, 88, 221; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 259; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 325

653a λέγομεν ἡμῖν εἶναι τὴν ὀρθὴν παιδείαν. τούτου γάρ, ὥς γε ἐγὼ τοπάζω τὰ νῦν, ἔστιν ἐν τῷ ἐπιτηδεύματι τούτῳ καλῶς κατορθουμένῳ σωτηρία. ΚΛ. μέγα λέγεις. ΑΘ. λέγω τοίνυν τῶν παίδων παιδικὴν εἶναι πρώτην αἴσθησιν ἡδονὴν καὶ λύπην, καὶ ἐν οἷς ἀρετὴ ψυχῇ καὶ κακία παραγίγνεται πρῶτον, ταῦτʼ εἶναι, φρόνησιν δὲ καὶ ἀληθεῖς δόξας βεβαίους εὐτυχὲς ὅτῳ καὶ πρὸς τὸ γῆρας παρεγένετο· τέλεος δʼ οὖν ἔστʼ ἄνθρωπος ταῦτα καὶ τὰ ἐν 815c ἀναμφισβητήτου διατεμεῖν. τίς οὖν αὕτη, καὶ πῇ δεῖ χωρὶς τέμνειν ἑκατέραν; ὅση μὲν βακχεία τʼ ἐστὶν καὶ τῶν ταύταις ἑπομένων, ἃς Νύμφας τε καὶ Πᾶνας καὶ Σειληνοὺς καὶ Σατύρους ἐπονομάζοντες, ὥς φασιν, μιμοῦνται κατῳνωμένους, περὶ καθαρμούς τε καὶ τελετάς τινας ἀποτελούντων, σύμπαν τοῦτο τῆς ὀρχήσεως τὸ γένος οὔθʼ ὡς εἰρηνικὸν οὔθʼ ὡς πολεμικὸν οὔθʼ ὅτι ποτὲ βούλεται ῥᾴδιον ἀφορίσασθαι· διορίσασθαι μήν μοι ταύτῃ δοκεῖ σχεδὸν ὀρθότατον αὐτὸ εἶναι,' ' None653a our definition of right education. For the safekeeping of this depends, as I now conjecture, upon the correct establishment of the institution mentioned. Clin. That is a strong statement! Ath. What I state is this,—that in children the first childish sensations are pleasure and pain, and that it is in these first that goodness and badness come to the soul; but as to wisdom and settled true opinions, a man is lucky if they come to him even in old age and; he that is possessed of these blessings, and all that they comprise, 815c All the dancing that is of a Bacchic kind and cultivated by those who indulge in drunken imitations of Pans, Sileni and Satyrs (as they call them), when performing certain rites of expiation and initiation,—all this class of dancing cannot easily be defined either as pacific or as warlike, or as of any one distinct kind. The most correct way of defining it seems to me to be this—' ' None
40. Plato, Meno, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, death

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 389, 390; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 218

81c ἐκ τᾶν βασιλῆες ἀγαυοὶ καὶ σθένει κραιπνοὶ σοφίᾳ τε μέγιστοι ἄνδρες αὔξοντʼ· ἐς δὲ τὸν λοιπὸν χρόνον ἥρωες ἁγνοὶ πρὸς ἀνθρώπων καλεῦνται. Pind. fr. 133 Bergk ἅτε οὖν ἡ ψυχὴ ἀθάνατός τε οὖσα καὶ πολλάκις γεγονυῖα, καὶ ἑωρακυῖα καὶ τὰ ἐνθάδε καὶ τὰ ἐν Ἅιδου καὶ πάντα χρήματα, οὐκ ἔστιν ὅτι οὐ μεμάθηκεν· ὥστε οὐδὲν θαυμαστὸν καὶ περὶ ἀρετῆς καὶ περὶ ἄλλων οἷόν τʼ εἶναι αὐτὴν ἀναμνησθῆναι, ἅ γε καὶ πρότερον ἠπίστατο. ἅτε γὰρ τῆς φύσεως'' None81c glorious kings and men of splendid might and surpassing wisdom, and for all remaining time are they called holy heroes amongst mankind. Pind. Fr. 133 Bergk Seeing then that the soul is immortal and has been born many times, and has beheld all things both in this world and in the nether realms, she has acquired knowledge of all and everything; so that it is no wonder that she should be able to recollect all that she knew before about virtue and other things. For a'' None
41. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Zonussos • Dionysos, Dionysos omophagos • Dionysos, bakchoi • Dionysos, dismemberment of • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 146, 393; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 203; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 39

69c κάθαρσίς τις τῶν τοιούτων πάντων καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἀνδρεία, καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ φρόνησις μὴ καθαρμός τις ᾖ. καὶ κινδυνεύουσι καὶ οἱ τὰς τελετὰς ἡμῖν οὗτοι καταστήσαντες οὐ φαῦλοί τινες εἶναι, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι πάλαι αἰνίττεσθαι ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀμύητος καὶ ἀτέλεστος εἰς Ἅιδου ἀφίκηται ἐν βορβόρῳ κείσεται, ὁ δὲ κεκαθαρμένος τε καὶ τετελεσμένος ἐκεῖσε ἀφικόμενος μετὰ θεῶν οἰκήσει. εἰσὶν γὰρ δή, ὥς φασιν οἱ περὶ τὰς τελετάς, ναρθηκοφόροι'' None69c from all these things, and self-restraint and justice and courage and wisdom itself are a kind of purification. And I fancy that those men who established the mysteries were not unenlightened, but in reality had a hidden meaning when they said long ago that whoever goes uninitiated and unsanctified to the other world will lie in the mire, but he who arrives there initiated and purified will dwell with the gods. For as they say in the mysteries, the thyrsus-bearers are many, but the mystics few ;'' None
42. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos,punishment • Dionysus • cults, of Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 50, 388, 391, 396; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 257; Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 216; Rüpke and Woolf (2013), Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE. 9; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 169

244a πρότερος ἦν λόγος Φαίδρου τοῦ Πυθοκλέους, Μυρρινουσίου ἀνδρός· ὃν δὲ μέλλω λέγειν, Στησιχόρου τοῦ Εὐφήμου, Ἱμεραίου. λεκτέος δὲ ὧδε, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστʼ ἔτυμος λόγος ὃς ἂν παρόντος ἐραστοῦ τῷ μὴ ἐρῶντι μᾶλλον φῇ δεῖν χαρίζεσθαι, διότι δὴ ὁ μὲν μαίνεται, ὁ δὲ σωφρονεῖ. εἰ μὲν γὰρ ἦν ἁπλοῦν τὸ μανίαν κακὸν εἶναι, καλῶς ἂν ἐλέγετο· νῦν δὲ τὰ μέγιστα τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἡμῖν γίγνεται διὰ μανίας, θείᾳ μέντοι δόσει διδομένης. ἥ τε γὰρ δὴ ἐν Δελφοῖς προφῆτις αἵ τʼ ἐν'247b ὑπουράνιον ἁψῖδα πορεύονται πρὸς ἄναντες, ᾗ δὴ τὰ μὲν θεῶν ὀχήματα ἰσορρόπως εὐήνια ὄντα ῥᾳδίως πορεύεται, τὰ δὲ ἄλλα μόγις· βρίθει γὰρ ὁ τῆς κάκης ἵππος μετέχων, ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ῥέπων τε καὶ βαρύνων ᾧ μὴ καλῶς ἦν τεθραμμένος τῶν ἡνιόχων. ἔνθα δὴ πόνος τε καὶ ἀγὼν ἔσχατος ψυχῇ πρόκειται. αἱ μὲν γὰρ ἀθάνατοι καλούμεναι, ἡνίκʼ ἂν πρὸς ἄκρῳ γένωνται, ἔξω πορευθεῖσαι ἔστησαν ἐπὶ τῷ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ 250b διὰ τὸ μὴ ἱκανῶς διαισθάνεσθαι. δικαιοσύνης μὲν οὖν καὶ σωφροσύνης καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα τίμια ψυχαῖς οὐκ ἔνεστι φέγγος οὐδὲν ἐν τοῖς τῇδε ὁμοιώμασιν, ἀλλὰ διʼ ἀμυδρῶν ὀργάνων μόγις αὐτῶν καὶ ὀλίγοι ἐπὶ τὰς εἰκόνας ἰόντες θεῶνται τὸ τοῦ εἰκασθέντος γένος· κάλλος δὲ τότʼ ἦν ἰδεῖν λαμπρόν, ὅτε σὺν εὐδαίμονι χορῷ μακαρίαν ὄψιν τε καὶ θέαν, ἑπόμενοι μετὰ μὲν Διὸς ἡμεῖς, ἄλλοι δὲ μετʼ ἄλλου θεῶν, εἶδόν τε καὶ ἐτελοῦντο τῶν τελετῶν ἣν θέμις λέγειν 250c μακαριωτάτην, ἣν ὠργιάζομεν ὁλόκληροι μὲν αὐτοὶ ὄντες καὶ ἀπαθεῖς κακῶν ὅσα ἡμᾶς ἐν ὑστέρῳ χρόνῳ ὑπέμενεν, ὁλόκληρα δὲ καὶ ἁπλᾶ καὶ ἀτρεμῆ καὶ εὐδαίμονα φάσματα μυούμενοί τε καὶ ἐποπτεύοντες ἐν αὐγῇ καθαρᾷ, καθαροὶ ὄντες καὶ ἀσήμαντοι τούτου ὃ νῦν δὴ σῶμα περιφέροντες ὀνομάζομεν, ὀστρέου τρόπον δεδεσμευμένοι. 265b ΦΑΙ. πάνυ γε. ΣΩ. τῆς δὲ θείας τεττάρων θεῶν τέτταρα μέρη διελόμενοι, μαντικὴν μὲν ἐπίπνοιαν Ἀπόλλωνος θέντες, Διονύσου δὲ τελεστικήν, Μουσῶν δʼ αὖ ποιητικήν, τετάρτην δὲ ἀφροδίτης καὶ Ἔρωτος, ἐρωτικὴν μανίαν ἐφήσαμέν τε ἀρίστην εἶναι, καὶ οὐκ οἶδʼ ὅπῃ τὸ ἐρωτικὸν πάθος ἀπεικάζοντες, ἴσως μὲν ἀληθοῦς τινος ἐφαπτόμενοι, τάχα δʼ ἂν καὶ ἄλλοσε παραφερόμενοι, κεράσαντες οὐ παντάπασιν ἀπίθανον λόγον, ' None244a that the former discourse was by Phaedrus, the son of Pythocles (Eager for Fame) of Myrrhinus (Myrrhtown); but this which I shall speak is by Stesichorus, son of Euphemus (Man of pious Speech) of Himera (Town of Desire). And I must say that this saying is not true, which teaches that when a lover is at hand the non-lover should be more favored, because the lover is insane, and the other sane. For if it were a simple fact that insanity is an evil, the saying would be true; but in reality the greatest of blessings come to us through madness, when it is sent as a gift of the gods. For the prophetess at Delphi'247b they proceed steeply upward to the top of the vault of heaven, where the chariots of the gods, whose well matched horses obey the rein, advance easily, but the others with difficulty; for the horse of evil nature weighs the chariot down, making it heavy and pulling toward the earth the charioteer whose horse is not well trained. There the utmost toil and struggle await the soul. For those that are called immortal, when they reach the top, 250b Now in the earthly copies of justice and temperance and the other ideas which are precious to souls there is no light, but only a few, approaching the images through the darkling organs of sense, behold in them the nature of that which they imitate, and these few do this with difficulty. But at that former time they saw beauty shining in brightness, when, with a blessed company—we following in the train of Zeus, and others in that of some other god—they saw the blessed sight and vision and were initiated into that which is rightly called 250c the most blessed of mysteries, which we celebrated in a state of perfection, when we were without experience of the evils which awaited us in the time to come, being permitted as initiates to the sight of perfect and simple and calm and happy apparitions, which we saw in the pure light, being ourselves pure and not entombed in this which we carry about with us and call the body, in which we are imprisoned like an oyster in its shell. So much, then, in honor of memory, on account of which I have now spoken at some length, through yearning for the joys of that other time. But beauty, 265b Phaedrus. Certainly. Socrates. And we made four divisions of the divine madness, ascribing them to four gods, saying that prophecy was inspired by Apollo, the mystic madness by Dionysus, the poetic by the Muses, and the madness of love, inspired by Aphrodite and Eros, we said was the best. We described the passion of love in some sort of figurative manner, expressing some truth, perhaps, and perhaps being led away in another direction, and after composing a somewhat ' None
43. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic • Bacchic mysteries • Bacchic rites • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos-Bakchos • Dionysus • Dionysus, as “releaser” • Dionysus, dismemberment and death of • Eleusinian, Orpheus, Orphic, Samothracian,Bacchic, Dionysiac • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • Orphic, see Bacchic, initiation, mystery cults, rites • rituals, Bacchic • women and Dionysus • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi and Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 155; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 49; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 257; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 135, 558; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 127, 145; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 88; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 43; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 325; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 257; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 39; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 10, 14, 165, 278; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 50

364b καὶ πένητες ὦσιν, ὁμολογοῦντες αὐτοὺς ἀμείνους εἶναι τῶν ἑτέρων. τούτων δὲ πάντων οἱ περὶ θεῶν τε λόγοι καὶ ἀρετῆς θαυμασιώτατοι λέγονται, ὡς ἄρα καὶ θεοὶ πολλοῖς μὲν ἀγαθοῖς δυστυχίας τε καὶ βίον κακὸν ἔνειμαν, τοῖς δʼ ἐναντίοις ἐναντίαν μοῖραν. ἀγύρται δὲ καὶ μάντεις ἐπὶ πλουσίων θύρας ἰόντες πείθουσιν ὡς ἔστι παρὰ σφίσι δύναμις ἐκ θεῶν ποριζομένη θυσίαις τε καὶ ἐπῳδαῖς, εἴτε τι 364e λοιβῇ τε κνίσῃ τε παρατρωπῶσʼ ἄνθρωποι λισσόμενοι, ὅτε κέν τις ὑπερβήῃ καὶ ἁμάρτῃ. Hom. Il. 9.497 βίβλων δὲ ὅμαδον παρέχονται Μουσαίου καὶ Ὀρφέως, Σελήνης τε καὶ Μουσῶν ἐκγόνων, ὥς φασι, καθʼ ἃς θυηπολοῦσιν, πείθοντες οὐ μόνον ἰδιώτας ἀλλὰ καὶ πόλεις, ὡς ἄρα λύσεις τε καὶ καθαρμοὶ ἀδικημάτων διὰ θυσιῶν καὶ' '621a ἀνάγκης ἰέναι θρόνον, καὶ διʼ ἐκείνου διεξελθόντα, ἐπειδὴ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι διῆλθον, πορεύεσθαι ἅπαντας εἰς τὸ τῆς Λήθης πεδίον διὰ καύματός τε καὶ πνίγους δεινοῦ· καὶ γὰρ εἶναι αὐτὸ κενὸν δένδρων τε καὶ ὅσα γῆ φύει. σκηνᾶσθαι οὖν σφᾶς ἤδη ἑσπέρας γιγνομένης παρὰ τὸν Ἀμέλητα ποταμόν, οὗ τὸ ὕδωρ ἀγγεῖον οὐδὲν στέγειν. μέτρον μὲν οὖν τι τοῦ ὕδατος πᾶσιν ἀναγκαῖον εἶναι πιεῖν, τοὺς δὲ φρονήσει μὴ σῳζομένους πλέον πίνειν τοῦ μέτρου· τὸν δὲ ἀεὶ πιόντα'' None364b and disregard those who are in any way weak or poor, even while admitting that they are better men than the others. But the strangest of all these speeches are the things they say about the gods and virtue, how so it is that the gods themselves assign to many good men misfortunes and an evil life but to their opposites a contrary lot; and begging priests and soothsayers go to rich men’s doors and make them believe that they by means of sacrifices and incantations have accumulated a treasure of power from the gods that can expiate and cure with pleasurable festival 364e And incense and libation turn their wills Praying, whenever they have sinned and made transgression. Hom. Il. 9.497 And they produce a bushel of books of Musaeus and Orpheus, the offspring of the Moon and of the Muses, as they affirm, and these books they use in their ritual, and make not only ordinary men but states believe that there really are remissions of sins and purifications for deeds of injustice, by means of sacrifice and pleasant sport for the living, 614b ince there are not many things to which I would more gladly listen. It is not, let me tell you, said I, the tale to Alcinous told that I shall unfold, but the tale of a warrior bold, Er, the son of Armenius, by race a Pamphylian. He once upon a time was slain in battle, and when the corpses were taken up on the tenth day already decayed, was found intact, and having been brought home, at the moment of his funeral, on the twelfth day as he lay upon the pyre, revived, and after coming to life related what, he said, he had seen in the world beyond. He said that when his soul went forth from his body he journeyed with a great company 621a And after it had passed through that, when the others also had passed, they all journeyed to the Plain of Oblivion, through a terrible and stifling heat, for it was bare of trees and all plants, and there they camped at eventide by the River of Forgetfulness, whose waters no vessel can contain. They were all required to drink a measure of the water, and those who were not saved by their good sense drank more than the measure, and each one as he drank forgot all things.' ' None
44. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aelius Aristides, Hymn to Dionysus • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysus • Orphic, see Bacchic, initiation, mystery cults, rites • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 49, 238, 397; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 319; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 1

177b γεγονότων ποιητῶν πεποιηκέναι μηδὲν ἐγκώμιον; εἰ δὲ βούλει αὖ σκέψασθαι τοὺς χρηστοὺς σοφιστάς, Ἡρακλέους μὲν καὶ ἄλλων ἐπαίνους καταλογάδην συγγράφειν, ὥσπερ ὁ βέλτιστος Πρόδικος—καὶ τοῦτο μὲν ἧττον καὶ θαυμαστόν, ἀλλʼ ἔγωγε ἤδη τινὶ ἐνέτυχον βιβλίῳ ἀνδρὸς σοφοῦ, ἐν ᾧ ἐνῆσαν ἅλες ἔπαινον θαυμάσιον ἔχοντες πρὸς ὠφελίαν, καὶ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα'218b Ἐρυξιμάχους, Παυσανίας, Ἀριστοδήμους τε καὶ Ἀριστοφάνας· Σωκράτη δὲ αὐτὸν τί δεῖ λέγειν, καὶ ὅσοι ἄλλοι; πάντες γὰρ κεκοινωνήκατε τῆς φιλοσόφου μανίας τε καὶ βακχείας—διὸ πάντες ἀκούσεσθε· συγγνώσεσθε γὰρ τοῖς τε τότε πραχθεῖσι καὶ τοῖς νῦν λεγομένοις. οἱ δὲ οἰκέται, καὶ εἴ τις ἄλλος ἐστὶν βέβηλός τε καὶ ἄγροικος, πύλας πάνυ μεγάλας τοῖς ὠσὶν ἐπίθεσθε. ' None177b has had no song of praise composed for him by a single one of all the many poets that ever have been? And again, pray consider our worthy professors, and the eulogies they frame of Hercules and others in prose,—for example, the excellent Prodicus. This indeed is not so surprising but I recollect coming across a book by somebody, in which I found Salt superbly lauded for its usefulness, and many more such matter'218b a Pausanias, an Aristodemus, and an Aristophanes—I need not mention Socrates himself—and all the rest of them; every one of you has had his share of philosophic frenzy and transport, so all of you shall hear. You shall stand up alike for what then was done and for what now is spoken. But the domestics, and all else profane and clownish, must clap the heaviest of doors upon their ears. ' None
45. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysus • Dionysus, and wine

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 525; Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 221, 230

149c οὐκ ἔδωκε μαιεύεσθαι, ὅτι ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη φύσις ἀσθενεστέρα ἢ λαβεῖν τέχνην ὧν ἂν ᾖ ἄπειρος· ταῖς δὲ διʼ ἡλικίαν ἀτόκοις προσέταξε τιμῶσα τὴν αὑτῆς ὁμοιότητα. ΘΕΑΙ. εἰκός. ΣΩ. οὐκοῦν καὶ τόδε εἰκός τε καὶ ἀναγκαῖον, τὰς κυούσας καὶ μὴ γιγνώσκεσθαι μᾶλλον ὑπὸ τῶν μαιῶν ἢ τῶν ἄλλων; ΘΕΑΙ. πάνυ γε. ΣΩ. καὶ μὴν καὶ διδοῦσαί γε αἱ μαῖαι φαρμάκια καὶ'' None149c THEAET. Very likely. SOC. Is it not, then, also likely and even necessary, that midwives should know better than anyone else who are pregt and who are not? THEAET. Certainly. SOC. And furthermore, the midwives, by means of drug'' None
46. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 230; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 332

24d τε καὶ φιλόσοφος ἡ θεὸς οὖσα τὸν προσφερεστάτους αὐτῇ μέλλοντα οἴσειν τόπον ἄνδρας, τοῦτον ἐκλεξαμένη πρῶτον κατῴκισεν. ᾠκεῖτε δὴ οὖν νόμοις τε τοιούτοις χρώμενοι καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον εὐνομούμενοι πάσῃ τε παρὰ πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὑπερβεβληκότες ἀρετῇ, καθάπερ εἰκὸς γεννήματα καὶ παιδεύματα θεῶν ὄντας. πολλὰ μὲν οὖν ὑμῶν καὶ μεγάλα ἔργα τῆς πόλεως τῇδε γεγραμμένα θαυμάζεται, πάντων μὴν'' None24d So it was that the Goddess, being herself both a lover of war and a lover of wisdom, chose the spot which was likely to bring forth men most like unto herself, and this first she established. Wherefore you lived under the rule of such laws as these,—yea, and laws still better,—and you surpassed all men in every virtue, as became those who were the offspring and nurslings of gods. Many, in truth, and great are the achievements of your State, which are a marvel to men as they are here recorded; but there is one which stands out above all'' None
47. Sophocles, Antigone, 152-154, 356, 955-965, 1115-1154 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo, Dionysus, association with • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheastes • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheiotes • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheutes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchiastes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchiotas • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchistes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos Laphystios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Limnaios/en Lymnais • Dionysos, Dionysos Sabos • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos boukeros • Dionysos, Dionysos komastes κωμαστής • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos mystes • Dionysos, Dionysos narthekophoros • Dionysos, Dionysos nyktipolos • Dionysos, Dionysos ploutodotes • Dionysos, Dionysos polyonymos • Dionysos, Dionysos polystaphylos • Dionysos, Dionysos thiasotes • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, Orphic Dionysos • Dionysos, and earthquakes • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, birth of • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos,punishment • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus, in Antigone • Thebes, and Dionysus • Zeus, and Dionysus • anti-hero, Dionysus • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • epiphany, of Dionysus • hymn, to Dionysus • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac • names, of Dionysus • request, to Dionysus • spectators, and the hymn to Dionysus • theater, of Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 8, 41, 45, 48, 49, 63, 110, 115, 243, 273, 274, 276, 277, 280, 283, 284, 289, 290, 303, 315, 350; Bierl (2017), Time and Space in Ancient Myth, Religion and Culture, 113, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 132, 134; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 172, 400, 401, 402, 403, 458, 750; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 112; Meinel (2015), Pollution and Crisis in Greek Tragedy, 86; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 65, 66; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 157; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 171, 335

sup>
152 let us make for ourselves forgetfulness after the recent wars, and visit all the temples of the gods with night-long dance and song. And may Bacchus, who shakes the earth of Thebes , rule our dancing!
356
wind and the moods that give order to a city he has taught himself, and how to flee the arrows of the inhospitable frost under clear skies and the arrows of the storming rain.
955
And Dryas’s son, the Edonian king swift to rage, was tamed in recompense for his frenzied insults, when, by the will of Dionysus, he was shut in a rocky prison. There the fierce and swelling force of his madness trickled away. 960 That man came to know the god whom in his frenzy he had provoked with mockeries. For he had sought to quell the god-inspired women and the Bacchanalian fire, 965 and he angered the Muses who love the flute.
1115
God of many names, glory of the Cadmeian bride and offspring of loud-thundering Zeus, you who watch over far-famed Italy and reign'1116 God of many names, glory of the Cadmeian bride and offspring of loud-thundering Zeus, you who watch over far-famed Italy and reign 1120 in the valleys of Eleusinian Deo where all find welcome! O Bacchus, denizen of Thebes , the mother-city of your Bacchants, dweller by the wet stream of Ismenus on the soil 1125 of the sowing of the savage dragon’s teeth! 1126 The smoky glare of torches sees you above the cliffs of the twin peaks, where the Corycian nymphs move inspired by your godhead, 1130 and Castalia’s stream sees you, too. The ivy-mantled slopes of Nysa ’s hills and the shore green with many-clustered vines send you, when accompanied by the cries of your divine words, 1135 you visit the avenues of Thebes . 1137 Thebes of all cities you hold foremost in honor, together with your lightning-struck mother. 1140 And now when the whole city is held subject to a violent plague, come, we ask, with purifying feet over steep Parnassus , 1145 or over the groaning straits! 1146 O Leader of the chorus of the stars whose breath is fire, overseer of the chants in the night, son begotten of Zeus, 1150 appear, my king, with your attendant Thyiads, who in night-long frenzy dance and sing you as Iacchus the Giver! ' None
48. Sophocles, Electra, 1354 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, dismemberment of • Dionysos, epiphany • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 343; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 211

sup>
1354 O joyous day! O sole preserver of Agamemnon’s house,'' None
49. Sophocles, Oedipus At Colonus, 1051 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysus (Bacchus)

 Found in books: Masterson (2016), Man to Man: Desire, Homosociality, and Authority in Late-Roman Manhood. 73; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 212

sup>
1051 where the Great Goddesses maintain awful rites for mortals on whose lips the ministering Eumolpidae have laid the golden seal of silence. There, I think, the war-rousing'' None
50. Sophocles, Oedipus The King, 154, 211, 387-388, 438 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Dionysos • Dionysos, • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Nyktelios • Dionysos, Dionysos Thriambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos as foreign god • Dionysos, Dionysos choragos/choreutas/philochoreutas • Dionysos, Dionysos eriboas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribremetas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, Orphic Dionysos • Dionysos, birth of • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysus • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 42, 47, 49, 145, 273, 275, 289, 290, 317, 332; Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 231; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 750; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 119

sup>
154 O sweetly-speaking message of Zeus, in what spirit have you come to glorious Thebes from golden Pytho ? I am on the rack, terror shakes my soul, O Delian healer to whom wild cries rise,211 who is named with the name of this land, ruddy Bacchus to whom Bacchants cry, to draw near with the blaze of his shining torch,
387
Creon the trustworthy, Creon, my old friend, has crept upon me by stealth, yearning to overthrow me, and has suborned such a scheming juggler as this, a tricky quack, who has eyes only for profit, but is blind in his art!
438
This day will reveal your birth and bring your ruin. Oedipu ' None
51. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.2, 2.15.4, 6.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysus • Dionysus, Hermes and • Dionysus, festivals associated with • Hermes, Dionysus and • Nero, new Dionysus, Antony as

