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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

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subject book bibliographic info
calendar Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34
Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 122, 123, 127, 128, 130, 131
Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 143, 144, 149, 153
Benefiel and Keegan (2016), Inscriptions in the Private Sphere in the Greco-Roman World, 27, 201, 271
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 337, 438, 446, 459
Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 64, 72, 73, 101, 108, 170
Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 59
Clackson et al. (2020), Migration, Mobility and Language Contact in and around the Ancient Mediterranean, 14, 249, 252, 256, 259
Clark (2007), Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome, 14, 165, 225
Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 257, 258, 261, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268
Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 59
Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 1, 10, 15, 18, 32, 33, 36, 42, 50, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 67, 75, 76, 81, 84, 96, 108, 109, 120, 126, 133, 198, 202, 203, 211, 212, 232
Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 261, 337
Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 93, 102, 151, 184, 345, 375
Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 40, 50, 168, 170
Greensmith (2021), The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation, 71
Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 347
Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 34, 35, 58, 118, 125, 126, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 300
Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 41, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74
Klein and Wienand (2022), City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity, 53, 173, 174, 191, 264
Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 253
Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 109, 111, 114, 117, 119, 281
Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 311, 384, 386, 387, 388, 389, 396, 403
Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 136
Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 9, 47, 311, 312, 319, 325, 576
Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 13, 14, 24, 51, 55, 62, 69, 110, 111, 166
Rupke (2016), Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality?, 107, 108
Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 375, 376, 388, 389
Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 177, 203
Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 4, 188, 342
Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 177, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 195, 200, 201, 203, 257, 258
Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 265, 268
Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 7, 84, 138, 151, 229
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 25, 28, 150, 221, 360
Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 132
Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 17, 39, 57, 194, 197, 200, 201, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 216, 218
Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 139, 142, 143, 144, 145, 179
calendar, adaptation Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 267
calendar, additions to Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 54, 65, 135, 163, 213, 301, 313, 328, 341
calendar, agricultural Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91
calendar, and aetiology Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 84
calendar, and annalistic historiography Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 91
calendar, and anniversary Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 84, 85
calendar, and augustus Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 84, 88, 90
calendar, and chronology Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 57, 58, 59
calendar, and consular date Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 79, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102
calendar, and cyclicality Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 86
calendar, and destruction Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 200
calendar, and fasti capitolini Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 90
calendar, and festivals Konrad (2022), The Challenge to the Auspices: Studies on Magisterial Power in the Middle Roman Republic, 191, 192
calendar, and political events Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 97, 98, 99
calendar, and presence Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 94, 95, 96, 97
calendar, and reperformance Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 84, 85
calendar, and roman holiday Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 84, 86, 95, 97
calendar, and wine Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 236
calendar, and wine label Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 89
calendar, and wine storage Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 90, 91
calendar, assembly Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 15, 16, 17, 64
calendar, athenian state Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 67, 124, 125
calendar, attic demes Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 67, 68, 124, 125
calendar, augustan, calendar, Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 53, 122, 194, 232
calendar, augustus, julian Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 201, 202
calendar, bithynia, roman province Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 313
calendar, boethusians Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 203
calendar, brontoscopic Santangelo (2013), Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond, 100, 101, 102, 105
calendar, burial Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 549, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 582, 583, 584, 585, 647, 659, 753, 808, 1119
calendar, caesar, julius, his Joseph (2022), Thunder and Lament: Lucan on the Beginnings and Ends of Epic, 134
calendar, caesar’s reform, '45 bce Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 63, 122, 123
calendar, calendrical issues Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 101, 141, 224, 264
calendar, canon, scripture as Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 275, 276, 277, 278, 326
calendar, coan Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 92
calendar, commemorative Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 69
calendar, conflict, halakhah, priestly Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 258
calendar, court authority, rabbinic, yavne Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 185, 186, 259
calendar, court gamliel, r., yavne Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 184
calendar, court, jerusalem Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 181, 203
calendar, court, yavne Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 177, 180, 184, 185, 186, 257
calendar, court, yavne, divine mandate Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 187
calendar, court, yavne, procedures Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 185, 186
calendar, court, yavne, r. joshua vs. r. gamliel Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192
calendar, court, yavne, witnesses Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188
calendar, court, yavne, yom kippur date Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192
calendar, cultic Altmann (2019), Banned Birds: the Birds of Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14, 36
calendar, easter, liturgy, liturgical Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 43, 44
calendar, egypt Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 199
calendar, egyptian Benefiel and Keegan (2016), Inscriptions in the Private Sphere in the Greco-Roman World, 201
calendar, ellipsis, in coan Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 92
calendar, ephesos Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 313
calendar, erchia, sacrificial Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 129, 142, 145, 255
calendar, extracts Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 69, 70, 93, 94, 272
calendar, extracts, rhodes Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 69, 70, 272
calendar, festival Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 68, 69, 354
calendar, festivals in thorikos Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 75
calendar, festivals—see also Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 161, 162, 200, 232, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 298, 304, 305, 527, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 546
calendar, from coligny, calendars, gaulish Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 121
calendar, from deme, eleusis, sacrificial Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 151
calendar, from deme, erchia, sacrificial Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 30, 133, 134, 141, 143, 147, 148, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 161, 162, 163, 166, 167, 223, 224, 239, 240, 241, 313, 319, 320, 321, 322, 324
calendar, from deme, marathon, sacrificial Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 138, 147, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 159, 161, 162, 166, 167, 238, 239, 281, 319
calendar, from deme, teithras, sacrificial Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 151
calendar, from deme, thorikos, deme, sacrificial Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 30, 131, 134, 138, 144, 147, 234, 319
calendar, from larissa, calendars, sacred Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 70, 75
calendar, from, miletupolis, a Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 484, 485
calendar, gymnasium Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 69
calendar, hadrian, emperor, revision of festival Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 111
calendar, in 1 enoch Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 104
calendar, in 1 enoch, at qumran Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 104, 105
calendar, in 1 enoch, in rabbinic literature Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 200, 201, 236, 237
calendar, informative vs. uninformative Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 66, 68
calendar, intercalation Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 31, 33, 46, 47, 148, 583
calendar, jerusalem Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 181, 203
calendar, julian Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 118, 120
Santangelo (2013), Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond, 111, 122
calendar, lists of magistrates and Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 15, 17, 19, 101, 106
calendar, liturgical MacDougall (2022), Philosophy at the Festival: The Festal Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus and the Classical Tradition. 2, 12
calendar, liturgy, liturgical Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 22, 23, 24, 47, 56, 75, 100
calendar, lunar, solar Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 24, 34, 40, 45, 47, 49, 56, 266, 274, 293, 308, 352, 505, 523, 527, 605
calendar, magistrates and Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 19, 36, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 72, 148, 149
calendar, mykonos, sacrificial Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 220, 237, 253, 259, 316, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324
calendar, mythology in thorikos Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 71, 72
calendar, nan, and Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 84, 88, 90
calendar, nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 72, 80, 81, 82, 85
calendar, nilsson, martin on greek Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 152
calendar, of caesar, c. julius Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 77
calendar, of carthage Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 85
calendar, of cos Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 66, 67
calendar, of erchia Versnel (2011), Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology, 70
calendar, of jerusalem, liturgy, liturgical Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 5, 14, 47, 100, 104, 105, 106
calendar, of romulus Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 117, 118, 119, 121
calendar, of saints Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 184
calendar, of saints, saints Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 84, 106
calendar, of salaminioi, genos, sacrificial Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 169, 170
calendar, of sals, festival Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 39
calendar, of solon Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 15, 106, 109, 121, 128, 144, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 176, 191, 192, 232, 240
calendar, olympic Rohmann (2016), Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity, 46
calendar, paschal Tabbernee (2007), Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism, 72, 368
calendar, pharisees Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 203
calendar, plaques, cult of ištar, in judean Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 50
calendar, plaques, judean Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 3, 50, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 63
calendar, presence, and Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 94, 95, 96, 97
calendar, priests Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 181
calendar, promulgation Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 27, 28, 114, 117, 118
calendar, publication, of Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 67, 68, 80
calendar, reform Rupke (2016), Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality?, 108
calendar, relics, liturgy, liturgical Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 31
calendar, religious Ruffini (2018), Life in an Egyptian Village in Late Antiquity: Aphrodito Before and After the Islamic Conquest, 124
calendar, ritual Heymans (2021), The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World, 187
calendar, ritual, ritual Ando and Ruepke (2006), Religion and Law in Classical and Christian Rome, 39, 119
calendar, roman, fasti Bierl (2017), Time and Space in Ancient Myth, Religion and Culture, 299, 303, 305, 309, 325
calendar, sabbath of sabbaths, and the pentecontad Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 270, 271
calendar, sacrificial Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 65, 68, 124
calendar, sadducees Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 258
calendar, sals, festival of athena at Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 147, 149
calendar, sals, festival of hathor-neith in Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 148, 149, 170, 184, 219, 265
calendar, sals, festival of osiris in Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 147
calendar, samos Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 292
calendar, sectarians Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 203, 205, 258
calendar, setting Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 190, 257
calendar, solar Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 17, 286, 311, 386, 387, 388, 389, 396, 419
calendar, solar, montanist Tabbernee (2007), Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism, 50, 277, 294, 367, 368, 369
calendar, split Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 258
calendar, stational, liturgy, liturgical Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 4, 128
calendar, system, maccabees, books Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1136, 1137, 1138
calendar, teithras, sacrificial Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 118
calendar, threats Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 188, 203, 209
calendar, time, julian Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 199, 201, 202
calendar, tosefta, samaritan Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 203
calendar, war, in Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 62
calendar, wine label, and Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 89
calendar, wine storage, and Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 90, 91
calendar, wine, and Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 236
calendar, writing Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 355, 553
calendar, year, liturgy, liturgical Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 23, 24, 114, 115
calendar/calendrical, issues Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 560
calendars Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 92, 407, 408
Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 157, 159, 160, 161, 175, 322, 323, 331, 403, 417, 418, 419, 424
Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 90, 91, 113, 237, 246, 340
Hallmannsecker (2022), Roman Ionia: Constructions of Cultural Identity in Western Asia Minor, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150
Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 132
Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 199, 201, 202
Walter (2020), Time in Ancient Stories of Origin, 175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182
Williamson (2021), Urban Rituals in Sacred Landscapes in Hellenistic Asia Minor, 19, 181, 207, 209, 225, 230, 292, 334, 335, 365, 366
calendars, abbreviations, in Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 19, 26, 50, 52, 53, 56, 65, 67, 92, 103, 104, 126, 127
calendars, and festivals, cultic ritual practice Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 544, 546, 547
calendars, and, festivals, sacrificial Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 68
calendars, and, synoecism Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 67
calendars, astronomical, calendar, Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 112, 118
calendars, boedromion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 65, 66, 93, 97, 99, 101, 103, 104, 105
calendars, book, calendars, Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 93, 94, 144
calendars, bronze Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 93, 144
calendars, christian Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172
calendars, copies of Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 21, 53, 100
calendars, cult Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 152
calendars, cultic ritual practice, sacrificial and festal Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 544, 546, 547
calendars, decree of the koinon of asia Hallmannsecker (2022), Roman Ionia: Constructions of Cultural Identity in Western Asia Minor, 146, 147, 148, 149
calendars, demes, religion of Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 65, 66
calendars, etruscan Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 12, 30, 34, 43
calendars, fasti Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 102, 103, 196, 403, 409, 507, 508
calendars, fasti sacres, months Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 5
calendars, fasti sacres, months, amorgian Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 207, 213
calendars, fasti sacres, months, athenian Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 169, 170, 183
calendars, fasti sacres, months, boiotian Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 153, 154
calendars, fasti sacres, months, thessalian Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 14, 15, 16
calendars, fasti, etruscan Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 706
calendars, fasti, rural Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 675
calendars, federal Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 237
calendars, french, revolutionary Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 114, 115
calendars, greek Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 12, 17, 33, 36, 42, 43, 53, 68, 76, 84, 111, 121, 144, 154, 162
calendars, gregorian Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 43, 114, 154, 157
calendars, hekatombaion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 174, 288
calendars, imperial cult and Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 51
calendars, inscriptions, sacrificial Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 544, 546, 547
calendars, italian Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 12, 19
calendars, jewish Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 24, 33, 79, 109, 121, 155, 166, 172
calendars, karneios Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 259, 260, 261, 266, 273, 274
calendars, kos, sacrificial Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 131, 135, 319, 320, 321, 322
calendars, kyanopsion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 284, 290, 291, 292
calendars, liturgical Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 96, 232
calendars, local, roman influence on Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 162, 163
calendars, lunar Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 71
Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 33, 40, 42, 43
calendars, lunisolar Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 12, 24, 36, 40, 43, 83, 121, 155, 157
calendars, maimakterion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 291
calendars, marble Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 12, 15, 108, 126, 142, 143, 144, 145
calendars, metageitnion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 65, 174
calendars, mounychion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 75
calendars, of martyrs Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 79
calendars, of roman festivals Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 53
calendars, parentalia Walter (2020), Time in Ancient Stories of Origin, 168, 169, 179
calendars, parilia Walter (2020), Time in Ancient Stories of Origin, 176, 182, 183, 184, 185
calendars, plynterion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 284, 287, 292
calendars, pyanopsion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 174, 290
calendars, sacred Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 15, 16, 17, 21, 22, 53, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 254, 255, 269, 287, 288
calendars, sacred, of erchia Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 61, 100, 235
calendars, sacred, of marathon tetrapolis Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 60, 61, 100, 235
calendars, sacred, of nicomachus Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 106, 109, 144, 167, 168, 173, 176, 191, 192, 199, 218, 232, 235, 240
calendars, sacred, of salaminioi Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 121
calendars, sacrificial Dignas (2002), Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor, 248
Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 131, 147, 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 192, 222
Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 158, 159
calendars, solar Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 71, 72, 173, 177
Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 43, 157
calendars, stone Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 12, 20, 21, 145
calendars, thargeleion Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 75, 287
calendars, time Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 544, 546, 547
calendars, uniformity of Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 38, 39, 407, 408
calendars, wall Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 96, 98, 144
calendars, wall-painting Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 101, 108, 109, 121
calendars, wooden Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 144, 145

List of validated texts:
61 validated results for "calendar"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.17, 10.21, 16.13, 16.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Judean Calendar Plaques • calendar • calendar,

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 459; Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 58; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 319; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 14

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10.17 כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים הָאֵל הַגָּדֹל הַגִּבֹּר וְהַנּוֹרָא אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשָּׂא פָנִים וְלֹא יִקַּח שֹׁחַד׃
10.21
הוּא תְהִלָּתְךָ וְהוּא אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אִתְּךָ אֶת־הַגְּדֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַנּוֹרָאֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ׃
16.13
חַג הַסֻּכֹּת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בְּאָסְפְּךָ מִגָּרְנְךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ׃
16.15
שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תָּחֹג לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה כִּי יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל תְּבוּאָתְךָ וּבְכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ שָׂמֵחַ׃'' None
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10.17 For the LORD your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the awful, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward.
10.21
He is thy glory, and He is thy God, that hath done for thee these great and tremendous things, which thine eyes have seen.
16.13
Thou shalt keep the feast of tabernacles seven days, after that thou hast gathered in from thy threshing-floor and from thy winepress.
16.15
Seven days shalt thou keep a feast unto the LORD thy God in the place which the LORD shall choose; because the LORD thy God shall bless thee in all thine increase, and in all the work of thy hands, and thou shalt be altogether joyful.'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendars • calendar

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 403; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 60, 67, 68

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2.12 וּבְהַגִּיעַ תֹּר נַעֲרָה וְנַעֲרָה לָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ מִקֵּץ הֱיוֹת לָהּ כְּדָת הַנָּשִׁים שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ כִּי כֵּן יִמְלְאוּ יְמֵי מְרוּקֵיהֶן שִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמֹּר וְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים בַּבְּשָׂמִים וּבְתַמְרוּקֵי הַנָּשִׁים׃'' None
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2.12 Now when the turn of every maiden was come to go in to king Ahasuerus, after that it had been done to her according to the law for the women, twelve months—for so were the days of their anointing accomplished, to wit, six months with oil of myrrh, and six month with sweet odours, and with other ointments of the women —'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.2, 23.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar (lunar, solar) • Calendar, intercalation • Judean Calendar Plaques • calendar • liturgical calendar

 Found in books: Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 122; Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 56, 57, 58; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 55, 62; Neusner (2004), The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism, 292; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 216; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 143

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12.2 הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃
12.2
כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃
23.12
שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂיךָ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרֶךָ וְיִנָּפֵשׁ בֶּן־אֲמָתְךָ וְהַגֵּר׃' ' None
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12.2 ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.
23.12
Six days thou shalt do thy work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest; that thine ox and thine ass may have rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.' ' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.27, 6.1, 7.6-8.14, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • Judean Calendar Plaques • calendar • calendar, calendrical issues • calendars, solar

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 337, 459; Bowen and Rochberg (2020), Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts, 533; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 256, 258; Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 56; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 384; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 224; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 47

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1.14 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃
1.15
וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.16
וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃
1.27
וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
6.1
וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃
6.1
וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃14.18 וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃
14.19
וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃' '' None
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1.14 And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;
1.15
and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so.
1.16
And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars.
1.27
And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
6.1
And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,'
14.18
And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High.
14.19
And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth;
14.20
and blessed be God the Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.’ And he gave him a tenth of all. ' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.2, 23.4, 23.11, 23.15, 23.19, 23.38, 23.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Babylonia, and calendar • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Dead Sea Scrolls, and calendar • Festivals—see also Calendar • Hananiah, and calendar • Judean Calendar Plaques • Palestine, and calendar • Sadducees, calendar used by • calendar • calendar in 1 Enoch, in rabbinic literature • calendar, • calendar, intercalation of • calendar, variations in • liturgical calendar • numerology, and calendar year • solar (calendar)

 Found in books: Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 149; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 161, 162, 263, 264, 277; Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 58, 61, 63; Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 200, 201; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 69, 70, 71; Neusner (2004), The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism, 292, 293; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 311; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 24; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 55, 110; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 18; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 216

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23.2 דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְאוּ אֹתָם מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ אֵלֶּה הֵם מוֹעֲדָי׃
23.2
וְהֵנִיף הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם עַל לֶחֶם הַבִּכּוּרִים תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיוּ לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן׃
23.4
אֵלֶּה מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְאוּ אֹתָם בְּמוֹעֲדָם׃
23.4
וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים וַעֲנַף עֵץ־עָבֹת וְעַרְבֵי־נָחַל וּשְׂמַחְתֶּם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃
23.11
וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הָעֹמֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת יְנִיפֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן׃
23.15
וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת מִיּוֹם הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה׃
23.38
מִלְּבַד שַׁבְּתֹת יְּהוָה וּמִלְּבַד מַתְּנוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְרֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּתְּנוּ לַיהוָה׃' ' None
sup>
23.2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: The appointed seasons of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are My appointed seasons.
23.4
These are the appointed seasons of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their appointed season.
23.11
And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you; on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.
23.15
And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete;
23.38
beside the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill-offerings, which ye give unto the LORD.

23.40
And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.' ' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 28.2-28.3, 29.35-29.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar • calendar, • liturgical calendar

 Found in books: Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 143, 144; Neusner (2004), The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism, 292, 293; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 51

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28.2 וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃
28.2
צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.3 וְאָמַרְתָּ לָהֶם זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְמִימִם שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם עֹלָה תָמִיד׃ 28.3 שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם׃
29.35
בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃ 29.36 וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פַּר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם׃ 29.37 מִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּר לָאַיִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.38 וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.39 אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַיהוָה בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם לְבַד מִנִּדְרֵיכֶם וְנִדְבֹתֵיכֶם לְעֹלֹתֵיכֶם וּלְמִנְחֹתֵיכֶם וּלְנִסְכֵּיכֶם וּלְשַׁלְמֵיכֶם׃'' None
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28.2 Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season. 28.3 And thou shalt say unto them: This is the offering made by fire which ye shall bring unto the LORD: he-lambs of the first year without blemish, two day by day, for a continual burnt-offering.
29.35
On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no manner of servile work; 29.36 but ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish; 29.37 their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullock, for the ram, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the ordice; 29.38 and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof. 29.39 These ye shall offer unto the LORD in your appointed seasons, beside your vows, and your freewill-offerings, whether they be your burnt-offerings, or your meal-offerings, or your drink-offerings, or your peace-offerings.'' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 104.19, 104.24, 104.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Calendars • Calendars, Solar • Festivals—see also Calendar • calendar • calendar in 1 Enoch, in rabbinic literature

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 173, 419; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 257; Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 237; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 41; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 139

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104.19 עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ׃
104.24
מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃
104.26
שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃'' None
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104.19 Who appointedst the moon for seasons; The sun knoweth his going down.
104.24
How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures.
104.26
There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein.'' None
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.13-1.14, 2.2-2.3, 54.11-54.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Babylonia, and calendar • Calendar • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • Hananiah, and calendar • Palestine, and calendar • burial, calendar • calendar • calendar, intercalation of • liturgical calendar

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 446, 459; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 257; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 557; Klein and Wienand (2022), City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity, 174; Neusner (2004), The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism, 293; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 24; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 138

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1.13 לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃ 1.14 חָדְשֵׁיכֶם וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם שָׂנְאָה נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֹׂא׃
2.2
בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃
2.2
וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.3 וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃
54.11
עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃ 54.12 וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃ 54.13 וְכָל־בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי יְהוָה וְרַב שְׁלוֹם בָּנָיִךְ׃ 54.14 בִּצְדָקָה תִּכּוֹנָנִי רַחֲקִי מֵעֹשֶׁק כִּי־לֹא תִירָאִי וּמִמְּחִתָּה כִּי לֹא־תִקְרַב אֵלָיִךְ׃'' None
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1.13 Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly. 1.14 Your new moons and your appointed seasons My soul hateth; They are a burden unto Me; I am weary to bear them.
2.2
And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it. 2.3 And many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
54.11
O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires. 54.12 And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones. 54.13 And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children. 54.14 In righteousness shalt thou be established; be thou far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, And from ruin, for it shall not come near thee.'' None
9. Hesiod, Works And Days, 383-765, 771, 813-826 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • agricultural calendar • cultic ritual practice, calendars and festivals • cultic ritual practice, sacrificial and festal calendars • inscriptions, sacrificial calendars • time, calendars

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 537, 541, 542; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90

