|1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.3, 1.6-1.8, 1.10, 1.14-1.15, 1.26-1.27, 1.31, 2.7, 5.24, 6.3, 6.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • Cosmologies, begin with the emergence of light • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Plato, cosmogony of • cosmogony • cosmogony, • cosmogony, Persian • cosmogony, Strassbourg cosmogony • cosmogony, in Greece • cosmogony, in Ugarit • cosmology • cosmology, Late Antique • cosmology, Mesopotamian • cosmology, ancient • cosmology, ancient Greek cosmologies • cosmology, and ethics • cosmology, cosmological teachings • cosmology, in Enochic literature • cosmology, of the Gnostic world • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, Platonic model of • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, arithmetic symbolism in • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, corrupt world of the immortals in • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, hell • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, the earth of humanity • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, the inferior world • cosmology, pneumatic/spiritual • kosmos, cosmogonic • scala naturae, in Stoic cosmology
Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 4, 5, 8, 9, 343; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 7; Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 28; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 58; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 75; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 20, 271, 274, 283; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 113, 114; Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 64; Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 135; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 157; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 54, 120; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 207, 209, 309; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 24, 42, 49, 115; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 105, 141; Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 275; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 668; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 21; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 20, 284
1.1 בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃
1.1 וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.2 וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.2 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.3 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.3 וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.6 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7 וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.8 וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי׃'
1.14 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃
1.15 וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.26 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27 וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
1.31 וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃
2.7 וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
5.24 וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃
6.3 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃
6.17 וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֶת־הַמַּבּוּל מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָרֶץ יִגְוָע׃'' None
1.1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 1.2 Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters. 1.3 And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light.
1.6 And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’ 1.7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. 1.8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.
1.10 And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good.
1.14 And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;
1.15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so.
1.26 And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27 And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
1.31 And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.
2.7 Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
5.24 And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.
6.3 And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’
6.17 And I, behold, I do bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; every thing that is in the earth shall perish.' ' None
|2. Hesiod, Works And Days, 48-49, 60-82, 91-92, 110, 121-125, 128 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • anthropogony, in early cosmology • cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos) • cosmogony • cosmological elements • cosmology
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 25, 59; Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 101; Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 39; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 43; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 201
48 ὅττι μιν ἐξαπάτησε Προμηθεὺς ἀγκυλομήτης· 49 τοὔνεκʼ ἄρʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ἐμήσατο κήδεα λυγρά.
60 Ἥφαιστον δʼ ἐκέλευσε περικλυτὸν ὅττι τάχιστα 61 γαῖαν ὕδει φύρειν, ἐν δʼ ἀνθρώπου θέμεν αὐδὴν 62 καὶ σθένος, ἀθανάτῃς δὲ θεῇς εἰς ὦπα ἐίσκειν 63 παρθενικῆς καλὸν εἶδος ἐπήρατον· αὐτὰρ Ἀθήνην 64 ἔργα διδασκῆσαι, πολυδαίδαλον ἱστὸν ὑφαίνειν· 65 καὶ χάριν ἀμφιχέαι κεφαλῇ χρυσέην Ἀφροδίτην 66 καὶ πόθον ἀργαλέον καὶ γυιοβόρους μελεδώνας· 67 ἐν δὲ θέμεν κύνεόν τε νόον καὶ ἐπίκλοπον ἦθος 68 Ἑρμείην ἤνωγε, διάκτορον Ἀργεϊφόντην. 69 ὣς ἔφαθʼ· οἳ δʼ ἐπίθοντο Διὶ Κρονίωνι ἄνακτι. 70 αὐτίκα δʼ ἐκ γαίης πλάσσεν κλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 71 παρθένῳ αἰδοίῃ ἴκελον Κρονίδεω διὰ βουλάς· 72 ζῶσε δὲ καὶ κόσμησε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη· 73 ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ Χάριτές τε θεαὶ καὶ πότνια Πειθὼ 74 ὅρμους χρυσείους ἔθεσαν χροΐ· ἀμφὶ δὲ τήν γε 75 Ὧραι καλλίκομοι στέφον ἄνθεσιν εἰαρινοῖσιν· 76 πάντα δέ οἱ χροῒ κόσμον ἐφήρμοσε Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. 77 ἐν δʼ ἄρα οἱ στήθεσσι διάκτορος Ἀργεϊφόντης 78 ψεύδεά θʼ αἱμυλίους τε λόγους καὶ ἐπίκλοπον ἦθος 79 τεῦξε Διὸς βουλῇσι βαρυκτύπου· ἐν δʼ ἄρα φωνὴν 80 θῆκε θεῶν κῆρυξ, ὀνόμηνε δὲ τήνδε γυναῖκα 81 Πανδώρην, ὅτι πάντες Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες 82 δῶρον ἐδώρησαν, πῆμʼ ἀνδράσιν ἀλφηστῇσιν.
91 νόσφιν ἄτερ τε κακῶν καὶ ἄτερ χαλεποῖο πόνοιο 92 νούσων τʼ ἀργαλέων, αἵ τʼ ἀνδράσι Κῆρας ἔδωκαν.
110 ἀθάνατοι ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες.121 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 122 τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123 ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, 124 οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 125 ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν,
128 ἀργύρεον ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες, ' None
48 One’s rudder packed away, live lazily, 49 Each ox and hard-worked mule sent off. In spleen
60 And duped me. So great anguish shall befall 61 Both you and future mortal men. A thing 62 of ill in lieu of fire I’ll afford 63 Them all to take delight in, cherishing 64 The evil”. Thus he spoke and then the lord 65 of men and gods laughed. Famed Hephaistus he 66 Enjoined to mingle water with some clay 67 And put a human voice and energy 68 Within it and a goddess’ features lay 69 On it and, like a maiden, sweet and pure, 70 The body, though Athene was to show 71 Her how to weave; upon her head allure 72 The golden Aphrodite would let flow, 73 With painful passions and bone-shattering stress. 74 Then Argus-slayer Hermes had to add 75 A wily nature and shamefacedness. 76 Those were his orders and what Lord Zeus bade 77 They did. The famed lame god immediately 78 Formed out of clay, at Cronus’ son’s behest, 79 The likeness of a maid of modesty. 80 By grey-eyed Queen Athene was she dressed 81 And cinctured, while the Graces and Seduction 82 Placed necklaces about her; then the Hours,
91 This perfect trap, Hermes, that man of fame, 92 The gods’ swift messenger, was then dispatched
110 Plagues haunt them, which, unwanted, come at night121 There was no dread old age but, always rude 122 of health, away from grief, they took delight 123 In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued 124 By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right, 125 Would bring forth plenteous fruit. In harmony
128 Was buried underneath the earth – yet these ' None
|3. Hesiod, Theogony, 11-12, 108-137, 188, 191-193, 195-197, 200, 205-206, 217, 224, 306, 309, 313, 368, 748-754, 886-929, 941, 944, 961, 969-970, 973-974, 978, 980, 1005, 1009, 1012, 1018 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony, Memphite • Gaia, cosmological functions of • Persian cosmogony • Uranus phallus, as cosmogonic principle • aggregation (in cosmogony) • cold (in cosmogony) • cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos) • cosmogony • cosmogony, in Greece • cosmological theogony, technological framework of • cosmology • cosmology, Empedoclean • cosmology, Pythagorean • cosmos, cosmogony, cosmography • kosmos, cosmogonic • particles (in cosmogony) • separation (in cosmogony) • stars (in cosmogony and theogony) • time (in cosmogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 55, 56, 59, 92, 116, 120, 121, 144, 146, 147; Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 33, 72; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 2, 4, 7; Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 32; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 56, 371; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 40; Iribarren and Koning (2022), Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy, 27, 144, 207; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 223; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 24, 34, 38, 63; Laemmle (2021), Lists and Catalogues in Ancient Literature and Beyond: Towards a Poetics of Enumeration, 218, 219, 220; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 17
11 ὑμνεῦσαι Δία τʼ αἰγίοχον καὶ πότνιαν Ἥρην 12 Ἀργεΐην, χρυσέοισι πεδίλοις ἐμβεβαυῖαν,
108 εἴπατε δʼ, ὡς τὰ πρῶτα θεοὶ καὶ γαῖα γένοντο 109 καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ πόντος ἀπείριτος, οἴδματι θυίων,
110 ἄστρα τε λαμπετόωντα καὶ οὐρανὸς εὐρὺς ὕπερθεν
111 οἵ τʼ ἐκ τῶν ἐγένοντο θεοί, δωτῆρες ἐάων
112 ὥς τʼ ἄφενος δάσσαντο καὶ ὡς τιμὰς διέλοντο
113 ἠδὲ καὶ ὡς τὰ πρῶτα πολύπτυχον ἔσχον Ὄλυμπον.
114 ταῦτά μοι ἔσπετε Μοῦσαι, Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσαι
115 ἐξ ἀρχῆς, καὶ εἴπαθʼ, ὅ τι πρῶτον γένετʼ αὐτῶν.
116 ἦ τοι μὲν πρώτιστα Χάος γένετʼ, αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα
117 Γαῖʼ εὐρύστερνος, πάντων ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶ
118 ἀθανάτων, οἳ ἔχουσι κάρη νιφόεντος Ὀλύμπου,
119 Τάρταρά τʼ ἠερόεντα μυχῷ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης, 120 ἠδʼ Ἔρος, ὃς κάλλιστος ἐν ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι, 121 λυσιμελής, πάντων δὲ θεῶν πάντων τʼ ἀνθρώπων 122 δάμναται ἐν στήθεσσι νόον καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν. 123 ἐκ Χάεος δʼ Ἔρεβός τε μέλαινά τε Νὺξ ἐγένοντο· 124 Νυκτὸς δʼ αὖτʼ Αἰθήρ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἐξεγένοντο, 125 οὓς τέκε κυσαμένη Ἐρέβει φιλότητι μιγεῖσα. 126 Γαῖα δέ τοι πρῶτον μὲν ἐγείνατο ἶσον ἑαυτῇ 127 Οὐρανὸν ἀστερόενθʼ, ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοι, 128 ὄφρʼ εἴη μακάρεσσι θεοῖς ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεί. 129 γείνατο δʼ Οὔρεα μακρά, θεῶν χαρίεντας ἐναύλους, 130 Νυμφέων, αἳ ναίουσιν ἀνʼ οὔρεα βησσήεντα. 131 ἣ δὲ καὶ ἀτρύγετον πέλαγος τέκεν, οἴδματι θυῖον, 132 Πόντον, ἄτερ φιλότητος ἐφιμέρου· αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα 133 Οὐρανῷ εὐνηθεῖσα τέκʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 134 Κοῖόν τε Κρῖόν θʼ Ὑπερίονά τʼ Ἰαπετόν τε 135 Θείαν τε Ῥείαν τε Θέμιν τε Μνημοσύνην τε 136 Φοίβην τε χρυσοστέφανον Τηθύν τʼ ἐρατεινήν. 137 τοὺς δὲ μέθʼ ὁπλότατος γένετο Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτης,
188 μήδεα δʼ ὡς τὸ πρῶτον ἀποτμήξας ἀδάμαντι
191 ἀφρὸς ἀπʼ ἀθανάτου χροὸς ὤρνυτο· τῷ δʼ ἔνι κούρη 192 ἐθρέφθη· πρῶτον δὲ Κυθήροισιν ζαθέοισιν 193 ἔπλητʼ, ἔνθεν ἔπειτα περίρρυτον ἵκετο Κύπρον.
195 ποσσὶν ὕπο ῥαδινοῖσιν ἀέξετο· τὴν δʼ Ἀφροδίτην 196 ἀφρογενέα τε θεὰν καὶ ἐυστέφανον Κυθέρειαν 197 κικλῄσκουσι θεοί τε καὶ ἀνέρες, οὕνεκʼ ἐν ἀφρῷ
200 ἠδὲ φιλομμηδέα, ὅτι μηδέων ἐξεφαάνθη.
205 παρθενίους τʼ ὀάρους μειδήματά τʼ ἐξαπάτας τε 206 τέρψιν τε γλυκερὴν φιλότητά τε μειλιχίην τε.
217 καὶ Μοίρας καὶ Κῆρας ἐγείνατο νηλεοποίνους,
224 Νὺξ ὀλοή· μετὰ τὴν δʼ Ἀπάτην τέκε καὶ Φιλότητα
306 τῇ δὲ Τυφάονά φασι μιγήμεναι ἐν φιλότητι
309 Ὄρθον μὲν πρῶτον κύνα γείνατο Γηρυονῆι·
313 τὸ τρίτον Ὕδρην αὖτις ἐγείνατο λυγρὰ ἰδυῖαν
368 υἱέες Ὠκεανοῦ, τοὺς γείνατο πότνια Τηθύς·
748 ἀστεμφέως, ὅθι Νύξ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἆσσον ἰοῦσαι 749 ἀλλήλας προσέειπον, ἀμειβόμεναι μέγαν οὐδὸν 750 χάλκεον· ἣ μὲν ἔσω καταβήσεται, ἣ δὲ θύραζε 751 ἔρχεται, οὐδέ ποτʼ ἀμφοτέρας δόμος ἐντὸς ἐέργει, 752 ἀλλʼ αἰεὶ ἑτέρη γε δόμων ἔκτοσθεν ἐοῦσα 753 γαῖαν ἐπιστρέφεται, ἣ δʼ αὖ δόμου ἐντὸς ἐοῦσα 754 μίμνει τὴν αὐτῆς ὥρην ὁδοῦ, ἔστʼ ἂν ἵκηται,
886 Ζεὺς δὲ θεῶν βασιλεὺς πρώτην ἄλοχον θέτο Μῆτιν 887 πλεῖστα τε ἰδυῖαν ἰδὲ θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων. 888 ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ ἄρʼ ἔμελλε θεὰν γλαυκῶπιν Ἀθήνην 889 τέξεσθαι, τότʼ ἔπειτα δόλῳ φρένας ἐξαπατήσας 890 αἱμυλίοισι λόγοισιν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδὺν 891 Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσι καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος. 892 τὼς γάρ οἱ φρασάτην, ἵνα μὴ βασιληίδα τιμὴν 893 ἄλλος ἔχοι Διὸς ἀντὶ θεῶν αἰειγενετάων. 894 ἐκ γὰρ τῆς εἵμαρτο περίφρονα τέκνα γενέσθαι· 895 πρώτην μὲν κούρην γλαυκώπιδα Τριτογένειαν 896 ἶσον ἔχουσαν πατρὶ μένος καὶ ἐπίφρονα βουλήν. 897 αὐτὰρ ἔπειτʼ ἄρα παῖδα θεῶν βασιλῆα καὶ ἀνδρῶν 898 ἤμελλεν τέξεσθαι, ὑπέρβιον ἦτορ ἔχοντα· 899 ἀλλʼ ἄρα μιν Ζεὺς πρόσθεν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδύν, 900 ὡς δή οἱ φράσσαιτο θεὰ ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 901 δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 902 Εὐνουμίην τε Δίκην τε καὶ Εἰρήνην τεθαλυῖαν, 903 αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι, 904 Μοίρας θʼ, ᾗ πλείστην τιμὴν πόρε μητίετα Ζεύς, 905 Κλωθώ τε Λάχεσίν τε καὶ Ἄτροπον, αἵτε διδοῦσι 906 θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν ἔχειν ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. 907 τρεῖς δέ οἱ Εὐρυνομη Χάριτας τέκε καλλιπαρῄους, 908 Ὠκεανοῦ κούρη, πολυήρατον εἶδος ἔχουσα, 909 Ἀγλαΐην τε καὶ Εὐφροσύνην Θαλίην τʼ ἐρατεινήν· 910 τῶν καὶ ἀπὸ βλεφάρων ἔρος εἴβετο δερκομενάων 9
11 λυσιμελής· καλὸν δέ θʼ ὑπʼ ὀφρύσι δερκιόωνται. 912 αὐτὰρ ὁ Δήμητρος πολυφόρβης ἐς λέχος ἦλθεν, 913 ἣ τέκε Περσεφόνην λευκώλενον, ἣν Ἀιδωνεὺς 914 ἥρπασε ἧς παρὰ μητρός· ἔδωκε δὲ μητίετα Ζεύς. 915 μνημοσύνης δʼ ἐξαῦτις ἐράσσατο καλλικόμοιο, 916 ἐξ ἧς οἱ Μοῦσαι χρυσάμπυκες ἐξεγένοντο 917 ἐννέα, τῇσιν ἅδον θαλίαι καὶ τέρψις ἀοιδῆς. 918 Λητὼ δʼ Ἀπόλλωνα καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ἰοχέαιραν, 919 ἱμερόεντα γόνον περὶ πάντων Οὐρανιώνων, 920 γείνατʼ ἄρʼ αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς φιλότητι μιγεῖσα. 921 λοισθοτάτην δʼ Ἥρην θαλερὴν ποιήσατʼ ἄκοιτιν· 922 ἣ δʼ Ἥβην καὶ Ἄρηα καὶ Εἰλείθυιαν ἔτικτε 923 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι θεῶν βασιλῆι καὶ ἀνδρῶν. 924 αὐτὸς δʼ ἐκ κεφαλῆς γλαυκώπιδα Τριτογένειαν 925 δεινὴν ἐγρεκύδοιμον ἀγέστρατον Ἀτρυτώνην 926 πότνιαν, ᾗ κέλαδοί τε ἅδον πόλεμοί τε μάχαι τε, 927 Ἥρη δʼ Ἥφαιστον κλυτὸν οὐ φιλότητι μιγεῖσα 928 γείνατο, καὶ ζαμένησε καὶ ἤρισε ᾧ παρακοίτῃ, 929 Ἥφαιστον, φιλότητος ἄτερ Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο, 929 Μῆτις δʼ αὖτε Ζηνὸς ὑπὸ σπλάγχνοις λελαθυῖα 929 ἀθανάτων ἐκέκασθʼ οἳ Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσιν, 929 αἰγίδα ποιήσασα φοβέστρατον ἔντος Ἀθήνης· 929 αὐτὰρ ὅ γʼ Ὠκεανοῦ καὶ Τηθύος ἠυκόμοιο 929 δείσας, μὴ τέξῃ κρατερώτερον ἄλλο κεραυνοῦ. 929 ἔνθα θεὰ παρέδεκτο ὅθεν παλάμαις περὶ πάντων 929 ἐκ πάντων παλάμῃσι κεκασμένον Οὐρανιώνων· 929 ἐκ ταύτης δʼ ἔριδος ἣ μὲν τέκε φαίδιμον υἱὸν 929 ἐξαπαφὼν Μῆτιν καίπερ πολυδήνεʼ ἐοῦσαν. 929 ἧστο, Ἀθηναίης μήτηρ, τέκταινα δικαίων 929 κάππιεν ἐξαπίνης· ἣ δʼ αὐτίκα Παλλάδʼ Ἀθήνην 929 κούρῃ νόσφʼ Ἥρης παρελέξατο καλλιπαρήῳ, 929 κύσατο· τὴν μὲν ἔτικτε πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε 929 πὰρ κορυφὴν Τρίτωνος ἐπʼ ὄχθῃσιν ποταμοῖο. 929 πλεῖστα θεῶν τε ἰδυῖα καταθνητῶν τʼ ἀνθρώπων, 929 σὺν τῇ ἐγείνατό μιν πολεμήια τεύχεʼ ἔχουσαν. 929 συμμάρψας δʼ ὅ γε χερσὶν ἑὴν ἐγκάτθετο νηδὺν 929 τοὔνεκά μιν Κρονίδης ὑψίζυγος αἰθέρι ναίων 929 Ἥρη δὲ ζαμένησε καὶ ἤρισε ᾧ παρακοίτῃ. 929 ἐκ πάντων τέχνῃσι κεκασμένον Οὐρανιώνων.
941 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι, Διώνυσον πολυγηθέα,
944 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι Διὸς νεφεληγερέταο.
961 ἣ δέ οἱ Μήδειαν ἐύσφυρον ἐν φιλότητι
969 Δημήτηρ μὲν Πλοῦτον ἐγείνατο, δῖα θεάων, 970 Ἰασίωνʼ ἥρωι μιγεῖσʼ ἐρατῇ φιλότητι
973 πάντη· τῷ δὲ τυχόντι καὶ οὗ κʼ ἐς χεῖρας ἵκηται, 974 τὸν δʼ ἀφνειὸν ἔθηκε, πολὺν δέ οἱ ὤπασεν ὄλβον.
978 γείνατο καὶ Πολύδωρον ἐυστεφάνῳ ἐνὶ Θήβῃ.
980 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι πολυχρύσου Ἀφροδίτης,
1005 Αἰακοῦ ἐν φιλότητι διὰ χρυσέην Ἀφροδίτην,1009 Ἀγχίσῃ ἥρωι μιγεῖσʼ ἐρατῇ φιλότητι
1012 γείνατʼ Ὀδυσσῆος ταλασίφρονος ἐν φιλότητι
1018 γείνατο Ναυσίνοόν τε μιγεῖσʼ ἐρατῇ φιλότητι. ' None
11 To Zeus, the aegis-bearer, lavishing hymns, 12 And her whose golden sandals grace her limbs,
108 May live in sorrow, trembling with fright 109 And sick at heart, but singers, ministering
110 To the Muses, of their ancestors will sing
111 And all the deeds that they’ve performed so well,
112 And all the gods who in Olympus dwell:
113 At once they then forget their heaviness –
114 Such is the precious gift of each goddess.
115 Hail, Zeus’s progeny, and give to me
116 A pleasing song and laud the company
117 of the immortal gods, and those created
118 In earthly regions and those generated
119 In Heaven and Night and in the briny sea. 120 Tell how the gods and Earth first came to be, 121 The streams, the swelling sea and up on high 122 The gleaming stars, broad Heaven in the sky, 123 The gods they spawned, providing generously 124 Good things, dividing their prosperity 125 And sharing all their honours, and how they 126 To many-valed Olympus found their way. 127 Therefore, Olympian Muses, tell to me, 128 From the beginning, how each came to be. 129 First Chaos came, then wide Earth, ever-sound 130 Foundations of the gods who on snow-bound 131 Olympus dwell, then, swathed in murkine 132 Beneath the wide-pathed Earth, came Tartarus, 133 Then Eros, fairest of the deathless ones, 134 Who weakens all the gods and men and stun 135 Their prudent judgment. Chaos then created 136 Erebus; black Night was born, and then she mated 137 With Erebus and spawned Aether and Day;
188 But wily Cronus put aside his dread
191 At what he said vast Earth was glad at heart 192 And in an ambush set her child apart 193 And told him everything she had in mind.