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 255; Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 91; Hallmannsecker (2022), Roman Ionia: Constructions of Cultural Identity in Western Asia Minor, 107; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 257; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 331

sup>
2.15.4 τεκμήριον δέ: τὰ γὰρ ἱερὰ ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἀκροπόλει † καὶ ἄλλων θεῶν ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ἔξω πρὸς τοῦτο τὸ μέρος τῆς πόλεως μᾶλλον ἵδρυται, τό τε τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Ὀλυμπίου καὶ τὸ Πύθιον καὶ τὸ τῆς Γῆς καὶ τὸ <τοῦ> ἐν Λίμναις Διονύσου, ᾧ τὰ ἀρχαιότερα Διονύσια τῇ δωδεκάτῃ ποιεῖται ἐν μηνὶ Ἀνθεστηριῶνι, ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ ἀπ’ Ἀθηναίων Ἴωνες ἔτι καὶ νῦν νομίζουσιν. ἵδρυται δὲ καὶ ἄλλα ἱερὰ ταύτῃ ἀρχαῖα.' ' None
sup>
2.15.4 This is shown by the fact that the temples the other deities, besides that of Athena, are in the citadel; and even those that are outside it are mostly situated in this quarter of the city, as that of the Olympian Zeus, of the Pythian Apollo, of Earth, and of Dionysus in the Marshes, the same in whose honor the older Dionysia are to this day celebrated in the month of Anthesterion not only by the Athenians but also by their Ionian descendants. ' ' None
52. Xenophon, Memoirs, 2.1.21, 2.1.29 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus (Bacchus) • Dionysus and Ariadne, marriage of • Theater of Dionysos

 Found in books: Edmunds (2021), Greek Myth, 20; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 13; Masterson (2016), Man to Man: Desire, Homosociality, and Authority in Late-Roman Manhood. 82

sup>
2.1.21 καὶ Πρόδικος δὲ ὁ σοφὸς ἐν τῷ συγγράμματι τῷ περὶ Ἡρακλέους, ὅπερ δὴ καὶ πλείστοις ἐπιδείκνυται, ὡσαύτως περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἀποφαίνεται, ὧδέ πως λέγων, ὅσα ἐγὼ μέμνημαι. φησὶ γὰρ Ἡρακλέα, ἐπεὶ ἐκ παίδων εἰς ἥβην ὡρμᾶτο, ἐν ᾗ οἱ νέοι ἤδη αὐτοκράτορες γιγνόμενοι δηλοῦσιν εἴτε τὴν διʼ ἀρετῆς ὁδὸν τρέψονται ἐπὶ τὸν βίον εἴτε τὴν διὰ κακίας, ἐξελθόντα εἰς ἡσυχίαν καθῆσθαι ἀποροῦντα ποτέραν τῶν ὁδῶν τράπηται·
2.1.29
καὶ ἡ Κακία ὑπολαβοῦσα εἶπεν, ὥς φησι Πρόδικος· ἐννοεῖς, ὦ Ἡράκλεις, ὡς χαλεπὴν καὶ μακρὰν ὁδὸν ἐπὶ τὰς εὐφροσύνας ἡ γυνή σοι αὕτη διηγεῖται; ἐγὼ δὲ ῥᾳδίαν καὶ βραχεῖαν ὁδὸν ἐπὶ τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν ἄξω σε.'' None
sup>
2.1.21 Aye, and Prodicus the wise expresses himself to the like effect concerning Virtue in the essay On Heracles that he recites to throngs of listeners. This, so far as I remember, is how he puts it: When Heracles was passing from boyhood to youth’s estate, wherein the young, now becoming their own masters, show whether they will approach life by the path of virtue or the path of vice, he went out into a quiet place,
2.1.29
And Vice, as Prodicus tells, answered and said: Heracles, mark you how hard and long is that road to joy, of which this woman tells? but I will lead you by a short and easy road to happiness. And Virtue said: '' None
53. Xenophon, Symposium, 3.2, 9.2-9.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ariadne and Dionysus • Artists of Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus and Ariadne, marriage of • Dionysus, • Dionysus, Artists of • guilds, Artists of Dionysus

 Found in books: Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 122, 636; Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 165; Edmunds (2021), Greek Myth, 20; Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 50, 53, 75, 76

sup>
3.2 Then Socrates resumed the conversation. These people, gentlemen, said he, show their competence to give us pleasure; and yet we, I am sure, think ourselves considerably superior to them. Will it not be to our shame, therefore, if we do not make even an attempt, while here together, to be of some service or to give some pleasure one to another? At that many spoke up: You lead the way, then, and tell us what to begin talking about to realize most fully what you have in mind.
9.2
After he had withdrawn, a chair of state, first of all, was set down in the room, and then the Syracusan came in with the announcement: Gentlemen, Ariadne will now enter the chamber set apart for her and Dionysus; after that, Dionysus, a little flushed with wine drunk at a banquet of the gods, will come to join her; and then they will disport themselves together. 9.3 Then, to start proceedings, in came Ariadne, apparelled as a bride, and took her seat in the chair. Dionysus being still invisible, there was heard the Bacchic music played on a flute. Then it was that the assemblage was filled with admiration of the dancing master. For as soon as Ariadne heard the strain, her action was such that every one might have perceived her joy at the sound; and although she did not go to meet Dionysus, nor even rise, yet it was clear that she kept her composure with difficulty. 9.4 But when Dionysus caught sight of her, he came dancing toward her and in a most loving manner sat himself on her lap, and putting his arms about her gave her a kiss. Her demeanour was all modesty, and yet she returned his embrace with affection. As the banqueters beheld it, they kept clapping and crying encore! 9.5 Then when Dionysus arose and gave his hand to Ariadne to rise also, there was presented the impersonation of lovers kissing and caressing each other. The onlookers viewed a Dionysus truly handsome, an Ariadne truly fair, not presenting a burlesque but offering genuine kisses with their lips; and they were all raised to a high pitch of enthusiasm as they looked on. 9.6 For they overheard Dionysus asking her if she loved him, and heard her vowing that she did, so earnestly that not only Dionysus but all the bystanders as well would have taken their oaths in confirmation that the youth and the maid surely felt a mutual affection. For theirs was the appearance not of actors who had been taught their poses but of persons now permitted to satisfy their long-cherished desires. 9.7 At last, the banqueters, seeing them in each other’s embrace and obviously leaving for the bridal couch, those who were unwedded swore that they would take to themselves wives, and those who were already married mounted horse and rode off to their wives that they might enjoy them. As for Socrates and the others who had lingered behind, they went out with Callias to join Lycon and his son in their walk. So broke up the banquet held that evening.'' None
54. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos Protrygaios • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysus • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • festivals, of Dionysus • theater of Dionysus • theater, of Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 42, 273, 375, 376; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 31, 58; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 181, 182; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 98, 116; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 244; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 248, 252, 269, 280, 294

55. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, • Dionysus (god and cult) • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • Dionysus, festivals • Dionysus, festivals of • Dionysus, oaths invoking • Dionysus, oaths sworn by • Theater of Dionysos • festivals, of Dionysus • priests and priestesses, of Dionysus in Piraeus • sanctuary, of Dionysus • theater of Dionysus • theater, of Dionysus

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 242; Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 231; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 228; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 181, 182, 691; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 107; Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 107; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 50; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 276, 297; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 205, 302, 324, 346

56. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos, Eleuthereus • Dionysos, Melpomenos • Dionysus, oaths sworn by

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 659; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 78

57. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, on Bacchic cult • Demeter, and Dionysus • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), Dionysia festivals • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Limnaios/en Lymnais • Dionysos, Dionysos ploutodotes • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysus • Dionysus (god and cult) • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • women and Dionysus • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi and Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 115; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 34, 67; Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 23, 24; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 252; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 107; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 167; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 325; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 271, 291, 294, 361; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 340

58. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Theater of Dionysos • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, and theatre • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, theatrical self-presentation by

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 66; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 13

59. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo, Dionysus, association with • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Laphystios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Sabos • Dionysos, Dionysos komastes κωμαστής • Dionysos, Dionysos mystes • Dionysos, Dionysos narthekophoros • Dionysos, Dionysos nyktipolos • Dionysos, Dionysos thiasotes • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysus • Dionysus (god and cult) • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • Dionysus, oaths invoking • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 48, 110, 291; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 34; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 18; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 157; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 307; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 318, 340

60. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), worship by women • Dionysus

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 249; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 43

61. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • Dionysus, festivals • Dionysus, oaths sworn by

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 242; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 116; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 42; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 271, 361; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 346

62. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aegean islands, Dionysus associated with • Areopagos, Theatre of Dionysos • Bassareus (Dionysus) • Demeter, Dionysus and • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Laphystios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Limnaios/en Lymnais • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Sabos • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos komastes κωμαστής • Dionysos, Dionysos mystes • Dionysos, Dionysos narthekophoros • Dionysos, Dionysos nyktipolos • Dionysos, Dionysos ploutodotes • Dionysos, Dionysos thiasotes • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, bakchoi • Dionysos, death • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, realm • Dionysos, resurrection • Dionysos, tomb • Dionysos,miracles • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus, Aegean islands, associated with • Dionysus, Demeter and • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • Dionysus, and Sophocles • Dionysus, oaths invoking • Dionysus, oaths sworn by • Dionysus, oaths sworn to • Dionysus, wine, as god of • anti-hero, Dionysus • awakening, Dionysos • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • death of Dionysus • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac • wine, Dionysus as god of

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 36; Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 134; Bednarek (2021), The Myth of Lycurgus in Aeschylus, Naevius, and beyond, 84; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 48, 103, 109, 111, 112, 175, 281, 322, 350, 372, 373; Bierl (2017), Time and Space in Ancient Myth, Religion and Culture, 119; Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 69; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 67, 69; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 263; Eidinow (2007), Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks, 301; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 149; Gorman, Gorman (2014), Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature. 42; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 95, 96, 102; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 114; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 116; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 98, 116; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 250; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 66; Peels (2016), Hosios: A Semantic Study of Greek Piety, 234; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 244, 260, 263, 266, 271; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 393; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 34, 78, 110, 138, 210, 246, 292, 302, 321, 335, 341, 343, 346, 19012; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 43, 58; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 145

63. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic, bacchios, baccheios βάκχιος, βακχεῖος • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Nyktelios • Dionysos, Dionysos Thriambos • Dionysos, Dionysos choragos/choreutas/philochoreutas • Dionysos, Dionysos eriboas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribremetas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • anti-hero, Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 42, 47, 273, 289, 381; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 112

64. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus (god and cult) • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • Dionysus, festivals

 Found in books: Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 34; Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 242; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 132; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 107; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 266

65. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Archebacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos ageta komon • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos orsibacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos teletarcha • Dionysos, probation • Dionysus, Dionysiac (rites, farce etc.) • Dionysus, imitation of in Magnesia

 Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 176; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 44; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 280; Riess (2012), Performing interpersonal violence: court, curse, and comedy in fourth-century BCE Athens, 294

66. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, as “releaser” • women and Dionysus • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi and Dionysus

 Found in books: Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 145; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 325

67. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Nyktelios • Dionysos, Dionysos Thriambos • Dionysos, Dionysos choragos/choreutas/philochoreutas • Dionysos, Dionysos eriboas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribremetas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • Dionysos, and Kybele • Dionysos, and earthquakes • Dionysos, birth of • Dionysus • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus, heart of • Dionysus, ruler of cosmos • Dionysus,consumption • Dionysus,resurrection • Eleusinian, Orpheus, Orphic, Samothracian,Bacchic, Dionysiac • Kybebe/le, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 255; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 294, 295; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 154; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 141; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 36; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 171, 335; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 124

68. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Elelichthon • Dionysus • Proitids, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 41, 273; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 699; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 189; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 275; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 43

69. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • anti-hero, Dionysus

 Found in books: Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 53; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 115

70. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Theater of Dionysos • priests and priestesses, of Dionysus

 Found in books: Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 13; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 237

71. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic imagery • Bacchic rites • Dionysus • dance, bacchic

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 263; Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 90, 91

72. Aeschines, Letters, 3.18, 3.120-3.121 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos, at Limnai • Dionysus • hieropoioi, of Dionysus in Piraeus • priests and priestesses, of Dionysus in Piraeus

 Found in books: Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 92, 200; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 157, 186; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 29

sup>
3.18 I will first cite cases where this would be least expected. For example, the law directs that priests and priestesses be subject to audit, all collectively, and each severally and individually—persons who receive perquisites only, and whose occupation is to pray to heaven for you; and they are made accountable not only separately, but whole priestly, families together, the Eumolpidae, the Ceryces, and all the rest.
3.120
“I, in behalf of the people of Athens , in my own behalf, and in behalf of my children and my house, do come to the help of the god and the sacred land according unto the oath, with hand and foot and voice, and all my powers and I purge our city of this impiety. As for you, now make your own decision. The sacred baskets are prepared; the sacrificial victims stand ready at the altars and you are about to pray to the gods for blessings on state and hearth. 3.121 Consider then with what voice, with what spirit, with what countece, possessed of what effrontery, you will make your supplications, if you let go unpunished these men, who stand under the ban of the curse. For not in riddles, but plainly is written the penalty to be suffered by those who have been guilty of impiety, and for those who have permitted it; and the curse closes with these words: ‘May they who fail to punish them never offer pure sacrifice unto Apollo, nor to Artemis, nor to Leto, nor to Athena Pronaea, and may the gods refuse to accept their offerings.’”'' None
73. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus • Dionysos • Dionysos, and Kybele • Dionysus, Artists of • Dionysus, patron god of the arts • Kybebe/le, and Dionysos • Philikos, priest of Dionysus • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • guilds, Artists of Dionysus • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται)

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 102; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 294; Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 134; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 51; Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 364

74. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos-Bakchos • Dionysus • Dionysus (god and cult) • Dionysus, as “releaser” • Eleusinian, Orpheus, Orphic, Samothracian,Bacchic, Dionysiac • Orphic, see Bacchic, initiation, mystery cults, rites • women and Dionysus • wool, worked for Athena by parthenoi and Dionysus

 Found in books: Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 49; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 145; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 106, 108; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 41; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 325; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 275, 278

75. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Theater of Dionysos • Theatre of Dionysus • theater of Dionysus

 Found in books: Gygax (2016), Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism, 125; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021), Benefactors and the Polis: The Public Gift in the Greek Cities from the Homeric World to Late Antiquity, 80; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 39

76. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aegean islands, Dionysus associated with • Anthesteria marriage of Dionysus at? • Demeter, Dionysus and • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god), Dionysia festivals • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, Dionysos Limnaios/en Lymnais • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos ploutodotes • Dionysos, Melpomenos • Dionysos, Omestes • Dionysos, and Hera • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, and mortality • Dionysos, and the Basihnna • Dionysos, as outsider • Dionysos, cult of • Dionysos, dedication by Moirokles • Dionysos, dedications • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysus • Dionysus, Aegean islands, associated with • Dionysus, Demeter and • Dionysus, wine, as god of • Theater of Dionysos • cult, of Dionysos • cults, of Dionysos • heroines, and Dionysos • hieropoioi, of Dionysus in Piraeus • marriage, of Dionysos and the Basihnna • sanctuary, of Dionysus • wine, Dionysus as god of

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 103, 113, 115; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 267; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 136; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 660, 1151; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 691; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 118; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 209; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 141; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 153; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 303; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 32; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 393

77. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic imagery • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, and theatre • dance, bacchic

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 3; Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 91

78. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, festivals of • altars, of Dionysus

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 107; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 122

79. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus/Dionysiac Guilds (Dionysiakoi Technitai) • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, and theatre

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 6; Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 7

80. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Theatre of Dionysus • theater of Dionysus

 Found in books: Gygax (2016), Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism, 125, 229; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021), Benefactors and the Polis: The Public Gift in the Greek Cities from the Homeric World to Late Antiquity, 80

81. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Theatre of Dionysus • theater of Dionysus

 Found in books: Gygax (2016), Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism, 125; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021), Benefactors and the Polis: The Public Gift in the Greek Cities from the Homeric World to Late Antiquity, 80

82. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, death • Dionysos, tomb • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysus, birth (and rebirth) of • Dionysus, dismemberment and death of • Dionysus, grave or burial of • Dionysus, heart of • Zeus, and heart of Dionysus • awakening, Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 65, 111; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 77

83. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, childhood

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 210; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 209

84. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.62, 3.23.58, 3.58 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Eleuthereus • Dionysos, Dionysos Epaphios/Epaphian • Dionysos,pluralized • Dionysus • Dionysus, Zagreus • Dionysus, dismemberment • Dionysus,birth

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 416, 560; Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 142; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 253; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 64; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 62, 102, 234

sup>
2.62 Those gods therefore who were the authors of various benefits owned their deification to the value of the benefits which they bestowed, and indeed the names that I just now enumerated express the various powers of the gods that bear them. "Human experience moreover and general custom have made it a practice to confer the deification of renown and gratitude upon of distinguished benefactors. This is the origin of Hercules, of Castor and Pollux, of Aesculapius, and also of Liber (I mean Liber the son of Semele, not the Liber whom our ancestors solemnly and devoutly consecrated with Ceres and Libera, the import of which joint consecration may be gathered from the mysteries; but Liber and Libera were so named as Ceres\' offspring, that being the meaning of our Latin word liberi — a use which has survived in the case of Libera but not of Liber) — and this is also the origin of Romulus, who is believed to be the same as Quirinus. And these benefactors were duly deemed divine, as being both supremely good and immortal, because their souls survived and enjoyed eternal life. 3.2
3.58
If you accept this conclusion, you will go on to prove that the world is perfectly able to read a book; for following in Zeno\'s footsteps you will be able to construct a syllogism as follows: \'That which is literate is superior to that which is illiterate; but nothing is superior to the world; therefore the world is literate.\' By this mode of reasoning the world will also be an orator, and even a mathematician, a musician, and in fact an expert in every branch of learning, in fine a philosopher. You kept repeating that the world is the sole source of all created things, and that nature\'s capacity does not include the power to create things unlike herself: am I to admit that the world is not only a living being, and wise, but also a harper and a flute-player, because it gives birth also to men skilled in these arts? Well then, your father of the Stoic school really adduces no reason why we should think that the world is rational, or even alive. Therefore the world is not god; and nevertheless there is nothing superior to the world, for there is nothing more beautiful than it, nothing more conducive to our health, nothing more ornate to the view, or more regular in motion. "And if the world as a whole isn\'t god, neither are the stars, which in all are countless numbers you wanted to reckon as gods, enlarging with delight upon their uniform and everlasting movements, and I protest with good reason, for they display a marvellous and extraordinary regularity. ' "
3.58
Likewise there are several Dianas. The first, daughter of Jupiter and Proserpine, is said to have given birth to the winged Cupid. The second is more celebrated; tradition makes her the daughter of the third Jupiter and of Latona. The father of the third is recorded to have been Upis, and her mother Glauce; the Greeks often call her by her father's name of Upis. We have a number of Dionysi. The first is the son of Jupiter and Proserpine; the second of Nile — he is the fabled slayer of Nysa. The father of the third is Cabirus; it is stated that he was king over Asia, and the Sabazia were instituted in his honour. The fourth is the son of Jupiter and Luna; the Orphic rites are believed to be celebrated in his honour. The fifth is the son of Nisus and Thyone, and is believed to have established the Trieterid festival. "' None
85. Polybius, Histories, 16.21.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus • Dionysus, Artists of • Polybius, on the Artists of Dionysus • guilds, Artists of Dionysus • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται)

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 164; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 51

sup>
16.21.8 ὃν δέ ποτε χρόνον τῆς ἡμέρας ἀπεμέριζε πρὸς ἐντεύξεις, ἐν τούτῳ διεδίδου, μᾶλλον δʼ, εἰ δεῖ τὸ φαινόμενον εἰπεῖν, διερρίπτει τὰ βασιλικὰ χρήματα τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος παραγεγονόσι πρεσβευταῖς καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνίταις, μάλιστα δὲ τοῖς περὶ τὴν αὐλὴν ἡγεμόσι καὶ στρατιώταις.'' None
sup>
16.21.8 \xa0During that portion of the day that he set apart for audiences he used to distribute, or rather, if one must speak the truth, scatter the royal funds among the envoys who had come from Greece and the actors of the theatre of Dionysus and chiefly among the generals and soldiers present at court. <'' None
86. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.12, 2.27-2.30, 3.21, 3.25, 4.16, 5.47, 6.20, 7.4-7.6, 7.10-7.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander the Great,as New Dionysos • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos,miracles • Dionysus • Dionysus, Dionysiac Cult • Dionysus, cult • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 3, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460; Gera (2014), Judith, 445; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 51; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 543

sup>
1.12 Even after the law had been read to him, he did not cease to maintain that he ought to enter, saying, "Even if those men are deprived of this honor, I ought not to be."
2.27
He proposed to inflict public disgrace upon the Jewish community, and he set up a stone on the tower in the courtyard with this inscription: 2.28 "None of those who do not sacrifice shall enter their sanctuaries, and all Jews shall be subjected to a registration involving poll tax and to the status of slaves. Those who object to this are to be taken by force and put to death; 2.29 those who are registered are also to be branded on their bodies by fire with the ivy-leaf symbol of Dionysus, and they shall also be reduced to their former limited status."
3.21
Among other things, we made known to all our amnesty toward their compatriots here, both because of their alliance with us and the myriad affairs liberally entrusted to them from the beginning; and we ventured to make a change, by deciding both to deem them worthy of Alexandrian citizenship and to make them participants in our regular religious rites.
3.25
Therefore we have given orders that, as soon as this letter shall arrive, you are to send to us those who live among you, together with their wives and children, with insulting and harsh treatment, and bound securely with iron fetters, to suffer the sure and shameful death that befits enemies.' "
4.16
The king was greatly and continually filled with joy, organizing feasts in honor of all his idols, with a mind alienated from truth and with a profane mouth, praising speechless things that are not able even to communicate or to come to one's help, and uttering improper words against the supreme God." 5.47 So he, when he had filled his impious mind with a deep rage, rushed out in full force along with the beasts, wishing to witness, with invulnerable heart and with his own eyes, the grievous and pitiful destruction of the aforementioned people.
7.4
for they declared that our government would never be firmly established until this was accomplished, because of the ill-will which these people had toward all nations. 7.5 They also led them out with harsh treatment as slaves, or rather as traitors, and, girding themselves with a cruelty more savage than that of Scythian custom, they tried without any inquiry or examination to put them to death. 7.6 But we very severely threatened them for these acts, and in accordance with the clemency which we have toward all men we barely spared their lives. Since we have come to realize that the God of heaven surely defends the Jews, always taking their part as a father does for his children,' "7.11 For they declared that those who for the belly's sake had transgressed the divine commandments would never be favorably disposed toward the king's government." '7.12 The king then, admitting and approving the truth of what they said, granted them a general license so that freely and without royal authority or supervision they might destroy those everywhere in his kingdom who had transgressed the law of God. 7.13 When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed. 7.14 And so on their way they punished and put to a public and shameful death any whom they met of their fellow-countrymen who had become defiled. 7.15 In that day they put to death more than three hundred men; and they kept the day as a joyful festival, since they had destroyed the profaners.' ' None
87. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 7.35, 13.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus, Dionysiac Cult

 Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 445; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 46; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 378, 543

sup>
7.35 and in anger he swore this oath, "Unless Judas and his army are delivered into my hands this time, then if I return safely I will burn up this house." And he went out in great anger.
13.51
On the twenty-third day of the second month, in the one hundred and seventy-first year, the Jews entered it with praise and palm branches, and with harps and cymbals and stringed instruments, and with hymns and songs, because a great enemy had been crushed and removed from Israel.'' None
88. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.21, 6.4, 6.7, 10.7, 14.4, 14.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysus • Dionysus, Dionysiac Cult • Dionysus, cult • Pagan gods, Dionysus

 Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 445; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 275; Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 276; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 45, 46; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 8, 18, 274, 378, 541, 543

sup>
4.21 When Apollonius the son of Menestheus was sent to Egypt for the coronation of Philometor as king, Antiochus learned that Philometor had become hostile to his government, and he took measures for his own security. Therefore upon arriving at Joppa he proceeded to Jerusalem.'" "
6.4
For the temple was filled with debauchery and reveling by the Gentiles, who dallied with harlots and had intercourse with women within the sacred precincts, and besides brought in things for sacrifice that were unfit.'" "
6.7
On the monthly celebration of the king's birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when the feast of Dionysus came, they were compelled to walk in the procession in honor of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy.'" "
10.7
Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.'" "
14.4
and went to King Demetrius in about the one hundred and fifty-first year, presenting to him a crown of gold and a palm, and besides these some of the customary olive branches from the temple. During that day he kept quiet.'" "
14.33
he stretched out his right hand toward the sanctuary, and swore this oath: 'If you do not hand Judas over to me as a prisoner, I will level this precinct of God to the ground and tear down the altar, and I will build here a splendid temple to Dionysus.'" " None
89. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Neos Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 38; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 94

90. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysus (god and cult)

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 186; Martin (2009), Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, 107

91. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bassareus (Dionysus) • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos,punishment

 Found in books: Bednarek (2021), The Myth of Lycurgus in Aeschylus, Naevius, and beyond, 84; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 63, 303

92. Catullus, Poems, 64.251-64.252, 64.254, 64.260-64.261, 64.264 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos boukeros • Dionysos, Dionysos polyonymos • Dionysos, and Kybele • Dionysos, nurse of • Kybebe/le, and Dionysos • Orphic, see Bacchic, initiation, mystery cults, rites

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 188, 279; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 293, 295; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 3

sup>
64.251 But from the further side came flitting bright-faced Iacchu 64.252 Girded by Satyr-crew and Nysa-reared Sileni
64.254
Who flocking eager to fray did rave with infuriate spirit,' "
64.260
Orgies that ears profane must vainly lust for o'er hearing—" '64.261 Others with palms on high smote hurried strokes on the cymbal,
64.264
And with its horrid skirl loud shrilled the barbarous bag-pipe'' None
93. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.11-1.12, 1.11.2, 1.16, 1.21, 1.22.6-1.22.7, 1.23.2, 1.25.2, 1.45, 1.88, 1.96, 2.36-2.39, 3.58-3.59, 3.62.6, 3.62.8, 3.63.1-3.63.5, 3.65.5, 4.2.2-4.2.3, 4.3.3, 4.5.2, 4.25.4, 5.4.7, 5.49, 5.52.2, 5.62, 5.75.4, 16.55.1, 17.16.3-17.16.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, on Bacchic cult • Artists of Dionysus • Bacchic • Bacchus and Bacchic rites • Bes and Dionysos cult, Saqqâra Bes chambers • Bes and Dionysos cult, worship beyond Egypt • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Aisymnetes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheastes • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheiotes • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheutes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchiastes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchiotas • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchistes • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bassareus/Bassaros • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Eleuthereus • Dionysos, Dionysos Epaphios/Epaphian • Dionysos, Dionysos Erikepaigos • Dionysos, Dionysos Kresios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lenaios/Lenaeus • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Musagetes • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos as goat • Dionysos, Dionysos as hunter • Dionysos, Dionysos as vegetation god • Dionysos, Dionysos mystes • Dionysos, Orphic Dionysos • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, and mortality • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, birth • Dionysos, death • Dionysos, death of • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, tomb • Dionysos,pluralized • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus (Bacchus) • Dionysus, Artists of • Dionysus, Liknites • Dionysus, Zagreus • Dionysus, and phallus • Dionysus, as conqueror • Dionysus, birth (and rebirth) of • Dionysus, birth of Dionysus • Dionysus, dismemberment • Dionysus, dismemberment and death of • Dionysus, god of death outside of Tablets • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus, heart of • Dionysus, in Sicily • Dionysus,birth • Divine being, Dionysus • Persephone, mother of Dionysus • Zeus, gestates Dionysus in his thigh • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, and theatre • awakening, Dionysos • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • death of Dionysus • goat, Dionysos as • guilds, Artists of Dionysus • heroines, and Dionysos • mortality, and Dionysos • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 136, 137; Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 201; Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 14; Beneker et al. (2022), Plutarch’s Unexpected Silences: Suppression and Selection in the Lives and Moralia, 266; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 8, 9, 45, 46, 76, 111, 141, 164, 167, 172, 186, 268, 284, 285, 351, 406, 419, 420, 424, 445, 560, 561; Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 118, 124; Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 23; Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 160, 161; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 32, 65; Gorman, Gorman (2014), Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature. 361; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 74, 76, 196, 199; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 225; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 256; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 190; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 108; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 81, 235; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 77; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 237, 264, 269; Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 363, 606; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 34, 44; Stavrianopoulou (2013), Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images, 124; Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 335; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 62, 63, 64, 71, 257, 270; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 75, 123, 144, 150, 268, 319

