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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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subject book bibliographic info
bull Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 63, 182
Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 107, 164
Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 128, 129, 131, 152, 177, 178, 279, 280, 319, 323, 333, 334, 336, 340, 341, 342, 344, 345, 422, 423, 505, 536
Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 161
Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 278, 280, 281, 289, 290
Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 53, 54, 208, 223
Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 77, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 95, 125, 170, 195, 206, 214, 215, 218, 219
Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 6, 146, 147, 149, 151, 152, 154, 156
Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 13, 20, 81
de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 95, 130, 216, 257, 347
bull's, blood Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 223
bull's, blood, in egyptian religion Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 259
bull, animal Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 334
Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 32, 38, 117
bull, animal species Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 33, 67, 68
bull, apis Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 422, 423, 426
Davies (2004), Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods, 250
Morrison (2020), Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography, 112, 196
bull, apis the Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 476, 527, 528, 529, 530
bull, bull-headed, Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 103, 114
bull, cambyses, persian king, attacks the apis Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 204
bull, catacombs, osormnevis, mnevis Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 509
bull, dionysos as Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 52
bull, dionysos, dionysos as Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 52, 126, 141, 280, 323, 333, 334, 340, 341, 342, 344, 345, 423, 505, 536
bull, divine Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 6, 156, 157, 158
bull, house of the small bronze Poulsen (2021), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 320, 321
bull, myron, his Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 303
bull, of heaven Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 84
bull, sacrificial animals, species: Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 195
bulls Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 22, 127