195 To couple, lay with Earth. Cronus revealed 196 Himself from where he had been well concealed, 197 Stretched out one hand and with the other gripped
200 And cast them down, nor did they fruitlessly
205 And when the flinty sickle’s work was done, 206 Then Cronus cast into the surging sea
217 Cytherea, which she’d reached. She’s known as well,
224 of them then went to join the company
306 And her who bore a woeful destiny,
309 In age) and then the dark-haired god of the sea,
313 From her dead body, Pegasus called thu
368 To adulthood the deadly Sphinx who slew
748 With fury; from Olympus then he came, 749 Showing his strength and hurling lightning 750 Continually; his bolts went rocketing 751 Nonstop from his strong hand and, whirling, flashed 752 An awesome flame. The nurturing earth then crashed 753 And burned, the mighty forest crackling 754 Fortissimo, the whole earth smouldering,
886 Gave him in marriage to his progeny 887 Cymopolea. When Zeus, in the war, 888 Drove the Titans out of Heaven, huge Earth bore 889 Her youngest child Typhoeus with the aid 890 of golden Aphrodite, who had bade 891 Her lie with Tartarus. In everything 892 He did the lad was strong, untiring 893 When running, and upon his shoulders spread 894 A hundred-headed dragon, full of dread, 895 Its dark tongues flickering, and from below 896 His eyes a flashing flame was seen to glow; 897 And from each head shot fire as he glared 898 And from each head unspeakable voices blared: 899 Sometimes a god could understand the sound 900 They made, but sometimes, echoing around, 901 A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 902 Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile 903 At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear – 904 The sound of whelps was heard, sometimes the ear 905 Would catch a hissing sound, which then would change 906 To echoing along the mountain range. 907 Something beyond all help would have that day 908 Occurred and over men and gods hold sway 909 Had Zeus not quickly seen it: mightily 910 And hard he thundered so that terribly 9
11 The earth resounded, as did Tartarus, 912 Wide Heaven and the streams of Oceanus, 913 And at his feet the mighty Heaven reeled 914 As he arose. The earth groaned, thunder pealed 915 And lightning flashed, and to the dark-blue sea, 916 From them and from the fiery prodigy, 917 The scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt, 918 Came heat, the whole earth seething in revolt 919 With both the sky and sea, while round the strand 920 Long waves rage at the onslaught of the band 921 of gods. An endless shaking, too, arose, 922 And Hades, who has sovereignty over those 923 Who are deceased, shook, and the Titan horde 924 Beneath that Hell, residing with the lord 925 Cronus, shook too at the disharmony 926 And dreadful clamour. When his weaponry, 927 Thunder and lightning, Zeus had seized, his might 928 Well-shored, from high Olympus he took flight, 929 Lashed out at him and burned that prodigy,
941 With fire in mountain-glens and with the glow
944 In bitter anger Zeus cast Typhoeus,
961 Divided among the gods their dignities.
969 So that no other god should ever hold sway, 970 For destiny revealed that she someday
973 As Father Zeus, but later she would bring 974 Into the world an overbearing king
978 Themis, who bore The Hours, Order, Right
980 Bore all the Fates, whom Zeus especially
1005 Bright-eyed Tritogeneia from his head,1009 But Hera with her spouse became irate,
1012 Hephaestus, who transcended everyone
1018 For he was fearful that she just might bear ' None
|4. Homer, Iliad, 8.14, 14.201, 14.203, 14.246, 14.302, 15.187-15.188, 18.607, 21.194-21.197 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, of Graeco-Roman cultures • Cosmology, of the Near East • cosmogony • cosmogony, in Greece • cosmological poetry • cosmological theogony, technological framework of • cosmology
Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 33; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 2, 3; Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 209; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 371; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 150; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 231; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 49, 52, 102
8.14 τῆλε μάλʼ, ἧχι βάθιστον ὑπὸ χθονός ἐστι βέρεθρον,
14.201 Ὠκεανόν τε θεῶν γένεσιν καὶ μητέρα Τηθύν,
14.203 δεξάμενοι Ῥείας, ὅτε τε Κρόνον εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς
14.246 Ὠκεανοῦ, ὅς περ γένεσις πάντεσσι τέτυκται·
15.187 τρεῖς γάρ τʼ ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοὶ οὓς τέκετο Ῥέα 15.188 Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δʼ Ἀΐδης ἐνέροισιν ἀνάσσων.
18.607 ἄντυγα πὰρ πυμάτην σάκεος πύκα ποιητοῖο.
21.194 τῷ οὐδὲ κρείων Ἀχελώϊος ἰσοφαρίζει, 21.195 οὐδὲ βαθυρρείταο μέγα σθένος Ὠκεανοῖο, 21.196 ἐξ οὗ περ πάντες ποταμοὶ καὶ πᾶσα θάλασσα 21.197 καὶ πᾶσαι κρῆναι καὶ φρείατα μακρὰ νάουσιν·'' None
8.14 Whomsoever I shall mark minded apart from the gods to go and bear aid either to Trojans or Danaans, smitten in no seemly wise shall he come back to Olympus, or I shall take and hurl him into murky Tartarus,
14.201 For I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls, when they had taken me from Rhea, what time Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, thrust Cronos down to dwell beneath earth and the unresting sea.
14.246 Oceanus, from whom they all are sprung; but to Zeus, son of Cronos, will I not draw nigh, neither lull him to slumber, unless of himself he bid me. For ere now in another matter did a behest of thine teach me a lesson,
14.302 Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him:I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed me and cherished me in their halls. Them am I faring to visit, and will loose for them their endless strife,
15.187 Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain.
18.607 and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy,
21.194 Wherefore as Zeus is mightier than rivers that murmur seaward, so mightier too is the seed of Zeus than the seed of a river. For lo, hard beside thee is a great River, if so be he can avail thee aught; but it may not be that one should fight with Zeus the son of Cronos. With him doth not even king Achelous vie, 21.195 nor the great might of deep-flowing Ocean, from whom all rivers flow and every sea, and all the springs and deep wells; howbeit even he hath fear of the lightning of great Zeus, and his dread thunder, whenso it crasheth from heaven. 21.197 nor the great might of deep-flowing Ocean, from whom all rivers flow and every sea, and all the springs and deep wells; howbeit even he hath fear of the lightning of great Zeus, and his dread thunder, whenso it crasheth from heaven. '' None
|5. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, of Graeco-Roman cultures • Cosmology, of the Near East • cosmogony • cosmogony, in Egypt • cosmogony, in Greece • fire, in cosmogony • stars (in cosmogony and theogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 55, 83; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 9, 252; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 36; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 150
|6. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmology • projection, cosmological
Found in books: Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 10; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 132
|7. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony, • cosmos, cosmogony, cosmography
Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019), Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture, 25; Laemmle (2021), Lists and Catalogues in Ancient Literature and Beyond: Towards a Poetics of Enumeration, 310
|8. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology, Homeric • cosmos or cosmology
Found in books: Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 42; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright (2017), Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill. 24
|9. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmological elements
Found in books: King (2006), Common to Body and Soul: Philosophical Approaches to Explaining Living Behaviour in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 41; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 201
|10. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Uranus phallus, as cosmogonic principle • aggregation (in cosmogony) • cosmogony • cosmogony, Orphic • cosmogony, in Greece • cosmology • particles (in cosmogony) • stars (in cosmogony and theogony) • time (in cosmogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 121; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 16; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 179
|11. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Light, as a cosmogonic deity • Persian cosmogony • cosmogony • cosmology • fire, in cosmogony • time (in cosmogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 93; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 59
|12. Euripides, Bacchae, 274-285 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmological elements • cosmology
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 85; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 205
274 καθʼ Ἑλλάδʼ ἔσται. δύο γάρ, ὦ νεανία,'275 τὰ πρῶτʼ ἐν ἀνθρώποισι· Δημήτηρ θεά— 276 γῆ δʼ ἐστίν, ὄνομα δʼ ὁπότερον βούλῃ κάλει· 277 αὕτη μὲν ἐν ξηροῖσιν ἐκτρέφει βροτούς· 278 ὃς δʼ ἦλθʼ ἔπειτʼ, ἀντίπαλον ὁ Σεμέλης γόνος 279 βότρυος ὑγρὸν πῶμʼ ηὗρε κεἰσηνέγκατο 280 θνητοῖς, ὃ παύει τοὺς ταλαιπώρους βροτοὺς 281 λύπης, ὅταν πλησθῶσιν ἀμπέλου ῥοῆς, 282 ὕπνον τε λήθην τῶν καθʼ ἡμέραν κακῶν 283 δίδωσιν, οὐδʼ ἔστʼ ἄλλο φάρμακον πόνων. 284 οὗτος θεοῖσι σπένδεται θεὸς γεγώς, 285 ὥστε διὰ τοῦτον τἀγάθʼ ἀνθρώπους ἔχειν. ' None
274 A man powerful in his boldness, one capable of speaking well, becomes a bad citizen in his lack of sense. This new god, whom you ridicule, I am unable to express how great he will be throughout Hellas . For two things, young man,'275 are first among men: the goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it 280 to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief, whenever they are filled with the stream of the vine, and gives them sleep, a means of forgetting their daily troubles, nor is there another cure for hardships. He who is a god is poured out in offerings to the gods, 285 o that by his means men may have good things. And do you laugh at him, because he was sewn up in Zeus’ thigh? I will teach you that this is well: when Zeus snatched him out of the lighting-flame, and led the child as a god to Olympus , ' None
|13. Herodotus, Histories, 2.63, 3.129, 4.8, 4.23, 4.36, 8.55 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony, • Cosmology • Cosmology, of Graeco-Roman cultures • Cosmology, of the Near East • Critias, and Timaeus’ cosmology • Ionian cosmology and science • cosmogony • cosmology • cosmology, ancient Greek cosmologies
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 138; Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 120; Del Lucchese (2019), Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture, 9; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 371; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 8; Iribarren and Koning (2022), Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy, 207; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 150; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 216, 226, 234; Torok (2014), Herodotus In Nubia, 92
2.63 ἐς δὲ Ἡλίου τε πόλιν καὶ Βουτοῦν θυσίας μούνας ἐπιτελέουσι φοιτέοντες. ἐν δὲ Παπρήμι θυσίας μὲν καὶ ἱρὰ κατά περ καὶ τῇ ἄλλῃ ποιεῦσι· εὖτʼ ἂν δὲ γίνηται καταφερὴς ὁ ἥλιος, ὀλίγοι μὲν τινὲς τῶν ἱρέων περὶ τὤγαλμα πεπονέαται, οἱ δὲ πολλοὶ αὐτῶν ξύλων κορύνας ἔχοντες ἑστᾶσι τοῦ ἱροῦ ἐν τῇ ἐσόδῳ, ἄλλοι τε εὐχωλὰς ἐπιτελέοντες πλεῦνες χιλίων ἀνδρῶν, ἕκαστοι ἔχοντες ξύλα καὶ οὗτοι, ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα ἁλέες ἑστᾶσι. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐὸν ἐν νηῷ μικρῷ ξυλίνῳ κατακεχρυσωμένῳ προεκκομίζουσι τῇ προτεραίῃ ἐς ἄλλο οἴκημα ἱρόν. οἱ μὲν δὴ ὀλίγοι οἱ περὶ τὤγαλμα λελειμμένοι ἕλκουσι τετράκυκλον ἅμαξαν ἄγουσαν τὸν νηόν τε καὶ τὸ ἐν τῷ νηῷ ἐνεὸν ἄγαλμα, οἳ δὲ οὐκ ἐῶσι ἐν τοῖσι προπυλαίοισι ἑστεῶτες ἐσιέναι, οἱ δὲ εὐχωλιμαῖοι τιμωρέοντες τῷ θεῷ παίουσι αὐτοὺς ἀλεξομένους. ἐνθαῦτα μάχη ξύλοισι καρτερὴ γίνεται κεφαλάς τε συναράσσονται, καὶ ὡς ἐγὼ δοκέω πολλοὶ καὶ ἀποθνήσκουσι ἐκ τῶν τρωμάτων· οὐ μέντοι οἵ γε Αἰγύπτιοι ἔφασαν ἀποθνήσκειν οὐδένα. τὴν δὲ πανήγυριν ταύτην ἐκ τοῦδε νομίσαι φασὶ οἱ ἐπιχώριοι· οἰκέειν ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ τούτῳ τοῦ Ἄρεος τὴν μητέρα, καὶ τὸν Ἄρεα ἀπότροφον γενόμενον ἐλθεῖν ἐξανδρωμένον ἐθέλοντα τῇ μητρὶ συμμῖξαι, καὶ τοὺς προπόλους τῆς μητρός, οἷα οὐκ ὀπωπότας αὐτὸν πρότερον, οὐ περιορᾶν παριέναι ἀλλὰ ἀπερύκειν, τὸν δὲ ἐξ ἄλλης πόλιος ἀγαγόμενον ἀνθρώπους τούς τε προπόλους τρηχέως περισπεῖν καὶ ἐσελθεῖν παρὰ τὴν μητέρα. ἀπὸ τούτου τῷ Ἄρεϊ ταύτην τὴν πληγὴν ἐν τῇ ὁρτῇ νενομικέναι φασί.
3.129 ἀπικομένων δὲ καὶ ἀνακομισθέντων τῶν Ὀροίτεω χρημάτων ἐς τὰ Σοῦσα, συνήνεικε χρόνῳ οὐ πολλῷ ὕστερον βασιλέα Δαρεῖον ἐν ἄγρῃ θηρῶν ἀποθρώσκοντα ἀπʼ ἵππου στραφῆναι τὸν πόδα. καί κως ἰσχυροτέρως ἐστράφη· ὁ γάρ οἱ ἀστράγαλος ἐξεχώρησε ἐκ τῶν ἄρθρων. νομίζων δὲ καὶ πρότερον περὶ ἑωυτὸν ἔχειν Αἰγυπτίων τοὺς δοκέοντας εἶναι πρώτους τὴν ἰητρικήν, τούτοισι ἐχρᾶτο. οἳ δὲ στρεβλοῦντες καὶ βιώμενοι τὸν πόδα κακὸν μέζον ἐργάζοντο. ἐπʼ ἑπτὰ μὲν δὴ ἡμέρας καὶ ἑπτὰ νύκτας ὑπὸ τοῦ παρεόντος κακοῦ ὁ Δαρεῖος ἀγρυπνίῃσι εἴχετο· τῇ δὲ δὴ ὀγδόῃ ἡμέρῃ ἔχοντί οἱ φλαύρως, παρακούσας τις πρότερον ἔτι ἐν Σάρδισι τοῦ Κροτωνιήτεω Δημοκήδεος τὴν τέχνην ἀγγέλλει τῷ Δαρείῳ· ὁ δὲ ἄγειν μιν τὴν ταχίστην παρʼ ἑωυτὸν ἐκέλευσε· τὸν δὲ ὡς ἐξεῦρον ἐν τοῖσι Ὀροίτεω ἀνδραπόδοισι ὅκου δὴ ἀπημελημένον, παρῆγον ἐς μέσον πέδας τε ἕλκοντα καὶ ῥάκεσι ἐσθημένον.
4.8 Σκύθαι μὲν ὧδε ὕπερ σφέων τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς χώρης τῆς κατύπερθε λέγουσι, Ἑλλήνων δὲ οἱ τὸν Πόντον οἰκέοντες ὧδε. Ἡρακλέα ἐλαύνοντα τὰς Γηρυόνεω βοῦς ἀπικέσθαι ἐς γῆν ταύτην ἐοῦσαν ἐρήμην, ἥντινα νῦν Σκύθαι νέμονται. Γηρυόνεα δὲ οἰκέειν ἔξω τοῦ Πόντου, κατοικημένον τὴν Ἕλληνές λέγουσι Ἐρύθειαν νῆσον τὴν πρὸς Γαδείροισι τοῖσι ἔξω Ἡρακλέων στηλέων ἐπὶ τῷ Ὠκεανῷ. τὸν δὲ Ὠκεανὸν λόγῳ μὲν λέγουσι ἀπὸ ἡλίου ἀνατολέων ἀρξάμενον γῆν περὶ πᾶσαν ῥέειν, ἔργῳ δὲ οὐκ ἀποδεικνῦσι. ἐνθεῦτεν τόν Ἡρακλέα ἀπικέσθαι ἐς τὴν νῦν Σκυθίην χώρην καλεομένην, καὶ καταλαβεῖν γὰρ αὐτὸν χειμῶνα τε καὶ κρυμὸν, ἐπειρυσάμενον τὴν λεοντέην κατυπνῶσαι, τὰς δὲ οἱ ἵππους τὰς 1 ὑπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος νεμομένας ἐν τούτῳ τῳ χρόνῳ ἀφανισθῆναι θείη τύχῃ.
4.23 μέχρι μὲν δὴ τῆς τούτων τῶν Σκυθέων χώρης ἐστὶ ἡ καταλεχθεῖσα πᾶσα πεδιάς τε γῆ καὶ βαθύγαιος, τὸ δʼ ἀπὸ τούτου λιθώδης τʼ ἐστὶ καὶ τρηχέα. διεξελθόντι δὲ καὶ τῆς τρηχέης χώρης πολλὸν οἰκέουσι ὑπώρεαν ὀρέων ὑψηλῶν ἄνθρωποι λεγόμενοι εἶναι πάντες φαλακροὶ ἐκ γενετῆς γινόμενοι, καὶ ἔρσενες καὶ θήλεαι ὁμοίως, καὶ σιμοὶ καὶ γένεια ἔχοντες μεγάλα, φωνὴν δὲ ἰδίην ἱέντες, ἐσθῆτι δὲ χρεώμενοι Σκυθικῇ, ζῶντες δὲ ἀπὸ δενδρέων. ποντικὸν μὲν οὔνομα τῷ δενδρέῳ ἀπʼ οὗ ζῶσι, μέγαθος δὲ κατὰ συκέην μάλιστά κῃ. καρπὸν δὲ φορέει κυάμῳ ἴσον, πυρῆνα δὲ ἔχει. τοῦτο ἐπεὰν γένηται πέπον, σακκέουσι ἱματίοισι, ἀπορρέει δὲ ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ παχὺ καὶ μέλαν· οὔνομα δὲ τῷ ἀπορρέοντι ἐστὶ ἄσχυ· τοῦτο καὶ λείχουσι καὶ γάλακτι συμμίσγοντες πίνουσι, καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς παχύτητος αὐτοῦ τῆς τρυγὸς παλάθας συντιθεῖσι καὶ ταύτας σιτέονται. πρόβατα γάρ σφι οὐ πολλά ἐστι. οὐ γάρ τι σπουδαῖαι αἱ νομαὶ αὐτόθι εἰσί. ὑπὸ δενδρέῳ δὲ ἕκαστος κατοίκηται, τὸν μὲν χειμῶνα ἐπεὰν τὸ δένδρεον περικαλύψῃ πίλῳ στεγνῷ λευκῷ, τὸ δὲ θέρος ἄνευ πίλου. τούτους οὐδεὶς ἀδικέει ἀνθρώπων· ἱροὶ γὰρ λέγονται εἶναι· οὐδέ τι ἀρήιον ὅπλον ἐκτέαται. καὶ τοῦτο μὲν τοῖσι περιοικέουσι οὗτοι εἰσὶ οἱ τὰς διαφορὰς διαιρέοντες, τοῦτο δὲ ὃς ἂν φεύγων καταφύγῃ ἐς τούτους, ὑπʼ οὐδενὸς ἀδικέεται· οὔνομα δέ σφι ἐστὶ Ἀργιππαῖοι.
4.36 καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Ὑπερβορέων πέρι εἰρήσθω· τὸν γὰρ περὶ Ἀβάριος λόγον τοῦ λεγομένου εἶναι Ὑπερβορέου οὐ λέγω, ὡς 1 τὸν ὀιστὸν περιέφερε κατὰ πᾶσαν γῆν οὐδὲν σιτεόμενος. εἰ δὲ εἰσὶ ὑπερβόρεοι τινὲς ἄνθρωποι, εἰσὶ καὶ ὑπερνότιοι ἄλλοι. γελῶ δὲ ὁρέων γῆς περιόδους γράψαντας πολλοὺς ἤδη καὶ οὐδένα νοονεχόντως ἐξηγησάμενον· οἳ Ὠκεανόν τε ῥέοντα γράφουσι πέριξ τὴν γῆν ἐοῦσαν κυκλοτερέα ὡς ἀπὸ τόρνου, καὶ τὴν Ἀσίην τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ποιεύντων ἴσην. ἐν ὀλίγοισι γὰρ ἐγὼ δηλώσω μέγαθός τε ἑκάστης αὐτέων καὶ οἵη τις ἐστὶ ἐς γραφὴν ἑκάστη.
