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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
aristeas, character, in letter of aristeas, his name Honigman (2003) 1, 2, 28, 62
aristeas, character, in letter of aristeas, his piety Honigman (2003) 62
character Graver (2007) 133, 136, 137, 245
Hirshman (2009) 50, 112, 118, 119
Jedan (2009) 58, 59, 60, 61, 62
King (2006) 14, 41, 227
Lynskey (2021) 42, 44, 58, 59, 77, 79, 96, 102, 127, 130, 136, 137, 139, 140, 177, 178, 228, 229, 230, 241, 254, 284, 295, 301, 323, 324
character, abraham, biblical Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 175
character, action, vs. virtue of Harte (2017) 205, 206, 217, 218
character, affected by mental state of parents at instant of conception Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 249
character, affected by physical factors van der EIjk (2005) 141, 158, 225
character, alcibiades, platonic Erler et al (2021) 209, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240, 242
character, alexander the great judge of art and Oksanish (2019) 30
character, allogenes Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 318, 355, 356, 513, 518, 519
character, ammonius, plutarch’s Erler et al (2021) 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162
character, and deeds of abimelech/ebed-melech Allison (2018) 49, 54, 139, 159, 161
character, and divine influence in homer Joho (2022) 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 266
character, and physiology, gender Wolfsdorf (2020) 527, 528
character, antiphon, platonic Erler et al (2021) 242
character, antiquarian Hickson (1993) 72
character, aristippus of cyrene, life and Wolfsdorf (2020) 387, 388, 389, 390, 394, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403
character, aristotle, on Eidinow (2007) 265
character, aristotle, on ethos Kirkland (2022) 132, 133
character, art, official Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 897
character, artemidorus of daldis, life and Thonemann (2020) 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 80, 85, 103, 104, 110, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 159, 160, 164, 165, 166, 167, 191, 192, 193, 194
character, as a motive Sorabji (2000) 173, 174
character, as both god and hero, achilles, dual Ekroth (2013) 71, 99, 101, 102, 127, 222
character, as both god and hero, herakles, dual Ekroth (2013) 21, 85, 86, 98, 99, 101, 127, 171, 208, 219, 220, 221, 225, 226, 238, 239, 297, 331, 333
character, as, giton, mime Pinheiro et al (2012a) 227
character, athena itonia in thessaly, enduring martial Lalone (2019) 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 33, 34
character, athena, common martial Lalone (2019) 23
character, baubo mythical Bernabe et al (2013) 110
character, bavli, babylonian talmud Secunda (2014) 2, 9
character, belief/s, as traits of Agri (2022) 51, 52, 53, 62, 63, 64, 73, 74, 77, 142, 143, 144, 179
character, beliefs, as traits of Graver (2007) 137, 139, 141, 142, 144, 145
character, blessedness and gods, epicurean, incorruptibility Allison (2020) 59, 60, 64, 65
character, body, and Oksanish (2019) 29, 30, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186
character, body, relationship to moral Mcglothlin (2018) 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 192, 193
character, by imitating, character, damon, pythagorean, music affects Sorabji (2000) 90
character, by imitating, character, plato, music affects Sorabji (2000) 90
character, by kinship, diogenes of babylon, stoic, music affects Sorabji (2000) 91
character, calchas, as a virtual Jouanna (2018) 318
character, callicles, platonic Erler et al (2021) 239, 240, 241, 242, 243
character, causation, and Fabian Meinel (2015) 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
character, causes, of Graver (2007) 171
character, cephalus, platonic Erler et al (2021) 242
character, chaerephon, platonic Erler et al (2021) 239
character, charilla Bernabe et al (2013) 292
character, charmides, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 12, 128
character, chorus, the, as a Jouanna (2018) 298
character, chrysippus, on traits of Graver (2007) 139, 141, 142
character, cicero, on traits of Graver (2007) 139, 244, 245
character, climate, affects Sorabji (2000) 258, 260, 264
character, clytemnestra, sophocles, as a virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
character, cotta on traditional roman religion, cicero, his Tor (2017) 50
character, cratylus, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 17
character, cratylus, plato’s Harte (2017) 182, 183, 184, 185, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196
character, creon, as a repeating Jouanna (2018) 358
character, critias, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 479
character, crito, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 160
character, demetrius of phalerum, historical Honigman (2003) 5, 88, 89, 90, 113
character, denigration, of Riess (2012) 38, 47, 51, 68, 110, 114, 126, 322
character, development Repath and Whitmarsh (2022) 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173
character, diagnostic van der EIjk (2005) 267
character, diathesis, as a special tenor Brouwer (2013) 3
character, difference in Joosse (2021) 67, 70, 101, 132, 154, 155, 156
character, dionysius of halicarnassus, ethos Kirkland (2022) 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 71
character, diotima, platonic Erler et al (2021) 26
character, dispositions toward emotion Graver (2007) 139, 141, 142, 144, 145
character, education Malherbe et al (2014) 201, 267
character, epic Hickson (1993) 17, 148
character, ethnography, physical conditions and Wolfsdorf (2020) 526, 527
character, europa Bernabe et al (2013) 207, 208, 210, 222, 313
character, eustrophus, plutarch’s Erler et al (2021) 153, 155, 156
character, euthydemus, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 117, 452
character, euthyphro, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 59, 123, 293
character, euthyphro, platonic Erler et al (2021) 135
character, evidence, lawcourt Barbato (2020) 67, 68
character, excellence of Long (2006) 6, 7, 16, 29, 30, 73, 112, 238, 364, 365, 366, 380
character, excellence of chilton, c.w. Long (2006) 194
character, experience, its bodily Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 142, 143
character, experience, its private, non-dyadic Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 244
character, fictional, and contingency Bexley (2022) 297, 301
character, fictional, and metatheatre Bexley (2022) 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36, 42, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 128, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 163, 169, 170, 171, 211, 213, 214, 221, 222, 223, 252, 253, 254, 257, 258, 259, 304, 305, 306, 307, 320, 321, 322, 341, 342
character, fictional, as textual construct Bexley (2022) 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 42, 45, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 75, 76, 86, 87, 115, 116, 117, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 163, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 230, 231, 232, 233, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 295, 296, 297, 304, 305, 306, 307, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 344
character, fictional, human qualities of Bexley (2022) 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 61, 62, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 115, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 191, 192, 193, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 233, 234, 235, 241, 242, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 294, 295, 296, 297, 299, 301, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 324, 325, 330, 331, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 344
character, fictional, in the novel Bexley (2022) 235, 239
character, flavor, hellenism, hellenistic, influence Frey and Levison (2014) 13
character, follows hot and cold in body, lucretius, epicurean, emotion and Sorabji (2000) 264
character, galen, platonizing ecletic doctor, climate effects Sorabji (2000) 260
character, galen, platonizing ecletic doctor, diet also affects Sorabji (2000) 256
character, general laius, as a virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
character, god, pauline, love Allison (2020) 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164
character, good-mixture, eukrasia, related to good Singer and van Eijk (2018) 106
character, gorgias, platonic Erler et al (2021) 239
character, gorgias, plato’s Harte (2017) 60, 71, 187
character, gymnastics, gymnastics and exercise affect Sorabji (2000) 96, 256, 270, 271
character, halakhah, antinarrative Simon-Shushan (2012) 41
character, halakhic Hasan Rokem (2003) 69
character, hector, as a virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
character, helenus, as a virtual Jouanna (2018) 318
character, heracles, as a repeating Jouanna (2018) 360, 361, 362, 363, 364
character, hercules, as fictional Bexley (2022) 163, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171
character, hermogenes, plato’s Harte (2017) 182, 183, 184, 190, 192, 195
character, hippias, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 161
character, hippothales, platonic Erler et al (2021) 45
character, homer, odysseus, figure Toloni (2022) 28, 29, 31, 45, 57, 196, 201, 203, 209, 219
character, ideas of plutarch, ethos Kirkland (2022) 107, 108, 109, 110, 114, 115, 116, 117, 122, 123, 124, 132, 133
character, in aeschines wasps Cosgrove (2022) 65
character, in apul. met., socrates Pinheiro et al (2015) 99
character, in apuleius, lucius metamorphoses Renberg (2017) 366, 419, 561, 732, 733
character, in ar. pax, theoria to brauron as Parker (2005) 44, 79
character, in letter of demetrius of phalerum, aristeas, associated with ptolemy ii Honigman (2003) 88, 89, 90
character, in letter of demetrius of phalerum, aristeas, his name Honigman (2003) 62, 89
character, in letter of demetrius of phalerum, aristeas, his piety Honigman (2003) 63
character, in letter of demetrius of phalerum, aristeas, his role in letter of aristeass narrative Honigman (2003) 63
character, in letter of ptolemy, aristeas, as pharaoh Honigman (2003) 56
character, in letter of ptolemy, aristeas, associated with demetrius Honigman (2003) 88, 89, 90
character, in letter of ptolemy, aristeas, bows before the scroll of the law Honigman (2003) 18, 128
character, in letter of ptolemy, aristeas, his piety Honigman (2003) 61, 62
character, in lover of eukrates lies Renberg (2017) 565, 566, 567
character, in lucan, caesar, julius Joseph (2022) 14, 15, 23, 41, 140, 141, 184, 255, 260
character, in luke-acts, holy spirit Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 567
character, in moral sense Motta and Petrucci (2022) 22, 108
character, in oaths in Parker (2005) 102, 103
character, in phaedrus, pathicus, not excluded from army Phang (2001) 285, 286
character, in philostratus’ va, nilus Manolaraki (2012) 276, 281, 282, 283, 284, 288, 300
character, in philostratus’ va, phraotes Manolaraki (2012) 263, 264, 268
character, in philostratus’ va, vardanes Manolaraki (2012) 262, 269, 271
character, in plato’s critias charmides Erler et al (2021) 160
character, in procedures of Parker (2005) 101, 102, 106
character, in setna horus-son-of-paneshe ii Renberg (2017) 80, 85, 502, 623
character, in setna meheweskhe ii Renberg (2017) 79, 91, 607, 608, 609
character, in suspended during festivals Parker (2005) 160
character, in the alcamenes aethiopica Repath and Whitmarsh (2022) 12, 13, 14, 15, 34
character, in the pharsalia, populus romanus, as central Joseph (2022) 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 72, 104, 105, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 188, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222
character, in the pseudo-senecan tragedy octauia, nero, emperor Manolaraki (2012) 77, 78
character, in wise person, traits of Graver (2007) 145
character, in xenophon’s callias, semifictional symposium Cosgrove (2022) 81, 145, 146
character, individual, among the wise Graver (2007) 145
character, influence of humours on, channels of the body Jouanna (2012) 340
character, ingraining of traits Graver (2007) 164, 165
character, ion, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 333, 345
character, jacob, biblical Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 239
character, job, biblical Rubenstein (2018) 89, 90, 106, 121, 122, 125
character, joseph, biblical Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 249
character, josephus, as Jonquière (2007) 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 225, 226
character, juda, biblical Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 205
character, judas maccabaeus, focal Schwartz (2008) 325
character, judith, complex Gera (2014) 49, 69, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 262, 263, 264, 297, 328, 337, 369, 390, 420
character, knowledge, and Legaspi (2018) 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 135, 136
character, laches, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 12
character, lamprias, plutarch’s brother and Erler et al (2021) 152, 153, 154, 157
character, lampridius Hanghan (2019) 116, 125
Hitch (2017) 116, 125
character, libanius, on defence of Humfress (2007) 255
character, linked with north-south contrast, skin color, and Isaac (2004) 151
character, livy, epic Hickson (1993) 17, 18, 19
character, lucullus, cicero’s Erler et al (2021) 67, 69, 106
character, marsanes Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 97
character, meno, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 14, 142, 165, 173, 174, 176, 179, 180, 184, 194, 196, 198, 199
character, mens = gr. nous, mind or intellect, its god-like Tsouni (2019) 131, 168
character, methodius, millenarian König (2012) 7, 156
character, methodius, miscellanistic König (2012) 163, 164
character, mildness of Jouanna (2012) 217
character, milk Penniman (2017) 166, 168
character, mind, as King (2006) 14
character, mnemosyne, mythical Galinsky (2016) 19
character, moral Harte (2017) 99, 123, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 211, 216, 217, 218, 219
character, moral, development of Harte (2017) 172, 174, 175, 179
character, moral/morality choice, discipline d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 21, 135, 179
character, music, by imitating Sorabji (2000) 90
character, narrative, fictitious Toloni (2022) 11, 92, 100
character, nature, φύσις, vs. national Joho (2022) 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193
character, necessity, in thucydides, and Joho (2022) 212, 217, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 266
character, nessus, as a virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
character, nicander, plutarch’s Erler et al (2021) 153, 154
character, odysseus, as antisthenes’ Wolfsdorf (2020) 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346
character, oedipus, as a repeating Jouanna (2018) 358, 359, 360
character, of agrippa the king, typological nature of the rabbinic Cohen (2010) 158
character, of alexandra, guard Liapis and Petrides (2019) 107
character, of allegory, tropic Dawson (2001) 14
character, of animals, theophrastus, on the wisdom and Tsouni (2019) 189
character, of aramaic piyyut for passover, an, anonymous, narrative Lieber (2014) 110
character, of balsam, opobalsam, botanical, pliny Taylor (2012) 235
character, of baths/bath-gymnasia, vedius bath-gymnasium, commercial Kalinowski (2021) 320, 321
character, of disease, divine, the van der EIjk (2005) 46
character, of doctrine of original sin novatians Beatrice (2013) 81, 239
character, of egyptians Stavrianopoulou (2013) 332, 333, 346, 347, 350, 351, 352, 353
character, of ezekiel, exagoge, pharaoh Liapis and Petrides (2019) 131, 132, 138
character, of figural reading, spiritual Dawson (2001) 93
character, of form, unchanging Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 213, 216, 279, 284, 311, 320, 388, 416
character, of gaudentius’ isagoge Motta and Petrucci (2022) 208
character, of global associations Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 23, 215, 235, 239
character, of hippocratic aphorisms Motta and Petrucci (2022) 163, 164
character, of identity as nation or people, mixed Gruen (2020) 46, 47
character, of jewish writings, josephus, and oracular Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 104, 105, 106
character, of jewish writings, oracular Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 104, 105, 106
character, of john chrysostom Azar (2016) 102, 103
character, of john the baptist, ascetic Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 4
character, of judean writings, suetonius, on oracular Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105
character, of judean writings, tacitus, on oracular Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105
character, of letter Malherbe et al (2014) 604
character, of literal sense, irreducible Dawson (2001) 193
character, of lokroi, ionian Kowalzig (2007) 311, 312
character, of marcus div. Santangelo (2013) 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 39, 47, 52, 53, 54, 62, 63, 64, 70, 99, 100, 103, 160, 179, 188, 221, 224, 235, 252, 274
character, of marcus div., on cleromancy Santangelo (2013) 73, 74, 77, 79
character, of material, matter, ὑλή, independent Trott (2019) 161, 239
character, of music Motta and Petrucci (2022) 203
character, of odysseus Legaspi (2018) 33, 34
character, of ostia and tiber, servius auctus sive danielis, on augural Konrad (2022) 156, 157, 158
character, of peloponnesian war, plague, and Joho (2022) 15
character, of penelope, deductive Folit-Weinberg (2022) 287, 289
character, of peyras, j., anti-christian Simmons(1995) 26
character, of platonic dialogues Motta and Petrucci (2022) 39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 119, 123, 125
character, of porphyry’s isagoge Motta and Petrucci (2022) 76
character, of quintus div. Santangelo (2013) 11, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34, 35, 37, 47, 48, 53, 61, 63, 64, 70, 76, 77, 108, 158, 159, 160, 221, 277
character, of recipient, decisive of choice of ritual Ekroth (2013) 42, 85, 86, 99, 111, 298, 313, 316, 318, 331, 332, 333
character, of ritual, bodily Dawson (2001) 73, 74
character, of rome/romans, conglomerate Gruen (2020) 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 89, 103, 104, 105
character, of shimon ben shetah, typological nature of the rabbinic Cohen (2010) 158
character, of signs, sensuous Dawson (2001) 245
character, of simon the righteous, typological nature of the rabbinic Cohen (2010) 158
character, of song of songs, archetypal Kaplan (2015) 32, 38
character, of songs, folk Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 489
character, of soul, music, affects Sorabji (2000) 96, 97, 128, 256, 258
character, of the de plutarch, younger e Erler et al (2021) 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161
character, of theoc. id., aeschines Kirichenko (2022) 14, 220, 221
character, of theoc. id., battus Kirichenko (2022) 4, 206, 207
character, of theoc. id., gorgo Kirichenko (2022) 15, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236
character, of…and necessity, croesus, in herodotus Joho (2022) 208, 209, 212, 216, 217, 220, 221, 222, 223, 266
character, of…reflected by necessity, sparta and spartans Joho (2022) 266
character, palatine hill, aristocratic Jenkyns (2013) 23, 29, 120, 184, 185
character, paraenesis, moral exhortation, its stoic Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 231, 248
character, parmenides, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 400, 401, 403, 404, 406, 413, 419, 427
character, parmenides, platonic Erler et al (2021) 17, 205, 206, 209, 210, 211, 213, 216, 218, 221, 242
character, pathological, calmness of Jouanna (2012) 241
character, persian Papadodima (2022) 126
character, pharsalia, as a Joseph (2022) 266, 267, 268, 269
character, philoponus, christian neoplatonist, power of the lecturer to affect emotional however, works via bodily change Sorabji (2000) 269, 270
character, piso, cicero’s Erler et al (2021) 92, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101
character, plato, climate affects Sorabji (2000) 264
character, plato, visual arts affect Sorabji (2000) 270, 271
character, polus, platonic Erler et al (2021) 239, 240, 241, 242
character, polynices, oedipus’s son, as a virtual Jouanna (2018) 318, 319
character, pomponius, cicero’s Erler et al (2021) 101
character, posidonius, stoic, climate also affects Sorabji (2000) 258
character, posidonius, stoic, music as training irrational Sorabji (2000) 96, 97
character, posidonius, stoic, the lower capacities of soul, wrongly ignored in chrysippus' unitary conception of soul, explain why philosophy and good example do not on their own produce good Sorabji (2000) 98, 257
character, private associations Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 6, 7, 8, 13, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 209
character, protagoras, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 62
character, protagoras, plato’s Harte (2017) 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 44, 53, 54, 55
character, pythodorus, platonic Erler et al (2021) 242
character, religious Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 17, 27, 114, 167, 271
character, reputation of Malherbe et al (2014) 283
character, responsibility, moral, for Graver (2007) 150, 171
character, rhetoric, and presentation of Humfress (2007) 113, 114
character, roma, as a Joseph (2022) 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 168, 225, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251
character, self Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 150, 151, 152, 158, 162
character, seth Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 36, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 71, 89, 95, 96, 100, 106, 109, 111, 112, 113, 118, 131, 132, 133, 212, 394, 453
character, skin color, and Isaac (2004) 65
character, socrates, platonic Erler et al (2021) 17, 33, 45, 68, 84, 86, 135, 142, 160, 201, 204, 205, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 222, 227, 228, 230, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243
character, structuralism, and theories of fictional Bexley (2022) 303, 304
character, tenor, hexis, diathesis, as a special Brouwer (2013) 32
character, theaetetus, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 362, 433, 443, 455
character, theon, plutarch’s Erler et al (2021) 153, 154, 155, 156, 159, 208
character, thrasymachus, platonic Erler et al (2021) 235, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242
character, timaeus, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 468, 469, 470, 471, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485
character, timaeus, platonic Erler et al (2021) 18, 21, 24, 30, 34, 48, 56, 58, 59
character, tragic Marincola et al (2021) 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142
character, trait, drunkenness, as Graver (2007) 39, 141
character, traits of soul Singer and van Eijk (2018) 12, 106, 138, 146, 151
character, traits, acuity Hirshman (2009) 80, 81, 82, 95, 114, 115, 120
character, traits, arrogance Hirshman (2009) 56, 94, 119
character, traits, emotions, and Graver (2007) 133, 141, 164, 165
character, traits, energy Hirshman (2009) 59
character, traits, epictetus, on development of Graver (2007) 165, 249
character, traits, heredity and Graver (2007) 171, 249
character, traits, humility Hirshman (2009) 53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 95, 111, 112, 114, 118, 119
character, traits, impatience Hirshman (2009) 101, 102, 103, 112
character, traits, indolence Hirshman (2009) 43
character, traits, industriousness Hirshman (2009) 43
character, traits, meekness Hirshman (2009) 112
character, traits, motivation Hirshman (2009) 59, 73
character, traits, of teachers Hirshman (2009) 92, 93, 94
character, traits, patience Hirshman (2009) 60, 62, 82
character, traits, perseverance Hirshman (2009) 112
character, traits, students Hirshman (2009) 44
character, unity, nicanor Schwartz (2008) 473, 474
character, varro, cicero’s Erler et al (2021) 70, 100, 105
character, virtue, ethical or of moral Tsouni (2019) 139, 140
character, virtues, consistency of stoic Roller (2018) 272
character, vs. narrator, orpheus Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 146
character, wildness of Jouanna (2012) 243
character, wind, symbolic of human Williams (2012) 173, 174
character, wisdom Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 7, 31, 35, 114, 211, 219, 412, 413, 421, 517, 573, 575
character, withdrawals, aeschylus, and Jouanna (2018) 721
character, withdrawals, libation bearers, the, aeschylus, and Jouanna (2018) 721
character, without training of irrational forces in the soul, galen, platonizing ecletic doctor, philosophy and good example cannot on their own produce good Sorabji (2000) 257
character, xenophon, hellas Blum and Biggs (2019) 126, 127
character, zeno, dialogue Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 404
character, zeno, platonic Erler et al (2021) 205, 209, 210, 211, 213, 216, 217, 218, 222, 242
character, zeus dodonaios, at dodona, military Kowalzig (2007) 335, 338, 339
character, zostrianos Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 46, 89, 113, 119, 324, 359, 443, 444, 482, 516, 519, 583
character, ēthos Wolfsdorf (2020) 174, 175, 521, 526, 527, 528
character/aeon, repentance Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 56, 57, 58, 217, 428, 433, 434
character/editorial, practices, baraitot, literary Hayes (2022) 200, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 262
characters Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 207, 208, 211, 214, 219, 220, 221, 222
Jouanna (2018) 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 354, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364
characters, action, and the Jouanna (2018) 241, 242, 293, 317, 318
characters, aelius aristides, on Jouanna (2018) 294, 295
characters, aeschylus, and Jouanna (2018) 294
characters, aeschylus, silent Pillinger (2019) 31
characters, ajax, and minor Jouanna (2018) 300, 301, 306, 312
characters, ajax, sophocles, and minor Jouanna (2018) 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 312, 313, 314
characters, alciphron, letters, role-playing, by parasites and other König (2012) 260, 263, 264, 265
characters, and doubling Jouanna (2018) 291
characters, antigone, and minor Jouanna (2018) 304, 305, 306
characters, aristotle, on judging Jouanna (2018) 296, 297, 298
characters, as microcosm Jouanna (2018) 298, 299, 300
characters, as the, humble, minor Jouanna (2018) 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311
characters, attributes of Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 222
characters, chorus, the, as minor Jouanna (2018) 299, 300, 301, 302, 303
characters, conflict, among minor Jouanna (2018) 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311
characters, context, and Jouanna (2018) 295, 296, 297, 298
characters, corneille, pierre, on Jouanna (2018) 293, 294
characters, cries, of Jouanna (2018) 756
characters, dead, the, as virtual Jouanna (2018) 318, 319
characters, deianira, and minor Jouanna (2018) 307, 308, 309, 312
characters, deianira, and virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
characters, democracy, in athens, and minor Jouanna (2018) 300
characters, dialogue, between Jouanna (2018) 207, 208, 209, 210
characters, foreign Papadodima (2022) 22, 99
characters, formal assyrian Goodman (2006) 76
characters, gods, as Jouanna (2018) 298
characters, heracles, and minor Jouanna (2018) 306, 307, 308, 309
characters, heracles, and virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
characters, heredity of acquired Isaac (2004) 74, 75, 79, 80, 81, 82
characters, hippocrates, ps., airs, waters, places, on the heredity of acquired Isaac (2004) 74, 75
characters, in ajax, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 199, 200, 318, 473
characters, in anc. greek novels Pinheiro et al (2015) 126
characters, in antigone, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 199, 200, 203
characters, in antigone, sophocles, minor Jouanna (2018) 305, 306
characters, in antigone, sophocles, virtual Jouanna (2018) 318, 319
characters, in columbaria inscriptions, comedy, stock Goldman (2013) 114, 117
characters, in electra, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 200, 204, 317, 318
characters, in electra, sophocles, virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
characters, in euripides, socially inferior Pucci (2016) 54
characters, in oedipus the king, sophocles, minor Jouanna (2018) 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311
characters, in philoctetes, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 199, 200, 201
characters, in satires, horace, stock Yona (2018) 8, 131
characters, in sophocles Jouanna (2018) 725
characters, in women of trachis, the, sophocles, minor Jouanna (2018) 306, 307, 308, 309, 310
characters, jocasta, epicaste, and minor Jouanna (2018) 309, 310
characters, judgment, of Jouanna (2018) 295, 296, 297, 298
characters, knowledge, of Jouanna (2018) 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421
characters, la bruyère, on Jouanna (2018) 293, 294
characters, literary/literature Joosse (2021) 50, 108, 159, 164, 199, 201
characters, mark, anonymous Doble and Kloha (2014) 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136
characters, metatheater, and low-status Miller and Clay (2019) 107, 109, 112, 115
characters, mimesis, of biblical Azar (2016) 120
characters, motivation, of Morrison (2020) 14, 60, 67, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 83, 96, 97, 98, 99, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 185, 187
characters, nature, of Jouanna (2018) 311, 312, 313, 314, 315
characters, nobility, of Jouanna (2018) 311, 312, 313, 314, 315
characters, oedipus, and minor Jouanna (2018) 308, 309, 310, 311, 312
characters, of antigone, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 482
characters, of comedy Martin (2009) 34, 67, 68, 106, 114
characters, of electra, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 494
characters, of herodotus , female Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 68, 69
characters, of oedipus at colonus, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 518, 519
characters, of oedipus the king, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 505, 506
characters, of philoctetes, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 529
characters, of the women of trachis, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 537, 538
characters, of women of trachis, the, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 200
characters, oriental Papadodima (2022) 26
characters, origin of Jouanna (2018) 311, 312, 313, 314, 315
characters, personality, of minor Jouanna (2018) 304, 305, 306
characters, philoctetes, sophocles, and virtual Jouanna (2018) 318
characters, pliny, the elder, on acquired Isaac (2004) 80
characters, poetics, aristotle, on judging Jouanna (2018) 296, 297, 298
characters, posidonius, stoic, diet affects Sorabji (2000) 96, 97, 258
characters, psychology, of seneca’s Bexley (2022) 191, 192, 193, 204, 205, 208, 209, 210, 234, 247, 248, 251
characters, racine, on Jouanna (2018) 293, 294
characters, reality, and Jouanna (2018) 293, 294, 295
characters, religion in theophrastus Parker (2005) 1, 37, 43, 121
characters, repetition, of Jouanna (2018) 351, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364
characters, sacrifice, animal substituting mythical Kowalzig (2007) 281, 282, 283
characters, seers, as virtual Jouanna (2018) 318
characters, silence, of minor Jouanna (2018) 188, 195, 202, 203, 204, 700
characters, social function, of Jouanna (2018) 315, 316, 317
characters, sophia, wisdom of metaleptic literary Pucci (2016) 27, 37, 92, 94
characters, stock Azar (2016) 120
Cain (2013) 81
Miller and Clay (2019) 108, 109, 114
Čulík-Baird (2022) 26, 102, 105, 110, 134, 140, 141
characters, struggling for, understanding of misfortune, through words Fabian Meinel (2015) 23, 24, 25, 26, 46, 50, 51, 52
characters, style, linguistic and literary, of Schwartz (2008) 82, 83
characters, tecmessa, and minor Jouanna (2018) 300, 301, 302, 303, 312
characters, teucer, and minor Jouanna (2018) 301, 302, 303
characters, tragic/mythical, abas Liapis and Petrides (2019) 56, 248
characters, tragic/mythical, achilles Liapis and Petrides (2019) 32, 33, 34, 35, 50, 51, 59, 64, 67, 70, 73, 74, 101, 106, 230, 231, 250, 253, 254
characters, tragic/mythical, adonis Liapis and Petrides (2019) 60, 97
characters, tragic/mythical, adrastus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 101, 291
characters, tragic/mythical, aegeus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 263
characters, tragic/mythical, aegisthus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 82, 250, 252
characters, tragic/mythical, aeneas Liapis and Petrides (2019) 28, 67, 70, 82, 92, 108, 255
characters, tragic/mythical, agamemnon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 46, 55, 69, 70, 82, 110, 115, 250, 254, 259, 269, 282, 284, 319
characters, tragic/mythical, agave Liapis and Petrides (2019) 178, 196
characters, tragic/mythical, ajax, locrian Liapis and Petrides (2019) 107
characters, tragic/mythical, ajax, salaminian, telamonian Liapis and Petrides (2019) 28, 41, 55, 74, 115, 231, 240, 253, 274, 282, 311, 312
characters, tragic/mythical, alcmeon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 51, 52, 55, 56, 254, 274
characters, tragic/mythical, alopo Liapis and Petrides (2019) 41, 47, 248, 254, 268
characters, tragic/mythical, alphesiboea Liapis and Petrides (2019) 51, 52, 55, 56
characters, tragic/mythical, amazons Liapis and Petrides (2019) 109
characters, tragic/mythical, amphiaraus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 41, 42
characters, tragic/mythical, amphitryon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 254
characters, tragic/mythical, andromache Liapis and Petrides (2019) 29, 59, 230, 268, 339
characters, tragic/mythical, andromeda Liapis and Petrides (2019) 100, 241, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268
characters, tragic/mythical, antigone Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 229, 237, 248, 269, 278, 288
characters, tragic/mythical, aphrodite Liapis and Petrides (2019) 68, 70, 77, 256, 259
characters, tragic/mythical, apollo Liapis and Petrides (2019) 254, 255, 259
characters, tragic/mythical, astyanax Liapis and Petrides (2019) 34, 35
characters, tragic/mythical, atalanta Liapis and Petrides (2019) 30, 261
characters, tragic/mythical, athena Liapis and Petrides (2019) 266
characters, tragic/mythical, aëropo Liapis and Petrides (2019) 40
characters, tragic/mythical, bellerophon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 58
characters, tragic/mythical, callirrhoo Liapis and Petrides (2019) 55
characters, tragic/mythical, cassandra, alexandra Liapis and Petrides (2019) 99, 106, 107, 140, 201
characters, tragic/mythical, cercyon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 41, 47, 254, 268, 269
characters, tragic/mythical, chiron Liapis and Petrides (2019) 49, 50, 51
characters, tragic/mythical, chrysothemis Liapis and Petrides (2019) 250, 252
characters, tragic/mythical, clytemnestra Liapis and Petrides (2019) 55, 109, 250, 269, 284
characters, tragic/mythical, creon, king of thebes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 248, 278, 284, 285, 287, 319
characters, tragic/mythical, danaus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 56, 248
characters, tragic/mythical, daphnis Liapis and Petrides (2019) 121
characters, tragic/mythical, dardanus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 91, 92
characters, tragic/mythical, deiphobus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 106
characters, tragic/mythical, dictys Liapis and Petrides (2019) 37
characters, tragic/mythical, diomedes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 55, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 75, 87, 108, 109, 120, 211, 253, 260
characters, tragic/mythical, dolon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 78, 86, 87
characters, tragic/mythical, electra Liapis and Petrides (2019) 30, 229, 244, 250, 252, 258, 259, 260, 284, 313, 338
characters, tragic/mythical, elephenor Liapis and Petrides (2019) 100
characters, tragic/mythical, epeius Liapis and Petrides (2019) 119
characters, tragic/mythical, eriphyle Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 42, 55, 248, 254
characters, tragic/mythical, eteocles Liapis and Petrides (2019) 260, 279
characters, tragic/mythical, eurystheus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 291
characters, tragic/mythical, furies, erinyes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 75, 94, 254, 255, 260, 313, 315, 316, 343
characters, tragic/mythical, haemon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 248, 278
characters, tragic/mythical, hector Liapis and Petrides (2019) 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 59, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 86, 106, 110, 250, 254, 255
characters, tragic/mythical, hecuba Liapis and Petrides (2019) 82, 110, 115, 284
characters, tragic/mythical, helen Liapis and Petrides (2019) 309
characters, tragic/mythical, helenus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 35
characters, tragic/mythical, hercules/heracles Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 112, 177, 248, 252, 254, 257, 258, 267, 320
characters, tragic/mythical, hermes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 259
characters, tragic/mythical, hesione Liapis and Petrides (2019) 113
characters, tragic/mythical, hippolytus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 58, 99, 109, 310
characters, tragic/mythical, hypermestra Liapis and Petrides (2019) 56, 248
characters, tragic/mythical, iolaus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 285, 286
characters, tragic/mythical, iphigenia Liapis and Petrides (2019) 255
characters, tragic/mythical, iris Liapis and Petrides (2019) 77, 255
characters, tragic/mythical, ismene Liapis and Petrides (2019) 237, 278
characters, tragic/mythical, jason Liapis and Petrides (2019) 28, 42, 253, 312
characters, tragic/mythical, jocasta Liapis and Petrides (2019) 43, 45, 257, 309
characters, tragic/mythical, laius Liapis and Petrides (2019) 44, 63, 257, 274
characters, tragic/mythical, laodico Liapis and Petrides (2019) 118
characters, tragic/mythical, lycus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 252, 254
characters, tragic/mythical, lynceus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 56, 57, 248
characters, tragic/mythical, lyssa Liapis and Petrides (2019) 77, 255
characters, tragic/mythical, maeon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 248
characters, tragic/mythical, medea Liapis and Petrides (2019) 28, 42, 43, 47, 61, 94, 109, 253, 254, 263, 273, 282, 311, 312
characters, tragic/mythical, megara Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 254
characters, tragic/mythical, meleager Liapis and Petrides (2019) 27, 28, 29, 54, 274
characters, tragic/mythical, menelaus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 108, 112, 115
characters, tragic/mythical, menoeceus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 63, 316
characters, tragic/mythical, mestra Liapis and Petrides (2019) 113
characters, tragic/mythical, muse Liapis and Petrides (2019) 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 76, 77, 85, 86, 87, 187, 247, 256
characters, tragic/mythical, nauplius Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 37, 100
characters, tragic/mythical, neoptolemus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 57, 230, 231, 258, 268
characters, tragic/mythical, odysseus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 28, 41, 55, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 82, 108, 109, 112, 115, 211, 253, 258, 267, 268, 282, 284
characters, tragic/mythical, oedipus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 43, 44, 45, 57, 61, 254, 256, 259, 273, 274, 284, 320, 322, 339
characters, tragic/mythical, oeneus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 29, 52, 53, 54
characters, tragic/mythical, orestes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 30, 37, 47, 78, 231, 250, 255, 258, 260, 274, 281, 284, 313, 314, 315, 316, 338, 339
characters, tragic/mythical, palamedes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 36, 100
characters, tragic/mythical, paris-alexandros Liapis and Petrides (2019) 67, 68, 70, 77
characters, tragic/mythical, parthenopaeus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 180, 261
characters, tragic/mythical, parthenopo Liapis and Petrides (2019) 109, 112
characters, tragic/mythical, patroclus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 33, 101
characters, tragic/mythical, pelasgus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 60
characters, tragic/mythical, peleus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 101, 257, 339
characters, tragic/mythical, pentheus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 49, 178, 196, 250, 259
characters, tragic/mythical, phaedra Liapis and Petrides (2019) 58, 263, 308
characters, tragic/mythical, philoctetes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 41, 57, 109, 231, 267, 268, 322
characters, tragic/mythical, podalirius Liapis and Petrides (2019) 110
characters, tragic/mythical, polyneices Liapis and Petrides (2019) 252, 278, 279
characters, tragic/mythical, polyxena Liapis and Petrides (2019) 59, 339
characters, tragic/mythical, poseidon Liapis and Petrides (2019) 41, 259, 269
characters, tragic/mythical, priam Liapis and Petrides (2019) 59, 106, 107, 140, 201
characters, tragic/mythical, prometheus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 287
characters, tragic/mythical, proteus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 118
characters, tragic/mythical, pylades Liapis and Petrides (2019) 78, 339
characters, tragic/mythical, rhesus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 187, 255, 256
characters, tragic/mythical, semelo Liapis and Petrides (2019) 27
characters, tragic/mythical, talthybius Liapis and Petrides (2019) 260
characters, tragic/mythical, tecmessa Liapis and Petrides (2019) 231, 240
characters, tragic/mythical, telegonus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 273
characters, tragic/mythical, telephus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 101, 118, 274
characters, tragic/mythical, teucer Liapis and Petrides (2019) 28
characters, tragic/mythical, theoclymenus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 255
characters, tragic/mythical, theseus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 54, 60, 101, 261, 262, 292
characters, tragic/mythical, thetis Liapis and Petrides (2019) 33, 257
characters, tragic/mythical, thoas Liapis and Petrides (2019) 255
characters, tragic/mythical, thyestes Liapis and Petrides (2019) 40, 58, 61, 248, 274, 320
characters, tragic/mythical, tydeus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 248
characters, tragic/mythical, xuthus Liapis and Petrides (2019) 248
characters, virginity, of tragic Hubbard (2014) 170, 171, 172, 173, 354, 360, 361
characters, virtual Jouanna (2018) 318, 319
characters, vs. action Jouanna (2018) 241, 242
characters, wisdom, of minor Jouanna (2018) 296, 297, 298
characters, withdrawal, of Jouanna (2018) 721
characters, women of trachis, the, sophocles, and virtual Jouanna (2018) 319
character”, λύσις ἐκ τοῦ grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, “solution from the προσώπου Ward (2022) 40, 41
values/character, as identity marker, for eratosthenes Gruen (2020) 33, 34
values/character, as identity marker, for joseph and aseneth Gruen (2020) 145
values/character, as identity marker, for josephus Gruen (2020) 169, 179
values/character, as identity marker, for judith Gruen (2020) 139, 141
values/character, as identity marker, for paul Gruen (2020) 188, 191, 192, 196, 197, 198, 199
values/character, as identity marker, for philo Gruen (2020) 153, 155, 156, 160, 162, 163
values/character, as identity marker, for roman writers Gruen (2020) 81, 82, 83, 84, 86
values/character, as identity marker, for strabo Gruen (2020) 35
values/character, as identity marker, of christians Gruen (2020) 205, 211
‘character, portraits’, body, ‘physiognomy’, and Bexley (2022) 235, 239, 241, 242
‘character, portraits’, description, and Bexley (2022) 235, 239, 241, 242
‘character, portraits’, thersites, and Bexley (2022) 241, 242

