|1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 60, 72-74, 123, 126, 141, 156-173, 178-179 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Boeotia, Demeter and • Demeter • Demeter Malophoros • Demeter, Eleusinian Mysteries and • Demeter, Persephone/Kore and • Demeter, Triptolemus and • Demeter, Zeus and • Demeter, as grain/ agricultural goddess • Demeter, dead, association with • Demeter, images and iconography • Demeter, sanctuaries and temples • Homeric Hymn to Demeter • Homeric Hymns, Demeter • Hymn to Demeter • Persephone/Kore, Demeter and • Selinus, sanctuary of Demeter Malophoros • Zeus, Demeter and • sanctuaries and temples, of Demeter • the dead, Demeter associated with
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 58; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 108; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 153; Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 34; Schultz and Wilberding (2022), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism, 56; Shilo (2022), Beyond Death in the Oresteia: Poetics, Ethics, and Politics, 13; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 110; Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 86
60 Ἥφαιστον δʼ ἐκέλευσε περικλυτὸν ὅττι τάχιστα
72 ζῶσε δὲ καὶ κόσμησε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη· 73 ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ Χάριτές τε θεαὶ καὶ πότνια Πειθὼ 74 ὅρμους χρυσείους ἔθεσαν χροΐ· ἀμφὶ δὲ τήν γε
123 ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων,126 πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—,
141 τοὶ μὲν ὑποχθόνιοι μάκαρες θνητοῖς καλέονται,
156 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψεν, 157 αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 158 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ἄρειον, 159 ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 1
60 ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161 καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162 τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163 ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164 τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165 ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166 ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 167 τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 169 Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169 ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169 τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169 τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169 τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170 καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171 ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 1
72 ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173 τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα.
178 φθειρόμενοι. χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας· 179 ἀλλʼ ἔμπης καὶ τοῖσι μεμείξεται ἐσθλὰ κακοῖσιν. ' None
60 And duped me. So great anguish shall befall
72 The golden Aphrodite would let flow, 73 With painful passions and bone-shattering stress. 74 Then Argus-slayer Hermes had to add
123 In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued126 They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease
141 Through foolishness, unable to forbear
156 It was self-slaughter – they descended to 157 Chill Hades’ mouldy house, without a name. 158 Yes, black death took them off, although they’d been 159 Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 1
60 Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161 Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162 Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163 The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164 Called demigods. It was the race before 165 Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166 And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 167 While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168 The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 169 Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170 For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171 In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 1
72 Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173 Carefree, among the blessed isles, content
178 Far from the other gods, for Zeus, who reign 179 Over gods and men, had cut away the cord ' None
|2. Hesiod, Theogony, 105-107, 121-122, 413-455, 482-483, 886-929, 940-944 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, Hestia and • Demeter/Deo • Hestia, Demeter and
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 60, 62; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 7; Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 11, 13; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 539; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 93; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 33, 34; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 18, 66, 242, 262; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 123; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 318
105 κλείετε δʼ ἀθανάτων ἱερὸν γένος αἰὲν ἐόντων,'106 οἳ Γῆς τʼ ἐξεγένοντο καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος, 107 Νυκτός τε δνοφερῆς, οὕς θʼ ἁλμυρὸς ἔτρεφε Πόντος.
121 λυσιμελής, πάντων δὲ θεῶν πάντων τʼ ἀνθρώπων 122 δάμναται ἐν στήθεσσι νόον καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν.
413 μοῖραν ἔχειν γαίης τε καὶ ἀτρυγέτοιο θαλάσσης. 414 ἣ δὲ καὶ ἀστερόεντος ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ ἔμμορε τιμῆς 415 ἀθανάτοις τε θεοῖσι τετιμένη ἐστὶ μάλιστα. 416 καὶ γὰρ νῦν, ὅτε πού τις ἐπιχθονίων ἀνθρώπων 417 ἔρδων ἱερὰ καλὰ κατὰ νόμον ἱλάσκηται, 418 κικλῄσκει Ἑκάτην. πολλή τέ οἱ ἕσπετο τιμὴ 419 ῥεῖα μάλʼ, ᾧ πρόφρων γε θεὰ ὑποδέξεται εὐχάς, 420 καί τέ οἱ ὄλβον ὀπάζει, ἐπεὶ δύναμίς γε πάρεστιν. 421 ὅσσοι γὰρ Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἐξεγένοντο 422 καὶ τιμὴν ἔλαχον, τούτων ἔχει αἶσαν ἁπάντων. 423 οὐδέ τί μιν Κρονίδης ἐβιήσατο οὐδέ τʼ ἀπηύρα, 424 ὅσσʼ ἔλαχεν Τιτῆσι μετὰ προτέροισι θεοῖσιν, 425 ἀλλʼ ἔχει, ὡς τὸ πρῶτον ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς ἔπλετο δασμός, 426 οὐδʼ, ὅτι μουνογενής, ἧσσον θεὰ ἔμμορε τιμῆς, 427 καὶ γέρας ἐν γαίῃ τε καὶ οὐρανῷ ἠδὲ θαλάσσῃ· 428 ἀλλʼ ἔτι καὶ πολὺ μᾶλλον, ἐπεὶ Ζεὺς τίεται αὐτήν. 429 ᾧ δʼ ἐθέλει, μεγάλως παραγίγνεται ἠδʼ ὀνίνησιν· 430 ἔν τʼ ἀγορῇ λαοῖσι μεταπρέπει, ὅν κʼ ἐθέλῃσιν· 431 ἠδʼ ὁπότʼ ἐς πόλεμον φθεισήνορα θωρήσσωνται 432 ἀνέρες, ἔνθα θεὰ παραγίγνεται, οἷς κʼ ἐθέλῃσι 433 νίκην προφρονέως ὀπάσαι καὶ κῦδος ὀρέξαι. 434 ἔν τε δίκῃ βασιλεῦσι παρʼ αἰδοίοισι καθίζει, 435 ἐσθλὴ δʼ αὖθʼ ὁπότʼ ἄνδρες ἀεθλεύωσιν ἀγῶνι, 436 ἔνθα θεὰ καὶ τοῖς παραγίγνεται ἠδʼ ὀνίνησιν· 437 νικήσας δὲ βίῃ καὶ κάρτεϊ καλὸν ἄεθλον 438 ῥεῖα φέρει χαίρων τε, τοκεῦσι δὲ κῦδος ὀπάζει. 439 ἐσθλὴ δʼ ἱππήεσσι παρεστάμεν, οἷς κʼ ἐθέλῃσιν. 440 καὶ τοῖς, οἳ γλαυκὴν δυσπέμφελον ἐργάζονται, 441 εὔχονται δʼ Ἑκάτῃ καὶ ἐρικτύπῳ Ἐννοσιγαίῳ, 442 ῥηιδίως ἄγρην κυδρὴ θεὸς ὤπασε πολλήν, 443 ῥεῖα δʼ ἀφείλετο φαινομένην, ἐθέλουσά γε θυμῷ. 444 ἐσθλὴ δʼ ἐν σταθμοῖσι σὺν Ἑρμῇ ληίδʼ ἀέξειν· 445 βουκολίας δʼ ἀγέλας τε καὶ αἰπόλια πλατέʼ αἰγῶν 446 ποίμνας τʼ εἰροπόκων ὀίων, θυμῷ γʼ ἐθέλουσα, 447 ἐξ ὀλίγων βριάει κἀκ πολλῶν μείονα θῆκεν. 448 οὕτω τοι καὶ μουνογενὴς ἐκ μητρὸς ἐοῦσα 449 πᾶσι μετʼ ἀθανάτοισι τετίμηται γεράεσσιν. 450 θῆκε δέ μιν Κρονίδης κουροτρόφον, οἳ μετʼ ἐκείνην 451 ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδοντο φάος πολυδερκέος Ἠοῦς. 452 οὕτως ἐξ ἀρχῆς κουροτρόφος, αἳ δέ τε τιμαί. 453 Ῥείη δὲ δμηθεῖσα Κρόνῳ τέκε φαίδιμα τέκνα, 454 Ἱστίην Δήμητρα καὶ Ἥρην χρυσοπέδιλον 455 ἴφθιμόν τʼ Ἀίδην, ὃς ὑπὸ χθονὶ δώματα ναίει
482 πρώτην ἐς Λύκτον· κρύψεν δέ ἑ χερσὶ λαβοῦσα 483 ἄντρῳ ἐν ἠλιβάτῳ, ζαθέης ὑπὸ κεύθεσι γαίης,
886 Ζεὺς δὲ θεῶν βασιλεὺς πρώτην ἄλοχον θέτο Μῆτιν 887 πλεῖστα τε ἰδυῖαν ἰδὲ θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων. 888 ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ ἄρʼ ἔμελλε θεὰν γλαυκῶπιν Ἀθήνην 889 τέξεσθαι, τότʼ ἔπειτα δόλῳ φρένας ἐξαπατήσας 890 αἱμυλίοισι λόγοισιν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδὺν 891 Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσι καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος. 892 τὼς γάρ οἱ φρασάτην, ἵνα μὴ βασιληίδα τιμὴν 893 ἄλλος ἔχοι Διὸς ἀντὶ θεῶν αἰειγενετάων. 894 ἐκ γὰρ τῆς εἵμαρτο περίφρονα τέκνα γενέσθαι· 895 πρώτην μὲν κούρην γλαυκώπιδα Τριτογένειαν 896 ἶσον ἔχουσαν πατρὶ μένος καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν. 897 αὐτὰρ ἔπειτʼ ἄρα παῖδα θεῶν βασιλῆα καὶ ἀνδρῶν 898 ἤμελλεν τέξεσθαι, ὑπέρβιον ἦτορ ἔχοντα· 899 ἀλλʼ ἄρα μιν Ζεὺς πρόσθεν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδύν, 900 ὡς δή οἱ φράσσαιτο θεὰ ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 901 δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 902 Εὐνουμίην τε Δίκην τε καὶ Εἰρήνην τεθαλυῖαν, 903 αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι, 904 Μοίρας θʼ, ᾗ πλείστην τιμὴν πόρε μητίετα Ζεύς, 905 Κλωθώ τε Λάχεσίν τε καὶ Ἄτροπον, αἵτε διδοῦσι 906 θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν ἔχειν ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 907 τρεῖς δέ οἱ Εὐρυνομη Χάριτας τέκε καλλιπαρῄους, 908 Ὠκεανοῦ κούρη, πολυήρατον εἶδος ἔχουσα, 909 Ἀγλαΐην τε καὶ Εὐφροσύνην Θαλίην τʼ ἐρατεινήν· 910 τῶν καὶ ἀπὸ βλεφάρων ἔρος εἴβετο δερκομενάων 911 λυσιμελής· καλὸν δέ θʼ ὑπʼ ὀφρύσι δερκιόωνται. 912 αὐτὰρ ὁ Δήμητρος πολυφόρβης ἐς λέχος ἦλθεν, 913 ἣ τέκε Περσεφόνην λευκώλενον, ἣν Ἀιδωνεὺς 914 ἥρπασε ἧς παρὰ μητρός· ἔδωκε δὲ μητίετα Ζεύς. 915 μνημοσύνης δʼ ἐξαῦτις ἐράσσατο καλλικόμοιο, 916 ἐξ ἧς οἱ Μοῦσαι χρυσάμπυκες ἐξεγένοντο 917 ἐννέα, τῇσιν ἅδον θαλίαι καὶ τέρψις ἀοιδῆς. 918 Λητὼ δʼ Ἀπόλλωνα καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ἰοχέαιραν, 919 ἱμερόεντα γόνον περὶ πάντων Οὐρανιώνων, 920 γείνατʼ ἄρʼ αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς φιλότητι μιγεῖσα. 921 λοισθοτάτην δʼ Ἥρην θαλερὴν ποιήσατʼ ἄκοιτιν· 922 ἣ δʼ Ἥβην καὶ Ἄρηα καὶ Εἰλείθυιαν ἔτικτε 923 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι θεῶν βασιλῆι καὶ ἀνδρῶν. 924 αὐτὸς δʼ ἐκ κεφαλῆς γλαυκώπιδα Τριτογένειαν 925 δεινὴν ἐγρεκύδοιμον ἀγέστρατον Ἀτρυτώνην 926 πότνιαν, ᾗ κέλαδοί τε ἅδον πόλεμοί τε μάχαι τε, 927 Ἥρη δʼ Ἥφαιστον κλυτὸν οὐ φιλότητι μιγεῖσα 928 γείνατο, καὶ ζαμένησε καὶ ἤρισε ᾧ παρακοίτῃ, 929 Ἥφαιστον, φιλότητος ἄτερ Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο, 929 Μῆτις δʼ αὖτε Ζηνὸς ὑπὸ σπλάγχνοις λελαθυῖα 929 ἀθανάτων ἐκέκασθʼ οἳ Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσιν, 929 αἰγίδα ποιήσασα φοβέστρατον ἔντος Ἀθήνης· 929 αὐτὰρ ὅ γʼ Ὠκεανοῦ καὶ Τηθύος ἠυκόμοιο 929 δείσας, μὴ τέξῃ κρατερώτερον ἄλλο κεραυνοῦ. 929 ἔνθα θεὰ παρέδεκτο ὅθεν παλάμαις περὶ πάντων 929 ἐκ πάντων παλάμῃσι κεκασμένον Οὐρανιώνων· 929 ἐκ ταύτης δʼ ἔριδος ἣ μὲν τέκε φαίδιμον υἱὸν 929 ἐξαπαφὼν Μῆτιν καίπερ πολυδήνεʼ ἐοῦσαν. 929 ἧστο, Ἀθηναίης μήτηρ, τέκταινα δικαίων 929 κάππιεν ἐξαπίνης· ἣ δʼ αὐτίκα Παλλάδʼ Ἀθήνην 929 κούρῃ νόσφʼ Ἥρης παρελέξατο καλλιπαρήῳ, 929 κύσατο· τὴν μὲν ἔτικτε πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε 929 πὰρ κορυφὴν Τρίτωνος ἐπʼ ὄχθῃσιν ποταμοῖο. 929 πλεῖστα θεῶν τε ἰδυῖα καταθνητῶν τʼ ἀνθρώπων, 929 σὺν τῇ ἐγείνατό μιν πολεμήια τεύχεʼ ἔχουσαν. 929 συμμάρψας δʼ ὅ γε χερσὶν ἑὴν ἐγκάτθετο νηδὺν 929 τοὔνεκά μιν Κρονίδης ὑψίζυγος αἰθέρι ναίων 929 Ἥρη δὲ ζαμένησε καὶ ἤρισε ᾧ παρακοίτῃ. 929 ἐκ πάντων τέχνῃσι κεκασμένον Οὐρανιώνων.
940 Καδμείη δʼ ἄρα οἱ Σεμέλη τέκε φαίδιμον υἱὸν 941 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι, Διώνυσον πολυγηθέα, 942 ἀθάνατον θνητή· νῦν δʼ ἀμφότεροι θεοί εἰσιν. 943 Ἀλκμήνη δʼ ἄρʼ ἔτικτε βίην Ἡρακληείην 944 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι Διὸς νεφεληγερέταο. ' None
105 of kings comes from Lord Zeus. Happy are those'106 Loved by the Muses, for sweet speaking flow 107 Out of their mouths. One in a sudden plight
121 The streams, the swelling sea and up on high 122 The gleaming stars, broad Heaven in the sky,
413 Serving alike the earth and mighty seas, 414 And all of them renowned divinities. 415 They have as many brothers, thundering 416 As on they flow, begotten by the king 417 of seas on Tethys. Though it’s hard to tell 418 Their names, yet they are known from where they dwell. 419 Hyperion lay with Theia, and she thu 420 Bore clear Selene and great Heliu 421 And Eos shining on all things on earth 422 And on the gods who dwell in the wide berth 423 of heaven. Eurybia bore great Astraeu 424 And Pallas, having mingled with Crius; 425 The bright goddess to Perses, too, gave birth, 426 Who was the wisest man on all the earth; 427 Eos bore the strong winds to Astraeus, 428 And Boreas, too, and brightening Zephyru 429 And Notus, born of two divinities. 430 The star Eosphorus came after these, 431 Birthed by Eugeneia, ‘Early-Born’, 432 Who came to be the harbinger of Dawn, 433 And heaven’s gleaming stars far up above. 434 And Ocean’s daughter Styx was joined in love 435 To Pelias – thus trim-ankled Victory 436 And Zeal first saw the light of day; and she 437 Bore Strength and Force, both glorious children: they 438 Dwell in the house of Zeus; they’ve no pathway 439 Or dwelling that’s without a god as guide, 440 And ever they continue to reside 441 With Zeus the Thunderer; thus Styx had planned 442 That day when Lightning Zeus sent a command 443 That all the gods to broad Olympus go 444 And said that, if they helped him overthrow 445 The Titans, then he vowed not to bereave 446 Them of their rights but they would still receive 447 The rights they’d had before, and, he explained, 448 To those who under Cronus had maintained 449 No rights or office he would then entrust 450 Those very privileges, as is just. 451 So deathless Styx, with all her progeny, 452 Was first to go, through the sagacity 453 of her fear father, and Zeus gave her fame 454 With splendid gifts, and through him she became 455 The great oath of the gods, her progeny
482 And on the earth and in the heavens, she 483 Still holds. And since Hecate does not posse
886 Gave him in marriage to his progeny 887 Cymopolea. When Zeus, in the war, 888 Drove the Titans out of Heaven, huge Earth bore 889 Her youngest child Typhoeus with the aid 890 of golden Aphrodite, who had bade 891 Her lie with Tartarus. In everything 892 He did the lad was strong, untiring 893 When running, and upon his shoulders spread 894 A hundred-headed dragon, full of dread, 895 Its dark tongues flickering, and from below 896 His eyes a flashing flame was seen to glow; 897 And from each head shot fire as he glared 898 And from each head unspeakable voices blared: 899 Sometimes a god could understand the sound 900 They made, but sometimes, echoing around, 901 A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 902 Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile 903 At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear – 904 The sound of whelps was heard, sometimes the ear 905 Would catch a hissing sound, which then would change 906 To echoing along the mountain range. 907 Something beyond all help would have that day 908 Occurred and over men and gods hold sway 909 Had Zeus not quickly seen it: mightily 910 And hard he thundered so that terribly 911 The earth resounded, as did Tartarus, 912 Wide Heaven and the streams of Oceanus, 913 And at his feet the mighty Heaven reeled 914 As he arose. The earth groaned, thunder pealed 915 And lightning flashed, and to the dark-blue sea, 916 From them and from the fiery prodigy, 917 The scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt, 918 Came heat, the whole earth seething in revolt 919 With both the sky and sea, while round the strand 920 Long waves rage at the onslaught of the band 921 of gods. An endless shaking, too, arose, 922 And Hades, who has sovereignty over those 923 Who are deceased, shook, and the Titan horde 924 Beneath that Hell, residing with the lord 925 Cronus, shook too at the disharmony 926 And dreadful clamour. When his weaponry, 927 Thunder and lightning, Zeus had seized, his might 928 Well-shored, from high Olympus he took flight, 929 Lashed out at him and burned that prodigy,
940 The hardest of all things, which men subdue 941 With fire in mountain-glens and with the glow 942 Causes the sacred earth to melt: just so 943 The earth now fused, and to wide Tartaru 944 In bitter anger Zeus cast Typhoeus, ' None
|3. Homer, Iliad, 1.200, 5.338, 5.371, 6.132, 6.136, 6.303, 6.311, 12.21, 14.219, 14.313-14.328, 15.187-15.193 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres (Demeter) • Ceres/Demeter • Demeter • Demeter, and Iasion • Demeter, see also Ceres • Homeric Hymns, Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 60; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 125, 126, 267, 278; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 153; Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 20; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 10; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 128; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 142; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 53; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 78; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 34, 140; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 240; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 62; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 20, 246; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 169; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 42; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 123
1.200 Παλλάδʼ Ἀθηναίην· δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν·
5.338 ἀμβροσίου διὰ πέπλου, ὅν οἱ Χάριτες κάμον αὐταί,
5.371 μητρὸς ἑῆς· ἣ δʼ ἀγκὰς ἐλάζετο θυγατέρα ἥν,
6.132 ὅς ποτε μαινομένοιο Διωνύσοιο τιθήνας
6.136 δύσεθʼ ἁλὸς κατὰ κῦμα, Θέτις δʼ ὑπεδέξατο κόλπῳ
6.303 θῆκεν Ἀθηναίης ἐπὶ γούνασιν ἠϋκόμοιο,
6.311 ὣς ἔφατʼ εὐχομένη, ἀνένευε δὲ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη.
12.21 Γρήνικός τε καὶ Αἴσηπος δῖός τε Σκάμανδρος
14.219 τῆ νῦν τοῦτον ἱμάντα τεῷ ἐγκάτθεο κόλπῳ
14.313 Ἥρη κεῖσε μὲν ἔστι καὶ ὕστερον ὁρμηθῆναι, 14.314 νῶϊ δʼ ἄγʼ ἐν φιλότητι τραπείομεν εὐνηθέντε. 14.315 οὐ γάρ πώ ποτέ μʼ ὧδε θεᾶς ἔρος οὐδὲ γυναικὸς 14.316 θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσι περιπροχυθεὶς ἐδάμασσεν, 14.317 οὐδʼ ὁπότʼ ἠρασάμην Ἰξιονίης ἀλόχοιο, 14.318 ἣ τέκε Πειρίθοον θεόφιν μήστωρʼ ἀτάλαντον· 14.319 οὐδʼ ὅτε περ Δανάης καλλισφύρου Ἀκρισιώνης, 14.320 ἣ τέκε Περσῆα πάντων ἀριδείκετον ἀνδρῶν· 14.321 οὐδʼ ὅτε Φοίνικος κούρης τηλεκλειτοῖο, 14.322 ἣ τέκε μοι Μίνων τε καὶ ἀντίθεον Ῥαδάμανθυν· 14.323 οὐδʼ ὅτε περ Σεμέλης οὐδʼ Ἀλκμήνης ἐνὶ Θήβῃ, 14.324 ἥ ῥʼ Ἡρακλῆα κρατερόφρονα γείνατο παῖδα· 14.325 ἣ δὲ Διώνυσον Σεμέλη τέκε χάρμα βροτοῖσιν· 14.326 οὐδʼ ὅτε Δήμητρος καλλιπλοκάμοιο ἀνάσσης, 14.327 οὐδʼ ὁπότε Λητοῦς ἐρικυδέος, οὐδὲ σεῦ αὐτῆς, 14.328 ὡς σέο νῦν ἔραμαι καί με γλυκὺς ἵμερος αἱρεῖ.
15.187 τρεῖς γάρ τʼ ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοὶ οὓς τέκετο Ῥέα 15.188 Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δʼ Ἀΐδης ἐνέροισιν ἀνάσσων. 15.189 τριχθὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται, ἕκαστος δʼ ἔμμορε τιμῆς· 15.190 ἤτοι ἐγὼν ἔλαχον πολιὴν ἅλα ναιέμεν αἰεὶ 15.191 παλλομένων, Ἀΐδης δʼ ἔλαχε ζόφον ἠερόεντα, 15.192 Ζεὺς δʼ ἔλαχʼ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἐν αἰθέρι καὶ νεφέλῃσι· 15.193 γαῖα δʼ ἔτι ξυνὴ πάντων καὶ μακρὸς Ὄλυμπος.'' None
1.200 Then he addressed her with winged words, and said:Why now, daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus, have you come? Is it so that you might see the arrogance of Agamemnon, son of Atreus? One thing I will tell you, and I think this will be brought to pass: through his own excessive pride shall he presently lose his life.
5.338 then the son of great-souled Tydeus thrust with his sharp spear and leapt upon her, and wounded the surface of her delicate hand, and forthwith through the ambrosial raiment that the Graces themselves had wrought for her the spear pierced the flesh upon the wrist above the palm and forth flowed the immortal blood of the goddess,
5.371 but fair Aphrodite flung herself upon the knees of her mother Dione. She clasped her daughter in her arms, and stroked her with her hand and spake to her, saying:Who now of the sons of heaven, dear child, hath entreated thee thus wantonly, as though thou wert working some evil before the face of all?
6.132 Nay, for even the son of Dryas, mighty Lycurgus, lived not long, seeing that he strove with heavenly gods—he that on a time drave down over the sacred mount of Nysa the nursing mothers of mad Dionysus; and they all let fall to the ground their wands, smitten with an ox-goad by man-slaying Lycurgus. ' "
6.136 But Dionysus fled, and plunged beneath the wave of the sea, and Thetis received him in her bosom, filled with dread, for mighty terror gat hold of him at the man's threatenings. Then against Lycurgus did the gods that live at ease wax wroth, and the son of Cronos made him blind; " 6.303 for her had the Trojans made priestess of Athene. Then with sacred cries they all lifted up their hands to Athene; and fair-cheeked Theano took the robe and laid it upon the knees of fair-haired Athene, and with vows made prayer to the daughter of great Zeus: ' "
6.311 on Troy and the Trojans' wives and their little children. So spake she praying, but Pallas Athene denied the prayer.Thus were these praying to the daughter of great Zeus, but Hector went his way to the palace of Alexander, the fair palace that himself had builded with the men " "
12.21 Rhesus and Heptaporus and Caresus and Rhodius, and Granicus and Aesepus, and goodly Scamander, and Simois, by the banks whereof many shields of bull's-hide and many helms fell in the dust, and the race of men half-divine—of all these did Phoebus Apollo turn the mouths together, " 14.219 curiously-wrought, wherein are fashioned all manner of allurements; therein is love, therein desire, therein dalliance—beguilement that steals the wits even of the wise. This she laid in her hands, and spake, and addressed her:Take now and lay in thy bosom this zone,
14.313 lest haply thou mightest wax wroth with me hereafter, if without a word I depart to the house of deep-flowing Oceanus. 14.314 lest haply thou mightest wax wroth with me hereafter, if without a word I depart to the house of deep-flowing Oceanus. Then in answer spake to her Zeus, the cloud-gatherer.Hera, thither mayest thou go even hereafter. But for us twain, come, let us take our joy couched together in love; 14.315 for never yet did desire for goddess or mortal woman so shed itself about me and overmaster the heart within my breast—nay, not when I was seized with love of the wife of Ixion, who bare Peirithous, the peer of the gods in counsel; nor of Danaë of the fair ankles, daughter of Acrisius, 14.320 who bare Perseus, pre-eminent above all warriors; nor of the daughter of far-famed Phoenix, that bare me Minos and godlike Rhadamanthys; nor of Semele, nor of Alcmene in Thebes, and she brought forth Heracles, her son stout of heart, 14.325 and Semele bare Dionysus, the joy of mortals; nor of Demeter, the fair-tressed queen; nor of glorious Leto; nay, nor yet of thine own self, as now I love thee, and sweet desire layeth hold of me. Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him:
15.187 Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.190 I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet 15.193 I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet '' None
|4. Homeric Hymns, To Aphrodite, 21-52, 92-105, 107-121, 126-142, 192-290 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Hestia and • Demeter, Persephone/Kore and • Demeter, and Artemis • Demeter, and Dionysus • Demeter, and Iasion • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Hestia, Demeter and • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • Persephone/Kore, Demeter and
Found in books: Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 22, 27; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 55, 56, 57, 64; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 34, 108, 109, 140, 167, 339; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 123, 259
21 For Aphrodite’s works (first progeny 22 of wily Cronus, and the last, was she 23 By aegis-bearing Zeus’s will) - a queen 24 of whom Poseidon and Phoebus had been 25 Wooers, whom she rejected stubbornly. 26 She swore a great oath, which would come to be 27 Fulfilled, by touching Father Zeus’s head. 28 She’d be a virgin evermore, she said. 29 For this she was given a great reward 30 And lodged inside the house of Zeus, the lord 31 of all and got the greatest share, and she 32 Is praised in all the shrines, the primary 38 Is mightiest of all. Easily she 39 Seduces his wise heart and, at a whim, 45 Child whom with Rhea sly Cronus created. 46 With the chaste, modest goddess Zeus then mated, 47 The ever-wise one. Zeus, though, this godde 48 For a mortal man imbued with amorousness. 49 And she lay with him so that even she 50 Might soon know mortal love nor laughingly 51 Say gods to mortal women she had paired, 52 Creating mortal men, while men had shared,
92 Be on you whether you are Artemi 93 Or golden Aphrodite or, maybe, 94 Noble Themis or bright-eyed Athene 95 Or Leto? Does a Grace, p’raps, come to me? 96 (They’re called immortal, seen in company 97 With gods). Or else a Nymph, who’s seen around 98 The pleasant woods, or one, perhaps, who’s found 99 Upon this lovely mountain way up high 100 Or in streams’ springs or grassy meadows? I' 101 Will build a shrine to you, seen far away 102 Upon a peak, and on it I will lay 103 In every season some rich offering. 104 Be gracious, granting that all men may sing 105 of my prestige in Troy, my progeny
107 May I live long in wealth.” Then in reply 108 The child of Zeus addressed him and said: “I 109 Am no goddess, Anchises, most sublime 110 of earth-born ones. Why do you think that I’m 111 Immortal? No, a mortal gave me birth. 112 My father’s Otreus, very well known on earth, 113 If you have heard of him. He holds command 114 In well-walled Phrygia. I understand 115 Your language well. At home have I been bred 116 By a Trojan nurse who, in my mother’s stead, 117 Nurtured me from a child, and that is why 118 I know your tongue as well. However, I 119 Was seized by Hermes, who took me away 120 From Artemis’s dance. A great array 1
21 of marriageable maids were we as we
126 Where beasts of prey roamed the dark vales. I guessed 127 I’d never touch the earth again. He said 128 I’d be the wedded partner of your bed 129 And birth great brood. Back to the gods he flew, 130 And here I am! I have great need of you. 131 So by your noble parents (for no-one 132 of wretched stock could create such a son) 133 And Zeus, I beg, take me to wife, who know 134 Nothing of love, a maiden pure, and show 135 Me to your parents and your brothers, who 136 Shall like me well. Then send a herald to 137 The swift-horsed Phrygians that immediately 138 My sorrowing folks shall know of this. You’ll see 139 From them much gold and woven stuff and more. 140 Take these as bride-price, then make ready for 141 A lovely wedding that for gods and men 142 Shall be immortalized. The goddess then 1
92 The gods love you. A son who shall be dear 193 To you shall over Troy hold sovereignty, 194 As shall his offspring in posterity. 195 His name shall be Aeneas, for the pain 196 of grief I felt inside because I’d lain 197 With a mortal. Yet the people of your race 198 Are the most godlike, being fair of face 199 And tall. Zeus seized golden-haired Ganymede 200 Thanks to his beauty, that he might indeed 201 Pour wine for all the gods and always be 202 Among them all – remarkable to see. 203 Honoured by all, he from the golden bowl 204 Drew the red nectar. Grief, though, filled the soul 205 of Tros, not knowing if a heaven-sent blow 206 Had snatched away his darling son, and so 207 He mourned day after day unceasingly. 208 In pity, Zeus gave him indemnity- 209 High-stepping horses such as carry men.
210 Hermes, the Argos-slaying leader, then,
211 At Zeus’s bidding, told him all – his son
212 Would live forever agelessly, atone
213 With all the gods. So, when he heard of thi
214 No longer did he mourn but, filled with bliss,
215 On his storm-footed horses joyfully
216 He rode away. Tithonus similarly
217 Was seized by golden-throned Eos – he, too,
218 Was of your race and godlike, just like you.
219 She begged dark-clouded Zeus to give consent 220 That he’d be deathless, too. Zeus granted this. 2
21 But thoughtless queenly Eos was amiss, 222 Not craving youth so that senility 223 Would never burden him and so, though he 224 Lived happily with Eos far away 225 On Ocean’s streams, at the first signs of grey 226 Upon his lovely head and noble chin, 227 She spurned his bed but cherished him within 228 Her house and gave him lovely clothes to wear, 229 Food and ambrosia. But when everywhere 230 He could not move, her best resolve for him 230 Old age oppressed him and his every limb 231 Was this – to place him in a room and close 232 The shining doors. An endless babbling rose 233 Out of his mouth; he had no strength at all 234 As once he had. I’d not have this befall 235 Yourself. But if you looked as now you do 236 Forevermore and everyone called you 237 My husband, I’d not grieve. But pitile 238 Old age will soon enshroud you – such distre 239 Will burden every mortal – wearying 240 And deadly, even by the gods a thing 241 of fear. You’ve caused great endless infamy 242 For me among the gods who formerly 243 Feared all my jibes and wiles with which I mated 244 The gods with mortal maids and subjugated 245 Them all. However, no more shall my word 246 Have force among the gods, since I’ve incurred 247 Much madness on myself, dire, full of dread. 248 My mind has gone astray! I’ve shared a bed 249 With a mortal! Underneath my girdle lie 250 A child! As soon as he has cast his eye 251 Upon the sun, the mountain Nymphs whose breast 252 Are deep, who dwell on those great sacred crests, 253 Shall rear him. They’re not of mortality 254 Nor immortality; extendedly 255 They live, eat heavenly food and lightly tread 256 The dance among the deathless ones and bed 257 With Hermes and Sileni, hid away 258 In pleasant caves, and on the very day 259 That they are born, up from the fruitful earth 260 Pines and high oaks also display their birth, 261 Trees so luxuriant, so very fair, 262 Called the gods’ sancta, high up in the air. 263 No mortal chops them down. When the Fates mark 264 Them out for death, they wither there, their bark 265 Shrivelling too, their twigs fall down. As one, 266 Both Nymph and tree leave the light of the sun. 267 They’ll rear my son. And at his puberty 268 The goddesses will show you him. Let me 269 Tell you what I propose – when he is near 270 His fifth year on this earth, I’ll bring him here 271 That you may gaze upon him and enjoy 272 The sight, for he will be a godlike boy. 273 Bring him to windy Ilium. If you 274 Are queried by some mortal as to who 275 Gave birth to him, then say, as I propose, 276 It was a flower-like Nymph, one Nymph of those 277 Who dwell upon that forest-covered crag. 278 Should you tell all, though, and foolishly brag 279 That you have lain with rich-crowned Aphrodite, 280 Then with a smoky bolt will Zeus Almighty 281 Strike you. That’s all. Take heed. Do not name me. 282 Respect the anger of the gods.” Then she 283 Soared up to windy heaven. Queen, farewell. 284 Your tale is told. I have one more to tell. ' None
|5. Homeric Hymns, To Demeter, 47, 74, 189-190, 192-205, 211, 225, 231-300, 441-470, 473-481 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Boeotia, Demeter and • Demeter • Demeter Cabiria • Demeter Chthonia • Demeter Eleusinia • Demeter Malophoros • Demeter Thesmophoros • Demeter, • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Eleusinian Mysteries and • Demeter, Hermes and • Demeter, Persephone/Kore and • Demeter, Thesmophoria and • Demeter, Triptolemus and • Demeter, Zeus and • Demeter, and Artemis • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Demeter, anger of • Demeter, as Olympian • Demeter, as grain/ agricultural goddess • Demeter, dead, association with • Demeter, images and iconography • Demeter, oaths sworn by • Demeter, origins and development • Demeter, sanctuaries and temples • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Egypt/Egyptians, Demeter/Eleusis and • Hermes, Demeter/Persephone and • Homeric Hymn to Demeter • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Hymn to Demeter • Isocrates, origins of mysteries of Demeter • Metaneira (Homeric Hymn to Demeter) • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Demeter and • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • Mycenae, Demeter, Kore, and Plutus (?) ivory group from • Nilsson, Martin, on Demeter • Orchomenos, Demeter and • Parthenon, east pediment, Demeter and Kore • Pausanias, on Demeter Eleusinia • Persephone/Kore, Demeter and • Pyrasos, sanctuary of Demeter at • Selinus, sanctuary of Demeter Malophoros • Thrace, Demeter and • Zeus, Demeter and • gennêtai, in mysteries of Demeter • mysteries, Demeter at Eleusis • sacrifice/sacrificial rituals, for Demeter • sanctuaries and temples, of Demeter • the dead, Demeter associated with • vegetation deities, Demeter as
Found in books: Alexiou and Cairns (2017), Greek Laughter and Tears: Antiquity and After. 32; Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 7; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 131, 346, 566; Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 153, 553; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 195; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 263; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 242, 252; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 67; Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 23; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 55, 57, 59, 64, 127; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 32, 56, 109, 256; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 63; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 110, 114, 118, 119, 120; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 196, 202, 204; Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 268, 270, 271
47 Live endlessly – this calmed her mighty soul.
74 Before his horses, telling him: “You should,
189 In our fine house, she has a late-born son,' 190 Much prayed for and embraced – her only one.
192 That you’re the envy of all womankind. 193 Such gifts shall you receive!” That’s what she said, 194 And at her words the goddess bowed her head. 195 They filled their shining buckets and withdrew, 196 Rejoicing. In a short time they came to 197 Their father’s house and told their mother all 198 That they had seen and heard. She bade them call 199 The stranger swiftly so that they might pay 200 Her boundless wages. Then they went away, 201 Like deer or calves with a sufficiency 202 of pasture, who then bound across the lea. 203 Those maidens down the hollow pathway sped, 204 Holding their lovely garments’ folds ahead 205 of them. Just like a crocus flower, their hair
211 Around her slender feet her dark-blue dre 235 Then careful Iambe moved the holy queen 236 With many a jest, smiling and laughing, keen 237 To lift her heart – as she would cheer her up 238 Thereafter. Metaneira filled a cup 239 of sweet wine for her, but she put it off. 240 It was not right, she said, for her to quaff 241 Red wine. Water and meal was her request, 242 Mixed with soft mint. She fulfilled her behest. 248 And grace shine in your eyes, which you may see 249 In justice-dealing kings. What the gods send 256 From wreathed Demeter: “Greetings, too, say I, 257 God bless you. I will take him willingly 259 The Cutter or witchcraft bring him distre 260 By reason of his nurse’s heedlessness - 261 The Woodcutter’s not stronger than a spell 262 I have and there’s a safeguard I know well 263 Against foul witchcraft.” Then she took the boy 268 Right there. He grew like an immortal, for 269 He neither ate nor suckled at the teat. 270 Each day rich-wreathed Demeter breathed so sweet 271 Upon him at her breast and smeared his skin 272 With ambrosia as though he were the kin 273 of gods. She hid him in the fire, though, 2
74 Each night (his loving parents did not know) 275 Just like a brand. They were amazed that he 276 Grew past his age – godlike he seemed to be. 277 Deathless and ageless she’d have made the lad 278 If the well-girdled Metaneira had 279 Not in her fragrant chamber watched by night 280 In heedlessness. Lamenting in her fright, 281 She smote her hips, afraid for him, and these 292 Awaiting you, both good and bad. For what 293 Is done’s past cure. Be witness the gods’ plight, 297 But now death and a mortal’s destiny 298 He can’t avoid, yet he will always be 445 While holding her, Demeter suddenly 446 Fancied some trick and trembled violently, 452 You’ll come and dwell and will respected be 453 By all the gods. But if you ate, back there 454 Below the earth you’ll hold a one-third’s share 455 of every year, the other two with me 456 And all the other gods. But when we see 457 Earth blooming with the fragrant flowers of spring, 458 Up from that gloom you’ll rise, a wondrous thing 459 To gods and men. What trick did Hades play 460 Upon you when he spirited you away?” 461 Then fair Persephone replied to her: 462 “Mother, I’ll tell you all. The messenger, 463 Aid-giving, swift Hermes was sent to me 464 By Zeus, my sire, and each divinity 465 To bring me back to earth from Erebu 466 That you might feast your eyes on me and thu 467 Cease your dread wrath against the gods. Why, I 468 At once leapt up in joy. But by and by 469 He placed inside my mouth clandestinely
473 Through Zeus’s clever plan. In a fair lea
74 We were cavorting – there was Leucippe,
475 Phaino, Electra, Ianthe, Melite,
476 Rhodeia, Iache, Calirrhoë,
477 Melobosis, Tyche and Acaste,
478 Chryseis, Ianeira, Admete. 480 Also there were gathering blooms with me 481 Rhodope, Plouto, Calypso the Fair, ' None
|6. Homeric Hymns, To Hermes, 4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 22; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 84
4 The herald of the gods and progeny'' None
|7. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Boeotia, Demeter and • Demeter • Demeter Malophoros • Demeter, • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Eleusinian Mysteries and • Demeter, Homer shaping • Demeter, Persephone/Kore and • Demeter, Triptolemus and • Demeter, Zeus and • Demeter, and Iasion • Demeter, as Olympian • Demeter, as grain/ agricultural goddess • Demeter, dead, association with • Demeter, images and iconography • Demeter, oaths sworn by • Demeter, origins and development • Demeter, sanctuaries and temples • Homer, on Demeter • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Mycenae, Demeter, Kore, and Plutus (?) ivory group from • Odysseus, Demeter and • Parthenon, east frieze, Demeter on • Persephone/Kore, Demeter and • Selinus, sanctuary of Demeter Malophoros • Zeus, Demeter and • sacrifice/sacrificial rituals, for Demeter • sanctuaries and temples, of Demeter • the dead, Demeter associated with • vegetation deities, Demeter as
Found in books: Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 545; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 220; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 89; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 138, 140; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 57, 68, 102; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 99, 110; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 204; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 43; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 123
|8. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 346; Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28; Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 23; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 64; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 190, 191; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 84; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 215
|9. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 346; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 52, 56
|10. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 346; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 3; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 64
|11. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Homeric Hymn to Demeter • Hymn to, Demeter
Found in books: Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 52; Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 86
|12. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, oaths sworn by
Found in books: Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 48; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 204
|13. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 40, 42; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 334
|14. Euripides, Bacchae, 78-82, 135-140, 156, 233, 272, 274-285, 296 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres, see also Demeter • Demeter • Demeter, Mysteries of • Demeter, and Dionysus • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Demeter, rites of • Demeter/Deo • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Homeric Hymn to Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 85, 86; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 360; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 49; Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 26; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 13, 16; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 56, 61, 82, 91, 108, 145; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 64; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 205, 336
78 τά τε ματρὸς μεγάλας ὄργια 79 Κυβέλας θεμιτεύων, 80 ἀνὰ θύρσον τε τινάσσων, 81 κισσῷ τε στεφανωθεὶς 82 Διόνυσον θεραπεύει.
