Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       

Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
burial Ekroth (2013) 63, 79, 80, 82, 84, 204, 206, 211, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235, 254, 256, 263
Flynn (2018) 131, 151, 154, 166, 168, 170, 175
Garcia (2021) 62
Huebner (2013) 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 135, 136, 137, 163, 173, 180
Huttner (2013) 368, 369
Janowitz (2002) 3, 71, 74, 75, 78
Jouanna (2012) 108
Jouanna (2018) 397, 398, 399
Konig and Wiater (2022) 81, 189
König and Wiater (2022) 81, 189
Laes Goodey and Rose (2013) 264
Porton (1988) 16, 26, 29, 75, 208, 231, 232, 274
Rubenstein (2018) 26, 128, 133
Rupke (2016) 95
Secunda (2014) 50, 175, 191
Stavrianopoulou (2006) 219, 220, 221, 245, 253
Stavrianopoulou (2013) 32, 122, 155, 156, 159, 236, 248, 269, 374
Stuckenbruck (2007) 370, 371
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 150, 172
Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 16, 28, 35, 87, 181, 263, 270
de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 168, 232
burial, after homicide Martin (2009) 39, 278
burial, agamemnon, and ajax’s Jouanna (2018) 394, 395
burial, alive, punishment Mueller (2002) 50, 51, 58
burial, and burial, document preservation, cave Taylor (2012) 287, 289
burial, and divine law Jouanna (2018) 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399
burial, and document preservation, and impurity of hands Taylor (2012) 294
burial, and document preservation, and jar storage Taylor (2012) 289
burial, and document preservation, and judaic law Taylor (2012) 287
burial, and document preservation, and mountain of quranic light Taylor (2012) 301
burial, and document preservation, and pharmacological lore Taylor (2012) 328
burial, and document preservation, and rejected scrolls Taylor (2012) 302
burial, and document preservation, and scroll cemeteries Taylor (2012) 273, 290
burial, and document preservation, biblical attestation of Taylor (2012) 284
burial, and document preservation, cedar oil and Taylor (2012) 284
burial, and document preservation, in qumran cemetery Taylor (2012) 290, 291
burial, and document preservation, sadducees approach to Taylor (2012) 294
burial, and document preservation, unusable documents as pesul Taylor (2012) 287
burial, and lamentation, war dead, burial, of conclusion of narrative with proper Panoussi(2019) 111, 112
burial, and mourning in vergil, aeneid Panoussi(2019) 236, 237, 239
burial, and preservation, and shemot, gods document name Taylor (2012) 273, 287, 293, 294
burial, and preservation, document Taylor (2012) 284, 289
burial, and the set Jouanna (2018) 220
burial, animal Mackay (2022) 99, 100
burial, area p Lampe (2003) 34, 38, 107, 108, 111, 112, 115, 116, 141, 332, 333
burial, as singing Jouanna (2018) 270, 271, 272, 273
burial, associations role in members’ Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 12, 47, 54, 56, 72, 114, 148, 150, 157, 187, 191, 194, 198, 199, 200, 201, 217, 228, 234
burial, at aquincum, bowls from, sandals in Griffiths (1975) 136
burial, athens vs. s. ant. Fabian Meinel (2015) 91, 92
burial, calendar Humphreys (2018) 549, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 582, 583, 584, 585, 647, 659, 753, 808, 1119
burial, centre, qumran and the essenes, as scroll Taylor (2012) 342
burial, child Humphreys (2018) 1155
burial, cloth, linen Graf and Johnston (2007) 159, 160
burial, collected bones Hachlili (2005) 459, 521, 525
burial, communal Stavrianopoulou (2006) 223
burial, creon, and polynices’ Jouanna (2018) 397, 398, 399
burial, criteria, dead sea scrolls, scroll Taylor (2012) 342
burial, customs Hachlili (2005) 441, 476, 478, 479, 481, 485, 489, 512, 521, 523, 525
Morrison (2020) 84, 90, 94, 177, 199
burial, customs, burial/funeral Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 152, 188, 224, 225, 226, 228
burial, customs, provinces, of roman empire Galinsky (2016) 337, 338, 339
burial, death and Schwartz (2008) 245, 365, 417, 418, 439
burial, deme festival Humphreys (2018) 355, 803, 806, 807, 811, 867, 868, 869, 870, 886, 887, 922, 985, 991, 992, 1161, 1162
burial, denial of Martin (2009) 40, 90
burial, elites, and Keddie (2019) 223, 229, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239, 240, 243, 244, 245, 246
burial, euripides Liapis and Petrides (2019) 287, 288, 290
burial, eusebês, and cognates, usage, in context of death and Peels (2016) 75, 77
burial, funeral Radicke (2022) 29, 30, 34, 36, 37, 60, 281, 338, 341, 427, 446, 562, 566, 567, 568
burial, funeral expenses Huebner (2013) 88
burial, funerary, public Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 232
burial, graves, and curse Eidinow (2007) 291
burial, ground, burial Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 138
burial, ground, state funeral for the war dead, public Barbato (2020) 39
burial, grounds, funerals Rüpke (2011) 15, 155, 172
burial, hosios, and cognates, in context of death and Peels (2016) 35, 39, 44, 45, 48, 49, 101, 102, 128, 178, 179, 213, 214
burial, in a supplication tragedy Jouanna (2018) 289
burial, in alcestis, double Pucci (2016) 70
burial, in demosthenes Fabian Meinel (2015) 92
burial, in double Pucci (2016) 70
burial, in effigy Steiner (2001) 6, 7
burial, in sanctuaries Lupu(2005) 22
burial, in the city Stavrianopoulou (2006) 224, 225, 242
burial, in the social hierarchy Jouanna (2018) 317
burial, in thebes, seven against thebes Barbato (2020) 53, 183
burial, indemnity, paid by associations to members Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 82, 83, 199, 228
burial, informal Humphreys (2018) 341
burial, inscriptions, inscriptions Hayes (2022) 317
burial, islam, manuscript cave Taylor (2012) 289, 301
burial, judith, death and Gera (2014) 42, 260, 261, 473, 474, 475, 476
burial, law, nomos on Barbato (2020) 189, 190, 192, 198, 199, 200, 211
burial, lefkandi, t.79 Heymans (2021) 205
burial, legitimacy and inheritance Martin (2009) 270, 271, 272, 273, 281, 282, 284
burial, lysimachus, on oedipus’s Jouanna (2018) 670
burial, menelaus, and ajax’s Jouanna (2018) 394, 395
burial, mound Ekroth (2013) 67, 69, 70, 71, 99, 101, 191, 198, 267, 334
burial, mourning, death and Schwartz (2008) 198
burial, non-elites, and Keddie (2019) 223, 232, 240, 243, 245, 246, 247
burial, obligation Martin (2009) 162, 188, 271, 272, 273, 294, 297
burial, odysseus, and ajax’s Jouanna (2018) 395, 398
burial, of ajax Jouanna (2018) 311, 394, 395, 398
burial, of apis, and sarapis Griffiths (1975) 331, 342
burial, of bishop clematius, church with Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 309
burial, of body Rubenstein (2018) 128
burial, of dead Avery Peck et al. (2014) 76, 251
O, Daly (2020) 98
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 97, 299, 339
burial, of death, aḥiqar Toloni (2022) 144, 145, 149, 151, 174
burial, of death, judaism Toloni (2022) 144
burial, of death, tobit Toloni (2022) 4, 128, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 174, 200
burial, of dionysus, grave or Graf and Johnston (2007) 77, 162
burial, of excessive war dead, lamentation, pleasure arising from Panoussi(2019) 109, 110
burial, of hoards under floor/wall Heymans (2021) 87
burial, of male epic and female war dead, lament, linking Panoussi(2019) 104
burial, of oedipus Jouanna (2018) 669, 670
burial, of polynices Jouanna (2018) 712
burial, of polynices, oedipus’s son Jouanna (2018) 263, 304, 305, 306, 396, 397, 398, 399
burial, of seven against thebes Wilding (2022) 32, 33, 34, 36, 37
burial, of social unity and war dead, cohesion, female ritual as force for Panoussi(2019) 104, 105, 222
burial, of the dead, motifs, in postclassical tragedy Liapis and Petrides (2019) 103, 282, 284, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292
burial, of themistocles Jouanna (2018) 395
burial, of thoas in statius thebaid, burials, and mourning, hypsipyles fake Panoussi(2019) 159, 160, 161, 162, 163
burial, of thoas, in hypsipyle, fake statius Panoussi(2019) 159, 160, 161, 162, 163
burial, of traitor in xenophon Fabian Meinel (2015) 92
burial, of war dead Panoussi(2019) 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112
burial, of war dead, suppliants, women seeking to bury dead as Panoussi(2019) 105, 106, 110
burial, of war dead, theseus, womens association with Panoussi(2019) 110
burial, oracles, on Martin (2009) 274, 284, 297
burial, orpheus and eurydice, destruction of orpheus body and denial of Panoussi(2019) 99, 239
burial, place in attica, seven against thebes Barbato (2020) 184, 193
burial, place of osiris, abatos Manolaraki (2012) 89, 92
burial, place of paul Lampe (2003) 34
burial, places, memorials Lampe (2003) 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 52, 55, 56, 57, 98, 104, 107, 108, 111, 112, 115, 116, 122, 130, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 149, 150, 187, 188, 189, 190, 309, 310, 311, 331, 332, 339, 360, 370, 371
burial, plots Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 51, 630
burial, plots, dimensions Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 166
burial, plots, violations of Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 197
burial, possibility of qumran, scroll Taylor (2012) 290, 291, 342
burial, pot Humphreys (2018) 334, 341, 349
burial, practice, burial/funeral, traditional Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 169, 187, 226, 228
burial, practice, burial/funeral, transformation of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 224, 225, 226, 228
burial, practices Brand (2022) 109, 201, 230, 232, 240, 248, 254
burial, practices in palestine Feldman (2006) 17
burial, practices in rome, jewish Kraemer (2020) 9, 18
burial, practices, bronze age, early Marek (2019) 61
burial, practices, neolithic/chalcolithic age, bronze age Marek (2019) 61
burial, practices, neolithic/chalcolithic age, curses and formulas protecting against desecration of tombs Marek (2019) 459
burial, practices, neolithic/chalcolithic age, lydian Marek (2019) 112
burial, practices, persia/persians Marek (2019) 164, 168, 170
burial, practices/customs Piotrkowski (2019) 171, 173, 286, 288, 409
burial, primary Hachlili (2005) 10, 449, 450, 521, 523, 525
burial, pseudo Janowitz (2002) 78
burial, rites Hachlili (2005) 437
Martin (2009) 170
burial, rites in vergil, aeneid, conflations of wedding and Panoussi(2019) 226, 236
burial, rites, bacchic rites, conflation with wedding and Panoussi(2019) 120, 152, 153, 162
burial, rites, burials, and mourning, conflations of wedding and Panoussi(2019) 20, 56, 89, 120, 236
burial, rites, death O, Daly (2012) 307
burial, rites, weddings and marriage, conflations of wedding and Panoussi(2019) 20, 56, 89, 120, 236
burial, ritual Rupke (2016) 13
burial, rituals, dionysiac Graf and Johnston (2007) 158, 159, 160, 162, 163
burial, role of Jouanna (2018) 207, 208, 213, 217, 224, 225, 229, 236, 245, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256
burial, sarah, of omitted Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 43, 386
burial, secondary Hachlili (2005) 449, 483, 512, 521, 524, 525
burial, silence of Jouanna (2018) 734
burial, site of osiris, abydos memnonion Renberg (2017) 486, 495
burial, sites Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 437
burial, sites, burial/funeral, administration of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 326, 327, 328
burial, sites, rome, ancient, christian Galinsky (2016) 359
burial, sites, rome, ancient, non-christian Galinsky (2016) 268, 281
burial, sites, sacred animals, egyptian, demotic terms for Renberg (2017) 396, 415
burial, societies Levine (2005) 85, 294, 392
burial, state festival Humphreys (2018) 51, 53, 310, 393, 636
burial, terminology for, death and Schwartz (2008) 306, 406
burial, tetrapolis festival Humphreys (2018) 767, 896, 1151, 1152, 1153
burial, tombs of ancestors Martin (2009) 158, 159, 175, 221
burial, treason, and Jouanna (2018) 394, 395, 399, 748, 749
burial, war dead, of bacchic rites in Panoussi(2019) 104, 106, 107, 108, 109
burial, war dead, of poets assumption of female voice of lamentation in Panoussi(2019) 104
burial, war dead, of transgressive female behavior and Panoussi(2019) 106, 107
burial, within city of ephesos Johnson and Parker (2009) 77, 87
burial/funeral Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 174
burial/funeral, adjacent to churches Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 208, 446
burial/funeral, anointing Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 228
burial/funeral, in churches Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 208
burial/funeral, multiple, burials, Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 206, 208, 276
burial/funeral, procession Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 226
burial/funeral, ritual Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 152, 323
burial/funeral, second, burial, Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 276, 352
burial/funeral, space Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 163, 206, 294, 322, 328, 396, 510
burial/funeral, spouses Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 295, 296
burial/funeral, wall paintings Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 290
burials Klein and Wienand (2022) 57, 132, 156, 188, 275, 282
burials, and mourning, bacchic rites conflated with Panoussi(2019) 120, 152, 153, 162
burials, and mourning, excessive female grief and pleasure in lamentation Panoussi(2019) 93, 95, 96, 109, 110, 236, 247
burials, and mourning, philomela as mourner Panoussi(2019) 142, 143
burials, and mourning, poet, traditional lament for death of Panoussi(2019) 239
burials, and subterranean passages, alexandria sarapieion, sacred animal Renberg (2017) 333, 334, 336, 591
burials, copper scroll, on elite and non-elite Keddie (2019) 245, 246
burials, focarion, infant Phang (2001) 128
burials, legal aspects Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 197, 229, 314
burials, villae rusticae, on non-elite Keddie (2019) 244, 245
death/burial, paul, st Galinsky (2016) 359
death/burial, peter, st Galinsky (2016) 359
funeral/burial, of death Pucci (2016) 70, 126
graves/tombs/burial, clusters of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 225, 327
graves/tombs/burial, construction of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 206, 208
graves/tombs/burial, designations for Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 18, 110, 235, 236, 266, 329
graves/tombs/burial, general lists of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 224, 225, 226
graves/tombs/burial, memorials Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 236, 265, 294, 350, 351
graves/tombs/burial, pagan graves Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 396, 401, 492
graves/tombs/burial, presbyter’s graves Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 309
graves/tombs/burial, purchase of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 235, 237, 328
graves/tombs/burial, reusage of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 208
graves/tombs/burial, single graves Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 295, 307, 309
graves/tombs/burial, twin graves Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 309
mourning/death/burial Reif (2006) 61, 217, 269
rites/burials, funeral Fertik (2019) 5, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37