List of validated texts:
82 validated results for "character"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 14.6 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • narrative, fictitious character • values/character as identity marker, for Judith

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 139; Toloni (2022) 92

14.6. Then all the Gentiles will turn to fear the Lord God in truth, and will bury their idols.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7, 2.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allogenes, character • Homer, Odysseus, figure, character • Job (biblical character) • Repentance, character/aeon • Seth, character • Wisdom, character • baraitot, literary character/editorial practices • speech-in-character (prosōpopoeia) • values/character as identity marker, for Philo

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 7, 56, 112, 212; Gruen (2020) 163; Gunderson (2022) 9; Hayes (2022) 255, 256, 257, 258; Rubenstein (2018) 106; Toloni (2022) 196

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
2.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃' '. None
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
2.18. And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’' '. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 9.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judith, complex character • Repentance, character/aeon

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 434; Gera (2014) 390

9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃
9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃''. None
9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;''. None
4. Hesiod, Theogony, 903 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Paris (Homeric character) • Repentance, character/aeon

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 58; Goldhill (2022) 29

903. αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι,''. None
903. At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear –''. None
5. Homer, Iliad, 1.1, 1.62, 1.70, 1.73, 1.80-1.83, 1.92, 1.102-1.104, 1.277-1.281, 1.421, 2.212-2.214, 2.216-2.219, 2.305, 2.485-2.486, 9.113, 9.312, 10.47, 10.122, 23.166-23.177 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschines, character of Theoc. Id. • Artemidorus of Daldis, life and character • Caesar, Julius, character in Lucan • Eusebius of Caesarea’s Gospel Problems and Aristarchus on Homer,, intention of author/character, solution justified with • Odysseus, his character in Philoctetes • Protagoras (Plato’s character) • Roma, as a character • Thersites, and ‘character portraits’ • body, and character • body, ‘physiognomy’, and ‘character portraits’ • character, fictional, as textual construct • character, fictional, human qualities of • characters • characters, tragic/mythical, Agamemnon • characters, tragic/mythical, Diomedes • characters, tragic/mythical, Dolon • characters, tragic/mythical, Hector • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus • description, and ‘character portraits’ • intertextuality, characters, division and multiplication of • knowledge, and character • livy, epic character • motivation, of characters • persuasion through character • populus Romanus, as central character in the Pharsalia

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 201; Bexley (2022) 125, 241, 242; Farrell (2021) 272; Fortenbaugh (2006) 286, 327, 331, 405; Harte (2017) 35; Hesk (2000) 195; Hickson (1993) 18; Joseph (2022) 41, 51, 52, 53, 126; Jouanna (2018) 336; Kirichenko (2022) 14; Legaspi (2018) 26, 28, 31, 32; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 69; Morrison (2020) 71; Oksanish (2019) 170, 171, 183; Thonemann (2020) 20, 125, 131

1.1. μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
1.62. ἀλλʼ ἄγε δή τινα μάντιν ἐρείομεν ἢ ἱερῆα
1.70. ὃς ᾔδη τά τʼ ἐόντα τά τʼ ἐσσόμενα πρό τʼ ἐόντα,
1.73. ὅ σφιν ἐὺ φρονέων ἀγορήσατο καὶ μετέειπεν·
1.80. κρείσσων γὰρ βασιλεὺς ὅτε χώσεται ἀνδρὶ χέρηϊ· 1.81. εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ, 1.82. ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον, ὄφρα τελέσσῃ, 1.83. ἐν στήθεσσιν ἑοῖσι· σὺ δὲ φράσαι εἴ με σαώσεις.
1.92. καὶ τότε δὴ θάρσησε καὶ ηὔδα μάντις ἀμύμων·

1.102. ἥρως Ἀτρεΐδης εὐρὺ κρείων Ἀγαμέμνων
1.103. ἀχνύμενος· μένεος δὲ μέγα φρένες ἀμφιμέλαιναι
1.104. πίμπλαντʼ, ὄσσε δέ οἱ πυρὶ λαμπετόωντι ἐΐκτην·
1.277. μήτε σὺ Πηλείδη ἔθελʼ ἐριζέμεναι βασιλῆϊ 1.278. ἀντιβίην, ἐπεὶ οὔ ποθʼ ὁμοίης ἔμμορε τιμῆς 1.279. σκηπτοῦχος βασιλεύς, ᾧ τε Ζεὺς κῦδος ἔδωκεν. 1.280. εἰ δὲ σὺ καρτερός ἐσσι θεὰ δέ σε γείνατο μήτηρ, 1.281. ἀλλʼ ὅ γε φέρτερός ἐστιν ἐπεὶ πλεόνεσσιν ἀνάσσει.
1.421. ἀλλὰ σὺ μὲν νῦν νηυσὶ παρήμενος ὠκυπόροισι
2.212. Θερσίτης δʼ ἔτι μοῦνος ἀμετροεπὴς ἐκολῴα, 2.213. ὃς ἔπεα φρεσὶν ᾗσιν ἄκοσμά τε πολλά τε ᾔδη 2.214. μάψ, ἀτὰρ οὐ κατὰ κόσμον, ἐριζέμεναι βασιλεῦσιν,
2.216. ἔμμεναι· αἴσχιστος δὲ ἀνὴρ ὑπὸ Ἴλιον ἦλθε· 2.217. φολκὸς ἔην, χωλὸς δʼ ἕτερον πόδα· τὼ δέ οἱ ὤμω 2.218. κυρτὼ ἐπὶ στῆθος συνοχωκότε· αὐτὰρ ὕπερθε 2.219. φοξὸς ἔην κεφαλήν, ψεδνὴ δʼ ἐπενήνοθε λάχνη.
2.305. ἡμεῖς δʼ ἀμφὶ περὶ κρήνην ἱεροὺς κατὰ βωμοὺς
2.485. ὑμεῖς γὰρ θεαί ἐστε πάρεστέ τε ἴστέ τε πάντα, 2.486. ἡμεῖς δὲ κλέος οἶον ἀκούομεν οὐδέ τι ἴδμεν·
9.113. δώροισίν τʼ ἀγανοῖσιν ἔπεσσί τε μειλιχίοισι.
9.312. ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος ὁμῶς Ἀΐδαο πύλῃσιν
10.47. οὐ γάρ πω ἰδόμην, οὐδʼ ἔκλυον αὐδήσαντος
10.122. οὔτʼ ὄκνῳ εἴκων οὔτʼ ἀφραδίῃσι νόοιο,
23.166. πολλὰ δὲ ἴφια μῆλα καὶ εἰλίποδας ἕλικας βοῦς 23.167. πρόσθε πυρῆς ἔδερόν τε καὶ ἄμφεπον· ἐκ δʼ ἄρα πάντων 23.168. δημὸν ἑλὼν ἐκάλυψε νέκυν μεγάθυμος Ἀχιλλεὺς 23.169. ἐς πόδας ἐκ κεφαλῆς, περὶ δὲ δρατὰ σώματα νήει. 23.170. ἐν δʼ ἐτίθει μέλιτος καὶ ἀλείφατος ἀμφιφορῆας 23.171. πρὸς λέχεα κλίνων· πίσυρας δʼ ἐριαύχενας ἵππους 23.172. ἐσσυμένως ἐνέβαλλε πυρῇ μεγάλα στεναχίζων. 23.173. ἐννέα τῷ γε ἄνακτι τραπεζῆες κύνες ἦσαν, 23.174. καὶ μὲν τῶν ἐνέβαλλε πυρῇ δύο δειροτομήσας, 23.175. δώδεκα δὲ Τρώων μεγαθύμων υἱέας ἐσθλοὺς 23.176. χαλκῷ δηϊόων· κακὰ δὲ φρεσὶ μήδετο ἔργα· 23.177. ἐν δὲ πυρὸς μένος ἧκε σιδήρεον ὄφρα νέμοιτο.' '. None
1.1. The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, " '
1.62. if war and pestilence alike are to ravage the Achaeans. But come, let us ask some seer or priest, or some reader of dreams—for a dream too is from Zeus—who might say why Phoebus Apollo is so angry, whether he finds fault with a vow or a hecatomb;
1.70. and who had guided the ships of the Achaeans to Ilios by his own prophetic powers which Phoebus Apollo had bestowed upon him. He with good intent addressed the gathering, and spoke among them:Achilles, dear to Zeus, you bid me declare the wrath of Apollo, the lord who strikes from afar.
1.80. Even if he swallows down his wrath for that day, yet afterwards he cherishes resentment in his heart till he brings it to fulfillment. Say then, if you will keep me safe. In answer to him spoke swift-footed Achilles:Take heart, and speak out whatever oracle you know;
1.92. not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans.

1.102. When he had thus spoken he sat down, and among them arose the warrior, son of Atreus, wide-ruling Agamemnon, deeply troubled. With rage his black heart was wholly filled, and his eyes were like blazing fire. To Calchas first of all he spoke, and his look threatened evil:
1.277. but let her be, as the sons of the Achaeans first gave her to him as a prize; nor do you, son of Peleus, be minded to strive with a king, might against might, for it is no common honour that is the portion of a sceptre-holding king, to whom Zeus gives glory. If you are a stronger fighter, and a goddess mother bore you, 1.280. yet he is the mightier, since he is king over more. Son of Atreus, check your rage. Indeed, I beg you to let go your anger against Achilles, who is for all the Achaeans a mighty bulwark in evil war.
1.421. But remain by your swift, sea-faring ships, and continue your wrath against the Achaeans, and refrain utterly from battle; for Zeus went yesterday to Oceanus, to the blameless Ethiopians for a feast, and all the gods followed with him; but on the twelfth day he will come back again to Olympus,
2.212. thundereth on the long beach, and the deep roareth.Now the others sate them down and were stayed in their places, only there still kept chattering on Thersites of measureless speech, whose mind was full of great store of disorderly words, wherewith to utter revilings against the kings, idly, and in no orderly wise,
2.216. but whatsoever he deemed would raise a laugh among the Argives. Evil-favoured was he beyond all men that came to Ilios: he was bandy-legged and lame in the one foot, and his two shoulders were rounded, stooping together over his chest, and above them his head was warped, and a scant stubble grew thereon.
2.305. and we round about a spring were offering to the immortals upon the holy altars hecatombs that bring fulfillment, beneath a fair plane-tree from whence flowed the bright water; then appeared a great portent: a serpent, blood-red on the back, terrible, whom the Olympian himself had sent forth to the light,
2.485. for ye are goddesses and are at hand and know all things, whereas we hear but a rumour and know not anything—who were the captains of the Danaans and their lords. But the common folk I could not tell nor name, nay, not though ten tongues were mine and ten mouths
9.113. and upon a man most mighty, whom the very immortals honoured, didst thou put dishonour; for thou tookest away and keepest his prize. Howbeit let us still even now take thought how we may make amends, and persuade him with kindly gifts and with gentle words.
9.312. and as it shall be brought to pass, that ye sit not by me here on this side and on that and prate endlessly. For hateful in my eyes, even as the gates of Hades, is that man that hideth one thing in his mind and sayeth another. Nay, I will speak what seemeth to me to be best.
10.47. the Argives and their ships, seeing the mind of Zeus is turned. To the sacrifices of Hector, it seemeth, his heart inclineth rather than to ours. For never have I seen neither heard by the telling of another that one man devised in one day so many terrible deeds, as Hector, dear to Zeus, hath wrought upon the sons of the Achaeans, by himself alone,
10.122. Old sir, at another time shalt thou chide him even at mine own bidding, seeing he is often slack and not minded to labour, neither yielding to sloth nor to heedlessness of mind, but ever looking to me and awaiting my leading. But now he awoke even before myself, and came to me,
23.166. and on the topmost part thereof they set the dead man, their hearts sorrow-laden. And many goodly sheep and many sleek kine of shambling gait they flayed and dressed before the pyre; and from them all great-souled Achilles gathered the fat, and enfolded the dead therein from head to foot, and about him heaped the flayed bodies. 23.170. And thereon he set two-handled jars of honey and oil, leaning them against the bier; and four horses with high arched neeks he cast swiftly upon the pyre, groaning aloud the while. Nine dogs had the prince, that fed beneath his table, and of these did Achilles cut the throats of twain, and cast them upon the pyre. 23.175. And twelve valiant sons of the great-souled Trojans slew he with the bronze—and grim was the work he purposed in his heart and thereto he set the iron might of fire, to range at large. Then he uttered a groan, and called on his dear comrade by name:Hail, I bid thee, O Patroclus, even in the house of Hades, 23.177. And twelve valiant sons of the great-souled Trojans slew he with the bronze—and grim was the work he purposed in his heart and thereto he set the iron might of fire, to range at large. Then he uttered a groan, and called on his dear comrade by name:Hail, I bid thee, O Patroclus, even in the house of Hades, ' ". None
6. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Herakles, dual character as both god and hero • Homer, character and divine influence in • Odysseus, character of • Paris (Homeric character) • Roma, as a character • character of recipient, decisive of choice of ritual • character, excellence of • knowledge, and character • populus Romanus, as central character in the Pharsalia

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 86; Goldhill (2022) 29; Joho (2022) 238, 240; Joseph (2022) 42, 43, 44; Legaspi (2018) 33, 34; Long (2006) 73

7. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 900-902 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • characters, and doubling • characters, tragic/mythical, Dolon • characters, tragic/mythical, Hector • characters, tragic/mythical, Orestes • characters, tragic/mythical, Pylades • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus • silence, of minor characters

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 291, 700; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 78

900. ποῦ δὴ τὰ λοιπὰ Λοξίου μαντεύματα'901. τὰ πυθόχρηστα, πιστὰ δʼ εὐορκώματα; 902. ἅπαντας ἐχθροὺς τῶν θεῶν ἡγοῦ πλέον. Ὀρέστης '. None
900. What then will become in the future of Loxias’ oracles declared at Orestes '901. What then will become in the future of Loxias’ oracles declared at Orestes '. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.9-16.13 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judith, complex character • narrative, fictitious character

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 328; Toloni (2022) 11

16.9. וָאֶרְחָצֵךְ בַּמַּיִם וָאֶשְׁטֹף דָּמַיִךְ מֵעָלָיִךְ וָאֲסֻכֵךְ בַּשָּׁמֶן׃' '16.11. וָאֶעְדֵּךְ עֶדִי וָאֶתְּנָה צְמִידִים עַל־יָדַיִךְ וְרָבִיד עַל־גְּרוֹנֵךְ׃ 16.12. וָאֶתֵּן נֶזֶם עַל־אַפֵּךְ וַעֲגִילִים עַל־אָזְנָיִךְ וַעֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאֶרֶת בְּרֹאשֵׁךְ׃ 16.13. וַתַּעְדִּי זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּמַלְבּוּשֵׁךְ ששי שֵׁשׁ וָמֶשִׁי וְרִקְמָה סֹלֶת וּדְבַשׁ וָשֶׁמֶן אכלתי אָכָלְתְּ וַתִּיפִי בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וַתִּצְלְחִי לִמְלוּכָה׃''. None
16.9. Then washed I thee with water; yea, I cleansed away thy blood from thee, and I anointed thee with oil. 16.10. I clothed thee also with richly woven work, and shod thee with sealskin, and I wound fine linen about thy head, and covered thee with silk. 16.11. I decked thee also with ornaments, and I put bracelets upon thy hands, and a chain on thy neck. 16.12. And I put a ring upon thy nose, and earrings in thine ears, and a beautiful crown upon thy head. 16.13. Thus wast thou decked with gold and silver; and thy raiment was of fine linen, and silk, and richly woven work; thou didst eat fine flour, and honey, and oil; and thou didst wax exceeding beautiful, and thou wast meet for royal estate.''. None
9. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, and character withdrawals • Libation Bearers, The (Aeschylus), and character withdrawals • characters, tragic/mythical, Diomedes • characters, tragic/mythical, Dolon • characters, tragic/mythical, Electra • characters, tragic/mythical, Eteocles • characters, tragic/mythical, Furies (Erinyes) • characters, tragic/mythical, Hector • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Orestes • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus • characters, tragic/mythical, Talthybius • virginity, of tragic characters • withdrawal, of characters

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 354; Jouanna (2018) 721; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 75, 260

10. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • characters, of Antigone (Sophocles) • characters, tragic/mythical, Antigone • characters, tragic/mythical, Ismene • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 482; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 83, 237

11. Euripides, Hippolytus, 5-6, 16-21, 23, 29-32, 34-37, 73-87, 100, 102, 337-338, 411-412, 416-425, 447-448, 616-650, 653-655, 725-727, 1423 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • causation, and character • character, fictional, human qualities of • character, tragic, • characters, tragic/mythical, Agamemnon • characters, tragic/mythical, Amazons • characters, tragic/mythical, Antigone • characters, tragic/mythical, Clytemnestra • characters, tragic/mythical, Creon, king of Thebes • characters, tragic/mythical, Diomedes • characters, tragic/mythical, Electra • characters, tragic/mythical, Hecuba • characters, tragic/mythical, Hippolytus • characters, tragic/mythical, Ismene • characters, tragic/mythical, Medea • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Oedipus • characters, tragic/mythical, Orestes • characters, tragic/mythical, Parthenopo • characters, tragic/mythical, Philoctetes • socially inferior characters in Euripides • sophia, wisdom of metaleptic literary characters • understanding of misfortune, through words, characters struggling for • virginity, of tragic characters

 Found in books: Bexley (2022) 206; Fabian Meinel (2015) 25, 26, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 46; Hubbard (2014) 170, 171, 172, 173, 360, 361; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 109, 237, 284; Marincola et al (2021) 136; Pucci (2016) 54, 94

