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110 results for "civil"
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 91.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 23
91.13. "עַל־שַׁחַל וָפֶתֶן תִּדְרֹךְ תִּרְמֹס כְּפִיר וְתַנִּין׃", 91.13. "Thou shalt tread upon the lion and asp; The young lion and the serpent shalt thou trample under feet.",
2. Hesiod, Theogony, 869-880 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Giusti (2018) 94
880. The gods the Titans dwell, beyond the pall
3. Homer, Odyssey, 1.70-1.73, 4.349, 4.384, 5.291-5.332, 9.67-9.73, 13.96-13.112 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, in the aeneid •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 145, 206
4. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1019-1021, 32-33, 1280 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Giusti (2018) 233
1280. ἥξει γὰρ ἡμῶν ἄλλος αὖ τιμάορος, 1280. The mother-slaying scion, father’s doomsman:
5. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 1.16, 1.71-1.81 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, in the aeneid Found in books: Giusti (2018) 94
6. Aeschylus, Persians, 354 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 233
354. φανεὶς ἀλάστωρ ἢ κακὸς δαίμων ποθέν.
7. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.23.6, 3.73 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 200; Vlassopoulos (2021) 133, 136
1.23.6. τὴν μὲν γὰρ ἀληθεστάτην πρόφασιν, ἀφανεστάτην δὲ λόγῳ, τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἡγοῦμαι μεγάλους γιγνομένους καὶ φόβον παρέχοντας τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις ἀναγκάσαι ἐς τὸ πολεμεῖν: αἱ δ’ ἐς τὸ φανερὸν λεγόμεναι αἰτίαι αἵδ’ ἦσαν ἑκατέρων, ἀφ’ ὧν λύσαντες τὰς σπονδὰς ἐς τὸν πόλεμον κατέστησαν. 1.23.6. The real cause I consider to be the one which was formally most kept out of sight. The growth of the power of Athens , and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon , made war inevitable. Still it is well to give the grounds alleged by either side, which led to the dissolution of the treaty and the breaking out of the war.
8. Herodotus, Histories, 1.176 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 302
1.176. The Pedaseans were at length taken, and when Harpagus led his army into the plain of Xanthus , the Lycians came out to meet him, and showed themselves courageous fighting few against many; but being beaten and driven into the city, they gathered their wives and children and goods and servants into the acropolis, and then set the whole acropolis on fire. ,Then they swore great oaths to each other, and sallying out fell fighting, all the men of Xanthus . ,of the Xanthians who claim now to be Lycians the greater number, all except eighty households, are of foreign descent; these eighty families as it happened were away from the city at that time, and thus survived. So Harpagus gained Xanthus , and Caunus too in a somewhat similar manner, the Caunians following for the most part the example of the Lycians.
9. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 3.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 119
3.49. Or if we allow Ino, are we going to make Amphiaraus and Trophonius divine? The Roman tax‑farmers, finding that lands in Boeotia belonging to the immortal gods were exempted by the censor's regulations, used to maintain that nobody was immortal who had once upon a time been a human being. But if these are divine, so undoubtedly is Erechtheus, whose shrine and whose priest also we saw when at Athens. And if we make him out to be divine, what doubts can we feel about Codrus or any other persons who fell fighting for their country's freedom? if we stick at this, we must reject the earlier cases too, from which these follow.
10. Cicero, De Domo Sua, 100 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Fertik (2019) 63
100. audio praeterea non hanc suspicionem nunc primum in Capitonem conferri; multas esse infamis eius infames eius Gruter : infamius (-is ψ ) codd. palmas, hanc primam esse tamen lemniscatam quae Roma ei Roma ei Ernesti : Romae codd . deferatur; nullum modum esse hominis occidendi quo ille non aliquot occiderit, multos ferro, multos veneno. habeo etiam dicere quem contra morem maiorum minorem annis lx de ponte in Tiberim deiecerit. quae quae Naugerius : qui codd. , si prodierit atque adeo cum prodierit — scio enim proditurum esse — audiet. veniat modo, explicet suum volumen illud quod ei planum
11. Cicero, Republic, 1.25.39, 2.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars in rome •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: O, Daly (2020) 106; Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 36
2.51. Quare prima sit haec forma et species et origo tyranni inventa nobis in ea re publica, quam auspicato Romulus condiderit, non in illa, quam, ut perscripsit Plato, sibi ipse Socrates tripertito illo in sermone depinxerit, ut, quem ad modum Tarquinius, non novam potestatem nactus, sed, quam habebat, usus iniuste totum genus hoc regiae civitatis everterit; sit huic oppositus alter, bonus et sapiens et peritus utilitatis dignitatisque civilis quasi tutor et procurator rei publicae; sic enim appelletur, quicumque erit rector et gubernator civitatis. Quem virum facite ut agnoscatis; is est enim, qui consilio et opera civitatem tueri potest. Quod quoniam nomen minus est adhuc tritum sermone nostro saepiusque genus eius hominis erit in reliqua nobis oratione trac tandum
12. Cicero, Letters, 14.12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 301
13. Polybius, Histories, 2.58.8-2.58.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Vlassopoulos (2021) 80
2.58.8. τὸ γὰρ τούτων αὐτόχειρας γενέσθαι καὶ τιμωροὺς οἵτινες πρότερον μὲν κατὰ κράτος λαβόντες αὐτοὺς ἀθῴους ἀφῆκαν, τότε δὲ τὴν ἐκείνων ἐλευθερίαν καὶ σωτηρίαν ἐφύλαττον, πηλίκης ὀργῆς ἐστιν ἄξιον; 2.58.9. τί δʼ ἂν παθόντες οὗτοι δίκην δόξαιεν ἁρμόζουσαν δεδωκέναι; τυχὸν ἴσως εἴποι τις ἄν, πραθέντες μετὰ τέκνων καὶ γυναικῶν, ἐπεὶ κατεπολεμήθησαν. 2.58.10. ἀλλὰ τοῦτό γε καὶ τοῖς μηθὲν ἀσεβὲς ἐπιτελεσαμένοις κατὰ τοὺς τοῦ πολέμου νόμους ὑπόκειται παθεῖν. οὐκοῦν ὁλοσχερεστέρας τινὸς καὶ μείζονος τυχεῖν ἦσαν ἄξιοι τιμωρίας, 2.58.11. ὥστʼ εἴπερ ἔπαθον ἃ Φύλαρχός φησιν, οὐκ ἔλεον εἰκὸς ἦν συνεξακολουθεῖν αὐτοῖς παρὰ τῶν Ἑλλήνων, ἔπαινον δὲ καὶ συγκατάθεσιν μᾶλλον τοῖς πράττουσι καὶ μεταπορευομένοις τὴν ἀσέβειαν αὐτῶν. 2.58.12. ἀλλʼ ὅμως οὐδενὸς περαιτέρω συνεξακολουθήσαντος Μαντινεῦσι κατὰ τὴν περιπέτειαν πλὴν τοῦ διαρπαγῆναι τοὺς βίους καὶ πραθῆναι τοὺς ἐλευθέρους, ὁ συγγραφεὺς αὐτῆς τῆς τερατείας χάριν οὐ μόνον ψεῦδος εἰσήνεγκε τὸ ὅλον, 2.58.13. ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ ψεῦδος ἀπίθανον, καὶ διὰ τὴν ὑπερβολὴν τῆς ἀγνοίας οὐδὲ τὸ παρακείμενον ἠδυνήθη συνεπιστῆσαι, πῶς οἱ αὐτοὶ κατὰ τοὺς αὐτοὺς καιροὺς κυριεύσαντες Τεγεατῶν κατὰ κράτος οὐδὲν τῶν ὁμοίων ἔπραξαν. 2.58.8.  Vengeful murderers of the very men who previously on capturing their city had left them unharmed, and who now were guarding their liberties and lives — against such men, one asks oneself, can any indignation be too strong? 2.58.9.  What should we consider to be an adequate punishment for them? Someone might perhaps say that now when they were crushed by armed force they should have been sold into slavery with their wives and children. 2.58.10.  But to this fate the usage of war exposes those who have been guilty of no such impious crime. 2.58.11.  These men therefore were worthy of some far heavier and more extreme penalty; so that had they suffered what Phylarchus alleges, it was not to be expected that they should have met with pity from the Greeks, but rather that approval and assent should have been accorded to those who executed judgement on them for their wickedness. 2.58.12.  Yet, while nothing more serious befel the Mantineans, in this their hour of calamity, than the pillage of their property and the enslavement of the male citizens, Phylarchus, all for the sake of making his narrative sensational, composed a tissue not only of falsehoods, but of improbable falsehoods, 2.58.13.  and, owing to his gross ignorance, was not even able to compare an analogous case and explain how the same people at the same time, on taking Tegea by force, did not commit any such excesses.
14. Cicero, Commentariolum Petitionis, 44 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Fertik (2019) 63
15. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 10.25.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 31
16. Cicero, On Duties, 1.54-1.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and family •families, and civil wars •civil wars Found in books: Fertik (2019) 22; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 286
1.54. Nam cum sit hoc natura commune animantium, ut habeant libidinem procreandi, prima societas in ipso coniugio est, proxima in liberis, deinde una domus, communia omnia; id autem est principium urbis et quasi seminarium rei publicae. Sequuntur fratrum coniunctiones, post consobrinorum sobrinorumque, qui cum una domo iam capi non possint, in alias domos tamquam in colonias exeunt. Sequuntur conubia et affinitates, ex quibus etiam plures propinqui; quae propagatio et suboles origo est rerum publicarum. Sanguinis autem coniunctio et benivolentia devincit homines et caritate; 1.55. magnum est enim eadem habere monumenta maiorum, eisdem uti sacris, sepulcra habere communia. Sed omnium societatum nulla praestantior est, nulla firmior, quam cum viri boni moribus similes sunt familiaritate coniuncti; illud enim honestum quod saepe dicimus, etiam si in alio cernimus, tamen nos movet atque illi, in quo id inesse videtur, amicos facit. 1.54.  For since the reproductive instinct is by Nature's gift the common possession of all living creatures, the first bond of union is that between husband and wife; the next, that between parents and children; then we find one home, with everything in common. And this is the foundation of civil government, the nursery, as it were, of the state. Then follow the bonds between brothers and sisters, and next those of first and then of second cousins; and when they can no longer be sheltered under one roof, they go out into other homes, as into colonies. Then follow between these in turn, marriages and connections by marriage, and from these again a new stock of relations; and from this propagation and after-growth states have their beginnings. The bonds of common blood hold men fast through good-will and affection; 1.55.  for it means much to share in common the same family traditions, the same forms of domestic worship, and the same ancestral tombs. But of all the bonds of fellowship, there is none more noble, none more powerful than when good men of congenial character are joined in intimate friendship; for really, if we discover in another that moral goodness on which I dwell so much, it attracts us and makes us friends to the one in whose character it seems to dwell.
17. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.1.85 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 118
18. Cicero, On Divination, 1.105 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 263
1.105. Quid de auguribus loquar? Tuae partes sunt, tuum inquam, auspiciorum patrocinium debet esse. Tibi App. Claudius augur consuli nuntiavit addubitato Salutis augurio bellum domesticum triste ac turbulentum fore; quod paucis post mensibus exortum paucioribus a te est diebus oppressum. Cui quidem auguri vehementer adsentior; solus enim multorum annorum memoria non decantandi augurii, sed dividi tenuit disciplinam. Quem inridebant collegae tui eumque tum Pisidam, tum Soranum augurem esse dicebant; quibus nulla videbatur in auguriis aut praesensio aut scientia veritatis futurae; sapienter aiebant ad opinionem imperitorum esse fictas religiones. Quod longe secus est; neque enim in pastoribus illis, quibus Romulus praefuit, nec in ipso Romulo haec calliditas esse potuit, ut ad errorem multitudinis religionis simulacra fingerent. Sed difficultas laborque discendi disertam neglegentiam reddidit; malunt enim disserere nihil esse in auspiciis quam, quid sit, ediscere. 1.105. Why need I speak of augurs? That is your rôle; the duty to defend auspices, I maintain, is yours. For it was to you, while you were consul, that the augur Appius Claudius declared that because the augury of safety was unpropitious a grievous and violent civil war was at hand. That war began few months later, but you brought it to an end in still fewer days. Appius is one augur of whom I heartily approve, for not content merely with the sing-song ritual of augury, he, alone, according to the record of many years, has maintained a real system of divination. I know that your colleagues used to laugh at him and call him the one time a Pisidian and at another a Soran. They did not concede to augury any power of prevision or real knowledge of the future, and used to say that it was a superstitious practice shrewdly invented to gull the ignorant. But the truth is far otherwise, for neither those herdsmen whom Romulus governed, nor Romulus himself, could have had cunning enough to invent miracles with which to mislead the people. It is the trouble and hard work involved in mastering the art that has induced this eloquent contempt; for men prefer to say glibly that there is nothing in auspices rather than to learn what auspices are.
19. Cicero, Philippicae, 2.110-2.111 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Pandey (2018) 47
20. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.89 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 36
1.89. quotiens non modo ductores nostri, sed universi etiam exercitus ad non dubiam mortem concurrerunt! concurrerunt V 2 concurrerint (con ex cu K 1 )X quae quidem si timeretur, non Lucius Brutus arcens eum reditu tyrannum, quem ipse expulerat, in proelio concidisset; non cum Latinis decertans pater Decius, cum Etruscis filius, cum Pyrrho pirrho GVK ( s. v. ) nepos se hostium telis obiecissent; non uno bello pro patria cadentis Scipiones Hispania vidisset, Paulum et Geminum geminium X Cannae, Venusia Marcellum, Litana Litana (cf. Liv. 23, 24) Li. latina GKR Albinum, hirpin in r. V c Lucani Gracchum. gracum G grachum V num quis horum miser hodie? ne tum ne tum G quidem post spiritum extremum; nec enim potest esse miser quisquam sensu perempto.
21. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 38.7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 117
22. Ovid, Tristia, 3.1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Pandey (2018) 112, 154
3.1. ‘Missus in hanc venio timide liber exulis urbem: 3.1. Ergo erat in fatis Scythiam quoque visere nostris, 3.1. Haec mea si casu miraris epistula quare 3.1. O mihi care quidem semper, sed tempore duro 3.1. Usus amicitiae tecum mihi parvus, ut illam 3.1. Foedus amicitiae nec vis, carissime, nostrae, 3.1. VADE salutatum, subito perarata, Perillam, 3.1. Nunc ego Triptolemi cuperem consistere curru, 3.1. Hic quoque sunt igitur Graiae—quis crederet?—urbes 3.1. Siquis adhuc istic meminit Nasonis adempti, 3.1. Si quis es, insultes qui casibus, improbe, nostris, 3.1. Frigora iam Zephyri minuunt, annoque peracto 3.1. Ecce supervacuus—quid enim fuit utile gigni?— 3.1. Cultor et antistes doctorum sancte virorum,
23. Propertius, Elegies, 1.22.3, 2.1.17-2.1.46, 2.24.2, 2.31 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, in propertius 2.1 •civil wars, trauma •civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 36, 45, 46, 47; Pandey (2018) 95, 100
24. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.391-15.407, 15.745-15.851 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars •civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 267; Pandey (2018) 80, 241
15.391. Haec tamen ex aliis generis primordia ducunt: 15.392. una est, quae reparet seque ipsa reseminet, ales. 15.393. Assyrii phoenica vocant; non fruge neque herbis, 15.394. sed turis lacrimis et suco vivit amomi. 15.395. Haec ubi quinque suae complevit saecula vitae, 15.396. ilicis in ramis tremulaeque cacumine palmae 15.397. unguibus et puro nidum sibi construit ore. 15.398. Quo simul ac casias et nardi lenis aristas 15.399. quassaque cum fulva substravit cinnama murra, 15.400. se super imponit finitque in odoribus aevum. 15.401. Inde ferunt, totidem qui vivere debeat annos, 15.402. corpore de patrio parvum phoenica renasci. 15.403. Cum dedit huic aetas vires, onerique ferendo est, 15.404. ponderibus nidi ramos levat arboris altae 15.405. fertque pius cunasque suas patriumque sepulcrum, 15.406. perque leves auras Hyperionis urbe potitus 15.407. ante fores sacras Hyperionis aede reponit. 15.745. Hic tamen accessit delubris advena nostris: 15.746. Caesar in urbe sua deus est; quem Marte togaque 15.747. praecipuum non bella magis finita triumphis 15.748. resque domi gestae properataque gloria rerum 15.749. in sidus vertere novum stellamque comantem, 15.750. quam sua progenies; neque enim de Caesaris actis 15.751. ullum maius opus, quam quod pater exstitit huius: 15.752. scilicet aequoreos plus est domuisse Britannos 15.753. perque papyriferi septemflua flumina Nili 15.754. victrices egisse rates Numidasque rebelles 15.755. Cinyphiumque Iubam Mithridateisque tumentem 15.756. nominibus Pontum populo adiecisse Quirini 15.757. et multos meruisse, aliquos egisse triumphos, 15.758. quam tantum genuisse virum? Quo praeside rerum 15.759. humano generi, superi, favistis abunde! 15.760. Ne foret hic igitur mortali semine cretus, 15.761. ille deus faciendus erat. Quod ut aurea vidit 15.762. Aeneae genetrix, vidit quoque triste parari 15.763. pontifici letum et coniurata arma moveri, 15.764. palluit et cunctis, ut cuique erat obvia, divis 15.765. “adspice” dicebat, “quanta mihi mole parentur 15.766. insidiae quantaque caput cum fraude petatur, 15.767. quod de Dardanio solum mihi restat Iulo. 15.768. Solane semper ero iustis exercita curis, 15.769. quam modo Tydidae Calydonia vulneret hasta, 15.770. nunc male defensae confundant moenia Troiae, 15.771. quae videam natum longis erroribus actum 15.772. iactarique freto sedesque intrare silentum 15.773. bellaque cum Turno gerere, aut, si vera fatemur, 15.774. cum Iunone magis? Quid nunc antiqua recordor 15.775. damna mei generis? Timor hic meminisse priorum 15.776. non sinit: en acui sceleratos cernitis enses? 15.777. Quos prohibete, precor, facinusque repellite, neve 15.778. caede sacerdotis flammas exstinguite Vestae!” 15.779. Talia nequiquam toto Venus anxia caelo 15.780. verba iacit superosque movet, qui rumpere quamquam 15.781. ferrea non possunt veterum decreta sororum, 15.782. signa tamen luctus dant haud incerta futuri. 15.783. Arma ferunt inter nigras crepitantia nubes 15.784. terribilesque tubas auditaque cornua caelo 15.785. praemonuisse nefas; solis quoque tristis imago 15.786. lurida sollicitis praebebat lumina terris. 15.787. Saepe faces visae mediis ardere sub astris, 15.788. saepe inter nimbos guttae cecidere cruentae. 15.789. Caerulus et vultum ferrugine Lucifer atra 15.790. sparsus erat, sparsi Lunares sanguine currus. 15.791. Tristia mille locis Stygius dedit omina bubo, 15.792. mille locis lacrimavit ebur, cantusque feruntur 15.793. auditi sanctis et verba mitia lucis. 15.794. Victima nulla litat magnosque instare tumultus 15.795. fibra monet, caesumque caput reperitur in extis. 15.796. Inque foro circumque domos et templa deorum 15.797. nocturnos ululasse canes umbrasque silentum 15.798. erravisse ferunt motamque tremoribus urbem. 15.799. Non tamen insidias venturaque vincere fata 15.800. praemonitus potuere deum, strictique feruntur 15.801. in templum gladii; neque enim locus ullus in urbe 15.802. ad facinus diramque placet nisi curia, caedem. 15.803. Tum vero Cytherea manu percussit utraque 15.804. pectus et Aeneaden molitur condere nube, 15.805. qua prius infesto Paris est ereptus Atridae 15.806. et Diomedeos Aeneas fugerat enses. 15.807. Talibus hanc genitor: “Sola insuperabile fatum, 15.808. nata, movere paras? Intres licet ipsa sororum 15.809. tecta trium: cernes illic molimine vasto 15.810. ex aere et solido rerum tabularia ferro, 15.811. quae neque concussum caeli neque fulminis iram 15.812. nec metuunt ullas tuta atque aeterna ruinas. 15.813. Invenies illic incisa adamante perenni 15.814. fata tui generis: legi ipse animoque notavi 15.815. et referam, ne sis etiamnum ignara futuri. 15.816. Hic sua complevit, pro quo, Cytherea, laboras, 15.817. tempora, perfectis, quos terrae debuit, annis. 15.818. Ut deus accedat caelo templisque colatur, 15.819. tu facies natusque suus, qui nominis heres 15.820. impositum feret unus onus caesique parentis 15.821. nos in bella suos fortissimus ultor habebit. 15.822. Illius auspiciis obsessae moenia pacem 15.823. victa petent Mutinae, Pharsalia sentiet illum. 15.824. Emathiique iterum madefient caede Philippi, 15.825. et magnum Siculis nomen superabitur undis, 15.826. Romanique ducis coniunx Aegyptia taedae 15.827. non bene fisa cadet, frustraque erit illa minata, 15.828. servitura suo Capitolia nostra Canopo. 15.829. Quid tibi barbariem, gentesque ab utroque iacentes 15.830. oceano numerem? Quodcumque habitabile tellus 15.831. sustinet, huius erit: pontus quoque serviet illi! 15.832. Pace data terris animum ad civilia vertet 15.833. iura suum legesque feret iustissimus auctor 15.834. exemploque suo mores reget inque futuri 15.835. temporis aetatem venturorumque nepotum 15.836. prospiciens prolem sancta de coniuge natam 15.837. ferre simul nomenque suum curasque iubebit, 15.838. nec nisi cum senior Pylios aequaverit annos, 15.839. aetherias sedes cognataque sidera tanget. 15.840. Hanc animam interea caeso de corpore raptam 15.841. fac iubar, ut semper Capitolia nostra forumque 15.842. divus ab excelsa prospectet Iulius aede.” 15.843. Vix ea fatus erat, media cum sede senatus 15.844. constitit alma Venus, nulli cernenda, suique 15.845. Caesaris eripuit membris neque in aera solvi 15.846. passa recentem animam caelestibus intulit astris. 15.847. Dumque tulit, lumen capere atque ignescere sensit 15.848. emisitque sinu: luna volat altius illa, 15.849. flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem 15.850. stella micat natique videns bene facta fatetur 15.851. esse suis maiora et vinci gaudet ab illo.