135 ἡδὺς ἐν ὄρεσιν, ὅταν ἐκ θιάσων δρομαίων 138 ἔχων ἱερὸν ἐνδυτόν, ἀγρεύων 139 αἷμα τραγοκτόνον, ὠμοφάγον χάριν, ἱέμενος 140 ἐς ὄρεα Φρύγια, Λύδιʼ, ὁ δʼ ἔξαρχος Βρόμιος,
274 καθʼ Ἑλλάδʼ ἔσται. δύο γάρ, ὦ νεανία, 275 τὰ πρῶτʼ ἐν ἀνθρώποισι· Δημήτηρ θεά— 276 γῆ δʼ ἐστίν, ὄνομα δʼ ὁπότερον βούλῃ κάλει· 277 αὕτη μὲν ἐν ξηροῖσιν ἐκτρέφει βροτούς· 2
78 ὃς δʼ ἦλθʼ ἔπειτʼ, ἀντίπαλον ὁ Σεμέλης γόνος 279 βότρυος ὑγρὸν πῶμʼ ηὗρε κεἰσηνέγκατο 280 θνητοῖς, ὃ παύει τοὺς ταλαιπώρους βροτοὺς 281 λύπης, ὅταν πλησθῶσιν ἀμπέλου ῥοῆς, 282 ὕπνον τε λήθην τῶν καθʼ ἡμέραν κακῶν 283 δίδωσιν, οὐδʼ ἔστʼ ἄλλο φάρμακον πόνων. 284 οὗτος θεοῖσι σπένδεται θεὸς γεγώς, 285 ὥστε διὰ τοῦτον τἀγάθʼ ἀνθρώπους ἔχειν.
296 ὄνομα μεταστήσαντες, ὅτι θεᾷ θεὸς ' None
78 has his soul initiated into the Bacchic revels, dancing in inspired frenzy over the mountains with holy purifications, and who, revering the mysteries of great mother Kybele, 80 brandishing the thyrsos, garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus.Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, escorting the god Bromius, child of a god,
135 He is sweet in the mountains cf. Dodds, ad loc. , whenever after the running dance he falls on the ground, wearing the sacred garment of fawn skin, hunting the blood of the slain goat, a raw-eaten delight, rushing to the'136 He is sweet in the mountains cf. Dodds, ad loc. , whenever after the running dance he falls on the ground, wearing the sacred garment of fawn skin, hunting the blood of the slain goat, a raw-eaten delight, rushing to the 140 Phrygian, the Lydian mountains, and the leader of the dance is Bromius, evoe! A ritual cry of delight. The plain flows with milk, it flows with wine, it flows with the nectar of bees.
156 ing of Dionysus, beneath the heavy beat of drums, celebrating in delight the god of delight with Phrygian shouts and cries,
233 Autonoe, the mother of Actaeon. And having bound them in iron fetters, I will soon stop them from this ill-working revelry. And they say that some stranger has come, a sorcerer, a conjuror from the Lydian land,
272 A man powerful in his boldness, one capable of speaking well, becomes a bad citizen in his lack of sense. This new god, whom you ridicule, I am unable to express how great he will be throughout Hellas . For two things, young man, 275 are first among men: the goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it 280 to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief, whenever they are filled with the stream of the vine, and gives them sleep, a means of forgetting their daily troubles, nor is there another cure for hardships. He who is a god is poured out in offerings to the gods, 285 o that by his means men may have good things. And do you laugh at him, because he was sewn up in Zeus’ thigh? I will teach you that this is well: when Zeus snatched him out of the lighting-flame, and led the child as a god to Olympus ,
296 mortals say that he was nourished in the thigh of Zeus, changing the word, because a god he had served as a hostage for the goddess Hera, and composing the story. The account given in lines 292f. of the development of this legend is based on the similarity between the Greek words for hostage ( ὅμηρος ) and thigh ( μηρός ). But this god is a prophet—for Bacchic revelry and madness have in them much prophetic skill. ' None
|15. Euripides, Phoenician Women, 683-687 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Boeotia, Demeter and • Demeter • Demeter Eleusinia • Demeter Thesmophoros • Demeter, Eleusinian Mysteries and • Demeter, Thesmophoria and • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Demeter, anger of • Demeter, as grain/ agricultural goddess • Demeter, origins and development • Demeter, sanctuaries and temples • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Egypt/Egyptians, Demeter/Eleusis and • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • Orchomenos, Demeter and • Pyrasos, sanctuary of Demeter at • Thrace, Demeter and • sanctuaries and temples, of Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 431; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 56; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 102, 103
683 καὶ διώνυμοι θεαί,' 684 Περσέφασσα καὶ φίλα 685 Δαμάτηρ θεά, 686 πάντων ἄνασσα, πάντων δὲ Γᾶ τροφός, ' None
683 oh! in foreign prayers: come, come to this land; your descendants settled here; and the goddesses of twofold name, Persephone and the kindly' 684 oh! in foreign prayers: come, come to this land; your descendants settled here; and the goddesses of twofold name, Persephone and the kindly 685 goddess Demeter the queen of all, Earth the nurse of all, won it for themselves; send to the help of this land those torch-bearing goddesses; for to gods all things are easy. Eteocles to an attendant ' None
|16. Herodotus, Histories, 1.105, 1.165, 2.42, 2.44, 2.48, 2.53-2.54, 2.59, 2.63, 2.82, 2.171, 4.186, 4.188-4.189, 4.198, 4.203, 5.59-5.61, 5.67, 5.72, 5.82-5.88, 5.105, 6.91, 6.98, 6.105, 6.133-6.136, 7.133-7.137, 8.13, 8.37-8.39, 8.55, 8.65, 8.122, 9.62, 9.65, 9.100-9.101 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres (also Demeter) • Ceres/Demeter • Demeter • Demeter (goddess) • Demeter Chamyne • Demeter Chthonia • Demeter Eleusinia • Demeter Thlepusa • Demeter, Achaea of Athens • Demeter, Achaia • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Eleusinia of Athens • Demeter, Eleusinia of Mycale • Demeter, Eleusinia of Plataea • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Eleusinian Mysteries and • Demeter, Homer shaping • Demeter, Mysteries of • Demeter, Persephone/Kore and • Demeter, Thesmophoria and • Demeter, Thesmophoros • Demeter, Thesmophoros of Paros • Demeter, Zeus and • Demeter, and Artemis • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Demeter, as Olympian • Demeter, images and iconography • Demeter, in Sicily • Demeter, of Aegina • Demeter, of Phlya in Athens • Demeter, origins and development • Demeter, sanctuaries and temples • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Egypt/Egyptians, Demeter/Eleusis and • Homer, on Demeter • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Leotykhidas, Lerna, Demeter and Dionysos at • Magna Graecia (southern Italy) and Sicily, Demeter in Sicily • Magna Graecia (southern Italy) and Sicily, Demeter/Kore in • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Demeter and • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • Mycenae, Demeter, Kore, and Plutus (?) ivory group from • Nilsson, Martin, on Demeter • Olympia, sanctuary of Demeter Chamyne • Parthenon, east frieze, Demeter on • Pausanias, on Demeter Eleusinia • Persephone/Kore, Demeter and • Zeus, Demeter and • dedications, to Demeter and Kore • mysteries, Demeter at Eleusis • piglets, Demeter, Persephone, and Thesmophoria • sacrifice/sacrificial rituals, for Demeter • sanctuaries and temples, of Demeter • vegetation deities, Demeter as
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 120, 138; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 346, 426; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 264; Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 142; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 372; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 220; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 69; Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 153; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 76; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 1142; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 150, 170; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 140, 168; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 176; Mikalson (2003), Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars, 36, 37, 43, 52, 74, 75, 76, 95, 96, 107, 125, 126, 133, 134, 137, 138, 178, 181, 182, 183, 192, 193, 234; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 261; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 33, 57, 91, 247, 255, 268, 269, 270, 271, 277, 298, 313; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 138, 162, 334; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 42; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 96, 97, 98, 101; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 362; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 51
1.105 ἐνθεῦτεν δὲ ἤισαν ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον. καὶ ἐπείτε ἐγένοντο ἐν τῇ Παλαιστίνῃ Συρίῃ, Ψαμμήτιχος σφέας Αἰγύπτου βασιλεὺς ἀντιάσας δώροισί τε καὶ λιτῇσι ἀποτράπει τὸ προσωτέρω μὴ πορεύεσθαι. οἳ δὲ ἐπείτε ἀναχωρέοντες ὀπίσω ἐγένοντο τῆς Συρίης ἐν Ἀσκάλωνι πόλι, τῶν πλεόνων Σκυθέων παρεξελθόντων ἀσινέων, ὀλίγοι τινὲς αὐτῶν ὑπολειφθέντες ἐσύλησαν τῆς οὐρανίης Ἀφροδίτης τὸ ἱρόν. ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο τὸ ἱρόν, ὡς ἐγὼ πυνθανόμενος εὑρίσκω, πάντων ἀρχαιότατον ἱρῶν ὅσα ταύτης τῆς θεοῦ· καὶ γὰρ τὸ ἐν Κύπρῳ ἱρὸν ἐνθεῦτεν ἐγένετο, ὡς αὐτοὶ Κύπριοι λέγουσι, καὶ τὸ ἐν Κυθήροισι Φοίνικές εἰσὶ οἱ ἱδρυσάμενοι ἐκ ταύτης τῆς Συρίης ἐόντες. τοῖσι δὲ τῶν Σκυθέων συλήσασι τὸ ἱρὸν τὸ ἐν Ἀσκάλωνι καὶ τοῖσι τούτων αἰεὶ ἐκγόνοισι ἐνέσκηψε ὁ θεὸς θήλεαν νοῦσον· ὥστε ἅμα λέγουσί τε οἱ Σκύθαι διὰ τοῦτο σφέας νοσέειν, καὶ ὁρᾶν παρʼ ἑωυτοῖσι τοὺς ἀπικνεομένους ἐς τὴν Σκυθικὴν χώρην ὡς διακέαται τοὺς καλέουσι Ἐνάρεας οἱ Σκύθαι.
1.165 οἱ δὲ Φωκαιέες, ἐπείτε σφι Χῖοι τὰς νήσους τὰς Οἰνούσσας καλεομένας οὐκ ἐβούλοντο ὠνευμένοισι πωλέειν, δειμαίνοντες μὴ αἳ μὲν ἐμπόριον γένωνται, ἡ δὲ αὐτῶν νῆσος ἀποκληισθῇ τούτου εἵνεκα, πρὸς ταῦτα οἱ Φωκαίες ἐστέλλοντο ἐς Κύρνον· ἐν γὰρ τῇ Κύρνῳ εἴκοσι ἔτεσι πρότερον τούτων ἐκ θεοπροπίου ἀνεστήσαντο πόλιν, τῇ οὔνομα ἦν Ἀλαλίη. Ἀργανθώνιος δὲ τηνικαῦτα ἤδη τετελευτήκεε. στελλόμενοι δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν Κύρνον, πρῶτα καταπλεύσαντες ἐς τὴν Φωκαίην κατεφόνευσαν τῶν Περσέων τὴν φυλακήν, ἣ ἐφρούρεε παραδεξαμένη παρὰ Ἁρπάγου τὴν πόλιν. μετὰ δέ, ὡς τοῦτο σφι ἐξέργαστο, ἐποιήσαντο ἰσχυρὰς κατάρας τῷ ὑπολειπομένῳ ἑωυτῶν τοῦ στόλου, πρὸς δὲ ταύτῃσι καὶ μύδρον σιδήρεον κατεπόντωσαν καὶ ὤμοσαν μὴ πρὶν ἐς Φωκαίην ἥξειν πρὶν ἢ τὸν μύδρον τοῦτον ἀναφανῆναι. στελλομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὴν Κύρνον, ὑπερημίσεας τῶν ἀστῶν ἔλαβε πόθος τε καὶ οἶκτος τῆς πόλιος καὶ τῶν ἠθέων τῆς χώρης, ψευδόρκιοι δὲ γενόμενοι ἀπέπλεον ὀπίσω ἐς τὴν Φωκαίην. οἳ δὲ αὐτῶν τὸ ὅρκιον ἐφύλασσον, ἀερθέντες ἐκ τῶν Οἰνουσσέων ἔπλεον.
2.42 ὅσοι μὲν δὴ Διὸς Θηβαιέος ἵδρυνται ἱρὸν ἤ νομοῦ τοῦ Θηβαίου εἰσί, οὗτοι μέν νυν πάντες ὀίων ἀπεχόμενοι αἶγας θύουσι. θεοὺς γὰρ δὴ οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς ἅπαντες ὁμοίως Αἰγύπτιοι σέβονται, πλὴν Ἴσιός τε καὶ Ὀσίριος, τὸν δὴ Διόνυσον εἶναι λέγουσι· τούτους δὲ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες σέβονται. ὅσοι δὲ τοῦ Μένδητος ἔκτηνται ἱρὸν ἢ νομοῦ τοῦ Μενδησίου εἰσί, οὗτοι δὲ αἰγῶν ἀπεχόμενοι ὄις θύουσι. Θηβαῖοι μέν νυν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ τούτους ὀίων ἀπέχονται, διὰ τάδε λέγουσι τὸν νόμον τόνδε σφίσι τεθῆναι. Ἡρακλέα θελῆσαι πάντως ἰδέσθαι τὸν Δία, καὶ τὸν οὐκ ἐθέλειν ὀφθῆναι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· τέλος δέ, ἐπείτε λιπαρέειν τὸν Ἡρακλέα, τάδε τὸν Δία μηχανήσασθαι· κριὸν ἐκδείραντα προσχέσθαι τε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποταμόντα τοῦ κριοῦ καὶ ἐνδύντα τὸ νάκος οὕτω οἱ ἑωυτὸν ἐπιδέξαι. ἀπὸ τούτου κριοπρόσωπον τοῦ Διὸς τὤγαλμα ποιεῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, ἀπὸ δὲ Αἰγυπτίων Ἀμμώνιοι, ἐόντες Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων ἄποικοι καὶ φωνὴν μεταξὺ ἀμφοτέρων νομίζοντες. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ τὸ οὔνομα Ἀμμώνιοι ἀπὸ τοῦδε σφίσι τὴν ἐπωνυμίην ἐποιήσαντο· Ἀμοῦν γὰρ Αἰγύπτιοι καλέουσι τὸν Δία. τοὺς δὲ κριοὺς οὐ θύουσι Θηβαῖοι, ἀλλʼ εἰσί σφι ἱροὶ διὰ τοῦτο. μιῇ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, ἐν ὁρτῇ τοῦ Διός, κριὸν ἕνα κατακόψαντες καὶ ἀποδείραντες κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἐνδύουσι τὤγαλμα τοῦ Διός, καὶ ἔπειτα ἄλλο ἄγαλμα Ἡρακλέος προσάγουσι πρὸς αὐτό. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τύπτονται οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱρὸν ἅπαντες τὸν κριὸν καὶ ἔπειτα ἐν ἱρῇ θήκῃ θάπτουσι αὐτόν.
2.44 καὶ θέλων δὲ τούτων πέρι σαφές τι εἰδέναι ἐξ ὧν οἷόν τε ἦν, ἔπλευσα καὶ ἐς Τύρον τῆς Φοινίκης, πυνθανόμενος αὐτόθι εἶναι ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἅγιον. καὶ εἶδον πλουσίως κατεσκευασμένον ἄλλοισί τε πολλοῖσι ἀναθήμασι, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἦσαν στῆλαι δύο, ἣ μὲν χρυσοῦ ἀπέφθου, ἣ δὲ σμαράγδου λίθου λάμποντος τὰς νύκτας μέγαθος. ἐς λόγους δὲ ἐλθὼν τοῖσι ἱρεῦσι τοῦ θεοῦ εἰρόμην ὁκόσος χρόνος εἴη ἐξ οὗ σφι τὸ ἱρὸν ἵδρυται. εὗρον δὲ οὐδὲ τούτους τοῖσι Ἕλλησι συμφερομένους· ἔφασαν γὰρ ἅμα Τύρῳ οἰκιζομένῃ καὶ τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἱδρυθῆναι, εἶναι δὲ ἔτεα ἀπʼ οὗ Τύρον οἰκέουσι τριηκόσια καὶ δισχίλια. εἶδον δὲ ἐν τῇ Τύρῳ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντος Θασίου εἶναι· ἀπικόμην δὲ καὶ ἐς Θάσον, ἐν τῇ εὗρον ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ὑπὸ Φοινίκων ἱδρυμένον, οἳ κατʼ Εὐρώπης ζήτησιν ἐκπλώσαντες Θάσον ἔκτισαν· καὶ ταῦτα καὶ πέντε γενεῇσι ἀνδρῶν πρότερα ἐστὶ ἢ τὸν Ἀμφιτρύωνος Ἡρακλέα ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι γενέσθαι. τὰ μέν νυν ἱστορημένα δηλοῖ σαφέως παλαιὸν θεὸν Ἡρακλέα ἐόντα, καὶ δοκέουσι δέ μοι οὗτοι ὀρθότατα Ἑλλήνων ποιέειν, οἳ διξὰ Ἡράκλεια ἱδρυσάμενοι ἔκτηνται, καὶ τῷ μὲν ὡς ἀθανάτῳ Ὀλυμπίῳ δὲ ἐπωνυμίην θύουσι, τῷ δὲ ἑτέρῳ ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζουσι.
2.48 τῷ δὲ Διονύσῳ τῆς ὁρτῆς τῇ δορπίῃ χοῖρον πρὸ τῶν θυρέων σφάξας ἕκαστος διδοῖ ἀποφέρεσθαι τὸν χοῖρον αὐτῷ τῷ ἀποδομένῳ τῶν συβωτέων. τὴν δὲ ἄλλην ἀνάγουσι ὁρτὴν τῷ Διονύσῳ οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι πλὴν χορῶν κατὰ ταὐτὰ σχεδὸν πάντα Ἕλλησι· ἀντὶ δὲ φαλλῶν ἄλλα σφι ἐστὶ ἐξευρημένα, ὅσον τε πηχυαῖα ἀγάλματα νευρόσπαστα, τὰ περιφορέουσι κατὰ κώμας γυναῖκες, νεῦον τὸ αἰδοῖον, οὐ πολλῷ τεῳ ἔλασσον ἐὸν τοῦ ἄλλου σώματος· προηγέεται δὲ αὐλός, αἳ δὲ ἕπονται ἀείδουσαι τὸν Διόνυσον. διότι δὲ μέζον τε ἔχει τὸ αἰδοῖον καὶ κινέει μοῦνον τοῦ σώματος, ἔστι λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ ἱρὸς λεγόμενος.
2.53 ἔνθεν δὲ ἐγένοντο ἕκαστος τῶν θεῶν, εἴτε αἰεὶ ἦσαν πάντες, ὁκοῖοί τε τινὲς τὰ εἴδεα, οὐκ ἠπιστέατο μέχρι οὗ πρώην τε καὶ χθὲς ὡς εἰπεῖν λόγῳ. Ἡσίοδον γὰρ καὶ Ὅμηρον ἡλικίην τετρακοσίοισι ἔτεσι δοκέω μευ πρεσβυτέρους γενέσθαι καὶ οὐ πλέοσι· οὗτοι δὲ εἰσὶ οἱ ποιήσαντες θεογονίην Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῖσι θεοῖσι τὰς ἐπωνυμίας δόντες καὶ τιμάς τε καὶ τέχνας διελόντες καὶ εἴδεα αὐτῶν σημήναντες. οἱ δὲ πρότερον ποιηταὶ λεγόμενοι τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν γενέσθαι ὕστερον, ἔμοιγε δοκέειν, ἐγένοντο. τούτων τὰ μὲν πρῶτα αἱ Δωδωνίδες ἱρεῖαι λέγουσι, τὰ δὲ ὕστερα τὰ ἐς Ἡσίοδόν τε καὶ Ὅμηρον ἔχοντα ἐγὼ λέγω. 2.54 χρηστηρίων δὲ πέρι τοῦ τε ἐν Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῦ ἐν Λιβύῃ τόνδε Αἰγύπτιοι λόγον λέγουσι. ἔφασαν οἱ ἱρέες τοῦ Θηβαιέος Διὸς δύο γυναῖκας ἱρείας ἐκ Θηβέων ἐξαχθῆναι ὑπὸ Φοινίκων, καὶ τὴν μὲν αὐτέων πυθέσθαι ἐς Λιβύην πρηθεῖσαν τὴν δὲ ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας· ταύτας δὲ τὰς γυναῖκας εἶναι τὰς ἱδρυσαμένας τὰ μαντήια πρώτας ἐν τοῖσι εἰρημένοισι ἔθνεσι. εἰρομένου δέ μευ ὁκόθεν οὕτω ἀτρεκέως ἐπιστάμενοι λέγουσι, ἔφασαν πρὸς ταῦτα ζήτησιν μεγάλην ἀπὸ σφέων γενέσθαι τῶν γυναικῶν τουτέων, καὶ ἀνευρεῖν μὲν σφέας οὐ δυνατοὶ γενέσθαι, πυθέσθαι δὲ ὕστερον ταῦτα περὶ αὐτέων τά περ δὴ ἔλεγον.
2.59 πανηγυρίζουσι δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι οὐκ ἅπαξ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, πανηγύρις δὲ συχνάς, μάλιστα μὲν καὶ προθυμότατα ἐς Βούβαστιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι, δεύτερα δὲ ἐς Βούσιριν πόλιν τῇ Ἴσι· ἐν ταύτῃ γὰρ δὴ τῇ πόλι ἐστὶ μέγιστον Ἴσιος ἱρόν, ἵδρυται δὲ ἡ πόλις αὕτη τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἐν μέσῳ τῷ Δέλτα· Ἶσις δὲ ἐστὶ κατὰ τὴν Ἑλλήνων γλῶσσαν Δημήτηρ. τρίτα δὲ ἐς Σάιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ πανηγυρίζουσι, τέταρτα δὲ ἐς Ἡλίου πόλιν τῷ Ἡλίω, πέμπτα δὲ ἐς Βουτοῦν πόλιν τῇ Λητοῖ, ἕκτα δὲ ἐς Πάπρημιν πόλιν τῷ Ἄρεϊ.
2.63 ἐς δὲ Ἡλίου τε πόλιν καὶ Βουτοῦν θυσίας μούνας ἐπιτελέουσι φοιτέοντες. ἐν δὲ Παπρήμι θυσίας μὲν καὶ ἱρὰ κατά περ καὶ τῇ ἄλλῃ ποιεῦσι· εὖτʼ ἂν δὲ γίνηται καταφερὴς ὁ ἥλιος, ὀλίγοι μὲν τινὲς τῶν ἱρέων περὶ τὤγαλμα πεπονέαται, οἱ δὲ πολλοὶ αὐτῶν ξύλων κορύνας ἔχοντες ἑστᾶσι τοῦ ἱροῦ ἐν τῇ ἐσόδῳ, ἄλλοι τε εὐχωλὰς ἐπιτελέοντες πλεῦνες χιλίων ἀνδρῶν, ἕκαστοι ἔχοντες ξύλα καὶ οὗτοι, ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα ἁλέες ἑστᾶσι. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐὸν ἐν νηῷ μικρῷ ξυλίνῳ κατακεχρυσωμένῳ προεκκομίζουσι τῇ προτεραίῃ ἐς ἄλλο οἴκημα ἱρόν. οἱ μὲν δὴ ὀλίγοι οἱ περὶ τὤγαλμα λελειμμένοι ἕλκουσι τετράκυκλον ἅμαξαν ἄγουσαν τὸν νηόν τε καὶ τὸ ἐν τῷ νηῷ ἐνεὸν ἄγαλμα, οἳ δὲ οὐκ ἐῶσι ἐν τοῖσι προπυλαίοισι ἑστεῶτες ἐσιέναι, οἱ δὲ εὐχωλιμαῖοι τιμωρέοντες τῷ θεῷ παίουσι αὐτοὺς ἀλεξομένους. ἐνθαῦτα μάχη ξύλοισι καρτερὴ γίνεται κεφαλάς τε συναράσσονται, καὶ ὡς ἐγὼ δοκέω πολλοὶ καὶ ἀποθνήσκουσι ἐκ τῶν τρωμάτων· οὐ μέντοι οἵ γε Αἰγύπτιοι ἔφασαν ἀποθνήσκειν οὐδένα. τὴν δὲ πανήγυριν ταύτην ἐκ τοῦδε νομίσαι φασὶ οἱ ἐπιχώριοι· οἰκέειν ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ τούτῳ τοῦ Ἄρεος τὴν μητέρα, καὶ τὸν Ἄρεα ἀπότροφον γενόμενον ἐλθεῖν ἐξανδρωμένον ἐθέλοντα τῇ μητρὶ συμμῖξαι, καὶ τοὺς προπόλους τῆς μητρός, οἷα οὐκ ὀπωπότας αὐτὸν πρότερον, οὐ περιορᾶν παριέναι ἀλλὰ ἀπερύκειν, τὸν δὲ ἐξ ἄλλης πόλιος ἀγαγόμενον ἀνθρώπους τούς τε προπόλους τρηχέως περισπεῖν καὶ ἐσελθεῖν παρὰ τὴν μητέρα. ἀπὸ τούτου τῷ Ἄρεϊ ταύτην τὴν πληγὴν ἐν τῇ ὁρτῇ νενομικέναι φασί.
2.82 καὶ τάδε ἄλλα Αἰγυπτίοισι ἐστὶ ἐξευρημένα, μείς τε καὶ ἡμέρη ἑκάστη θεῶν ὅτευ ἐστί, καὶ τῇ ἕκαστος ἡμέρῃ γενόμενος ὁτέοισι ἐγκυρήσει καὶ ὅκως τελευτήσει καὶ ὁκοῖός τις ἔσται. καὶ τούτοισι τῶν Ἑλλήνων οἱ ἐν ποιήσι γενόμενοι ἐχρήσαντο. τέρατά τε πλέω σφι ἀνεύρηται ἢ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι ἅπασι ἀνθρώποισι· γενομένου γὰρ τέρατος φυλάσσουσι γραφόμενοι τὠποβαῖνον, καὶ ἤν κοτε ὕστερον παραπλήσιον τούτῳ γένηται, κατὰ τὠυτὸ νομίζουσι ἀποβήσεσθαι.
2.171 ἐν δὲ τῇ λίμνῃ ταύτῃ τὰ δείκηλα τῶν παθέων αὐτοῦ νυκτὸς ποιεῦσι, τὰ καλέουσι μυστήρια Αἰγύπτιοι. περὶ μέν νυν τούτων εἰδότι μοι ἐπὶ πλέον ὡς ἕκαστα αὐτῶν ἔχει, εὔστομα κείσθω. καὶ τῆς Δήμητρος τελετῆς πέρι, τὴν οἱ Ἕλληνες θεσμοφόρια καλέουσι, καὶ ταύτης μοι πέρι εὔστομα κείσθω, πλὴν ὅσον αὐτῆς ὁσίη ἐστὶ λέγειν· αἱ Δαναοῦ θυγατέρες ἦσαν αἱ τὴν τελετὴν ταύτην ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐξαγαγοῦσαι καὶ διδάξασαι τὰς Πελασγιώτιδας γυναῖκας· μετὰ δὲ ἐξαναστάσης πάσης Πελοποννήσου 1 ὑπὸ Δωριέων ἐξαπώλετο ἡ τελετή, οἱ δὲ ὑπολειφθέντες Πελοποννησίων καὶ οὐκ ἐξαναστάντες Ἀρκάδες διέσωζον αὐτὴν μοῦνοι.
4.186 οὕτω μὲν μέχρι τῆς Τριτωνίδος λίμνης ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου νομάδες εἰσὶ κρεοφάγοι τε καὶ γαλακτοπόται Λίβυες, καὶ θηλέων τε βοῶν οὔτι γευόμενοι, διότι περ οὐδὲ Αἰγύπτιοι, καὶ ὗς οὐ τρέφοντες. βοῶν μέν νυν θηλέων οὐδʼ αἱ Κυρηναίων γυναῖκες δικαιοῦσι πατέεσθαι διὰ τὴν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ Ἶσιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ νηστηίας αὐτῇ καὶ ὁρτὰς ἐπιτελέουσι. αἱ δὲ τῶν Βαρκαίων γυναῖκες οὐδὲ ὑῶν πρὸς τῇσι βουσὶ γεύονται.
4.188 θυσίαι δὲ τοῖσι νομάσι εἰσὶ αἵδε. ἐπεὰν τοῦ ὠτὸς ἀπάρξωνται τοῦ κτήνεος, ῥιπτέουσι ὑπὲρ τὸν δόμον, τοῦτο δὲ ποιήσαντες ἀποστρέφουσι τὸν αὐχένα αὐτοῦ· θύουσι δὲ ἡλίῳ καὶ σελήνῃ μούνοισι. τούτοισι μέν νυν πάντες Λίβυες θύουσι, ἀτὰρ οἱ περὶ τὴν Τριτωνίδα λίμνην νέμοντες τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ μάλιστα, μετὰ δὲ τῷ; Τρίτωνι καὶ τῷ Ποσειδέωνι. 4.189 τὴν δὲ ἄρα ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὰς αἰγίδας τῶν ἀγαλμάτων τῆς Ἀθηναίης ἐκ τῶν Λιβυσσέων ἐποιήσαντο οἱ Ἕλληνες· πλὴν γὰρ ἢ ὅτι σκυτίνη ἡ ἐσθὴς τῶν Λιβυσσέων ἐστὶ καὶ οἱ θύσανοι οἱ ἐκ τῶν αἰγίδων αὐτῇσι οὐκ ὄφιες εἰσὶ ἀλλὰ ἱμάντινοι, τά γε ἄλλα πάντα κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἔσταλται. καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ οὔνομα κατηγορέει ὅτι ἐκ Λιβύης ἥκει ἡ στολὴ τῶν Παλλαδίων· αἰγέας γὰρ περιβάλλονται ψιλὰς περὶ τὴν ἐσθῆτα θυσανωτὰς αἱ Λίβυσσαι κεχριμένας ἐρευθεδάνῳ, ἐκ δὲ τῶν αἰγέων τουτέων αἰγίδας οἱ Ἕλληνες μετωνόμασαν. δοκέει δʼ ἔμοιγε καὶ ὀλολυγὴ ἐν ἱροῖσι ἐνθαῦτα πρῶτον γενέσθαι· κάρτα γὰρ ταύτῃ χρέωνται καλῶς αἱ Λίβυσσαι. καὶ τέσσερας ἵππους συζευγνύναι παρὰ Λιβύων οἱ Ἕλληνες μεμαθήκασι.
4.198 δοκέει δέ μοι οὐδʼ ἀρετὴν εἶναι τις ἡ Λιβύη σπουδαίη ὥστε ἢ Ἀσίῃ ἢ Εὐρώπῃ παραβληθῆναι, πλὴν Κίνυπος μούνης· τὸ γὰρ δὴ αὐτὸ οὔνομα ἡ γῆ τῷ ποταμῷ ἔχει. αὕτη δὲ ὁμοίη τῇ ἀρίστῃ γέων Δήμητρος καρπὸν ἐκφέρειν οὐδὲ ἔοικε οὐδὲν τῇ ἄλλῃ Λιβύῃ. μελάγγαιός τε γὰρ ἐστὶ καὶ ἔπυδρος πίδαξι, καὶ οὔτε αὐχμοῦ φροντίζουσα οὐδὲν οὔτε ὄμβρον πλέω πιοῦσα δεδήληται. ὕεται γὰρ δὴ ταῦτα τῆς Λιβύης. τῶν δὲ ἐκφορίων τοῦ καρποῦ ταὐτὰ μέτρα τῇ Βαβυλωνίῃ γῇ κατίσταται. ἀγαθὴ δὲ γῆ καὶ τὴν Εὐεσπερῖται νέμονται· ἐπʼ ἑκατοστὰ γάρ, ἐπεὰν αὐτὴ ἑωυτῆς ἄριστα ἐνείκῃ, ἐκφέρει, ἣ δὲ ἐν τῆ Κίνυπι ἐπὶ τριηκόσια.
5.59 εἶδον δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς Καδμήια γράμματα ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος τοῦ Ἰσμηνίου ἐν Θήβῃσι τῇσι Βοιωτῶν, ἐπὶ τρίποσι τισὶ ἐγκεκολαμμένα, τὰ πολλὰ ὅμοια ἐόντα τοῖσι Ἰωνικοῖσι. ὁ μὲν δὴ εἷς τῶν τριπόδων ἐπίγραμμα ἔχει ἀμφιτρύων μʼ ἀνέθηκʼ ἐνάρων ἀπὸ Τηλεβοάων. 1 1 ταῦτα ἡλικίην εἴη ἂν κατὰ Λάιον τὸν Λαβδάκου τοῦ Πολυδώρου τοῦ Κάδμου. 5.60 ἕτερος δὲ τρίπους ἐν ἑξαμέτρῳ τόνῳ λέγει Σκαῖος πυγμαχέων με ἑκηβόλῳ Ἀπόλλωνι νικήσας ἀνέθηκε τεῒν περικαλλὲς ἄγαλμα. Σκαῖος δʼ ἂν εἴη ὁ Ἱπποκόωντος, εἰ δὴ οὗτός γε ἐστὶ ὁ ἀναθεὶς καὶ μὴ ἄλλος τὠυτὸ οὔνομα ἔχων τῷ Ἱπποκόωντος, ἡλικίην κατὰ Οἰδίπουν τὸν Λαΐου. 5.61 τρίτος δὲ τρίπους λέγει καὶ οὗτος ἐν ἑξαμέτρῳ Λαοδάμας τρίποδʼ αὐτὸς ἐυσκόπῳ Ἀπόλλωνι μουναρχέων ἀνέθηκε τεῒν περικαλλὲς ἄγαλμα. ἐπὶ τούτου δὴ τοῦ Λαοδάμαντος τοῦ Ἐτεοκλέος μουναρχέοντος ἐξανιστέαται Καδμεῖοι ὑπʼ Ἀργείων καὶ τρέπονται ἐς τοὺς Ἐγχελέας. οἱ δὲ Γεφυραῖοι ὑπολειφθέντες ὕστερον ὑπὸ Βοιωτῶν ἀναχωρέουσι ἐς Ἀθήνας· καί σφι ἱρά ἐστι ἐν Ἀθήνῃσι ἱδρυμένα, τῶν οὐδὲν μέτα τοῖσι λοιποῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι, ἄλλα τε κεχωρισμένα τῶν ἄλλων ἱρῶν καὶ δὴ καὶ Ἀχαιίης Δήμητρος ἱρόν τε καὶ ὄργια.
5.67 ταῦτα δέ, δοκέειν ἐμοί, ἐμιμέετο ὁ Κλεισθένης οὗτος τὸν ἑωυτοῦ μητροπάτορα Κλεισθένεα τὸν Σικυῶνος τύραννον. Κλεισθένης γὰρ Ἀργείοισι πολεμήσας τοῦτο μὲν ῥαψῳδοὺς ἔπαυσε ἐν Σικυῶνι ἀγωνίζεσθαι τῶν Ὁμηρείων ἐπέων εἵνεκα, ὅτι Ἀργεῖοί τε καὶ Ἄργος τὰ πολλὰ πάντα ὑμνέαται· τοῦτο δέ, ἡρώιον γὰρ ἦν καὶ ἔστι ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἀγορῇ τῶν Σικυωνίων Ἀδρήστου τοῦ Ταλαοῦ, τοῦτον ἐπεθύμησε ὁ Κλεισθένης ἐόντα Ἀργεῖον ἐκβαλεῖν ἐκ τῆς χώρης. ἐλθὼν δὲ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐχρηστηριάζετο εἰ ἐκβάλοι τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οἱ χρᾷ φᾶσα Ἄδρηστον μὲν εἶναι Σικυωνίων βασιλέα, κεῖνον δὲ λευστῆρα. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς τοῦτό γε οὐ παρεδίδου, ἀπελθὼν ὀπίσω ἐφρόντιζε μηχανὴν τῇ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἄδρηστος ἀπαλλάξεται. ὡς δέ οἱ ἐξευρῆσθαι ἐδόκεε, πέμψας ἐς Θήβας τὰς Βοιωτίας ἔφη θέλειν ἐπαγαγέσθαι Μελάνιππον τὸν Ἀστακοῦ· οἱ δὲ Θηβαῖοι ἔδοσαν. ἐπαγαγόμενος δὲ ὁ Κλεισθένης τὸν Μελάνιππον τέμενός οἱ ἀπέδεξε ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ πρυτανηίῳ καί μιν ἵδρυσε ἐνθαῦτα ἐν τῷ ἰσχυροτάτῳ. ἐπηγάγετο δὲ τὸν Μελάνιππον ὁ Κλεισθένης ʽ καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο δεῖ ἀπηγήσασθαἰ ὡς ἔχθιστον ἐόντα Ἀδρήστῳ, ὃς τόν τε ἀδελφεόν οἱ Μηκιστέα ἀπεκτόνεε καὶ τὸν γαμβρὸν Τυδέα. ἐπείτε δέ οἱ τὸ τέμενος ἀπέδεξε, θυσίας τε καὶ ὁρτὰς Ἀδρήστου ἀπελόμενος ἔδωκε τῷ Μελανίππῳ. οἱ δὲ Σικυώνιοι ἐώθεσαν μεγαλωστὶ κάρτα τιμᾶν τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ γὰρ χώρη ἦν αὕτη Πολύβου, ὁ δὲ Ἄδρηστος ἦν Πολύβου θυγατριδέος, ἄπαις δὲ Πόλυβος τελευτῶν διδοῖ Ἀδρήστῳ τὴν ἀρχήν. τά τε δὴ ἄλλα οἱ Σικυώνιοι ἐτίμων τὸν Ἄδρηστον καὶ δὴ πρὸς τὰ πάθεα αὐτοῦ τραγικοῖσι χοροῖσι ἐγέραιρον, τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον οὐ τιμῶντες, τὸν δὲ Ἄδρηστον. Κλεισθένης δὲ χοροὺς μὲν τῷ Διονύσῳ ἀπέδωκε, τὴν δὲ ἄλλην θυσίην Μελανίππῳ.