Johnson Dupertuis and Shea (2018), Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction : Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives 192
bulls, artemis associated with Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 166, 169, 184, 375
bulls, artemis, goddess and cult, scrota of Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 137, 152
bulls, as oath sacrifices Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 40, 60, 122, 139, 140, 142, 152, 340
bulls, association with, poseidon, horses and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 75, 76, 77, 85, 327, 361
bulls, association with, zeus Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 75
bulls, black Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 96, 97
bulls, of zeus atabyrios Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 235, 261
bulls, poseidon associated with Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 75, 77, 89, 327, 361
bulls, red Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 96, 97
bulls, white Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 96
bulls, zeus associated with Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 75
sarapieion/bull, catacombs, saqqâra, individual structures and complexes Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 396, 414, 415, 729, 730, 731

List of validated texts:
13 validated results for "bull"
1. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bull's blood • bulls as oath sacrifices

 Found in books: Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 223; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 60, 139, 142, 340

2. Euripides, Bacchae, 99-104, 140-145, 353, 439, 443-450, 576-641, 667, 698, 724-774, 918-924, 1017-1023, 1026, 1078-1147 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • bull • bull, Dionysos as • rhombos (bull-roarer)

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 52, 126, 141, 177, 279, 280, 319, 323, 333, 334, 336, 340, 341, 342, 344; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 112, 113; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 171, 335

99 ἔτεκεν δʼ, ἁνίκα Μοῖραι 100 τέλεσαν, ταυρόκερων θεὸν'101 στεφάνωσέν τε δρακόντων' '102 στεφάνοις, ἔνθεν ἄγραν θηροτρόφον 103 μαινάδες ἀμφιβάλλονται 104 πλοκάμοις. Χορός
ἐς ὄρεα Φρύγια, Λύδιʼ, ὁ δʼ ἔξαρχος Βρόμιος, 141 εὐοἷ. 142 ῥεῖ δὲ γάλακτι πέδον, ῥεῖ δʼ οἴνῳ, ῥεῖ δὲ μελισσᾶν 143 νέκταρι. 144 Συρίας δʼ ὡς λιβάνου καπνὸν 145 ὁ Βακχεὺς ἀνέχων 145 πυρσώδη φλόγα πεύκας
τὸν θηλύμορφον ξένον, ὃς ἐσφέρει νόσον
γελῶν δὲ καὶ δεῖν κἀπάγειν ἐφίετο 444 κἄδησας ἐν δεσμοῖσι πανδήμου στέγης, 445 φροῦδαί γʼ ἐκεῖναι λελυμέναι πρὸς ὀργάδας 446 σκιρτῶσι Βρόμιον ἀνακαλούμεναι θεόν· 447 αὐτόματα δʼ αὐταῖς δεσμὰ διελύθη ποδῶν 448 κλῇδές τʼ ἀνῆκαν θύρετρʼ ἄνευ θνητῆς χερός. 449 πολλῶν δʼ ὅδʼ ἁνὴρ θαυμάτων ἥκει πλέως 450 ἐς τάσδε Θήβας. σοὶ δὲ τἄλλα χρὴ μέλειν. Πενθεύς