8.55 τοῦ δὲ εἵνεκεν τούτων ἐπεμνήσθην, φράσω. ἔστι ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλι ταύτῃ Ἐρεχθέος τοῦ γηγενέος λεγομένου εἶναι νηός, ἐν τῷ ἐλαίη τε καὶ θάλασσα ἔνι, τὰ λόγος παρὰ Ἀθηναίων Ποσειδέωνά τε καὶ Ἀθηναίην ἐρίσαντας περὶ τῆς χώρης μαρτύρια θέσθαι. ταύτην ὦν τὴν ἐλαίην ἅμα τῷ ἄλλῳ ἱρῷ κατέλαβε ἐμπρησθῆναι ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων· δευτέρῃ δὲ ἡμέρῃ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐμπρήσιος Ἀθηναίων οἱ θύειν ὑπὸ βασιλέος κελευόμενοι ὡς ἀνέβησαν ἐς τὸ ἱρόν, ὥρων βλαστὸν ἐκ τοῦ στελέχεος ὅσον τε πηχυαῖον ἀναδεδραμηκότα. οὗτοι μέν νυν ταῦτα ἔφρασαν.'' None
2.63 When the people go to Heliopolis and Buto, they offer sacrifice only. At Papremis sacrifice is offered and rites performed just as elsewhere; but when the sun is setting, a few of the priests hover about the image, while most of them go and stand in the entrance to the temple with clubs of wood in their hands; others, more than a thousand men fulfilling vows, who also carry wooden clubs, stand in a mass opposite. ,The image of the god, in a little gilded wooden shrine, they carry away on the day before this to another sacred building. The few who are left with the image draw a four-wheeled wagon conveying the shrine and the image that is in the shrine; the others stand in the space before the doors and do not let them enter, while the vow-keepers, taking the side of the god, strike them, who defend themselves. ,A fierce fight with clubs breaks out there, and they are hit on their heads, and many, I expect, even die from their wounds; although the Egyptians said that nobody dies. ,The natives say that they made this assembly a custom from the following incident: the mother of Ares lived in this temple; Ares had been raised apart from her and came, when he grew up, wishing to visit his mother; but as her attendants kept him out and would not let him pass, never having seen him before, Ares brought men from another town, manhandled the attendants, and went in to his mother. From this, they say, this hitting for Ares became a custom in the festival. ' "
3.129 Oroetes' slaves and other possessions were brought to Susa . Not long after this, it happened that Darius twisted his foot in dismounting from his horse while hunting ,so violently that the ball of the ankle joint was dislocated from its socket. Darius called in the best physicians of Egypt, whom he had until now kept near his person. But by violently twisting the foot they made the injury worse; ,and for seven days and nights the king could not sleep because of the pain. On the eighth day, when he was doing poorly, someone who had heard in Sardis of the skill of Democedes of Croton told Darius of him; and he told them to bring him as quickly as possible. When they found him among the slaves of Oroetes, where he was forgotten, they brought him along, dragging his chains and dressed in rags. " "
4.8 This is what the Scythians say about themselves and the country north of them. But the story told by the Greeks who live in Pontus is as follows. Heracles, driving the cattle of Geryones, came to this land, which was then desolate, but is now inhabited by the Scythians. ,Geryones lived west of the Pontus, settled in the island called by the Greeks Erythea, on the shore of Ocean near Gadira, outside the pillars of Heracles. As for Ocean, the Greeks say that it flows around the whole world from where the sun rises, but they cannot prove that this is so. ,Heracles came from there to the country now called Scythia, where, encountering wintry and frosty weather, he drew his lion's skin over him and fell asleep, and while he slept his mares, which were grazing yoked to the chariot, were spirited away by divine fortune. " 4.23 As for the countryside of these Scythians, all the land mentioned up to this point is level and its soil deep; but thereafter it is stony and rough. ,After a long journey through this rough country, there are men inhabiting the foothills of high mountains, who are said to be bald from birth (male and female alike) and snub-nosed and with long beards; they speak their own language, and wear Scythian clothing, and their food comes from trees. ,The tree by which they live is called “Pontic”; it is about the size of a fig-tree, and bears a fruit as big as a bean, with a stone in it. When this fruit is ripe, they strain it through cloth, and a thick black liquid comes from it, which they call “aschu”; they lick this up or drink it mixed with milk, and from the thickest lees of it they make cakes, and eat them. ,They have few cattle, for the pasture in their land is not good. They each live under a tree, covering it in winter with a white felt cloth, but using no felt in summer. ,These people are wronged by no man, for they are said to be sacred; nor have they any weapon of war. They judge the quarrels between their neighbors; furthermore, whatever banished man has taken refuge with them is wronged by no one. They are called Argippeans.
4.36 I have said this much of the Hyperboreans, and let it suffice; for I do not tell the story of that Abaris, alleged to be a Hyperborean, who carried the arrow over the whole world, fasting all the while. But if there are men beyond the north wind, then there are others beyond the south. ,And I laugh to see how many have before now drawn maps of the world, not one of them reasonably; for they draw the world as round as if fashioned by compasses, encircled by the Ocean river, and Asia and Europe of a like extent. For myself, I will in a few words indicate the extent of the two, and how each should be drawn. ' "
8.55 I will tell why I have mentioned this. In that acropolis is a shrine of Erechtheus, called the “Earthborn,” and in the shrine are an olive tree and a pool of salt water. The story among the Athenians is that they were set there by Poseidon and Athena as tokens when they contended for the land. It happened that the olive tree was burnt by the barbarians with the rest of the sacred precinct, but on the day after its burning, when the Athenians ordered by the king to sacrifice went up to the sacred precinct, they saw a shoot of about a cubit's length sprung from the stump, and they reported this. "' None
|14. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmogony, in Greece
Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 2; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 49
|402b ΣΩ. τί οὖν; δοκεῖ σοι ἀλλοιότερον Ἡρακλείτου νοεῖν ὁ τιθέμενος τοῖς τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν προγόνοις Ῥέαν τε καὶ Κρόνον ; ἆρα οἴει ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτομάτου αὐτὸν ἀμφοτέροις ῥευμάτων ὀνόματα θέσθαι; ὥσπερ αὖ Ὅμηρος Ὠκεανόν τε θεῶν γένεσίν φησιν καὶ μητέρα Τηθύν· οἶμαι δὲ καὶ Ἡσίοδος. λέγει δέ που καὶ Ὀρφεὺς ὅτι Ὠκεανὸς πρῶτος καλλίρροος ἦρξε γάμοιο,'' None||402b Socrates. Well, don’t you think he who gave to the ancestors of the other gods the names Rhea and Cronus had the same thought as Heracleitus? Do you think he gave both of them the names of streams merely by chance? Just so Homer, too, says— Ocean the origin of the gods, and their mother Tethys; Hom. Il. 14.201, 302 and I believe Hesiod says that also. Orpheus, too, says— Fair-flowing Ocean was the first to marry,'' None|
|15. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology • cosmology, Empedoclean
Found in books: Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 276; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 571
|508a γῆν καὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἀνθρώπους τὴν κοινωνίαν συνέχειν καὶ φιλίαν καὶ κοσμιότητα καὶ σωφροσύνην καὶ δικαιότητα, καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦτο διὰ ταῦτα κόσμον καλοῦσιν, ὦ ἑταῖρε, οὐκ ἀκοσμίαν οὐδὲ ἀκολασίαν. σὺ δέ μοι δοκεῖς οὐ προσέχειν τὸν νοῦν τούτοις, καὶ ταῦτα σοφὸς ὤν, ἀλλὰ λέληθέν σε ὅτι ἡ ἰσότης ἡ γεωμετρικὴ καὶ ἐν θεοῖς καὶ ἐν ἀνθρώποις μέγα δύναται, σὺ δὲ πλεονεξίαν οἴει δεῖν ἀσκεῖν· γεωμετρίας γὰρ ἀμελεῖς. εἶεν· ἢ ἐξελεγκτέος δὴ οὗτος ὁ λόγος'' None||508a and gods and men are held together by communion and friendship, by orderliness, temperance, and justice; and that is the reason, my friend, why they call the whole of this world by the name of order, not of disorder or dissoluteness. Now you, as it seems to me, do not give proper attention to this, for all your cleverness, but have failed to observe the great power of geometrical equality amongst both gods and men: you hold that self-advantage is what one ought to practice, because you neglect geometry. Very well: either we must refute this statement, that it is by the possession'' None|
|16. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Critias, and Egyptian cosmology • Gaia, cosmological functions of • Gnostics, on cosmology • Plato, cosmology of • cosmogony • cosmogony and cosmology • cosmogony and cosmology, human–divine relationship • cosmological theogony, critique of in Aristotle • cosmological theogony, technological framework of • cosmology • cosmology, Empedoclean • cosmology, Pythagorean • cosmology, Stoic • godlikeness, and cosmology • planets, Plato, cosmology and psychology of
Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 33, 71, 114, 147, 217; Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 149, 185; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 178; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 654; Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 115, 116; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 39, 280; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 114; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 55; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 136, 137; Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 34; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 364; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 209; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 250
|24c τὸν κόσμον, ἅπαντα μέχρι μαντικῆς καὶ ἰατρικῆς πρὸς ὑγίειαν ἐκ τούτων θείων ὄντων εἰς τὰ ἀνθρώπινα ἀνευρών, ὅσα τε ἄλλα τούτοις ἕπεται μαθήματα πάντα κτησάμενος. ταύτην οὖν δὴ τότε σύμπασαν τὴν διακόσμησιν καὶ σύνταξιν ἡ θεὸς προτέρους ὑμᾶς διακοσμήσασα κατῴκισεν, ἐκλεξαμένη τὸν τόπον ἐν ᾧ γεγένησθε, τὴν εὐκρασίαν τῶν ὡρῶν ἐν αὐτῷ κατιδοῦσα, ὅτι φρονιμωτάτους ἄνδρας οἴσοι· ἅτε οὖν φιλοπόλεμός' 28a ἀεί, ὂν δὲ οὐδέποτε; τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν, ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν, τὸ δʼ αὖ δόξῃ μετʼ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν, γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, ὄντως δὲ οὐδέποτε ὄν. πᾶν δὲ αὖ τὸ γιγνόμενον ὑπʼ αἰτίου τινὸς ἐξ ἀνάγκης γίγνεσθαι· παντὶ γὰρ ἀδύνατον χωρὶς αἰτίου γένεσιν σχεῖν. ὅτου μὲν οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργὸς πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον βλέπων ἀεί, τοιούτῳ τινὶ προσχρώμενος παραδείγματι, τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται, καλὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης 28c δʼ αἰσθητά, δόξῃ περιληπτὰ μετʼ αἰσθήσεως, γιγνόμενα καὶ γεννητὰ ἐφάνη. τῷ δʼ αὖ γενομένῳ φαμὲν ὑπʼ αἰτίου τινὸς ἀνάγκην εἶναι γενέσθαι. ΤΙ. τὸν μὲν οὖν ποιητὴν καὶ πατέρα τοῦδε τοῦ παντὸς εὑρεῖν τε ἔργον καὶ εὑρόντα εἰς πάντας ἀδύνατον λέγειν· τόδε δʼ οὖν πάλιν ἐπισκεπτέον περὶ αὐτοῦ, πρὸς πότερον τῶν παραδειγμάτων ὁ τεκταινόμενος αὐτὸν 30d κόσμος ἡμᾶς ὅσα τε ἄλλα θρέμματα συνέστηκεν ὁρατά. ΤΙ. τῷ γὰρ τῶν νοουμένων καλλίστῳ καὶ κατὰ πάντα τελέῳ μάλιστα αὐτὸν ὁ θεὸς ὁμοιῶσαι βουληθεὶς ζῷον ἓν ὁρατόν, πάνθʼ ὅσα 35a συνεστήσατο ἐκ τῶνδέ τε καὶ τοιῷδε τρόπῳ. ΤΙ. τῆς ἀμερίστου καὶ ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἐχούσης οὐσίας καὶ τῆς αὖ περὶ τὰ σώματα γιγνομένης μεριστῆς τρίτον ἐξ ἀμφοῖν ἐν μέσῳ συνεκεράσατο οὐσίας εἶδος, τῆς τε ταὐτοῦ φύσεως αὖ πέρι καὶ τῆς τοῦ ἑτέρου, καὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ συνέστησεν ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ τε ἀμεροῦς αὐτῶν καὶ τοῦ κατὰ τὰ σώματα μεριστοῦ· καὶ τρία λαβὼν αὐτὰ ὄντα συνεκεράσατο εἰς μίαν πάντα ἰδέαν, τὴν θατέρου φύσιν δύσμεικτον οὖσαν εἰς ταὐτὸν συναρμόττων βίᾳ. 37d καθάπερ οὖν αὐτὸ τυγχάνει ζῷον ἀίδιον ὄν, καὶ τόδε τὸ πᾶν οὕτως εἰς δύναμιν ἐπεχείρησε τοιοῦτον ἀποτελεῖν. ἡ μὲν οὖν τοῦ ζῴου φύσις ἐτύγχανεν οὖσα αἰώνιος, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τῷ γεννητῷ παντελῶς προσάπτειν οὐκ ἦν δυνατόν· εἰκὼ δʼ ἐπενόει κινητόν τινα αἰῶνος ποιῆσαι, καὶ διακοσμῶν ἅμα οὐρανὸν ποιεῖ μένοντος αἰῶνος ἐν ἑνὶ κατʼ ἀριθμὸν ἰοῦσαν αἰώνιον εἰκόνα, τοῦτον ὃν δὴ χρόνον ὠνομάκαμεν. 41b δεθὲν πᾶν λυτόν, τό γε μὴν καλῶς ἁρμοσθὲν καὶ ἔχον εὖ λύειν ἐθέλειν κακοῦ· διʼ ἃ καὶ ἐπείπερ γεγένησθε, ἀθάνατοι μὲν οὐκ ἐστὲ οὐδʼ ἄλυτοι τὸ πάμπαν, οὔτι μὲν δὴ λυθήσεσθέ γε οὐδὲ τεύξεσθε θανάτου μοίρας, τῆς ἐμῆς βουλήσεως μείζονος ἔτι δεσμοῦ καὶ κυριωτέρου λαχόντες ἐκείνων οἷς ὅτʼ ἐγίγνεσθε συνεδεῖσθε. νῦν οὖν ὃ λέγω πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐνδεικνύμενος, μάθετε. θνητὰ ἔτι γένη λοιπὰ τρία ἀγέννητα· τούτων δὲ μὴ γενομένων οὐρανὸς ἀτελὴς ἔσται· τὰ γὰρ ἅπαντʼ ἐν 49a παραδείγματος δεύτερον, γένεσιν ἔχον καὶ ὁρατόν. τρίτον δὲ τότε μὲν οὐ διειλόμεθα, νομίσαντες τὰ δύο ἕξειν ἱκανῶς· νῦν δὲ ὁ λόγος ἔοικεν εἰσαναγκάζειν χαλεπὸν καὶ ἀμυδρὸν εἶδος ἐπιχειρεῖν λόγοις ἐμφανίσαι. τίνʼ οὖν ἔχον δύναμιν καὶ φύσιν αὐτὸ ὑποληπτέον; τοιάνδε μάλιστα· πάσης εἶναι γενέσεως ὑποδοχὴν αὐτὴν οἷον τιθήνην. εἴρηται μὲν οὖν τἀληθές, δεῖ δὲ ἐναργέστερον εἰπεῖν περὶ αὐτοῦ, χαλεπὸν 52d ἓν ἅμα ταὐτὸν καὶ δύο γενήσεσθον. 53b ὅτε δʼ ἐπεχειρεῖτο κοσμεῖσθαι τὸ πᾶν, πῦρ πρῶτον καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ γῆν καὶ ἀέρα, ἴχνη μὲν ἔχοντα αὑτῶν ἄττα, παντάπασί γε μὴν διακείμενα ὥσπερ εἰκὸς ἔχειν ἅπαν ὅταν ἀπῇ τινος θεός, οὕτω δὴ τότε πεφυκότα ταῦτα πρῶτον διεσχηματίσατο εἴδεσί τε καὶ ἀριθμοῖς. τὸ δὲ ᾗ δυνατὸν ὡς κάλλιστα ἄριστά τε ἐξ οὐχ οὕτως ἐχόντων τὸν θεὸν αὐτὰ συνιστάναι, παρὰ πάντα ἡμῖν ὡς ἀεὶ τοῦτο λεγόμενον ὑπαρχέτω· νῦν δʼ οὖν τὴν διάταξιν αὐτῶν ἐπιχειρητέον ἑκάστων καὶ γένεσιν ' None||24c it has devoted from the very beginning to the Cosmic Order, by discovering all the effects which the divine causes produce upon human life, down to divination and the art of medicine which aims at health, and by its mastery also of all the other subsidiary studies. So when, at that time, the Goddess had furnished you, before all others, with all this orderly and regular system, she established your State, choosing the spot wherein you were born since she perceived therein a climate duly blended, and how that it would bring forth men of supreme wisdom.' 28a and has no Becoming? And what is that which is Becoming always and never is Existent? Now the one of these is apprehensible by thought with the aid of reasoning, since it is ever uniformly existent; whereas the other is an object of opinion with the aid of unreasoning sensation, since it becomes and perishes and is never really existent. Again, everything which becomes must of necessity become owing to some Cause; for without a cause it is impossible for anything to attain becoming. But when the artificer of any object, in forming its shape and quality, keeps his gaze fixed on that which is uniform, using a model of this kind, that object, executed in this way, must of necessity 28c and things sensible, being apprehensible by opinion with the aid of sensation, come into existence, as we saw, and are generated. And that which has come into existence must necessarily, as we say, have come into existence by reason of some Cause. Tim. Now to discover the Maker and Father of this Universe were a task indeed; and having discovered Him, to declare Him unto all men were a thing impossible. However, let us return and inquire further concerning the Cosmos,—after which of the Models did its Architect construct it? 30d that have been fashioned. Tim. For since God desired to make it resemble most closely that intelligible Creature which is fairest of all and in all ways most perfect, He constructed it as a Living Creature, one and visible, containing within itself all the living creatures which are by nature akin to itself. 35a and in the fashion which I shall now describe. Tim. and remains always the same and the Being which is transient and divisible in bodies, He blended a third form of Being compounded out of the twain, that is to say, out of the Same and the Other; and in like manner He compounded it midway between that one of them which is indivisible and that one which is divisible in bodies. And He took the three of them, and blent them all together into one form, by forcing the Other into union with the Same, in spite of its being naturally difficult to mix. 37d till more closely. Accordingly, seeing that that Model is an eternal Living Creature, He set about making this Universe, so far as He could, of a like kind. But inasmuch as the nature of the Living Creature was eternal, this quality it was impossible to attach in its entirety to what is generated; wherefore He planned to make a movable image of Eternity, and, as He set in order the Heaven, of that Eternity which abides in unity He made an eternal image, moving according to number, even that which we have named Time. 41b yet to will to dissolve that which is fairly joined together and in good case were the deed of a wicked one. Wherefore ye also, seeing that ye were generated, are not wholly immortal or indissoluble, yet in no wise shall ye be dissolved nor incur the doom of death, seeing that in my will ye possess a bond greater and more sovereign than the bonds wherewith, at your birth, ye were bound together. Now, therefore, what I manifest and declare unto you do ye learn. Three mortal kinds still remain ungenerated; but if these come not into being the Heaven will be imperfect; for it will not contain within itself the whole sum of the hinds of living creatures, yet contain them it must if 49a and the second as the model’s Copy, subject to becoming and visible. A third kind we did not at that time distinguish, considering that those two were sufficient; but now the argument seems to compel us to try to reveal by words a Form that is baffling and obscure. What essential property, then, are we to conceive it to possess? This in particular,—that it should be the receptacle, and as it were the nurse, of all Becoming. Yet true though this statement is, we must needs describe it more plainly. 52d both one and two. 53b fire and water and earth and air, although possessing some traces of their own nature, were yet so disposed as everything is likely to be in the absence of God; and inasmuch as this was then their natural condition, God began by first marking them out into shapes by means of forms and numbers. And that God constructed them, so far as He could, to be as fair and good as possible, whereas they had been otherwise,—this above all else must always be postulated in our account. Now, however, it is the disposition and origin ' None|
|17. Xenophon, Memoirs, 4.7.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ionian cosmology and science • Plato, cosmology of • cosmology
Found in books: Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 28; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 258
4.7.6 ὅλως δὲ τῶν οὐρανίων, ᾗ ἕκαστα ὁ θεὸς μηχανᾶται, φροντιστὴν γίγνεσθαι ἀπέτρεπεν· οὔτε γὰρ εὑρετὰ ἀνθρώποις αὐτὰ ἐνόμιζεν εἶναι οὔτε χαρίζεσθαι θεοῖς ἂν ἡγεῖτο τὸν ζητοῦντα ἃ ἐκεῖνοι σαφηνίσαι οὐκ ἐβουλήθησαν. κινδυνεῦσαι δʼ ἂν ἔφη καὶ παραφρονῆσαι τὸν ταῦτα μεριμνῶντα οὐδὲν ἧττον ἢ Ἀναξαγόρας παρεφρόνησεν ὁ μέγιστον φρονήσας ἐπὶ τῷ τὰς τῶν θεῶν μηχανὰς ἐξηγεῖσθαι.'' None
4.7.6 In general, with regard to the phenomena of the heavens, he deprecated curiosity to learn how the deity contrives them: he held that their secrets could not be discovered by man, and believed that any attempt to search out what the gods had not chosen to reveal must be displeasing to them. He said that he who meddles with these matters runs the risk of losing his sanity as completely as Anaxagoras, who took an insane pride in his explanation of the divine machinery. '' None
|18. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos) • cosmogony • cosmogony, Orphic • cosmogony, in Greece
Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 8, 14, 16; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 3, 64
|19. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ionian cosmology and science • fire, in cosmogony
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 83; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 313
|20. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • anthropogony, in early cosmology • cosmogony • cosmology • cosmology, pneumatic/spiritual • stars (in cosmogony and theogony) • teleology (in cosmogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 113, 118; Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 102; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271; King (2006), Common to Body and Soul: Philosophical Approaches to Explaining Living Behaviour in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 46; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 113, 179
|21. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Empedocles, cosmology and rebirth • Zeus, in early cosmology • cosmogony • cosmogony, Orphic • cosmogony, in Greece • cosmology, Empedoclean • traditional gods, and cosmology
Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 12, 13; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 16; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 63, 71, 72, 572
|22. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Plato, cosmology of • cosmology
Found in books: Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 111; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 140
|23. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos)
Found in books: Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 138; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 208
|24. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Epicureans, cosmology of • Plato, cosmology of • cosmology, steady-state
Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 90; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 98, 99
|25. Anon., 1 Enoch, 2.1-2.2, 5.1, 5.4, 12.4-12.6, 14.18, 95.4, 97.7, 103.11, 103.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • cosmology • cosmology, ancient • cosmology, in Enochic literature • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, Jewish mystical sources of
Found in books: Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 176; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 53; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 41, 44; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 306; Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 131, 133; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 211, 458, 668, 721
|sup>1 The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, And appear from His camp And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."|
2.1 Observe ye everything that takes place in the heaven, how they do not change their orbits, and the luminaries which are in the heaven, how they all rise and set in order each in its season, and 2.2 transgress not against their appointed order. Behold ye the earth, and give heed to the things which take place upon it from first to last, how steadfast they are, how none of the things upon earth
5.1 Observe ye how the trees cover themselves with green leaves and bear fruit: wherefore give ye heed and know with regard to all His works, and recognize how He that liveth for ever hath made them so.
5.4 But ye -ye have not been steadfast, nor done the commandments of the Lord, But ye have turned away and spoken proud and hard words With your impure mouths against His greatness. Oh, ye hard-hearted, ye shall find no peace.' "
12.4 called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve" "12.5 wives: 'Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth: And ye shall have no peace nor forgivene" "12.6 of sin: and inasmuch as they delight themselves in their children, The murder of their beloved ones shall they see, and over the destruction of their children shall they lament, and shall make supplication unto eternity, but mercy and peace shall ye not attain.'" 14.18 of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of 9
5.4 Woe to you who fulminate anathemas which cannot be reversed: Healing shall therefore be far from you because of your sins."
97.7 Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you.