5.72 Κλεομένης δὲ ὡς πέμπων ἐξέβαλλε Κλεισθένεα καὶ τοὺς ἐναγέας, Κλεισθένης μὲν αὐτὸς ὑπεξέσχε, μετὰ δὲ οὐδὲν ἧσσον παρῆν ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας ὁ Κλεομένης οὐ σὺν μεγάλῃ χειρί, ἀπικόμενος δὲ ἀγηλατέει ἑπτακόσια ἐπίστια Ἀθηναίων, τά οἱ ὑπέθετο ὁ Ἰσαγόρης. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσας δεύτερα τὴν βουλὴν καταλύειν ἐπειρᾶτο, τριηκοσίοισι δὲ τοῖσι Ἰσαγόρεω στασιώτῃσι τὰς ἀρχὰς ἐνεχείριζε. ἀντισταθείσης δὲ τῆς βουλῆς καὶ οὐ βουλομένης πείθεσθαι, ὅ τε Κλεομένης καὶ ὁ Ἰσαγόρης καὶ οἱ στασιῶται αὐτοῦ καταλαμβάνουσι τὴν ἀκρόπολιν. Ἀθηναίων δὲ οἱ λοιποὶ τὰ αὐτὰ φρονήσαντες ἐπολιόρκεον αὐτοὺς ἡμέρας δύο· τῇ δὲ τρίτῃ ὑπόσπονδοι ἐξέρχονται ἐκ τῆς χώρης ὅσοι ἦσαν αὐτῶν Λακεδαιμόνιοι. ἐπετελέετο δὲ τῷ Κλεομένεϊ ἡ φήμη. ὡς γὰρ ἀνέβη ἐς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν μέλλων δὴ αὐτὴν κατασχήσειν, ἤιε ἐς τὸ ἄδυτον τῆς θεοῦ ὡς προσερέων· ἡ δὲ ἱρείη ἐξαναστᾶσα ἐκ τοῦ θρόνου, πρὶν ἢ τὰς θύρας αὐτὸν ἀμεῖψαι, εἶπε “ὦ ξεῖνε Λακεδαιμόνιε, πάλιν χώρεε μηδὲ ἔσιθι ἐς τὸ ἱρόν· οὐ γὰρ θεμιτὸν Δωριεῦσι παριέναι ἐνθαῦτα.” ὁ δὲ εἶπε “ὦ γύναι, ἀλλʼ οὐ Δωριεύς εἰμι ἀλλʼ Ἀχαιός.” ὃ μὲν δὴ τῇ κλεηδόνι οὐδὲν χρεώμενος ἐπεχείρησέ τε καὶ τότε πάλιν ἐξέπιπτε μετὰ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων· τοὺς δὲ ἄλλους Ἀθηναῖοι κατέδησαν τὴν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ, ἐν δὲ αὐτοῖσι καὶ Τιμησίθεον τὸν Δελφόν, τοῦ ἔργα χειρῶν τε καὶ λήματος ἔχοιμʼ ἂν μέγιστα καταλέξαι.
5.82 ἡ δὲ ἔχθρη ἡ προοφειλομένη ἐς Ἀθηναίους ἐκ τῶν Αἰγινητέων ἐγένετο ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοιῆσδε. Ἐπιδαυρίοισι ἡ γῆ καρπὸν οὐδένα ἀνεδίδου. περὶ ταύτης ὦν τῆς συμφορῆς οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι ἐχρέωντο ἐν Δελφοῖσι· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφέας ἐκέλευε Δαμίης τε καὶ Αὐξησίης ἀγάλματα ἱδρύσασθαι καί σφι ἱδρυσαμένοισι ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι. ἐπειρώτεον ὦν οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι κότερα χαλκοῦ ποιέωνται τὰ ἀγάλματα ἢ λίθου· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οὐδέτερα τούτων ἔα, ἀλλὰ ξύλου ἡμέρης ἐλαίης. ἐδέοντο ὦν οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι Ἀθηναίων ἐλαίην σφι δοῦναι ταμέσθαι, ἱρωτάτας δὴ κείνας νομίζοντες εἶναι. λέγεται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἐλαῖαι ἦσαν ἄλλοθι γῆς οὐδαμοῦ κατὰ χρόνον ἐκεῖνον ἢ ἐν Ἀθήνῃσι. οἳ δὲ ἐπὶ τοῖσιδε δώσειν ἔφασαν ἐπʼ ᾧ ἀπάξουσι ἔτεος ἑκάστου τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ τε τῇ Πολιάδι ἱρὰ καὶ τῷ Ἐρεχθέι. καταινέσαντες δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοισι οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι τῶν τε ἐδέοντο ἔτυχον καὶ ἀγάλματα ἐκ τῶν ἐλαιέων τουτέων ποιησάμενοι ἱδρύσαντο· καὶ ἥ τε γῆ σφι ἔφερε καρπὸν καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι ἐπετέλεον τὰ συνέθεντο. 5.83 τοῦτον δʼ ἔτι τὸν χρόνον καὶ πρὸ τοῦ Αἰγινῆται Ἐπιδαυρίων ἤκουον τά τε ἄλλα καὶ δίκας διαβαίνοντες ἐς Ἐπίδαυρον ἐδίδοσάν τε καὶ ἐλάμβανον παρʼ ἀλλήλων οἱ Αἰγινῆται· τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦδε νέας τε πηξάμενοι καὶ ἀγνωμοσύνῃ χρησάμενοι ἀπέστησαν ἀπὸ τῶν Ἐπιδαυρίων. ἅτε δὲ ἐόντες διάφοροι ἐδηλέοντο αὐτούς, ὥστε θαλασσοκράτορες ἐόντες, καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ ἀγάλματα ταῦτα τῆς τε Δαμίης καὶ τῆς Αὐξησίης ὑπαιρέονται αὐτῶν, καί σφεα ἐκόμισάν τε καὶ ἱδρύσαντο τῆς σφετέρης χώρης ἐς τὴν μεσόγαιαν, τῇ Οἴη μὲν ἐστὶ οὔνομα, στάδια δὲ μάλιστά κῃ ἀπὸ τῆς πόλιος ὡς εἴκοσι ἀπέχει. ἱδρυσάμενοι δὲ ἐν τούτῳ τῷ χώρῳ θυσίῃσί τε σφέα καὶ χοροῖσι γυναικηίοισι κερτομίοισι ἱλάσκοντο, χορηγῶν ἀποδεικνυμένων ἑκατέρῃ τῶν δαιμόνων δέκα ἀνδρῶν· κακῶς δὲ ἠγόρευον οἱ χοροὶ ἄνδρα μὲν οὐδένα, τὰς δὲ ἐπιχωρίας γυναῖκας. ἦσαν δὲ καὶ τοῖσι Ἐπιδαυρίοισι αἱ αὐταὶ ἱροεργίαι· εἰσὶ δέ σφι καὶ ἄρρητοι ἱρουργίαι. 5.84 κλεφθέντων δὲ τῶνδε τῶν ἀγαλμάτων οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι τὰ συνέθεντο οὐκ ἐπετέλεον. πέμψαντες δὲ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐμήνιον τοῖσι Ἐπιδαυρίοισι· οἳ δὲ ἀπέφαινον λόγῳ ὡς οὐκ ἀδικέοιεν· ὅσον μὲν γὰρ χρόνον εἶχον τὰ ἀγάλματα ἐν τῇ χώρῃ, ἐπιτελέειν τὰ συνέθεντο, ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐστερῆσθαι αὐτῶν, οὐ δίκαιον εἶναι ἀποφέρειν ἔτι, ἀλλὰ τοὺς ἔχοντας αὐτὰ Αἰγινήτας πρήσσεσθαι ἐκέλευον. πρὸς ταῦτα οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐς Αἴγιναν πέμψαντες ἀπαίτεον τὰ ἀγάλματα· οἱ δὲ Αἰγινῆται ἔφασαν σφίσι τε καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι εἶναι οὐδὲν πρῆγμα. 5.85 Ἀθηναῖοι μέν νυν λέγουσι μετὰ τὴν ἀπαίτησιν ἀποσταλῆναι τριήρεϊ μιῇ τῶν ἀστῶν τούτους οἳ ἀποπεμφθέντες ἀπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ καὶ ἀπικόμενοι ἐς Αἴγιναν τὰ ἀγάλματα ταῦτα ὡς σφετέρων ξύλων ἐόντα ἐπειρῶντο ἐκ τῶν βάθρων ἐξανασπᾶν, ἵνα σφέα ἀνακομίσωνται. οὐ δυναμένους δὲ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ αὐτῶν κρατῆσαι, περιβαλόντας σχοινία ἕλκειν τὰ ἀγάλματα, καί σφι ἕλκουσι βροντήν τε καὶ ἅμα τῇ βροντῇ σεισμὸν ἐπιγενέσθαι· τοὺς δὲ τριηρίτας τοὺς ἕλκοντας ὑπὸ τούτων ἀλλοφρονῆσαι, παθόντας δὲ τοῦτο κτείνειν ἀλλήλους ἅτε πολεμίους, ἐς ὃ ἐκ πάντων ἕνα λειφθέντα ἀνακομισθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐς Φάληρον. 5.86 Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν οὕτω γενέσθαι λέγουσι, Αἰγινῆται δὲ οὐ μιῇ νηὶ ἀπικέσθαι Ἀθηναίους· μίαν μὲν γὰρ καὶ ὀλίγῳ πλεῦνας μιῆς, καὶ εἰ σφίσι μὴ ἔτυχον ἐοῦσαι νέες, ἀπαμύνεσθαι ἂν εὐπετέως· ἀλλὰ πολλῇσι νηυσὶ ἐπιπλέειν σφίσι ἐπὶ τὴν χώρην, αὐτοὶ δέ σφι εἶξαι καὶ οὐ ναυμαχῆσαι. οὐκ ἔχουσι δὲ τοῦτο διασημῆναι ἀτρεκέως, οὔτε εἰ ἥσσονες συγγινωσκόμενοι εἶναι τῇ ναυμαχίῃ κατὰ τοῦτο εἶξαν, οὔτε εἰ βουλόμενοι ποιῆσαι οἷόν τι καὶ ἐποίησαν. Ἀθηναίους μέν νυν, ἐπείτε σφι οὐδεὶς ἐς μάχην κατίστατο, ἀποβάντας ἀπὸ τῶν νεῶν τραπέσθαι πρὸς τὰ ἀγάλματα, οὐ δυναμένους δὲ ἀνασπάσαι ἐκ τῶν βάθρων αὐτὰ οὕτω δὴ περιβαλομένους σχοινία ἕλκειν, ἐς οὗ ἑλκόμενα τὰ ἀγάλματα ἀμφότερα τὠυτὸ ποιῆσαι, ἐμοὶ μὲν οὐ πιστὰ λέγοντες, ἄλλῳ δὲ τεῷ· ἐς γούνατα γάρ σφι αὐτὰ πεσεῖν, καὶ τὸν ἀπὸ τούτου χρόνον διατελέειν οὕτω ἔχοντα. Ἀθηναίους μὲν δὴ ταῦτα ποιέειν· σφέας δὲ Αἰγινῆται λέγουσι πυθομένους τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ὡς μέλλοιεν ἐπὶ σφέας στρατεύεσθαι, ἑτοίμους Ἀργείους ποιέεσθαι. τούς τε δὴ Ἀθηναίους ἀποβεβάναι ἐς τὴν Αἰγιναίην, καὶ ἥκειν βοηθέοντας σφίσι τοὺς Ἀργείους καὶ λαθεῖν τε ἐξ Ἐπιδαύρου διαβάντας ἐς τὴν νῆσον καὶ οὐ προακηκοόσι τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι ἐπιπεσεῖν ὑποταμομένους τὸ ἀπὸ τῶν νεῶν, ἅμα τε ἐν τούτῳ τὴν βροντήν τε γενέσθαι καὶ τὸν σεισμὸν αὐτοῖσι. 5.87 λέγεται μέν νυν ὑπʼ Ἀργείων τε καὶ Αἰγινητέων τάδε, ὁμολογέεται δὲ καὶ ὑπʼ Ἀθηναίων ἕνα μοῦνον τὸν ἀποσωθέντα αὐτῶν ἐς τὴν Ἀττικὴν γενέσθαι· πλὴν Ἀργεῖοι μὲν λέγουσι αὐτῶν τὸ Ἀττικὸν στρατόπεδον διαφθειράντων τὸν ἕνα τοῦτον περιγενέσθαι, Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ τοῦ δαιμονίου· περιγενέσθαι μέντοι οὐδὲ τοῦτον τὸν ἕνα, ἀλλʼ ἀπολέσθαι τρόπῳ τοιῷδε. κομισθεὶς ἄρα ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας ἀπήγγελλε τὸ πάθος· πυθομένας δὲ τὰς γυναῖκας τῶν ἐπʼ Αἴγιναν στρατευσαμένων ἀνδρῶν, δεινόν τι ποιησαμένας κεῖνον μοῦνον ἐξ ἁπάντων σωθῆναι, πέριξ τὸν ἄνθρωπον τοῦτον λαβούσας καὶ κεντεύσας τῇσι περόνῃσι τῶν ἱματίων εἰρωτᾶν ἑκάστην αὐτέων ὅκου εἴη ὁ ἑωυτῆς ἀνήρ. καὶ τοῦτον μὲν οὕτω διαφθαρῆναι, Ἀθηναίοισι δὲ ἔτι τοῦ πάθεος δεινότερόν τι δόξαι εἶναι τὸ τῶν γυναικῶν ἔργον. ἄλλῳ μὲν δὴ οὐκ ἔχειν ὅτεῳ ζημιώσωσι τὰς γυναῖκας, τὴν δὲ ἐσθῆτα μετέβαλον αὐτέων ἐς τὴν Ἰάδα· ἐφόρεον γὰρ δὴ πρὸ τοῦ αἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων γυναῖκες ἐσθῆτα Δωρίδα, τῇ Κορινθίῃ παραπλησιωτάτην· μετέβαλον ὦν ἐς τὸν λίνεον κιθῶνα, ἵνα δὴ περόνῃσι μὴ χρέωνται. 5.88 ἔστι δὲ ἀληθέι λόγῳ χρεωμένοισι οὐκ Ἰὰς αὕτη ἡ ἐσθὴς τὸ παλαιὸν ἀλλὰ Κάειρα, ἐπεὶ ἥ γε Ἑλληνικὴ ἐσθὴς πᾶσα ἡ ἀρχαίη τῶν γυναικῶν ἡ αὐτὴ ἦν τὴν νῦν Δωρίδα καλέομεν. τοῖσι δὲ Ἀργείοισι καὶ τοῖσι Αἰγινήτῃσι καὶ πρὸς ταῦτα ἔτι τόδε ποιῆσαι 1 νόμον εἶναι παρὰ σφίσι ἑκατέροισι τὰς περόνας ἡμιολίας ποιέεσθαι τοῦ τότε κατεστεῶτος μέτρου, καὶ ἐς τὸ ἱρὸν τῶν θεῶν τουτέων περόνας μάλιστα ἀνατιθέναι τὰς γυναῖκας, Ἀττικὸν δὲ μήτε τι ἄλλο προσφέρειν πρὸς τὸ ἱρὸν μήτε κέραμον, ἀλλʼ ἐκ χυτρίδων ἐπιχωριέων νόμον τὸ λοιπὸν αὐτόθι εἶναι πίνειν.
5.105 Ὀνήσιλος μέν νυν ἐπολιόρκεε Ἀμαθοῦντα. βασιλέι δὲ Δαρείῳ ὡς ἐξαγγέλθη Σάρδις ἁλούσας ἐμπεπρῆσθαι ὑπό τε Ἀθηναίων καὶ Ἰώνων, τὸν δὲ ἡγεμόνα γενέσθαι τῆς συλλογῆς ὥστε ταῦτα συνυφανθῆναι τὸν Μιλήσιον Ἀρισταγόρην, πρῶτα μὲν λέγεται αὐτόν, ὡς ἐπύθετο ταῦτα, Ἰώνων οὐδένα λόγον ποιησάμενον, εὖ εἰδότα ὡς οὗτοί γε οὐ καταπροΐξονται ἀποστάντες, εἰρέσθαι οἵτινες εἶεν οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι, μετὰ δὲ πυθόμενον αἰτῆσαι τὸ τόξον, λαβόντα δὲ καὶ ἐπιθέντα δὲ ὀιστὸν ἄνω πρὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀπεῖναι, καί μιν ἐς τὸν ἠέρα βάλλοντα εἰπεῖν “ὦ Ζεῦ, ἐκγενέσθαι μοι Ἀθηναίους τίσασθαι,” εἴπαντα δὲ ταῦτα προστάξαι ἑνὶ τῶν θεραπόντων δείπνου προκειμένου αὐτῷ ἐς τρὶς ἑκάστοτε εἰπεῖν “δέσποτα, μέμνεο τῶν Ἀθηναίων.”
6.91 ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ὕστερον ἐγίνετο. Αἰγινητέων δὲ οἱ παχέες ἐπαναστάντος τοῦ δήμου σφι ἅμα Νικοδρόμῳ ἐπεκράτησαν, καὶ ἔπειτα σφέας χειρωσάμενοι ἐξῆγον ἀπολέοντες. ἀπὸ τούτου δὲ καὶ ἄγος σφι ἐγένετο, τὸ ἐκθύσασθαι οὐκ οἶοί τε ἐγένοντο ἐπιμηχανώμενοι, ἀλλʼ ἔφθησαν ἐκπεσόντες πρότερον ἐκ τῆς νήσου ἤ σφι ἵλεον γενέσθαι τὴν θεόν. ἑπτακοσίους γὰρ δὴ τοῦ δήμου ζωγρήσαντες ἐξῆγον ὡς ἀπολέοντες, εἷς δέ τις τούτων ἐκφυγὼν τὰ δεσμὰ καταφεύγει πρὸς πρόθυρα Δήμητρος θεσμοφόρου, ἐπιλαμβανόμενος δὲ τῶν ἐπισπαστήρων εἴχετο· οἳ δὲ ἐπείτε μιν ἀποσπάσαι οὐκ οἷοί τε ἀπέλκοντες ἐγίνοντο, ἀποκόψαντες αὐτοῦ τὰς χεῖρας ἦγον οὕτω, αἱ χεῖρες δὲ ἐκεῖναι ἐμπεφυκυῖαι ἦσαν τοῖσι ἐπισπαστῆρσι.
6.98 Δᾶτις μὲν δὴ ταῦτα ποιήσας ἔπλεε ἅμα τῷ στρατῷ ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐρέτριαν πρῶτα, ἅμα ἀγόμενος καὶ Ἴωνας καὶ Αἰολέας. μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον ἐνθεῦτεν ἐξαναχθέντα Δῆλος ἐκινήθη, ὡς ἔλεγον Δήλιοι, καὶ πρῶτα καὶ ὕστατα μέχρι ἐμεῦ σεισθεῖσα. καὶ τοῦτο μέν κου τέρας ἀνθρώποισι τῶν μελλόντων ἔσεσθαι κακῶν ἔφαινε ὁ θεός. ἐπὶ γὰρ Δαρείου τοῦ Ὑστάσπεος καὶ Ξέρξεω τοῦ Δαρείου καὶ Ἀρτοξέρξεω τοῦ Ξέρξεω, τριῶν τουτέων ἐπεξῆς γενεέων, ἐγένετο πλέω κακὰ τῇ Ἑλλάδι ἢ ἐπὶ εἴκοσι ἄλλας γενεὰς τὰς πρὸ Δαρείου γενομένας, τὰ μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν Περσέων αὐτῇ γενόμενα, τὰ δὲ ἀπʼ αὐτῶν τῶν κορυφαίων περὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς πολεμεόντων. οὕτω οὐδὲν ἦν ἀεικὲς κινηθῆναι Δῆλον τὸ πρὶν ἐοῦσαν ἀκίνητον. καὶ ἐν χρησμῷ ἦν γεγραμμένον περὶ αὐτῆς ὧδε. κινήσω καὶ Δῆλον ἀκίνητόν περ ἐοῦσαν. δύναται δὲ κατὰ Ἑλλάδα γλῶσσαν ταῦτα τὰ οὐνόματα, Δαρεῖος ἐρξίης, Ξέρξης ἀρήιος, Ἀρτοξέρξης μέγας ἀρήιος. τούτους μὲν δὴ τοὺς βασιλέας ὧδε ἂν ὀρθῶς κατὰ γλῶσσαν τὴν σφετέρην Ἕλληνες καλέοιεν.
6.105 καὶ πρῶτα μὲν ἐόντες ἔτι ἐν τῷ ἄστεϊ οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἀποπέμπουσι ἐς Σπάρτην κήρυκα Φειδιππίδην Ἀθηναῖον μὲν ἄνδρα, ἄλλως δὲ ἡμεροδρόμην τε καὶ τοῦτο μελετῶντα· τῷ δή, ὡς αὐτός τε ἔλεγε Φειδιππίδης καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι ἀπήγγελλε, περὶ τὸ Παρθένιον ὄρος τὸ ὑπὲρ Τεγέης ὁ Πὰν περιπίπτει· βώσαντα δὲ τὸ οὔνομα τοῦ Φειδιππίδεω τὸν Πᾶνα Ἀθηναίοισι κελεῦσαι ἀπαγγεῖλαι, διʼ ὅ τι ἑωυτοῦ οὐδεμίαν ἐπιμελείην ποιεῦνται ἐόντος εὐνόου Ἀθηναίοισι καὶ πολλαχῇ γενομένου σφι ἤδη χρησίμου, τὰ δʼ ἔτι καὶ ἐσομένου. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι, καταστάντων σφι εὖ ἤδη τῶν πρηγμάτων, πιστεύσαντες εἶναι ἀληθέα ἱδρύσαντο ὑπὸ τῇ ἀκροπόλι Πανὸς ἱρόν, καὶ αὐτὸν ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς ἀγγελίης θυσίῃσι ἐπετείοισι καὶ λαμπάδι ἱλάσκονται.
6.133 παραλαβὼν δὲ ὁ Μιλτιάδης τὴν στρατιὴν ἔπλεε ἐπὶ Πάρον, πρόφασιν ἔχων ὡς οἱ Πάριοι ὑπῆρξαν πρότεροι στρατευόμενοι τριήρεσι ἐς Μαραθῶνα ἅμα τῷ Πέρσῃ. τοῦτο μὲν δὴ πρόσχημα λόγων ἦν, ἀτάρ τινα καὶ ἔγκοτον εἶχε τοῖσι Παρίοισι διὰ Λυσαγόρεα τὸν Τισίεω, ἐόντα γένος Πάριον, διαβαλόντα μιν πρὸς Ὑδάρνεα τὸν Πέρσην. ἀπικόμενος δὲ ἐπʼ ἣν ἔπλεε ὁ Μιλτιάδης τῇ στρατιῇ ἐπολιόρκεε Παρίους κατειλημένους ἐντὸς τείχεος, καὶ ἐσπέμπων κήρυκα αἴτεε ἑκατὸν τάλαντα, φάς, ἢν μιν οὐ δῶσι, οὐκ ἀπονοστήσειν τὴν στρατιὴν πρὶν ἢ ἐξέλῃ σφέας. οἱ δὲ Πάριοι ὅκως μέν τι δώσουσι Μιλτιάδῃ ἀργύριον οὐδὲ διενοεῦντο, οἳ δὲ ὅκως διαφυλάξουσι τὴν πόλιν τοῦτο ἐμηχανῶντο, ἄλλα τε ἐπιφραζόμενοι καὶ τῇ μάλιστα ἔσκε ἑκάστοτε ἐπίμαχον τοῦ τείχεος, τοῦτο ἅμα νυκτὶ ἐξηείρετο διπλήσιον τοῦ ἀρχαίου. 6.134 ἐς μὲν δὴ τοσοῦτο τοῦ λόγου οἱ πάντες Ἕλληνες λέγουσι, τὸ ἐνθεῦτεν δὲ αὐτοὶ Πάριοι γενέσθαι ὧδε λέγουσι. Μιλτιάδῃ ἀπορέοντι ἐλθεῖν ἐς λόγους αἰχμάλωτον γυναῖκα, ἐοῦσαν μὲν Παρίην γένος, οὔνομα δέ οἱ εἶναι Τιμοῦν, εἶναι δὲ ὑποζάκορον τῶν χθονίων θεῶν· ταύτην ἐλθοῦσαν ἐς ὄψιν Μιλτιάδεω συμβουλεῦσαι, εἰ περὶ πολλοῦ ποιέεται Πάρον ἑλεῖν, τὰ ἂν αὐτὴ ὑποθῆται, ταῦτα ποιέειν. μετὰ δὲ τὴν μὲν ὑποθέσθαι, τὸν δὲ διερχόμενον ἐπὶ τὸν κολωνὸν τὸν πρὸ τῆς πόλιος ἐόντα ἕρκος θεσμοφόρου Δήμητρος ὑπερθορεῖν, οὐ δυνάμενον τὰς θύρας ἀνοῖξαι, ὑπερθορόντα δὲ ἰέναι ἐπὶ τὸ μέγαρον ὅ τι δὴ ποιήσοντα ἐντός, εἴτε κινήσοντά τι τῶν ἀκινήτων εἴτε ὅ τι δή κοτε πρήξοντα· πρὸς τῇσι θύρῃσί τε γενέσθαι καὶ πρόκατε φρίκης αὐτὸν ὑπελθούσης ὀπίσω τὴν αὐτὴν ὁδὸν ἵεσθαι, καταθρώσκοντα δὲ τὴν αἱμασιὴν τὸν μηρὸν σπασθῆναι· οἳ δὲ αὐτὸν τὸ γόνυ προσπταῖσαι λέγουσι. 6.135 Μιλτιάδης μέν νυν φλαύρως ἔχων ἀπέπλεε ὀπίσω, οὔτε χρήματα Ἀθηναίοισι ἄγων οὔτε Πάρον προσκτησάμενος, ἀλλὰ πολιορκήσας τε ἓξ καὶ εἴκοσι ἡμέρας καὶ δηιώσας τὴν νῆσον. Πάριοι δὲ πυθόμενοι ὡς ἡ ὑποζάκορος τῶν θεῶν Τιμὼ Μιλτιάδῃ κατηγήσατο, βουλόμενοί μιν ἀντὶ τούτων τιμωρήσασθαι, θεοπρόπους πέμπουσι ἐς Δελφούς ὥς σφεας ἡσυχίη τῆς πολιορκίης ἔσχε· ἔπεμπον δὲ ἐπειρησομένους εἰ καταχρήσωνται τὴν ὑποζάκορον τῶν θεῶν τὴν ἐξηγησαμένην τοῖσι ἐχθροῖσι τῆς πατρίδος ἅλωσιν καὶ τὰ ἐς ἔρσενα γόνον ἄρρητα ἱρὰ ἐκφήνασαν Μιλτιάδῃ. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οὐκ ἔα, φᾶσα οὐ Τιμοῦν εἶναι τὴν αἰτίην τούτων, ἀλλὰ δεῖν γὰρ Μιλτιάδεα τελευτᾶν μὴ εὖ, φανῆναί οἱ τῶν κακῶν κατηγεμόνα. 6.136 παρίοισι μὲν δὴ ταῦτα ἡ Πυθίη ἔχρησε· Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ ἐκ Πάρου Μιλτιάδεα ἀπονοστήσαντα ἔσχον ἐν στόμασι οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ μάλιστα Ξάνθιππος ὁ Ἀρίφρονος, ὃς θανάτου ὑπαγαγὼν ὑπὸ τὸν δῆμον Μιλτιάδεα ἐδίωκε τῆς Ἀθηναίων ἀπάτης εἵνεκεν. Μιλτιάδης δὲ αὐτὸς μὲν παρεὼν οὐκ ἀπελογέετο· ἦν γὰρ ἀδύνατος ὥστε σηπομένου τοῦ μηροῦ· προκειμένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐν κλίνῃ ὑπεραπελογέοντο οἱ φίλοι, τῆς μάχης τε τῆς ἐν Μαραθῶνι γενομένης πολλὰ ἐπιμεμνημένοι καὶ τὴν Λήμνου αἵρεσιν, ὡς ἑλὼν Λῆμνόν τε καὶ τισάμενος τοὺς Πελασγοὺς παρέδωκε Ἀθηναίοισι. προσγενομένου δὲ τοῦ δήμου αὐτῷ κατὰ τὴν ἀπόλυσιν τοῦ θανάτου, ζημιώσαντος δὲ κατὰ τὴν ἀδικίην πεντήκοντα ταλάντοισι, Μιλτιάδης μὲν μετὰ ταῦτα σφακελίσαντός τε τοῦ μηροῦ καὶ σαπέντος τελευτᾷ, τὰ δὲ πεντήκοντα τάλαντα ἐξέτισε ὁ παῖς αὐτοῦ Κίμων.
7.133 ἐς δὲ Ἀθήνας καὶ Σπάρτην οὐκ ἀπέπεμψε Ξέρξης ἐπὶ γῆς αἴτησιν κήρυκας τῶνδε εἵνεκα· πρότερον Δαρείου πέμψαντος ἐπʼ αὐτὸ τοῦτο, οἳ μὲν αὐτῶν τοὺς αἰτέοντας ἐς τὸ βάραθρον οἳ δʼ ἐς φρέαρ ἐμβαλόντες ἐκέλευον γῆν τε καὶ ὕδωρ ἐκ τούτων φέρειν παρὰ βασιλέα. τούτων μὲν εἵνεκα οὐκ ἔπεμψε Ξέρξης τοὺς αἰτήσοντας· ὅ τι δὲ τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι ταῦτα ποιήσασι τοὺς κήρυκας συνήνεικε ἀνεθέλητον γενέσθαι, οὐκ ἔχω εἶπαί τι, πλὴν ὅτι σφέων ἡ χώρη καὶ ἡ πόλις ἐδηιώθη. ἀλλὰ τοῦτο οὐ διὰ ταύτην τὴν αἰτίην δοκέω γενέσθαι. 7.134 τοῖσι δὲ ὦν Λακεδαιμονίοισι μῆνις κατέσκηψε Ταλθυβίου τοῦ Ἀγαμέμνονος κήρυκος. ἐν γὰρ Σπάρτῃ ἐστὶ Ταλθυβίου ἱρόν, εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἀπόγονοι Ταλθυβιάδαι καλεόμενοι, τοῖσι αἱ κηρυκηίαι αἱ ἐκ Σπάρτης πᾶσαι γέρας δέδονται. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Σπαρτιήτῃσι καλλιερῆσαι θυομένοισι οὐκ ἐδύνατο· τοῦτο δʼ ἐπὶ χρόνον συχνὸν ἦν σφι. ἀχθομένων δὲ καὶ συμφορῇ χρεωμένων Λακεδαιμονίων, ἁλίης τε πολλάκις συλλεγομένης καὶ κήρυγμα τοιόνδε ποιευμένων, εἴ τις βούλοιτο Λακεδαιμονίων πρὸ τῆς Σπάρτης ἀποθνήσκειν, Σπερθίης τε ὁ Ἀνηρίστου καὶ Βοῦλις ὁ Νικόλεω, ἄνδρες Σπαρτιῆται φύσι τε γεγονότες εὖ καὶ χρήμασι ἀνήκοντες ἐς τὰ πρῶτα, ἐθελονταὶ ὑπέδυσαν ποινὴν τῖσαι Ξέρξῃ τῶν Δαρείου κηρύκων τῶν ἐν Σπάρτῃ ἀπολομένων. οὕτω Σπαρτιῆται τούτους ὡς ἀποθανευμένους ἐς Μήδους ἀπέπεμψαν. 7.135 αὕτη τε ἡ τόλμα τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν θώματος ἀξίη καὶ τάδε πρὸς τούτοισι τὰ ἔπεα. πορευόμενοι γὰρ ἐς Σοῦσα ἀπικνέονται παρὰ Ὑδάρνεα· ὁ δὲ Ὑδάρνης ἦν μὲν γένος Πέρσης, στρατηγὸς δὲ τῶν παραθαλασσίων ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ· ὅς σφεας ξείνια προθέμενος ἱστία, ξεινίζων δὲ εἴρετο τάδε. “ἄνδρες Λακεδαιμόνιοι, τί δὴ φεύγετε βασιλέι φίλοι γενέσθαι; ὁρᾶτε γὰρ ὡς ἐπίσταται βασιλεὺς ἄνδρας ἀγαθοὺς τιμᾶν, ἐς ἐμέ τε καὶ τὰ ἐμὰ πρήγματα ἀποβλέποντες. οὕτω δὲ καὶ ὑμεῖς εἰ δοίητε ὑμέας αὐτοὺς βασιλέι, δεδόξωσθε γὰρ πρὸς αὐτοῦ ἄνδρες εἶναι ἀγαθοί, ἕκαστος ἂν ὑμέων ἄρχοι γῆς Ἑλλάδος δόντος βασιλέος.” πρὸς ταῦτα ὑπεκρίναντο τάδε. “Ὕδαρνες, οὐκ ἐξ ἴσου γίνεται ἡ συμβουλίη ἡ ἐς ἡμέας τείνουσα. τοῦ μὲν γὰρ πεπειρημένος συμβουλεύεις, τοῦ δὲ ἄπειρος ἐών· τὸ μὲν γὰρ δοῦλος εἶναι ἐξεπίστεαι, ἐλευθερίης δὲ οὔκω ἐπειρήθης, οὔτʼ εἰ ἔστι γλυκὺ οὔτʼ εἰ μή. εἰ γὰρ αὐτῆς πειρήσαιο, οὐκ ἂν δόρασι συμβουλεύοις ἡμῖν περὶ αὐτῆς μάχεσθαι, ἀλλὰ καὶ πελέκεσι.” 7.136 ταῦτα μὲν Ὑδάρνεα ἀμείψαντο. ἐνθεῦτεν δὲ ὡς ἀνέβησαν ἐς Σοῦσα καὶ βασιλέι ἐς ὄψιν ἦλθον, πρῶτα μὲν τῶν δορυφόρων κελευόντων καὶ ἀνάγκην σφι προσφερόντων προσκυνέειν βασιλέα προσπίπτοντας, οὐκ ἔφασαν ὠθεόμενοι ὑπʼ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν ποιήσειν ταῦτα οὐδαμά· οὔτε γὰρ σφίσι ἐν νόμῳ εἶναι ἄνθρωπον προσκυνέειν οὔτε κατὰ ταῦτα ἥκειν. ὡς δὲ ἀπεμαχέσαντο τοῦτο, δεύτερά σφι λέγουσι τάδε καὶ λόγου τοιοῦδε ἐχόμενα “ὦ βασιλεῦ Μήδων, ἔπεμψαν ἡμέας Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἀντὶ τῶν ἐν Σπάρτῃ ἀπολομένων κηρύκων ποινὴν ἐκείνων τίσοντας,” λέγουσι δὲ αὐτοῖσι ταῦτα Ξέρξης ὑπὸ μεγαλοφροσύνης οὐκ ἔφη ὅμοιος ἔσεσθαι Λακεδαιμονίοισι· κείνους μὲν γὰρ συγχέαι τὰ πάντων ἀνθρώπων νόμιμα ἀποκτείναντας κήρυκας, αὐτὸς δὲ τὰ ἐκείνοισι ἐπιπλήσσει ταῦτα οὐ ποιήσειν, οὐδὲ ἀνταποκτείνας ἐκείνους ἀπολύσειν Λακεδαιμονίους τῆς αἰτίης. 7.137 οὕτω ἡ Ταλθυβίου μῆνις καὶ ταῦτα ποιησάντων Σπαρτιητέων ἐπαύσατο τὸ παραυτίκα, καίπερ ἀπονοστησάντων ἐς Σπάρτην Σπερθίεώ τε καὶ Βούλιος. χρόνῳ δὲ μετέπειτα πολλῷ ἐπηγέρθη κατὰ τὸν Πελοποννησίων καὶ Ἀθηναίων πόλεμον, ὡς λέγουσι Λακεδαιμόνιοι. τοῦτο μοι ἐν τοῖσι θειότατον φαίνεται γενέσθαι. ὅτι μὲν γὰρ κατέσκηψε ἐς ἀγγέλους ἡ Ταλθυβίου μῆνις οὐδὲ ἐπαύσατο πρὶν ἢ ἐξῆλθε, τὸ δίκαιον οὕτω ἔφερε· τὸ δὲ συμπεσεῖν ἐς τοὺς παῖδας τῶν ἀνδρῶν τούτων τῶν ἀναβάντων πρὸς βασιλέα διὰ τὴν μῆνιν, ἐς Νικόλαν τε τὸν Βούλιος καὶ ἐς Ἀνήριστον τὸν Σπερθίεω, ὃς εἷλε Ἁλιέας τοὺς ἐκ Τίρυνθος ὁλκάδι καταπλώσας πλήρεϊ ἀνδρῶν, δῆλον ὦν μοι ὅτι θεῖον ἐγένετο τὸ πρῆγμα ἐκ τῆς μήνιος· οἳ γὰρ πεμφθέντες ὑπὸ Λακεδαιμονίων ἄγγελοι ἐς τὴν Ἀσίην, προδοθέντες δὲ ὑπὸ Σιτάλκεω τοῦ Τήρεω Θρηίκων βασιλέος καὶ Νυμφοδώρου τοῦ Πύθεω ἀνδρὸς Ἀβδηρίτεω, ἥλωσαν κατὰ Βισάνθην τὴν ἐν Ἑλλησπόντῳ, καὶ ἀπαχθέντες ἐς τὴν Ἀττικὴν ἀπέθανον ὑπὸ Ἀθηναίων, μετὰ δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ Ἀριστέας ὁ Ἀδειμάντου Κορίνθιος ἀνήρ. ταῦτα μέν νυν πολλοῖσι ἔτεσι ὕστερον ἐγένετο τοῦ βασιλέος στόλου, ἐπάνειμι δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν πρότερον λόγον.
8.37 ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀγχοῦ ἦσαν οἱ βάρβαροι ἐπιόντες καὶ ἀπώρων τὸ ἱρόν, ἐν τούτῳ ὁ προφήτης, τῷ οὔνομα ἦν Ἀκήρατος, ὁρᾷ πρὸ τοῦ νηοῦ ὅπλα προκείμενα ἔσωθεν ἐκ τοῦ μεγάρου ἐξενηνειγμένα ἱρά, τῶν οὐκ ὅσιον ἦν ἅπτεσθαι ἀνθρώπων οὐδενί. ὃ μὲν δὴ ἤιε Δελφῶν τοῖσι παρεοῦσι σημανέων τὸ τέρας· οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι ἐπειδὴ ἐγίνοντο ἐπειγόμενοι κατὰ τὸ ἱρὸν τῆς Προναίης Ἀθηναίης, ἐπιγίνεταί σφι τέρεα ἔτι μέζονα τοῦ πρὶν γενομένου τέρεος. θῶμα μὲν γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο κάρτα ἐστί, ὅπλα ἀρήια αὐτόματα φανῆναι ἔξω προκείμενα τοῦ νηοῦ· τὰ δὲ δὴ ἐπὶ τούτῳ δεύτερα ἐπιγενόμενα καὶ διὰ πάντων φασμάτων ἄξια θωμάσαι μάλιστα. ἐπεὶ γὰρ δὴ ἦσαν ἐπιόντες οἱ βάρβαροι κατὰ τὸ ἱρὸν τῆς Προναίης Ἀθηναίης, ἐν τούτῳ ἐκ μὲν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κεραυνοὶ αὐτοῖσι ἐνέπιπτον, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Παρνησοῦ ἀπορραγεῖσαι δύο κορυφαὶ ἐφέροντο πολλῷ πατάγῳ ἐς αὐτοὺς καὶ κατέβαλον συχνούς σφεων, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ ἱροῦ τῆς Προναίης βοή τε καὶ ἀλαλαγμὸς ἐγίνετο. 8.38 συμμιγέντων δὲ τούτων πάντων, φόβος τοῖσι βαρβάροισι ἐνεπεπτώκεε. μαθόντες δὲ οἱ Δελφοὶ φεύγοντας σφέας, ἐπικαταβάντες ἀπέκτειναν πλῆθός τι αὐτῶν. οἱ δὲ περιεόντες ἰθὺ Βοιωτῶν ἔφευγον. ἔλεγον δὲ οἱ ἀπονοστήσαντες οὗτοι τῶν βαρβάρων, ὡς ἐγὼ πυνθάνομαι, ὡς πρὸς τούτοισι καὶ ἄλλα ὥρων θεῖα· δύο γὰρ ὁπλίτας μέζονας ἢ κατʼ ἀνθρώπων φύσιν ἔχοντας ἕπεσθαί σφι κτείνοντας καὶ διώκοντας. 8.39 τούτους δὲ τοὺς δύο Δελφοὶ λέγουσι εἶναι ἐπιχωρίους ἥρωας, Φύλακόν τε καὶ Αὐτόνοον, τῶν τὰ τεμένεα ἐστὶ περὶ τὸ ἱρόν, Φυλάκου μὲν παρʼ αὐτὴν τὴν ὁδὸν κατύπερθε τοῦ ἱροῦ τῆς Προναίης, Αὐτονόου δὲ πέλας τῆς Κασταλίης ὑπὸ τῇ Ὑαμπείῃ κορυφῇ. οἱ δὲ πεσόντες ἀπὸ τοῦ Παρνησοῦ λίθοι ἔτι καὶ ἐς ἡμέας ἦσαν σόοι, ἐν τῷ τεμένεϊ τῆς Προναίης Ἀθηναίης κείμενοι, ἐς τὸ ἐνέσκηψαν διὰ τῶν βαρβάρων φερόμενοι. τούτων μέν νυν τῶν ἀνδρῶν αὕτη ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱροῦ ἀπαλλαγὴ γίνεται.