κλύετʼ ἐμᾶς κλύετʼ αὐδᾶς, 577 ἰὼ βάκχαι, ἰὼ βάκχαι. Χορός 578 τίς ὅδε, τίς ὅδε πόθεν ὁ κέλαδος 579 ἀνά μʼ ἐκάλεσεν Εὐίου; Διόνυσος 580 ἰὼ ἰώ, πάλιν αὐδῶ, 581 ὁ Σεμέλας, ὁ Διὸς παῖς. Χορός 582 ἰὼ ἰὼ δέσποτα δέσποτα, 583 μόλε νυν ἡμέτερον ἐς 584 θίασον, ὦ Βρόμιε Βρόμιε. Διόνυσος 585 σεῖε πέδον χθονὸς Ἔννοσι πότνια. Χορός 586 ἆ ἆ, 587 τάχα τὰ Πενθέως μέλαθρα διατινάξεται word split in text 588 πεσήμασιν. 589 — ὁ Διόνυσος ἀνὰ μέλαθρα· 590 σέβετέ νιν. — σέβομεν ὤ. 591 — εἴδετε λάινα κίοσιν ἔμβολα 592 διάδρομα τάδε; Βρόμιος ὅδʼ ἀλαλάζεται word split in text 593 λάζεται στέγας ἔσω. Διόνυσος 594 ἅπτε κεραύνιον αἴθοπα λαμπάδα· 595 σύμφλεγε σύμφλεγε δώματα Πενθέος. Χορός 596 ἆ ἆ, 596 πῦρ οὐ λεύσσεις, οὐδʼ αὐγάζῃ, 597 Σεμέλας ἱερὸν ἀμφὶ τάφον, ἅν 598 ποτε κεραυνόβολος ἔλιπε φλόγα 5
Δίου βροντᾶς; 600 δίκετε πεδόσε τρομερὰ σώματα 601 δίκετε, Μαινάδες· ὁ γὰρ ἄναξ 602 ἄνω κάτω τιθεὶς ἔπεισι 603 μέλαθρα τάδε Διὸς γόνος. Διόνυσος 604 βάρβαροι γυναῖκες, οὕτως ἐκπεπληγμέναι φόβῳ 605 πρὸς πέδῳ πεπτώκατʼ; ᾔσθησθʼ, ὡς ἔοικε, Βακχίου 606 διατινάξαντος δῶμα Πενθέως· ἀλλʼ ἐξανίστατε 607 σῶμα καὶ θαρσεῖτε σαρκὸς ἐξαμείψασαι τρόμον. Χορός 608 ὦ φάος μέγιστον ἡμῖν εὐίου βακχεύματος, 609 ὡς ἐσεῖδον ἀσμένη σε, μονάδʼ ἔχουσʼ ἐρημίαν. Διόνυσος 610 εἰς ἀθυμίαν ἀφίκεσθʼ, ἡνίκʼ εἰσεπεμπόμην, 611 Πενθέως ὡς ἐς σκοτεινὰς ὁρκάνας πεσούμενος; Χορός 612 πῶς γὰρ οὔ; τίς μοι φύλαξ ἦν, εἰ σὺ συμφορᾶς τύχοις; 613 ἀλλὰ πῶς ἠλευθερώθης ἀνδρὸς ἀνοσίου τυχών; Διόνυσος 614 αὐτὸς ἐξέσῳσʼ ἐμαυτὸν ῥᾳδίως ἄνευ πόνου. Χορός 615 οὐδέ σου συνῆψε χεῖρε δεσμίοισιν ἐν βρόχοις; Διόνυσος 616 ταῦτα καὶ καθύβρισʼ αὐτόν, ὅτι με δεσμεύειν δοκῶν 617 οὔτʼ ἔθιγεν οὔθʼ ἥψαθʼ ἡμῶν, ἐλπίσιν δʼ ἐβόσκετο. 618 πρὸς φάτναις δὲ ταῦρον εὑρών, οὗ καθεῖρξʼ ἡμᾶς ἄγων, 619 τῷδε περὶ βρόχους ἔβαλλε γόνασι καὶ χηλαῖς ποδῶν, 620 θυμὸν ἐκπνέων, ἱδρῶτα σώματος στάζων ἄπο, 621 χείλεσιν διδοὺς ὀδόντας· πλησίον δʼ ἐγὼ παρὼν 622 ἥσυχος θάσσων ἔλευσσον. ἐν δὲ τῷδε τῷ χρόνῳ 623 ἀνετίναξʼ ἐλθὼν ὁ Βάκχος δῶμα καὶ μητρὸς τάφῳ 624 πῦρ ἀνῆψʼ· ὃ δʼ ὡς ἐσεῖδε, δώματʼ αἴθεσθαι δοκῶν, 625 ᾖσσʼ ἐκεῖσε κᾆτʼ ἐκεῖσε, δμωσὶν Ἀχελῷον φέρειν 626 ἐννέπων, ἅπας δʼ ἐν ἔργῳ δοῦλος ἦν, μάτην πονῶν. 627 διαμεθεὶς δὲ τόνδε μόχθον, ὡς ἐμοῦ πεφευγότος, 628 ἵεται ξίφος κελαινὸν ἁρπάσας δόμων ἔσω. 629 κᾆθʼ ὁ Βρόμιος, ὡς ἔμοιγε φαίνεται, δόξαν λέγω, 630 φάσμʼ ἐποίησεν κατʼ αὐλήν· ὃ δʼ ἐπὶ τοῦθʼ ὡρμημένος 631 ᾖσσε κἀκέντει φαεννὸν αἰθέρʼ, ὡς σφάζων ἐμέ. 632 πρὸς δὲ τοῖσδʼ αὐτῷ τάδʼ ἄλλα Βάκχιος λυμαίνεται· 633 δώματʼ ἔρρηξεν χαμᾶζε· συντεθράνωται δʼ ἅπαν 634 πικροτάτους ἰδόντι δεσμοὺς τοὺς ἐμούς· κόπου δʼ ὕπο 635 διαμεθεὶς ξίφος παρεῖται· πρὸς θεὸν γὰρ ὢν ἀνὴρ 636 ἐς μάχην ἐλθεῖν ἐτόλμησε. ἥσυχος δʼ ἐκβὰς ἐγὼ 637 δωμάτων ἥκω πρὸς ὑμᾶς, Πενθέως οὐ φροντίσας. 639 ἐς προνώπιʼ αὐτίχʼ ἥξει. τί ποτʼ ἄρʼ ἐκ τούτων ἐρεῖ; 640 ῥᾳδίως γὰρ αὐτὸν οἴσω, κἂν πνέων ἔλθῃ μέγα. 641 πρὸς σοφοῦ γὰρ ἀνδρὸς ἀσκεῖν σώφρονʼ εὐοργησίαν. Πενθεύς
ὡς δεινὰ δρῶσι θαυμάτων τε κρείσσονα.
ὄφεσι κατεζώσαντο λιχμῶσιν γένυν.