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383 πληιάδων Ἀτλαγενέων ἐπιτελλομενάων'384 ἄρχεσθʼ ἀμήτου, ἀρότοιο δὲ δυσομενάων. 385 αἳ δή τοι νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα τεσσαράκοντα 386 κεκρύφαται, αὖτις δὲ περιπλομένου ἐνιαυτοῦ 387 φαίνονται τὰ πρῶτα χαρασσομένοιο σιδήρου. 388 οὗτός τοι πεδίων πέλεται νόμος, οἵ τε θαλάσσης 389 ἐγγύθι ναιετάουσʼ, οἵ τʼ ἄγκεα βησσήεντα, 390 πόντου κυμαίνοντος ἀπόπροθι, πίονα χῶρον 391 ναίουσιν· γυμνὸν σπείρειν, γυμνὸν δὲ βοωτεῖν, 392 γυμνὸν δʼ ἀμάειν, εἴ χʼ ὥρια πάντʼ ἐθέλῃσθα 393 ἔργα κομίζεσθαι Δημήτερος· ὥς τοι ἕκαστα 394 ὥριʼ ἀέξηται, μή πως τὰ μέταζε χατίζων 395 πτώσσῃς ἀλλοτρίους οἴκους καὶ μηδὲν ἀνύσσῃς. 396 ὡς καὶ νῦν ἐπʼ ἔμʼ ἦλθες· ἐγὼ δέ τοι οὐκ ἐπιδώσω 397 οὐδʼ ἐπιμετρήσω· ἐργάζευ, νήπιε Πέρση, 398 ἔργα, τά τʼ ἀνθρώποισι θεοὶ διετεκμήραντο, 399 μή ποτε σὺν παίδεσσι γυναικί τε θυμὸν ἀχεύων 400 ζητεύῃς βίοτον κατὰ γείτονας, οἳ δʼ ἀμελῶσιν. 401 δὶς μὲν γὰρ καὶ τρὶς τάχα τεύξεαι· ἢν δʼ ἔτι λυπῇς, 402 χρῆμα μὲν οὐ πρήξεις, σὺ δʼ ἐτώσια πόλλʼ ἀγορεύσεις· 403 ἀχρεῖος δʼ ἔσται ἐπέων νομός. ἀλλά σʼ ἄνωγα 404 φράζεσθαι χρειῶν τε λύσιν λιμοῦ τʼ ἀλεωρήν. 405 οἶκον μὲν πρώτιστα γυναῖκά τε βοῦν τʼ ἀροτῆρα, 406 κτητήν, οὐ γαμετήν, ἥτις καὶ βουσὶν ἕποιτο, 407 χρήματα δʼ ἐν οἴκῳ πάντʼ ἄρμενα ποιήσασθαι, 408 μὴ σὺ μὲν αἰτῇς ἄλλον, ὃ δʼ ἀρνῆται, σὺ δὲ τητᾷ, 409 ἡ δʼ ὥρη παραμείβηται, μινύθῃ δὲ τὸ ἔργον. 410 μηδʼ ἀναβάλλεσθαι ἔς τʼ αὔριον ἔς τε ἔνηφιν· 411 οὐ γὰρ ἐτωσιοεργὸς ἀνὴρ πίμπλησι καλιὴν 412 οὐδʼ ἀναβαλλόμενος· μελέτη δὲ τὸ ἔργον ὀφέλλει· 413 αἰεὶ δʼ ἀμβολιεργὸς ἀνὴρ ἄτῃσι παλαίει. 414 ἦμος δὴ λήγει μένος ὀξέος ἠελίοιο 415 καύματος ἰδαλίμου, μετοπωρινὸν ὀμβρήσαντος 416 Ζηνὸς ἐρισθενέος, μετὰ δὲ τρέπεται βρότεος χρὼς 417 πολλὸν ἐλαφρότερος· δὴ γὰρ τότε Σείριος ἀστὴρ 418 βαιὸν ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς κηριτρεφέων ἀνθρώπων 419 ἔρχεται ἠμάτιος, πλεῖον δέ τε νυκτὸς ἐπαυρεῖ· 420 τῆμος ἀδηκτοτάτη πέλεται τμηθεῖσα σιδήρῳ 421 ὕλη, φύλλα δʼ ἔραζε χέει, πτόρθοιό τε λήγει· 422 τῆμος ἄρʼ ὑλοτομεῖν μεμνημένος ὥρια ἔργα. 423 ὄλμον μὲν τριπόδην τάμνειν, ὕπερον δὲ τρίπηχυν, 424 ἄξονα δʼ ἑπταπόδην· μάλα γάρ νύ τοι ἄρμενον οὕτω· 425 εἰ δέ κεν ὀκταπόδην, ἀπὸ καὶ σφῦράν κε τάμοιο. 426 τρισπίθαμον δʼ ἄψιν τάμνειν δεκαδώρῳ ἀμάξῃ. 427 πόλλʼ ἐπικαμπύλα κᾶλα· φέρειν δὲ γύην, ὅτʼ ἂν εὕρῃς, 428 ἐς οἶκον, κατʼ ὄρος διζήμενος ἢ κατʼ ἄρουραν, 429 πρίνινον· ὃς γὰρ βουσὶν ἀροῦν ὀχυρώτατός ἐστιν, 430 εὖτʼ ἂν Ἀθηναίης δμῷος ἐν ἐλύματι πήξας 431 γόμφοισιν πελάσας προσαρήρεται ἱστοβοῆι. 432 δοιὰ δὲ θέσθαι ἄροτρα, πονησάμενος κατὰ οἶκον, 433 αὐτόγυον καὶ πηκτόν, ἐπεὶ πολὺ λώιον οὕτω· 434 εἴ χʼ ἕτερον ἄξαις, ἕτερόν κʼ ἐπὶ βουσὶ βάλοιο. 435 δάφνης δʼ ἢ πτελέης ἀκιώτατοι ἱστοβοῆες, 436 δρυὸς ἔλυμα, γύης πρίνου· βόε δʼ ἐνναετήρω 437 ἄρσενε κεκτῆσθαι, τῶν γὰρ σθένος οὐκ ἀλαπαδνόν, 438 ἥβης μέτρον ἔχοντε· τὼ ἐργάζεσθαι ἀρίστω. 439 οὐκ ἂν τώ γʼ ἐρίσαντε ἐν αὔλακι κὰμ μὲν ἄροτρον 440 ἄξειαν, τὸ δὲ ἔργον ἐτώσιον αὖθι λίποιεν. 441 τοῖς δʼ ἅμα τεσσαρακονταετὴς αἰζηὸς ἕποιτο 442 ἄρτον δειπνήσας τετράτρυφον, ὀκτάβλωμον, 443 ὃς ἔργου μελετῶν ἰθεῖάν κʼ αὔλακʼ ἐλαύνοι, 444 μηκέτι παπταίνων μεθʼ ὁμήλικας, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ ἔργῳ 445 θυμὸν ἔχων· τοῦ δʼ οὔτι νεώτερος ἄλλος ἀμείνων 446 σπέρματα δάσσασθαι καὶ ἐπισπορίην ἀλέασθαι. 447 κουρότερος γὰρ ἀνὴρ μεθʼ ὁμήλικας ἐπτοίηται. 448 φράζεσθαι δʼ, εὖτʼ ἂν γεράνου φωνὴν ἐπακούσῃς 449 ὑψόθεν ἐκ νεφέων ἐνιαύσια κεκληγυίης· 450 ἥτʼ ἀρότοιό τε σῆμα φέρει καὶ χείματος ὥρην 451 δεικνύει ὀμβρηροῦ· κραδίην δʼ ἔδακʼ ἀνδρὸς ἀβούτεω· 452 δὴ τότε χορτάζειν ἕλικας βόας ἔνδον ἐόντας· 453 ῥηίδιον γὰρ ἔπος εἰπεῖν· βόε δὸς καὶ ἄμαξαν· 454 ῥηίδιον δʼ ἀπανήνασθαι· πάρα ἔργα βόεσσιν. 455 φησὶ δʼ ἀνὴρ φρένας ἀφνειὸς πήξασθαι ἄμαξαν, 456 νήπιος, οὐδὲ τὸ οἶδʼ· ἑκατὸν δέ τε δούρατʼ ἀμάξης, 457 τῶν πρόσθεν μελέτην ἐχέμεν οἰκήια θέσθαι. 458 εὖτʼ ἂν δὲ πρώτιστʼ ἄροτος θνητοῖσι φανείῃ, 459 δὴ τότʼ ἐφορμηθῆναι ὁμῶς δμῶές τε καὶ αὐτὸς 460 αὔην καὶ διερὴν ἀρόων ἀρότοιο καθʼ ὥρην, 461 πρωὶ μάλα σπεύδων, ἵνα τοι πλήθωσιν ἄρουραι. 462 ἦρι πολεῖν· θέρεος δὲ νεωμένη οὔ σʼ ἀπατήσει. 463 νειὸν δὲ σπείρειν ἔτι κουφίζουσαν ἄρουραν· 464 νειὸς ἀλεξιάρη παίδων εὐκηλήτειρα. 465 εὔχεσθαι δὲ Διὶ χθονίῳ Δημήτερί θʼ ἁγνῇ, 466 ἐκτελέα βρίθειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτήν, 467 ἀρχόμενος τὰ πρῶτʼ ἀρότου, ὅτʼ ἂν ἄκρον ἐχέτλης 468 χειρὶ λαβὼν ὅρπηκα βοῶν ἐπὶ νῶτον ἵκηαι 469 ἔνδρυον ἑλκόντων μεσάβων. ὁ δὲ τυτθὸς ὄπισθε 470 δμῷος ἔχων μακέλην πόνον ὀρνίθεσσι τιθείη 471 σπέρμα κατακρύπτων· ἐυθημοσύνη γὰρ ἀρίστη 472 θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποις, κακοθημοσύνη δὲ κακίστη. 473 ὧδέ κεν ἀδροσύνῃ στάχυες νεύοιεν ἔραζε, 474 εἰ τέλος αὐτὸς ὄπισθεν Ὀλύμπιος ἐσθλὸν ὀπάζοι, 475 ἐκ δʼ ἀγγέων ἐλάσειας ἀράχνια· καί σε ἔολπα 476 γηθήσειν βιότου αἰρεύμενον ἔνδον ἐόντος. 477 εὐοχθέων δʼ ἵξεαι πολιὸν ἔαρ, οὐδὲ πρὸς ἄλλους 478 αὐγάσεαι· σέο δʼ ἄλλος ἀνὴρ κεχρημένος ἔσται. 479 εἰ δέ κεν ἠελίοιο τροπῇς ἀρόῳς χθόνα δῖαν, 480 ἥμενος ἀμήσεις ὀλίγον περὶ χειρὸς ἐέργων, 481 ἀντία δεσμεύων κεκονιμένος, οὐ μάλα χαίρων, 482 οἴσεις δʼ ἐν φορμῷ· παῦροι δέ σε θηήσονται. 483 ἄλλοτε δʼ ἀλλοῖος Ζηνὸς νόος αἰγιόχοιο, 484 ἀργαλέος δʼ ἄνδρεσσι καταθνητοῖσι νοῆσαι. 485 εἰ δέ κεν ὄψʼ ἀρόσῃς, τόδε κέν τοι φάρμακον εἴη· 486 ἦμος κόκκυξ κοκκύζει δρυὸς ἐν πετάλοισι 487 τὸ πρῶτον, τέρπει δὲ βροτοὺς ἐπʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν, 488 τῆμος Ζεὺς ὕοι τρίτῳ ἤματι μηδʼ ἀπολήγοι, 489 μήτʼ ἄρʼ ὑπερβάλλων βοὸς ὁπλὴν μήτʼ ἀπολείπων· 490 οὕτω κʼ ὀψαρότης πρῳηρότῃ ἰσοφαρίζοι. 491 ἐν θυμῷ δʼ εὖ πάντα φυλάσσεο· μηδέ σε λήθοι 492 μήτʼ ἔαρ γιγνόμενον πολιὸν μήθʼ ὥριος ὄμβρος. 493 πὰρ δʼ ἴθι χάλκειον θῶκον καὶ ἐπαλέα λέσχην 494 ὥρῃ χειμερίῃ, ὁπότε κρύος ἀνέρα ἔργων 495 ἰσχάνει, ἔνθα κʼ ἄοκνος ἀνὴρ μέγα οἶκον ὀφέλλοι, 496 μή σε κακοῦ χειμῶνος ἀμηχανίη καταμάρψῃ 497 σὺν πενίῃ, λεπτῇ δὲ παχὺν πόδα χειρὶ πιέζῃς. 498 πολλὰ δʼ ἀεργὸς ἀνήρ, κενεὴν ἐπὶ ἐλπίδα μίμνων, 499 χρηίζων βιότοιο, κακὰ προσελέξατο θυμῷ. 500 ἐλπὶς δʼ οὐκ ἀγαθὴ κεχρημένον ἄνδρα κομίζει, 501 ἥμενον ἐν λέσχῃ, τῷ μὴ βίος ἄρκιος εἴη. 502 δείκνυε δὲ δμώεσσι θέρευς ἔτι μέσσου ἐόντος· 503 οὐκ αἰεὶ θέρος ἐσσεῖται, ποιεῖσθε καλιάς. 504 μῆνα δὲ Ληναιῶνα, κάκʼ ἤματα, βουδόρα πάντα, 505 τοῦτον ἀλεύασθαι, καὶ πηγάδας, αἵτʼ ἐπὶ γαῖαν 506 πνεύσαντος Βορέαο δυσηλεγέες τελέθουσιν, 507 ὅστε διὰ Θρῄκης ἱπποτρόφου εὐρέι πόντῳ 508 ἐμπνεύσας ὤρινε· μέμυκε δὲ γαῖα καὶ ὕλη· 509 πολλὰς δὲ δρῦς ὑψικόμους ἐλάτας τε παχείας 510 οὔρεος ἐν βήσσῃς πιλνᾷ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 511 ἐμπίπτων, καὶ πᾶσα βοᾷ τότε νήριτος ὕλη. 512 θῆρες δὲ φρίσσουσʼ, οὐρὰς δʼ ὑπὸ μέζεʼ ἔθεντο, 513 τῶν καὶ λάχνῃ δέρμα κατάσκιον· ἀλλά νυ καὶ τῶν 514 ψυχρὸς ἐὼν διάησι δασυστέρνων περ ἐόντων. 515 καί τε διὰ ῥινοῦ βοὸς ἔρχεται, οὐδέ μιν ἴσχει· 516 καί τε διʼ αἶγα ἄησι τανύτριχα· πώεα δʼ οὔ τι, 517 οὕνεκʼ ἐπηεταναὶ τρίχες αὐτῶν, οὐ διάησιν 518 ἲς ἀνέμου Βορέου· τροχαλὸν δὲ γέροντα τίθησιν. 519 καὶ διὰ παρθενικῆς ἁπαλόχροος οὐ διάησιν, 520 ἥτε δόμων ἔντοσθε φίλῃ παρὰ μητέρι μίμνει 521 οὔ πω ἔργα ἰδυῖα πολυχρύσου Ἀφροδίτης· 522 εὖ τε λοεσσαμένη τέρενα χρόα καὶ λίπʼ ἐλαίῳ 523 χρισαμένη μυχίη καταλέξεται ἔνδοθι οἴκου 524 ἤματι χειμερίῳ, ὅτʼ ἀνόστεος ὃν πόδα τένδει 525 ἔν τʼ ἀπύρῳ οἴκῳ καὶ ἤθεσι λευγαλέοισιν. 526 οὐδέ οἱ ἠέλιος δείκνυ νομὸν ὁρμηθῆναι· 527 ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ κυανέων ἀνδρῶν δῆμόν τε πόλιν τε 528 στρωφᾶται, βράδιον δὲ Πανελλήνεσσι φαείνει. 529 καὶ τότε δὴ κεραοὶ καὶ νήκεροι ὑληκοῖται 530 λυγρὸν μυλιόωντες ἀνὰ δρία βησσήεντα 531 φεύγουσιν· καὶ πᾶσιν ἐνὶ φρεσὶ τοῦτο μέμηλεν, 532 ὡς σκέπα μαιόμενοι πυκινοὺς κευθμῶνας ἔχωσι 533 καὶ γλάφυ πετρῆεν· τότε δὴ τρίποδι βροτῷ ἶσοι, 534 οὗ τʼ ἐπὶ νῶτα ἔαγε, κάρη δʼ εἰς οὖδας ὁρᾶται, 535 τῷ ἴκελοι φοιτῶσιν, ἀλευόμενοι νίφα λευκήν. 536 καὶ τότε ἕσσασθαι ἔρυμα χροός, ὥς σε κελεύω, 537 χλαῖνάν τε μαλακὴν καὶ τερμιόεντα χιτῶνα· 538 στήμονι δʼ ἐν παύρῳ πολλὴν κρόκα μηρύσασθαι· 539 τὴν περιέσσασθαι, ἵνα τοι τρίχες ἀτρεμέωσι, 540 μηδʼ ὀρθαὶ φρίσσωσιν ἀειρόμεναι κατὰ σῶμα. 541 ἀμφὶ δὲ ποσσὶ πέδιλα βοὸς ἶφι κταμένοιο 542 ἄρμενα δήσασθαι, πίλοις ἔντοσθε πυκάσσας. 543 πρωτογόνων δʼ ἐρίφων, ὁπότʼ ἂν κρύος ὥριον ἔλθῃ, 544 δέρματα συρράπτειν νεύρῳ βοός, ὄφρʼ ἐπὶ νώτῳ 545 ὑετοῦ ἀμφιβάλῃ ἀλέην· κεφαλῆφι δʼ ὕπερθεν 546 πῖλον ἔχειν ἀσκητόν, ἵνʼ οὔατα μὴ καταδεύῃ· 547 ψυχρὴ γάρ τʼ ἠὼς πέλεται Βορέαο πεσόντος 548 ἠώιος δʼ ἐπὶ γαῖαν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος 549 ἀὴρ πυροφόρος τέταται μακάρων ἐπὶ ἔργοις· 550 ὅστε ἀρυσάμενος ποταμῶν ἄπο αἰεναόντων, 551 ὑψοῦ ὑπὲρ γαίης ἀρθεὶς ἀνέμοιο θυέλλῃ 552 ἄλλοτε μέν θʼ ὕει ποτὶ ἕσπερον, ἄλλοτʼ ἄησι 553 πυκνὰ Θρηικίου Βορέου νέφεα κλονέοντος. 554 τὸν φθάμενος ἔργον τελέσας οἶκόνδε νέεσθαι, 555 μή ποτέ σʼ οὐρανόθεν σκοτόεν νέφος ἀμφικαλύψῃ, 556 χρῶτα δὲ μυδαλέον θήῃ κατά θʼ εἵματα δεύσῃ. 557 ἀλλʼ ὑπαλεύασθαι· μεὶς γὰρ χαλεπώτατος οὗτος, 558 χειμέριος, χαλεπὸς προβάτοις, χαλεπὸς δʼ ἀνθρώποις. 559 τῆμος τὤμισυ βουσίν, ἐπʼ ἀνέρι δὲ πλέον εἴη 560 ἁρμαλιῆς· μακραὶ γὰρ ἐπίρροθοι εὐφρόναι εἰσίν. 561 ταῦτα φυλασσόμενος τετελεσμένον εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν 562 ἰσοῦσθαι νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα, εἰσόκεν αὖτις 563 γῆ πάντων μήτηρ καρπὸν σύμμικτον ἐνείκῃ. 564 εὖτʼ ἂν δʼ ἑξήκοντα μετὰ τροπὰς ἠελίοιο 565 χειμέριʼ ἐκτελέσῃ Ζεὺς ἤματα, δή ῥα τότʼ ἀστὴρ 566 Ἀρκτοῦρος προλιπὼν ἱερὸν ῥόον Ὠκεανοῖο 567 πρῶτον παμφαίνων ἐπιτέλλεται ἀκροκνέφαιος. 568 τὸν δὲ μέτʼ ὀρθογόη Πανδιονὶς ὦρτο χελιδὼν 569 ἐς φάος ἀνθρώποις, ἔαρος νέον ἱσταμένοιο. 570 τὴν φθάμενος οἴνας περταμνέμεν· ὣς γὰρ ἄμεινον. 571 ἀλλʼ ὁπότʼ ἂν φερέοικος ἀπὸ χθονὸς ἂμ φυτὰ βαίνῃ 572 Πληιάδας φεύγων, τότε δὴ σκάφος οὐκέτι οἰνέων· 573 ἀλλʼ ἅρπας τε χαρασσέμεναι καὶ δμῶας ἐγείρειν· 574 φεύγειν δὲ σκιεροὺς θώκους καὶ ἐπʼ ἠόα κοῖτον 575 ὥρῃ ἐν ἀμήτου, ὅτε τʼ ἠέλιος χρόα κάρφει. 576 τημοῦτος σπεύδειν καὶ οἴκαδε καρπὸν ἀγινεῖν 577 ὄρθρου ἀνιστάμενος, ἵνα τοι βίος ἄρκιος εἴη. 578 ἠὼς γὰρ ἔργοιο τρίτην ἀπομείρεται αἶσαν, 579 ἠώς τοι προφέρει μὲν ὁδοῦ, προφέρει δὲ καὶ ἔργου, 580 ἠώς, ἥτε φανεῖσα πολέας ἐπέβησε κελεύθου 581 ἀνθρώπους πολλοῖσί τʼ ἐπὶ ζυγὰ βουσὶ τίθησιν. 582 ἦμος δὲ σκόλυμός τʼ ἀνθεῖ καὶ ἠχέτα τέττιξ 583 δενδρέῳ ἐφεζόμενος λιγυρὴν καταχεύετʼ ἀοιδὴν 584 πυκνὸν ὑπὸ πτερύγων, θέρεος καματώδεος ὥρῃ, 585 τῆμος πιόταταί τʼ αἶγες καὶ οἶνος ἄριστος, 586 μαχλόταται δὲ γυναῖκες, ἀφαυρότατοι δέ τοι ἄνδρες 587 εἰσίν, ἐπεὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ γούνατα Σείριος ἄζει, 588 αὐαλέος δέ τε χρὼς ὑπὸ καύματος· ἀλλὰ τότʼ ἤδη 589 εἴη πετραίη τε σκιὴ καὶ βίβλινος οἶνος, 590 μάζα τʼ ἀμολγαίη γάλα τʼ αἰγῶν σβεννυμενάων, 591 καὶ βοὸς ὑλοφάγοιο κρέας μή πω τετοκυίης 592 πρωτογόνων τʼ ἐρίφων· ἐπὶ δʼ αἴθοπα πινέμεν οἶνον, 593 ἐν σκιῇ ἑζόμενον, κεκορημένον ἦτορ ἐδωδῆς, 594 ἀντίον ἀκραέος Ζεφύρου τρέψαντα πρόσωπα, 595 κρήνης τʼ αἰενάου καὶ ἀπορρύτου, ἥτʼ ἀθόλωτος, 596 τρὶς ὕδατος προχέειν, τὸ δὲ τέτρατον ἱέμεν οἴνου. 597 δμωσὶ δʼ ἐποτρύνειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτὴν 598 δινέμεν, εὖτʼ ἂν πρῶτα φανῇ σθένος Ὠαρίωνος, 599 χώρῳ ἐν εὐαέι καὶ ἐυτροχάλῳ ἐν ἀλωῇ. 600 μέτρῳ δʼ εὖ κομίσασθαι ἐν ἄγγεσιν· αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δὴ 601 πάντα βίον κατάθηαι ἐπάρμενον ἔνδοθι οἴκου, 602 θῆτά τʼ ἄοικον ποιεῖσθαι καὶ ἄτεκνον ἔριθον 603 δίζησθαι κέλομαι· χαλεπὴ δʼ ὑπόπορτις ἔριθος· 604 καὶ κύνα καρχαρόδοντα κομεῖν, μὴ φείδεο σίτου, 605 μή ποτέ σʼ ἡμερόκοιτος ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ χρήμαθʼ ἕληται. 606 χόρτον δʼ ἐσκομίσαι καὶ συρφετόν, ὄφρα τοι εἴη 607 βουσὶ καὶ ἡμιόνοισιν ἐπηετανόν. αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα 608 δμῶας ἀναψῦξαι φίλα γούνατα καὶ βόε λῦσαι. 609 εὖτʼ ἂν δʼ Ὠαρίων καὶ Σείριος ἐς μέσον ἔλθῃ 610 οὐρανόν, Ἀρκτοῦρον δʼ ἐσίδῃ ῥοδοδάκτυλος Ηώς, 611 ὦ Πέρση, τότε πάντας ἀποδρέπεν οἴκαδε βότρυς· 612 δεῖξαι δʼ ἠελίῳ δέκα τʼ ἤματα καὶ δέκα νύκτας, 613 πέντε δὲ συσκιάσαι, ἕκτῳ δʼ εἰς ἄγγεʼ ἀφύσσαι 614 δῶρα Διωνύσου πολυγηθέος. αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δὴ 615 Πληιάδες θʼ Ὑάδες τε τό τε σθένος Ὠαρίωνος 616 δύνωσιν, τότʼ ἔπειτʼ ἀρότου μεμνημένος εἶναι 617 ὡραίου· πλειὼν δὲ κατὰ χθονὸς ἄρμενος εἶσιν. 618 εἰ δέ σε ναυτιλίης δυσπεμφέλου ἵμερος αἱρεῖ, 619 εὖτʼ ἂν Πληιάδες σθένος ὄβριμον Ὠαρίωνος 620 φεύγουσαι πίπτωσιν ἐς ἠεροειδέα πόντον, 621 δὴ τότε παντοίων ἀνέμων θυίουσιν ἀῆται· 622 καὶ τότε μηκέτι νῆας ἔχειν ἐνὶ οἴνοπι πόντῳ, 623 γῆν ἐργάζεσθαι μεμνημένος, ὥς σε κελεύω. 624 νῆα δʼ ἐπʼ ἠπείρου ἐρύσαι πυκάσαι τε λίθοισι 625 πάντοθεν, ὄφρʼ ἴσχωσʼ ἀνέμων μένος ὑγρὸν ἀέντων, 626 χείμαρον ἐξερύσας, ἵνα μὴ πύθῃ Διὸς ὄμβρος. 627 ὅπλα δʼ ἐπάρμενα πάντα τεῷ ἐγκάτθεο οἴκῳ 628 εὐκόσμως στολίσας νηὸς πτερὰ ποντοπόροιο· 629 πηδάλιον δʼ ἐυεργὲς ὑπὲρ καπνοῦ κρεμάσασθαι. 630 αὐτὸς δʼ ὡραῖον μίμνειν πλόον, εἰσόκεν ἔλθῃ· 631 καὶ τότε νῆα θοὴν ἅλαδʼ ἑλκέμεν, ἐν δέ τε φόρτον 632 ἄρμενον ἐντύνασθαι, ἵνʼ οἴκαδε κέρδος ἄρηαι, 633 ὥς περ ἐμός τε πατὴρ καὶ σός, μέγα νήπιε Πέρσῃ, 634 πλωίζεσκʼ ἐν νηυσί, βίου κεχρημένος ἐσθλοῦ· 635 ὅς ποτε καὶ τῇδʼ ἦλθε, πολὺν διὰ πόντον ἀνύσσας, 636 Κύμην Αἰολίδα προλιπών, ἐν νηὶ μελαίνῃ· 637 οὐκ ἄφενος φεύγων οὐδὲ πλοῦτόν τε καὶ ὄλβον, 638 ἀλλὰ κακὴν πενίην, τὴν Ζεὺς ἄνδρεσσι δίδωσιν· 639 νάσσατο δʼ ἄγχʼ Ἑλικῶνος ὀιζυρῇ ἐνὶ κώμῃ, 640 Ἄσκρῃ, χεῖμα κακῇ, θέρει ἀργαλέῃ, οὐδέ ποτʼ ἐσθλῇ. 641 τύνη δʼ, ὦ Πέρση, ἔργων μεμνημένος εἶναι 642 ὡραίων πάντων, περὶ ναυτιλίης δὲ μάλιστα. 643 νῆʼ ὀλίγην αἰνεῖν, μεγάλῃ δʼ ἐνὶ φορτία θέσθαι. 644 μείζων μὲν φόρτος, μεῖζον δʼ ἐπὶ κέρδεϊ κέρδος 645 ἔσσεται, εἴ κʼ ἄνεμοί γε κακὰς ἀπέχωσιν ἀήτας. 646 εὖτʼ ἂν ἐπʼ ἐμπορίην τρέψας ἀεσίφρονα θυμὸν 647 βούληαι χρέα τε προφυγεῖν καὶ λιμὸν ἀτερπέα, 648 δείξω δή τοι μέτρα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσης, 649 οὔτε τι ναυτιλίης σεσοφισμένος οὔτε τι νηῶν. 650 οὐ γάρ πώ ποτε νηί γʼ ἐπέπλων εὐρέα πόντον, 651 εἰ μὴ ἐς Εὔβοιαν ἐξ Αὐλίδος, ᾗ ποτʼ Ἀχαιοὶ 652 μείναντες χειμῶνα πολὺν σὺν λαὸν ἄγειραν 653 Ἑλλάδος ἐξ ἱερῆς Τροίην ἐς καλλιγύναικα. 654 ἔνθα δʼ ἐγὼν ἐπʼ ἄεθλα δαΐφρονος Ἀμφιδάμαντος 655 Χαλκίδα τʼ εἲς ἐπέρησα· τὰ δὲ προπεφραδμένα πολλὰ 656 ἄεθλʼ ἔθεσαν παῖδες μεγαλήτορος· ἔνθα μέ φημι 657 ὕμνῳ νικήσαντα φέρειν τρίποδʼ ὠτώεντα. 658 τὸν μὲν ἐγὼ Μούσῃς Ἑλικωνιάδεσσʼ ἀνέθηκα, 659 ἔνθα με τὸ πρῶτον λιγυρῆς ἐπέβησαν ἀοιδῆς. 660 τόσσον τοι νηῶν γε πεπείρημαι πολυγόμφων· 661 ἀλλὰ καὶ ὣς ἐρέω Ζηνὸς νόον αἰγιόχοιο· 662 Μοῦσαι γάρ μʼ ἐδίδαξαν ἀθέσφατον ὕμνον ἀείδειν. 663 ἤματα πεντήκοντα μετὰ τροπὰς ἠελίοιο, 664 ἐς τέλος ἐλθόντος θέρεος καματώδεος ὥρης, 665 ὡραῖος πέλεται θνητοῖς πλόος· οὔτε κε νῆα 666 καυάξαις οὔτʼ ἄνδρας ἀποφθείσειε θάλασσα, 667 εἰ δὴ μὴ πρόφρων γε Ποσειδάων ἐνοσίχθων 668 ἢ Ζεὺς ἀθανάτων βασιλεὺς ἐθέλῃσιν ὀλέσσαι· 669 ἐν τοῖς γὰρ τέλος ἐστὶν ὁμῶς ἀγαθῶν τε κακῶν τε. 670 τῆμος δʼ εὐκρινέες τʼ αὖραι καὶ πόντος ἀπήμων· 671 εὔκηλος τότε νῆα θοὴν ἀνέμοισι πιθήσας 672 ἑλκέμεν ἐς πόντον φόρτον τʼ ἐς πάντα τίθεσθαι, 673 σπεύδειν δʼ ὅττι τάχιστα πάλιν οἶκόνδε νέεσθαι· 674 μηδὲ μένειν οἶνόν τε νέον καὶ ὀπωρινὸν ὄμβρον 675 καὶ χειμῶνʼ ἐπιόντα Νότοιό τε δεινὰς ἀήτας, 676 ὅστʼ ὤρινε θάλασσαν ὁμαρτήσας Διὸς ὄμβρῳ 677 πολλῷ ὀπωρινῷ, χαλεπὸν δέ τε πόντον ἔθηκεν. 678 ἄλλος δʼ εἰαρινὸς πέλεται πλόος ἀνθρώποισιν· 679 ἦμος δὴ τὸ πρῶτον, ὅσον τʼ ἐπιβᾶσα κορώνη 680 ἴχνος ἐποίησεν, τόσσον πέταλʼ ἀνδρὶ φανείῃ 681 ἐν κράδῃ ἀκροτάτῃ, τότε δʼ ἄμβατός ἐστι θάλασσα· 682 εἰαρινὸς δʼ οὗτος πέλεται πλόος. οὔ μιν ἔγωγε 683 αἴνημʼ· οὐ γὰρ ἐμῷ θυμῷ κεχαρισμένος ἐστίν· 684 ἁρπακτός· χαλεπῶς κε φύγοις κακόν· ἀλλά νυ καὶ τὰ 685 ἄνθρωποι ῥέζουσιν ἀιδρείῃσι νόοιο· 686 χρήματα γὰρ ψυχὴ πέλεται δειλοῖσι βροτοῖσιν. 687 δεινὸν δʼ ἐστὶ θανεῖν μετὰ κύμασιν. ἀλλά σʼ ἄνωγα 688 φράζεσθαι τάδε πάντα μετὰ φρεσίν, ὡς ἀγορεύω. 689 μηδʼ ἐν νηυσὶν ἅπαντα βίον κοΐλῃσι τίθεσθαι· 690 ἀλλὰ πλέω λείπειν, τὰ δὲ μείονα φορτίζεσθαι. 691 δεινὸν γὰρ πόντου μετὰ κύμασι πήματι κύρσαι. 692 δεινὸν δʼ, εἴ κʼ ἐπʼ ἄμαξαν ὑπέρβιον ἄχθος ἀείρας 693 ἄξονα. καυάξαις καὶ φορτία μαυρωθείη. 694 μέτρα φυλάσσεσθαι· καιρὸς δʼ ἐπὶ πᾶσιν ἄριστος. 695 ὡραῖος δὲ γυναῖκα τεὸν ποτὶ οἶκον ἄγεσθαι, 696 μήτε τριηκόντων ἐτέων μάλα πόλλʼ ἀπολείπων 697 μήτʼ ἐπιθεὶς μάλα πολλά· γάμος δέ τοι ὥριος οὗτος· 698 ἡ δὲ γυνὴ τέτορʼ ἡβώοι, πέμπτῳ δὲ γαμοῖτο. 699 παρθενικὴν δὲ γαμεῖν, ὥς κʼ ἤθεα κεδνὰ διδάξῃς. 700 τὴν δὲ μάλιστα γαμεῖν, ἥ τις σέθεν ἐγγύθι ναίει, 701 πάντα μάλʼ ἀμφιιδών, μὴ γείτοσι χάρματα γήμῃς. 702 οὐ μὲν γάρ τι γυναικὸς ἀνὴρ ληίζετʼ ἄμεινον 703 τῆς ἀγαθῆς, τῆς δʼ αὖτε κακῆς οὐ ῥίγιον ἄλλο, 704 δειπνολόχης· ἥτʼ ἄνδρα καὶ ἴφθιμόν περ ἐόντα 705 εὕει ἄτερ δαλοῖο καὶ ὠμῷ γήραϊ δῶκεν. 706 εὖ δʼ ὄπιν ἀθανάτων μακάρων πεφυλαγμένος εἶναι. 707 μηδὲ κασιγνήτῳ ἶσον ποιεῖσθαι ἑταῖρον· 708 εἰ δέ κε ποιήσῃς, μή μιν πρότερος κακὸν ἔρξῃς. 709 μηδὲ ψεύδεσθαι γλώσσης χάριν· εἰ δὲ σέ γʼ ἄρχῃ 710 ἤ τι ἔπος εἰπὼν ἀποθύμιον ἠὲ καὶ ἔρξας, 711 δὶς τόσα τίνυσθαι μεμνημένος· εἰ δὲ σέ γʼ αὖτις 712 ἡγῆτʼ ἐς φιλότητα, δίκην δʼ ἐθέλῃσι παρασχεῖν, 713 δέξασθαι· δειλός τοι ἀνὴρ φίλον ἄλλοτε ἄλλον 714 ποιεῖται, σὲ δὲ μή τι νόον κατελεγχέτω εἶδος. 715 μηδὲ πολύξεινον μηδʼ ἄξεινον καλέεσθαι, 716 μηδὲ κακῶν ἕταρον μηδʼ ἐσθλῶν νεικεστῆρα. 717 μηδέ ποτʼ οὐλομένην πενίην θυμοφθόρον ἀνδρὶ 718 τέτλαθʼ ὀνειδίζειν, μακάρων δόσιν αἰὲν ἐόντων. 719 γλώσσης τοι θησαυρὸς ἐν ἀνθρώποισιν ἄριστος 720 φειδωλῆς, πλείστη δὲ χάρις κατὰ μέτρον ἰούσης. 721 εἰ δὲ κακὸν εἴποις, τάχα κʼ αὐτὸς μεῖζον ἀκούσαις. 722 μηδὲ πολυξείνου δαιτὸς δυσπέμφελος εἶναι 723 ἐκ κοινοῦ· πλείστη δὲ χάρις, δαπάνη τʼ ὀλιγίστη. 724 μηδέ ποτʼ ἐξ ἠοῦς Διὶ λειβέμεν αἴθοπα οἶνον 725 χερσὶν ἀνίπτοισιν μηδʼ ἄλλοις ἀθανάτοισιν· 726 οὐ γὰρ τοί γε κλύουσιν, ἀποπτύουσι δέ τʼ ἀράς. 727 μηδʼ ἄντʼ ἠελίου τετραμμένος ὀρθὸς ὀμιχεῖν· 728 αὐτὰρ ἐπεί κε δύῃ, μεμνημένος, ἔς τʼ ἀνιόντα· 729 μήτʼ ἐν ὁδῷ μήτʼ ἐκτὸς ὁδοῦ προβάδην οὐρήσῃς 730 μηδʼ ἀπογυμνωθείς· μακάρων τοι νύκτες ἔασιν· 731 ἑζόμενος δʼ ὅ γε θεῖος ἀνήρ, πεπνυμένα εἰδώς, 732 ἢ ὅ γε πρὸς τοῖχον πελάσας ἐυερκέος αὐλῆς. 733 μηδʼ αἰδοῖα γονῇ πεπαλαγμένος ἔνδοθι οἴκου 734 ἱστίῃ ἐμπελαδὸν παραφαινέμεν, ἀλλʼ ἀλέασθαι. 735 μηδʼ ἀπὸ δυσφήμοιο τάφου ἀπονοστήσαντα 736 σπερμαίνειν γενεήν, ἀλλʼ ἀθανάτων ἀπὸ δαιτός. 737 μηδέ ποτʼ αἰενάων ποταμῶν καλλίρροον ὕδωρ 738 ποσσὶ περᾶν, πρίν γʼ εὔξῃ ἰδὼν ἐς καλὰ ῥέεθρα, 739 χεῖρας νιψάμενος πολυηράτῳ ὕδατι λευκῷ. 740 ὃς ποταμὸν διαβῇ κακότητʼ ἰδὲ χεῖρας ἄνιπτος, 741 τῷ δὲ θεοὶ νεμεσῶσι καὶ ἄλγεα δῶκαν ὀπίσσω. 742 μηδʼ ἀπὸ πεντόζοιο θεῶν ἐν δαιτὶ θαλείῃ 743 αὖον ἀπὸ χλωροῦ τάμνειν αἴθωνι σιδήρῳ. 744 μηδέ ποτʼ οἰνοχόην τιθέμεν κρητῆρος ὕπερθε 745 πινόντων· ὀλοὴ γὰρ ἐπʼ αὐτῷ μοῖρα τέτυκται. 746 μηδὲ δόμον ποιῶν ἀνεπίξεστον καταλείπειν, 747 μή τοι ἐφεζομένη κρώξῃ λακέρυζα κορώνη. 748 μηδʼ ἀπὸ χυτροπόδων ἀνεπιρρέκτων ἀνελόντα 749 ἔσθειν μηδὲ λόεσθαι· ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῖς ἔνι ποινή. 750 μηδʼ ἐπʼ ἀκινήτοισι καθιζέμεν, οὐ γὰρ ἄμεινον, 751 παῖδα δυωδεκαταῖον, ὅτʼ ἀνέρʼ ἀνήνορα ποιεῖ, 752 μηδὲ δυωδεκάμηνον· ἴσον καὶ τοῦτο τέτυκται. 753 μηδὲ γυναικείῳ λουτρῷ χρόα φαιδρύνεσθαι 754 ἀνέρα· λευγαλέη γὰρ ἐπὶ χρόνον ἔστʼ ἐπὶ καὶ τῷ 755 ποινή. μηδʼ ἱεροῖσιν ἐπʼ αἰθομένοισι κυρήσας 756 μωμεύειν ἀίδηλα· θεός νύ τι καὶ τὰ νεμεσσᾷ. 757 μηδέ ποτʼ ἐν προχοῇς ποταμῶν ἅλαδε προρεόντων 758 μηδʼ ἐπὶ κρηνάων οὐρεῖν, μάλα δʼ ἐξαλέασθαι· 759 μηδʼ ἐναποψύχειν· τὸ γὰρ οὔ τοι λώιόν ἐστιν. 760 ὧδʼ ἔρδειν· δεινὴν δὲ βροτῶν ὑπαλεύεο φήμην. 761 φήμη γάρ τε κακὴ πέλεται, κούφη μὲν ἀεῖραι 762 ῥεῖα μάλʼ, ἀργαλέη δὲ φέρειν, χαλεπὴ δʼ ἀποθέσθαι. 763 φήμη δʼ οὔτις πάμπαν ἀπόλλυται, ἥν τινα πολλοὶ 764 λαοὶ φημίξωσι· θεός νύ τίς ἐστι καὶ αὐτή. 765 Ἤματα δʼ ἐκ Διόθεν πεφυλαγμένος εὖ κατὰ μοῖραν
771
τῇ γὰρ Ἀπόλλωνα χρυσάορα γείνατο Λητώ·
813