25. Ovid, Fasti, 6.201 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •horace, quintus horatius flaccus, and civil wars Found in books: Rohland (2022) 104
6.201. hac sacrata die Tusco Bellona duello 6.201. On that day, they say, during the Tuscan War, Bellona’
26. Horace, Odes, 1.37.5-1.37.6, 2.1.1-2.1.18, 2.1.21, 2.1.25-2.1.28, 2.1.37-2.1.40, 2.7.13-2.7.16, 2.12.11-2.12.12, 2.12.33-2.12.34, 3.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •horace, quintus horatius flaccus, and civil wars •civil wars, writing about •civil wars, and punic wars •civil wars, trauma •punic wars, and civil wars •civil wars, in propertius 2.1 Found in books: Giusti (2018) 3, 5, 7, 8, 36, 276; Rohland (2022) 101, 104
27. Horace, Epodes, 7.1, 7.5-7.10, 7.13-7.14, 7.19-7.20, 9.1, 10.12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars •civil wars, in propertius 2.1 •civil wars, trauma •civil wars, writing about •horace, quintus horatius flaccus, and civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 5, 7, 46, 278; Rohland (2022) 104
28. Ovid, Epistulae Ex Ponto, 2.2.74 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, in lucan Found in books: Fertik (2019) 40
29. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.73-1.74 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Pandey (2018) 112
1.73. Quaque parare necem miseris patruelibus ausae 1.74. rend=
30. Julius Caesar, De Bello Civli, 3.33.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 298
31. Livy, History, 2.36, 21.1, 21.3-21.4, 28.28.11, 30.30, 44.37.7 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 14, 16, 233, 266, 267; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 7, 329
44.37.7. itaque quem ad modum, quia certi solis lunaeque et ortus et occasus sint, nunc pleno orbe, nunc senescentem exiguo cornu fulgere lunam non mirarentur, ita ne obscurari quidem, cum condatur umbra terrae, trahere in prodigium debere.
32. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 2, 34 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 31
33. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 2.19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and family •families, and civil wars Found in books: Fertik (2019) 22
2.19.  We shall be dealing with an Absolute Juridical Issue when, without any recourse to a defence extraneous to the cause, we contend that the act itself which we confess having committed was lawful. Herein it is proper to examine whether the act was in accord with the Law. We can discuss this question, once a cause is given, when we know the departments of which the Law is constituted. The constituent departments, then, are the following: Nature, Statute, Custom, Previous Judgements, Equity, and Agreement. To the Law of Nature belong the duties observed because of kinship or family loyalty. In accordance with this kind of Law parents are cherished by their children, and children by their parents. Statute Law is that kind of Law which is sanctioned by the will of the people; for example, you are to appear before the court when summoned to do so. Legal Custom is that which, in the absence of any statute, is by usage endowed with the force of statute law; for example, the money you have deposited with a banker you may rightly seek from his partner. It is a Previous Judgement what on the same question a sentence has been passed or a decree interposed. These are often contradictory, according as one judge, praetor, consul, or tribune of the plebs has determined differently from another; and it often happens that on the very same matter one has decree or decided differently from another. For example, Marcus Drusus, city praetor, granted an action on breach of contract against an heir, whereas Sextus Julius refused to do so. Again, Gaius Caelius, sitting in judgement, acquitted of the charge of injury the man who had by name attacked the poet Lucilius on the stage, while Publius Mucius condemned the man who had specifically named the poet Lucius Accius.
34. Sallust, Historiae, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Giusti (2018) 6
35. Sallust, Catiline, 10.1-10.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and punic wars •civil wars, writing about •punic wars, and civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 6
36. Sallust, Iugurtha, 6.1, 7.4-7.5, 41.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars •civil wars, in propertius 2.1 •civil wars, trauma •civil wars, writing about Found in books: Giusti (2018) 6, 16, 47
37. Suetonius, Tiberius, 40 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 200
38. Suetonius, Claudius, 21.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 245
39. Suetonius, Augustus, 31.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 263
40. Tacitus, Annals, 1.3-1.4, 1.9.3-1.9.5, 1.10.8, 1.11.1, 1.55.3, 2.26.2-2.26.5, 2.32.3, 2.38.3, 2.41.1, 2.59.1-2.59.2, 2.71.1-2.71.3, 2.76.1, 2.82.4-2.82.5, 3.6.2, 3.18.2-3.18.3, 3.19.1-3.19.2, 3.31.2, 3.54.2, 3.56.4, 3.58, 3.60-3.63, 3.71.2-3.71.3, 3.76, 4.1.1, 4.8.5, 4.16.2-4.16.3, 4.37.3, 4.57.1, 6.3.2, 6.12.1-6.12.3, 6.20.2, 6.21-6.22, 6.22.4, 11.11.1-11.11.2, 12.22.1-12.22.2, 12.23.1, 13.5, 13.14.2, 13.15.1-13.15.3, 14.9.3, 14.32.1, 15.36, 15.60.4, 15.74.1-15.74.3, 16.1.1, 16.3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars •civil wars, in lucan Found in books: Fertik (2019) 38, 154; Pandey (2018) 165; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 7, 33, 61, 113, 122, 136, 145, 200, 223, 225, 245, 263, 286, 329, 332, 356
1.3. Ceterum Augustus subsidia dominationi Claudium Marcellum sororis filium admodum adulescentem pontificatu et curuli aedilitate, M. Agrippam, ignobilem loco, bonum militia et victoriae socium, geminatis consulatibus extulit, mox defuncto Marcello generum sumpsit; Tiberium Neronem et Claudium Drusum privignos imperatoriis nominibus auxit, integra etiam tum domo sua. nam genitos Agrippa Gaium ac Lucium in familiam Caesarum induxerat, necdum posita puerili praetexta principes iuventutis appellari, destinari consules specie recusantis flagrantissime cupiverat. ut Agrippa vita concessit, Lucium Caesarem euntem ad Hispaniensis exercitus, Gaium remeantem Armenia et vulnere invalidum mors fato propera vel novercae Liviae dolus abstulit, Drusoque pridem extincto Nero solus e privignis erat, illuc cuncta vergere: filius, collega imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnisque per exercitus ostentatur, non obscuris, ut antea, matris artibus, sed palam hortatu. nam senem Augustum devinxerat adeo, uti nepotem unicum, Agrippam Postumum, in insulam Planasiam proiecerit, rudem sane bonarum artium et robore corporis stolide ferocem, nullius tamen flagitii conpertum. at hercule Germanicum Druso ortum octo apud Rhenum legionibus inposuit adscirique per adoptionem a Tiberio iussit, quamquam esset in domo Tiberii filius iuvenis, sed quo pluribus munimentis insisteret. bellum ea tempestate nullum nisi adversus Germanos supererat, abolendae magis infamiae ob amissum cum Quintilio Varo exercitum quam cupidine proferendi imperii aut dignum ob praemium. domi res tranquillae, eadem magistratuum vocabula; iuniores post Actiacam victoriam, etiam senes plerique inter bella civium nati: quotus quisque reliquus qui rem publicam vidisset? 1.3. Tum ut quisque praecipuus turbator conquisiti, et pars, extra castra palantes, a centurionibus aut praetoriarum cohortium militibus caesi: quosdam ipsi manipuli documentum fidei tradidere. auxerat militum curas praematura hiems imbribus continuis adeoque saevis, ut non egredi tentoria, congregari inter se, vix tutari signa possent, quae turbine atque unda raptabantur. durabat et formido caelestis irae, nec frustra adversus impios hebescere sidera, ruere tempestates: non aliud malorum levamentum, quam si linquerent castra infausta temerataque et soluti piaculo suis quisque hibernis redderentur. primum octava, dein quinta decuma legio rediere: nous opperiendas Tiberii epistulas clamitaverat, mox desolatus aliorum discessione imminentem necessitatem sponte praevenit. et Drusus non exspectato legatorum regressu, quia praesentia satis consederant, in urbem rediit. 1.4. Igitur verso civitatis statu nihil usquam prisci et integri moris: omnes exuta aequalitate iussa principis aspectare, nulla in praesens formidine, dum Augustus aetate validus seque et domum et pacem sustentavit. postquam provecta iam senectus aegro et corpore fatigabatur aderatque finis et spes novae, pauci bona libertatis in cassum disserere, plures bellum pavescere, alii cupere. pars multo maxima inminentis dominos variis rumoribus differebant: trucem Agrippam et ignominia accensum non aetate neque rerum experientia tantae moli parem, Tiberium Neronem maturum annis, spectatum bello, sed vetere atque insita Claudiae familiae superbia, multaque indicia saevitiae, quamquam premantur, erumpere. hunc et prima ab infantia eductum in domo regnatrice; congestos iuveni consulatus, triumphos; ne iis quidem annis quibus Rhodi specie secessus exul egerit aliud quam iram et simulationem et secretas libidines meditatum. accedere matrem muliebri inpotentia: serviendum feminae duobusque insuper adulescentibus qui rem publicam interim premant quandoque distrahant. 1.4. Eo in metu arguere Germanicum omnes quod non ad superiorem exercitum pergeret, ubi obsequia et contra rebellis auxilium: satis superque missione et pecunia et mollibus consultis peccatum. vel si vilis ipsi salus, cur filium parvulum, cur gravidam coniugem inter furentis et omnis humani iuris violatores haberet? illos saltem avo et rei publicae redderet. diu cunctatus aspertem uxorem, cum se divo Augusto ortam neque degenerem ad pericula testaretur, postremo uterum eius et communem filium multo cum fletu complexus, ut abiret perpulit. incedebat muliebre et miserabile agmen, profuga ducis uxor, parvulum sinu filium gerens, lamentantes circum amicorum coniuges quae simul trahebantur nec minus tristes qui manebant. 3.58. Inter quae provincia Africa Iunio Blaeso prorogata, Servius Maluginensis flamen Dialis ut Asiam sorte haberet postulavit, frustra vulgatum dictitans non licere Dialibus egredi Italia neque aliud ius suum quam Martialium Quirinaliumque flaminum: porro, si hi duxissent provincias, cur Dialibus id vetitum? nulla de eo populi scita, non in libris caerimoniarum reperiri. saepe pontifices Dialia sacra fecisse si flamen valetudine aut munere publico impediretur. quinque et septuaginta annis post Cornelii Merulae caedem neminem suffectum neque tamen cessavisse religiones. quod si per tot annos possit non creari nullo sacrorum damno, quanto facilius afuturum ad unius anni proconsulare imperium? privatis olim simultatibus effectum ut a pontificibus maximis ire in provincias prohiberentur: nunc deum munere summum pontificum etiam summum hominum esse, non aemulationi, non odio aut privatis adfectionibus obnoxium. 3.61. Primi omnium Ephesii adiere, memorantes non, ut vulgus crederet, Dianam atque Apollinem Delo genitos: esse apud se Cenchreum amnem, lucum Ortygiam, ubi Latonam partu gravidam et oleae, quae tum etiam maneat, adnisam edidisse ea numina, deorumque monitu sacratum nemus, atque ipsum illic Apollinem post interfectos Cyclopas Iovis iram vitavisse. mox Liberum patrem, bello victorem, supplicibus Amazonum quae aram insiderant ignovisse. auctam hinc concessu Herculis, cum Lydia poteretur, caerimoniam templo neque Persarum dicione deminutum ius; post Macedonas, dein nos servavisse. 3.62. Proximi hos Magnetes L. Scipionis et L. Sullae constitutis nitebantur, quorum ille Antiocho, hic Mithridate pulsis fidem atque virtutem Magnetum decoravere, uti Dianae Leucophrynae perfugium inviolabile foret. Aphrodisienses posthac et Stratonicenses dictatoris Caesaris ob vetusta in partis merita et recens divi Augusti decretum adtulere, laudati quod Parthorum inruptionem nihil mutata in populum Romanum constantia pertulissent. sed Aphrodisiensium civitas Veneris, Stratonicensium Iovis et Triviae religionem tuebantur. altius Hierocaesarienses exposuere, Persicam apud se Dianam, delubrum rege Cyro dicatum; et memorabantur Perpennae, Isaurici multaque alia imperatorum nomina qui non modo templo sed duobus milibus passuum eandem sanctitatem tribuerant. exim Cy- prii tribus de delubris, quorum vetustissimum Paphiae Veneri auctor Ae+rias, post filius eius Amathus Veneri Amathusiae et Iovi Salaminio Teucer, Telamonis patris ira profugus, posuissent. 3.63. Auditae aliarum quoque civitatium legationes. quorum copia fessi patres, et quia studiis certabatur, consulibus permisere ut perspecto iure, et si qua iniquitas involveretur, rem integram rursum ad senatum referrent. consules super eas civitates quas memoravi apud Pergamum Aesculapii compertum asylum rettulerunt: ceteros obscuris ob vetustatem initiis niti. nam Zmyrnaeos oraculum Apollinis, cuius imperio Stratonicidi Veneri templum dicaverint, Tenios eiusdem carmen referre, quo sacrare Neptuni effigiem aedemque iussi sint. propiora Sardianos: Alexandri victoris id donum. neque minus Milesios Dareo rege niti; set cultus numinum utrisque Dianam aut Apollinem venerandi. petere et Cretenses simulacro divi Augusti. factaque senatus consulta quis multo cum honore modus tamen praescribebatur, iussique ipsis in templis figere aera sacrandam ad memoriam, neu specie religionis in ambitionem delaberentur. 3.76. Et Iunia sexagesimo quarto post Philippensem aciem anno supremum diem explevit, Catone avunculo genita, C. Cassii uxor, M. Bruti soror. testamentum eius multo apud vulgum rumore fuit, quia in magnis opibus cum ferme cunctos proceres cum honore nominavisset Caesarem omisit. quod civiliter acceptum neque prohibuit quo minus laudatione pro rostris ceterisque sollemnibus funus cohonestaretur. viginti clarissimarum familiarum imagines antelatae sunt, Manlii, Quinctii aliaque eiusdem nobilitatis nomina. sed praefulgebant Cassius atque Brutus eo ipso quod effigies eorum non visebantur. 6.21. Quoties super tali negotio consultaret, edita domus parte ac liberti unius conscientia utebatur. is litterarum ignarus, corpore valido, per avia ac derupta (nam saxis domus imminet) praeibat eum cuius artem experiri Tiberius statuisset et regredientem, si vanitatis aut fraudum suspicio incesserat, in subiectum mare praecipitabat ne index arcani existeret. igitur Thrasullus isdem rupibus inductus postquam percontantem commoverat, imperium ipsi et futura sollerter patefaciens, interrogatur an suam quoque genitalem horam comperisset, quem tum annum, qualem diem haberet. ille positus siderum ac spatia dimensus haerere primo, dein pavescere, et quantum introspiceret magis ac magis trepidus admirationis et metus, postremo exclamat ambiguum sibi ac prope ultimum discrimen instare. tum complexus eum Tiberius praescium periculorum et incolumem fore gratatur, quaeque dixerat oracli vice accipiens inter intimos amicorum tenet. 6.22. Sed mihi haec ac talia audienti in incerto iudicium est fatone res mortalium et necessitate immutabili an forte volvantur. quippe sapientissimos veterum quique sectam eorum aemulantur diversos reperies, ac multis insitam opinionem non initia nostri, non finem, non denique homines dis curae; ideo creberrime tristia in bonos, laeta apud deteriores esse. contra alii fatum quidem congruere rebus putant, sed non e vagis stellis, verum apud principia et nexus naturalium causarum; ac tamen electionem vitae nobis relinquunt, quam ubi elegeris, certum imminentium ordinem. neque mala vel bona quae vulgus putet: multos qui conflictari adversis videantur beatos, at plerosque quamquam magnas per opes miserrimos, si illi gravem fortunam constanter tolerent, hi prospera inconsulte utantur. ceterum plurimis mortalium non eximitur quin primo cuiusque ortu ventura destinentur, sed quaedam secus quam dicta sint cadere fallaciis ignara dicentium: ita corrumpi fidem artis cuius clara documenta et antiqua aetas et nostra tulerit. quippe a filio eiusdem Thrasulli praedictum Neronis imperium in tempore memorabitur, ne nunc incepto longius abierim. 13.5. Nec defuit fides, multaque arbitrio senatus constituta sunt: ne quis ad causam orandam mercede aut donis emeretur, ne designatis quaestoribus edendi gladiatores necessitas esset. quod quidem adversante Agrippina, tamquam acta Claudii subverterentur, obtinuere patres, qui in Palatium ob id vocabantur ut adstaret additis a tergo foribus velo discreta, quod visum arceret, auditus non adimeret. quin et legatis Armeniorum causam gentis apud Neronem orantibus escendere suggestum imperatoris et praesidere simul parabat, nisi ceteris pavore defixis Seneca admonuisset venienti matri occurreret. ita specie pietatis obviam itum dedecori. 13.5. Eodem anno crebris populi flagitationibus immodestiam publicanorum arguentis dubitavit Nero an cuncta vectigalia omitti iuberet idque pulcherrimum donum generi mortalium daret. sed impetum eius, multum prius laudata magnitudine animi, attinuere senatores, dissolutionem imperii docendo, si fructus quibus res publica sustineretur deminuerentur: quippe sublatis portoriis sequens ut tributorum abolitio expostularetur. plerasque vectigalium societates a consulibus et tribunis plebei constitutas acri etiam tum populi Romani libertate; reliqua mox ita provisa ut ratio quaestuum et necessitas erogationum inter se congrueret. temperandas plane publicanorum cupidines, ne per tot annos sine querela tolerata novis acerbitatibus ad invidiam verterent. 15.36. Nec multo post omissa in praesens Achaia (causae in incerto fuere) urbem revisit, provincias Orientis, maxime Aegyptum, secretis imaginationibus agitans. dehinc edicto testificatus non longam sui absentiam et cuncta in re publica perinde immota ac prospera fore, super ea profectione adiit Capitolium. illic veneratus deos, cum Vestae quoque templum inisset, repente cunctos per artus tremens, seu numine exterrente, seu facinorum recordatione numquam timore vacuus, deseruit inceptum, cunctas sibi curas amore patriae leviores dictitans. vidisse maestos civium vultus, audire secretas querimonias, quod tantum itineris aditurus esset, cuius ne modicos quidem egressus tolerarent, sueti adversum fortuita aspectu principis refoveri. ergo ut in privatis necessitudinibus proxima pignora praevalerent, ita populum Romanum vim plurimam habere parendumque retinenti. haec atque talia plebi volentia fuere, voluptatum cupidine et, quae praecipua cura est, rei frumentariae angustias, si abesset, metuenti. senatus et primores in incerto erant procul an coram atrocior haberetur: dehinc, quae natura magnis timoribus, deterius credebant quod evenerat. 