103.11 We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us.
103.14 And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice.' "' None
|26. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmogony, Orphic • cosmogony, in Egypt • cosmogony, in Greece • cosmogony, in Phoenicia • cosmological poetry
Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 12, 251, 252; Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 213; Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 147; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 35, 36, 100, 104; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 320, 321, 328
|27. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.39, 1.53, 2.37, 2.45, 2.58, 2.81-2.88, 2.93, 2.118, 2.133, 2.149, 2.164-2.167 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on cosmology • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Epicureans, cosmology of • Philo of Alexandria, on Stoic cosmology and theology • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • Stoics, cosmology of • cosmogony, • cosmology • cosmology, Stoic • cosmology, biological model of • cosmos or cosmology • pneuma (spirit) in Paul, cosmology
Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 94; Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 24, 214; Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 262, 263; Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 89; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 267; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 51, 237; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 118, 157, 158, 270, 271; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright (2017), Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill. 209; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 125
1.39 Chrysippus, who is deemed to be the most skilful interpreter of the Stoic dreams, musters an enormous mob of unknown gods — so utterly unknown that even imagination cannot guess at their form and nature, although our mind appears capable of visualizing anything; for he says that divine power resides in reason, and in the soul and mind of the universe; he calls the world itself a god, and also the all‑pervading world-soul, and again the guiding principle of that soul, which operates in the intellect and reason, and the common and all‑embracing nature of things; beside this, the fire that I previously termed aether; and also the power of Fate, and the Necessity that governs future events; and also all fluid and soluble substances, such as water, earth, air, the sun, moon and stars, and the all‑embracing unity of things; and even those human beings who have attained immortality.
1.53 We for our part deem happiness to consist in tranquillity of mind and entire exemption from all duties. For he who taught us all the rest has also taught us that the world was made by nature, without needing an artificer to construct it, and that the act of creation, which according to you cannot be performed without divine skill, is so easy, that nature will create, is creating and has created worlds without number. You on the contrary cannot see how nature can achieve all this without the aid of some intelligence, and so, like the tragic poets, being unable to bring the plot of your drama to a dénouement, you have recourse to a god;
2.37 "In fact there is nothing else beside the world that has nothing wanting, but is fully equipped and complete and perfect in all its details and parts. For as Chrysippus cleverly puts it, just as a shield-case is made for the sake of a shield and a sheath for the sake of a sword, so everything else except the world was created for the sake of some other thing; thus the cornº and fruits produced by the earth were created for the sake of animals, and animals for the sake of man: for example the horse for riding, the ox for ploughing, the dog for hunting and keeping guard; man himself however came into existence for the purpose of contemplating and imitating the world; he is by no means perfect, but he is \'a small fragment of that which is perfect.\ 2.45 "It remains for us to consider the qualities of the divine nature; and on this subject nothing is more difficult than to divert the eye of the mind from following the practice of bodily sight. This difficulty has caused both uneducated people generally and those philosophers who resemble the uneducated to be unable to conceive of the immortal gods without setting before themselves the form of men: a shallow mode of thought which Cotta has exposed and which therefore calls for no discussion from me. But assuming that we have a definite and preconceived idea of a deity as, first, a living being, and secondly, a being unsurpassed in excellence by anything else in the whole of nature, I can see nothing that satisfies this preconception or idea of ours more fully than, first, the judgement that this world, which must necessarily be the most excellent of all things, is itself a living being and a god. ' "
2.58 the nature of the world itself, which encloses and contains all things in its embrace, is styled by Zeno not merely 'craftsmanlike' but actually 'a craftsman,' whose foresight plans out the work to serve its use and purpose in every detail. And as the other natural substances are generated, reared and sustained each by its own seeds, so the world-nature experiences all those motions of the will, those impulses of conation and desire, that the Greeks call hormae, and follows these up with the appropriate actions in the same way as do we ourselves, who experience emotions and sensations. Such being the nature of the world-mind, it can therefore correctly be designated as prudence or providence (for in Greek it is termed pronoia); and this providence is chiefly directed and concentrated upon three objects, namely to secure for the world, first, the structure best fitted for survival; next, absolute completeness; but chiefly, consummate beauty and embellishment of every kind. " 2.81 "Next I have to show that all things are under the sway of nature and are carried on by her in the most excellent manner. But first I must briefly explain the meaning of the term \'nature\' itself, to make our doctrine more easily intelligible. Some persons define nature as a non‑rational force that causes necessary motions in material bodies; others as a rational and ordered force, proceeding by method and plainly displaying the means that she takes to produce each result and the end at which she aims, and possessed of a skill that no handiwork of artist or craftsman can rival or reproduce. For a seed, they point out, has such potency that, tiny though it is in size, nevertheless if it falls into some substance that conceives and enfolds it, and obtains suitable material to foster its nurture and growth, it fashions and produces the various creatures after their kinds, some designed merely to absorb nourishment through their roots, and others capable of motion, sensation, appetition and reproduction of their species. ' "2.82 Some thinkers again denote by the term 'nature' the whole of existence — for example Epicurus, who divides the nature of all existing things into atoms, void, and the attributes of these. When we on the other hand speak of nature as the sustaining and governing principle of the world, we do not mean that the world is like a clod of earth or lump of stone or something else of that sort, which possesses only the natural principle of cohesion, but like a tree or an animal, displaying no haphazard structure, to be order and a certain semblance of design. " '2.83 "But if the plants fixed and rooted in the rather owe their life and vigour to nature\'s art, surely the earth herself must be sustained by the same power, inasmuch as when impregnated with seeds she brings forth from her womb all things in profusion, nourishes their roots in her bosom and causes them to grow, and herself in turn is nourished by the upper and outer elements. Her exhalations moreover give nourishment to the air, the ether and all the heavenly bodies. Thus if earth is upheld and invigorated by nature, the same principle must hold good of the rest of the world, for plants are rooted in the earth, animals are sustained by breathing air, and the air itself is our partner in seeing, hearing and uttering sounds, since none of these actions can be performed without its aid; nay, it even moves as we move, for wherever we go or move our limbs, it seems as it were to give place and retire before us. ' "2.84 And those things which travel towards the centre of the earth which is its lowest point, those which move from the centre upwards, and those which rotate in circles round the centre, constitute the one continuous nature of the world. Again the continuum of the world's nature is constituted by the cyclic transmutations of the four kinds of matter. For earth turns into water, water into air, air into aether, and then the process is reversed, and aether becomes air, air water, and water earth, the lowest of the four. Thus the parts of the world are held in union by the constant passage up and down, thenceforth, of these four elements of which all things are composed. " '2.85 And this world-structure must either be everlasting in this same form in which we see it or at all events extremely durable, and destined to endure for an almost immeasurably protracted period of time. Whichever alternative be true, the inference follows that the world is governed by nature. For consider the navigation of a fleet, the marshalling of an army, or (to return to instances from the processes of nature) the budding of a vien or of a tree, or even the shape and structure of the limbs of an animal — when do these ever evidence such a degree of skill in nature as the world itself? Either therefore there is nothing that is ruled by a sentient nature, or we must admit that the world is so ruled. ' "2.86 Indeed, how is it possible that the universe, which contains within itself all the other natures and their seeds, should not itself be governed by nature? Thus if anyone declared that a man's teeth and the hair on his body are a natural growth but that the man himself to whom they belong is not a natural organism, he would fail to see that things which produce something from within them must have more perfect natures than the things which are produced from them. But the sower and planter and begetter, so to speak, of all the things that nature governs, their trainer and nourisher, is the world; the world gives nutriment and sustece to all its limbs as it were, or parts. But if the parts of the world are governed by nature, the world itself must needs be governed by nature. Now the government of the world contains nothing that could possibly be censured; given the existing elements, the best that could be produced from them has been produced. " '2.87 Let someone therefore prove that it could have been better. But no one will ever prove this, and anyone who essays to improve some detail will either make it worse or will be demanding an improvement impossible in the nature of things. "But if the structure of the world in all its parts is such that it could not have been better whether in point of utility or beauty, let us consider js is the result of chance, or whether on the contrary the parts of the world are in such a condition that they could not possibly have cohered together if they were not controlled by intelligence and by divine providence. If then that produces of nature are better than those of art, and if art produces nothing without reason, nature too cannot be deemed to be without reason. When you see a statue or a painting, you recognize the exercise of art; when you observe from a distance the course of a ship, you do not hesitate to assume that its motion is guided by reason and by art; when you look at a sun‑dial or a water-clock, you infer that it tells the time by art and not by chance; how then can it be consistent to suppose that the world, which includes both the works of art in question, the craftsmen who made them, and everything else besides, can be devoid of purpose and of reason? 2.88 Suppose a traveller to carry into Scythia or Britain the orrery recently constructed by our friend Posidonius, which at each revolution reproduces the same motions of the sun, the moon and the five planets that take place in the heavens every twenty-four hundred, would any single native doubt that this orrery was the work of a rational being? This thinkers however raise doubts about the world itself from which all things arise and have their being, and debate whether it is the produce of chance or necessity of some sort, or of divine reason and intelligence; they think more highly of the achievement of Archimedes in making a model of the revolutions of the firmament than of that of nature in creating them, although the perfection of the original shows a craftsmanship many times as great as does the counterfeit.
2.93 "At this point must I not marvel that there should be anyone who can persuade himself that there are certain solid and indivisible particles of matter borne along by the force of gravity, and that the fortuitous collision of those particles produces this elaborate and beautiful world? I cannot understand why he who considers it possible for this to have occurred should not all think that, if a counts number of copies of the one-and‑twenty letters of alphabet, made of gold or what you will, were thrown together into some receptacle and then shaken out on the ground, it would be possible that they should produce the Annals of Ennius, all ready for the reader. I doubt whether chance could possibly succeed in producing even a single verse!
2.118 But the stars are of a fiery substance, and for this reason they are nourished by the vapours of the earth, the sea and the waters, which are raised up by the sun out of the fields which it warms and out of the waters; and when nourished and renewed by these vapours the stars and the whole aether shed them back again, and then once more draw them up from the same source, with the loss of none of their matter, or only of an extremely small part which is consumed by the fire of the stars and the flame of the aether. As a consequence of this, so our school believe, though it used to be said that Panaetius questioned the doctrine, there will ultimately occur a conflagration of the whole while, because when the moisture has been used up neither can the earth be nourished nor will the air continue to flow, being unable to rise upward after it has drunk up all the water; thus nothing will remain but fire, by which, as a living being and a god, once again a new world may be created and the ordered universe be restored as before.
2.133 "Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature. ' "
2.149 Now careful consideration will show that the mechanism of speech displays a skill on nature's part that surpasses belief. In the first place there is an artery passing from the lugns to the back of the mouth, which is the channel by which the voice, originating from the mind, is caught and uttered. Next, the tongue is placed in the mouth and confined by the teeth; it modulates and defines the inarticulate flow of the voice and renders its sounds district and clear by striking the teeth and other parts of the mouth. Accordingly my school is fond of comparing the tongue to the quill of a lyre, the teeth to the strings, and the nostrils to the horns which echo the notes of the strings when the instrument is played. " 2.164 "Nor is the care and providence of the immortal gods bestowed only upon the human race in its entirety, but it is also wont to be extended to individuals. We may narrow down the entirety of the human race and bring it gradually down to smaller and smaller groups, and finally to single individuals. For if we believe, for the reasons that we have spoken of before, that the gods care for all human beings everywhere in every coast and region of the lands remote from this continent in which we dwell, then they care also for the men who inhabit with us these lands between the sunrise and the sunset. ' "2.165 But if they care for these who inhabit that sort of vast island which we call the round earth, they also care for those who occupy continue divisions of that island, Europe, Asia and Africa. Therefore they also cherish the divisions of those divisions, for instance Rome, Athens, Sparta and Rhodes; and they cherish the individual citizens of those cities regarded separately from the whole body collectively, for example, Curius, Fabricius and Coruncanius in the war with Pyrrhus, Calatinus, Duellius, Metellus and Lutatius in the First Punic War, and Maximus, Marcellus and Africanus in the Second, and at a later date Paulus, Gracchus and Cato, or in our fathers' time Scipio and Laelius; and many remarkable men besides both our own country and Greece have given birth to, none of whom would conceivably have been what he was save by god's aid. " '2.166 It was this reason which drove the poets, and especially Homer, to attach to their chief heroes, Ulysses, Diomede, Agamemnon or Achilles, certain gods as the companions of their perils and adventures; moreover the gods have often appeared to men in person, as in the cases which I have mentioned above, so testifying that they care both for communities and for individuals. And the same is proved by the portents of future occurrences that are vouchsafed to men sometimes when they are asleep and sometimes when they are awake. Moreover we receive a number of warnings by means of signs and of the entrails of victims, and by many other things that long-continued usage has noted in such a manner as to create the art of divination. ' "2.167 Therefore no great man ever existed who did not enjoy some portion of divine inspiration. Nor yet is this argument to be deprived by pointing to cases where a man's cornfields or vineyards have been damaged by a storm, or an accident has robbed him of some commodity of value, and inferring that the victim of one of these misfortunes is the object of god's hatred or neglect. The gods attend to great matters; they neglect small ones. Now great men always prosper in all their affairs, assuming that the teachers of our school and Socrates, the prince of philosophy, have satisfactorily discoursed upon the bounteous abundance of wealth that virtue bestows. "' None
|28. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology, ancient • cosmology, ancient Jewish
Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 103; Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 131
12.3 וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃'' None
12.3 And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.'' None
|29. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on cosmology • Epicureans, cosmology of • Peripatetics, cosmology of
Found in books: Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 90, 96; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 125
|30. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 114; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 119, 130
|31. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.9, 1.15, 1.17, 1.21, 1.57, 1.79, 10.17, 10.147, 10.149-10.154, 10.300 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ovid, cosmogony in • cosmogony
Found in books: Fielding (2017), Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity. 4, 105; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 35, 104; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 115, 209, 255, 257; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 321
1.9 non bene iunctarum discordia semina rerum.
1.57 His quoque non passim mundi fabricator habendum
1.79 ille opifex rerum, mundi melioris origo,
10.17 sic ait: “O positi sub terra numina mundi,
10.147 concordare modos, hoc vocem carmine movit:
10.149 carmina nostra move! Iovis est mihi saepe potestas 10.150 dicta prius: cecini plectro graviore Gigantas 10.151 sparsaque Phlegraeis victricia fulmina campis: 10.152 nunc opus est leviore lyra, puerosque canamus 10.153 dilectos superis, inconcessisque puellas 10.154 ignibus attonitas meruisse libidine poenam.
10.300 Dira canam: procul hinc natae, procul este parentes!' ' None
1.9 the face of Nature in a vast expanse
1.57 the valleys are depressed, the woods are clothed
1.79 to blow unbounded in the pathless skies,
10.17 oft ankle— and she died.—After the bard' "
10.147 the Heliads' poplar, and the lofty-branched" 10.149 the brittle hazel, and the virgin laurel-tree, 10.150 the ash for strong spears, the smooth silver-fir, 10.151 the flex bent with acorns and the plane, 10.152 the various tinted maple and with those, 10.153 the lotus and green willows from their streams, 10.154 evergreen box and slender tamarisks,
10.300 and self-reproach. My own hand gave you death' ' None
|32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 17-18, 48-49 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • Cosmology • cosmology
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 170; Gazis and Hooper (2021), Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature, 174; Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 198; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 114
17 But that world which consists of ideas, it were impious in any degree to attempt to describe or even to imagine: but how it was created, we shall know if we take for our guide a certain image of the things which exist among us. When any city is founded through the exceeding ambition of some king or leader who lays claim to absolute authority, and is at the same time a man of brilliant imagination, eager to display his good fortune, then it happens at times that some man coming up who, from his education, is skilful in architecture, and he, seeing the advantageous character and beauty of the situation, first of all sketches out in his own mind nearly all the parts of the city which is about to be completed--the temples, the gymnasia, the prytanea, and markets, the harbour, the docks, the streets, the arrangement of the walls, the situations of the dwelling houses, and of the public and other buildings. '18 Then, having received in his own mind, as on a waxen tablet, the form of each building, he carries in his heart the image of a city, perceptible as yet only by the intellect, the images of which he stirs up in memory which is innate in him, and, still further, engraving them in his mind like a good workman, keeping his eyes fixed on his model, he begins to raise the city of stones and wood, making the corporeal substances to resemble each of the incorporeal ideas.