ὥραν ἐκίνουν θύρσον ἐς βακχεύματα, 725 Ἴακχον ἀθρόῳ στόματι τὸν Διὸς γόνον 726 Βρόμιον καλοῦσαι· πᾶν δὲ συνεβάκχευʼ ὄρος 727 καὶ θῆρες, οὐδὲν δʼ ἦν ἀκίνητον δρόμῳ. 728 729 κἀγὼ ʼξεπήδησʼ ὡς συναρπάσαι θέλων, 730 λόχμην κενώσας ἔνθʼ ἐκρυπτόμην δέμας. 731 ἣ δʼ ἀνεβόησεν· Ὦ δρομάδες ἐμαὶ κύνες, 732 θηρώμεθʼ ἀνδρῶν τῶνδʼ ὕπʼ· ἀλλʼ ἕπεσθέ μοι, 733 ἕπεσθε θύρσοις διὰ χερῶν ὡπλισμέναι. 735 βακχῶν σπαραγμόν, αἳ δὲ νεμομέναις χλόην 736 μόσχοις ἐπῆλθον χειρὸς ἀσιδήρου μέτα. 737 καὶ τὴν μὲν ἂν προσεῖδες εὔθηλον πόριν 738 μυκωμένην ἔχουσαν ἐν χεροῖν δίχα, 739 ἄλλαι δὲ δαμάλας διεφόρουν σπαράγμασιν. 740 εἶδες δʼ ἂν ἢ πλεύρʼ ἢ δίχηλον ἔμβασιν 741 ῥιπτόμενʼ ἄνω τε καὶ κάτω· κρεμαστὰ δὲ 742 ἔσταζʼ ὑπʼ ἐλάταις ἀναπεφυρμένʼ αἵματι. 743 ταῦροι δʼ ὑβρισταὶ κἀς κέρας θυμούμενοι 744 τὸ πρόσθεν ἐσφάλλοντο πρὸς γαῖαν δέμας, 745 μυριάσι χειρῶν ἀγόμενοι νεανίδων. 746 θᾶσσον δὲ διεφοροῦντο σαρκὸς ἐνδυτὰ 747 ἢ σὲ ξυνάψαι βλέφαρα βασιλείοις κόραις. 748 χωροῦσι δʼ ὥστʼ ὄρνιθες ἀρθεῖσαι δρόμῳ 749 πεδίων ὑποτάσεις, αἳ παρʼ Ἀσωποῦ ῥοαῖς 750 εὔκαρπον ἐκβάλλουσι Θηβαίων στάχυν· 751 Ὑσιάς τʼ Ἐρυθράς θʼ, αἳ Κιθαιρῶνος λέπας 752 νέρθεν κατῳκήκασιν, ὥστε πολέμιοι, 753 ἐπεσπεσοῦσαι πάντʼ ἄνω τε καὶ κάτω 754 διέφερον· ἥρπαζον μὲν ἐκ δόμων τέκνα· 755 ὁπόσα δʼ ἐπʼ ὤμοις ἔθεσαν, οὐ δεσμῶν ὕπο 756 προσείχετʼ οὐδʼ ἔπιπτεν ἐς μέλαν πέδον, 757 οὐ χαλκός, οὐ σίδηρος· ἐπὶ δὲ βοστρύχοις 758 πῦρ ἔφερον, οὐδʼ ἔκαιεν. οἳ δʼ ὀργῆς ὕπο 759 ἐς ὅπλʼ ἐχώρουν φερόμενοι βακχῶν ὕπο· 760 οὗπερ τὸ δεινὸν ἦν θέαμʼ ἰδεῖν, ἄναξ. 761 τοῖς μὲν γὰρ οὐχ ᾕμασσε λογχωτὸν βέλος, 762 κεῖναι δὲ θύρσους ἐξανιεῖσαι χερῶν 763 ἐτραυμάτιζον κἀπενώτιζον φυγῇ 764 γυναῖκες ἄνδρας, οὐκ ἄνευ θεῶν τινος. 765 πάλιν δʼ ἐχώρουν ὅθεν ἐκίνησαν πόδα, 766 κρήνας ἐπʼ αὐτὰς ἃς ἀνῆκʼ αὐταῖς θεός. 767 νίψαντο δʼ αἷμα, σταγόνα δʼ ἐκ παρηίδων 768 γλώσσῃ δράκοντες ἐξεφαίδρυνον χροός. 770 δέχου πόλει τῇδʼ· ὡς τά τʼ ἄλλʼ ἐστὶν μέγας, 771 κἀκεῖνό φασιν αὐτόν, ὡς ἐγὼ κλύω, 772 τὴν παυσίλυπον ἄμπελον δοῦναι βροτοῖς. 773 οἴνου δὲ μηκέτʼ ὄντος οὐκ ἔστιν Κύπρις 774 οὐδʼ ἄλλο τερπνὸν οὐδὲν ἀνθρώποις ἔτι. Χορός