1.3.  Meanwhile, to consolidate his power, Augustus raised Claudius Marcellus, his sister's son and a mere stripling, to the pontificate and curule aedileship: Marcus Agrippa, no aristocrat, but a good soldier and his partner in victory, he honoured with two successive consulates, and a little later, on the death of Marcellus, selected him as a son-in‑law. Each of his step-children, Tiberius Nero and Claudius Drusus, was given the title of Imperator, though his family proper was still intact: for he had admitted Agrippa's children, Gaius and Lucius, to the Caesarian hearth, and even during their minority had shown, under a veil of reluctance, a consuming desire to see them consuls designate with the title Princes of the Youth. When Agrippa gave up the ghost, untimely fate, or the treachery of their stepmother Livia, cut off both Lucius and Caius Caesar, Lucius on his road to the Spanish armies, Caius — wounded and sick — on his return from Armenia. Drusus had long been dead, and of the stepsons Nero survived alone. On him all centred. Adopted as son, as colleague in the empire, as consort of the tribunician power, he was paraded through all the armies, not as before by the secret diplomacy of his mother, but openly at her injunction. For so firmly had she riveted her chains upon the aged Augustus that he banished to the isle of Planasia his one remaining grandson, Agrippa Postumus, who though guiltless of a virtue, and confident brute-like in his physical strength, had been convicted of no open scandal. Yet, curiously enough, he placed Drusus' son Germanicus at the head of eight legions on the Rhine, and ordered Tiberius to adopt him: it was one safeguard the more, even though Tiberius had already an adult son under his roof. War at the time was none, except an outstanding campaign against the Germans, waged more to redeem the prestige lost with Quintilius Varus and his army than from any wish to extend the empire or with any prospect of an adequate recompense. At home all was calm. The officials carried the old names; the younger men had been born after the victory of Actium; most even of the elder generation, during the civil wars; few indeed were left who had seen the Republic. 1.4.  It was thus an altered world, and of the old, unspoilt Roman character not a trace lingered. Equality was an outworn creed, and all eyes looked to the mandate of the sovereign — with no immediate misgivings, so long as Augustus in the full vigour of his prime upheld himself, his house, and peace. But when the wearing effects of bodily sickness added themselves to advancing years, and the end was coming and new hopes dawning, a few voices began idly to discuss the blessings of freedom; more were apprehensive of war; others desired it; the great majority merely exchanged gossip derogatory to their future masters:— "Agrippa, fierce-tempered, and hot from his humiliation, was unfitted by age and experience for so heavy a burden. Tiberius Nero was mature in years and tried in war, but had the old, inbred arrogance of the Claudian family, and hints of cruelty, strive as he would to repress them, kept breaking out. He had been reared from the cradle in a regt house; consulates and triumphs had been heaped on his youthful head: even during the years when he lived at Rhodes in ostensible retirement and actual exile, he had studied nothing save anger, hypocrisy, and secret lasciviousness. Add to the tale his mother with her feminine caprice: they must be slaves, it appeared, to the distaff, and to a pair of striplings as well, who in the interval would oppress the state and in the upshot rend it asunder!" 3.58.  Meanwhile, after the governorship of Junius Blaesus in Africa had been extended, the Flamen Dialis, Servius Maluginensis, demanded the allotment of Asia to himself. "It was a common fallacy," he insisted, "that the flamens of Jove were not allowed to leave Italy; nor was his own legal status different from that of the flamens of Mars and Quirinus. If, then, they had had provinces allotted them, why was the right withheld from the priests of Jove? There was no national decree to be found on the point — nothing in the Books of Ceremonies. The pontiffs had often performed the rites of Jove, if the flamen was prevented by sickness or public business. For seventy-five years after the self-murder of Cornelius Merula no one had been appointed in his room, yet the rites had not been interrupted. But if so many years could elapse without a new creation, and without detriment to the cult, how much more easily could he absent himself for twelve months of proconsular authority? Personal rivalries had no doubt in former times led the pontiffs to prohibit his order from visiting the provinces: to‑day, by the grace of Heaven, the chief pontiff was also the chief of men, beyond the reach of jealousy, rancour, or private inclinations." 3.60.  Tiberius, however, while tightening his grasp on the solid power of the principate, vouchsafed to the senate a shadow of the past by submitting the claims of the provinces to the discussion of its members. For throughout the Greek cities there was a growing laxity, and impunity, in the creation of rights of asylum. The temples were filled with the dregs of the slave population; the same shelter was extended to the debtor against his creditor and to the man suspected of a capital offence; nor was any authority powerful enough to quell the factions of a race which protected human felony equally with divine worship. It was resolved, therefore, that the communities in question should send their charters and deputies to Rome. A few abandoned without a struggle the claims they had asserted without a title: many relied on hoary superstitions or on their services to the Roman nation. It was an impressive spectacle which that day afforded, when the senate scrutinized the benefactions of its predecessors, the constitutions of the provinces, even the decrees of kings whose power antedated the arms of Rome, and the rites of the deities themselves, with full liberty as of old to confirm or change. 3.61.  The Ephesians were the first to appear. "Apollo and Diana," they stated, "were not, as commonly supposed, born at Delos. In Ephesus there was a river Cenchrius, with a grove Ortygia; where Latona, heavy-wombed and supporting herself by an olive-tree which remained to that day, gave birth to the heavenly twins. The grove had been hallowed by divine injunction; and there Apollo himself, after slaying the Cyclopes, had evaded the anger of Jove. Afterwards Father Liber, victor in the war, had pardoned the suppliant Amazons who had seated themselves at the altar. Then the sanctity of the temple had been enhanced, with the permission of Hercules, while he held the crown of Lydia; its privileges had not been diminished under the Persian empire; later, they had been preserved by the Macedonians — last by ourselves." 3.62.  The Magnesians, who followed, rested their case on the rulings of Lucius Scipio and Lucius Sulla, who, after their defeats of Antiochus and Mithridates respectively, had honoured the loyalty and courage of Magnesia by making the shrine of Leucophryne Diana an inviolable refuge. Next, Aphrodisias and Stratonicea adduced a decree of the dictator Julius in return for their early services to his cause, together with a modern rescript of the deified Augustus, who praised the unchanging fidelity to the Roman nation with which they had sustained the Parthian inroad. Aphrodisias, however, was championing the cult of Venus; Stratonicea, that of Jove and Diana of the Crossways. The statement of Hierocaesarea went deeper into the past: the community owned a Persian Diana with a temple dedicated in the reign of Cyrus; and there were references to Perpenna, Isauricus, and many other commanders who had allowed the same sanctity not only to the temple but to the neighbourhood for two miles round. The Cypriotes followed with an appeal for three shrines — the oldest erected by their founder Aërias to the Paphian Venus; the second by his son Amathus to the Amathusian Venus; and a third by Teucer, exiled by the anger of his father Telamon, to Jove of Salamis. 3.63.  Deputations from other states were heard as well; till the Fathers, weary of the details, and disliking the acrimony of the discussion, empowered the consuls to investigate the titles, in search of any latent flaw, and to refer the entire question back to the senate. Their report was that — apart from the communities I have already named — they were satisfied there was a genuine sanctuary of Aesculapius at Pergamum; other claimants relied on pedigrees too ancient to be clear. "For Smyrna cited an oracle of Apollo, at whose command the town had dedicated a temple to Venus Stratonicis; Tenos, a prophecy from the same source, ordering the consecration of a statue and shrine to Neptune. Sardis touched more familiar ground with a grant from the victorious Alexander; Miletus had equal confidence in King Darius. With these two, however, the divine object of adoration was Diana in the one case, Apollo in the other. The Cretans, again, were claiming for an effigy of the deified Augustus." The senate, accordingly, passed a number of resolutions, scrupulously complimentary, but still imposing a limit; and the applicants were ordered to fix the brass records actually inside the temples, both as a solemn memorial and as a warning not to lapse into secular intrigue under the cloak of religion. 3.76.  Junia, too, born niece to Cato, wife of Caius Cassius, sister of Marcus Brutus, looked her last on life, sixty-three full years after the field of Philippi. Her will was busily discussed by the crowd; because in disposing of her great wealth she mentioned nearly every patrician of note in complimentary terms, but omitted the Caesar. The slur was taken in good part, and he offered no objection to the celebration of her funeral with a panegyric at the Rostra and the rest of the customary ceremonies. The effigies of twenty great houses preceded her to the tomb — members of the Manlian and Quinctian families, and names of equal splendour. But Brutus and Cassius shone brighter than all by the very fact that their portraits were unseen. 6.21.  For all consultations on such business he used the highest part of his villa and the confidential services of one freedman. Along the pathless and broken heights (for the house overlooks a cliff) this illiterate and robust guide led the way in front of the astrologer whose art Tiberius had resolved to investigate, and on his return, had any suspicion arisen of incompetence or of fraud, hurled him into the sea below, lest he should turn betrayer of the secret. Thrasyllus, then, introduced by the same rocky path, after he had impressed his questioner by adroit revelations of his empire to be and of the course of the future, was asked if he had ascertained his own horoscope — what was the character of that year — what the complexion of that day. A diagram which he drew up of the positions and distances of the stars at first gave him pause; then he showed signs of fear: the more careful his scrutiny, the greater his trepidation between surprise and alarm; and at last he exclaimed that a doubtful, almost a final, crisis was hard upon him. He was promptly embraced by Tiberius, who, congratulating him on the fact that he had divined, and was about to escape, his perils, accepted as oracular truth, the predictions he had made, and retained him among his closest friends. 6.22.  For myself, when I listen to this and similar narratives, my judgement wavers. Is the revolution of human things governed by fate and changeless necessity, or by accident? You will find the wisest of the ancients, and the disciplines attached to their tenets, at complete variance; in many of them a fixed belief that Heaven concerns itself neither with our origins, nor with our ending, nor, in fine, with mankind, and that so adversity continually assails the good, while prosperity dwells among the evil. Others hold, on the contrary, that, though there is certainly a fate in harmony with events, it does not emanate from wandering stars, but must be sought in the principles and processes of natural causation. Still, they leave us free to choose our life: that choice made, however, the order of the future is certain. Nor, they maintain, are evil and good what the crowd imagines: many who appear to be the sport of adverse circumstances are happy; numbers are wholly wretched though in the midst of great possessions — provided only that the former endure the strokes of fortune with firmness, while the latter employ her favours with unwisdom. With most men, however, the faith is ineradicable that the future of an individual is ordained at the moment of his entry into life; but at times a prophecy is falsified by the event, through the dishonesty of the prophet who speaks he knows not what; and thus is debased the credit of an art, of which the most striking evidences have been furnished both in the ancient world and in our own. For the forecast of Nero's reign, made by the son of this very Thrasyllus, shall be related at its fitting place: at present I do not care to stray too far from my theme. 13.5.  Nor was the pledge dishonoured, and many regulations were framed by the free decision of the senate. No advocate was to sell his services as a pleader for either fee or bounty; quaestors designate were to be under no obligation to produce a gladiatorial spectacle. The latter point, though opposed by Agrippina as a subversion of the acts of Claudius, was carried by the Fathers, whose meetings were specially convened in the Palatium, so that she could station herself at a newly-added door in their rear, shut off by a curtain thick enough to conceal her from view but not to debar her from hearing. In fact, when an Armenian deputation was pleading the national cause before Nero, she was preparing to ascend the emperor's tribunal and to share his presidency, had not Seneca, while others stood aghast, admonished the sovereign to step down and meet his mother: an assumption of filial piety which averted a scandal. 15.36.  Before long, giving up for the moment the idea of Greece (his reasons were a matter of doubt), he revisited the capital, his secret imaginations being now occupied with the eastern provinces, Egypt in particular. Then after asseverating by edict that his absence would not be for long, and that all departments of the state would remain as stable and prosperous as ever, he repaired to the Capitol in connection with his departure. There he performed his devotions; but, when he entered the temple of Vesta also, he began to quake in every limb, possibly from terror inspired by the deity, or possibly because the memory of his crimes never left him devoid of fear. He abandoned his project, therefore, with the excuse that all his interests weighed lighter with him than the love of his fatherland:— "He had seen the dejected looks of his countrymen: he could hear their whispered complaints against the long journey soon to be undertaken by one whose most limited excursions were insupportable to a people in the habit of drawing comfort under misfortune from the sight of their emperor. Consequently, as in private relationships the nearest pledges of affection were the dearest, so in public affairs the Roman people had the first call, and he must yield if it wished him to stay." These and similar professions were much to the taste of the populace with its passion for amusements and its dread of a shortage of corn (always the chief preoccupation) in the event of his absence. The senate and high aristocracy were in doubt whether his cruelty was more formidable at a distance or at close quarters: in the upshot, as is inevitable in all great terrors, they believed the worse possibility to be the one which had become a fact.
41. Tacitus, Histories, 1.2.3, 1.3.2, 1.10.3, 2.12.1, 2.22.2, 2.47.1, 2.47.3, 3.71.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 33, 113, 122, 136, 329, 332
42. Seneca The Younger, De Clementia, 1.10.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 33
43. Seneca The Younger, Apocolocyntosis, 11.4-11.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 33
44. Appian, Civil Wars, 1.11.100, 2.17.119 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 302; Vlassopoulos (2021) 133
45. Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 21.88, 23.88 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dignas (2002) 117, 118
46. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 80.3-80.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 286
47. Plutarch, Marius, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sulla, l. cornelius, role in civil/numidian wars Found in books: Galinsky (2016) 225
48. Plutarch, Brutus, 30.3, 31.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 301, 302
30.3. καὶ πάλιν διαστάντες ἐπὶ τὰς προσηκούσας ἑκατέρῳ πράξεις, Κάσσιος μὲν ἑλὼν Ῥόδον οὐκ ἐπιεικῶς ἐχρῆτο τοῖς πράγμασι, Καὶ ταῦτα περὶ τὴν εἴσοδον τοῖς προσαγορεύουσιν αὐτὸν βασιλέα Καὶ κύριον ἀποκρινάμενος· οὔτε βασιλεὺς οὔτε κύριος, τοῦ δὲ κυρίου Καὶ βασιλέως φονεὺς Καὶ κολαστής. Βροῦτος δὲ Λυκίους ᾔτει χρήματα Καὶ στρατόν. 31.7. Ξάνθιοι μὲν οὖν διὰ πολλῶν χρόνων ὥσπερ εἱμαρμένην περίοδον διαφθορᾶς ἀποδιδόντες τὴν τῶν προγόνων ἀνενεώσαντο τῇ τόλμῃ τύχην καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνοι τὴν πόλιν ὁμοίως ἐπὶ τῶν Περσικῶν κατακαύσαντες ἑαυτοὺς διέφθειραν. 30.3. 31.7.
49. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.121, 7.159, 37.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and family •families, and civil wars •civil wars •sulla, l. cornelius, role in civil/numidian wars Found in books: Fertik (2019) 22; Galinsky (2016) 225; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 245
50. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.244-14.246 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 119
14.244. 21. “Publius Servilius, the son of Publius, of the Galban tribe, the proconsul, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Milesians, sendeth greeting. 14.245. Prytanes, the son of Hermes, a citizen of yours, came to me when I was at Tralles, and held a court there, and informed me that you used the Jews in a way different from my opinion, and forbade them to celebrate their Sabbaths, and to perform the sacred rites received from their forefathers, and to manage the fruits of the land, according to their ancient custom; and that he had himself been the promulger of your decree, according as your laws require: 14.246. I would therefore have you know, that upon hearing the pleadings on both sides, I gave sentence that the Jews should not be prohibited to make use of their own customs.”
51. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.414-6.420 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Vlassopoulos (2021) 80
6.414. 2. And now, since his soldiers were already quite tired with killing men, and yet there appeared to be a vast multitude still remaining alive, Caesar gave orders that they should kill none but those that were in arms, and opposed them, but should take the rest alive. 6.415. But, together with those whom they had orders to slay, they slew the aged and the infirm; but for those that were in their flourishing age, and who might be useful to them, they drove them together into the temple, and shut them up within the walls of the court of the women; 6.416. over which Caesar set one of his freedmen, as also Fronto, one of his own friends; which last was to determine everyone’s fate, according to his merits. 6.417. So this Fronto slew all those that had been seditious and robbers, who were impeached one by another; but of the young men he chose out the tallest and most beautiful, and reserved them for the triumph; 6.418. and as for the rest of the multitude that were above seventeen years old, he put them into bonds, and sent them to the Egyptian mines Titus also sent a great number into the provinces, as a present to them, that they might be destroyed upon their theatres, by the sword and by the wild beasts; but those that were under seventeen years of age were sold for slaves. 6.419. Now during the days wherein Fronto was distinguishing these men, there perished, for want of food, eleven thousand; some of whom did not taste any food, through the hatred their guards bore to them; and others would not take in any when it was given them. The multitude also was so very great, that they were in want even of corn for their sustece. 6.420. 3. Now the number of those that were carried captive during this whole war was collected to be ninety-seven thousand; as was the number of those that perished during the whole siege eleven hundred thousand,
52. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 80.3-80.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 286
53. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.1-1.3, 1.6-1.8, 1.39, 1.119-1.120, 2.25-2.26, 2.35-2.36, 2.38-2.42, 2.297-2.303, 2.322-2.323, 4.789-4.790, 5.274-5.282, 6.303-6.306, 6.309-6.311, 6.788-6.789, 6.791, 7.264-7.269, 7.318-7.323, 7.557-7.568, 7.577-7.580, 7.789-7.794, 7.796-7.799, 8.67, 9.24-9.27, 9.227-9.236, 9.507-9.510, 9.601 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars in rome •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars •civil wars, writing about •civil wars, and family •families, and civil wars •civil wars, in lucan •civil wars, and cato the younger •civil wars, new order after •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Fertik (2019) 22, 24, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 38; Giusti (2018) 5, 233, 278; O, Daly (2020) 109; Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 36
54. Plutarch, Sulla, 12.3-12.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dignas (2002) 117; Galinsky (2016) 214
12.3. ἐπιλειπούσης δὲ τῆς ὕλης διὰ τὸ κόπτεσθαι πολλὰ τῶν ἔργων περικλώμενα τοῖς αὑτῶν βρίθεσι καὶ πυρπολεῖσθαι βαλλόμενα συνεχῶς ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων, ἐπεχείρησε τοῖς ἱεροῖς ἄλσεσι, καὶ τήν τε Ἀκαδήμειαν ἔκειρε δενδροφορωτάτην προαστείων οὖσαν καὶ τὸ Λύκειον. ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ χρημάτων ἔδει πολλῶν πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον, ἐκίνει τὰ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἄσυλα, τοῦτο μὲν ἐξ Ἐπιδαύρου, τοῦτο δὲ ἐξ Ὀλυμπίας, τὰ κάλλιστα καὶ πολυτελέστατα τῶν ἀναθημάτων μεταπεμπόμενος. 12.4. ἔγραψε δὲ καὶ τοῖς Ἀμφικτύοσιν εἰς Δελφοὺς ὅτι τὰ χρήματα τοῦ θεοῦ βέλτιον εἴη κομισθῆναι πρὸς αὐτόν ἢ γὰρ φυλάξειν ἀσφαλέστερον ἢ καὶ ἀποχρησάμενος ἀποδώσειν οὐκ ἐλάττω· καὶ τῶν φίλων ἀπέστειλε Κάφιν τὸν Φωκέα κελεύσας σταθμῷ παραλαβεῖν ἕκαστον. ὁ δὲ Κάφις ἧκε μὲν εἰς Δελφούς, ὤκνει δὲ τῶν ἱερῶν θιγεῖν, καὶ πολλὰ τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων παρόντων ἀπεδάκρυσε τήν ἀνάγκην. 12.5. ἐνίων δὲ φασκόντων ἀκοῦσαι φθεγγομένης τῆς ἐν τοῖς ἀνακτόροις κιθάρας, εἴτε πιστεύσας εἴτε τὸν Σύλλαν βουλόμενος ἐμβαλεῖν εἰς δεισιδαιμονίαν, ἐπέστειλε πρὸς αὐτόν, ὁ δὲ σκώπτων ἀντέγραψε θαυμάζειν τὸν Κάφιν, εἰ μὴ συνίησιν ὅτι χαίροντος, οὐ χαλεπαίνοντος, εἴη τὸ ᾅδειν· ὥστε θαρροῦντα λαμβάνειν ἐκέλευσεν, ὡς ἡδομένου τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ διδόντος. 12.6. τὰ μὲν οὖν ἄλλα διέλαθε τούς γε πολλοὺς Ἕλληνας ἐκπεμπόμενα, τὸν δὲ ἀργυροῦν πίθον, ὃς ἦν ὑπόλοιπος ἔτι τῶν βασιλικῶν, διὰ βάρος καὶ μέγεθος οὐ δυναμένων ἀναλαβεῖν τῶν ὑποζυγίων, ἀναγκαζόμενοι κατακόπτειν οἱ Ἀμφικτύονες εἰς μνήμην ἐβάλοντο τοῦτο μὲν Τίτον Φλαμινῖνον καὶ Μάνιον Ἀκύλιον, τοῦτο δὲ Αἰμίλιον Παῦλον, ὧν ὁ μὲν Ἀντίοχον ἐξελάσας τῆς Ἑλλάδος, οἱ δὲ τούς Μακεδόνων βασιλεῖς καταπολεμήσαντες οὐ μόνον ἀπέσχοντο τῶν ἱερῶν τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ δῶρα καὶ τιμὴν αὐτοῖς καὶ σεμνότητα πολλὴν προσέθεσαν. 12.3. 12.4. 12.5. 12.6.
55. Suetonius, Nero, 49.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 34
56. Aelius Aristides, Hymn To Serapis, 29.2, 31.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pandey (2018) 163
57. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.25.1, 42.45, 43.19, 44.49.1, 49.15.5, 51.20.4, 54.27.3, 55.10.1-55.10.2, 55.12.4, 57.18.3-57.18.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Fertik (2019) 63; Marek (2019) 299; Pandey (2018) 47, 163; Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 18; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 245, 263
37.25.1.  Nevertheless, it was in someway possible at that time for the divination to be held; but it did not prove to be regular, since some birds flew up from an unlucky quarter, and so it was repeated. Other unlucky omens, too, occurred. 42.45. 1.  She would have detained him even longer in Egypt or else would have set out with him at once for Rome, had not Pharnaces not only drawn Caesar away from Egypt, very much against his will, but also hindered him from hurrying to Italy.,2.  This king was a son of Mithridates and ruled the Cimmerian Bosporus, as has been stated; he conceived the desire to win back again the entire kingdom of his ancestors, and so he revolted just at the time of the quarrel between Caesar and Pompey, and, as the Romans were at that time occupied with one another and after were detained in Egypt,,3.  he got possession of Colchis without any difficulty, and in the absence of Deiotarus subjugated all Armenia, and part? of Cappadocia, and some cities of Pontus that had been assigned to the district of Bithynia. 43.19. 1.  After this he conducted the whole festival in a brilliant manner, as was fitting in honour of victories so many and so decisive. He celebrated triumphs for the Gauls, for Egypt, for Pharnaces, and for Juba, in four sections, on four separate days.,2.  Most of it, of course, delighted the spectators, but the sight of Arsinoë of Egypt, whom he led among the captives, and the host of lictors and the symbols of triumph taken from the citizens who had fallen in Africa displeased them exceedingly.,3.  The lictors, on account of their numbers, appeared to them a most offensive multitude, since never before had they beheld so many at one time; and the sight of Arsinoë, a woman and one considered a queen, in chains, — a spectacle which had never yet been seen, at least in Rome, — aroused very great pity,,4.  and with this as an excuse they lamented their private misfortunes. She, to be sure, was released out of consideration for her brothers; but others, including Vercingetorix, were put to death. 44.49.1.  "Yet this father, this high priest, this inviolable being, this hero and god, is dead, alas, dead not by the violence of some disease, nor wasted by old age, nor wounded abroad somewhere in some war, nor caught up inexplicably by some supernatural force, but right here within the walls as the result of a plot — the man who had safely led an army into Britain; 49.15.5.  But this was mere idle talk. The people at this time resolved that a house should be presented to Caesar at public expense; for he had made public property of the place on the Palatine which he had bought for the purpose of erecting a residence upon it, and had consecrated it to Apollo, after a thunderbolt had descended upon it. Hence they voted him the house and also protection from any insult by deed or word; 51.20.4.  Now Caesar accepted all but a few of these honours, though he expressly requested that one of them, the proposal that the whole population of the city should go out to meet him, should not be put into effect. Nevertheless, the action which pleased him more than all the decrees was the closing by the senate of the gates of Janus, implying that all their wars had entirely ceased, and the taking of the augurium salutis, which at this time fallen into disuse for the reasons I have mentioned. 54.27.3.  That measure, therefore, now failed of passage, and he also received no official residence; but, inasmuch as it was absolutely necessary that the high priest should live in a public residence, he made a part of his own house public property. The house of the rex sacrificulus, however, he gave to the Vestal Virgins, because it was separated merely by a wall from their apartments. 55.10.1.  Augustus limited the number of people to be supplied with grain, a number not previously fixed, to two hundred thousand; and, as some say, he distributed largess of sixty denarii to each man. 55.10.2.  . . . to Mars, and that he himself and his grandsons should go there as often as they wished, while those who were passing from the class of boys and were being enrolled among the youths of military age should invariably do so; that those who were sent out to commands abroad should make that their starting-point; 55.12.4.  Once, when a fire destroyed the palace and many persons offered him large sums of money, he accepted nothing but an aureus from entire communities and a denarius from single individuals. I here use the name aureus, according to the Roman practice, for the coin worth one hundred sesterces. 57.18.3.  Later, when Marcus Junius and Lucius Norbanus assumed office, an omen of no little importance occurred on the very first day of the year, and it doubtless had a bearing on the fate of Germanicus. The consul Norbanus, it seems, had always been devoted to the trumpet, and as he practised on it assiduously, he wished to play the instrument on this occasion, also, at dawn, when many persons were already near his house. 57.18.4.  This proceeding startled them all alike, just as if the consul had given them a signal for battle; and they were also alarmed by the falling of the statue Janus. They were furthermore disturbed not a little by an oracle, reputed to be an utterance of the Sibyl, which, although it did not fit this period of the city's history at all, was nevertheless applied to the situation then existing. 57.18.5.  It ran:"When thrice three hundred revolving years have run their course, Civil strife upon Rome destruction shall bring, and the folly, too, of Sybaris . . ." Tiberius, now, denounced these verses as spurious and made an investigation of all the books that contained any prophecies, rejecting some as worthless and retaining others as genuine.
58. Ampelius, Lucius, Liber Memorialis, 40.3 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 200
59. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.7.5-9.7.6, 9.27.3, 9.30.1, 9.33.6, 10.19.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 117, 118
9.7.5. Σύλλας δὲ ἐς αὐτοὺς ἐχρῆτο ὅμως τῷ θυμῷ, καὶ ἄλλα τε ἐξεῦρεν ἐπὶ λύμῃ τῶν Θηβαίων καὶ τὴν ἡμίσειαν ἀπετέμετο αὐτῶν τῆς χώρας κατὰ πρόφασιν τοιαύτην. ἡνίκα ἤρχετο τοῦ πρὸς Μιθριδάτην πολέμου, χρημάτων ἐσπάνιζε· συνέλεξεν οὖν ἔκ τε Ὀλυμπίας ἀναθήματα καὶ τὰ ἐξ Ἐπιδαύρου καὶ τὰ ἐκ Δελφῶν, ὁπόσα ὑπελίποντο οἱ Φωκεῖς· 9.7.6. ταῦτα μὲν δὴ διένειμε τῇ στρατιᾷ, τοῖς θεοῖς δὲ ἀντέδωκεν ἀντὶ τῶν χρημάτων γῆς τὴν ἡμίσειαν τῆς Θηβαΐδος. τὴν μὲν δὴ ἀφαίρετον χώραν ὕστερον Ῥωμαίων χάριτι ἀνεσώσαντο οἱ Θηβαῖοι, τὰ δὲ ἄλλα ἐς τὸ ἀσθενέστατον ἀπʼ ἐκείνου προήχθησαν· καί σφισιν ἡ μὲν κάτω πόλις πᾶσα ἔρημος ἦν ἐπʼ ἐμοῦ πλὴν τὰ ἱερά, τὴν δὲ ἀκρόπολιν οἰκοῦσι Θήβας καὶ οὐ Καδμείαν καλουμένην. 9.27.3. Σαπφὼ δὲ ἡ Λεσβία πολλά τε καὶ οὐχ ὁμολογοῦντα ἀλλήλοις ἐς Ἔρωτα ᾖσε. Θεσπιεῦσι δὲ ὕστερον χαλκοῦν εἰργάσατο Ἔρωτα Λύσιππος , καὶ ἔτι πρότερον τούτου Πραξιτέλης λίθου τοῦ Πεντελῆσι. καὶ ὅσα μὲν εἶχεν ἐς Φρύνην καὶ τὸ ἐπὶ Πραξιτέλει τῆς γυναικὸς σόφισμα, ἑτέρωθι ἤδη μοι δεδήλωται· πρῶτον δὲ τὸ ἄγαλμα κινῆσαι τοῦ Ἔρωτος λέγουσι Γάιον δυναστεύσαντα ἐν Ῥώμῃ, Κλαυδίου δὲ ὀπίσω Θεσπιεῦσιν ἀποπέμψαντος Νέρωνα αὖθις δεύτερα ἀνάσπαστον ποιῆσαι. 9.30.1. ταῖς Μούσαις δὲ ἀγάλματα τὰ μὲν πρῶτά ἐστι Κηφισοδότου τέχνη πάσαις, προελθόντι δὲ οὐ πολὺ τρεῖς μέν εἰσιν αὖθις Κηφισοδότου, Στρογγυλίωνος δὲ ἕτερα τοσαῦτα, ἀνδρὸς βοῦς καὶ ἵππους ἄριστα εἰργασμένου· τὰς δὲ ὑπολοίπους τρεῖς ἐποίησεν Ὀλυμπιοσθένης . καὶ Ἀπόλλων χαλκοῦς ἐστιν ἐν Ἑλικῶνι καὶ Ἑρμῆς μαχόμενοι περὶ τῆς λύρας, καὶ Διόνυσος ὁ μὲν Λυσίππου , τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἀνέθηκε Σύλλας τοῦ Διονύσου τὸ ὀρθόν, ἔργον τῶν Μύρωνος θέας μάλιστα ἄξιον μετά γε τὸν Ἀθήνῃσιν Ἐρεχθέα· ἀνέθηκε δὲ οὐκ οἴκοθεν, Ὀρχομενίους δὲ ἀφελόμενος τοὺς Μινύας. τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων λεγόμενον θυμιάμασιν ἀλλοτρίοις τὸ θεῖον σέβεσθαι. 9.33.6. Σύλλα δὲ ἔστι μὲν καὶ τὰ ἐς Ἀθηναίους ἀνήμερα καὶ ἤθους ἀλλότρια τοῦ Ῥωμαίων, ἐοικότα δὲ τούτοις καὶ τὰ ἐς Θηβαίους τε καὶ Ὀρχομενίους· προσεξειργάσατο δὲ καὶ ἐν ταῖς Ἀλαλκομεναῖς, τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς τὸ ἄγαλμα αὐτὸ συλήσας. τοῦτον μὲν τοιαῦτα ἔς τε Ἑλληνίδας πόλεις καὶ θεοὺς τοὺς Ἑλλήνων ἐκμανέντα ἐπέλαβεν ἀχαριστοτάτη νόσος πασῶν· φθειρῶν γὰρ ἤνθησεν, ἥ τε πρότερον εὐτυχία δοκοῦσα ἐς τοιοῦτο περιῆλθεν αὐτῷ τέλος. τὸ δὲ ἱερὸν τὸ ἐν ταῖς Ἀλαλκομεναῖς ἠμελήθη τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε ἅτε ἠρημωμένον τῆς θεοῦ. 10.19.2. οὗτοι περὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ Πήλιον ἐπιπεσόντος ναυτικῷ τῷ Ξέρξου βιαίου χειμῶνος προσεξειργάσαντό σφισιν ἀπώλειαν, τάς τε ἀγκύρας καὶ εἰ δή τι ἄλλο ἔρυμα ταῖς τριήρεσιν ἦν ὑφέλκοντες. ἀντὶ τούτου μὲν οἱ Ἀμφικτύονες καὶ αὐτὸν Σκύλλιν καὶ τὴν παῖδα ἀνέθεσαν· ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἀνδριᾶσιν ὁπόσους Νέρων ἔλαβεν ἐκ Δελφῶν, ἐν τούτοις τὸν ἀριθμὸν καὶ τῆς Ὕδνης ἀπεπλήρωσεν ἡ εἰκών. καταδύονται δὲ ἐς θάλασσαν γένους τοῦ θήλεος αἱ καθαρῶς ἔτι παρθένοι. 9.7.5. Sulla nevertheless was angry with them, and among his plans to humble them was to cut away one half of their territory. His pretext was as follows. When he began the war against Mithridates, he was short of funds. So he collected offerings from Olympia , those at Epidaurus , and all those at Delphi that had been left by the Phocians. 9.7.6. These he divided among his soldiery, and repaid the gods with half of the Theban territory. Although by favour of the Romans the Thebans afterwards recovered the land of which they had been deprived, yet from this point they sank into the greatest depths of weakness. The lower city of Thebes is all deserted to-day, except the sanctuaries, and the people live on the citadel, which they call Thebes and not Cadmeia. 9.27.3. Sappho of Lesbos wrote many poems about Love, but they are not consistent. Later on Lysippus made a bronze Love for the Thespians, and previously Praxiteles one of Pentelic marble. The story of Phryne and the trick she played on Praxiteles I have related in another place. See Paus. 1.20.1 . The first to remove the image of Love, it is said, was Gaius the Roman Emperor; Claudius, they say, sent it back to Thespiae , but Nero carried it away a second time. 9.30.1. The first images of the Muses are of them all, from the hand of Cephisodotus, while a little farther on are three, also from the hand of Cephisodotus, and three more by Strongylion, an excellent artist of oxen and horses. The remaining three were made by Olympiosthenes. There is also on Helicon a bronze Apollo fighting with Hermes for the lyre. There is also a Dionysus by Lysippus; the standing image, however, of Dionysus, that Sulla dedicated, is the most noteworthy of the works of Myron after the Erectheus at Athens . What he dedicated was not his own; he took it away from the Minyae of Orchomenus . This is an illustration of the Greek proverb, “to worship the gods with other people's incense.” 9.33.6. Sulla's treatment of the Athenians was savage and foreign to the Roman character, but quite consistent with his treatment of Thebes and Orchomenus . But in Alalcomenae he added yet another to his crimes by stealing the image of Athena itself. After these mad outrages against the Greek cities and the gods of the Greeks he was attacked by the most foul of diseases. He broke out into lice, and what was formerly accounted his good fortune came to such an end. The sanctuary at Alalcomenae, deprived of the goddess, was hereafter neglected. 10.19.2. When the fleet of Xerxes was attacked by a violent storm off Mount Pelion, father and daughter completed its destruction by dragging away under the sea the anchors and any other security the triremes had. In return for this deed the Amphictyons dedicated statues of Scyllis and his daughter. The statue of Hydna completed the number of the statues that Nero carried off from Delphi . Only those of the female sex who are pure virgins may dive into the sea. This sentence is probably a marginal note which has crept into the text.
60. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1.15 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Pandey (2018) 47
1.15. Now, since it is evident from these things that they were men, it is not difficult to see in what manner they began to be called gods. For if there were no kings before Saturn or Uranus, on account of the small number of men who lived a rustic life without any ruler, there is no doubt but in those times men began to exalt the king himself, and his whole family, with the highest praises and with new honours, so that they even called them gods; whether on account of their wonderful excellence, men as yet rude and simple really entertained this opinion, or, as is commonly the case, in flattery of present power, or on account of the benefits by which they were set in order and reduced to a civilized state. Afterwards the kings themselves, since they were beloved by those whose life they had civilized, after their death left regret of themselves. Therefore men formed images of them, that they might derive some consolation from the contemplation of their likenesses; and proceeding further through love of their worth, they began to reverence the memory of the deceased, that they might appear to be grateful for their services, and might attract their successors to a desire of ruling well. And this Cicero teaches in his treatise on the Nature of the Gods, saying But the life of men and common intercourse led to the exalting to heaven by fame and goodwill men who were distinguished by their benefits. On this account Hercules, on this Castor and Pollux, Æsculapius and Liber were ranked with the gods. And in another passage: And in most states it may be understood, that for the sake of exciting valour, or that the men most distinguished for bravery might more readily encounter danger on account of the state, their memory was consecrated with the honour paid to the immortal gods. It was doubtless on this account that the Romans consecrated their C sars, and the Moors their kings. Thus by degrees religious honours began to be paid to them; while those who had known them, first instructed their own children and grandchildren, and afterwards all their posterity, in the practice of this rite. And yet these great kings, on account of the celebrity of their name, were honoured in all provinces. But separate people privately honoured the founders of their nation or city with the highest veneration, whether they were men distinguished for bravery, or women admirable for chastity; as the Egyptians honoured Isis, the Moors Juba, the Macedonians Cabirus, the Carthaginians Uranus, the Latins Faunus, the Sabines Sancus, the Romans Quirinus. In the same manner truly Athens worshipped Minerva, Samos Juno, Paphos Venus, Lemnos Vulcan, Naxos Liber, and Delos Apollo. And thus various sacred rites have been undertaken among different peoples and countries, inasmuch as men desire to show gratitude to their princes, and cannot find out other honours which they may confer upon the dead. Moreover, the piety of their successors contributed in a great degree to the error; for, in order that they might appear to be born from a divine origin, they paid divine honours to their parents, and ordered that they should be paid by others. Can any one doubt in what way the honours paid to the gods were instituted, when he reads in Virgil the words of Æneas giving commands to his friends: - Now with full cups libation pour To mighty Jove, whom all adore, Invoke Anchises' blessed soul.And he attributes to him not only immortality, but also power over the winds: - Invoke the winds to speed our flight, And pray that he we hold so dear May take our offerings year by year, Soon as our promised town we raise, In temples sacred to his praise.In truth, Liber and Pan, and Mercury and Apollo, acted in the same way respecting Jupiter, and afterwards their successors did the same respecting them. The poets also added their influence, and by means of poems composed to give pleasure, raised them to the heaven; as is the case with those who flatter kings, even though wicked, with false panegyrics. And this evil originated with the Greeks, whose levity being furnished with the ability and copiousness of speech, excited in an incredible degree mists of falsehoods. And thus from admiration of them they first undertook their sacred rites, and handed them down to all nations. On account of this vanity the Sibyl thus rebukes them:- Why do you trust, O Greece, to princely men? Why do you offer empty gifts to the dead? You offer to idols; this error who suggested, That you should leave the presence of the mighty God, And make these offerings?Marcus Tullius, who was not only an accomplished orator, but also a philosopher, since he alone was an imitator of Plato, in that treatise in which he consoled himself concerning the death of his daughter, did not hesitate to say that those gods who were publicly worshipped were men. And this testimony of his ought to be esteemed the more weighty, because he held the priesthood of the augurs, and testifies that he worships and venerates the same gods. And thus within the compass of a few verses he has presented us with two facts. For while he declared his intention of consecrating the image of his daughter in the same manner in which they were consecrated by the ancients, he both taught that they were dead, and showed the origin of a vain superstition. Since, in truth, he says, we see many men and women among the number of the gods, and venerate their shrines, held in the greatest honour in cities and in the country, let us assent to the wisdom of those to whose talents and inventions we owe it that life is altogether adorned with laws and institutions, and established on a firm basis. And if any living being was worthy of being consecrated, assuredly it was this. If the offspring of Cadmus, or Amphitryon, or Tyndarus, was worthy of being extolled by fame to the heaven, the same honour ought undoubtedly to be appropriated to her. And this indeed I will do; and with the approbation of the gods, I will place you the best and most learned of all women in their assembly, and will consecrate you to the estimation of all men. Some one may perhaps say that Cicero raved through excessive grief. But, in truth, the whole of that speech, which was perfect both in learning and in its examples, and in the very style of expression, gave no indications of a distempered mind, but of constancy and judgment; and this very sentence exhibits no sign of grief. For I do not think that he could have written with such variety, and copiousness, and ornament, had not his grief been mitigated by reason itself, and the consolation of his friends and length of time. Why should I mention what he says in his books concerning the Republic, and also concerning glory? For in his treatise on the Laws, in which work, following the example of Plato, he wished to set forth those laws which he thought that a just and wise state would employ, he thus decreed concerning religion: Let them reverence the gods, both those who have always been regarded as gods of heaven, and those whose services to men have placed them in heaven: Hercules, Liber, Æsculapius, Castor, Pollux, and Quirinus. Also in his Tusculan Disputations, when he said that heaven was almost entirely filled with the human race, he said: If, indeed, I should attempt to investigate ancient accounts, and to extract from them those things which the writers of Greece have handed down, even those who are held in the highest rank as gods will be found to have gone from us into heaven. Inquire whose sepulchres are pointed out in Greece: remember, since you are initiated, what things are handed down in the mysteries; and then at length you will understand how widely this persuasion is spread. He appealed, as it is plain, to the conscience of Atticus, that it might be understood from the very mysteries that all those who are worshipped were men; and when he acknowledged this without hesitation in the case of Hercules, Liber, Æsculapius, Castor and Pollux, he was afraid openly to make the same admission respecting Apollo and Jupiter their fathers, and likewise respecting Neptune, Vulcan, Mars, and Mercury, whom he termed the greater gods; and therefore he says that this opinion is widely spread, that we may understand the same concerning Jupiter and the other more ancient gods: for if the ancients consecrated their memory in the same manner in which he says that he will consecrate the image and the name of his daughter, those who mourn may be pardoned, but those who believe it cannot be pardoned. For who is so infatuated as to believe that heaven is opened to the dead at the consent and pleasure of a senseless multitude? Or that any one is able to give to another that which he himself does not possess? Among the Romans, Julius was made a god, because it pleased a guilty man, Antony; Quirinus was made a god, because it seemed good to the shepherds, though one of them was the murderer of his twin brother, the other the destroyer of his country. But if Antony had not been consul, in return for his services towards the state Caius C sar would have been without the honour even of a dead man, and that, too, by the advice of his father-in-law Piso, and of his relative Lucius C sar, who opposed the celebration of the funeral, and by the advice of Dolabella the consul, who overthrew the column in the forum, that is, his monuments, and purified the forum. For Ennius declares that Romulus was regretted by his people, since he represents the people as thus speaking, through grief for their lost king: O Romulus, Romulus, say what a guardian of your country the gods produced you? You brought us forth within the regions of light. O father, O sire, O race, descended from the gods. On account of this regret they more readily believed Julius Proculus uttering falsehoods, who was suborned by the fathers to announce to the populace that he had seen the king in a form more majestic than that of a man; and that he had given command to the people that a temple should be built to his honour, that he was a god, and was called by the name of Quirinus. By which deed he at once persuaded the people that Romulus had gone to the gods, and freed the senate from the suspicion of having slain the king.
61. Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of Constantine, 2.46.2, 3.3.1-3.3.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 23
62. Synesius of Cyrene, Oratio De Regno, 6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 38
63. Proba, Cento, 1-6, 8, 7 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 39
64. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 16.10.1, 17.12.10, 21.16.5, 26.5.13 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 21, 39
16.10.1. While these events were so being arranged in the Orient and in Gaul in accordance with the times, Constantius, as if the temple of Janus had been closed and all his enemies overthrown, was eager to visit Rome and after the death of Magnentius to celebrate, without a title, a triumph over Roman blood. 17.12.10. At last, however, he was reassured and bidden to rise, and getting up on his knees and recovering the use of his voice, he begged that indulgence for his offences, and pardon, be granted him. Upon this the throng was admitted to make its entreaties, but mute terror closed their lips, so long as the fate of their superior was uncertain. But when he was told to get up from the ground and gave the long awaited signal for their petition, all threw down their shields and spears, stretched out their hands with prayers, and succeeded in many ways in outdoing their prince in lowly supplication. 21.16.5. By a prudent and temperate manner of life and by moderation in eating and drinking he maintained such sound health that he rarely suffered from illnesses, but such as he had were of a dangerous character. For that abstinence from dissipation and luxury have this effect on the body is shown by repeated experience, as well as by the statements of physicians. 26.5.13. At last, after giving careful thought to what was expedient, he followed the view of the majority, often repeating that Procopius was only his own and his brother’s enemy, but the Alamanni were enemies of the whole Roman world; and so he resolved for the present nowhere to leave the boundaries of Gaul.
65. Themistius, Orations, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 38
66. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 2.4.21 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, writing about Found in books: Giusti (2018) 2
67. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 2.4.21 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, writing about Found in books: Giusti (2018) 2
68. Symmachus, Letters, 4.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 34
69. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Aurelian, 34.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 17
70. Victor, Epitome De Caesaribus, 40.13 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 36
71. Augustine, The City of God, 17.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars in rome Found in books: O, Daly (2020) 106
17.4. Therefore the advance of the city of God, where it reached the times of the kings, yielded a figure, when, on the rejection of Saul, David first obtained the kingdom on such a footing that thenceforth his descendants should reign in the earthly Jerusalem in continual succession; for the course of affairs signified and foretold, what is not to be passed by in silence, concerning the change of things to come, what belongs to both Testaments, the Old and the New - where the priesthood and kingdom are changed by one who is a priest, and at the same time a king, new and everlasting, even Christ Jesus. For both the substitution in the ministry of God, on Eli's rejection as priest, of Samuel, who executed at once the office of priest and judge, and the establishment of David in the kingdom, when Saul was rejected, typified this of which I speak. And Hannah herself, the mother of Samuel, who formerly was barren, and afterwards was gladdened with fertility, does not seem to prophesy anything else, when she exultingly pours forth her thanksgiving to the Lord, on yielding up to God the same boy she had born and weaned with the same piety with which she had vowed him. For she says, My heart is made strong in the Lord, and my horn is exalted in my God; my mouth is enlarged over mine enemies; I am made glad in Your salvation. Because there is none holy as the Lord; and none is righteous as our God: there is none holy save You. Do not glory so proudly, and do not speak lofty things, neither let vaunting talk come out of your mouth; for a God of knowledge is the Lord, and a God preparing His curious designs. The bow of the mighty has He made weak, and the weak are girded with strength. They that were full of bread are diminished; and the hungry have passed beyond the earth: for the barren has born seven; and she that has many children has grown feeble. The Lord kills and makes alive: He brings down to hell, and brings up again. The Lord makes poor and makes rich: He brings low and lifts up. He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts up the beggar from the dunghill, that He may set him among the mighty of [His] people, and makes them inherit the throne of glory; giving the vow to him that vowes, and He has blessed the years of the just: for man is not mighty in strength. The Lord shall make His adversary weak: the Lord is holy. Let not the prudent glory in his prudence and let not the mighty glory in his might; and let not the rich glory in his riches: but let him that glories glory in this, to understand and know the Lord, and to do judgment and justice in the midst of the earth. The Lord has ascended into the heavens, and has thundered: He shall judge the ends of the earth, for He is righteous: and He gives strength to our kings, and shall exalt the horn of His Christ. Do you say that these are the words of a single weak woman giving thanks for the birth of a son? Can the mind of men be so much averse to the light of truth as not to perceive that the sayings this woman pours forth exceed her measure? Moreover, he who is suitably interested in these things which have already begun to be fulfilled even in this earthly pilgrimage also, does he not apply his mind, and perceive, and acknowledge, that through this woman- whose very name, which is Hannah, means His grace- the very Christian religion, the very city of God, whose king and founder is Christ, in fine, the very grace of God, has thus spoken by the prophetic Spirit, whereby the proud are cut off so that they fall, and the humble are filled so that they rise, which that hymn chiefly celebrates? Unless perchance any one will say that this woman prophesied nothing, but only lauded God with exulting praise on account of the son whom she had obtained in answer to prayer. What then does she mean when she says, The bow of the mighty has He made weak, and the weak are girded with strength; they that were full of bread are diminished, and the hungry have gone beyond the earth; for the barren has born seven, and she that has many children has grown feeble? Had she herself born seven, although she had been barren? She had only one when she said that; neither did she bear seven afterwards, nor six, with whom Samuel himself might be the seventh, but three males and two females. And then, when as yet no one was king over that people, whence, if she did not prophesy, did she say what she puts at the end, He gives strength to our kings, and shall exalt the horn of His Christ? Therefore let the Church of Christ, the city of the great King, full of grace, prolific of offspring, let her say what the prophecy uttered about her so long before by the mouth of this pious mother confesses, My heart is made strong in the Lord, and my horn is exalted in my God. Her heart is truly made strong, and her horn is truly exalted, because not in herself, but in the Lord her God. My mouth is enlarged over mine enemies; because even in pressing straits the word of God is not bound, not even in preachers who are bound. I am made glad, she says, in Your salvation. This is Christ Jesus Himself, whom old Simeon, as we read in the Gospel, embracing as a little one, yet recognizing as great, said, Lord, now let Your servant depart in peace, for my eyes have seen Your salvation. Luke 2:25-30 Therefore may the Church say, I am made glad in Your salvation. For there is none holy as the Lord, and none is righteous as our God; as holy and sanctifying, just and justifying. There is none holy beside You; because no one becomes so except by reason of You. And then it follows, Do not glory so proudly, and do not speak lofty things, neither let vaunting talk come out of your mouth. For a God of knowledge is the Lord. He knows you even when no one knows; for he who thinks himself to be something when he is nothing deceives himself. Galatians 6:3 These things are said to the adversaries of the city of God who belong to Babylon, who presume in their own strength, and glory in themselves, not in the Lord; of whom are also the carnal Israelites, the earth-born inhabitants of the earthly Jerusalem, who, as says the apostle, being ignorant of the righteousness of God, Romans 10:3 that is, which God, who alone is just, and the justifier, gives to man, and wishing to establish their own, that is, which is as it were procured by their own selves, not bestowed by Him, are not subject