5. τοὺς μὲν σέβοντας τἀμὰ πρεσβεύω κράτη,' "6. σφάλλω δ' ὅσοι φρονοῦσιν εἰς ἡμᾶς μέγα." '
16. τιμᾷ, μεγίστην δαιμόνων ἡγούμενος,' "17. χλωρὰν δ' ἀν' ὕλην παρθένῳ ξυνὼν ἀεὶ" '18. κυσὶν ταχείαις θῆρας ἐξαιρεῖ χθονός, 19. μείζω βροτείας προσπεσὼν ὁμιλίας. 20. τούτοισι μέν νυν οὐ φθονῶ: τί γάρ με δεῖ;' "21. ἃ δ' εἰς ἔμ' ἡμάρτηκε τιμωρήσομαι" "
23. πάλαι προκόψας', οὐ πόνου πολλοῦ με δεῖ." '
29. καὶ πρὶν μὲν ἐλθεῖν τήνδε γῆν Τροζηνίαν,' "30. πέτραν παρ' αὐτὴν Παλλάδος, κατόψιον" '31. γῆς τῆσδε ναὸν Κύπριδος ἐγκαθίσατο,' "32. ἐρῶς' ἔρωτ' ἔκδημον, ̔Ιππολύτῳ δ' ἔπι" '
34. ἐπεὶ δὲ Θησεὺς Κεκροπίαν λείπει χθόνα 3
5. μίασμα φεύγων αἵματος Παλλαντιδῶν 36. καὶ τήνδε σὺν δάμαρτι ναυστολεῖ χθόνα, 37. ἐνιαυσίαν ἔκδημον αἰνέσας φυγήν,
73. σοὶ τόνδε πλεκτὸν στέφανον ἐξ ἀκηράτου 74. λειμῶνος, ὦ δέσποινα, κοσμήσας φέρω,' "7
5. ἔνθ' οὔτε ποιμὴν ἀξιοῖ φέρβειν βοτὰ" "76. οὔτ' ἦλθέ πω σίδηρος, ἀλλ' ἀκήρατον" "77. μέλισσα λειμῶν' ἠρινὴ διέρχεται," '78. Αἰδὼς δὲ ποταμίαισι κηπεύει δρόσοις,' "79. ὅσοις διδακτὸν μηδὲν ἀλλ' ἐν τῇ φύσει" "80. τὸ σωφρονεῖν εἴληχεν ἐς τὰ πάντ' ἀεί," "81. τούτοις δρέπεσθαι, τοῖς κακοῖσι δ' οὐ θέμις." "82. ἀλλ', ὦ φίλη δέσποινα, χρυσέας κόμης" '83. ἀνάδημα δέξαι χειρὸς εὐσεβοῦς ἄπο.' "84. μόνῳ γάρ ἐστι τοῦτ' ἐμοὶ γέρας βροτῶν:" '8
5. σοὶ καὶ ξύνειμι καὶ λόγοις ἀμείβομαι,' "86. κλύων μὲν αὐδῆς, ὄμμα δ' οὐχ ὁρῶν τὸ σόν." "87. τέλος δὲ κάμψαιμ' ὥσπερ ἠρξάμην βίου." "
100. τίν'; εὐλαβοῦ δὲ μή τί σου σφαλῇ στόμα."
102. πρόσωθεν αὐτὴν ἁγνὸς ὢν ἀσπάζομαι.' "
337. ὦ τλῆμον, οἷον, μῆτερ, ἠράσθης ἔρον. 338. ὃν ἔσχε ταύρου, τέκνον, ἢ τί φῂς τόδε;
411. ὅταν γὰρ αἰσχρὰ τοῖσιν ἐσθλοῖσιν δοκῇ,' "412. ἦ κάρτα δόξει τοῖς κακοῖς γ' εἶναι καλά." '4
16. βλέπουσιν ἐς πρόσωπα τῶν ξυνευνετῶν 417. οὐδὲ σκότον φρίσσουσι τὸν ξυνεργάτην' "418. τέραμνά τ' οἴκων μή ποτε φθογγὴν ἀφῇ;" "419. ἡμᾶς γὰρ αὐτὸ τοῦτ' ἀποκτείνει, φίλαι," "420. ὡς μήποτ' ἄνδρα τὸν ἐμὸν αἰσχύνας' ἁλῶ," "421. μὴ παῖδας οὓς ἔτικτον: ἀλλ' ἐλεύθεροι" '422. παρρησίᾳ θάλλοντες οἰκοῖεν πόλιν' "4
23. κλεινῶν ̓Αθηνῶν, μητρὸς οὕνεκ' εὐκλεεῖς." '424. δουλοῖ γὰρ ἄνδρα, κἂν θρασύσπλαγχνός τις ᾖ, 42
5. ὅταν ξυνειδῇ μητρὸς ἢ πατρὸς κακά.' "
447. φοιτᾷ δ' ἀν' αἰθέρ', ἔστι δ' ἐν θαλασσίῳ" "448. κλύδωνι Κύπρις, πάντα δ' ἐκ ταύτης ἔφυ:" '6
16. ὦ Ζεῦ, τί δὴ κίβδηλον ἀνθρώποις κακὸν 617. γυναῖκας ἐς φῶς ἡλίου κατῴκισας; 618. εἰ γὰρ βρότειον ἤθελες σπεῖραι γένος, 619. οὐκ ἐκ γυναικῶν χρῆν παρασχέσθαι τόδε,' "620. ἀλλ' ἀντιθέντας σοῖσιν ἐν ναοῖς βροτοὺς" '621. ἢ χαλκὸν ἢ σίδηρον ἢ χρυσοῦ βάρος 622. παίδων πρίασθαι σπέρμα του τιμήματος, 6
23. τῆς ἀξίας ἕκαστον, ἐν δὲ δώμασιν 624. ναίειν ἐλευθέροισι θηλειῶν ἄτερ.' "62
5. νῦν δ' ἐς δόμους μὲν πρῶτον ἄξεσθαι κακὸν" '626. μέλλοντες ὄλβον δωμάτων ἐκτίνομεν. 627. τούτῳ δὲ δῆλον ὡς γυνὴ κακὸν μέγα: 628. προσθεὶς γὰρ ὁ σπείρας τε καὶ θρέψας πατὴρ' "6
29. φερνὰς ἀπῴκις', ὡς ἀπαλλαχθῇ κακοῦ." "630. ὁ δ' αὖ λαβὼν ἀτηρὸν ἐς δόμους φυτὸν" '631. γέγηθε κόσμον προστιθεὶς ἀγάλματι 632. καλὸν κακίστῳ καὶ πέπλοισιν ἐκπονεῖ 633. δύστηνος, ὄλβον δωμάτων ὑπεξελών.' "6
34. ἔχει δ' ἀνάγκην: ὥστε κηδεύσας καλῶς" '63
5. γαμβροῖσι χαίρων σῴζεται πικρὸν λέχος,' "636. ἢ χρηστὰ λέκτρα πενθεροὺς δ' ἀνωφελεῖς" '637. λαβὼν πιέζει τἀγαθῷ τὸ δυστυχές.' "638. ῥᾷστον δ' ὅτῳ τὸ μηδέν — ἀλλ' ἀνωφελὴς" "639. εὐηθίᾳ κατ' οἶκον ἵδρυται γυνή." "640. σοφὴν δὲ μισῶ: μὴ γὰρ ἔν γ' ἐμοῖς δόμοις" "641. εἴη φρονοῦσα πλείον' ἢ γυναῖκα χρή." '642. τὸ γὰρ κακοῦργον μᾶλλον ἐντίκτει Κύπρις' "643. ἐν ταῖς σοφαῖσιν: ἡ δ' ἀμήχανος γυνὴ" '644. γνώμῃ βραχείᾳ μωρίαν ἀφῃρέθη.' "64
5. χρῆν δ' ἐς γυναῖκα πρόσπολον μὲν οὐ περᾶν," "646. ἄφθογγα δ' αὐταῖς συγκατοικίζειν δάκη" "647. θηρῶν, ἵν' εἶχον μήτε προσφωνεῖν τινα" "648. μήτ' ἐξ ἐκείνων φθέγμα δέξασθαι πάλιν." "649. νῦν δ' αἱ μὲν ἔνδον †δρῶσιν αἱ κακαὶ† κακὰ" "6
50. βουλεύματ', ἔξω δ' ἐκφέρουσι πρόσπολοι." '6
53. ἁγὼ ῥυτοῖς νασμοῖσιν ἐξομόρξομαι, 6
54. ἐς ὦτα κλύζων. πῶς ἂν οὖν εἴην κακός,' "6
5. ὃς οὐδ' ἀκούσας τοιάδ' ἁγνεύειν δοκῶ;" "72
5. ἐγὼ δὲ Κύπριν, ἥπερ ἐξόλλυσί με,' "72
5. καὶ σύ γ' εὖ με νουθέτει." '726. ψυχῆς ἀπαλλαχθεῖσα τῇδ' ἐν ἡμέρᾳ" "727. τέρψω: πικροῦ δ' ἔρωτος ἡσσηθήσομαι." '14
23. σοὶ δ', ὦ ταλαίπωρ', ἀντὶ τῶνδε τῶν κακῶν" ''. None
5. those that respect my power I advance to honour, but bring to ruin all who vaunt themselves at me. For even in the race of gods this feeling finds a home, even pleasure at the honour men pay them.
16. but Artemis, daughter of Zeus, sister of Phoebus, he doth honour, counting her the chief of goddesses, and ever through the greenwood, attendant on his virgin goddess, he dears the earth of wild beasts with his fleet hounds, enjoying the comradeship of one too high for mortal ken. 20. ’Tis not this I grudge him, no! why should I? But for his sins against me, I will this very day take vengeance on Hippolytus; for long ago I cleared the ground of many obstacles, so it needs but trifling toil.
29. to witness the solemn mystic rites and be initiated therein in Pandion’s land, i.e. Attica. Phaedra, his father’s noble wife, caught sight of him, and by my designs she found her heart was seized with wild desire. 30. a temple did she rear to Cypris hard by the rock of Pallas where it o’erlooks this country, for love of the youth in another land; and to win his love in days to come she called after his name the temple she had founded for the goddess. 3
5. flying the pollution of the blood of Pallas’ Descendants of Pandion, king of Cecropia, slain by Theseus to obtain the kingdom. sons, and with his wife sailed to this shore, content to suffer exile for a year, then began the wretched wife to pine away in silence, moaning ’neath love’s cruel scourge,
73. For See note above on lines 70-72 thee, O mistress mine, I bring this woven wreath, culled from a virgin meadow, 7
5. where nor shepherd dares to herd his flock nor ever scythe hath mown, but o’er the mead unshorn the bee doth wing its way in spring; and with the dew from rivers drawn purity that garden tends. Such as know no cunning lore, yet in whose nature 80. elf-control, made perfect, hath a home, these may pluck the flowers, but not the wicked world. Accept, I pray, dear mistress, mine this chaplet from my holy hand to crown thy locks of gold; for I, and none other of mortals, have this high guerdon, 8
5. to be with thee, with thee converse, hearing thy voice, though not thy face beholding. So be it mine to end my life as I began. Attendant
100. Whom speak’st thou of? Keep watch upon thy tongue lest it some mischief cause. Attendant'
102. I greet her from afar, preserving still my chastity. Att
337. Ah! hapless mother, Pasiphae, wife of Minos, deceived by Aphrodite into a fatal passion for a bull. Cf. Verg. Aen. vi. ad init., also Ovid Metam., viii, 131 sqq. what a love was thine! Nurse 338. Her love for the bull? daughter, or what meanest thou? Phaedra
411. this curse began to spread among our sex. For when the noble countece disgrace, poor folk of course will think that it is right. Those too I hate who make profession of purity, though in secret reckless sinners. 4
16. How can these, queen Cypris, ocean’s child, e’er look their husbands in the face? do they never feel one guilty thrill that their accomplice, night, or the chambers of their house will find a voice and speak? 419. This it is that calls on me to die, kind friends, 420. that so I may ne’er be found to have disgraced my lord, or the children I have born; no! may they grow up and dwell in glorious Athens, free to speak and act, heirs to such fair fame as a mother can bequeath. For to know that father or mother have sinned doth turn 42
5. the stoutest heart to slavishness. This alone, men say, can stand the buffets of life’s battle, a just and virtuous soul in whomsoever found. For time unmasks the villain sooner or later, holding up to them a mirror as to some blooming maid.
447. and only when she finds a proud unnatural spirit, doth she take and mock it past belief. Her path is in the sky, and mid the ocean’s surge she rides; from her all nature springs; she sows the seeds of love, inspires the warm desire 6
16. Great Zeus, why didst thou, to man’s sorrow, put woman, evil counterfeit, to dwell where shines the sun? If thou wert minded that the human race should multiply, it was not from women they should have drawn their stock, 620. but in thy temples they should have paid gold or iron or ponderous bronze and bought a family, each man proportioned to his offering, and so in independence dwelt, from women free. 62
5. But now as soon as ever we would bring this plague into our home we bring its fortune to the ground. 1 Nauck brackets these two lines as spurious. ’Tis clear from this how great a curse a woman is; the very father, that begot and nurtured her, to rid him of the mischief gives her a dower and packs her off; 630. while the husband, who takes the noxious weed into his home, fondly decks his sorry idol in fine raiment and tricks her out in robes, squandering by degrees, unhappy wight! his house’s wealth. For he is in this dilemma; 63
5. ay his marriage has brought him good connections, he is glad then to keep the wife he loathes; or, if he gets a good wife but useless relations, he tries to stifle the bad luck with the good. But it is easiest for him who has settled in his house as wife a mere nobody, For ἀλλὰ Weil proposes οὖσ’ . Another conjecture is ἀλλὰ νωχελὴς . incapable from simplicity. 640. I hate a clever woman; never may she set foot in my house who aims at knowing more than women need; for in these clever women Cypris implants a larger store of villainy, while the artless woman is by her shallow wit from levity debarred. 64
5. No servant should ever have had access to a wife, but men should put to live with them beasts, which bite, not talk, in which case they could not speak to any one nor be answered back by them. But, as it is, the wicked in their chambers plot wickedness, 6
50. and their servants carry it abroad. 6
5. when by the very mention of it I feel myself polluted? Be well assured, woman, ’tis only my religious scruple saves thee. For had not I unawares been caught by an oath, ’fore heaven! I would not have refrained from telling all unto my father. But now I will from the house away, so long a 72
5. For this very day shall I gladden Cypris, my destroyer, by yielding up my life, and shall own myself vanquished by cruel love. Yet shall my dying be another’s curse, that he may learn not to exult at my misfortunes; 14
23. For I with mine own hand will with these unerring shafts avenge me on another, Adonis. who is her votary, dearest to her of all the sons of men. And to thee, poor sufferer, for thy anguish now will I grant high honours in the city of Troezen; '. None
12. Euripides, Rhesus, 941-945 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • characters, tragic/mythical, Achilles • characters, tragic/mythical, Aeneas • characters, tragic/mythical, Ajax, Salaminian (Telamonian) • characters, tragic/mythical, Aphrodite • characters, tragic/mythical, Diomedes • characters, tragic/mythical, Dolon • characters, tragic/mythical, Furies (Erinyes) • characters, tragic/mythical, Hector • characters, tragic/mythical, Muse • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Paris-Alexandros • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus • virginity, of tragic characters

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 171; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 67, 68, 73, 74, 75

941. καίτοι πόλιν σὴν σύγγονοι πρεσβεύομεν'942. Μοῦσαι μάλιστα κἀπιχρώμεθα χθονί, 943. μυστηρίων τε τῶν ἀπορρήτων φανὰς 944. ἔδειξεν ̓Ορφεύς, αὐτανέψιος νεκροῦ' "945. τοῦδ' ὃν κατακτείνεις σύ: Μουσαῖόν τε, σὸν" ''. None
941. Is hid from me! Yet ever on thy land'942. The Muse hath smiled; we gave it praise above 943. The light of thy great Mysteries was shed 944. By Orpheus, very cousin of this dead 945. Whom thou hast slain; and thine high citizen '. None
13. Herodotus, Histories, 1.5, 1.8-1.12, 1.46, 3.80, 4.76, 6.23 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Herodotus\n, female characters of • Lokroi, Ionian character of • Zeus Dodonaios, at Dodona, military character • belief/s, as traits of character • characters • characters, tragic/mythical, Cassandra (Alexandra) • characters, tragic/mythical, Priam • foreign, characters • heroine powerful character of • motivation, of characters

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 52; Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 68, 69; Jouanna (2018) 334; Kowalzig (2007) 312, 338; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 140; Morrison (2020) 78, 79, 80, 96, 97, 98, 99, 114, 115, 116; Papadodima (2022) 22; Stephens and Winkler (1995) 79

1.5. οὕτω μὲν Πέρσαι λέγουσι γενέσθαι, καὶ διὰ τὴν Ἰλίου ἅλωσιν εὑρίσκουσι σφίσι ἐοῦσαν τὴν ἀρχήν τῆς ἔχθρης τῆς ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας. περὶ δὲ τῆς Ἰοῦς οὐκ ὁμολογέουσι Πέρσῃσι οὕτω Φοίνικες· οὐ γὰρ ἁρπαγῇ σφέας χρησαμένους λέγουσι ἀγαγεῖν αὐτήν ἐς Αἴγυπτον, ἀλλʼ ὡς ἐν τῷ Ἄργεϊ ἐμίσγετο τῷ ναυκλήρῳ τῆς νέος· ἐπεὶ δʼ ἔμαθε ἔγκυος ἐοῦσα, αἰδεομένη τοὺς τοκέας οὕτω δὴ ἐθελοντήν αὐτήν τοῖσι Φοίνιξι συνεκπλῶσαι, ὡς ἂν μὴ κατάδηλος γένηται. ταῦτα μέν νυν Πέρσαι τε καὶ Φοίνικες λέγουσι· ἐγὼ δὲ περὶ μὲν τούτων οὐκ ἔρχομαι ἐρέων ὡς οὕτω ἢ ἄλλως κως ταῦτα ἐγένετο, τὸν δὲ οἶδα αὐτὸς πρῶτον ὑπάρξαντα ἀδίκων ἔργων ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας, τοῦτον σημήνας προβήσομαι ἐς τὸ πρόσω τοῦ λόγου, ὁμοίως σμικρὰ καὶ μεγάλα ἄστεα ἀνθρώπων ἐπεξιών. τὰ γὰρ τὸ πάλαι μεγάλα ἦν, τὰ πολλὰ σμικρὰ αὐτῶν γέγονε· τὰ δὲ ἐπʼ ἐμεῦ ἦν μεγάλα, πρότερον ἦν σμικρά. τὴν ἀνθρωπηίην ὤν ἐπιστάμενος εὐδαιμονίην οὐδαμὰ ἐν τὠυτῷ μένουσαν, ἐπιμνήσομαι ἀμφοτέρων ὁμοίως.
1.8. οὗτος δὴ ὦν ὁ Κανδαύλης ἠράσθη τῆς ἑωυτοῦ γυναικός, ἐρασθεὶς δὲ ἐνόμιζέ οἱ εἶναι γυναῖκα πολλὸν πασέων καλλίστην. ὥστε δὲ ταῦτα νομίζων, ἦν γάρ οἱ τῶν αἰχμοφόρων Γύγης ὁ Δασκύλου ἀρεσκόμενος μάλιστα, τούτῳ τῷ Γύγῃ καὶ τὰ σπουδαιέστερα τῶν πρηγμάτων ὑπερετίθετο ὁ Κανδαύλης καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ εἶδος τῆς γυναικὸς ὑπερεπαινέων. χρόνου δὲ οὐ πολλοῦ διελθόντος ʽχρῆν γὰρ Κανδαύλῃ γενέσθαι κακῶσ̓ ἔλεγε πρὸς τὸν Γύγην τοιάδε. “Γύγη, οὐ γὰρ σε δοκέω πείθεσθαι μοι λέγοντι περὶ τοῦ εἴδεος τῆς γυναικός ʽὦτα γὰρ τυγχάνει ἀνθρώποισι ἐόντα ἀπιστότερα ὀφθαλμῶν̓, ποίεε ὅκως ἐκείνην θεήσεαι γυμνήν.” ὃ δʼ ἀμβώσας εἶπε “δέσποτα, τίνα λέγεις λόγον οὐκ ὑγιέα, κελεύων με δέσποιναν τὴν ἐμὴν θεήσασθαι γυμνήν; ἅμα δὲ κιθῶνι ἐκδυομένῳ συνεκδύεται καὶ τὴν αἰδῶ γυνή. πάλαι δὲ τὰ καλὰ ἀνθρώποισι ἐξεύρηται, ἐκ τῶν μανθάνειν δεῖ· ἐν τοῖσι ἓν τόδε ἐστί, σκοπέειν τινὰ τὰ ἑωυτοῦ. ἐγὼ δὲ πείθομαι ἐκείνην εἶναι πασέων γυναικῶν καλλίστην, καὶ σέο δέομαι μὴ δέεσθαι ἀνόμων.” 1.9. ὃ μὲν δὴ λέγων τοιαῦτα ἀπεμάχετο, ἀρρωδέων μὴ τί οἱ ἐξ αὐτῶν γένηται κακόν, ὃ δʼ ἀμείβετο τοῖσιδε. “θάρσεε, Γύγη, καὶ μὴ φοβεῦ μήτε ἐμέ, ὡς σέο πειρώμενος 1 λέγω λόγον τόνδε, μήτε γυναῖκα τὴν ἐμήν, μὴ τὶ τοι ἐξ αὐτῆς γένηται βλάβος. ἀρχήν γὰρ ἐγὼ μηχανήσομαι οὕτω ὥστε μηδέ μαθεῖν μιν ὀφθεῖσαν ὑπὸ σεῦ. ἐγὼ γάρ σε ἐς τὸ οἴκημα ἐν τῷ κοιμώμεθα ὄπισθε τῆς ἀνοιγομένης θύρης στήσω. μετὰ δʼ ἐμὲ ἐσελθόντα παρέσται καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἐμὴ ἐς κοῖτον. κεῖται δὲ ἀγχοῦ τῆς ἐσόδου θρόνος· ἐπὶ τοῦτον τῶν ἱματίων κατὰ ἕν ἕκαστον ἐκδύνουσα θήσει, καὶ κατʼ ἡσυχίην πολλὴν παρέξει τοι θεήσασθαι. ἐπεὰν δέ ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου στείχῃ ἐπὶ τὴν εὐνήν κατὰ νώτου τε αὐτῆς γένῃ, σοὶ μελέτω τὸ ἐνθεῦτεν ὅκως μὴ σε ὄψεται ἰόντα διὰ θυρέων.” 1.10. ὃ μὲν δὴ ὡς οὐκ ἐδύνατο διαφυγεῖν, ἦν ἕτοιμος· ὁ δὲ Κανδαύλης, ἐπεὶ ἐδόκεε ὥρη τῆς κοίτης εἶναι, ἤγαγε τὸν Γύγεα ἐς τὸ οἴκημα. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα αὐτίκα παρῆν καὶ ἡ γυνή. ἐσελθοῦσαν δὲ καὶ τιθεῖσαν τὰ εἵματα ἐθηεῖτο ὁ Γύγης. ὡς δὲ κατὰ νώτου ἐγένετο ἰούσης τῆς γυναικός ἐς τὴν κοίτην, ὑπεκδὺς ἐχώρεε ἔξω, καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἐπορᾷ μιν ἐξιόντα. μαθοῦσὰ δὲ τὸ ποιηθέν ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς οὔτε ἀνέβωσε αἰσχυνθεῖσα οὔτε ἔδοξε μαθεῖν, ἐν νοῶ ἔχουσα τίσεσθαι τὸν Κανδαύλεα. παρὰ γὰρ τοῖσι Λυδοῖσι, σχεδὸν δὲ καὶ παρὰ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι βαρβάροισι καὶ ἄνδρα ὀφθῆναι γυμνόν ἐς αἰσχύνην μεγάλην φέρει. 1.11. τότε μὲν δὴ οὕτω οὐδέν δηλώσασα ἡσυχίην εἶχε. ὡς δὲ ἡμέρη τάχιστα ἐγεγόνεε, τῶν οἰκετέων τοὺς μάλιστα ὥρα πιστοὺς ἐόντας ἑωυτῇ, ἑτοίμους ποιησαμένη ἐκάλεε τὸν Γύγεα. ὁ δὲ οὐδὲν δοκέων αὐτήν τῶν πρηχθέντων ἐπίστασθαι ἦλθε καλεόμενος· ἐώθεε γὰρ καὶ πρόσθε, ὅκως ἡ βασίλεια καλέοι, φοιτᾶν. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γύγης ἀπίκετο, ἔλεγε ἡ γυνὴ τάδε. “νῦν τοί δυῶν ὁδῶν παρεουσέων Γύγη δίδωμί αἵρεσιν, ὁκοτέρην βούλεαι τραπέσθαι. ἢ γὰρ Κανδαύλεα ἀποκτείνας ἐμέ τε καὶ τὴν βασιληίην ἔχε τὴν Λυδῶν, ἢ αὐτόν σε αὐτίκα οὕτω ἀποθνήσκειν δεῖ, ὡς ἂν μὴ πάντα πειθόμενος Κανδαύλῃ τοῦ λοιποῦ ἴδῃς τὰ μὴ σε δεῖ. ἀλλʼ ἤτοι κεῖνόν γε τὸν ταῦτα βουλεύσαντα δεῖ ἀπόλλυσθαι, ἢ σε τὸν ἐμὲ γυμνήν θεησάμενον καὶ ποιήσαντα οὐ νομιζόμενα.” ὁ δὲ Γύγης τέως μὲν ἀπεθώμαζε τὰ λεγόμενα, μετὰ δὲ ἱκέτευε μὴ μιν ἀναγκαίῃ ἐνδέειν διακρῖναι τοιαύτην αἵρεσιν. οὔκων δὴ ἔπειθε, ἀλλʼ ὥρα ἀναγκαίην ἀληθέως προκειμένην ἢ τὸν δεσπότεα ἀπολλύναι ἢ αὐτὸν ὑπʼ ἄλλων ἀπόλλυσθαι· αἱρέεται αὐτὸς περιεῖναι. ἐπειρώτα δὴ λέγων τάδε. “ἐπεί με ἀναγκάζεις δεσπότεα τὸν ἐμὸν κτείνειν οὐκ ἐθέλοντα, φέρε ἀκούσω τέῳ καὶ τρόπῳ ἐπιχειρήσομεν αὐτῷ.” ἣ δὲ ὑπολαβοῦσα ἔφη “ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ μὲν χωρίου ἡ ὁρμή ἔσται ὅθεν περ καὶ ἐκεῖνος ἐμέ ἐπεδέξατο γυμνήν, ὑπνωμένῳ δὲ ἡ ἐπιχείρησις ἔσται.” 1.12. ὡς δὲ ἤρτυσαν τὴν ἐπιβουλήν, νυκτὸς γενομένης ʽοὐ γὰρ ἐμετίετο ὁ Γύγης, οὐδέ οἱ ἦν ἀπαλλαγὴ οὐδεμία, ἀλλʼ ἔδεε ἤ αὐτὸν ἀπολωλέναι ἢ Κανδαύλεἀ εἵπετο ἐς τὸν θάλαμον τῇ γυναικί, καί μιν ἐκείνη, ἐγχειρίδιον δοῦσα, κατακρύπτει ὑπὸ τὴν αὐτὴν θύρην. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἀναπαυομένου Κανδαύλεω ὑπεκδύς τε καὶ ἀποκτείνας αὐτὸν ἔσχε καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ τὴν βασιληίην Γύγης τοῦ καὶ Ἀρχίλοχος ὁ Πάριος κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον γενόμενος ἐν ἰάμβῳ τριμέτρῳ ἐπεμνήσθη. 1
1.46. Κροῖσος δὲ ἐπὶ δύο ἔτεα ἐν πένθεϊ μεγάλῳ κατῆστο τοῦ παιδὸς ἐστερημένος. μετὰ δὲ ἡ Ἀστυάγεος τοῦ Κυαξάρεω ἡγεμονίη καταιρεθεῖσα ὑπὸ Κύρου τοῦ Καμβύσεω καὶ τὰ τῶν Περσέων πρήγματα αὐξανόμενα πένθεος μὲν Κροῖσον ἀπέπαυσε, ἐνέβησε δὲ ἐς φροντίδα, εἴ κως δύναιτο, πρὶν μεγάλους γενέσθαι τοὺς Πέρσας, καταλαβεῖν αὐτῶν αὐξανομένην τὴν δύναμιν. μετὰ ὦν τὴν διάνοιαν ταύτην αὐτίκα ἀπεπειρᾶτο τῶν μαντείων τῶν τε ἐν Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῦ ἐν Λιβύῃ, διαπέμψας ἄλλους ἄλλῃ, τοὺς μὲν ἐς Δελφοὺς ἰέναι, τοὺς δὲ ἐς Ἄβας τὰς Φωκέων, τοὺς δὲ ἐς Δωδώνην· οἳ δὲ τινὲς ἐπέμποντο παρὰ τε Ἀμφιάρεων καὶ παρὰ Τροφώνιον, οἳ δὲ τῆς Μιλησίης ἐς Βραγχίδας. ταῦτα μέν νυν τὰ Ἑλληνικὰ μαντήια ἐς τὰ ἀπέπεμψε μαντευσόμενος Κροῖσος· Λιβύης δὲ παρὰ Ἄμμωνα ἀπέστελλε ἄλλους χρησομένους. διέπεμπε δὲ πειρώμενος τῶν μαντηίων ὅ τι φρονέοιεν, ὡς εἰ φρονέοντα τὴν ἀληθείην εὑρεθείη, ἐπείρηται σφέα δεύτερα πέμπων εἰ ἐπιχειρέοι ἐπὶ Πέρσας στρατεύεσθαι.
3.80. ἐπείτε δὲ κατέστη ὁ θόρυβος καὶ ἐκτὸς πέντε ἡμερέων ἐγένετο, ἐβουλεύοντο οἱ ἐπαναστάντες τοῖσι Μάγοισι περὶ τῶν πάντων πρηγμάτων καὶ ἐλέχθησαν λόγοι ἄπιστοι μὲν ἐνίοισι Ἑλλήνων, ἐλέχθησαν δʼ ὦν. Ὀτάνης μὲν ἐκέλευε ἐς μέσον Πέρσῃσι καταθεῖναι τὰ πρήγματα, λέγων τάδε. “ἐμοὶ δοκέει ἕνα μὲν ἡμέων μούναρχον μηκέτι γενέσθαι. οὔτε γὰρ ἡδὺ οὔτε ἀγαθόν. εἴδετε μὲν γὰρ τὴν Καμβύσεω ὕβριν ἐπʼ ὅσον ἐπεξῆλθε, μετεσχήκατε δὲ καὶ τῆς τοῦ Μάγου ὕβριος. κῶς δʼ ἂν εἴη χρῆμα κατηρτημένον μουναρχίη, τῇ ἔξεστι ἀνευθύνῳ ποιέειν τὰ βούλεται; καὶ γὰρ ἂν τὸν ἄριστον ἀνδρῶν πάντων στάντα ἐς ταύτην ἐκτὸς τῶν ἐωθότων νοημάτων στήσειε. ἐγγίνεται μὲν γάρ οἱ ὕβρις ὑπὸ τῶν παρεόντων ἀγαθῶν, φθόνος δὲ ἀρχῆθεν ἐμφύεται ἀνθρώπῳ. δύο δʼ ἔχων ταῦτα ἔχει πᾶσαν κακότητα· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ὕβρι κεκορημένος ἔρδει πολλὰ καὶ ἀτάσθαλα, τὰ δὲ φθόνῳ. καίτοι ἄνδρα γε τύραννον ἄφθονον ἔδει εἶναι, ἔχοντά γε πάντα τὰ ἀγαθά. τὸ δὲ ὑπεναντίον τούτου ἐς τοὺς πολιήτας πέφυκε· φθονέει γὰρ τοῖσι ἀρίστοισι περιεοῦσί τε καὶ ζώουσι, χαίρει δὲ τοῖσι κακίστοισι τῶν ἀστῶν, διαβολὰς δὲ ἄριστος ἐνδέκεσθαι. ἀναρμοστότατον δὲ πάντων· ἤν τε γὰρ αὐτὸν μετρίως θωμάζῃς, ἄχθεται ὅτι οὐ κάρτα θεραπεύεται, ἤν τε θεραπεύῃ τις κάρτα, ἄχθεται ἅτε θωπί. τὰ δὲ δὴ μέγιστα ἔρχομαι ἐρέων· νόμαιά τε κινέει πάτρια καὶ βιᾶται γυναῖκας κτείνει τε ἀκρίτους. πλῆθος δὲ ἄρχον πρῶτα μὲν οὔνομα πάντων κάλλιστον ἔχει, ἰσονομίην, δεύτερα δὲ τούτων τῶν ὁ μούναρχος ποιέει οὐδέν· πάλῳ μὲν ἀρχὰς ἄρχει, ὑπεύθυνον δὲ ἀρχὴν ἔχει, βουλεύματα δὲ πάντα ἐς τὸ κοινὸν ἀναφέρει. τίθεμαι ὦν γνώμην μετέντας ἡμέας μουναρχίην τὸ πλῆθος ἀέξειν· ἐν γὰρ τῷ πολλῷ ἔνι τὰ πάντα.”
4.76. ξεινικοῖσι δὲ νομαίοισι καὶ οὗτοι φεύγουσι αἰνῶς χρᾶσθαι, μήτε τεῶν ἄλλων, Ἑλληνικοῖσι δὲ καὶ ἥκιστα, ὡς διέδεξαν Ἀνάχαρσις τε καὶ δεύτερα αὖτις Σκύλης. τοῦτο μὲν γὰρ Ἀνάχαρσις ἐπείτε γῆν πολλὴν θεωρήσας καὶ ἀποδεξάμενος κατʼ αὐτὴν σοφίην πολλὴν ἐκομίζετο ἐς ἤθεα τὰ Σκυθέων, πλέων διʼ Ἑλλησπόντου προσίσχει ἐς Κύζικον. καὶ εὗρε γὰρ τῇ μητρὶ τῶν θεῶν ἀνάγοντας τοὺς Κυζικηνοὺς ὁρτὴν μεγαλοπρεπέως κάρτα, εὔξατο τῇ μητρὶ ὁ Ἀνάχαρσις, ἢν σῶς καὶ ὑγιὴς ἀπονοστήσῃ ἐς ἑωυτοῦ, θύσειν τε κατὰ ταὐτὰ κατὰ ὥρα τοὺς Κυζικηνοὺς ποιεῦντας καὶ παννυχίδα στήσειν. ὡς δὲ ἀπίκετο ἐς τὴν Σκυθικήν καταδὺς ἐς τὴν καλεομένην Ὑλαίην ʽἡ δʼ ἔστι μὲν παρὰ τὸν Ἀχιλλήιον δρόμον, τυγχάνει δὲ πᾶσα ἐοῦσα δενδρέων παντοίων πλέἠ, ἐς ταύτην δὴ καταδὺς ὁ Ἀνάχαρσις τὴν ὁρτὴν ἐπετέλεε πᾶσαν τῇ θεῷ, τύμπανον τε ἔχων καὶ ἐκδησάμενος ἀγάλματα. καὶ τῶν τις Σκυθέων καταφρασθεὶς αὐτὸν ταῦτα ποιεῦντα ἐσήμηνε τῷ βασιλέι Σαυλίω· ὁ δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ἀπικόμενος ὡς εἶδε τὸν Ἀνάχαρσιν ποιεῦντα ταῦτα, τοξεύσας αὐτὸν ἀπέκτεινε. καὶ νῦν ἤν τις εἴρηται περὶ Ἀναχάρσιος, οὐ φασί μιν Σκύθαι γινώσκειν, διὰ τοῦτο ὅτι ἐξεδήμησέ τε ἐς τὴν Ἑλλάδα καὶ ξεινικοῖσι ἔθεσι διεχρήσατο. ὡς δʼ ἐγὼ ἤκουσα Τύμνεω τοῦ Ἀριαπείθεος ἐπιτρόπου, εἶναι αὐτὸν Ἰδανθύρσου τοῦ Σκυθέων βασιλέος πάτρων, παῖδα δὲ εἶναι Γνούρου τοῦ Λύκου τοῦ Σπαργαπείθεος. εἰ ὦν ταύτης ἦν τῆς οἰκίης ὁ Ἀνάχαρσις, ἴστω ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφεοῦ ἀποθανών· Ἰδάνθυρσος γὰρ ἦν παῖς Σαυλίου, Σαύλιος δὲ ἦν ὁ ἀποκτείνας Ἀνάχαρσιν.
6.23. Σάμιοι γὰρ κομιζόμενοι ἐς Σικελίην ἐγίνοντο ἐν Λοκροῖσι τοῖσι Ἐπιζεφυρίοισι, καὶ Ζαγκλαῖοι αὐτοί τε καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς αὐτῶν, τῷ οὔνομα ἦν Σκύθης, περικατέατο πόλιν τῶν Σικελῶν ἐξελεῖν βουλόμενοι. μαθὼν δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Ῥηγίου τύραννος Ἀναξίλεως, τότε ἐὼν διάφορος τοῖσι Ζαγκλαίοισι, συμμίξας τοῖσι Σαμίοισι ἀναπείθει ὡς χρεὸν εἴη Καλὴν μὲν ἀκτήν, ἐπʼ ἣν ἔπλεον, ἐᾶν χαίρειν, τὴν δὲ Ζάγκλην σχεῖν ἐοῦσαν ἔρημον ἀνδρῶν. πειθομένων δὲ τῶν Σαμίων καὶ σχόντων τὴν Ζάγκλην, ἐνθαῦτα οἱ Ζαγκλαῖοι, ὡς ἐπύθοντο ἐχομένην τὴν πόλιν ἑωυτῶν, ἐβοήθεον αὐτῇ καὶ ἐπεκαλέοντο Ἱπποκράτεα τὸν Γέλης τύραννον· ἦν γὰρ δή σφι οὗτος σύμμαχος. ἐπείτε δὲ αὐτοῖσι καὶ ὁ Ἱπποκράτης σὺν τῇ στρατιῇ ἧκε βοηθέων, Σκύθην μὲν τὸν μούναρχον τῶν Ζαγκλαίων ὡς ἀποβαλόντα τὴν πόλιν ὁ Ἱπποκράτης πεδήσας καὶ τὸν ἀδελφεὸν αὐτοῦ Πυθογένεα ἐς Ἴνυκα πόλιν ἀπέπεμψε, τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς Ζαγκλαίους κοινολογησάμενος τοῖσι Σαμίοισι καὶ ὅρκους δοὺς καὶ δεξάμενος προέδωκε. μισθὸς δέ οἱ ἦν εἰρημένος ὅδε ὑπὸ τῶν Σαμίων, πάντων τῶν ἐπίπλων καὶ ἀνδραπόδων τὰ ἡμίσεα μεταλαβεῖν τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλι, τὰ δʼ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀγρῶν πάντα Ἱπποκράτεα λαγχάνειν. τοὺς μὲν δὴ πλεῦνας τῶν Ζαγκλαίων αὐτὸς ἐν ἀνδραπόδων λόγῳ εἶχε δήσας, τοὺς δὲ κορυφαίους αὐτῶν τριηκοσίους ἔδωκε τοῖσι Σαμίοισι κατασφάξαι· οὐ μέντοι οἵ γε Σάμιοι ἐποίησαν ταῦτα.''. None
1.5. Such is the Persian account; in their opinion, it was the taking of Troy which began their hatred of the Greeks. ,But the Phoenicians do not tell the same story about Io as the Persians. They say that they did not carry her off to Egypt by force. She had intercourse in Argos with the captain of the ship. Then, finding herself pregt, she was ashamed to have her parents know it, and so, lest they discover her condition, she sailed away with the Phoenicians of her own accord. ,These are the stories of the Persians and the Phoenicians. For my part, I shall not say that this or that story is true, but I shall identify the one who I myself know did the Greeks unjust deeds, and thus proceed with my history, and speak of small and great cities of men alike. ,For many states that were once great have now become small; and those that were great in my time were small before. Knowing therefore that human prosperity never continues in the same place, I shall mention both alike.' "
1.8. This Candaules, then, fell in love with his own wife, so much so that he believed her to be by far the most beautiful woman in the world; and believing this, he praised her beauty beyond measure to Gyges son of Dascylus, who was his favorite among his bodyguard; for it was to Gyges that he entrusted all his most important secrets. ,After a little while, Candaules, doomed to misfortune, spoke to Gyges thus: “Gyges, I do not think that you believe what I say about the beauty of my wife; men trust their ears less than their eyes: so you must see her naked.” Gyges protested loudly at this. ,“Master,” he said, “what an unsound suggestion, that I should see my mistress naked! When a woman's clothes come off, she dispenses with her modesty, too. ,Men have long ago made wise rules from which one ought to learn; one of these is that one should mind one's own business. As for me, I believe that your queen is the most beautiful of all women, and I ask you not to ask of me what is lawless.” " "1.9. Speaking thus, Gyges resisted: for he was afraid that some evil would come of it for him. But this was Candaules' answer: “Courage, Gyges! Do not be afraid of me, that I say this to test you, or of my wife, that you will have any harm from her. I will arrange it so that she shall never know that you have seen her. ,I will bring you into the chamber where she and I lie and conceal you behind the open door; and after I have entered, my wife too will come to bed. There is a chair standing near the entrance of the room: on this she will lay each article of her clothing as she takes it off, and you will be able to look upon her at your leisure. ,Then, when she moves from the chair to the bed, turning her back on you, be careful she does not see you going out through the doorway.” " '1.10. As Gyges could not escape, he consented. Candaules, when he judged it to be time for bed, brought Gyges into the chamber; his wife followed presently, and when she had come in and was laying aside her garments, Gyges saw her; ,when she turned her back upon him to go to bed, he slipped from the room. The woman glimpsed him as he went out, and perceived what her husband had done. But though shamed, she did not cry out or let it be seen that she had perceived anything, for she meant to punish Candaules; ,since among the Lydians and most of the foreign peoples it is felt as a great shame that even a man be seen naked. ' "1.11. For the present she made no sign and kept quiet. But as soon as it was day, she prepared those of her household whom she saw were most faithful to her, and called Gyges. He, supposing that she knew nothing of what had been done, answered the summons; for he was used to attending the queen whenever she summoned him. ,When Gyges came, the lady addressed him thus: “Now, Gyges, you have two ways before you; decide which you will follow. You must either kill Candaules and take me and the throne of Lydia for your own, or be killed yourself now without more ado; that will prevent you from obeying all Candaules' commands in the future and seeing what you should not see. ,One of you must die: either he, the contriver of this plot, or you, who have outraged all custom by looking on me uncovered.” Gyges stood awhile astonished at this; presently, he begged her not to compel him to such a choice. ,But when he could not deter her, and saw that dire necessity was truly upon him either to kill his master or himself be killed by others, he chose his own life. Then he asked: “Since you force me against my will to kill my master, I would like to know how we are to lay our hands on him.” ,She replied, “You shall come at him from the same place where he made you view me naked: attack him in his sleep.” " "1.12. When they had prepared this plot, and night had fallen, Gyges followed the woman into the chamber (for Gyges was not released, nor was there any means of deliverance, but either he or Candaules must die). She gave him a dagger and hid him behind the same door; ,and presently he stole out and killed Candaules as he slept. Thus he made himself master of the king's wife and sovereignty. He is mentioned in the iambic verses of Archilochus of Parus who lived about the same time. " '
1.46. After the loss of his son, Croesus remained in deep sorrow for two years. After this time, the destruction by Cyrus son of Cambyses of the sovereignty of Astyages son of Cyaxares, and the growth of the power of the Persians, distracted Croesus from his mourning; and he determined, if he could, to forestall the increase of the Persian power before they became great. ,Having thus determined, he at once made inquiries of the Greek and Libyan oracles, sending messengers separately to Delphi, to Abae in Phocia, and to Dodona, while others were despatched to Amphiaraus and Trophonius, and others to Branchidae in the Milesian country. ,These are the Greek oracles to which Croesus sent for divination: and he told others to go inquire of Ammon in Libya . His intent in sending was to test the knowledge of the oracles, so that, if they were found to know the truth, he might send again and ask if he should undertake an expedition against the Persians.
3.80. After the tumult quieted down, and five days passed, the rebels against the Magi held a council on the whole state of affairs, at which sentiments were uttered which to some Greeks seem incredible, but there is no doubt that they were spoken. ,Otanes was for turning the government over to the Persian people: “It seems to me,” he said, “that there can no longer be a single sovereign over us, for that is not pleasant or good. You saw the insolence of Cambyses, how far it went, and you had your share of the insolence of the Magus. ,How can monarchy be a fit thing, when the ruler can do what he wants with impunity? Give this power to the best man on earth, and it would stir him to unaccustomed thoughts. Insolence is created in him by the good things to hand, while from birth envy is rooted in man. ,Acquiring the two he possesses complete evil; for being satiated he does many reckless things, some from insolence, some from envy. And yet an absolute ruler ought to be free of envy, having all good things; but he becomes the opposite of this towards his citizens; he envies the best who thrive and live, and is pleased by the worst of his fellows; and he is the best confidant of slander. ,of all men he is the most inconsistent; for if you admire him modestly he is angry that you do not give him excessive attention, but if one gives him excessive attention he is angry because one is a flatter. But I have yet worse to say of him than that; he upsets the ancestral ways and rapes women and kills indiscriminately. ,But the rule of the multitude has in the first place the loveliest name of all, equality, and does in the second place none of the things that a monarch does. It determines offices by lot, and holds power accountable, and conducts all deliberating publicly. Therefore I give my opinion that we make an end of monarchy and exalt the multitude, for all things are possible for the majority.” ' "
4.76. But as regards foreign customs, the Scythians (like others) very much shun practising those of any other country, and particularly of Hellas, as was proved in the case of Anacharsis and also of Scyles. ,For when Anacharsis was coming back to the Scythian country after having seen much of the world in his travels and given many examples of his wisdom, he sailed through the Hellespont and put in at Cyzicus; ,where, finding the Cyzicenes celebrating the feast of the Mother of the Gods with great ceremony, he vowed to this same Mother that if he returned to his own country safe and sound he would sacrifice to her as he saw the Cyzicenes doing, and establish a nightly rite of worship. ,So when he came to Scythia, he hid himself in the country called Woodland (which is beside the Race of Achilles, and is all overgrown with every kind of timber); hidden there, Anacharsis celebrated the goddess' ritual with exactness, carrying a small drum and hanging images about himself. ,Then some Scythian saw him doing this and told the king, Saulius; who, coming to the place himself and seeing Anacharsis performing these rites, shot an arrow at him and killed him. And now the Scythians, if they are asked about Anacharsis, say they have no knowledge of him; this is because he left his country for Hellas and followed the customs of strangers. ,But according to what I heard from Tymnes, the deputy for Ariapithes, Anacharsis was an uncle of Idanthyrsus king of Scythia, and he was the son of Gnurus, son of Lycus, son of Spargapithes. Now if Anacharsis was truly of this family, then let him know he was slain by his own brother; for Idanthyrsus was the son of Saulius, and it was Saulius who killed Anacharsis. " '
6.23. In their journey a thing happened to them such as I will show. As they voyaged to Sicily, the Samians came to the country of the Epizephyrian Locrians at a time when the people of Zancle and their king (whose name was Scythes) were besieging a Sicilian town desiring to take it. ,Learning this, Anaxilaus the tyrant of Rhegium, being then in a feud with the Zanclaeans, joined forces with the Samians and persuaded them to leave off their voyage to the Fair Coast and seize Zancle while it was deserted by its men. ,The Samians consented and seized Zancle; when they learned that their city was taken, the Zanclaeans came to deliver it, calling to their aid Hippocrates the tyrant of Gela, who was their ally. ,But Hippocrates, when he came bringing his army to aid them, put Scythes the monarch of Zancle and his brother Pythogenes in chains for losing the city, and sent them away to the city of Inyx. He betrayed the rest of the Zanclaeans to the Samians, with whom he had made an agreement and exchanged oaths. ,The price which the Samians agreed to give him was that Hippocrates should take for his share half of the movable goods and slaves in the city, and all that was in the country. ,Most of the Zanclaeans were kept in chains as slaves by Hippocrates himself; he gave three hundred chief men to the Samians to be put to death, but the Samians did not do so. ''. None
14. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Character (difference in) • Diotima (Platonic character) • Marcus (character of Div.) • Parmenides (Platonic character) • Quintus (character of Div.) • Timaeus (Platonic character) • Zeno (Platonic character) • character, tragic,