5.4 1. \xa0Like the two goddesses whom we have mentioned Corê, we are told, received as her portion the meadows round about Enna; but a great fountain was made sacred to her in the territory of Syracuse and given the name Cyanê or "Azure Fount.",2. \xa0For the myth relates that it was near Syracuse that Pluton effected the Rape of Corê and took her away in his chariot, and that after cleaving the earth asunder he himself descended into Hades, taking along with him the bride whom he had seized, and that he caused the fountain named Cyanê to gush forth, near which the Syracusans each year hold a notable festive gathering; and private individuals offer the lesser victims, but when the ceremony is on behalf of the community, bulls are plunged in the pool, this manner of sacrifice having been commanded by Heracles on the occasion when he made the circuit of all Sicily, while driving off the cattle of Geryones.,3. \xa0After the Rape of Corê, the myth does on to recount, Demeter, being unable to find her daughter, kindled torches in the craters of Mt.\xa0Aetna and visited many parts of the inhabited world, and upon the men who received her with the greatest favour she conferred briefs, rewarding them with the gift of the fruit of the wheat.,4. \xa0And since a more kindly welcome was extended the goddess by the Athenians than by any other people, they were the first after the Siceliotae to be given the fruit of the wheat; and in return for this gift the citizens of that city in assembly honoured the goddess above all others with the establishment both of most notable sacrifices and of the mysteries of Eleusis, which, by reason of their very great antiquity and sanctity, have come to be famous among all mankind. From the Athenians many peoples received a portion of the gracious gift of the corn, and they in turn, sharing the gift of the seed with their neighbours, in this way caused all the inhabited world to abound with it.,5. \xa0And the inhabitants of Sicily, since by reason of the intimate relationship of Demeter and Corê with them they were the first to share in the corn after its discovery, instituted to each one of the goddesses sacrifices and festive gatherings, which they named after them, and by the time chosen for these made acknowledgement of the gifts which had been conferred upon them.,6. \xa0In the case of Corê, for instance, they established the celebration of her return at about the time when the fruit of the corn was found to come to maturity, and they celebrate this sacrifice and festive gathering with such strictness of observance and such zeal as we should reasonably expect those men to show who are returning thanks for having been selected before all mankind for the greatest possible gift;,7. \xa0but in the case of Demeter they preferred that time for the sacrifice when the sowing of the corn is first begun, and for a period of ten days they hold a festive gathering which bears the name of this goddess and is most magnificent by reason of the brilliance of their preparation for it, while in the observance of it they imitate the ancient manner of life. And it is their custom during these days to indulge in coarse language as they associate one with another, the reason being that by such coarseness the goddess, grieved though she was at the Rape of Corê, burst into laughter.
1.11.2
\xa0For when the names are translated into Greek Osiris means "many-eyed," and properly so; for in shedding his rays in every direction he surveys with many eyes, as it were, all land and sea. And the words of the poet are also in agreement with this conception when he says: The sun, who sees all things and hears all things.
1.11
1. \xa0Now the men of Egypt, he says, when ages ago they came into existence, as they looked up at the firmament and were struck with both awe and wonder at the nature of the universe, conceived that two gods were both eternal and first, namely, the sun and the moon, whom they called respectively Osiris and Isis, these appellations having in each case been based upon a certain meaning in them.,2. \xa0For when the names are translated into Greek Osiris means "many-eyed," and properly so; for in shedding his rays in every direction he surveys with many eyes, as it were, all land and sea. And the words of the poet are also in agreement with this conception when he says: The sun, who sees all things and hears all things.,3. \xa0And of the ancient Greek writers of mythology some give to Osiris the name Dionysus or, with a slight change in form, Sirius. One of them, Eumolpus, in his Bacchic Hymn speaks of Our Dionysus, shining like a star, With fiery eye in ev\'ry ray; while Orpheus says: And this is why men call him Shining One And Dionysus.,4. \xa0Some say that Osiris is also represented with the cloak of fawn-skin about his shoulders as imitating the sky spangled with the stars. As for Isis, when translated the word means "ancient," the name having been given her because her birth was from everlasting and ancient. And they put horns on her head both because of the appearance which she has to the eye when the moon is crescent-shaped, and because among the Egyptians a cow is held sacred to her.,5. \xa0These two gods, they hold, regulate the entire universe, giving both nourishment and increase to all things by means of a system of three seasons which complete the full cycle through an unobservable movement, these being spring and summer and winter; and these seasons, though in nature most opposed to one another, complete the cycle of the year in the fullest harmony. Moreover, practically all the physical matter which is essential to the generation of all things is furnished by these gods, the sun contributing the fiery element and the spirit, the moon the wet and the dry, and both together the air; and it is through these elements that all things are engendered and nourished.,6. \xa0And so it is out of the sun and moon that the whole physical body of the universe is made complete; and as for the five parts just named of these bodies â\x80\x94 the spirit, the fire, the dry, as well as the wet, and, lastly, the air-like â\x80\x94 just as in the case of a man we enumerate head and hands and feet and the other parts, so in the same way the body of the universe is composed in its entirety of these parts. 1.12 1. \xa0Each of these parts they regard as a god and to each of them the first men in Egypt to use articulate speech gave a distinct name appropriate to its nature.,2. \xa0Now the spirit they called, as we translate their expression, Zeus, and since he was the source of the spirit of life in animals they considered him to be in a sense the father of all things. And they say that the most renowned of the Greek poets also agrees with this when he speaks of this god as The father of men and of gods.,3. \xa0The fire they called Hephaestus, as it is translated, holding him to be a great god and one who contributes much both to the birth and full development of all things.,4. \xa0The earth, again, they looked upon as a kind of vessel which holds all growing things and so gave it the name "mother"; and in like manner the Greeks also call it Demeter, the word having been slightly changed in the course of time; for in olden times they called her Gê\xa0Meter (Earth Mother), to which Orpheus bears witness when he speaks of Earth the Mother of all, Demeter giver of wealth.,5. \xa0And the wet, according to them, was called by the men of old Oceanê, which, when translated, means Fostering-mother, though some of the Greeks have taken it to be Oceanus, in connection with whom the poet also speaks of Oceanus source of gods and mother Tethys.,6. \xa0For the Egyptians consider Oceanus to be their river Nile, on which also their gods were born; since, they say, Egypt is the only country in the whole inhabited world where there are many cities which were founded by the first gods, such as Zeus, Helius, Hermes, Apollo, Pan, Eileithyia, and many more.,7. \xa0The air, they say, they called Athena, as the name is translated, and they considered her to be the daughter of Zeus and conceived of her as a virgin, because of fact that the air is by its nature uncorrupted and occupies the highest part of the entire universe; for the latter reason also the myth arose that she was born from the head of Zeus.,8. \xa0Another name given her was Tritogeneia (Thrice-born), because her nature changes three times in the course of the year, in the spring, summer, and winter. They add that she is also called Glaucopis (Blue-eyed), not because she has blue eyes, as some Greeks have held â\x80\x94 a\xa0silly explanation, indeed â\x80\x94 but because the air has a bluish cast.,9. \xa0These five deities, they say, visit all the inhabited world, revealing themselves to men in the form of sacred animals, and at times even appearing in the guise of men or in other shapes; nor is this a fabulous thing, but possible, if these are in very truth the gods who give life to all things.,10. \xa0And also the poet, who visited Egypt and became acquainted with such accounts as these from the lips of the priests, in some place in his writings sets forth as actual fact what has been said: The gods, in strangers\' form from alien lands, Frequent the cities of men in ev\'ry guise, Observing their insolence and lawful ways. Now so far as the celestial gods are concerned whose genesis is from eternity, this is the account given by the Egyptians.' "
1.16
1. \xa0It was by Hermes, for instance, according to them, that the common language of mankind was first further articulated, and that many objects which were still nameless received an appellation, that the alphabet was invented, and that ordices regarding the honours and offerings due to the gods were duly established; he was the first also to observe the orderly arrangement of the stars and the harmony of the musical sounds and their nature, to establish a wrestling school, and to give thought to the rhythmical movement of the human body and its proper development. He also made a lyre and gave it three strings, imitating the seasons of the year; for he adopted three tones, a high, a low, and a medium; the high from the summer, the low from the winter, and the medium from the spring.,2. \xa0The Greeks also were taught by him how to expound (hermeneia) their thoughts, and it was for this reason that he was given the name Hermes. In a word, Osiris, taking him for his priestly scribe, communicated with him on every matter and used his counsel above that of all others. The olive tree also, they claim, was his discovery, not Athena's, as the Greeks say." 1.21 1. \xa0Although the priests of Osiris had from the earliest times received the account of his death as a matter not to be divulged, in the course of years it came about that through some of their number this hidden knowledge was published to the many.,2. \xa0This is the story as they give it: When Osiris was ruling over Egypt as its lawful king, he was murdered by his brother Typhon, a violent and impious man; Typhon then divided the body of the slain man into twenty-six pieces and gave one portion to each of the band of murderers, since he wanted all of them to share in the pollution and felt that in this way he would have in them steadfast supporters and defenders of his rule.,3. \xa0But Isis, the sister and wife of Osiris, avenged his murder with the aid of her son Horus, and after slaying Typhon and his accomplices became queen over Egypt.,4. \xa0The struggle between them took place on the banks of the Nile near the village now known as Antaeus, which, they say, lies on the Arabian side of the river and derives its name from that of Antaeus, a contemporary of Osiris, who was punished by Heracles.,5. \xa0Now Isis recovered all the pieces of the body except the privates, and wishing that the burial-place of her husband should remain secret and yet be honoured by all the inhabitants of Egypt, she fulfilled her purpose in somewhat the following manner. Over each piece of the body, as the account goes, she fashioned out of spices and wax a human figure about the size of Osiris;,6. \xa0then summoning the priests group by group, she required all of them an oath that they would reveal to no one the trust which she was going to confide to them, and taking each group of them apart privately she said that she was consigning to them alone the burial of the body, and after reminding them of the benefactions of Osiris she exhorted them to bury his body in their own district and pay honours to him as to a god, and to consecrate to him also some one that they might choose of the animals native to their district, pay it while living the honours which they had formerly rendered to Osiris, and upon its death accord it the same kind of funeral as they had given to him.,7. \xa0And since Isis wished to induce the priests to render these honours by the incentive of their own profit also, she gave them the third part of the country to defray the cost of the worship and service of the gods.,8. \xa0And the priests, it is said, being mindful of the benefactions of Osiris and eager to please the queen who was petitioning them, and incited as well by their own profit, did everything just as Isis had suggested.,9. \xa0It is for this reason that even to this day each group of priests supposes that Osiris lies buried in their district, pays honours to the animals which were originally consecrated to him, and, when these die, renews in the funeral rites for them the mourning for Osiris.,10. \xa0The consecration to Osiris, however, of the sacred bulls, which are given the names Apis and Mnevis, and worship of them as gods were introduced generally among all the Egyptians,,11. \xa0since these animals had, more than any others, rendered aid to those who discovered the fruit of the grain, in connection with both the sowing of the seed and with every agricultural labour from which mankind profits.
1.22.6
\xa0It is for this reason that travellers are not allowed to set foot on this island. And all the inhabitants of the Thebaid, which is the oldest portion of Egypt, hold it to be the strongest oath when a man swears "by Osiris who lieth in Philae." Now the parts of the body of Osiris which were found were honoured with burial, they say, in the manner described above, but the privates, according to them, were thrown by Typhon into the Nile because no one of his accomplices was willing to take them. Yet Isis thought them as worthy of divine honours as the other parts, for, fashioning a likeness of them, she set it up in the temples, commanded that it be honoured, and made it the object of the highest regard and reverence in the rites and sacrifices accorded to the god. 1.22.7 \xa0Consequently the Greeks too, inasmuch as they received from Egypt the celebrations of the orgies and the festivals connected with Dionysus, honour this member in both the mysteries and the initiatory rites and sacrifices of this god, giving it the name "phallus."
1.23.2
\xa0And those who say that the god was born of Semelê and Zeus in Boeotian Thebes are, according to the priests, simply inventing the tale. For they say that Orpheus, upon visiting Egypt and participating in the initiation and mysteries of Dionysus, adopted them and as a favour to the descendants of Cadmus, since he was kindly disposed to them and received honours at their hands, transferred the birth of the god to Thebes; and the common people, partly out of ignorance and partly out of their desire to have the god thought to be a Greek, eagerly accepted his initiatory rites and mysteries.
1.25.2
\xa0Osiris has been given the name Sarapis by some, Dionysus by others, Pluto by others, Ammon by others, Zeus by some, and many have considered Pan to be the same god; and some say that Sarapis is the god whom the Greeks call Pluto. As for Isis, the Egyptians say that she was the discoverer of many health-giving drugs and was greatly versed in the science of healing;
1.45
1. \xa0After the gods the first king of Egypt, according to the priests, was Menas, who taught the people to worship gods and offer sacrifices, and also to supply themselves with tables and couches and to use costly bedding, and, in a word, introduced luxury and an extravagant manner of life.,2. \xa0For this reason when, many generations later, Tnephachthus, the father of Bocchoris the wise, was king and, while on a campaign in Arabia, ran short of supplies because the country was desert and rough, we are told that he was obliged to go without food for one day and then to live on quite simple fare at the home of some ordinary folk in private station, and that he, enjoying the experience exceedingly, denounced luxury and pronounced a curse on the king who had first taught the people their extravagant way of living; and so deeply did he take to heart the change which had taken place in the people\'s habits of eating, drinking, and sleeping, that he inscribed his curse in hieroglyphs on the temple of Zeus in Thebes; and this, in fact, appears to be the chief reason why the fame of Menas and his honours did not persist into later ages.,3. \xa0And it is said that the descendants of this king, fifty-two in number all told, ruled in unbroken succession more than a\xa0thousand and forty years, but that in their reigns nothing occurred that was worthy of record.,4. \xa0Subsequently, when Busiris became king and his descendants in turn, eight in name, the last of the line, who bore the same name as the first, founded, they say, the city which the Egyptians call Diospolis the Great, though the Greeks call it Thebes. Now the circuit of it he made one\xa0hundred and forty stades, and he adorned it in marvellous fashion with great buildings and remarkable temples and dedicatory monuments of every other kind;,5. \xa0in the same way he caused the houses of private citizens to be constructed in some cases four stories high, in others five, and in general made it the most prosperous city, not only of Egypt, but of the whole world.,6. \xa0And since, by reason of the city\'s pre-eminent wealth and power, its fame has been spread abroad to every region, even the poet, we are told, has mentioned it when he says: Nay, not for all the wealth of Thebes in Egypt, where in ev\'ry hall There lieth treasure vast; a\xa0hundred are Her gates, and warriors by each issue forth Two hundred, each of them with car and steeds.,7. \xa0Some, however, tell us that it was not one\xa0hundred "gates" (pulai) which the city had, but rather many great propylaea in front of its temples, and that it was from these that the title "hundred-gated" was given it, that is, "having many gateways." Yet twenty thousand chariots did in truth, we are told, pass out from it to war; for there were once scattered along the river from Memphis to the Thebes which is over against Libya one\xa0hundred post-stations, each one having accommodation for two hundred horses, whose foundations are pointed out even to this day.' "
1.88
1. \xa0They have deified the goat, just as the Greeks are said to have honoured Priapus, because of the generative member; for this animal has a very great propensity for copulation, and it is fitting that honour be shown to that member of the body which is the cause of generation, being, as it were, the primal author of all animal life.,2. \xa0And, in general, not only the Egyptians but not a\xa0few other peoples as well have in the rites they observe treated the male member as sacred, on the ground that it is the cause of the generation of all creatures; and the priests in Egypt who have inherited their priestly offices from their fathers are initiated first into the mysteries of this god.,3. \xa0And both the Pans and the Satyrs, they say, are worshipped by men for the same reason; and this is why most peoples set up in their sacred places statues of them showing the phallus erect and resembling a goat's in nature, since according to tradition this animal is most efficient in copulation; consequently, by representing these creatures in such fashion, the dedicants are returning thanks to them for their own numerous offspring.,4. \xa0The sacred bulls â\x80\x94 I\xa0refer to the Apis and the Mnevis â\x80\x94 are honoured like the gods, as Osiris commanded, both because of their use in farming and also because the fame of those who discovered the fruits of the earth is handed down by the labours of these animals to succeeding generations for all time. Red oxen, however, may be sacrificed, because it is thought that this was the colour of Typhon, who plotted against Osiris and was then punished by Isis for the death of her husband.,5. \xa0Men also, if they were of the same colour as Typhon, were sacrificed, they say, in ancient times by the kings at the tomb of Osiris; however, only a\xa0few Egyptians are now found red in colour, and but the majority of such are non-Egyptians, and this is why the story spread among the Greeks of the slaying of foreigners by Busiris, although Busiris was not the name of the king but of the tomb of Osiris, which is called that in the language of the land.,6. \xa0The wolves are honoured, they say, because their nature is so much like that of dogs, for the natures of these two animals are little different from each other and hence offspring is produced by their interbreeding. But the Egyptians offer another explanation for the honour accorded this animal, although it pertains more to the realm of myth; for they say that in early times when Isis, aided by her son Horus, was about to commence her struggle with Typhon, Osiris came from Hades to help his son and his wife, having taken on the guise of wolf; and so, upon the death of Typhon, his conquerors commanded men to honour the animal upon whose appearance victory followed.,7. \xa0But some say that once, when the Ethiopians had marched against Egypt, a great number of bands of wolves (lykoi) gathered together and drove the invaders out of the country, pursuing them beyond the city named Elephantine; and therefore that nome was given the name Lycopolite and these animals were granted the honour in question." 1.96 1. \xa0But now that we have examined these matters, we must enumerate what Greeks, who have won fame for their wisdom and learning, visited Egypt in ancient times, in order to become acquainted with its customs and learning.,2. \xa0For the priests of Egypt recount from the records of their sacred books that they were visited in early times by Orpheus, Musaeus, Melampus, and Daedalus, also by the poet Homer and Lycurgus of Sparta, later by Solon of Athens and the philosopher Plato, and that there also came Pythagoras of Samos and the mathematician Eudoxus, as well as Democritus of Abdera and Oenopides of Chios.,3. \xa0As evidence for the visits of all these men they point in some cases to their statues and in others to places or buildings which bear their names, and they offer proofs from the branch of learning which each one of these men pursued, arguing that all the things for which they were admired among the Greeks were transferred from Egypt.,4. \xa0Orpheus, for instance, brought from Egypt most of his mystic ceremonies, the orgiastic rites that accompanied his wanderings, and his fabulous account of his experiences in Hades.,5. \xa0For the rite of Osiris is the same as that of Dionysus and that of Isis very similar to that of Demeter, the names alone having been interchanged; and the punishments in Hades of the unrighteous, the Fields of the Righteous, and the fantastic conceptions, current among the many, which are figments of the imagination â\x80\x94 all these were introduced by Orpheus in imitation of the Egyptian funeral customs.,6. \xa0Hermes, for instance, the Conductor of Souls, according to the ancient Egyptian custom, brings up the body of the Apis to a certain point and then gives it over to one who wears the mask of Cerberus. And after Orpheus had introduced this notion among the Greeks, Homer followed it when he wrote: Cyllenian Hermes then did summon forth The suitors\'s souls, holding his wand in hand. And again a little further on he says: They passed Oceanus\' streams, the Gleaming Rock, The Portals of the Sun, the Land of Dreams; And now they reached the Meadow of Asphodel, Where dwell the Souls, the shades of men outworn.,7. \xa0Now he calls the river "Oceanus" because in their language the Egyptians speak of the Nile as Oceanus; the "Portals of the Sun" (Heliopulai) is his name for the city of Heliopolis; and "Meadows," the mythical dwelling of the dead, is his term for the place near the lake which is called Acherousia, which is near Memphis, and around it are fairest meadows, of a marsh-land and lotus and reeds. The same explanation also serves for the statement that the dwelling of the dead is in these regions, since the most and the largest tombs of the Egyptians are situated there, the dead being ferried across both the river and Lake Acherousia and their bodies laid in the vaults situated there.,8. \xa0The other myths about Hades, current among the Greeks, also agree with the customs which are practised even now in Egypt. For the boat which receives the bodies is called baris, and the passenger\'s fee is given to the boatman, who in the Egyptian tongue is called charon.,9. \xa0And near these regions, they say, are also the "Shades," which is a temple of Hecate, and "portals" of Cocytus and Lethe, which are covered at intervals with bands of bronze. There are, moreover, other portals, namely, those of Truth, and near them stands a headless statue of Justice.
2.36
1. \xa0The same is true of the inhabitants also, the abundant supply of food making them of unusual height and bulk of body; and another result is that they are skilled in the arts, since they breathe a pure air and drink water of the finest quality.,2. \xa0And the earth, in addition to producing every fruit which admits of cultivation, also contains rich underground veins of every kind of ore; for there are found in it much silver and gold, not a little copper and iron, and tin also and whatever else is suitable for adornment, necessity, and the trappings of war.,3. \xa0In addition to the grain of Demeter there grows throughout India much millet, which is irrigated by the abundance of running water supplied by the rivers, pulse in large quantities and of superior quality, rice also and the plant called bosporos, and in addition to these many more plants which are useful for food; and most of these are native to the country. It also yields not a\xa0few other edible fruits, that are able to sustain animal life, but to write about them would be a long task.,4. \xa0This is the reason, they say, why a famine has never visited India or, in general, any scarcity of what is suitable for gentle fare. For since there are two rainy seasons in the country each year, during the winter rains the sowing is made of the wheat crop as among other peoples, while in the second, which comes at the summer solstice, it is the general practice to plant the rice and bosporos, as well as sesame and millet; and in most years the Indians are successful in both crops, and they never lose everything, since the fruit of one or the other sowing comes to maturity.,5. \xa0The fruits also which flourish wild and the roots which grow in the marshy places, by reason of their remarkable sweetness, provide the people with a great abundance of food. For practically all the plains of India enjoy the sweet moisture from the rivers and from the rains which come with astonishing regularity, in a kind of fixed cycle, every year in the summer, since warm showers fall in abundance from the enveloping atmosphere and the heat ripens the roots in the marshes, especially those of the tall reeds.,6. \xa0Furthermore, the customs of the Indians contribute towards there never being any lack of food among them; for whereas in the case of all the rest of mankind their enemies ravage the land and cause it to remain uncultivated, yet among the Indians the workers of the soil are let alone as sacred and inviolable, and such of them as labour near the battle-lines have no feeling of the dangers.,7. \xa0For although both parties to the war kill one another in their hostilities, yet they leave uninjured those who are engaged in tilling the soil, considering that they are the common benefactors of all, nor do they burn the lands of their opponents or cut down their orchards. 2.37 1. \xa0The land of the Indians has also many large navigable rivers which have their sources in the mountains lying to the north and then flow through the level country; and not a\xa0few of these unite and empty into the river known as the Ganges.,2. \xa0This river, which is thirty stades in width, flows from north to south and empties into the ocean, forming the boundary towards the east of the tribe of the Gandaridae, which possesses the greatest number of elephants and the largest in size.,3. \xa0Consequently no foreign king has ever subdued this country, all alien nations being fearful of both the multitude and the strength of the beasts. In fact even Alexander of Macedon, although he had subdued all Asia, refrained from making war upon the Gandaridae alone of all peoples; for when he had arrived at the Ganges river with his entire army, after his conquest of the rest of the Indians, upon learning that the Gandaridae had four thousand elephants equipped for war he gave up his campaign against them.,4. \xa0The river which is nearly the equal of the Ganges and is called the Indus rises like the Ganges in the north, but as it empties into the ocean forms a boundary of India; and in its course through an expanse of level plain it receives not a\xa0few navigable rivers, the most notable being the Hypanis, Hydaspes, and Acesinus.,5. \xa0And in addition to these three rivers a vast number of others of every description traverse the country and bring it about that the land is planted in many gardens and crops of every description. Now for the multitude of rivers and the exceptional supply of water the philosophers and students of nature among them advance the following cause:,6. \xa0The countries which surround India, they say, such as Scythia, Bactria, and Ariana, are higher than India, and so it is reasonable to assume that the waters which come together from every side into the country lying below them, gradually cause the regions to become soaked and to generate a multitude of rivers.,7. \xa0And a peculiar thing happens in the case of one of the rivers of India, known as the Silla, which flows from a spring of the same name; for it is the only river in the world possessing the characteristic that nothing cast into it floats, but that everything, strange to say, sinks to the bottom. 2.38 1. \xa0Now India as a whole, being of a vast extent, is inhabited, as we are told, by many other peoples of every description, and not one of them had its first origin in a foreign land, but all of them are thought to be autochthonous; it never receives any colony from abroad nor has it ever sent one to any other people.,2. \xa0According to their myths the earliest human beings used for food the fruits of the earth which grew wild, and for clothing the skins of the native animals, as was done by the Greeks. Similarly too the discovery of the several arts and of all other things which are useful for life was made gradually, necessity itself showing the way to a creature which was well endowed by nature and had, as its assistants for every purpose, hands and speech and sagacity of mind.,3. \xa0The most learned men among the Indians recount a myth which it may be appropriate to set forth in brief form. This, then, is what they say: In the earliest times, when the inhabitants of their land were still dwelling in scattered clan-villages, Dionysus came to them from the regions to the west of them with a notable army; and he traversed all India, since there was as yet no notable city which would have been able to oppose him.,4. \xa0But when an oppressive heat came and the soldiers of Dionysus were being consumed by a pestilential sickness, this leader, who was conspicuous for his wisdom, led his army out of the plains into the hill-country; here, where cool breezes blew and the spring waters flowed pure at their very sources, the army got rid of its sickness. The name of this region of the hill-country, where Dionysus relieved his forces of the sickness, is Meros; and it is because of this fact that the Greeks have handed down to posterity in their account of this god the story that Dionysus was nourished in a thigh (meros).,5. \xa0After this he took in hand the storing of the fruits and shared this knowledge with the Indians, and he communicated to them the discovery of wine and of all the other things useful for life. Furthermore, he became the founder of notable cities by gathering the villages together in well-situated regions, and he both taught them to honour the deity and introduced laws and courts; and, in brief, since he had been the introducer of many good works he was regarded as a god and received immortal honours.,6. \xa0They also recount that he carried along with his army a great number of women, and that when he joined battle in his wars he used the sounds of drums and cymbals, since the trumpet had not yet been discovered. And after he had reigned over all India for fifty-two years he died of old age. His sons, who succeeded to the sovereignty, passed the rule on successively to their descendants; but finally, many generations later, their sovereignty was dissolved and the cities received a democratic form of government.' "2.39 1. \xa0As for Dionysus, then, and his descendants, such is the myth as it is related by the inhabitants of the hill-country of India. And with regard to Heracles they say that he was born among them and they assign to him, in common with the Greeks, both the club and the lion's skin.,2. \xa0Moreover, as their account tells us, he was far superior to all other men in strength of body and in courage, and cleared both land and sea of their wild beasts. And marrying several wives, he begot many sons, but only one daughter; and when his sons attained to manhood, dividing all India into as many parts as he had male children, he appointed all his sons kings, and rearing his single daughter he appointed her also a queen.,3. \xa0Likewise, he became the founder of not a\xa0few cities, the most renowned and largest of which he called Palibothra. In this city he also constructed a costly palace and settled a multitude of inhabitants, and he fortified it with remarkable ditches which were filled with water from the river.,4. \xa0And when Heracles passed from among men he received immortal honour, but his descendants, though they held the kingship during many generations and accomplished notable deeds, made no campaign beyond their own frontiers and despatched no colony to any other people. But many years later most of the cities had received a democratic form of government, although among certain tribes the kingship endured until the time when Alexander crossed over into Asia.,5. \xa0As for the customs of the Indians which are peculiar to them, a man may consider one which was drawn up by their ancient wise men to be the most worthy of admiration; for the law has ordained that under no circumstances shall anyone among them be a slave, but that all shall be free and respect the principle of equality in all persons. For those, they think, who have learned neither to domineer over others nor to subject themselves to others will enjoy a manner of life best suited to all circumstances; since it is silly to make laws on the basis of equality for all persons, and yet to establish inequalities in social intercourse." 3.58 1. \xa0However, an account is handed down also that this goddess was born in Phrygia. For the natives of that country have the following myth: In ancient times Meïon became king of Phrygia and Lydia; and marrying Dindymê he begat an infant daughter, but being unwilling to rear her he exposed her on the mountain which was called Cybelus. There, in accordance with some divine providence, both the leopards and some of the other especially ferocious wild beasts offered their nipples to the child and so gave it nourishment,,2. \xa0and some women who were tending the flocks in that place witnessed the happening, and being astonished at the strange event took up the babe and called her Cybelê after the name of the place. The child, as she grew up, excelled in both beauty and virtue and also came to be admired for her intelligence; for she was the first to devise the pipe of many reeds and to invent cymbals and kettledrums with which to accompany the games and the dance, and in addition she taught how to heal the sicknesses of both flocks and little children by means of rites of purification;,3. \xa0in consequence, since the babes were saved from death by her spells and were generally taken up in her arms, her devotion to them and affection for them led all the people to speak of her as the "mother of the mountain." The man who associated with her and loved her more than anyone else, they say, was Marsyas the physician, who was admired for his intelligence and chastity; and a proof of his intelligence they find in the fact that he imitated the sounds made by the pipe of many reeds and carried all its notes over into the flute, and as an indication of his chastity they cite his abstinence from sexual pleasures until the day of his death.,4. \xa0Now Cybelê, the myth records, having arrived at full womanhood, came to love a certain native youth who was known as Attis, but at a later time received the appellation Papas; with him she consorted secretly and became with child, and at about the same time her parents recognized her as their child. \xa0Consequently she was brought up into the palace, and her father welcomed her at the outset under the impression that she was a virgin, but later, when he learned of her seduction, he put to death her nurses and Attis as well and cast their bodies forth to lie unburied; whereupon Cybelê, they say, because of her love for the youth and grief over the nurses, became frenzied and rushed out of the palace into the countryside. And crying aloud and beating upon a kettledrum she visited every country alone, with hair hanging free, and Marsyas, out of pity for her plight, voluntarily followed her and accompanied her in her wanderings because of the love which he had formerly borne her.
3.62.6
\xa0And though the writers of myths have handed down the account of a\xa0third birth as well, at which, as they say, the Sons of Gaia tore to pieces the god, who was a son of Zeus and Demeter, and boiled him, but his members were brought together again by Demeter and he experienced a new birth as if for the first time, such accounts as this they trace back to certain causes found in nature.
3.62.8
\xa0And with these stories the teachings agree which are set forth in the Orphic poems and are introduced into their rites, but it is not lawful to recount them in detail to the uninitiated.
3.63.1
\xa0Those mythographers, however, who represent the god as having a human form ascribe to him, with one accord, the discovery and cultivation of the vine and all the operations of the making of wine, although they disagree on whether there was a single Dionysus or several. 3.63.2 \xa0Some, for instance, who assert that he who taught how to make wine and to gather "the fruits of the trees," as they are called, he who led an army over all the inhabited world, and he who introduced the mysteries and rites and Bacchic revelries were one and the same person; but there are others, as I\xa0have said, who conceive that there were three persons, at separate periods, and to each of these they ascribe deeds which were peculiarly his own. 3.63.3 \xa0This, then, is their account: The most ancient Dionysus was an Indian, and since his country, because of the excellent climate, produced the vine in abundance without cultivation, he was the first to press out the clusters of grapes and to devise the use of wine as a natural product, likewise to give the proper care to the figs and other fruits which grow upon trees, and, speaking generally, to devise whatever pertains to the harvesting and storing of these fruits. The same Dionysus is, furthermore, said to have worn a long beard, the reason for the report being that it is the custom among the Indians to give great care, until their death, to the raising of a beard. 3.63.4 \xa0Now this Dionysus visited with an army all the inhabited world and gave instruction both as to the culture of the vine and the crushing of the clusters in the wine-vats (lenoi), which is the reason why the god was named Lenaeus. Likewise, he allowed all people to share in his other discoveries, and when he passed from among men he received immortal honour at the hands of those who had received his benefactions.
3.65.5
\xa0Consequently he sailed across secretly to his army, and then Lycurgus, they say, falling upon the Maenads in the city known as Nysium, slew them all, but Dionysus, bringing his forces over, conquered the Thracians in a battle, and taking Lycurgus alive put out his eyes and inflicted upon him every kind of outrage, and then crucified him.
4.2.2
\xa0Semelê was loved by Zeus because of her beauty, but since he had his intercourse with her secretly and without speech she thought that the god despised her; consequently she made the request of him that he come to her embraces in the same manner as in his approaches to Hera. 4.2.3 \xa0Accordingly, Zeus visited her in a way befitting a god, accompanied by thunder and lightning, revealing himself to her as he embraced her; but Semelê, who was pregt and unable to endure the majesty of the divine presence, brought forth the babe untimely and was herself slain by the fire. Thereupon Zeus, taking up the child, handed it over to the care of Hermes, and ordered him to take it to the cave in Nysa, which lay between Phoenicia and the Nile, where he should deliver it to the nymphs that they should rear it and with great solicitude bestow upon it the best of care.
4.3.3
\xa0Consequently in many Greek cities every other year Bacchic bands of women gather, and it is lawful for the maidens to carry the thyrsus and to join in the frenzied revelry, crying out "Euai!" and honouring the god; while the matrons, forming in groups, offer sacrifices to the god and celebrate his mysteries and, in general, extol with hymns the presence of Dionysus, in this manner acting the part of the Maenads who, as history records, were of old the companions of the god.
4.25.4
\xa0He also took part in the expedition of the Argonauts, and because of the love he held for his wife he dared the amazing deed of descending into Hades, where he entranced Persephonê by his melodious song and persuaded her to assist him in his desires and to allow him to bring up his dead wife from Hades, in this exploit resembling Dionysus; for the myths relate that Dionysus brought up his mother Semelê from Hades, and that, sharing with her his own immortality, he changed her name to Thyonê. But now that we have discussed Orpheus, we shall return to Heracles.
5.52.2
\xa0For according to the myth which has been handed down to us, Zeus, on the occasion when Semelê had been slain by his lightning before the time for bearing the child, took the babe and sewed it up within his thigh, and when the appointed time came for its birth, wishing to keep the matter concealed from Hera, he took the babe from his thigh in what is now Naxos and gave it to the Nymphs of the island, Philia, Coronis, and Cleidê, to be reared. The reason Zeus slew Semelê with his lightning before she could give birth to her child was his desire that the babe should be born, not of a mortal woman but of two immortals, and thus should be immortal from its very birth.' "
5.62
1. \xa0In Castabus, on the Cherronesus, there is a temple which is sacred to Hemithea, and there is no reason why we should omit to mention the strange occurrence which befell this goddess. Now many and various accounts have been handed down regarding her, but we shall recount that which has prevailed and is in accord with what the natives relate. To Staphylus and Chrysothemis were born three daughters, Molpadia, Rhoeo, and Parthenos by name. Apollo lay with Rhoeo and brought her with child; and her father, believing that her seduction was due to a man, was angered, and in his anger he shut up his daughter in a chest and cast her into the sea.,2. \xa0But the chest was washed up upon Delos, where she gave birth to a male child and called the babe Anius. And Rhoeo, who had been saved from death in this unexpected manner, laid the babe upon the altar of Apollo and prayed to the god to save its life if it was his child. Thereupon Apollo, the myth relates, concealed the child for the time, but afterwards he gave thought to its rearing, instructed it in divination, and conferred upon it certain great honours.,3. \xa0And the other sisters of the maiden who had been seduced, namely, Molpadia and Parthenos, while watching their father's wine, a drink which had only recently been discovered among men, fell asleep; and while they were asleep some swine which they were keeping entered in and broke the jar which contained the wine and so destroyed the wine. And the maidens, when they learned what had happened, in fear of their father's severity fled to the edge of the sea and hurled themselves down from some lofty rocks.,4. \xa0But Apollo, because of his affection for their sister, rescued the maidens and established them in the cities of the Cherronesus. The one named Parthenos, as the god brought it to pass, enjoyed honours and a sacred precinct in Bubastus of the Cherronesus, while Molpadia, who came to Castabus, was given the name Hemithea, because the god had appeared to men, and she was honoured by all who dwelt in the Cherronesus.,5. \xa0And in sacrifices which are held in her honour a mixture of honey and milk is used in the libations, because of the experience which she had had in connection with the wine, while anyone who has touched a hog or eaten of its flesh is not permitted to draw near to the sacred precinct." 5.75.4 \xa0As for Dionysus, the myths state that he discovered the vine and its cultivation, and also how to make wine and to store away many of the autumn fruits and thus to provide mankind with the use of them as food over a long time. This god was born in Crete, men say, of Zeus and Persephonê, and Orpheus has handed down the tradition in the initiatory rites that he was torn in pieces by the Titans. And the fact is that there have been several who bore the name Dionysus, regarding whom we have given a detailed account at greater length in connection with the more appropriate period of time.
16.55.1
\xa0After the capture of Olynthus, he celebrated the Olympian festival to the gods in commemoration of his victory, and offered magnificent sacrifices; and he organized a great festive assembly at which he held splendid competitions and thereafter invited many of the visiting strangers to his banquets.
17.16.3
\xa0He then proceeded to show them where their advantage lay and by appeals aroused their enthusiasm for the contests which lay ahead. He made lavish sacrifices to the gods at Dium in Macedonia and held the dramatic contests in honour of Zeus and the Muses which Archelaüs, one of his predecessors, had instituted. 17.16.4 \xa0He celebrated the festival for nine days, naming each day after one of the Muses. He erected a tent to hold a\xa0hundred couches and invited his Friends and officers, as well as the ambassadors from the cities, to the banquet. Employing great magnificence, he entertained great numbers in person besides distributing to his entire force sacrificial animals and all else suitable for the festive occasion, and put his army in a fine humour.' '' None
94. Ovid, Fasti, 4.194, 4.207-4.214, 4.337-4.342 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites, processions • Dionysos • Dionysos, and Kybele • Dionysus • Kybebe/le, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 295, 296; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 264, 370, 381; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 251; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 172