8.55 τοῦ δὲ εἵνεκεν τούτων ἐπεμνήσθην, φράσω. ἔστι ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλι ταύτῃ Ἐρεχθέος τοῦ γηγενέος λεγομένου εἶναι νηός, ἐν τῷ ἐλαίη τε καὶ θάλασσα ἔνι, τὰ λόγος παρὰ Ἀθηναίων Ποσειδέωνά τε καὶ Ἀθηναίην ἐρίσαντας περὶ τῆς χώρης μαρτύρια θέσθαι. ταύτην ὦν τὴν ἐλαίην ἅμα τῷ ἄλλῳ ἱρῷ κατέλαβε ἐμπρησθῆναι ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων· δευτέρῃ δὲ ἡμέρῃ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐμπρήσιος Ἀθηναίων οἱ θύειν ὑπὸ βασιλέος κελευόμενοι ὡς ἀνέβησαν ἐς τὸ ἱρόν, ὥρων βλαστὸν ἐκ τοῦ στελέχεος ὅσον τε πηχυαῖον ἀναδεδραμηκότα. οὗτοι μέν νυν ταῦτα ἔφρασαν.
8.65 ἔφη δὲ Δίκαιος ὁ Θεοκύδεος, ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος φυγάς τε καὶ παρὰ Μήδοισι λόγιμος γενόμενος τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον, ἐπείτε ἐκείρετο ἡ Ἀττικὴ χώρη ὑπὸ τοῦ πεζοῦ στρατοῦ τοῦ Ξέρξεω ἐοῦσα ἔρημος Ἀθηναίων, τυχεῖν τότε ἐὼν ἅμα Δημαρήτῳ τῷ Λακεδαιμονίῳ ἐν τῷ Θριασίῳ πεδίῳ, ἰδεῖν δὲ κονιορτὸν χωρέοντα ἀπʼ Ἐλευσῖνος ὡς ἀνδρῶν μάλιστά κῃ τρισμυρίων, ἀποθωμάζειν τε σφέας τὸν κονιορτὸν ὅτεων κοτὲ εἴη ἀνθρώπων, καὶ πρόκατε φωνῆς ἀκούειν, καί οἱ φαίνεσθαι τὴν φωνὴν εἶναι τὸν μυστικὸν ἴακχον. εἶναι δʼ ἀδαήμονα τῶν ἱρῶν τῶν ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι γινομένων τὸν Δημάρητον, εἰρέσθαί τε αὐτὸν ὅ τι τὸ φθεγγόμενον εἴη τοῦτο. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰπεῖν “Δημάρητε, οὐκ ἔστι ὅκως οὐ μέγα τι σίνος ἔσται τῇ βασιλέος στρατιῇ· τάδε γὰρ ἀρίδηλα, ἐρήμου ἐούσης τῆς Ἀττικῆς, ὅτι θεῖον τὸ φθεγγόμενον, ἀπʼ Ἐλευσῖνος ἰὸν ἐς τιμωρίην Ἀθηναίοισί τε καὶ τοῖσι συμμάχοισι. καὶ ἢν μέν γε κατασκήψῃ ἐς τὴν Πελοπόννησον, κίνδυνος αὐτῷ τε βασιλέι καὶ τῇ στρατιῇ τῇ ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ ἔσται, ἢν δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς νέας τράπηται τὰς ἐν Σαλαμῖνι, τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατὸν κινδυνεύσει βασιλεὺς ἀποβαλεῖν. τὴν δὲ ὁρτὴν ταύτην ἄγουσι Ἀθηναῖοι ἀνὰ πάντα ἔτεα τῇ Μητρὶ καὶ τῇ Κούρῃ, καὶ αὐτῶν τε ὁ βουλόμενος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων μυεῖται· καὶ τὴν φωνὴν τῆς ἀκούεις ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ὁρτῇ ἰακχάζουσι.” πρὸς ταῦτα εἰπεῖν Δημάρητον “σίγα τε καὶ μηδενὶ ἄλλῳ τὸν λόγον τοῦτον εἴπῃς· ἢν γάρ τοι ἐς βασιλέα ἀνενειχθῇ τὰ ἔπεα ταῦτα, ἀποβαλέεις τὴν κεφαλήν, καὶ σε οὔτε ἐγὼ δυνήσομαι ῥύσασθαι οὔτʼ ἄλλος ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ εἶς. ἀλλʼ ἔχʼ ἥσυχος, περὶ δὲ στρατιῆς τῆσδε θεοῖσι μελήσει.” τὸν μὲν δὴ ταῦτα παραινέειν, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ κονιορτοῦ καὶ τῆς φωνῆς γενέσθαι νέφος καὶ μεταρσιωθὲν φέρεσθαι ἐπὶ Σαλαμῖνος ἐπὶ τὸ στρατόπεδον τὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων. οὕτω δὴ αὐτοὺς μαθεῖν ὅτι τὸ ναυτικὸν τὸ Ξέρξεω ἀπολέεσθαι μέλλοι. ταῦτα μὲν Δίκαιος ὁ Θεοκύδεος ἔλεγε, Δημαρήτου τε καὶ ἄλλων μαρτύρων καταπτόμενος.
8.122 πέμψαντες δὲ ἀκροθίνια οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐπειρώτων τὸν θεὸν κοινῇ εἰ λελάβηκε πλήρεα καὶ ἀρεστὰ τὰ ἀκροθίνια. ὁ δὲ παρʼ Ἑλλήνων μὲν τῶν ἄλλων ἔφησε ἔχειν, παρὰ Αἰγινητέων δὲ οὔ, ἀλλὰ ἀπαίτεε αὐτοὺς τὰ ἀριστήια τῆς ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ναυμαχίης. Αἰγινῆται δὲ πυθόμενοι ἀνέθεσαν ἀστέρας χρυσέους, οἳ ἐπὶ ἱστοῦ χαλκέου ἑστᾶσι τρεῖς ἐπὶ τῆς γωνίης, ἀγχοτάτω τοῦ Κροίσου κρητῆρος.
9.62 ταῦτα δʼ ἔτι τούτου ἐπικαλεομένου προεξαναστάντες πρότεροι οἱ Τεγεῆται ἐχώρεον ἐς τοὺς βαρβάρους, καὶ τοῖσι Λακεδαιμονίοισι αὐτίκα μετὰ τὴν εὐχὴν τὴν Παυσανίεω ἐγίνετο θυομένοισι τὰ σφάγια χρηστά· ὡς δὲ χρόνῳ κοτὲ ἐγένετο, ἐχώρεον καὶ οὗτοι ἐπὶ τοὺς Πέρσας, καὶ οἱ Πέρσαι ἀντίοι τὰ τόξα μετέντες. ἐγίνετο δὲ πρῶτον περὶ τὰ γέρρα μάχη. ὡς δὲ ταῦτα ἐπεπτώκεε, ἤδη ἐγίνετο ἡ μάχη ἰσχυρὴ παρʼ αὐτὸ τὸ Δημήτριον καὶ χρόνον ἐπὶ πολλόν, ἐς ὃ ἀπίκοντο ἐς ὠθισμόν· τὰ γὰρ δόρατα ἐπιλαμβανόμενοι κατέκλων οἱ βάρβαροι. λήματι μέν νυν καὶ ῥώμῃ οὐκ ἥσσονες ἦσαν οἱ Πέρσαι, ἄνοπλοι δὲ ἐόντες καὶ πρὸς ἀνεπιστήμονες ἦσαν καὶ οὐκ ὅμοιοι τοῖσι ἐναντίοισι σοφίην, προεξαΐσσοντες δὲ κατʼ ἕνα καὶ δέκα, καὶ πλεῦνές τε καὶ ἐλάσσονες συστρεφόμενοι, ἐσέπιπτον ἐς τοὺς Σπαρτιήτας καὶ διεφθείροντο.
9.65 ἐν δὲ Πλαταιῇσι οἱ Πέρσαι ὡς ἐτράποντο ὑπὸ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων, ἔφευγον οὐδένα κόσμον ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον τὸ ἑωυτῶν καὶ ἐς τὸ τεῖχος τὸ ξύλινον τὸ ἐποιήσαντο ἐν μοίρῃ τῇ Θηβαΐδι. θῶμα δέ μοι ὅκως παρὰ τῆς Δήμητρος τὸ ἄλσος μαχομένων οὐδὲ εἷς ἐφάνη τῶν Περσέων οὔτε ἐσελθὼν ἐς τὸ τέμενος οὔτε ἐναποθανών, περί τε τὸ ἱρὸν οἱ πλεῖστοι ἐν τῷ βεβήλῳ ἔπεσον. δοκέω δέ, εἴ τι περὶ τῶν θείων πρηγμάτων δοκέειν δεῖ, ἡ θεὸς αὐτή σφεας οὐκ ἐδέκετο ἐμπρήσαντας τὸ ἱρὸν τὸ ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι ἀνάκτορον.
9.100 ὡς δὲ ἄρα παρεσκευάδατο τοῖσι Ἕλλησι, προσήισαν πρὸς τοὺς βαρβάρους· ἰοῦσι δέ σφι φήμη τε ἐσέπτατο ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον πᾶν καὶ κηρυκήιον ἐφάνη ἐπὶ τῆς κυματωγῆς κείμενον· ἡ δὲ φήμη διῆλθέ σφι ὧδε, ὡς οἱ Ἕλληνες τὴν Μαρδονίου στρατιὴν νικῷεν ἐν Βοιωτοῖσι μαχόμενοι. δῆλα δὴ πολλοῖσι τεκμηρίοισι ἐστὶ τὰ θεῖα τῶν πρηγμάτων, εἰ καὶ τότε, τῆς αὐτῆς ἡμέρης συμπιπτούσης τοῦ τε ἐν Πλαταιῇσι καὶ τοῦ ἐν Μυκάλῃ μέλλοντος ἔσεσθαι τρώματος, φήμη τοῖσι Ἕλλησι τοῖσι ταύτῃ ἐσαπίκετο, ὥστε θαρσῆσαί τε τὴν στρατιὴν πολλῷ μᾶλλον καὶ ἐθέλειν προθυμότερον κινδυνεύειν. 9.101 καὶ τόδε ἕτερον συνέπεσε γενόμενον, Δήμητρος τεμένεα Ἐλευσινίης παρὰ ἀμφοτέρας τὰς συμβολὰς εἶναι· καὶ γὰρ δὴ ἐν τῇ Πλαταιίδι παρʼ αὐτὸ τὸ Δημήτριον ἐγίνετο, ὡς καὶ πρότερόν μοι εἴρηται, ἡ μάχη, καὶ ἐν Μυκάλῃ ἔμελλε ὡσαύτως ἔσεσθαι. γεγονέναι δὲ νίκην τῶν μετὰ Παυσανίεω Ἑλλήνων ὀρθῶς σφι ἡ φήμη συνέβαινε ἐλθοῦσα· τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἐν Πλαταιῇσι πρωὶ ἔτι τῆς ἡμέρης ἐγίνετο, τὸ δὲ ἐν Μυκάλῃ περὶ δείλην· ὅτι δὲ τῆς αὐτῆς ἡμέρης συνέβαινε γίνεσθαι μηνός τε τοῦ αὐτοῦ, χρόνῳ οὐ πολλῷ σφι ὕστερον δῆλα ἀναμανθάνουσι ἐγίνετο. ἦν δὲ ἀρρωδίη σφι, πρὶν τὴν φήμην ἐσαπικέσθαι, οὔτι περὶ σφέων αὐτῶν οὕτω ὡς τῶν Ἑλλήνων, μὴ περὶ Μαρδονίῳ πταίσῃ ἡ Ἑλλάς. ὡς μέντοι ἡ κληδὼν αὕτη σφι ἐσέπτατο, μᾶλλόν, τι καὶ ταχύτερον τὴν πρόσοδον ἐποιεῦντο. οἱ μὲν δὴ Ἕλληνες καὶ οἱ βάρβαροι ἔσπευδον ἐς τὴν μάχην, ὥς σφι καί αἱ νῆσοι καὶ ὁ Ἑλλήσποντος ἄεθλα προέκειτο.' ' None
1.105 From there they marched against Egypt : and when they were in the part of Syria called Palestine, Psammetichus king of Egypt met them and persuaded them with gifts and prayers to come no further. ,So they turned back, and when they came on their way to the city of Ascalon in Syria, most of the Scythians passed by and did no harm, but a few remained behind and plundered the temple of Heavenly Aphrodite. ,This temple, I discover from making inquiry, is the oldest of all the temples of the goddess, for the temple in Cyprus was founded from it, as the Cyprians themselves say; and the temple on Cythera was founded by Phoenicians from this same land of Syria . ,But the Scythians who pillaged the temple, and all their descendants after them, were afflicted by the goddess with the “female” sickness: and so the Scythians say that they are afflicted as a consequence of this and also that those who visit Scythian territory see among them the condition of those whom the Scythians call “Hermaphrodites”.
1.165 The Phocaeans would have bought the islands called Oenussae from the Chians; but the Chians would not sell them, because they feared that the islands would become a market and so their own island be cut off from trade: so the Phocaeans prepared to sail to Cyrnus, where at the command of an oracle they had built a city called Alalia twenty years before. ,Arganthonius was by this time dead. While getting ready for their voyage, they first sailed to Phocaea, where they destroyed the Persian guard to whom Harpagus had entrusted the defense of the city; and when this was done, they called down mighty curses on any one of them who should stay behind when the rest sailed. ,Not only this, but they sank a mass of iron in the sea, and swore never to return to Phocaea before the iron should appear again. But while they prepared to sail to Cyrnus, more than half of the citizens were overcome with longing and pitiful sorrow for the city and the life of their land, and they broke their oath and sailed back to Phocaea . Those of them who kept the oath put out to sea from the Oenussae. ' "
2.42 All that have a temple of Zeus of Thebes or are of the Theban district sacrifice goats, but will not touch sheep. ,For no gods are worshipped by all Egyptians in common except Isis and Osiris, who they say is Dionysus; these are worshipped by all alike. Those who have a temple of Mendes or are of the Mendesian district sacrifice sheep, but will not touch goats. ,The Thebans, and those who by the Theban example will not touch sheep, give the following reason for their ordice: they say that Heracles wanted very much to see Zeus and that Zeus did not want to be seen by him, but that finally, when Heracles prayed, Zeus contrived ,to show himself displaying the head and wearing the fleece of a ram which he had flayed and beheaded. It is from this that the Egyptian images of Zeus have a ram's head; and in this, the Egyptians are imitated by the Ammonians, who are colonists from Egypt and Ethiopia and speak a language compounded of the tongues of both countries. ,It was from this, I think, that the Ammonians got their name, too; for the Egyptians call Zeus “Amon”. The Thebans, then, consider rams sacred for this reason, and do not sacrifice them. ,But one day a year, at the festival of Zeus, they cut in pieces and flay a single ram and put the fleece on the image of Zeus, as in the story; then they bring an image of Heracles near it. Having done this, all that are at the temple mourn for the ram, and then bury it in a sacred coffin. " 2.44 Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero.
2.48 To Dionysus, on the evening of his festival, everyone offers a piglet which he kills before his door and then gives to the swineherd who has sold it, for him to take away. ,The rest of the festival of Dionysus is observed by the Egyptians much as it is by the Greeks, except for the dances; but in place of the phallus, they have invented the use of puppets two feet high moved by strings, the male member nodding and nearly as big as the rest of the body, which are carried about the villages by women; a flute-player goes ahead, the women follow behind singing of Dionysus. ,Why the male member is so large and is the only part of the body that moves, there is a sacred legend that explains.
2.53 But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say. 2.54 But about the oracles in Hellas, and that one which is in Libya, the Egyptians give the following account. The priests of Zeus of Thebes told me that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas ; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries. ,When I asked them how it was that they could speak with such certain knowledge, they said in reply that their people had sought diligently for these women, and had never been able to find them, but had learned later the story which they were telling me.
2.59 The Egyptians hold solemn assemblies not once a year, but often. The principal one of these and the most enthusiastically celebrated is that in honor of Artemis at the town of Bubastis , and the next is that in honor of Isis at Busiris. ,This town is in the middle of the Egyptian Delta, and there is in it a very great temple of Isis, who is Demeter in the Greek language. ,The third greatest festival is at Saïs in honor of Athena; the fourth is the festival of the sun at Heliopolis, the fifth of Leto at Buto, and the sixth of Ares at Papremis.
2.63 When the people go to Heliopolis and Buto, they offer sacrifice only. At Papremis sacrifice is offered and rites performed just as elsewhere; but when the sun is setting, a few of the priests hover about the image, while most of them go and stand in the entrance to the temple with clubs of wood in their hands; others, more than a thousand men fulfilling vows, who also carry wooden clubs, stand in a mass opposite. ,The image of the god, in a little gilded wooden shrine, they carry away on the day before this to another sacred building. The few who are left with the image draw a four-wheeled wagon conveying the shrine and the image that is in the shrine; the others stand in the space before the doors and do not let them enter, while the vow-keepers, taking the side of the god, strike them, who defend themselves. ,A fierce fight with clubs breaks out there, and they are hit on their heads, and many, I expect, even die from their wounds; although the Egyptians said that nobody dies. ,The natives say that they made this assembly a custom from the following incident: the mother of Ares lived in this temple; Ares had been raised apart from her and came, when he grew up, wishing to visit his mother; but as her attendants kept him out and would not let him pass, never having seen him before, Ares brought men from another town, manhandled the attendants, and went in to his mother. From this, they say, this hitting for Ares became a custom in the festival. ' "
2.82 Other things originating with the Egyptians are these. Each month and day belong to one of the gods, and according to the day of one's birth are determined how one will fare and how one will end and what one will be like; those Greeks occupied with poetry exploit this. ,More portents have been discovered by them than by all other peoples; when a portent occurs, they take note of the outcome and write it down; and if something of a like kind happens again, they think it will have a like result. " "
2.171 On this lake they enact by night the story of the god's sufferings, a rite which the Egyptians call the Mysteries. I could say more about this, for I know the truth, but let me preserve a discreet silence. ,Let me preserve a discreet silence, too, concerning that rite of Demeter which the Greeks call
4.186 Thus from Egypt to the Tritonian lake, the Libyans are nomads that eat meat and drink milk; for the same reason as the Egyptians too profess, they will not touch the flesh of cows; and they rear no swine. ,The women of Cyrene, too, consider it wrong to eat cows' flesh, because of the Isis of Egypt; and they even honor her with fasts and festivals; and the Barcaean women refuse to eat swine too, as well as cows. " "
4.188 The nomads' way of sacrificing is to cut a piece from the victim's ear for first-fruits and throw it over the house; then they wring the victim's neck. They sacrifice to no gods except the sun and moon; that is, this is the practice of the whole nation; but the dwellers by the Tritonian lake sacrifice to Athena chiefly, and next to Triton and Poseidon. " '4.189 It would seem that the robe and aegis of the images of Athena were copied by the Greeks from the Libyan women; for except that Libyan women dress in leather, and that the tassels of their goatskin cloaks are not snakes but thongs of hide, in everything else their equipment is the same. ,And in fact, the very name betrays that the attire of the statues of Pallas has come from Libya; for Libyan women wear the hairless tasselled “aegea” over their dress, colored with madder, and the Greeks have changed the name of these aegeae into their “aegides.” ,Furthermore, in my opinion the ceremonial chant first originated in Libya: for the women of that country chant very tunefully. And it is from the Libyans that the Greeks have learned to drive four-horse chariots.
4.198 In my opinion, there is in no part of Libya any great excellence for which it should be compared to Asia or Europe, except in the region which is called by the same name as its river, Cinyps. ,But this region is a match for the most fertile farmland in the world, nor is it at all like to the rest of Libya. For the soil is black and well-watered by springs, and has no fear of drought, nor is it harmed by drinking excessive showers (there is rain in this part of Libya). Its yield of grain is of the same measure as in the land of Babylon. ,The land inhabited by the Euhesperitae is also good; it yields at the most a hundredfold; but the land of the Cinyps region yields three hundredfold.
5.59 I have myself seen Cadmean writing in the temple of Ismenian Apollo at Thebes of Boeotia engraved on certain tripods and for the most part looking like Ionian letters. On one of the tripods there is this inscription:
5.60 A second tripod says, in hexameter verse:
5.61 The third tripod says, in hexameter verse again:
5.67 In doing this, to my thinking, this Cleisthenes was imitating his own mother's father, Cleisthenes the tyrant of Sicyon, for Cleisthenes, after going to war with the Argives, made an end of minstrels' contests at Sicyon by reason of the Homeric poems, in which it is the Argives and Argos which are primarily the theme of the songs. Furthermore, he conceived the desire to cast out from the land Adrastus son of Talaus, the hero whose shrine stood then as now in the very marketplace of Sicyon because he was an Argive. ,He went then to Delphi, and asked the oracle if he should cast Adrastus out, but the priestess said in response: “Adrastus is king of Sicyon, and you but a stone thrower.” When the god would not permit him to do as he wished in this matter, he returned home and attempted to devise some plan which might rid him of Adrastus. When he thought he had found one, he sent to Boeotian Thebes saying that he would gladly bring Melanippus son of Astacus into his country, and the Thebans handed him over. ,When Cleisthenes had brought him in, he consecrated a sanctuary for him in the government house itself, where he was established in the greatest possible security. Now the reason why Cleisthenes brought in Melanippus, a thing which I must relate, was that Melanippus was Adrastus' deadliest enemy, for Adrastus had slain his brother Mecisteus and his son-in-law Tydeus. ,Having then designated the precinct for him, Cleisthenes took away all Adrastus' sacrifices and festivals and gave them to Melanippus. The Sicyonians had been accustomed to pay very great honor to Adrastus because the country had once belonged to Polybus, his maternal grandfather, who died without an heir and bequeathed the kingship to him. ,Besides other honors paid to Adrastus by the Sicyonians, they celebrated his lamentable fate with tragic choruses in honor not of Dionysus but of Adrastus. Cleisthenes, however, gave the choruses back to Dionysus and the rest of the worship to Melanippus. " "
5.72 When Cleomenes had sent for and demanded the banishment of Cleisthenes and the Accursed, Cleisthenes himself secretly departed. Afterwards, however, Cleomenes appeared in Athens with no great force. Upon his arrival, he, in order to take away the curse, banished seven hundred Athenian families named for him by Isagoras. Having so done he next attempted to dissolve the Council, entrusting the offices of government to Isagoras' faction. ,The Council, however, resisted him, whereupon Cleomenes and Isagoras and his partisans seized the acropolis. The rest of the Athenians united and besieged them for two days. On the third day as many of them as were Lacedaemonians left the country under truce. ,The prophetic voice that Cleomenes heard accordingly had its fulfillment, for when he went up to the acropolis with the intention of taking possession of it, he approached the shrine of the goddess to address himself to her. The priestess rose up from her seat, and before he had passed through the door-way, she said, “Go back, Lacedaemonian stranger, and do not enter the holy place since it is not lawful that Dorians should pass in here. “My lady,” he answered, “I am not a Dorian, but an Achaean.” ,So without taking heed of the omen, he tried to do as he pleased and was, as I have said, then again cast out together with his Lacedaemonians. As for the rest, the Athenians imprisoned them under sentence of death. Among the prisoners was Timesitheus the Delphian, whose achievements of strength and courage were quite formidable. " "
5.82 This was the beginning of the Aeginetans' long-standing debt of enmity against the Athenians. The Epidaurians' land bore no produce. For this reason they inquired at Delphi concerning this calamity, and the priestess bade them set up images of Damia and Auxesia, saying that if they so did their luck would be better. The Epidaurians then asked in addition whether they should make the images of bronze or of stone, and the priestess bade them do neither, but make them of the wood of the cultivated olive. ,So the men of Epidaurus asked the Athenians to permit them to cut down some olive trees, supposing the olives there to be the holiest. Indeed it is said that at that time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. ,The Athenians consented to give the trees, if the Epidaurians would pay yearly sacred dues to Athena, the city's goddess, and to Erechtheus. The Epidaurians agreed to this condition, and their request was granted. When they set up images made of these olive trees, their land brought forth fruit, and they fulfilled their agreement with the Athenians." '5.83 Now at this time, as before it, the Aeginetans were in all matters still subject to the Epidaurians and even crossed to Epidaurus for the hearing of their own private lawsuits. From this time, however, they began to build ships, and stubbornly revolted from the Epidaurians. ,In the course of this struggle, they did the Epidaurians much damage and stole their images of Damia and Auxesia. These they took away and set them up in the middle of their own country at a place called Oea, about twenty furlongs distant from their city. ,Having set them up in this place they sought their favor with sacrifices and female choruses in the satirical and abusive mode. Ten men were appointed providers of a chorus for each of the deities, and the choruses aimed their raillery not at any men but at the women of the country. The Epidaurians too had the same rites, and they have certain secret rites as well. 5.84 When these images were stolen, the Epidaurians ceased from fulfilling their agreement with the Athenians. Then the Athenians sent an angry message to the Epidaurians who pleaded in turn that they were doing no wrong. “For as long,” they said, “as we had the images in our country, we fulfilled our agreement. Now that we are deprived of them, it is not just that we should still be paying. Ask your dues of the men of Aegina, who have the images.” ,The Athenians therefore sent to Aegina and demanded that the images be restored, but the Aeginetans answered that they had nothing to do with the Athenians. ' "5.85 The Athenians report that after making this demand, they despatched one trireme with certain of their citizens who, coming in the name of the whole people to Aegina, attempted to tear the images, as being made of Attic wood, from their bases so that they might carry them away. ,When they could not obtain possession of them in this manner, they tied cords around the images with which they could be dragged. While they were attempting to drag them off, they were overtaken both by a thunderstorm and an earthquake. This drove the trireme's crew to such utter madness that they began to slay each other as if they were enemies. At last only one of all was left, who returned by himself to Phalerum." '5.86 This is the Athenian version of the matter, but the Aeginetans say that the Athenians came not in one ship only, for they could easily have kept off a single ship, or several, for that matter, even if they had no navy themselves. The truth was, they said, that the Athenians descended upon their coasts with many ships and that they yielded to them without making a fight of it at sea. ,They are not able to determine clearly whether it was because they admitted to being weaker at sea-fighting that they yielded, or because they were planning what they then actually did. ,When, as the Aeginetans say, no man came out to fight with them, the Athenians disembarked from their ships and turned their attention to the images. Unable to drag them from the bases, they fastened cords on them and dragged them until they both—this I cannot believe, but another might—fell on their knees. Both have remained in this position ever since. ,This is what the Athenians did, but the Aeginetans say that they discovered that the Athenians were about to make war upon them and therefore assured themselves of help from the Argives. So when the Athenians disembarked on the land of Aegina, the Argives came to aid the Aeginetans, crossing over from Epidaurus to the island secretly. They then fell upon the Athenians unaware and cut them off from their ships. It was at this moment that the thunderstorm and earthquake came upon them 5.87 This, then, is the story told by the Argives and Aeginetans, and the Athenians too acknowledge that only one man of their number returned safely to Attica. ,The Argives, however, say that he escaped after they had destroyed the rest of the Athenian force, while the Athenians claim that the whole thing was to be attributed to divine power. This one man did not survive but perished in the following manner. It would seem that he made his way to Athens and told of the mishap. When the wives of the men who had gone to attack Aegina heard this, they were very angry that he alone should be safe. They gathered round him and stabbed him with the brooch-pins of their garments, each asking him where her husband was. ,This is how this man met his end, and the Athenians found the action of their women to be more dreadful than their own misfortune. They could find, it is said, no other way to punish the women than changing their dress to the Ionian fashion. Until then the Athenian women had worn Dorian dress, which is very like the Corinthian. It was changed, therefore, to the linen tunic, so that they might have no brooch-pins to use. 5.88 The truth of the matter, however, is that this form of dress is not in its origin Ionian, but Carian, for in ancient times all women in Greece wore the costume now known as Dorian. ,As for the Argives and Aeginetans, this was the reason of their passing a law in both their countries that brooch-pins should be made half as long as they used to be and that brooches should be the principal things offered by women in the shrines of these two goddesses. Furthermore, nothing else Attic should be brought to the temple, not even pottery, and from that time on only drinking vessels made in the country should be used.
5.105 Onesilus, then, besieged Amathus. When it was reported to Darius that Sardis had been taken and burnt by the Athenians and Ionians and that Aristagoras the Milesian had been leader of the conspiracy for the making of this plan, he at first, it is said, took no account of the Ionians since he was sure that they would not go unpunished for their rebellion. Darius did, however, ask who the Athenians were, and after receiving the answer, he called for his bow. This he took and, placing an arrow on it, and shot it into the sky, praying as he sent it aloft, ,“O Zeus, grant me vengeance on the Athenians.” Then he ordered one of his servants to say to him three times whenever dinner was set before him, “Master, remember the Athenians.”
6.91 But this happened later. The rich men of Aegina gained mastery over the people, who had risen against them with Nicodromus, then made them captive and led them out to be killed. Because of this a curse fell upon them, which despite all their efforts they could not get rid of by sacrifice, and they were driven out of their island before the goddess would be merciful to them. ,They had taken seven hundred of the people alive; as they led these out for slaughter one of them escaped from his bonds and fled to the temple gate of Demeter the Lawgiver, where he laid hold of the door-handles and clung to them. They could not tear him away by force, so they cut off his hands and carried him off, and those hands were left clinging fast to the door-handles.