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 26, 34, 216; Joosse (2021) 132; Marincola et al (2021) 136; Santangelo (2013) 21

244c. οὐ γὰρ ἂν τῇ καλλίστῃ τέχνῃ, ᾗ τὸ μέλλον κρίνεται, αὐτὸ τοῦτο τοὔνομα ἐμπλέκοντες μανικὴν ἐκάλεσαν. ἀλλʼ ὡς καλοῦ ὄντος, ὅταν θείᾳ μοίρᾳ γίγνηται, οὕτω νομίσαντες ἔθεντο, οἱ δὲ νῦν ἀπειροκάλως τὸ ταῦ ἐπεμβάλλοντες μαντικὴν ἐκάλεσαν. ἐπεὶ καὶ τήν γε τῶν ἐμφρόνων, ζήτησιν τοῦ μέλλοντος διά τε ὀρνίθων ποιουμένων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων σημείων, ἅτʼ ἐκ διανοίας ποριζομένων ἀνθρωπίνῃ οἰήσει νοῦν τε καὶ ἱστορίαν, οἰονοϊστικὴν ἐπωνόμασαν,'246e. καλόν, σοφόν, ἀγαθόν, καὶ πᾶν ὅτι τοιοῦτον· τούτοις δὴ τρέφεταί τε καὶ αὔξεται μάλιστά γε τὸ τῆς ψυχῆς πτέρωμα, αἰσχρῷ δὲ καὶ κακῷ καὶ τοῖς ἐναντίοις φθίνει τε καὶ διόλλυται. ΣΩ. ὁ μὲν δὴ μέγας ἡγεμὼν ἐν οὐρανῷ Ζεύς, ἐλαύνων πτηνὸν ἅρμα, πρῶτος πορεύεται, διακοσμῶν πάντα καὶ ἐπιμελούμενος· τῷ δʼ ἕπεται στρατιὰ θεῶν τε καὶ δαιμόνων, '. None
244c. otherwise they would not have connected the very word mania with the noblest of arts, that which foretells the future, by calling it the manic art. No, they gave this name thinking that mania, when it comes by gift of the gods, is a noble thing, but nowadays people call prophecy the mantic art, tastelessly inserting a T in the word. So also, when they gave a name to the investigation of the future which rational persons conduct through observation of birds and by other signs, since they furnish mind (nous)'246e. it partakes of the nature of the divine. But the divine is beauty, wisdom, goodness, and all such qualities; by these then the wings of the soul are nourished and grow, but by the opposite qualities, such as vileness and evil, they are wasted away and destroyed. Socrates. Now the great leader in heaven, Zeus, driving a winged chariot, goes first, arranging all things and caring for all things. '. None
15. Sophocles, Ajax, 1-133, 693-705, 866-878, 1199-1210, 1216-1222, 1328-1331, 1344-1345 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ajax (Sophocles), and minor characters • Antigone (Sophocles), minor characters in • Antigone, and minor characters • Aristotle, on judging characters • Poetics (Aristotle), on judging characters • Tecmessa, and minor characters • Teucer, and minor characters • characters • characters, in Ajax (Sophocles) • characters, tragic/mythical, Agamemnon • characters, tragic/mythical, Ajax, Salaminian (Telamonian) • characters, tragic/mythical, Clytemnestra • characters, tragic/mythical, Creon, king of Thebes • characters, tragic/mythical, Diomedes • characters, tragic/mythical, Dolon • characters, tragic/mythical, Electra • characters, tragic/mythical, Furies (Erinyes) • characters, tragic/mythical, Hector • characters, tragic/mythical, Hecuba • characters, tragic/mythical, Hercules/Heracles • characters, tragic/mythical, Medea • characters, tragic/mythical, Muse • characters, tragic/mythical, Neoptolemus • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Oedipus • characters, tragic/mythical, Orestes • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus • chorus, the, as a character • chorus, the, as minor characters • context, and characters • dialogue, between characters • gods, as characters • humble, minor characters as the • judgment, of characters • knowledge, of characters • microcosm, characters as • personality, of minor characters • silence, of minor characters • wisdom, of minor characters

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 195, 207, 298, 302, 303, 304, 305, 417, 418, 473; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 75, 76, 80, 81, 258, 282, 284

1. Always, son of Laertes , have I observed you on the prowl to snatch some means of attack against your enemies. So now at the tent of Ajax by the ships where he has his post at the camp’s outer edge, I watch you'2. Always, son of Laertes , have I observed you on the prowl to snatch some means of attack against your enemies. So now at the tent of Ajax by the ships where he has his post at the camp’s outer edge, I watch you 5. for a long time as you hunt and scan his newly pressed tracks, in order to see whether he is inside or away. Your course leads you well to your goal, like that of a keen-scenting Laconian hound. For the man has just now gone in,
10. with sweat dripping from his head and from his hands that have killed with the sword. There is no further need for you to peer inside these doors. Rather tell me what your goal is that you have shown such eagerness for, so that you may learn from her who holds the knowledge. Odysseu
14. Voice of Athena, dearest to me of the gods,
15. how clearly, though you are unseen, do I hear your call and snatch its meaning in my mind, just as I would the bronze tongue of the Tyrrhenian trumpet! And now you have discerned correctly that I am circling my path on the track of a man who hates me, Ajax the shield-bearer. 20. It is he and no other that I have been tracking so long. For tonight he has done us a deed beyond comprehension—if he is indeed the doer. We know nothing for certain, but drift in doubt. And so I of my of accord took up the burden of this search. 25. For we recently found all the cattle, our plunder, dead—yes, slaughtered by human hand—and with them the guardians of the flocks. Now, all men lay responsibility for this crime to him. And further, a scout who had seen him 30. bounding alone over the plain with a newly-wet sword reported to me and declared what he saw. Then immediately I rush upon his track, and sometimes I follow his signs, but sometimes I am bewildered, and cannot read whose they are. Your arrival is timely, for truly in all matters, both those of the past 35. and those of the future, it is your hand that steers me. Athena 36. I know it, Odysseus, and some time ago I came on the path as a lookout friendly to your hunt. Odysseu 38. And so, dear mistress, do I toil to good effect? Athena 39. Know that that man is the doer of these deeds. Odysseu 40. Then to what end did he thrust his hand so senselessly? Athena 4
1. He was mad with anger over the arms of Achilles. Odysseu 42. Why, then, his onslaught upon the flocks? Athena 43. It was in your blood, he thought, that he was staining his hand. Odysseu 44. Then was this a plot aimed against the Greeks? Athena 45. Yes, and he would have accomplished it, too, had I not been attentive. Odysseu 46. And what reckless boldness was in his mind that he dared this? Athena 47. Under night’s cover he set out against you, by stealth and alone. Odysseu 48. And did he get near us? Did he reach his goal? Athena 49. He was already at the double doors of the two generals. Odysseu 50. How, then, did he restrain his hand when it was eager for murder? Athena 5
1. It was I who prevented him, by casting over his eyes oppressive notions of his fatal joy, and I who turned his fury aside on the flocks of sheep and the confused droves guarded by herdsmen, the spoil which you had not yet divided. 55. Then he fell upon them and kept cutting out a slaughter of many horned beasts as he split their spines in a circle around him. At one time he thought that he was killing the two Atreidae, holding them in his very hand; at another time it was this commander, and at another that one which he attacked. And I, while the man ran about in diseased frenzy, 60. I kept urging him on, kept hurling him into the snares of doom. Soon, when he rested from this toil, he bound together the living oxen along with with all the sheep and brought them home, as though his quarry were men, not well-horned cattle. And now he abuses them, bound together, in the house. But to you also will I show this madness openly, so that when you have seen it you may proclaim it to all the Argives. Be of good courage and stand your ground, and do not regard the man as a cause of disaster for you. I will turn away the beams of his eye 70. and keep them from landing on your face. To Ajax. 7
1. You there, you who bind back your captive’s arms, I am calling you, come here! I am calling Ajax! Come out in front of the house! Odysseu 74. What are you doing, Athena? Do not call him out. Athena 75. Hold your peace! Do not earn a reputation for cowardice! Odysseu 76. No, by the gods, let it content you that he stay inside. Athena 77. What is the danger? Was he not a man before? Odysseu 78. Yes, a man hostile to me in the past, and especially now. Athena 79. And is not the sweetest mockery the mockery of enemies? Odysseu 80. I am content that he stay within his tent. Athena 8
1. Do you fear to see a madman right before your eyes? Odysseu 82. I would not shrink from him in fear, if he were sane. Athena 83. But he will not see you now, even though you stand nearby. Odysseu 84. How could that be, if he still sees with the same eyes? Athena 85. I shall darken them, though their sight is keen. Odysseu 86. It is true: all is possible when a god contrives. Athena 87. Stand silent, then, and stay where you are. Odysseu 88. I must stay. But I would prefer to be far from here! Athena 89. You there, Ajax, once again I call you! Why do you show so little regard for your ally? Enter Ajax, holding a blood-stained whip in his hand. Ajax 9
1. Welcome, Athena! Welcome, daughter sprung from Zeus! How well have you stood by me! I will crown you with trophies of pure gold in gratitude for this quarry! Athena 94. A fine pledge. But tell me this—have you dyed your sword well in the Greek army? Ajax 96. I can make that boast. I do not deny it. Athena 97. And have you launched your armed hand against the Atreidae? Ajax 98. Yes, so that never again will they dishonor Ajax. Athena 99. The men are dead, as I interpret your words. Ajax
100. Dead they are. Now let them rob me of my arms! Athena
1. I see. And the son of Laertes , how does his fortune with respect to you? Has he escaped you? Ajax
103. That blasted fox! You ask me where he is? Athena
104. Yes, I do. I mean Odysseus, your adversary. Ajax
105. My most pleasing prisoner, mistress, he sits inside. I do not wish him to die just yet. Athena
107. Until you do what? Or win what greater advantage? Ajax
108. Until he be bound to a pillar beneath my roof— Athena
109. What evil, then, will you inflict on the poor man? Ajax
10. —and have his back crimsoned by the lash, before he dies. Athena
1. Do not abuse the poor man so cruelly! Ajax
12. In all else, Athena, I bid you take your pleasure, but he will pay this penalty and no other. Athena
14. Well, then, since it delights you to do so, put your arm to use; spare no portion of your plan. Ajax
16. I go to my work. And I give you this commission: be always for me the close-standing ally that you have been for me today! Exit Ajax. Athena
18. Do you see, Odysseus, how great is the strength of the gods? Whom could you have found more prudent than this man,
120. or better able to do what the situation demanded? Odysseu
1. I know of no one, but in his misery I pity him all the same, even though he hates me, because he is yoked beneath a ruinous delusion—I think of my own lot no less than his.
125. For I see that all we who live are nothing more than phantoms or fleeting shadow. Athena
127. Therefore since you witness his fate, see that you yourself never utter an arrogant word against the gods, nor assume any swelling pride, if in the scales of fate you are weightier
130. than another in strength of hand or in depth of ample wealth. For a day can press down all human things, and a day can raise them up. But the gods embrace men of sense and abhor the evil. Exit Odysseus and Athena. Enter the Chorus of Salaminian Sailors, followers of Ajax. Choru
693. I shiver with rapture; I soar on the wings of sudden joy! 695. O Pan, O Pan, appear to us, sea-rover, from the stony ridge of snow-beaten Cyllene. King, dancemaker for the gods, come, so that joining with us you may set on the Nysian and the Cnosian steps, 700. your self-taught dances. Now I want to dance. And may Apollo, lord of Delos , step over the Icarian sea 705. and join me in his divine form, in eternal benevolence! Choru
866. Toil follows toil yielding toil! Where, where have I not trudged? And still no place can say that I have shared its secret. 870. Listen! A sudden thud! Second Semichoru 872. We made it, we shipmates of your voyage. Semichorus
1 873. What news, then? Semichorus 2 874. All the westward flank of the ships has been scoured for tracks. Semichorus
1 875. And did you find anything? Semichorus 2 876. Only an abundance of toil. There was nothing more to see. Semichorus
1 877. Neither, as a matter of fact, has the man been seen along the path that faces the shafts of the morning sun. Choru
199. No delight in garland
1200. or deep wine-cups did that man provide me, no sweet din of flutes, that miserable man, or pleasing rest in the night.
1205. And from love—god!—from love he has totally barred me. Here I lie uncared for, while heavy dews constantly wet my hair,
10. damp reminders of joyless Troy . Choru
16. to a maligt divinity. What joy, then, what delight awaits me anymore? O to be where the wooded wave-washed cape fences off the deep sea,
1220. to be beneath Sunium’s jutting plateau, so that we might salute sacred Athens ! Enter Teucer. Teucer

1328. Then may a friend speak the truth, and still remain your helpmate no less than before? Agamemnon
1330. Speak. Otherwise I would be less than sane, since I count you my greatest friend among all the Greeks. Odysseu

1344. that in all our Greek force at Troy he was, in my view, the best and bravest, excepting Achilles. It would not be just, then, that he should be dishonored by you. It is not he, but the laws given by the gods that you would damage. When a good man is dead, there is no justice
1345. in doing him harm, not even if you hate him. Agamemnon '. None
16. Sophocles, Antigone, 1-99, 164-191, 435-440, 449-457, 469-472, 491, 502-504, 517, 519, 523, 531-581, 643-644, 688-700, 718-723, 806-882, 998-1114, 1149-1152, 1240-1241, 1261-1346 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, and character withdrawals • Ajax, and minor characters • Antigone (Sophocles), characters in • Antigone (Sophocles), minor characters in • Antigone, Creon as a character • Antigone, and minor characters • Aristotle, on judging characters • Baubo mythical character • Electra (Sophocles), characters in • Heracles, and minor characters • Libation Bearers, The (Aeschylus), and character withdrawals • Oedipus the King (Sophocles), minor characters in • Poetics (Aristotle), on judging characters • Women of Trachis, The (Sophocles), minor characters in • action, and the characters • belief/s, as traits of character • characters • characters, have depth • characters, of Antigone (Sophocles) • characters, tragic/mythical, Antigone • characters, tragic/mythical, Creon, king of Thebes • characters, tragic/mythical, Electra • characters, tragic/mythical, Haemon • characters, tragic/mythical, Hercules/Heracles • characters, tragic/mythical, Ismene • characters, tragic/mythical, Neoptolemus • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Orestes • characters, tragic/mythical, Polyneices • characters, using general statements or gnomai • characters, using personal phrasing • characters, using verbal themes • chorus, the, as a character • conflict, among minor characters • context, and characters • cries, of characters • dialogue, between characters • gods, as characters • humble, minor characters as the • judgment, of characters • microcosm, characters as • nature, of characters • nobility, of characters • origin, of characters • personality, of minor characters • repetition, of characters • silence, of minor characters • social function, of characters • spectators, make judgements about characters • wisdom, of minor characters • withdrawal, of characters

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 74; Bernabe et al (2013) 110; Budelmann (1999) 75, 76, 77; Jouanna (2018) 203, 208, 297, 298, 306, 315, 317, 333, 334, 335, 336, 339, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 350, 351, 352, 355, 482, 700, 721, 756; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 258, 278, 288

1. Ismene, my sister, true child of my own mother, do you know any evil out of all the evils bequeathed by Oedipus that Zeus will not fulfil for the two of us in our lifetime? There is nothing—no pain, no ruin,'2. Ismene, my sister, true child of my own mother, do you know any evil out of all the evils bequeathed by Oedipus that Zeus will not fulfil for the two of us in our lifetime? There is nothing—no pain, no ruin, 5. no shame, nor dishonor—that I have not seen in your sufferings and mine. And now what is this new edict that they say the general has just decreed to all the city? Do you know anything? Have you heard? Or does it escape you that
10. evils from our enemies are on the march against our friends?
1. To me no word of our friends, Antigone, either bringing joy or bringing pain has come since we two were robbed of our two brothers who died in one day by a double blow.
15. And since the Argive army has fled during this night, I have learned nothing further, whether better fortune is mine, or further ruin.
18. I knew it well, so I was trying to bring you outside the courtyard gates to this end, that you alone might hear. 20. Hear what? It is clear that you are brooding on some dark news. 2
1. Why not? Has not Creon destined our brothers, the one to honored burial, the other to unburied shame? Eteocles, they say, with due observance of right and custom, he has laid in the earth 25. for his honor among the dead below. As for the poor corpse of Polyneices, however, they say that an edict has been published to the townsmen that no one shall bury him or mourn him, but instead leave him unwept, unentombed, for the birds a pleasing store 30. as they look to satisfy their hunger. Such, it is said, is the edict that the good Creon has laid down for you and for me—yes, for me—and it is said that he is coming here to proclaim it for the certain knowledge of those who do not already know. They say that he does not conduct this business lightly, 35. but whoever performs any of these rites, for him the fate appointed is death by public stoning among the entire city. This is how things stand for you, and so you will soon show your nature, whether you are noble-minded, or the corrupt daughter of a noble line. 39. Poor sister, if things have come to this, what would I 40. profit by loosening or tightening this knot? 4
1. Consider whether you will share the toil and the task. 42. What are you hazarding? What do you intend? 43. Will you join your hand to mine in order to lift his corpse? 44. You plan to bury him—when it is forbidden to the city? 45. Yes, he is my brother, and yours too, even if you wish it otherwise. I will never be convicted of betraying him. 47. Hard girl! Even when Creon has forbidden it? 48. No, he has no right to keep me from my own. 49. Ah, no! Think, sister, how our father 50. perished in hatred and infamy, when, because of the crimes that he himself detected, he smashed both his eyes with self-blinding hand; then his mother-wife, two names in one, with a twisted noose destroyed her life; 55. lastly, our two brothers in a single day, both unhappy murderers of their own flesh and blood, worked with mutual hands their common doom. And now we, in turn—we two who have been left all alone—consider how much more miserably we will be destroyed, if in defiance of the law 60. we transgress against an autocrat’s decree or his powers. No, we must remember, first, that ours is a woman’s nature, and accordingly not suited to battles against men; and next, that we are ruled by the more powerful, so that we must obey in these things and in things even more stinging. 65. I, therefore, will ask those below for pardon, since I am forced to this, and will obey those who have come to authority. It is foolish to do what is fruitless. 69. I would not encourage you—no, nor, even if you were willing later, 70. would I welcome you as my partner in this action. No, be the sort that pleases you. I will bury him—it would honor me to die while doing that. I shall rest with him, loved one with loved one, a pious criminal. For the time is greater 75. that I must serve the dead than the living, since in that world I will rest forever. But if you so choose, continue to dishonor what the gods in honor have established. 78. I do them no dishonor. But to act in violation of the citizens’ will—of that I am by nature incapable. 80. You can make that your pretext! Regardless, I will go now to heap a tomb over the brother I love. 82. Oh no, unhappy sister! I fear for you! 83. Do not tremble for me. Straighten out your own destiny. 84. Then at least disclose the deed to no one before you do it. 85. Conceal it, instead, in secrecy—and so, too, will I. 86. Go on! Denounce it! You will be far more hated for your silence, if you fail to proclaim these things to everyone. 88. You have a hot heart for chilling deeds. 89. I know that I please those whom I am most bound to please. 90. Yes, if you will also have the power. But you crave the impossible. 9
1. Why then, when my strength fails, I will have finished. 92. An impossible hunt should not be tried in the first place. 93. If you mean that, you will have my hatred, and you will be subject to punishment as the enemy of the dead. 95. But leave me and the foolish plan I have authored to suffer this terrible thing, for I will not suffer anything so terrible that my death will lack honor. 98. Go, then, if you so decide. And of this be sure: though your path is foolish, to your loved ones your love is straight and true. Exit Antigone on the spectators’ left. Ismene exits into the palace.