sup>
4.194 gaudeat assiduo cur dea Magna sono.’
4.207
ardua iamdudum resonat tinnitibus Ide, 4.208 tutus ut infanti vagiat ore puer. 4.209 pars clipeos rudibus, galeas pars tundit ies: 4.210 hoc Curetes habent, hoc Corybantes opus. 4.211 res latuit, priscique manent imitamina facti; 4.212 aera deae comites raucaque terga movent, 4.213 cymbala pro galeis, pro scutis tympana pulsant; 4.214 tibia dat Phrygios, ut dedit ante, modos.”
4.337
est locus, in Tiberim qua lubricus influit Almo 4.338 et nomen magno perdit in amne minor: 4.339 illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos 4.340 Almonis dominam sacraque lavit aquis, 4.341 exululant comites, furiosaque tibia flatur, 4.342 et feriunt molles taurea terga manus.'' None
sup>
4.194 Why the Great Goddess delights in continual din.’
4.207
Now steep Ida echoed to a jingling music, 4.208 So the child might cry from its infant mouth, in safety. 4.209 Some beat shields with sticks, others empty helmets: 4.210 That was the Curetes’ and the Corybantes’ task. 4.211 The thing was hidden, and the ancient deed’s still acted out: 4.212 The goddess’s servants strike the bronze and sounding skins. 4.213 They beat cymbals for helmets, drums instead of shields: 4.214 The flute plays, as long ago, in the Phrygian mode.’
4.337
There’s a place where smooth-flowing Almo joins the Tiber, 4.338 And the lesser flow loses its name in the greater: 4.339 There, a white-headed priest in purple robe 4.340 Washed the Lady, and sacred relics, in Almo’s water. 4.341 The attendants howled, and the mad flutes blew, 4.342 And soft hands beat at the bull’s-hide drums.'' None
95. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 3.256, 3.528, 3.531, 3.597, 3.611, 3.658, 3.660, 4.1-4.11, 4.13-4.30, 4.32-4.41, 4.43-4.47, 4.49-4.57, 4.59-4.83, 4.85-4.91, 4.93-4.100, 4.102-4.116, 4.118-4.124, 4.126-4.129, 4.131-4.133, 4.135-4.138, 4.140-4.152, 4.154-4.168, 4.170-4.173, 4.175-4.179, 4.181-4.183, 4.185-4.192, 4.194-4.210, 4.212-4.226, 4.228-4.234, 4.236-4.243, 4.245-4.255, 4.257-4.260, 4.262-4.269, 4.271-4.276, 4.278-4.286, 4.288-4.292, 4.294-4.304, 4.306-4.314, 4.316-4.319, 4.321-4.347, 4.349-4.357, 4.359-4.363, 4.365-4.373, 4.375-4.379, 4.381-4.399, 4.401-4.415, 4.445, 4.519, 4.525, 6.587-6.600, 10.11, 10.83-10.85, 11.7, 11.92 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic • Bacchic rites, Matralia and cult of Mater Matuta in Ovids Fasti • Bacchic rites, death of Orpheus and • Bacchic rites, military imagery and • Bacchic rites, negation of marriage and domesticity in • Bacchic rites, processions • Bacchus (see also Dionysus”) • Bacchus/Dionysus • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Dithyrambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Liberator • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyaios • Dionysos, Dionysos Lyseus • Dionysos, Dionysos Lysios • Dionysos, Dionysos Nyktelios • Dionysos, Dionysos Thriambos • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos as symposiast • Dionysos, Dionysos choragos/choreutas/philochoreutas • Dionysos, Dionysos eriboas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribremetas • Dionysos, Dionysos eribromos • Dionysos, Dionysos omadios • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos,punishment • Dionysus • Dionysus, and Midas • Dionysus, dismemberment • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus,birth • Dionysus/Dionysiac mysteries • Matralia and cult of Mater Matuta, Bacchic rites in • Orpheus and Eurydice, Bacchic rites and death of Orpheus • Philomela and Procne, Bacchic ritual context of • Procne, myth of,, and Dionysos • anti-hero, Dionysus • dance, bacchic • male offspring, Bacchic killing of • symposiast, Dionysos as • weddings and marriage, Bacchic negation of marriage and domesticity

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 7, 9, 14, 47, 188, 242, 287, 295, 303, 467, 505; Fabre-Serris et al. (2021), Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity, 201, 202; Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 193; Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 201; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 133, 141; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 117, 185; Michalopoulos et al. (2021), The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature, 214; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 135; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 68; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 89, 98, 99, 143, 144, 145, 192, 239, 251, 259; Rutter and Sparkes (2012), Word and Image in Ancient Greece, 121, 132; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 54; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 128, 348; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 47, 62

sup>
4.1 At non Alcithoe Minyeias orgia censet 4.2 accipienda dei, sed adhuc temeraria Bacchum 4.3 progeniem negat esse Iovis, sociasque sorores 4.4 inpietatis habet. Festum celebrare sacerdos 4.6 pectora pelle tegi, crinales solvere vittas, 4.7 serta coma, manibus frondentes sumere thyrsos 4.8 iusserat, et saevam laesi fore numinis iram 4.9 vaticinatus erat. Parent matresque nurusque
4.10
telasque calathosque infectaque pensa reponunt,
4.11
turaque dant Bacchumque vocant Bromiumque Lyaeumque

4.13
additur his Nyseus indetonsusque Thyoneus,
4.14
et cum Lenaeo genialis consitor uvae,
4.15
Nycteliusque Eleleusque parens et Iacchus et Euhan,
4.16
et quae praeterea per Graias plurima gentes
4.17
nomina, Liber, habes. Tibi enim inconsumpta iuventa est,
4.18
tu puer aeternus, tu formosissimus alto
4.19
conspiceris caelo, tibi, cum sine cornibus adstas, 4.20 virgineum caput est. Oriens tibi victus, adusque 4.22 Penthea tu, venerande, bipenniferumque Lycurgum 4.23 sacrilegos mactas, Tyrrhenaque mittis in aequor 4.24 corpora, tu biiugum pictis insignia frenis 4.25 colla premis lyncum; bacchae satyrique sequuntur, 4.26 quique senex ferula titubantes ebrius artus 4.27 sustinet et pando non fortiter haeret asello. 4.28 Quacumque ingrederis, clamor iuvenalis et una 4.29 femineae voces inpulsaque tympana palmis 4.30 concavaque aera sot longoque foramine buxus.
4.32
iussaque sacra colunt. Solae Minyeides intus 4.33 intempestiva turbantes festa Minerva 4.34 aut ducunt lanas, aut stamina pollice versant, 4.35 aut haerent telae famulasque laboribus urgent. 4.36 E quibus una levi deducens pollice filum 4.37 “dum cessant aliae commentaque sacra frequentant, 4.38 nos quoque, quas Pallas, melior dea, detinet” inquit, 4.39 “utile opus manuum vario sermone levemus: 4.40 perque vices aliquid, quod tempora longa videri 4.41 non sinat, in medium vacuas referamus ad aures.”
4.43
Illa, quid e multis referat (nam plurima norat), 4.44 cogitat et dubia est, de te, Babylonia, narret, 4.45 Derceti, quam versa squamis velantibus artus 4.46 stagna Palaestini credunt motasse figura; 4.47 an magis, ut sumptis illius filia pennis
4.49
nais an ut cantu nimiumque potentibus herbis 4.50 verterit in tacitos iuvenalia corpora pisces, 4.51 donec idem passa est; an, quae poma alba ferebat, 4.52 ut nunc nigra ferat contactu sanguinis arbor. 4.53 Hoc placet, hanc, quoniam vulgaris fabula non est, 4.54 talibus orsa modis, lana sua fila sequente: 4.55 “Pyramus et Thisbe, iuvenum pulcherrimus alter, 4.56 altera, quas oriens habuit, praelata puellis, 4.57 contiguas tenuere domos, ubi dicitur altam
4.59
Notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit: 4.60 tempore crevit amor. Taedae quoque iure coissent: 4.61 sed vetuere patres. Quod non potuere vetare, 4.62 ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus ambo. 4.63 Conscius omnis abest: nutu signisque loquuntur, 4.64 quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis. 4.65 Fissus erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim, 4.66 cum fieret paries domui communis utrique. 4.67 Id vitium nulli per saecula longa notatum 4.68 (quid non sentit amor?) primi vidistis amantes, 4.69 et vocis fecistis iter; tutaeque per illud 4.70 murmure blanditiae minimo transire solebant. 4.71 Saepe, ubi constiterant hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc, 4.72 inque vices fuerat captatus anhelitus oris, 4.73 “invide” dicebant “paries, quid amantibus obstas? 4.74 quantum erat, ut sineres toto nos corpore iungi, 4.75 aut hoc si nimium est, vel ad oscula danda pateres? 4.76 Nec sumus ingrati: tibi nos debere fatemur, 4.77 quod datus est verbis ad amicas transitus aures.” 4.78 Talia diversa nequiquam sede locuti 4.79 sub noctem dixere ”vale” partique dedere 4.80 oscula quisque suae non pervenientia contra. 4.81 Postera nocturnos aurora removerat ignes, 4.82 solque pruinosas radiis siccaverat herbas: 4.83 ad solitum coiere locum. Tum murmure parvo
4.85
fallere custodes foribusque excedere temptent, 4.86 cumque domo exierint, urbis quoque tecta relinquant; 4.87 neve sit errandum lato spatiantibus arvo, 4.88 conveniant ad busta Nini lateantque sub umbra 4.89 arboris. Arbor ibi, niveis uberrima pomis 4.90 ardua morus, erat, gelido contermina fonti. 4.91 Pacta placent. Et lux, tarde discedere visa,
4.93
Callida per tenebras versato cardine Thisbe 4.94 egreditur fallitque suos, adopertaque vultum 4.95 pervenit ad tumulum, dictaque sub arbore sedit. 4.96 Audacem faciebat amor. Venit ecce recenti 4.97 caede leaena boum spumantes oblita rictus, 4.98 depositura sitim vicini fontis in unda. 4.99 Quam procul ad lunae radios Babylonia Thisbe
4.100
vidit et obscurum timido pede fugit in antrum,

4.102
Ut lea saeva sitim multa conpescuit unda,
4.103
dum redit in silvas, inventos forte sine ipsa
4.104
ore cruentato tenues laniavit amictus.
4.105
Serius egressus vestigia vidit in alto
4.106
pulvere certa ferae totoque expalluit ore
4.107
Pyramus: ut vero vestem quoque sanguine tinctam
4.108
repperit, “una duos” inquit “nox perdet amantes.
4.109
E quibus illa fuit longa dignissima vita,
4.110
nostra nocens anima est: ego te, miseranda, peremi,
4.111
in loca plena metus qui iussi nocte venires,
4.112
nec prior huc veni. Nostrum divellite corpus,
4.113
et scelerata fero consumite viscera morsu,
4.114
o quicumque sub hac habitatis rupe, leones.
4.115
Sed timidi est optare necem.” Velamina Thisbes
4.116
tollit et ad pactae secum fert arboris umbram;

4.118
“accipe nunc” inquit “nostri quoque sanguinis haustus!”
4.119
quoque erat accinctus, demisit in ilia ferrum,
4.120
nec mora, ferventi moriens e vulnere traxit.
4.121
Ut iacuit resupinus humo: cruor emicat alte,
4.122
non aliter quam cum vitiato fistula plumbo
4.123
scinditur et tenui stridente foramine longas
4.124
eiaculatur aquas atque ictibus aera rumpit.

4.126
vertuntur faciem, madefactaque sanguine radix
4.127
purpureo tingit pendentia mora colore.
4.128
Ecce metu nondum posito, ne fallat amantem,
4.129
illa redit iuvenemque oculis animoque requirit,


4.131
Utque locum et visa cognoscit in arbore formam,

4.132
sic facit incertam pomi color: haeret, an haec sit.

4.133
Dum dubitat, tremebunda videt pulsare cruentum


4.135
pallidiora gerens exhorruit aequoris instar,

4.136
quod tremit, exigua cum summum stringitur aura.

4.137
Sed postquam remorata suos cognovit amores,

4.138
percutit indignos claro plangore lacertos,

4.140
vulnera supplevit lacrimis fletumque cruori
4.141
miscuit et gelidis in vultibus oscula figens
4.142
“Pyrame” clamavit “quis te mihi casus ademit?
4.143
Pyrame, responde: tua te carissima Thisbe
4.144
nominat: exaudi vultusque attolle iacentes!”
4.145
Ad nomen Thisbes oculos iam morte gravatos
4.146
Pyramus erexit, visaque recondidit illa.
4.147
Quae postquam vestemque suam cognovit et ense
4.148
vidit ebur vacuum, “tua te manus” inquit “amorque
4.149
perdidit, infelix. Est et mihi fortis in unum
4.150
hoc manus, est et amor: dabit hic in vulnera vires.
4.151
Persequar exstinctum letique miserrima dicar
4.152
causa comesque tui; quique a me morte revelli

4.154
Hoc tamen amborum verbis estote rogati,
4.155
o multum miseri meus illiusque parentes,
4.156
ut quos certus amor, quos hora novissima iunxit,
4.157
conponi tumulo non invideatis eodem.
4.158
At tu quae ramis arbor miserabile corpus
4.159
nunc tegis unius, mox es tectura duorum,
4.160
signa tene caedis pullosque et luctibus aptos
4.161
semper habe fetus, gemini monimenta cruoris.”
4.162
Dixit, et aptato pectus mucrone sub imum
4.163
incubuit ferro, quod adhuc a caede tepebat.
4.164
Vota tamen tetigere deos, tetigere parentes:
4.165
nam color in pomo est, ubi permaturuit, ater,
4.166
quodque rogis superest, una requiescit in urna.”
4.167
Desierat, mediumque fuit breve tempus, et orsa est
4.168
dicere Leuconoe: vocem tenuere sorores.

4.170
cepit amor Solem: Solis referemus amores.
4.171
Primus adulterium Veneris cum Marte putatur
4.172
hic vidisse deus: videt hic deus omnia primus.
4.173
Indoluit facto, Iunonigenaeque marito

4.175
et mens et quod opus fabrilis dextra tenebat
4.176
excidit. Extemplo graciles ex aere catenas
4.177
retiaque et laqueos, quae lumina fallere possent,
4.178
elimat (non illud opus tenuissima vincant
4.179
stamina, non summo quae pendet aranea tigno),

4.181
efficit et lecto circumdata collocat arte.
4.182
Ut venere torum coniunx et adulter in unum,
4.183
arte viri vinclisque nova ratione paratis

4.185
Lemnius extemplo valvas patefecit eburnas
4.186
admisitque deos: illi iacuere ligati
4.187
turpiter; atque aliquis de dis non tristibus optat
4.188
sic fieri turpis: superi risere, diuque
4.189
haec fuit in toto notissima fabula caelo.
4.190
Exigit indicii memorem Cythereia poenam,
4.191
inque vices illum, tectos qui laesit amores,
4.192
laedit amore pari.