καὶ μὴν ὁρᾶν μοι δύο μὲν ἡλίους δοκῶ, 919 δισσὰς δὲ Θήβας καὶ πόλισμʼ ἑπτάστομον· 920 καὶ ταῦρος ἡμῖν πρόσθεν ἡγεῖσθαι δοκεῖς 921 καὶ σῷ κέρατα κρατὶ προσπεφυκέναι. 922 ἀλλʼ ἦ ποτʼ ἦσθα θήρ; τεταύρωσαι γὰρ οὖν. Διόνυσος 923 ὁ θεὸς ὁμαρτεῖ, πρόσθεν ὢν οὐκ εὐμενής, 924 ἔνσπονδος ἡμῖν· νῦν δʼ ὁρᾷς ἃ χρή σʼ ὁρᾶν. Πενθεύς 1018 φάνηθι ταῦρος ἢ πολύκρανος ἰδεῖν 1019 δράκων ἢ πυριφλέγων ὁρᾶσθαι λέων. 1020 ἴθʼ, ὦ Βάκχε, θηραγρευτᾷ βακχᾶν 1021 γελῶντι προσώπῳ περίβαλε βρόχον 1022 θανάσιμον ὑπʼ ἀγέλαν πεσόντι word split in text 1023 τὰν μαινάδων. Ἄγγελος Β
δράκοντος ἔσπειρʼ Ὄφεος ἐν γαίᾳ θέρος,
ἐκ δʼ αἰθέρος φωνή τις, ὡς μὲν εἰκάσαι 1079 Διόνυσος, ἀνεβόησεν· Ὦ νεάνιδες, 1080 ἄγω τὸν ὑμᾶς κἀμὲ τἀμά τʼ ὄργια 1081 γέλων τιθέμενον· ἀλλὰ τιμωρεῖσθέ νιν. 1082 καὶ ταῦθʼ ἅμʼ ἠγόρευε καὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν 1083 καὶ γαῖαν ἐστήριξε φῶς σεμνοῦ πυρός. 1084 1085 φύλλʼ εἶχε, θηρῶν δʼ οὐκ ἂν ἤκουσας βοήν. 1086 αἳ δʼ ὠσὶν ἠχὴν οὐ σαφῶς δεδεγμέναι 1087 ἔστησαν ὀρθαὶ καὶ διήνεγκαν κόρας. 1088 ὃ δʼ αὖθις ἐπεκέλευσεν· ὡς δʼ ἐγνώρισαν 1089 σαφῆ κελευσμὸν Βακχίου Κάδμου κόραι, 1090 ᾖξαν πελείας ὠκύτητʼ οὐχ ἥσσονες 1091 ποδῶν τρέχουσαι συντόνοις δραμήμασι, 1092 μήτηρ Ἀγαύη σύγγονοί θʼ ὁμόσποροι 1093 πᾶσαί τε βάκχαι· διὰ δὲ χειμάρρου νάπης 1094 ἀγμῶν τʼ ἐπήδων θεοῦ πνοαῖσιν ἐμμανεῖς. 1095 ὡς δʼ εἶδον ἐλάτῃ δεσπότην ἐφήμενον, 1096 πρῶτον μὲν αὐτοῦ χερμάδας κραταιβόλους 1097 ἔρριπτον, ἀντίπυργον ἐπιβᾶσαι πέτραν, 1098 ὄζοισί τʼ ἐλατίνοισιν ἠκοντίζετο. 10
ἄλλαι δὲ θύρσους ἵεσαν διʼ αἰθέρος 1100 Πενθέως, στόχον δύστηνον· ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἤνυτον. 1101 κρεῖσσον γὰρ ὕψος τῆς προθυμίας ἔχων 1102 καθῆσθʼ ὁ τλήμων, ἀπορίᾳ λελημμένος. 1103 τέλος δὲ δρυΐνους συγκεραυνοῦσαι κλάδους 1104 ῥίζας ἀνεσπάρασσον ἀσιδήροις μοχλοῖς. 1105 ἐπεὶ δὲ μόχθων τέρματʼ οὐκ ἐξήνυτον, 1106 ἔλεξʼ Ἀγαύη· Φέρε, περιστᾶσαι κύκλῳ 1107 πτόρθου λάβεσθε, μαινάδες, τὸν ἀμβάτην 1108 θῆρʼ ὡς ἕλωμεν, μηδʼ ἀπαγγείλῃ θεοῦ 1109 χοροὺς κρυφαίους. αἳ δὲ μυρίαν χέρα 1110 προσέθεσαν ἐλάτῃ κἀξανέσπασαν χθονός· 1111 ὑψοῦ δὲ θάσσων ὑψόθεν χαμαιριφὴς 1112 πίπτει πρὸς οὖδας μυρίοις οἰμώγμασιν 1113 Πενθεύς· κακοῦ γὰρ ἐγγὺς ὢν ἐμάνθανεν. 