48 Moreover the number four also comprehends the principles of the harmonious concords in music, that in fours, and in fifths, and the diapason, and besides this the double diapason from which sounds the most perfect system of harmony is produced. For the ratio of the sounds in fourths is as four to three; and in fifths as three to two; and in the diapason that ratio is doubled: and in the double diapason it is increased fourfold, all which ratios the number four comprehends. At all events the first, or the epistritus, is the ratio of four to three; the second, or the hemiolius, is that of three to two: the twofold ratio is that of two to one, or four to two: and the fourfold ratio is that of four to one. XVI. 49 There is also another power of the number four which is a most wonderful one to speak of and to contemplate. For it was this number that first displayed the nature of the solid cube, the numbers before four being assigned only to incorporeal things. For it is according to the unit that that thing is reckoned which is spoken of in geometry as a point: and a line is spoken of according to the number two, because it is arranged by nature from a point; and a line is length without breadth. But when breadth is added to it, it becomes a superficies, which is arranged according to the number three. And a superficies, when compared with the nature of a solid cube, wants one thing, namely depth, and when this one thing is added to the three, it becomes four. On which account it has happened that this number is a thing of great importance, inasmuch as from an incorporeal substance perceptible only by intellect, it has led us on to a comprehension of a body divisible in a threefold manner, and which by its own nature is first perceived by the external senses. ' None
|33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.66 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 196; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 307, 374
1.66 We ought to look upon the universal world as the highest and truest temple of God, having for its most holy place that most sacred part of the essence of all existing things, namely, the heaven; and for ornaments, the stars; and for priests, the subordinate ministers of his power, namely, the angels, incorporeal souls, not beings compounded of irrational and rational natures, such as our bodies are, but such as have the irrational parts wholly cut out, being absolutely and wholly intellectual, pure reasonings, resembling the unit. '' None
|34. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • Tertullian of Carthage, cosmology • cosmogony/cosmology • cosmological poetry • cosmology • cosmology, Epicurean • cosmology, biological model of
Found in books: Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 253; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 58; Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 214; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 263; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 152, 158, 159, 169, 173; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 169
|35. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 18.1-18.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 248; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 177
18.1 But let us pass on to another lesson and teaching. There are two ways of teaching and of power, the one of light and the other of darkness; and there is a great difference between the two ways. For on the one are stationed the light giving angels of God, on the other the angels of Satan. 18.2 And the one is the Lord from all eternity and unto all eternity, whereas the other is Lord of the season of iniquity that now is.'' None
|36. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Cosmos, cosmology, nature
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 208, 209, 210, 212; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 157
20 The heavens, revolving under His government, are subject to Him in peace. Day and night run the course appointed by Him, in no wise hindering each other. The sun and moon, with the companies of the stars, roll on in harmony according to His command, within their prescribed limits, and without any deviation. The fruitful earth, according to His will, brings forth food in abundance, at the proper seasons, for man and beast and all the living beings upon it, never hesitating, nor changing any of the ordices which He has fixed. The unsearchable places of abysses, and the indescribable arrangements of the lower world, are restrained by the same laws. The vast unmeasurable sea, gathered together by His working into various basins, never passes beyond the bounds placed around it, but does as He has commanded. For He said, Thus far shall you come, and your waves shall be broken within you. Job 38:11 The ocean, impassable to man and the worlds beyond it, are regulated by the same enactments of the Lord. The seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, peacefully give place to one another. The winds in their several quarters fulfil, at the proper time, their service without hindrance. The ever-flowing fountains, formed both for enjoyment and health, furnish without fail their breasts for the life of men. The very smallest of living beings meet together in peace and concord. All these the great Creator and Lord of all has appointed to exist in peace and harmony; while He does good to all, but most abundantly to us who have fled for refuge to His compassions through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory and majesty for ever and ever. Amen. '' None
|37. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.13.4-3.13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology, biological model of • cosmos or cosmology
Found in books: Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 270; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright (2017), Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill. 131
3.13.4 SOLITUDE is a certain condition of a helpless man. For because a man is alone, he is not for that reason also solitary; just as though a man is among numbers, he is not therefore not solitary. When then we have lost either a brother, or a son or a friend on whom we were accustomed to repose, we say that we are left solitary, though we are often in Rome, though such a crowd meet us, though so many live in the same place, and sometimes we have a great number of slaves. For the man who is solitary, as It is conceived, is considered to be a helpless person and exposed to those who wish to harm him. For this reason when we travel, then especially do we say that we are lonely when we fall among robbers, for it is not the sight of a human creature which removes us from solitude, but the sight of one who is faithful and modest and helpful to us. For if being alone is enough to make solitude, you may say that even Zeus is solitary in the conflagration and bewails himself saying, Unhappy that I am who have neither Hera, nor Athena, nor Apollo, nor brother, nor son, nor descendant nor kinsman. This is what some say that he does when he is alone at the conflagration. For they do not understand how a man passes his life when he is alone, because they set out from a certain natural principle, from the natural desire of community and mutual love and from the pleasure of conversation among men. But none the less a man ought to be prepared in a manner for this also (being alone), to be able to be sufficient for himself and to be his own companion. For as Zeus dwells with himself, and is tranquil by himself, and thinks of his own administration and of its nature, and is employed in thoughts suitable to himself; so ought we also to be able to talk with ourselves, not to feel the want of others also, not to be unprovided with the means of passing our time; to observe the divine administration, and the relation of ourselves to every thing else; to consider how we formerly were affected towards things that happen and how at present; what are still the things which give us pain; how these also can be cured and how removed; if any things require improvement, to improve them according to reason. For you see that Caesar appears to furnish us with great peace, that there are no longer enemies nor battles nor great associations of robbers nor of pirates, but we can travel at every hour and sail from east to west. But can Caesar give us security from fever also, can he from shipwreck, from fire, from earthquake or from lightning? well, I will say, can he give us security against love? He cannot. From sorrow? He cannot. From envy? He cannot. In a word then he cannot protect us from any of these things. But the doctrine of philosophers promises to give us security (peace) even against these things. And what does it say? Men, if you will attend to me, wherever you are, whatever you are doing, you will not feel sorrow, nor anger, nor compulsion, nor hindrance, but you will pass your time without perturbations and free from every thing. When a man has this peace, not proclaimed by Caesar, (for how should he be able to proclaim it?), but by God through reason, is he not content when he is alone? when he sees and reflects, Now no evil can happen to me; for me there is no robber, no earthquake, every thing is full of peace, full of tranquillity: every way, every city, every meeting, neighbour, companion is harmless. One person whose business it is, supplies me with food; another with raiment; another with perceptions, and preconceptions ( προλήψεις ). And if he does not supply what is necessary, he (God) gives the signal for retreat, opens the door, and says to you, Go. Go whither? To nothing terrible, but to the place from which you came, to your friends and kinsmen, to the elements: What a melancholy description of death and how gloomy the ideas in this consolatory chapter! All beings reduced to mere elements in successive conflagrations! A noble contrast to the Stoic notions on this subject may be produced from several passages in the Scripture— Then shall the dust return to the earth, as it was; and the spirit shall return to God who gave it, Eccles. xii. 7. Mrs. Carter; who also refers to 1 Thess. iv. 14; John vi. 39, 40; xi. 25, 26; I Cor. vi. 14; xv. 53; 2 Cor. v. 14 etc. Mrs. Carter quotes Ecclesiastes, but the author says nearly what Epicharmus said, quoted by Plutarch, παραμυθ. πρὸς Ἀπολλώνιον , vol. i. p. 435 ed. Wytt. συνεκρίθη καὶ διεκρίθη καὶ ἀπῆλθεν ὅθεν ἦλθε πάλιν, γᾶ μὲν ἐς γᾶν, πνεῦμα δ’ ἄνω τί τῶνδε χαλεπόν; οὐδὲ ἕν. Euripides in a fragment of the Chrysippus, fr. 836, ed. Nauck, says τὰ μὲν ἐκ γαίας φύντ’ εἰς γαῖαν, τὰ δ’ ἀπ’ αἰθερίου βλαστόντα γονῆς εἰς οὐράνιον πάλιν ἦλθε πόλον. I have translated the words of Epictetus ὅσον πνευματίου, εἰς πνευμάτιον by of air (spirit), to air : but the πνευμάτιον of Epictetus may mean the same as the πνεῦμα of Epicharmus, and the same as the spirit of Ecclesiastes. An English commentator says that the doctrine of a future retribution forms the great basis and the leading truth of this book (Ecclesiastes), and that the royal Preacher (Ecclesiastes) brings forward the prospect of a future life and retribution. I cannot discover any evidence of this assertion in the book. The conclusion is the best part of this ill-connected, obscure and confused book, as it appears in our translation. The conclusion is (xii. 13, 14): Fear God and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man, for God shall bring every work into judgment with every secret thing, whether it be good or whether it be evil. This is all that I can discover in the book which can support the commentator’s statement; and even this may not mean what he affirms. Schweighaeuser observes that here was the opportunity for Epictetus to say something of the immortality of the soul, if he had any thing to say. But he says nothing unless he means to say that the soul, the spirit, returns to God who gave it as the Preacher says. There is a passage (iii. 24, 94) which appears to mean that the soul of man after death will be changed into something else, which the universe will require for some use or purpose. It is strange, observes Schweig., that Epictetus, who studied the philosophy of Socrates, and speaks so eloquently of man’s capacity and his duty to God, should say no more: but the explanation may be that he had no doctrine of man’s immortality, in the sense in which that word is now used. what there was in you of fire goes to fire; of earth, to earth; of air (spirit), to air; of water to water: no Hades, nor Acheron, nor Cocytus, nor Pyriphlegethon, but all is full of Gods and Daemons. When a man has such things to think on, and sees the sun, the moon and stars, and enjoys earth and sea, he is not solitary nor even helpless. Well then, if some man should come upon me when I am alone and murder me? Fool, not murder You, but your poor body. What kind of solitude then remains? what want? why do we make ourselves worse than children? and what do children do when they are left alone? They take up shells and ashes, and they build something, then pull it down, and build something else, and so they never want the means of passing the time. Shall I then, if you sail away, sit down and weep, because I have been left alone and solitary? Shall I then have no shells, no ashes? But children do what they do through want of thought (or deficiency in knowledge), and we through knowledge are unhappy. Every great power (faculty) is dangerous to beginners. The text has ἀρχομένων , but it probably ought to be ἀρχομένῳ . Compare i. 1, 8, πᾶσα δύναμις ἐπισφαλής . The text from φέρειν οὖν δεῖ to τῷ φθισικῷ is unintelligible. Lord Shaftesbury says that the passage is not corrupt, and he gives an explanation; but Schweig. says that the learned Englishman’s exposition does not make the text plainer to him; nor does it to me. Schweig. observes that the passage which begins πᾶσα μεγάλη and what follows seem to belong to the next chapter xiv. You must then bear such things as you are able, but conformably to nature: but not . . . . Practise sometimes a way of living like a person out of health that you may at some time live like a man in health. Abstain from food, drink water, abstain sometimes altogether from desire, in order that you may some time desire consistently with reason; and if consistently with reason, when you have anything good in you, you will desire well.—Not so; but we wish to live like wise men immediately and to be useful to men—Useful how? what are you doing? have you been useful to yourself? But, I suppose, you wish to exhort them? You exhort them! You wish to be useful to them. Show to them in your own example what kind of men philosophy makes, and don’t trifle. When you are eating, do good to those who eat with you; when you are drinking, to those who are drinking with you; by yielding to all, giving way, bearing with them, thus do them good, and do not spit on them your phlegm (bad humours).' ' None
|38. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.48-1.50, 1.61-1.62 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmological poetry
Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 211; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 337
1.48 Gain thrones in heaven; and if the Thunderer Prevailed not till the giant's war was done, Complaint is silent. For this boon supreme Welcome, ye gods, be wickedness and crime; Thronged with our dead be dire Pharsalia's fields, Be Punic ghosts avenged by Roman blood; Add to these ills the toils of Mutina; Perusia's dearth; on Munda's final field The shock of battle joined; let Leucas' Cape Shatter the routed navies; servile hands " "1.50 Unsheath the sword on fiery Etna's slopes: Still Rome is gainer by the civil war. Thou, Caesar, art her prize. When thou shalt choose, Thy watch relieved, to seek divine abodes, All heaven rejoicing; and shalt hold a throne, Or else elect to govern Phoebus' car And light a subject world that shall not dread To owe her brightness to a different Sun; All shall concede thy right: do what thou wilt, Select thy Godhead, and the central clime " 1.61 Whence thou shalt rule the world with power divine. And yet the Northern or the Southern Pole We pray thee, choose not; but in rays direct Vouchsafe thy radiance to thy city Rome. Press thou on either side, the universe Should lose its equipoise: take thou the midst, And weight the scales, and let that part of heaven Where Caesar sits, be evermore serene And smile upon us with unclouded blue. Then may all men lay down their arms, and peace 1.62 Whence thou shalt rule the world with power divine. And yet the Northern or the Southern Pole We pray thee, choose not; but in rays direct Vouchsafe thy radiance to thy city Rome. Press thou on either side, the universe Should lose its equipoise: take thou the midst, And weight the scales, and let that part of heaven Where Caesar sits, be evermore serene And smile upon us with unclouded blue. Then may all men lay down their arms, and peace '" None
|39. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • cosmology, Rabbinic attitudes towards
Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 319; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 140, 141
2.1 אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁנַיִם. וְלֹא בַמֶּרְכָּבָה בְּיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּל הַמִּסְתַּכֵּל בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים, רָאוּי לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא בָּא לָעוֹלָם, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּפָנִים, וּמַה לְּאָחוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא חָס עַל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ, רָאוּי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם:'' None
2.1 They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor the work of the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world.'' None
|40. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.14, 3.3, 15.38-15.42, 15.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Cosmos, cosmology, nature • Philo of Alexandria, on Stoic cosmology and theology • anthropology, Pauls, is cosmological • apocalypticism, and cosmology • cosmology • fire, in Stoic cosmology • pneuma (spirit) in Paul, and fire in Stoic cosmology • pneuma (spirit) in Paul, cosmology • scala naturae, in Stoic cosmology • transformation, in Stoic cosmology
Found in books: Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 19, 20, 24, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 50, 57, 76, 97, 103, 104, 218; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 29; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 114; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 212, 213; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 86, 202; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 297; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 173; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 207
2.14 ψυχικὸς δὲ ἄνθρωπος οὐ δέχεται τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ θεοῦ, μωρία γὰρ αὐτῷ ἐστίν, καὶ οὐ δύναται γνῶναι, ὅτι πνευματικῶς ἀνακρίνεται·
3.3 Ἀλλʼ οὐδὲ ἔτι νῦν δύνασθε, ἔτι γὰρ σαρκικοί ἐστε. ὅπου γὰρ ἐν ὑμῖν ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις, οὐχὶ σαρκικοί ἐστε καὶ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε;
15.38 ὁ δὲ θεὸς δίδωσιν αὐτῷ σῶμα καθὼς ἠθέλησεν, καὶ ἑκάστῳ τῶν σπερμάτων ἴδιον σῶμα. 15.39 οὐ πᾶσα σὰρξ ἡ αὐτὴ σάρξ, ἀλλὰ ἄλλη μὲν ἀνθρώπων, ἄλλη δὲ σὰρξ κτηνῶν, ἄλλη δὲ σὰρξ πτηνῶν, ἄλλη δὲ ἰχθύων. 15.40 καὶ σώματα ἐπουράνια, καὶ σώματα ἐπίγεια· ἀλλὰ ἑτέρα μὲν ἡ τῶν ἐπουρανίων δόξα, ἑτέρα δὲ ἡ τῶν ἐπιγείων. 15.41 ἄλλη δόξα ἡλίου, καὶ ἄλλη δόξα σελήνης, καὶ ἄλλη δόξα ἀστέρων, ἀστὴρ γὰρ ἀστέρος διαφέρει ἐν δόξῃ. 15.42 οὕτως καὶ ἡ ἀνάστασις τῶν νεκρῶν.
15.51 ἰδοὺ μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· πάντες οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα πάντες δὲ ἀλλαγησόμεθα,' ' None
2.14 Now thenatural man doesn't receive the things of God's Spirit, for they arefoolishness to him, and he can't know them, because they arespiritually discerned." "
3.3 for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men?" 15.38 But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39 All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40 There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41 There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42 So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption.
15.51 Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed,' " None
|41. New Testament, Apocalypse, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • cosmology
Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 192; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 29
5.9 καὶᾁδουσιν ᾠδὴν καινὴνλέγοντες Ἄξιος εἶ λαβεῖν τὸ βιβλίον καὶ ἀνοῖξαι τὰς σφραγῖδας αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἐσφάγης καὶ ἠγόρασας τῷ θεῷ ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς καὶ γλώσσης καὶ λαοῦ καὶ ἔθνους,'' None
5.9 They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation,'' None
|42. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.20, 2.11, 2.16-2.19, 3.1, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • cosmology • cosmology, ancient • cosmology/cosmological
Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 207; Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 177, 178; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 86; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 150; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 157; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 164, 207, 209
1.15 ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου, πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως, 1.16 ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, τὰ ὁρατὰ καὶ τὰ ἀόρατα, εἴτε θρόνοι εἴτε κυριότητες εἴτε ἀρχαὶ εἴτε ἐξουσίαι· τὰ πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται· 1.17 καὶ αὐτὸς ἔστιν πρὸ πάντων καὶ τὰ πάντα ἐν αὐτῷ συνέστηκεν, 1.18 καὶ αὐτός ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλὴ τοῦ σώματος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας· ὅς ἐστιν ἡ ἀρχή, πρωτότοκος ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, ἵνα γένηται ἐν πᾶσιν αὐτὸς πρωτεύων, 1.19 ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ εὐδόκησεν πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα κατοικῆσαι 1.20 καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ ἀποκαταλλάξαι τὰ πάντα εἰς αὐτόν, εἰρηνοποιήσας διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ σταυροῦ αὐτοῦ, διʼ αὐτοῦ εἴτε τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εἴτε τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
2.11 ἐν ᾧ καὶ περιετμήθητε περιτομῇ ἀχειροποιήτῳ ἐν τῇ ἀπεκδύσει τοῦ σώματος τῆς σαρκός, ἐν τῇ περιτομῇ τοῦ χριστοῦ,
2.16 Μὴ οὖν τις ὑμᾶς κρινέτω ἐν βρώσει καὶ ἐν πόσει ἢ ἐν μέρει ἑορτῆς ἢ νεομηνίας ἢ σαββάτων, 2.17 ἅ ἐστιν σκιὰ τῶν μελλόντων, τὸ δὲ σῶμα τοῦ χριστοῦ. 2.18 μηδεὶς ὑμᾶς καταβραβευέτω θέλων ἐν ταπεινοφροσύνῃ καὶ θρησκείᾳ τῶν ἀγγέλων, ἃ ἑόρακεν ἐμβατεύων, εἰκῇ φυσιούμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ νοὸς τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ, 2.19 καὶ οὐ κρατῶν τὴν κεφαλήν, ἐξ οὗ πᾶν τὸ σῶμα διὰ τῶν ἁφῶν καὶ συνδέσμων ἐπιχορηγούμενον καὶ συνβιβαζόμενον αὔξει τὴν αὔξησιν τοῦ θεοῦ.
3.1 Εἰ οὖν συνηγέρθητε τῷ χριστῷ, τὰ ἄνω ζητεῖτε, οὗ ὁ χριστός ἐστινἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ καθήμενος·
3.5 Νεκρώσατε οὖν τὰ μέλη τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, πορνείαν, ἀκαθαρσίαν, πάθος, ἐπιθυμίαν κακήν, καὶ τὴν πλεονεξίαν ἥτις ἐστὶν εἰδωλολατρία,'' None
1.15 who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16 For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17 He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18 He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19 For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20 and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens.
2.11 in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ;
2.16 Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day, ' "2.17 which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. " '2.18 Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind, ' "2.19 and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. " 3.1 If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God.
3.5 Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; '' None
|43. New Testament, Galatians, 1.8, 4.3, 5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Cosmos, cosmology, nature • cosmology • cosmology, ancient Greek cosmologies • demons, as cosmological entities in Stoicism
Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 153; Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 94; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 58; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 212; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 86; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 141
1.8 ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐὰν ἡμεῖς ἢ ἄγγελος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ εὐαγγελίσηται ὑμῖν παρʼ ὃ εὐηγγελισάμεθα ὑμῖν, ἀνάθεμα ἔστω.
4.3 οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς, ὅτε ἦμεν νήπιοι, ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου ἤμεθα δεδουλωμένοι·
5.20 εἰδωλολατρία, φαρμακία, ἔχθραι, ἔρις, ζῆλος, θυμοί, ἐριθίαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσεις,'' None
1.8 But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed.
4.3 So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world.
5.20 idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies, '' None
|44. New Testament, Hebrews, 8.2, 9.3, 9.11-9.12, 9.23-9.26, 10.19-10.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • cosmology, cosmological teachings
Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 169, 171; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 13, 65, 93, 98; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 69
8.2 τῶν ἁγίων λειτουργὸς καὶτῆς σκηνῆςτῆς ἀληθινῆς,ἣν ἔπηξεν ὁ κύριος,οὐκ ἄνθρωπος.
9.3 μετὰ δὲ τὸ δεύτερον καταπέτασμα σκηνὴ ἡ λεγομένη Ἅγια Ἁγίων,
9.11 Χριστὸς δὲ παραγενόμενος ἀρχιερεὺς τῶν γενομένων ἀγαθῶν διὰ τῆς μείζονος καὶ τελειοτέρας σκηνῆς οὐ χειροποιήτου, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν οὐ ταύτης τῆς κτίσεως, 9.12 οὐδὲ διʼ αἵματος τράγων καὶ μόσχων διὰ δὲ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος, εἰσῆλθεν ἐφάπαξ εἰς τὰ ἅγια, αἰωνίαν λύτρωσιν εὑράμενος.
9.23 Ἀνάγκη οὖν τὰ μὲν ὑποδείγματα τῶν ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς τούτοις καθαρίζεσθαι, αὐτὰ δὲ τὰ ἐπουράνια κρείττοσι θυσίαις παρὰ ταύτας. 9.24 οὐ γὰρ εἰς χειροποίητα εἰσῆλθεν ἅγια Χριστός, ἀντίτυπα τῶν ἀληθινῶν, ἀλλʼ εἰς αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν, νῦν ἐμφανισθῆναι τῷ προσώπῳ τοῦ θεοῦ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν· 9.25 οὐδʼ ἵνα πολλάκις προσφέρῃ ἑαυτόν, ὥσπερ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἰσέρχεται εἰς τὰ ἅγια κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐν αἵματι ἀλλοτρίῳ, 9.26 ἐπεὶ ἔδει αὐτὸν πολλάκις παθεῖν ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου· νυνὶ δὲ ἅπαξ ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς ἀθέτησιν τῆς ἁμαρτίας διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ πεφανέρωται.
10.19 Ἔχοντες οὖν, αδελφοί, παρρησίαν εἰς τὴν εἴσοδον τῶν ἁγίων ἐν τῷ αἵματι Ἰησοῦ, 10.20 ἣν ἐνεκαίνισεν ἡμῖν ὁδὸν πρόσφατον καὶ ζῶσαν διὰ τοῦ καταπετάσματος, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ,' ' None
8.2 a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man.
9.3 After the second veil was the tabernacle which is called the Holy of Holies,
9.11 But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation, 9.12 nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the Holy Place, having obtained eternal redemption.
9.23 It was necessary therefore that the copies of the things in the heavens should be cleansed with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. ' "9.24 For Christ hasn't entered into holy places made with hands, which are representations of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; " '9.25 nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest enters into the holy place year by year with blood not his own, 9.26 or else he must have suffered often since the foundation of the world. But now once at the end of the ages, he has been revealed to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
10.19 Having therefore, brothers, boldness to enter into the holy place by the blood of Jesus, 10.20 by the way which he dedicated for us, a new and living way, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh; ' ' None
|45. New Testament, Romans, 1.20, 7.22, 8.1-8.13, 13.12-13.14, 16.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Tertullian of Carthage, cosmology • anthropology, Pauls, is cosmological • apocalypticism, and cosmology • cosmology • cosmology, ancient • cosmology/cosmological
Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 153; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 54; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 168; Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 26, 104, 105; Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 135, 177; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 119; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 173; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 668; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 164
1.20 τὰ γὰρ ἀόρατα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου τοῖς ποιήμασιν νοούμενα καθορᾶται, ἥ τε ἀΐδιος αὐτοῦ δύναμις καὶ θειότης, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἀναπολογήτους,
7.22 συνήδομαι γὰρ τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ κατὰ τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον,
8.1 Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· 8.2 ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου. 8.3 τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινε τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί, 8.4 ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα· 8.5 οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν, οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος. 8.6 τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη· 8.7 διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν, τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται· 8.8 οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται. 8.9 Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι. εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ.
8.10 εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην.
8.11 εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας ἐκ νεκρῶν Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ζωοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ὑμῖν.
8.12 Ἄρα οὖν, ἀδελφοί, ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν, οὐ τῇ σαρκὶ τοῦ κατὰ σάρκα ζῇν,
8.13 εἰ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ζῆτε μέλλετε ἀποθνήσκειν, εἰ δὲ πνεύματι τὰς πράξεις τοῦ σώματος θανατοῦτε ζήσεσθε.
13.12 ἡ νὺξ προέκοψεν, ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤγγικεν. ἀποθώμεθα οὖν τὰ ἔργα τοῦ σκότους, ἐνδυσώμεθα δὲ τὰ ὅπλα τοῦ φωτός. 13.13 ὡς ἐν ἡμέρᾳ εὐσχημόνως περιπατήσωμεν, μὴ κώμοις καὶ μέθαις, μὴ κοίταις καὶ ἀσελγείαις, μὴ ἔριδι καὶ ζήλῳ. 13.14 ἀλλὰ ἐνδύσασθε τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, καὶ τῆς σαρκὸς πρόνοιαν μὴ ποιεῖσθε εἰς ἐπιθυμίας.' ' None
1.20 For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. ' "
7.22 For I delight in God's law after the inward man, " "
8.1 There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don't walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. " '8.2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. ' "8.3 For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; " '8.4 that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6 For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; ' "8.7 because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. " "8.8 Those who are in the flesh can't please God. " "8.9 But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. " 8.10 If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness.
8.11 But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you.
8.12 So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh.
8.13 For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. ' "
13.12 The night is far gone, and the day is near. Let's therefore throw off the works of darkness, and let's put on the armor of light. " '13.13 Let us walk properly, as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and lustful acts, and not in strife and jealousy. 13.14 But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. ' ' None
|46. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.3, 1.10-1.11, 1.14, 1.18, 17.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology • cosmology, cosmological teachings • cosmology/cosmological
Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 207; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 158; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 207, 209, 214, 219; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 60, 284
1.1 ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. 1.2 Οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν. 1.3 πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν.
1.10 ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν, καὶ ὁ κόσμος διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω.
1.11 Εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἦλθεν, καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον.
1.14 Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔
1.18 θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.
17.24 Πατήρ, ὃ δέδωκάς μοι, θέλω ἵνα ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγὼ κἀκεῖνοι ὦσιν μετʼ ἐμοῦ, ἵνα θεωρῶσιν τὴν δόξαν τὴν ἐμὴν ἣν δέδωκάς μοι, ὅτι ἠγάπησάς με πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου.'' None
1.1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2 The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3 All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. ' "
1.10 He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. " "
1.11 He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. "
1.14 The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth.
1.18 No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him.
17.24 Father, I desire that they also whom you have given me be with me where I am, that they may see my glory, which you have given me, for you loved me before the foundation of the world. '' None
|47. New Testament, Luke, 11.2-11.4, 11.24-11.26, 22.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • cosmology, ancient Greek cosmologies • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, as source in the Gospel
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 9; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 143, 145; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 119; Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 63; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 268
11.2 εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ὅταν προσεύχησθε, λέγετε Πάτερ, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· 11.3 τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δίδου ἡμῖν τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν· 11.4 καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν, καὶ γὰρ αὐτοὶ ἀφίομεν παντὶ ὀφείλοντι ἡμῖν· καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν.
11.24 Ὅταν τὸ ἀκάθαρτον πνεῦμα ἐξέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, διέρχεται διʼ ἀνύδρων τόπων ζητοῦν ἀνάπαυσιν, καὶ μὴ εὑρίσκον τότε λέγει Ὑποστρέψω εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου ὅθεν ἐξῆλθον·
11.25 καὶ ἐλθὸν εὑρίσκει σχολάζοντα, σεσαρωμένον καὶ κεκοσμημένον.
11.26 τότε πορεύεται καὶ παραλαμβάνει ἕτερα πνεύματα πονηρότερα ἑαυτοῦ ἑπτά, καὶ εἰσελθόντα κατοικεῖ ἐκεῖ, καὶ γίνεται τὰ ἔσχατα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκείνου χείρονα τῶν πρώτων.