List of validated texts:
40 validated results for "burial"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.17-1.18, 2.3-2.4, 2.7, 4.3-4.4, 14.3-14.11 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial • Judith, death and burial • burial of death, Aḥiqar • burial of death, Judaism • burial of death, Tobit • elites, and burial • villae rusticae, on non-elite burials

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 474, 475; Keddie (2019) 244; Stuckenbruck (2007) 370; Toloni (2022) 144, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151

1.17. I would give my bread to the hungry and my clothing to the naked; and if I saw any one of my people dead and thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury him. 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found.
2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place." 2.4. So before I tasted anything I sprang up and removed the body to a place of shelter until sunset.
2.7. When the sun had set I went and dug a grave and buried the body.
4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave.
4.3. When he had grown very old he called his son and grandsons, and said to him, "My son, take your sons; behold, I have grown old and am about to depart this life. 14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it. 14.6. Then all the Gentiles will turn to fear the Lord God in truth, and will bury their idols. 14.7. All the Gentiles will praise the Lord, and his people will give thanks to God, and the Lord will exalt his people. And all who love the Lord God in truth and righteousness will rejoice, showing mercy to our brethren. 14.8. So now, my son, leave Nineveh, because what the prophet Jonah said will surely happen. 14.9. But keep the law and the commandments, and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you. 14.10. Bury me properly, and your mother with me. And do not live in Nineveh any longer. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him, how he brought him from light into darkness, and with what he repaid him. But Ahikar was saved, and the other received repayment as he himself went down into the darkness. Ahikar gave alms and escaped the deathtrap which Nadab had set for him; but Nadab fell into the trap and perished. 14.11. So now, my children, consider what almsgiving accomplishes and how righteousness delivers." As he said this he died in his bed. He was a hundred and fifty-eight years old; and Tobias gave him a magnificent funeral.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.50 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial customs • Judith, death and burial • Primary burial

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 473; Hachlili (2005) 523

32.50. and die in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 18.20, 23.2, 23.17, 23.19, 24.1, 25.8, 25.10, 49.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial • Burial customs • Judith, death and burial • Primary burial • Sarah, burial of, omitted • burial of death, Tobit • burial, societies

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 43, 386; Flynn (2018) 166, 168, 170, 175; Gera (2014) 260, 473, 474, 475; Hachlili (2005) 523; Levine (2005) 85; Toloni (2022) 200

23.2. וַיָּקָם הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־חֵת׃
23.2. וַתָּמָת שָׂרָה בְּקִרְיַת אַרְבַּע הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַיָּבֹא אַבְרָהָם לִסְפֹּד לְשָׂרָה וְלִבְכֹּתָהּ׃
23.17. וַיָּקָם שְׂדֵה עֶפְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי מַמְרֵא הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלוֹ סָבִיב׃
23.19. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָבַר אַבְרָהָם אֶת־שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־מְעָרַת שְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה עַל־פְּנֵי מַמְרֵא הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃
24.1. וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל׃
24.1. וַיִּקַּח הָעֶבֶד עֲשָׂרָה גְמַלִּים מִגְּמַלֵּי אֲדֹנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ וְכָל־טוּב אֲדֹנָיו בְּיָדוֹ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם אֶל־עִיר נָחוֹר׃
25.8. וַיִּגְוַע וַיָּמָת אַבְרָהָם בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה זָקֵן וְשָׂבֵעַ וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃
49.29. וַיְצַו אוֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי נֶאֱסָף אֶל־עַמִּי קִבְרוּ אֹתִי אֶל־אֲבֹתָי אֶל־הַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי׃' '. None
18.20. And the LORD said: ‘Verily, the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and, verily, their sin is exceeding grievous.
23.2. And Sarah died in Kiriatharba—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her.
23.17. So the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the border thereof round about, were made sure
23.19. And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan.
24.1. And Abraham was old, well stricken in age; and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things.
25.8. And Abraham expired, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people.
25.10. the field which Abraham purchased of the children of Heth; there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife.
49.29. And be charged them, and said unto them: ‘I am to be gathered unto my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,' '. None
4. Homer, Iliad, 6.300, 23.32, 23.72, 23.75, 23.243 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alcestis, double burial in • Bacchic rites, conflation with wedding and burial rites • Hypsipyle, fake burial of Thoas (in Statius) • burial • burial of dead • burial practices • burial, in effigy • burial, informal • burial, pot • burial, state festival • burials and mourning, Bacchic rites conflated with • burials and mourning, Hypsipyles fake burial of Thoas in Statius Thebaid • death, funeral/burial of • double burial in