4.194 Nempe tuis omnes qui terras ignibus uris,
4.195
ureris igne novo; quique omnia cernere debes,
4.196
Leucothoen spectas, et virgine figis in una,
4.197
quos mundo debes oculos. Modo surgis Eoo
4.198
temperius caelo, modo serius incidis undis,
4.199
spectandique mora brumales porrigis horas, 4.200 deficis interdum, vitiumque in lumina mentis 4.201 transit et obscurus mortalia pectora terres. 4.202 Nec, tibi quod lunae terris propioris imago 4.203 obstiterit, palles: facit hunc amor iste colorem. 4.204 Diligis hanc unam; nec te Clymeneque Rhodosque 4.205 nec tenet Aeaeae genetrix pulcherrima Circes, 4.206 quaeque tuos Clytie quamvis despecta petebat 4.207 concubitus ipsoque illo grave vulnus habebat 4.208 tempore: Leucothoe multarum oblivia fecit, 4.209 gentis odoriferae quam formosissima partu 4.210 edidit Eurynome. Sed postquam filia crevit,
4.212
Rexit Achaemenias urbes pater Orchamus, isque 4.213 septimus a prisco numeratur origine Belo. 4.214 Axe sub Hesperio sunt pascua Solis equorum. 4.215 Ambrosiam pro gramine habent: ea fessa diurnis 4.216 membra ministeriis nutrit reparatque labori. 4.217 Dumque ibi quadrupedes caelestia pabula carpunt, 4.218 noxque vicem peragit, thalamos deus intrat amatos, 4.219 versus in Eurynomes faciem genetricis, et inter 4.220 bis sex Leucothoen famulas ad lumina cernit 4.221 levia versato ducentem stamina fuso. 4.222 Ergo ubi ceu mater carae dedit oscula natae, 4.223 “res” ait “arcana est. Famulae, discedite neve 4.224 eripite arbitrium matri secreta loquendi.” 4.225 Paruerant: thalamoque deus sine teste relicto 4.226 “ille ego sum” dixit, “qui longum metior annum,
4.228
mundi oculus. Mihi, crede, places.” Pavet illa, metuque 4.229 et colus et fusus digitis cecidere remissis. 4.230 Ipse timor decuit. Nec longius ille moratus 4.231 in veram rediit speciem solitumque nitorem: 4.232 at virgo, quamvis inopino territa visu, 4.233 victa nitore dei posita vim passa querella est. 4.234 Invidit Clytie (neque enim moderatus in illa
4.236
vulgat adulterium diffamatumque parenti 4.237 indicat. Ille ferox inmansuetusque precantem 4.238 tendentemque manus ad lumina Solis et “ille 4.239 vim tulit invitae” dicentem defodit alta 4.240 crudus humo, tumulumque super gravis addit harenae. 4.241 Dissipat hunc radiis Hyperione natus iterque 4.242 dat tibi, qua possis defossos promere vultus. 4.243 Nec tu iam poteras enectum pondere terrae
4.245
Nil illo fertur volucrum moderator equorum 4.246 post Phaethonteos vidisse dolentius ignes. 4.247 Ille quidem gelidos radiorum viribus artus 4.248 si queat in vivum temptat revocare calorem: 4.249 sed quoniam tantis fatum conatibus obstat, 4.250 nectare odorato sparsit corpusque locumque, 4.251 multaque praequestus “tanges tamen aethera” dixit. 4.252 Protinus inbutum caelesti nectare corpus 4.253 dilicuit terramque suo madefecit odore: 4.254 virgaque per glaebas sensim radicibus actis 4.255 turea surrexit tumulumque cacumine rupit.
4.257
indiciumque dolor poterat, non amplius auctor 4.258 lucis adit venerisque modum sibi fecit in illa. 4.259 Tabuit ex illo dementer amoribus usa 4.260 nympha larum inpatiens, et sub Iove nocte dieque
4.262
perque novem luces expers undaeque cibique 4.263 rore mero lacrimisque suis ieiunia pavit 4.264 nec se movit humo: tantum spectabat euntis 4.265 ora dei vultusque suos flectebat ad illum. 4.266 Membra ferunt haesisse solo, partemque coloris 4.267 luridus exsangues pallor convertit in herbas; 4.268 est in parte rubor, violaeque simillimus ora 4.269 flos tegit. Illa suum, quamvis radice tenetur,
4.271
Dixerat, et factum mirabile ceperat aures. 4.272 Pars fieri potuisse negant, pars omnia veros 4.273 posse deos memorant: sed non et Bacchus in illis. 4.274 Poscitur Alcithoe, postquam siluere sorores. 4.275 Quae radio stantis percurrens stamina telae 4.276 “vulgatos taceo” dixit “pastoris amores
4.278
contulit in saxum (tantus dolor urit amantes). 4.279 Nec loquor, ut quondam naturae iure novato 4.280 ambiguus fuerit modo vir, modo femina Sithon. 4.281 Te quoque, nunc adamas, quondam fidissime parvo, 4.282 Celmi, Iovi, largoque satos Curetas ab imbri 4.283 et Crocon in parvos versum cum Smilace flores 4.284 praetereo, dulcique animos novitate tenebo. 4.285 Unde sit infamis, quare male fortibus undis 4.286 Salmacis enervet tactosque remolliat artus,
4.288
Mercurio puerum diva Cythereide natum 4.289 naides Idaeis enutrivere sub antris; 4.290 cuius erat facies, in qua materque paterque 4.291 cognosci possent; nomen quoque traxit ab illis. 4.292 Is tria cum primum fecit quinquennia, montes
4.294
ignotis errare locis, ignota videre 4.295 flumina gaudebat, studio minuente laborem. 4.296 Ille etiam Lycias urbes Lyciaeque propinquos 4.297 Caras adit. Videt hic stagnum lucentis ad imum 4.298 usque solum lymphae. Non illic canna palustris 4.299 nec steriles ulvae nec acuta cuspide iunci: 4.300 perspicuus liquor est; stagni tamen ultima vivo 4.301 caespite cinguntur semperque virentibus herbis. 4.302 Nympha colit, sed nec venatibus apta, nec arcus 4.303 flectere quae soleat nec quae contendere cursu, 4.304 solaque naiadum celeri non nota Dianae.
4.306
“Salmaci, vel iaculum vel pictas sume pharetras, 4.307 et tua cum duris venatibus otia misce.” 4.308 Nec iaculum sumit nec pictas illa pharetras, 4.309 nec sua cum duris venatibus otia miscet, 4.310 sed modo fonte suo formosos perluit artus, 4.311 saepe Cytoriaco deducit pectine crines 4.312 et, quid se deceat, spectatas consulit undas; 4.313 nunc perlucenti circumdata corpus amictu 4.314 mollibus aut foliis aut mollibus incubat herbis;
4.316
cum puerum vidit visumque optavit habere. 4.317 Nec tamen ante adiit, etsi properabat adire, 4.318 quam se conposuit, quam circumspexit amictus, 4.319 et finxit vultum et meruit formosa videri.

4.321
esse deus, seu tu deus es, potes esse Cupido,
4.322
sive es mortalis, qui te genuere, beati,
4.323
et frater felix, et fortunata profecto,
4.324
siqua tibi soror est, et quae dedit ubera nutrix:
4.325
sed longe cunctis longeque beatior illa,
4.326
siqua tibi sponsa est, siquam dignabere taeda.
4.327
Haec tibi sive aliqua est, mea sit furtiva voluptas,
4.328
seu nulla est, ego sim, thalamumque ineamus eundem.”
4.329
Nais ab his tacuit. Pueri rubor ora notavit 4.330 (nescit enim, quid amor), sed et erubuisse decebat. 4.331 Hic color aprica pendentibus arbore pomis 4.332 aut ebori tincto est, aut sub candore rubenti, 4.333 cum frustra resot aera auxiliaria, lunae. 4.334 Poscenti nymphae sine fine sororia saltem 4.335 oscula iamque manus ad eburnea colla ferenti 4.336 “desinis? aut fugio, tecumque” ait “ista relinquo.” 4.337 Salmacis extimuit “loca” que “haec tibi libera trado, 4.338 hospes” ait, simulatque gradu discedere verso, 4.339 tunc quoque respiciens, fruticumque recondita silva 4.340 delituit, flexuque genu submisit. At ille, 4.341 scilicet ut vacuis et inobservatus in herbis, 4.342 huc it et hinc illuc, et in adludentibus undis 4.343 summa pedum taloque tenus vestigia tingit; 4.344 nec mora, temperie blandarum captus aquarum 4.345 mollia de tenero velamina corpore ponit. 4.346 Tum vero placuit, nudaeque cupidine formae 4.347 Salmacis exarsit: flagrant quoque lumina nymphae,
4.349
opposita speculi referitur imagine Phoebus. 4.350 Vixque moram patitur, vix iam sua gaudia differt, 4.351 iam cupit amplecti, iam se male continet amens. 4.352 Ille cavis velox adplauso corpore palmis 4.353 desilit in latices, alternaque bracchia ducens 4.354 in liquidis translucet aquis, ut eburnea siquis 4.355 signa tegat claro vel candida lilia vitro. 4.356 “Vicimus et meus est!” exclamat nais et omni 4.357 veste procul iacta mediis inmittitur undis,
4.359
subiectatque manus invitaque pectora tangit, 4.360 et nunc hac iuveni, nunc circumfunditur illac; 4.361 denique nitentem contra elabique volentem 4.362 inplicat, ut serpens, quam regia sustinet ales 4.363 sublimemque rapit: pendens caput illa pedesque
4.365
utve solent hederae longos intexere truncos, 4.366 utque sub aequoribus deprensum polypus hostem 4.367 continet, ex omni dimissis parte flagellis. 4.368 Perstat Atlantiades, sperataque gaudia nymphae 4.369 denegat. Illa premit, commissaque corpore toto 4.370 sicut inhaerebat, “pugnes licet, inprobe” dixit, 4.371 “non tamen effugies. Ita di iubeatis! et istum 4.372 nulla dies a me nec me diducat ab isto.” 4.373 Vota suos habuere deos: nam mixta duorum
4.375
una, velut, siquis conducat cortice ramos, 4.376 crescendo iungi pariterque adolescere cernit. 4.377 Sic ubi conplexu coierunt membra tenaci, 4.378 nec duo sunt et forma duplex, nec femina dici 4.379 nec puer ut possit: neutrumque et utrumque videntur.
4.381
semimarem fecisse videt, mollitaque in illis 4.382 membra, manus tendens, sed non iam voce virili, 4.383 Hermaphroditus ait: “Nato date munera vestro, 4.384 et pater et genetrix, amborum nomen habenti: 4.385 quisquis in hos fontes vir venerit, exeat inde 4.386 semivir et tactis subito mollescat in undis.” 4.387 Motus uterque parens nati rata verba biformis 4.388 fecit et incesto fontem medicamine tinxit.” 4.389 Finis erat dictis. Sed adhuc Minyeia proles 4.390 urget opus spernitque deum festumque profanat, 4.391 tympana cum subito non adparentia raucis 4.393 tinnulaque aera sot; redolent murraeque crocique, 4.394 resque fide maior, coepere virescere telae 4.395 inque hederae faciem pendens frondescere vestis. 4.396 Pars abit in vites, et quae modo fila fuerunt, 4.397 palmite mutantur; de stamine pampinus exit; 4.398 purpura fulgorem pictis adcommodat uvis. 4.399 Iamque dies exactus erat, tempusque subibat,
4.401
sed cum luce tamen dubiae confinia noctis: 4.402 tecta repente quati pinguesque ardere videntur 4.403 lampades et rutilis conlucere ignibus aedes 4.404 falsaque saevarum simulacra ululare ferarum. 4.405 Fumida iamdudum latitant per tecta sorores, 4.406 diversaeque locis ignes ac lumina vitant; 4.407 dumque petunt tenebras, parvos membrana per artus 4.408 porrigitur tenuique includit bracchia pinna. 4.409 Nec qua perdiderint veterem ratione figuram 4.410 scire sinunt tenebrae. Non illas pluma levavit, 4.411 sustinuere tamen se perlucentibus alis; 4.412 conataeque loqui minimam et pro corpore vocem 4.413 emittunt, peraguntque leves stridore querellas. 4.414 Tectaque, non silvas celebrant lucemque perosae 4.415 nocte volant, seroque tenent a vespere nomen.
6.587
Tempus erat, quo sacra solent trieterica Bacchi 6.588 Sithoniae celebrare nurus: nox conscia sacris. 6.589 Nocte sonat Rhodope tinnitibus aeris acuti, 6.591 ritibus instruitur furialiaque accipit arma. 6.592 Vite caput tegitur, lateri cervina sinistro 6.593 vellera dependent, umero levis incubat hasta. 6.594 Concita per silvas turba comitante suarum 6.595 terribilis Procne furiisque agitata doloris, 6.596 Bacche, tuas simulat. Venit ad stabula avia tandem 6.597 exululatque euhoeque sonat portasque refringit 6.598 germanamque rapit; raptaeque insignia Bacchi 6.599 induit et vultus hederarum frondibus abdit 6.600 attonitamque trahens intra sua moenia ducit.
10.11
Quam satis ad superas postquam Rhodopeius auras
10.83
Ille etiam Thracum populis fuit auctor amorem 10.84 in teneros transferre mares citraque iuventam 10.85 aetatis breve ver et primos carpere flores.
11.7
“en,” ait “en hic est nostri contemptor!” et hastam' ' None
sup>
4.1 Alcithoe, daughter of King Minyas, 4.2 consents not to the orgies of the God; 4.3 denies that Bacchus is the son of Jove, 4.4 and her two sisters join her in that crime. 4.6 keeping it sacred, had forbade all toil.— 4.7 And having draped their bosoms with wild skins, 4.8 they loosed their long hair for the sacred wreaths, 4.9 and took the leafy thyrsus in their hands;—
4.10
for so the priest commanded them. Austere
4.11
the wrath of Bacchus if his power be scorned.

4.13
and putting by their wickers and their webs,
4.14
dropt their unfinished toils to offer up
4.15
frankincense to the God; invoking him
4.16
with many names:—“O Bacchus! O Twice-born!
4.17
O Fire-begot! Thou only child Twice-mothered!
4.18
God of all those who plant the luscious grape!
4.19
O Liber !” All these names and many more, 4.20 for ages known—throughout the lands of Greece . 4.22 and lo, thou art an ever-youthful boy, 4.23 most beautiful of all the Gods of Heaven, 4.24 mooth as a virgin when thy horns are hid.—' "4.25 The distant east to tawny India 's clime," '4.26 where rolls remotest Ganges to the sea, 4.27 was conquered by thy might.—O Most-revered! 4.28 Thou didst destroy the doubting Pentheus,' "4.29 and hurled the sailors' bodies in the deep," '4.30 and smote Lycurgus, wielder of the ax.
4.32
with showy harness.—Satyrs follow thee; 4.33 and Bacchanals, and old Silenus, drunk, 4.34 unsteady on his staff; jolting so rough 4.35 on his small back-bent ass; and all the way 4.36 resounds a youthful clamour; and the scream 4.37 of women! and the noise of tambourines! 4.38 And the hollow cymbals! and the boxwood flutes,— 4.39 fitted with measured holes.—Thou art implored 4.40 by all Ismenian women to appear 4.41 peaceful and mild; and they perform thy rites.”
4.43
are carding wool within their fastened doors, 4.44 or twisting with their thumbs the fleecy yarn, 4.45 or working at the web. So they corrupt 4.46 the sacred festival with needless toil, 4.47 keeping their hand-maids busy at the work.
4.49
with nimble thumb, anon began to speak; 4.50 “While others loiter and frequent these rite 4.51 fantastic, we the wards of Pallas, much 4.52 to be preferred, by speaking novel thought 4.53 may lighten labour. Let us each in turn, 4.54 relate to an attentive audience, 4.55 a novel tale; and so the hours may glide.” 4.56 it pleased her sisters, and they ordered her 4.57 to tell the story that she loved the most.
4.59
the many tales she knew, first doubted she 4.60 whether to tell the tale of Derceto,— 4.61 that Babylonian, who, aver the tribe 4.62 of Palestine , in limpid ponds yet lives,— 4.63 her body changed, and scales upon her limbs; 4.64 or how her daughter, having taken wings, 4.65 passed her declining years in whitened towers. 4.66 Or should she tell of Nais, who with herbs, 4.67 too potent, into fishes had transformed 4.68 the bodies of her lovers, till she met 4.69 herself the same sad fate; or of that tree 4.70 which sometime bore white fruit, but now is changed 4.71 and darkened by the blood that stained its roots.— 4.72 Pleased with the novelty of this, at once 4.73 he tells the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe ;— 4.74 and swiftly as she told it unto them, 4.75 the fleecy wool was twisted into threads. 4.76 When Pyramus and Thisbe, who were known 4.77 the one most handsome of all youthful men, 4.78 the other loveliest of all eastern girls,— 4.79 lived in adjoining houses, near the wall 4.80 that Queen Semiramis had built of brick 4.81 around her famous city, they grew fond, 4.82 and loved each other—meeting often there— 4.83 and as the days went by their love increased.
4.85
their fathers had forbidden them to hope; 4.86 and yet the passion that with equal strength 4.87 inflamed their minds no parents could forbid. 4.88 No relatives had guessed their secret love, 4.89 for all their converse was by nods and signs; 4.90 and as a smoldering fire may gather heat,' "4.91 the more 'tis smothered, so their love increased." 4.93 between their houses, many years ago, 4.94 was made defective with a little chink; 4.95 a small defect observed by none, although 4.96 for ages there; but what is hid from love? 4.97 Our lovers found the secret opening, 4.98 and used its passage to convey the sound 4.99 of gentle, murmured words, whose tuneful note
4.100
passed oft in safety through that hidden way.

4.102
thisbe on one and Pyramus the other,
4.103
and when their warm breath touched from lip to lip,
4.104
their sighs were such as this: “Thou envious wall
4.105
why art thou standing in the way of those
4.106
who die for love? What harm could happen thee
4.107
houldst thou permit us to enjoy our love?
4.108
But if we ask too much, let us persuade
4.109
that thou wilt open while we kiss but once:
4.110
for, we are not ungrateful; unto thee
4.111
we own our debt; here thou hast left a way
4.112
that breathed words may enter loving ears.,”
4.113
o vainly whispered they, and when the night
4.114
began to darken they exchanged farewells;
4.115
made presence that they kissed a fond farewell
4.116
vain kisses that to love might none avail.

4.118
and the bright sun had dried the dewy gra
4.119
again they met where they had told their love;
4.120
and now complaining of their hapless fate,
4.121
in murmurs gentle, they at last resolved,
4.122
away to slip upon the quiet night,
4.123
elude their parents, and, as soon as free,
4.124
quit the great builded city and their homes.

4.126
they chose a trysting place, the tomb of Ninus ,
4.127
where safely they might hide unseen, beneath
4.128
the shadow of a tall mulberry tree,
4.129
covered with snow-white fruit, close by a spring.


4.131
and now the daylight, seeming slowly moved,

4.132
inks in the deep waves, and the tardy night

4.133
arises from the spot where day declines.


4.135
deceived her parents, opened the closed door.

4.136
She flitted in the silent night away;

4.137
and, having veiled her face, reached the great tomb,

4.138
and sat beneath the tree; love made her bold.

4.140
approached the nearby spring to quench her thirst:
4.141
her frothing jaws incarnadined with blood
4.142
of slaughtered oxen. As the moon was bright,
4.143
Thisbe could see her, and affrighted fled
4.144
with trembling footstep to a gloomy cave;
4.145
and as she ran she slipped and dropped her veil,
4.146
which fluttered to the ground. She did not dare
4.147
to save it. Wherefore, when the savage beast
4.148
had taken a great draft and slaked her thirst,
4.149
and thence had turned to seek her forest lair,
4.150
he found it on her way, and full of rage,
4.151
tore it and stained it with her bloody jaws:
4.152
but Thisbe , fortunate, escaped unseen.

4.154
as Thisbe to the tryst; and, when he saw
4.155
the certain traces of that savage beast,
4.156
imprinted in the yielding dust, his face
4.157
went white with fear; but when he found the veil
4.158
covered with blood, he cried; “Alas, one night
4.159
has caused the ruin of two lovers! Thou
4.160
wert most deserving of completed days,
4.161
but as for me, my heart is guilty! I
4.162
destroyed thee! O my love! I bade thee come
4.163
out in the dark night to a lonely haunt,
4.164
and failed to go before. Oh! whatever lurk
4.165
beneath this rock, though ravenous lion, tear
4.166
my guilty flesh, and with most cruel jaw
4.167
devour my cursed entrails! What? Not so;' "
4.168
it is a craven's part to wish for death!”"
4.170
went straightway to the shadow of the tree;
4.171
and as his tears bedewed the well-known veil,
4.172
he kissed it oft and sighing said, “Kisse
4.173
and tears are thine, receive my blood as well.”

4.175
deep in his bowels; and plucked it from the wound,
4.176
a-faint with death. As he fell back to earth,
4.177
his spurting blood shot upward in the air;
4.178
o, when decay has rift a leaden pipe
4.179
a hissing jet of water spurts on high.—

4.181
assumed a deeper tint, for as the root
4.182
oaked up the blood the pendent mulberrie
4.183
were dyed a purple tint.

4.185
though trembling still with fright, for now she thought
4.186
her lover must await her at the tree,
4.187
and she should haste before he feared for her.
4.188
Longing to tell him of her great escape
4.189
he sadly looked for him with faithful eyes;
4.190
but when she saw the spot and the changed tree,
4.191
he doubted could they be the same, for so
4.192
the colour of the hanging fruit deceived.

4.194
the wounded body covered with its blood;—
4.195
he started backward, and her face grew pale
4.196
and ashen; and she shuddered like the sea,
4.197
which trembles when its face is lightly skimmed
4.198
by the chill breezes;—and she paused a space;—
4.199
but when she knew it was the one she loved, 4.200 he struck her tender breast and tore her hair. 4.201 Then wreathing in her arms his loved form, 4.202 he bathed the wound with tears, mingling her grief 4.203 in his unquenched blood; and as she kissed 4.204 his death-cold features wailed; “Ah Pyramus , 4.205 what cruel fate has taken thy life away? 4.206 Pyramus ! Pyramus! awake! awake! 4.207 It is thy dearest Thisbe calls thee! Lift' "4.208 thy drooping head! Alas,”—At Thisbe's name" '4.209 he raised his eyes, though languorous in death, 4.210 and darkness gathered round him as he gazed.
4.212
his ivory sheath—but not the trusty sword 4.213 and once again she wailed; “Thy own right hand, 4.214 and thy great passion have destroyed thee!— 4.215 And I? my hand shall be as bold as thine— 4.216 my love shall nerve me to the fatal deed— 4.217 thee, I will follow to eternity— 4.218 though I be censured for the wretched cause, 4.219 o surely I shall share thy wretched fate:— 4.220 alas, whom death could me alone bereave, 4.221 thou shalt not from my love be reft by death! 4.222 And, O ye wretched parents, mine and his, 4.223 let our misfortunes and our pleadings melt 4.224 your hearts, that ye no more deny to those 4.225 whom constant love and lasting death unite— 4.226 entomb us in a single sepulchre.
4.228
preading dark shadows on the corpse of one, 4.229 destined to cover twain, take thou our fate 4.230 upon thy head; mourn our untimely deaths; 4.231 let thy fruit darken for a memory, 4.232 an emblem of our blood.” No more she said; 4.233 and having fixed the point below her breast, 4.234 he fell on the keen sword, still warm with his red blood.
4.236
her prayer was answered, for it moved the God 4.237 and moved their parents. Now the Gods have changed 4.238 the ripened fruit which darkens on the branch: 4.239 and from the funeral pile their parents sealed 4.240 their gathered ashes in a single urn. 4.241 So ended she; at once Leuconoe' "4.242 took the narrator's thread; and as she spoke" '4.243 her sisters all were silent.
4.245
that rules the world was captive made of Love. 4.246 My theme shall be a love-song of the Sun.' "4.247 'Tis said the Lord of Day, whose wakeful eye" '4.248 beholds at once whatever may transpire, 4.249 witnessed the loves of Mars and Venus. Grieved 4.250 to know the wrong, he called the son of Juno, 4.251 Vulcan , and gave full knowledge of the deed, 4.252 howing how Mars and Venus shamed his love, 4.253 as they defiled his bed. Vulcan amazed,— 4.254 the nimble-thoughted Vulcan lost his wits, 4.255 o that he dropped the work his right hand held.
4.257
to file out chains of brass, delicate, fine, 4.258 from which to fashion nets invisible, 4.259 filmy of mesh and airy as the thread 4.260 of insect-web, that from the rafter swings.—
4.262
the slightest movement or the gentlest touch, 4.263 with cunning skill he drew them round the bed 4.264 where they were sure to dally. Presently 4.265 appeared the faithless wife, and on the couch 4.266 lay down to languish with her paramour.— 4.267 Meshed in the chains they could not thence arise, 4.268 nor could they else but lie in strict embrace,—' "4.269 cunningly thus entrapped by Vulcan 's wit.—" 4.271 the folding ivory doors and called the Gods,— 4.272 to witness. There they lay disgraced and bound. 4.273 I wot were many of the lighter God 4.274 who wished themselves in like disgraceful bonds.— 4.275 The Gods were moved to laughter: and the tale 4.276 was long most noted in the courts of Heaven.' "
4.278
the Sun's betrayal of her stolen joys," "4.279 and thought to torture him in passion's pains," '4.280 and wreak requital for the pain he caused. 4.281 Son of Hyperion! what avails thy light? 4.282 What is the profit of thy glowing heat? 4.283 Lo, thou whose flames have parched innumerous lands, 4.284 thyself art burning with another flame! 4.285 And thou whose orb should joy the universe' "4.286 art gazing only on Leucothea's charms." 4.288 forgetting all besides. Too early thou 4.289 art rising from thy bed of orient skies, 4.290 too late thy setting in the western waves; 4.291 o taking time to gaze upon thy love, 4.292 thy frenzy lengthens out the wintry hour!
4.294
dark shadows of this trouble in thy mind, 4.295 unwonted aspect, casting man perplexed 4.296 in abject terror. Pale thou art, though not 4.297 betwixt thee and the earth the shadowous moon 4.298 bedims thy devious way. Thy passion give 4.299 to grief thy countece—for her thy heart 4.300 alone is grieving—Clymene and Rhodos , 4.301 and Persa, mother of deluding Circe, 4.302 are all forgotten for thy doting hope; 4.303 even Clytie, who is yearning for thy love, 4.304 no more can charm thee; thou art so foredone.
4.306
Leucothea, daughter of Eurynome,' "4.307 most beauteous matron of Arabia 's strand," '4.308 where spicey odours blow. Eurynome' "4.309 in youthful prime excelled her mother's grace," '4.310 and, save her daughter, all excelled besides.' "4.311 Leucothea's father, Orchamas was king" '4.312 where Achaemenes whilom held the sway;' "4.313 and Orchamas from ancient Belus' death" '4.314 might count his reign the seventh in descent.
4.316
are hid below the western skies; when there, 4.317 and spent with toil, in lieu of nibbling herb 4.318 they take ambrosial food: it gives their limb 4.319 restoring strength and nourishes anew.