22.42 εἰ βούλει παρένεγκε τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· πλὴν μὴ τὸ θέλημά μου ἀλλὰ τὸ σὸν γινέσθω.'' None
11.2 He said to them, "When you pray, say, \'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3 Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4 Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.\'"' "
11.24 The unclean spirit, when he has gone out of the man, passes through dry places, seeking rest, and finding none, he says, 'I will turn back to my house from which I came out.' " 11.25 When he returns, he finds it swept and put in order.
11.26 Then he goes, and takes seven other spirits more evil than himself, and they enter in and dwell there. The last state of that man becomes worse than the first."
22.42 saying, "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done."'' None
|48. New Testament, Mark, 15.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmology, ancient Greek cosmologies
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 58; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 288
15.37 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀφεὶς φωνὴν μεγάλην ἐξέπνευσεν.'' None
15.37 Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the spirit. '' None
|49. New Testament, Matthew, 7.21, 13.32, 13.37-13.43, 23.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, the final judgment
Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 144, 149, 152, 156; Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 348; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 195
7.21 Οὐ πᾶς ὁ λέγων μοι Κύριε κύριε εἰσελεύσεται εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἀλλʼ ὁ ποιῶν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.
13.32 ὃ μικρότερον μέν ἐστιν πάντων τῶν σπερμάτων, ὅταν δὲ αὐξηθῇ μεῖζον τῶν λαχάνων ἐστὶν καὶ γίνεται δένδρον, ὥστε ἐλθεῖν τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ κατασκηνοῖν ἐν τοῖς κλάδοις αὐτοῦ.
13.37 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ὁ σπείρων τὸ καλὸν σπέρμα ἐστὶν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου· 13.38 ὁ δὲ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος· τὸ δὲ καλὸν σπέρμα, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας· τὰ δὲ ζιζάνιά εἰσιν οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ πονηροῦ, 13.39 ὁ δὲ ἐχθρὸς ὁ σπείρας αὐτά ἐστιν ὁ διάβολος· ὁ δὲ θερισμὸς συντέλεια αἰῶνός ἐστιν, οἱ δὲ θερισταὶ ἄγγελοί εἰσιν. 13.40 ὥσπερ οὖν συλλέγεται τὰ ζιζάνια καὶ πυρὶ κατακαίεται, οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος· 13.41 ἀποστελεῖ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ, καὶ συλλέξουσιν ἐκ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ πάντα τὰ σκάνδαλα καὶ τοὺς ποιοῦντας τὴν ἀνομίαν, 13.42 καὶ βαλοῦσιν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν κάμινον τοῦ πυρός· ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων. 13.43 Τότε οἱ δίκαιοι ἐκλάμψουσιν ὡς ὁ ἥλιος ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῶν. Ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκουέτω.
23.9 καὶ πατέρα μὴ καλέσητε ὑμῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, εἷς γάρ ἐστιν ὑμῶν ὁ πατὴρ ὁ οὐράνιος·'' None
7.21 Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. " 13.32 which indeed is smaller than all seeds. But when it is grown, it is greater than the herbs, and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in its branches."
13.37 He answered them, "He who sows the good seed is the Son of Man, 13.38 the field is the world; and the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the darnel are the sons of the evil one. 13.39 The enemy who sowed them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are angels. 13.40 As therefore the darnel is gathered up and burned with fire; so will it be at the end of this age. 13.41 The Son of Man will send out his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and those who do iniquity, 13.42 and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 13.43 Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear.
23.9 Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. '" None
|50. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology • cosmology, Empedoclean
Found in books: Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 166; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 572
|370d the one of whom is harsh and contentious, and the other mild and tutelary. Observe also that the philosophers are in agreement with these; for Heracleitus without reservation styles War "the Father and King and Lord of all," and he says that when Homer prays that Strife may vanish from the ranks of the gods and of mortals, he fails to note that he is invoking a curse on the origin of all things, since all things originate from strife and antagonism; also Heracleitus says that the Sun will not transgress his appropriate bounds, otherwise the stern-eyed maidens, ministers of Justice, will find him out.'' None|
|51. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 9.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology, biological model of • cosmos or cosmology • pneuma (spirit) in Paul, and fire in Stoic cosmology
Found in books: Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 215; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 270; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright (2017), Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill. 131
9.16 People may say: "But what sort of existence will the wise man have, if he be left friendless when thrown into prison, or when stranded in some foreign nation, or when delayed on a long voyage, or when cast upon a lonely shore?" His life will be like that of Jupiter, who, amid the dissolution of the world, when the gods are confounded together and Nature rests for a space from her work, can retire into himself and give himself over to his own thoughts.10 In some such way as this the sage will act; he will retreat into himself, and live with himself. '' None
|52. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on cosmology • cosmogony
Found in books: Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 264; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 154, 155
|53. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Critias, and Egyptian cosmology • cosmology
Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 114; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 287
|54. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony • apocalypticism, and cosmology
Found in books: Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 50; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 239
|55. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Ionian cosmology and science
Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 94; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 119; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 202; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 212
|56. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Empedocles, cosmology and rebirth • cosmology, Empedoclean • cosmology, Stoic
Found in books: Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 39; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 64
|57. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on cosmology • cosmology, biological model of • forming heavens, in Stoic cosmogony
Found in books: Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 266, 268; Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 19
|58. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Uranus phallus, as cosmogonic principle • cosmogony • time (in cosmogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 91; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 50
18 But, since it is affirmed by some that, although these are only images, yet there exist gods in honour of whom they are made; and that the supplications and sacrifices presented to the images are to be referred to the gods, and are in fact made to the gods; and that there is not any other way of coming to them, for 'Tis hard for man To meet in presence visible a God; and whereas, in proof that such is the fact, they adduce the energies possessed by certain images, let us examine into the power attached to their names. And I would beseech you, greatest of emperors, before I enter on this discussion, to be indulgent to me while I bring forward true considerations; for it is not my design to show the fallacy of idols, but, by disproving the calumnies vented against us, to offer a reason for the course of life we follow. May you, by considering yourselves, be able to discover the heavenly kingdom also! For as all things are subservient to you, father and son, who have received the kingdom from above (for the king's soul is in the hand of God, Proverbs 21:1 says the prophetic Spirit), so to the one God and the Logos proceeding from Him, the Son, apprehended by us as inseparable from Him, all things are in like manner subjected. This then especially I beg you carefully to consider. The gods, as they affirm, were not from the beginning, but every one of them has come into existence just like ourselves. And in this opinion they all agree. Homer speaks of Old Oceanus, The sire of gods, and Tethys; and Orpheus (who, moreover, was the first to invent their names, and recounted their births, and narrated the exploits of each, and is believed by them to treat with greater truth than others of divine things, whom Homer himself follows in most matters, especially in reference to the gods)- he, too, has fixed their first origin to be from water:- Oceanus, the origin of all. For, according to him, water was the beginning of all things, and from water mud was formed, and from both was produced an animal, a dragon with the head of a lion growing to it, and between the two heads there was the face of a god, named Heracles and Kronos. This Heracles generated an egg of enormous size, which, on becoming full, was, by the powerful friction of its generator, burst into two, the part at the top receiving the form of heaven (&" None
|59. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 56.25.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • cosmology,
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 243; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 210
56.25.5 \xa0Besides these events at that time, the seers were forbidden to prophesy to any person alone or to prophesy regarding death even if others should be present. Yet so far was Augustus from caring about such matters in his own case that he set forth to all in an edict the aspect of the stars at the time of his own birth.'' None
|60. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 45.2, 56.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 220; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 72, 124
45.2 Straightway, therefore, the Saviour bestowed on her a form that was according to knowledge and a healing of passions, exhibiting the contents of the Pleroma and stages of emanation down to her own, from the unbegotten Father. And, having taken away the passions of her who had suffered, he made her impassible, and, having separated the passions, he kept them and they were not distinguished as from those within, but he brought into being both them and the elements of the second rank. Thus through the appearance of the Saviour, Wisdom came into being and the elements without were created. 'For all things were made by him and without him was not anything made.'" "
56.3 Therefore our father Adam is 'the first man of the earth, earthy' and if he had sown from psychic and spiritual as well as from material substance, all would have become equal and righteous and the Teaching would have been in all. Therefore many are material, but not many are psychic, and few are spiritual. Now the spiritual is saved by nature, but the psychic has free-will, and has the capacity for both faith and incorruptibility, as well as for unbelief and corruption according to its own choice; but the material perishes by nature. When, therefore, the psychic 'are engrafted on the olive tree' into faith and incorruptibility and share 'the fatness of the olive tree' and when 'the Gentiles come in,' then 'thus shall all Israel.' But Israel is an allegory, the spiritual man who will see God, the unlawful son of the faithful Abraham, he who was born of free woman, not he who was according to the flesh the son of the Egyptian bond woman."" None
|61. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.16, 1.21.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hippo of Rhegium, cosmogony of • Stoics, cosmology of • compared to Cleanthes and Zeno, on role of water in cosmogony • cosmology • cosmology, • cosmology, Archytan • forming heavens, in Stoic cosmogony • kosmos, cosmological
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 262; Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 265; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 32; Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 21
1.16 Plato (lays down) that there are three originating principles of the universe, (namely) God, and matter, and exemplar; God as the Maker and Regulator of this universe, and the Being who exercises providence over it; but matter, as that which underlies all (phenomena), which (matter) he styles both receptive and a nurse, out of the arrangement of which proceeded the four elements of which the world consists; (I mean) fire, air, earth, water, from which all the rest of what are denominated concrete substances, as well as animals and plants, have been formed. And that the exemplar, which he likewise calls ideas, is the intelligence of the Deity, to which, as to an image in the soul, the Deity attending, fabricated all things. God, he says, is both incorporeal and shapeless, and comprehensible by wise men solely; whereas matter is body potentially, but with potentiality not as yet passing into action, for being itself without form and without quality, by assuming forms and qualities, it became body. That matter, therefore, is an originating principle, and coeval with the Deity, and that in this respect the world is uncreated. For (Plato) affirms that (the world) was made out of it. And that (the attribute of) imperishableness necessarily belongs to (literally follows) that which is uncreated. So far forth, however, as body is supposed to be compounded out of both many qualities and ideas, so far forth it is both created and perishable. But some of the followers of Plato mingled both of these, employing some such example as the following: That as a waggon can always continue undestroyed, though undergoing partial repairs from time to time, so that even the parts each in turn perish, yet itself remains always complete; so after this manner the world also, although in parts it perishes, yet the things that are removed, being repaired, and equivalents for them being introduced, it remains eternal. Some maintain that Plato asserts the Deity to be one, ingenerable and incorruptible, as he says in The Laws: God, therefore, as the ancient account has it, possesses both the beginning, and end, and middle of all things. Thus he shows God to be one, on account of His having pervaded all things. Others, however, maintain that Plato affirms the existence of many gods indefinitely, when he uses these words: God of gods, of whom I am both the Creator and Father. But others say that he speaks of a definite number of deities in the following passage: Therefore the mighty Jupiter, wheeling his swift chariot in heaven; and when he enumerates the offspring of the children of heaven and earth. But others assert that (Plato) constituted the gods as generable; and on account of their having been produced, that altogether they were subject to the necessity of corruption, but that on account of the will of God they are immortal, (maintaining this) in the passage already quoted, where, to the words, God of gods, of whom I am Creator and Father, he adds, indissoluble through the fiat of My will; so that if (God) were disposed that these should be dissolved, they would easily be dissolved. And he admits natures (such as those) of demons, and says that some of them are good, but others worthless. And some affirm that he states the soul to be uncreated and immortal, when he uses the following words, Every soul is immortal, for that which is always moved is immortal; and when he demonstrates that the soul is self-moved, and capable of originating motion. Others, however, (say that Plato asserted that the soul was) created, but rendered imperishable through the will of God. But some (will have it that he considered the soul) a composite (essence), and generable and corruptible; for even he supposes that there is a receptacle for it, and that it possesses a luminous body, but that everything generated involves a necessity of corruption. Those, however, who assert the immortality of the soul are especially strengthened in their opinion by those passages (in Plato's writings), where he says, that both there are judgments after death, and tribunals of justice in Hades, and that the virtuous (souls) receive a good reward, while the wicked (ones) suitable punishment. Some notwithstanding assert, that he also acknowledges a transition of souls from one body to another, and that different souls, those that were marked out for such a purpose, pass into different bodies, according to the desert of each, and that after certain definite periods they are sent up into this world to furnish once more a proof of their choice. Others, however, (do not admit this to be his doctrine, but will have it that Plato affirms that the souls) obtain a place according to the desert of each; and they employ as a testimony the saying of his, that some good men are with Jove, and that others are ranging abroad (through heaven) with other gods; whereas that others are involved in eternal punishments, as many as during this life have committed wicked and unjust deeds. And people affirm that Plato says, that some things are without a mean, that others have a mean, that others are a mean. (For example, that) waking and sleep, and such like, are conditions without an intermediate state; but that there are things that had means, for instance virtue and vice; and there are means (between extremes), for instance grey between white and black, or some other color. And they say, that he affirms that the things pertaining to the soul are absolutely alone good, but that the things pertaining to the body, and those external (to it), are not any longer absolutely good, but reputed blessings. And that frequently he names these means also, for that it is possible to use them both well and ill. Some virtues, therefore, he says, are extremes in regard of intrinsic worth, but in regard of their essential nature means, for nothing is more estimable than virtue. But whatever excels or falls short of these terminates in vice. For instance, he says that there are four virtues- prudence, temperance, justice, fortitude- and that on each of these is attendant two vices, according to excess and defect: for example, on prudence, recklessness according to defect, and knavery according to excess; and on temperance, licentiousness according to defect, stupidity according to excess; and on justice, foregoing a claim according to defect, unduly pressing it according to excess; and on fortitude, cowardice according to defect, foolhardiness according to excess. And that these virtues, when inherent in a man, render him perfect, and afford him happiness. And happiness, he says, is assimilation to the Deity, as far as this is possible; and that assimilation to God takes place when any one combines holiness and justice with prudence. For this he supposes the end of supreme wisdom and virtue. And he affirms that the virtues follow one another in turn, and are uniform, and are never antagonistic to each other; whereas that vices are multiform, and sometimes follow one the other, and sometimes are antagonistic to each other. He asserts that fate exists; not, to be sure, that all things are produced according to fate, but that there is even something in our power, as in the passages where he says, The fault is his who chooses, God is blameless; and the following law of Adrasteia. And thus some (contend for his upholding) a system of fate, whereas others one of free-will. He asserts, however, that sins are involuntary. For into what is most glorious of the things in our power, which is the soul, no one would (deliberately) admit what is vicious, that is, transgression, but that from ignorance and an erroneous conception of virtue, supposing that they were achieving something honourable, they pass into vice. And his doctrine on this point is most clear in The Republic, where he says, But, again, you presume to assert that vice is disgraceful and abhorred of God; how then, I may ask, would one choose such an evil thing? He, you reply, (would do so) who is worsted by pleasures. Therefore this also is involuntary, if to gain a victory be voluntary; so that, in every point of view, the committing an act of turpitude, reason proves to be involuntary. Some one, however, in opposition to this (Plato), advances the contrary statement, Why then are men punished if they sin involuntary? But he replies, that he himself also, as soon as possible, may be emancipated from vice, and undergo punishment. For that the undergoing punishment is not an evil, but a good thing, if it is likely to prove a purification of evils; and that the rest of mankind, hearing of it, may not transgress, but guard against such an error. (Plato, however, maintains) that the nature of evil is neither created by the Deity, nor possesses subsistence of itself, but that it derives existence from contrariety to what is good, and from attendance upon it, either by excess and defect, as we have previously affirmed concerning the virtues. Plato unquestionably then, as we have already stated, collecting together the three departments of universal philosophy, in this manner formed his speculative system. " "
1.21.2 But there is also with the Indians a sect composed of those philosophizing among the Brachmans. They spend a contented existence, abstain both from living creatures and all cooked food, being satisfied with fruits; and not gathering these from the trees, but carrying off those that have fallen to the earth. They subsist upon them, drinking the water of the river Tazabena. But they pass their life naked, affirming that the body has been constituted a covering to the soul by the Deity. These affirm that God is light, not such as one sees, nor such as the sun and fire; but to them the Deity is discourse, not that which finds expression in articulate sounds, but that of the knowledge through which the secret mysteries of nature are perceived by the wise. And this light which they say is discourse, their god, they assert that the Brachmans only know on account of their alone rejecting all vanity of opinion which is the soul's ultimate covering. These despise death, and always in their own peculiar language call God by the name which we have mentioned previously, and they send up hymns (to him). But neither are there women among them, nor do they beget children. But they who aim at a life similar to these, after they have crossed over to the country on the opposite side of the river, continue to reside there, returning no more; and these also are called Brachmans. But they do not pass their life similarly, for there are also in the place women, of whom those that dwell there are born, and in turn beget children. And this discourse which they name God they assert to be corporeal, and enveloped in a body outside himself, just as if one were wearing a sheep's skin, but that on divesting himself of body that he would appear clear to the eye. But the Brachmans say that there is a conflict in the body that surrounds them, (and they consider that the body is for them full of conflicts); in opposition to which, as if marshalled for battle against enemies, they contend, as we have already explained. And they say that all men are captive to their own congenital struggles, viz., sensuality and inchastity, gluttony, anger, joy, sorrow, concupiscence, and such like. And he who has reared a trophy over these, alone goes to God; wherefore the Brachmans deify Dandamis, to whom Alexander the Macedonian paid a visit, as one who had proved victorious in the bodily conflict. But they bear down on Calanus as having profanely withdrawn from their philosophy. But the Brachmans, putting off the body, like fishes jumping out of water into the pure air, behold the sun. "" None