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 254; Humphreys (2018) 341, 636; Panoussi(2019) 162; Pucci (2016) 70, 126; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 84; Steiner (2001) 6; Waldner et al (2016) 25, 26

6.300. τὴν γὰρ Τρῶες ἔθηκαν Ἀθηναίης ἱέρειαν.
23.32. πολλοὶ δʼ ἀργιόδοντες ὕες θαλέθοντες ἀλοιφῇ
23.72. τῆλέ με εἴργουσι ψυχαὶ εἴδωλα καμόντων,
23.75. καί μοι δὸς τὴν χεῖρʼ· ὀλοφύρομαι, οὐ γὰρ ἔτʼ αὖτις
23.243. καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐν χρυσέῃ φιάλῃ καὶ δίπλακι δημῷ''. None
6.300. for her had the Trojans made priestess of Athene. Then with sacred cries they all lifted up their hands to Athene; and fair-cheeked Theano took the robe and laid it upon the knees of fair-haired Athene, and with vows made prayer to the daughter of great Zeus:
23.32. Many sleek bulls bellowed about the knife, as they were slaughtered, many sheep and bleating goats, and many white-tusked swine, rich with fat, were stretched to singe over the flame of Hephaestus; and everywhere about the corpse the blood ran so that one might dip cups therein.
23.72. Not in my life wast thou unmindful of me, but now in my death! Bury me with all speed, that I pass within the gates of Hades. Afar do the spirits keep me aloof, the phantoms of men that have done with toils, neither suffer they me to join myself to them beyond the River, but vainly I wander through the wide-gated house of Hades.
23.75. And give me thy hand, I pitifully entreat thee, for never more again shall I come back from out of Hades, when once ye have given me my due of fire. Never more in life shall we sit apart from our dear comrades and take counsel together, but for me hath loathly fate
23.243. and easy they are to discern, for he lay in the midst of the pyre, while the others burned apart on the edges thereof, horses and men mingled together. Then let us place the bones in a golden urn wrapped in a double layer of fat until such time as I myself be hidden in Hades. ''. None
5. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hosios (and cognates), In context of death and burial • law, nomos on burial

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 198; Peels (2016) 48

6. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seven Against Thebes, burial of • Seven against Thebes, burial in Thebes

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 53, 183; Wilding (2022) 34

7. Euripides, Orestes, 546-547 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hosios (and cognates), In context of death and burial • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead

 Found in books: Liapis and Petrides (2019) 284; Peels (2016) 35

546. ἐγᾦδ', ἀνόσιός εἰμι μητέρα κτανών,"547. ὅσιος δέ γ' ἕτερον ὄνομα, τιμωρῶν πατρί." "". None
546. in a matter where I am sure to grieve you to the heart. I am unholy because I killed my mother, I know it, yet holy on another count, because I avenged my father. Only let your years, which frighten me from speaking, set no barrier in the path of my words,'547. in a matter where I am sure to grieve you to the heart. I am unholy because I killed my mother, I know it, yet holy on another count, because I avenged my father. Only let your years, which frighten me from speaking, set no barrier in the path of my words, '. None
8. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 301-302, 311, 522-530, 561-563 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Euripides, burial • law, nomos on burial • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 198, 200, 211; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 288, 291, 292

301. ἐγὼ δέ ς', ὦ παῖ, πρῶτα μὲν τὰ τῶν θεῶν"302. σκοπεῖν κελεύω μὴ σφαλῇς ἀτιμάσας:
311. νόμιμά τε πάσης συγχέοντας ̔Ελλάδος
522. πόλεμον δὲ τοῦτον οὐκ ἐγὼ καθίσταμαι,' "523. ὃς οὐδὲ σὺν τοῖσδ' ἦλθον ἐς Κάδμου χθόνα:" '524. νεκροὺς δὲ τοὺς θανόντας, οὐ βλάπτων πόλιν' "525. οὐδ' ἀνδροκμῆτας προσφέρων ἀγωνίας," '526. θάψαι δικαιῶ, τὸν Πανελλήνων νόμον 527. σῴζων. τί τούτων ἐστὶν οὐ καλῶς ἔχον;' "528. εἰ γάρ τι καὶ πεπόνθατ' ̓Αργείων ὕπο," '529. τεθνᾶσιν, ἠμύνασθε πολεμίους καλῶς,' "530. αἰσχρῶς δ' ἐκείνοις, χἡ δίκη διοίχεται." "
561. οὐ γάρ ποτ' εἰς ̔́Ελληνας ἐξοισθήσεται" "562. ὡς εἰς ἔμ' ἐλθὼν καὶ πόλιν Πανδίονος" '563. νόμος παλαιὸς δαιμόνων διεφθάρη.' "'. None
301. that it is useless for women to give good advice. First, my son, I exhort thee give good heed to heaven’s will, lest from slighting it thou suffer shipwreck; Probably spurious. for in this one single point thou failest, though well-advised in all else. Further, I would have patiently endured, had it not been my duty'302. that it is useless for women to give good advice. First, my son, I exhort thee give good heed to heaven’s will, lest from slighting it thou suffer shipwreck; Probably spurious. for in this one single point thou failest, though well-advised in all else. Further, I would have patiently endured, had it not been my duty
311. perform this bounden duty, and check those who would confound the customs of all Hellas; for this it is that holds men’s states together,—strict observance of the laws. And some, no doubt, will say, ’twas cowardice made thee stand aloof in terror,
522. Athens to act on this wise; nay! for then would the tide of time have to flow backward, if we are to be ordered about, as he thinks. ’Tis not I who choose this war, seeing that I did not even join these warriors to go unto the land of Cadmus; but still I claim to bury the fallen dead, not injuring any state 525. nor yet introducing murderous strife, but preserving the law of all Hellas. What is not well in this? If ye suffered aught from the Argives—lo! they are dead; ye took a splendid vengeance on your foe 530. and covered them with shame, and now your right is at an end. Let Nauck regards these lines 531 to 536 as an interpolation. the dead now be buried in the earth, and each element return Restoring ἀπελθεῖν from Stobseus (Hartung). to the place from whence it came to the body, the breath to the air, the body to the ground; for in no wise did we get it
561. Else is the issue clear; I will go and bury them by force. For never shall it be proclaimed through Hellas that heaven’s ancient law was set at naught, when it devolved on me and the city of Pandion. Choru '. None
9. Herodotus, Histories, 2.81, 9.27.3 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hosios (and cognates), In context of death and burial • Seven Against Thebes, burial of • Seven against Thebes, burial place in Attica • burial rituals, Dionysiac • linen burial cloth

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 184; Graf and Johnston (2007) 159; Peels (2016) 39; Wilding (2022) 32

2.81. ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος.' '. None
2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this.
9.27.3. Furthermore, when the Argives who had marched with Polynices against Thebes had there made an end of their lives and lay unburied, know that we sent our army against the Cadmeans and recovered the dead and buried them in Eleusis. ''. None
10. Plato, Menexenus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seven against Thebes, burial in Thebes • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 53; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 291

239b. καὶ ἰδίᾳ καὶ δημοσίᾳ, οἰόμενοι δεῖν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας καὶ Ἕλλησιν ὑπὲρ Ἑλλήνων μάχεσθαι καὶ βαρβάροις ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων τῶν Ἑλλήνων. Εὐμόλπου μὲν οὖν καὶ Ἀμαζόνων ἐπιστρατευσάντων ἐπὶ τὴν χώραν καὶ τῶν ἔτι προτέρων ὡς ἠμύναντο, καὶ ὡς ἤμυναν Ἀργείοις πρὸς Καδμείους καὶ Ἡρακλείδαις πρὸς Ἀργείους, ὅ τε χρόνος βραχὺς ἀξίως διηγήσασθαι, ποιηταί τε αὐτῶν ἤδη καλῶς τὴν ἀρετὴν ἐν μουσικῇ ὑμνήσαντες εἰς πάντας μεμηνύκασιν· ἐὰν οὖν ἡμεῖς''. None
239b. deeming it their duty to fight in the cause of freedom alike with Greeks on behalf of Greeks and with barbarians on behalf of the whole of Greece . The story of how they repulsed Eumolpus and the Amazons, and still earlier invaders, when they marched upon our country, and how they defended the Argives against the Cadmeians and the Heracleidae against the Argives, is a story which our time is too short to relate as it deserves, and already their valor has been adequately celebrated in song by poets who have made it known throughout the world;''. None
11. Sophocles, Ajax, 1129-1131, 1328-1331, 1344-1345 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Agamemnon, and Ajax’s burial • Ajax, burial of • Menelaus, and Ajax’s burial • Odysseus, and Ajax’s burial • Themistocles, burial of • burial, and divine law • burial, role of • law, nomos on burial • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead • treason, and burial

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 190; Jouanna (2018) 207, 394, 395; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 282, 284