164. My fellow citizens! First, the gods, after tossing the fate of our city on wild waves, have once more righted it. Second, I have ordered you through my messengers to come here
165. apart from all the rest, because I knew, first of all, how constant was your reverence for the power of the throne of Laius; how, again, you were reverent, when Oedipus was guiding our city; and lastly, how, when he was dead, you still maintained loyal thoughts towards his children.
170. Since, then, these latter have fallen in one day by a twofold doom—each striking, each struck, both with the stain of a brother’s murder—I now possess all the power and the throne according to my kinship with the dead.
175. Now, it is impossible to know fully any man’s character, will, or judgment, until he has been proved by the test of rule and law-giving. For if anyone who directs the entire city does not cling to the best and wisest plans,
180. but because of some fear keeps his lips locked, then, in my judgment, he is and has long been the most cowardly traitor. And if any man thinks a friend more important than his fatherland, that man, I say, is of no account. Zeus, god who sees all things always, be my witness—
185. I would not be silent if I saw ruin, instead of safety, marching upon the citizens. Nor would I ever make a man who is hostile to my country a friend to myself, because I know this, that our country is the ship that bears us safe, and that only when
190. we sail her on a straight course can we make true friends. Such are the rules by which I strengthen this city. Akin to these is the edict which I have now published to the citizenry concerning the sons of Oedipus: Eteocles, who fell fighting
435. but she made no denial of anything—at once to my joy and to my pain. For to have escaped from trouble one’s self gives the greatest joy, but it stings to lead friends to evil. Naturally, though, all such things are 440. of less account to me than my own safety.
449. And even so you dared overstep that law? 450. Yes, since it was not Zeus that published me that edict, and since not of that kind are the laws which Justice who dwells with the gods below established among men. Nor did I think that your decrees were of such force, that a mortal could override the unwritten 455. and unfailing statutes given us by the gods. For their life is not of today or yesterday, but for all time, and no man knows when they were first put forth. Not for fear of any man’s pride was I about to owe a penalty to the gods for breaking these.
469. So for me to meet this doom is a grief of no account. But if I had endured that my mother’s son should in death lie an unburied corpse, that would have grieved me. Yet for this, I am not grieved. And if my present actions are foolish in your sight, 470. it may be that it is a fool who accuses me of folly. 47
1. She shows herself the wild offspring of a wild father, and does not know how to bend before troubles. 49
1. I charge that other with an equal share in the plotting of this burial. Call her out! I saw her inside just now, raving, and not in control of her wits. Before the deed, the mind frequently is convicted of stealthy crimes when conspirators are plotting depravity in the dark.
502. is there anything that pleases me—and may there never be! Similarly to you as well my views must be displeasing. And yet, how could I have won a nobler glory than by giving burial to my own brother? All here would admit that they approve, 5
17. It was his brother, not his slave, who died. 5
19. Hades craves these rites, nevertheless.
523. It is not my nature to join in hate, but in love. 53
1. You who were lurking like a viper in my own house and secretly gulping up my life’s blood, while I was oblivious that I was nurturing two plagues, two revolutions against my throne—tell me now, will you also affirm 535. your share in this burial, or will you forswear all knowledge of it? 536. I performed the deed—as long as she concurs—and I share and carry the burden of guilt. 538. No, justice will not permit you to do this, since you were not willing to help with the deed, nor did I give you a part in it. 540. But now with this sea of troubles around you, I am not ashamed to sail in a sea of suffering at your side. 542. As to whose deed it is, Hades and the dead are witnesses. A friend in words is not the type of friend I love. 544. No, sister, do not strip me of death’s honor, 545. but let me die with you and make due consecration to the dead. 546. Do not share my death. Do not claim deeds to which you did not put your hand. My death will suffice. 548. And how can I cherish life, once I am deprived of you? 549. Ask Creon. Your concern is for him. 550. Why do you torture me like this, when it does not help you? 55
1. No, if I mock you, it is to my own pain that I do so. 552. Tell me, how can I help you, even now? 553. Save yourself. I do not grudge your escape. 554. Ah, misery! Will I fall short of sharing your fate? 555. Your choice was to live, it was mine to die. 556. At least your choice was not made without my protests. 557. One world approved your wisdom, another approved mine. 558. Nevertheless, the offense is identical for both of us. 559. Take heart! You live. But my life has long been 560. in Death’s hands so that I might serve the dead. 56
1. One of these maidens, I declare, has just revealed her foolishness; the other has displayed it from the moment of her birth. 563. Yes, Creon. Whatever amount of reason nature may have given them does not remain with those in dire straits, but goes astray. 565. Yours did, I know, when you chose dire actions with dire allies. 566. What life would there be for me alone, without her presence? 567. Do not speak of her presence . She lives no longer. 568. What? You will kill your own son’s bride? 569. Why not? There are other fields for him to plough. 570. But not fitted to him as she was. 57
1. I abhor an evil wife for my son. 572. Haemon, dearest! How your father wrongs you! 573. Enough! Enough of you and of your marriage! 574. Will you really cheat your son of this girl? 575. Death it is who will end these bridals for me. 576. Then it seems that it is resolved that she will die. 577. Resolved, yes, for you and by me. To the two Attendants. No more delay! Servants, take them inside! Hereafter they must be women, and not left at large. 580. For it is known that even the brave seek to flee, when they see Death now closing on their life. Exeunt Attendants, guarding Antigone and Ismene. Creon remains.
643. Yes, my son, this is the spirit you should maintain in your heart—to stand behind your father’s will in all things. It is for this that men pray: to sire and raise in their homes children who are obedient, that they may requite their father’s enemy with evil and honor his friend, just as their father does.
688. For my part, to state how you are wrong to say those things is beyond my power and my desire, although another man, too, might have a useful thought. In any case, it is my natural duty to watch on your behalf all that men say, or do, or find to blame. 690. For dread of your glance forbids the ordinary citizen to speak such words as would offend your ear. But I can hear these murmurs in the dark, how the city moans for this girl, saying: No woman ever merited death less— 695. none ever died so shamefully for deeds so glorious as hers, who, when her own brother had fallen in bloody battle, would not leave him unburied to be devoured by savage dogs, or by any bird. Does she not deserve to receive golden honor? 700. Such is the rumor shrouded in darkness that silently spreads. For me, father, no treasure is more precious than your prosperity. What, indeed, is a nobler ornament for children than the fair fame of a thriving father, or for a father than that of his children? 7
18. And in the same way the pilot who keeps the sheet of his sail taut and never slackens it, upsets his boat, and voyages thereafter with his decking underwater. Father, give way and allow a change from your rage. For if even from me, a younger man, a worthy thought may be supplied, 720. by far the best thing, I believe, would be for men to be all-wise by nature. Otherwise—since most often it does not turn out that way—it is good to learn in addition from those who advise you well.
806. Citizens of my fatherland, see me setting out on my last journey, looking at my last sunlight, 8
10. and never again. No, Hades who lays all to rest leads me living to Acheron ’s shore, though I have not had my due portion of the chant that brings the bride, nor has any hymn been mine 8
15. for the crowning of marriage. Instead the lord of Acheron will be my groom. 8
17. Then in glory and with praise you depart to that deep place of the dead, neither struck by wasting sickness, 820. nor having won the wages of the sword. No, guided by your own laws and still alive, unlike any mortal before, you will descend to Hades. 823. I have heard with my own ears how our Phrygian guest, the daughter of Tantalus, perished 825. in so much suffering on steep Sipylus—how, like clinging ivy, the sprouting stone subdued her. And the rains, as men tell, do not leave her melting form, nor does the snow, 830. but beneath her weeping lids she dampens her collar. Most like hers is the god-sent fate that leads me to my rest. 834. Yet she was a goddess, as you know, and the offspring of gods, 835. while we are mortals and mortal-born. Still it is a great thing for a woman who has died to have it said of her that she shared the lot of the godlike in her life, and afterwards, in death. 839. Ah, you mock me! In the name of our fathers’ gods, 840. why do you not wait to abuse me until after I have gone, and not to my face, O my city, and you, her wealthy citizens? Ah, spring of Dirce, and you holy ground of Thebes whose chariots are many, 845. you, at least, will bear me witness how unwept by loved ones, and by what laws I go to the rock-closed prison of my unheard-of tomb! Ah, misery! 850. I have no home among men or with the shades, no home with the living or with the dead. 853. You have rushed headlong to the far limits of daring, and against the high throne of Justice 855. you have fallen, my daughter, fallen heavily. But in this ordeal you are paying for some paternal crime. 858. You have touched on my most bitter thought 860. and moved my ever-renewed pity for my father and for the entire doom ordained for us, the famed house of Labdacus. Oh, the horrors of our mother’s bed! Oh, the slumbers of the wretched mother at the side 865. of her own son, my own father! What manner of parents gave me my miserable being! It is to them that I go like this, accursed and unwed, to share their home. 870. Ah, my brother, the marriage you made was doomed, and by dying you killed me still alive! 872. Your pious action shows a certain reverence, but an offence against power can no way be tolerated by him who has power in his keeping. 875. Your self-willed disposition is what has destroyed you. 876. Unwept, unfriended, without marriage-song, I am led in misery on this journey that cannot be put off. No longer is it permitted me, unhappy girl, 880. to look up at this sacred eye of the burning sun. But for my fate no tear is shed, no friend moans in sorrow.
998. You will understand, when you hear the signs revealed by my art. As I took my place on my old seat of augury
1000. where all birds regularly gather for me, I heard an unintelligible voice among them: they were screaming in dire frenzy that made their language foreign to me. I realized that they were ripping each other with their talons, murderously—the rush of their wings did not lack meaning.
1005. Quickly, in fear, I tried burnt-sacrifice on a duly-kindled altar, but from my offerings Hephaestus did not blaze. Instead juice that had sweated from the thigh-flesh trickled out onto the embers and smoked and sputtered;
10. the gall was scattered high up in the air; and the streaming thighs lay bared of the fat that had been wrapped around them. Such was the failure of the rites that yielded no sign, as I learned from this boy. For he is my guide, as I am guide to others.
15. And it is your will that is the source of the sickness now afflicting the city. For the altars of our city and our hearths have one and all been tainted by the birds and dogs with the carrion taken from the sadly fallen son of Oedipus. And so the gods no more accept prayer and sacrifice at our hands,
1020. or the burning of thigh-meat, nor does any bird sound out clear signs in its shrill cries, for they have tasted the fatness of a slain man’s blood. Think, therefore, on these things, my son. All men are liable to err.
1025. But when an error is made, that man is no longer unwise or unblessed who heals the evil into which he has fallen and does not remain stubborn. Self-will, we know, invites the charge of foolishness. Concede the claim of the dead. Do not kick at the fallen.
1030. What prowess is it to kill the dead all over again? I have considered for your good, and what I advise is good. The sweetest thing is to learn from a good advisor when his advice is to your profit.
1033. Old man, you all shoot your arrows at me, like archers at their mark, and I am not safe
1035. even from the plottings of the seer’s divine art, but by their tribe I have long been bought and sold and made their merchandise. Turn your profits, make your deals for the white gold of Sardis and the gold of India , if it pleases you, but you shall not cover that man with a grave,
1040. not even if the eagles of Zeus wish to snatch and carry him to be devoured at the god’s throne. No, not even then, for fear of that defilement will I permit his burial, since I know with certainty that no mortal has the power to defile the gods.
1045. But even the exceedingly clever, old Teiresias, falls with a shameful fall, when they couch shameful thoughts in fine phrasing for profit’s sake.
1048. Alas! Does any man know, does any consider—
1049. What is this? What universal truth are you announcing?
1050. —by how much the most precious of our possessions is the power to reason wisely?
1. By as much, I think, as senselessness is the greatest affliction.
1052. Yet you came into being full of that disease.
1053. I have no desire to trade insults with the seer.
1054. Yet that is what you do in saying that I prophesy falsely.
1055. Yes, for the prophet-clan was ever fond of money.
1056. And the race sprung from tyrants loves shameful gain.
1057. Do you know that you ramble so about your king?
1058. I am aware, since through me you have saved this city.
1059. You are a wise seer, but fond of doing injustice.
1060. You will stir me to utter the dire secret in my soul.
1. Out with it! But only if it is not for gain that you speak it.
1062. Indeed, I think I speak without mention of gain—where you are concerned.
1063. Be certain that you will not trade in my will.
1064. Then know, yes, know it well! You will not live through many more
1065. courses of the sun’s swift chariot, before you will give in return one sprung from your own loins, a corpse in requital for corpses. For you have thrust below one of those of the upper air and irreverently lodged a living soul in the grave,
1070. while you detain in this world that which belongs to the infernal gods, a corpse unburied, unmourned, unholy. In the dead you have no part, nor do the gods above, but in this you do them violence. For these crimes the avenging destroyers,
1075. the Furies of Hades and of the gods, lie in ambush for you, waiting to seize you in these same sufferings. And look closely if I tell you this with a silvered palm. A time not long to be delayed will reveal in your house wailing over men and over women.
1080. All the cities are stirred up in hostility, whose mangled corpses the dogs, or the wild beasts or some winged bird buried, carrying an unholy stench to the city that held each man’s hearth. There, now, are arrows for your heart, since you provoke me,
1085. launched at you, archer-like, in my anger. They fly true—you cannot run from their burning sting. Boy, lead me home, so that he may launch his rage against younger men, and learn to keep a quieter tongue
1090. and a better mind within his breast than he now bears. Exit Teiresias.
1. The man is gone, my king, leaving dire prophecies behind. And for all the time that I have had this hair on my head, now white, once dark, I know that he has never been a false prophet to our city.
1095. I, too, know it well, and my mind is troubled. To yield is terrible, but, to resist, to strike my pride with ruin—this, too, inspires terror.
1098. The moment, Creon, requires that you reason wisely.
1099. What should I do, then? Speak, and I will obey.
100. Go and free the girl from her hollowed chamber. Then raise a tomb for the unburied dead.
102. And you recommend this? You think that I should yield?
103. Yes, my king, and with all possible speed. For harms sent from the gods swiftly cut short the follies of men.
105. Ah, it is a struggle, but I depart from my heart’s resolve and obey. We must not wage vain wars with necessity.
107. Go, do these things and do not leave their performance to others.
108. Right away I will go. Go, go, my servants, each and all of you! Take axes in your hands,
10. and hurry to that place there in view! But since my judgment has taken this turn, I will be there to set her free, as I myself confined her. I am held by the fear that it is best to keep the established laws to life’s very end.
149. O Leader of the chorus of the stars whose breath is fire, overseer of the chants in the night, son begotten of Zeus,
150. appear, my king, with your attendant Thyiads, who in night-long frenzy dance and sing you as Iacchus the Giver!

1240. Corpse enfolding corpse he lay, having won his marriage rites, poor boy, not here, but in Hades’ palace, and having shown to mankind by how much the failure to reason wisely is the most severe of all afflictions assigned to man. Eurydice departs into the house.
1. Ah, the blunders of an unthinking mind, blunders of rigidity, yielding death! Oh, you witnesses of the killers and the killed, both of one family!
1265. What misery arises from my reasonings! Haemon, you have died after a young life, youngest and last of my sons! O God! You have departed not by your foolishness, but by my own!
1270. Ah, how late you seem to see the right!
1. God, I have mastered the bitter lesson! But then, then, I think, some god struck me on my head with a crushing weight, and drove me into savage paths,
1275. —ah!—and overthrew my joy to be trampled on! Ah, the labors men must toil through!
1278. My master, you have come, I think, like one whose hands are not empty, but who has a ready store: first, you carry that burden visible in your arms;
1280. econd, you will soon look upon further sufferings inside your house.
1. What worse suffering is still to follow upon these sufferings?
1282. Your wife is dead, true mother of that corpse, poor lady, by wounds newly cut.
1284. O harbor of Hades, hard to purify!
1285. Why, why do you ruin me? Herald of evil, of grief, what word do you say? Ah, you have done in a dead man anew! What are you saying, boy? What is this you report to me
1290. God no!—what new slaughter, my wife’s doom, is heaped upon this ruin?
1293. The sight is at hand. It is no longer hidden inside.
1294. Ah, misery!
1295. There I see a new, a second evil! What destiny, ah, what, can still await me? I have just now taken my son in my arms, and now I see another corpse before me!
1300. Oh, tormented mother! Oh, my son!
1. By the altar, with a sharp-whetted sword, she struck until her eyes went slack and dark. Before that she bewailed the noble fate of Megareus who died earlier, and then the fate of this boy, and also, with her last breath,
1305. he called down evil fortune upon you, the slayer of her sons.
1306. Ah, no! I tremble with fear. Why does no one strike me full on my chest with a two-edged sword?
10. I am miserable—ah—and bathed in miserable anguish!
12. Yes, because you were accused of responsibility for both this son’s death, and the other’s, by her whose corpse you see.
14. What was the manner of the violent deed by which she departed?
15. Her own hand struck her to the heart upon learning her son’s sharply-lamented fate.
17. Ah this guilt can never be fastened onto any other mortal so as to remove my own! It was I, yes, I, who killed you, I the wretch.
1320. I admit the truth. Lead me away, my servants, lead me from here with all haste, who am no more than a dead man!
1325. The course you recommend is to your gain, if there can be gain amidst evil. What is briefest is best, when trouble lies at your feet.
1328. Let it come, let it appear, that fairest of fates for me, that brings my final day,
1330. the fate supreme! Oh, let it come, so that I may never see tomorrow’s light!
1334. These things are in the future. We must see to present affairs.
1335. Fulfillment of these things rests in the hands where it should rest.
1336. All that I crave was summed in that prayer.
1337. Then pray no more; for mortals have no release from destined misfortune.
1339. Lead me away, I beg you, a rash, useless man.
1340. I have murdered you, son, unwittingly, and you, too, my wife—the misery! I do not know which way I should look, or where I should seek support. All i
1345. amiss that is in my hands, and, again, a crushing fate has leapt upon my head. '. None
17. Sophocles, Electra, 6-7, 61, 528-548, 552-557, 566-572, 975-981, 1424-1425 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Electra as a character • Electra, Clytemnestra as a character • Odysseus, his character in Philoctetes • Oedipus Rex, Creon as a character • characters • characters, asking questions • characters, dramatic irony • characters, have depth • characters, of Electra (Sophocles) • characters, tragic/mythical, Achilles • characters, tragic/mythical, Aegisthus • characters, tragic/mythical, Agamemnon • characters, tragic/mythical, Ajax, Salaminian (Telamonian) • characters, tragic/mythical, Chrysothemis • characters, tragic/mythical, Clytemnestra • characters, tragic/mythical, Creon, king of Thebes • characters, tragic/mythical, Diomedes • characters, tragic/mythical, Dolon • characters, tragic/mythical, Electra • characters, tragic/mythical, Hector • characters, tragic/mythical, Hecuba • characters, tragic/mythical, Hercules/Heracles • characters, tragic/mythical, Lycus • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Oedipus • characters, tragic/mythical, Orestes • characters, tragic/mythical, Polyneices • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus • characters, using argument from eikos • characters, using general statements or gnomai • characters, using logical argument • characters, using personal phrasing • repetition, of characters • spectators, make judgements about characters

 Found in books: Budelmann (1999) 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 85; Hesk (2000) 199; Jouanna (2018) 351, 354, 355, 494; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 46, 74, 252, 284

6. that consecrated land from which the gad-fly drove the daughter of Inachus; there, Orestes, is the Lycean market place, named from the wolf-slaying god; there on the left is Hera’s famous temple; and in this place to which we have come, know that you see Mycenae , the rich in gold,

61. I find true life and win renown? No word is ill-omened, I trust, if it yields gain. For often before now I have seen clever men die in false report; then, when they return home, they are held in greater honor.
528. Your father—this and nothing else is your constant pretext—was slain by me. Yes, by me. I know it well. I make no denial. Justice took hold of him, not I alone—Justice, whom you ought to have supported, if you had been in your right mind. 530. For this father of yours whom you constantly bewail alone of all the Greeks had the heart to sacrifice your own blood, your sister, to the gods—he, who, when sowing his seed, felt none of the pains I did when I gave birth. Come, tell me now, why, or to please whom, 535. did he sacrifice her? To please the Argives, you will say? No, they had no right to kill my daughter. Or, if indeed it was for the sake of his brother Menelaus that he killed my child, was he not to pay me the penalty for that? Did Menelaus not have two children, 540. who should in fairness have died instead of my daughter, since the father and mother from whom they were sprung had caused that voyage? Did Hades have some greater desire to feast on my offspring than on hers? Or had all love of the children of my womb been 545. abandoned by their accursed father, while love for the children of Menelaus filled him? Were these not the marks of a thoughtless and malicious parent? I think so, even if I differ from your judgment. So, too, would the dead girl speak, if she could find a voice. For myself, then, I view the past without
552. This time, at least, you cannot say that I first gave you cause for upset and thereby provoked such words from you. But, if you will permit me, 555. I would gladly declare the truth, on behalf of my dead father and my sister alike. Clytaemnestra 55
6. Certainly I permit you; and if you always addressed me in such a tone, you would not be difficult to listen to. Electra 5
6. or I will tell you, since we may not learn from her. My father, as I have heard, was once hunting in the grove of the goddess, when his footfall flushed a dappled and antlered stag; he shot it, and chanced to make a certain boast concerning its slaughter. 570. Angered by this, Leto’s daughter detained the Greeks so that in requital for the beast’s life my father should sacrifice his own daughter. So it was that she was sacrificed, since the fleet had no other release, neither homeward nor to Troy .
975. What citizen or stranger when he sees us will not greet us with praises such as these: Behold these two sisters, my friends! They saved their father’s house, and at a time when their foes were firmly established, they took their lives in their hands and administered bloodshed! Worthy of love is this pair, worthy of reverence from all. At festivals, and wherever the citizenry is assembled, let these two be honored by all men for their manly courage. Thus will every one speak of us,
1424. And now they are here! The red hand drips with sacrifice to Ares, and I cannot blame the deed. Electra'1425. if Apollo’s oracle spoke well. Electra '. None
18. Sophocles, Oedipus At Colonus, 1006-1007 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Creon, as a repeating character • Oedipus, as a repeating character • Theophrastus, Characters, religion in • characters • repetition, of characters

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 358; Parker (2005) 1

1006. Yet while giving such generous praise, you forget that if any land knows how to worship the gods with honors, this land excels in that. It is from her that you had planned to steal me, a suppliant and an old man, and tried to seize me, having already carried off my daughters.'1007. Yet while giving such generous praise, you forget that if any land knows how to worship the gods with honors, this land excels in that. It is from her that you had planned to steal me, a suppliant and an old man, and tried to seize me, having already carried off my daughters. '. None
19. Sophocles, Oedipus The King, 264-266, 895-897 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • characters, dramatic irony • characters, have depth • characters, of Oedipus the King (Sophocles) • characters, tragic/mythical, Hercules/Heracles • characters, tragic/mythical, Jocasta • characters, tragic/mythical, Laius • characters, tragic/mythical, Peleus • characters, tragic/mythical, Thetis • knowledge, of characters • spectators, make judgements about characters

 Found in books: Budelmann (1999) 81; Jouanna (2018) 421, 506; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 257

264. possessing his bed and the wife who bore his children, and since, had his hope of offspring not been unsuccessful, children born of one mother would have tied us with a common bond—as it was, fate swooped upon his head—I will uphold this cause, as though it were that of my own father,'265. and will leave no stone unturned in my search for the one who shed the blood, for the honor of the son of Labdacus and of Polydorus and the elder Cadmus and Agenor of old. And for those who do not obey me, I pray that the god
895. No. For if such deeds are held in honor, why should we join in the sacred dance? Choru 897. No longer will I go reverently to the earth’s central and inviolate shrine, no more to Abae’s temple or to Olympia , '. None
20. Sophocles, Philoctetes, 3-10, 14, 50-51, 82-99, 103-105, 107-108, 115-120, 128-129, 191-200, 475-476, 492, 1028, 1031-1034, 1049, 1054, 1116-1117, 1140-1145, 1244, 1246, 1326-1328, 1421-1422 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Heracles, as a repeating character • Odysseus, his character in Philoctetes • characters • characters, of Philoctetes (Sophocles) • characters, tragic/mythical, Electra • characters, tragic/mythical, Hercules/Heracles • characters, tragic/mythical, Lynceus • characters, tragic/mythical, Neoptolemus • characters, tragic/mythical, Odysseus • characters, tragic/mythical, Oedipus • characters, tragic/mythical, Orestes • characters, tragic/mythical, Philoctetes • dialogue, between characters • repetition, of characters

 Found in books: Hesk (2000) 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197; Jouanna (2018) 208, 325, 326, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 362, 529; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 57, 258

3. This is the headland of sea-washed Lemnos , land untrodden by men and desolate. It was here, child bred of the man who was the noblest of the Greeks, Neoptolemus son of Achilles, that I exposed 5. long ago the native of Malis, Poeas’ son, on the express command of the two chieftains to do so, because his foot was all running with a gnawing disease. Neither libation nor burnt sacrifice could be attempted by us in peace, but with his wild, ill-omened crie 10. he filled the whole camp continually with shrieking, moaning. But what need is there to speak of that? The time is not ripe for too many words, lest he even learn that I am here, and I so waste the whole ruse whereby I think soon to take him.'
14. he filled the whole camp continually with shrieking, moaning. But what need is there to speak of that? The time is not ripe for too many words, lest he even learn that I am here, and I so waste the whole ruse whereby I think soon to take him.
50. Son of Achilles, you must be loyal to the goals of your mission—and not with your body alone. Should you hear some new plan unknown to you till now, you must serve it, since it is to serve that you are here. Neoptolemu
82. to utter or contrive such treachery. Yet knowing that victory is a sweet prize to gain, steel yourself to do it. Our honesty shall be displayed another time. Now, however, give yourself to me for one brief, shameless day, and then for the rest of time 85. may you be called the most righteous of all humankind. Neoptolemu 86. I abhor acting on advice, son of Laertes , which causes pain in the hearing. It is not in my nature to achieve anything by means of evil cunning, nor was it, as I hear, in my father’s. 90. But I am ready to take the man by force and without treachery, since with the use of one foot only, he will not overcome so many of us in a struggle. And yet I was sent to assist you and am reluctant to be called traitor. Still I prefer, my king, 95. to fail when doing what is honorable than to be victorious in a dishonorable manner. Odysseu 96. Son of a father so noble, I, too, in my youth once had a slow tongue and an active hand. But now that I have come forth to the test, I see that the tongue, not action, is what masters everything among men. Neoptolemu 10
3. He will never listen; and by force you cannot take him. Neoptolemu 104. Has he strength so terrific to make him bold? Odysseu 105. Yes, shafts inevitable, escorts of death. Neoptolemu
107. No, unless he takes the man by deceit, as I prescribe. Neoptolemu 108. Then you think it brings no shame to speak what is false? Odysseu
115. Neither will you be without them, nor they without you. Neoptolemu 116. It would seem, then, that we must track them down, if things stand as you say. Odysseu 117. Know that by doing this task, you win two rewards. Neoptolemu 118. What are they? If I knew, I would not refuse the deed. Odysseu 119. You will be celebrated in the same breath as clever and as noble. Neoptolemu 120. So be it! I will do it, and cast off all shame. Odysseu
128. and I will send our lookout back to your ship. And, if in my view you seem to linger at all beyond the due time, I will send that same man back again, after disguising him as the captain of a merchant-ship, so that secrecy may be on our side.
191. No part of this is a marvel to me. God-sent—if a man such as I may judge—are both those sufferings which attacked him from savage Chryse , 195. and those with which he now toils untended. Surely he toils by the plan of some god so that he may not bend against Troy the invincible arrows divine, until the time be fulfilled at which, men say, 200. by those arrows Troy is fated to fall. Choru
475. your disgust, well I know, at such a cargo. Yet bear with it all the same—to noble minds baseness is hateful, and a good deed is glorious. If you forsake this task, you will have a stain on your honor; but if you perform it, boy, you will win the prize of highest honor—if I return alive to Oeta’s soil.
492. and from there it will be no long journey for me to Oeta and the Trachinian heights, and fair-flowing Spercheius, so that you may show me to my beloved father, though long I have feared that he may have departed me. For often
1028. And yet you sailed with them only when brought under their yoke by trickery and compulsion. But me, when, to my utter ruin, I sailed of my own accord as their mate with seven ships, me they cast out of ship and honor, as you claim, while they say that it was your doing. And now, why would you take me? Why have me led away? For what purpose? 10
31. I am nothing, and, as far as you were concerned, I have long been dead. You creature abhorred by the gods, how is it that you no longer find me crippled and foul-smelling? How, if I sail with you, can you burn sacrifices to the gods, or make libations any more? That was your pretext for casting me away in the first place.
1049. I could say much in answer to his claims, if time allowed; but now I can say one thing only. What kind of man the occasion demands, that kind of man am I.
1054. And accordingly, where the judgment at hand is of just and good men, you could find no man more pious than me. Victory, however, is my inborn desire in every field—save with regard to you. To you, in this case, I will gladly give way. Yes, release him, and lay not another finger upon him.
1116. Doom, god-sent doom constrained you to suffer this, not, I tell you, any treachery to which my hand was lent. 1
140. A man must always assert what is right. But, when he has done so, he must not let loose maligt, stinging taunts. The man was the sole representative of the whole army, and at their mandate 1
145. he achieved a universal benefit for his friends. Philoctete
1244. Wise though you were born, your threats are void of wisdom. Odysseu
1246. And yet if they are just, they are better than wise. Odysseu 1
326. And you remember these words and write them in your heart: you suffer this plague’s affliction in accordance with god-sent fate, because you came near to Chryse ’s guardian, the serpent who secretly watches over her home and guards her roofless sanctuary. Know also that you will never gain relief from this grave sickness,