ἀνέρι τʼ ἠδὲ γυναικί· καὶ οὔποτε πάγκακον ἦμαρ. 814 παῦροι δʼ αὖτε ἴσασι τρισεινάδα μηνὸς ἀρίστην 815 ἄρξασθαί τε πίθου καὶ ἐπὶ ζυγὸν αὐχένι θεῖναι 816 βουσὶ καὶ ἡμιόνοισι καὶ ἵπποις ὠκυπόδεσσι, 817 νῆα πολυκλήιδα θοὴν εἰς οἴνοπα πόντον 818 εἰρύμεναι· παῦροι δέ τʼ ἀληθέα κικλῄσκουσιν. 819 τετράδι δʼ οἶγε πίθον· περὶ πάντων ἱερὸν ἦμαρ 820 μέσση· παῦροι δʼ αὖτε μετʼ εἰκάδα μηνὸς ἀρίστην 821 ἠοῦς γιγνομένης· ἐπὶ δείελα δʼ ἐστὶ χερείων. 822 αἵδε μὲν ἡμέραι εἰσιν ἐπιχθονίοις μέγʼ ὄνειαρ, 823 αἱ δʼ ἄλλαι μετάδουποι, ἀκήριοι, οὔ τι φέρουσαι. 824 ἄλλος δʼ ἀλλοίην αἰνεῖ, παῦροι δὲ ἴσασιν. 825 ἄλλοτε μητρυιὴ πέλει ἡμέρη, ἄλλοτε μήτηρ. 826 τάων εὐδαίμων τε καὶ ὄλβιος, ὃς τάδε πάντα ' None
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383 And leave ferocious famine far behind;'384 If to a little you a little more 385 Should add and do this often, with great speed 386 It will expand. A man has little care 387 For what he has at home: there’s greater need 388 To guard his wealth abroad, while still his share 389 At home is safer. Taking from your store 390 Is good, but wanting something causes pain – 391 Think on this. Use thrift with the flagon’s core 392 But when you open it and then again 393 As it runs out, then take your fill – no need 394 For prudence with the lees. Allow no doubt 395 About a comrade’s wages; no, take heed 396 Even with your brother – smile and ferret out 397 A witness. Trust and mistrust both can kill. 398 Let not a dame, fawning and lascivious, 399 Dupe you - she wants your barn. Your trust is ill- 400 Placed in a woman – she’s perfidious. 401 An only child preserves his family 402 That wealth may grow. But if one leaves two heirs, 403 One must live longer. Zeus, though, easily 404 To larger houses gives great wealth. The care 405 And increase for more kindred greater grow. 406 If you want wealth, do this, add industry 407 To industry, and harvest what you sow 408 When Pleiades’ ascendancy you see, 409 And plough when they have set. They lurk concealed 410 For forty days and nights but then appear 411 In time when first your sickles for the field 412 You sharpen. This is true for dwellers near 413 The level plains and sea, and those who dwell 414 In woody glens far from the raging deep, 415 Those fertile lands; sow naked, plough, as well, 416 Unclothed, and harvest stripped if you would reap 417 Demeter’s work in season. Everything 418 Will then be done in time: in penury 419 You’ll not beg help at others’ homes and bring 420 Your own downfall. Thus now you come to me: 421 I’ll give you nothing. Practise industry, 422 Foolish Perses, which the gods have given men, 423 Lest, with their wives and children, dolefully 424 They seek food from their neighbours, who will then 425 Ignore them. Twice or thrice you may succeed, 426 But if you still harass them, you’ll achieve 427 Nothing and waste your words about your need. 428 I urge you, figure how you may relieve 429 Your need and cease your hunger. The first thing 430 That you must do is get a house, then find 431 A slave to help you with your furrowing, 432 Female, unwed, an ox to plough behind, 433 Then in the house prepare the things you’ll need; 434 Don’t borrow lest you be refused and lack 435 All means and, as the hours duly speed 436 Along, your labour’s lost. Do not push back 437 Your toil for just one day: don’t drag your feet 438 And fight with ruin evermore. No, when 439 You feel no more the fierce sun’s sweaty heat 440 And mighty Zeus sends autumn rain, why, then 441 We move more quickly – that’s the time when we 442 See Sirius travelling less above us all, 443 Poor wretches, using night more, and that tree 444 You cut has shed its foliage in the fall, 445 No longer sprouting, and is less replete 446 With worm-holes. Now’s the time to fell your trees. 447 Cut with a drilling-mortar of three feet 448 And pestle of three cubits: you must seize 449 A seven-foot axle – that’s a perfect fit 450 (You’ll make a hammerhead with one of eight). 451 To have a ten-palm wagon, make for it 452 Four three-foot wagon-wheels. Wood that’s not straight 453 Is useful – gather lots for use within: 454 At home or in the mountains search for it. 455 Holm-oak is strongest for the plough: the pin 456 Is fixed on it, on which the pole will sit, 457 By craftsmen of Athene. But make two 458 Within your house, of one piece and compressed. 459 That’s better - if one breaks the other you 460 May use. Sound elm or laurel are the best 461 For poles. The stock should be of oak, the beam 462 of holm-oak. Two bull oxen you should buy, 463 Both nine years old - a prime age, you may deem, 464 For strength. They toil the hardest nor will vie 465 In conflict in the furrows nor will break 466 The plough or leave the work undone. And now 467 A forty-year-old stalwart you should take 468 Who will, before he ventures out to plough, 469 Consume a quartered, eight-slice loaf, one who, 470 Skilled in his craft, will keep the furrow straight 471 Nor look around for comrades but stay true 472 To his pursuit. Born at a later date, 473 A man may never plough thus and may cause 474 A second sowing. Younger men, distract, 475 Will wink at comrades. Let this give you pause - 476 The crane’s high, yearly call means “time to act” 477 Start ploughing for it’s winter-time. It’s gall 478 To one who has no oxen: it will pay 479 To have horned oxen fattened in their stall. 480 It will be simple then for you to say 481 “Bring me my oxen and my wagon too”, 482 And it is also easy to reject 483 A friend and say “They have their work to do, 484 My oxen.” Merely mind-rich men expect 485 Their wagon’s made already, foolish men. 486 They don’t know that a hundred boards they’ll need. 487 Get all you need together and then, when 488 The ploughing term commences, with all speed, 489 You and your slaves, set out and plough straight through 490 The season, wet or dry; quick, at cockcrow, 491 That you may fill those furrows, plough; and you 492 Should plough in spring; the summer, should you go 493 On ploughing, won’t dismay you. Plough your field 494 When soil is light – such is a surety 495 For us and for our children forms a shield. 496 Pray, then, to Zeus, the god of husbandry, 497 And pure Demeter that she fill her grain. 498 First grab the handles of the plough and flick 499 The oxen as upon the straps they strain. 500 Then let a bondsman follow with a stick, 501 Close at your back, to hide the seed and cheat 502 The birds. For man good management’s supreme, 503 Bad management is worst. If you repeat 504 These steps, your fields of corn shall surely teem 505 With stalks which bow down low if in the end 506 Zeus brings a happy outcome and you’ve cleared 507 Your jars of cobwebs: then if you make fast 508 Your stores of food at home you will be cheered, 509 I think. You’ll be at ease until pale spring, 510 Nor will you gape at others – rather they’ll 511 Have need of you. Keep at your furrowing 512 Until the winter sun and surely fail 513 And reap sat down and seize within your hand 514 Your meagre crop and bind with dusty speed, 515 With many a frown, and take it from your land 516 Inside a basket, and few folk will waste 517 Their praise upon you. Aegis-bearing Zeu 518 Is changeable – his thoughts are hard to see. 519 If you plough late, this just may be of use: 520 When first the cuckoo calls on the oak-tree 521 And through the vast earth causes happiness, 522 Zeus rains non-stop for three days that the height 523 of flood’s an ox’s hoof, no more, no less: 524 That way the man who ploughs but late just might 525 Equal the early plougher. All this you 526 Must do, and don’t permit pale spring to take 527 You by surprise, the rainy season, too. 528 Round public haunts and smithies you should make 529 A detour during winter when the cold 530 Keeps men from work, for then a busy man 531 May serve his house. Let hardship not take hold, 532 Nor helplessness, through cruel winter’s span, 533 Nor rub your swollen foot with scrawny hand. 534 An idle man will often, while in vain 535 He hopes, lacking a living from his land, 536 Consider crime. A needy man will gain 537 Nothing from hope while sitting in the street 538 And gossiping, no livelihood in sight. 539 Say to your slaves in the midsummer heat: 540 “There won’t always be summer, shining bright – 541 Build barns.” Lenaion’s evil days, which gall 542 The oxen, guard yourself against. Beware 543 of hoar-frosts, too, which bring distress to all 544 When the North Wind blows, which blasts upon the air 545 In horse-rich Thrace and rouses the broad sea, 546 Making the earth and woods resound with wails. 547 He falls on many a lofty-leafed oak-tree 548 And on thick pines along the mountain-vale 549 And fecund earth, the vast woods bellowing. 550 The wild beasts, tails between their legs, all shake. 551 Although their shaggy hair is covering 552 Their hides, yet still the cold will always make 553 Their way straight through the hairiest beast. Straight through 554 An ox’s hide the North Wind blows and drill 555 Through long-haired goats. His strength, though, cannot do 556 Great harm to sheep who keep away all chill 557 With ample fleece. He makes old men stoop low 558 But soft-skinned maids he never will go through – 559 They stay indoors, who as yet do not know 560 Gold Aphrodite’s work, a comfort to 561 Their darling mothers, and their tender skin 562 They wash and smear with oil in winter’s space 563 And slumber in a bedroom far within 564 The house, when in his cold and dreadful place 565 The Boneless gnaws his foot (the sun won’t show 566 Him pastures but rotate around the land 567 of black men and for all the Greeks is slow 568 To brighten). That’s the time the hornèd and 569 The unhorned beasts of the wood flee to the brush, 570 Teeth all a-chatter, with one thought in mind – 571 To find some thick-packed shelter, p’raps a bush 572 Or hollow rock. Like one with head inclined 573 Towards the ground, spine shattered, with a stick 574 To hold him up, they wander as they try 575 To circumvent the snow. As I ordain, 576 Shelter your body, too, when snow is nigh – 577 A fleecy coat and, reaching to the floor, 578 A tunic. Both the warp and woof must you 579 Entwine but of the woof there must be more 580 Than of the warp. Don this, for, if you do, 581 Your hair stays still, not shaking everywhere. 582 Be stoutly shod with ox-hide boots which you 583 Must line with felt. In winter have a care 584 To sew two young kids’ hides to the sinew 585 of an ox to keep the downpour from your back, 586 A knit cap for your head to keep your ear 587 From getting wet. It’s freezing at the crack 588 of dawn, which from the starry sky appear 589 When Boreas drops down: then is there spread 590 A fruitful mist upon the land which fall 591 Upon the blessed fields and which is fed 592 By endless rivers, raised on high by squalls. 593 Sometimes it rains at evening, then again, 594 When the thickly-compressed clouds are animated 595 By Thracian Boreas, it blows hard. Then 596 It is the time, having anticipated 597 All this, to finish and go home lest you 598 Should be enwrapped by some dark cloud, heaven-sent, 599 Your flesh all wet, your clothing drenched right through. 600 This is the harshest month, both violent 601 And harsh to beast and man – so you have need 602 To be alert. Give to your men more fare 603 Than usual but halve your oxen’s feed. 604 The helpful nights are long, and so take care. 605 Keep at this till the year’s end when the day 606 And nights are equal and a diverse crop 607 Springs from our mother earth and winter’s phase 608 Is two months old and from pure Ocean’s top 609 Arcturus rises, shining, at twilight. 610 Into the light then Pandion’s progeny, 611 The high-voiced swallow, comes at the first sight 612 of spring. Before then, the best strategy 613 Is pruning of your vines. But when the snail 614 Climbs up the stems to flee the Pleiades, 615 Stop digging vineyards; now it’s of avail 616 To sharpen scythes and urge your men. Shun these 617 Two things – dark nooks and sleeping till cockcrow 618 At harvest-season when the sun makes dry 619 One’s skin. Bring in your crops and don’t be slow. 620 Rise early to secure your food supply. 621 For Dawn will cut your labour by a third, 622 Who aids your journey and you toil, through whom 623 Men find the road and put on many a herd 624 of oxen many a yoke. When thistles bloom 625 And shrill cicadas chirp up in the tree 626 Nonstop beneath their wings, into our view 627 Comes summer, harbinger of drudgery, 628 Goats at their fattest, wine its choicest, too, 629 The women at their lustiest, though men 630 Are at their very weakest, head and knee 631 Being dried up by Sirius, for then 632 Their skin is parched. It is at times like these 633 I crave some rocky shade and Bibline wine, 634 A hunk of cheese, goat’s milk, meat from a beast 635 That’s pasture-fed, uncalved, or else I pine 636 For new-born kids. Contented with my feast, 637 I sit and drink the wine, so sparkling, 638 Facing the strong west wind, there in the shade, 639 And pour three-fourths of water from the spring, 640 A spring untroubled that will never fade, 641 Then urge your men to sift the holy corn 642 of Demeter, when Orion first we see 643 In all his strength, upon the windy, worn 644 Threshing-floor. Then measure well the quantity 645 And take it home in urns. Now I urge you 646 To stockpile all your year’s supplies inside. 647 Dismiss your hired man and then in lieu 648 Seek out a childless maid (you won’t abide 649 One who is nursing). You must take good care 650 of your sharp-toothed dog; do not scant his meat 651 In case The One Who Sleeps by Day should dare 652 To steal your goods. Let there be lots to eat 653 For both oxen and mules, and litter, too. 654 Unyoke your team and grant a holiday. 655 When rosy-fingered Dawn first gets a view 656 of Arcturus and across the sky halfway 657 Come Sirius and Orion, pluck your store 658 of grapes and bring them home; then to the sun 659 Expose them for ten days, then for five more 660 Conceal them in the dark; when this is done, 661 Upon the sixth begin to pour in jar 662 Glad Bacchus’ gift. When strong Orion’s set 663 And back into the sea decline the star 664 Pleiades and Hyades, it’s time to get 665 Your plough out, Perses. Then, as it should be, 666 The year is finished. If on stormy sea 667 You long to sail, when into the dark, 668 To flee Orion’s rain, the Pleiade 669 Descend, abundant winds will blow: forbear 670 To keep at that time on the wine-dark sea 671 Your ships, but work your land with earnest care, 672 As I ordain. So that the potency 673 of the wet winds may not affect your craft, 674 You must protect it on dry land, and tamp 675 It tight with stones on both sides, fore and aft. 676 Take out the plug that Zeus’s rain won’t damp 677 And rot the wood. The tackle store inside 678 And neatly fold the sails and then suspend 679 The well-made rudder over smoke, then bide 680 Your time until the season’s at an end 681 And you may sail. Then take down to the sea 682 Your speedy ship and then prepare the freight 683 To guarantee a gain, as formerly 684 Our father would his vessels navigate. 685 In earnest, foolish Perses, to posse 686 Great riches, once he journeyed to this place 687 From Cyme, fleeing not wealth or succe 688 But grinding poverty, which many face 689 At Zeus’s hands. Near Helicon he dwelt 690 In a wretched village, Ascra, most severe 691 In winter, though an equal woe one felt 692 In summer, goods at no time. Perses, hear 693 My words – of every season’s toil take care, 694 Particularly sailing. Sure, approve 695 A little ship but let a large one bear 696 Your merchandise – the more of this you move, 697 The greater gain you make so long as you 698 Avoid strong winds. When you have turned to trade 699 Your foolish mind, in earnest to eschew 700 Distressful want and debits yet unpaid, 701 The stretches of the loud-resounding sea 702 I’ll teach you, though of everything marine 703 I am unlearned: yet on no odyssey 704 Upon the spacious ocean have I been – 705 Just to Euboea from Aulis (the great host 706 of Greeks here waited out the stormy gale, 707 Who went from holy Greece to Troy, whose boast 708 Is comely women). I myself took sail 709 To Chalchis for the games of the geniu 710 Archidamas: for many games had been 711 Arranged by children of that glorious, 712 Great man and advertised. I scored a win 713 For song and brought back home my accolade, 714 A two-eared tripod which I dedicated 715 To the Muses there in Helicon (I made 716 My debut there when I participated 717 In lovely song). Familiarity 718 With ships for me to this has been confined. 719 But since the Muses taught singing to me, 720 I’ll tell you aegis-bearing Zeus’s mind. 721 When fifty days beyond the solstice go 722 And toilsome summer’s ending, mortals can 723 Set sail upon the ocean, which will no 724 Seafarers slaughter, nor will any man 725 Shatter his ship, unless such is the will 726 of earth-shaking Poseidon or our king, 727 Lord Zeus, who always judge both good and ill. 728 The sea is tranquil then, unwavering 729 The winds. Trust these and drag down to the sea 730 Your ship with confidence and place all freight 731 On board and then as swiftly as may be 732 Sail home and for the autumn rain don’t wait 733 Or fast-approaching blizzards, new-made wine, 734 The South Wind’s dreadful blasts – he stirs the sea 735 And brings downpours in spring and makes the brine 736 Inclement. Spring, too, grants humanity 737 The chance to sail. When first some leaves are seen 738 On fig-tree-tops, as tiny as the mark 739 A raven leaves, the sea becomes serene 740 For sailing. Though spring bids you to embark, 741 I’ll not praise it – it does not gladden me. 742 It’s hazardous, for you’ll avoid distre 743 With difficulty thus. Imprudently 744 Do men sail at that time – covetousne 745 Is their whole life, the wretches. For the sea 746 To take your life is dire. Listen to me: 747 Don’t place aboard all your commodities – 748 Leave most behind, place a small quantity 749 Aboard. To tax your cart too much and break 750 An axle, losing all, will bring distress. 751 Be moderate, for everyone should take 752 An apt approach. When you’re in readiness, 753 Get married. Thirty years, or very near, 754 Is apt for marriage. Now, past puberty 755 Your bride should go four years: in the fifth year 756 Wed her. That you may teach her modesty 757 Marry a maid. The best would be one who 758 Lives near you, but you must with care look round 759 Lest neighbours make a laughingstock of you. 760 A better choice for men cannot be found 761 Than a good woman, nor a worse one than 762 One who’s unworthy, say a sponging mare 763 Who will, without a torch, burn up a man 764 And bring him to a raw old age. Beware 765 of angering the blessed ones – your friend
771
Your friend and pay the price for his offence,
813
Therefore don’t eat or wash from it. Permit 814 No twelve-year- or twelve-month-old to be sat 815 Upon a sacred monument, for it 816 Will make him womanish, and make sure that 817 You don’t wash in a basin that has been 818 Just handled by a woman – punishment, 819 Should you do this, will for a time be keen. 820 If you should find a sacrifice unspent 821 of flame, do not belittle things that we 822 Know nothing of – a god is angered thus. 823 In springs or rivers flowing to the sea 824 Don’t urinate – this point is serious. 825 It’s better not to vent your bowels there: 826 Thus you’ll stay fee of mortals’ wicked chat, ' None
10. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judean Calendar Plaques • calendar • solar (calendar)

 Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 3; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 384, 396

11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 24.7-24.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Calendars, Lunar • Calendars, Solar • Festivals—see also Calendar • calendars, mishmarot

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 71; Bowen and Rochberg (2020), Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts, 536; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 270, 271

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24.7 וַיֵּצֵא הַגּוֹרָל הָרִאשׁוֹן לִיהוֹיָרִיב לִידַעְיָה הַשֵּׁנִי׃ 24.8 לְחָרִם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לִשְׂעֹרִים הָרְבִעִי׃ 24.9 לְמַלְכִּיָּה הַחֲמִישִׁי לְמִיָּמִן הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃' '24.11 לְיֵשׁוּעַ הַתְּשִׁעִי לִשְׁכַנְיָהוּ הָעֲשִׂרִי׃ 24.12 לְאֶלְיָשִׁיב עַשְׁתֵּי עָשָׂר לְיָקִים שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר׃ 24.13 לְחֻפָּה שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְיֶשֶׁבְאָב אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר׃ 24.14 לְבִלְגָּה חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר לְאִמֵּר שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר׃ 24.15 לְחֵזִיר שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר לְהַפִּצֵּץ שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר׃ 24.16 לִפְתַחְיָה תִּשְׁעָה עָשָׂר לִיחֶזְקֵאל הָעֶשְׂרִים׃ 24.17 לְיָכִין אֶחָד וְעֶשְׂרִים לְגָמוּל שְׁנַיִם וְעֶשְׂרִים׃ 24.18 לִדְלָיָהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים לְמַעַזְיָהוּ אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים׃'' None
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24.7 Now the first lot came forth to Jehoiarib, the second to Jedaiah; 24.8 the third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim; 24.9 the fifth to Malchijah, the sixth to Mijamin; 24.10 the seventh to Hakkoz, the eighth to Abijah; 24.11 the ninth to Jeshua, the tenth to Shecaniah; 24.12 the eleventh to Eliashib, the twelfth to Jakim; 24.13 the thirteenth to Huppah, the fourteenth to Jeshebeab; 24.14 the fifteenth to Bilgah, the sixteenth to Immer; 24.15 the seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Happizzez; 24.16 the nineteenth to Pethahiah, the twentieth to Jehezkel; 24.17 the one and twentieth to Jachin, the two and twentieth to Gamul; 24.18 the three and twentieth to Delaiah, the four and twentieth to Maaziah.'' None
12. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • assembly, calendar • calendar • calendars, sacred

 Found in books: Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 345; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 66; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 16

13. Aeschines, Letters, 1.23 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Solon, calendar of • calendars, sacred • calendars, sacred, of Nicomachus

 Found in books: Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 22; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 169, 170, 191

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1.23 After the purifying sacrifice has been carried round“It was custom at Athens to purify the ecclesia, the theatres, and the gatherings of the people in general by the sacrifice of very small pigs, which they named kaqa/rsia.”—Harpocration and the herald has offered the traditional prayers, the presiding officers are commanded to declare to be next in order the discussion of matters pertaining to the national religion, the reception of heralds and ambassadors, and the discussion of secular matters.The above interpretation is confirmed by Aristot. Const. Ath. 43.1.29 f., where we find the same phraseology, evidently that of the law itself. Heralds, whose person was inviolate even in time of war, were often sent to carry messages from one state to another. They frequently prepared the way for negotiations to be conducted by ambassadors, appointed for the special occasion. The herald then asks, “Who of those above fifty years of age wishes to address the assembly?” When all these have spoken, he then invites any other Athenian to speak who wishes (provided such privileges belongs to him).That is, any citizen who is not disqualified by some loss of civic privilege inflicted as a penalty. Aeschines has in mind the fact that a man like Timarchus would not have the privilege. '' None
14. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Erchia, sacrificial calendar from deme • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • Solon, calendar of • calendars, sacred • calendars, sacred, of Marathon Tetrapolis • calendars, sacred, of Nicomachus

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 241; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 22; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 60, 167, 170, 191; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 80

15. Anon., 1 Enoch, 59, 71, 72, 72.13, 72.32, 73, 73.1-74.9, 74, 75, 75.2, 76, 77, 78, 78.10, 78.15, 78.16, 79, 80, 81, 82, 82.4, 82.5, 82.6, 82.7, 82.9, 82.10, 82.11, 82.12, 82.13, 82.14, 82.15, 82.16, 82.17, 82.18, 82.19, 82.20 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Calendar (lunar, solar) • Calendar, intercalation • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Calendars • Calendars, Solar • Festivals—see also Calendar • Solar calendar • calendar • calendars, Hebrew • calendars, lunar • calendars, solar

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 173, 177, 419; Bowen and Rochberg (2020), Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts, 530, 531; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 258, 261, 282; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 47, 57; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 868, 968; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 47, 319; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 7, 84, 151, 229; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 40, 45, 46, 47, 49, 56

72 The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world,and unto eternity, till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity. And this is the first law of the luminaries: the luminary the Sun has its rising in the eastern portals of the heaven,,and its setting in the western portals of the heaven. And I saw six portals in which the sun rises, and six portals in which the sun sets and the moon rises and sets in these portals, and the leaders of the stars and those whom they lead: six in the east and six in the west, and all following each other,in accurately corresponding order: also many windows to the right and left of these portals. And first there goes forth the great luminary, named the Sun, and his circumference is like the,circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illuminating and heating fire. The chariot on which he ascends, the wind drives, and the sun goes down from the heaven and returns through the north in order to reach the east, and is so guided that he comes to the appropriate (lit. \' that \') portal and,shines in the face of the heaven. In this way he rises in the first month in the great portal, which,is the fourth those six portals in the cast. And in that fourth portal from which the sun rises in the first month are twelve window-openings, from which proceed a flame when they are opened in,their season. When the sun rises in the heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty,,mornings in succession, and sets accurately in the fourth portal in the west of the heaven. And during this period the day becomes daily longer and the night nightly shorter to the thirtieth,morning. On that day the day is longer than the night by a ninth part, and the day amounts exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings, and rises from it and sets in the fifth,portal. And then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts to eleven parts, and the night,becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth",portal, and rises and sets in the sixth portal one-and-thirty mornings on account of its sign. On that day the day becomes longer than the night, and the day becomes double the night, and the day,becomes twelve parts, and the night is shortened and becomes six parts. And the sun mounts up to make the day shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east and enters into the,sixth portal, and rises from it and sets thirty mornings. And when thirty mornings are accomplished,,the day decreases by exactly one part, and becomes eleven parts, and the night seven. And the sun goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to the east and rises in the fifth portal for,thirty mornings, and sets in the west again in the fifth western portal. On that day the day decreases by two parts, and amounts to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun goes forth from that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, and rises in the fourth portal for one-,and-thirty mornings on account of its sign, and sets in the west. On that day the day is equalized with the night, and becomes of equal length, and the night amounts to nine parts and the day to,nine parts. And the sun rises from that portal and sets in the west, and returns to the east and rises,thirty mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third portal. And on that day the night becomes longer than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight,parts. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the third portal in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty mornings rises,in the second portal in the east, and in like manner sets in the second portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night amounts to eleven,parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty,mornings, and sets in the first portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night becomes longer and amounts to the double of the day: and the night amounts exactly to twelve parts and,the day to six. And the sun has (therewith) traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on those divisions of his orbit, and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also in the west,opposite to it. And on that night has the night decreased in length by a ninth part, and the night,has become eleven parts and the day seven parts. And the sun has returned and entered into the second portal in the east, and returns on those his divisions of his orbit for thirty mornings, rising,and setting. And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night amounts to ten parts,and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven.,On that day the night decreases and amounts to nine parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night,is equal to the day and the year is exactly as to its days three hundred and sixty-four. And the length of the day and of the night, and the shortness of the day and of the night arise-through the course,of the sun these distinctions are made (lit. \' they are separated \'). So it comes that its course becomes",daily longer, and its course nightly shorter. And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great luminary which is named the sun, for ever and ever. And that which (thus) rises is the great luminary, and is so named according to,its appearance, according as the Lord commanded. As he rises, so he sets and decreases not, and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is sevenfold brighter than that of the moon; but as regards size they are both equal.' '
78 And the names of the sun are the following: the first Orjares, and the second Tomas. And the moon has four names: the first name is Asonja, the second Ebla, the third Benase, and the fourth,Erae. These are the two great luminaries: their circumference is like the circumference of the",heaven, and the size of the circumference of both is alike. In the circumference of the sun there are seven portions of light which are added to it more than to the moon, and in definite measures it is s transferred till the seventh portion of the sun is exhausted. And they set and enter the portals of the west, and make their revolution by the north, and come forth through the eastern portals,on the face of the heaven. And when the moon rises one-fourteenth part appears in the heaven:",the light becomes full in her: on the fourteenth day she accomplishes her light. And fifteen parts of light are transferred to her till the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished, according to the sign of the year, and she becomes fifteen parts, and the moon grows by (the addition of) fourteenth,parts. And in her waning (the moon) decreases on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second to thirteen parts of light, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, on the fifth to ten, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the tenth to five, on the eleventh to four, on the twelfth to three, on the thirteenth to two, on the,fourteenth to the half of a seventh, and all her remaining light disappears wholly on the fifteenth. And,in certain months the month has twenty-nine days and once twenty-eight. And Uriel showed me another law: when light is transferred to the moon, and on which side it is transferred to her by the sun. During all the period during which the moon is growing in her light, she is transferring it to herself when opposite to the sun during fourteen days her light is accomplished in the heaven,,and when she is illumined throughout, her light is accomplished full in the heaven. And on the first,day she is called the new moon, for on that day the light rises upon her. She becomes full moon exactly on the day when the sun sets in the west, and from the east she rises at night, and the moon shines the whole night through till the sun rises over against her and the moon is seen over against the sun. On the side whence the light of the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all the light vanishes and all the days of the month are at an end, and her circumference is empty, void of,light. And three months she makes of thirty days, and at her time she makes three months of twenty- nine days each, in which she accomplishes her waning in the first period of time, and in the first,portal for one hundred and seventy-seven days. And in the time of her going out she appears for three months (of) thirty days each, and for three months she appears (of) twenty-nine each. At night she appears like a man for twenty days each time, and by day she appears like the heaven, and there is nothing else in her save her light.59 In those days mine eyes saw the secrets of the lightnings, and of the lights, and the judgements they execute (lit. ' their judgement '): and they lighten for a blessing or a curse as the Lord of,Spirits willeth. And there I saw the secrets of the thunder, and how when it resounds above in the heaven, the sound thereof is heard, and he caused me to see the judgements executed on the earth, whether they be for well-being and blessing, or for a curse according to the word of the Lord of Spirits.,And after that all the secrets of the lights and lightnings were shown to me, and they lighten for blessing and for satisfying." 71 And it came to pass after this that my spirit was translated And it ascended into the heavens: And I saw the holy sons of God. They were stepping on flames of fire: Their garments were white and their raiment, And their faces shone like snow.,And I saw two streams of fire, And the light of that fire shone like hyacinth, And I fell on my face before the Lord of Spirits.,And the angel Michael one of the archangels seized me by my right hand, And lifted me up and led me forth into all the secrets, And he showed me all the secrets of righteousness.,And he showed me all the secrets of the ends of the heaven, And all the chambers of all the stars, and all the luminaries, Whence they proceed before the face of the holy ones.,And he translated my spirit into the heaven of heavens, And I saw there as it were a structure built of crystals, And between those crystals tongues of living fire.,And my spirit saw the girdle which girt that house of fire, And on its four sides were streams full of living fire, And they girt that house.,And round about were Seraphin, Cherubic, and Ophannin: And these are they who sleep not And guard the throne of His glory.,And I saw angels who could not be counted, A thousand thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand, Encircling that house.And Michael, and Raphael, and Gabriel, and Phanuel, And the holy angels who are above the heavens, Go in and out of that house.,And they came forth from that house, And Michael and Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel, And many holy angels without number.,And with them the Head of Days, His head white and pure as wool, And His raiment indescribable.,And I fell on my face, And my whole body became relaxed, And my spirit was transfigured;And I cried with a loud voice, . . . with the spirit of power, And blessed and glorified and extolled.,And these blessings which went forth out of my mouth were well pleasing before that Head of Days. And that Head of Days came with Michael and Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel, thousands and ten thousands of angels without number.,passage wherein the Son of Man was described as accompanying the Head of Days, and Enoch asked one of the angels (as in xlvi.,concerning the Son of Man as to who he was.",And he (i.e. the angel) came to me and greeted me with His voice, and said unto me \' This is the Son of Man who is born unto righteousness, And righteousness abides over him, And the righteousness of the Head of Days forsakes him not.\',And he said unto me: \' He proclaims unto thee peace in the name of the world to come; For from hence has proceeded peace since the creation of the world, And so shall it be unto thee for ever and for ever and ever.,And all shall walk in his ways since righteousness never forsaketh him: With him will be their dwelling-places, and with him their heritage, And they shall not be separated from him for ever and ever and ever.And so there shall be length of days with that Son of Man, And the righteous shall have peace and an upright way In the name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever.\'Section I I I. Chapters LXXII-LXXXII The Book of the Heavenly Luminarie
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The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world,and unto eternity, till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity. And this is the first law of the luminaries: the luminary the Sun has its rising in the eastern portals of the heaven,,and its setting in the western portals of the heaven. And I saw six portals in which the sun rises, and six portals in which the sun sets and the moon rises and sets in these portals, and the leaders of the stars and those whom they lead: six in the east and six in the west, and all following each other,in accurately corresponding order: also many windows to the right and left of these portals. And first there goes forth the great luminary, named the Sun, and his circumference is like the,circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illuminating and heating fire. The chariot on which he ascends, the wind drives, and the sun goes down from the heaven and returns through the north in order to reach the east, and is so guided that he comes to the appropriate (lit. \' that \') portal and,shines in the face of the heaven. In this way he rises in the first month in the great portal, which,is the fourth those six portals in the cast. And in that fourth portal from which the sun rises in the first month are twelve window-openings, from which proceed a flame when they are opened in,their season. When the sun rises in the heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty,,mornings in succession, and sets accurately in the fourth portal in the west of the heaven. And during this period the day becomes daily longer and the night nightly shorter to the thirtieth,morning. On that day the day is longer than the night by a ninth part, and the day amounts exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings, and rises from it and sets in the fifth,portal. And then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts to eleven parts, and the night,becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth",portal, and rises and sets in the sixth portal one-and-thirty mornings on account of its sign. On that day the day becomes longer than the night, and the day becomes double the night, and the day,becomes twelve parts, and the night is shortened and becomes six parts. And the sun mounts up to make the day shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east and enters into the,sixth portal, and rises from it and sets thirty mornings. And when thirty mornings are accomplished,,the day decreases by exactly one part, and becomes eleven parts, and the night seven. And the sun goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to the east and rises in the fifth portal for,thirty mornings, and sets in the west again in the fifth western portal. On that day the day decreases by two parts, and amounts to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun goes forth from that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, and rises in the fourth portal for one-,and-thirty mornings on account of its sign, and sets in the west. On that day the day is equalized with the night, and becomes of equal length, and the night amounts to nine parts and the day to,nine parts. And the sun rises from that portal and sets in the west, and returns to the east and rises,thirty mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third portal. And on that day the night becomes longer than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight,parts. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the third portal in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty mornings rises,in the second portal in the east, and in like manner sets in the second portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night amounts to eleven,parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty,mornings, and sets in the first portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night becomes longer and amounts to the double of the day: and the night amounts exactly to twelve parts and,the day to six. And the sun has (therewith) traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on those divisions of his orbit, and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also in the west,opposite to it. And on that night has the night decreased in length by a ninth part, and the night,has become eleven parts and the day seven parts. And the sun has returned and entered into the second portal in the east, and returns on those his divisions of his orbit for thirty mornings, rising,and setting. And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night amounts to ten parts,and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven.,On that day the night decreases and amounts to nine parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night,is equal to the day and the year is exactly as to its days three hundred and sixty-four. And the length of the day and of the night, and the shortness of the day and of the night arise-through the course,of the sun these distinctions are made (lit. \' they are separated \'). So it comes that its course becomes",daily longer, and its course nightly shorter. And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great luminary which is named the sun, for ever and ever. And that which (thus) rises is the great luminary, and is so named according to,its appearance, according as the Lord commanded. As he rises, so he sets and decreases not, and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is sevenfold brighter than that of the moon; but as regards size they are both equal.
73
And after this law I saw another law dealing with the smaller luminary, which is named the Moon. And her circumference is like the circumference of the heaven, and her chariot in which she rides is driven by the wind, and light is given to her in (definite) measure. And her rising and setting change every month: and her days are like the days of the sun, and when her light is uniform (i.e. full) it amounts to the seventh part of the light of the sun. And thus she rises. And her first phase in the east comes forth on the thirtieth morning: and on that day she becomes visible, and constitutes for you the first phase of the moon on the thirtieth day together with the sun in the portal where the sun rises. And the one half of her goes forth by a seventh part, and her whole circumference is empty, without light, with the exception of one-seventh part of it, (and) the,fourteenth part of her light. And when she receives one-seventh part of the half of her light, her light,amounts to one-seventh part and the half thereof. And she sets with the sun, and when the sun rises the moon rises with him and receives the half of one part of light, and in that night in the beginning of her morning in the commencement of the lunar day the moon sets with the sun, and,is invisible that night with the fourteen parts and the half of one of them. And she rises on that day with exactly a seventh part, and comes forth and recedes from the rising of the sun, and in her remaining days she becomes bright in the (remaining) thirteen parts.
74
And I saw another course, a law for her, (and) how according to that law she performs her monthly,revolution. And all these Uriel, the holy angel who is the leader of them all, showed to me, and their positions, and I wrote down their positions as he showed them to me, and I wrote down their months,as they were, and the appearance of their lights till fifteen days were accomplished. In single seventh parts she accomplishes all her light in the east, and in single seventh parts accomplishes all her,darkness in the west. And in certain months she alters her settings, and in certain months she pursues,her own peculiar course. In two months the moon sets with the sun: in those two middle portals the",third and the fourth. She goes forth for seven days, and turns about and returns again through the portal where the sun rises, and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes from the sun, and in eight,days enters the sixth portal from which the sun goes forth. And when the sun goes forth from the fourth portal she goes forth seven days, until she goes forth from the fifth and turns back again in seven days into the fourth portal and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes and enters into the,first portal in eight days. And she returns again in seven days into the fourth portal from which the",sun goes forth. Thus I saw their position -how the moons rose and the sun set in those days. And if five years are added together the sun has an overplus of thirty days, and all the days which accrue,to it for one of those five years, when they are full, amount to,days. And the overplus of the sun and of the stars amounts to six days: in",years",days every year come to",days: and the",moon falls behind the sun and stars to the number of",days. And the sun and the stars bring in all the years exactly, so that they do not advance or delay their position by a single day unto eternity; but complete the years with perfect justice in,days. In",years there are",days, and in,years",days, so that in,years there are",days. For the moon alone the days amount in",years to",days, and in,years she falls",days behind: i.e. to the sum (of",there is",to be added (1,000 and),days. And in",years there are",days, so that for the moon the days,in",years amount to",days. For in",years she falls behind to the amount of",days, all the,days she falls behind in",years are",And the year is accurately completed in conformity with their world-stations and the stations of the sun, which rise from the portals through which it (the sun) rises and sets,days."' "