to the righteousness of God, just because they are proud, and think they are able to please God with their own, not with that which is of God, who is the God of knowledge, and therefore also takes the oversight of consciences, there beholding the thoughts of men that they are vain, Psalm 94:11; 1 Corinthians 3:20 if they are of men, and are not from Him. And preparing, she says, His curious designs. What curious designs do we think these are, save that the proud must fall, and the humble rise? These curious designs she recounts, saying, The bow of the mighty is made weak, and the weak are girded with strength. The bow is made weak, that is, the intention of those who think themselves so powerful, that without the gift and help of God they are able by human sufficiency to fulfill the divine commandments; and those are girded with strength whose in ward cry is, Have mercy upon me, O Lord, for I am weak. They that were full of bread, she says, are diminished, and the hungry have gone beyond the earth. Who are to be understood as full of bread except those same who were as if mighty, that is, the Israelites, to whom were committed the oracles of God? Romans 3:2 But among that people the children of the bond maid were diminished - by which word minus, although it is Latin, the idea is well expressed that from being greater they were made less - because, even in the very bread, that is, the divine oracles, which the Israelites alone of all nations have received, they savor earthly things. But the nations to whom that law was not given, after they have come through the New Testament to these oracles, by thirsting much have gone beyond the earth, because in them they have savored not earthly, but heavenly things. And the reason why this is done is as it were sought; for the barren, she says, has born seven, and she that has many children has grown feeble. Here all that had been prophesied has shone forth to those who understood the number seven, which signifies the perfection of the universal Church. For which reason also the Apostle John writes to the seven churches, Revelation 1:4 showing in that way that he writes to the totality of the one Church; and in the Proverbs of Solomon it is said aforetime, prefiguring this, Wisdom has built her house, she has strengthened her seven pillars. Proverbs 9:1 For the city of God was barren in all nations before that child arose whom we see. We also see that the temporal Jerusalem, who had many children, is now waxed feeble. Because, whoever in her were sons of the free woman were her strength; but now, forasmuch as the letter is there, and not the spirit, having lost her strength, she has grown feeble. The Lord kills and makes alive: He has killed her who had many children, and made this barren one alive, so that she has born seven. Although it may be more suitably understood that He has made those same alive whom He has killed. For she, as it were, repeats that by adding, He brings down to hell, and brings up. To whom truly the apostle says, If you be dead with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sits on the right hand of God. Colossians 3:1-3 Therefore they are killed by the Lord in a salutary way, so that he adds, Savor things which are above, not things on the earth; so that these are they who, hungering, have passed beyond the earth. For you are dead, he says: behold how God savingly kills! Then there follows, And your life is hid with Christ in God: behold how God makes the same alive! But does He bring them down to hell and bring them up again? It is without controversy among believers that we best see both parts of this work fulfilled in Him, to wit our Head, with whom the apostle has said our life is hid in God. For when He spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, Romans 8:32 in that way, certainly, He has killed Him. And forasmuch as He raised Him up again from the dead, He has made Him alive again. And since His voice is acknowledged in the prophecy, You will not leave my soul in hell, He has brought Him down to hell and brought Him up again. By this poverty of His we are made rich; 2 Corinthians 8:9 for the Lord makes poor and makes rich. But that we may know what this is, let us hear what follows: He brings low and lifts up; and truly He humbles the proud and exalts the humble. Which we also read elsewhere, God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. This is the burden of the entire song of this woman whose name is interpreted His grace. Farther, what is added, He raises up the poor from the earth, I understand of none better than of Him who, as was said a little ago, was made poor for us, when He was rich, that by His poverty we might be made rich. For He raised Him from the earth so quickly that His flesh did not see corruption. Nor shall I divert from Him what is added, And raises up the poor from the dunghill. For indeed he who is the poor man is also the beggar. But by the dunghill from which he is lifted up we are with the greatest reason to understand the persecuting Jews, of whom the apostle says, when telling that when he belonged to them he persecuted the Church, What things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ; and I have counted them not only loss, but even dung, that I might win Christ. Philippians 3:7-8 Therefore that poor one is raised up from the earth above all the rich, and that beggar is lifted up from that dunghill above all the wealthy, that he may sit among the mighty of the people, to whom He says, You shall sit upon twelve thrones, Matthew 19:27-28 and to make them inherit the throne of glory. For these mighty ones had said, Lo, we have forsaken all and followed You. They had most mightily vowed this vow. But whence do they receive this, except from Him of whom it is here immediately said, Giving the vow to him that vows? Otherwise they would be of those mighty ones whose bow is weakened. Giving, she says, the vow to him that vowes. For no one could vow anything acceptable to God, unless he received from Him that which he might vow. There follows, And He has blessed the years of the just, to wit, that he may live for ever with Him to whom it is said, And Your years shall have no end. For there the years abide; but here they pass away, yea, they perish: for before they come they are not, and when they shall have come they shall not be, because they bring their own end with them. Now of these two, that is, giving the vow to him that vowes, and He has blessed the years of the just, the one is what we do, the other what we receive. But this other is not received from God, the liberal giver, until He, the helper, Himself has enabled us for the former; for man is not mighty in strength. The Lord shall make his adversary weak, to wit, him who envies the man that vows, and resists him, lest he should fulfill what he has vowed. Owing to the ambiguity of the Greek, it may also be understood his own adversary. For when God has begun to possess us, immediately he who had been our adversary becomes His, and is conquered by us; but not by our own strength, for man is not mighty in strength. Therefore the Lord shall make His own adversary weak, the Lord is holy, that he may be conquered by the saints, whom the Lord, the Holy of holies, has made saints. For this reason, let not the prudent glory in his prudence, and let not the mighty glory in his might, and let not the rich glory in his riches; but let him that glories glory in this - to understand and know the Lord, and to do judgment and justice in the midst of the earth. He in no small measure understands and knows the Lord who understands and knows that even this, that he can understand and know the Lord, is given to him by the Lord. For what have you, says the apostle, that you have not received? But if you have received it, why do you glory as if you had not received it? 1 Corinthians 4:7 That is, as if you had of your own self whereof you might glory. Now, he does judgment and justice who lives aright. But he lives aright who yields obedience to God when He commands. The end of the commandment, that is, to which the commandment has reference, is charity out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned. Moreover, this charity, as the Apostle John testifies, is of God. 1 John 4:7 Therefore to do justice and judgment is of God. But what is in the midst of the earth? For ought those who dwell in the ends of the earth not to do judgment and justice? Who would say so? Why, then, is it added, In the midst of the earth? For if this had not been added, and it had only been said, To do judgment and justice, this commandment would rather have pertained to both kinds of men - both those dwelling inland and those on the sea-coast. But lest any one should think that, after the end of the life led in this body, there remains a time for doing judgment and justice which he has not done while he was in the flesh, and that the divine judgment can thus be escaped, in the midst of the earth appears to me to be said of the time when every one lives in the body; for in this life every one carries about his own earth, which, on a man's dying, the common earth takes back, to be surely returned to him on his rising again. Therefore in the midst of the earth, that is, while our soul is shut up in this earthly body, judgment and justice are to be done, which shall be profitable for us hereafter, when every one shall receive according to that he has done in the body, whether good or bad. 2 Corinthians 5:10 For when the apostle there says in the body, he means in the time he has lived in the body. Yet if any one blaspheme with malicious mind and impious thought, without any member of his body being employed in it, he shall not therefore be guiltless because he has not done it with bodily motion, for he will have done it in that time which he has spent in the body. In the same way we may suitably understand what we read in the psalm, But God, our King before the worlds, has wrought salvation in the midst of the earth; so that the Lord Jesus may be understood to be our God who is before the worlds, because by Him the worlds were made, working our salvation in the midst of the earth, for the Word was made flesh and dwelt in an earthly body. Then after Hannah has prophesied in these words, that he who glories ought to glory not in himself at all, but in the Lord, she says, on account of the retribution which is to come on the day of judgment, The Lord has ascended into the heavens, and has thundered: He shall judge the ends of the earth, for He is righteous. Throughout she holds to the order of the creed of Christians: For the Lord Christ has ascended into heaven, and is to come thence to judge the quick and dead. Acts 10:42 For, as says the apostle, Who has ascended but He who has also descended into the lower parts of the earth? He that descended is the same also that ascended up above all heavens, that He might fill all things. Ephesians 4:9-10 Therefore He has thundered through His clouds, which He has filled with His Holy Spirit when He ascended up. Concerning which the bond maid Jerusalem - that is, the unfruitful vineyard - is threatened in Isaiah the prophet that they shall rain no showers upon her. But He shall judge the ends of the earth is spoken as if it had been said, even the extremes of the earth. For it does not mean that He shall not judge the other parts of the earth, who, without doubt, shall judge all men. But it is better to understand by the extremes of the earth the extremes of man, since those things shall not be judged which, in the middle time, are changed for the better or the worse, but the ending in which he shall be found who is judged. For which reason it is said, He that shall persevere even unto the end, the same shall be saved. Matthew 24:13 He, therefore, who perseveringly does judgment and justice in the midst of the earth shall not be condemned when the extremes of the earth shall be judged. And gives, she says, strength to our kings, that He may not condemn them in judging. He gives them strength whereby as kings they rule the flesh, and conquer the world in Him who has poured out His blood for them. And shall exalt the horn of His Christ. How shall Christ exalt the horn of His Christ? For He of whom it was said above, The Lord has ascended into the heavens, meaning the Lord Christ, Himself, as it is said here, shall exalt the horn of His Christ. Who, therefore, is the Christ of His Christ? Does it mean that He shall exalt the horn of each one of His believing people, as she says in the beginning of this hymn, Mine horn is exalted in my God? For we can rightly call all those christs who are anointed with His chrism, forasmuch as the whole body with its head is one Christ. 1 Corinthians 12:12 These things has Hannah, the mother of Samuel, the holy and much-praised man, prophesied, in which, indeed, the change of the ancient priesthood was then figured and is now fulfilled, since she that had many children has grown feeble, that the barren who has born seven might have the new priesthood in Christ.
72. Claudianus Mamertus, Carmina, 28.118-28.121 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 39
73. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 9.40.21 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 34
74. Zosimus, New History, 2.14.4 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 17
75. Epigraphy, Iephesos Vii (, 3066  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 119
76. Epigraphy, Iephesos Iii, 702  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 119
77. Epigraphy, Iilion, 71  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 117
78. Caesar, Bc, 3.33, 105.1-105.2  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 119
79. Epigraphy, Ikyme, 17  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 175
80. Augustine, New Letters, 10  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Vlassopoulos (2021) 80
81. Epigraphy, Ivpriene, 111  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 117
82. Epigraphy, Iephesos V, 1522-1523  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dignas (2002) 175
83. Epigraphy, Igr Iv, 194  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 117
84. Augustus, Studia Pontica, 260  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 299
85. Strabo, Geography, 13.1.27, 14.1.23  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars •civil wars Found in books: Dignas (2002) 118; Marek (2019) 298
13.1.27. Also the Ilium of today was a kind of village-city when the Romans first set foot on Asia and expelled Antiochus the Great from the country this side of Taurus. At any rate, Demetrius of Scepsis says that, when as a lad he visited the city about that time, he found the settlement so neglected that the buildings did not so much as have tiled roofs. And Hegesianax says that when the Galatae crossed over from Europe they needed a stronghold and went up into the city for that reason, but left it at once because of its lack of walls. But later it was greatly improved. And then it was ruined again by the Romans under Fimbria, who took it by siege in the course of the Mithridatic war. Fimbria had been sent as quaestor with Valerius Flaccus the consul when the latter was appointed to the command against Mithridates; but Fimbria raised a mutiny and slew the consul in the neighborhood of Bithynia, and was himself set up as lord of the army; and when he advanced to Ilium, the Ilians would not admit him, as being a brigand, and therefore he applied force and captured the place on the eleventh day. And when he boasted that he himself had overpowered on the eleventh day the city which Agamemnon had only with difficulty captured in the tenth year, although the latter had with him on his expedition the fleet of a thousand vessels and the whole of Greece, one of the Ilians said: Yes, for the city's champion was no Hector. Now Sulla came over and overthrew Fimbria, and on terms of agreement sent Mithridates away to his homeland, but he also consoled the Ilians by numerous improvements. In my time, however, the deified Caesar was far more thoughtful of them, at the same time also emulating the example of Alexander; for Alexander set out to provide for them on the basis of a renewal of ancient kinship, and also because at the same time he was fond of Homer; at any rate, we are told of a recension of the poetry of Homer, the Recension of the Casket, as it is called, which Alexander, along with Callisthenes and Anaxarchus, perused and to a certain extent annotated, and then deposited in a richly wrought casket which he had found amongst the Persian treasures. Accordingly, it was due both to his zeal for the poet and to his descent from the Aeacidae who reigned as kings of the Molossians — where, as we are also told, Andromache, who had been the wife of Hector, reigned as queen — that Alexander was kindly disposed towards the Ilians. But Caesar, not only being fond of Alexander, but also having better known evidences of kinship with the Ilians, felt encouraged to bestow kindness upon them with all the zest of youth: better known evidences, first, because he was a Roman, and because the Romans believe Aeneias to have been their original founder; and secondly, because the name Iulius was derived from that of a certain Iulus who was one of his ancestors, and this Iulus got his appellation from the Iulus who was one of the descendants of Aeneas. Caesar therefore allotted territory to them end also helped them to preserve their freedom and their immunity from taxation; and to this day they remain in possession of these favors. But that this is not the site of the ancient Ilium, if one considers the matter in accordance with Homer's account, is inferred from the following considerations. But first I must give a general description of the region in question, beginning at that point on the coast where I left off. 14.1.23. After the completion of the temple of Artemis, which, he says, was the work of Cheirocrates (the same man who built Alexandreia and the same man who proposed to Alexander to fashion Mt. Athos into his likeness, representing him as pouring a libation from a kind of ewer into a broad bowl, and to make two cities, one on the right of the mountain and the other on the left, and a river flowing from one to the other) — after the completion of the temple, he says, the great number of dedications in general were secured by means of the high honor they paid their artists, but the whole of the altar was filled, one might say, with the works of Praxiteles. They showed me also some of the works of Thrason, who made the chapel of Hecate, the waxen image of Penelope, and the old woman Eurycleia. They had eunuchs as priests, whom they called Megabyzi. And they were always in quest of persons from other places who were worthy of this preferment, and they held them in great honor. And it was obligatory for maidens to serve as colleagues with them in their priestly office. But though at the present some of their usages are being preserved, yet others are not; but the sanctuary remains a place of refuge, the same as in earlier times, although the limits of the refuge have often been changed; for example, when Alexander extended them for a stadium, and when Mithridates shot an arrow from the corner of the roof and thought it went a little farther than a stadium, and when Antony doubled this distance and included within the refuge a part of the city. But this extension of the refuge proved harmful, and put the city in the power of criminals; and it was therefore nullified by Augustus Caesar.
86. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 2.8.7, 5.4-5.7, 8.14.4  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) •civil wars, and family •families, and civil wars •sulla, l. cornelius, role in civil/numidian wars Found in books: Fertik (2019) 22; Galinsky (2016) 225; Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 17
87. Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, 2.81.3  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Fertik (2019) 63
88. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.12-1.16, 1.20-1.21, 1.34-1.222, 1.267-1.277, 1.279-1.282, 2.3, 2.22, 2.363, 4.300-4.301, 4.378, 4.622-4.629, 4.666, 4.693-4.705, 5.7, 5.522-5.528, 5.659-5.684, 5.746-5.761, 5.774-5.775, 6.14-6.41, 6.333-6.547, 6.752-6.892, 7.73-7.80, 7.583, 8.190-8.369, 8.678-8.681, 10.495-10.505, 12.435-12.436, 12.572, 12.804  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, in propertius 2.1 •civil wars, trauma •civil wars, in the aeneid •civil wars, and punic wars •civil wars, writing about •punic wars, and civil wars •civil wars in rome •civil wars, as fall of troy •civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 5, 6, 14, 47, 94, 98, 204, 205, 206, 233, 276, 277, 278, 279; O, Daly (2020) 109, 231; Pandey (2018) 61, 80, 111, 112, 154, 155, 156, 162, 163, 165; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 113
1.12. O Muse, the causes tell! What sacrilege, 1.13. or vengeful sorrow, moved the heavenly Queen 1.14. to thrust on dangers dark and endless toil 1.15. a man whose largest honor in men's eyes 1.20. of Tiber 's stream; its wealth and revenues 1.21. were vast, and ruthless was its quest of war. 1.34. of Saturn's daughter, who remembered well 1.35. what long and unavailing strife she waged 1.36. for her loved Greeks at Troy . Nor did she fail 1.37. to meditate th' occasions of her rage, 1.38. and cherish deep within her bosom proud 1.39. its griefs and wrongs: the choice by Paris made; 1.40. her scorned and slighted beauty; a whole race 1.41. rebellious to her godhead; and Jove's smile 1.42. that beamed on eagle-ravished Ganymede. 1.43. With all these thoughts infuriate, her power 1.44. pursued with tempests o'er the boundless main 1.45. the Trojans, though by Grecian victor spared 1.46. and fierce Achilles; so she thrust them far 1.47. from Latium ; and they drifted, Heaven-impelled, 1.48. year after year, o'er many an unknown sea— 1.50. Below th' horizon the Sicilian isle 1.51. just sank from view, as for the open sea 1.52. with heart of hope they sailed, and every ship 1.53. clove with its brazen beak the salt, white waves. 1.54. But Juno of her everlasting wound 1.55. knew no surcease, but from her heart of pain 1.56. thus darkly mused: “Must I, defeated, fail 1.57. of what I will, nor turn the Teucrian King 1.58. from Italy away? Can Fate oppose? 1.59. Had Pallas power to lay waste in flame 1.60. the Argive fleet and sink its mariners, 1.61. revenging but the sacrilege obscene 1.62. by Ajax wrought, Oileus' desperate son? 1.63. She, from the clouds, herself Jove's lightning threw, 1.64. cattered the ships, and ploughed the sea with storms. 1.65. Her foe, from his pierced breast out-breathing fire, 1.66. in whirlwind on a deadly rock she flung. 1.67. But I, who move among the gods a queen, 1.68. Jove's sister and his spouse, with one weak tribe 1.69. make war so long! Who now on Juno calls? 1.71. So, in her fevered heart complaining still, 1.72. unto the storm-cloud land the goddess came, 1.73. a region with wild whirlwinds in its womb, 1.74. Aeolia named, where royal Aeolus 1.75. in a high-vaulted cavern keeps control 1.76. o'er warring winds and loud concourse of storms. 1.77. There closely pent in chains and bastions strong, 1.78. they, scornful, make the vacant mountain roar, 1.79. chafing against their bonds. But from a throne 1.80. of lofty crag, their king with sceptred hand 1.81. allays their fury and their rage confines. 1.82. Did he not so, our ocean, earth, and sky 1.83. were whirled before them through the vast ie. 1.84. But over-ruling Jove, of this in fear, 1.85. hid them in dungeon dark: then o'er them piled 1.86. huge mountains, and ordained a lawful king 1.87. to hold them in firm sway, or know what time, 1.88. with Jove's consent, to loose them o'er the world. 1.90. “Thou in whose hands the Father of all gods 1.91. and Sovereign of mankind confides the power 1.92. to calm the waters or with winds upturn, 1.93. great Aeolus! a race with me at war 1.94. now sails the Tuscan main towards Italy , 1.95. bringing their Ilium and its vanquished powers. 1.96. Uprouse thy gales. Strike that proud navy down! 1.97. Hurl far and wide, and strew the waves with dead! 1.98. Twice seven nymphs are mine, of rarest mould; 1.99. of whom Deiopea, the most fair, 1.100. I give thee in true wedlock for thine own, 1.101. to mate thy noble worth; she at thy side 1.102. hall pass long, happy years, and fruitful bring 1.104. Then Aeolus: “'T is thy sole task, O Queen, 1.105. to weigh thy wish and will. My fealty 1.106. thy high behest obeys. This humble throne 1.107. is of thy gift. Thy smiles for me obtain 1.108. authority from Jove. Thy grace concedes 1.109. my station at your bright Olympian board, 1.111. Replying thus, he smote with spear reversed 1.112. the hollow mountain's wall; then rush the winds 1.113. through that wide breach in long, embattled line, 1.114. and sweep tumultuous from land to land: 1.115. with brooding pinions o'er the waters spread, 1.116. east wind and south, and boisterous Afric gale 1.117. upturn the sea; vast billows shoreward roll; 1.118. the shout of mariners, the creak of cordage, 1.119. follow the shock; low-hanging clouds conceal 1.120. from Trojan eyes all sight of heaven and day; 1.121. night o'er the ocean broods; from sky to sky 1.122. the thunders roll, the ceaseless lightnings glare; 1.123. and all things mean swift death for mortal man. 1.124. Straightway Aeneas, shuddering with amaze, 1.125. groaned loud, upraised both holy hands to Heaven, 1.126. and thus did plead: “O thrice and four times blest, 1.127. ye whom your sires and whom the walls of Troy 1.128. looked on in your last hour! O bravest son 1.129. Greece ever bore, Tydides! O that I 1.130. had fallen on Ilian fields, and given this life 1.131. truck down by thy strong hand! where by the spear 1.132. of great Achilles, fiery Hector fell, 1.133. and huge Sarpedon; where the Simois 1.134. in furious flood engulfed and whirled away 1.136. While thus he cried to Heaven, a shrieking blast 1.137. mote full upon the sail. Up surged the waves 1.138. to strike the very stars; in fragments flew 1.139. the shattered oars; the helpless vessel veered 1.140. and gave her broadside to the roaring flood, 1.141. where watery mountains rose and burst and fell. 1.142. Now high in air she hangs, then yawning gulfs 1.143. lay bare the shoals and sands o'er which she drives. 1.144. Three ships a whirling south wind snatched and flung 1.145. on hidden rocks,—altars of sacrifice 1.146. Italians call them, which lie far from shore 1.147. a vast ridge in the sea; three ships beside 1.148. an east wind, blowing landward from the deep, 1.149. drove on the shallows,—pitiable sight,— 1.150. and girdled them in walls of drifting sand. 1.151. That ship, which, with his friend Orontes, bore 1.152. the Lycian mariners, a great, plunging wave 1.153. truck straight astern, before Aeneas' eyes. 1.154. Forward the steersman rolled and o'er the side 1.155. fell headlong, while three times the circling flood 1.156. pun the light bark through swift engulfing seas. 1.157. Look, how the lonely swimmers breast the wave! 1.158. And on the waste of waters wide are seen 1.159. weapons of war, spars, planks, and treasures rare, 1.160. once Ilium 's boast, all mingled with the storm. 1.161. Now o'er Achates and Ilioneus, 1.162. now o'er the ship of Abas or Aletes, 1.163. bursts the tempestuous shock; their loosened seams 1.165. Meanwhile how all his smitten ocean moaned, 1.166. and how the tempest's turbulent assault 1.167. had vexed the stillness of his deepest cave, 1.168. great Neptune knew; and with indigt mien 1.169. uplifted o'er the sea his sovereign brow. 1.170. He saw the Teucrian navy scattered far 1.171. along the waters; and Aeneas' men 1.172. o'erwhelmed in mingling shock of wave and sky. 1.173. Saturnian Juno's vengeful stratagem 1.174. her brother's royal glance failed not to see; 1.175. and loud to eastward and to westward calling, 1.176. he voiced this word: “What pride of birth or power 1.177. is yours, ye winds, that, reckless of my will, 1.178. audacious thus, ye ride through earth and heaven, 1.179. and stir these mountain waves? Such rebels I— 1.180. nay, first I calm this tumult! But yourselves 1.181. by heavier chastisement shall expiate 1.182. hereafter your bold trespass. Haste away 1.183. and bear your king this word! Not unto him 1.184. dominion o'er the seas and trident dread, 1.185. but unto me, Fate gives. Let him possess 1.186. wild mountain crags, thy favored haunt and home, 1.187. O Eurus! In his barbarous mansion there, 1.188. let Aeolus look proud, and play the king 1.190. He spoke, and swiftlier than his word subdued 1.191. the swelling of the floods; dispersed afar 1.192. th' assembled clouds, and brought back light to heaven. 1.193. Cymothoe then and Triton, with huge toil, 1.194. thrust down the vessels from the sharp-edged reef; 1.195. while, with the trident, the great god's own hand 1.196. assists the task; then, from the sand-strewn shore 1.197. out-ebbing far, he calms the whole wide sea, 1.198. and glides light-wheeled along the crested foam. 1.199. As when, with not unwonted tumult, roars 1.200. in some vast city a rebellious mob, 1.201. and base-born passions in its bosom burn, 1.202. till rocks and blazing torches fill the air 1.203. (rage never lacks for arms)—if haply then 1.204. ome wise man comes, whose reverend looks attest 1.205. a life to duty given, swift silence falls; 1.206. all ears are turned attentive; and he sways 1.207. with clear and soothing speech the people's will. 1.208. So ceased the sea's uproar, when its grave Sire 1.209. looked o'er th' expanse, and, riding on in light, 1.211. Aeneas' wave-worn crew now landward made, 1.212. and took the nearest passage, whither lay 1.213. the coast of Libya . A haven there 1.214. walled in by bold sides of a rocky isle, 1.215. offers a spacious and secure retreat, 1.216. where every billow from the distant main 1.217. breaks, and in many a rippling curve retires. 1.218. Huge crags and two confronted promontories 1.219. frown heaven-high, beneath whose brows outspread 1.220. the silent, sheltered waters; on the heights 1.221. the bright and glimmering foliage seems to show 1.222. a woodland amphitheatre; and yet higher 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by 1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. 1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! 1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end, 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care, 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore, 1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. 1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 2.3. Father Aeneas with these words began :— 2.22. with timbered ribs of fir. They falsely say 2.363. and last, Epeus, who the fabric wrought. 4.300. hoot forth blind fire to terrify the soul 4.301. with wild, unmeaning roar? O, Iook upon 4.378. her gift of love; straightway the god began: 4.622. mite with alternate wrath: Ioud is the roar, 4.623. and from its rocking top the broken boughs 4.624. are strewn along the ground; but to the crag 4.625. teadfast it ever clings; far as toward heaven 4.626. its giant crest uprears, so deep below 4.627. its roots reach down to Tartarus:—not less 4.628. the hero by unceasing wail and cry 4.629. is smitten sore, and in his mighty heart 4.666. “I know a way—O, wish thy sister joy!— 4.693. all sight and token of this husband vile. 4.694. 'T is what the witch commands.” She spoke no more, 4.695. and pallid was her brow. Yet Anna's mind 4.696. knew not what web of death her sister wove 4.697. by these strange rites, nor what such frenzy dares; 4.698. nor feared she worse than when Sichaeus died, 4.700. Soon as the funeral pyre was builded high 4.701. in a sequestered garden, Iooming huge 4.702. with boughs of pine and faggots of cleft oak, 4.703. the queen herself enwreathed it with sad flowers 4.704. and boughs of mournful shade; and crowning all 4.705. he laid on nuptial bed the robes and sword 5.7. what kindled the wild flames; but that the pang 5.522. O, if I had what yonder ruffian boasts— 5.523. my own proud youth once more! I would not ask 5.524. the fair bull for a prize, nor to the lists 5.525. in search of gifts come forth.” So saying, he threw 5.526. into the mid-arena a vast pair 5.527. of ponderous gauntlets, which in former days 5.528. fierce Eryx for his fights was wont to bind 5.659. failing, unhappy man, to bring his barb 5.660. up to the dove herself, just cut the cord 5.661. and broke the hempen bond, whereby her feet 5.662. were captive to the tree: she, taking flight, 5.663. clove through the shadowing clouds her path of air. 5.664. But swiftly—for upon his waiting bow 5.665. he held a shaft in rest—Eurytion 5.666. invoked his brother's shade, and, marking well 5.667. the dove, whose happy pinions fluttered free 5.668. in vacant sky, pierced her, hard by a cloud; 5.669. lifeless she fell, and left in light of heaven 5.670. her spark of life, as, floating down, she bore 5.671. the arrow back to earth. Acestes now 5.672. remained, last rival, though the victor's palm 5.673. to him was Iost; yet did the aged sire, 5.674. to show his prowess and resounding bow, 5.675. hurl forth one shaft in air; then suddenly 5.676. all eyes beheld such wonder as portends 5.677. events to be (but when fulfilment came, 5.678. too late the fearful seers its warning sung): 5.679. for, soaring through the stream of cloud, his shaft 5.680. took fire, tracing its bright path in flame, 5.681. then vanished on the wind,—as oft a star 5.682. will fall unfastened from the firmament, 5.683. while far behind its blazing tresses flow. 5.684. Awe-struck both Trojan and Trinacrian stood, 5.746. have greeted each his kin in all the throng, 5.747. Epytides th' appointed signal calls, 5.748. and cracks his lash; in even lines they move, 5.749. then, Ioosely sundering in triple band, 5.750. wheel at a word and thrust their lances forth 5.751. in hostile ranks; or on the ample field 5.752. retreat or charge, in figure intricate 5.753. of circling troop with troop, and swift parade 5.754. of simulated war; now from the field 5.755. they flee with backs defenceless to the foe; 5.756. then rally, lance in rest—or, mingling all, 5.757. make common front, one legion strong and fair. 5.758. As once in Crete , the lofty mountain-isle, 5.759. that-fabled labyrinthine gallery 5.760. wound on through lightless walls, with thousand paths 5.761. which baffled every clue, and led astray 5.774. and still we know them for the “Trojan Band,” 5.775. and call the lads a “ Troy .” Such was the end 6.14. The templed hill where lofty Phoebus reigns, 6.15. And that far-off, inviolable shrine 6.16. of dread Sibylla, in stupendous cave, 6.17. O'er whose deep soul the god of Delos breathes 6.18. Prophetic gifts, unfolding things to come. 6.20. Here Daedalus, the ancient story tells, 6.21. Escaping Minos' power, and having made 6.22. Hazard of heaven on far-mounting wings, 6.23. Floated to northward, a cold, trackless way, 6.24. And lightly poised, at last, o'er Cumae 's towers. 6.25. Here first to earth come down, he gave to thee 6.26. His gear of wings, Apollo! and ordained 6.27. Vast temples to thy name and altars fair. 6.28. On huge bronze doors Androgeos' death was done; 6.29. And Cecrops' children paid their debt of woe, 6.30. Where, seven and seven,—0 pitiable sight!— 6.31. The youths and maidens wait the annual doom, 6.32. Drawn out by lot from yonder marble urn. 6.33. Beyond, above a sea, lay carven Crete :— 6.34. The bull was there; the passion, the strange guile; 6.35. And Queen Pasiphae's brute-human son, 6.36. The Minotaur—of monstrous loves the sign. 6.37. Here was the toilsome, labyrinthine maze, 6.38. Where, pitying love-lorn Ariadne's tears, 6.39. The crafty Daedalus himself betrayed 6.40. The secret of his work; and gave the clue 6.41. To guide the path of Theseus through the gloom. 6.333. An altar dark, and piled upon the flames 6.334. The ponderous entrails of the bulls, and poured 6.335. Free o'er the burning flesh the goodly oil. 6.336. Then lo! at dawn's dim, earliest beam began 6.337. Beneath their feet a groaning of the ground : 6.338. The wooded hill-tops shook, and, as it seemed, 6.339. She-hounds of hell howled viewless through the shade , 6.340. To hail their Queen. “Away, 0 souls profane! 6.341. Stand far away!” the priestess shrieked, “nor dare 6.342. Unto this grove come near! Aeneas, on! 6.343. Begin thy journey! Draw thy sheathed blade! 6.344. Now, all thy courage! now, th' unshaken soul!” 6.345. She spoke, and burst into the yawning cave 6.346. With frenzied step; he follows where she leads, 6.348. Ye gods! who rule the spirits of the dead! 6.349. Ye voiceless shades and silent lands of night! 6.350. 0 Phlegethon! 0 Chaos! let my song, 6.351. If it be lawful, in fit words declare 6.352. What I have heard; and by your help divine 6.353. Unfold what hidden things enshrouded lie 6.355. They walked exploring the unpeopled night, 6.356. Through Pluto's vacuous realms, and regions void, 6.357. As when one's path in dreary woodlands winds 6.358. Beneath a misty moon's deceiving ray, 6.359. When Jove has mantled all his heaven in shade, 6.360. And night seals up the beauty of the world. 6.361. In the first courts and entrances of Hell 6.362. Sorrows and vengeful Cares on couches lie : 6.363. There sad Old Age abides, Diseases pale, 6.364. And Fear, and Hunger, temptress to all crime; 6.365. Want, base and vile, and, two dread shapes to see, 6.366. Bondage and Death : then Sleep, Death's next of kin; 6.367. And dreams of guilty joy. Death-dealing War 6.368. Is ever at the doors, and hard thereby 6.369. The Furies' beds of steel, where wild-eyed Strife 6.371. There in the middle court a shadowy elm 6.372. Its ancient branches spreads, and in its leaves 6.373. Deluding visions ever haunt and cling. 6.374. Then come strange prodigies of bestial kind : 6.375. Centaurs are stabled there, and double shapes 6.376. Like Scylla, or the dragon Lerna bred, 6.377. With hideous scream; Briareus clutching far 6.378. His hundred hands, Chimaera girt with flame, 6.379. A crowd of Gorgons, Harpies of foul wing, 6.380. And giant Geryon's triple-monstered shade. 6.381. Aeneas, shuddering with sudden fear, 6.382. Drew sword and fronted them with naked steel; 6.383. And, save his sage conductress bade him know 6.384. These were but shapes and shadows sweeping by, 6.386. Hence the way leads to that Tartarean stream 6.387. of Acheron, whose torrent fierce and foul 6.388. Disgorges in Cocytus all its sands. 6.389. A ferryman of gruesome guise keeps ward 6.390. Upon these waters,—Charon, foully garbed, 6.391. With unkempt, thick gray beard upon his chin, 6.392. And staring eyes of flame; a mantle coarse, 6.393. All stained and knotted, from his shoulder falls, 6.394. As with a pole he guides his craft, tends sail, 6.395. And in the black boat ferries o'er his dead;— 6.396. Old, but a god's old age looks fresh and strong. 6.397. To those dim shores the multitude streams on— 6.398. Husbands and wives, and pale, unbreathing forms 6.399. of high-souled heroes, boys and virgins fair, 6.400. And strong youth at whose graves fond parents mourned. 6.401. As numberless the throng as leaves that fall 6.402. When autumn's early frost is on the grove; 6.403. Or like vast flocks of birds by winter's chill 6.404. Sent flying o'er wide seas to lands of flowers. 6.405. All stood beseeching to begin their voyage 6.406. Across that river, and reached out pale hands, 6.407. In passionate yearning for its distant shore. 6.408. But the grim boatman takes now these, now those, 6.409. Or thrusts unpitying from the stream away. 6.410. Aeneas, moved to wonder and deep awe, 6.411. Beheld the tumult; “Virgin seer!” he cried, . 6.412. “Why move the thronging ghosts toward yonder stream? 6.413. What seek they there? Or what election holds 6.414. That these unwilling linger, while their peers 6.415. Sweep forward yonder o'er the leaden waves?” 6.416. To him, in few, the aged Sibyl spoke : 6.417. “Son of Anchises, offspring of the gods, 6.418. Yon are Cocytus and the Stygian stream, 6.419. By whose dread power the gods themselves do fear 6.420. To take an oath in vain. Here far and wide 6.421. Thou seest the hapless throng that hath no grave. 6.422. That boatman Charon bears across the deep 6.423. Such as be sepulchred with holy care. 6.424. But over that loud flood and dreadful shore 6.425. No trav'ler may be borne, until in peace 6.426. His gathered ashes rest. A hundred years 6.427. Round this dark borderland some haunt and roam, 6.428. Then win late passage o'er the longed-for wave.” 6.429. Aeneas lingered for a little space, 6.430. Revolving in his soul with pitying prayer 6.431. Fate's partial way. But presently he sees 6.432. Leucaspis and the Lycian navy's lord, 6.433. Orontes; both of melancholy brow, 6.434. Both hapless and unhonored after death, 6.435. Whom, while from Troy they crossed the wind-swept seas, 6.437. There, too, the helmsman Palinurus strayed : 6.438. Who, as he whilom watched the Libyan stars, 6.439. Had fallen, plunging from his lofty seat 6.440. Into the billowy deep. Aeneas now 6.441. Discerned his sad face through the blinding gloom, 6.442. And hailed him thus : “0 Palinurus, tell 6.443. What god was he who ravished thee away 6.444. From me and mine, beneath the o'crwhelming wave? 6.445. Speak on! for he who ne'er had spoke untrue, 6.446. Apollo's self, did mock my listening mind, 6.447. And chanted me a faithful oracle 6.448. That thou shouldst ride the seas unharmed, and touch 6.449. Ausonian shores. Is this the pledge divine?” 6.450. Then he, “0 chieftain of Anchises' race, 6.451. Apollo's tripod told thee not untrue. 6.452. No god did thrust me down beneath the wave, 6.453. For that strong rudder unto which I clung, 6.454. My charge and duty, and my ship's sole guide, 6.455. Wrenched from its place, dropped with me as I fell. 6.456. Not for myself—by the rude seas I swear— 6.457. Did I have terror, but lest thy good ship, 6.458. Stripped of her gear, and her poor pilot lost, 6.459. Should fail and founder in that rising flood. 