1421. And for you, be sure, this fate is ordained, that through these toils of yours you will make your life far-famed. You shall go with this man to the Trojan city, where, first, you shall be healed of your cruel sickness, '. None
21. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.2.24 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alcibiades (Platonic character) • Socrates (Platonic character) • Thrasymachus (Platonic character) • character development

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 234, 235; Repath and Whitmarsh (2022) 166

1.2.24. καὶ Κριτίας δὴ καὶ Ἀλκιβιάδης, ἕως μὲν Σωκράτει συνήστην, ἐδυνάσθην ἐκείνῳ χρωμένω συμμάχῳ τῶν μὴ καλῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν κρατεῖν· ἐκείνου δʼ ἀπαλλαγέντε, Κριτίας μὲν φυγὼν εἰς Θετταλίαν ἐκεῖ συνῆν ἀνθρώποις ἀνομίᾳ μᾶλλον ἢ δικαιοσύνῃ χρωμένοις, Ἀλκιβιάδης δʼ αὖ διὰ μὲν κάλλος ὑπὸ πολλῶν καὶ σεμνῶν γυναικῶν θηρώμενος, διὰ δύναμιν δὲ τὴν ἐν τῇ πόλει καὶ τοῖς συμμάχοις ὑπὸ πολλῶν καὶ δυνατῶν κολακεύειν ἀνθρώπων διαθρυπτόμενος, ὑπὸ δὲ τοῦ δήμου τιμώμενος καὶ ῥᾳδίως πρωτεύων, ὥσπερ οἱ τῶν γυμνικῶν ἀγώνων ἀθληταὶ ῥᾳδίως πρωτεύοντες ἀμελοῦσι τῆς ἀσκήσεως, οὕτω κἀκεῖνος ἠμέλησεν αὑτοῦ.''. None
1.2.24. And indeed it was thus with Critias and Alcibiades. So long as they were with Socrates, they found in him an ally who gave them strength to conquer their evil passions. But when they parted from him, Critias fled to Thessaly, and got among men who put lawlessness before justice; while Alcibiades, on account of his beauty, was hunted by many great ladies, and because of his influence at Athens and among her allies he was spoilt by many powerful men: and as athletes who gain an easy victory in the games are apt to neglect their training, so the honour in which he was held, the cheap triumph he won with the people, led him to neglect himself. ''. None
22. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • character • characters, tragic/mythical, Antigone • characters, tragic/mythical, Electra • ethos, character

 Found in books: Liapis and Petrides (2019) 229; Rutter and Sparkes (2012) 201

23. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ammonius (Plutarch’s character) • Eustrophus (Plutarch’s character) • Plutarch, Younger (character of the De E) • Theon (Plutarch’s character) • Timaeus (Platonic character) • Zostrianos (character)

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 324; Erler et al (2021) 24, 156

24. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on character • comedy, characters of

 Found in books: Eidinow (2007) 265; Martin (2009) 106

25. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • comedy, characters of • lawcourt, character evidence

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 68; Martin (2009) 68

26. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Climate, Affects character • Lucretius, Epicurean, Emotion and character follows hot and cold in body • Plato, Climate affects character • animals, characters (dispositions) of

 Found in books: Sattler (2021) 111; Sorabji (2000) 264

27. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • action, vs. virtue of character • actions, relation to virtues of character • animals, characters (dispositions) of • character, moral • character-trait • dignity, character trait • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), relation to virtues of character • virtues, of character

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 135; Harte (2017) 217; Sattler (2021) 111, 139

28. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • action, vs. virtue of character • actions, relation to virtues of character • animals, characters (dispositions) of • character, • character, moral • character-trait • dignity, character trait • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), relation to virtues of character • virtues, of character • êthos (character)

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 135; Harte (2017) 204, 205, 206, 207, 211, 216, 217, 218; Liatsi (2021) 16, 105, 110; Sattler (2021) 111, 120, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 134, 135, 137, 139, 142, 180; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 210, 212

29. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, characters (dispositions) of • character-trait • dignity, character trait

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 135; Sattler (2021) 111

30. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • virtues, of character • êthos (character)

 Found in books: Liatsi (2021) 110; Sattler (2021) 127

31. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calmness of character, pathological • character, affected by physical factors

 Found in books: Jouanna (2012) 241; van der EIjk (2005) 158

32. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, characters (dispositions) of • persuasion through character

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 324; Sattler (2021) 111

33. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Europa character • Homer, Odysseus, figure, character • motivation, of characters

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 210; Morrison (2020) 80, 83, 117; Toloni (2022) 31

34. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Rome/Romans, conglomerate character of • metatheater, and low-status characters

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 79; Miller and Clay (2019) 112

35. Cicero, On Divination, 1.1, 1.27, 1.29, 1.34, 1.117, 2.13-2.14, 2.20, 2.33, 2.50, 2.71-2.73, 2.85, 2.100, 2.124, 2.126 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cotta (character in De natura deorum), • Marcus (character of De Diuinatione) • Marcus (character of Div.) • Marcus (character of Div.), on cleromancy • Quintus (character of Div.) • Servius auctus sive Danielis, on augural character of Ostia and Tiber • character, fictional, as textual construct

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 139, 262; Bexley (2022) 255; Konrad (2022) 156, 158; Rosa and Santangelo (2020) 113, 130; Santangelo (2013) 23, 33, 47, 48, 53, 63, 64, 70, 73, 74, 76, 100, 160, 235

1.1. Vetus opinio est iam usque ab heroicis ducta temporibus, eaque et populi Romani et omnium gentium firmata consensu, versari quandam inter homines divinationem, quam Graeci mantikh/n appellant, id est praesensionem et scientiam rerum futurarum. Magnifica quaedam res et salutaris, si modo est ulla, quaque proxime ad deorum vim natura mortalis possit accedere. Itaque ut alia nos melius multa quam Graeci, sic huic praestantissimae rei nomen nostri a divis, Graeci, ut Plato interpretatur, a furore duxerunt.
1.27. Itaque, ut ex ipso audiebam, persaepe revertit ex itinere, cum iam progressus esset multorum dierum viam. Cuius quidem hoc praeclarissimum est, quod, posteaquam a Caesare tetrarchia et regno pecuniaque multatus est, negat se tamen eorum auspiciorum, quae sibi ad Pompeium proficiscenti secunda evenerint, paenitere; senatus enim auctoritatem et populi Romani libertatem atque imperii dignitatem suis armis esse defensam, sibique eas aves, quibus auctoribus officium et fidem secutus esset, bene consuluisse; antiquiorem enim sibi fuisse possessionibus suis gloriam. Ille mihi videtur igitur vere augurari. Nam nostri quidem magistratus auspiciis utuntur coactis; necesse est enim offa obiecta cadere frustum ex pulli ore, cum pascitur;
1.29. Ut P. Claudius, Appii Caeci filius, eiusque collega L. Iunius classis maxumas perdiderunt, cum vitio navigassent. Quod eodem modo evenit Agamemnoni; qui, cum Achivi coepissent . inter se strépere aperteque ártem obterere extíspicum, Sólvere imperát secundo rúmore adversáque avi. Sed quid vetera? M. Crasso quid acciderit, videmus, dirarum obnuntiatione neglecta. In quo Appius, collega tuus, bonus augur, ut ex te audire soleo, non satis scienter virum bonum et civem egregium censor C. Ateium notavit, quod ementitum auspicia subscriberet. Esto; fuerit hoc censoris, si iudicabat ementitum; at illud minime auguris, quod adscripsit ob eam causam populum Romanum calamitatem maximam cepisse. Si enim ea causa calamitatis fuit, non in eo est culpa, qui obnuntiavit, sed in eo, qui non paruit. Veram enim fuisse obnuntiationem, ut ait idem augur et censor, exitus adprobavit; quae si falsa fuisset, nullam adferre potuisset causam calamitatis. Etenim dirae, sicut cetera auspicia, ut omina, ut signa, non causas adferunt, cur quid eveniat, sed nuntiant eventura, nisi provideris.
1.34. Iis igitur adsentior, qui duo genera divinationum esse dixerunt, unum, quod particeps esset artis, alterum, quod arte careret. Est enim ars in iis, qui novas res coniectura persequuntur, veteres observatione didicerunt. Carent autem arte ii, qui non ratione aut coniectura observatis ac notatis signis, sed concitatione quadam animi aut soluto liberoque motu futura praesentiunt, quod et somniantibus saepe contingit et non numquam vaticitibus per furorem, ut Bacis Boeotius, ut Epimenides Cres, ut Sibylla Erythraea. Cuius generis oracla etiam habenda sunt, non ea, quae aequatis sortibus ducuntur, sed illa, quae instinctu divino adflatuque funduntur; etsi ipsa sors contemnenda non est, si et auctoritatem habet vetustatis, ut eae sunt sortes, quas e terra editas accepimus; quae tamen ductae ut in rem apte cadant, fieri credo posse divinitus. Quorum omnium interpretes, ut grammatici poe+tarum, proxime ad eorum, quos interpretantur, divinationem videntur accedere.

1.117. Quo modo autem aut vates aut somniantes ea videant, quae nusquam etiam tunc sint, magna quaestio est. Sed explorata si sint ea, quae ante quaeri debeant, sint haec, quae quaerimus, faciliora. Continet enim totam hanc quaestionem ea ratio, quae est de natura deorum, quae a te secundo libro est explicata dilucide. Quam si obtinemus, stabit illud, quod hunc locum continet, de quo agimus, esse deos, et eorum providentia mundum administrari, eosdemque consulere rebus humanis, nec solum universis, verum etiam singulis. Haec si tenemus, quae mihi quidem non videntur posse convelli, profecto hominibus a dis futura significari necesse est.
2.13. Sed animadverti, Quinte, te caute et ab iis coniecturis, quae haberent artem atque prudentiam, et ab iis rebus, quae sensibus aut artificiis perciperentur, abducere divinationem eamque ita definire: divinationem esse earum rerum praedictionem et praesensionem, quae essent fortuitae. Primum eodem revolveris. Nam et medici et gubernatoris et imperatoris praesensio est rerum fortuitarum. Num igitur aut haruspex aut augur aut vates quis aut somnians melius coniecerit aut e morbo evasurum aegrotum aut e periculo navem aut ex insidiis exercitum quam medicus, quam gubernator, quam imperator? 2.14. Atqui ne illa quidem divitis esse dicebas, ventos aut imbres inpendentes quibusdam praesentire signis (in quo nostra quaedam Aratea memoriter a te pronuntiata sunt), etsi haec ipsa fortuita sunt; plerumque enim, non semper eveniunt. Quae est igitur aut ubi versatur fortuitarum rerum praesensio, quam divinationem vocas? Quae enim praesentiri aut arte aut ratione aut usu aut coniectura possunt, ea non divinis tribuenda putas, sed peritis. Ita relinquitur, ut ea fortuita divinari possint, quae nulla nec arte nec sapientia provideri possunt; ut, si quis M. Marcellum illum, qui ter consul fuit, multis annis ante dixisset naufragio esse periturum, divinasset profecto; nulla enim arte alia id nec sapientia scire potuisset. Talium ergo rerum, quae in fortuna positae sunt, praesensio divinatio est.
2.33. Haec observari certe non potuerunt, ut supra docui. Sunt igitur artis inventa, non vetustatis, si est ars ulla rerum incognitarum; cum rerum autem natura quam cognationem habent? quae ut uno consensu iuncta sit et continens, quod video placuisse physicis, eisque maxume, qui omne, quod esset, unum esse dixerunt, quid habere mundus potest cum thesauri inventione coniunctum? Si enim extis pecuniae mihi amplificatio ostenditur idque fit natura, primum exta sunt coniuncta mundo, deinde meum lucrum natura rerum continetur. Nonne pudet physicos haec dicere? Ut enim iam sit aliqua in natura rerum contagio, quam esse concedo (multa enim Stoici colligunt; nam et musculorum iecuscula bruma dicuntur augeri, et puleium aridum florescere brumali ipso die, et inflatas rumpi vesiculas, et semina malorum, quae in iis mediis inclusa sint, in contrarias partis se vertere, iam nervos in fidibus aliis pulsis resonare alios, ostreisque et conchyliis omnibus contingere, ut cum luna pariter crescant pariterque decrescant, arboresque ut hiemali tempore cum luna simul senescente, quia tum exsiccatae sint, tempestive caedi putentur.
2.71. Nec vero non omni supplicio digni P. Claudius L. Iunius consules, qui contra auspicia navigaverunt; parendum enim religioni fuit nec patrius mos tam contumaciter repudiandus. Iure igitur alter populi iudicio damnatus est, alter mortem sibi ipse conscivit. Flaminius non paruit auspiciis, itaque periit cum exercitu. At anno post Paulus paruit; num minus cecidit in Cannensi pugna cum exercitu? Etenim, ut sint auspicia, quae nulla sunt, haec certe, quibus utimur, sive tripudio sive de caelo, simulacra sunt auspiciorum, auspicia nullo modo. Q. Fabi, te mihi in auspicio esse volo ; respondet: audivi . Hic apud maiores nostros adhibebatur peritus, nunc quilubet. Peritum autem esse necesse est eum, qui, silentium quid sit, intellegat; id enim silentium dicimus in auspiciis, quod omni vitio caret. 2.72. Hoc intellegere perfecti auguris est; illi autem, qui in auspicium adhibetur, cum ita imperavit is, qui auspicatur: dicito, si silentium esse videbitur, nec suspicit nec circumspicit; statim respondet silentium esse videri. Tum ille: dicito, si pascentur .— Pascuntur .— Quae aves? aut ubi? Attulit, inquit, in cavea pullos is, qui ex eo ipso nominatur pullarius. Haec sunt igitur aves internuntiae Iovis! quae pascantur necne, quid refert? Nihil ad auspicia; sed quia, cum pascuntur, necesse est aliquid ex ore cadere et terram pavire (terripavium primo, post terripudium dictum est; hoc quidem iam tripudium dicitur)—cum igitur offa cecidit ex ore pulli, tum auspicanti tripudium solistimum nuntiatur. 2.73. Ergo hoc auspicium divini quicquam habere potest, quod tam sit coactum et expressum? Quo antiquissumos augures non esse usos argumento est, quod decretum collegii vetus habemus omnem avem tripudium facere posse. Tum igitur esset auspicium (si modo esset ei liberum) se ostendisse; tum avis illa videri posset interpres et satelles Iovis; nunc vero inclusa in cavea et fame enecta si in offam pultis invadit, et si aliquid ex eius ore cecidit, hoc tu auspicium aut hoc modo Romulum auspicari solitum putas?
2.85. Sortes restant et Chaldaei, ut ad vates veniamus et ad somnia. Dicendum igitur putas de sortibus? Quid enim sors est? Idem prope modum, quod micare, quod talos iacere, quod tesseras, quibus in rebus temeritas et casus, non ratio nec consilium valet. Tota res est inventa fallaciis aut ad quaestum aut ad superstitionem aut ad errorem. Atque ut in haruspicina fecimus, sic videamus, clarissumarum sortium quae tradatur inventio. Numerium Suffustium Praenestinorum monumenta declarant, honestum hominem et nobilem, somniis crebris, ad extremum etiam minacibus cum iuberetur certo in loco silicem caedere, perterritum visis irridentibus suis civibus id agere coepisse; itaque perfracto saxo sortis erupisse in robore insculptas priscarum litterarum notis. Is est hodie locus saeptus religiose propter Iovis pueri, qui lactens cum Iunone Fortunae in gremio sedens mammam adpetens castissime colitur a matribus.
2.124. Sed haec quoque in promptu fuerint; nunc interiora videamus. Aut enim divina vis quaedam consulens nobis somniorum significationes facit, aut coniectores ex quadam convenientia et coniunctione naturae, quam vocant sumpa/qeian, quid cuique rei conveniat ex somniis, et quid quamque rem sequatur, intellegunt, aut eorum neutrum est, sed quaedam observatio constans atque diuturna est, cum quid visum secundum quietem sit, quid evenire et quid sequi soleat. Primum igitur intellegendum est nullam vim esse divinam effectricem somniorum. Atque illud quidem perspicuum est, nulla visa somniorum proficisci a numine deorum; nostra enim causa di id facerent, ut providere futura possemus.
2.126. Illud etiam requiro, cur, si deus ista visa nobis providendi causa dat, non vigilantibus potius det quam dormientibus. Sive enim externus et adventicius pulsus animos dormientium commovet, sive per se ipsi animi moventur, sive quae causa alia est, cur secundum quietem aliquid videre, audire, agere videamur, eadem causa vigilantibus esse poterat; idque si nostra causa di secundum quietem facerent, vigilantibus idem facerent, praesertim cum Chrysippus Academicos refellens permulto clariora et certiora esse dicat, quae vigilantibus videantur, quam quae somniantibus. Fuit igitur divina beneficentia dignius, cum consulerent nobis, clariora visa dare vigilanti quam obscuriora per somnum. Quod quoniam non fit, somnia divina putanda non sunt.' '. None
1.1. And what do you say of the following story which we find in our annals? During the Veientian War, when Lake Albanus had overflowed its banks, a certain nobleman of Veii deserted to us and said that, according to the prophecies of the Veientian books, their city could not be taken while the lake was at flood, and that if its waters were permitted to overflow and take their own course to the sea the result would be disastrous to the Roman people; on the other hand, if the waters were drained off in such a way that they did not reach the sea the result would be to our advantage. In consequence of this announcement our forefathers dug that marvellous canal to drain off the waters from the Alban lake. Later when the Veientians had grown weary of war and had sent ambassadors to the Senate to treat for peace, one of them is reported to have said that the deserter had not dared to tell the whole of the prophecy contained in the Veientian books, for those books, he said, also foretold the early capture of Rome by the Gauls. And this, as we know, did occur six years after the fall of Veii. 45
1.1. Book I1 There is an ancient belief, handed down to us even from mythical times and firmly established by the general agreement of the Roman people and of all nations, that divination of some kind exists among men; this the Greeks call μαντική — that is, the foresight and knowledge of future events. A really splendid and helpful thing it is — if only such a faculty exists — since by its means men may approach very near to the power of gods. And, just as we Romans have done many other things better than the Greeks, so have we excelled them in giving to this most extraordinary gift a name, which we have derived from divi, a word meaning gods, whereas, according to Platos interpretation, they have derived it from furor, a word meaning frenzy.
1.1. Why, my dear Quintus, said I, you are defending the very citadel of the Stoics in asserting the interdependence of these two propositions: if there is divination there are gods, and, if there are gods there is divination. But neither is granted as readily as you think. For it is possible that nature gives signs of future events without the intervention of a god, and it may be that there are gods without their having conferred any power of divination upon men.To this he replied, I, at any rate, find sufficient proof to satisfy me of the existence of the gods and of their concern in human affairs in my conviction that there are some kinds of divination which are clear and manifest. With your permission I will set forth my views on this subject, provided you are at leisure and have nothing else which you think should be preferred to such a discussion.
1.27. This is why, as he told me himself, he had time and again abandoned a journey even though he might have been travelling for many days. By the way, that was a very noble utterance of his which he made after Caesar had deprived him of his tetrarchy and kingdom, and had forced him to pay an indemnity too. Notwithstanding what has happened, said he, I do not regret that the auspices favoured my joining Pompey. By so doing I enlisted my military power in defence of senatorial authority, Roman liberty, and the supremacy of the empire. The birds, at whose instance I followed the course of duty and of honour, counselled well, for I value my good name more than riches. His conception of augury, it seems to me, is the correct one.For with us magistrates make use of auspices, but they are forced auspices, since the sacred chickens in eating the dough pellets thrown must let some fall from their beaks.
1.29. For example, Publius Claudius, son of Appius Caecus, and his colleague Lucius Junius, lost very large fleets by going to sea when the auguries were adverse. The same fate befell Agamemnon; for, after the Greeks had begun toRaise aloft their frequent clamours, showing scorn of augurs art,Noise prevailed and not the omen: he then bade the ships depart.But why cite such ancient instances? We see what happened to Marcus Crassus when he ignored the announcement of unfavourable omens. It was on the charge of having on this occasion falsified the auspices that Gaius Ateius, an honourable man and a distinguished citizen, was, on insufficient evidence, stigmatized by the then censor Appius, who was your associate in the augural college, and an able one too, as I have often heard you say. I grant you that in pursuing the course he did Appius was within his rights as a censor, if, in his judgement, Ateius had announced a fraudulent augury. But he showed no capacity whatever as an augur in holding Ateius responsible for that awful disaster which befell the Roman people. Had this been the cause then the fault would not have been in Ateius, who made the announcement that the augury was unfavourable, but in Crassus, who disobeyed it; for the issue proved that the announcement was true, as this same augur and censor admits. But even if the augury had been false it could not have been the cause of the disaster; for unfavourable auguries — and the same may be said of auspices, omens, and all other signs — are not the causes of what follows: they merely foretell what will occur unless precautions are taken.
1.34. I agree, therefore, with those who have said that there are two kinds of divination: one, which is allied with art; the other, which is devoid of art. Those diviners employ art, who, having learned the known by observation, seek the unknown by deduction. On the other hand those do without art who, unaided by reason or deduction or by signs which have been observed and recorded, forecast the future while under the influence of mental excitement, or of some free and unrestrained emotion. This condition often occurs to men while dreaming and sometimes to persons who prophesy while in a frenzy — like Bacis of Boeotia, Epimenides of Crete and the Sibyl of Erythraea. In this latter class must be placed oracles — not oracles given by means of equalized lots — but those uttered under the impulse of divine inspiration; although divination by lot is not in itself to be despised, if it has the sanction of antiquity, as in the case of those lots which, according to tradition, sprang out of the earth; for in spite of everything, I am inclined to think that they may, under the power of God, be so drawn as to give an appropriate response. Men capable of correctly interpreting all these signs of the future seem to approach very near to the divine spirit of the gods whose wills they interpret, just as scholars do when they interpret the poets.

1.117. Now there is a great problem as to how prophets and dreamers can see things, which, at the time, have no actual existence anywhere. But that question would be solved quite readily if we were to investigate certain other questions which demand consideration first. For the theory in regard to the nature of the gods, so clearly developed in the second book of your work on that subject, includes this whole question. If we maintain that theory we shall establish the very point which I am trying to make: namely, that there are gods; that they rule the universe by their foresight; and that they direct the affairs of men — not merely of men in the mass, but of each individual. If we succeed in holding that position — and for my part I think it impregnable — then surely it must follow that the gods give to men signs of coming events. 52
2.13. But I observed, Quintus, that you prudently withdrew divination from conjectures based upon skill and experience in public affairs, from those drawn from the use of the senses and from those made by persons in their own callings. I observed, also, that you defined divination to be the foreknowledge and foretelling of things which happen by chance. In the first place, that is a contradiction of what you have admitted. For the foreknowledge possessed by a physician, a pilot, and a general is of things which happen by chance. Then can any soothsayer, augur, prophet, or dreamer conjecture better than a physician, a pilot, or a general that an invalid will come safely out of his sickness, or that a ship will escape from danger, or that an army will avoid an ambuscade?
2.13. Chrysippus, indeed, defines divination in these words: The power to see, understand, and explain premonitory signs given to men by the gods. Its duty, he goes on to say, is to know in advance the disposition of the gods towards men, the manner in which that disposition is shown and by what means the gods may be propitiated and their threatened ills averted. And this same philosopher defines the interpretation of dreams thus: It is the power to understand and explain the visions sent by the gods to men in sleep. Then, if that be true, will just ordinary shrewdness meet these requirements, or rather is there not need of surpassing intelligence and absolutely perfect learning? But I have never seen such a man. 64 2.14. And you went on to say that even the foreknowledge of impending storms and rains by means of certain signs was not divination, and, in that connexion, you quoted a number of verses from my translation of Aratus. Yet such coincidences happen by chance, for though they happen frequently they do not happen always. What, then, is this thing you call divination — this foreknowledge of things that happen by chance — and where is it employed? You think that whatever can be foreknown by means of science, reason, experience, or conjecture is to be referred, not to diviners, but to experts. It follows, therefore, that divination of things that happen by chance is possible only of things which cannot be foreseen by means of skill or wisdom. Hence, if someone had declared many years in advance that the famous Marcus Marcellus, who was consul three times, would perish in a shipwreck, this, by your definition, undoubtedly would have been a case of divination, since that calamity could not have been foreseen by means of any other skill or by wisdom. That is why you say that divination is the foreknowledge of such things as depend upon chance. 6 2.14. When the soul itself is weakened and relaxed many such sights and sounds, you may be sure, are seen and heard in all manner of confusion and diversity. Then especially do the remts of our waking thoughts and deeds move and stir within the soul. For example, in the time of my banishment Marius was often in my mind as I recalled with what great fortitude and courage he had borne his own heavy misfortunes, and this I think is the reason why I dreamed about him.68 As for your dream, it occurred while you were thinking and worrying about me and then you had the vision of me as I suddenly arose from the river. For in the souls of us both were traces of our waking thoughts, but with some added features, of course: as, for example, my dreaming of Mariuss monument and your dreaming that the horse on which I rode sank with me and then reappeared.
2.33. Such signs, as I have shown before, certainly could not come within your classification of the kinds of divination dependent on observation. Therefore they are not the result of immemorial usage, but they are the inventions of art — if there can be any art in the occult. But what relationship have they with the laws of nature? Assuming that all the works of nature are firmly bound together in a harmonious whole (which, I observe, is the view of the natural philosophers and especially of those men who maintain that the universe is a unit), what connexion can there be between the universe and the finding of a treasure? For instance, if the entrails foretell an increase in my fortune and they do so in accordance with some law of nature, then, in the first place, there is some relationship between them and the universe, and in the second place, my ficial gain is regulated by the laws of nature. Are not the natural philosophers ashamed to utter such nonsense? And yet a certain contact between the different parts of nature may be admitted and I concede it. The Stoics have collected much evidence to prove it. They claim, for example, that the livers of mice become larger in winter; that the dry pennyroyal blooms the very day of the winter solstice, and that its seed-pods become inflated and burst and the seeds enclosed thither are sent in various directions; that at times when certain strings of the lyre are struck others sound; that it is the habit of oysters and of all shell-fish to grow with the growth of the moon and to become smaller as it wanes; and that trees are considered easiest to cut down in winter and in the dark of the moon, because they are then free from sap.
2.71. In my opinion the consuls, Publius Claudius and Lucius Junius, who set sail contrary to the auspices, were deserving of capital punishment; for they should have respected the established religion and should not have treated the customs of their forefathers with such shameless disdain. Therefore it was a just retribution that the former was condemned by a vote of the people and that the latter took his own life. Flaminius, you say, did not obey the auspices, therefore he perished with his army. But a year later Paulus did obey them; and did he not lose his army and his life in the battle of Cannae? Granting that there are auspices (as there are not), certainly those which we ordinarily employ — whether by the tripudium or by the observation of the heavens — are not auspices in any sense, but are the mere ghosts of auspices.34 Quintus Fabius, I wish you to assist me at the auspices. He answers, I will. (In our forefathers time the magistrates on such occasions used to call in some expert person to take the auspices — but in these days anyone will do. But one must be an expert to know what constitutes silence, for by that term we mean free of every augural defect. 2.72. To understand that belongs to a perfect augur.) After the celebrant has said to his assistant, Tell me when silence appears to exist, the latter, without looking up or about him, immediately replies, Silence appears to exist. Then the celebrant says, Tell me when the chickens begin to eat. They are eating now, is the answer. But what are these birds they are talking about, and where are they? Someone replies, Its poultry. Its in a cage and the person who brought it is called a poulterer, because of his business. These, then, are the messengers of Jove! What difference does it make whether they eat or not? None, so far as the auspices are concerned. But, because of the fact that, while they eat, some food must necessarily fall from their mouths and strike upon the ground (terram pavire), — this at first was called terripavium, and later, terripudium; now it is called tripudium — therefore, when a crumb of food falls from a chickens mouth a tripudium solistimum is announced to the celebrant. 35 2.73. Then, how can there be anything divine about an auspice so forced and so extorted? That such a practice did not prevail with the augurs of ancient times is proven by an old ruling of our college which says, Any bird may make a tripudium. There might be an auspice if the bird were free to show itself outside its cage. In that case it might be called the interpreter and satellite of Jove. But now, when shut up inside a cage and tortured by hunger, if it seizes greedily upon its morsel of pottage and something falls from its mouth, do you consider that is an auspice? Or do you believe that this was the way in which Romulus used to take the auspices?
2.85. And pray what is the need, do you think, to talk about the casting of lots? It is much like playing at morra, dice, or knuckle-bones, in which recklessness and luck prevail rather than reflection and judgement. The whole scheme of divination by lots was fraudulently contrived from mercenary motives, or as a means of encouraging superstition and error. But let us follow the method used in the discussion of soothsaying and consider the traditional origin of the most famous lots. According to the annals of Praeneste Numerius Suffustius, who was a distinguished man of noble birth, was admonished by dreams, often repeated, and finally even by threats, to split open a flint rock which was lying in a designated place. Frightened by the visions and disregarding the jeers of his fellow-townsmen he set about doing as he had been directed. And so when he had broken open the stone, the lots sprang forth carved on oak, in ancient characters. The site where the stone was found is religiously guarded to this day. It is hard by the statue of the infant Jupiter, who is represented as sitting with Juno in the lap of Fortune and reaching for her breast, and it is held in the highest reverence by mothers.
2.124. But, though the conclusion just stated is obvious, let us now look deeper into the question. Surely you must assume, either that there is a Divine Power which, in planning for our good, gives us information by means of dreams; or that, because of some natural connexion and association — the Greeks call it συμπάθεια — interpreters of dreams know what sort of a dream is required to fit any situation and what sort of a result will follow any dream; or that neither of these suppositions is true, but that the usual result or consequence of every dream is known by a consistent system of rules based on long-continued observation. In the first place, then, it must be understood that there is no divine power which creates dreams. And indeed it is perfectly clear that none of the visions seen in dreams have their origin in the will of the gods; for the gods, for our sakes, would so interpose that we might be able to foresee the future.
2.126. I also ask, if God gives us these visions as forewarnings, why does he not give them to us when we are awake rather than when we are asleep? For, whether our souls in sleep are impelled by some external and foreign force; or whether they are self-moved; or whether there is some other cause why, during sleep, we imagine ourselves seeing or hearing, or doing certain things — whatever the cause, it would apply just as well when we are awake. If the gods did send us warnings in our sleep and for our good they would do the same for us when we are awake, especially since, as Chrysippus says in replying to the Academicians, appearances seen when we are awake are much more distinct and trustworthy than those seen in dreams. It would, therefore, have been more in keeping with the beneficence of gods, in consulting for our good, to send us clear visions in our waking moments rather than unintelligible ones in our dreams. But since that is not the case, dreams ought not to be held divine.' '. None
36. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 3.47 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cotta (character in De natura deorum), • Mnemosyne (mythical character)