1115 καὶ προσπίτνει νιν· ὃ δὲ μίτραν κόμης ἄπο 1116 ἔρριψεν, ὥς νιν γνωρίσασα μὴ κτάνοι 1117 τλήμων Ἀγαύη, καὶ λέγει, παρηίδος 1118 ψαύων· Ἐγώ τοι, μῆτερ, εἰμί, παῖς σέθεν 1119 Πενθεύς, ὃν ἔτεκες ἐν δόμοις Ἐχίονος· 1120 οἴκτιρε δʼ ὦ μῆτέρ με, μηδὲ ταῖς ἐμαῖς 1121 ἁμαρτίαισι παῖδα σὸν κατακτάνῃς. 1123 κόρας ἑλίσσουσʼ, οὐ φρονοῦσʼ ἃ χρὴ φρονεῖν, 1124 ἐκ Βακχίου κατείχετʼ, οὐδʼ ἔπειθέ νιν. 1125 λαβοῦσα δʼ ὠλένης ἀριστερὰν χέρα, 1126 πλευραῖσιν ἀντιβᾶσα τοῦ δυσδαίμονος 1127 ἀπεσπάραξεν ὦμον, οὐχ ὑπὸ σθένους, 1128 ἀλλʼ ὁ θεὸς εὐμάρειαν ἐπεδίδου χεροῖν· 1129 Ἰνὼ δὲ τἀπὶ θάτερʼ ἐξειργάζετο, 1130 ῥηγνῦσα σάρκας, Αὐτονόη τʼ ὄχλος τε πᾶς 1131 ἐπεῖχε βακχῶν· ἦν δὲ πᾶσʼ ὁμοῦ βοή, 1132 ὃ μὲν στενάζων ὅσον ἐτύγχανʼ ἐμπνέων, 1133 αἳ δʼ ἠλάλαζον. ἔφερε δʼ ἣ μὲν ὠλένην, 1134 ἣ δʼ ἴχνος αὐταῖς ἀρβύλαις· γυμνοῦντο δὲ 1135 πλευραὶ σπαραγμοῖς· πᾶσα δʼ ᾑματωμένη 1136 χεῖρας διεσφαίριζε σάρκα Πενθέως. 1138 πέτραις, τὸ δʼ ὕλης ἐν βαθυξύλῳ φόβῃ, 1139 οὐ ῥᾴδιον ζήτημα· κρᾶτα δʼ ἄθλιον, 1
ὅπερ λαβοῦσα τυγχάνει μήτηρ χεροῖν, 1141 πήξασʼ ἐπʼ ἄκρον θύρσον ὡς ὀρεστέρου 1142 φέρει λέοντος διὰ Κιθαιρῶνος μέσου, 1143 λιποῦσʼ ἀδελφὰς ἐν χοροῖσι μαινάδων. 1144 χωρεῖ δὲ θήρᾳ δυσπότμῳ γαυρουμένη 1145 τειχέων ἔσω τῶνδʼ, ἀνακαλοῦσα Βάκχιον 1146 τὸν ξυγκύναγον, τὸν ξυνεργάτην ἄγρας, 1147 τὸν καλλίνικον, ᾧ δάκρυα νικηφορεῖ. ' None
99 received him in a chamber fit for birth, and having covered him in his thigh shut him up with golden clasps, hidden from Hera.And he brought forth, when the Fate 100 had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru'101 had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru
Phrygian, the Lydian mountains, and the leader of the dance is Bromius, evoe! A ritual cry of delight. The plain flows with milk, it flows with wine, it flows with the nectar of bees. 145 The Bacchic one, raising the flaming torch of pine on his thyrsos, like the smoke of Syrian incense, darts about, arousing the wanderers with his racing and dancing, agitating them with his shouts,
and release his garlands to the winds and storms. In this way I will especially wound him. And some of you hunt throughout the city for this effeminate stranger, who introduces a new disease to women and pollutes our beds.