6.460. Three wintry nights across the boundless main 6.461. The south wind buffeted and bore me on; 6.462. At the fourth daybreak, lifted from the surge, 6.463. I looked at last on Italy , and swam 6.464. With weary stroke on stroke unto the land. 6.465. Safe was I then. Alas! but as I climbed 6.466. With garments wet and heavy, my clenched hand 6.467. Grasping the steep rock, came a cruel horde 6.468. Upon me with drawn blades, accounting me— 6.469. So blind they were!—a wrecker's prize and spoil. 6.470. Now are the waves my tomb; and wandering winds 6.471. Toss me along the coast. 0, I implore, 6.472. By heaven's sweet light, by yonder upper air, 6.473. By thy lost father, by lulus dear, 6.474. Thy rising hope and joy, that from these woes, 6.475. Unconquered chieftain, thou wilt set me free! 6.476. Give me a grave where Velia 's haven lies, 6.477. For thou hast power! Or if some path there be, 6.478. If thy celestial mother guide thee here 6.479. (For not, I ween, without the grace of gods 6.480. Wilt cross yon rivers vast, you Stygian pool) 6.481. Reach me a hand! and bear with thee along! 6.482. Until (least gift!) death bring me peace and calm.” 6.483. Such words he spoke: the priestess thus replied: 6.484. “Why, Palinurus, these unblest desires? 6.485. Wouldst thou, unsepulchred, behold the wave 6.486. of Styx, stern river of th' Eumenides? 6.487. Wouldst thou, unbidden, tread its fearful strand? 6.488. Hope not by prayer to change the laws of Heaven! 6.489. But heed my words, and in thy memory 6.490. Cherish and keep, to cheer this evil time. 6.491. Lo, far and wide, led on by signs from Heaven, 6.492. Thy countrymen from many a templed town 6.493. Shall consecrate thy dust, and build thy tomb, 6.494. A tomb with annual feasts and votive flowers, 6.495. To Palinurus a perpetual fame!” 6.496. Thus was his anguish stayed, from his sad heart 6.497. Grief ebbed awhile, and even to this day, 6.499. The twain continue now their destined way 6.500. Unto the river's edge. The Ferryman, 6.501. Who watched them through still groves approach his shore, 6.502. Hailed them, at distance, from the Stygian wave, 6.503. And with reproachful summons thus began: 6.504. “Whoe'er thou art that in this warrior guise 6.505. Unto my river comest,—quickly tell 6.506. Thine errand! Stay thee where thou standest now! 6.507. This is ghosts' land, for sleep and slumbrous dark. 6.508. That flesh and blood my Stygian ship should bear 6.509. Were lawless wrong. Unwillingly I took 6.510. Alcides, Theseus, and Pirithous, 6.511. Though sons of gods, too mighty to be quelled. 6.512. One bound in chains yon warder of Hell's door, 6.513. And dragged him trembling from our monarch's throne: 6.514. The others, impious, would steal away 6.515. Out of her bride-bed Pluto's ravished Queen.” 6.516. Briefly th' Amphrysian priestess made reply: 6.517. “Not ours, such guile: Fear not! This warrior's arms 6.518. Are innocent. Let Cerberus from his cave 6.519. Bay ceaselessly, the bloodless shades to scare; 6.520. Let Proserpine immaculately keep 6.521. The house and honor of her kinsman King. 6.522. Trojan Aeneas, famed for faithful prayer 6.523. And victory in arms, descends to seek 6.524. His father in this gloomy deep of death. 6.525. If loyal goodness move not such as thee, 6.526. This branch at least” (she drew it from her breast) 6.527. “Thou knowest well.” 6.528. Then cooled his wrathful heart; 6.529. With silent lips he looked and wondering eyes 6.530. Upon that fateful, venerable wand, 6.531. Seen only once an age. Shoreward he turned, 6.532. And pushed their way his boat of leaden hue. 6.533. The rows of crouching ghosts along the thwarts 6.534. He scattered, cleared a passage, and gave room 6.535. To great Aeneas. The light shallop groaned 6.536. Beneath his weight, and, straining at each seam, 6.537. Took in the foul flood with unstinted flow. 6.538. At last the hero and his priestess-guide 6.539. Came safe across the river, and were moored 6.541. Here Cerberus, with triple-throated roar, 6.542. Made all the region ring, as there he lay 6.543. At vast length in his cave. The Sibyl then, 6.544. Seeing the serpents writhe around his neck, 6.545. Threw down a loaf with honeyed herbs imbued 6.546. And drowsy essences: he, ravenous, 6.547. Gaped wide his three fierce mouths and snatched the bait, 6.752. Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure, 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder 6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds, 6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode 6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way, 6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! 6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— 6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame, 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked, 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: 6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge 6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side, 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous, 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall, 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud, 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured, 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires, 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels, 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud, 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell, 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues, 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin, 6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. 6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! 6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down 6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side, 6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode, 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door, 6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw, 6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine, 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb, 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long 6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; 6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song, 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace , in flowing vesture clad, 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody, 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand, 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race, 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times, 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus, 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views, 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds, 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song 6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found 6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; 6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng, 6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: 6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair, 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn, 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on, 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down, 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh 6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands 6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear 7.73. Him the queen mother chiefly loved, and yearned 7.74. to call him soon her son. But omens dire 7.75. and menaces from Heaven withstood her will. 7.76. A laurel-tree grew in the royal close, 7.77. of sacred leaf and venerated age, 7.78. which, when he builded there his wall and tower, 7.79. Father Latinus found, and hallowed it 7.80. to Phoebus' grace and power, wherefrom the name 7.583. cares and deceives thy visionary eye. 8.190. and him conceiving, Maia, that white maid, 8.191. on hoar Cyllene's frosty summit bore. 8.192. But Maia's sire, if aught of truth be told, 8.193. was Atlas also, Atlas who sustains 8.194. the weight of starry skies. Thus both our tribes 8.195. are one divided stem. Secure in this, 8.196. no envoys have I sent, nor tried thy mind 8.197. with artful first approaches, but myself, 8.198. risking my person and my life, have come 8.199. a suppliant here. For both on me and thee 8.200. the house of Daunus hurls insulting war. 8.201. If us they quell, they doubt not to obtain 8.202. lordship of all Hesperia, and subdue 8.203. alike the northern and the southern sea. 8.204. Accept good faith, and give! Behold, our hearts 8.205. quail not in battle; souls of fire are we, 8.207. Aeneas ceased. The other long had scanned 8.208. the hero's face, his eyes, and wondering viewed 8.209. his form and mien divine; in answer now 8.210. he briefly spoke: “With hospitable heart, 8.211. O bravest warrior of all Trojan-born, 8.212. I know and welcome thee. I well recall 8.213. thy sire Anchises, how he looked and spake. 8.214. For I remember Priam, when he came 8.215. to greet his sister, Queen Hesione, 8.216. in Salamis , and thence pursued his way 8.217. to our cool uplands of Arcadia . 8.218. The bloom of tender boyhood then was mine, 8.219. and with a wide-eyed wonder I did view 8.220. those Teucrian lords, Laomedon's great heir, 8.221. and, towering highest in their goodly throng, 8.222. Anchises, whom my warm young heart desired 8.223. to speak with and to clasp his hand in mine. 8.224. So I approached, and joyful led him home 8.225. to Pheneus' olden wall. He gave me gifts 8.226. the day he bade adieu; a quiver rare 8.227. filled with good Lycian arrows, a rich cloak 8.228. inwove with thread of gold, and bridle reins 8.229. all golden, now to youthful Pallas given. 8.230. Therefore thy plea is granted, and my hand 8.231. here clasps in loyal amity with thine. 8.232. To-morrow at the sunrise thou shalt have 8.233. my tribute for the war, and go thy way 8.234. my glad ally. But now this festival, 8.235. whose solemn rite 't were impious to delay, 8.236. I pray thee celebrate, and bring with thee 8.237. well-omened looks and words. Allies we are! 8.239. So saying, he bade his followers renew 8.240. th' abandoned feast and wine; and placed each guest 8.241. on turf-built couch of green, most honoring 8.242. Aeneas by a throne of maple fair 8.243. decked with a lion's pelt and flowing mane. 8.244. Then high-born pages, with the altar's priest, 8.245. bring on the roasted beeves and load the board 8.246. with baskets of fine bread; and wine they bring — 8.247. of Ceres and of Bacchus gift and toil. 8.248. While good Aeneas and his Trojans share 8.250. When hunger and its eager edge were gone, 8.251. Evander spoke: “This votive holiday, 8.252. yon tables spread and altar so divine, 8.253. are not some superstition dark and vain, 8.254. that knows not the old gods, O Trojan King! 8.255. But as men saved from danger and great fear 8.256. this thankful sacrifice we pay. Behold, 8.257. yon huge rock, beetling from the mountain wall, 8.258. hung from the cliff above. How lone and bare 8.259. the hollowed mountain looks! How crag on crag 8.260. tumbled and tossed in huge confusion lie! 8.261. A cavern once it was, which ran deep down 8.262. into the darkness. There th' half-human shape 8.263. of Cacus made its hideous den, concealed 8.264. from sunlight and the day. The ground was wet 8.265. at all times with fresh gore; the portal grim 8.266. was hung about with heads of slaughtered men, 8.267. bloody and pale—a fearsome sight to see. 8.268. Vulcan begat this monster, which spewed forth 8.269. dark-fuming flames from his infernal throat, 8.270. and vast his stature seemed. But time and tide 8.271. brought to our prayers the advent of a god 8.272. to help us at our need. For Hercules, 8.273. divine avenger, came from laying low 8.274. three-bodied Geryon, whose spoils he wore 8.275. exultant, and with hands victorious drove 8.276. the herd of monster bulls, which pastured free 8.277. along our river-valley. Cacus gazed 8.278. in a brute frenzy, and left not untried 8.279. aught of bold crime or stratagem, but stole 8.280. four fine bulls as they fed, and heifers four, 8.281. all matchless; but, lest hoof-tracks point his way, 8.282. he dragged them cave-wards by the tails, confusing 8.283. the natural trail, and hid the stolen herd 8.284. in his dark den; and not a mark or sign 8.285. could guide the herdsmen to that cavern-door. 8.286. But after, when Amphitryon's famous son, 8.287. preparing to depart, would from the meads 8.288. goad forth the full-fed herd, his lingering bulls 8.289. roared loud, and by their lamentable cry 8.290. filled grove and hills with clamor of farewell: 8.291. one heifer from the mountain-cave lowed back 8.292. in answer, so from her close-guarded stall 8.293. foiling the monster's will. Then hadst thou seen 8.294. the wrath of Hercules in frenzy blaze 8.295. from his exasperate heart. His arms he seized, 8.296. his club of knotted oak, and climbed full-speed 8.297. the wind-swept hill. Now first our people saw 8.298. Cacus in fear, with panic in his eyes. 8.299. Swift to the black cave like a gale he flew, 8.300. his feet by terror winged. Scarce had he passed 8.301. the cavern door, and broken the big chains, 8.302. and dropped the huge rock which was pendent there 8.303. by Vulcan's well-wrought steel; scarce blocked and barred 8.304. the guarded gate: when there Tirynthius stood, 8.305. with heart aflame, surveying each approach, 8.306. rolling this way and that his wrathful eyes, 8.307. gnashing his teeth. Three times his ire surveyed 8.308. the slope of Aventine ; three times he stormed 8.309. the rock-built gate in vain; and thrice withdrew 8.310. to rest him in the vale. But high above 8.311. a pointed peak arose, sheer face of rock 8.312. on every side, which towered into view 8.313. from the long ridge above the vaulted cave, 8.314. fit haunt for birds of evil-boding wing. 8.315. This peak, which leftward toward the river leaned, 8.316. he smote upon its right—his utmost blow — 8.317. breaking its bases Ioose; then suddenly 8.318. thrust at it: as he thrust, the thunder-sound 8.319. filled all the arching sky, the river's banks 8.320. asunder leaped, and Tiber in alarm 8.321. reversed his flowing wave. So Cacus' lair 8.322. lay shelterless, and naked to the day 8.323. the gloomy caverns of his vast abode 8.324. tood open, deeply yawning, just as if 8.325. the riven earth should crack, and open wide 8.326. th' infernal world and fearful kingdoms pale, 8.327. which gods abhor; and to the realms on high 8.328. the measureless abyss should be laid bare, 8.329. and pale ghosts shrink before the entering sun. 8.330. Now upon Cacus, startled by the glare, 8.331. caged in the rocks and howling horribly, 8.332. Alcides hurled his weapons, raining down 8.333. all sorts of deadly missiles—trunks of trees, 8.334. and monstrous boulders from the mountain torn. 8.335. But when the giant from his mortal strait 8.336. no refuge knew, he blew from his foul jaws 8.337. a storm of smoke—incredible to tell — 8.338. and with thick darkness blinding every eye, 8.339. concealed his cave, uprolling from below 8.340. one pitch-black night of mingled gloom and fire. 8.341. This would Alcides not endure, but leaped 8.342. headlong across the flames, where densest hung 8.343. the rolling smoke, and through the cavern surged 8.344. a drifting and impenetrable cloud. 8.345. With Cacus, who breathed unavailing flame, 8.346. he grappled in the dark, locked limb with limb, 8.347. and strangled him, till o'er the bloodless throat 8.348. the starting eyeballs stared. Then Hercules 8.349. burst wide the doorway of the sooty den, 8.350. and unto Heaven and all the people showed 8.351. the stolen cattle and the robber's crimes, 8.352. and dragged forth by the feet the shapeless corpse 8.353. of the foul monster slain. The people gazed 8.354. insatiate on the grewsome eyes, the breast 8.355. of bristling shag, the face both beast and man, 8.356. and that fire-blasted throat whence breathed no more 8.357. the extinguished flame. 'T is since that famous day 8.358. we celebrate this feast, and glad of heart 8.359. each generation keeps the holy time. 8.360. Potitius began the worship due, 8.361. and our Pinarian house is vowed to guard 8.362. the rites of Hercules. An altar fair 8.363. within this wood they raised; 't is called ‘the Great,’ 8.364. and Ara Maxima its name shall be. 8.365. Come now, my warriors, and bind your brows 8.366. with garlands worthy of the gift of Heaven. 8.367. Lift high the cup in every thankful hand, 8.368. and praise our people's god with plenteous wine.” 8.369. He spoke; and of the poplar's changeful sheen, 8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn, 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge 8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line 10.495. who also for the roughness of the ground 10.496. were all unmounted: he (the last resource 10.497. of men in straits) to wild entreaty turned 10.498. and taunts, enkindling their faint hearts anew: 10.499. “Whither, my men! O, by your own brave deeds, 10.500. O, by our lord Evander's happy wars, 10.501. the proud hopes I had to make my name 10.502. a rival glory,—think not ye can fly! 10.503. Your swords alone can carve ye the safe way 10.504. traight through your foes. Where yonder warrior-throng 10.505. is fiercest, thickest, there and only there 12.435. this frantic stir, this quarrel rashly bold? 12.436. Recall your martial rage! The pledge is given 12.572. of fragrant panacea. Such a balm 12.804. But now a new adversity befell
89. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.5, 4.11-4.13, 9.46-9.50  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars •civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 267; Pandey (2018) 52
90. Vergil, Georgics, 1.488, 3.1-3.48  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars •civil wars, and punic wars •punic wars, and civil wars Found in books: Giusti (2018) 13, 14, 277; Pandey (2018) 52, 111, 241
1.488. fulgura nec diri totiens arsere cometae. 3.1. Te quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande canemus 3.2. pastor ab Amphryso, vos, silvae amnesque Lycaei. 3.3. Cetera, quae vacuas tenuissent carmine mentes, 3.4. omnia iam volgata: quis aut Eurysthea durum 3.5. aut inlaudati nescit Busiridis aras? 3.6. Cui non dictus Hylas puer et Latonia Delos 3.7. Hippodameque umeroque Pelops insignis eburno, 3.8. acer equis? Temptanda via est, qua me quoque possim 3.9. tollere humo victorque virum volitare per ora. 3.10. Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 3.11. Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas; 3.12. primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas, 3.13. et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 3.14. propter aquam. Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 3.15. Mincius et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 3.16. In medio mihi Caesar erit templumque tenebit: 3.17. illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro 3.18. centum quadriiugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 3.19. Cuncta mihi Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi 3.20. cursibus et crudo decernet Graecia caestu. 3.21. Ipse caput tonsae foliis ornatus olivae 3.22. dona feram. Iam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas 3.23. ad delubra iuvat caesosque videre iuvencos, 3.24. vel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus utque 3.25. purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 3.26. In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto 3.27. Gangaridum faciam victorisque arma Quirini, 3.28. atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem 3.29. Nilum ac navali surgentis aere columnas. 3.30. Addam urbes Asiae domitas pulsumque Niphaten 3.31. fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis, 3.32. et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea 3.33. bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentes. 3.34. Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa, 3.35. Assaraci proles demissaeque ab Iove gentis 3.36. nomina, Trosque parens et Troiae Cynthius auctor. 3.37. Invidia infelix Furias amnemque severum 3.38. Cocyti metuet tortosque Ixionis anguis 3.39. immanemque rotam et non exsuperabile saxum. 3.40. Interea Dryadum silvas saltusque sequamur 3.41. intactos, tua, Maecenas, haud mollia iussa. 3.42. Te sine nil altum mens incohat; en age segnis 3.43. rumpe moras; vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron 3.44. Taygetique canes domitrixque Epidaurus equorum 3.45. et vox adsensu nemorum ingeminata remugit. 3.46. Mox tamen ardentis accingar dicere pugnas 3.47. Caesaris et nomen fama tot ferre per annos, 3.48. Tithoni prima quot abest ab origine Caesar.
91. Zonaras, Epitome, 13.8  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 21
92. Epigraphy, Ig, 4.1677  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 298
93. Papyri, Rdge, 23, 66  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dignas (2002) 119
94. Anon., Panegyrici Latini, 2.44-2.45, 12.10.3, 12.18.2  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 18, 21, 36
95. Epigraphy, Cil, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 245
96. Caesar, Bellum Alexandrinum, 13.5  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 299
97. Epigraphy, Ils, None  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars Found in books: Shannon-Henderson (2019) 263
99. Anon., Anonymous Post Dionem, 10.6  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 38
100. Claudian, On The Gildonic Revolt, 427  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 34
103. Anon., Anonymous Valesianus, 4.12  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 36
104. Praxagoras of Athens, Fragments, None  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 38
105. Symmachus, Or., 1.18-1.19  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 39
106. Augustus, Seg, 26.1241  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 298
107. Augustus, Syll.3, 760  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 298
108. Epigraphy, Papyri Graecae Schøyen, 2005  Tagged with subjects: •rhodes/rhodians, naval base in roman civil wars Found in books: Marek (2019) 298, 299
110. Pseudo-Seneca, Octauia, 313  Tagged with subjects: •civil wars (as a part of imperial discourse) Found in books: Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 36