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 130; Galinsky (2016) 19

3.47. And if it is the nature of the gods to intervene in man's affairs, the Birth-Spirit also must be deemed divine, to whom it is our custom to offer sacrifice when we make the round of the shrines in the Territory of Ardea: she is named Natio from the word for being born (nasci), because she is believed to watch over married women in travail. If she is divine, so are all those abstractions that you mentioned, Honour, Faith, Intellect, Concord, and therefore also Hope, the Spirit of Money and all the possible creations of our own imagination. If this supposition is unlikely, so also is the former one, from which all these instances flow. Then, if the traditional gods whom we worship are really divine, what reason can you give why we should not include Isis and Osiris in the same category? And if we do so, why should we repudiate the gods of the barbarians? We shall therefore have to admit to the list of gods oxen and horses, ibises, hawks, asps, crocodiles, fishes, dogs, wolves, cats and many beasts besides. Or if we reject these, we shall also reject those others from whom their claim springs. "". None
37. Cicero, On Duties, 1.107-1.114 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cicero, on traits of character • character, fictional, and metatheatre • character, fictional, as textual construct • character, fictional, human qualities of

 Found in books: Bexley (2022) 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 84; Graver (2007) 244

1.107. Intellegendum etiam cst duabus quasi nos a natura indutos esse personis; quarum una communis est ex eo, quod omnes participes sumus rationis praestantiaeque eius, qua antecellimus bestiis, a qua omne honestum decorumque trahitur, et ex qua ratio inveniendi officii exquiritur, altera autem, quae proprie singulis est tributa. Ut enim in corporibus magnae dissimilitudines sunt (alios videmus velocitate ad cursum, alios viribus ad luctandum valere, itemque in formis aliis dignitatem inesse, aliis venustatem), sic in animis exsistunt maiores etiam varietates. 1.108. Erat in L. Crasso, in L. Philippo multus lepos, maior etiam magisque de industria in C. Caesare L. filio; at isdem temporibus in M. Scauro et in M. Druso adulescente singularis severitas, in C. Laelio multa hilaritas, in eius familiari Scipione ambitio maior, vita tristior. De Graecis autem dulcem et facetum festivique sermonis atque in omni oratione simulatorem, quem ei)/rwna Graeci nominarunt, Socratem accepimus, contra Pythagoram et Periclem summam auctoritatem consecutos sine ulla hilaritate. Callidum Hannibalem ex Poenorum, ex nostris ducibus Q. Maximum accepimus, facile celare, tacere, dissimulare, insidiari, praeripere hostium consilia. In quo genere Graeci Themistoclem et Pheraeum Iasonem ceteris anteponunt; in primisque versutum et callidum factum Solonis, qui, quo et tutior eius vita esset et plus aliquanto rei publicae prodesset, furere se simulavit. 1.109. Sunt his alii multum dispares, simplices et aperti. qui nihil ex occulto, nihil de insidiis agendum putant, veritatis cultores, fraudis inimici, itemque alii, qui quidvis perpetiantur, cuivis deserviant, dum, quod velint, consequantur, ut Sullam et M. Crassum videbamus. Quo in genere versutissimum et patientissimum Lacedaemonium Lysandrum accepimus, contraque Callicratidam, qui praefectus classis proximus post Lysandrum fuit; itemque in sermonibus alium quemque, quamvis praepotens sit, efficere, ut unus de multis esse videatur; quod in Catulo, et in patre et in filio, itemque in Q. Mucio ° Mancia vidimus. Audivi ex maioribus natu hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem eius, illum qui Ti. Gracchi conatus perditos vindicavit, nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis ne Xenocratem quidem, severissimum philosophorum, ob eamque rem ipsam magnum et clarum fuisse. Innumerabiles aliae dissimilitudines sunt naturae morumque, minime tamen vituperandorum. 1.110. Admodum autem tenenda sunt sua cuique non vitiosa, sed tamen propria, quo facilius decorum illud, quod quaerimus, retineatur. Sic enim est faciendum, ut contra universam naturam nihil contendamus, ea tamen conservata propriam nostram sequamur, ut, etiamsi sint alia graviora atque meliora, tamen nos studia nostra nostrae naturae regula metiamur; neque enim attinet naturae repugnare nec quicquam sequi, quod assequi non queas. Ex quo magis emergit, quale sit decorum illud, ideo quia nihil decet invita Minerva, ut aiunt, id est adversante et repugte natura. 1.111. Omnino si quicquam est decorum, nihil est profecto magis quam aequabilitas cum universae vitae, tum singularum actionum, quam conservare non possis, si aliorum naturam imitans omittas tuam. Ut enim sermone eo debemus uti, qui innatus est nobis, ne, ut quidam, Graeca verba inculcantes iure optimo rideamur, sic in actiones omnemque vitam nullam discrepantiam conferre debemus. 1.112. Atque haec differentia naturarum tantam habet vim, ut non numquam mortem sibi ipse consciscere alius debeat, alius in eadem causa non debeat. Num enim alia in causa M. Cato fuit, alia ceteri, qui se in Africa Caesari tradiderunt? Atqui ceteris forsitan vitio datum esset, si se interemissent, propterea quod lenior eorum vita et mores fuerant faciliores, Catoni cum incredibilem tribuisset natura gravitatem eamque ipse perpetua constantia roboravisset semperque in proposito susceptoque consilio permansisset, moriendum potius quam tyranni vultus aspiciendus fuit. 1.113. Quam multa passus est Ulixes in illo errore diuturno, cum et mulieribus, si Circe et Calypso mulieres appellandae sunt, inserviret et in omni sermone omnibus affabilem et iucundum esse se vellet! domi vero etiam contumelias servorun ancillarumque pertulit, ut ad id aliquando, quod cupiebat, veniret. At Aiax, quo animo traditur, milies oppetere mortem quam illa perpeti maluisset. Quae contemplantes expendere oportebit, quid quisque habeat sui, eaque moderari nee velle experiri, quam se aliena deceant; id enim maxime quemque decet, quod est cuiusque maxime suum. 1.114. Suum quisque igitur noscat ingenium acremque se et bonorum et vitiorum suorum iudicem praebeat, ne scaenici plus quam nos videantur habere prudentiae. Illi enim non optimas, sed sibi accommodatissimas fabulas eligunt; qui voce freti sunt, Epigonos Medumque, qui gestu, Melanippam, Clytemnestram, semper Rupilius, quem ego memini, Antiopam, non saepe Aesopus Aiacem. Ergo histrio hoc videbit in scaena, non videbit sapiens vir in vita? Ad quas igitur res aptissimi erimus, in iis potissimum elaborabimus; sin aliquando necessitas nos ad ea detruserit, quae nostri ingenii non erunt, omnis adhibenda erit cura, meditatio, diligentia, ut ea si non decore, at quam minime indecore facere possimus; nec tam est enitendum, ut bona, quae nobis data non sint, sequamur, quam ut vitia fugiamus.''. None
1.107. \xa0We must realize also that we are invested by Nature with two characters, as it were: one of these is universal, arising from the fact of our being all alike endowed with reason and with that superiority which lifts us above the brute. From this all morality and propriety are derived, and upon it depends the rational method of ascertaining our duty. The other character is the one that is assigned to individuals in particular. In the matter of physical endowment there are great differences: some, we see, excel in speed for the race, others in strength for wrestling; so in point of personal appearance, some have stateliness, others comeliness. <' "1.108. \xa0Diversities of character are greater still. Lucius Crassus and Lucius Philippus had a large fund of wit; Gaius Caesar, Lucius's son, had a still richer fund and employed it with more studied purpose. Contemporary with them, Marcus Scaurus and Marcus Drusus, the younger, were examples of unusual seriousness; Gaius Laelius, of unbounded jollity; while his intimate friend, Scipio, cherished more serious ideals and lived a more austere life. Among the Greeks, history tells us, Socrates was fascinating and witty, a genial conversationalist; he was what the Greeks call εἴÏ\x81Ï\x89ν in every conversation, pretending to need information and professing admiration for the wisdom of his companion. Pythagoras and Pericles, on the other hand, reached the heights of influence and power without any seasoning of mirthfulness. We read that Hannibal, among the Carthaginian generals, and Quintus Maximus, among our own, were shrewd and ready at concealing their plans, covering up their tracks, disguising their movements, laying stratagems, forestalling the enemy's designs. In these qualities the Greeks rank Themistocles and Jason of Pherae above all others. Especially crafty and shrewd was the device of Solon, who, to make his own life safer and at the same time to do a considerably larger service for his country, feigned insanity. <" '1.109. \xa0Then there are others, quite different from these, straightforward and open, who think that nothing should be done by underhand means or treachery. They are lovers of truth, haters of fraud. There are others still who will stoop to anything, truckle to anybody, if only they may gain their ends. Such, we saw, were Sulla and Marcus Crassus. The most crafty and most persevering man of this type was Lysander of Sparta, we are told; of the opposite type was Callicratidas, who succeeded Lysander as admiral of the fleet. So we find that another, no matter how eminent he may be, will condescend in social intercourse to make himself appear but a very ordinary person. Such graciousness of manner we have seen in the case of Catulus â\x80\x94 both father and son â\x80\x94 and also of Quintus Mucius Mancia. I\xa0have heard from my elders that Publius Scipio Nasica was another master of this art; but his father, on the other hand â\x80\x94 the man who punished Tiberius Gracchus for his nefarious undertakings â\x80\x94 had no such gracious manner in social intercourse .\xa0.\xa0., and because of that very fact he rose to greatness and fame. Countless other dissimilarities exist in natures and characters, and they are not in the least to be criticized. < 1.110. \xa0Everybody, however, must resolutely hold fast to his own peculiar gifts, in so far as they are peculiar only and not vicious, in order that propriety, which is the object of our inquiry, may the more easily be secured. For we must so act as not to oppose the universal laws of human nature, but, while safeguarding those, to follow the bent of our own particular nature; and even if other careers should be better and nobler, we may still regulate our own pursuits by the standard of our own nature. For it is of no avail to fight against one\'s nature or to aim at what is impossible of attainment. From this fact the nature of that propriety defined above comes into still clearer light, inasmuch as nothing is proper that "goes against the grain," as the saying is â\x80\x94 that is, if it is in direct opposition to one\'s natural genius. <' "1.111. \xa0If there is any such thing as propriety at all, it can be nothing more than uniform consistency in the course of our life as a whole and all its individual actions. And this uniform consistency one could not maintain by copying the personal traits of others and eliminating one's own. For as we ought to employ our mother-tongue, lest, like certain people who are continually dragging in Greek words, we draw well-deserved ridicule upon ourselves, so we ought not to introduce anything foreign into our actions or our life in general. <" '1.112. \xa0Indeed, such diversity of character carries with it so great significance that suicide may be for one man a duty, for another under the same circumstances a crime. Did Marcus Cato find himself in one predicament, and were the others, who surrendered to Caesar in Africa, in another? And yet, perhaps, they would have been condemned, if they had taken their lives; for their mode of life had been less austere and their characters more pliable. But Cato had been endowed by nature with an austerity beyond belief, and he himself had strengthened it by unswerving consistency and had remained ever true to his purpose and fixed resolve; and it was for him to die rather than to look upon the face of a tyrant. <' "1.113. \xa0How much Ulysses endured on those long wanderings, when he submitted to the service even of women (if Circe and Calypso may be called women) and strove in every word to be courteous and complaisant to all! And, arrived at home, he brooked even the insults of his men-servants and maidservants, in order to attain in the end the object of his desire. But Ajax, with the temper he is represented as having, would have chosen to meet death a\xa0thousand times rather than suffer such indignities! If we take this into consideration, we shall see that it is each man's duty to weigh well what are his own peculiar traits of character, to regulate these properly, and not to wish to try how another man's would suit him. For the more peculiarly his own a man's character is, the better it fits him. <" '1.114. \xa0Everyone, therefore, should make a proper estimate of his own natural ability and show himself a critical judge of his own merits and defects; in this respect we should not let actors display more practical wisdom than we have. They select, not the best plays, but the ones best suited to their talents. Those who rely most upon the quality of their voice take the Epigoni and the Medus; those who place more stress upon the action choose the Melanippa and the Clytaemnestra; Rupilius, whom I\xa0remember, always played in the Antiope, Aesopus rarely in the Ajax. Shall a player have regard to this in choosing his rôle upon the stage, and a wise man fail to do so in selecting his part in life? We shall, therefore, work to the best advantage in that rôle to which we are best adapted. But if at some time stress of circumstances shall thrust us aside into some uncongenial part, we must devote to it all possible thought, practice, and pains, that we may be able to perform it, if not with propriety, at least with as little impropriety as possible; and we need not strive so hard to attain to points of excellence that have not been vouchsafed to us as to correct the faults we have. <''. None
38. Polybius, Histories, 4.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Egyptians, character of • acquired characters, heredity of

 Found in books: Isaac (2004) 82; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 353

4.21. 1. \xa0Now all these practices I\xa0believe to have been introduced by the men of old time, not as luxuries and superfluities but because they had before their eyes the universal practice of personal manual labour in Arcadia, and in general the toilsomeness and hardship of the men's lives, as well as the harshness of character resulting from the cold and gloomy atmospheric conditions usually prevailing in these parts â\x80\x94 conditions to which all men by their very nature must perforce assimilate themselves;,2. \xa0there being no other cause than this why separate nations and peoples dwelling widely apart differ so much from each other in character, feature, and colour as well as in the most of their pursuits.,3. \xa0The primitive Arcadians, therefore, with the view of softening and tempering the stubbornness and harshness of nature, introduced all the practices I\xa0mentioned, and in addition accustomed the people, both men and women, to frequent festivals and general sacrifices, and dances of young men and maidens, and in fact resorted to every contrivance to render more gentle and mild, by the influence of the customs they instituted, the extreme hardness of the natural character. The Cynaetheans, by entirely neglecting these institutions, though in special need of such influences, as their country is the most rugged and their climate the most inclement in Arcadia, and by devoting themselves exclusively to their local affairs and political rivalries, finally became so savage that in no city of Greece were greater and more constant crimes committed. As an indication of the deplorable condition of the Cynaetheans in this respect and the detestation of the other Arcadians for such practices I\xa0may mention the following: at the time when, after the great massacre, the Cynaetheans sent an embassy to Sparta, the other Arcadian cities which they entered on their journey gave them instant notice to depart by cry of herald,,9. \xa0but the Mantineans after their departure even made a solemn purification by offering piacular sacrifices and carrying them round their city and all their territory.,10. \xa0I\xa0have said so much on this subject firstly in order that the character of the Arcadian nation should not suffer for the crimes of one city, secondly to deter any other Arcadians from beginning to neglect music under the impression that its extensive practice in Arcadia serves no necessary purpose. I also spoke for the sake of the Cynaetheans themselves, in order that, if Heaven ever grant them better fortune, they may humanize themselves by turning their attention to education and especially to music; for by no other means can they hope to free themselves from that savagery which overtook them at this time.,12. \xa0Having now said all that occurred to me on the subject of this people I\xa0return to the point whence I\xa0digressed. "". None
39. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 5.27, 6.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judith, complex character • Style, Linguistic and Literary, of Characters

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 369; Schwartz (2008) 82, 83

5.27. But Judas Maccabeus, with about nine others, got away to the wilderness, and kept himself and his companions alive in the mountains as wild animals do; they continued to live on what grew wild, so that they might not share in the defilement.'" "
6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.'"". None
40. Septuagint, Judith, 5.6-5.9, 5.17-5.21, 9.2, 9.12, 11.10, 14.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judith, complex character • values/character as identity marker, for Judith

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 49, 98, 101, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 420; Gruen (2020) 139, 141

5.6. This people is descended from the Chaldeans. 5.7. At one time they lived in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers who were in Chaldea. 5.8. For they had left the ways of their ancestors, and they worshiped the God of heaven, the God they had come to know; hence they drove them out from the presence of their gods; and they fled to Mesopotamia, and lived there for a long time. 5.9. Then their God commanded them to leave the place where they were living and go to the land of Canaan. There they settled, and prospered, with much gold and silver and very many cattle.
5.17. As long as they did not sin against their God they prospered, for the God who hates iniquity is with them. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited. 5.20. Now therefore, my master and lord, if there is any unwitting error in this people and they sin against their God and we find out their offense, then we will go up and defeat them. 5.21. But if there is no transgression in their nation, then let my lord pass them by; for their Lord will defend them, and their God will protect them, and we shall be put to shame before the whole world."
9.2. "O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done\' -- yet they did it.
9.12. Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer!
11.10. Therefore, my lord and master, do not disregard what he said, but keep it in your mind, for it is true: our nation cannot be punished, nor can the sword prevail against them, unless they sin against their God.
14.7. And when they raised him up he fell at Judith\'s feet, and knelt before her, and said, "Blessed are you in every tent of Judah! In every nation those who hear your name will be alarmed. ''. None
41. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cotta (character in De natura deorum), • character, excellence of

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 118; Long (2006) 112

42. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cotta (character in De natura deorum), • Epictetus, on development of character traits • Marcus (character of Div.) • Quintus (character of Div.) • causes, of character • heredity and character traits • responsibility, moral, for character

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 262; Graver (2007) 171, 249; Santangelo (2013) 17

43. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Marcus (character of Div.), on cleromancy • Quintus (character of De Legibus)

 Found in books: Rosa and Santangelo (2020) 25; Santangelo (2013) 73

44. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristippus of Cyrene, life and character • Crassus (character in De oratore), • Plutarch, ethos (character), ideas of • body, and character

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 38, 39; Kirkland (2022) 108, 109; Oksanish (2019) 145; Wolfsdorf (2020) 403

45. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plutarch, ethos (character), ideas of • body, and character

 Found in books: Kirkland (2022) 108, 109; Oksanish (2019) 145

46. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cicero, on traits of character • character

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 244; Jedan (2009) 58

47. Horace, Sermones, 1.4.126, 1.10.79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Horace, as character in Jonson’s Poetaster • Satires (Horace), stock characters in • mockery, by characters in Juvenal

 Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019) 65; Keane (2015) 44; Yona (2018) 8, 131

1.4.126. As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary.
1.4.126. but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. ' '. None
48. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ajax (Sophocles), characters in • Antigone (Sophocles), characters in • Philoctetes (Sophocles), characters in • character, fictional, and metatheatre • character, fictional, as textual construct • character, fictional, human qualities of • characters • characters, tragic/mythical, Furies (Erinyes) • characters, tragic/mythical, Medea

 Found in books: Bexley (2022) 68, 86, 87; Jouanna (2018) 199; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 94

49. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Marcus (character of De Legibus) • action, and character • responsibility, and character

 Found in books: Hankinson (1998) 231; Rosa and Santangelo (2020) 91

50. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.96, 3.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Josephus, as character • values/character as identity marker, for Josephus

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 169; Jonquière (2007) 225, 226

1.96. Νῶχος δὲ φοβούμενος, μὴ καθ' ἕκαστον ἔτος ἐπικλύζῃ τὴν γῆν ὁ θεὸς φθορὰν ἀνθρώπων καταψηφισάμενος, ἱερὰ καύσας ἐδεῖτο τὸν θεὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης μένειν εὐταξίας καὶ μηδὲν ἔτι τοιοῦτον ἐπενεγκεῖν πάθος, ὑφ' οὗ κινδυνεύσει πᾶν ἀπολέσθαι τὸ τῶν ζῴων γένος, ἀλλὰ τετιμωρημένον τοὺς πονηροὺς φειδὼ ποιεῖσθαι τῶν διὰ χρηστότητα περιλειφθέντων καὶ τὸ δεινὸν διαφυγεῖν κεκριμένων:" '
3.23. Θύουσι δὲ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτάδων καὶ ὁμοίως τῷ προειρημένῳ τὸ περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτάδων τῆς ἱερουργίας τρόπῳ γίνεται. οἱ δὲ ἀδύνατοι πορίζειν τὰ τέλεια θύματα περιστερὰς ἢ τρυγόνας δύο, ὧν τὸ μὲν ὁλοκαυτεῖται τῷ θεῷ, τὸ δὲ τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν εἰς βρῶσιν διδόασιν. ἀκριβέστερον δὲ περὶ τῆς θυσίας τῶνδε τῶν ζῴων ἐν τοῖς περὶ θυσιῶν ἐροῦμεν.'
3.23. ἐν αὐτῷ γὰρ εἶναι τὴν σωτηρίαν αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἐν ἄλλῳ: συγγινώσκειν δὲ τοῖς νῦν ὑπὸ τῆς ἀνάγκης ὑπὸ τοῦ λαοῦ πραττομένοις φύσει δυσαρέστου καὶ φιλαιτίου τοῦ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐν οἷς ἂν ἀτυχῇ γένους ὄντος. ὁ θεὸς δὲ προνοήσειν τε ἐπαγγέλλεται καὶ παρέξειν ἀφορμὴν ἣν ποθοῦσι. ". None
1.96. 7. But as for Noah, he was afraid, since God had determined to destroy mankind, lest he should drown the earth every year; so he offered burnt-offerings, and besought God that nature might hereafter go on in its former orderly course, and that he would not bring on so great a judgment any more, by which the whole race of creatures might be in danger of destruction: but that, having now punished the wicked, he would of his goodness spare the remainder, and such as he had hitherto judged fit to be delivered from so severe a calamity;
3.23. 3. The sacrifices for sins are offered in the same manner as is the thank-offering. But those who are unable to purchase complete sacrifices, offer two pigeons, or turtle doves; the one of which is made a burnt-offering to God, the other they give as food to the priests. But we shall treat more accurately about the oblation of these creatures in our discourse concerning sacrifices.'
3.23. and some way of deliverance from the want they were in, because in him, and in him alone, was their hope of salvation; and he desired that he would forgive what necessity had forced the people to do, since such was the nature of mankind, hard to please, and very complaining under adversities. Accordingly God promised he would take care of them, and afford them the succor they were desirous of. '. None
51. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.352-3.354, 6.310 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jewish writings, oracular character of • Josephus, and oracular character of Jewish writings • Josephus, as character • Suetonius, on oracular character of Judean writings • Tacitus, on oracular character of Judean writings • values/character as identity marker, for Josephus

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105; Gruen (2020) 169; Jonquière (2007) 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 225, 226

3.352. ἦν δὲ καὶ περὶ κρίσεις ὀνείρων ἱκανὸς συμβαλεῖν τὰ ἀμφιβόλως ὑπὸ τοῦ θείου λεγόμενα, τῶν γε μὴν ἱερῶν βίβλων οὐκ ἠγνόει τὰς προφητείας ὡς ἂν αὐτός τε ὢν ἱερεὺς καὶ ἱερέων ἔγγονος: 3.353. ὧν ἐπὶ τῆς τότε ὥρας ἔνθους γενόμενος καὶ τὰ φρικώδη τῶν προσφάτων ὀνείρων σπάσας φαντάσματα προσφέρει τῷ θεῷ λεληθυῖαν εὐχήν, 3.354. κἀπειδὴ τὸ ̓Ιουδαίων, ἔφη, φῦλον ὀκλάσαι δοκεῖ σοι τῷ κτίσαντι, μετέβη δὲ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους ἡ τύχη πᾶσα, καὶ τὴν ἐμὴν ψυχὴν ἐπελέξω τὰ μέλλοντα εἰπεῖν, δίδωμι μὲν ̔Ρωμαίοις τὰς χεῖρας ἑκὼν καὶ ζῶ, μαρτύρομαι δὲ ὡς οὐ προδότης, ἀλλὰ σὸς εἶμι διάκονος.”' '. None
3.352. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests: 3.353. and just then was he in an ecstasy; and setting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God, 3.354. and said, “Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewish nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and since thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretell what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live. And I protest openly that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.”' '. None
52. Lucan, Pharsalia, 4.478-4.479, 4.512-4.515, 4.519-4.520, 9.985-9.986 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Caesar, Julius, character in Lucan • Nero, as character in Matthew Gwinne’s Nero, Tragoedia Nova • Nero, as character in The Tragedy of Nero • Pharsalia, as a character • populus Romanus, as central character in the Pharsalia

 Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019) 99, 100; Joseph (2022) 184, 221, 255, 269

4.478. They lay, nor build the ship, but shapeless rafts of timbers knit together, strong to bear All ponderous weight; on empty casks beneath By tightened chains made firm, in double rows Supported; nor upon the deck were placed The oarsmen, to the hostile dart exposed, But in a hidden space, by beams concealed. And thus the eye amazed beheld the mass Move silent on its path across the sea, By neither sail nor stalwart arm propelled. 4.479. They lay, nor build the ship, but shapeless rafts of timbers knit together, strong to bear All ponderous weight; on empty casks beneath By tightened chains made firm, in double rows Supported; nor upon the deck were placed The oarsmen, to the hostile dart exposed, But in a hidden space, by beams concealed. And thus the eye amazed beheld the mass Move silent on its path across the sea, By neither sail nor stalwart arm propelled. ' "
4.512. Below o'ershadowing rocks. These hollowed out In ponderous masses overhung the main, And nodding seemed to fall: shadowed by trees Dark lay the waves beneath. Hither the tide Brings wreck and corpse, and, burying with the flow, Restores them with the ebb: and when the caves Belch forth the ocean, swirling billows fall In boisterous surges back, as boils the tide In that famed whirlpool on Sicilian shores. Here, with Venetian settlers for its load, " "4.520. Stood motionless the raft. Octavius' ships Gathered around, while foemen on the land Filled all the shore. But well the captain knew, Volteius, how the secret fraud was planned, And tried in vain with sword and steel to burst The bands that held them; without hope he fights, Uncertain where to avoid or front the foe. Caught in this strait they strove as brave men should Against opposing hosts; nor long the fight, For fallen darkness brought a truce to arms. " '
9.985. Thy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept. 9.986. Thy haunts, Salpuga? Yet the Stygian Maids Have given thee power to snap the fatal threads. Thus nor the day with brightness, nor the night With darkness gave them peace. The very earth On which they lay they feared; nor leaves nor straw They piled for couches, but upon the ground Unshielded from the fates they laid their limbs, Cherished beneath whose warmth in chill of night The frozen pests found shelter; in whose jaws Harmless the while, the lurking venom slept. ''. None
53. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.9, 14.2, 14.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God (Pauline), character (love) • education, character • paraenesis (moral exhortation), its Stoic character

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 154, 163; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 231; Malherbe et al (2014) 267

1.9. πιστὸς ὁ θεὸς διʼ οὗ ἐκλήθητε εἰς κοινωνίαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν.
14.2. ὁ γὰρ λαλῶν γλώσσῃ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις λαλεῖ ἀλλὰ θεῷ, οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἀκούει, πνεύματι δὲ λαλεῖ μυστήρια·

14.28. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ᾖ διερμηνευτής, σιγάτω ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ, ἑαυτῷ δὲ λαλείτω καὶ τῷ θεῷ.''. None
1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord.
14.2. For he who speaks in anotherlanguage speaks not to men, but to God; for no one understands; but inthe Spirit he speaks mysteries.