|62. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.1-1.3, 1.2.4, 1.4.1, 1.7.5, 1.21.2, 3.11.9, 6.32.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aeonic cosmology • Cosmogony • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Cosmos, cosmology, nature • Stoics, cosmology of • cosmology • cosmology, • cosmology, of the Gnostic world • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, Platonic model of • cosmology, of the Gnostic world, arithmetic symbolism in
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 262; Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 265; Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 102, 103; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 294; Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 190; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 10, 72, 231; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 259; Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 274; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 218, 267
1.1 I. ΛΕΓΟΥΣI 1γάρ τινα εἶναι ἐν ἀοράτοις καὶ ἀκατονομάστοις ὑψώμασι 2τέλειον Αἰῶνα προόντα· τοῦτον δὲ καὶ Epiph. Hær. xxxi. cf. Tbeodoret. Hær. Pab. 1.7. dre. Tertull. adv. Val. προαρχὴν καὶ προπάτορα καὶ Bυθὸν καλοῦσιν. 3 ὑπάρχοντα δ᾿ αὐτὸν ἀχώρυτον καὶ ἀόρατον, ἀΐδιόν τε καὶ ἀγέννητον. ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ καὶ ἠραμίᾳ πολλῇ γεγονέναι ἐν ἀπείροις αἰῶσι 4 χρόνων . συνυπάρχειν δ᾿ αὐτῷ καὶ Ἔννοιαν, ἣν δὲ καὶ Χάριν, καὶ Σιγὴν ὀνομάζουσι· καὶ ἐννονθῆναί ποτε ἀφʼ LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. l. ἑαυτοῦ προβαλέσθαι τὸν Bυθὸν τοῦτον, ἀρχὴν τῶν πάντων καὶ καθάπερ σπέρμα, τὴν προβολὴν ταύτην, ἣν προβαλέσθαι ἐνενοήθη, καὶ καθέσθαι ὡς ἐν μήτρα τῇ συνυπαρχούσῃ ἑαυτῷ Σιγῇ· ταύτην δὲ ὑποδεξαμένην τὸ σπέρμα τοῦτο καὶ ἐγκύμονα γενομένην, ἀποκυῆσαι Νοῦν, ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ἶσον τῷ προβαλόντι, καὶ μόνον χωροῦντα τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ Πατρός· τὸν δὲ Νοῦν τοῦτον καὶ Μονογενῆ καλοῦσι, καὶ Πατέρα, 2καὶ Ἀρχὴν τῶν G. 8. πάντων· συμπροβεβλῆσθαι δὲ αὐτῷ Ἀλήθειαν· καὶ εἶναι ταύτην πρῶτον καὶ ἀρχέγονον 3Πυθαγορικὴν τετρακτὺν, ἣν καὶ M.6. ῥίζαν τῶν πάντων καλοῦσιν· ἔστι γάρ Βοθὸς καὶ Σιγὴ, ἔπειτα LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. 2. Νοῦς καὶ Ἀλήθεια. Αἰσθόμενόν τε τὸν Μονογενῆ τοῦτον ἐφʼ οἷς προεβλήθη, προβαλεῖν καὶ αὐτὸν Λόγον καὶ Ζωὴν, πατέρα πάντων τῶν μετʼ αὐτὸν ἐσομένων, καὶ ἀρχὴν καὶ 1 μόφωσιν παντὸς τοῦ πληρώματος. Ἐκ δὴ τοῦ Λόγου καὶ τῆς Ζωῆς προβεβλῆσθαι κατὰ συζυγίαν 2Ἄνθρωπον καὶ Ἐκκλησίαν· καὶ εἶναι ταύτην ἀρχέγονον Ὀγδοάδα, ῥίζαν καὶ ὑπόστασιν τῶν πάντων, τέτρασιν ὀνόμασι παῤ αὐτοῖς καλουμένων, l. καλουμένην Βυθῷ, καὶ Νῷ, καὶ Λόγῳ, καὶ Ἀνθρώπῳ· εἶναι γὰρ αὐτῶν ἕκαστον ἀῤῥενόθηλυν· οὕτως πρῶτον τὸν Προπάτορα ἡνῶσθαι κατὰ συζυγίαν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ Ἐννοίᾳ· τὸν δὲ Μονογενῆ, τουτέστι τὸν Νοῦν, τῇ Ἀληθείᾳ· τὸν δὲ Λόγον τῇ Ζωῇ, καὶ τὸν Ἄνθρωπον τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ. Τούτους δὲ τοὺς Αἰῶνας εἰς δόξαν τοῦ Πατρὸς προβεβλημένους, βουληθέντας καὶ αὐτοὺς διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου δοξάσαι τὸν Πατέρα, προβαλεῖν προβολὰς ἐν συζυγίᾳ· τὸν μὲν Λόγον καὶ τὴν Ζωὴν, μετὰ τὸ προβαλέσθαι τὸν Ἄνθρωπον καὶ τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, ἄλλους δέκα Αἰῶνας, ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα λέγουσι ταῦτα· Βύθιος καὶ LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I i. 3. Μίξις, 1Ἀγήρατος καὶ Ἑνώσις, Αὐτοφυὴς καὶ Ἡδονὴ, Ἀκίνητος καὶ Σύγκρασις, Μονογενὴς καὶ Μακαρία· οὗτοι δέκα Αἰῶνες, οὓς καὶ φάσκουσιν ἐκ Λόγου καὶ Ζωῆς προβεβλῆσθαι. τὸν δὲ Ἄνθρωπον καὶ αὐτὸν προβαλεῖν μετὰ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας Αἰῶνας δώδεκα, οἷς ταῦτα τὰ ὀνόματα χαρίζονται· Παράκλητος M. 7. καὶ Πίστις, Πατρικὸς καὶ Ἐλπὶς, Μητρικὸς καὶ Ἀγάπη, 2Ἀείνους καὶ Σύνεσις, Ἐκκλησιαστικὸς καὶ Μακαριότης, G. 9. Θλητὸς καὶ Σοφία· οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ τριάκοντα Αἰῶνες τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν, οἱ 3σεσιγημένοι καὶ μὴ γινωσκόμενοι· τοῦτο τὸ ἀόρατον καὶ πνευματικὸν κατʼ αὐτοὺς πλήρωμα, τριχῆ διεσταμένον 4εἰς ὀγδοάδα, καὶ δεκάδα, καὶ δωδεκάδα. Καὶ διὰ II. xil. LIB. L. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. 3. τοῦτο τὸν Σωτῆρα λέγουσιν (οὐδὲ γὰρ Μύριον ὀνομάζειν αὐτὸν θέλουσι) τριάκοντα ἔτεσι κατὰ τὸ φανερὸν μηδὲν πεποιηκέναι, ἐπιδεικνύντα τὸ μυστήριον τούτων τῶν Αἰώνων. Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς παραβολῆς τῶν εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα πεμπομένων ἐργατῶν φασὶ φανερώτατα τοὺς τριάκοντα τούτους Αἰῶνας μεμηνύσθαι· πέμπονται γὰρ οἱ μὲν περὶ πρώτην ὥραν, οἱ δὲ περὶ τρίτην, οἱ δὲ περὶ ἕκτην, οἱ δὲ περὶ ἐνάτην, ἄλλοι δὲ περὶ ἑνδεκάτην· συντιθέμεναι οὖν αἱ προειρημέναι ὧραι εἰς ἑαυτὰς, τὸν τῶν τριάκοντα ἀριθμὸν ἀναπληροῦσι· μία γὰρ, καὶ τρεῖς, καὶ ἓξ, καὶ ἐννέα, καὶ ἕνδεκα, τριάκοντα γίνονται· διὰ δὲ τῶν ὡρῶν τοὺς Αἰῶνας μεμηνύσθαι θέλουσι. Καὶ ταῦτʼ εἶναι τὰ μεγάλα καὶ θαυμαστὰ καὶ ἀπόῤῥητα Μυστήρια, ἃ καρποφοροῦσιν αὐτοὶ, καὶ εἴ που τι τῶν ἐν LIB. I. i. 2. GR. I. i. 2. MASS. I. ii. 1. πλήθει εἰρημένων ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς δυνηθείη προσαρμόσαι, καὶ εἰκάσαι τῷ πλάσματι αὐτῶν. G. 10. M.8. 1.2 2. Τὸν μὲν οὖν Προπάτορα αὐτῶν γινώσκεσθαι μόνῳ λέγουσι τῷ ἐξ αὐτοῦ γεγονότι Μονογενεῖ, τουτέστι τῷ Νῷ· τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς πᾶσιν ἀόρατον καὶ ἀκατάληπτον ὑπάρχειν· μόνος δὲ ὁ Νοῦς κατ᾿ αὐτοὺς ἐτέρπετο θεωρῶν τὸν Πατέρα, καὶ τὸ μέγεθος τὸ ἀμέτρητον αὐτοῦ κατανοῶν ἠγάλλετο· καὶ διενοεῖτο καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς αἰῶσιν ἀνακοινώσασθαι τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ Πατρὸς, ἡλίκος τε καὶ ὅσος ὑπῆρχε, καὶ ὡς ἦν ἄναρχός τε καὶ ἀχώρητος, καὶ οὐ καταληπτὸς ἰδεῖν· 1κατέσχε δὲ αὐτὸν ἡ Σιγὴ βουλήσει τοῦ Πατρὸς, διὰ τὸ θέλειν πάντας αὐτοὺς εἰς ἔννοιαν καὶ πόθον ζητήσεως τοῦ προειρημένου Προπάτορος αὐτῶν ἀγαγεῖν. Καὶ οἱ μὲν λοιποὶ ὁμοίως Αἰῶνες ἡσυχῇ πως ἐπεπόθουν τὸν προβολέα τοῦ σπέρματος αὐτῶν ἰδεῖν, καὶ τὴν ἄναρχον 2ῥίζαν ἱστορῆσαι· προήλατο δὲ πολὺ ὁ τελευταῖος LIB. I. i. 2. GR. I. i. 2. MASS. I. ii. 2. καὶ νεώτατος τῆς δωδεκάδος, τῆς ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου καὶ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας, προβεβλημένος Αἰὼν, τουτέστιν ἡ Σοφία, καὶ ἔπαθε πάθος ἄνευ τῆς ἐπιπλοκῆς τοῦ ζνγοῦ l. συζ. τοῦ Θελητοῦ· ἐνήρξατο μὲν ἐν τοῖς περὶ τὸν Νοῦν καὶ τὴν Ἀλήθειαν, 2ἀπέσκηψε δὲ εἰς τοῦτον τὸν παρατραπέντα, 3πρόφασιν μὲν G. 11. ἀγάπης, τόλμης δὲ, διὰ τὸ μὴ κεκοινωνῆσθαι τῷ Πατρὶ τῷ LIB. I. i. 2. GR. I. i. 2. MASS. I. ii. 2. τελείῳ, καθὼς καὶ ὁ Νοῦς. Τὸ δὲ πάθος εἶναι ζήτησιν τοῦ Πατρός· ἤθελε γὰρ, ὡς λέγουσι, τὸ μέγεθος αὐτοῦ καταλαβεῖν· ἔπειτα μὴ δυνηθῆναι, διὰ τὸ ἀδυνάτῳ ἐπιβαλεῖν M. 2. πράγματι, καὶ ἐν πολλῷ πάνυ ἀγῶνι γενόμενον, διά τε τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ βάθους, καὶ τὸ ἀνεξιχνίαστον τοῦ Πατρὸς, καὶ τὴν πρὸς αὐτὸν στοργὴν, 1ἐκτεινόμενον ἀεὶ ἐπὶ τὸ πρόσθεν, 2ὑπὸ τῆς γλυκύτητος αὐτοῦ τελευταῖον ἂν καταπεπόσθαι, καὶ ἀναλελύσθαι εἰς τὴν ὅλην 3οὐσίαν, εἰ μὴ τῇ στηριζούσῃ καὶ ἐκτὸς τοῦ ἀῤῥήτου μεγέθους φυλασσούσῃ τὰ ὅλα συνέτυχε δυνάμει. Ταύτην δὲ τὴν δύναμιν καὶ Ὅρον καλοῦσιν, ὑφʼ ἧς LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 3. 1ἐπεσχῆσθαι καὶ ἐστηρίχθαι, καὶ μόγις ἐπιστρέψαντα εἰς ἑαοτὸν, καὶ παισθέντα ὅτι 2ἀκατάληπτός ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ, ἀποθέσθαι τὴν προτέραν ἐνθύμησιν σὺν τῷ ἐπιγινομένῳ πάθει ἐκ τοῦ ἐκπλήκτου ἐκείνου θαύματος.' '1.3 3. Ἔνιοι δὲ αὐτῶν 3πῶς τὸ πάθος τῆς Σοφίας καὶ τὴν ἐπιστροφὴν μυθολογοῦσιν· ἀδυνάτῳ καὶ ἀκαταλήπτῳ πράγματι αὐτὴν ἐπιχειρήσασαν τεκεῖν οὐσίαν ἄμορφον, 4οἵαν φύσιν εἶχε θήλειαν τεκεῖν· ἣν καὶ κατανοήσασαν πρῶτον μὲν λυπηθῆναι, διὰ τὸ ἀτελὲς τῆς γενέσεως, ἔπειτα φοβηθῆναι 5μηδὲ αὐτὸ τὸ εἶναι τελείως ἔχειν· εἶτα ἐκστῆναι καὶ ἀπορῆσαι, ζητοῦσαν LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 4. G. 12. M. 10. 1 τὴν αἰτίαν, καὶ ὅντινα τρόπον ἀποκρύψει τὸ γεγονός. Ἐγκαταγενομένην δὲ τοῖς πάθεσι λαβεῖν ἐπιστροφὴν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Πατέρα ἀναδραμεῖν πειρασθῆναι, καὶ μέχρι τινὸς τολμήσασαν, ἐξασθενῆσαι, καὶ 2ἱκέτιν τοῦ πατρὸς γενέσθαι· συνδεηθῆναι δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς Αἰῶνας, μάλιστα δὲ τὸν Νοῦν. Ἐντεῦθεν λέγουσι πρώτην ἀρχὴν ἐσχηκέναι τὴν 3οὐσίαν, ἐκ τῆς ἀγνοίας, καὶ τῆς λύπης, καὶ τοῦ φόβου, καὶ τῆς ἐκπλήξεως. Ὁ δὲ Πατὴρ τὸν προειρημένον Ὅρον ἐπὶ τούτοις 4διὰ τοῦ Μονογενοῦς LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 4. προβάλλεται ἐν εἰκόνι ἰδίᾳ, 1ἀσύζυγον, ἀθήλυντον. Τὸν γὰρ Πατέρα ποτὲ μὲν μετὰ συζυγίας τῆς Σιγῆς, ποτὲ δὲ καὶ cf. p. 11. n. 4. ὑπέραῤῥεν, καὶ ὑπέρθηλυ εἶναι θέλουσι. Τὸν δὲ Ὅρον τοῦτον καὶ 2Σολλυτρωτὴν l. Σταυρὸν καὶ Λυτρωτὴν καὶ 3Καρπιστὴν, καὶ Ὁροθέτην, καὶ 4Μεταγωγέα καλοῦσι. Διὰ M. 11. δὲ τοῦ Ὅρου τούτου φασὶ κεκαθάρθαι καὶ ἐστηρίχθαι LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. τὴν Σοφίαν, καὶ ἀποκατασταθῆναι τῇ 1συζογίᾳ· χωρισθείσης γὰρ τῆς Ἐνθυμήσεως ἀπʼ αὐτῆς σὺν τῷ ἐπιγινομένῳ G. 13. μένῳ πάθει, αὐτὴν μὲν ἐντὸς πληρώματος εἶναι· l. μεῖναι· LIB. I. i. 3. GR. I. i. 3. MASS. I. ii. 5. Tert. remansisse. τὴν δὲ ἐνθύμησιν αὐτῆς σὺν τῷ πάθει τοῦ Ὅρου ἀφορισθῆναι καὶ ἀποστερηθῆναι l. ἀποσταυρωθῆναι, καὶ ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ γενομένην, εἶναι μὲν πνευματικὴν οὐσίαν, φυσικήν τινα Αἰῶνος ὁρμὴν τυγχάνουσαν· ἄμορφον δὲ καὶ ἀνείδεον 2διὰ τὸ μηδὲν καταλαβεῖν· καὶ διὰ τοῦτο 3καρπὸν ἀσθενῆ καὶ θῆλυν αὐτὸν λέγουσι.'' None
1.1 It is said that Thales of Miletus, one of the seven wise men, first attempted to frame a system of natural philosophy. This person said that some such thing as water is the generative principle of the universe, and its end - for that out of this, solidified and again dissolved, all things consist, and that all things are supported on it; from which also arise both earthquakes and changes of the winds and atmospheric movements, and that all things are both produced and are in a state of flux corresponding with the nature of the primary author of generation - and that the Deity is that which has neither beginning nor end. This person, having been occupied with an hypothesis and investigation concerning the stars, became the earliest author to the Greeks of this kind of learning. And he, looking towards heaven, alleging that he was carefully examining supernal objects, fell into a well; and a certain maid, by name Thratta, remarked of him derisively, that while intent on beholding things in heaven, he did not know, what was at his feet. And he lived about the time of Croesus. ' "
1.2.4 The Father afterwards produces, in his own image, by means of Monogenes, the above-mentioned Horos, without conjunction, masculo-feminine. For they maintain that sometimes the Father acts in conjunction with Sige, but that at other times he shows himself independent both of male and female. They term this Horos both Stauros and Lytrotes, and Carpistes, and Horothetes, and Metagoges. And by this Horos they declare that Sophia was purified and established, while she was also restored to her proper conjunction. For her enthymesis (or inborn idea) having been taken away from her, along with its supervening passion, she herself certainly remained within the Pleroma; but her enthymesis, with its passion, was separated from her by Horos, fenced off, and expelled from that circle. This enthymesis was, no doubt, a spiritual substance, possessing some of the natural tendencies of an AEon, but at the same time shapeless and without form, because it had received nothing. And on this account they say that it was an imbecile and feminine production.' "1.2 But there was also, not far from these times, another philosophy which Pythagoras originated (who some say was a native of Samos), which they have denominated Italian, because that Pythagoras, flying from Polycrates the king of Samos, took up his residence in a city of Italy, and there passed the entire of his remaining years. And they who received in succession his doctrine, did not much differ from the same opinion. And this person, instituting an investigation concerning natural phenomena, combined together astronomy, and geometry, and music. And so he proclaimed that the Deity is a monad; and carefully acquainting himself with the nature of number, he affirmed that the world sings, and that its system corresponds with harmony, and he first resolved the motion of the seven stars into rhythm and melody. And being astonished at the management of the entire fabric, he required that at first his disciples should keep silence, as if persons coming into the world initiated in (the secrets of) the universe; next, when it seemed that they were sufficiently conversant with his mode of teaching his doctrine, and could forcibly philosophize concerning the stars and nature, then, considering them pure, he enjoins them to speak. This man distributed his pupils in two orders, and called the one esoteric, but the other exoteric. And to the former he confided more advanced doctrines, and to the latter a more moderate amount of instruction. And he also touched on magic - as they say - and himself discovered an art of physiogony, laying down as a basis certain numbers and measures, saying that they comprised the principle of arithmetical philosophy by composition after this manner. The first number became an originating principle, which is one, indefinable, incomprehensible, having in itself all numbers that, according to plurality, can go on ad infinitum. But the primary monad became a principle of numbers, according to substance. - which is a male monad, begetting after the manner of a parent all the rest of the numbers. Secondly, the duad is a female number, and the same also is by arithmeticians termed even. Thirdly, the triad is a male number. This also has been classified by arithmeticians under the denomination uneven. And in addition to all these is the tetrad, a female number; and the same also is called even, because it is female. Therefore all the numbers that have been derived from the genus are four; but number is the indefinite genus, from which was constituted, according to them, the perfect number, viz., the decade. For one, two, three, four, become ten, if its proper denomination be preserved essentially for each of the numbers. Pythagoras affirmed this to be a sacred quaternion, source of everlasting nature, having, as it were, roots in itself; and that from this number all the numbers receive their originating principle. For eleven, and twelve, and the rest, partake of the origin of existence from ten. of this decade, the perfect number, there are termed four divisions - namely, number, monad, square, (and) cube. And the connections and blendings of these are performed, according to nature, for the generation of growth completing the productive number. For when the square itself is multiplied into itself, a biquadratic is the result. But when the square is multiplied into the cube, the result is the product of a square and cube; and when the cube is multiplied into the cube, the product of two cubes is the result. So that all the numbers from which the production of existing (numbers) arises, are seven - namely, number, monad, square, cube, biquadratic, quadratic-cube, cubo-cube. This philosopher likewise said that the soul is immortal, and that it subsists in successive bodies. Wherefore he asserted that before the Trojan era he was Aethalides, and during the Trojan epoch Euphorbus, and subsequent to this Hermotimus of Samos, and after him Pyrrhus of Delos; fifth, Pythagoras. And Diodorus the Eretrian, and Aristoxenus the musician, assert that Pythagoras came to Zaratas the Chaldean, and that he explained to him that there are two original causes of things, father and mother, and that father is light, but mother darkness; and that of the light the parts are hot, dry, not heavy, light, swift; but of darkness, cold, moist, weighty, slow; and that out of all these, from female and male, the world consists. But the world, he says, is a musical harmony; wherefore, also, that the sun performs a circuit in accordance with harmony. And as regards the things that are produced from earth and the cosmical system, they maintain that Zaratas makes the following statements: that there are two demons, the one celestial and the other terrestrial; and that the terrestrial sends up a production from earth, and that this is water; and that the celestial is a fire, partaking of the nature of air, hot and cold. And he therefore affirms that none of these destroys or sullies the soul, for these constitute the substance of all things. And he is reported to have ordered his followers not to eat beans, because that Zaratas said that, at the origin and concretion of all things, when the earth was still undergoing its process of solidification, and that of putrefaction had set in, the bean was produced. And of this he mentions the following indication, that if any one, after having chewed a bean without the husk, places it opposite the sun for a certain period - for this immediately will aid in the result - it yields the smell of human seed. And he mentions also another clearer instance to be this: if, when the bean is blossoming, we take the bean and its flower, and deposit them in a jar, smear this over, and bury it in the ground, and after a few days uncover it, we shall see it wearing the appearance, first of a woman's pudendum, and after this, when closely examined, of the head of a child growing in along with it. This person, being burned along with his disciples in Croton, a town of Italy, perished. And this was a habit with him, whenever one repaired to him with a view of becoming his follower, (the candidate disciple was compelled) to sell his possessions, and lodge the money sealed with Pythagoras, and he continued in silence to undergo instruction, sometimes for three, but sometimes for five years. And again, on being released, he was permitted to associate with the rest, and remained as a disciple, and took his meals along with them; if otherwise, however, he received back his property, and was rejected. These persons, then, were styled Esoteric Pythagoreans, whereas the rest, Pythagoristae. Among his followers, however, who escaped the conflagration were Lysis and Archippus, and the servant of Pythagoras, Zamolxis, who also is said to have taught the Celtic Druids to cultivate the philosophy of Pythagoras. And they assert that Pythagoras learned from the Egyptians his system of numbers and measures; and I being struck by the plausible, fanciful, and not easily revealed wisdom of the priests, he himself likewise, in imitation of them, enjoined silence, and made his disciples lead a solitary life in underground chapels. " '1.3 But Empedocles, born after these, advanced likewise many statements respecting the nature of demons, to the effect that, being very numerous, they pass their time in managing earthly concerns. This person affirmed the originating principle of the universe to be discord and friendship, and that the intelligible fire of the monad is the Deity, and that all things consist of fire, and will be resolved into fire; with which opinion the Stoics likewise almost agree, expecting a conflagration. But most of all does he concur with the tenet of transition of souls from body to body, expressing himself thus:- For surely both youth and maid I was, And shrub, and bird, and fish, from ocean stray'd. This (philosopher) maintained the transmutation of all souls into any description of animal. For Pythagoras, the instructor of these (sages), asserted that himself had been Euphorbus, who sewed in the expedition against Ilium, alleging that he recognised his shield.The foregoing are the tenets of Empedocles. " 1.4.1 The following are the transactions which they narrate as having occurred outside of the Pleroma: The enthymesis of that Sophia who dwells above, which they also term Achamoth, being removed from the Pleroma, together with her passion, they relate to have, as a matter of course, become violently excited in those places of darkness and vacuity to which she had been banished. For she was excluded from light and the Pleroma, and was without form or figure, like an untimely birth, because she had received nothing from a male parent. But the Christ dwelling on high took pity upon her; and having extended himself through and beyond Stauros, he imparted a figure to her, but merely as respected substance, and not so as to convey intelligence. Having effected this, he withdrew his influence, and returned, leaving Achamoth to herself, in order that she, becoming sensible of her suffering as being severed from the Pleroma, might be influenced by the desire of better things, while she possessed in the meantime a kind of odour of immortality left in her by Christ and the Holy Spirit. Wherefore also she is called by two names--Sophia after her father (for Sophia is spoken of as being her father), and Holy Spirit from that Spirit who is along with Christ. Having then obtained a form, along with intelligence, and being immediately deserted by that Logos who had been invisibly present with her--that is, by Christ--she strained herself to discover that light which had forsaken her, but could not effect her purpose, inasmuch as she was prevented by Horos. And as Horos thus obstructed her further progress, he exclaimed, IAO, whence, they say, this name Iao derived its origin. And when she could not pass by Horos on account of that passion in which she had been involved, and because she alone had been left without, she then resigned herself to every sort of that manifold and varied state of passion to which she was subject; and thus she suffered grief on the one hand because she had not obtained the object of her desire, and fear on the other hand, lest life itself should fail her, as light had already done, while, in addition, she was in the greatest perplexity. All these feelings were associated with ignorance. And this ignorance of hers was not like that of her mother, the first Sophia, an AEon, due to degeneracy by means of passion, but to an innate opposition of nature to knowledge. Moreover, another kind of passion fell upon her her (Achamoth), namely, that of desiring to return to him who gave her life.
1.7.5 They conceive, then, of three kinds of men, spiritual, material, and animal, represented by Cain, Abel, and Seth. These three natures are no longer found in one person, but constitute various kinds of men. The material goes, as a matter of course, into corruption. The animal, if it make choice of the better part, finds repose in the intermediate place; but if the worse, it too shall pass into destruction. But they assert that the spiritual principles which have been sown by Achamoth, being disciplined and nourished here from that time until now in righteous souls (because when given forth by her they were yet but weak), at last attaining to perfection, shall be given as brides to the angels of the Saviour, while their animal souls of necessity rest for ever with the Demiurge in the intermediate place. And again subdividing the animal souls themselves, they say that some are by nature good, and others by nature evil. The good are those who become capable of receiving the spiritual seed; the evil by nature are those who are never able to receive that seed.
1.21.2 They maintain that those who have attained to perfect knowledge must of necessity be regenerated into that power which is above all. For it is otherwise impossible to find admittance within the Pleroma, since this regeneration it is which leads them down into the depths of Bythus. For the baptism instituted by the visible Jesus was for the remission of sins, but the redemption brought in by that Christ who descended upon Him, was for perfection; and they allege that the former is animal, but the latter spiritual. And the baptism of John was proclaimed with a view to repentance, but the redemption by Jesus was brought in for the sake of perfection. And to this He refers when He says, "And I have another baptism to be baptized with, and I hasten eagerly towards it." Moreover, they affirm that the Lord added this redemption to the sons of Zebedee, when their mother asked that they might sit, the one on His right hand, and the other on His left, in His kingdom, saying, "Can ye be baptized with the baptism which I shall be baptized with?" Paul, too, they declare, has often set forth, in express terms, the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; and this was the same which is handed down by them in so varied and discordant forms.