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reckoned in the reckoning of the year. And owing to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly render service on the world-stations, one in the first portal, one in the third portal of the heaven, one in the fourth portal, and one in the sixth portal, and the exactness of the year i
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And the leaders of the heads of the thousands, who are placed over the whole creation and over all the stars, have also to do with the four intercalary days, being inseparable from their office, according to the reckoning of the year, and these render service on the four days which are not,reckoned in the reckoning of the year. And owing to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly render service on the world-stations, one in the first portal, one in the third portal of the heaven, one in the fourth portal, and one in the sixth portal, and the exactness of the year is,accomplished through its separate three hundred and sixty-four stations. For the signs and the times and the years and the days the angel Uriel showed to me, whom the Lord of glory hath set for ever over all the luminaries of the heaven, in the heaven and in the world, that they should rule on the face of the heaven and be seen on the earth, and be leaders for the day and the night, i.e. the sun, moon, and stars, and all the ministering creatures which make their revolution in all the chariots,of the heaven. In like manner twelve doors Uriel showed me, open in the circumference of the sun's chariot in the heaven, through which the rays of the sun break forth: and from them is warmth,diffused over the earth, when they are opened at their appointed seasons. And for the winds and,the spirit of the dew when they are opened, standing open in the heavens at the ends. As for the twelve portals in the heaven, at the ends of the earth, out of which go forth the sun, moon, and stars,,and all the works of heaven in the east and in the west, There are many windows open to the left and right of them, and one window at its (appointed) season produces warmth, corresponding (as these do) to those doors from which the stars come forth according as He has commanded them,,and wherein they set corresponding to their number. And I saw chariots in the heaven, running,in the world, above those portals in which revolve the stars that never set. And one is larger than all the rest, and it is that that makes its course through the entire world." 76 And at the ends of the earth I saw twelve portals open to all the quarters (of the heaven), from,which the winds go forth and blow over the earth. Three of them are open on the face (i.e. the east) of the heavens, and three in the west, and three on the right (i.e. the south) of the heaven, and,three on the left (i.e. the north). And the three first are those of the east, and three are of the,north, and three after those on the left of the south, and three of the west. Through four of these come winds of blessing and prosperity, and from those eight come hurtful winds: when they are sent, they bring destruction on all the earth and on the water upon it, and on all who dwell thereon, and on everything which is in the water and on the land.,And the first wind from those portals, called the east wind, comes forth through the first portal which is in the east, inclining towards the south: from it come forth desolation, drought, heat,,and destruction. And through the second portal in the middle comes what is fitting, and from it there come rain and fruitfulness and prosperity and dew; and through the third portal which lies toward the north come cold and drought.,And after these come forth the south winds through three portals: through the first portal of",them inclining to the east comes forth a hot wind. And through the middle portal next to it there",come forth fragrant smells, and dew and rain, and prosperity and health. And through the third portal lying to the west come forth dew and rain, locusts and desolation.,And after these the north winds: from the seventh portal in the east come dew and rain, locusts and desolation. And from the middle portal come in a direct direction health and rain and dew and prosperity; and through the third portal in the west come cloud and hoar-frost, and snow and rain, and dew and locusts.,And after these four are the west winds: through the first portal adjoining the north come forth dew and hoar-frost, and cold and snow and frost. And from the middle portal come forth dew and rain, and prosperity and blessing; and through the last portal which adjoins the south come forth drought and desolation, and burning and destruction. And the twelve portals of the four quarters of the heaven are therewith completed, and all their laws and all their plagues and all their benefactions have I shown to thee, my son Methuselah.
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And the first quarter is called the east, because it is the first: and the second, the south, because the Most High will descend there, yea, there in quite a special sense will He who is blessed for ever,descend. And the west quarter is named the diminished, because there all the luminaries of the,heaven wane and go down. And the fourth quarter, named the north, is divided into three parts: the first of them is for the dwelling of men: and the second contains seas of water, and the abysses and forests and rivers, and darkness and clouds; and the third part contains the garden of righteousness.,I saw seven high mountains, higher than all the mountains which are on the earth: and thence,comes forth hoar-frost, and days, seasons, and years pass away. I saw seven rivers on the earth larger than all the rivers: one of them coming from the west pours its waters into the Great Sea.,And these two come from the north to the sea and pour their waters into the Erythraean Sea in the",east. And the remaining, four come forth on the side of the north to their own sea, two of them to the Erythraean Sea, and two into the Great Sea and discharge themselves there and some say:,into the desert. Seven great islands I saw in the sea and in the mainland: two in the mainland and five in the Great Sea."
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And the names of the sun are the following: the first Orjares, and the second Tomas. And the moon has four names: the first name is Asonja, the second Ebla, the third Benase, and the fourth,Erae. These are the two great luminaries: their circumference is like the circumference of the",heaven, and the size of the circumference of both is alike. In the circumference of the sun there are seven portions of light which are added to it more than to the moon, and in definite measures it is s transferred till the seventh portion of the sun is exhausted. And they set and enter the portals of the west, and make their revolution by the north, and come forth through the eastern portals,on the face of the heaven. And when the moon rises one-fourteenth part appears in the heaven:",the light becomes full in her: on the fourteenth day she accomplishes her light. And fifteen parts of light are transferred to her till the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished, according to the sign of the year, and she becomes fifteen parts, and the moon grows by (the addition of) fourteenth,parts. And in her waning (the moon) decreases on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second to thirteen parts of light, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, on the fifth to ten, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the tenth to five, on the eleventh to four, on the twelfth to three, on the thirteenth to two, on the,fourteenth to the half of a seventh, and all her remaining light disappears wholly on the fifteenth. And,in certain months the month has twenty-nine days and once twenty-eight. And Uriel showed me another law: when light is transferred to the moon, and on which side it is transferred to her by the sun. During all the period during which the moon is growing in her light, she is transferring it to herself when opposite to the sun during fourteen days her light is accomplished in the heaven,,and when she is illumined throughout, her light is accomplished full in the heaven. And on the first,day she is called the new moon, for on that day the light rises upon her. She becomes full moon exactly on the day when the sun sets in the west, and from the east she rises at night, and the moon shines the whole night through till the sun rises over against her and the moon is seen over against the sun. On the side whence the light of the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all the light vanishes and all the days of the month are at an end, and her circumference is empty, void of,light. And three months she makes of thirty days, and at her time she makes three months of twenty- nine days each, in which she accomplishes her waning in the first period of time, and in the first,portal for one hundred and seventy-seven days. And in the time of her going out she appears for three months (of) thirty days each, and for three months she appears (of) twenty-nine each. At night she appears like a man for twenty days each time, and by day she appears like the heaven, and there is nothing else in her save her light.
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And now, my son, I have shown thee everything, and the law of all the stars of the heaven is,completed. And he showed me all the laws of these for every day, and for every season of bearing rule, and for every year, and for its going forth, and for the order prescribed to it every month,and every week: And the waning of the moon which takes place in the sixth portal: for in this",sixth portal her light is accomplished, and after that there is the beginning of the waning: (And the waning) which takes place in the first portal in its season, till one hundred and seventy-seven,days are accomplished: reckoned according to weeks, twenty-five (weeks) and two days. She falls behind the sun and the order of the stars exactly five days in the course of one period, and when,this place which thou seest has been traversed. Such is the picture and sketch of every luminary which Uriel the archangel, who is their leader, showed unto me.
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And in those days the angel Uriel answered and said to me: \' Behold, I have shown thee everything, Enoch, and I have revealed everything to thee that thou shouldst see this sun and this moon, and the leaders of the stars of the heaven and all those who turn them, their tasks and times and departures.,And in the days of the sinners the years shall be shortened, And their seed shall be tardy on their lands and fields, And all things on the earth shall alter, And shall not appear in their time: And the rain shall be kept back And the heaven shall withhold (it).,And in those times the fruits of the earth shall be backward, And shall not grow in their time, And the fruits of the trees shall be withheld in their time.,And the moon shall alter her order, And not appear at her time.,And in those days the sun shall be seen and he shall journey in the evening on the extremity of the great chariot in the west And shall shine more brightly than accords with the order of light.",And many chiefs of the stars shall transgress the order (prescribed). And these shall alter their orbits and tasks, And not appear at the seasons prescribed to them.,And the whole order of the stars shall be concealed from the sinners, And the thoughts of those on the earth shall err concerning them, And they shall be altered from all their ways, Yea, they shall err and take them to be gods.,And evil shall be multiplied upon them, And punishment shall come upon them So as to destroy all.\'' "
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And he said unto me: ' Observe, Enoch, these heavenly tablets, And read what is written thereon, And mark every individual fact.',And I observed the heavenly tablets, and read everything which was written (thereon) and understood everything, and read the book of all the deeds of mankind, and of all the children of flesh,that shall be upon the earth to the remotest generations. And forthwith I blessed the great Lord the King of glory for ever, in that He has made all the works of the world,And I extolled the Lord because of His patience, And blessed Him because of the children of men.,And after that I said: ' Blessed is the man who dies in righteousness and goodness, Concerning whom there is no book of unrighteousness written, And against whom no day of judgement shall be found.',And those seven holy ones brought me and placed me on the earth before the door of my house, and said to me: ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, and show to all thy children that no,flesh is righteous in the sight of the Lord, for He is their Creator. One year we will leave thee with thy son, till thou givest thy (last) commands, that thou mayest teach thy children and record (it) for them, and testify to all thy children; and in the second year they shall take thee from their midst.,Let thy heart be strong, For the good shall announce righteousness to the good;The righteous with the righteous shall rejoice, And shall offer congratulation to one another.,But the sinners shall die with the sinners, And the apostate go down with the apostate.,And those who practice righteousness shall die on account of the deeds of men, And be taken away on account of the doings of the godless.',And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world."
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Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which

82.5
lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them

82.6
accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.

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And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the

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and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months.

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the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between"' "

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leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki'el, Hel'emmelek, and Mel'ejal," "

82.14
and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar'el, and Ijasusa'el, and 'Elome'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam'aini and sun, and"
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And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father\'s hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world.,I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, And thy children that shall be to thee, That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought.,And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food.,Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which,lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them,accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.,And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the,Lord of the whole creation of the world hath subjected the host of heaven. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to cause the light to give light to men -sun, moon, and stars,,and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months.,And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder,the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between",leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki\'el, Hel\'emmelek, and Mel\'ejal,,and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar\'el, and Ijasusa\'el, and \'Elome\'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam\'aini and sun, and,all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka\'el, Zelebs\'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end.,The next leader after him is Hel\'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the days,of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that is,in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida\'ljal, Ke\'el, and He\'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa\'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions.' "

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all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka'el, Zelebs'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end."
82.18
The next leader after him is Hel'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the day"
82.19
of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that i
82
And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father\'s hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world.,I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, And thy children that shall be to thee, That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought.,And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food.,Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which,lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them,accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.,And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the,Lord of the whole creation of the world hath subjected the host of heaven. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to cause the light to give light to men -sun, moon, and stars,,and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months.,And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder,the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between",leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki\'el, Hel\'emmelek, and Mel\'ejal,,and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar\'el, and Ijasusa\'el, and \'Elome\'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam\'aini and sun, and,all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka\'el, Zelebs\'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end.,The next leader after him is Hel\'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the days,of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that is,in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida\'ljal, Ke\'el, and He\'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa\'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions. " None
16. Anon., Jubilees, 1.9, 1.14, 2.9, 3.31, 4.17-4.18, 4.21, 6.10-6.18, 6.21, 6.23-6.38, 15.25, 16.28-16.29, 18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Calendar (lunar, solar) • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Calendars • Calendars, Solar • Festivals—see also Calendar • calendar • calendar in 1 Enoch • calendar in 1 Enoch, at Qumran • calendar, • calendars, solar

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 122, 123; Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 173, 177, 323, 419; Bowen and Rochberg (2020), Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts, 533; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 258, 259, 260; Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 104, 105; Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 111, 281; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 47; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 51; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 84, 138; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 266

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1.9 And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying: "Unto your seed will I give a land flowing with milk and honey
1.14
and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there).
2.9
And this was the only work (God) created on the second day.
3.31
for God doth know that on the day ye shall eat thereof, your eyes will be opened, and ye will be as gods, and ye will know good and evil."' "
4.17
And in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dînâh, the daughter of Barâkî’êl the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared;" '4.18 for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth.
4.21
And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom
6.10
But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11 At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man.' "6.12 Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." '6.13 And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth." 6.14 And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh, 6.15 and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16 On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 6.17 And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth, 6.18 and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land.
6.21
every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out.
6.23
He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covet that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 6.24 For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to renew the covet every year. 6.25 And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah-twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years:...' "6.26 and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood." '6.27 But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days, 6.28 and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29 And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30 one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31 For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32 this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33 For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year, 6.34 and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35 And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36 These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37 And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38 And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth.
15.25
And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were circumcised with him.
16.28
and he was the first to celebrate the feast of tabernacles on the earth.rAnd during these seven days he brought each day to the altar a burnt-offering to the Lord, 16.29 two oxen, two rams, seven sheep, one he-goat, for a sin-offering, that he might atone thereby for himself and for his seed.
18.19
And in thy seed will all nations of the earth be blessed; Because thou hast obeyed My voice, And I have shown to all that thou art faithful unto Me in all that I have said unto thee: Go in peace."'' None
17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Calendars, Solar • Festivals—see also Calendar • calendar • solar (calendar)

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 173; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 267; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 387

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7.25 וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא עִלָּאָה יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃'' None
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7.25 And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time.'' None
18. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.7, 6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Calendars, Liturgical • Maccabees (Books), Calendar System • calendar • solar (calendar)

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1136; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 387; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 376

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1.7 In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom'" "
6.7
On the monthly celebration of the king's birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when the feast of Dionysus came, they were compelled to walk in the procession in honor of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy.'"" None
19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 33.14-33.15, 43.2, 43.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Calendars • Calendars, Solar • Festivals—see also Calendar • calendar, calendrical issues

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 173, 175, 177, 417, 418, 419; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 257; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 101

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33.14 Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15 Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other.' ' None
20. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendars • calendars, Jewish • calendars, uniformity of • calendars, wall-painting

 Found in books: Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 407; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 109

21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendars • calendars, astronomical calendar • calendars, decree of the Koinon of Asia

 Found in books: Hallmannsecker (2022), Roman Ionia: Constructions of Cultural Identity in Western Asia Minor, 149; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 112

22. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar, intercalation • Festivals—see also Calendar

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 161; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 46

23. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar (lunar, solar) • Calendar, intercalation • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Dead Sea Scrolls, and calendar • Festivals—see also Calendar • Sadducees, calendar used by • calendar, variations in • numerology, and calendar year

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 274; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 18; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 47, 505, 527

24. Ovid, Fasti, 1.7, 1.9, 1.45-1.54, 1.56-1.57, 1.289, 1.587, 1.589, 1.637, 1.640-1.644, 3.697-3.702, 4.949-4.954, 6.249 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • abbreviations, in calendars • calendar • calendar, Roman (fasti) • calendars, Italian • calendars, Jewish • calendars, fasti • calendars, local, Roman influence on • calendars, lunisolar • calendars, stone • calendars, wall • magistrates and calendar • magistrates and calendar, lists of

 Found in books: Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 163; Bierl (2017), Time and Space in Ancient Myth, Religion and Culture, 299, 303, 305; Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 403; Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 1, 42, 61, 62, 75, 133, 198, 212; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 19, 20, 24, 26, 45, 46, 56, 98, 104; Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 4

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1.45 ne tamen ignores variorum iura dierum, 1.46 non habet officii Lucifer omnis idem. 1.47 ille nefastus erit, per quem tria verba silentur: 1.48 fastus erit, per quem lege licebit agi. 1.49 nec toto perstare die sua iura putaris: 1.50 qui iam fastus erit, mane nefastus erat; 1.51 nam simul exta deo data sunt, licet omnia fari, 1.52 verbaque honoratus libera praetor habet, 1.53 est quoque, quo populum ius est includere saeptis: 1.54 est quoque, qui nono semper ab orbe redit.
1.589
redditaque est omnis populo provincia nostro,
1.640
nunc te sacratae constituere manus. 1.641 Furius antiquam populi superator Etrusci 1.642 voverat et voti solverat ille fidem, 1.643 causa, quod a patribus sumptis secesserat armis 1.644 volgus, et ipsa suas Roma timebat opes.
3.697
praeteriturus eram gladios in principe fixos, 3.698 cum sic a castis Vesta locuta focis: 3.699 ‘ne dubita meminisse: meus fuit ille sacerdos, 3.700 sacrilegae telis me petiere manus. 3.701 ipsa virum rapui simulacraque nuda reliqui: 3.702 quae cecidit ferro, Caesaris umbra fuit.’
4.949
aufer Vesta diem! cognati Vesta recepta est 4.950 limine: sic iusti constituere patres. 4.951 Phoebus habet partem, Vestae pars altera cessit; 4.952 quod superest illis, tertius ipse tenet, 4.953 state Palatinae laurus, praetextaque quercu
6.249
Vesta, fave! tibi nunc operata resolvimus ora,' ' None
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1.45 Yet lest you’re unaware of the laws of the various days, 1.46 Know Dawn doesn’t always bring the same observances. 1.47 Those days are unlawful (nefastus) when the praetor’s three word 1.48 May not be spoken, lawful (fastus) when law may be enacted. 1.49 But don’t assume each day maintains its character throughout: 1.50 What’s now a lawful day may have been unlawful at dawn: 1.51 Since once the sacrifice has been offered, all is acceptable, 1.52 And the honoured praetor is then allowed free speech. 1.53 There are those days, comitiales, when the people vote: 1.54 And the market days that always recur in a nine-day cycle.
1.589
And your grandfather was given the name Augustus.
1.640
Camillus, conqueror of the Etruscan people, 1.641 Vowed your ancient temple and kept his vow. 1.642 His reason was that the commoners had armed themselves, 1.643 Seceding from the nobles, and Rome feared their power. 1.644 This latest reason was a better one: revered Leader, Germany
3.697
Our leader, when Vesta spoke from her pure hearth: 3.698 Don’t hesitate to recall them: he was my priest, 3.699 And those sacrilegious hands sought me with their blades. 3.700 I snatched him away, and left a naked semblance: 3.701 What died by the steel, was Caesar’s shadow.’ 3.702 Raised to the heavens he found Jupiter’s halls,
4.949
At her kinsman’s threshold: so the Senators justly decreed. 4.950 Phoebus takes part of the space there: a further part remain 4.951 For Vesta, and the third part that’s left, Caesar occupies. 4.952 Long live the laurels of the Palatine: long live that house 4.953 Decked with branches of oak: one place holds three eternal gods.
6.249
Vesta, favour me! I’ll open my lips now in your service,' ' None
25. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • abbreviations, in calendars • calendars, local, Roman influence on • calendars, marble • calendars, wall

 Found in books: Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 163; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 96, 126

26. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar • calendars, French, Revolutionary • calendars, wall

 Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 36; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 98, 115

27. Anon., Didache, 11.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Calendar (lunar, solar)

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 9; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 523

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11.3 Whosoever, therefore, comes and teaches you all these things that have been said before, receive him. But if the teacher himself turn and teach another doctrine to the destruction of this, hear him not; but if he teach so as to increase righteousness and the knowledge of the Lord, receive him as the Lord. But concerning the apostles and prophets, according to the decree of the Gospel, thus do. Let every apostle that comes to you be received as the Lord. But he shall not remain except one day; but if there be need, also the next; but if he remain three days, he is a false prophet. And when the apostle goes away, let him take nothing but bread until he lodges; but if he ask money, he is a false prophet. And every prophet that speaks in the Spirit you shall neither try nor judge; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven. But not every one that speaks in the Spirit is a prophet; but only if he hold the ways of the Lord. Therefore from their ways shall the false prophet and the prophet be known. And every prophet who orders a meal in the Spirit eats not from it, except indeed he be a false prophet; and every prophet who teaches the truth, if he do not what he teaches, is a false prophet. And every prophet, proved true, working unto the mystery of the Church in the world, yet not teaching others to do what he himself does, shall not be judged among you, for with God he has his judgment; for so did also the ancient prophets. But whoever says in the Spirit, Give me money, or something else, you shall not listen to him; but if he says to you to give for others' sake who are in need, let no one judge him. "" None
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.252 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar (lunar, solar) • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 264; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 49

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3.252 ̔Εβδόμης ἑβδομάδος διαγεγενημένης μετὰ ταύτην τὴν θυσίαν, αὗται δ' εἰσὶν αἱ τῶν ἑβδομάδων ἡμέραι τεσσαράκοντα καὶ ἐννέα, τῇ πεντηκοστῇ, ἣν ̔Εβραῖοι ἀσαρθὰ καλοῦσι, σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο πεντηκοστήν, καθ' ἣν προσάγουσι τῷ θεῷ ἄρτον ἀλφίτων μὲν πυρίνων ἀσσαρῶνας δύο μετὰ ζύμης γεγονότων, θυμάτων δὲ ἄρνας δύο:"" None
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3.252 6. When a week of weeks has passed over after this sacrifice, (which weeks contain forty and nine days,) on the fiftieth day, which is Pentecost, but is called by the Hebrews Asartha, which signifies Pentecost, they bring to God a loaf, made of wheat flour, of two tenth deals, with leaven; and for sacrifices they bring two lambs;'' None
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.420-6.425 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Festivals—see also Calendar