1129. Then since it was the gods who saved you, do not dishonor the gods. Menelau'1130. What, would I find fault with divine law? Teucer 1131. Yes, if by your presence here you prevent burial of the dead. Menelau
1328. Then may a friend speak the truth, and still remain your helpmate no less than before? Agamemnon 1330. Speak. Otherwise I would be less than sane, since I count you my greatest friend among all the Greeks. Odysseu
1344. that in all our Greek force at Troy he was, in my view, the best and bravest, excepting Achilles. It would not be just, then, that he should be dishonored by you. It is not he, but the laws given by the gods that you would damage. When a good man is dead, there is no justice 1345. in doing him harm, not even if you hate him. Agamemnon '. None
12. Sophocles, Antigone, 77, 205, 449-455, 1005-1032, 1039-1044, 1068-1076 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ajax, burial of • Creon, and Polynices’ burial • Demosthenes, burial in • Euripides, burial • Hosios (and cognates), In context of death and burial • Odysseus, and Ajax’s burial • Polynices (Oedipus’s son), burial of • Xenophon, burial of traitor in • burial • burial, Athens vs. S. Ant. • burial, and divine law • graves, and curse burial • law, nomos on burial • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead • treason, and burial

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 190; Eidinow (2007) 291; Fabian Meinel (2015) 92; Jouanna (2018) 396, 397, 398, 399, 749; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 288; Peels (2016) 101, 102

77. that I must serve the dead than the living, since in that world I will rest forever. But if you so choose, continue to dishonor what the gods in honor have established.
205. but all must leave him unburied and a sight of shame, with his body there for birds and dogs to eat. This is my will, and never will I allow the traitor to stand in honor before the just. But whoever has good will to Thebes ,
449. And even so you dared overstep that law? 450. Yes, since it was not Zeus that published me that edict, and since not of that kind are the laws which Justice who dwells with the gods below established among men. Nor did I think that your decrees were of such force, that a mortal could override the unwritten 455. and unfailing statutes given us by the gods. For their life is not of today or yesterday, but for all time, and no man knows when they were first put forth. Not for fear of any man’s pride was I about to owe a penalty to the gods for breaking these.
1005. Quickly, in fear, I tried burnt-sacrifice on a duly-kindled altar, but from my offerings Hephaestus did not blaze. Instead juice that had sweated from the thigh-flesh trickled out onto the embers and smoked and sputtered;'1006. Quickly, in fear, I tried burnt-sacrifice on a duly-kindled altar, but from my offerings Hephaestus did not blaze. Instead juice that had sweated from the thigh-flesh trickled out onto the embers and smoked and sputtered; 1010. the gall was scattered high up in the air; and the streaming thighs lay bared of the fat that had been wrapped around them. Such was the failure of the rites that yielded no sign, as I learned from this boy. For he is my guide, as I am guide to others. 1015. And it is your will that is the source of the sickness now afflicting the city. For the altars of our city and our hearths have one and all been tainted by the birds and dogs with the carrion taken from the sadly fallen son of Oedipus. And so the gods no more accept prayer and sacrifice at our hands, 1020. or the burning of thigh-meat, nor does any bird sound out clear signs in its shrill cries, for they have tasted the fatness of a slain man’s blood. Think, therefore, on these things, my son. All men are liable to err. 1025. But when an error is made, that man is no longer unwise or unblessed who heals the evil into which he has fallen and does not remain stubborn. Self-will, we know, invites the charge of foolishness. Concede the claim of the dead. Do not kick at the fallen. 1030. What prowess is it to kill the dead all over again? I have considered for your good, and what I advise is good. The sweetest thing is to learn from a good advisor when his advice is to your profit.
1039. even from the plottings of the seer’s divine art, but by their tribe I have long been bought and sold and made their merchandise. Turn your profits, make your deals for the white gold of Sardis and the gold of India , if it pleases you, but you shall not cover that man with a grave, 1040. not even if the eagles of Zeus wish to snatch and carry him to be devoured at the god’s throne. No, not even then, for fear of that defilement will I permit his burial, since I know with certainty that no mortal has the power to defile the gods.
1068. courses of the sun’s swift chariot, before you will give in return one sprung from your own loins, a corpse in requital for corpses. For you have thrust below one of those of the upper air and irreverently lodged a living soul in the grave, 1070. while you detain in this world that which belongs to the infernal gods, a corpse unburied, unmourned, unholy. In the dead you have no part, nor do the gods above, but in this you do them violence. For these crimes the avenging destroyers, 1075. the Furies of Hades and of the gods, lie in ambush for you, waiting to seize you in these same sufferings. And look closely if I tell you this with a silvered palm. A time not long to be delayed will reveal in your house wailing over men and over women. '. None
13. Sophocles, Electra, 837-848 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seven Against Thebes, burial of • burial, role of

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 252; Wilding (2022) 34

837. No, for I know that the prince Amphiaraus was ensnared by a woman’s chain of gold and swallowed up. And now beneath the earth— Electra'838. No, for I know that the prince Amphiaraus was ensnared by a woman’s chain of gold and swallowed up. And now beneath the earth— Electra 840. ah, me, ah, me! Choru 841. —He reigns supreme with the wits of the living. Electra 842. ah, me! Choru 843. ah, me, indeed! For the murderess— Electra 844. Was slain. Choru 845. Yes. Electra 846. I know it; I know it. For a champion arose to avenge the grieving dead. But for me no champion remains: he who yet remained has been snatched clean away. Choru '. None
14. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.71.6, 1.138.6, 3.58, 4.96 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hosios (and cognates), In context of death and burial • Seven Against Thebes, burial of • burial • burial, tombs of ancestors • death, funeral/burial of • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead • treason, and burial

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 204; Jouanna (2018) 748; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 103; Martin (2009) 221; Peels (2016) 39, 128; Pucci (2016) 126; Wilding (2022) 36

1.71.6. βουλομένων δὲ ὑμῶν προθύμων εἶναι μενοῦμεν: οὔτε γὰρ ὅσια ἂν ποιοῖμεν μεταβαλλόμενοι οὔτε ξυνηθεστέρους ἂν ἄλλους εὕροιμεν.
1.138.6. τὰ δὲ ὀστᾶ φασὶ κομισθῆναι αὐτοῦ οἱ προσήκοντες οἴκαδε κελεύσαντος ἐκείνου καὶ τεθῆναι κρύφα Ἀθηναίων ἐν τῇ Ἀττικῇ: οὐ γὰρ ἐξῆν θάπτειν ὡς ἐπὶ προδοσίᾳ φεύγοντος. τὰ μὲν κατὰ Παυσανίαν τὸν Λακεδαιμόνιον καὶ Θεμιστοκλέα τὸν Ἀθηναῖον, λαμπροτάτους γενομένους τῶν καθ’ ἑαυτοὺς Ἑλλήνων, οὕτως ἐτελεύτησεν.' '. None
1.71.6. But if you will only act, we will stand by you; it would be unnatural for us to change, and never should we meet with such a congenial ally.
1.138.6. His bones, it is said, were conveyed home by his relatives in accordance with his wishes, and interred in Attic ground. This was done without the knowledge of the Athenians; as it is against the law to bury in Attica an outlaw for treason. So ends the history of Pausanias and Themistocles, the Lacedaemonian and the Athenian, the most famous men of their time in Hellas . ' '. None
15. Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.7.22 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Demosthenes, burial in • Xenophon, burial of traitor in • burial, Athens vs. S. Ant. • treason, and burial

 Found in books: Fabian Meinel (2015) 92; Jouanna (2018) 748

1.7.22. Or if you do not wish to do this, try them under the following law, which applies to temple-robbers and traitors: namely, if anyone shall be a traitor to the state or shall steal sacred property, he shall be tried before a court, and if he be convicted, he shall not be buried in Attica, and his property shall be confiscated.''. None
16. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seven against Thebes, burial in Thebes • law, nomos on burial • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 53, 211; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 291

17. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites, conflation with wedding and burial rites • Hypsipyle, fake burial of Thoas (in Statius) • burial mound • burials and mourning, Bacchic rites conflated with • burials and mourning, Hypsipyles fake burial of Thoas in Statius Thebaid

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 67, 69; Panoussi(2019) 160, 162, 163

18. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 5.9-5.10, 6.18, 7.9, 7.13, 12.38-12.45 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial • Death and Burial • Death and Burial, Mourning • Death and Burial, Terminology for • Judith, death and burial • Secondary burial • burial practices/customs

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 474; Hachlili (2005) 524; Piotrkowski (2019) 409; Schwartz (2008) 198, 245, 306, 365, 417, 418; Stuckenbruck (2007) 371

5.9. and he who had driven many from their own country into exile died in exile, having embarked to go to the Lacedaemonians in hope of finding protection because of their kinship.'" '5.10. He who had cast out many to lie unburied had no one to mourn for him; he had no funeral of any sort and no place in the tomb of his fathers."' "
6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.'" "
7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.'" "
7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.'" "
12.38. Then Judas assembled his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the seventh day was coming on, they purified themselves according to the custom, and they kept the sabbath there.'" "12.39. On the next day, as by that time it had become necessary, Judas and his men went to take up the bodies of the fallen and to bring them back to lie with their kinsmen in the sepulchres of their fathers.'" "12.40. Then under the tunic of every one of the dead they found sacred tokens of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. And it became clear to all that this was why these men had fallen.'" "12.41. So they all blessed the ways of the Lord, the righteous Judge, who reveals the things that are hidden;'" "12.42. and they turned to prayer, beseeching that the sin which had been committed might be wholly blotted out. And the noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen.'" "12.43. He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection.'" "12.44. For if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead.'" "12.45. But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.'"". None
19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 22.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial customs • Judith, death and burial