4.321
and Night resumes his reign, the god appear
4.322
disguised, unguessed, as old Eurynome
4.323
to fair Leucothea as she draws the threads,
4.324
all smoothly twisted from her spindle. There
4.325
he sits with twice six hand-maids ranged around,
4.326
and as the god beholds her at the door
4.327
he kisses her, as if a child beloved
4.328
and he her mother. And he spoke to her:
4.329
“Let thy twelve hand-maids leave us undisturbed, 4.330 for I have things of close import to tell, 4.331 and seemly, from a mother to her child.”, 4.332 o when they all withdrew the god began, 4.333 “Lo, I am he who measures the long year; 4.334 I see all things, and through me the wide world 4.335 may see all things; I am the glowing eye 4.336 of the broad universe! Thou art to me 4.337 the glory of the earth!” Filled with alarm, 4.338 from her relaxed fingers she let fall 4.339 the distaff and the spindle, but, her fear 4.340 o lovely in her beauty seemed, the God 4.341 no longer brooked delay: he changed his form 4.342 back to his wonted beauty and resumed 4.343 his bright celestial. Startled at the sight 4.344 the maid recoiled a space; but presently 4.345 the glory of the god inspired her love; 4.346 and all her timid doubts dissolved away; 4.347 without complaint she melted in his arms.' "
4.349
that Clytie, envious of Leucothea's joy," '4.350 where evil none was known, a scandal made; 4.351 and having published wide their secret love,' "4.352 leucothea's father also heard the tale." '4.353 Relentlessly and fierce, his cruel hand 4.354 buried his living daughter in the ground, 4.355 who, while her arms implored the glowing Sun, 4.356 complained. “For love of thee my life is lost.” 4.357 And as she wailed her father sowed her there.
4.359
to scatter the loose sand, a way to open, 4.360 that she might look with beauteous features forth 4.361 too late! for smothered by the compact earth, 4.362 thou canst not lift thy drooping head; alas! 4.363 A lifeless corse remains.
4.365
ince Phaethon was blasted by the bolt, 4.366 down-hurled by Jove, had ever grieved the God 4.367 who daily drives his winged steeds. In vain 4.368 he strives with all the magic of his ray 4.369 to warm her limbs anew. — The deed is done— 4.370 what vantage gives his might if fate deny? 4.371 He sprinkles fragrant nectar on her grave, 4.372 and lifeless corse, and as he wails exclaims, 4.373 “But naught shall hinder you to reach the skies.”
4.375
of nectar, sweet and odourate, dissolve 4.376 and adds its fragrant juices to the earth: 4.377 lowly from this a sprout of Frankincense 4.378 takes root in riched soil, and bursting through 4.379 the sandy hillock shows its top.
4.381
to Clytie comes the author of sweet light, 4.382 for though her love might make excuse of grief, 4.383 and grief may plead to pardon jealous words, 4.384 his heart disdains the schemist of his woe; 4.385 and she who turned to sour the sweet of love, 4.386 from that unhallowed moment pined away. 4.387 Envious and hating all her sister Nymphs, 4.388 day after day,—and through the lonely nights, 4.389 all unprotected from the chilly breeze, 4.390 her hair dishevelled, tangled, unadorned, 4.391 he sat unmoved upon the bare hard ground.' "4.393 or haply by her own tears' bitter brine;—" '4.394 all other nourishment was naught to her.— 4.395 She never raised herself from the bare ground, 4.396 though on the god her gaze was ever fixed;— 4.397 he turned her features towards him as he moved: 4.398 they say that afterwhile her limbs took root 4.399 and fastened to the around.
4.401
overspread her countece, that turned as pale 4.402 and bloodless as the dead; but here and there 4.403 a blushing tinge resolved in violet tint; 4.404 and something like the blossom of that name 4.405 a flower concealed her face. Although a root 4.406 now holds her fast to earth, the Heliotrope 4.407 turns ever to the Sun, as if to prove 4.408 that all may change and love through all remain. 4.409 Thus was the story ended. All were charmed 4.410 to hear recounted such mysterious deeds. 4.411 While some were doubting whether such were true 4.412 others affirmed that to the living God 4.413 is nothing to restrain their wondrous works, 4.414 though surely of the Gods, immortal, none 4.415 accorded Bacchus even thought or place.
6.587
it chanced the children did stretch out their arm 6.588 and who would not be touched to hear such words, 6.589 as spoken by this goddess, and refuse? 6.591 against the goddess; for they hindered her, 6.592 and threatened with their foul, abusive tongue 6.593 to frighten her away—and, worse than all, 6.594 they even muddied with their hands and feet 6.595 the clear pool; forcing the vile, slimy dreg 6.596 up from the bottom, in a spiteful way, 6.597 by jumping up and down.—Enraged at this, 6.598 he felt no further thirst, nor would she deign 6.599 to supplicate again; but, feeling all 6.600 the outraged majesty of her high state,
10.11
and cause no blaze while waving. The result
10.83
Eurydice, who still was held among 10.84 the new-arriving shades, and she obeyed 10.85 the call by walking to them with slow steps,
11.7
attuning love songs to a sounding harp.' ' None
96. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 69 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchus and Bacchic rites • Dionysus

 Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 143; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 350

sup>
69 for as the reptile with many feet and that with no feet at all, though they are exactly opposite to one another in the race of reptiles, are both pronounced unclean, so also the opinion which denies any God, and that which worships a multitude of Gods, though quite opposite in the soul, are both profane. And of proof of this is that the law banishes them both "from the sacred Assembly," forbidding the atheistical opinion, as a eunuch and mutilated person, to come into the assembly; and the polytheistic, inasmuch as it prohibits any one born of a harlot from either hearing or speaking in the assembly. For he who worships no God at all is barren, and he who worships a multitude is the son of a harlot, who is in a state of blindness as to his true father, and who on this account is figuratively spoken of as having many fathers, instead of one. XIII. '' None
97. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13, 80, 88 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites • Bacchus and Bacchic rites • Dionysus • Dionysus, festivals

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 297; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 174; Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 243; Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 142, 176, 334, 335, 346

sup>
13 Then, because of their anxious desire for an immortal and blessed existence, thinking that their mortal life has already come to an end, they leave their possessions to their sons or daughters, or perhaps to other relations, giving them up their inheritance with willing cheerfulness; and those who know no relations give their property to their companions or friends, for it followed of necessity that those who have acquired the wealth which sees, as if ready prepared for them, should be willing to surrender that wealth which is blind to those who themselves also are still blind in their minds. 80 and then some one rising up sings a hymn which has been made in honour of God, either such as he has composed himself, or some ancient one of some old poet, for they have left behind them many poems and songs in trimetre iambics, and in psalms of thanksgiving and in hymns, and songs at the time of libation, and at the altar, and in regular order, and in choruses, admirably measured out in various and well diversified strophes. And after him then others also arise in their ranks, in becoming order, while every one else listens in decent silence, except when it is proper for them to take up the burden of the song, and to join in at the end; for then they all, both men and women, join in the hymn.
88
Now the chorus of male and female worshippers being formed, as far as possible on this model, makes a most humorous concert, and a truly musical symphony, the shrill voices of the women mingling with the deep-toned voices of the men. The ideas were beautiful, the expressions beautiful, and the chorus-singers were beautiful; and the end of ideas, and expressions, and chorussingers, was piety; ' None
98. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 136 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus, Dionysiac Cult • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, and theatre

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 3; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514

sup>
136 There are a vast number of parties in the city whose association is founded in no one good principle, but who are united by wine, and drunkenness, and revelry, and the offspring of those indulgencies, insolence; and their meetings are called synods and couches by the natives. '' None
99. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 189; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 275

100. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Neos Dionysos • technitai (Artists of Dionysus)

 Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 125; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 21

101. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus of Halicarnassus

 Found in books: Fowler (2014), Plato in the Third Sophistic, 153; Welch (2015), Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth. 243

102. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic poetics • Dionysus

 Found in books: Williams (2023), Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement. 170; Xinyue (2022), Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry, 135, 136, 137, 151

103. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Epaphios/Epaphian • Dionysos, and Ino • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, death • Dionysus, birth (and rebirth) of • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus, heart of • Dionysus,birth • Ino-Leukothea, Dionysos and • Zeus, and heart of Dionysus • heroines, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 9, 418; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 78; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 123; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 164; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 249; Rutter and Sparkes (2012), Word and Image in Ancient Greece, 121; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 128

104. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic cult • Bacchic rites • Bacchic rites, Roman celebration of • Bacchic rites, Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus • Bacchic rites, conflation with wedding and burial rites • Bacchic rites, decree related to • Bacchic rites, gendered elements • Bacchic rites, initiation into • Bacchic rites, problematic nature of womens agency in • Bacchic rites, purification associated with • Bacchic rites, revised rules • Bacchic rites, slaves involved in • Bacchus and Bacchic rites • Bacchus/Dionysus • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bakxos) • Dionysus • Greek literature and practice, Bacchic rites • burials and mourning, Bacchic rites conflated with • men, Bacchic service • purification and Bacchic rites • religions, Roman, Bacchic cult • technitai (Artists of Dionysus) • weddings and marriage, Bacchic rites conflated with

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 187; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 89; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 195, 196; Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 29; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 370; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 118, 120, 244; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 172; Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 142, 335; Williams (2023), Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement. 179; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 68

105. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, and Kybele • Dionysus • Kybebe/le, and Dionysos

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 295, 296; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 248; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 58; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 264, 381; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 172

106. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites, processions • Bacchus (Dionysus)

 Found in books: Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 251; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 462

107. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 1.9.12, 2.1.3, 2.2.2, 3.4.2-3.4.4, 3.5.1-3.5.3, 3.8.2, 3.13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ariadne, and Dionysos • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos Aisymnetes • Dionysos, Dionysos Archebacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Auxitès • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheios • Dionysos, Dionysos Baccheus • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchios • Dionysos, Dionysos Bacchos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, Dionysos Epaphios/Epaphian • Dionysos, Dionysos Erikryptos/Kryptos • Dionysos, Dionysos Eriphos • Dionysos, Dionysos Euios • Dionysos, Dionysos Kissos • Dionysos, Dionysos Melanaigis • Dionysos, Dionysos Melpomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos Musagetes • Dionysos, Dionysos Patroos • Dionysos, Dionysos Polites • Dionysos, Dionysos Xenos • Dionysos, Dionysos ageta komon • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • Dionysos, Dionysos as goat • Dionysos, Dionysos as newcomer • Dionysos, Dionysos mainomenos • Dionysos, Dionysos orsibacchas • Dionysos, Dionysos teletarcha • Dionysos, Eiraphiotes • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, and Ariadne • Dionysos, and Ino • Dionysos, and gender • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, andSemele • Dionysos, arrival to the Greek pantheon • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, birth • Dionysos, childhood • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, gestation • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, probation • Dionysos, prodigies • Dionysos,punishment • Dionysus • Dionysus, heart • Dionysus, imitation of in Magnesia • Dionysus, δίγονος, δισσοτόκος, διμήτωρ, διμήτριος, bimatris • Dionysus,birth • Dionysus/Dionysiac mysteries • Ino-Leukothea, Dionysos and • Leotykhidas, Lerna, Demeter and Dionysos at • Orphic tradition, Bacchic gold tablets • Proitids, and Dionysos • Semele, and Dionysos • bull, Dionysos as • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • gender, and Dionysos • goat, Dionysos as • heroines, and Dionysos • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac • prodigies of Dionysos

 Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 176; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 25, 26, 44, 49, 52, 132, 151, 200, 202, 206, 213, 216, 217, 219, 223, 225, 227, 242, 284, 285, 303, 313, 323, 410, 419; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 220; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 363; Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 201; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 169, 277, 278; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 109, 120, 124; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 81; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 126, 237, 238, 244, 264, 266, 269, 278, 279, 280; Trott (2019), Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation, 122; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 128, 129