6.98 After doing this, Datis sailed with his army against Eretria first, taking with him Ionians and Aeolians; and after he had put out from there, Delos was shaken by an earthquake, the first and last, as the Delians say, before my time. This portent was sent by heaven, as I suppose, to be an omen of the ills that were coming on the world. ,For in three generations, that is, in the time of Darius son of Hystaspes and Xerxes son of Darius and Artaxerxes son of Xerxes, more ills happened to Hellas than in twenty generations before Darius; some coming from the Persians, some from the wars for preeminence among the chief of the nations themselves. ,Thus it was no marvel that there should be an earthquake in Delos when there had been none before. Also there was an oracle concerning Delos, where it was written:
6.105 While still in the city, the generals first sent to Sparta the herald Philippides, an Athenian and a long-distance runner who made that his calling. As Philippides himself said when he brought the message to the Athenians, when he was in the Parthenian mountain above Tegea he encountered Pan. ,Pan called out Philippides' name and bade him ask the Athenians why they paid him no attention, though he was of goodwill to the Athenians, had often been of service to them, and would be in the future. ,The Athenians believed that these things were true, and when they became prosperous they established a sacred precinct of Pan beneath the Acropolis. Ever since that message they propitiate him with annual sacrifices and a torch-race. " "
6.133 Miltiades took his army and sailed for Paros, on the pretext that the Parians had brought this on themselves by first sending triremes with the Persian fleet to Marathon. Such was the pretext of his argument, but he had a grudge against the Parians because Lysagoras son of Tisias, a man of Parian descent, had slandered him to Hydarnes the Persian. ,When he reached his voyage's destination, Miltiades with his army drove the Parians inside their walls and besieged them; he sent in a herald and demanded a hundred talents, saying that if they did not give it to him, his army would not return home before it had stormed their city. ,The Parians had no intention of giving Miltiades any money at all, and they contrived how to defend their city. They did this by building their wall at night to double its former height where it was most assailable, and also by other devices." '6.134 All the Greeks tell the same story up to this point; after this the Parians themselves say that the following happened: as Miltiades was in a quandary, a captive woman named Timo, Parian by birth and an under-priestess of the goddesses of the dead, came to talk with him. ,Coming before Miltiades, she advised him, if taking Paros was very important to him, to do whatever she suggested. Then, following her advice, he passed through to the hill in front of the city and jumped over the fence of the precinct of Demeter the Lawgiver, since he was unable to open the door. After leaping over, he went to the shrine, whether to move something that should not be moved, or with some other intention. When he was right at the doors, he was immediately seized with panic and hurried back by the same route; leaping down from the wall he twisted his thigh, but some say he hit his knee. ' "6.135 So Miltiades sailed back home in a sorry condition, neither bringing money for the Athenians nor having won Paros; he had besieged the town for twenty-six days and ravaged the island. ,The Parians learned that Timo the under-priestess of the goddesses had been Miltiades' guide and desired to punish her for this. Since they now had respite from the siege, they sent messengers to Delphi to ask if they should put the under-priestess to death for guiding their enemies to the capture of her native country, and for revealing to Miltiades the rites that no male should know. ,But the Pythian priestess forbade them, saying that Timo was not responsible: Miltiades was doomed to make a bad end, and an apparition had led him in these evils. " "6.136 Such was the priestess' reply to the Parians. The Athenians had much to say about Miltiades on his return from Paros, especially Xanthippus son of Ariphron, who prosecuted Miltiades before the people for deceiving the Athenians and called for the death penalty. ,Miltiades was present but could not speak in his own defense, since his thigh was festering; he was laid before the court on a couch, and his friends spoke for him, often mentioning the fight at Marathon and the conquest of Lemnos: how Miltiades had punished the Pelasgians and taken Lemnos, delivering it to the Athenians. ,The people took his side as far as not condemning him to death, but they fined him fifty talents for his wrongdoing. Miltiades later died of gangrene and rot in his thigh, and the fifty talents were paid by his son Cimon. " 7.133 To Athens and Sparta Xerxes sent no heralds to demand earth, and this he did for the following reason. When Darius had previously sent men with this same purpose, those who made the request were cast at the one city into the Pit and at the other into a well, and bidden to obtain their earth and water for the king from these locations. ,What calamity befell the Athenians for dealing in this way with the heralds I cannot say, save that their land and their city were laid waste. I think, however, that there was another reason for this, and not the aforesaid.' "7.134 Be that as it may, the anger of Talthybius, Agamemnon's herald, fell upon the Lacedaemonians. At Sparta there is a shrine of Talthybius and descendants of Talthybius called Talthybiadae, who have the special privilege of conducting all embassies from Sparta. ,Now there was a long period after the incident I have mentioned above during which the Spartans were unable to obtain good omens from sacrifice. The Lacedaemonians were grieved and dismayed by this and frequently called assemblies, making a proclamation inviting some Lacedaemonian to give his life for Sparta. Then two Spartans of noble birth and great wealth, Sperthias son of Aneristus and Bulis son of Nicolaus, undertook of their own free will to make atonement to Xerxes for Darius' heralds who had been killed at Sparta. ,Thereupon the Spartans sent these men to Media for execution. " "7.135 Worthy of admiration was these men's deed of daring, and so also were their sayings. On their way to Susa, they came to Hydarnes, a Persian, who was general of the coast of Asia. He entertained and feasted them as his guests, and as they sat at his board, he asked: ,“Lacedaemonians, why do you shun the king's friendship? You can judge from what you see of me and my condition how well the king can honor men of worth. So might it be with you if you would but put yourselves in the king's hands, being as you are of proven worth in his eyes, and every one of you might by his commission be a ruler of Hellas.” ,To this the Spartans answered: “Your advice to us, Hydarnes, is not completely sound; one half of it rests on knowledge, but the other on ignorance. You know well how to be a slave, but you, who have never tasted freedom, do not know whether it is sweet or not. Were you to taste of it, not with spears you would counsel us to fight for it, no, but with axes.” " "7.136 This was their answer to Hydarnes. From there they came to Susa, into the king's presence, and when the guards commanded and would have compelled them to fall down and bow to the king, they said they would never do that. This they would refuse even if they were thrust down headlong, for it was not their custom, said they, to bow to mortal men, nor was that the purpose of their coming. Having averted that, they next said, ,“The Lacedaemonians have sent us, O king of the Medes, in requital for the slaying of your heralds at Sparta, to make atonement for their death,” and more to that effect. To this Xerxes, with great magimity, replied that he would not imitate the Lacedaemonians. “You,” said he, “made havoc of all human law by slaying heralds, but I will not do that for which I censure you, nor by putting you in turn to death will I set the Lacedaemonians free from this guilt.” " "7.137 This conduct on the part of the Spartans succeeded for a time in allaying the anger of Talthybius, in spite of the fact that Sperthias and Bulis returned to Sparta. Long after that, however, it rose up again in the war between the Peloponnesians and Athenians, as the Lacedaemonians say. That seems to me to be an indication of something divine. ,It was just that the wrath of Talthybius descended on ambassadors, nor abated until it was satisfied. The venting of it, however, on the sons of those men who went up to the king to appease it, namely on Nicolas son of Bulis and Aneristus son of Sperthias (that Aneristus who landed a merchant ships crew at the Tirynthian settlement of Halia and took it), makes it plain to me that this was the divine result of Talthybius' anger. ,These two had been sent by the Lacedaemonians as ambassadors to Asia, and betrayed by the Thracian king Sitalces son of Tereus and Nymphodorus son of Pytheas of Abdera, they were made captive at Bisanthe on the Hellespont, and carried away to Attica, where the Athenians put them, and with them Aristeas son of Adimantus, a Corinthian, to death. This happened many years after the king's expedition, and I return now to the course of my history. " 8.37 Now when the barbarians drew near and could see the temple, the prophet, whose name was Aceratus, saw certain sacred arms, which no man might touch without sacrilege, brought out of the chamber within and laid before the shrine. ,So he went to tell the Delphians of this miracle, but when the barbarians came with all speed near to the temple of Athena Pronaea, they were visited by miracles yet greater than the aforesaid. Marvellous indeed it is, that weapons of war should of their own motion appear lying outside in front of the shrine, but the visitation which followed was more wondrous than anything else ever seen. ,When the barbarians were near to the temple of Athena Pronaea, they were struck by thunderbolts from the sky, and two peaks broken off from Parnassus came rushing among them with a mighty noise and overwhelmed many of them. In addition to this a shout and a cry of triumph were heard from the temple of Athena. 8.38 All of this together struck panic into the barbarians, and the Delphians, perceiving that they fled, descended upon them and killed a great number. The survivors fled straight to Boeotia. Those of the barbarians who returned said (as I have been told) that they had seen other divine signs besides what I have just described: two men-at-arms of stature greater than human,they said, had come after them, slaying and pursuing. ' "8.39 These two, say the Delphians, were the native heroes Phylacus and Autonous, whose precincts are near the temple, Phylacus' by the road itself above the shrine of Athena Pronaea, and Autonous' near the Castalian spring, under the Hyarapean Peak. ,The rocks that fell from Parnassus were yet to be seen in my day, lying in the precinct of Athena Pronaea, from where their descent through the foreigners' ranks had hurled them. Such, then, was the manner of those men's departure from the temple. " "
8.55 I will tell why I have mentioned this. In that acropolis is a shrine of Erechtheus, called the “Earthborn,” and in the shrine are an olive tree and a pool of salt water. The story among the Athenians is that they were set there by Poseidon and Athena as tokens when they contended for the land. It happened that the olive tree was burnt by the barbarians with the rest of the sacred precinct, but on the day after its burning, when the Athenians ordered by the king to sacrifice went up to the sacred precinct, they saw a shoot of about a cubit's length sprung from the stump, and they reported this. " "
8.65 Dicaeus son of Theocydes, an Athenian exile who had become important among the Medes, said that at the time when the land of Attica was being laid waste by Xerxes' army and there were no Athenians in the country, he was with Demaratus the Lacedaemonian on the Thriasian plain and saw advancing from Eleusis a cloud of dust as if raised by the feet of about thirty thousand men. They marvelled at what men might be raising such a cloud of dust and immediately heard a cry. The cry seemed to be the “Iacchus” of the mysteries, ,and when Demaratus, ignorant of the rites of Eleusis, asked him what was making this sound, Dicaeus said, “Demaratus, there is no way that some great disaster will not befall the king's army. Since Attica is deserted, it is obvious that this voice is divine and comes from Eleusis to help the Athenians and their allies. ,If it descends upon the Peloponnese, the king himself and his army on the mainland will be endangered. If, however, it turns towards the ships at Salamis, the king will be in danger of losing his fleet. ,Every year the Athenians observe this festival for the Mother and the Maiden, and any Athenian or other Hellene who wishes is initiated. The voice which you hear is the ‘Iacchus’ they cry at this festival.” To this Demaratus replied, “Keep silent and tell this to no one else. ,If these words of yours are reported to the king, you will lose your head, and neither I nor any other man will be able to save you, so be silent. The gods will see to the army.” ,Thus he advised, and after the dust and the cry came a cloud, which rose aloft and floated away towards Salamis to the camp of the Hellenes. In this way they understood that Xerxes' fleet was going to be destroyed. Dicaeus son of Theocydes used to say this, appealing to Demaratus and others as witnesses. " "
8.122 Having sent the first-fruits to Delphi, the Greeks, in the name of the country generally, made inquiry of the god whether the first-fruits which he had received were of full measure and whether he was content. To this he said that he was content with what he had received from all other Greeks, but not from the Aeginetans. From these he demanded the victor's prize for the sea-fight of Salamis. When the Aeginetans learned that, they dedicated three golden stars which are set on a bronze mast, in the angle, nearest to Croesus' bowl. " "
9.62 While he was still in the act of praying, the men of Tegea leapt out before the rest and charged the barbarians, and immediately after Pausanias' prayer the sacrifices of the Lacedaemonians became favorable. Now they too charged the Persians, and the Persians met them, throwing away their bows. ,First they fought by the fence of shields, and when that was down, there was a fierce and long fight around the temple of Demeter itself, until they came to blows at close quarters. For the barbarians laid hold of the spears and broke them short. ,Now the Persians were neither less valorous nor weaker, but they had no armor; moreover, since they were unskilled and no match for their adversaries in craft, they would rush out singly and in tens or in groups great or small, hurling themselves on the Spartans and so perishing. " 9.65 At Plataea, however, the Persians, routed by the Lacedaemonians, fled in disorder to their own camp and inside the wooden walls which they had made in the territory of Thebes. ,It is indeed a marvel that although the battle was right by the grove of Demeter, there was no sign that any Persian had been killed in the precinct or entered into it; most of them fell near the temple in unconsecrated ground. I think—if it is necessary to judge the ways of the gods—that the goddess herself denied them entry, since they had burnt her temple, the shrine at Eleusis. ' "
9.100 The Greeks, having made all their preparations advanced their line against the barbarians. As they went, a rumor spread through the army, and a herald's wand was seen lying by the water-line. The rumor that ran was to the effect that the Greeks were victors over Mardonius' army at a battle in Boeotia. ,Now there are many clear indications of the divine ordering of things, seeing that a message, which greatly heartened the army and made it ready to face danger, arrived amongst the Greeks the very day on which the Persians' disaster at Plataea and that other which was to befall them at Mykale took place. " '9.101 Moreover, there was the additional coincidence, that there were precincts of Eleusinian Demeter on both battlefields; for at Plataea the fight was near the temple of Demeter, as I have already said, and so it was to be at Mykale also. ,It happened that the rumor of a victory won by the Greeks with Pausanias was true, for the defeat at Plataea happened while it was yet early in the day, and the defeat of Mykale in the afternoon. That the two fell on the same day of the same month was proven to the Greeks when they examined the matter not long afterwards. ,Now before this rumor came they had been faint-hearted, fearing less for themselves than for the Greeks with Pausanias, that Hellas should stumble over Mardonius. But when the report sped among them, they grew stronger and swifter in their onset. So Greeks and barbarians alike were eager for battle, seeing that the islands and the Hellespont were the prizes of victory. ' ' None
|17. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, Malophoros
Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 264; Eidinow (2007), Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks, 299
|637b μετὰ μέθης οὐκ ἂν τὴν μεγίστην δίκην εὐθὺς ἐπιθείη, καὶ οὐδʼ ἂν Διονύσια πρόφασιν ἔχοντʼ αὐτὸν λύσαιτο, ὥσπερ ἐν ἁμάξαις εἶδόν ποτε παρʼ ὑμῖν ἐγώ, καὶ ἐν Τάραντι δὲ παρὰ τοῖς ἡμετέροις ἀποίκοις πᾶσαν ἐθεασάμην τὴν πόλιν περὶ τὰ Διονύσια μεθύουσαν· παρʼ ἡμῖν δʼ οὐκ ἔστʼ οὐδὲν τοιοῦτον. ΑΘ. ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιε ξένε, ἐπαινετὰ μὲν πάντʼ ἐστὶν τὰ τοιαῦτα, ὅπου τινὲς ἔνεισιν καρτερήσεις, ὅπου δὲ ἀνεῖνται,'' None||637b nor would even the feast of Dionysus serve as an excuse to save him—a revel such as I once upon a time witnessed on the wagons in your country; and at our colony of Tarentum, too, saw the whole city drunk at the Dionysia. But with us no such thing is possible. Ath. O Stranger of Lacedaemon, all such indulgences are praiseworthy where there exists a strain of firm moral fiber,'' None|
|18. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter (goddess)
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 135; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 171
|364b καὶ πένητες ὦσιν, ὁμολογοῦντες αὐτοὺς ἀμείνους εἶναι τῶν ἑτέρων. τούτων δὲ πάντων οἱ περὶ θεῶν τε λόγοι καὶ ἀρετῆς θαυμασιώτατοι λέγονται, ὡς ἄρα καὶ θεοὶ πολλοῖς μὲν ἀγαθοῖς δυστυχίας τε καὶ βίον κακὸν ἔνειμαν, τοῖς δʼ ἐναντίοις ἐναντίαν μοῖραν. ἀγύρται δὲ καὶ μάντεις ἐπὶ πλουσίων θύρας ἰόντες πείθουσιν ὡς ἔστι παρὰ σφίσι δύναμις ἐκ θεῶν ποριζομένη θυσίαις τε καὶ ἐπῳδαῖς, εἴτε τι'' None||364b and disregard those who are in any way weak or poor, even while admitting that they are better men than the others. But the strangest of all these speeches are the things they say about the gods and virtue, how so it is that the gods themselves assign to many good men misfortunes and an evil life but to their opposites a contrary lot; and begging priests and soothsayers go to rich men’s doors and make them believe that they by means of sacrifices and incantations have accumulated a treasure of power from the gods that can expiate and cure with pleasurable festival'' None|
|19. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 366; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 366
|213d ἠράσθην, οὐκέτι ἔξεστίν μοι οὔτε προσβλέψαι οὔτε διαλεχθῆναι καλῷ οὐδʼ ἑνί, ἢ οὑτοσὶ ζηλοτυπῶν με καὶ φθονῶν θαυμαστὰ ἐργάζεται καὶ λοιδορεῖταί τε καὶ τὼ χεῖρε μόγις ἀπέχεται. ὅρα οὖν μή τι καὶ νῦν ἐργάσηται, ἀλλὰ διάλλαξον ἡμᾶς, ἢ ἐὰν ἐπιχειρῇ βιάζεσθαι, ἐπάμυνε, ὡς ἐγὼ τὴν τούτου μανίαν τε καὶ φιλεραστίαν πάνυ ὀρρωδῶ.'' None||213d either to look upon or converse with a single handsome person, but the fellow flies into a spiteful jealousy which makes him treat me in a monstrous fashion, girding at me and hardly keeping his hands to himself. So take care that he does no mischief now: pray reconcile us; or if he sets about using force, protect me, for I shudder with alarm at his amorous frenzy.'' None|
|20. Sophocles, Antigone, 1016 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 40, 41, 49; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 160
1016 And it is your will that is the source of the sickness now afflicting the city. For the altars of our city and our hearths have one and all been tainted by the birds and dogs with the carrion taken from the sadly fallen son of Oedipus. And so the gods no more accept prayer and sacrifice at our hands,'' None
|21. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 3.2.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • pompai, of Demeter and Kore
Found in books: Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 246; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 195
3.2.12 καὶ εὐξάμενοι τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι ὁπόσους κατακάνοιεν τῶν πολεμίων τοσαύτας χιμαίρας καταθύσειν τῇ θεῷ, ἐπεὶ οὐκ εἶχον ἱκανὰς εὑρεῖν, ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν πεντακοσίας θύειν, καὶ ἔτι νῦν ἀποθύουσιν.'' None
3.2.12 And while they had vowed to Artemis that for every man they might slay of the enemy they would sacrifice a goat to the goddess, they were unable to find goats enough; According to Herodotus ( Hdt. 6.117 ) the Persian dead numbered 6,400. so they resolved to offer five hundred every year, and this sacrifice they are paying even to this day. '' None
|22. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Eleusis • Demeter, Mysteries of
Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 323; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 268
|23. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, temples • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • priests and priestesses, of Demeter at Eleusis
Found in books: Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 50; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 61; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 137
|24. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, Dionysus and • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Eleusinian Mysteries and • Demeter, Hermes and • Demeter, Mysteries of • Demeter, Persephone/Kore and • Demeter, Zeus and • Demeter, dead, association with • Demeter, oaths invoking • Demeter, sanctuaries and temples • Dionysus, Demeter and • Hermes, Demeter/Persephone and • Persephone/Kore, Demeter and • Zeus, Demeter and • sanctuaries and temples, of Demeter • the dead, Demeter associated with
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 372; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 69; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 263; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 313; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 48; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 106, 393; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 209; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 43
|25. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, informal oaths invoking • Divinities (Greek and Roman), Demeter • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter
Found in books: Gazzarri and Weiner (2023), Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome. 43; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 108; Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 222; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 322, 323
|26. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Koro, cult of • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter
Found in books: Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198; Hunter (2018), The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad, 225; Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 46; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 56, 61, 109; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 33; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 124
|27. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Isocrates, origins of mysteries of Demeter • gennêtai, in mysteries of Demeter • mysteries, Demeter at Eleusis
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 67; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 218
|28. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres (Demeter) • Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 131; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 38; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 212
|29. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore • priests and priestesses, of Demeter at Eleusis
Found in books: Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 246; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 705; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 111; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 256
|30. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 366; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 366
|31. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 68; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198
|32. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.62 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres, see also Demeter • Demeter
Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 142; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 161
2.62 Those gods therefore who were the authors of various benefits owned their deification to the value of the benefits which they bestowed, and indeed the names that I just now enumerated express the various powers of the gods that bear them. "Human experience moreover and general custom have made it a practice to confer the deification of renown and gratitude upon of distinguished benefactors. This is the origin of Hercules, of Castor and Pollux, of Aesculapius, and also of Liber (I mean Liber the son of Semele, not the Liber whom our ancestors solemnly and devoutly consecrated with Ceres and Libera, the import of which joint consecration may be gathered from the mysteries; but Liber and Libera were so named as Ceres\' offspring, that being the meaning of our Latin word liberi — a use which has survived in the case of Libera but not of Liber) — and this is also the origin of Romulus, who is believed to be the same as Quirinus. And these benefactors were duly deemed divine, as being both supremely good and immortal, because their souls survived and enjoyed eternal life. '' None
|33. Catullus, Poems, 64.251, 95.4-95.7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres (Demeter) • Demeter
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 366; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 279; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 37; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 366
64.251 But from the further side came flitting bright-faced Iacchu 95.5 "Zmyrna" shall travel afar as the hollow breakers of Satrax, 95.6 "Zmyrna" by ages grey lastingly shall be perused.' "95.7 But upon Padus' brink shall die Volusius his annal" ' None
|34. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.96.4, 3.58-3.59, 3.62.6, 3.62.8, 3.65.6, 5.2, 5.4, 5.4.3, 5.4.7, 5.5.1-5.5.2, 5.75.4, 5.77.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore, in Sicily • Demeter and Koro, cult of • Demeter, Demeter en Korytheusi • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Demeter, at Eleusis, and rebirth, and Isis • Demeter, at Eleusis, and rebirth, and Sicily • Divine being, Demeter • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Isis, and Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • Sicily, sacred to Demeter • Syracuse\n, Demeter Pyrphoros, sanctuary of • Syracuse, Demeter in • Syracuse, Demeter in, Serapeum in
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 136, 137; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 406, 420, 561; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 65; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 76, 142, 198, 218; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 151; Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 46; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 92, 109, 268; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 34; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 667; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 71; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 144, 150, 228
|5.4 1. \xa0Like the two goddesses whom we have mentioned CorÃª, we are told, received as her portion the meadows round about Enna; but a great fountain was made sacred to her in the territory of Syracuse and given the name CyanÃª or "Azure Fount.",2. \xa0For the myth relates that it was near Syracuse that Pluton effected the Rape of CorÃª and took her away in his chariot, and that after cleaving the earth asunder he himself descended into Hades, taking along with him the bride whom he had seized, and that he caused the fountain named CyanÃª to gush forth, near which the Syracusans each year hold a notable festive gathering; and private individuals offer the lesser victims, but when the ceremony is on behalf of the community, bulls are plunged in the pool, this manner of sacrifice having been commanded by Heracles on the occasion when he made the circuit of all Sicily, while driving off the cattle of Geryones.,3. \xa0After the Rape of CorÃª, the myth does on to recount, Demeter, being unable to find her daughter, kindled torches in the craters of Mt.\xa0Aetna and visited many parts of the inhabited world, and upon the men who received her with the greatest favour she conferred briefs, rewarding them with the gift of the fruit of the wheat.,4. \xa0And since a more kindly welcome was extended the goddess by the Athenians than by any other people, they were the first after the Siceliotae to be given the fruit of the wheat; and in return for this gift the citizens of that city in assembly honoured the goddess above all others with the establishment both of most notable sacrifices and of the mysteries of Eleusis, which, by reason of their very great antiquity and sanctity, have come to be famous among all mankind. From the Athenians many peoples received a portion of the gracious gift of the corn, and they in turn, sharing the gift of the seed with their neighbours, in this way caused all the inhabited world to abound with it.,5. \xa0And the inhabitants of Sicily, since by reason of the intimate relationship of Demeter and CorÃª with them they were the first to share in the corn after its discovery, instituted to each one of the goddesses sacrifices and festive gatherings, which they named after them, and by the time chosen for these made acknowledgement of the gifts which had been conferred upon them.,6. \xa0In the case of CorÃª, for instance, they established the celebration of her return at about the time when the fruit of the corn was found to come to maturity, and they celebrate this sacrifice and festive gathering with such strictness of observance and such zeal as we should reasonably expect those men to show who are returning thanks for having been selected before all mankind for the greatest possible gift;,7. \xa0but in the case of Demeter they preferred that time for the sacrifice when the sowing of the corn is first begun, and for a period of ten days they hold a festive gathering which bears the name of this goddess and is most magnificent by reason of the brilliance of their preparation for it, while in the observance of it they imitate the ancient manner of life. And it is their custom during these days to indulge in coarse language as they associate one with another, the reason being that by such coarseness the goddess, grieved though she was at the Rape of CorÃª, burst into laughter.1.96.4 \xa0Orpheus, for instance, brought from Egypt most of his mystic ceremonies, the orgiastic rites that accompanied his wanderings, and his fabulous account of his experiences in Hades. |
3.58 1. \xa0However, an account is handed down also that this goddess was born in Phrygia. For the natives of that country have the following myth: In ancient times MeÃ¯on became king of Phrygia and Lydia; and marrying DindymÃª he begat an infant daughter, but being unwilling to rear her he exposed her on the mountain which was called Cybelus. There, in accordance with some divine providence, both the leopards and some of the other especially ferocious wild beasts offered their nipples to the child and so gave it nourishment,,2. \xa0and some women who were tending the flocks in that place witnessed the happening, and being astonished at the strange event took up the babe and called her CybelÃª after the name of the place. The child, as she grew up, excelled in both beauty and virtue and also came to be admired for her intelligence; for she was the first to devise the pipe of many reeds and to invent cymbals and kettledrums with which to accompany the games and the dance, and in addition she taught how to heal the sicknesses of both flocks and little children by means of rites of purification;,3. \xa0in consequence, since the babes were saved from death by her spells and were generally taken up in her arms, her devotion to them and affection for them led all the people to speak of her as the "mother of the mountain." The man who associated with her and loved her more than anyone else, they say, was Marsyas the physician, who was admired for his intelligence and chastity; and a proof of his intelligence they find in the fact that he imitated the sounds made by the pipe of many reeds and carried all its notes over into the flute, and as an indication of his chastity they cite his abstinence from sexual pleasures until the day of his death.,4. \xa0Now CybelÃª, the myth records, having arrived at full womanhood, came to love a certain native youth who was known as Attis, but at a later time received the appellation Papas; with him she consorted secretly and became with child, and at about the same time her parents recognized her as their child. \xa0Consequently she was brought up into the palace, and her father welcomed her at the outset under the impression that she was a virgin, but later, when he learned of her seduction, he put to death her nurses and Attis as well and cast their bodies forth to lie unburied; whereupon CybelÃª, they say, because of her love for the youth and grief over the nurses, became frenzied and rushed out of the palace into the countryside. And crying aloud and beating upon a kettledrum she visited every country alone, with hair hanging free, and Marsyas, out of pity for her plight, voluntarily followed her and accompanied her in her wanderings because of the love which he had formerly borne her.
3.62.6 \xa0And though the writers of myths have handed down the account of a\xa0third birth as well, at which, as they say, the Sons of Gaia tore to pieces the god, who was a son of Zeus and Demeter, and boiled him, but his members were brought together again by Demeter and he experienced a new birth as if for the first time, such accounts as this they trace back to certain causes found in nature.
3.62.8 \xa0And with these stories the teachings agree which are set forth in the Orphic poems and are introduced into their rites, but it is not lawful to recount them in detail to the uninitiated.
3.65.6 \xa0Thereupon, out of gratitude to Charops for the aid the man had rendered him, Dionysus made over to him the kingdom of the Thracians and instructed him in the secret rites connected with the initiations; and Oeagrus, the son of Charops, then took over both the kingdom and the initiatory rites which were handed down in the mysteries, the rites which afterwards Orpheus, the son of Oeagrus, who was the superior of all men in natural gifts and education, learned from his father; Orpheus also made many changes in the practices and for that reason the rites which had been established by Dionysus were also called "Orphic."
5.4 1. \xa0Like the two goddesses whom we have mentioned CorÃª, we are told, received as her portion the meadows round about Enna; but a great fountain was made sacred to her in the territory of Syracuse and given the name CyanÃª or "Azure Fount.",2. \xa0For the myth relates that it was near Syracuse that Pluton effected the Rape of CorÃª and took her away in his chariot, and that after cleaving the earth asunder he himself descended into Hades, taking along with him the bride whom he had seized, and that he caused the fountain named CyanÃª to gush forth, near which the Syracusans each year hold a notable festive gathering; and private individuals offer the lesser victims, but when the ceremony is on behalf of the community, bulls are plunged in the pool, this manner of sacrifice having been commanded by Heracles on the occasion when he made the circuit of all Sicily, while driving off the cattle of Geryones.,3. \xa0After the Rape of CorÃª, the myth does on to recount, Demeter, being unable to find her daughter, kindled torches in the craters of Mt.\xa0Aetna and visited many parts of the inhabited world, and upon the men who received her with the greatest favour she conferred briefs, rewarding them with the gift of the fruit of the wheat.,4. \xa0And since a more kindly welcome was extended the goddess by the Athenians than by any other people, they were the first after the Siceliotae to be given the fruit of the wheat; and in return for this gift the citizens of that city in assembly honoured the goddess above all others with the establishment both of most notable sacrifices and of the mysteries of Eleusis, which, by reason of their very great antiquity and sanctity, have come to be famous among all mankind. From the Athenians many peoples received a portion of the gracious gift of the corn, and they in turn, sharing the gift of the seed with their neighbours, in this way caused all the inhabited world to abound with it.,5. \xa0And the inhabitants of Sicily, since by reason of the intimate relationship of Demeter and CorÃª with them they were the first to share in the corn after its discovery, instituted to each one of the goddesses sacrifices and festive gatherings, which they named after them, and by the time chosen for these made acknowledgement of the gifts which had been conferred upon them.,6. \xa0In the case of CorÃª, for instance, they established the celebration of her return at about the time when the fruit of the corn was found to come to maturity, and they celebrate this sacrifice and festive gathering with such strictness of observance and such zeal as we should reasonably expect those men to show who are returning thanks for having been selected before all mankind for the greatest possible gift;,7. \xa0but in the case of Demeter they preferred that time for the sacrifice when the sowing of the corn is first begun, and for a period of ten days they hold a festive gathering which bears the name of this goddess and is most magnificent by reason of the brilliance of their preparation for it, while in the observance of it they imitate the ancient manner of life. And it is their custom during these days to indulge in coarse language as they associate one with another, the reason being that by such coarseness the goddess, grieved though she was at the Rape of CorÃª, burst into laughter.' "
5.5.1 \xa0That the Rape of CorÃª took place in the manner we have described is attested by many ancient historians and poets. Carcinus the tragic poet, for instance, who often visited in Syracuse and witnessed the zeal which the inhabitants displayed in the sacrifices and festive gatherings for both Demeter and CorÃª, has the following verses in his writings: Demeter's daughter, her whom none may name, By secret schemings Pluton, men say, stole, And then he dropped into earth's depths, whose light Is darkness. Longing for the vanished girl Her mother searched and visited all lands In turn. And Sicily's land by Aetna's crags Was filled with streams of fire which no man could Approach, and groaned throughout its length; in grief Over the maiden now the folk, beloved of Zeus, was perishing without the corn. Hence honour they these goddesses e'en now. " '5.7
5.4 \xa0As for Dionysus, the myths state that he discovered the vine and its cultivation, and also how to make wine and to store away many of the autumn fruits and thus to provide mankind with the use of them as food over a long time. This god was born in Crete, men say, of Zeus and PersephonÃª, and Orpheus has handed down the tradition in the initiatory rites that he was torn in pieces by the Titans. And the fact is that there have been several who bore the name Dionysus, regarding whom we have given a detailed account at greater length in connection with the more appropriate period of time.
5.77.3 \xa0Such, then, are the myths which the Cretans recount of the gods who they claim were born in their land. They also assert that the honours accorded to the gods and their sacrifices and the initiatory rites observed in connection with the mysteries were handed down from Crete to the rest of men, and to support this they advance the following most weighty argument, as they conceive it: The initiatory rite which is celebrated by the Athenians in Eleusis, the most famous, one may venture, of them all, and that of Samothrace, and the one practised in Thrace among the Cicones, whence Orpheus came who introduced them â\x80\x94 these are all handed down in the form of a mystery, whereas at Cnosus in Crete it has been the custom for ancient times that these initiatory rites should be handed down to all openly, and what is handed down among other peoples as not to be divulged, this the Cretans conceal from no one who may wish to inform himself upon such matters.' '' None
|35. Horace, Sermones, 1.4.11, 1.10.50 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 366; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 366
1.4.11 As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary.
1.4.11 but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. ' ' None
|36. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5.341-5.348, 5.359, 5.363, 5.365-5.368, 5.370-5.375, 5.377-5.379, 5.409, 5.415, 5.468-5.469, 5.525-5.526, 5.552, 5.584, 5.605-5.606, 5.621-5.625, 5.635-5.638, 6.114, 6.117, 8.549-8.559 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres (Demeter) • Ceres (Demeter),, Hymn to Demeter • Demeter • Demeter, • Demeter, Demeter en Korytheusi • Hymn to Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 137; Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 366; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 406; Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 545; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 63, 64, 69, 70, 86, 142; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 366; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 667
5.341 “Prima Ceres unco glaebam dimovit aratro, 5.342 prima dedit fruges alimentaque mitia terris, 5.343 prima dedit leges: Cereris sunt omnia munus. 5.344 Illa canenda mihi est. Utinam modo dicere possem 5.345 carmina digna dea: certe dea carmine digna est. 5.346 Vasta giganteis ingesta est insula membris 5.347 Trinacris et magnis subiectum molibus urget 5.348 aetherias ausum sperare Typhoea sedes.
5.363 depositoque metu, videt hunc Erycina vagantem
5.365 “arma manusque meae, mea, nate, potentia”, dixit, 5.366 “illa, quibus superas omnes, cape tela, Cupido, 5.367 inque dei pectus celeres molire sagittas, 5.368 cui triplicis cessit fortuna novissima regni.
5.370 victa domas ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti. 5.371 Tartara quid cessant? cur non matrisque tuumque 5.372 imperium profers? agitur pars tertia mundi. 5.373 Et tamen in caelo, quae iam patientia nostra est, 5.374 spernimur, ac mecum vires minuuntur Amoris. 5.375 Pallada nonne vides iaculatricemque Dianam
5.377 si patiemur, erit: nam spes adfectat easdem. 5.378 At tu, pro socio, siqua est ea gratia, regno 5.379 iunge deam patruo.” Dixit Venus. Ille pharetram
5.468 Signa tamen manifesta dedit notamque parenti, 5.469 illo forte loco delapsam in gurgite sacro,
5.525 addere vera placet, non hoc iniuria factum, 5.526 verum amor est; neque erit nobis gener ille pudori,
5.584 corporis erubui, crimenque placere putavi.
5.605 ut fugere accipitrem penna trepidante columbae, 5.606 ut solet accipiter trepidas urgere columbas.
5.621 Mota dea est spissisque ferens e nubibus unam 5.622 me super iniecit. Lustrat caligine tectam 5.623 amnis et ignarus circum cava nubila quaerit. 5.625 et bis “io Arethusa io Arethusa!” vocavit.
5.635 ros cadit, et citius, quam nunc tibi facta renarro, 5.636 in latices mutor. Sed enim cognoscit amatas 5.637 amnis aquas, positoque viri, quod sumpserat, ore 5.638 vertitur in proprias, ut se mihi misceat, undas.
6.114 Mnemosynen pastor, varius Deoida serpens.
8.549 Clausit iter fecitque moras Achelous eunti 8.550 imbre tumens. “Succede meis,” ait “inclite, tectis, 8.551 Cecropida, nec te committe rapacibus undis: 8.552 ferre trabes solidas obliquaque volvere magno 8.553 murmure saxa solent. Vidi contermina ripae 8.555 profuit armentis, nec equis velocibus esse. 8.556 Multa quoque hic torrens nivibus de monte solutis 8.557 corpora turbineo iuvenalia flumine mersit. 8.558 Tutior est requies, solito dum flumina currant 8.559 limite, dum tenues capiat suus alveus undas.”' ' None
5.341 to Perseus, and confessed his wicked deeds; 5.342 and thus imploring spoke; 5.343 “Remove, I pray, 5.344 O Perseus, thou invincible, remove 5.345 from me that dreadful Gorgon: take away 5.346 the stone-creating countece of thy 5.347 unspeakable Medusa! For we warred 5.348 not out of hatred, nor to gain a throne,
5.363 a monument, that ages may record
5.365 thus always, in the palace where reside 5.366 my father-in-law, that my surrendered spouse 5.367 may soften her great grief when she but see 5.368 the darling image of her first betrothed.”
5.370 where Phineus had turned his trembling face: 5.371 and as he struggled to avert his gaze 5.372 his neck grew stiff; the moisture of his eye 5.373 was hardened into stone.—And since that day 5.374 his timid face and coward eyes and hands, 5.375 forever shall be guilty as in life.
5.377 and sought the confines of his native land; 5.378 together with his bride; which, having reached, 5.379 he punished Proetus—who by force of arm
5.468 he stood, as if to follow, and exclaimed; 5.469 ‘A path for you marks out a way for me.,
5.525 Diana in a cat; Venus in a fish; 5.526 Saturnian Juno in a snow-white cow;
5.584 may be enlarged according to great need.
5.605 a fringe of trees, encircling as a wreath 5.606 its compassed waters, with a leafy veil
5.621 fell from her loosened tunic.—This mishap, 5.622 o perfect was her childish innocence, 5.623 increased her virgin grief.— 5.625 urged on his chariot, and inspired his steeds;
5.635 and Arethusa lies a moon-like pool, 5.636 of silvered narrow horns. There stood the Nymph, 5.637 revered above all others in that land, 5.638 whose name was Cyane. From her that pond
6.114 and all their features were so nicely drawn,
8.549 with fatal onset rushed among this band 8.550 of noble lads, and stretched upon the ground 8.551 Eupalamon and Pelagon whose guard 8.552 was on the right; and their companions bore 8.553 their bodies from the field. 8.555 the brave son of Hippocoon received 8.556 a deadly wound—while turning to escape, 8.557 the sinew of his thigh was cut and failed 8.558 to bear his tottering steps.— 8.559 And Nestor might' ' None
|37. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ceres (Demeter) • Ceres (Demeter),, Hymn to Demeter • Demeter • Hymn to Demeter
Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 69, 142; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 667
|38. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 1.5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 420; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 196
1.5.1 Πλούτων δὲ Περσεφόνης ἐρασθεὶς Διὸς συνεργοῦντος ἥρπασεν αὐτὴν κρύφα. Δημήτηρ δὲ μετὰ λαμπάδων νυκτός τε καὶ ἡμέρας κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ζητοῦσα περιῄει· μαθοῦσα δὲ παρʼ Ἑρμιονέων ὅτι Πλούτων αὐτὴν ἥρπασεν, ὀργιζομένη θεοῖς κατέλιπεν 1 -- οὐρανόν, εἰκασθεῖσα δὲ γυναικὶ ἧκεν εἰς Ἐλευσῖνα. καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀπʼ ἐκείνης κληθεῖσαν Ἀγέλαστον ἐκάθισε πέτραν παρὰ τὸ Καλλίχορον φρέαρ καλούμενον, ἔπειτα πρὸς Κελεὸν ἐλθοῦσα τὸν βασιλεύοντα τότε Ἐλευσινίων, ἔνδον οὐσῶν γυναικῶν, καὶ λεγουσῶν τούτων παρʼ αὑτὰς καθέζεσθαι, γραῖά τις Ἰάμβη σκώψασα τὴν θεὸν ἐποίησε μειδιᾶσαι. διὰ τοῦτο ἐν τοῖς θεσμοφορίοις τὰς γυναῖκας σκώπτειν λέγουσιν. ὄντος δὲ τῇ τοῦ Κελεοῦ γυναικὶ Μετανείρᾳ παιδίου, τοῦτο ἔτρεφεν ἡ Δημήτηρ παραλαβοῦσα· βουλομένη δὲ αὐτὸ ἀθάνατον ποιῆσαι, τὰς νύκτας εἰς πῦρ κατετίθει τὸ βρέφος καὶ περιῄρει τὰς θνητὰς σάρκας αὐτοῦ. καθʼ ἡμέραν δὲ παραδόξως αὐξανομένου τοῦ Δημοφῶντος (τοῦτο γὰρ ἦν ὄνομα τῷ παιδί) ἐπετήρησεν ἡ Πραξιθέα, 1 -- καὶ καταλαβοῦσα εἰς πῦρ ἐγκεκρυμμένον ἀνεβόησε· διόπερ τὸ μὲν βρέφος ὑπὸ τοῦ πυρὸς ἀνηλώθη, ἡ θεὰ δὲ αὑτὴν ἐξέφηνε.'' None
1.5.1 Pluto fell in love with Persephone and with the help of Zeus carried her off secretly. But Demeter went about seeking her all over the earth with torches by night and day, and learning from the people of Hermion that Pluto had carried her off, she was wroth with the gods and quitted heaven, and came in the likeness of a woman to Eleusis . And first she sat down on the rock which has been named Laughless after her, beside what is called the Well of the Fair Dances; thereupon she made her way to Celeus, who at that time reigned over the Eleusinians. Some women were in the house, and when they bade her sit down beside them, a certain old crone, Iambe, joked the goddess and made her smile. For that reason they say that the women break jests at the Thesmophoria. But Metanira, wife of Celeus, had a child and Demeter received it to nurse, and wishing to make it immortal she set the babe of nights on the fire and stripped off its mortal flesh. But as Demophon — for that was the child's name— grew marvelously by day, Praxithea watched, and discovering him buried in the fire she cried out; wherefore the babe was consumed by the fire and the goddess revealed herself."" None
|39. New Testament, John, 12.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Mysteries, Greater (of Eleusis) Homeric Hymn to Demeter and
Found in books: Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 181; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 359
12.24 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ ὁ κόκκος τοῦ σίτου πεσὼν εἰς τὴν γῆν ἀποθάνῃ, αὐτὸς μόνος μένει· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ, πολὺν καρπὸν φέρει.'' None
12.24 Most assuredly I tell you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains by itself alone. But if it dies, it bears much fruit. '' None
|40. Plutarch, Aristides, 11.3-11.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, Eleusinia of Plataea • Demeter, Eleusinian • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter
Found in books: Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 162; Mikalson (2003), Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars, 94, 95; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 269
11.3 Ἀριστείδου δὲ πέμψαντος εἰς Δελφοὺς ἀνεῖλεν ὁ θεὸς Ἀθηναίους καθυπερτέρους ἔσεσθαι τῶν ἐναντίων εὐχομένους τῷ Διῒ καὶ τῇ Ἥρα τῇ Κιθαιρωνίᾳ καὶ Πανὶ καὶ νύμφαις Σφραγίτισι, καὶ θύοντας ἥρωσιν Ἀνδροκράτει, Λεύκωνι, Πεισάνδρῳ, Δαμοκράτει, Ὑψίωνι, Ἀκταίωνι, Πολϋΐδῳ, καὶ τὸν κίνδυνον ἐν γᾷ ἰδίᾳ ποιουμένους ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τᾶς Δάματρος τᾶς Ἐλευσινίας καὶ τᾶς Κόρας. 11.4 οὗτος ὁ χρησμὸς ἀνενεχθεὶς ἀπορίαν τῷ Ἀριστείδῃ παρεῖχεν. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἥρωες, οἷς ἐκέλευε θύειν, ἀρχηγέται Πλαταιέων ἦσαν, καὶ τὸ τῶν Σφραγιτίδων νυμφῶν ἄντρον ἐν μιᾷ κορυφῇ τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνός ἐστιν, εἰς δυσμὰς ἡλίου θερινὰς τετραμμένον, ἐν ᾧ καὶ μαντεῖον ἦν πρότερον, ὥς φασι, καὶ πολλοὶ κατείχοντο τῶν ἐπιχωρίων, οὓς νυμφολήπτους προσηγόρευον. 11.5 τὸ δὲ τῆς Ἐλευσινίας Δήμητρος πεδίον, καὶ τὸ τὴν μάχην ἐν ἰδίᾳ χώρᾳ ποιουμένοις τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις νίκην δίδοσθαι, πάλιν εἰς τὴν Ἀττικὴν ἀνεκαλεῖτο καὶ μεθίστη τὸν πόλεμον. ἔνθα τῶν Πλαταιέων ὁ στρατηγὸς Ἀρίμνηστος ἔδοξε κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ὑπὸ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἐπερωτώμενον αὑτόν, ὅ τι δὴ πράττειν δέδοκται τοῖς Ἕλλησιν, εἰπεῖν, αὔριον εἰς Ἐλευσῖνα τὴν στρατιὰν ἀπάξομεν, ὦ δέσποτα, καὶ διαμαχούμεθα τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐκεῖ κατὰ τὸ πυθόχρηστον. 11.6 τὸν οὖν θεὸν φάναι διαμαρτάνειν αὐτοὺς τοῦ παντός· αὐτόθι γὰρ εἶναι περὶ τὴν Πλαταϊκὴν τὰ πυθόχρηστα καὶ ζητοῦντας ἀνευρήσειν. τούτων ἐναργῶς τῷ Ἀριμνήστῳ φανέντων ἐξεγρόμενος τάχιστα μετεπέμψατο τοὺς ἐμπειροτάτους καὶ πρεσβυτάτους τῶν πολιτῶν, μεθʼ ὧν διαλεγόμενος καὶ συνδιαπορῶν εὗρεν, ὅτι τῶν Ὑσιῶν πλησίον ὑπὸ τὸν Κιθαιρῶνα ναός ἐστιν ἀρχαῖος πάνυ πάνυ omitted by Bekker, now found in S. Δήμητρος Ἐλευσινίας καὶ Κόρης προσαγορευόμενος. 11.7 εὐθὺς οὖν παραλαβὼν τὸν Ἀριστείδην ἦγεν ἐπὶ τὸν τόπον, εὐφυέστατον ὄντα παρατάξαι φάλαγγα πεζικὴν ἱπποκρατουμένοις, διὰ τὰς ὑπωρείας τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος ἄφιππα ποιούσας τὰ καταλήγοντα καὶ συγκυροῦντα τοῦ πεδίου πρὸς τὸ ἱερόν. αὐτοῦ δʼ ἦν καὶ τὸ τοῦ Ἀνδροκράτους ἡρῷον ἐγγύς, ἄλσει πυκνῶν καὶ συσκίων δένδρων περιεχόμενον. 11.8 ὅπως δὲ μηδὲν ἐλλιπὲς ἔχῃ πρὸς τὴν ἐλπίδα τῆς νίκης ὁ χρησμός, ἔδοξε τοῖς Πλαταιεῦσιν, Ἀριμνήστου γνώμην εἰπόντος, ἀνελεῖν τὰ πρὸς τὴν Ἀττικὴν ὅρια τῆς Πλαταιΐδος καὶ τὴν χώραν ἐπιδοῦναι τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἐν οἰκείᾳ κατὰ τὸν χρησμὸν ἐναγωνίσασθαι.'' None
11.3 11.5 11.8 '' None
|41. Plutarch, Demetrius, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, festivals
Found in books: Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 240; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 274; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 62
12.1 ἦν δὲ ἄρα καὶ πυρὸς ἕτερα θερμότερα κατὰ τὸν Ἀριστοφάνη. γράφει γάρ τις ἄλλος ὑπερβαλλόμενος ἀνελευθερίᾳ τὸν Στρατοκλέα, δέχεσθαι Δημήτριον, ὁσάκις ἂν ἀφίκηται, τοῖς Δήμητρος καὶ Διονύσου ξενισμοῖς, τῷ δʼ ὑπερβαλλομένῳ λαμπρότητι καὶ πολυτελείᾳ τὴν ὑποδοχὴν ἀργύριον εἰς ἀνάθημα δημοσίᾳ δίδοσθαι.'' None
12.1 '' None
|42. Plutarch, Themistocles, 31.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter, Demeter Anesidora • Demeter, of Phlya in Athens • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 404; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 218; Mikalson (2003), Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars, 75; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 274; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4
|sup>1 Thus Probably Plutarch began with his favourite tale of Themistocles’ remark (dealing with the festival day and the day after) to the generals who came after him; cf. 270 c, supra, and the note. rightly spoke the great Themistocles to the generals who succeeded him, for whom he had opened a way for their subsequent exploits by driving out the barbarian host and making Greece free. And rightly will it be spoken also to those who pride themselves on their writings; for if you take away the men of action, you will have no men of letters. Take away Pericles’ statesmanship, and Phormio’s trophies for his naval victories at Rhium, and Nicias’s valiant deeds at Cythera and Megara and Corinth, Demosthenes’ Pylos, and Cleon’s four hundred captives, Tolmides’ circumnavigation of the Peloponnesus, and Myronides’ Cf. Thucydides, i. 108; iv. 95. victory over the Boeotians at Oenophyta-take these away and Thucydides is stricken from your list of writers. Take away Alcibiades ’ spirited exploits in the Hellespontine region, and those of Thrasyllus by Lesbos, and the overthrow by Theramenes of the oligarchy, Thrasybulus and Archinus and the uprising of the Seventy Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, ii. 4. 2. from Phyle against the Spartan hegemony, and Conon’s restoration of Athens to her power on the sea - take these away and Cratippus An historian who continued Thucydides, claiming to be his contemporary (see E. Schwartz, Hermes, xliv. 496). is no more. Xenophon, to be sure, became his own history by writing of his generalship and his successes and recording that it was Themistogenes Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, iii. 1. 2; M. MacLaren, Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc. lxv. (1934) pp. 240-247. the Syracusan who had compiled an account of them, his purpose being to win greater credence for his narrative by referring to himself in the third person, thus favouring another with the glory of the authorship. But all the other historians, men like Cleitodemus, Diyllus, Cf. Moralia, 862 b; Müller, Frag. Hist. Graec. ii. 360-361. Philochorus, Phylarchus, have been for the exploits of others what actors are for plays, exhibiting the deeds of the generals and kings, and merging themselves with their characters as tradition records them, in order that they might share in a certain effulgence, so to speak, and splendour. For there is reflected from the men of action upon the men of letters an image of another’s glory, which shines again there, since the deed is seen, as in a mirror, through the agency of their words.' ' None|
|43. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter, Eleusinia of Athens • Demeter, pregnant victims and
Found in books: Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 143; Mikalson (2003), Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars, 76
|44. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • dedications, to Demeter and Kore
Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 127; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 196
|45. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Leotykhidas, Lerna, Demeter and Dionysos at
Found in books: Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 169
|46. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 428; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198
|47. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 79; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 169
20 If the absurdity of their theology were confined to saying that the gods were created, and owed their constitution to water, since I have demonstrated that nothing is made which is not also liable to dissolution, I might proceed to the remaining charges. But, on the one hand, they have described their bodily forms: speaking of Hercules, for instance, as a god in the shape of a dragon coiled up; of others as hundred-handed; of the daughter of Zeus, whom he begot of his mother Rhea; or of Demeter, as having two eyes in the natural order, and two in her forehead, and the face of an animal on the back part of her neck, and as having also horns, so that Rhea, frightened at her monster of a child, fled from her, and did not give her the breast (&' None
|48. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.20.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 137; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 160
5.20.4 Herodotus, then, asserts that Hercules, when driving the oxen of Geryon from Erytheia, came into Scythia, and that, being wearied with travel-ling, he retired into some desert spot and slept for a short time. But while he slumbered his horse disappeared, seated on which he had performed his lengthened journey. On being aroused from repose, he, however, instituted a diligent search through the desert, endeavouring to discover his horse. And though he is unsuccessful in his search after the horse, he yet finds in the desert a certain damsel, half of whose form was that of woman, and proceeded to question her if she had seen the horse anywhere. The girl, however, replies that she had seen (the animal), but that she would not show him unless Hercules previously would come along with her for the purpose of sexual intercourse. Now Herodotus informs us that her upper parts as far as the groin were those of a virgin, but that everything below the body after the groin presented some horrible appearance of a snake. In anxiety, however, for the discovery of his horse, Hercules complies with the monster's request; for he knew her (carnally), and made her pregt. And he foretold, after coition, that she had by him in her womb three children at the same time, who were destined to become illustrious. And he ordered that she, on bringing forth, should impose on the children as soon as born the following names: Agathyrsus, Gelonus, and Scytha. And as the reward of this (favour) receiving his horse from the beast-like damsel, he went on his way, taking with him the cattle also. But after these (details), Herodotus has a protracted account; adieu, however, to it for the present. But what the opinions are of Justinus, who transfers this legend into (his account of) the generation of the universe, we shall explain. "" None
|49. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.4.4, 1.14.1-1.14.3, 1.15.3, 1.22.7, 1.27.3, 1.28.4, 1.31.1, 1.31.4, 1.32.4-1.32.5, 1.37.2, 1.37.4, 1.43.2, 2.4.7, 2.11.3, 2.13.3, 2.30.2, 2.31.5, 2.35.4, 2.35.6-2.35.7, 3.12.7, 3.14.2, 3.14.5, 4.1.5-4.1.7, 4.31.9, 5.14.10, 7.27.9, 8.15.1, 8.25.3, 8.25.5, 8.37.5, 8.37.8-8.37.9, 8.42.4-8.42.8, 9.27.2, 9.30.12, 10.1.7-10.1.9, 10.23.1-10.23.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alexandra, priestess of Demeter • Black Demeter of Phigaleia • Demeter • Demeter (goddess) • Demeter Chamyne • Demeter Chthonia • Demeter Cthonia, Hermion • Demeter and Kore • Demeter, Achaea of Athens • Demeter, Achaia • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Chthonia • Demeter, Cult of • Demeter, D. Mysia • Demeter, Demeter Anesidora • Demeter, Demeter Karpophoros • Demeter, Demeter Poteriophoros • Demeter, Demeter Prostasia • Demeter, Demeter Prosymna • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Messene • Demeter, Pergamon • Demeter, Persephone/Kore and • Demeter, Poseidon and • Demeter, Thesmophoros of Paros • Demeter, and Kore • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Demeter, anger of • Demeter, angry • Demeter, as Olympian • Demeter, cult • Demeter, cult and rites • Demeter, horses, association with • Demeter, images and iconography • Demeter, origins and development • Demeter/Deo, Malophoros • Demeter/Despoina • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • Olympia, sanctuary of Demeter Chamyne • Parthenon, east frieze, Demeter on • Persephone/Kore, Demeter and • Poseidon, Demeter and • Sparta, Demeter in • To Demeter • horses, Demeter associated with • sacrifice/sacrificial rituals, for Demeter • vegetation deities, Demeter as • weddings and marriages, priestess of Demeter at Olympia as married woman
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 136; Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 13; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 404, 405, 428; Bianchetti et al. (2015), Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition, 58; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 182; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 194; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 158, 265; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 496; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 49; Faulkner and Hodkinson (2015), Hymnic Narrative and the Narratology of Greek Hymns, 97, 98; Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 117; Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 65; Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198, 218; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 249; Horster and Klöckner (2014), Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period, 10; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 555, 637, 645, 924, 982, 1005, 1056, 1153; Johnston (2008), Ancient Greek Divination, 90; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 602; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 148, 166, 168, 169; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 61; Mikalson (2003), Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars, 52, 133, 192; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 32, 33, 80, 224, 267, 270, 339; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 48, 102; Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 167; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 133, 208, 232, 263; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 75, 100; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 83, 96, 119, 128; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 91; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 42, 43, 44
1.4.4 οὗτοι μὲν δὴ τοὺς Ἕλληνας τρόπον τὸν εἰρημένον ἔσωζον, οἱ δὲ Γαλάται Πυλῶν τε ἐντὸς ἦσαν καὶ τὰ πολίσματα ἑλεῖν ἐν οὐδενὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ποιησάμενοι Δελφοὺς καὶ τὰ χρήματα. τοῦ θεοῦ διαρπάσαι μάλιστα εἶχον σπουδήν. καί σφισιν αὐτοί τε Δελφοὶ καὶ Φωκέων ἀντετάχθησαν οἱ τὰς πόλεις περὶ τὸν Παρνασσὸν οἰκοῦντες, ἀφίκετο δὲ καὶ δύναμις Αἰτωλῶν· τὸ γὰρ Αἰτωλικὸν προεῖχεν ἀκμῇ νεότητος τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον. ὡς δὲ ἐς χεῖρας συνῄεσαν, ἐνταῦθα κεραυνοί τε ἐφέροντο ἐς τοὺς Γαλάτας καὶ ἀπορραγεῖσαι πέτραι τοῦ Παρνασσοῦ, δείματά τε ἄνδρες ἐφίσταντο ὁπλῖται τοῖς βαρβάροις· τούτων τοὺς μὲν ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων λέγουσιν ἐλθεῖν, Ὑπέροχον καὶ Ἀμάδοκον, τὸν δὲ τρίτον Πύρρον εἶναι τὸν Ἀχιλλέως· ἐναγίζουσι δὲ ἀπὸ ταύτης Δελφοὶ τῆς συμμαχίας Πύρρῳ, πρότερον ἔχοντες ἅτε ἀνδρὸς πολεμίου καὶ τὸ μνῆμα ἐν ἀτιμίᾳ.