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 475; Hachlili (2005) 481

22.12. Mourning for the dead lasts seven days,but for a fool or an ungodly man it lasts all his life.
22.12. There is an utterance which is comparable to death;may it never be found in the inheritance of Jacob!For all these errors will be far from the godly,and they will not wallow in sins.''. None
20. Septuagint, Judith, 4.10-4.11, 4.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Death and Burial, Mourning • Judith, death and burial

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 261, 475; Schwartz (2008) 198

4.10. They and their wives and their children and their cattle and every resident alien and hired laborer and purchased slave -- they all girded themselves with sackcloth. 4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord.
4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel.''. None
21. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apis, and Sarapis, burial of • Burial, funeral • burial

 Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 331; Radicke (2022) 427; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 156

22. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Marriage and burial customs • burial practices/customs

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 23; Piotrkowski (2019) 286

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.67 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • burial practices/customs • burial, societies

 Found in books: Levine (2005) 85; Piotrkowski (2019) 409

13.67. δέομαι συγχωρῆσαί μοι τὸ ἀδέσποτον ἀνακαθάραντι ἱερὸν καὶ συμπεπτωκὸς οἰκοδομῆσαι ναὸν τῷ μεγίστῳ θεῷ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν τοῦ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις αὐτοῖς μέτροις ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ τῆς σῆς γυναικὸς καὶ τῶν τέκνων, ἵν' ἔχωσιν οἱ τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατοικοῦντες ̓Ιουδαῖοι εἰς αὐτὸ συνιόντες κατὰ τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὁμόνοιαν ταῖς σαῖς ἐξυπηρετεῖν χρείαις:"". None
13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages;''. None
24. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Primary burial • Qumran, scroll burial, possibility of • document burial and preservation, and scroll cemeteries • document burial and preservation, in Qumran cemetery

 Found in books: Hachlili (2005) 10; Taylor (2012) 290

2.9. מַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַנְּבֵלוֹת וְאֶת הַקְּבָרוֹת וְאֶת הַבֻּרְסְקִי מִן הָעִיר חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה. אֵין עוֹשִׂין בֻּרְסְקִי אֶלָּא לְמִזְרַח הָעִיר. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לְכָל רוּחַ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, חוּץ מִמַּעֲרָבָהּ, וּמַרְחִיק חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה.''. None
2.9. Animal carcasses, graves and tanneries must be distanced fifty cubits from a town. A tannery may be set up only to the east of a town. Rabbi Akiva says: “It may be set up on any side save the west, and it must be distanced fifty cubits from the town.''. None
25. New Testament, Mark, 1.15, 15.46, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial • Burial customs • Dead, burial of

 Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 251; Hachlili (2005) 479; Pignot (2020) 151

1.15. καὶ λέγων ὅτι Πεπλήρωται ὁ καιρὸς καὶ ἤγγικεν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ· μετανοεῖτε καὶ πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ.
15.46. καὶ ἀγοράσας σινδόνα καθελὼν αὐτὸν ἐνείλησεν τῇ σινδόνι καὶ ἔθηκεν αὐτὸν ἐν μνήματι ὃ ἦν λελατομημένον ἐκ πέτρας, καὶ προσεκύλισεν λίθον ἐπὶ τὴν θύραντοῦ μνημείου.
16.1. Καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου ἡ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ Σαλώμη ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα ἱνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν.''. None
1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel."
15.46. He bought a linen cloth, and taking him down, wound him in the linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb which had been cut out of a rock. He rolled a stone against the door of the tomb.
16.1. When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him. ''. None
26. New Testament, Matthew, 27.60 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial customs • Burial places (memorials)

 Found in books: Hachlili (2005) 479; Lampe (2003) 122

27.60. καὶ ἔθηκεν αὐτὸ ἐν τῷ καινῷ αὐτοῦ μνημείῳ ὃ ἐλατόμησεν ἐν τῇ πέτρᾳ, καὶ προσκυλίσας λίθον μέγαν τῇ θύρᾳ τοῦ μνημείου ἀπῆλθεν.''. None
27.60. and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock, and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and departed. ''. None
27. Plutarch, Aristides, 21.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial, communal • burial mound

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 267; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 223

21.3. ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ τῶν Πλαταιέων ὁ ἄρχων, ᾧ τὸν ἄλλον χρόνον οὔτε σιδήρου θιγεῖν ἔξεστιν οὔθʼ ἑτέραν ἐσθῆτα πλὴν λευκῆς ἀναλαβεῖν, τότε χιτῶνα φοινικοῦν ἐνδεδυκὼς ἀράμενός τε ὑδρίαν ἀπὸ τοῦ γραμματοφυλακίου ξιφήρης ἐπὶ τοὺς τάφους προάγει διὰ μέσης τῆς πόλεως.''. None
21.3. ''. None
28. Plutarch, Solon, 21.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial, funeral • burial

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 228; Radicke (2022) 37

21.5. ἐναγίζειν δὲ βοῦν οὐκ εἴασεν, οὐδὲ συντιθέναι πλέον ἱματίων τριῶν, οὐδʼ ἐπʼ ἀλλότρια μνήματα βαδίζειν χωρὶς ἐκκομιδῆς. ὧν τὰ πλεῖστα καὶ τοῖς ἡμετέροις νόμοις ἀπηγόρευται· πρόσκειται δὲ τοῖς ἡμετέροις ζημιοῦσθαι τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα ποιοῦντας ὑπὸ τῶν γυναικονόμων, ὡς ἀνάνδροις καὶ γυναικώδεσι τοῖς περὶ τὰ πένθη πάθεσι καὶ ἁμαρτήμασιν ἐνεχομένους.''. None
21.5. The sacrifice of an ox at the grave was not permitted, nor the burial with the dead of more than three changes of raiment, nor the visiting of other tombs than those of their own family, except at the time of interment. Most of these practices are also forbidden by our laws, but ours contain the additional proviso that such offenders shall be punished by the board of censors for women, because they indulge in unmanly and effeminate extravagances of sorrow when they mourn''. None
29. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • burial ground • provinces (of Roman Empire), burial customs

 Found in books: Galinsky (2016) 338; Waldner et al (2016) 110

30. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seven Against Thebes, burial of • Seven against Thebes, burial in Thebes • Seven against Thebes, burial place in Attica

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 53, 184, 193; Wilding (2022) 33, 34

31. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.29.8, 1.29.15, 1.39.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seven Against Thebes, burial of • Seven against Thebes, burial place in Attica • State funeral for the war dead, public burial ground • burial

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 39, 184; Ekroth (2013) 84; Wilding (2022) 33, 36

1.29.8. πολεμοῦντος Κασσάνδρου καὶ οἱ συμμαχήσαντές ποτε Ἀργείων. πραχθῆναι δὲ οὕτω σφίσι τὴν πρὸς Ἀργείους λέγουσι συμμαχίαν· Λακεδαιμονίοις τὴν πόλιν τοῦ θεοῦ σείσαντος οἱ εἵλωτες ἐς Ἰθώμην ἀπέστησαν, ἀφεστηκότων δὲ οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι βοηθοὺς καὶ ἄλλους καὶ παρὰ Ἀθηναίων μετεπέμποντο· οἱ δέ σφισιν ἐπιλέκτους ἄνδρας ἀποστέλλουσι καὶ στρατηγὸν Κίμωνα τὸν Μιλτιάδου. τούτους ἀποπέμπουσιν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι πρὸς ὑποψίαν·
1.29.15. τέθαπται δὲ καὶ Κόνων καὶ Τιμόθεος, δεύτεροι μετὰ Μιλτιάδην καὶ Κίμωνα οὗτοι πατὴρ καὶ παῖς ἔργα ἀποδειξάμενοι λαμπρά. κεῖται δὲ καὶ Ζήνων ἐνταῦθα ὁ Μνασέου καὶ Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Νικίας τε ὁ Νικομήδου ς ζῷα ἄριστος γράψαι τῶν ἐφʼ αὑτοῦ, καὶ Ἁρμόδιος καὶ Ἀριστογείτων οἱ τὸν Πεισιστράτου παῖδα Ἵππαρχον ἀποκτείναντες, ῥήτορές τε Ἐφιάλτης, ὃς τὰ νόμιμα τὰ ἐν Ἀρείῳ πάγῳ μάλιστα ἐλυμήνατο, καὶ Λυκοῦργος ὁ Λυκόφρονος.
1.39.2. ὀλίγῳ δὲ ἀπωτέρω τοῦ φρέατος ἱερὸν Μετανείρας ἐστὶ καὶ μετʼ αὐτὸ τάφοι τῶν ἐπὶ Θήβας. Κρέων γάρ, ὃς ἐδυνάστευε τότε ἐν Θήβαις Λαοδάμαντα ἐπιτροπεύων τὸν Ἐτεοκλέους, οὐ παρῆκε τοῖς προσήκουσιν ἀνελομένοις θάψαι· ἱκετεύσαντος δὲ Ἀδράστου Θησέα καὶ μάχης Ἀθηναίων γενομένης πρὸς Βοιωτούς, Θησεὺς ὡς ἐκράτησε τῇ μάχῃ κομίσας ἐς τὴν Ἐλευσινίαν τοὺς νεκροὺς ἐνταῦθα ἔθαψε. Θηβαῖοι δὲ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν τῶν νεκρῶν λέγουσιν ἐθελονταὶ δοῦναι καὶ συνάψαι μάχην οὔ φασι.''. None
1.29.8. also those who died in the war with Cassander, and the Argives who once fought as the allies of Athens . It is said that the alliance between the two peoples was brought about thus. Sparta was once shaken by an earthquake, and the Helots seceded to Ithome . 461 B.C. After the secession the Lacedaemonians sent for help to various places, including Athens, which dispatched picked troops under the command of Cimon, the son of Miltiades. These the Lacedaemonians dismissed, because they suspected them.
1.29.15. Here also are buried Conon and Timotheus, father and son, the second pair thus related to accomplish illustrious deeds, Miltiades and Cimon being the first; Zeno too, the son of Mnaseas and Chrysippus Stoic philosophers. of Soli, Nicias the son of Nicomedes, the best painter from life of all his contemporaries, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who killed Hipparchus, the son of Peisistratus; there are also two orators, Ephialtes, who was chiefly responsible for the abolition of the privileges of the Areopagus 463-1 B.C., and Lycurgus, A contemporary of Demosthenes. the son of Lycophron;
1.39.2. A little farther on from the well is a sanctuary of Metaneira, and after it are graves of those who went against Thebes . For Creon, who at that time ruled in Thebes as guardian of Laodamas the son of Eteocles, refused to allow the relatives to take up and bury their dead. But Adrastus having supplicated Theseus, the Athenians fought with the Boeotians, and Theseus being victorious in the fight carried the dead to the Eleusinian territory and buried them here. The Thebans, however, say that they voluntarily gave up the dead for burial and deny that they engaged in battle.''. None
32. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial • Burial customs • Huna, burial of • document burial and preservation, and Judaic law • document burial and preservation, and shemot (Gods name) • document burial and preservation, cave burial • document burial and preservation, unusable documents as pesul