14.28. Butif there is no interpreter, let him keep silent in the assembly, andlet him speak to himself, and to God.''. None
54. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.3, 4.9-4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God (Pauline), character (love) • education, character

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 154, 164; Malherbe et al (2014) 201

2.3. ἡ γὰρ παράκλησις ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐκ πλάνης οὐδὲ ἐξ ἀκαθαρσίας οὐδὲ ἐν δόλῳ,
4.9. Περὶ δὲ τῆς φιλαδελφίας οὐ χρείαν ἔχετε γράφειν ὑμῖν, αὐτοὶ γὰρ ὑμεῖς θεοδίδακτοί ἐστε εἰς τὸ ἀγαπᾷν ἀλλήλους· 4.10. καὶ γὰρ ποιεῖτε αὐτὸ εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς τοὺς ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Μακεδονίᾳ. Παρακαλοῦμεν δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, περισσεύειν μᾶλλον,''. None
2.3. For our exhortation is not of error, nor of uncleanness, nor in deception.
4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another, 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; ''. None
55. New Testament, Galatians, 1.11-1.14, 3.29, 4.19, 5.17, 5.20-5.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allogenes, character • body, relationship to moral character • character • education, character • self, character • speech-in-character (prosōpopoeia) • values/character as identity marker, for Paul

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 99; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 158; Gruen (2020) 192, 198; Gunderson (2022) 9, 10; Lynskey (2021) 79; Malherbe et al (2014) 267; Mcglothlin (2018) 192

1.11. γνωρίζω γὰρ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τὸ εὐαγγελισθὲν ὑπʼ ἐμοῦ ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον· 1.12. οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐγὼ παρὰ ἀνθρώπου παρέλαβον αὐτό, οὔτε ἐδιδάχθην, ἀλλὰ διʼ ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 1.13. Ἠκούσατε γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀναστροφήν ποτε ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ, ὅτι καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ἐδίωκον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐπόρθουν αὐτήν, 1.14. καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων.
3.29. εἰ δὲ ὑμεῖς Χριστοῦ, ἄρα τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ σπέρμα ἐστέ, κατʼ ἐπαγγελίαν κληρονόμοι.
4.19. τεκνία μου, οὓς πάλιν ὠδίνω μέχρις οὗ μορφωθῇ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν·
5.17. ἡ γὰρ σὰρξ ἐπιθυμεῖ κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα κατὰ τῆς σαρκός, ταῦτα γὰρ ἀλλήλοις ἀντίκειται, ἵνα μὴ ἃ ἐὰν θέλητε ταῦτα ποιῆτε.
5.20. εἰδωλολατρία, φαρμακία, ἔχθραι, ἔρις, ζῆλος, θυμοί, ἐριθίαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσεις, 5.21. φθόνοι, μέθαι, κῶμοι, καὶ τὰ ὅμοια τούτοις, ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν καθὼς προεῖπον ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν. 5.22. ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη, χαρά, εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία, χρηστότης, ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις,''. None
1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. ' "1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. " "1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. " "
3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise." '
4.19. My little children, of whom I am again in travail untilChrist is formed in you--
5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire.
5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies, 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness, ''. None
56. New Testament, Philippians, 3.5, 3.11, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God (Pauline), character (love) • body, relationship to moral character • experience, its bodily character • self, character • values/character as identity marker, for Paul

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 158; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 142, 143, 150, 151, 152; Gruen (2020) 192; Mcglothlin (2018) 193

3.5. περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος, ἐκ γένους Ἰσραήλ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, Ἐβραῖος ἐξ Ἐβραίων, κατὰ νόμον Φαρισαῖος,
3.11. εἴ πως καταντήσω εἰς τὴν ἐξανάστασιν τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν. οὐχ ὅτι ἤδη ἔλαβον ἢ ἤδη τετελείωμαι,
3.13. ἓν δέ, τὰ μὲν ὀπίσω ἐπιλανθανόμενος τοῖς δὲ ἔμπροσθεν ἐπεκτεινόμενος,''. None
3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee;
3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. ' "
3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before, "'. None
57. New Testament, Romans, 2.1, 2.17-2.22, 2.25-2.29, 4.13, 7.5-7.6, 7.15, 7.19, 8.1-8.13, 8.28-8.29, 8.35, 8.39, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God (Pauline), character (love) • Mark, Anonymous characters • body, relationship to moral character • character • education, character • paraenesis (moral exhortation), its Stoic character • speech-in-character (prosōpopoeia) • values/character as identity marker, for Paul

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 154, 159, 164; Doble and Kloha (2014) 126; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 231; Gruen (2020) 192, 196, 199; Gunderson (2022) 9, 73, 88; Lynskey (2021) 254; Malherbe et al (2014) 267; Mcglothlin (2018) 192, 193

2.1. Διὸ ἀναπολόγητος εἶ, ὦ ἄνθρωπε πᾶς ὁ κρίνων· ἐν ᾧ γὰρ κρίνεις τὸν ἕτερον, σεαυτὸν κατακρίνεις, τὰ γὰρ αὐτὰ πράσσεις ὁ κρίνων·

2.17. Εἰ δὲ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ἐπονομάζῃ καὶ ἐπαναπαύῃ νόμῳ καὶ καυχᾶσαι ἐν θεῷ
2.18. καὶ γινώσκεις τὸ θέλημα καὶ δοκιμάζεις τὰ διαφέροντα κατηχούμενος ἐκ τοῦ νόμου,
2.19. πέποιθάς τε σεαυτὸν ὁδηγὸν εἶναι τυφλῶν, φῶς τῶν ἐν σκότει, 2.20. παιδευτὴν ἀφρόνων, διδάσκαλον νηπίων, ἔχοντα τὴν μόρφωσιν τῆς γνώσεως καὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἐν τῷ νόμῳ,— 2.21. ὁ οὖν διδάσκων ἕτερον σεαυτὸν οὐ διδάσκεις; ὁ κηρύσσων μὴ κλέπτειν κλέπτεις; 2.22. ὁ λέγων μὴ μοιχεύειν μοιχεύεις; ὁ βδελυσσόμενος τὰ εἴδωλα ἱεροσυλεῖς;
2.25. περιτομὴ μὲν γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἐὰν νόμον πράσσῃς· ἐὰν δὲ παραβάτης νόμου ᾖς, ἡ περιτομή σου ἀκροβυστία γέγονεν. 2.26. ἐὰν οὖν ἡ ἀκροβυστία τὰ δικαιώματα τοῦ νόμου φυλάσσῃ, οὐχ ἡ ἀκροβυστία αὐτοῦ εἰς περιτομὴν λογισθήσεται; 2.27. καὶ κρινεῖ ἡ ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβυστία τὸν νόμον τελοῦσα σὲ τὸν διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς παραβάτην νόμου. 2.28. οὐ γὰρ ὁ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ Ἰουδαῖός ἐστιν, οὐδὲ ἡ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ ἐν σαρκὶ περιτομή· 2.29. ἀλλʼ ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖος, καὶ περιτομὴ καρδίας ἐν πνεύματι οὐ γράμματι, οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀλλʼ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ.
4.13. Οὐ γὰρ διὰ νόμου ἡ ἐπαγγελία τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἢ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ, τὸ κληρονόμον αὐτὸν εἶναι κόσμου, ἀλλὰ διὰ δικαιοσύνης πίστεως·
7.5. ὅτε γὰρ ἦμεν ἐν τῇ σαρκί, τὰ παθήματα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν τὰ διὰ τοῦ νόμου ἐνηργεῖτο ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν ἡμῶν εἰς τὸ καρποφορῆσαι τῷ θανάτῳ· 7.6. νυνὶ δὲ κατηργήθημεν ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, ἀποθανόντες ἐν ᾧ κατειχόμεθα, ὥστε δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς ἐν καινότητι πνεύματος καὶ οὐ παλαιότητι γράμματος.
7.15. ὃ γὰρ κατεργάζομαι οὐ γινώσκω· οὐ γὰρ ὃ θέλω τοῦτο πράσσω, ἀλλʼ ὃ μισῶ τοῦτο ποιῶ.
7.19. οὐ γὰρ ὃ θέλω ποιῶ ἀγαθόν, ἀλλὰ ὃ οὐ θέλω κακὸν τοῦτο πράσσω.
8.1. Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· 8.2. ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου. 8.3. τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινε τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί, 8.4. ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα· 8.5. οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν, οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος. 8.6. τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη· 8.7. διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν, τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται· 8.8. οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται. 8.9. Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι. εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ.
8.10. εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην.
8.11. εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας ἐκ νεκρῶν Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ζωοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ὑμῖν.
8.12. Ἄρα οὖν, ἀδελφοί, ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν, οὐ τῇ σαρκὶ τοῦ κατὰ σάρκα ζῇν,
8.13. εἰ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ζῆτε μέλλετε ἀποθνήσκειν, εἰ δὲ πνεύματι τὰς πράξεις τοῦ σώματος θανατοῦτε ζήσεσθε.
8.28. οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσι τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ ὁ θεὸς εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν. 8.29. ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς·
8.35. τίς ἡμᾶς χωρίσει ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ χριστοῦ; θλίψις ἢ στενοχωρία ἢ διωγμὸς ἢ λιμὸς ἢ γυμνότης ἢ κίνδυνος ἢ μάχαιρα;
8.39. οὔτε ὕψωμα οὔτε βάθος οὔτε τις κτίσις ἑτέρα δυνήσεται ἡμᾶς χωρίσαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν.
2.1. Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν ζῶσαν ἁγίαν τῷ θεῷ εὐάρεστον, τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν ὑμῶν·' '. None
2.1. Therefore you are without excuse, O man, whoever you are who judge. For in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge practice the same things.

2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God,
2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law,
2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. ' "2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? " "2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? " '
2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. ' "2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? " "2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? " '2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. ' "
4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. " '
7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. ' "
7.15. For I don't know what I am doing. For I don't practice what I desire to do; but what I hate, that I do. " "
7.19. For the good which I desire, I don't do; but the evil which I don't desire, that I practice. " "
8.1. There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don't walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. " '8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. ' "8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; " '8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; ' "8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. " "8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. " "8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. " '
8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness.
8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you.
8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh.
8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.
8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.
8.35. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Could oppression, or anguish, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?
8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
2.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. ' '. None
58. New Testament, John, 10.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seth, character • character

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 394; Lynskey (2021) 79

10.30. ἐγὼ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἕν ἐσμεν.''. None
10.30. I and the Father are one."''. None
59. New Testament, Mark, 1.14-1.15, 4.13, 4.16-4.17, 8.33, 9.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allogenes, character • John the Baptist, ascetic character of • Mark, Anonymous characters • Seth, character

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 4; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 54, 99, 127; Doble and Kloha (2014) 116, 117, 124, 131, 133, 134

1.14. Καὶ μετὰ τὸ παραδοθῆναι τὸν Ἰωάνην ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ 1.15. καὶ λέγων ὅτι Πεπλήρωται ὁ καιρὸς καὶ ἤγγικεν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ· μετανοεῖτε καὶ πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ.
4.13. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Οὐκ οἴδατε τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην, καὶ πῶς πάσας τὰς παραβολὰς γνώσεσθε;
4.16. καὶ οὗτοί εἰσιν ὁμοίως οἱ ἐπὶ τὰ πετρώδη σπειρόμενοι, οἳ ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς μετὰ χαρᾶς λαμβάνουσιν αὐτόν, 4.17. καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν ῥίζαν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἀλλὰ πρόσκαιροί εἰσιν, εἶτα γενομένης θλίψεως ἢ διωγμοῦ διὰ τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς σκανδαλίζονται.
8.33. ὁ δὲ ἐπιστραφεὶς καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐπετίμησεν Πέτρῳ καὶ λέγει Ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου, Σατανᾶ, ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.
9.7. καὶ ἐγένετο νεφέλη ἐπισκιάζουσα αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐγένετο φωνὴ ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ.''. None
1.14. Now after John was taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God, 1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel."
4.13. He said to them, "Don\'t you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables?
4.16. These in like manner are those who are sown on the rocky places, who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with joy. 4.17. They have no root in themselves, but are short-lived. When oppression or persecution arises because of the word, immediately they stumble.
8.33. But he, turning around, and seeing his disciples, rebuked Peter, and said, "Get behind me, Satan! For you have in mind not the things of God, but the things of men."
9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him."''. None
60. New Testament, Matthew, 18.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God (Pauline), character (love) • education, character

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 158; Malherbe et al (2014) 267

18.10. Ὁρᾶτε μὴ καταφρονήσητε ἑνὸς τῶν μικρῶν τούτων, λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτῶν ἐν οὐρανοῖς διὰ παντὸς βλέπουσι τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς.''. None
18.10. See that you don't despise one of these little ones, for I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven. "". None
61. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • belief/s, as traits of character • character, fictional, human qualities of

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 62, 63; Bexley (2022) 290

5.7. But I wish to share with you to-day\'s profit also. I find in the writings of our2 Hecato that the limiting of desires helps also to cure fears: "Cease to hope," he says, "and you will cease to fear." "But how," you will reply, "can things so different go side by side?" In this way, my dear Lucilius: though they do seem at variance, yet they are really united. Just as the same chain fastens the prisoner and the soldier who guards him, so hope and fear, dissimilar as they are, keep step together; fear follows hope. ''. None
62. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5.1-5.5.2, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abraham, Biblical character • Jewish writings, oracular character of • Josephus, and oracular character of Jewish writings • Suetonius, on oracular character of Judean writings • Tacitus, on oracular character of Judean writings • values/character as identity marker, for Roman writers

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 105; Gruen (2020) 81, 86; Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 175

5.5.1. \xa0Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean." "5.5.2. \xa0Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean." '
5.13. \xa0Prodigies had indeed occurred, but to avert them either by victims or by vows is held unlawful by a people which, though prone to superstition, is opposed to all propitiatory rites. Contending hosts were seen meeting in the skies, arms flashed, and suddenly the temple was illumined with fire from the clouds. of a sudden the doors of the shrine opened and a superhuman voice cried: "The gods are departing": at the same moment the mighty stir of their going was heard. Few interpreted these omens as fearful; the majority firmly believed that their ancient priestly writings contained the prophecy that this was the very time when the East should grow strong and that men starting from Judea should possess the world. This mysterious prophecy had in reality pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, as is the way of human ambition, interpreted these great destinies in their own favour, and could not be turned to the truth even by adversity. We have heard that the total number of the besieged of every age and both sexes was six hundred thousand; there were arms for all who could use them, and the number ready to fight was larger than could have been anticipated from the total population. Both men and women showed the same determination; and if they were to be forced to change their home, they feared life more than death. Such was the city and people against which Titus Caesar now proceeded; since the nature of the ground did not allow him to assault or employ any sudden operations, he decided to use earthworks and mantlets; the legions were assigned to their several tasks, and there was a respite of fighting until they made ready every device for storming a town that the ancients had ever employed or modern ingenuity invented.'". None
63. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • belief/s, as traits of character • character, fictional, human qualities of

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 53; Bexley (2022) 249

64. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • belief/s, as traits of character • character, fictional, and metatheatre • character, fictional, as textual construct • character, fictional, human qualities of

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 64; Bexley (2022) 63, 67, 79

65. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abraham, Biblical character • values/character as identity marker, for Roman writers

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 81; Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 175

66. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God (Pauline), character (love) • body, relationship to moral character • education, character

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 154; Malherbe et al (2014) 267; Mcglothlin (2018) 193

67. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Holy Spirit, Character in Luke-Acts • Homer, Odysseus, figure, character

 Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 567; Toloni (2022) 45

68. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 3.48, 3.51-3.52, 4.4, 7.85-7.87, 7.111 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristippus of Cyrene, life and character • Callicles (Platonic character) • Character, of Platonic dialogues • Chrysippus, on traits of character • Cicero, on traits of character • Literary/literature, characters • Music, Affects character of soul • Polus (Platonic character) • Posidonius, Stoic, Diet affects characters • Posidonius, Stoic, Music as training irrational character • Socrates (Platonic character) • Thrasymachus (Platonic character) • belief/s, as traits of character • beliefs,as traits of character • character • character, dispositions toward emotion • character, excellence of • drunkenness, as character trait • emotions, and character traits

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 73; Erler et al (2021) 241; Graver (2007) 39, 141, 244, 245; Jedan (2009) 60, 61; Joosse (2021) 201; Long (2006) 30, 112; Motta and Petrucci (2022) 39, 42; Sorabji (2000) 97; Wolfsdorf (2020) 390

3.48. They say that Zeno the Eleatic was the first to write dialogues. But, according to Favorinus in his Memorabilia, Aristotle in the first book of his dialogue On Poets asserts that it was Alexamenus of Styra or Teos. In my opinion Plato, who brought this form of writing to perfection, ought to be adjudged the prize for its invention as well as for its embellishment. A dialogue is a discourse consisting of question and answer on some philosophical or political subject, with due regard to the characters of the persons introduced and the choice of diction. Dialectic is the art of discourse by which we either refute or establish some proposition by means of question and answer on the part of the interlocutors.
3.51. the Laws, Minos, Epinomis, and the dialogue concerning Atlantis. To the class of mental obstetrics belong the two Alcibiades, Theages, Lysis and Laches, while the Euthyphro, Meno, Io, Charmides and Theaetetus illustrate the tentative method. In the Protagoras is seen the method of critical objections; in the Euthydemus, Gorgias, and the two dialogues entitled Hippias that of subversive argument. So much then for dialogue, its definition and varieties.Again, as there is great division of opinion between those who affirm and those who deny that Plato was a dogmatist, let me proceed to deal with this further question. To be a dogmatist in philosophy is to lay down positive dogmas, just as to be a legislator is to lay down laws. Further, under dogma two things are included, the thing opined and the opinion itself.' "3.52. of these the former is a proposition, the latter a conception. Now where he has a firm grasp Plato expounds his own view and refutes the false one, but, if the subject is obscure, he suspends judgement. His own views are expounded by four persons, Socrates, Timaeus, the Athenian Stranger, the Eleatic Stranger. These strangers are not, as some hold, Plato and Parmenides, but imaginary characters without names, for, even when Socrates and Timaeus are the speakers, it is Plato's doctrines that are laid down. To illustrate the refutation of false opinions, he introduces Thrasymachus, Callicles, Polus, Gorgias, Protagoras, or again Hippias, Euthydemus and the like." '
4.4. Plutarch in the Lives of Lysander and Sulla makes his malady to have been morbus pedicularis. That his body wasted away is affirmed by Timotheus in his book On Lives. Speusippus, he says, meeting a rich man who was in love with one who was no beauty, said to him, Why, pray, are you in such sore need of him? For ten talents I will find you a more handsome bride.He has left behind a vast store of memoirs and numerous dialogues, among them:Aristippus the Cyrenaic.On Wealth, one book.On Pleasure, one book.On Justice,On Philosophy,On Friendship,On the Gods,The Philosopher,A Reply to Cephalus,Cephalus,Clinomachus or Lysias,The Citizen,of the Soul,A Reply to Gryllus,' "
7.85. An animal's first impulse, say the Stoics, is to self-preservation, because nature from the outset endears it to itself, as Chrysippus affirms in the first book of his work On Ends: his words are, The dearest thing to every animal is its own constitution and its consciousness thereof; for it was not likely that nature should estrange the living thing from itself or that she should leave the creature she has made without either estrangement from or affection for its own constitution. We are forced then to conclude that nature in constituting the animal made it near and dear to itself; for so it comes to repel all that is injurious and give free access to all that is serviceable or akin to it." "7.86. As for the assertion made by some people that pleasure is the object to which the first impulse of animals is directed, it is shown by the Stoics to be false. For pleasure, if it is really felt, they declare to be a by-product, which never comes until nature by itself has sought and found the means suitable to the animal's existence or constitution; it is an aftermath comparable to the condition of animals thriving and plants in full bloom. And nature, they say, made no difference originally between plants and animals, for she regulates the life of plants too, in their case without impulse and sensation, just as also certain processes go on of a vegetative kind in us. But when in the case of animals impulse has been superadded, whereby they are enabled to go in quest of their proper aliment, for them, say the Stoics, Nature's rule is to follow the direction of impulse. But when reason by way of a more perfect leadership has been bestowed on the beings we call rational, for them life according to reason rightly becomes the natural life. For reason supervenes to shape impulse scientifically." '7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe.' "
7.111. They hold the emotions to be judgements, as is stated by Chrysippus in his treatise On the Passions: avarice being a supposition that money is a good, while the case is similar with drunkenness and profligacy and all the other emotions.And grief or pain they hold to be an irrational mental contraction. Its species are pity, envy, jealousy, rivalry, heaviness, annoyance, distress, anguish, distraction. Pity is grief felt at undeserved suffering; envy, grief at others' prosperity; jealousy, grief at the possession by another of that which one desires for oneself; rivalry, pain at the possession by another of what one has oneself."'. None
69. Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 15.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Character, of Porphyry’s Isagoge • Socrates (Platonic character)

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 204; Motta and Petrucci (2022) 76

15.6. Once on Plato's feast I read a poem, 'The Sacred Marriage'; my piece abounded in mystic doctrine conveyed in veiled words and was couched in terms of enthusiasm; someone exclaimed: 'Porphyry has gone mad'; Plotinus said to me so that all might hear: 'You have shown yourself at once poet, philosopher and hierophant.' The orator Diophanes one day read a justification of the Alcibiades of Plato's Banquet and maintained that the pupil, for the sake of advancement in virtue, should submit to the teacher without reserve, even to the extent of carnal commerce: Plotinus started up several times to leave the room but forced himself to remain; on the breaking up of the company he directed me to write a refutation. Diophanes refused to lend me his address and I had to depend on my recollection of his argument; but my refutation, delivered before the same audience, delighted Plotinus so much that during the very reading he repeatedly quoted: 'So strike and be a light to men.' When Eubulus, the Platonic Successor, wrote from Athens, sending treatises on some questions in Platonism. Plotinus had the writings put into my hands with instructions to examine them and report to him upon them. He paid some attention to the principles of Astronomy though he did not study the subject very deeply on the mathematical side. He went more searchingly into Horoscopy; when once he was convinced that its results were not to be trusted he had no hesitation in attacking the system frequently both at the Conferences and in his writings. "". None
70. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gymnastics, Gymnastics and exercise affect character • Lucius (character in Apuleius, Metamorphoses) • Plato, Visual arts affect character

 Found in books: Renberg (2017) 561; Sorabji (2000) 271

71. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lampridius, character

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 125; Hitch (2017) 125

72. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lampridius, character

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 116, 125; Hitch (2017) 116, 125

73. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Parmenides (Platonic character) • Socrates (Platonic character) • Zeno (Platonic character) • distinctive character(istic) (idiotês, ἰδιότης‎)

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 210; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 59

74. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alcibiades (Platonic character) • Callicles (Platonic character) • Character (difference in) • Literary/literature, characters • Polus (Platonic character) • Socrates (Platonic character) • Thrasymachus (Platonic character) • character,

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 237, 240; Joosse (2021) 101, 108; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 93

75. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alcibiades (Platonic character) • Callicles (Platonic character) • Chaerephon (Platonic character) • Gorgias (Platonic character) • Literary/literature, characters • Polus (Platonic character) • Socrates (Platonic character) • Thrasymachus (Platonic character)

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 239, 240; Joosse (2021) 199

76. Aeschines, Or., 3.171
 Tagged with subjects: • Character construction • comedy, characters of

 Found in books: Martin (2009) 68; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 345

3.171. His father was Demosthenes of Paeania, a free man, for there is no need of lying. But how the case stands as to his inheritance from his mother and his maternal grandfather, I will tell you. There was a certain Gylon of Cerameis. This man betrayed Nymphaeum in the Pontus to the enemy, for the place at that time belonged to our city. He was impeached and became an exile from the city, not awaiting trial. He came to Bosporus and there received as a present from the tyrants of the land a place called “the Gardens.”''. None
77. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 131-139
 Tagged with subjects: • Abraham, Biblical character • Judith, complex character • values/character as identity marker, for Paul

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 369; Gruen (2020) 197; Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 175

131. the means of escaping from ignorance and amending their lives. Our Lawgiver first of all laid down the principles of piety and righteousness and inculcated them point by point, not merely by prohibitions but by the use of examples as well, demonstrating the injurious effects of sin and the'132. punishments inflicted by God upon the guilty. For he proved first of all that there is only one God and that his power is manifested throughout the universe, since every place is filled with his sovereignty and none of the things which are wrought in secret by men upon the earth escapes His knowledge. For all that a man does and all that is to come to pass in the future are manifest to 133. Him. Working out these truths carefully and having made them plain he showed that even if a man should think of doing evil - to say nothing of actually effecting it - 134. he would not escape detection, for he made it clear that the power of God pervaded the whole of the law. 135. Beginning from this starting point he went on to show that all mankind except ourselves believe in the existence of many gods, though they themselves are much more powerful than the beings whom they vainly worship. For when they have made statues of stone and wood, they say that they are the images of those who have invented something useful for life and they worship them, though 136. they have clear proof that they possess no feeling. For it would be utterly foolish to suppose that any one became a god in virtue of his inventions. For the inventors simply took certain objects already created and by combining them together, showed that they possessed a fresh utility: they 137. did not themselves create the substance of the thing, and so it is a vain and foolish thing for people to make gods of men like themselves. For in our times there are many who are much more inventive and much more learned than the men of former days who have been deified, and yet they would never come to worship them. The makers and authors of these myths think that they are' "138. the wisest of the Greeks. Why need we speak of other infatuated people, Egyptians and the like, who place their reliance upon wild beasts and most kinds of creeping things and cattle, and worship them, and offer sacrifices to them both while living and when dead?'" "139. 'Now our Lawgiver being a wise man and specially endowed by God to understand all things, took a comprehensive view of each particular detail, and fenced us round with impregnable ramparts and walls of iron, that we might not mingle at all with any of the other nations, but remain pure in body and soul, free from all vain imaginations, worshiping the one Almighty God above the whole" ''. None
78. Demosthenes, Orations, 21.91-21.92
 Tagged with subjects: • comedy, characters of • denigration, of character

 Found in books: Martin (2009) 34; Riess (2012) 110

21.91. But now that he has disfranchised the man he wanted to, and you have indulged him in this; now that he has sated that shameless temper that prompted him to this course, has he finished the business? Has he paid the fine, to escape which he ruined the poor fellow? Not a brass farthing of it to this day! He submits rather to be the defendant in an action for ejectment. So the one man is disfranchised and ruined on a side issue; the other is unscathed and is playing havoc with the laws, the arbitrators, and everything else that he pleases. 21.92. Moreover, he has secured the validity of the award against the arbitrator, which he maneuvered to get without serving a summons, while the suit which he lost to me, wittingly and after due summons, this he renders invalid. Yet if such is the vengeance that he claims from arbitrators who have given judgement against him by default, what vengeance ought you to wreak on a man who openly and wantonly transgresses your laws? For if disfranchisement and loss of all legal and civil rights is a fitting punishment for that other offence, death seems an inadequate one for this reckless outrage. ''. None
79. Strabo, Geography, 5.2.2
 Tagged with subjects: • Egyptians, character of • Marcus (character of Div.) • Quintus (character of Div.) • Rome/Romans, conglomerate character of

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 76; Santangelo (2013) 70; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 347

5.2.2. The Tyrrheni have now received from the Romans the surname of Etrusci and Tusci. The Greeks thus named them from Tyrrhenus the son of Atys, as they say, who sent hither a colony from Lydia. Atys, who was one of the descendants of Hercules and Omphale, and had two sons, in a time of famine and scarcity determined by lot that Lydus should remain in the country, but that Tyrrhenus, with the greater part of the people, should depart. Arriving here, he named the country after himself, Tyrrhenia, and founded twelve cities, having appointed as their governor Tarcon, from whom the city of Tarquinia received its name, and who, on account of the sagacity which he had displayed from childhood, was feigned to have been born with hoary hair. Placed originally under one authority, they became flourishing; but it seems that in after-times, their confederation being broken up and each city separated, they yielded to the violence of the neighbouring tribes. Otherwise they would never have abandoned a fertile country for a life of piracy on the sea. roving from one ocean to another; since, when united they were able not only to repel those who assailed them, but to act on the offensive, and undertake long campaigns. After the foundation of Rome, Demaratus arrived here, bringing with him people from Corinth. He was received at Tarquinia, where he had a son, named Lucumo, by a woman of that country. Lucumo becoming the friend of Ancus Marcius, king of the Romans, succeeded him on the throne, and assumed the name of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. Both he and his father did much for the embellishment of Tyrrhenia, the one by means of the numerous artists who had followed him from their native country; the other having the resources of Rome. It is said that the triumphal costume of the consuls, as well as that of the other magistrates, was introduced from the Tarquinii, with the fasces, axes, trumpets, sacrifices, divination, and music employed by the Romans in their public ceremonies. His son, the second Tarquin, named Superbus, who was driven from his throne, was the last king of Rome . Porsena, king of Clusium, a city of Tyrrhenia, endeavoured to replace him on the throne by force of arms, but not being able he made peace with the Romans, and departed in a friendly way, with honour and loaded with gifts.''. None
80. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.1, 1.8, 5.134-5.135, 6.852, 8.38, 9.427-9.429
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, as character in Broch’s Der Tod des Vergil • Augustus, as character in Jonson’s Poetaster • Broch, Hermann, Augustus as character in • Broch, Hermann, Plotia Hieria as character in • Giton, mime character, as • Horace, as character in Jonson’s Poetaster • Mnemosyne (mythical character) • Roma, as a character • body, and character • characters, tragic/mythical, Diomedes • characters, tragic/mythical, Dolon • characters, tragic/mythical, Muse • characters, tragic/mythical, Rhesus • intertextuality, characters, division and multiplication of • intertextuality, multiplication of Homeric characters • livy, epic character • populus Romanus, as central character in the Pharsalia

 Found in books: Farrell (2021) 241, 272; Galinsky (2016) 19; Goldschmidt (2019) 67, 166, 177, 178; Hickson (1993) 18; Joseph (2022) 42, 45, 50; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 87; Oksanish (2019) 175, 176; Pinheiro et al (2012a) 227

1.1. Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
1.8. Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
5.134. cetera populea velatur fronde iuventus, 5.135. nudatosque umeros oleo perfilsa nitescit.
6.852. hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem,
8.38. exspectate solo Laurenti arvisque Latinis,
9.427. Me me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite ferrum, 9.428. O Rutuli, mea fraus omnis; nihil iste nec ausus 9.429. nec potuit, caelum hoc et conscia sidera testor,''. None
1.1. Arms and the man I sing, who first made way, ' "
1.8. the city, and bring o'er his fathers' gods " '
5.134. the wonted way, two swine, and, sable-hued, 5.135. the yoke of bulls; from shallow bowl he poured
6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land
8.38. of a cold sky Aeneas laid him down
9.427. young men and old, ran with them to the gates, 9.428. praying all gods to bless. Iulus then, 9.429. a fair youth, but of grave, heroic soul ''. None
81. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Alcibiades (Platonic character) • Character, of Platonic dialogues • Literary/literature, characters • Socrates (Platonic character) • Thrasymachus (Platonic character) • character,

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 227, 228, 238; Joosse (2021) 50; Motta and Petrucci (2022) 111; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 93, 96

82. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • character, excellence of • theon (character in Plutarch’s Non Posse)

 Found in books: Gordon (2012) 90; Long (2006) 30

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