3.11.9 These things being so, all who destroy the form of the Gospel are vain, unlearned, and also audacious; those, I mean, who represent the aspects of the Gospel as being either more in number than as aforesaid, or, on the other hand, fewer. The former class do so, that they may seem to have discovered more than is of the truth; the latter, that they may set the dispensations of God aside. For Marcion, rejecting the entire Gospel, yea rather, cutting himself off from the Gospel, boasts that he has part in the blessings of the Gospel. Others, again (the Montanists), that they may set at nought the gift of the Spirit, which in the latter times has been, by the good pleasure of the Father, poured out upon the human race, do not admit that aspect of the evangelical dispensation presented by John\'s Gospel, in which the Lord promised that He would send the Paraclete; but set aside at once both the Gospel and the prophetic Spirit. Wretched men indeed! who wish to be pseudo- prophets, forsooth, but who set aside the gift of prophecy from the Church; acting like those (the Encratitae) who, on account of such as come in hypocrisy, hold themselves aloof from the communion of the brethren. We must conclude, moreover, that these men (the Montanists) can not admit the Apostle Paul either. For, in his Epistle to the Corinthians, he speaks expressly of prophetical gifts, and recognises men and women prophesying in the Church. Sinning, therefore, in all these particulars, against the Spirit of God, they fall into the irremissible sin. But those who are from Valentinus, being, on the other hand, altogether reckless, while they put forth their own compositions, boast that they possess more Gospels than there really are. Indeed, they have arrived at such a pitch of audacity, as to entitle their comparatively recent writing "the Gospel of Truth," though it agrees in nothing with the Gospels of the Apostles, so that they have really no Gospel which is not full of blasphemy. For if what they have published is the Gospel of truth, and yet is totally unlike those which have been handed down to us from the apostles, any who please may learn, as is shown from the Scriptures themselves, that that which has been handed down from the apostles can no longer be reckoned the Gospel of truth. But that these Gospels alone are true and reliable, and admit neither an increase nor diminution of the aforesaid number, I have proved by so many and such arguments. For, since God made all things in due proportion and adaptation, it was fit also that the outward aspect of the Gospel should be well arranged and harmonized. The opinion of those men, therefore, who handed the Gospel down to us, having been investigated, from their very fountainheads, let us proceed also to the remaining apostles, and inquire into their doctrine with regard to God; then, in due course we shall listen to the very words of the Lord.' "
6.32.5 I think that the heresy of Valentinus which is of Pythagorean (origin), has been sufficiently, indeed more than sufficiently, delineated. It therefore seems also expedient, that having explained his opinions, we should desist from (further) refutation (of his system). Plato, then, in expounding mysteries concerning the universe, writes to Dionysius expressing himself after some such manner as this: I must speak to you by riddles, in order that if the letter may meet with any accident in its leaves by either sea or land, he who reads (what falls into his hands) may not understand it. For so it is. All things are about the King of all, and on his account are all things, and he is cause of all the glorious (objects of creation). The second is about the second, and the third about the third. But pertaining to the King there is none of those things of which I have spoken. But after this the soul earnestly desires to learn what sort these are, looking upon those things that are akin to itself, and not one of these is (in itself) sufficient. This is, O son of Dionysius and Doris, the question (of yours) which is a cause of all evil things. Nay, but rather the solicitude concerning this is innate in the soul; and if one does not remove this, he will never really attain truth. But what is astonishing in this matter, listen. For there are men who have heard these things - (men) furnished with capacities for learning, and furnished with capacities of memory, and persons who altogether in every way are endued with an aptitude for investigation with a view to inference. (These are) at present aged speculators. And they assert that opinions which at one time were credible are now incredible, and that things once incredible are now the contrary. While, therefore, turning the eye of examination towards these (inquiries), exercise caution, lest at any time you should have reason to repent in regard of those things should they happen in a manner unbecoming to your dignity. On this account I have written nothing concerning these (points); nor is there any treatise of Plato's (upon them), nor ever shall there be. The observations, however, now made are those of Socrates, conspicuous for virtue even while he was a young man. Valentinus, falling in with these (remarks), has made a fundamental principle in his system the King of all, whom Plato mentioned, and whom this heretic styles Pater, and Bythos, and Proarche over the rest of the Aeons. And when Plato uses the words, what is second about things that are second, Valentinus supposes to be second all the Aeons that are within the limit (of the Pleroma, as well as) the limit (itself). And when Plato uses the words, what is third about what is third, he has (constituted as third) the entire of the arrangement (existing) outside the limit and the Pleroma. And Valentinus has elucidated this (arrangement) very succinctly, in a psalm commencing from below, not as Plato does, from above, expressing himself thus: I behold all things suspended in air by spirit, and I perceive all things wafted by spirit; the flesh (I see) suspended from soul, but the soul shining out from air, and air depending from Aether, and fruits produced from Bythus, and the foetus borne from the womb. Thus (Valentinus) formed his opinion on such (points). Flesh, according to these (heretics), is matter which is suspended from the soul of the Demiurge. And soul shines out from air; that is, the Demiurge emerges from the spirit, (which is) outside the Pleroma. But air springs forth from Aether; that is, Sophia, which is outside (the Pleroma, is projected from the Pleroma) which is within the limit, and (from) the entire Pleroma (generally). And from Bythus fruits are produced; (that is,) the entire projection of the Aeons is made from the Father. The opinions, then, advanced by Valentinus have been sufficiently declared. It remains for us to explain the tenets of those who have emanated from-his school, though each adherent (of Valentinus) entertains different opinions. "' None
|63. Justin, First Apology, 60 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmos, cosmology, nature • cosmology
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 421, 423; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 297
60 And the physiological discussion concerning the Son of God in the Tim us of Plato, where he says, He placed him crosswise in the universe, he borrowed in like manner from Moses; for in the writings of Moses it is related how at that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt and were in the wilderness, they fell in with poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps, and every kind of serpent, which slew the people; and that Moses, by the inspiration and influence of God, took brass, and made it into the figure of a cross, and set it in the holy tabernacle, and said to the people, If you look to this figure, and believe, you shall be saved thereby. Numbers 21:8 And when this was done, it is recorded that the serpents died, and it is handed down that the people thus escaped death. Which things Plato reading, and not accurately understanding, and not apprehending that it was the figure of the cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, he said that the power next to the first God was placed crosswise in the universe. And as to his speaking of a third, he did this because he read, as we said above, that which was spoken by Moses, that the Spirit of God moved over the waters. For he gives the second place to the Logos which is with God, who he said was placed crosswise in the universe; and the third place to the Spirit who was said to be borne upon the water, saying, And the third around the third. And hear how the Spirit of prophecy signified through Moses that there should be a conflagration. He spoke thus: Everlasting fire shall descend, and shall devour to the pit beneath. Deuteronomy 32:22 It is not, then, that we hold the same opinions as others, but that all speak in imitation of ours. Among us these things can be heard and learned from persons who do not even know the forms of the letters, who are uneducated and barbarous in speech, though wise and believing in mind; some, indeed, even maimed and deprived of eyesight; so that you may understand that these things are not the effect of human wisdom, but are uttered by the power of God. '' None
|64. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Cosmos, cosmology, nature
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 289, 426, 427, 429; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 169
|65. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 130; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 258
|66. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • cosmogony • cosmology • cosmology, cosmological teachings • fire, in cosmogony
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 87; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 169; Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 29; Iribarren and Koning (2022), Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy, 146; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 52; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 60
|67. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmos, cosmology, nature • cosmology, in Enochic literature
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 425; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 172
|68. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • cosmology
Found in books: Gazis and Hooper (2021), Aspects of Death and the Afterlife in Greek Literature, 185; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 157
|69. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology, ancient • cosmos or cosmology
Found in books: Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 178; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright (2017), Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill. 132
|70. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.14, 7.139, 9.31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on cosmology • Cosmology, cosmological • Democritus, and cosmogony • Plato, cosmology of • cosmogony • cosmology, Aristotelian • cosmology, biological model of
Found in books: Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 207; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 73, 276; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 139; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 260, 268
7.14 He disliked, they say, to be brought too near to people, so that he would take the end seat of a couch, thus saving himself at any rate from one half of such inconvenience. Nor indeed would he walk about with more than two or three. He would occasionally ask the bystanders for coppers, in order that, for fear of being asked to give, people might desist from mobbing him, as Cleanthes says in his work On Bronze. When several persons stood about him in the Colonnade he pointed to the wooden railing at the top round the altar and said, This was once open to all, but because it was found to be a hindrance it was railed off. If you then will take yourselves off out of the way you will be the less annoyance to us.When Demochares, the son of Laches, greeted him and told him he had only to speak or write for anything he wanted to Antigonus, who would be sure to grant all his requests, Zeno after hearing this would have nothing more to do with him.
7.139 For through some parts it passes as a hold or containing force, as is the case with our bones and sinews; while through others it passes as intelligence, as in the ruling part of the soul. Thus, then, the whole world is a living being, endowed with soul and reason, and having aether for its ruling principle: so says Antipater of Tyre in the eighth book of his treatise On the Cosmos. Chrysippus in the first book of his work On Providence and Posidonius in his book On the Gods say that the heaven, but Cleanthes that the sun, is the ruling power of the world. Chrysippus, however, in the course of the same work gives a somewhat different account, namely, that it is the purer part of the aether; the same which they declare to be preeminently God and always to have, as it were in sensible fashion, pervaded all that is in the air, all animals and plants, and also the earth itself, as a principle of cohesion.
9.31 He declares the All to be unlimited, as already stated; but of the All part is full and part empty, and these he calls elements. Out of them arise the worlds unlimited in number and into them they are dissolved. This is how the worlds are formed. In a given section many atoms of all manner of shapes are carried from the unlimited into the vast empty space. These collect together and form a single vortex, in which they jostle against each other and, circling round in every possible way, separate off, by like atoms joining like. And, the atoms being so numerous that they can no longer revolve in equilibrium, the light ones pass into the empty space outside, as if they were being winnowed; the remainder keep together and, becoming entangled, go on their circuit together, and form a primary spherical system.'' None
|71. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 114 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 265; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 109
114 Simon Peter said to them, "Make Mary leave us, for females don\'t deserve life." Jesus said, "Look, I will guide her to make her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling you males. For every female who makes herself male will enter the kingdom of Heaven."'' None
|72. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.30-6.31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • cosmology, • cosmology, Late Antique
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 326; Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 64
6.30 He next returns to the subject of the Seven ruling Demons, whose names are not found among Christians, but who, I think, are accepted by the Ophites. We found, indeed, that in the diagram, which on their account we procured a sight of, the same order was laid down as that which Celsus has given. Celsus says that the goat was shaped like a lion, not mentioning the name given him by those who are truly the most impious of individuals; whereas we discovered that He who is honoured in holy Scripture as the angel of the Creator is called by this accursed diagram Michael the Lion-like. Again, Celsus says that the second in order is a bull; whereas the diagram which we possessed made him to be Suriel, the bull-like. Further, Celsus termed the third an amphibious sort of animal, and one that hissed frightfully; while the diagram described the third as Raphael, the serpent-like. Moreover, Celsus asserted that the fourth had the form of an eagle; the diagram representing him as Gabriel, the eagle-like. Again, the fifth, according to Celsus, had the countece of a bear; and this, according to the diagram, was Thauthabaoth, the bear-like. Celsus continues his account, that the sixth was described as having the face of a dog; and him the diagram called Erataoth. The seventh, he adds, had the countece of an ass, and was named Thaphabaoth or Onoel; whereas we discovered that in the diagram he is called Onoel, or Thartharaoth, being somewhat asinine in appearance. We have thought it proper to be exact in stating these matters, that we might not appear to be ignorant of those things which Celsus professed to know, but that we Christians, knowing them better than he, may demonstrate that these are not the words of Christians, but of those who are altogether alienated from salvation, and who neither acknowledge Jesus as Saviour, nor God, nor Teacher, nor Son of God. 6.31 Moreover, if any one would wish to become acquainted with the artifices of those sorcerers, through which they desire to lead men away by their teaching (as if they possessed the knowledge of certain secret rites), but are not at all successful in so doing, let him listen to the instruction which they receive after passing through what is termed the fence of wickedness, - gates which are subjected to the world of ruling spirits. (The following, then, is the manner in which they proceed): I salute the one-formed king, the bond of blindness, complete oblivion, the first power, preserved by the spirit of providence and by wisdom, from whom I am sent forth pure, being already part of the light of the son and of the father: grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say also that the beginnings of the Ogdoad are derived from this. In the next place, they are taught to say as follows, while passing through what they call Ialdabaoth: You, O first and seventh, who art born to command with confidence, you, O Ialdabaoth, who art the rational ruler of a pure mind, and a perfect work to son and father, bearing the symbol of life in the character of a type, and opening to the world the gate which you closed against your kingdom, I pass again in freedom through your realm. Let grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say, moreover, that the star Ph non is in sympathy with the lion-like ruler. They next imagine that he who has passed through Ialdabaoth and arrived at Iao ought thus to speak: You, O second Iao, who shines by night, who art the ruler of the secret mysteries of son and father, first prince of death, and portion of the innocent, bearing now my own beard as symbol, I am ready to pass through your realm, having strengthened him who is born of you by the living word. Grace be with me; father, let it be with me. They next come to Sabaoth, to whom they think the following should be addressed: O governor of the fifth realm, powerful Sabaoth, defender of the law of your creatures, who are liberated by your grace through the help of a more powerful Pentad, admit me, seeing the faultless symbol of their art, preserved by the stamp of an image, a body liberated by a Pentad. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. And after Sabaoth they come to Astaph us, to whom they believe the following prayer should be offered: O Astaph us, ruler of the third gate, overseer of the first principle of water, look upon me as one of your initiated, admit me who am purified with the spirit of a virgin, you who sees the essence of the world. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. After him comes Alo us, who is to be thus addressed: O Alo us, governor of the second gate, let me pass, seeing I bring to you the symbol of your mother, a grace which is hidden by the powers of the realms. Let grace be with me, O father, let it be with me. And last of all they name Hor us, and think that the following prayer ought to be offered to him: You who fearlessly leaped over the rampart of fire, O Hor us, who obtained the government of the first gate, let me pass, seeing you behold the symbol of your own power, sculptured on the figure of the tree of life, and formed after this image, in the likeness of innocence. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. '' None
|73. Origen, On First Principles, 1.4.1, 2.9.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • cosmogony,
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 181; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 120, 122, 133; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 125
1.4.1 To exhibit the nature of defection or falling away, on the part of those who conduct themselves carelessly, it will not appear out of place to employ a similitude by way of illustration. Suppose, then, the case of one who had become gradually acquainted with the art or science, say of geometry or medicine, until he had reached perfection, having trained himself for a lengthened time in its principles and practice, so as to attain a complete mastery over the art: to such an one it could never happen, that, when he lay down to sleep in the possession of his skill, he should awake in a state of ignorance. It is not our purpose to adduce or to notice here those accidents which are occasioned by any injury or weakness, for they do not apply to our present illustration. According to our point of view, then, so long as that geometer or physician continues to exercise himself in the study of his art and in the practice of its principles, the knowledge of his profession abides with him; but if he withdraw from its practice, and lay aside his habits of industry, then, by his neglect, at first a few things will gradually escape him, then by and by more and more, until in course of time everything will be forgotten, and be completely effaced from the memory. It is possible, indeed, that when he has first begun to fall away, and to yield to the corrupting influence of a negligence which is small as yet, he may, if he be aroused and return speedily to his senses, repair those losses which up to that time are only recent, and recover that knowledge which hitherto had been only slightly obliterated from his mind. Let us apply this now to the case of those who have devoted themselves to the knowledge and wisdom of God, whose learning and diligence incomparably surpass all other training; and let us contemplate, according to the form of the similitude employed, what is the acquisition of knowledge, or what is its disappearance, especially when we hear from the apostle what is said of those who are perfect, that they shall behold face to face the glory of the Lord in the revelation of His mysteries.
2.9.1 But let us now return to the order of our proposed discussion, and behold the commencement of creation, so far as the understanding can behold the beginning of the creation of God. In that commencement, then, we are to suppose that God created so great a number of rational or intellectual creatures (or by whatever name they are to be called), which we have formerly termed understandings, as He foresaw would be sufficient. It is certain that He made them according to some definite number, predetermined by Himself: for it is not to be imagined, as some would have it, that creatures have not a limit, because where there is no limit there can neither be any comprehension nor any limitation. Now if this were the case, then certainly created things could neither be restrained nor administered by God. For, naturally, whatever is infinite will also be incomprehensible. Moreover, as Scripture says, God has arranged all things in number and measure; and therefore number will be correctly applied to rational creatures or understandings, that they may be so numerous as to admit of being arranged, governed, and controlled by God. But measure will be appropriately applied to a material body; and this measure, we are to believe, was created by God such as He knew would be sufficient for the adorning of the world. These, then, are the things which we are to believe were created by God in the beginning, i.e., before all things. And this, we think, is indicated even in that beginning which Moses has introduced in terms somewhat ambiguous, when he says, In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. For it is certain that the firmament is not spoken of, nor the dry land, but that heaven and earth from which this present heaven and earth which we now see afterwards borrowed their names.'' None
|74. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 103; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 130, 191, 198, 200; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 183
|75. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony • cosmology
Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 310; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 257
|76. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 191; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 258, 259, 263
|77. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 108, 200, 201; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 193, 205, 291
|78. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony • cosmology
Found in books: Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 165; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 259
|79. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Egypt, cosmogony • cosmogony/cosmology • cosmology, • cosmology, of Hekhalot Rabbati
Found in books: Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 70, 119, 120, 132, 133, 141, 236, 253; Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 109; Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 265, 325, 365; Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 81; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 297
|80. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Gnostics, on cosmology • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • cosmogony • cosmology • planets, Plato, cosmology and psychology of
Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 186, 188; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 424, 433, 516; Gerson and Wilberding (2022), The New Cambridge Companion to Plotinus, 49, 55, 57, 63; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 237; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 148, 149; Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 36
|81. Augustine, The City of God, 5.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • cosmology,
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 241; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 151
5.3 It is to no purpose, therefore, that that famous fiction about the potter's wheel is brought forward, which tells of the answer which Nigidius is said to have given when he was perplexed with this question, and on account of which he was called Figulus. For, having whirled round the potter's wheel with all his strength he marked it with ink, striking it twice with the utmost rapidity, so that the strokes seemed to fall on the very same part of it. Then, when the rotation had ceased, the marks which he had made were found upon the rim of the wheel at no small distance apart. Thus, said he, considering the great rapidity with which the celestial sphere revolves, even though twins were born with as short an interval between their births as there was between the strokes which I gave this wheel, that brief interval of time is equivalent to a very great distance in the celestial sphere. Hence, said he, come whatever dissimilitudes may be remarked in the habits and fortunes of twins. This argument is more fragile than the vessels which are fashioned by the rotation of that wheel. For if there is so much significance in the heavens which cannot be comprehended by observation of the constellations, that, in the case of twins, an inheritance may fall to the one and not to the other, why, in the case of others who are not twins, do they dare, having examined their constellations, to declare such things as pertain to that secret which no one can comprehend, and to attribute them to the precise moment of the birth of each individual? Now, if such predictions in connection with the natal hours of others who are not twins are to be vindicated on the ground that they are founded on the observation of more extended spaces in the heavens, while those very small moments of time which separated the births of twins, and correspond to minute portions of celestial space, are to be connected with trifling things about which the mathematicians are not wont to be consulted - for who would consult them as to when he is to sit, when to walk abroad, when and on what he is to dine? - how can we be justified in so speaking, when we can point out such manifold diversity both in the habits, doings, and destinies of twins? "" None
|82. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology, Cosmogony • Cosmos, cosmology, nature
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 294, 295; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 11
|83. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Uranus phallus, as cosmogonic principle • cosmogony • separation (in cosmogony) • time (in cosmogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 90, 91; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 49
|84. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 114
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Cosmology, Cosmogony
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 265; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 109
114 Simon Peter said to them, "Make Mary leave us, for females don\'t deserve life." Jesus said, "Look, I will guide her to make her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling you males. For every female who makes herself male will enter the kingdom of Heaven."'' None
|85. Vergil, Georgics, 1.6, 4.464-4.467
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmology • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • cosmogony
Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 35, 100; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 172; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 212; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 321
1.6 lumina, labentem caelo quae ducitis annum,
4.464 Ipse cava solans aegrum testudine amorem 4.465 te, dulcis coniunx, te solo in litore secum, 4.466 te veniente die, te decedente canebat. 4.467 Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis,'' None
1.6 Such are my themes. O universal light
4.464 Arched mountain-wise closed round him, and within 4.465 Its mighty bosom welcomed, and let speed 4.466 To the deep river-bed. And now, with eye' "4.467 of wonder gazing on his mother's hall"' None
|86. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Stoic, cosmology
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 42; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 42
|87. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmology
Found in books: Langworthy (2019), Gregory of Nazianzus’ Soteriological Pneumatology, 15; MacDougall (2022), Philosophy at the Festival: The Festal Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus and the Classical Tradition. 75, 76, 83
|88. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Uranus phallus, as cosmogonic principle • aggregation (in cosmogony) • cold (in cosmogony) • cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos) • cosmogony • cosmology • darkness (in cosmogony) • fire, in cosmogony • light (in cosmogony) • particles (in cosmogony) • separation (in cosmogony) • stars (in cosmogony and theogony) • teleology (in cosmogony) • time (in cosmogony)
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 30, 66, 67, 84, 85, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119, 121, 122, 138, 139, 146; Iribarren and Koning (2022), Hesiod and the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy, 324; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 3, 54, 55, 60, 62
|89. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • cosmology
Found in books: Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 213; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 144
|90. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • cosmogony • cosmology • cosmology, Anaximandrean • cosmology, Milesian • cosmology, Parmenidean • kosmos, cosmological
Found in books: Alvarez (2018), The Derveni Papyrus: Unearthing Ancient Mysteries, 102; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 41, 70, 71; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 179; Sattler (2021), Ancient Ethics and the Natural World, 84, 85
|91. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Cosmogony, • Cosmology • Stoicism, Stoics, cosmology of • cosmogony, • cosmology,
Found in books: Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 104; Del Lucchese (2019), Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture, 171; Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 245; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 147; Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 395; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 208