 Found in books: Eckhardt (2019) 192; Hachlili (2005) 481; Kosman (2012) 129; Taylor (2012) 287

25a. And is this the case even if the deceased was a Torah Sage? But isn’t it taught otherwise in a baraita: When a Torah scholar dies, everyone is his relative.,The Gemara clarifies: Does it enter your mind to say that everyone is his relative? Rather, this baraita should be understood as follows: Everyone is considered to be like his relative in the sense that everyone rends his garment in anguish over him, and everyone bares his shoulder over him in mourning, and everyone eats the mourner’s meal over him in the public square as mourners do. The death of a Torah scholar is a personal loss for every Jew. So why is the mishna limited to only relatives? The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha in a case where the deceased is not a Torah scholar.,The Gemara asks: And if the deceased was an upright person who feared Heaven and performed good deeds, then aren’t all those present at his death obligated to rend their garments over his death? As it is taught in a baraita: For what reason do a person’s sons and daughters die when they are young? They die so that he will cry and mourn over the death of an upright person.,The Gemara questions the formulation: They die so that he will cry and mourn? Is security, i.e., his children, taken from him in advance to ensure that in the future he will mourn over the death of an upright person? Rather the baraita means as follows: His children died because he did not cry or mourn over an upright person who died. As with regard to anyone who cries and mourns over an upright person who died, they forgive him for all his transgressions because of the honor he accorded to the deceased. If this is the case, one also rends his clothes over an upright person. The Gemara answers: Rather, the mishna is referring only to one who was not an upright person.,The Gemara challenges: But if one was standing there at the time of the soul’s departure, i.e., at the time of death, he is also obligated to rend his clothes. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One who stands over the deceased at the time of the soul’s departure is obligated to rend his clothes. To what may this be likened? To a Torah scroll that is burned, for which anyone present is obligated to rend his clothes.,The Gemara answers: The mishna must be referring to a person who was not standing there at the time of the soul’s departure but who heard that someone who is not a close relative died, and the deceased was neither a Torah scholar nor an upright person.,§ The Gemara relates that when Rav Safra passed away the other Sages did not rend their garments over him. They said: We did not learn from him, as he did not disseminate his Torah knowledge to the public. Abaye berated them and said to them: Is it taught in the baraita: If one’s teacher died? It is taught: If a Torah scholar died, and Rav Safra was certainly a Torah scholar. And furthermore, every day his teachings are in our mouths in the study hall, so that even if we did not learn directly from him, we should still be considered his students.,The other Sages thought that what was done was done, and it was now too late for them to rend their garments. Abaye said to them: We learned: With regard to a Torah scholar, as long as they are engaged in eulogizing him, then people are obligated to rend their garments, even after the time of his death. They then thought to rend their garments immediately. Abaye said to them: It is taught in a baraita: A Torah scholar’s honor is at the time of his eulogy, and so you should wait until the time of the eulogy before rending your garments.,§ The Gemara relates another incident: When Rav Huna died they thought to place a Torah scroll on his bier, as was commonly done after the death of a Torah scholar, as if to say that the deceased fulfilled everything written in the scroll. Rav Ḥisda said to them: This is a practice that he did not hold with during his lifetime; now should we stand up and do it for him when he is dead? As Rav Taḥlifa said: I myself saw Rav Huna, who wished to sit on his bed, and there was a Torah scroll placed on it. And he turned a jug over and placed the Torah scroll on it so that he could then sit on the bed. Apparently he holds that it is prohibited to sit on a bed upon which a Torah scroll lies. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to lay a Torah scroll next to his body after he died.,When they tried to remove his corpse from his house for the burial, the bier would not fit through the narrow door. They then thought to lower the bier from the roof. Rav Ḥisda said to them: This I learned from him, Rav Huna himself: A scholar’s honor is for him to be taken out through the main opening, and not in any other manner.,They then thought to move him from his bier to a narrower bier so that it would fit through the door. But Rav Ḥisda said to them: I learned from him, Rav Huna himself, as follows: A scholar’s honor is for him to be taken out on the first bier. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: From where is it derived that a scholar’s honor is for him to be taken out on the first bier? As it is stated: “And they set the Ark of God upon a new cart” (II\xa0Samuel 6:3). When taking the Ark to Jerusalem, King David had it placed back on the cart upon which it had been returned by the Philistines, and a Torah scholar is considered to be similar to the Ark of the Covet. When they saw that there was nothing else that they could do, they broke the doorway and took him out through it.,Rabbi Abba opened his eulogy for him: Our Rabbi was worthy that the Divine Presence should rest upon him, except for the fact that Babylonia caused it not to rest. In other words, it was only because he lived in Babylonia and not in Eretz Yisrael that the Divine Presence did not rest upon him.,Rav Naḥman bar Ḥisda raised an objection against this, and some say that it was Rav Ḥa bar Ḥisda: Is it not stated: “The word of the Lord came hayo haya to Ezekiel the priest, son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans” (Ezekiel 1:3), thereby implying that a prophet can prophesy outside of Eretz Yisrael?,His father tapped him with his sandal on his foot, thereby hinting to him that he should be quiet. He said to him: Have I not told you not to trouble everyone with questions in the middle of a eulogy? The Gemara answers the question: What is the meaning of the doubling of the word “came hayo haya”? It implies that it had already come before, i.e., that Ezekiel had already begun to prophesy in Eretz Yisrael, and his prophecy in Babylonia was merely a continuation of that prophecy.,§ The Gemara relates that when they took Rav Huna there, to Eretz Yisrael, for burial they said to Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi: Rav Huna has come, and they misunderstood and thought that he was still alive. They said: When we were there, in Babylonia, we did not have strength to lift our heads before him. Now that we have come here, has he come after us?,They said to them: His coffin has come. Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi went out to meet his funeral procession. Rabbi Ila and Rabbi Ḥanina did not go out. Some say that Rabbi Ila went out, but Rabbi Ḥanina did not go out.,The Gemara asks: Those who went out, what is the reason that they went? As it is taught in a baraita: When a coffin is passing from place to place, the people stand in a line to show respect for the deceased, and they recite the mourners’ blessing and the consolation of the mourners over it. Those who did not go out, what is the reason that they did not? As it is taught in another baraita: When a coffin is passing from place to place, they do not stand in a line to show respect for the deceased, and they do not recite the mourners’ blessing or the consolation of the mourners for him.,The Gemara asks: If so, these two tannaitic statements contradict each other. The Gemara answers: It is not difficult: Here, the baraita is referring to a case where the skeleton of the deceased is still intact, and the mourning practices must be observed. And there the baraita is referring to a case where the skeleton of the deceased is no longer intact, and it is not necessary to observe the customs of mourning. And Rav Huna’s skeleton was still intact. The reason that the one Sage did not go out was that they did not confirm for him that the skeleton was still intact.,The Sages of Eretz Yisrael said: Where shall we bury him? They concluded: Rav Huna disseminated Torah to the people of Israel, and similarly Rabbi Ḥiyya disseminated Torah to the people of Israel; therefore, it is appropriate to bury Rav Huna next to Rabbi Ḥiyya.,They asked: Who will take him in to Rabbi Ḥiyya’s burial cave, as few are fit to enter it? Rav Ḥagga said to them: I will take him into the cave, for I presented my studies before him when I was just eighteen, never having experienced a seminal emission. And so too I attended to him and knew his great deeds. For example, one day one of the straps of his phylacteries turned around, the unpainted side being turned outward, and he observed forty fasts for this, as he had acted negligently, allowing the black side to face inward.,Rav Ḥagga took him in. The body of Rabbi Ḥiyya’s son Yehuda lay buried to the right of his father, and the body of his other son Ḥizkiyya lay to his left. The spirit of Yehuda said to the spirit of Ḥizkiyya: Rise from your place, as it is not proper conduct to remain lying when the body of Rav Huna is standing here. When Ḥizkiyya’s corpse stood up, a pillar of fire rose with him. When Rabbi Ḥagga saw this, he was frightened by what he saw, and so he stood up Rav Huna’s coffin and went away. The Gemara comments: And he was not punished or harmed by this pillar of fire because he set up Rav Huna’s coffin as protection for himself.,§ The Gemara relates another story about the burial of one of the Sages: When Rav Ḥisda died they thought to place a Torah scroll on his bier. Rabbi Yitzḥak said to them: This is a practice that this Rabbi did not hold with during his lifetime; should we stand up and do it for him now that he is dead?,They then thought not to tack, i.e., sew up, the tears that they had made in their clothes. Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Ami said to them: When the deceased is a Torah Sage, they may tack the tears once they turn their faces from the bier.,The Gemara relates that when Rabba bar Huna and Rav Hamnuna died, they took them both up there, to Eretz Yisrael.'27b. on a plain bier made from poles that were strapped together, and the poor were embarrassed. The Sages instituted that everyone should be taken out for burial on a plain bier, due to the honor of the poor.,Similarly, at first they would place incense under the beds of those who died with an intestinal disease, because the body emitted an especially unpleasant odor. And those who were alive with an intestinal disease were embarrassed when they understood that they, too, would be treated in this manner after their death, and that everyone would know the cause of their death. The Sages instituted that incense should be placed under everyone, due to the honor of those with an intestinal disease who were still living.,Moreover, at first they would ritually immerse all the utensils that had been used by women who died while menstruating, which had thereby contracted ritual impurity. And due to this, the living menstruating women were embarrassed. The Sages instituted that the utensils that had been used by all dying women must be immersed, due to the honor of living menstruating women. And, at first they would ritually immerse all the utensils that had been used by zavin, men suffering from gonorrhea, who died, as the utensils had thereby contracted ritual impurity. And due to this the living zavin felt embarrassed. The Sages instituted that the utensils that had been used by all men must be immersed, due to the honor of the living zavin.,Likewise, at first taking the dead out for burial was more difficult for the relatives than the actual death, because it was customary to bury the dead in expensive shrouds, which the poor could not afford. The problem grew to the point that relatives would sometimes abandon the corpse and run away. This lasted until Rabban Gamliel came and acted with frivolity, meaning that he waived his dignity, by leaving instructions that he be taken out for burial in linen garments. And the people adopted this practice after him and had themselves taken out for burial in linen garments. Rav Pappa said: And nowadays, everyone follows the practice of taking out the dead for burial even in plain hemp garments tzerada that cost only a dinar.,It is taught in the mishna: The bier of the deceased is not set down in the street during the intermediate days of a Festival, so as not to encourage eulogies. Rav Pappa said: There are no restrictions on eulogizing on the intermediate days of a Festival in the presence of a deceased Torah scholar, and therefore he may be eulogized in the ordinary manner during the Festival week. And all the more so a Torah scholar may be eulogized on the days of Hanukkah and Purim, which have less sanctity than the intermediate days of a Festival.,The Gemara comments: But this allowance to eulogize a Torah scholar during the intermediate days of a Festival applies only when the eulogy is in the presence of the deceased, before the bier. However, giving a eulogy that is not in his presence is not permitted. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Rav Kahana eulogize Rav Zevid from Neharde’a in his city Pum Nahara during the intermediate days of a Festival? Rav Pappa said: It was the day on which Rav Kahana received the news of Rav Zevid’s death, and a eulogy in such a situation is considered as if it is in his presence.,The Gemara continues its discussion of the halakhot of mourning: Ulla said: Although hesped usually refers to a eulogy, strictly speaking, hesped is referring to striking oneself on the heart, as it is written: “Striking sofedim the breasts” (Isaiah 32:12). The term tipuaḥ is referring to striking with one hand against the other hand, i.e., clapping. The term killus is referring to stomping with one’s foot on the ground.,The Sages taught a baraita: One who stomps his foot on the ground as a sign of mourning should not stomp with a sandal, but rather he should do so wearing a shoe, due to the danger of being hurt. Because a sandal is easily torn, it is possible that something sharp on the ground will puncture his foot, or that he will suffer some other injury.,Rabbi Yoḥa said: Once a mourner nods his head to show that his grief has slightly diminished, the consolers may no longer sit next to him, as with his action the mourner shows that he no longer desires their presence.,Rabbi Yoḥa further said: All are obligated to stand in the presence of the Nasi, except for a mourner and one who is sick. Rabbi Yoḥa said: To all who stand before a great person one says: Be seated, and only then may they sit down, except for a mourner and one who is sick. If they stood up they do not need permission to sit down, but rather they may do so if they wish.,Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: A mourner on the first day of his mourning is prohibited from eating of his own bread. From where is this derived? From what the Merciful One says to Ezekiel when the latter is in mourning: “Nor eat the bread of men” (Ezekiel 24:17), which indicates that other mourners must eat bread made by others. It was related that when Rabba and Rav Yosef were in mourning they would exchange their meals with each other.,And Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: When a person dies in a city, all of the residents of that city are prohibited from performing work until he has been buried.,The Gemara relates that when Rav Hamnuna once happened to come to a place called Darumata he heard the sound of a shofar announcing that a person had died in the town. When he saw some people doing work he said to them: Let these people be under an excommunication. Is there not a dead person in town? They said to him: There are separate groups in the town, each one responsible for its own dead. Knowing that the deceased was not from our group, we continued our work. He said to them: If so, it is permitted to you, and he revoked his excommunication.,And Rav Yehuda said further in the name of Rav: Anyone who grieves excessively over his dead and does not allow himself to be consoled will in the end weep for another person. The Gemara relates that a certain woman who lived in the neighborhood of Rav Huna had seven sons. One of them died and she wept for him excessively. Rav Huna sent a message to her: Do not do this. But she took no heed of him. He then sent another message to her: If you listen to me, it is well, but if not, prepare shrouds for another death. But she would not listen and they all died. In the end, when she continued with her excessive mourning, he said to her: Since you are acting in this way, prepare shrouds for yourself, and soon thereafter she died.,The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse that states: “Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him” (Jeremiah 22:10): “Weep not for the dead” is referring to excessive mourning; “neither bemoan him” more than the appropriate measure of time. How so? What is the appropriate measure? Three days for weeping, and seven for eulogizing, and thirty for the prohibition against ironing clothing and for the prohibition against cutting hair. From this point forward the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Do not be more merciful with the deceased than I am. If the Torah commands one to mourn for a certain period of time, then that suffices.,It is stated in the continuation of the verse: “Weep sore for him that goes away.” Rav Yehuda said: This is referring to one who leaves the world without children to survive him, since mourning for him is much more intense. It was related that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would go to a house of mourning only for one who passed away without children, as it is written: “Weep sore for him that goes away; for he shall return yashuv no more, nor see his native land” (Jeremiah 22:10). Rav Huna disagreed with the interpretation of the verse and said: “Him that goes” is one who committed a transgression and then repeated it, i.e., one who sins constantly and does not repent yashav, and therefore loses his portion in the World-to-Come, his “native land.”,The Gemara notes that Rav Huna conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as Rav Huna said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him. The Gemara questions the wording used here: Does it enter your mind that it is actually permitted? How could it possibly be permitted for him to sin? Rather, say instead: It becomes as though it were permitted, for after doing it twice he no longer relates to his action as the violation of a serious prohibition.,Rabbi Levi said: A mourner during the first three days of his mourning should see himself as though a sword were lying between his two thighs, meaning that he too may be facing imminent death. During this period he should live in dread. From the third to the seventh days he should conduct himself as if the sword were lying opposite him in the corner, but still threatening him. From this point forward it is as if the sword was moving before him in the marketplace, and the fear is not as great.,§ The mishna teaches: And the biers of women are never set down, due to their honor. The Sages of Neharde’a say: They only taught thi '. None
33. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1.6.9 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • burial

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 189; König and Wiater (2022) 189