sup>
1.9.12 Βίας δὲ 3 -- ἐμνηστεύετο Πηρὼ τὴν Νηλέως· ὁ δὲ πολλῶν αὐτῷ μνηστευομένων τὴν θυγατέρα δώσειν ἔφη τῷ τὰς Φυλάκου 1 -- βόας κομίσαντι αὐτῷ. αὗται δὲ ἦσαν ἐν Φυλάκῃ, καὶ κύων ἐφύλασσεν αὐτὰς οὗ οὔτε ἄνθρωπος οὔτε θηρίον πέλας ἐλθεῖν ἠδύνατο. ταύτας ἀδυνατῶν Βίας τὰς βόας κλέψαι παρεκάλει τὸν ἀδελφὸν συλλαβέσθαι. Μελάμπους δὲ ὑπέσχετο, καὶ προεῖπεν ὅτι φωραθήσεται κλέπτων καὶ δεθεὶς ἐνιαυτὸν οὕτω τὰς βόας λήψεται. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ὑπόσχεσιν εἰς Φυλάκην ἀπῄει καί, καθάπερ προεῖπε, φωραθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ κλοπῇ δέσμιος 2 -- ἐν οἰκήματι ἐφυλάσσετο. λειπομένου δὲ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ βραχέος χρόνου, τῶν κατὰ τὸ κρυφαῖον 3 -- τῆς στέγης σκωλήκων ἀκούει, τοῦ μὲν ἐρωτῶντος πόσον ἤδη μέρος τοῦ δοκοῦ διαβέβρωται, τῶν δὲ ἀποκρινομένων 4 -- λοιπὸν ἐλάχιστον εἶναι. καὶ ταχέως ἐκέλευσεν αὑτὸν εἰς ἕτερον οἴκημα μεταγαγεῖν, γενομένου δὲ τούτου μετʼ οὐ πολὺ συνέπεσε τὸ οἴκημα. θαυμάσας δὲ Φύλακος, καὶ μαθὼν ὅτι ἐστὶ μάντις ἄριστος, λύσας παρεκάλεσεν εἰπεῖν ὅπως αὐτοῦ τῷ παιδὶ Ἰφίκλῳ παῖδες γένωνται. ὁ δὲ ὑπέσχετο ἐφʼ ᾧ τὰς βόας λήψεται. καὶ καταθύσας ταύρους δύο καὶ μελίσας τοὺς οἰωνοὺς προσεκαλέσατο· παραγενομένου δὲ αἰγυπιοῦ, παρὰ τούτου μανθάνει δὴ ὅτι Φύλακός ποτε κριοὺς τέμνων ἐπὶ τῶν αἰδοίων 5 -- παρὰ τῷ Ἰφίκλῳ τὴν μάχαιραν ᾑμαγμένην ἔτι κατέθετο, δείσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ φυγόντος αὖθις κατὰ τῆς ἱερᾶς δρυὸς αὐτὴν ἔπηξε, καὶ ταύτην ἀμφιτροχάσας 1 -- ἐκάλυψεν ὁ φλοιός. ἔλεγεν οὖν, εὑρεθείσης τῆς μαχαίρας εἰ ξύων τὸν ἰὸν ἐπὶ ἡμέρας δέκα Ἰφίκλῳ δῷ πιεῖν, παῖδα γεννήσειν. ταῦτα μαθὼν παρʼ αἰγυπιοῦ Μελάμπους τὴν μὲν μάχαιραν εὗρε, τῷ δὲ Ἰφίκλῳ τὸν ἰὸν ξύσας ἐπὶ ἡμέρας δέκα δέδωκε πιεῖν, καὶ παῖς αὐτῷ Ποδάρκης ἐγένετο. τὰς δὲ βόας εἰς Πύλον ἤλασε, καὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ τὴν Νηλέως θυγατέρα λαβὼν ἔδωκε. καὶ μέχρι μέν τινος ἐν Μεσσήνῃ κατῴκει, ὡς δὲ τὰς ἐν Ἄργει γυναῖκας ἐξέμηνε Διόνυσος, ἐπὶ 2 -- μέρει τῆς 3 -- βασιλείας ἰασάμενος αὐτὰς ἐκεῖ μετὰ Βίαντος κατῴκησε.
2.1.3
Ἄργου δὲ καὶ Ἰσμήνης τῆς Ἀσωποῦ παῖς Ἴασος, 2 -- οὗ φασιν Ἰὼ γενέσθαι. Κάστωρ δὲ ὁ συγγράψας τὰ χρονικὰ καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν τραγικῶν Ἰνάχου τὴν Ἰὼ λέγουσιν· Ἡσίοδος δὲ καὶ Ἀκουσίλαος Πειρῆνος αὐτήν φασιν εἶναι. ταύτην ἱερωσύνην τῆς Ἥρας ἔχουσαν Ζεὺς ἔφθειρε. φωραθεὶς δὲ ὑφʼ Ἥρας τῆς μὲν κόρης ἁψάμενος εἰς βοῦν μετεμόρφωσε λευκήν, ἀπωμόσατο δὲ ταύτῃ 1 -- μὴ συνελθεῖν· διό φησιν Ἡσίοδος οὐκ ἐπισπᾶσθαι τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν θεῶν ὀργὴν τοὺς γινομένους ὅρκους ὑπὲρ ἔρωτος. Ἥρα δὲ αἰτησαμένη παρὰ Διὸς τὴν βοῦν φύλακα αὐτῆς κατέστησεν Ἄργον τὸν πανόπτην, ὃν Φερεκύδης 2 -- μὲν Ἀρέστορος λέγει, Ἀσκληπιάδης δὲ Ἰνάχου, Κέρκωψ 3 -- δὲ Ἄργου καὶ Ἰσμήνης τῆς Ἀσωποῦ θυγατρός· Ἀκουσίλαος δὲ γηγενῆ αὐτὸν λέγει. οὗτος ἐκ τῆς ἐλαίας ἐδέσμευεν αὐτὴν ἥτις ἐν τῷ Μυκηναίων ὑπῆρχεν ἄλσει. Διὸς δὲ ἐπιτάξαντος Ἑρμῇ κλέψαι τὴν βοῦν, μηνύσαντος Ἱέρακος, ἐπειδὴ λαθεῖν οὐκ ἠδύνατο, λίθῳ βαλὼν ἀπέκτεινε τὸν Ἄργον, ὅθεν ἀργειφόντης ἐκλήθη. Ἥρα δὲ τῇ βοῒ οἶστρον ἐμβάλλει ἡ δὲ πρῶτον ἧκεν εἰς τὸν ἀπʼ ἐκείνης Ἰόνιον κόλπον κληθέντα, ἔπειτα διὰ τῆς Ἰλλυρίδος πορευθεῖσα καὶ τὸν Αἷμον ὑπερβαλοῦσα διέβη τὸν τότε μὲν καλούμενον πόρον Θρᾴκιον, νῦν δὲ ἀπʼ ἐκείνης Βόσπορον. ἀπελθοῦσα 4 -- δὲ εἰς Σκυθίαν καὶ τὴν Κιμμερίδα γῆν, πολλὴν χέρσον πλανηθεῖσα καὶ πολλὴν διανηξαμένη θάλασσαν Εὐρώπης τε καὶ Ἀσίας, τελευταῖον ἧκεν 1 -- εἰς Αἴγυπτον, ὅπου τὴν ἀρχαίαν μορφὴν ἀπολαβοῦσα γεννᾷ παρὰ τῷ Νείλῳ ποταμῷ Ἔπαφον παῖδα. τοῦτον δὲ Ἥρα δεῖται Κουρήτων ἀφανῆ ποιῆσαι· οἱ δὲ ἠφάνισαν αὐτόν. καὶ Ζεὺς μὲν αἰσθόμενος κτείνει Κούρητας, Ἰὼ δὲ ἐπὶ ζήτησιν τοῦ παιδὸς ἐτράπετο. πλανωμένη δὲ κατὰ τὴν Συρίαν ἅπασαν (ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἐμηνύετο ὅτι 2 -- ἡ 3 -- τοῦ Βυβλίων βασιλέως γυνὴ 4 -- ἐτιθήνει τὸν υἱόν) καὶ τὸν Ἔπαφον εὑροῦσα, εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἐλθοῦσα ἐγαμήθη Τηλεγόνῳ τῷ βασιλεύοντι τότε Αἰγυπτίων. ἱδρύσατο δὲ ἄγαλμα Δήμητρος, ἣν ἐκάλεσαν Ἶσιν Αἰγύπτιοι, καὶ τὴν Ἰὼ Ἶσιν ὁμοίως προσηγόρευσαν.
2.2.2
καὶ γίνεται Ἀκρισίῳ μὲν ἐξ Εὐρυδίκης τῆς Λακεδαίμονος Δανάη, Προίτῳ δὲ ἐκ Σθενεβοίας Λυσίππη καὶ Ἰφινόη καὶ Ἰφιάνασσα. αὗται δὲ ὡς ἐτελειώθησαν, ἐμάνησαν, ὡς μὲν Ἡσίοδός φησιν, ὅτι τὰς Διονύσου τελετὰς οὐ κατεδέχοντο, ὡς δὲ Ἀκουσίλαος λέγει, διότι τὸ τῆς Ἥρας ξόανον ἐξηυτέλισαν. γενόμεναι δὲ ἐμμανεῖς ἐπλανῶντο ἀνὰ τὴν Ἀργείαν ἅπασαν, αὖθις δὲ τὴν Ἀρκαδίαν καὶ τὴν Πελοπόννησον 1 -- διελθοῦσαι μετʼ ἀκοσμίας ἁπάσης διὰ τῆς ἐρημίας ἐτρόχαζον. Μελάμπους δὲ ὁ Ἀμυθάονος καὶ Εἰδομένης τῆς Ἄβαντος, μάντις ὢν καὶ τὴν διὰ φαρμάκων καὶ καθαρμῶν θεραπείαν πρῶτος εὑρηκώς, ὑπισχνεῖται θεραπεύειν τὰς παρθένους, εἰ λάβοι τὸ τρίτον μέρος τῆς δυναστείας. οὐκ ἐπιτρέποντος δὲ Προίτου θεραπεύειν ἐπὶ μισθοῖς τηλικούτοις, ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐμαίνοντο αἱ παρθένοι καὶ προσέτι μετὰ τούτων αἱ λοιπαὶ γυναῖκες· καὶ γὰρ αὗται τὰς οἰκίας ἀπολιποῦσαι τοὺς ἰδίους ἀπώλλυον παῖδας καὶ εἰς τὴν ἐρημίαν ἐφοίτων. προβαινούσης δὲ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον τῆς συμφορᾶς, τοὺς αἰτηθέντας μισθοὺς ὁ Προῖτος ἐδίδου. ὁ δὲ ὑπέσχετο θεραπεύειν ὅταν ἕτερον τοσοῦτον τῆς γῆς ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ λάβῃ Βίας. Προῖτος δὲ εὐλαβηθεὶς μὴ βραδυνούσης τῆς θεραπείας αἰτηθείη καὶ πλεῖον, θεραπεύειν συνεχώρησεν ἐπὶ τούτοις. Μελάμπους δὲ παραλαβὼν τοὺς δυνατωτάτους τῶν νεανιῶν μετʼ ἀλαλαγμοῦ καί τινος ἐνθέου χορείας ἐκ τῶν ὀρῶν αὐτὰς εἰς Σικυῶνα συνεδίωξε. κατὰ δὲ τὸν διωγμὸν ἡ πρεσβυτάτη τῶν θυγατέρων Ἰφινόη μετήλλαξεν· ταῖς δὲ λοιπαῖς τυχούσαις καθαρμῶν σωφρονῆσαι συνέβη. καὶ ταύτας μὲν ἐξέδοτο Προῖτος Μελάμποδι καὶ Βίαντι, παῖδα δʼ ὕστερον ἐγέννησε Μεγαπένθην.
3.4.2
Κάδμος δὲ ἀνθʼ ὧν ἔκτεινεν ἀίδιον 3 -- ἐνιαυτὸν ἐθήτευσεν Ἄρει· ἦν δὲ ὁ ἐνιαυτὸς τότε ὀκτὼ ἔτη. μετὰ δὲ τὴν θητείαν Ἀθηνᾶ αὐτῷ τὴν βασιλείαν 4 -- κατεσκεύασε, Ζεὺς δὲ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ γυναῖκα Ἁρμονίαν, Ἀφροδίτης καὶ Ἄρεος θυγατέρα. καὶ πάντες θεοὶ καταλιπόντες τὸν οὐρανόν, ἐν τῇ Καδμείᾳ τὸν γάμον εὐωχούμενοι καθύμνησαν. ἔδωκε δὲ αὐτῇ Κάδμος πέπλον καὶ τὸν ἡφαιστότευκτον ὅρμον, ὃν ὑπὸ Ἡφαίστου λέγουσί τινες δοθῆναι Κάδμῳ, Φερεκύδης δὲ ὑπὸ Εὐρώπης· ὃν παρὰ Διὸς αὐτὴν λαβεῖν. γίνονται δὲ Κάδμῳ θυγατέρες μὲν Αὐτονόη Ἰνὼ Σεμέλη Ἀγαυή, παῖς δὲ Πολύδωρος. Ἰνὼ μὲν οὖν Ἀθάμας ἔγημεν, Αὐτονόην δὲ Ἀρισταῖος, Ἀγαυὴν δὲ Ἐχίων. 3.4.3 Σεμέλης δὲ Ζεὺς ἐρασθεὶς Ἥρας κρύφα συνευνάζεται. ἡ δὲ ἐξαπατηθεῖσα ὑπὸ Ἥρας, κατανεύσαντος αὐτῇ Διὸς πᾶν τὸ αἰτηθὲν ποιήσειν, αἰτεῖται τοιοῦτον αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν οἷος ἦλθε μνηστευόμενος Ἥραν. Ζεὺς δὲ μὴ δυνάμενος ἀνανεῦσαι παραγίνεται εἰς τὸν θάλαμον αὐτῆς ἐφʼ ἅρματος ἀστραπαῖς ὁμοῦ καὶ βρονταῖς, καὶ κεραυνὸν ἵησιν. Σεμέλης δὲ διὰ τὸν φόβον ἐκλιπούσης, ἑξαμηνιαῖον τὸ βρέφος ἐξαμβλωθὲν ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς ἁρπάσας ἐνέρραψε τῷ μηρῷ. ἀποθανούσης δὲ Σεμέλης, αἱ λοιπαὶ Κάδμου θυγατέρες διήνεγκαν λόγον, συνηυνῆσθαι θνητῷ τινι Σεμέλην καὶ καταψεύσασθαι Διός, καὶ ὅτι 1 -- διὰ τοῦτο ἐκεραυνώθη. κατὰ δὲ τὸν χρόνον τὸν καθήκοντα Διόνυσον γεννᾷ Ζεὺς λύσας τὰ ῥάμματα, καὶ δίδωσιν Ἑρμῇ. ὁ δὲ κομίζει πρὸς Ἰνὼ καὶ Ἀθάμαντα καὶ πείθει τρέφειν ὡς κόρην. ἀγανακτήσασα δὲ Ἥρα μανίαν αὐτοῖς ἐνέβαλε, καὶ Ἀθάμας μὲν τὸν πρεσβύτερον παῖδα Λέαρχον ὡς ἔλαφον θηρεύσας ἀπέκτεινεν, Ἰνὼ δὲ τὸν Μελικέρτην εἰς πεπυρωμένον λέβητα ῥίψασα, εἶτα βαστάσασα μετὰ νεκροῦ τοῦ παιδὸς ἥλατο κατὰ βυθοῦ. 1 -- καὶ Λευκοθέα μὲν αὐτὴν καλεῖται, Παλαίμων δὲ ὁ παῖς, οὕτως ὀνομασθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν πλεόντων· τοῖς χειμαζομένοις γὰρ βοηθοῦσιν. ἐτέθη δὲ ἐπὶ Μελικέρτῃ ὁ 2 -- ἀγὼν τῶν Ἰσθμίων, Σισύφου θέντος. Διόνυσον δὲ Ζεὺς εἰς ἔριφον ἀλλάξας τὸν Ἥρας θυμὸν ἔκλεψε, καὶ λαβὼν αὐτὸν Ἑρμῆς πρὸς νύμφας ἐκόμισεν ἐν Νύσῃ κατοικούσας τῆς Ἀσίας, ἃς ὕστερον Ζεὺς καταστερίσας ὠνόμασεν Ὑάδας. 3.4.4 Αὐτονόης δὲ καὶ Ἀρισταίου παῖς Ἀκταίων ἐγένετο, ὃς τραφεὶς παρὰ Χείρωνι κυνηγὸς ἐδιδάχθη, καὶ ἔπειτα ὕστερον 1 -- ἐν τῷ Κιθαιρῶνι κατεβρώθη ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων κυνῶν. καὶ τοῦτον ἐτελεύτησε τὸν τρόπον, ὡς μὲν Ἀκουσίλαος λέγει, μηνίσαντος τοῦ Διὸς ὅτι ἐμνηστεύσατο Σεμέλην, ὡς δὲ οἱ πλείονες, ὅτι τὴν Ἄρτεμιν λουομένην εἶδε. καί φασι τὴν θεὸν παραχρῆμα αὐτοῦ τὴν μορφὴν εἰς ἔλαφον ἀλλάξαι, καὶ τοῖς ἑπομένοις αὐτῷ πεντήκοντα κυσὶν ἐμβαλεῖν λύσσαν, ὑφʼ ὧν κατὰ ἄγνοιαν ἐβρώθη. ἀπολομένου 2 -- δὲ Ἀκταίωνος 3 -- οἱ κύνες ἐπιζητοῦντες τὸν δεσπότην κατωρύοντο, καὶ ζήτησιν ποιούμενοι παρεγένοντο ἐπὶ τὸ τοῦ Χείρωνος ἄντρον, ὃς εἴδωλον κατεσκεύασεν Ἀκταίωνος, ὃ καὶ τὴν λύπην αὐτῶν ἔπαυσε. τὰ 4 -- ὀνόματα τῶν Ἀκταίωνος κυνῶν ἐκ τῶν οὕτω δὴ νῦν καλὸν σῶμα περισταδόν, ἠύτε θῆρος, τοῦδε δάσαντο κύνες κρατεροί. πέλας † Ἄρκενα 5 -- πρώτη. μετὰ ταύτην ἄλκιμα τέκνα, Λυγκεὺς καὶ Βαλίος 1 -- πόδας αἰνετός, ἠδʼ Ἀμάρυνθος.— καὶ τούτους ὀνομαστὶ διηνεκέως κατέλεξε· 2 -- καὶ τότε Ἀκταίων ἔθανεν Διὸς ἐννεσίῃσι. 3 -- πρῶτοι γὰρ μέλαν αἷμα πίον 4 -- σφετέροιο ἄνακτος Σπαρτός τʼ Ὤμαργός 5 -- τε Βορῆς τʼ αἰψηροκέλευθος. οὗτοι δʼ 6 --Ἀκταίου πρῶτοι φάγον αἷμα τʼ ἔλαψαν. 7 -- τοὺς δὲ μέτʼ ἄλλοι πάντες ἐπέσσυθεν 8 -- ἐμμεμαῶτες.— ἀργαλέων ὀδυνῶν ἄκος ἔμμεναι ἀνθρώποισιν .
3.5.1
Διόνυσος δὲ εὑρετὴς ἀμπέλου γενόμενος, Ἥρας μανίαν αὐτῷ ἐμβαλούσης περιπλανᾶται Αἴγυπτόν τε καὶ Συρίαν. καὶ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον Πρωτεὺς αὐτὸν ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς Αἰγυπτίων, αὖθις δὲ εἰς Κύβελα τῆς Φρυγίας ἀφικνεῖται, κἀκεῖ καθαρθεὶς ὑπὸ Ῥέας καὶ τὰς τελετὰς ἐκμαθών, καὶ λαβὼν παρʼ ἐκείνης τὴν στολήν, ἐπὶ Ἰνδοὺς 1 -- διὰ τῆς Θράκης ἠπείγετο. Λυκοῦργος δὲ παῖς Δρύαντος, Ἠδωνῶν βασιλεύων, οἳ Στρυμόνα ποταμὸν παροικοῦσι, πρῶτος ὑβρίσας ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. καὶ Διόνυσος μὲν εἰς θάλασσαν πρὸς Θέτιν τὴν Νηρέως κατέφυγε, Βάκχαι δὲ ἐγένοντο αἰχμάλωτοι καὶ τὸ συνεπόμενον Σατύρων πλῆθος αὐτῷ. αὖθις δὲ αἱ Βάκχαι ἐλύθησαν ἐξαίφνης, Λυκούργῳ δὲ μανίαν ἐνεποίησε 2 -- Διόνυσος. ὁ δὲ μεμηνὼς Δρύαντα τὸν παῖδα, ἀμπέλου νομίζων κλῆμα κόπτειν, πελέκει πλήξας ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ ἀκρωτηριάσας αὐτὸν ἐσωφρόνησε. 1 -- τῆς δὲ γῆς ἀκάρπου μενούσης, ἔχρησεν ὁ θεὸς καρποφορήσειν αὐτήν, ἂν θανατωθῇ Λυκοῦργος. Ἠδωνοὶ δὲ ἀκούσαντες εἰς τὸ Παγγαῖον αὐτὸν ἀπαγαγόντες ὄρος ἔδησαν, κἀκεῖ κατὰ Διονύσου βούλησιν ὑπὸ ἵππων διαφθαρεὶς ἀπέθανε. 3.5.2 διελθὼν δὲ Θρᾴκην καὶ τὴν Ἰνδικὴν ἅπασαν, στήλας ἐκεῖ στήσας 1 -- ἧκεν εἰς Θήβας, καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας ἠνάγκασε καταλιπούσας τὰς οἰκίας βακχεύειν ἐν τῷ Κιθαιρῶνι. Πενθεὺς δὲ γεννηθεὶς ἐξ Ἀγαυῆς Ἐχίονι, παρὰ Κάδμου εἰληφὼς τὴν βασιλείαν, διεκώλυε ταῦτα γίνεσθαι, καὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς Κιθαιρῶνα τῶν Βακχῶν κατάσκοπος ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς Ἀγαυῆς κατὰ μανίαν ἐμελίσθη· ἐνόμισε γὰρ αὐτὸν θηρίον εἶναι. δείξας δὲ Θηβαίοις ὅτι θεός ἐστιν, ἧκεν εἰς Ἄργος, κἀκεῖ 2 -- πάλιν οὐ τιμώντων αὐτὸν ἐξέμηνε τὰς γυναῖκας. αἱ δὲ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσι τοὺς ἐπιμαστιδίους ἔχουσαι 3 -- παῖδας τὰς σάρκας αὐτῶν ἐσιτοῦντο. 3.5.3 βουλόμενος δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰκαρίας εἰς Νάξον διακομισθῆναι, Τυρρηνῶν λῃστρικὴν ἐμισθώσατο τριήρη. οἱ δὲ αὐτὸν ἐνθέμενοι Νάξον μὲν παρέπλεον, ἠπείγοντο δὲ εἰς τὴν Ἀσίαν ἀπεμπολήσοντες. ὁ δὲ τὸν μὲν ἱστὸν 4 -- καὶ τὰς κώπας ἐποίησεν ὄφεις, τὸ δὲ σκάφος ἔπλησε κισσοῦ καὶ βοῆς αὐλῶν· οἱ δὲ ἐμμανεῖς γενόμενοι κατὰ τῆς θαλάττης ἔφυγον καὶ ἐγένοντο δελφῖνες. ὣς δὲ 1 -- αὐτὸν θεὸν ἄνθρωποι ἐτίμων, ὁ δὲ ἀναγαγὼν ἐξ Ἅιδου τὴν μητέρα, καὶ προσαγορεύσας Θυώνην, μετʼ αὐτῆς εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀνῆλθεν.
3.8.2
Νυκτίμου δὲ. τὴν βασιλείαν παραλαβόντος ὁ ἐπὶ Δευκαλίωνος κατακλυσμὸς ἐγένετο. τοῦτον ἔνιοι διὰ τὴν τῶν Λυκάονος παίδων δυσσέβειαν εἶπον γεγενῆσθαι. Εὔμηλος δὲ καί τινες ἕτεροι λέγουσι Λυκάονι καὶ θυγατέρα Καλλιστὼ γενέσθαι· Ἡσίοδος μὲν γὰρ αὐτὴν μίαν εἶναι τῶν νυμφῶν λέγει, Ἄσιος δὲ Νυκτέως, Φερεκύδης δὲ Κητέως. αὕτη σύνθηρος Ἀρτέμιδος οὖσα, τὴν αὐτὴν ἐκείνῃ στολὴν φοροῦσα, ὤμοσεν αὐτῇ 2 -- μεῖναι παρθένος. Ζεὺς δὲ ἐρασθεὶς ἀκούσῃ συνευνάζεται, εἰκασθείς, ὡς μὲν ἔνιοι λέγουσιν, Ἀρτέμιδι, ὡς δὲ ἔνιοι, Ἀπόλλωνι. βουλόμενος δὲ Ἥραν λαθεῖν 3 -- εἰς ἄρκτον μετεμόρφωσεν αὐτήν. Ἥρα δὲ ἔπεισεν Ἄρτεμιν ὡς ἄγριον θηρίον κατατοξεῦσαι. εἰσὶ δὲ οἱ λέγοντες ὡς Ἄρτεμις αὐτὴν κατετόξευσεν ὅτι τὴν παρθενίαν οὐκ ἐφύλαξεν. ἀπολομένης δὲ Καλλιστοῦς Ζεὺς τὸ βρέφος ἁρπάσας ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ δίδωσιν ἀνατρέφειν Μαίᾳ, προσαγορεύσας Ἀρκάδα· τὴν δὲ Καλλιστὼ καταστερίσας ἐκάλεσεν ἄρκτον.
3.13.5
αὖθις δὲ γαμεῖ Θέτιν τὴν Νηρέως, περὶ ἧς τοῦ γάμου Ζεὺς καὶ Ποσειδῶν ἤρισαν, Θέμιδος 1 -- δὲ θεσπιῳδούσης ἔσεσθαι τὸν ἐκ ταύτης γεννηθέντα κρείττονα τοῦ πατρὸς ἀπέσχοντο. ἔνιοι δέ φασι, Διὸς ὁρμῶντος ἐπὶ τὴν ταύτης συνουσίαν, εἰρηκέναι Προμηθέα τὸν ἐκ ταύτης αὐτῷ γεννηθέντα οὐρανοῦ δυναστεύσειν. 2 -- τινὲς δὲ λέγουσι Θέτιν μὴ βουληθῆναι Διὶ συνελθεῖν ὡς 3 -- ὑπὸ Ἥρας τραφεῖσαν, Δία δὲ ὀργισθέντα θνητῷ θέλειν αὐτὴν 4 -- συνοικίσαι. 5 -- Χείρωνος οὖν ὑποθεμένου Πηλεῖ συλλαβεῖν καὶ κατασχεῖν 6 -- αὐτὴν μεταμορφουμένην, ἐπιτηρήσας συναρπάζει, γινομένην δὲ ὁτὲ μὲν πῦρ ὁτὲ δὲ ὕδωρ ὁτὲ δὲ θηρίον οὐ πρότερον ἀνῆκε πρὶν ἢ τὴν ἀρχαίαν μορφὴν εἶδεν ἀπολαβοῦσαν. γαμεῖ δὲ ἐν τῷ Πηλίῳ, κἀκεῖ θεοὶ τὸν γάμον εὐωχούμενοι καθύμνησαν. καὶ δίδωσι Χείρων Πηλεῖ δόρυ μείλινον, Ποσειδῶν δὲ ἵππους Βαλίον καὶ Ξάνθον· ἀθάνατοι δὲ ἦσαν οὗτοι.'' None
sup>
1.9.12 Bias wooed Pero, daughter of Neleus. But as there were many suitors for his daughter's hand, Neleus said that he would give her to him who should bring him the kine of Phylacus. These were in Phylace, and they were guarded by a dog which neither man nor beast could come near. Unable to steal these kine, Bias invited his brother to help him. Melampus promised to do so, and foretold that he should be detected in the act of stealing them, and that he should get the kine after being kept in bondage for a year. After making this promise he repaired to Phylace and, just as he had foretold, he was detected in the theft and kept a prisoner in a cell. When the year was nearly up, he heard the worms in the hidden part of the roof, one of them asking how much of the beam had been already gnawed through, and others answering that very little of it was left. At once he bade them transfer him to another cell, and not long after that had been done the cell fell in. Phylacus marvelled, and perceiving that he was an excellent soothsayer, he released him and invited him to say how his son Iphiclus might get children. Melampus promised to tell him, provided he got the kine. And having sacrificed two bulls and cut them in pieces he summoned the birds; and when a vulture came, he learned from it that once, when Phylacus was gelding rams, he laid down the knife, still bloody, beside Iphiclus, and that when the child was frightened and ran away, he stuck the knife on the sacred oak, and the bark encompassed the knife and hid it. He said, therefore, that if the knife were found, and he scraped off the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus to drink for ten days, he would beget a son. Having learned these things from the vulture, Melampus found the knife, scraped the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus for ten days to drink, and a son Podarces was born to him. But he drove the kine to Pylus, and having received the daughter of Neleus he gave her to his brother. For a time he continued to dwell in Messene, but when Dionysus drove the women of Argos mad, he healed them on condition of receiving part of the kingdom, and settled down there with Bias." "
2.1.3
Argus and Ismene, daughter of Asopus, had a son Iasus, who is said to have been the father of Io. But the annalist Castor and many of the tragedians allege that Io was a daughter of Inachus; and Hesiod and Acusilaus say that she was a daughter of Piren. Zeus seduced her while she held the priesthood of Hera, but being detected by Hera he by a touch turned Io into a white cow and swore that he had not known her; wherefore Hesiod remarks that lover's oaths do not draw down the anger of the gods. But Hera requested the cow from Zeus for herself and set Argus the All-seeing to guard it. Pherecydes says that this Argus was a son of Arestor; but Asclepiades says that he was a son of Inachus, and Cercops says that he was a son of Argus and Ismene, daughter of Asopus; but Acusilaus says that he was earth-born. He tethered her to the olive tree which was in the grove of the Mycenaeans. But Zeus ordered Hermes to steal the cow, and as Hermes could not do it secretly because Hierax had blabbed, he killed Argus by the cast of a stone; whence he was called Argiphontes. Hera next sent a gadfly to infest the cow, and the animal came first to what is called after her the Ionian gulf. Then she journeyed through Illyria and having traversed Mount Haemus she crossed what was then called the Thracian Straits but is now called after her the Bosphorus. And having gone away to Scythia and the Cimmerian land she wandered over great tracts of land and swam wide stretches of sea both in Europe and Asia until at last she came to Egypt, where she recovered her original form and gave birth to a son Epaphus beside the river Nile . Him Hera besought the Curetes to make away with, and make away with him they did. When Zeus learned of it, he slew the Curetes; but Io set out in search of the child. She roamed all over Syria, because there it was revealed to her that the wife of the king of Byblus was nursing her son; and having found Epaphus she came to Egypt and was married to Telegonus, who then reigned over the Egyptians. And she set up an image of Demeter, whom the Egyptians called Isis, and Io likewise they called by the name of Isis." 2.2.2 And Acrisius had a daughter Danae by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedaemon, and Proetus had daughters, Lysippe, Iphinoe, and Iphianassa, by Stheneboea. When these damsels were grown up, they went mad, according to Hesiod, because they would not accept the rites of Dionysus, but according to Acusilaus, because they disparaged the wooden image of Hera. In their madness they roamed over the whole Argive land, and afterwards, passing through Arcadia and the Peloponnese, they ran through the desert in the most disorderly fashion. But Melampus, son of Amythaon by Idomene, daughter of Abas, being a seer and the first to devise the cure by means of drugs and purifications, promised to cure the maidens if he should receive the third part of the sovereignty. When Proetus refused to pay so high a fee for the cure, the maidens raved more than ever, and besides that, the other women raved with them; for they also abandoned their houses, destroyed their own children, and flocked to the desert. Not until the evil had reached a very high pitch did Proetus consent to pay the stipulated fee, and Melampus promised to effect a cure whenever his brother Bias should receive just so much land as himself. Fearing that, if the cure were delayed, yet more would be demanded of him, Proetus agreed to let the physician proceed on these terms. So Melampus, taking with him the most stalwart of the young men, chased the women in a bevy from the mountains to Sicyon with shouts and a sort of frenzied dance. In the pursuit Iphinoe, the eldest of the daughters, expired; but the others were lucky enough to be purified and so to recover their wits. Proetus gave them in marriage to Melampus and Bias, and afterwards begat a son, Megapenthes.
3.4.2
But Cadmus, to atone for the slaughter, served Ares for an eternal year; and the year was then equivalent to eight years of our reckoning. After his servitude Athena procured for him the kingdom, and Zeus gave him to wife Harmonia, daughter of Aphrodite and Ares. And all the gods quitted the sky, and feasting in the Cadmea celebrated the marriage with hymns. Cadmus gave her a robe and the necklace wrought by Hephaestus, which some say was given to Cadmus by Hephaestus, but Pherecydes says that it was given by Europa, who had received it from Zeus. And to Cadmus were born daughters, Autonoe, Ino, Semele, Agave, and a son Polydorus. Ino was married to Athamas, Autonoe to Aristaeus, and Agave to Echion. 3.4.3 But Zeus loved Semele and bedded with her unknown to Hera. Now Zeus had agreed to do for her whatever she asked, and deceived by Hera she asked that he would come to her as he came when he was wooing Hera. Unable to refuse, Zeus came to her bridal chamber in a chariot, with lightnings and thunderings, and launched a thunderbolt. But Semele expired of fright, and Zeus, snatching the sixth-month abortive child from the fire, sewed it in his thigh. On the death of Semele the other daughters of Cadmus spread a report that Semele had bedded with a mortal man, and had falsely accused Zeus, and that therefore she had been blasted by thunder. But at the proper time Zeus undid the stitches and gave birth to Dionysus, and entrusted him to Hermes. And he conveyed him to Ino and Athamas, and persuaded them to rear him as a girl. But Hera indigtly drove them mad, and Athamas hunted his elder son Learchus as a deer and killed him, and Ino threw Melicertes into a boiling cauldron, then carrying it with the dead child she sprang into the deep. And she herself is called Leucothea, and the boy is called Palaemon, such being the names they get from sailors; for they succour storm-tossed mariners. And the Isthmian games were instituted by Sisyphus in honor of Melicertes. But Zeus eluded the wrath of Hera by turning Dionysus into a kid, and Hermes took him and brought him to the nymphs who dwelt at Nysa in Asia, whom Zeus afterwards changed into stars and named them the Hyades.' "3.4.4 Autonoe and Aristaeus had a son Actaeon, who was bred by Chiron to be a hunter and then afterwards was devoured on Cithaeron by his own dogs. He perished in that way, according to Acusilaus, because Zeus was angry at him for wooing Semele; but according to the more general opinion, it was because he saw Artemis bathing. And they say that the goddess at once transformed him into a deer, and drove mad the fifty dogs in his pack, which devoured him unwittingly. Actaeon being gone, the dogs sought their master howling lamentably, and in the search they came to the cave of Chiron, who fashioned an image of Actaeon, which soothed their grief. The names of Actaeon's dogs from the . . . . So Now surrounding his fair body, as it were that of a beast, The strong dogs rent it. Near Arcena first. . . . . after her a mighty brood, Lynceus and Balius goodly-footed, and Amarynthus. — And these he enumerated continuously by name. And then Actaeon perished at the instigation of Zeus. For the first that drank their master's black blood Were Spartus and Omargus and Bores, the swift on the track. These first ate of Actaeon and lapped his blood. And after them others rushed on him eagerly . . . . To be a remedy for grievous pains to men. unknown" "
3.5.1
Dionysus discovered the vine, and being driven mad by Hera he roamed about Egypt and Syria . At first he was received by Proteus, king of Egypt, but afterwards he arrived at Cybela in Phrygia . And there, after he had been purified by Rhea and learned the rites of initiation, he received from her the costume and hastened through Thrace against the Indians. But Lycurgus, son of Dryas, was king of the Edonians, who dwell beside the river Strymon, and he was the first who insulted and expelled him. Dionysus took refuge in the sea with Thetis, daughter of Nereus, and the Bacchanals were taken prisoners together with the multitude of Satyrs that attended him. But afterwards the Bacchanals were suddenly released, and Dionysus drove Lycurgus mad. And in his madness he struck his son Dryas dead with an axe, imagining that he was lopping a branch of a vine, and when he had cut off his son's extremities, he recovered his senses. But the land remaining barren, the god declared oracularly that it would bear fruit if Lycurgus were put to death. On hearing that, the Edonians led him to Mount Pangaeum and bound him, and there by the will of Dionysus he died, destroyed by horses." '3.5.2 Having traversed Thrace and the whole of India and set up pillars there, he came to Thebes, and forced the women to abandon their houses and rave in Bacchic frenzy on Cithaeron. But Pentheus, whom Agave bore to Echion, had succeeded Cadmus in the kingdom, and he attempted to put a stop to these proceedings. And coming to Cithaeron to spy on the Bacchanals, he was torn limb from limb by his mother Agave in a fit of madness; for she thought he was a wild beast. And having shown the Thebans that he was a god, Dionysus came to Argos, and there again, because they did not honor him, he drove the women mad, and they on the mountains devoured the flesh of the infants whom they carried at their breasts. 3.5.3 And wishing to be ferried across from Icaria to Naxos he hired a pirate ship of Tyrrhenians. But when they had put him on board, they sailed past Naxos and made for Asia, intending to sell him. Howbeit, he turned the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes. And the pirates went mad, and leaped into the sea, and were turned into dolphins. Thus men perceived that he was a god and honored him; and having brought up his mother from Hades and named her Thyone, he ascended up with her to heaven.' "
3.8.2
But when Nyctimus succeeded to the kingdom, there occurred the flood in the age of Deucalion; some said that it was occasioned by the impiety of Lycaon's sons. But Eumelus and some others say that Lycaon had also a daughter Callisto; though Hesiod says she was one of the nymphs, Asius that she was a daughter of Nycteus, and Pherecydes that she was a daughter of Ceteus. She was a companion of Artemis in the chase, wore the same garb, and swore to her to remain a maid. Now Zeus loved her and, having assumed the likeness, as some say, of Artemis, or, as others say, of Apollo, he shared her bed against her will, and wishing to escape the notice of Hera, he turned her into a bear. But Hera persuaded Artemis to shoot her down as a wild beast. Some say, however, that Artemis shot her down because she did not keep her maidenhood. When Callisto perished, Zeus snatched the babe, named it Arcas, and gave it to Maia to bring up in Arcadia ; and Callisto he turned into a star and called it the Bear." 3.13.5 Afterwards he married Thetis, daughter of Nereus, for whose hand Zeus and Poseidon had been rivals; but when Themis prophesied that the son born of Thetis would be mightier than his father, they withdrew. But some say that when Zeus was bent on gratifying his passion for her, Prometheus declared that the son borne to him by her would be lord of heaven; and others affirm that Thetis would not consort with Zeus because she had been brought up by Hera, and that Zeus in anger would marry her to a mortal. Chiron, therefore, having advised Peleus to seize her and hold her fast in spite of her shape-shifting, he watched his chance and carried her off, and though she turned, now into fire, now into water, and now into a beast, he did not let her go till he saw that she had resumed her former shape. And he married her on Pelion, and there the gods celebrated the marriage with feast and song. And Chiron gave Peleus an ashen spear, and Poseidon gave him horses, Balius and Xanthus, and these were immortal.'" None
108. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.372 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysus • Dionysus, Dionysiac Cult

 Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 444; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 378

sup>
13.372 ̓Αλέξανδρος δὲ τῶν οἰκείων πρὸς αὐτὸν στασιασάντων, ἐπανέστη γὰρ αὐτῷ τὸ ἔθνος ἑορτῆς ἀγομένης καὶ ἑστῶτος αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ καὶ θύειν μέλλοντος κιτρίοις αὐτὸν ἔβαλλον, νόμου ὄντος παρὰ τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις ἐν τῇ σκηνοπηγίᾳ ἔχειν ἕκαστον θύρσους ἐκ φοινίκων καὶ κιτρίων, δεδηλώκαμεν δὲ καὶ ταῦτα ἐν ἄλλοις, προσεξελοιδόρησαν δ' αὐτὸν ὡς ἐξ αἰχμαλώτων γεγονότα καὶ τῆς τιμῆς καὶ τοῦ θύειν ἀνάξιον,"" None
sup>
13.372 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons which they then had in their hands, because the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing.'' None
109. New Testament, Acts, 9.4, 12.7, 16.13-16.34, 26.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysus • Dionysus (Dionysos) • mystery cults, of Dionysus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 467; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 228; Jim (2022), Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece, 222; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 375; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 113, 115; Williams (2023), Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement. 7, 15, 144, 145, 150, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 166, 168, 178; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 117

sup>
9.4 καὶ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἤκουσεν φωνὴν λέγουσαν αὐτῷ Σαούλ Σαούλ, τί με διώκεις;
12.7
καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἐπέστη, καὶ φῶς ἔλαμψεν ἐν τῷ οἰκήματι· πατάξας δὲ τὴν πλευρὰν τοῦ Πέτρου ἤγειρεν αὐτὸν λέγων Ἀνάστα ἐν τάχει· καὶ ἐξέπεσαν αὐτοῦ αἱ ἁλύσεις ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν.
16.13
τῇ τε ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων ἐξήλθομεν ἔξω τῆς πύλης παρὰ ποταμὸν οὗ ἐνομίζομεν προσευχὴν εἶναι, καὶ καθίσαντες ἐλαλοῦμεν ταῖς συνελθούσαις γυναιξίν. 16.14 καί τις γυνὴ ὀνόματι Λυδία, πορφυρόπωλις πόλεως Θυατείρων σεβομένη τὸν θεόν, ἤκουεν, ἧς ὁ κύριος διήνοιξεν τὴν καρδίαν προσέχειν τοῖς λαλουμένοις ὑπὸ Παύλου. 16.15 ὡς δὲ ἐβαπτίσθη καὶ ὁ οἶκος αὐτῆς, παρεκάλεσεν λέγουσα Εἰ κεκρίκατέ με πιστὴν τῷ κυρίῳ εἶναι, εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου μένετε· καὶ παρεβιάσατο ἡμᾶς. 16.16 Ἐγένετο δὲ πορευομένων ἡμῶν εἰς τὴν προσευχὴν παιδίσκην τινὰ ἔχουσαν πνεῦμα πύθωνα ὑπαντῆσαι ἡμῖν, ἥτις ἐργασίαν πολλὴν παρεῖχεν τοῖς κυρίοις 16.17 αὐτῆς μαντευομένη· αὕτη κατακολουθοῦσα τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ ἡμῖν ἔκραζεν λέγουσα Οὗτοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι δοῦλοι τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου εἰσίν, οἵτινες καταγγέλλουσιν ὑμῖν ὁδὸν σωτηρίας. 16.18 τοῦτο δὲ ἐποίει ἐπὶ πολλὰς ἡμέρας. διαπονηθεὶς δὲ Παῦλος καὶ ἐπιστρέψας τῷ πνεύματι εἶπεν Παραγγέλλω σοι ἐν ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐξελθεῖν ἀπʼ αὐτῆς· καὶ ἐξῆλθεν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ. 16.19 Ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ κύριοι αὐτῆς ὅτι ἐξῆλθεν ἡ ἐλπὶς τῆς ἐργασίας αὐτῶν ἐπιλαβόμενοι τὸν Παῦλον καὶ τὸν Σίλαν εἵλκυσαν εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας, 16.20 καὶ προσαγαγόντες αὐτοὺς τοῖς στρατηγοῖς εἶπαν Οὗτοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἐκταράσσουσιν ἡμῶν τὴν πόλιν Ἰουδαῖοι ὑπάρχοντες, 16.21 καὶ καταγγέλλουσιν ἔθη ἃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν παραδέχεσθαι οὐδὲ ποιεῖν Ῥωμαίοις οὖσιν. 16.22 καὶ συνεπέστη ὁ ὄχλος κατʼ αὐτῶν, καὶ οἱ στρατηγοὶ περιρήξαντες αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐκέλευον ῥαβδίζειν, 16.23 πολλὰς δὲ ἐπιθέντες αὐτοῖς πληγὰς ἔβαλον εἰς φυλακήν, παραγγείλαντες τῷ δεσμοφύλακι ἀσφαλῶς τηρεῖν αὐτούς· 16.24 ὃς παραγγελίαν τοιαύτην λαβὼν ἔβαλεν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν ἐσωτέραν φυλακὴν καὶ τοὺς πόδας ἠσφαλίσατο αὐτῶν εἰς τὸ ξύλον. 16.25 Κατὰ δὲ τὸ μεσονύκτιον Παῦλος καὶ Σίλας προσευχόμενοι ὕμνουν τὸν θεόν, ἐπηκροῶντο δὲ αὐτῶν οἱ δέσμιοι· 16.26 ἄφνω δὲ σεισμὸς ἐγένετο μέγας ὥστε σαλευθῆναι τὰ θεμέλια τοῦ δεσμωτηρίου, ἠνεῴχθησαν δὲ παραχρῆμα αἱ θύραι πᾶσαι, καὶ πάντων τὰ δεσμὰ ἀνέθη. 16.27 ἔξυπνος δὲ γενόμενος ὁ δεσμοφύλαξ καὶ ἰδὼν ἀνεῳγμένας τὰς θύρας τῆς φυλακῆς σπασάμενος τὴν μάχαιραν ἤμελλεν ἑαυτὸν ἀναιρεῖν, νομίζων ἐκπεφευγέναι τοὺς δεσμίους. 16.28 ἐφώνησεν δὲ Παῦλος μεγάλῃ φωνῇ λέγων. Μηδὲν πράξῃς σεαυτῷ κακόν, ἅπαντες γάρ ἐσμεν ἐνθάδε. 16.29 αἰτήσας δὲ φῶτα εἰσεπήδησεν, καὶ ἔντρομος γενόμενος προσέπεσεν τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ Σίλᾳ, 16.30 καὶ προαγαγὼν αὐτοὺς ἔξω ἔφη Κύριοι, τί με δεῖ ποιεῖν ἵνα σωθῶ; 16.31 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Πίστευσον ἐπὶ τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ σωθήσῃ σὺ καὶ ὁ οἶκός σου. 16.32 καὶ ἐλάλησαν αὐτῷ τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ σὺν πᾶσι τοῖς ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 16.33 καὶ παραλαβὼν αὐτοὺς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ τῆς νυκτὸς ἔλουσεν ἀπὸ τῶν πληγῶν, καὶ ἐβαπτίσθη αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ αὐτοῦ ἅπαντες παραχρῆμα, 16.34 ἀναγαγών τε αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν οἶκον παρέθηκεν τράπεζαν, καὶ ἠγαλλιάσατο πανοικεὶ πεπιστευκὼς τῷ θεῷ.
26.14
πάντων τε καταπεσόντων ἡμῶν εἰς τὴν γῆν ἤκουσα φωνὴν λέγουσαν πρός με τῇ Ἐβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ Σαούλ Σαούλ, τί με διώκεις; σκληρόν σοι πρὸς κέντρα λακτίζειν.' ' None
sup>
9.4 He fell on the earth, and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?"
12.7
Behold, an angel of the Lord stood by him, and a light shone in the cell. He struck Peter on the side, and woke him up, saying, "Stand up quickly!" His chains fell off from his hands.
16.13
On the Sabbath day we went forth outside of the city by a riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer, and we sat down, and spoke to the women who had come together. 16.14 A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, one who worshiped God, heard us; whose heart the Lord opened to listen to the things which were spoken by Paul. 16.15 When she and her household were baptized, she begged us, saying, "If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house, and stay." She urged us. 16.16 It happened, as we were going to prayer, that a certain girl having a spirit of divination met us, who brought her masters much gain by fortune telling. 16.17 The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation!" 16.18 This she did for many days. But Paul, becoming greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!" It came out that very hour. 16.19 But when her masters saw that the hope of their gain was gone, they seized Paul and Silas, and dragged them into the marketplace before the rulers. 16.20 When they had brought them to the magistrates, they said, "These men, being Jews, are agitating our city, 16.21 and set forth customs which it is not lawful for us to accept or to observe, being Romans." 16.22 The multitude rose up together against them, and the magistrates tore their clothes off of them, and commanded them to be beaten with rods. 16.23 When they had laid many stripes on them, they threw them into prison, charging the jailer to keep them safely, 16.24 who, having received such a charge, threw them into the inner prison, and secured their feet in the stocks. 16.25 But about midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and the prisoners were listening to them. ' "16.26 Suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken; and immediately all the doors were opened, and everyone's bonds were loosened. " '16.27 The jailer, being roused out of sleep and seeing the prison doors open, drew his sword and was about to kill himself, supposing that the prisoners had escaped. 16.28 But Paul cried with a loud voice, saying, "Don\'t harm yourself, for we are all here!" 16.29 He called for lights and sprang in, and, fell down trembling before Paul and Silas, 16.30 and brought them out and said, "Sirs, what must I do to be saved?" 16.31 They said, "Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household." 16.32 They spoke the word of the Lord to him, and to all who were in his house. 16.33 He took them the same hour of the night, and washed their stripes, and was immediately baptized, he and all his household. 16.34 He brought them up into his house, and set food before them, and rejoiced greatly, with all his household, having believed in God. ' "
26.14
When we had all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.' " ' None
110. New Testament, John, 6.26-6.27, 6.41-6.53, 12.13, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Orphic Dionysos • Dionysus • Dionysus (Dionysos) • Dionysus, • Dionysus, Dionysiac Cult • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 468, 480; Bowersock (1997), Fiction as History: Nero to Julian, 132; Gera (2014), Judith, 445; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 8; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 378; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 116, 355

sup>
6.26 ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ζητεῖτέ με οὐχ ὅτι εἴδετε σημεῖα ἀλλʼ ὅτι ἐφάγετε ἐκ τῶν ἄρτων καὶ ἐχορτάσθητε· 6.27 ἐργάζεσθε μὴ τὴν βρῶσιν τὴν ἀπολλυμένην ἀλλὰ τὴν βρῶσιν τὴν μένουσαν εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, ἣν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑμῖν δώσει, τοῦτον γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ἐσφράγισεν ὁ θεός.
6.41
Ἐγόγγυζον οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι περὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι εἶπεν Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ καταβὰς ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον 6.42 Οὐχὶ οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωσήφ, οὗ ἡμεῖς οἴδαμεν τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα; πῶς νῦν λέγει ὅτι Ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβέβηκα; 6.43 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Μὴ γογγύζετε μετʼ ἀλλήλων. 6.44 οὐδεὶς δύναται ἐλθεῖν πρός με ἐὰν μὴ ὁ πατὴρ ὁ πέμψας με ἑλκύσῃ αὐτόν, κἀγὼ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ. 6.45 ἔστιν γεγραμμένον ἐν τοῖς προφήταις Καὶ ἔσονται πάντες. διδακτοὶ θεοῦ· πᾶς ὁ ἀκούσας παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ μαθὼν ἔρχεται πρὸς ἐμέ. 6.46 οὐχ ὅτι τὸν πατέρα ἑώρακέν τις εἰ μὴ ὁ ὢν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, οὗτος ἑώρακεν τὸν πατέρα. 6.47 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ πιστεύων ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 6.48 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς· 6.49 οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν ἔφαγον ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τὸ μάννα καὶ ἀπέθανον· 6.50 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβαίνων ἵνα τις ἐξ αὐτοῦ φάγῃ καὶ μὴ ἀποθάνῃ· 6.51 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς· ἐάν τις φάγῃ ἐκ τούτου τοῦ ἄρτου ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ ὁ ἄρτος δὲ ὃν ἐγὼ δώσω ἡ σάρξ μου ἐστὶν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς. 6.52 Ἐμάχοντο οὖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι λέγοντες Πῶς δύναται οὗτος ἡμῖν δοῦναι τὴν σάρκα αὐτοῦ φαγεῖν; 6.53 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς.
12.13
ἔλαβον τὰ βαΐα τῶν φοινίκων καὶ ἐξῆλθον εἰς ὑπάντησιν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἐκραύγαζον Ὡσαννά, εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου, καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ.
15.1
Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἄμπελος ἡ ἀληθινή, καὶ ὁ πατήρ μου ὁ γεωργός ἐστιν·'' None
sup>
6.26 Jesus answered them, "Most assuredly I tell you, you seek me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate of the loaves, and were filled. 6.27 Don\'t work for the food which perishes, but for the food which remains to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you. For God the Father has sealed him."
6.41
The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, "I am the bread which came down out of heaven." 6.42 They said, "Isn\'t this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, \'I have come down out of heaven?\'" 6.43 Therefore Jesus answered them, "Don\'t murmur among yourselves. 6.44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. ' "6.45 It is written in the prophets, 'They will all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who hears from the Father, and has learned, comes to me. " '6.46 Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. 6.47 Most assuredly, I tell you, he who believes in me has eternal life. 6.48 I am the bread of life. 6.49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6.50 This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. 6.51 I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh." 6.52 The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" 6.53 Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don\'t have life in yourselves.
12.13
they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!"
15.1
"I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer. '' None
111. New Testament, Mark, 14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic cult • Bacchic imagery

 Found in books: Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 96; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 203

sup>
14.26 Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν.'' None
sup>
14.26 When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. '' None
112. New Testament, Matthew, 26.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic cult • Bacchic imagery

 Found in books: Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 96; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 203

sup>
26.30 Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν.'' None
sup>
26.30 When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. '' None
113. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 2.9, 67.1-67.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus (Bacchus) • Dionysus, and Alexander

 Found in books: Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 185; Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 162; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 77; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 76, 152, 161, 268

sup>
67.1 ἀναλαβὼν οὖν ἐνταῦθα τὴν δύναμιν ἐξώρμησε κώμῳ χρώμενος ἐφʼ ἡμέρας ἑπτὰ διὰ τῆς Καρμανίας, αὐτὸν μὲν οὖν ἵπποι σχέδην ἐκόμιζον ὀκτώ, μετὰ τῶν ἑταίρων ὑπὲρ θυμέλης ἐν ὑψηλῷ καὶ περιφανεῖ πλαισίῳ πεπηγυίας εὐωχούμενον συνεχῶς ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός· ἅμαξαι δὲ παμπληθεῖς, αἱ μὲν ἁλουργοῖς καὶ ποικίλοις περιβολαίοις, αἱ δʼ ὕλης ἀεὶ προσφάτου καὶ χλωρᾶς σκιαζόμεναι κλάδοις, εἵποντο τοὺς ἄλλους ἄγουσαι φίλους καὶ ἡγεμόνας ἐστεφανωμένους καὶ πίνοντας. 67.2 εἶδες δʼ ἂν οὐ πέλτην, οὐ κράνος, οὐ σάρισαν, ἀλλὰ φιάλαις καὶ ῥυτοῖς καὶ θηρικλείοις παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἅπασαν οἱ στρατιῶται βαπτίζοντες ἐκ πίθων μεγάλων καὶ κρατήρων ἀλλήλοις προέπινον, οἱ μὲν ἐν τῷ προάγειν ἅμα καὶ βαδίζειν, οἱ δὲ κατακείμενοι. πολλὴ δὲ μοῦσα συρίγγων καὶ αὐλῶν ᾠδῆς τε καὶ ψαλμοῦ καὶ βακχείας γυναικῶν κατεῖχε πάντα τόπον. 67.3 τῷ δὲ ἀτάκτῳ καὶ πεπλανημένῳ τῆς πορείας παρείπετο καὶ παιδιὰ βακχικῆς ὕβρεως, ὡς τοῦ θεοῦ παρόντος αὐτοῦ καὶ συμπαραπέμποντος τὸν κῶμον. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἧκε τῆς Γεδρωσίας εἰς τὸ βασίλειον, αὖθις ἀνελάμβανε τὴν στρατιὰν πανηγυρίζων.' ' None
sup>
67.1 Accordingly, after refreshing his forces here, he set out and marched for seven days through Carmania in a revelling rout. He himself was conveyed slowly along by eight horses, while he feasted day and night continuously with his companions on a dais built upon a lofty and conspicuous scaffolding of oblong shape; and waggons without number followed, some with purple and embroidered canopies, others protected from the sun by boughs of trees which were kept fresh and green, conveying the rest of his friends and commanders, who were all garlanded and drinking. 67.2 Not a shield was to be seen, not a helmet, not a spear, but along the whole march with cups and drinking-horns and flagons the soldiers kept dipping wine from huge casks and mixing-bowls and pledging one another, some as they marched along, others lying down; while pipes and flutes, stringed instruments and song, and revelling cries of women, filled every place with abundant music. 67.3 Then, upon this disordered and straggling procession there followed also the sports of bacchanalian license, as though Bacchus himself were present and conducting the revel. According to Arrian ( Anab. vi. 28, 1 f ), this bacchanalian procession through Carmania rests on no credible authority. Moreover, when he came to the royal palace of Gedrosia, he once more gave his army time for rest and held high festival. ' ' None
114. Plutarch, Mark Antony, 24.3-24.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic cult • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Agrionios • Dionysos, Dionysos Agrios • Dionysos/Dionysus • Dionysus • Dionysus, and Antony • Dionysus, cult association of • Dionysus., Antony as the ‘New Dionysus’ • Neos Dionysos • Nero, new Dionysus, Antony as

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 13, 189; Black, Thomas, and Thompson (2022), Ephesos as a Religious Center under the Principate. 45; Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 88; Chrysanthou (2018), Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement. 74; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 106; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 21; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 250; Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 31; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 70; Trapp et al. (2016), In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns, 81; Xinyue (2022), Politics and Divinization in Augustan Poetry, 38; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 67

sup>
24.3 ἡ γὰρ Ἀσία πᾶσα, καθάπερ ἡ Σοφόκλειος ἐκείνη πόλις, ὁμοῦ μὲν θυμιαμάτων ἔγεμεν, ὁμοῦ δὲ παιάνων τε καὶ στεναγμάτων. εἰς γοῦν Ἔφεσον εἰσιόντος αὐτοῦ γυναῖκες μὲν εἰς Βάκχας, ἄνδρες δὲ καὶ παῖδες εἰς Σατύρους καὶ Πᾶνας ἡγοῦντο διεσκευασμένοι, κιττοῦ δὲ καὶ θύρσων καὶ ψαλτηρίων καὶ συρίγγων καὶ αὐλῶν ἡ πόλις ἦν πλέα, Διόνυσον αὐτὸν ἀνακαλουμένων χαριδότην καὶ μειλίχιον. 24.4 ἦν γὰρ ἀμέλει τοιοῦτος ἐνίοις, τοῖς δὲ πολλοῖς ὠμηστὴς καὶ ἀγριώνιος. ἀφῃρεῖτο γὰρ εὐγενεῖς ἀνθρώπους τὰ ὄντα μαστιγίαις καὶ κόλαξι χαριζόμενος. πολλῶν δὲ καὶ ζώντων ὡς τεθνηκότων αἰτησάμενοί τινες οὐσίας ἔλαβον. ἀνδρὸς δὲ Μάγνητος οἶκον ἐδωρήσατο μαγείρῳ περὶ ἕν, ὡς λέγεται, δεῖπνον εὐδοκιμήσαντι. 24.5 τέλος δέ, ταῖς πόλεσι δεύτερον ἐπιβάλλοντος φόρον, ἐτόλμησεν Ὑβρέας ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἀσίας λέγων εἰπεῖν ἀγοραίως μὲν ἐκεῖνα καὶ πρὸς τὸν Ἀντωνίου ζῆλον οὐκ ἀηδῶς, εἰ δύνασαι δὶς λαβεῖν ἑνὸς ἐνιαυτοῦ φόρον, δύνασαι καὶ δὶς ἡμῖν ποιήσασθαι θέρος καὶ δὶς ὀπώραν, πρακτικῶς δὲ καὶ παραβόλως συναγαγὼν ὅτι μυριάδας εἴκοσι ταλάντων ἡ Ἀσία δέδωκε, ταῦτα, εἶπεν, εἰ μὲν οὐκ εἴληφας, ἀπαίτει παρὰ τῶν λαβόντων· εἰ δὲ λαβὼν οὐκ ἔχεις, ἀπολώλαμεν.' ' None
sup>
24.3 24.5 ' ' None
115. Plutarch, Camillus, 5.1-5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos Bromios • Dionysos, and heroines • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, as rescuer • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos,punishment • Dionysus • heroines, and Dionysos • rescue, by Dionysos • statue, Dionysus

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 33; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 161; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 133

sup>
5.1 ἡ δὲ σύγκλητος εἰς τὸ δέκατον ἔτος τοῦ πολέμου καταλύσασα τὰς ἄλλας ἀρχὰς δικτάτορα Κάμιλλον ἀπέδειξεν ἵππαρχον δʼ ἐκεῖνος αὑτῷ προσελόμενος Κορνήλιον Σκηπίωνα, πρῶτον μὲν εὐχὰς ἐποιήσατο τοῖς θεοῖς ἐπὶ τῷ πολέμῳ τέλος εὐκλεὲς λαβόντι τὰς μεγάλας θέας ἄξειν καὶ νεὼν θεᾶς, ἣν Μητέρα Ματοῦταν καλοῦσι Ῥωμαῖοι, καθιερώσειν. 5.2 ταύτην ἄν τις ἀπὸ τῶν δρωμένων ἱερῶν μάλιστα Λευκοθέαν νομίσειεν εἶναι, καὶ γὰρ θεράπαιναν εἰς τὸν σηκὸν εἰσάγουσαι ῥαπίζουσιν, εἶτʼ ἐξελαύνουσι καὶ τὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν τέκνα πρὸ τῶν ἰδίων ἐναγκαλίζονται καὶ δρῶσι περὶ τὴν θυσίαν ἃ ταῖς Διονύσου τροφοῖς καὶ τοῖς διὰ τὴν παλλακὴν πάθεσι τῆς Ἰνοῦς προσέοικε. μετὰ δὲ τὰς εὐχὰς ὁ Κάμιλλος εἰς τὴν Φαλίσκων ἐνέβαλε, καὶ μάχῃ μεγάλῃ τούτους τε καὶ Καπηνάτας προσβοηθήσαντας αὐτοῖς ἐνίκησεν.'' None
sup>
5.1 In the tenth year of the war, 396 B.C. the Senate abolished the other magistracies and appointed Camillus dictator. After choosing Cornelius Scipio as his master of horse, in the first place he made solemn vows to the gods that, in case the war had a glorious ending, he would celebrate the great games in their honour, and dedicate a temple to a goddess whom the Romans call Mater Matuta. 5.2 From the sacred rites used in the worship of this goddess, she might be held to be almost identical with Leucothea. The women bring a serving-maid into the sanctuary and beat her with rods, then drive her forth again; they embrace their nephews and nieces in preference to their own children; and their conduct at the sacrifice resembles that of the nurses of Dionysus, or that of Ino under the afflictions put upon her by her husband’s concubine. After his vows, Camillus invaded the country of the Faliscans and conquered them in a great battle, together with the Capenates who came up to their aid.'' None
116. Plutarch, Cimon, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysus • statue, Dionysus

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 33; Chrysanthou (2018), Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement. 34; Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 29

sup>
2.2 οἱ λέγοντες ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως ἐπεκαλοῦντο τὴν Λουκούλλου μαρτυρίαν, γράψαντος δὲ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ πρὸς Λούκουλλον ἐκεῖνος ἐμαρτύρησε τἀληθῆ, καὶ τὴν δίκην οὕτως ἀπέφυγεν ἡ πόλις κινδυνεύουσα περὶ τῶν μεγίστων. ἐκεῖνοι μὲν οὖν οἱ τότε σωθέντες εἰκόνα τοῦ Λουκούλλου λιθίνην ἐν ἀγορᾷ παρὰ τὸν Διόνυσον ἀνέστησαν, ἡμεῖς δʼ, εἰ καὶ πολλαῖς ἡλικίαις λειπόμεθα, τὴν μὲν χάριν οἰόμεθα διατείνειν καὶ πρὸς ἡμᾶς τοὺς νῦν ὄντας,' ' None
sup>
2.2 ' ' None
117. Plutarch, Crassus, 33.2-33.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus/Dionysiac Guilds (Dionysiakoi Technitai) • Dionysus • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, theatrical self-presentation by • autocrats/autocracy see also Dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants\n, writing/performing poetry

 Found in books: Chrysanthou (2018), Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement. 117, 118; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 28; Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 178

sup>
33.2 ἦν γὰρ οὔτε φωνῆς οὔτε γραμμάτων Ὑρώδης Ἑλληνικῶν ἄπειρος, ὁ δʼ Ἀρταοθάσδης καὶ τραγῳδίας ἐποίει καὶ λόγους ἔγραφε καὶ ἱστορίας, ὧν ἔνιαι διασῴζονται, τῆς δὲ κεφαλῆς τοῦ Κράσσου κομισθείσης ἐπὶ θύρας ἀπηρμέναι μὲν ἦσαν αἱ τράπεζαι, τραγῳδιῶν δὲ ὑποκριτὴς Ἰάσων ὄνομα Τραλλιανὸς ᾖδεν Εὐριπίδου Βακχῶν τὰ περὶ τὴν Ἀγαύην. εὐδοκιμοῦντος δʼ αὐτοῦ Σιλλάκης ἐπιστὰς τῷ ἀνδρῶνι καὶ προσκυνήσας προὔβαλεν εἰς μέσον τοῦ Κράσσου τὴν κεφαλήν. 33.3 κρότῳ δὲ τῶν Πάρθων μετὰ κραυγῆς καὶ χαρᾶς ἀραμένων, τὸν μὲν Σιλλάκην κατέκλιναν οἱ ὑπηρέται βασιλέως κελεύσαντος, ὁ δʼ Ἰάσων τὰ μὲν τοῦ Πενθέως σκευοποιήματα παρέδωκέ τινι τῶν χορευτῶν, τῆς δὲ τοῦ Κράσσου κεφαλῆς λαβόμενος καὶ ἀναβακχεύσας ἐπέραινεν ἐκεῖνα τὰ μέλη μετʼ ἐνθουσιασμοῦ καὶ ᾠδῆς· φέρομεν ἐξ ὄρεος ἕλικα νεότομον ἐπὶ μέλαθρα, μακαρίαν θήραν. Euripides, Bacchae, 1170-72 (Kirchhoff μακάριον ).καὶ ταῦτα μὲν πάντας ἔτερπεν· 33.4 ᾀδομένων δὲ τῶν ἑφεξῆς ἀμοιβαίων πρὸς τὸν χορόν, Χόρος τίς ἐφόνευσεν;Ἀγαύη ἐμὸν τὸ γέρας· Euripides, Bacchae, 1179 (Kirchhoff, XO. τίς ἁ βαλοῦσα πρῶτα ;). ἀναπηδήσας ὁ Πομαξάθρης ἐτύγχανε δὲ δειπνῶν ἀντελαμβάνετο τῆς κεφαλῆς, ὡς ἑαυτῷ λέγειν ταῦτα μᾶλλον ἢ; ἐκείνῳ προσῆκον. ἡσθεὶς δʼ ὁ βασιλεὺς τὸν μὲν οἷς πάτριόν ἐστιν ἐδωρήσατο, τῷ δʼ Ἰάσονι τάλαντον ἔδωκεν. εἰς τοιοῦτό φασιν ἐξόδιον τὴν Κράσσου στρατηγίαν ὥσπερ τραγῳδίαν τελευτῆσαι. 33.5 δίκη μέντοι καὶ τῆς ὠμότητος Ὑρώδην καὶ τῆς ἐπιορκίας Σουρήναν ἀξία μετῆλθεν. Σουρήναν μὲν γὰρ οὐ μετὰ πολὺν χρόνον Ὑρώδης φθόνῶ τῆς δόξης ἀπέκτεινεν, Ὑρώδῃ δὲ ἀποβαλόντι Πάκορον ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων μάχῃ κρατηθέντα, καὶ νοσήσαντι νόσον εἰς ὓδρωπα τραπεῖσαν, Φραάτης ὁ υἱὸς ἐπιβουλεύων ἀκόνιτον ἔδωκεν. ἀναδεξαμένης δὲ τῆς νόσου τὸ φάρμακον εἰς ἑαυτὴν, ὥστε συνεκκριθῆναι, καὶ τοῦ σώματος κουφισθέντος, ἐπὶ τὴν ταχίστην τῶν ὁδῶν ἐλθὼν ὁ Φραάτης ἀπέπνιξεν αὐτόν.' ' None
sup>
33.2 33.4 33.5 ' ' None
118. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos, Dionysos omestes • Dionysos, Gift • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, death • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysus • awakening, Dionysos • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • death of Dionysus

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 136; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 106, 179

417c in which it is possible to gain the clearest reflections and adumbrations of the truth about the demigods, 'let my lips be piously sealed,' as Herodotus says; but as for festivals and sacrifices, which may be compared with ill-omened and gloomy days, in which occur the eating of raw flesh, rending of victims, fasting, and beating of breasts, and again in many places scurrilous language at the shrines, and Frenzy and shouting of throngs in excitement With tumultuous tossing of heads in the air, Ishould say that these acts are not performed for any god, but are soothing and appeasing rites for the averting of evil spirits. Nor is it credible that the gods demanded or welcomed the human sacrifices of ancient days,"" None
119. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos • Dionysos (Bacchus, god) • Dionysos, Dionysos Epaphios/Epaphian • Dionysos, Dionysos Liknites • Dionysos, arrival • Dionysos, awakening • Dionysos, epiphany • Dionysos, nurse of • Dionysos, tomb • Dionysos,rebirth • Dionysus • Dionysus, and Osiris • Dionysus, heart of • Dionysus/Dionysiac mysteries • Osiris, and Dionysus • Zeus, gestates Dionysus in his thigh • awakening, Dionysos • death associated with Dionysos and Dionysian cult or myth • death of Dionysus • mysteries, mystery cults, Bacchic, Dionysiac • rituals, Bacchic

 Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 136; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 8, 64, 110, 111, 291, 421, 422, 425, 426, 467; Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 161; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 420; Gr