1.14.1 ἡ μὲν Ἠπειρωτῶν ἀκμὴ κατέστρεψεν ἐς τοῦτο· ἐς δὲ τὸ Ἀθήνῃσιν ἐσελθοῦσιν Ὠιδεῖον ἄλλα τε καὶ Διόνυσος κεῖται θέας ἄξιος. πλησίον δέ ἐστι κρήνη, καλοῦσι δὲ αὐτὴν Ἐννεάκρουνον, οὕτω κοσμηθεῖσαν ὑπὸ Πεισιστράτου· φρέατα μὲν γὰρ καὶ διὰ πάσης τῆς πόλεώς ἐστι, πηγὴ δὲ αὕτη μόνη. ναοὶ δὲ ὑπὲρ τὴν κρήνην ὁ μὲν Δήμητρος πεποίηται καὶ Κόρης, ἐν δὲ τῷ Τριπτολέμου κείμενόν ἐστιν ἄγαλμα· τὰ δὲ ἐς αὐτὸν ὁποῖα λέγεται γράψω, παρεὶς ὁπόσον ἐς Δηιόπην ἔχει τοῦ λόγου. 1.14.3 ἔπη δὲ ᾄδεται Μουσαίου μέν, εἰ δὴ Μουσαίου καὶ ταῦτα, Τριπτόλεμον παῖδα Ὠκεανοῦ καὶ Γῆς εἶναι, Ὀρφέως δέ, οὐδὲ ταῦτα Ὀρφέως ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν ὄντα, Εὐβουλεῖ καὶ Τριπτολέμῳ Δυσαύλην πατέρα εἶναι, μηνύσασι δέ σφισι περὶ τῆς παιδὸς δοθῆναι παρὰ Δήμητρος σπεῖραι τοὺς καρπούς· Χοιρίλῳ δὲ Ἀθηναίῳ δρᾶμα ποιήσαντι Ἀλόπην ἔστ ιν εἰρημένα Κερκυόνα εἶναι καὶ Τριπτόλεμον ἀδελφούς, τεκεῖν δὲ σφᾶς θυγατέρα ς Ἀμφικτύονος, εἶναι δὲ πατέρα Τριπτολέμῳ μὲν Ῥᾶρον, Κερκυόνι δὲ Ποσειδῶνα. πρόσω δὲ ἰέναι με ὡρμημένον τοῦδε τοῦ λόγου καὶ †ὁπόσα ἐξήγησιν †ἔχει τὸ Ἀθήνῃσιν ἱερόν, καλούμενον δὲ Ἐλευσίνιον, ἐπέσχεν ὄψις ὀνείρατος· ἃ δὲ ἐς πάντας ὅσιον γράφειν, ἐς ταῦτα ἀποτρέψομαι.
1.15.3 τελευταῖον δὲ τῆς γραφῆς εἰσιν οἱ μαχεσάμενοι Μαραθῶνι· Βοιωτῶν δὲ οἱ Πλάταιαν ἔχοντες καὶ ὅσον ἦν Ἀττικὸν ἴασιν ἐς χεῖρας τοῖς βαρβάροις. καὶ ταύτῃ μέν ἐστιν ἴσα τὰ παρʼ ἀμφοτέρων ἐς τὸ ἔργον· τὸ δὲ ἔσω τῆς μάχης φεύγοντές εἰσιν οἱ βάρβαροι καὶ ἐς τὸ ἕλος ὠθοῦντες ἀλλήλους, ἔσχαται δὲ τῆς γραφῆς νῆές τε αἱ Φοίνισσαι καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων τοὺς ἐσπίπτοντας ἐς ταύτας φονεύοντες οἱ Ἕλληνες. ἐνταῦθα καὶ Μαραθὼν γεγραμμένος ἐστὶν ἥρως, ἀφʼ οὗ τὸ πεδίον ὠνόμασται, καὶ Θησεὺς ἀνιόντι ἐκ γῆς εἰκασμένος Ἀθηνᾶ τε καὶ Ἡρακλῆς· Μαραθωνίοις γάρ, ὡς αὐτοὶ λέγουσιν, Ἡρακλῆς ἐνομίσθη θεὸς πρώτοις. τῶν μαχομένων δὲ δῆλοι μάλιστά εἰσιν ἐν τῇ γραφῇ Καλλίμαχός τε, ὃς Ἀθηναίοις πολεμαρχεῖν ᾕρητο, καὶ Μιλτιάδης τῶν στρατηγούντων, ἥρως τε Ἔχετλος καλούμενος, οὗ καὶ ὕστερον ποιήσομαι μνήμην.
1.22.7 ἵππων δέ οἱ νίκης τῆς ἐν Νεμέᾳ ἐστὶ σημεῖα ἐν τῇ γραφῇ· καὶ Περσεύς ἐστιν ἐς Σέριφον κομιζόμενος, Πολυδέκτῃ φέρων τὴν κεφαλὴν τὴν Μεδούσης. καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐς Μέδουσαν οὐκ εἰμὶ πρόθυμος ἐν τοῖς Ἀττικοῖς σημῆναι· ἔτι δὲ τῶν γραφῶν παρέντι τὸν παῖδα τὸν τὰς ὑδρίας φέροντα καὶ τὸν παλαιστὴν ὃν Τιμαίνετος ἔγραψεν, ἐστὶ Μουσαῖος. ἐγὼ δὲ ἔπη μὲν ἐπελεξάμην, ἐν οἷς ἐστι πέτεσθαι Μουσαῖον ὑπὸ Βορέου δῶρον, δοκεῖν δέ μοι πεποίηκεν αὐτὰ Ὀνομάκριτος καὶ ἔστιν οὐδὲν Μουσαίου βεβαίως ὅτι μὴ μόνον ἐς Δήμητρα ὕμνος Λυκομίδαις.
1.27.3 ἃ δέ μοι θαυμάσαι μάλιστα παρέσχεν, ἔστι μὲν οὐκ ἐς ἅπαντα ς γνώριμα, γράψω δὲ οἷα συμβαίνει. παρθένοι δύο τοῦ ναοῦ τῆς Πολιάδος οἰκοῦσιν οὐ πόρρω, καλοῦσι δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι σφᾶς ἀρρηφόρους· αὗται χρόνον μέν τινα δίαιταν ἔχουσι παρὰ τῇ θεῷ, παραγενομένης δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς δρῶσιν ἐν νυκτὶ τοιάδε. ἀναθεῖσαί σφισιν ἐπὶ τὰς κεφαλὰς ἃ ἡ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἱέρεια δίδωσι φέρειν, οὔτε ἡ διδοῦσα ὁποῖόν τι δίδωσιν εἰδυῖα οὔτε ταῖς φερούσαις ἐπισταμέναις—ἔστι δὲ περίβολος ἐν τῇ πόλει τῆς καλουμένης ἐν Κήποις Ἀφροδίτης οὐ πόρρω καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ κάθοδος ὑπόγαιος αὐτομάτη—, ταύτῃ κατίασιν αἱ παρθένοι. κάτω μὲν δὴ τὰ φερόμενα λείπουσιν, λαβοῦσαι δὲ ἄλλο τι κομίζουσιν ἐγκεκαλυμμένον· καὶ τὰς μὲν ἀφιᾶσιν ἤδη τὸ ἐντεῦθεν, ἑτέρας δὲ ἐς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν παρθένους ἄγουσιν ἀντʼ αὐτῶν.
1.28.4 καταβᾶσι δὲ οὐκ ἐς τὴν κάτω πόλιν ἀλλʼ ὅσον ὑπὸ τὰ προπύλαια πηγή τε ὕδατός ἐστι καὶ πλησίον Ἀπόλλωνος ἱερὸν ἐν σπηλαίῳ· Κρεούσῃ δὲ θυγατρὶ Ἐρεχθέως Ἀπόλλωνα ἐνταῦθα συγγενέσθαι νομίζουσι. ὡς πεμφθείη Φιλιππίδης ἐς Λακεδαίμονα ἄγγελος ἀποβεβηκότων Μήδων ἐς τὴν γῆν, ἐπανήκων δὲ Λακεδαιμονίους ὑπερβαλέσθαι φαίη τὴν ἔξοδον, εἶναι γὰρ δὴ νόμον αὐτοῖς μὴ πρότερον μαχουμένους ἐξιέναι πρὶν ἢ πλήρη τὸν κύκλον τῆς σελήνης γενέσθαι· τὸν δὲ Πᾶνα ὁ Φιλιππίδης ἔλεγε περὶ τὸ ὄρος ἐντυχόντα οἱ τὸ Παρθένιον φάναι τε ὡς εὔνους Ἀθηναίοις εἴη καὶ ὅτι ἐς Μαραθῶνα ἥξει συμμαχήσων. οὗτος μὲν οὖν ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ ἀγγελίᾳ τετίμηται·
1.31.4 ταῦτα μὲν δὴ οὕτω λέγεται, Φλυεῦσι δέ εἰσι καὶ Μυρρινουσίοις τοῖς μὲν Ἀπόλλωνος Διονυσοδότου καὶ Ἀρτέμιδος Σελασφόρου βωμοὶ Διονύσου τε Ἀνθίου καὶ νυμφῶν Ἰσμηνίδων καὶ Γῆς, ἣν Μεγάλην θεὸν ὀνομάζουσι· ναὸς δὲ ἕτερος ἔχει βωμοὺς Δήμητρος Ἀνησιδώρας καὶ Διὸς Κτησίου καὶ Τιθρωνῆς Ἀθηνᾶς καὶ Κόρης Πρωτογόνης καὶ Σεμνῶν ὀνομαζομένων θεῶν· τὸ δὲ ἐν Μυρρινοῦντι ξόανόν ἐστι Κολαινίδος. Ἀθμονεῖς δὲ τιμῶσιν Ἀμαρυσίαν Ἄρτεμιν·
1.32.4 καὶ ἀνδρός ἐστιν ἰδίᾳ μνῆμα Μιλτιάδου τοῦ Κίμωνος, συμβάσης ὕστερόν οἱ τῆς τελευτῆς Πάρου τε ἁμαρτόντι καὶ διʼ αὐτὸ ἐς κρίσιν Ἀθηναίοις καταστάντι. ἐνταῦθα ἀνὰ πᾶσαν νύκτα καὶ ἵππων χρεμετιζόντων καὶ ἀνδρῶν μαχομένων ἔστιν αἰσθέσθαι· καταστῆναι δὲ ἐς ἐναργῆ θέαν ἐπίτηδες μὲν οὐκ ἔστιν ὅτῳ συνήνεγκεν, ἀνηκόῳ δὲ ὄντι καὶ ἄλλως συμβὰν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τῶν δαιμόνων ὀργή. σέβονται δὲ οἱ Μαραθώνιοι τούτους τε οἳ παρὰ τὴν μάχην ἀπέθανον ἥρωας ὀνομάζοντες καὶ Μαραθῶνα ἀφʼ οὗ τῷ δήμῳ τὸ ὄνομά ἐστι καὶ Ἡρακλέα, φάμενοι πρώτοις Ἑλλήνων σφίσιν Ἡρακλέα θεὸν νομισθῆναι. 1.32.5 συνέβη δὲ ὡς λέγουσιν ἄνδρα ἐν τῇ μάχῃ παρεῖναι τὸ εἶδος καὶ τὴν σκευὴν ἄγροικον· οὗτος τῶν βαρβάρων πολλοὺς καταφονεύσας ἀρότρῳ μετὰ τὸ ἔργον ἦν ἀφανής· ἐρομένοις δὲ Ἀθηναίοις ἄλλο μὲν ὁ θεὸς ἐς αὐτὸν ἔχρησεν οὐδέν, τιμᾶν δὲ Ἐχετλαῖον ἐκέλευσεν ἥρωα. πεποίηται δὲ καὶ τρόπαιον λίθου λευκοῦ. τοὺς δὲ Μήδους Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν θάψαι λέγουσιν ὡς πάντως ὅσιον ἀνθρώπου νεκρὸν γῇ κρύψαι, τάφον δὲ οὐδένα εὑρεῖν ἐδυνάμην· οὔτε γὰρ χῶμα οὔτε ἄλλο σημεῖον ἦν ἰδεῖν, ἐς ὄρυγμα δὲ φέροντες σφᾶς ὡς τύχοιεν ἐσέβαλον.
1.37.2 ταύτῃ μὲν τύχην τοιαύτην συμβῆναι λέγουσι· προελθοῦσι δὲ ὀλίγον Λακίου τέμενός ἐστιν ἥρωος καὶ δῆμος ὃν Λακιάδας ὀνομάζουσιν ἀπὸ τούτου, καὶ Νικοκλέους Ταραντίνου ἐστὶ μνῆμα, ὃς ἐπὶ μέγιστον δόξης κιθαρῳδῶν ἁπάντων ἦλθεν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ Ζεφύρου τε βωμὸς καὶ Δήμητρος ἱερὸν καὶ τῆς παιδός· σὺν δέ σφισιν Ἀθηνᾶ καὶ Ποσειδῶν ἔχουσι τιμάς. ἐν τούτῳ τῷ χωρίῳ Φύταλόν φασιν οἴκῳ Δήμητρα δέξασθαι, καὶ τὴν θεὸν ἀντὶ τούτων δοῦναί οἱ τὸ φυτὸν τῆς συκῆς· μαρτυρεῖ δέ μοι τῷ λόγῳ τὸ ἐπίγραμμα τὸ ἐπὶ τῷ Φυτάλου τάφῳ· ἐνθάδʼ ἄναξ ἥρως Φύταλός ποτε δέξατο σεμνὴν Δήμητρα ν, ὅτε πρῶτον ὀπώρας καρπὸν ἔφηνεν, ἣν ἱερὰν συκῆν θνητῶν γένος ἐξονομάζει· ἐξ οὗ δὴ τιμὰς Φυτάλου γένος ἔσχεν ἀγήρως.
1.37.4 διαβᾶσι δὲ τὸν Κηφισὸν βωμός ἐστιν ἀρχαῖος Μειλιχίου Διός· ἐπὶ τούτῳ Θησεὺς ὑπὸ τῶν ἀπογόνων τῶν Φυτάλου καθαρσίων ἔτυχε, λῃστὰς καὶ ἄλλους ἀποκτείνας καὶ Σίνιν τὰ πρὸς Πιτθέως συγγενῆ. τάφος δὲ ἔστι μὲν αὐτόθι Θεοδέκτου τοῦ Φασηλίτου, ἔστι δὲ Μνησιθέου· τοῦτον λέγουσιν ἰατρόν τε ἀγαθὸν γενέσθαι καὶ ἀναθεῖναι ἀγάλματα, ἐν οἷς καὶ ὁ Ἴακχος πεποίηται. ᾠκοδόμηται δὲ κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ναὸς οὐ μέγας καλούμενος Κυαμίτου· σαφὲς δὲ οὐδὲν ἔχω λέγειν εἴτε πρῶτος κυάμους ἔσπειρεν οὗτος εἴτε τινὰ ἐπεφήμισαν ἥρωα, ὅτι τῶν κυάμων ἀνενεγκεῖν οὐκ ἔστι σφίσιν ἐς Δήμητρα τὴν εὕρεσιν. ὅστις δὲ ἤδη τελετὴν Ἐλευσῖνι εἶδεν ἢ τὰ καλούμενα Ὀρφικὰ ἐπελέξατο, οἶδεν ὃ λέγω.
1.43.2 ἐν δὲ τῷ πρυτανείῳ τεθάφθαι μὲν Εὔιππον Μεγαρέως παῖδα, τεθάφθαι δὲ τὸν Ἀλκάθου λέγουσιν Ἰσχέπολιν. ἔστι δὲ τοῦ πρυτανείου πέτρα πλησίον· Ἀνακληθρίδα τὴν πέτραν ὀνομάζουσιν, ὡς Δημήτηρ, εἴ τῳ πιστά, ὅτε τὴν παῖδα ἐπλανᾶτο ζητοῦσα, καὶ ἐνταῦθα ἀνεκάλεσεν αὐτήν. ἐοικότα δὲ τῷ λόγῳ δρῶσιν ἐς ἡμᾶς ἔτι αἱ Μεγαρέων γυναῖκες.
2.4.7 ὑπὲρ τοῦτο Μητρὸς θεῶν ναός ἐστι καὶ στήλη καὶ θρόνος· λίθων καὶ αὐτὴ καὶ ὁ θρόνος. ὁ δὲ τῶν Μοιρῶν καὶ ὁ Δήμητρος καὶ Κόρης οὐ φανερὰ ἔχουσι τὰ ἀγάλματα. ταύτῃ καὶ τὸ τῆς Βουναίας ἐστὶν Ἥρας ἱερὸν ἱδρυσαμένου Βούνου τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ· καὶ διʼ αὐτὸ ἡ θεὸς καλεῖται Βουναία.
2.11.3 ἐκ Σικυῶνος δὲ τὴν κατʼ εὐθὺ ἐς Φλιοῦντα ἐρχομένοις καὶ ἐν ἀριστερᾷ τῆς ὁδοῦ δέκα μάλιστα ἐκτραπεῖσι στάδια, Πυραία καλούμενόν ἐστιν ἄλσος, ἱερὸν δὲ ἐν αὐτῷ Προστασίας Δήμητρος καὶ Κόρης. ἐνταῦθα ἐφʼ αὑτῶν οἱ ἄνδρες ἑορτὴν ἄγουσι, τὸν δὲ Νυμφῶνα καλούμενον ταῖς γυναιξὶν ἑορτάζειν παρείκασι· καὶ ἀγάλματα Διονύσου καὶ Δήμητρος καὶ Κόρης τὰ πρόσωπα φαίνοντα ἐν τῷ Νυμφῶνί ἐστιν. ἡ δὲ ἐς Τιτάνην ὁδὸς σταδίων μέν ἐστιν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ζεύγεσιν ἄβατος διὰ στενότητα·
2.13.3 προσέσται δὲ ἤδη καὶ τῶν ἐς ἐπίδειξιν ἡκόντων τὰ ἀξιολογώτατα. ἔστι γὰρ ἐν τῇ Φλιασίων ἀκροπόλει κυπαρίσσων ἄλσος καὶ ἱερὸν ἁγιώτατον ἐκ παλαιοῦ· τὴν δὲ θεὸν ἧς ἐστι τὸ ἱερὸν οἱ μὲν ἀρχαιότατοι Φλιασίων Γανυμήδαν, οἱ δὲ ὕστερον Ἥβην ὀνομάζουσιν· ἧς καὶ Ὅμηρος μνήμην ἐποιήσατο ἐν τῇ Μενελάου πρὸς Ἀλέξανδρον μονομαχίᾳ φάμενος οἰνοχόον τῶν θεῶν εἶναι, καὶ αὖθις ἐν Ὀδυσσέως ἐς Ἅιδου καθόδῳ γυναῖκα Ἡρακλέους εἶπεν εἶναι. Ὠλῆνι δὲ ἐν Ἥρας ἐστὶν ὕμνῳ πεποιημένα τραφῆναι τὴν Ἥραν ὑπὸ Ὡρῶν, εἶναι δέ οἱ παῖδας Ἄρην τε καὶ Ἥβην.
2.30.2 θεῶν δὲ Αἰγινῆται τιμῶσιν Ἑκάτην μάλιστα καὶ τελετὴν ἄγουσιν ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος Ἑκάτης, Ὀρφέα σφίσι τὸν Θρᾷκα καταστήσασθαι τὴν τελετὴν λέγοντες. τοῦ περιβόλου δὲ ἐντὸς ναός ἐστι, ξόανον δὲ ἔργον Μύρωνος, ὁμοίως ἓν πρόσωπόν τε καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν σῶμα. Ἀλκαμένης δὲ ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν πρῶτος ἀγάλματα Ἑκάτης τρία ἐποίησε προσεχόμενα ἀλλήλοις, ἣν Ἀθηναῖοι καλοῦσιν Ἐπιπυργιδίαν· ἕστηκε δὲ παρὰ τῆς Ἀπτέρου Νίκης τὸν ναόν.
2.31.5 εἰσὶ δὲ οὐ μακρὰν τῆς Λυκείας Ἀρτέμιδος βωμοὶ διεστηκότες οὐ πολὺ ἀπʼ ἀλλήλων· ὁ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν αὐτῶν Διονύσου κατὰ δή τι μάντευμα ἐπίκλησιν Σαώτου, δεύτερος δὲ Θεμίδων ὀνομαζόμενος· Πιτθεὺς τοῦτον ἀνέθηκεν, ὡς λέγουσιν. Ἡλίου δὲ Ἐλευθερίου καὶ σφόδρα εἰκότι λόγῳ δοκοῦσί μοι ποιῆσαι βωμόν, ἐκφυγόντες δουλείαν ἀπὸ Ξέρξου τε καὶ Περσῶν.
2.35.4 τὸ δὲ λόγου μάλιστα ἄξιον ἱερὸν Δήμητρός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τοῦ Πρωνός. τοῦτο τὸ ἱερὸν Ἑρμιονεῖς μὲν Κλύμενον Φορωνέως παῖδα καὶ ἀδελφὴν Κλυμένου Χθονίαν τοὺς ἱδρυσαμένους φασὶν εἶναι. Ἀργεῖοι δέ, ὅτε ἐς τὴν Ἀργολίδα ἦλθε Δημήτηρ, τότε Ἀθέραν μὲν λέγουσι καὶ Μύσιον ὡς ξενίαν παράσχοιεν τῇ θεῷ, Κολόνταν δὲ οὔτε οἴκῳ δέξασθαι τὴν θεὸν οὔτε ἀπονεῖμαί τι ἄλλο ἐς τιμήν· ταῦτα δὲ οὐ κατὰ γνώμην Χθονίᾳ τῇ θυγατρὶ ποιεῖν αὐτόν. Κολόνταν μὲν οὖν φασιν ἀντὶ τούτων συγκαταπρησθῆναι τῇ οἰκίᾳ, Χθονίαν δὲ κομισθεῖσαν ἐς Ἑρμιόνα ὑπὸ Δήμητρος Ἑρμιονεῦσι ποιῆσαι τὸ ἱερόν.
2.35.6 τοῖς δὲ τὴν πομπὴν πέμπουσιν ἕπονται τελείαν ἐξ ἀγέλης βοῦν ἄγοντες διειλημμένην δεσμοῖς τε καὶ ὑβρίζουσαν ἔτι ὑπὸ ἀγριότητος. ἐλάσαντες δὲ πρὸς τὸν ναὸν οἱ μὲν ἔσω φέρεσθαι τὴν βοῦν ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν ἀνῆκαν ἐκ τῶν δεσμῶν, ἕτεροι δὲ ἀναπεπταμένας ἔχοντες τέως τὰς θύρας, ἐπειδὰν τὴν βοῦν ἴδωσιν ἐντὸς τοῦ ναοῦ, προσέθεσαν τὰς θύρας. 2.35.7 τέσσαρες δὲ ἔνδον ὑπολειπόμεναι γρᾶες, αὗται τὴν βοῦν εἰσιν αἱ κατεργαζόμεναι· δρεπάνῳ γὰρ ἥτις ἂν τύχῃ τὴν φάρυγγα ὑπέτεμε τῆς βοός. μετὰ δὲ αἱ θύραι τε ἠνοίχθησαν καὶ προσελαύνουσιν οἷς ἐπιτέτακται βοῦν δὲ δευτέραν καὶ τρίτην ἐπὶ ταύτῃ καὶ ἄλλην τετάρτην. κατεργάζονταί τε δὴ πάσας κατὰ ταὐτὰ αἱ γρᾶες καὶ τόδε ἄλλο πρόσκειται τῇ θυσίᾳ θαῦμα· ἐφʼ ἥντινα γὰρ ἂν πέσῃ τῶν πλευρῶν ἡ πρώτη βοῦς, ἀνάγκη πεσεῖν καὶ πάσας.
3.12.7 τοῦ δὲ Ἑλληνίου πλησίον Ταλθυβίου μνῆμα ἀποφαίνουσι· δεικνύουσι δὲ καὶ Ἀχαιῶν Αἰγιεῖς ἐπὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς, Ταλθυβίου καὶ οὗτοι φάμενοι μνῆμα εἶναι. Ταλθυβίου δὲ τούτου μήνιμα ἐπὶ τῷ φόνῳ τῶν κηρύκων, οἳ παρὰ βασιλέως Δαρείου γῆν τε καὶ ὕδωρ αἰτήσοντες ἐς τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἐπέμφθησαν, Λακεδαιμονίοις μὲν ἐπεσήμαινεν ἐς τὸ δημόσιον, ἐν Ἀθήναις δὲ ἰδίᾳ τε καὶ ἐς ἑνὸς οἶκον ἀνδρὸς κατέσκηψε Μιλτιάδου τοῦ Κίμωνος· ἐγεγόνει δὲ καὶ τῶν κηρύκων τοῖς ἐλθοῦσιν ἐς τὴν Ἀττικὴν ὁ Μιλτιάδης ἀποθανεῖν αἴτιος ὑπὸ Ἀθηναίων.
3.14.5 τὸ μὲν δὴ ξόανον τῆς Θέτιδος ἐν ἀπορρήτῳ φυλάσσουσι· Δήμητρα δὲ Χθονίαν Λακεδαιμόνιοι μὲν σέβειν φασὶ παραδόντος σφίσιν Ὀρφέως, δόξῃ δὲ ἐμῇ διὰ τὸ ἱερὸν τὸ ἐν Ἑρμιόνῃ κατέστη καὶ τούτοις Χθονίαν νομίζειν Δήμητρα. ἔστι δὲ καὶ Σαράπιδος νεώτατον τοῦτο Σπαρτιάταις ἱερὸν καὶ Διὸς ἐπίκλησιν Ὀλυμπίου.
4.1.5 πρῶτοι δʼ οὖν βασιλεύουσιν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ ταύτῃ Πολυκάων τε ὁ Λέλεγος καὶ Μεσσήνη γυνὴ τοῦ Πολυκάονος. παρὰ ταύτην τὴν Μεσσήνην τὰ ὄργια κομίζων τῶν Μεγάλων θεῶν Καύκων ἦλθεν ἐξ Ἐλευσῖνος ὁ Κελαινοῦ τοῦ Φλύου. Φλῦον δὲ αὐτὸν Ἀθηναῖοι λέγουσι παῖδα εἶναι Γῆς· ὁμολογεῖ δέ σφισι καὶ ὕμνος Μουσαίου Λυκομίδαις ποιηθεὶς ἐς Δήμητρα. 4.1.6 τὴν δὲ τελετὴν τῶν Μεγάλων θεῶν Λύκος ὁ Πανδίονος πολλοῖς ἔτεσιν ὕστερον Καύκωνος προήγαγεν ἐς πλέον τιμῆς· καὶ Λύκου δρυμὸν ἔτι ὀνομάζουσιν ἔνθα ἐκάθηρε τοὺς μύστας. καὶ ὅτι μὲν δρυμός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ γῇ ταύτῃ Λύκου καλούμενος, Ῥιανῷ τῷ Κρητί ἐστι πεποιημένον πάρ τε τρηχὺν Ἐλαιὸν ὑπὲρ δρυμόν τε Λύκοιο· Rhianus of Bene in Crete. See note on Paus. 4.6.1 . 4.1.7 ὡς δὲ ὁ Πανδίονος οὗτος ἦν Λύκος, δηλοῖ τὰ ἐπὶ τῇ εἰκόνι ἔπη τῇ Μεθάπου. μετεκόσμησε γὰρ καὶ Μέθαπος τῆς τελετῆς ἔστιν ἅ· ὁ δὲ Μέθαπος γένος μὲν ἦν Ἀθηναῖος, τελεστὴς δὲ καὶ ὀργίων καὶ παντοίων συνθέτης. οὗτος καὶ Θηβαίοις τῶν Καβείρων τὴν τελετὴν κατεστήσατο, ἀνέθηκε δὲ καὶ ἐς τὸ κλίσιον τὸ Λυκομιδῶν εἰκόνα ἔχουσαν ἐπίγραμμα ἄλλα τε λέγον καὶ ὅσα ἡμῖν ἐς πίστιν συντελεῖ τοῦ λόγου·
4.31.9 πεποίηται δὲ καὶ Εἰλειθυίας Μεσσηνίοις ναὸς καὶ ἄγαλμα λίθου, πλησίον δὲ Κουρήτων μέγαρον, ἔνθα ζῷα τὰ πάντα ὁμοίως καθαγίζουσιν· ἀρξάμενοι γὰρ ἀπὸ βοῶν τε καὶ αἰγῶν καταβαίνουσιν ἐς τοὺς ὄρνιθας ἀφιέντες ἐς τὴν φλόγα. καὶ Δήμητρος ἱερὸν Μεσσηνίοις ἐστὶν ἅγιον καὶ Διοσκούρων ἀγάλματα φέροντες τὰς Λευκίππου· καί μοι καὶ ταῦτα ἐν τοῖς προτέροις ἐστὶν ἤδη δεδηλωμένα, ὡς οἱ Μεσσήνιοι τοὺς Τυνδάρεω παῖδας ἀμφισβητοῦσιν αὑτοῖς καὶ οὐ Λακεδαιμονίοις προσήκειν.
5.14.10 ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ Γαίῳ καλουμένῳ, βωμός ἐστιν ἐπʼ αὐτῷ Γῆς, τέφρας καὶ οὗτος· τὰ δὲ ἔτι ἀρχαιότερα καὶ μαντεῖον τῆς Γῆς αὐτόθι εἶναι λέγουσιν. ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ ὀνομαζομένου Στομίου Θέμιδι ὁ βωμὸς πεποίηται. τοῦ δὲ Καταιβάτου Διὸς προβέβληται μὲν πανταχόθεν πρὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ φράγμα, ἔστι δὲ πρὸς τῷ βωμῷ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς τέφρας τῷ μεγάλῳ. μεμνήσθω δέ τις οὐ κατὰ στοῖχον τῆς ἱδρύσεως ἀριθμουμένους τοὺς βωμούς, τῇ δὲ τάξει τῇ Ἠλείων ἐς τὰς θυσίας συμπερινοστοῦντα ἡμῖν τὸν λόγον. πρὸς δὲ τῷ τεμένει τοῦ Πέλοπος Διονύσου μὲν καὶ Χαρίτων ἐν κοινῷ, μεταξὺ δὲ αὐτῶν Μουσῶν καὶ ἐφεξῆς τούτων Νυμφῶν ἐστι βωμός.
7.27.9 Πελλήνης δὲ ὅσον στάδια ἑξήκοντα ἀπέχει τὸ Μύσαιον, ἱερὸν Δήμητρος Μυσίας· ἱδρύσασθαι δὲ αὐτὸ Μύσιόν φασιν ἄνδρα Ἀργεῖον, ἐδέξατο δὲ οἴκῳ Δήμητρα καὶ ὁ Μύσιος λόγῳ τῷ Ἀργείων. ἔστι δὲ ἄλσος ἐν τῷ Μυσαίῳ, δένδρα ὁμοίως τὰ πάντα, καὶ ὕδωρ ἄφθονον ἄνεισιν ἐκ πηγῶν. ἄγουσι δὲ καὶ ἑορτὴν τῇ Δήμητρι ἐνταῦθα ἡμερῶν ἑπτά·
8.15.1 Φενεάταις δὲ καὶ Δήμητρός ἐστιν ἱερὸν ἐπίκλησιν Ἐλευσινίας, καὶ ἄγουσι τῇ θεῷ τελετήν, τὰ Ἐλευσῖνι δρώμενα καὶ παρὰ σφίσι τὰ αὐτὰ φάσκοντες καθεστηκέναι· ἀφικέσθαι γὰρ αὐτοῖς Ναὸν κατὰ μάντευμα ἐκ Δελφῶν, τρίτον δὲ ἀπόγονον Εὐμόλπου τοῦτον εἶναι τὸν Ναόν. παρὰ δὲ τῆς Ἐλευσινίας τὸ ἱερὸν πεποίηται Πέτρωμα καλούμενον, λίθοι δύο ἡρμοσμένοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους μεγάλοι.
8.25.3 τὸ δὲ ἱερὸν τοῦτο ἔστι μὲν Θελπουσίων ἐν ὅροις· ἀγάλματα δὲ ἐν αὐτῷ, ποδῶν ἑπτὰ οὐκ ἀποδέον ἕκαστον, Δήμητρός ἐστι καὶ ἡ παῖς καὶ ὁ Διόνυσος, τὰ πάντα ὁμοίως λίθου. μετὰ δὲ τῆς Ἐλευσινίας τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ Θέλπουσαν τὴν πόλιν ὁ Λάδων παρέξεισιν ἐν ἀριστερᾷ, κειμένην μὲν ἐπὶ λόφου μεγάλου, τὰ πλείω δὲ ἐφʼ ἡμῶν ἔρημον, ὥστε καὶ τὴν ἀγορὰν ἐπὶ τῷ πέρατι οὖσάν φασιν ἐν τῷ μεσαιτάτῳ ποιηθῆναι τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς. ἔστι δὲ ἐν Θελπούσῃ ναὸς Ἀσκληπιοῦ καὶ θεῶν ἱερὸν τῶν δώδεκα·
8.25.5 πλανωμένῃ γὰρ τῇ Δήμητρι, ἡνίκα τὴν παῖδα ἐζήτει, λέγουσιν ἕπεσθαί οἱ τὸν Ποσειδῶνα ἐπιθυμοῦντα αὐτῇ μιχθῆναι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἐς ἵππον μεταβαλοῦσαν ὁμοῦ ταῖς ἵπποις νέμεσθαι ταῖς Ὀγκίου, Ποσειδῶν δὲ συνίησεν ἀπατώμενος καὶ συγγίνεται τῇ Δήμητρι ἄρσενι ἵππῳ καὶ αὐτὸς εἰκασθείς.
8.37.5 πρὸς δὲ τῆς Δεσποίνης τῷ ἀγάλματι ἕστηκεν Ἄνυτος σχῆμα ὡπλισμένου παρεχόμενος· φασὶ δὲ οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τραφῆναι τὴν Δέσποιναν ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἀνύτου, καὶ εἶναι τῶν Τιτάνων καλουμένων καὶ τὸν Ἄνυτον. Τιτᾶνας δὲ πρῶτος ἐς ποίησιν ἐσήγαγεν Ὅμηρος, θεοὺς εἶναι σφᾶς ὑπὸ τῷ καλουμένῳ Ταρτάρῳ, καὶ ἔστιν ἐν Ἥρας ὅρκῳ τὰ ἔπη· παρὰ δὲ Ὁμήρου Ὀνομάκριτος παραλαβὼν τῶν Τιτάνων τὸ ὄνομα Διονύσῳ τε συνέθηκεν ὄργια καὶ εἶναι τοὺς Τιτᾶνας τῷ Διονύσῳ τῶν παθημάτων ἐποίησεν αὐτουργούς.
8.37.8 παρὰ δὲ τὸν ναὸν τῆς Δεσποίνης ὀλίγον ἐπαναβάντι ἐν δεξιᾷ Μέγαρόν ἐστι καλούμενον, καὶ τελετήν τε δρῶσιν ἐνταῦθα καὶ τῇ Δεσποίνῃ θύουσιν ἱερεῖα οἱ Ἀρκάδες πολλά τε καὶ ἄφθονα. θύει μὲν δὴ αὐτῶν ἕκαστος ὅ τι κέκτηται· τῶν ἱερείων δὲ οὐ τὰς φάρυγγας ἀποτέμνει ὥσπερ ἐπὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις θυσίαις, κῶλον δὲ ὅ τι ἂν τύχῃ, τοῦτο ἕκαστος ἀπέκοψε τοῦ θύματος. 8.37.9 ταύτην μάλιστα θεῶν σέβουσιν οἱ Ἀρκάδες τὴν Δέσποιναν, θυγατέρα δὲ αὐτὴν Ποσειδῶνός φασιν εἶναι καὶ Δήμητρος. ἐπίκλησις ἐς τοὺς πολλούς ἐστιν αὐτῇ Δέσποινα, καθάπερ καὶ τὴν ἐκ Διὸς Κόρην ἐπονομάζουσιν, ἰδίᾳ δέ ἐστιν ὄνομα Περσεφόνη, καθὰ Ὅμηρος καὶ ἔτι πρότερον Πάμφως ἐποίησαν· τῆς δὲ Δεσποίνης τὸ ὄνομα ἔδεισα ἐς τοὺς ἀτελέστους γράφειν.