1.6.9. Now let us pass to divine testimonies; but I will previously bring forward one which resembles a divine testimony, both on account of its very great antiquity, and because he whom I shall name was taken from men and placed among the gods. According to Cicero, Caius Cotta the pontiff, while disputing against the Stoics concerning superstitions, and the variety of opinions which prevail respecting the gods, in order that he might, after the custom of the Academics, make everything uncertain, says that there were five Mercuries; and having enumerated four in order, says that the fifth was he by whom Argus was slain, and that on this account he fled into Egypt, and gave laws and letters to the Egyptians. The Egyptians call him Thoth; and from him the first month of their year, that is, September, received its name among them. He also built a town, which is even now called in Greek Hermopolis (the town of Mercury), and the inhabitants of Phen honour him with religious worship. And although he was a man, yet he was of great antiquity, and most fully imbued with every kind of learning, so that the knowledge of many subjects and arts acquired for him the name of Trismegistus. He wrote books, and those in great numbers, relating to the knowledge of divine things, in which be asserts the majesty of the supreme and only God, and makes mention of Him by the same names which we use - God and Father. And that no one might inquire His name, he said that He was without name, and that on account of His very unity He does not require the peculiarity of a name. These are his own words: God is one, but He who is one only does not need a name; for He who is self-existent is without a name. God, therefore, has no name, because He is alone; nor is there any need of a proper name, except in cases where a multitude of persons requires a distinguishing mark, so that you may designate each person by his own mark and appellation. But God, because He is always one, has no peculiar name. It remains for me to bring forward testimonies respecting the sacred responses and predictions, which are much more to be relied upon. For perhaps they against whom we are arguing may think that no credence is to be given to poets, as though they invented fictions, nor to philosophers, inasmuch as they were liable to err, being themselves but men. Marcus Varro, than whom no man of greater learning ever lived, even among the Greeks, much less among the Latins, in those books respecting divine subjects which he addressed to Caius C sar the chief pontiff, when he was speaking of the Quindecemviri, says that the Sibylline books were not the production of one Sibyl only, but that they were called by one name Sibylline, because all prophetesses were called by the ancients Sibyls, either from the name of one, the Delphian priestess, or from their proclaiming the counsels of the gods. For in the Æolic dialect they used to call the gods by the word Sioi, not Theoi; and for counsel they used the word bule, not boule;- and so the Sibyl received her name as though Siobule. But he says that the Sibyls were ten in number, and he enumerated them all under the writers, who wrote an account of each: that the first was from the Persians, and of her Nicanor made mention, who wrote the exploits of Alexander of Macedon;- the second of Libya, and of her Euripides makes mention in the prologue of the Lamia;- the third of Delphi, concerning whom Chrysippus speaks in that book which he composed concerning divination - the fourth a Cimmerian in Italy, whom N vius mentions in his books of the Punic war, and Piso in his annals - the fifth of Erythr a, whom Apollodorus of Erythr a affirms to have been his own countrywoman, and that she foretold to the Greeks when they were setting out for Ilium, both that Troy was doomed to destruction, and that Homer would write falsehoods;- the sixth of Samos, respecting whom Eratosthenes writes that he had found a written notice in the ancient annals of the Samians. The seventh was of Cum, by name Amalth a, who is termed by some Herophile, or Demophile, and they say that she brought nine books to the king Tarquinius Priscus, and asked for them three hundred philippics, and that the king refused so great a price, and derided the madness of the woman; that she, in the sight of the king, burnt three of the books, and demanded the same price for those which were left; that Tarquinias much more considered the woman to be mad; and that when she again, having burnt three other books, persisted in asking the same price, the king was moved, and bought the remaining books for the three hundred pieces of gold: and the number of these books was afterwards increased, after the rebuilding of the Capitol; because they were collected from all cities of Italy and Greece, and especially from those of Erythr a, and were brought to Rome, under the name of whatever Sibyl they were. Further, that the eighth was from the Hellespont, born in the Trojan territory, in the village of Marpessus, about the town of Gergithus; and Heraclides of Pontus writes that she lived in the times of Solon and Cyrus - the ninth of Phrygia, who gave oracles at Ancyra;- the tenth of Tibur, by name Albunea, who is worshipped at Tibur as a goddess, near the banks of the river Anio, in the depths of which her statue is said to have been found, holding in her hand a book. The senate transferred her oracles into the Capitol. The predictions of all these Sibyls are both brought forward and esteemed as such, except those of the Cum an Sibyl, whose books are concealed by the Romans; nor do they consider it lawful for them to be inspected by any one but the Quindecemviri. And there are separate books the production of each, but because these are inscribed with the name of the Sibyl they are believed to be the work of one; and they are confused, nor can the productions of each be distinguished and assigned to their own authors, except in the case of the Erythr an Sibyl, for she both inserted her own true name in her verse, and predicted that she would be called Erythr an, though she was born at Babylon. But we also shall speak of the Sibyl without any distinction, wherever we shall have occasion to use their testimonies. All these Sibyls, then, proclaim one God, and especially the Erythr an, who is regarded among the others as more celebrated and noble; since Fenestella, a most diligent writer, speaking of the Quindecemviri, says that, after the rebuilding of the Capitol, Caius Curio the consul proposed to the senate that ambassadors should be sent to Erythr to search out and bring to Rome the writings of the Sibyl; and that, accordingly, Publius Gabinius, Marcus Otacilius, and Lucius Valerius were sent, who conveyed to Rome about a thousand verses written out by private persons. We have shown before that Varro made the same statement. Now in these verses which the ambassadors brought to Rome, are these testimonies respecting the one God:- 1. One God, who is alone, most mighty, uncreated. This is the only supreme God, who made the heaven, and decked it with lights. 2. But there is one only God of pre-eminent power, who made the heaven, and sun, and stars, and moon, and fruitful earth, and waves of the water of the sea. And since He alone is the framer of the universe, and the artificer of all things of which it consists or which are contained in it, it testifies that He alone ought to be worshipped: - 3. Worship Him who is alone the ruler of the world, who alone was and is from age to age. Also another Sibyl, whoever she is, when she said that she conveyed the voice of God to men, thus spoke:- 4. I am the one only God, and there is no other God. I would now follow up the testimonies of the others, were it not that these are sufficient, and that I reserve others for more befitting opportunities. But since we are defending the cause of truth before those who err from the truth and serve false religions, what kind of proof ought we to bring forward against them, rather than to refute them by the testimonies of their own gods? ''. None
34. Demosthenes, Orations, 43.57, 60.8
 Tagged with subjects: • Demosthenes, burial in • Seven against Thebes, burial in Thebes • Xenophon, burial of traitor in • burial, Athens vs. S. Ant. • burial, after homicide • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 53; Fabian Meinel (2015) 91, 92; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 291; Martin (2009) 39

43.57. Proclamation shall be made in the market-place to the shedder of blood by a kinsman within the degree of cousin and cousinship, and cousins and sons of cousins and sons-in-law and fathers-in-law and clansmen shall join in the pursuit. To secure condonation, if there be father or brother or sons, all must concur, or whoever opposes shall prevail. And if there be none of these and the slaying was involuntary, and the Fifty-one, the Ephetae, The Ephetae formed a court of fifty-one nobles (Eupatridae) having jurisdiction over cases of homicide. See Aristot. Ath. Pol. 57, with Sandys’s note. shall agree that the slaying was involuntary, let the clansmen, ten in number, grant the right of entrance to the shedder of blood, if they see fit; and let these be chosen by the Fifty-one according to rank. And those who had shed blood before the enactment of this statute shall be bound by its provisions.—And when persons die in the demes and no one takes them up for burial, let the Demarch give notice to the relatives to take them up and bury them, and to purify the deme on the day on which each of them dies.
60.8. They so prevailed over the invading host of the Amazons as to expel them beyond the Phasis, and the host of Eumolpus and of many another foeman they drove not only out of their own land but also from the lands of all the other Greeks—invaders whom all those dwelling on our front to the westward neither withstood nor possessed the power to halt. The female warriors known as Amazons were repelled by Theseus. The Phasis River in Colchis, now the Rion, was the legendary boundary between Europe and Asia. Eumolpus invaded Greece from Thrace but was halted by Erechtheus at Eleusis. The route to all parts of the mainland issued from Athens on the west side. Moreover, they were styled the saviors of the sons of Heracles, who himself was the savior of the rest of mankind, when they arrived in this land as suppliants, fleeing before Eurystheus. In addition to all these and many other noble deeds they refused to suffer the lawful rites of the departed to be treated with despite when Creon forbade the burial of the seven against Thebes. This phrase became proverbial as the title of a drama by Aeschylus. Theseus, king of Athens, gave aid to the suppliant wives of the Argive heroes when Creon, king of Thebes, refused burial to their slain husbands: Eur. Supp. ''. None
35. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 1174, 1252
 Tagged with subjects: • burial • burial, associations role in members’, • burial, calendar

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 211; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 47, 157; Humphreys (2018) 808

1174. Euthemon proposed: in order that the common resources (koina) may be secured for the demesmen, and that the demarchs and treasurers may render accounts (euthunas), the demesmen shall decide, that the demarchs (5) and the treasurers shall deposit the account of the receipts (lēmmatōn) and expenses into the box (kibōton) each month, since those of the archonship of Nausigenes (368/7) are also themselves voluntarily depositing the account each (10) month; and shall render their accounts for the last year before the month of Metageitnion, from the accounts from the box (kibōtou), and not from other accounts; and to stand a stele in the agora, having inscribed this (15) decree (on it); and the demarch shall administer an oath to the auditor (euthunon) and his deputies in accordance with the decree inscribed in the agora; and if . . . and they do not perform the audit in accordance with (20) this decree . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1174 - Decree of Halai Aixonides prescribing an audit procedure, 368/7 BC
' '. None
36. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • burial ground • burial indemnity, paid by associations to members, • burial practices • burial, associations role in members’, • burials, legal aspects • inhumation

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 314; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 54, 199, 217, 228, 234; Tacoma (2016) 25; Waldner et al (2016) 119

37. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial area P • Burial places (memorials) • burial ground • burial practices • burials, legal aspects

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 314; Lampe (2003) 108; Waldner et al (2016) 119

38. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial, public rites of • Priestesses, burial rites of • burial, intramural b.

 Found in books: Connelly (2007) 223; Heller and van Nijf (2017) 199

39. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Seven against Thebes, burial in Thebes • Seven against Thebes, burial place in Attica • law, nomos on burial • motifs, in postclassical tragedy, burial of the dead

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 53, 184, 189, 190, 192, 200, 211; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 291, 292

40. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Burial • burial, associations role in members’,

 Found in books: Eckhardt (2019) 52; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 47

Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.