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 527; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 50

sup>6.421 τούτων τὸ πλέον ὁμόφυλον μὲν ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐπιχώριον: ἀπὸ γὰρ τῆς χώρας ὅλης ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν ἀζύμων ἑορτὴν συνεληλυθότες ἐξαπίνης τῷ πολέμῳ περιεσχέθησαν, ὥστε τὸ μὲν πρῶτον αὐτοῖς τὴν στενοχωρίαν γενέσθαι λοιμώδη φθοράν, αὖθις δὲ καὶ λιμὸν ὠκύτερον." "6.422 ὅτι δ' ἐχώρει τοσούτους ἡ πόλις, δῆλον ἐκ τῶν ἐπὶ Κεστίου συναριθμηθέντων, ὃς τὴν ἀκμὴν τῆς πόλεως διαδηλῶσαι Νέρωνι βουλόμενος καταφρονοῦντι τοῦ ἔθνους παρεκάλεσεν τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς, εἴ πως δυνατὸν εἴη τὴν πληθὺν ἐξαριθμήσασθαι:" "6.423 οἱ δ' ἐνστάσης ἑορτῆς, πάσχα καλεῖται, καθ' ἣν θύουσιν μὲν ἀπὸ ἐνάτης ὥρας μέχρις ἑνδεκάτης, ὥσπερ δὲ φατρία περὶ ἑκάστην γίνεται θυσίαν οὐκ ἐλάσσων ἀνδρῶν δέκα, μόνον γὰρ οὐκ ἔξεστιν δαίνυσθαι, πολλοὶ δὲ καὶ συνείκοσιν ἀθροίζονται," '6.424 τῶν μὲν θυμάτων εἰκοσιπέντε μυριάδας ἠρίθμησαν, πρὸς δὲ πεντακισχίλια ἑξακόσια.' "6.425 γίνονται ἀνδρῶν, ἵν' ἑκάστου δέκα δαιτυμόνας θῶμεν, μυριάδες ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ διακόσιαι καθαρῶν ἁπάντων καὶ ἁγίων:" " Nonesup>6.421 the greater part of whom were indeed of the same nation with the citizens of Jerusalem, but not belonging to the city itself; for they were come up from all the country to the feast of unleavened bread, and were on a sudden shut up by an army, which, at the very first, occasioned so great a straitness among them that there came a pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly. 6.422 And that this city could contain so many people in it, is manifest by that number of them which was taken under Cestius, who being desirous of informing Nero of the power of the city, who otherwise was disposed to contemn that nation, entreated the high priests, if the thing were possible, to take the number of their whole multitude. 6.423 So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company, 6.424 found the number of sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred; 6.425 which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons that were pure and holy;' ' None
30. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • calendar,

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 264; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 110

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10.3 כֵּיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. שְׁלוּחֵי בֵית דִּין יוֹצְאִים מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂים אוֹתוֹ כְרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נוֹחַ לִקְצֹר. וְכָל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם, מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת לְשָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִקְצָר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים, הֵן. בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הֵן, הֵן, הֵן. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה. מִפְּנֵי הַבַּיְתוֹסִים, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב:'' None
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10.3 How would they do it reap the omer?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the first day of the festival.'' None
31. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.1, 2.8-2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • Gamliel, R., calendar court (Yavne) • authority, rabbinic, calendar court (Yavne) • calendar • calendar court (Yavne) • calendar court (Yavne), R. Joshua vs. R. Gamliel • calendar court (Yavne), Yom Kippur date • calendar court (Yavne), divine mandate • calendar court (Yavne), procedures • calendar court (Yavne), witnesses • calendar in 1 Enoch, in rabbinic literature • calendar setting • calendar threats • calendar,

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 277, 560; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 168; Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 201; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 110; Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 201

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2.1 אִם אֵינָן מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ, מְשַׁלְּחִין אַחֵר עִמּוֹ לַהֲעִידוֹ. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין עֵדוּת הַחֹדֶשׁ מִכָּל אָדָם. מִשֶּׁקִּלְקְלוּ הַמִּינִין, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מְקַבְּלִין אֶלָּא מִן הַמַּכִּירִים:
2.8
דְּמוּת צוּרוֹת לְבָנוֹת הָיוּ לוֹ לְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בַּטַּבְלָא וּבַכֹּתֶל בַּעֲלִיָּתוֹ, שֶׁבָּהֶן מַרְאֶה אֶת הַהֶדְיוֹטוֹת וְאוֹמֵר, הֲכָזֶה רָאִיתָ אוֹ כָזֶה. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבָּאוּ שְׁנַיִם וְאָמְרוּ, רְאִינוּהוּ שַׁחֲרִית בַּמִּזְרָח וְעַרְבִית בַּמַּעֲרָב. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי, עֵדֵי שֶׁקֶר הֵם. כְּשֶׁבָּאוּ לְיַבְנֶה קִבְּלָן רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. וְעוֹד בָּאוּ שְׁנַיִם וְאָמְרוּ, רְאִינוּהוּ בִזְמַנּוֹ, וּבְלֵיל עִבּוּרוֹ לֹא נִרְאָה, וְקִבְּלָן רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶּן הַרְכִּינָס, עֵדֵי שֶׁקֶר הֵן, הֵיאָךְ מְעִידִין עַל הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּלְדָה, וּלְמָחָר כְּרֵסָהּ בֵּין שִׁנֶּיהָ. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, רוֹאֶה אֲנִי אֶת דְּבָרֶיךָ: 2.9 שָׁלַח לוֹ רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, גּוֹזְרַנִי עָלֶיךָ שֶׁתָּבֹא אֶצְלִי בְּמַקֶּלְךָ וּבִמְעוֹתֶיךָ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹנְךָ. הָלַךְ וּמְצָאוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מֵצֵר, אָמַר לוֹ, יֶשׁ לִי לִלְמוֹד שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל עָשׂוּי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג), אֵלֶּה מוֹעֲדֵי יְיָ מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ, אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרְאוּ אֹתָם, בֵּין בִּזְמַנָּן בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בִזְמַנָּן, אֵין לִי מוֹעֲדוֹת אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ. בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶּן הַרְכִּינָס, אָמַר לוֹ, אִם בָּאִין אָנוּ לָדוּן אַחַר בֵּית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לָדוּן אַחַר כָּל בֵּית דִּין וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁעָמַד מִימוֹת משֶׁה וְעַד עַכְשָׁיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כד), וַיַּעַל משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְלָמָּה לֹא נִתְפָּרְשׁוּ שְׁמוֹתָן שֶׁל זְקֵנִים, אֶלָּא לְלַמֵּד, שֶׁכָּל שְׁלשָׁה וּשְׁלשָׁה שֶׁעָמְדוּ בֵית דִּין עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, הֲרֵי הוּא כְבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל משֶׁה. נָטַל מַקְלוֹ וּמְעוֹתָיו בְּיָדוֹ, וְהָלַךְ לְיַבְנֶה אֵצֶל רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּיוֹם שֶׁחָל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לִהְיוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹ. עָמַד רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וּנְשָׁקוֹ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ, בֹּא בְשָׁלוֹם, רַבִּי וְתַלְמִידִי, רַבִּי בְחָכְמָה, וְתַלְמִידִי שֶׁקִּבַּלְתָּ דְּבָרָי:'' None
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2.1 If they don’t know him the one who came to testify, they send another with him to testify concerning his reliability. Originally testimony concerning the new moon was accepted from anyone. When the minim disrupted this, it was decreed that testimony should be received only from persons known to the court.
2.8
Rabban Gamaliel had diagrams of the moon on a tablet hung on the wall of his upper chamber, and he used to show them to the unlearned and say, “Did it look like this or this?” It happened that two witnesses came and said, “We saw it in the morning in the east and in the evening in the west.” Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri said: they are lying witnesses. When they came to Yavneh Rabban Gamaliel accepted them. On another occasion two witnesses came and said, “We saw it at its proper time, but on the night which should have been the new moon it was not seen,” and Rabban Gamaliel accepted their evidence. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: they are lying witnesses. How can they testify that a woman has given birth when on the next day her belly is between her teeth (swollen)? Rabbi Joshua to him: I see your argument. 2.9 Rabban Gamaliel sent to him: I order you to appear before me with your staff and your money on the day which according to your count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabbi Akiva went and found him in distress. He said to him: I can teach that whatever Rabban Gamaliel has done is valid, because it says, “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, holy convocations, which you shall proclaim at their appointed times” (Leviticus 23:4), whether they are proclaimed at their proper time or not at their proper time, I have no other appointed times save these. He Rabbi Joshua then went to Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas. He said to him: if we call in question the court of Rabban Gamaliel we must call in question the decisions of every court which has existed since the days of Moses until now. As it says, “Then Moses and Aaron, Nadav and Avihu and seventy of the elders of Israel went up” (Exodus 24:9). Why were the names of the elders not mentioned? To teach that every group of three which has acted as a court over Israel, behold it is like the court of Moses. He Rabbi Joshua took his staff and his money and went to Yavneh to Rabban Gamaliel on the day which according to his count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabban Gamaliel rose and kissed him on his head and said to him: Come in peace, my teacher and my student my teacher in wisdom and my student because you have accepted my decision.'' None
32. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar (lunar, solar) • Calendar, intercalation • calendar, canon, Scripture as

 Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 276; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 33, 40

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10.4 אַנְשֵׁי עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת אֵין לָהֶן חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יג) יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת ישְׁבֵי עִירָם. וְאֵינָן נֶהֱרָגִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מַדִּיחֶיהָ מֵאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר וּמֵאוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁבֶט, וְעַד שֶׁיֻּדַּח רֻבָּהּ, וְעַד שֶׁיַּדִּיחוּם אֲנָשִׁים. הִדִּיחוּהָ נָשִׁים וּקְטַנִּים אוֹ שֶׁהֻדַּח מִעוּטָהּ אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מַדִּיחֶיהָ חוּצָה לָהּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִיחִידִים. וּצְרִיכִין שְׁנֵי עֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. זֶה חֹמֶר בַּיְּחִידִים מִבַּמְּרֻבִּים, שֶׁהַיְּחִידִים בִּסְקִילָה, לְפִיכָךְ מָמוֹנָם פָּלֵט. וְהַמְּרֻבִּים בְּסַיִף, לְפִיכָךְ מָמוֹנָם אָבֵד:'' None
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10.4 The inhabitants of a city seduced into worshipping idols have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “Certain men, wicked persons, have gone out from among you and seduced the inhabitants of their town” (Deuteronomy 13:14). They are not executed unless the seducers are of that city and that tribe, and until the majority of the city are seduced, and the seducers are men. If women or minors seduced it, or if a minority of the city were seduced, or if the seducers were from outside the city, they are treated as individuals, and therefore two witnesses and a formal warning are necessary for each offender. In this the penalty of individuals is severer than that of the multitudes, for individuals are stoned, therefore their property is saved; but the multitudes are decapitated; hence their possessions are destroyed.'' None
33. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Festivals—see also Calendar • calendar,

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 546; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 111

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4.5 מִצְוַת עֲרָבָה כֵּיצַד, מָקוֹם הָיָה לְמַטָּה מִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְנִקְרָא מוֹצָא. יוֹרְדִין לְשָׁם וּמְלַקְּטִין מִשָּׁם מֻרְבִּיּוֹת שֶׁל עֲרָבָה, וּבָאִין וְזוֹקְפִין אוֹתָן בְּצִדֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְרָאשֵׁיהֶן כְּפוּפִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. בְּכָל יוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ פַּעַם אַחַת, וְאוֹמְרִים, אָנָּא ה' הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא, אָנָּא ה' הַצְלִיחָה נָּא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲנִי וָהוֹ הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא. וְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים. בִּשְׁעַת פְּטִירָתָן, מָה הֵן אוֹמְרִים, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ. לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ:"" None
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4.5 The mitzvah of the aravah how was it performed?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah long blast, a teru’ah staccato blast and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: they would say, “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”'' None
34. New Testament, Acts, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Liturgy (liturgical), calendar, Easter • calendars

 Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 246; Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 43

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1.13 Καὶ ὅτε εἰσῆλθον, εἰς τὸ ὑπερῷον ἀνέβησαν οὗ ἦσαν καταμένοντες, ὅ τε Πέτρος καὶ Ἰωάνης καὶ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἀνδρέας, Φίλιππος καὶ Θωμᾶς, Βαρθολομαῖος καὶ Μαθθαῖος, Ἰάκωβος Ἁλφαίου καὶ Σίμων ὁ ζηλωτὴς καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου.'' None
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1.13 When they had come in, they went up into the upper room, where they were staying; that is Peter, John, James, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas the son of James. '' None
35. New Testament, Colossians, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar • calendar,

 Found in books: Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 125; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 201

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2.16 Μὴ οὖν τις ὑμᾶς κρινέτω ἐν βρώσει καὶ ἐν πόσει ἢ ἐν μέρει ἑορτῆς ἢ νεομηνίας ἢ σαββάτων,'' None
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2.16 Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day, '' None
36. New Testament, Romans, 14.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendars • calendar

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 175; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 200

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14.5 ὃς μὲν γὰρ κρίνει ἡμέραν παρʼ ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει πᾶσαν ἡμέραν· ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ νοῒ πληροφορείσθω·'' None
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14.5 One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. '' None
37. New Testament, John, 20.24, 20.26-20.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Liturgy (liturgical), calendar • Liturgy (liturgical), calendar, Easter • calendars

 Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 246; Mendez (2022), The Cult of Stephen in Jerusalem: Inventing a Patron Martyr, 43, 44, 56

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20.24 Θωμᾶς δὲ εἷς ἐκ τῶν δώδεκα, ὁ λεγόμενος Δίδυμος, οὐκ ἦν μετʼ αὐτῶν ὅτε ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς.
20.26
Καὶ μεθʼ ἡμέρας ὀκτὼ πάλιν ἦσαν ἔσω οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ Θωμᾶς μετʼ αὐτῶν. ἔρχεται ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων, καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον καὶ εἶπεν Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν. 20.27 εἶτα λέγει τῷ Θωμᾷ Φέρε τὸν δάκτυλόν σου ὧδε καὶ ἴδε τὰς χεῖράς μου, καὶ φέρε τὴν χεῖρά σου καὶ βάλε εἰς τὴν πλευράν μου, καὶ μὴ γίνου ἄπιστος ἀλλὰ πιστός. 20.28 ἀπεκρίθη Θωμᾶς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου.'' None
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20.24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, wasn't with them when Jesus came. " 20.26 After eight days again his disciples were inside, and Thomas was with them. Jesus came, the doors being locked, and stood in the midst, and said, "Peace be to you." 20.27 Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don\'t be unbelieving, but believing." 20.28 Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!"'" None
38. Tacitus, Annals, 1.8.4, 3.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar, additions to • calendar, and consular date • calendar, and political events • calendars, local, Roman influence on • senate, in Latin and Greek,, calendar of business

 Found in books: Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 162; Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 98; Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 135; Talbert (1984), The Senate of Imperial Rome, 215

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3.17 Post quae Tiberius adulescentem crimine civilis belli purgavit, patris quippe iussa nec potuisse filium detrectare, simul nobilitatem domus, etiam ipsius quoquo modo meriti gravem casum miseratus. pro Plancina cum pudore et flagitio disseruit, matris preces obtendens, in quam optimi cuiusque secreti questus magis ardescebant. id ergo fas aviae interfectricem nepotis adspicere, adloqui, eripere senatui. quod pro omnibus civibus leges obtineant uni Germanico non contigisse. Vitellii et Veranii voce defletum Caesarem, ab imperatore et Augusta defensam Plancinam. proinde venena et artes tam feliciter expertas verteret in Agrippinam, in liberos eius, egregiamque aviam ac patruum sanguine miserrimae domus exsatiaret. biduum super hac imagine cognitionis absumptum, urgente Tiberio liberos Pisonis matrem uti tuerentur. et cum accusatores ac testes certatim perorarent respondente nullo, miseratio quam invidia augebatur. primus sententiam rogatus Aurelius Cotta consul (nam referente Caesare magistratus eo etiam munere fungebantur) nomen Pisonis radendum fastis censuit, partem bonorum publicandam, pars ut Cn. Pisoni filio concederetur isque praenomen mutaret; M. Piso exuta dignitate et accepto quinquagies sestertio in decem annos relegaretur, concessa Plancinae incolumitate ob preces Augustae.' ' None
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1.8.4 \xa0The only business which he allowed to be discussed at the first meeting of the senate was the funeral of Augustus. The will, brought in by the Vestal Virgins, specified Tiberius and Livia as heirs, Livia to be adopted into the Julian family and the Augustan name. As legatees in the second degree he mentioned his grandchildren and great-grandchildren; in the third place, the prominent nobles â\x80\x94 an ostentatious bid for the applause of posterity, as he detested most of them. His bequests were not above the ordinary civic scale, except that he left 43,500,000 sesterces to the nation and the populace, a\xa0thousand to every man in the praetorian guards, five hundred to each in the urban troops, and three hundred to all legionaries or members of the Roman cohorts. The question of the last honours was then debated. The two regarded as the most striking were due to Asinius Gallus and Lucius Arruntius â\x80\x94 the former proposing that the funeral train should pass under a triumphal gateway; the latter, that the dead should be preceded by the titles of all laws which he had carried and the names of all peoples whom he had subdued. In addition, Valerius Messalla suggested that the oath of allegiance to Tiberius should be renewed annually. To a query from Tiberius, whether that expression of opinion came at his dictation, he retorted â\x80\x94 it was the one form of flattery still left â\x80\x94 that he had spoken of his own accord, and, when public interests were in question, he would (even at the risk of giving offence) use no man\'s judgment but his own. The senate clamoured for the body to be carried to the pyre on the shoulders of the Fathers. The Caesar, with haughty moderation, excused them from that duty, and warned the people by edict not to repeat the enthusiastic excesses which on a former day had marred the funeral of the deified Julius, by desiring Augustus to be cremated in the Forum rather than in the Field of Mars, his appointed resting-place. On the day of the ceremony, the troops were drawn up as though on guard, amid the jeers of those who had seen with their eyes, or whose fathers had declared to them, that day of still novel servitude and freedom disastrously re-wooed, when the killing of the dictator Caesar to some had seemed the worst, and to others the fairest, of high exploits:â\x80\x94 "And now an aged prince, a veteran potentate, who had seen to it that not even his heirs should lack for means to coerce their country, must needs have military protection to ensure a peaceable burial!" <
3.17
\xa0Tiberius followed by absolving the younger Piso from the charge of civil war, â\x80\x94 for "the orders came from a father, and a son could not have disobeyed," â\x80\x94 and at the same time expressed his sorrow for a noble house and the tragic fate of its representative, whatever his merits or demerits. In offering a shamefaced and ignominious apology for Plancina, he pleaded the entreaties of his mother; who in private was being more and more hotly criticized by every person of decency:â\x80\x94 "So it was allowable in a grandmother to admit her husband\'s murderess to sight and speech, and to rescue her from the senate! The redress which the laws guaranteed to all citizens had been denied to Germanicus alone. The voice of Vitellius and Veranius had bewailed the Caesar: the emperor and Augusta had defended Plancina. It remained to turn those drugs and arts, now tested with such happy results, against Agrippina and her children, and so to satiate this admirable grandmother and uncle with the blood of the whole calamitous house!" Two days were expended on this phantom of a trial, with Tiberius pressing Piso\'s sons to defend their mother; and as the accusers and witnesses delivered their competing invectives, without a voice to answer, pity rather than anger began to deepen. The question was put in the first instance to Aurelius Cotta, the consul; for, if the reference came from the sovereign, even the magistrates went through the process of registering their opinion. Cotta proposed that the name of Piso should be erased from the records, one half of his property confiscated, and the other made over to his son Gnaeus, who should change his first name; that Marcus Piso should be stripped of his senatorial rank, and relegated for a period of ten years with a gratuity of five million sesterces: Plancina, in view of the empress\'s intercession, might be granted immunity. <'' None
39. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • Sadducees, calendar • calendar • calendar in 1 Enoch, in rabbinic literature • calendar split • calendar, • halakhah, priestly, calendar conflict • sectarians, calendar

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 264; Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 201; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 111; Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 258

40. Justin, First Apology, 67 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 438; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 207, 208

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67 And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration. '' None
41. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Babylonia, and calendar • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • Hananiah, and calendar • Palestine, and calendar • calendar, intercalation of

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 279, 281; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 24