8.42.4 πεποιῆσθαι δὲ οὕτω σφίσι τὸ ἄγαλμα· καθέζεσθαι μὲν ἐπὶ πέτρᾳ, γυναικὶ δὲ ἐοικέναι τἄλλα πλὴν κεφαλήν· κεφαλὴν δὲ καὶ κόμην εἶχεν ἵππου, καὶ δρακόντων τε καὶ ἄλλων θηρίων εἰκόνες προσεπεφύκεσαν τῇ κεφαλῇ· χιτῶνα δὲ ἐνεδέδυτο καὶ ἐς ἄκρους τοὺς πόδας· δελφὶς δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς χειρὸς ἦν αὐτῇ, περιστερὰ δὲ ἡ ὄρνις ἐπὶ τῇ ἑτέρᾳ. ἐφʼ ὅτῳ μὲν δὴ τὸ ξόανον ἐποιήσαντο οὕτως, ἀνδρὶ οὐκ ἀσυνέτῳ γνώμην ἀγαθῷ δὲ καὶ τὰ ἐς μνήμην δῆλά ἐστι· Μέλαιναν δὲ ἐπονομάσαι φασὶν αὐτήν, ὅτι καὶ ἡ θεὸς μέλαιναν τὴν ἐσθῆτα εἶχε. 8.42.5 τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τὸ ξόανον οὔτε ὅτου ποίημα ἦν οὔτε ἡ φλὸξ τρόπον ὅντινα ἐπέλαβεν αὐτό, μνημονεύουσιν· ἀφανισθέντος δὲ τοῦ ἀρχαίου Φιγαλεῖς οὔτε ἄγαλμα ἄλλο ἀπεδίδοσαν τῇ θεῷ καὶ ὁπόσα ἐς ἑορτὰς καὶ θυσίας τὰ πολλὰ δὴ παρῶπτό σφισιν, ἐς ὃ ἡ ἀκαρπία ἐπιλαμβάνει τὴν γῆν· καὶ ἱκετεύσασιν αὐτοῖς χρᾷ τάδε ἡ Πυθία· 8.42.6 Ἀρκάδες Ἀζᾶνες βαλανηφάγοι, οἳ Φιγάλειαν νάσσασθʼ, ἱππολεχοῦς Δῃοῦς κρυπτήριον ἄντρον, ἥκετε πευσόμενοι λιμοῦ λύσιν ἀλγινόεντος, μοῦνοι δὶς νομάδες, μοῦνοι πάλιν ἀγριοδαῖται. Δῃὼ μέν σε ἔπαυσε νομῆς, Δῃὼ δὲ νομῆας ἐκ δησισταχύων καὶ ἀναστοφάγων πάλι θῆκε, νοσφισθεῖσα γέρα προτέρων τιμάς τε παλαιάς. καί σʼ ἀλληλοφάγον θήσει τάχα καὶ τεκνοδαίτην, εἰ μὴ πανδήμοις λοιβαῖς χόλον ἱλάσσεσθε σήραγγός τε μυχὸν θείαις κοσμήσετε τιμαῖς. 8.42.7 ὡς δὲ οἱ Φιγαλεῖς ἀνακομισθὲν τὸ μάντευμα ἤκουσαν, τά τε ἄλλα ἐς πλέον τιμῆς ἢ τὰ πρότερα τὴν Δήμητρα ἦγον καὶ Ὀνάταν τὸν Μίκωνος Αἰγινήτην πείθουσιν ἐφʼ ὅσῳ δὴ μισθῷ ποιῆσαί σφισιν ἄγαλμα Δήμητρος· τοῦ δὲ Ὀνάτα τούτου Περγαμηνοῖς ἐστιν Ἀπόλλων χαλκοῦς, θαῦμα ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα μεγέθους τε ἕνεκα καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ τέχνῃ. τότε δὴ ὁ ἀνὴρ οὗτος ἀνευρὼν γραφὴν ἢ μίμημα τοῦ ἀρχαίου ξοάνου—τὰ πλείω δέ, ὡς λέγεται, καὶ κατὰ ὀνειράτων ὄψιν—ἐποίησε χαλκοῦν Φιγαλεῦσιν ἄγαλμα, γενεαῖς μάλιστα δυσὶν ὕστερον τῆς ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἐπιστρατείας τοῦ Μήδου. 8.42.8 μαρτυρεῖ δέ μοι τῷ λόγῳ· κατὰ γὰρ τὴν Ξέρξου διάβασιν ἐς τὴν Εὐρώπην Συρακουσῶν τε ἐτυράννει καὶ Σικελίας τῆς ἄλλης Γέλων ὁ Δεινομένους· ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Γέλων, ἐς Ἱέρωνα ἀδελφὸν Γέλωνος περιῆλθεν ἡ ἀρχή· Ἱέρωνος δὲ ἀποθανόντος πρότερον πρὶν ἢ τῷ Ὀλυμπίῳ Διὶ ἀναθεῖναι τὰ ἀναθήματα ἃ εὔξατο ἐπὶ τῶν ἵππων ταῖς νίκαις, οὕτω Δεινομένης ὁ Ἱέρωνος ἀπέδωκεν ὑπὲρ τοῦ πατρός.
9.27.2 Ἔρωτα δὲ ἄνθρωποι μὲν οἱ πολλοὶ νεώτατον θεῶν εἶναι καὶ Ἀφροδίτης παῖδα ἥγηνται· Λύκιος δὲ Ὠλήν, ὃς καὶ τοὺς ὕμνους τοὺς ἀρχαιοτάτους ἐποίησεν Ἕλλησιν, οὗτος ὁ Ὠλὴν ἐν Εἰλειθυίας ὕμνῳ μητέρα Ἔρωτος τὴν Εἰλείθυιάν φησιν εἶναι. Ὠλῆνος δὲ ὕστερον Πάμφως τε ἔπη καὶ Ὀρφεὺς ἐποίησαν· καί σφισιν ἀμφοτέροις πεποιημένα ἐστὶν ἐς Ἔρωτα, ἵνα ἐπὶ τοῖς δρωμένοις Λυκομίδαι καὶ ταῦτα ᾄδωσιν· ἐγὼ δὲ ἐπελεξάμην ἀνδρὶ ἐς λόγους ἐλθὼν δᾳδουχοῦντι. καὶ τῶν μὲν οὐ πρόσω ποιήσομαι μνήμην· Ἡσίοδον δὲ ἢ τὸν Ἡσιόδῳ Θεογονίαν ἐσποιήσαντα οἶδα γράψαντα ὡς Χάος πρῶτον, ἐπὶ δὲ αὐτῷ Γῆ τε καὶ Τάρταρος καὶ Ἔρως γένοιτο·
9.30.12 ὅστις δὲ περὶ ποιήσεως ἐπολυπραγμόνησεν ἤδη, τοὺς Ὀρφέως ὕμνους οἶδεν ὄντας ἕκαστόν τε αὐτῶν ἐπὶ βραχύτατον καὶ τὸ σύμπαν οὐκ ἐς ἀριθμὸν πολὺν πεποιημένους· Λυκομίδαι δὲ ἴσασί τε καὶ ἐπᾴδουσι τοῖς δρωμένοις. κόσμῳ μὲν δὴ τῶν ἐπῶν δευτερεῖα φέροιντο ἂν μετά γε Ὁμήρου τοὺς ὕμνους, τιμῆς δὲ ἐκ τοῦ θείου καὶ ἐς πλέον ἐκείνων ἥκουσι.
10.1.7 προσετέτακτο δὲ τοῖς ἀνδράσιν, εἰ ἡττᾶσθαι τοὺς Φωκέας συμβαίνοι τῇ μάχῃ, τότε δὴ προαποσφάξαι μὲν τὰς γυναῖκάς τε καὶ παῖδας καὶ ὡς ἱερεῖα ἀναθέντας ταῦτά τε καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἐπὶ τὴν πυρὰν καὶ ἐνέντας πῦρ οὕτως ἤδη διαφθαρῆναι καὶ αὐτοὺς ἤτοι ὑπʼ ἀλλήλων ἢ ἐς τὴν ἵππον τῶν Θεσσαλῶν ἐσπίπτοντας. ἀντὶ τούτου μὲν ἅπαντα τὰ ἀνάλγητα βουλεύματα ἀπόνοια ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων ὀνομάζεται Φωκική, τότε δὲ οἱ Φωκεῖς ἐποιοῦντο αὐτίκα ἐπὶ τοὺς Θεσσαλοὺς ἔξοδον· 10.1.8 στρατηγοὶ δὲ ἦσάν σφισι Ῥοῖός τε Ἀμβροσσεὺς καὶ Ὑαμπολίτης Δαϊφάντης, οὗτος μὲν δὴ ἐπὶ τῇ ἵππῳ, δυνάμεως δὲ τῆς πεζῆς ὁ Ἀμβροσσεύς. ὁ δὲ χώραν ἐν τοῖς ἄρχουσιν ἔχων τὴν μεγίστην μάντις ἦν Τελλίας ὁ Ἠλεῖος, καὶ ἐς τὸν Τελλίαν τοῖς Φωκεῦσι τῆς σωτηρίας ἀπέκειντο αἱ ἐλπίδες. 10.1.9 ὡς δὲ ἐς χεῖρας συνῄεσαν, ἐνταῦθα τοῖς Φωκεῦσιν ἐγίνετο ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς τὰ ἐς τὰς γυναῖκας καὶ ἐς τὰ τέκνα δόξαντα, τήν τε σωτηρίαν οὐκ ἐν βεβαίῳ σφίσιν ἑώρων σαλεύουσαν καὶ τούτων ἕνεκα ἐς παντοῖα ἀφικνοῦντο τολμήματα· προσγενομένου δὲ καὶ τοῦ ἐκ θεῶν εὐμενοῦς νίκην τῶν τότε ἀνείλοντο ἐπιφανεστάτην.
10.23.1 Βρέννῳ δὲ καὶ τῇ στρατιᾷ τῶν τε Ἑλλήνων οἱ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἀθροισθέντες ἀντετάξαντο, καὶ τοῖς βαρβάροις ἀντεσήμαινε τὰ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ταχύ τε καὶ ὧν ἴσμεν φανερώτατα. ἥ τε γὰρ γῆ πᾶσα, ὅσην ἐπεῖχεν ἡ τῶν Γαλατῶν στρατιά, βιαίως καὶ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἐσείετο τῆς ἡμέρας, βρονταί τε καὶ κεραυνοὶ συνεχεῖς ἐγίνοντο· 10.23.2 καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐξέπληττόν τε τοὺς Κελτοὺς καὶ δέχεσθαι τοῖς ὠσὶ τὰ παραγγελλόμενα ἐκώλυον, τὰ δὲ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ οὐκ ἐς ὅντινα κατασκήψαι μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς πλησίον καὶ αὐτοὺς ὁμοίως καὶ τὰ ὅπλα ἐξῆπτε. τά τε τῶν ἡρώων τηνικαῦτά σφισιν ἐφάνη φάσματα, ὁ Ὑπέροχος καὶ ὁ Λαόδοκός τε καὶ Πύρρος· οἱ δὲ καὶ τέταρτον Φύλακον ἐπιχώριον Δελφοῖς ἀπαριθμοῦσιν ἥρωα.' ' None
1.4.4 So they tried to save Greece in the way described, but the Gauls, now south of the Gates, cared not at all to capture the other towns, but were very eager to sack Delphi and the treasures of the god. They were opposed by the Delphians themselves and the Phocians of the cities around Parnassus ; a force of Aetolians also joined the defenders, for the Aetolians at this time were pre-eminent for their vigorous activity. When the forces engaged, not only were thunderbolts and rocks broken off from Parnassus hurled against the Gauls, but terrible shapes as armed warriors haunted the foreigners. They say that two of them, Hyperochus and Amadocus, came from the Hyperboreans, and that the third was Pyrrhus son of Achilles. Because of this help in battle the Delphians sacrifice to Pyrrhus as to a hero, although formerly they held even his tomb in dishonor, as being that of an enemy.
1.14.1 So ended the period of Epeirot ascendancy. When you have entered the Odeum at Athens you meet, among other objects, a figure of Dionysus worth seeing. Hard by is a spring called Enneacrunos (Nine Jets), embellished as you see it by Peisistratus. There are cisterns all over the city, but this is the only fountain. Above the spring are two temples, one to Demeter and the Maid, while in that of Triptolemus is a statue of him. The accounts given of Triptolemus I shall write, omitting from the story as much as relates to Deiope. 1.14.3 Some extant verses of Musaeus, if indeed they are to be included among his works, say that Triptolemus was the son of Oceanus and Earth; while those ascribed to Orpheus (though in my opinion the received authorship is again incorrect) say that Eubuleus and Triptolemus were sons of Dysaules, and that because they gave Demeter information about her daughter the sowing of seed was her reward to them. But Choerilus, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Cercyon and Triptolemus were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphictyon, while the father of Triptolemus was Rarus, of Cercyon, Poseidon. After I had intended to go further into this story, and to describe the contents of the sanctuary at Athens, called the Eleusinium, I was stayed by a vision in a dream. I shall therefore turn to those things it is lawful to write of to all men.
1.15.3 At the end of the painting are those who fought at Marathon; the Boeotians of Plataea and the Attic contingent are coming to blows with the foreigners. In this place neither side has the better, but the center of the fighting shows the foreigners in flight and pushing one another into the morass, while at the end of the painting are the Phoenician ships, and the Greeks killing the foreigners who are scrambling into them. Here is also a portrait of the hero Marathon, after whom the plain is named, of Theseus represented as coming up from the under-world, of Athena and of Heracles. The Marathonians, according to their own account, were the first to regard Heracles as a god. of the fighters the most conspicuous figures in the painting are Callimachus, who had been elected commander-in-chief by the Athenians, Miltiades, one of the generals, and a hero called Echetlus, of whom I shall make mention later.
1.22.7 and in the picture are emblems of the victory his horses won at Nemea . There is also Perseus journeying to Seriphos, and carrying to Polydectes the head of Medusa, the legend about whom I am unwilling to relate in my description of Attica . Included among the paintings—I omit the boy carrying the water-jars and the wrestler of Timaenetus An unknown painter. —is Musaeus. I have read verse in which Musaeus receives from the North Wind the gift of flight, but, in my opinion, Onomacritus wrote them, and there are no certainly genuine works of Musaeus except a hymn to Demeter written for the Lycomidae.
1.27.3 I was much amazed at something which is not generally known, and so I will describe the circumstances. Two maidens dwell not far from the temple of Athena Polias, called by the Athenians Bearers of the Sacred offerings. For a time they live with the goddess, but when the festival comes round they perform at night the following rites. Having placed on their heads what the priestess of Athena gives them to carry—neither she who gives nor they who carry have any knowledge what it is—the maidens descend by the natural underground passage that goes across the adjacent precincts, within the city, of Aphrodite in the Gardens. They leave down below what they carry and receive something else which they bring back covered up. These maidens they henceforth let go free, and take up to the Acropolis others in their place.
1.28.4 On descending, not to the lower city, but to just beneath the Gateway, you see a fountain and near it a sanctuary of Apollo in a cave. It is here that Apollo is believed to have met Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus.... when the Persians had landed in Attica Philippides was sent to carry the tidings to Lacedaemon . On his return he said that the Lacedacmonians had postponed their departure, because it was their custom not to go out to fight before the moon was full. Philippides went on to say that near Mount Parthenius he had been met by Pan, who told him that he was friendly to the Athenians and would come to Marathon to fight for them. This deity, then, has been honored for this announcement.
1.31.4 Such is the legend. Phlya and Myrrhinus have altars of Apollo Dionysodotus, Artemis Light-bearer, Dionysus Flower-god, the Ismenian nymphs and Earth, whom they name the Great goddess; a second temple contains altars of Demeter Anesidora (Sender-up of Gifts), Zeus Ctesius (God of Gain), Tithrone Athena, the Maid First-born and the goddesses styled August. The wooden image at Myrrhinus is of Colaenis.
1.32.4 here is also a separate monument to one man, Miltiades, the son of Cimon, although his end came later, after he had failed to take Paros and for this reason had been brought to trial by the Athenians. At Marathon every night you can hear horses neighing and men fighting. No one who has expressly set himself to behold this vision has ever got any good from it, but the spirits are not wroth with such as in ignorance chance to be spectators. The Marathonians worship both those who died in the fighting, calling them heroes, and secondly Marathon, from whom the parish derives its name, and then Heracles, saying that they were the first among the Greeks to acknowledge him as a god. 1.32.5 They say too that there chanced to be present in the battle a man of rustic appearance and dress. Having slaughtered many of the foreigners with a plough he was seen no more after the engagement. When the Athenians made enquiries at the oracle the god merely ordered them to honor Echetlaeus (He of the Plough-tail) as a hero. A trophy too of white marble has been erected. Although the Athenians assert that they buried the Persians, because in every case the divine law applies that a corpse should be laid under the earth, yet I could find no grave. There was neither mound nor other trace to be seen, as the dead were carried to a trench and thrown in anyhow.
1.37.2 A little way past the grave of Themistocles is a precinct sacred to Lacius, a hero, a parish called after him Laciadae, and the tomb of Nicocles of Tarentum, who won a unique reputation as a harpist. There is also an altar of Zephyrus and a sanctuary of Demeter and her daughter. With them Athena and Poseidon are worshipped. There is a legend that in this place Phytalus welcomed Demeter in his home, for which act the goddess gave him the fig tree. This story is borne out by the inscription on the grave of Phytalus:— Hero and king, Phytalus here welcome gave to Demeter, August goddess, when first she created fruit of the harvest; Sacred fig is the name which mortal men have assigned it. Whence Phytalus and his race have gotten honours immortal.
1.37.4 Across the Cephisus is an ancient altar of Zeus Meilichius (Gracious). At this altar Theseus obtained purification at the hands of the descendants of Phytalus after killing brigands, including Sinis who was related to him through Pittheus. Here is the grave of Theodectes A pupil of Isocrates of Phaselis, and also that of Mnesitheus. They say that he was a skilful physician and dedicated statues, among which is a representation of Iacchus. On the road stands a small temple called that of Cyamites. Cyamos means “bean.” I cannot state for certain whether he was the first to sow beans, or whether they gave this name to a hero because they may not attribute to Demeter the discovery of beans. Whoever has been initiated at Eleusis or has read what are called the Orphica A poem describing certain aspects of the Orphic religion. knows what I mean.
1.43.2 In the Town-hall are buried, they say, Euippus the son of Megareus and Ischepolis the son of Alcathous. Near the Town-hall is a rock. They name it Anaclethris (Recall), because Demeter (if the story be credible) here too called her daughter back when she was wandering in search of her. Even in our day the Megarian women hold a performance that is a mimic representation of the legend.
2.4.7 Above it are a temple of the Mother of the gods and a throne; the image and the throne are made of stone. The temple of the Fates and that of Demeter and the Maid have images that are not exposed to view. Here, too, is the temple of Hera Bunaea set up by Bunus the son of Hermes. It is for this reason that the goddess is called Bunaea.
2.11.3 On the direct road from Sicyon to Phlius, on the left of the road and just about ten stades from it, is a grove called Pyraea, and in it a sanctuary of Hera Protectress and the Maid. Here the men celebrate a festival by themselves, giving up to the women the temple called Nymphon for the purposes of their festival. In the Nymphon are images of Dionysus, Demeter, and the Maid, with only their faces exposed. The road to Titane is sixty stades long, and too narrow to be used by carriages drawn by a yoke.
2.13.3 I will now add an account of the most remarkable of their famous sights. On the Phliasian citadel is a grove of cypress trees and a sanctuary which from ancient times has been held to be peculiarly holy. The earliest Phliasians named the goddess to whom the sanctuary belongs Ganymeda; but later authorities call her Hebe, whom Homer Hom. Il. 4.2 foll. mentions in the duel between Menelaus and Alexander, saying that she was the cup-bearer of the gods; and again he says, in the descent of Odysseus to Hell, Hom. Od. 11.603 that she was the wife of Heracles. Olen, A mythical poet of Greece, associated with Apollo. in his hymn to Hera, says that Hera was reared by the Seasons, and that her children were Ares and Hebe. of the honors that the Phliasians pay to this goddess the greatest is the pardoning of suppliants.
2.30.2 of the gods, the Aeginetans worship most Hecate, in whose honor every year they celebrate mystic rites which, they say, Orpheus the Thracian established among them. Within the enclosure is a temple; its wooden image is the work of Myron, fl. c. 460 B.C. and it has one face and one body. It was Alcamenes, A contemporary of Pheidias. in my opinion, who first made three images of Hecate attached to one another, a figure called by the Athenians Epipurgidia (on the Tower); it stands beside the temple of the Wingless Victory.
2.31.5 Not far from Artemis Lycea are altars close to one another. The first of them is to Dionysus, surnamed, in accordance with an oracle, Saotes (Saviour); the second is named the altar of the Themides (Laws), and was dedicated, they say, by Pittheus. They had every reason, it seems to me, for making an altar to Helius Eleutherius (Sun, God of Freedom), seeing that they escaped being enslaved by Xerxes and the Persians.
2.35.4 The object most worthy of mention is a sanctuary of Demeter on Pron. This sanctuary is said by the Hermionians to have been founded by Clymenus, son of Phoroneus, and Chthonia, sister of Clymenus. But the Argive account is that when Demeter came to Argolis, while Atheras and Mysius afforded hospitality to the goddess, Colontas neither received her into his home nor paid her any other mark of respect. His daughter Chthoia disapproved of this conduct. They say that Colontas was punished by being burnt up along with his house, while Chthonia was brought to Hermion by Demeter, and made the sanctuary for the Hermionians.
2.35.6 Those who form the procession are followed by men leading from the herd a full-grown cow, fastened with ropes, and still untamed and frisky. Having driven the cow to the temple, some loose her from the ropes that she may rush into the sanctuary, others, who hitherto have been holding the doors open, when they see the cow within the temple, close the doors. 2.35.7 Four old women, left behind inside, are they who dispatch the cow. Whichever gets the chance cuts the throat of the cow with a sickle. Afterwards the doors are opened, and those who are appointed drive up a second cow, and a third after that, and yet a fourth. All are dispatched in the same way by the old women, and the sacrifice has yet another strange feature. On whichever of her sides the first cow falls, all the others must fall on the same.
3.12.7 Near the Hellenium they point out the tomb of Talthybius. The Achaeans of Aegium too say that a tomb which they show on their market-place belongs to Talthybius. It was this Talthybius whose wrath at the murder of the heralds, who were sent to Greece by king Dareius to demand earth and water, left its mark upon the whole state of the Lacedaemonians, but in Athens fell upon individuals, the members of the house of one man, Miltiades the son of Cimon. Miltiades was responsible for the death at the hands of the Athenians of those of the heralds who came to Attica .
3.14.5 but the wooden image of Thetis is guarded in secret. The cult of Demeter Chthonia (of the Lower World) the Lacedaemonians say was handed on to them by Orpheus, but in my opinion it was because of the sanctuary in Hermione See Paus.
2.35.4-8 . that the Lacedaemonians also began to worship Demeter Chthonia. The Spartans have also a sanctuary of Serapis, the newest sanctuary in the city, and one of Zeus surnamed Olympian.
4.1.5 The first rulers then in this country were Polycaon, the son of Lelex, and Messene his wife. It was to her that Caucon, the son of Celaenus, son of Phlyus, brought the rites of the Great Goddesses from Eleusis . Phlyus himself is said by the Athenians to have been the son of Earth, and the hymn of Musaeus to Demeter made for the Lycomidae agrees.' "4.1.6 But the mysteries of the Great Goddesses were raised to greater honor many years later than Caucon by Lycus, the son of Pandion, an oak-wood, where he purified the celebrants, being still called Lycus' wood. That there is a wood in this land so called is stated by Rhianus the Cretan:— By rugged Elaeum above Lycus' wood. Rhianus of Bene in Crete . See note on Paus. 4.6.1 ." '4.1.7 That this Lycus was the son of Pandion is made clear by the lines on the statue of Methapus, who made certain improvements in the mysteries. Methapus was an Athenian by birth, an expert in the mysteries and founder of all kinds of rites. It was he who established the mysteries of the Cabiri at Thebes, and dedicated in the hut of the Lycomidae a statue with an inscription that amongst other things helps to confirm my account:—
4.31.9 The Messenians have a temple erected to Eileithyia with a stone statue, and near by a hall of the Curetes, where they make burnt offerings of every kind of living creature, thrusting into the flames not only cattle and goats, but finally birds as well. There is a holy shrine of Demeter at Messene and statues of the Dioscuri, carrying the daughters of Leucippus. I have already explained in an earlier passage Paus. 3.26.3 that the Messenians argue that the sons of Tyndareus belong to them rather than to the Lacedaemonians.
5.14.10 On what is called the Gaeum (sanctuary of Earth) is an altar of Earth; it too is of ashes. In more ancient days they say that there was an oracle also of Earth in this place. On what is called the Stomium (Mouth) the altar to Themis has been built. All round the altar of Zeus Descender runs a fence; this altar is near the great altar made of the ashes. The reader must remember that the altars have not been enumerated in the order in which they stand, but the order followed by my narrative is that followed by the Eleans in their sacrifices. By the sacred enclosure of Pelops is an altar of Dionysus and the Graces in common; between them is an altar of the Muses, and next to these an altar of the Nymphs. ' "
7.27.9 About sixty stades distant from Pellene is the Mysaeum, a sanctuary of the Mysian Demeter. It is said that it was founded by Mysius, a man of Argos, who according to Argive tradition gave Demeter a welcome in his home. There is a grove in the Mysaeum, containing trees of every kind, and in it rises a copious supply of water from springs. Here they also celebrate a seven days' festival in honor of Demeter." 8.15.1 The people of Pheneus have also a sanctuary of Demeter, surnamed Eleusinian, and they perform a ritual to the goddess, saying that the ceremonies at Eleusis are the same as those established among themselves. For Naus, they assert, came to them because of an oracle from Delphi, being a grandson of Eumolpus. Beside the sanctuary of the Eleusinian has been set up Petroma, as it is called, consisting of two large stones fitted one to the other.
8.25.3 This sanctuary is on the borders of Thelpusa . In it are images, each no less than seven feet high, of Demeter, her daughter, and Dionysus, all alike of stone. After the sanctuary of the Eleusinian goddess the Ladon flows by the city Thelpusa on the left, situated on a high hill, in modern times so deserted that the market-place, which is at the extremity of it, was originally, they say, right in the very middle of it. Thelpusa has a temple of Asclepius and a sanctuary of the twelve gods; the greater part of this, I found, lay level with the ground.
8.25.5 When Demeter was wandering in search of her daughter, she was followed, it is said, by Poseidon, who lusted after her. So she turned, the story runs, into a mare, and grazed with the mares of Oncius; realizing that he was outwitted, Poseidon too changed into a stallion and enjoyed Demeter.' "
8.37.5 By the image of the Mistress stands Anytus, represented as a man in armour. Those about the sanctuary say that the Mistress was brought up by Anytus, who was one of the Titans, as they are called. The first to introduce Titans into poetry was Homer, See Hom. Il. 14.279 . representing them as gods down in what is called Tartarus; the lines are in the passage about Hera's oath. From Homer the name of the Titans was taken by Onomacritus, who in the orgies he composed for Dionysus made the Titans the authors of the god's sufferings." 8.37.8 When you have gone up a little, beside the temple of the Mistress on the right is what is called the Hall, where the Arcadians celebrate mysteries, and sacrifice to the Mistress many victims in generous fashion. Every man of them sacrifices what he possesses. But he does not cut the throats of the victims, as is done in other sacrifices; each man chops off a limb of the sacrifice, just that which happens to come to hand.' "8.37.9 This Mistress the Arcadians worship more than any other god, declaring that she is a daughter of Poseidon and Demeter. Mistress is her surname among the many, just as they surname Demeter's daughter by Zeus the Maid. But whereas the real name of the Maid is Persephone, as Homer See Hom. Od. 10.491, and Hom. Il. 9.457, Hom. Il. 9.569 . and Pamphos before him say in their poems, the real name of the Mistress I am afraid to write to the uninitiated." 8.42.4 The image, they say, was made after this fashion. It was seated on a rock, like to a woman in all respects save the head. She had the head and hair of a horse, and there grew out of her head images of serpents and other beasts. Her tunic reached right to her feet; on one of her hands was a dolphin, on the other a dove. Now why they had the image made after this fashion is plain to any intelligent man who is learned in traditions. They say that they named her Black because the goddess had black apparel. 8.42.5 They cannot relate either who made this wooden image or how it caught fire. But the old image was destroyed, and the Phigalians gave the goddess no fresh image, while they neglected for the most part her festivals and sacrifices, until the barrenness fell on the land. Then they went as suppliants to the Pythian priestess and received this response:— 8.42.6 Azanian Arcadians, acorn-eaters, who dwell In Phigaleia, the cave that hid Deo, who bare a horse, You have come to learn a cure for grievous famine, Who alone have twice been nomads, alone have twice lived on wild fruits. It was Deo who made you cease from pasturing, Deo who made you pasture again After being binders of corn and eaters With the reading ἀναστοφάγους “made you pasture again, and to be non-eaters of cakes, after being binders of corn.” of cakes, Because she was deprived of privileges and ancient honors given by men of former times. And soon will she make you eat each other and feed on your children, Unless you appease her anger with libations offered by all your people, And adorn with divine honors the nook of the cave. 8.42.7 When the Phigalians heard the oracle that was brought back, they held Demeter in greater honor than before, and particularly they persuaded Onatas of Aegina, son of Micon, to make them an image of Demeter at a price. The Pergamenes have a bronze Apollo made by this Onatas, a most wonderful marvel both for its size and workmanship. This man then, about two generations after the Persian invasion of Greece, made the Phigalians an image of bronze, guided partly by a picture or copy of the ancient wooden image which he discovered, but mostly (so goes the story) by a vision that he saw in dreams. As to the date, I have the following evidence to produce. 8.42.8 At the time when Xerxes crossed over into Europe, Gelon the son of Deinomenes was despot of Syracuse and of the rest of Sicily besides. When Gelon died, the kingdom devolved on his brother Hieron. Hieron died before he could dedicate to Olympian Zeus the offerings he had vowed for his victories in the chariot-race, and so Deinomenes his son paid the debt for his father.
9.27.2 Most men consider Love to be the youngest of the gods and the son of Aphrodite. But Olen the Lycian, who composed the oldest Greek hymns, says in a hymn to Eileithyia that she was the mother of Love. Later than Olen, both Pamphos and Orpheus wrote hexameter verse, and composed poems on Love, in order that they might be among those sung by the Lycomidae to accompany the ritual. I read them after conversation with a Torchbearer. of these things I will make no further mention. Hesiod, Hes. Th. 116 foll. or he who wrote the Theogony fathered on Hesiod, writes, I know, that Chaos was born first, and after Chaos, Earth, Tartarus and Love.
9.30.12 Whoever has devoted himself to the study of poetry knows that the hymns of Orpheus are all very short, and that the total number of them is not great. The Lycomidae know them and chant them over the ritual of the mysteries. For poetic beauty they may be said to come next to the hymns of Homer, while they have been even more honored by the gods. ' "
10.1.7 These were under orders that, should the Phocians chance to be worsted in the battle, they were first to put to death the women and the children, then to lay them like victims with the valuables on the pyre, and finally to set it alight and perish themselves, either by each other's hands or by charging the cavalry of the Thessalians. Hence all forlorn hopes are called by the Greeks “Phocian despair.” On this occasion the Phocians forthwith proceeded to attack the Thessalians." "10.1.8 The commander of their cavalry was Daiphantes of Hyampolis, of their infantry Rhoeus of Ambrossus. But the office of commander-in-chief was held by Tellias, a seer of Elis, upon whom rested all the Phocians' hopes of salvation." '10.1.9 When the battle joined, the Phocians had before their eyes what they had resolved to do to their women and children, and seeing that their own salvation trembled in the balance, they dared the most desperate deeds, and, with the favour of heaven, achieved the most famous victory of that time.
10.23.1 Brennus and his army were now faced by the Greeks who had mustered at Delphi, and soon portents boding no good to the barbarians were sent by the god, the clearest recorded in history. For the whole ground occupied by the Gallic army was shaken violently most of the day, with continuous thunder and lightning. 10.23.2 The thunder both terrified the Gauls and prevented them hearing their orders, while the bolts from heaven set on fire not only those whom they struck but also their neighbors, themselves and their armour alike. Then there were seen by them ghosts of the heroes Hyperochus, Laodocus and Pyrrhus; according to some a fourth appeared, Phylacus, a local hero of Delphi .' ' None
|50. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 137; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 81; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 170
|51. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 136; Belayche and Massa (2021), Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 13, 171; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 444; Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 142; Stephens and Winkler (1995), Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary, 362; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 42; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 81; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 47, 147, 149, 151, 200, 228, 333
|52. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.17, 4.17, 4.48 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Graf and Johnston (2007), Ritual texts for the afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets, 198; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 81; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 231, 242, 243
1.17 In what follows, Celsus, assailing the Mosaic history, finds fault with those who give it a tropical and allegorical signification. And here one might say to this great man, who inscribed upon his own work the title of a True Discourse, Why, good sir, do you make it a boast to have it recorded that the gods should engage in such adventures as are described by your learned poets and philosophers, and be guilty of abominable intrigues, and of engaging in wars against their own fathers, and of cutting off their secret parts, and should dare to commit and to suffer such enormities; while Moses, who gives no such accounts respecting God, nor even regarding the holy angels, and who relates deeds of far less atrocity regarding men (for in his writings no one ever ventured to commit such crimes as Kronos did against Uranus, or Zeus against his father, or that of the father of men and gods, who had intercourse with his own daughter), should be considered as having deceived those who were placed under his laws, and to have led them into error? And here Celsus seems to me to act somewhat as Thrasymachus the Platonic philosopher did, when he would not allow Socrates to answer regarding justice, as he wished, but said, Take care not to say that utility is justice, or duty, or anything of that kind. For in like manner Celsus assails (as he thinks) the Mosaic histories, and finds fault with those who understand them allegorically, at the same time bestowing also some praise upon those who do so, to the effect that they are more impartial (than those who do not); and thus, as it were, he prevents by his cavils those who are able to show the true state of the case from offering such a defense as they would wish to offer.
4.17 But will not those narratives, especially when they are understood in their proper sense, appear far more worthy of respect than the story that Dionysus was deceived by the Titans, and expelled from the throne of Jupiter, and torn in pieces by them, and his remains being afterwards put together again, he returned as it were once more to life, and ascended to heaven? Or are the Greeks at liberty to refer such stories to the doctrine of the soul, and to interpret them figuratively, while the door of a consistent explanation, and one everywhere in accord and harmony with the writings of the Divine Spirit, who had His abode in pure souls, is closed against us? Celsus, then, is altogether ignorant of the purpose of our writings, and it is therefore upon his own acceptation of them that he casts discredit, and not upon their real meaning; whereas, if he had reflected on what is appropriate to a soul which is to enjoy an everlasting life, and on the opinion which we are to form of its essence and principles, he would not so have ridiculed the entrance of the immortal into a mortal body, which took place not according to the metempsychosis of Plato, but agreeably to another and higher view of things. And he would have observed one descent, distinguished by its great benevolence, undertaken to convert (as the Scripture mystically terms them) the lost sheep of the house of Israel, which had strayed down from the mountains, and to which the Shepherd is said in certain parables to have gone down, leaving on the mountains those which had not strayed.
4.48 In the next place, as if he had devoted himself solely to the manifestation of his hatred and dislike of the Jewish and Christian doctrine, he says: The more modest of Jewish and Christian writers give all these things an allegorical meaning; and, Because they are ashamed of these things, they take refuge in allegory. Now one might say to him, that if we must admit fables and fictions, whether written with a concealed meaning or with any other object, to be shameful narratives when taken in their literal acceptation, of what histories can this be said more truly than of the Grecian? In these histories, gods who are sons castrate the gods who are their fathers, and gods who are parents devour their own children, and a goddess-mother gives to the father of gods and men a stone to swallow instead of his own son, and a father has intercourse with his daughter, and a wife binds her own husband, having as her allies in the work the brother of the fettered god and his own daughter! But why should I enumerate these absurd stories of the Greeks regarding their gods, which are most shameful in themselves, even though invested with an allegorical meaning? (Take the instance) where Chrysippus of Soli, who is considered to be an ornament of the Stoic sect, on account of his numerous and learned treatises, explains a picture at Samos, in which Juno was represented as committing unspeakable abominations with Jupiter. This reverend philosopher says in his treatises, that matter receives the spermatic words of the god, and retains them within herself, in order to ornament the universe. For in the picture at Samos Juno represents matter, and Jupiter god. Now it is on account of these, and of countless other similar fables, that we would not even in word call the God of all things Jupiter, or the sun Apollo, or the moon Diana. But we offer to the Creator a worship which is pure, and speak with religious respect of His noble works of creation, not contaminating even in word the things of God; approving of the language of Plato in the Philebus, who would not admit that pleasure was a goddess, so great is my reverence, Protarchus, he says, for the very names of the gods. We verily entertain such reverence for the name of God, and for His noble works of creation, that we would not, even under pretext of an allegorical meaning, admit any fable which might do injury to the young. '' None
|53. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alexandra, priestess of Demeter • Demeter,
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 211; Johnston (2008), Ancient Greek Divination, 158
|54. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Homeric Hymn to Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 137; Goldhill (2022), The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity, 301, 302; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 668
|55. Demosthenes, Orations, 43.66, 59.73, 59.78
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore, and Persephone • Demeter, • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Mysteries of • Demeter, and Kore • Demeter, temples • Persephone, and Demeter • dedications, to Demeter and Kore
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 194; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 704; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 67; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 115; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 39; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 136
43.66 (To the clerk.) Now please read the words of the oracle brought from Delphi, from the shrine of the god, that you may see that it speaks in the same terms concerning relatives as do the laws of Solon. Oracle May good fortune attend you. The people of the Athenians make inquiry about the sign which has appeared in the heavens, asking what the Athenians should do, or to what god they should offer sacrifice or make prayer, in order that the issue of the sign may be for their advantage. It will be well for the Athenians with reference to the sign which has appeared in the heavens that they sacrifice with happy auspices to Zeus most high, to Athena most high, to Heracles, to Apollo the deliverer, and that they send due offerings to the Amphiones; Possibly, Amphion and Zethus; but their tomb was near Thebes . See Paus. 9.17.4 that they sacrifice for good fortune to Apollo, god of the ways, to Leto and to Artemis, and that they make the streets steam with the savour of sacrifice; that they set forth bowls of wine and institute choruses and wreathe themselves with garlands after the custom of their fathers, in honor of all the Olympian gods and goddesses, lifting up the right hand and the left, and that they be mindful to bring gifts of thanksgiving after the custom of their fathers. And ye shall offer sacrificial gifts after the custom of your fathers to the hero-founder after whom ye are named; and for the dead their relatives shall make offerings on the appointed day according to established custom.
59.73 And this woman offered on the city’s behalf the sacrifices which none may name, and saw what it was not fitting for her to see, being an alien; and despite her character she entered where no other of the whole host of the Athenians enters save the wife of the king only; and she administered the oath to the venerable priestesses These were women whose duty was to minister at the altars of Dionysus. who preside over the sacrifices, and was given as bride to Dionysus At the festival of the Anthesteria, in order to symbolize the union of the god with the people, the (presumably) noblest woman in the land—the wife of the king—was given as bride to Dionysus. ; and she conducted on the city’s behalf the rites which our fathers handed down for the service of the gods, rites many and solemn and not to be named. If it be not permitted that anyone even hear of them, how can it be consot with piety for a chance-comer to perform them, especially a woman of her character and one who has done what she has done?