59b וזה הוא תנור של עכנאי מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שהקיפו דברים כעכנא זו וטמאוהו תנא באותו היום השיב רבי אליעזר כל תשובות שבעולם ולא קיבלו הימנו,אמר להם אם הלכה כמותי חרוב זה יוכיח נעקר חרוב ממקומו מאה אמה ואמרי לה ארבע מאות אמה אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מן החרוב חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי אמת המים יוכיחו חזרו אמת המים לאחוריהם אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מאמת המים,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי כותלי בית המדרש יוכיחו הטו כותלי בית המדרש ליפול גער בהם רבי יהושע אמר להם אם תלמידי חכמים מנצחים זה את זה בהלכה אתם מה טיבכם לא נפלו מפני כבודו של רבי יהושע ולא זקפו מפני כבודו של ר"א ועדיין מטין ועומדין,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי מן השמים יוכיחו יצאתה בת קול ואמרה מה לכם אצל ר"א שהלכה כמותו בכ"מ,עמד רבי יהושע על רגליו ואמר (דברים ל, יב) לא בשמים היא מאי לא בשמים היא אמר רבי ירמיה שכבר נתנה תורה מהר סיני אין אנו משגיחין בבת קול שכבר כתבת בהר סיני בתורה (שמות כג, ב) אחרי רבים להטות אשכחיה רבי נתן לאליהו א"ל מאי עביד קוב"ה בההיא שעתא א"ל קא חייך ואמר נצחוני בני נצחוני בני,אמרו אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום באש ונמנו עליו וברכוהו ואמרו מי ילך ויודיעו אמר להם ר"ע אני אלך שמא ילך אדם שאינו הגון ויודיעו ונמצא מחריב את כל העולם כולו,מה עשה ר"ע לבש שחורים ונתעטף שחורים וישב לפניו ברחוק ארבע אמות אמר לו ר"א עקיבא מה יום מיומים אמר לו רבי כמדומה לי שחבירים בדילים ממך אף הוא קרע בגדיו וחלץ מנעליו ונשמט וישב על גבי קרקע,זלגו עיניו דמעות לקה העולם שליש בזיתים ושליש בחטים ושליש בשעורים ויש אומרים אף בצק שבידי אשה טפח תנא אך גדול היה באותו היום שבכל מקום שנתן בו עיניו ר"א נשרף,ואף ר"ג היה בא בספינה עמד עליו נחשול לטבעו אמר כמדומה לי שאין זה אלא בשביל ר"א בן הורקנוס עמד על רגליו ואמר רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא עשיתי אלא לכבודך שלא ירבו מחלוקות בישראל נח הים מזעפו,אימא שלום דביתהו דר"א אחתיה דר"ג הואי מההוא מעשה ואילך לא הוה שבקה ליה לר"א למיפל על אפיה ההוא יומא ריש ירחא הוה ואיחלף לה בין מלא לחסר איכא דאמרי אתא עניא וקאי אבבא אפיקא ליה ריפתא,אשכחתיה דנפל על אנפיה אמרה ליה קום קטלית לאחי אדהכי נפק שיפורא מבית רבן גמליאל דשכיב אמר לה מנא ידעת אמרה ליה כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא כל השערים ננעלים חוץ משערי אונאה,תנו רבנן המאנה את הגר עובר בשלשה לאוין והלוחצו עובר בשנים,מאי שנא מאנה דכתיבי שלשה לאוין (שמות כב, כ) וגר לא תונה (ויקרא יט, לג) וכי יגור אתך גר בארצכם לא תונו אותו (ויקרא כה, יז) ולא תונו איש את עמיתו וגר בכלל עמיתו הוא לוחצו נמי שלשה כתיבי (שמות כב, כ) ולא תלחצנו (שמות כג, ט) וגר לא תלחץ (שמות כב, כד) ולא תהיה לו כנושה וגר בכלל הוא אלא אחד זה ואחד זה בשלשה,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר מפני מה הזהירה תורה בל"ו מקומות ואמרי לה במ"ו מקומות בגר מפני שסורו רע,מאי דכתיב וגר לא תונה ולא תלחצנו כי גרים הייתם בארץ מצרים (תנינא) רבי נתן אומר מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך והיינו דאמרי אינשי דזקיף ליה זקיפא בדיותקיה לא נימא ליה לחבריה זקיף ביניתא:,59b And this is known as the oven of akhnai. The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of akhnai, a snake, in this context? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is characterized in that manner due to the fact that the Rabbis surrounded it with their statements like this snake, which often forms a coil when at rest, and deemed it impure. The Sages taught: On that day, when they discussed this matter, Rabbi Eliezer answered all possible answers in the world to support his opinion, but the Rabbis did not accept his explanations from him.,After failing to convince the Rabbis logically, Rabbi Eliezer said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, this carob tree will prove it. The carob tree was uprooted from its place one hundred cubits, and some say four hundred cubits. The Rabbis said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from the carob tree. Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the stream will prove it. The water in the stream turned backward and began flowing in the opposite direction. They said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from a stream.,Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the walls of the study hall will prove it. The walls of the study hall leaned inward and began to fall. Rabbi Yehoshua scolded the walls and said to them: If Torah scholars are contending with each other in matters of halakha, what is the nature of your involvement in this dispute? The Gemara relates: The walls did not fall because of the deference due Rabbi Yehoshua, but they did not straighten because of the deference due Rabbi Eliezer, and they still remain leaning.,Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, Heaven will prove it. A Divine Voice emerged from Heaven and said: Why are you differing with Rabbi Eliezer, as the halakha is in accordance with his opinion in every place that he expresses an opinion?,Rabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said: It is written: “It is not in heaven” (Deuteronomy 30:12). The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of the phrase “It is not in heaven” in this context? Rabbi Yirmeya says: Since the Torah was already given at Mount Sinai, we do not regard a Divine Voice, as You already wrote at Mount Sinai, in the Torah: “After a majority to incline” (Exodus 23:2). Since the majority of Rabbis disagreed with Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, the halakha is not ruled in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara relates: Years after, Rabbi Natan encountered Elijah the prophet and said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do at that time, when Rabbi Yehoshua issued his declaration? Elijah said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, smiled and said: My children have triumphed over Me; My children have triumphed over Me.,The Sages said: On that day, the Sages brought all the ritually pure items deemed pure by the ruling of Rabbi Eliezer with regard to the oven and burned them in fire, and the Sages reached a consensus in his regard and ostracized him. And the Sages said: Who will go and inform him of his ostracism? Rabbi Akiva, his beloved disciple, said to them: I will go, lest an unseemly person go and inform him in a callous and offensive manner, and he would thereby destroy the entire world.,What did Rabbi Akiva do? He wore black and wrapped himself in black, as an expression of mourning and pain, and sat before Rabbi Eliezer at a distance of four cubits, which is the distance that one must maintain from an ostracized individual. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva, what is different about today from other days, that you comport yourself in this manner? Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, it appears to me that your colleagues are distancing themselves from you. He employed euphemism, as actually they distanced Rabbi Eliezer from them. Rabbi Eliezer too, rent his garments and removed his shoes, as is the custom of an ostracized person, and he dropped from his seat and sat upon the ground.,The Gemara relates: His eyes shed tears, and as a result the entire world was afflicted: One-third of its olives were afflicted, and one-third of its wheat, and one-third of its barley. And some say that even dough kneaded in a woman’s hands spoiled. The Sages taught: There was great anger on that day, as any place that Rabbi Eliezer fixed his gaze was burned.,And even Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin at Yavne, the head of the Sages who were responsible for the decision to ostracize Rabbi Eliezer, was coming on a boat at the time, and a large wave swelled over him and threatened to drown him. Rabban Gamliel said: It seems to me that this is only for the sake of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, as God punishes those who mistreat others. Rabban Gamliel stood on his feet and said: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that neither was it for my honor that I acted when ostracizing him, nor was it for the honor of the house of my father that I acted; rather, it was for Your honor, so that disputes will not proliferate in Israel. In response, the sea calmed from its raging.,The Gemara further relates: Imma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was the sister of Rabban Gamliel. From that incident forward, she would not allow Rabbi Eliezer to lower his head and recite the taḥanun prayer, which includes supplication and entreaties. She feared that were her husband to bemoan his fate and pray at that moment, her brother would be punished. A certain day was around the day of the New Moon, and she inadvertently substituted a full thirty-day month for a deficient twenty-nine-day month, i.e., she thought that it was the New Moon, when one does not lower his head in supplication, but it was not. Some say that a pauper came and stood at the door, and she took bread out to him. The result was that she left her husband momentarily unsupervised.,When she returned, she found him and saw that he had lowered his head in prayer. She said to him: Arise, you already killed my brother. Meanwhile, the sound of a shofar emerged from the house of Rabban Gamliel to announce that the Nasi had died. Rabbi Eliezer said to her: From where did you know that your brother would die? She said to him: This is the tradition that I received from the house of the father of my father: All the gates of Heaven are apt to be locked, except for the gates of prayer for victims of verbal mistreatment.The Sages taught: One who verbally mistreats the convert violates three prohibitions, and one who oppresses him in other ways violates two.,The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to verbal mistreatment, that three prohibitions are written concerning it: “And you shall neither mistreat a convert” (Exodus 22:20); “And when a convert lives in your land, you shall not mistreat him” (Leviticus 19:33); “And you shall not mistreat, each man his colleague” (Leviticus 25:17), and a convert is included in the category of colleague? With regard to one who also oppresses a convert as well, three prohibitions are written: “And you shall neither mistreat a convert, nor oppress him” (Exodus 22:20); “And you shall not oppress a convert (Exodus 23:9); “And you shall not be to him like a creditor” (Exodus 22:24). This last prohibition is a general prohibition, in which converts are included. Consequently, it is not correct that one who oppresses a convert violates only two prohibitions. Rather, both this one, who verbally mistreats a convert, and that one, who oppresses him, violate three prohibitions.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: For what reason did the Torah issue warnings in thirty-six places, and some say in forty-six places, with regard to causing any distress to a convert? It is due to the fact that a convert’s inclination is evil, i.e., he is prone to return to his previous way of living.,What is the meaning of that which is written: “And you shall not mistreat a convert nor oppress him, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt” (Exodus 22:20)? We learned in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: A defect that is in you, do not mention it in another. Since the Jewish people were themselves strangers, they are not in a position to demean a convert because he is a stranger in their midst. And this explains the adage that people say: One who has a person hanged in his family bidyotkei, does not say to another member of his household: Hang a fish for me, as the mention of hanging is demeaning for that family.,One may not intermingle produce bought from one supplier with other produce, even if he intermingles new produce with other new produce and ostensibly the buyer suffers no loss from his doing so.'' None
42. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • authority, rabbinic, calendar court (Yavne) • calendar • calendar in 1 Enoch, in rabbinic literature

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 278; Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 201, 237; Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 259; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 144

25a וערבית במערב א"ר יוחנן בן נורי עדי שקר הם כשבאו ליבנה קיבלן רבן גמליאל,ועוד באו שנים ואמרו ראינוהו בזמנו ובליל עיבורו לא נראה וקיבלן ר"ג,אמר רבי דוסא בן הורכינס עדי שקר הן היאך מעידים על האשה שילדה ולמחר כריסה בין שיניה אמר לו רבי יהושע רואה אני את דבריך שלח לו ר"ג גוזרני עליך שתבא אצלי במקלך ובמעותיך ביוה"כ שחל להיות בחשבונך,הלך ומצאו ר"ע מיצר אמר לו יש לי ללמוד שכל מה שעשה ר"ג עשוי שנאמר (ויקרא כג, ד) אלה מועדי ה\' מקראי קדש אשר תקראו אתם בין בזמנן בין שלא בזמנן אין לי מועדות אלא אלו,בא לו אצל ר\' דוסא בן הורכינס אמר לו אם באין אנו לדון אחר בית דינו של ר"ג צריכין אנו לדון אחר כל בית דין ובית דין שעמד מימות משה ועד עכשיו שנאמר (שמות כד, ט) ויעל משה ואהרן נדב ואביהוא ושבעים מזקני ישראל ולמה לא נתפרשו שמותן של זקנים אלא ללמד שכל שלשה ושלשה שעמדו בית דין על ישראל הרי הוא כבית דינו של משה,נטל מקלו ומעותיו בידו והלך ליבנה אצל ר"ג ביום שחל יוה"כ להיות בחשבונו עמד ר"ג ונשקו על ראשו אמר לו בוא בשלום רבי ותלמידי רבי בחכמה ותלמידי שקבלת את דברי:,25a and that same day we saw the new moon in the evening in the west. Rabbi Yoḥa ben Nuri said: They are false witnesses, as it is impossible to see the new moon so soon after the last sighting of the waning moon. However, when they arrived in Yavne, Rabban Gamliel accepted them as witnesses without concern.,And there was another incident in which two witnesses came and said: We saw the new moon at its anticipated time, i.e., on the night of the thirtieth day of the previous month; however, on the following night, i.e., the start of the thirty-first, which is often the determit of a full, thirty-day month, it was not seen. And nevertheless Rabban Gamliel accepted their testimony and established the New Moon on the thirtieth day.,Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas disagreed and said: They are false witnesses; how can witnesses testify that a woman gave birth and the next day her belly is between her teeth, i.e., she is obviously still pregt? If the new moon was already visible at its anticipated time, how could it not be seen a day later? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: I see the logic of your statement; the New Moon must be established a day later. Upon hearing that Rabbi Yehoshua had challenged his ruling, Rabban Gamliel sent a message to him: I decree against you that you must appear before me with your staff and with your money on the day on which Yom Kippur occurs according to your calculation; according to my calculation, that day is the eleventh of Tishrei, the day after Yom Kippur.,Rabbi Akiva went and found Rabbi Yehoshua distressed that the head of the Great Sanhedrin was forcing him to desecrate the day that he maintained was Yom Kippur. In an attempt to console him, Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yehoshua: I can learn from a verse that everything that Rabban Gamliel did in sanctifying the month is done, i.e., it is valid. As it is stated: “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, sacred convocations, which you shall proclaim in their season” (Leviticus 23:4). This verse indicates that whether you have proclaimed them at their proper time or whether you have declared them not at their proper time, I have only these Festivals as established by the representatives of the Jewish people.,Rabbi Yehoshua then came to Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas, who said to him: If we come to debate and question the rulings of the court of Rabban Gamliel, we must debate and question the rulings of every court that has stood from the days of Moses until now. As it is stated: “Then Moses went up, and Aaron, Nadav and Avihu, and seventy of the Elders of Israel” (Exodus 24:9). But why were the names of these seventy Elders not specified? Rather, this comes to teach that every set of three judges that stands as a court over the Jewish people has the same status as the court of Moses. Since it is not revealed who sat on that court, apparently it is enough that they were official judges in a Jewish court.,When Rabbi Yehoshua heard that even Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas maintained that they must submit to Rabban Gamliel’s decision, he took his staff and his money in his hand, and went to Yavne to Rabban Gamliel on the day on which Yom Kippur occurred according to his own calculation. Upon seeing him, Rabban Gamliel stood up and kissed him on his head. He said to him: Come in peace, my teacher and my student. You are my teacher in wisdom, as Rabbi Yehoshua was wiser than anyone else in his generation, and you are my student, as you accepted my statement, despite your disagreement.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages, in explanation of his opinion that it is possible for the new moon to be visible so soon after the last sighting of the waning moon: This is the tradition that I received from the house of my father’s father: Sometimes the moon comes by a long path and sometimes it comes by a short one.,Rabbi Yoḥa said: What is the reason for the opinion of the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, i.e., the house of the heads of the Great Sanhedrin, the source of Rabban Gamliel’s ruling? As it is written: “Who appointed the moon for seasons; the sun knows its going down” (Psalms 104:19). This verse indicates that it is only the sun that knows its going down, i.e., its seasons and the times that it shines are the same every year. In contrast, the moon does not know its going down, as its course is not identical every month.,§ The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ḥiyya once saw the waning moon standing in the sky on the morning of the twenty-ninth of the month. He took a clump of earth and threw it at the moon, saying: This evening we need to sanctify you, i.e., the new moon must be visible tonight so that we may declare the thirtieth of the month as the New Moon, and you are still standing here? Go and cover yourself for now, so that the new moon will be seen only after nightfall. The Gemara further relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: Go to a place called Ein Tav and sanctify the New Moon there, and send me a sign that you have sanctified it. The sign is: David, king of Israel, lives and endures.,The Sages taught in a baraita: Once the sky was covered with clouds, and the form of the moon was visible on the twenty-ninth of the month. The people thought to say that the day was the New Moon, and the court sought to sanctify it. However, Rabban Gamliel said to them: This is the tradition that I received from the house of my father’s father: The monthly cycle of the renewal of the moon takes no less than twenty-nine and a half days, plus two-thirds of an hour, plus seventy-three of the 1,080 subsections of an hour.,The baraita continues: And on that day the mother of the Sage ben Zaza died, and Rabban Gamliel delivered a great eulogy on her behalf. He did this not because she was worthy of this honor; rather, he eulogized her so that the people would know that the court had not sanctified the month, as eulogies are prohibited on the New Moon.,§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Akiva went and found him distressed that the head of the Great Sanhedrin was forcing him to desecrate the day that he maintained was Yom Kippur. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Who was distressed? Was Rabbi Akiva distressed or was Rabbi Yehoshua distressed? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva went and found Rabbi Yehoshua in a state of distress, and he said to him: My teacher, for what reason are you distressed? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Rabbi Akiva, it is fitting for one to fall sick in bed for twelve months, rather than to have this decree issued against him that he should have to desecrate Yom Kippur.,Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one matter that you yourself once taught me. He said to him: Speak. He said to him: It states with respect to the Festivals: “The appointed seasons of the Lord, which you shall proclaim them otam to be sacred convocations (Leviticus 23:2). And it is written: “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, sacred convocations; you shall proclaim them otam in their season” (Leviticus 23:4). And it is written: “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord; you shall proclaim them otam to be sacred convocations” (Leviticus 23:37). Three times the verses use the term: Them otam, which can also be read as you atem, in plural.,This comes to teach: You atem are authorized to determine the date of the new month, even if you unwittingly establish the New Moon on the wrong day; you, even if you do so intentionally; you, even if you are misled by false witnesses. In all cases, once the court establishes the day as the New Moon, it is sanctified, and God grants His consent. After hearing this, Rabbi Yehoshua said to him in these words: Akiva, you have consoled me; you have consoled me.,§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Yehoshua next came to Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas, who proved to him that the court of Rabban Gamliel has the same legal status as the court of Moses. The Sages taught in a baraita: Why were the names of these seventy Elders who sat together with Moses on his court not specified? The reason is so that a person not say: Is so-and-so the judge in my time, like Moses and Aaron? Is so-and-so like Nadav and Avihu? Is so-and-so like Eldad and Medad? Therefore, the names of the other elders were not specified, so that there is no way of knowing the qualifications of the elders in the time of Moses to compare them to later judges.,And similarly it says: “And Samuel said to the people: It is the Lord Who made Moses and Aaron” (I Samuel 12:6). And it says further: “And the Lord sent Jerubaal and Bedan and Jephthah and Samuel” (I Samuel 12:11). The Gemara explains: Jerubaal, this is Gideon. And why is he called Jerubaal? The reason is that he waged a quarrel against Baal. Bedan, this is Samson. And why is he called Bedan? As he came from the tribe of Dan. Jephthah, in accordance with its regular meaning, i.e., this is referring to Jephthah himself and is not a nickname.'' None
43. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar • calendars, book calendars • calendars, bronze • calendars, marble • magistrates and calendar, lists of

 Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 62; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 15, 93

44. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar • calendars, Christian • calendars, Gregorian • calendars, lunisolar • calendars, solar

 Found in books: Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 157; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 28

45. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendars • calendars, Christian

 Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 340; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 164

46. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • calendars • calendars, Christian

 Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 340; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 164, 168

47. Epigraphy, Ig I , 7, 35, 84, 250
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens,, Sacred Calendar of • Eleusis,, Sacred Calendar of • Erchia, sacrificial calendar • Erchia,, Sacred Calendar of • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • Sacrificial Calendar at Athens • Solon, calendar of • assembly, calendar • burial, calendar • calendars • calendars, Boedromion • calendars, Metageitnion • calendars, Mounychion • calendars, Thargeleion • calendars, fasti sacres, months, Athenian • calendars, sacred • calendars, sacred, of Nicomachus • calendars, sacred, of Salaminioi • writing, calendar

 Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 199, 200; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 553, 555, 556, 647, 808; Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 169; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 17, 53, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 75; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 121, 128, 170, 218; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 72, 82, 85, 129; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 182

sup>
7 The Council and People decided. - was the prytany. - was secretary. - was chairman. - proposed: concerning the request of the Praxiergidai to write up the oracle of the god and the decrees formerly made about them (5) on a stone stele and set it down on the acropolis (polei) behind the old temple; . . . . . . ; and the money . . . . . . of the goddess according to ancestral tradition . . . the payment officers (kolakretai) shall give them the money. (10) Apollo issued the following oracle: it is better for the Praxiergidai to put the peplos on the goddess and make preliminary sacrifice to the Fates, to Zeus Leader of the Fates, to Earth . . . Uninscribed space These are the ancestral traditions of the Praxiergidai . . . . . . Uncertain amount of text missing (15) . . . provide (?) (parechen) . . . for the Praxiergi?dai . . . the fleece (koidion) . . . according to tradition . . . provide (parechen) (20) . . . Thargelion . . . the archon shall give (?) . . . in accordance with ancestral tradition. The Praxiergidai shall put on the peplos. (25) The Praxiergidai shall pay for (apotinen?) (?) a medimnos of barley. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
7 - Decree about genos Praxiergidai

35
The Council and People decided.? . . . -kos proposed: to install a priestess for Athena Nike to be allotted? from all Athenian women, (5) and that the sanctuary (hieron) be provided with gates in whatever way Kallikrates may specify; and the official sellers (poletas) are to place the contract within the prytany of Leontis; the priestess is to receive fifty drachmas and (10) to receive the backlegs and skins of the public sacrifices (demosion); and that a temple (neon) be built in whatever way Kallikrates may specify and a stone altar. Hestiaios proposed: that three men be selected (15) from the Council; and they shall make the specifications with Kallikrates and show them to? the Council? in accordance with the contracts? . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
35 - Decree about priestess and temple of Athena Nike

84
Gods. Decree 1 The Council and the People decided. Pandionis was in prytany, Aristoxenos was secretary, Antiochides was chairman, Antiphon was archon (418/
7); Adosios proposed: to fence in the sanctuary (hieron) of Kodros and Neleus and Basile and (5) to lease (misthōsai) the sacred precinct (temenos) according to the specifications (suggraphas). Let the official sellers (pōlētai) make the contract (apomisthōsantōn) for the fencing in. Let the king (basileus) lease (apomisthōsatō) the sacred precinct according to the specifications, and let him despatch the boundary-commissioners (horistas) to demarcate these sanctuaries (hiera) so that they may be in the best and most pious condition. The money for the fencing in shall come from the sacred precinct. They shall carry out these provisions before the end of this Council\'s term of office, (10) otherwise each shall be liable to a fine of one thousand drachmas according to what has been proposed (eiremena). Decree 2 Adosios proposed: in other respects in accordance with the Council’s proposal, but let the king (basileus) and the official sellers (pōlētai) lease (misthōsatō) the sacred precinct of Neleus and Basile for twenty years according to the specifications. The lessee (misthōsamenos) shall fence in the sanctuary (hieron) of Kodros and Neleus and Basile at his own expense. Whatever (15) rent the sacred precinct may produce in each year, let him deposit the money in the ninth prytany (prutaneias) with the receivers (apodektai), and let the receivers (apodektais) hand it over to the treasurers of the Other Gods according to the law. If the king (basileus) or anyone else of those instructed about these matters does not carry out what has been decreed in the prytany (prutaneias) of Aigeis, (20) let him be liable to a fine of 10,000 drachmas. The purchaser of the mud (ilun) shall remove it from the ditch (taphro) during this very Council after paying to Neleus the price at which he made the purchase. Let the king (basileus) erase the name of the purchaser of the mud (ilun) once he has paid the fee (misthōsin). Let the king (basileus) write up instead (anteggraphsato) on the wall the name of the lessee (misthōsamenos) of the sacred precinct and for how much he has rented (misthōsētai) it (25) and the names of the guarantors in accordance with the law that concerns the sacred precincts (temenōn). So that anyone who wishes may be able to know, let the secretary (grammateus) of the Council inscribe this decree on a stone stele and place it in the Neleion next to the railings (ikria).10 Let the payment officers (kolakretai) give the money to this end. The king (basileus) shall lease (misthoun) the sacred precinct of Neleus and of Basile on the following terms: (30) that the lessee (misthōsamenos) fence in the sanctuary (hieron) of Kodros and Neleus and Basile according to the specifications (suggraphas) during the term of the Council that is about to enter office, and that he work the sacred precinct of Neleus and Basile on the following terms: that he plant young sprouts of olive trees, no fewer than 200, and more if he wishes; that the lessee (misthōsamenos) have control of the ditch (taphro) and the water from Zeus,11 (
35) as much as flows in between the Dionysion and the gates whence the initiates march out to the sea, and as much as flows in between the public building (oikias tes demosias)12 and the gates leading out to the bath of Isthmonikos; lease (misthoun) it for twenty years. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
84 - Decree on the administration of the property of Kodros, Neleus and Basile

250
Face A . . . . . . if anyone does any of these things, let him pay . . . to the deme (5) . . . the priestess shall provide for the - boiling meat and roasting meat; for the Antheia and Proerosia: spits, a bronze pot; the religious officials (10) and whoever they require shall carry rods. It is not permitted to put these stipulations to the vote again unless one hundred demesmen are present. (15) Here (?) (teide), a piglet; to the Eleusinion, for Daira, a female lamb, leader of the Proerosia (preroarchos); to the Eleusinion, for the Proerosia, a full-grown female animal, a male piglet; priestly (20) perquisites (apometra), a quart (tetarteus); here, half a quart of barley for the Proerosia, two pigs, one male and one female; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, (25) half a quart; to the Eleusinion, for the Chloia, two piglets, one male and one female; priestly perquisites, 3 (drachmas), 3 obols. For the Antheia, a select sow, (30) pregt, a piglet, male; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart. . . . . . . (
35) female . . . . . . Face B . . . priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; barley for the Proerosia, (5) two pigs, one female and one male; priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; . . . to the Eleusinion . . . (10) . . . . . . . . . two -, one female and one male; priestly perquisites, three (drachmas) of Hekate (?) . . . (15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (20) priestly perquisites . . . . . . full-grown; for Zeus Herkeios -; for the two goddesses - a full-grown female animal, a piglet?; priestly perquisites, (25) a quart; here, half a quart . . . sow . . . piglet . . . priestly perquisites, a quart; here, half a quart; (30) to the Eleusinion, for the Chloia, two piglets, one female, one male; priestly perquisites, 3 (drachmas), 3 obols. For the priestess of Hekate, from whatever sacrifices are made to Hekate shall be given (
35) a thigh, a flank; whoever (the priestess) nominates to be temple attendant shall leave behind pea soup and cup(s?) of gruel (?) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
250 - Deme decree relating to cult at Paiania
'' None
48. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 1006, 1011, 1072, 1177, 1356, 1363, 1496, 1672, 2490, 2499
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens,, Sacred Calendar of • Eleusis, sacrificial calendar from deme • Eleusis,, Sacred Calendar of • Erchia, sacrificial calendar from deme • Erchia,, Sacred Calendar of • Marathon, sacrificial calendar from deme • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • Sacrificial Calendar at Athens • Solon, calendar of • Teithras, sacrificial calendar • Teithras, sacrificial calendar from deme • Thorikos, deme, sacrificial calendar from deme • assembly, calendar • burial, calendar • calendars • calendars, Boedromion • calendars, sacred • sacrificial calendars

 Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 199, 200; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 138, 144, 151, 234; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 552, 556, 808; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 17, 61, 97, 99; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 171; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 80, 81, 118; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 186

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1177 . . . the demarch in office at any time shall take care of the Thesmophorion together with the priestess, that no-one releases anything or gathers a thiasos or installs sacred objects (5) or performs purification rites or approaches the altars or the pit (megaron) without the priestess except when it is the festival of the Thesmophoria or the Plerosia or the Kalamaia (10) or the Skira or another day on which the women come together according to ancestral tradition; that the Piraeans shall resolve: if anyone does any of these things in contravention of these provisions, the demarch (15) shall impose a penalty and bring him before a law court under the laws that are in place with respect to these things; and concerning the gathering of wood in the sanctuaries, if anyone gathers wood, may the old laws (archaious nomous) (20) be valid, those that are in place with respect to these matters; and the boundary officers (horistas) shall inscribe this decree together with the demarch and stand it by the way up to the Thesmophorion. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1177 - Decree of deme Piraeus concerning the Thesmophorion

1356
. . . . . . for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup (kotulēs) of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood (phruganōn), 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. (5) For the priestess of the Heroine, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skins of the all the victims for the Heroine (hērōiniōn); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch- flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Dionysos Anthios, (10) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the billy-goat (trago); on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Hera, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on (15) the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Demeter Chloe, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of -, (20) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of the Chaste Goddess (Hagnēs Theo), priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; for a third (triteōs) of barley, 1 dr.; for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, (25) 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a chous of wine, 2½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; for logs (xulōn), 3 dr. For the priest of the Chaste Goddess, the same as for the priestess, and the skins of the animals sacrificed for both, and 20 dr. For the priest of Paralos, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr., and 10 dr.; the skin of the wether (oios); for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; (30) for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a fourth of barley, 4½ ob.; for two choes (chooin) of wine, 5 ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. For the priest of the Archegetes and of the other heroes, priestly dues, 5 dr.; the skins of whatever victims he consecrates for sacrifice (katarxētai); on the sacrificial hearth (escharan); for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; whenever (he prepares) the table, (35) for two choinikes (choinikoin) of barley, 1½ ob.; for two cups of olive oil, 1 ob.; for half a cup (hēmikotulio) of honey, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. And whenever one of the Fifties (pentēkostuōn) sacrifices anywhere at the hero-shrines, they shall provide on the table two choinikes (choinike) of wheat, two cups of oil, half a cup (hēmikotulion) of honey. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1356 - Provisions for priests and priestesses (in Aixone?)

1363
col. 1 . . . Pyanopsion . . . On the fourth? . . . - dr. . . . to the Eleusinion On the fifth for the hierophant and the herald (5) for lunch, when they announce the festival 1 dr. 3 ob. of the Proerosia. On the seventh 20 dr. for Apollo Pythios, a goat (10) and the things for the rites, a suckling lamb? (progonion) and accompaniments to adorn a table for the god; priestly dues (hiereōsuna) for the priest one line erased (15) for the hierophant and the priestesses from Eleusis at the all-night revel to provide libations and barley cakes . . . (20) one line erased? . . . to the underground pit (megaron) . . . ?; 10 dr. for the perquisites (apometra) for the priestess; for the priestess of Plouton (25) to the hearths (hestias{as}) (?) in honour of the two - dr. Thesmophorian goddesses . . . a basket - dr. . . . wood for the altar and . . . col. 2 Skirophorion? . . . (30) . . . On the twelfth? . . . . . . 20 dr. . . . (35) . . . . . . for Poseidon . . . a cake . . . . . . (40) . . . 20 dr. . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1363 - Sacrificial calendar from Eleusis
' ' None
49. Epigraphy, Seg, 21.541, 24.151, 33.147, 43.26, 50.168, 52.48, 54.214
 Tagged with subjects: • Erchia, sacrificial calendar • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • Solon, calendar of • Teithras, sacrificial calendar • assembly, calendar • burial, calendar • calendars • calendars, Boedromion • calendars, Kyanopsion • calendars, Maimakterion • calendars, Metageitnion • calendars, fasti • calendars, fasti sacres, months • calendars, fasti sacres, months, Athenian • calendars, sacred • calendars, sacred, of Erchia • calendars, sacred, of Marathon Tetrapolis • calendars, sacred, of Nicomachus • calendars, sacrificial • demes, religion of calendars • writing, calendar

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 403; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 159; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 355, 552, 553, 554, 555, 558, 559, 659, 808; Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 5, 183; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 61, 64, 65, 291; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 61, 100, 106, 167, 199, 232, 235; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 81, 82, 118, 129, 142, 255; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 65; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 177, 178, 183

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21.541 Gods The Greater Demarchy (dēmarchia hē mezōn) Α Metageitnion, on the twelfth, for Apollo Lykeios, in the city, (5) a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the twentieth (dekatei proterai), for Hera Thelchinia, on the hill (em pagōi) at Erchia, a lamb (arna), (10) all black, no taking away (ou phora), 7 dr.; - Boedromion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for the Nymphs, (15) on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Pyanopsion, on the fourteenth, for the heroines (20) in the hollow (en aulōni) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; - Gamelion, on the seventh, (25) for Kourotrophos, in the Delphinion at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Apollo Delphinios, at Erchia, (30) a sheep, 12 dr.; - on the eighth, for Apollo Apotropaios, at Erchia (35) towards Paiania, a goat, 12 dr.; - Anthesterion, at the Diasia, in the city (en astei) at Agrai, (40) for Zeus Meilichios, a sheep, wineless (nēphalios) up until (the roasting of) the innards, 12 dr.; - Elaphebolion, (45) on the sixteenth, for Semele, at the same altar, a goat, to be handed over to the women, (50) for the priestess the skin, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for Leto, at the (55) Pythion at Erchia, a goat, 10 dr.; - Skirophorion, on the third, for Kourotrophos, (60) on the acropolis (em polei) at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Athena Polias, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep (65) instead of a bovine (antibous), 10 dr.; total 111 dr. Β Metageitnion, on the twelfth, at the Eleusinion in the city, for Demeter, (5) a sheep, 10 dr.; - on the sixteenth, for Kourotrophos, in Hekate’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a piglet, (10) 3 dr.; - for Artemis Hekate, at Erchia, a goat, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, (15) on the fourth, for Basile, at Erchia, a ewe-lamb (amnē), white, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (20) 7 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos) on the hill at Erchia, for Acheloos, (25) a sheep, 12 dr.; - Gamelion on the ninth, at the Erosouria (?), on the acropolis (30) at Erchia, for Athena, a ewe-lamb, 7 dr.; - on the twenty- seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Kourotrophos, in (35) Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a piglet, 3 dr.; - for Hera, at Erchia, a sheep, for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; (40) - Mounichion, on the fourth, for the Herakleidai, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), at Erchia, 12 dr.; (45) - Thargelion on the fourth, for Apollo Pythios, at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over (50) to the Pythaistai, 12 dr.; - for Apollo Paion, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; (55) - Skirophorion, on the third, for Aglauros, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; (60) - total 108 dr. Γ Hekatombaion, on the twenty- first (dekatei husterai), for Kourotrophos, at (5) Sotidai at Erchia, a piglet, no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - for Artemis at Sotidai at Erchia, (10) a goat, no taking away (ou phora), the skin to be consecrated, 10 dr.; - Metageitnion, on the twelfth, (15) for Zeus Polieus, on the acropolis in the city, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the twenty-fifth (hektei phthinontos), (20) for Zeus Epopetes, on the hill at Erchia, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (25) 3 dr.; - Boedromion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Alochos, on the hill (30) at Erchia, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Gamelion, on the eighth, for Apollo Apotropaios, (35) at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over to the Pythaistai, 12 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Zeus (40) Teleios, in Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Anthesterion, on the second, (45) for Dionysos, at Erchia, a kid (eriphos), very young (proptorthi(os)), 5 dr.; - Mounichion, on the twentieth (dekatei proterai), (50) for Leukaspis, at Erchia, a sheep, wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - Thargelion, (55) on the fourth, for Zeus, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Skirophorion, (60) on the third, for Zeus Polieus, on the acropolis at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; (65) - on the sixteenth, . . . Δ Hekatombaion, on the twenty- first (dekatei husterai), for Kourotrophos, on (5) the peak (epi to akro) at Erchia, a piglet, no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - for Artemis on the peak at Erchia, (10) a goat, no taking away (ou phora), the skin to be consecrated, 10 dr.; - Metageitnion, on the twelfth; (15) for Athena Polias, on the acropolis in the city, a sheep, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, on the fifth, (20) for Epops, at Erchia, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphali(os)), 3 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), (25) for Hermes, on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Gamelion, on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos) (30) for Poseidon, in Hera’s (sanctuary) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - Elaphebolion, on the sixteenth, (35) for Dionysos, at Erchia, a goat, to be handed over to the women, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess (40) the skin, 12 dr.; - Mounichion, on the twenty-first (dekatei husterai), for the Tritopatreis, at Erchia, (45) a sheep, wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for the Anakes, (50) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; - on the nineteenth, for Menedeios, at Erchia, (55) a sheep, no taking away, 12 dr.; - Skirophorion, on the third, for Poseidon, on the acropolis (60) at Erchia, a sheep, 12 dr.; total 110 dr. Ε Metageitnion, on the nine- teenth, for the heroines at (5) the rush-bed (epi schoinōi) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), for the priestess the skin, 10 dr.; - Boedromion, (10) on the fifth, at Erchia, for Epops, a piglet, burnt whole (holokautos), wineless (nēphalios), (15) 3 dr.; - on the twenty-seventh (tetradi phthinontos), for Earth (Gēi), on the hill at Erchia, a sheep, (20) pregt, no taking away (ou phora), 10 dr.; - Posideon, on the sixteenth, for Zeus, on the (25) rock or rocky place (em petrēi) at Erchia, a sheep, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - for Zeus Horios, at Erchia, a piglet, (30) no taking away (ou phora), 3 dr.; - Gamelion, on the seventh, for Apollo Lykeios, (35) at Erchia, a sheep, to be handed over to the Pythaistai, no taking away (ou phora), 12 dr.; - on the eighth, (40) for Apollo Nymphegetes, at Erchia, a goat, 12 dr.; - for the Nymphs, at (45) the same altar, a goat, 10 dr.; - Thargelion, on the fourth, for Hermes, (50) in the agora at Erchia, a ram, let the herald make the sacrifice to him (55) and receive the perquisites (gera) just like the demarch, 10 dr.; - on the sixteenth, (60) for Zeus Epakrios, on Hymettos, a lamb (arēn), wineless (nēphalios), no taking away (ou phora), 7 dr.; - Skirophorion, . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
21.541 - Sacrificial calendar of Erchia

33.147
Face A (front) . . . Hekatombaion: . . . and for the . . . to provide lunch (aristom) . . . a drachma each (5) . . . the Proerosia offering (?) (tēn prēro-), . . . the Delphinion, a goat . . . for Hekate . . . _ . . . a full-grown victim (teleom), to be sold (praton). (10) Metageitnion: for Zeus Kataibates in the sacred enclosure (sēkōi) by the Delphini?on, a full-grown victim (teleon), to be sold (praton). _ An oath victim (horkōmosion) is to be provided for the audits (euthunas). Boedromion: the Proerosia; for Zeus Polieus, a select (kriton) sheep, a select piglet; at Automenai (?) (ep&
43.26
Decree 1 Diogenes son of Naukydes proposed: since Phanomachos the treasurer in the archonship of Praxiboulos (315/4) both sacrificed all the sacrifices to the gods and heroes in the year on behalf of the demesmen (5) and managed the Dionysia well and with love of honour (philotimōs) with the demarch Oinophilos and made a libation bowl (phialēn) of silver weighing a mina (= 100 dr.) according to the law and has given a full account of his ficial administration (hōn diōikēsen) both to the (10) city and to the demesmen within the times specified in the laws of the city and the demesmen and has deposited (katabeblēken) with the Acharnians the surplus of the money from his ficial administration (dioikēseōs), 329 drachmas, and rendered (15) his accounts (euthunas), in which he was deemed to have held office as treasurer justly, and managed everything else that the Acharnians required of him well and with love of honour (philotimōs); the Acharnians shall resolve, to praise Phanomachos son of Nikodemos of Acharnai and (20) crown him with a foliage crown for his love of honour (philotimias) and justice towards the demesmen; and the secretary of the demesmen shall inscribe this decree on a stone stele and stand it in the sanctuary of Athena Hippia; (25) and the treasurer shall give 20 drachmas for inscribing the stele and account for it to the demesmen. Decree 2 Diogenes son of Naukydes proposed: since the demarch Oinophilos and the treasurer Phanomachos and (30) the manager of the Dionysia have managed well and with love of honour (philotimōs) both the sacrifice to Dionysos and the procession and the competition and are administering (dioikousin) everything else on behalf of the demesmen according to the laws, the Acharnians shall resolve, (35) to praise the demarch Oinophilos son of Oinophilos and the treasurer Phanomachos son of Nikodemos and the manager, Leon son of Dion, and crown each of them with an ivy crown and the demarch shall announce these (40)crowns at the Dionysia in Acharnai in the competition; and the demarch Oinophilos shall inscribe this decree on a stone stele and stand it in the sanctuary of Athena Hippia; and the treasurer Phanomachos shall give 20 drachmas (45)for inscribing the stele and account for it to the demesmen; and they shall have a seat of honour, themselves and their descendants, for all time at the Dionysia at Acharnai in the competition, in the front row (epi tou prōtou bathrou). text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
43.26 - Two honorific decrees of the deme Acharnai, 315/4 BC

50.168
Face A col. 1 . . . fourth quarter, (5) Mounichion, for - Prakterios, a ram, 12 dr.; Thargelion, . . . by the tower, a sheep, 12 dr.; Skirophorion, (10) . . . in the agora, a ram, 12 dr., on the eleventh or twelfth?, for Zeus Horios, a sheep, 12 dr., for . . . , a sheep, 11 dr., ...? the following . . . . . . in the year of the - in (?) . . . each (15) . . . in order as is written . . . the one on the . . . by the Eleusinion . . . in Kynosoura . . . by the Herakleion;11 (20) ...? fourth quarter, Mounichion, . . . a sheep, 12 dr.; ...? first quarter, Hekatombaion, (25) on the date, for Apollo? Apotropaios, a goat, 12 dr.; second quarter, Pyanopsion, . . . a pregt sheep, 17 dr.; fourth quarter, Mounichion, (30) . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . 12 dr.; ...? fourth quarter, Mounichion, . . . -aios, a goat, 12 dr., (35) . . . , a sheep, 12 dr., . . . , a sheep, 12 dr., . . . , a sheep, 12 dr.; . . . prior? sequence (dramosunē), (40) second quarter, Pyanopsion, . . . , a bovine, 90 dr.; third quarter, Gamelion, . . . -idai, a pregt sow, 70 (?) dr.; fourth quarter, Mounichion, (45) . . . Nymphagetes, a goat, 12 dr.; Thargelion? . . . river (?), a ram, 12 dr., . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . a ram, 12 dr., (50) . . . a goat, 12 dr., . . . a sheep, 12 dr., . . . a sheep, 11 dr.; Skirophorion?, . . . a sheep, 12 dr., (55) for Athena Hellotis,10 a piglet, 3 dr., . . . col. 2 . . . these the demarch of Marathon sacrifices . . . within ten days, for the hero . . . a piglet, 3 dr., table for the hero, 1 dr.?; (5) Boedromion, before the Mysteries . . . a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos a sheep, 11 dr.?; second quarter, Posideon . . . a bovine, 150 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for the heroine a sheep, 11 dr.?, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr., for Earth in the fields (Gēi eg guais), a pregt bovine, 90 (?) dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 4 dr.?, (10) at the rite (teletēi), baskets (?) (spuridia??), 40 dr.; third quarter, Gamelion . . . for Daira, a pregt sheep, 16 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Earth at the oracle (Gēi epi tōi manteiōi), a sheep, 11 dr., for Zeus Hypatos? . . . for Ioleus, a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., a table, (15) 1 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr. 1½ ob., for the hero Pheraios a sheep, 12 dr. ?, for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 3 dr.; Elaphebolion, on the tenth, for Earth at the oracle (Gēi epi tōi manteiōi), a completely black he-goat, 15 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna) . . . ; fourth quarter, Mounichion, for Aristomachos, (20) a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr., for the Youth (Neaniai), a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 12 dr., a piglet 3 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr. 1½ ob.; these the demarch of Marathon sacrifices, for the hero in Drasileia, a sheep, 12 dr., a table, 1 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr., (25) for the hero by the marsh sanctuary (Hellōtion), a sheep, 12 dr., a table, 1 dr., for the heroine, a sheep, 11 dr.; Thargelion, for Achaia, a ram, 12 dr., a female (i.e. a ewe), 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 3 dr., for the Fates (Moirais), a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1½ ob.; (30) Skirophorion, before Skira, for Hyttenios, the annual offerings (hōraia), a sheep, 12 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr. 1½ ob., for the Tritopatreis, a sheep, 12 dr.?, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr., for the Akamantes, a sheep, 12 dr., priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 2 dr.; these every other year, prior sequence (protera dramosunē), (35) Hekatombaion, for Athena Hellotis,10 a bovine, 90 dr., three sheep, 33 dr., a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 7 dr. 1½ ob., for Kourotrophos, a sheep, 11 dr., a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr. 1½ ob., for the laurel-bearers (daphnēphorois), 7 dr.; these are sacrificed every other year, after the archonship of Euboulos (40) for the Tetrapoleis, posterior sequence (hustera dramosunē), Hekatombaion, for Athena Hellotis,10 a sheep, 11 dr., for Kourotrophos, a piglet, 3 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr. 1½ ob.; Metageitnion, for Eleusinia, a bovine, 90 dr., for the Girl (Korēi), a ram, 12 dr., 3 piglets, 9 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), (45) 6 dr. 4½ ob., a sixth (hekteus) of barley, 4 ob., a chous of wine 1 dr., for Kourotrophos, a sheep, 11 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Zeus Anthaleus, a sheep, 12 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr.; Anthesterion, for Eleusinia, a pregt sow, 70 (?) dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., for Chloe by the property of Meidylos, a pregt sow, 70 dr.?, (50) priestly dues (hierōsuna), 1 dr., a sixth (hekteus) of barley, 4 ob., a chous of wine 1 dr.; Skirophorion, before Skira, for Galios, a ram, 12 dr., priestly dues (hierōsuna), 2 dr., for the well (?) (phreatos), 6 dr., for the Tritopatreis, a table, 1 dr.. At Trikorynthos these every year, first quarter, (55) Metageitnion, for Hera,12 a bovine, 90 dr., a sheep, 11 dr. . . . for Kourotrophos . . . Face B . . . -sistratos of Marathon . . . of Marathon, 20 dr., Archenautes of Marathon, 22 (?) dr., . . . (≥) 10 dr., Hegesistratos of Marathon, . . . -doros . . . Isodikos of Oinoe, (≥) 10 dr., (5) . . . -gonos, Hagnostratos of Marathon, . . . , Patrokles of Oinoe, (≥) 10 dr., . . . 612 dr. 3 ob. (?), . . . of Marathon, . . . of Oinoe, . . . . . . -chos . . . of Marathon . . . . . . (≥) 30 dr. (?) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) (10) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) . . . . . . of Marathon . . . . . . (≥) 11 dr. (?) . . . (15) . . . (≥) 20 dr. (?) . . . . . . . . . (≥) 3 dr. (?) . . . of Marathon, 60 dr. (?) . . . of Marathon, 12 dr. (?) (20) . . . . . . About 28 lines illegible (50) . . . Hagetor of Probalinthos (?) . . . . . . (≥) 70 dr. . . . . . . . of Marathon, 11 dr. (?), . . . About 8 lines illegible (61) . . . (≥) 2 dr. (?) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
50.168 - The sacrificial calendar of the Marathonian Tetrapolis

54.214
. . . . . . for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup (kotulēs) of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood (phruganōn), 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. (5) For the priestess of the Heroine, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skins of the all the victims for the Heroine (hērōiniōn); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch- flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Dionysos Anthios, (10) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the billy-goat (trago); on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Hera, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on (15) the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Demeter Chloe, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of -, (20) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of the Chaste Goddess (Hagnēs Theo), priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; for a third (triteōs) of barley, 1 dr.; for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, (25) 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a chous of wine, 2½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; for logs (xulōn), 3 dr. For the priest of the Chaste Goddess, the same as for the priestess, and the skins of the animals sacrificed for both, and 20 dr. For the priest of Paralos, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr., and 10 dr.; the skin of the wether (oios); for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; (30) for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a fourth of barley, 4½ ob.; for two choes (chooin) of wine, 5 ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. For the priest of the Archegetes and of the other heroes, priestly dues, 5 dr.; the skins of whatever victims he consecrates for sacrifice (katarxētai); on the sacrificial hearth (escharan); for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; whenever (he prepares) the table, (35) for two choinikes (choinikoin) of barley, 1½ ob.; for two cups of olive oil, 1 ob.; for half a cup (hēmikotulio) of honey, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. And whenever one of the Fifties (pentēkostuōn) sacrifices anywhere at the hero-shrines, they shall provide on the table two choinikes (choinike) of wheat, two cups of oil, half a cup (hēmikotulion) of honey. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
54.214 - Provisions for priests and priestesses (in Aixone?)
' ' None
50. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • calendars • calendars, Christian

 Found in books: Ando (2013), Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire, 92; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 156

51. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • calendar, • solar calendar (Montanist)

 Found in books: Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 300; Tabbernee (2007), Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism, 367

52. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Calendar/Calendrical Issues • Festivals—see also Calendar • Solar calendar • calendar • solar (calendar)

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 262; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 968; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 311

53. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • burial, calendar • calendar, sacrificial • calendars • cultic ritual practice, calendars and festivals • cultic ritual practice, sacrificial and festal calendars • inscriptions, sacrificial calendars • time, calendars

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 539; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 582; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 65; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 109

54. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Cos, calendar of • Eleusis, sacrificial calendar from deme • Eleusis,, Sacred Calendar of • Erchia, sacrificial calendar from deme • Erchia,, Sacred Calendar of • Kos, sacrificial calendars • Marathon, sacrificial calendar from deme • Mykonos, sacrificial calendar • Rhodes, calendar extracts • Sacrificial Calendar at Athens • Teithras, sacrificial calendar from deme • Thorikos, calendar mythology in • Thorikos, deme, sacrificial calendar from deme • calendar, Athenian state • calendar, Attic demes • calendar, extracts • calendar, festival • calendar, informative vs. uninformative • calendar, publication, of • calendar, sacrificial • calendars • calendars, Kyanopsion • calendars, Maimakterion • calendars, Plynterion • calendars, sacred calendar from Larissa • cultic ritual practice, calendars and festivals • cultic ritual practice, sacrificial and festal calendars • festivals, sacrificial calendars and • inscriptions, sacrificial calendars • sacrificial calendars • synoecism, calendars and • time, calendars

 Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 200; Dignas (2002), Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor, 248; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 540; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 30, 133, 143, 144, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 161, 162, 163, 220, 223, 224, 239, 240, 253, 259, 316, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 70; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 124, 125; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 291, 292; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 72; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183

55. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Cos, calendar of • Eleusis, sacrificial calendar from deme • Erchia, sacrificial calendar from deme • Marathon, sacrificial calendar from deme • Mykonos, sacrificial calendar • Rhodes, calendar extracts • Teithras, sacrificial calendar from deme • Thorikos, deme, sacrificial calendar from deme • assembly, calendar • calendar, Athenian state • calendar, Attic demes • calendar, commemorative • calendar, extracts • calendar, festival • calendar, informative vs. uninformative • calendar, publication, of • calendar, sacrificial • calendars, Boedromion • calendars, Metageitnion • calendars, sacred • festivals, sacrificial calendars and • gymnasium, calendar • sacrificial calendars • synoecism, calendars and

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 133, 134, 141, 143, 147, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 163, 164, 165, 166, 237, 238, 239, 313; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 65, 67, 68, 69, 93, 124; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 22, 53, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68

56. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Erchia, sacrificial calendar • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • calendars, Boedromion • calendars, Metageitnion • calendars, sacred

 Found in books: Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 65, 66; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 81, 129, 142

57. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Erchia, sacrificial calendar from deme • Marathon, sacrificial calendar from deme • Thorikos, deme, sacrificial calendar from deme • burial, calendar

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 138, 141; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 585

58. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • Solon, calendar of • calendars, sacred • calendars, sacred, of Erchia • calendars, sacred, of Marathon Tetrapolis • calendars, sacred, of Nicomachus

 Found in books: Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 61, 67; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 61, 128, 199; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 80

59. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • demes, religion of calendars • sacrificial calendars

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 150; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 66

60. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens,, Sacred Calendar of • Eleusis,, Sacred Calendar of • Erchia, sacrificial calendar • Erchia,, Sacred Calendar of • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • Sacrificial Calendar at Athens • Solon, calendar of • assembly, calendar • burial, calendar • calendars • calendars, Boedromion • calendars, Metageitnion • calendars, Mounychion • calendars, Thargeleion • calendars, fasti sacres, months, Athenian • calendars, sacred • calendars, sacred, of Nicomachus • calendars, sacred, of Salaminioi • writing, calendar

 Found in books: Connelly (2007), Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 199, 200; Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 553, 555, 556, 647, 808; Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 169; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 17, 53, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 75; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 121, 128, 170, 218; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 72, 82, 85, 129; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 182

61. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Nikomachos, reviser of the sacrificial calendar • assembly, calendar • calendars, sacred • ritual calendar

 Found in books: Heymans (2021), The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World, 187; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020), Greek Epigraphy and Religion: Papers in Memory of Sara B, 16; Papazarkadas (2011), Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens, 82




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