59.78 I wish now to call before you the sacred herald who waits upon the wife of the king, when she administers the oath to the venerable priestesses as they carry their baskets The baskets contained the salt meal which was sprinkled upon the heads of the victims. in front of the altar before they touch the victims, in order that you may hear the oath and the words that are pronounced, at least as far as it is permitted you to hear them; and that you may understand how august and holy and ancient the rites are. The Oath of the Venerable Priestesses I live a holy life and am pure and unstained by all else that pollutes and by commerce with man, and I will celebrate the feast of the wine god and the Iobacchic feast These festivals derived their names from epithets applied to the God, and belonged to the ancient worship of Dionysus. in honor of Dionysus in accordance with custom and at the appointed times. '' None
|56. Epigraphy, Ig I , 7, 78, 250, 255, 953
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore • Demeter and Kore, and Persephone • Demeter and Kore, cults of, at Eleusis • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Mysteries of • Eleusis,, priestesses of Demeter and Kore • Lysistrate, Demeter and Kore at Eleusis • Persephone, and Demeter • Phaena Antigonika, Demeter at Mantineia • dedications, to Demeter and Kore
Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 65, 193; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 555, 705, 808; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 59, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 115; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 313; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 276
7 The Council and People decided. - was the prytany. - was secretary. - was chairman. - proposed: concerning the request of the Praxiergidai to write up the oracle of the god and the decrees formerly made about them (5) on a stone stele and set it down on the acropolis (polei) behind the old temple; . . . . . . ; and the money . . . . . . of the goddess according to ancestral tradition . . . the payment officers (kolakretai) shall give them the money. (10) Apollo issued the following oracle: it is better for the Praxiergidai to put the peplos on the goddess and make preliminary sacrifice to the Fates, to Zeus Leader of the Fates, to Earth . . . Uninscribed space These are the ancestral traditions of the Praxiergidai . . . . . . Uncertain amount of text missing (15) . . . provide (?) (parechen) . . . for the Praxiergi?dai . . . the fleece (koidion) . . . according to tradition . . . provide (parechen) (20) . . . Thargelion . . . the archon shall give (?) . . . in accordance with ancestral tradition. The Praxiergidai shall put on the peplos. (25) The Praxiergidai shall pay for (apotinen?) (?) a medimnos of barley. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
7 - Decree about genos Praxiergidai
250 Face A . . . . . . if anyone does any of these things, let him pay . . . to the deme (5) . . . the priestess shall provide for the - boiling meat and roasting meat; for the Antheia and Proerosia: spits, a bronze pot; the religious officials (10) and whoever they require shall carry rods. It is not permitted to put these stipulations to the vote again unless one hundred demesmen are present. (15) Here (?) (teide), a piglet; to the Eleusinion, for Daira, a female lamb, leader of the Proerosia (preroarchos); to the Eleusinion, for the Proerosia, a full-grown female animal, a male piglet; priestly (20) perquisites (apometra), a quart (tetarteus); here, half a quart of barley for the Proerosia, two pigs, one male and one female; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, (25) half a quart; to the Eleusinion, for the Chloia, two piglets, one male and one female; priestly perquisites, 3 (drachmas), 3 obols. For the Antheia, a select sow, (30) pregt, a piglet, male; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart. . . . . . . (35) female . . . . . . Face B . . . priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; barley for the Proerosia, (5) two pigs, one female and one male; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; . . . to the Eleusinion . . . (10) . . . . . . . . . two -, one female and one male; priestly perquisites, three (drachmas) of Hekate (?) . . . (15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (20) priestly perquisites . . . . . . full-grown; for Zeus Herkeios -; for the two goddesses - a full-grown female animal, a piglet?; priestly perquisites, (25) a quart; here, half a quart . . . sow . . . piglet . . . priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; (30) to the Eleusinion, for the Chloia, two piglets, one female, one male; priestly perquisites, 3 (drachmas), 3 obols. For the priestess of Hekate, from whatever sacrifices are made to Hekate shall be given (35) a thigh, a flank; whoever (the priestess) nominates to be temple attendant shall leave behind pea soup and cup(s?) of gruel (?) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
250 - Deme decree relating to cult at Paiania '
255 Face A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for Aphrodi?te . . . (5) . . . for Eros . . . . . . strew a couch? . . . a table . . . . . . for Hippolytos . . . . . . each . . . the . . . . . . trittys . . . (10) . . . at the Posidea . . . for Apollo Apo?tropaios in Kynosoura . . . for Herakles in Elaious, a table . . . for Xouthos, a lamb _ for Glaukos, a lamb (15) for Apollo Pythios . . . strew a couch?, . . . a table . . . _ hold up (?) a lamb (arna anasches-) . . . _ For Poseidon a goat with budding horns . . . for the Nymphs and Acheloos . . . . . . Face B . . . . . . . . . from the flayed . . . from each? cow five . . . dining room (?) . . . (5) . . . the portions . . . the priest shall take for each offering . . . from the flayed animals? the skins; . . . shall provide . . . the tongue (?) for the Founder-hero (Archegetei) . . . just as the (10) . . . for the perquisites (apometra), 10 dr. . . . let the priestess of -a take . . . 1 dr. for each offering (?) . . . but if a bovine is sacrificed, flesh (?) . . . but the priestess shall provide (15) . . . from the flayed private offerings the skin . . . from those not flayed the leg; the priestess of Artemis . . . from the public flayed offerings the skin . . . for each offering (?), but from the . . . the leg, but from the unflayed (20) . . . shall take, like the one of Artemis . . . shall take from the public sacrifices . . . 1 dr. for each offering . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
255 - Sacrifices and perquisites
953 Attendant (propolos) of your secret (arrhēto) ceremony (teletēs), Mistress Deo, and your daughter’s, Lysistrate set up this pleasing gift (agalma), two crowns (stephanō), an adornment (kosmon) for your porch (prothuro), and she does not spare her possessions, but to the gods she is unstinting (aphthonos) to the extent of her ability. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
953 - Dedication of two crowns in the City Eleusinion by the priestess Lysistrate ' None
|57. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 204, 776, 1177, 1199, 1368, 1672, 1933, 1935, 2492, 2600, 2631-2632, 2798, 3559, 4573, 4628
Tagged with subjects: • Ameinokleia, d. Philanthes, Demeter and Kore at Eleusis • Chairippe, d. Philophron, Demeter and Kore at Eleusis • Chrysina, w.Hippokrates, Demeter and Kore at Knidos • Demeter • Demeter and Kore • Demeter and Kore, at Thorikos • Demeter and Kore, cults of, at Eleusis • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Eleusinia (at Kythnos) • Demeter, Homonoia • Demeter, and Kore • Demeter, cults of, Chthonia (Hermione) • Demeter, cults of, Mysteries of (Andania) • Demeter, cults of, at Knidos • Demeter, cults of, at Mylasa • Demeter, in the Piraean Thesmophorion • Eleusis, cult of Demeter and Kore, daduch • Habryllis, d. Mikion, Demeter and Kore at Eleusis • Lysistrate, Demeter and Kore at Eleusis • Pausanias,, on Demeter Chthonia at Hermione • Phaena Antigonika, Demeter at Mantineia • Theano, d.Menon, Demeter and Kore at Eleusis • dedications, to Demeter and Kore • priests and priestesses, of Demeter at Eleusis
Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 158; Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 107, 134, 193, 199, 200, 202, 204, 215, 308, 309; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 401, 412, 704, 808, 973, 991, 1070; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 59, 61; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 43, 50, 161, 206; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 57; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 32, 34, 35, 97, 108, 138, 155, 188, 253; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 263
204 . . . . . . . . . . . . of the . . . (5) . . . the People shall elect straightaway ten men from all the Athenians and five from the Council; and those elected shall - in the Eleusinion in the city . . . of the sacred tract (hieras orgados) . . . from neither favour nor (10) enmity . . . but as justly and piously as possible . . . from the sixteenth of Posideon . . . in the archonship of Aristodemos (352/1); and there shall be present the king (basilea) and the hierophant and the torchbearer (daidouchon) and the Kerykes and the Eumolpidai and any other Athenian who (15) wishes, so that they may place the markers (horous) as piously and justly as possible; and there shall have oversight of the sacred tract (hieras orgados) and the other sacred precincts (hierōn temenōn) at Athens from this day for all time those whom the law requires for each of them and the Council of the Areopagos and the general (20) elected for the protection (phulakēn) of the countryside (chōras) and the patrol commanders (peripolarchous) and the demarchs and the Council in office at any time and any other Athenian who wishes, in whatever way they know how; and the secretary of the Council shall write on two pieces of tin, equal and alike, on the one, if it is preferable and better (25) for the Athenian People that the king (basilea) lets out the area of the sacred tract (hieras orgados) which is now being worked out or inside the markers (horōn) for building (oikodomian) the portico (prostōiou) and repair (episkeuēn) of the sanctuary (hierou) of the two goddesses; and on the other piece of tin, if it is preferable and better for the Athenian People to leave the area of the sacred tract (hieras orgados) which is now being worked out or inside the markers (horōn) (30) fallow for the two goddesses; and when the secretary has written, the chairman of the presiding committee (epistatēs ho ek tōn proedrōn) shall take each of the two pieces of tin and roll them up and tie them with wool and put them into a bronze water jug in the presence of the People; and the prytany (prutaneis) shall prepare these things; and the treasurers of the goddess (35) shall bring down a gold and a silver water-jug straightaway to the People; and the chairman (epistatēs) shall shake the bronze water-jug and take out each piece of tin in turn, and shall put the first piece of tin into the gold water-jug and the second into the silver one and bind them fast; and the prytany chairman (epistatēs tōm prutaneōn) shall seal them (40) with the public seal and any other Athenian who wishes shall counterseal them; and when they have been sealed, the treasurers shall take the water-jugs up to the acropolis; and the People shall elect three men, one from the Council, two from all the other Athenians, to go to Delphi and enquire of the god, (45) according to which of the writings the Athenians are to act concerning the sacred tract (hieras orgados), whether those from the gold water-jug or those from the silver one; and when they have come back from the god, they shall break open the water jugs, and the oracle and the writings on the pieces of tin shall be read to the People; and according to whichever of the writings the (50) god ordains it to be preferable and best for the Athenian People, according to those they are to act, so that matters relating to the two goddesses shall be handled as piously as possible and never in future shall anything impious happen concerning the sacred tract (hieras orgados) or the other sacred places (hierōn) at Athens; and the secretary of the Council shall now inscribe this decree (55) and the previous one of Philokrates about the sacred places (hierōn) on two stone stelai and stand one at Eleusis by the gateway (propulōi) of the sanctuary (hierou), the other in the Eleusinion in the city; and the hierophant and the priestess of Demeter shall also sacrifice a propitiatory sacrifice (arestērion) to the two goddesses . . . the treasurer of the People . . . (60) drachmas; and give for inscribing . . . drachmas for each of the two from the People’s fund for expenditure on decrees; and give for each of those elected to go to Delphi - drachmas for travelling expenses; and give to those elected on the sacred tract (hieran orgada) 5 drachmas each (65) from the People’s fund for expenditure on decrees; and the official sellers (pōlētas) shall supply as many stone markers (horous) as may be needed . . . the contract (misthōma) . . . the Council . . . the presiding committee (proedros) . . . draw up specifications for their manufacture . . . and placement on the sacred (70) tract (hieras orgados) . . . those who have been elected; and the treasurer of the People shall give the money . . . stone . . . the markers (horous) from the People’s fund for expenditure on decrees. The following were elected on the sacred tract (hieran orgada) (75) to put new markers (horous) in place of the dilapidated or missing or obsolete ones (anti tōn ekpeptōkotōn). From the Council: Arkephon of Halai, . . . of Thria, . . . of Hagnous. From private individuals: ... Hippokrates of Kerameis, . . . of Kedoi, Emmenides of Koile or Hekale (80) . . . of Sounion, Aristeides of Oe, . . . Glaukon of Perithoidai, Phaidros . . . for the oracle at Delphi. From private individuals: . . . Eudidaktos of Lamptrai. From the Council: . . . of Lamptrai. The following correction is made: (85) if this decree lacks anything, the Council shall be empowered to vote whatever seems to it to be best. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
204 - On the boundaries of the sacred tract
776 . . . . . . for good fortune, the Council shall decide: that the presiding committee (proedrous) allotted to preside at the forthcoming Assembly shall put the matter on the agenda and submit the opinion of the Council (5) to the People, that it seems good to the Council to accept the good things that the priestess says? occurred in the sacrifices that she made for the health and preservation of the Council and the People and children and women and king Demetrios and queen (10) Phthia and their descendants; and since the priestess of Athena took care well and with love of honour (philotimōs) of the adornment of the table according to tradition and the other things which the laws and decrees of the People prescribed, and continues (15) at every opportunity to be honour-loving (philotimoumenē) towards the goddess, and in the archonship of Alkibiades (237/6) she dedicated from her own resources a Theran and . . . and a garment of plaited hair; and contributed to the Praxiergidai a hundred drachmas for the ancestral sacrifice from (20) her own resources; so, therefore, that the People may be seen to be honouring those who rate most highly piety to the gods, to praise the priestess of Athena Polias -te daughter of Polyeuktos of Bate and (25) crown her with a foliage crown for her piety towards the goddess; and to praise also her husband Archestratos son of Euthykrates of Amphitrope and crown him with a foliage crown for his piety towards the goddess and love of honour (philotimias) (30) towards the Council and People; and the prytany secretary shall inscribe this decree on a stone stele and stand it on the acropolis . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
776 - Honours for the priestess of Athena Polias
1177 . . . the demarch in office at any time shall take care of the Thesmophorion together with the priestess, that no-one releases anything or gathers a thiasos or installs sacred objects (5) or performs purification rites or approaches the altars or the pit (megaron) without the priestess except when it is the festival of the Thesmophoria or the Plerosia or the Kalamaia (10) or the Skira or another day on which the women come together according to ancestral tradition; that the Piraeans shall resolve: if anyone does any of these things in contravention of these provisions, the demarch (15) shall impose a penalty and bring him before a law court under the laws that are in place with respect to these things; and concerning the gathering of wood in the sanctuaries, if anyone gathers wood, may the old laws (archaious nomous) (20) be valid, those that are in place with respect to these matters; and the boundary officers (horistas) shall inscribe this decree together with the demarch and stand it by the way up to the Thesmophorion. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1177 - Decree of deme Piraeus concerning the Thesmophorion '
1199 Philaios (?) son of Chremes proposed: since the religious officials (hieropoioi) allotted for the sanctuary of Hebe took care justly and with love of honour (philotimōs) of the sacrifice for Hebe (5) and the other gods to whom they must sacrifice, and have submitted a reckoning (logon) and accounts (euthunas), to crown each of them with a foliage crown, Anticharmos son of Nauson and Nearchos (?) son of Chairigenes, (10) Theodotos son of Aischron, Aristokles son of Kalliphon, for their justice and love of honour (philotimias) towards the demesmen; and this decree shall be inscribed on a stone stele and set up in the sanctuary (15) of Hebe by the demarch in office after the archonship of Neaichmos (320/19). Uninscribed space And to praise also the controllers (sōphronistas) and crown with a foliage crown each of them, Kimon, Megalexis or Metalexis, (20) Pythodoros son of Pytheas, and the herald Charikles, for their love of honour (philotimias) concerning the all-night rite (pannuchida); and to praise also the priest of the Herakleidai, Kallias, and the priestess of Hebe and (25) Alkmene, and the archon Kallisthenes son of Nauson and to crown each of them for their piety and love of honour (philotimias) towards the gods; and to inscribe this decree on a stone stele (30) and stand it in the sanctuary of Hebe. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1199 - Decree of Aixone awarding honours connected with the festival of Hebe, 320/19 BC
2492 On the following terms the Aixoneans have leased the Phelleïs to Autokles son of Auteas and to Auteas son of Autokles for forty years, for one hundred and fifty-two drachmas each year, on condition that they undertake (5) plantings and use it in whatever other way they wish. They shall pay the rent in the month of Hekatombaion, and if they do not pay it, the Aixoneans shall have right of seizure (enechurasian) both of the crops from the property (chōriou) and of all the other property of the one who does not pay. (10) The Aixoneans shall not be permitted to sell or lease it to anyone else, until the forty years have expired. If enemy troops prevent access or destroy anything, the Aixoneans shall have half of what is produced on the property. When the forty years (15)have expired, the lessees shall hand over half of the land uncultivated (cherron), and such trees as there are on the property. The Aixoneans shall send in a vinedresser (ampelourgon) for the last five years. The term of the lease begins with the archonship of Euboulos (345/4) for the cereals (Dēmētriou karpou), and with the successor of Euboulos (20) for the woody products (xulinou); and having inscribed the lease on stone stelai, the treasurers in the demarchy of Demosthenes shall stand one in the sanctuary of Hebe, inside, and the other in the hall (leschei), and boundary markers on the property no less than three feet high, two on each side; and if any (25)property-based tax (eisphora) is levied on the property for the city, the Aixoneans shall pay it, and if the lessees pay it, it shall be counted towards their rent. No one shall be permitted to take any earth dug on the property away from the property itself. If anyone makes or puts to the vote a proposal contrary to this (30)agreement (sunthēkas) before the forty years have expired, he shall be liable to the lessees to a legal action for damage (blabēs). Eteokles son of Skaon of Aixone proposed: whereas the lessees of the Phelleïs, Autokles and Auteas, have agreed to cut back (ekkopsai) the olive trees for the Aixoneans, to choose men who, (35) together wih the demarch and the treasurers and the lessee will sell the olive trees to the highest bidder, and having calculated the interest (tokon) on the money thus obtained at the rate of one drachma (per mina per month), to subtract half of it from the rent and inscribe on the stelai that the rent is that much less. (40) The Aixoneans are to receive the interest (tokon) on the money from the sale of the olive trees. The buyer is to cut back the olive trees when Anthias has collected the harvest (karpon) in the archonship following that of Archias (346/5), before the ploughing (aroto), and leave stumps (mukētas) of no less than a palm high in the pits (perichutrismasin), (45) so that the olive trees become as fine and big as possible in these (forty) years. These men were chosen to sell the olive trees: Eteokles, Nauson, Hagnotheos. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
2492 - Lease of public land by the deme Aixone, 345/4 BC
2798 The Council in the archonship of Dionysios (191/0?) dedicated to Aphrodite Hegemone of the People and to the Graces, when Mikion son of Eurykleides of Kephisia was priest, when Theoboulos son of Theophanes of Piraeus was general in charge of equipment (stratēgountos epi tēn paraskeuēn). text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
2798 - Dedication of the Council to Aphrodite Hegemone ' None
|58. Epigraphy, Seg, 21.541, 29.135, 33.147, 33.147.19, 34.103, 50.168, 52.48, 54.214
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore • Demeter and Kore, and Persephone • Demeter, Achaia • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, and Kore • Demeter, in the Piraean Thesmophorion • Eleusis, cult of Demeter and Kore, daduch • Persephone, and Demeter • priests and priestesses, of Demeter at Eleusis • temple of Demeter?
Found in books: Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 555, 637, 704, 807, 808, 881, 991, 1070, 1153; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 61, 63, 64, 65, 67; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 199, 200; Naiden (2013), Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, 57; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 138, 188, 255; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 59
21.541 Gods The Greater Demarchy (dēmarchia hē mezōn) Α Metageitnion, on the twelfth, for Apollo Lykeios, in the city, (5) a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the twentieth (dekatei proterai), for Hera Thelchinia, on the hill (em pagōi) at Erchia, a lamb (arna), (10) all black, no taking away (ou phora), 7 dr.; - Boedromion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for the Nymphs, (15) on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Pyanopsion, on the fourteenth, for the heroines (20) in the hollow (en aulōni) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; - Gamelion, on the seventh, (25) for Kourotrophos, in the Delphinion at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Apollo Delphinios, at Erchia, (30) a sheep, 12 dr.; - on the eighth, for Apollo Apotropaios, at Erchia (35) towards Paiania, a goat, 12 dr.; - Anthesterion, at the Diasia, in the city (en astei) at Agrai, (40) for Zeus Meilichios, a sheep, wineless (nēphalios) up until (the roasting of) the innards, 12 dr.; - Elaphebolion, (45) on the sixteenth, for Semele, at the same altar, a goat, to be handed over to the women, (50) for the priestess the skin, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for Leto, at the (55) Pythion at Erchia, a goat, 10 dr.; - Skirophorion, on the third, for Kourotrophos, (60) on the acropolis (em polei) at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Athena Polias, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep (65) instead of a bovine (antibous), 10 dr.; total 111 dr. Β Metageitnion, on the twelfth, at the Eleusinion in the city, for Demeter, (5) a sheep, 10 dr.; - on the sixteenth, for Kourotrophos, in Hekate’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a piglet, (10) 3 dr.; - for Artemis Hekate, at Erchia, a goat, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, (15) on the fourth, for Basile, at Erchia, a ewe-lamb (amnē), white, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (20) 7 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos) on the hill at Erchia, for Acheloos, (25) a sheep, 12 dr.; - Gamelion on the ninth, at the Erosouria (?), on the acropolis (30) at Erchia, for Athena, a ewe-lamb, 7 dr.; - on the twenty- seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Kourotrophos, in (35) Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Hera, at Erchia, a sheep, for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; (40) - Mounichion, on the fourth, for the Herakleidai, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), at Erchia, 12 dr.; (45) - Thargelion on the fourth, for Apollo Pythios, at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over (50) to the Pythaistai, 12 dr.; - for Apollo Paion, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; (55) - Skirophorion, on the third, for Aglauros, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; (60) - total 108 dr. Γ Hekatombaion, on the twenty- first (dekatei husterai), for Kourotrophos, at (5) Sotidai at Erchia, a piglet, no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - for Artemis at Sotidai at Erchia, (10) a goat, no taking away (ou phora), the skin to be consecrated, 10 dr.; - Metageitnion, on the twelfth, (15) for Zeus Polieus, on the acropolis in the city, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the twenty-fifth (hektei phthinontos), (20) for Zeus Epopetes, on the hill at Erchia, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (25) 3 dr.; - Boedromion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Alochos, on the hill (30) at Erchia, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Gamelion, on the eighth, for Apollo Apotropaios, (35) at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over to the Pythaistai, 12 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Zeus (40) Teleios, in Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Anthesterion, on the second, (45) for Dionysos, at Erchia, a kid (eriphos), very young (proptorthi(os)), 5 dr.; - Mounichion, on the twentieth (dekatei proterai), (50) for Leukaspis, at Erchia, a sheep, wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - Thargelion, (55) on the fourth, for Zeus, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Skirophorion, (60) on the third, for Zeus Polieus, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; (65) - on the sixteenth, . . . Δ Hekatombaion, on the twenty- first (dekatei husterai), for Kourotrophos, on (5) the peak (epi to akro) at Erchia, a piglet, no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - for Artemis on the peak at Erchia, (10) a goat, no taking away (ou phora), the skin to be consecrated, 10 dr.; - Metageitnion, on the twelfth; (15) for Athena Polias, on the acropolis in the city, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, on the fifth, (20) for Epops, at Erchia, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphali(os)), 3 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), (25) for Hermes, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Gamelion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos) (30) for Poseidon, in Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Elaphebolion, on the sixteenth, (35) for Dionysos, at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over to the women, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess (40) the skin, 12 dr.; - Mounichion, on the twenty-first (dekatei husterai), for the Tritopatreis, at Erchia, (45) a sheep, wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for the Anakes, (50) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - on the nineteenth, for Menedeios, at Erchia, (55) a sheep, no taking away, 12 dr.; - Skirophorion, on the third, for Poseidon, on the acropolis (60) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; total 110 dr. Ε Metageitnion, on the nine- teenth, for the heroines at (5) the rush-bed (epi schoinōi) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, (10) on the fifth, at Erchia, for Epops, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (15) 3 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Earth (Gēi), on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, (20) pregt, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; - Posideon, on the sixteenth, for Zeus, on the (25) rock or rocky place (em petrēi) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - for Zeus Horios, at Erchia, a piglet, (30) no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - Gamelion, on the seventh, for Apollo Lykeios, (35) at Erchia, a sheep, to be handed over to the Pythaistai, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the eighth, (40) for Apollo Nymphegetes, at Erchia, a goat, 12 dr.; - for the Nymphs, at (45) the same altar, a goat, 10 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for Hermes, (50) in the agora at Erchia, a ram, let the herald make the sacrifice to him (55) and receive the perquisites (gera) just like the demarch, 10 dr.; - on the sixteenth, (60) for Zeus Epakrios, on Hymettos, a lamb (arēn), wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 7 dr.; - Skirophorion, . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
21.541 - Sacrificial calendar of Erchia
33.147 Face A (front) . . . Hekatombaion: . . . and for the . . . to provide lunch (aristom) . . . a drachma each (5) . . . the Proerosia offering (?) (tēn prēro-), . . . the Delphinion, a goat . . . for Hekate . . . _ . . . a full-grown victim (teleom), to be sold (praton). (10) Metageitnion: for Zeus Kataibates in the sacred enclosure (sēkōi) by the Delphini?on, a full-grown victim (teleon), to be sold (praton). _ An oath victim (horkōmosion) is to be provided for the audits (euthunas). Boedromion: the Proerosia; for Zeus Polieus, a select (kriton) sheep, a select piglet; at Automenai (?) (ep&
50.168 Face A col. 1 . . . fourth quarter, (5) Mounichion, for - Prakterios, a ram, 12 dr.; Thargelion, . . . by the tower, a sheep, 12 dr.; Skirophorion, (10) . . . in the agora, a ram, 12 dr., on the eleventh or twelfth?, for Zeus Horios, a sheep, 12 dr., for . . . , a sheep, 11 dr., ...? the following . . . . . . in the year of the - in (?) . . . each (15) . . . in order as is written . . . the one on the . . . by the Eleusinion . . . in Kynosoura . . . by the Herakleion;11 (20) ...? fourth quarter, Mounichion, . . . a sheep, 12 dr.; ...? first quarter, Hekatombaion, (25) on the date, for Apollo? Apotropaios, a goat, 12 dr.; second quarter, Pyanopsion, . . . a pregt sheep, 17 dr.; fourth quarter, Mounichion, (30) . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . 12 dr.; ...? fourth quarter, Mounichion, . . . -aios, a goat, 12 dr., (35) . . . , a sheep, 12 dr., . . . , a sheep, 12 dr., . . . , a sheep, 12 dr.; . . . prior? sequence (dramosunē), (40) second quarter, Pyanopsion, . . . , a bovine, 90 dr.; third quarter, Gamelion, . . . -idai, a pregt sow, 70 (?) dr.; fourth quarter, Mounichion, (45) . . . Nymphagetes, a goat, 12 dr.; Thargelion? . . . river (?), a ram, 12 dr., . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . a ram, 12 dr., (50) . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . a sheep, 12 dr., . . . a sheep, 11 dr.; Skirophorion?, . . . a sheep, 12 dr., (55) for Athena Hellotis,10 a piglet, 3 dr., . . . col. 2 . . . these the demarch of Marathon sacrifices . . . within ten days, for the hero . . . a piglet, 3 dr., table for the hero, 1 dr.?; (5) Boedromion, before the Mysteries . . . a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos a sheep, 11 dr.?; second quarter, Posideon . . . a bovine, 150 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for the heroine a sheep, 11 dr.?, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr., for Earth in the fields (Gēi eg guais), a pregt bovine, 90 (?) dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 4 dr.?, (10) at the rite (teletēi), baskets (?) (spuridia??), 40 dr.; third quarter, Gamelion . . . for Daira, a pregt sheep, 16 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Earth at the oracle (Gēi epi tōi manteiōi), a sheep, 11 dr., for Zeus Hypatos? . . . for Ioleus, a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., a table, (15) 1 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr. 1½ ob., for the hero Pheraios a sheep, 12 dr. ?, for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 3 dr.; Elaphebolion, on the tenth, for Earth at the oracle (Gēi epi tōi manteiōi), a completely black he-goat, 15 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna) . . . ; fourth quarter, Mounichion, for Aristomachos, (20) a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr., for the Youth (Neaniai), a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., a piglet 3 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr. 1½ ob.; these the demarch of Marathon sacrifices, for the hero in Drasileia, a sheep, 12 dr., a table, 1 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., (25) for the hero by the marsh sanctuary (Hellōtion), a sheep, 12 dr., a table, 1 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr.; Thargelion, for Achaia, a ram, 12 dr., a female (i.e. a ewe), 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 3 dr., for the Fates (Moirais), a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1½ ob.; (30) Skirophorion, before Skira, for Hyttenios, the annual offerings (hōraia), a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr. 1½ ob., for the Tritopatreis, a sheep, 12 dr.?, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr., for the Akamantes, a sheep, 12 dr., priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 2 dr.; these every other year, prior sequence (protera dramosunē), (35) Hekatombaion, for Athena Hellotis,10 a bovine, 90 dr., three sheep, 33 dr., a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr. 1½ ob., for Kourotrophos, a sheep, 11 dr., a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr. 1½ ob., for the laurel-bearers (daphnēphorois), 7 dr.; these are sacrificed every other year, after the archonship of Euboulos (40) for the Tetrapoleis, posterior sequence (hustera dramosunē), Hekatombaion, for Athena Hellotis,10 a sheep, 11 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr. 1½ ob.; Metageitnion, for Eleusinia, a bovine, 90 dr., for the Girl (Korēi), a ram, 12 dr., 3 piglets, 9 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), (45) 6 dr. 4½ ob., a sixth (hekteus) of barley, 4 ob., a chous of wine 1 dr., for Kourotrophos, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Zeus Anthaleus, a sheep, 12 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr.; Anthesterion, for Eleusinia, a pregt sow, 70 (?) dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Chloe by the property of Meidylos, a pregt sow, 70 dr.?, (50) priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., a sixth (hekteus) of barley, 4 ob., a chous of wine 1 dr.; Skirophorion, before Skira, for Galios, a ram, 12 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr., for the well (?) (phreatos), 6 dr., for the Tritopatreis, a table, 1 dr.. At Trikorynthos these every year, first quarter, (55) Metageitnion, for Hera,12 a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 11 dr. . . . for Kourotrophos . . . Face B . . . -sistratos of Marathon . . . of Marathon, 20 dr., Archenautes of Marathon, 22 (?) dr., . . . (≥) 10 dr., Hegesistratos of Marathon, . . . -doros . . . Isodikos of Oinoe, (≥) 10 dr., (5) . . . -gonos, Hagnostratos of Marathon, . . . , Patrokles of Oinoe, (≥) 10 dr., . . . 612 dr. 3 ob. (?), . . . of Marathon, . . . of Oinoe, . . . . . . -chos . . . of Marathon . . . . . . (≥) 30 dr. (?) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) (10) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) . . . . . . of Marathon . . . . . . (≥) 11 dr. (?) . . . (15) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) . . . . . . . . . (≥) 3 dr. (?) . . . of Marathon, 60 dr. (?) . . . of Marathon, 12 dr. (?) (20) . . . . . . About 28 lines illegible (50) . . . Hagetor of Probalinthos (?) . . . . . . (≥) 70 dr. . . . . . . . of Marathon, 11 dr. (?), . . . About 8 lines illegible (61) . . . (≥) 2 dr. (?) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
50.168 - The sacrificial calendar of the Marathonian Tetrapolis
54.214 . . . . . . for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup (kotulēs) of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood (phruganōn), 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. (5) For the priestess of the Heroine, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skins of the all the victims for the Heroine (hērōiniōn); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch- flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Dionysos Anthios, (10) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the billy-goat (trago); on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Hera, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on (15) the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Demeter Chloe, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of -, (20) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of the Chaste Goddess (Hagnēs Theo), priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; for a third (triteōs) of barley, 1 dr.; for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, (25) 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a chous of wine, 2½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; for logs (xulōn), 3 dr. For the priest of the Chaste Goddess, the same as for the priestess, and the skins of the animals sacrificed for both, and 20 dr. For the priest of Paralos, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr., and 10 dr.; the skin of the wether (oios); for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; (30) for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a fourth of barley, 4½ ob.; for two choes (chooin) of wine, 5 ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. For the priest of the Archegetes and of the other heroes, priestly dues, 5 dr.; the skins of whatever victims he consecrates for sacrifice (katarxētai); on the sacrificial hearth (escharan); for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; whenever (he prepares) the table, (35) for two choinikes (choinikoin) of barley, 1½ ob.; for two cups of olive oil, 1 ob.; for half a cup (hēmikotulio) of honey, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. And whenever one of the Fifties (pentēkostuōn) sacrifices anywhere at the hero-shrines, they shall provide on the table two choinikes (choinike) of wheat, two cups of oil, half a cup (hēmikotulion) of honey. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
54.214 - Provisions for priests and priestesses (in Aixone?) ' ' None
|59. Strabo, Geography, 6.1.5, 10.3.13
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore, in Sicily • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, and Kore (Persephone) • Earth (Gaea), as Demeter • Homeric Hymn, to Demeter • Mother of the Gods, as Demeter • Syracuse\n, Demeter Pyrphoros, sanctuary of
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 110; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 65; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 61; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 32, 61
6.1.5 The next city after Laus belongs to Brettium, and is named Temesa, though the men of today call it Tempsa; it was founded by the Ausones, but later on was settled also by the Aitolians under the leadership of Thoas; but the Aitolians were ejected by the Brettii, and then the Brettii were crushed by Hannibal and by the Romans. Near Temesa, and thickly shaded with wild olive trees, is the hero-sanctuary of Polites, one of the companions of Odysseus, who was treacherously slain by the barbarians, and for that reason became so exceedingly wroth against the country that, in accordance with an oracle, the people of the neighborhood collected tribute for him; and hence, also, the popular saying applied to those who are merciless, that they are beset by the hero of Temesa. But when the Epizephyrian Locrians captured the city, Euthymus, the pugilist, so the story goes, entered the lists against Polites, defeated him in the fight and forced him to release the natives from the tribute. People say that Homer has in mind this Temesa, not the Tamassus in Cyprus (the name is spelled both ways), when he says to Temesa, in quest of copper. And in fact copper mines are to be seen in the neighborhood, although now they have been abandoned. Near Temesa is Terina, which Hannibal destroyed, because he was unable to guard it, at the time when he had taken refuge in Brettium itself. Then comes Consentia, the metropolis of the Brettii; and a little above this city is Pandosia, a strong fortress, near which Alexander the Molossian was killed. He, too, was deceived by the oracle at Dodona, which bade him be on his guard against Acheron and Pandosia; for places which bore these names were pointed out to him in Thesprotia, but he came to his end here in Brettium. Now the fortress has three summits, and the River Acheron flows past it. And there was another oracle that helped to deceive him: Three-hilled Pandosia, much people shalt thou kill one day; for he thought that the oracle clearly meant the destruction of the enemy, not of his own people. It is said that Pandosia was once the capital of the Oinotrian Kings. After Consentia comes Hipponium, which was founded by the Locrians. Later on, the Brettii were in possession of Hipponium, but the Romans took it away from them and changed its name to Vibo Valentia. And because the country round about Hipponium has luxuriant meadows abounding in flowers, people have believed that Kore used to come hither from Sicily to gather flowers; and consequently it has become the custom among the women of Hipponium to gather flowers and to weave them into garlands, so that on festival days it is disgraceful to wear bought garlands. Hipponium has also a naval station, which was built long ago by Agathocles, the tyrant of the Siciliotes, when he made himself master of the city. Thence one sails to the Harbor of Heracles, which is the point where the headlands of Italy near the Strait begin to turn towards the west. And on this voyage one passes Medma, a city of the same Locrians aforementioned, which has the same name as a great fountain there, and possesses a naval station near by, called Emporium. Near it is also the Metaurus River, and a mooring-place bearing the same name. off this coast lie the islands of the Liparaei, at a distance of two hundred stadia from the Strait. According to some, they are the islands of Aeolus, of whom the Poet makes mention in the Odyssey. They are seven in number and are all within view both from Sicily and from the continent near Medma. But I shall tell about them when I discuss Sicily. After the Metaurus River comes a second Metaurus. Next after this river comes Scyllaion, a lofty rock which forms a peninsula, its isthmus being low and affording access to ships on both sides. This isthmus Anaxilaus, the tyrant of the Rhegini, fortified against the Tyrrheni, building a naval station there, and thus deprived the pirates of their passage through the strait. For Caenys, too, is near by, being two hundred and fifty stadia distant from Medma; it is the last cape, and with the cape on the Sicilian side, Pelorias, forms the narrows of the Strait. Cape Pelorias is one of the three capes that make the island triangular, and it bends towards the summer sunrise, just as Caenys bends towards the west, each one thus turning away from the other in the opposite direction. Now the length of the narrow passage of the Strait from Caenys as far as the Poseidonium, or the Columna Rheginorum, is about six stadia, while the shortest passage across is slightly more; and the distance is one hundred stadia from the Columna to Rhegium, where the Strait begins to widen out, as one proceeds towards the east, towards the outer sea, the sea which is called the Sicilian Sea.' "
10.3.13 The poets bear witness to such views as I have suggested. For instance, when Pindar, in the dithyramb which begins with these words,In earlier times there marched the lay of the dithyrambs long drawn out, mentions the hymns sung in honor of Dionysus, both the ancient and the later ones, and then, passing on from these, says,To perform the prelude in thy honor, great Mother, the whirling of cymbals is at hand, and among them, also, the clanging of castanets, and the torch that blazeth beneath the tawny pine-trees, he bears witness to the common relationship between the rites exhibited in the worship of Dionysus among the Greeks and those in the worship of the Mother of the Gods among the Phrygians, for he makes these rites closely akin to one another. And Euripides does likewise, in his Bacchae, citing the Lydian usages at the same time with those of Phrygia, because of their similarity: But ye who left Mt. Tmolus, fortress of Lydia, revel-band of mine, women whom I brought from the land of barbarians as my assistants and travelling companions, uplift the tambourines native to Phrygian cities, inventions of mine and mother Rhea. And again,happy he who, blest man, initiated in the mystic rites, is pure in his life, . . . who, preserving the righteous orgies of the great mother Cybele, and brandishing the thyrsus on high, and wreathed with ivy, doth worship Dionysus. Come, ye Bacchae, come, ye Bacchae, bringing down Bromius, god the child of god, out of the Phrygian mountains into the broad highways of Greece. And again, in the following verses he connects the Cretan usages also with the Phrygian: O thou hiding-bower of the Curetes, and sacred haunts of Crete that gave birth to Zeus, where for me the triple-crested Corybantes in their caverns invented this hide-stretched circlet, and blent its Bacchic revelry with the high-pitched, sweet-sounding breath of Phrygian flutes, and in Rhea's hands placed its resounding noise, to accompany the shouts of the Bacchae, and from Mother Rhea frenzied Satyrs obtained it and joined it to the choral dances of the Trieterides, in whom Dionysus takes delight. And in the Palamedes the Chorus says, Thysa, daughter of Dionysus, who on Ida rejoices with his dear mother in the Iacchic revels of tambourines."' None
|60. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Homeric Hymn to Demeter
Found in books: Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 65; Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 270
|61. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 58, 60, 120, 137; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 81, 394
|62. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Mysteries of • Eleusis, cult of Demeter and Kore, daduch
Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 313; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 253, 256, 276
|63. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 366; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 151; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 366
|64. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter and Kore, cults of, at Eleusis • Demeter, Coan priestesses of • Demeter, Kore and • Demeter, cults of, Chamyne (Olympia) • Pausanias,, on Demeter Chamyne at Olympia • Regilla, w.Herodes Atticus, Demeter Chamyne at Olympia
Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 168, 213; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 42, 106
|65. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Choirine, Demeter (?), Athens • Demeter • Demeter (goddess) • Demeter and Kore • Demeter and Kore, cults of, at Eleusis • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Kore and • Demeter, cults of, Chthonia (Hermione) • Demeter, cults of, Mysteries of (Andania) • Demeter, cults of, Thesmophoros (Arkadia) • Demeter, cults of, at Messenia • Demeter, pregnant victims and • Pausanias,, on Demeter Chthonia at Hermione
Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 86, 90, 91, 104, 106, 200, 202, 316; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 540; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 220; Horster and Klöckner (2014), Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period, 10, 270; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 106, 142, 143, 332; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 153; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 179
|66. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter, • Demeter, Knidos sanctuary
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 67; Eidinow (2007), Oracles, Curses, and Risk Among the Ancient Greeks, 236
|67. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter and Kore • Demeter and Kore, and Persephone • Demeter and Kore, at Thorikos • Demeter, Chloe • Eleusis, cult of Demeter and Kore, daduch • Persephone, and Demeter • dedications, to Demeter and Kore • priests and priestesses, of Demeter at Eleusis
Found in books: Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 61, 67; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 111, 134, 199, 298; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 34, 35, 188, 256
|68. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore • Demeter and Kore, and Persephone • Demeter and Kore, cults of, at Eleusis • Demeter, Chloe • Demeter, Eleusinian • Demeter, Mysteries of • Eleusis,, priestesses of Demeter and Kore • Lysistrate, Demeter and Kore at Eleusis • Persephone, and Demeter • Phaena Antigonika, Demeter at Mantineia • dedications, to Demeter and Kore
Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 65, 193; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 555, 705, 808; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 59, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 115; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 313; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 276
|69. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • priests/priestesses, of Demeter
Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 120; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 143
|70. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter and Kore • Demeter and Kore, cults of, at Priene • Demeter, cults of, Antimachia (Kos) • Nikeso, d.Hipposthenes, Demeter and Kore at Priene • Timonassa, Demeter and Kore at Priene
Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 54, 137; Horster and Klöckner (2014), Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period, 166, 183, 193
|71. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 667; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 79
|72. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 58, 60, 62, 120, 137; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 420; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 667; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4, 7, 9, 61, 71, 80, 81; deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 149, 151, 157, 170, 171, 231, 299, 318, 324, 333
|73. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Demeter • Demeter/Deo
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 439, 440; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 242