for which you sent us, nor have we set out in vain. This beast was docile in our hands and did not withdraw in flight, but yielded not unwillingly. He did not turn pale or change the wine-dark complexion of his cheek, but laughed and allowed us to bind him and lead him away.
He remained still, making my work easy, and I in shame said: Stranger, I do not lead you away willingly, but by order of Pentheus, who sent me. And the Bacchae whom you shut up, whom you carried off and bound in the chains of the public prison, 445 are set loose and gone, and are gamboling in the meadows, invoking Bromius as their god. of their own accord, the chains were loosed from their feet and keys opened the doors without human hand. This man has come to Thebe 450 full of many wonders. You must take care of the rest. Pentheu
within Io! Hear my voice, hear it, Io Bacchae, Io Bacchae! Choru 578 Who is here, who? From what quarter did the voice of the Joyful one summon me? Dionysu 580 Io! Io! I say again; it is I, the child of Zeus and Semele. Choru 582 Io! Io! Master, master! Come now to our company, Bromius. Dionysu 585 Shake the world’s plain, lady Earthquake! Choru 586 Oh! Oh! Soon the palace of Pentheus will be shaken in ruin. The following lines are probably delivered by individual chorus members. —Dionysus is in the halls. 590 Revere him.—We revere him!—Did you see these stone lintels on the pillars falling apart? Bromius cries out in victory indoors. Dionysu 594 Light the fiery lamp of lightning! 595 Burn, burn Pentheus’ home! Choru 596 Oh! Oh! Do you not see the the fire, do you not perceive, about the sacred tomb of Semele, the flame that Zeus’ thunderbolt left? 600 Cast on the ground your trembling bodies, Maenads, cast them down, for our lord, Zeus’ son, is coming against this palace, turning everything upside down. Enter Dionysus Dionysu 604 Barbarian women, have you fallen on the ground 605 o stricken with fear? You have, so it seems, felt Bacchus shaking the house of Pentheus. But get up and take courage, putting a stop to your trembling. Chorus Leader 608 Oh greatest light for us in our joyful revelry, how happy I am to see you—I who was alone and desolate before. Dionysu 610 Did you despair when I was sent to fall into Pentheus’ dark dungeon? Chorus Leader 612 How not? Who was my guardian, if you met with misfortune? But how were you freed, having met with an impious man? Dionysu 614 By myself I saved myself easily, without trouble. Chorus Leader 615 Did he not tie your hands in binding knots? Dionysu 616 In this too I mocked him, for, thinking to bind me, he neither touched nor handled me, but fed on hope. He found a bull by the stable where he took and shut me up, and threw shackles around its knees and hooves, 620 breathing out fury, dripping sweat from his body, gnashing his teeth in his lips. But I, being near, sitting quietly, looked on. Meanwhile, Bacchus came and shook the house and kindled a flame on his mother’s tomb. When Pentheus saw this, thinking that the house was burning, 625 he ran here and there, calling to the slaves to bring water, and every servant was at work, toiling in vain.Then he let this labor drop, as I had escaped, and snatching a dark sword rushed into the house. Then Bromius, so it seems to me—I speak my opinion— 630 created a phantom in the courtyard. Pentheus rushed at it headlong, stabbing at the shining air, as though slaughtering me. Besides this, Bacchus inflicted other damage on him: he knocked his house to the ground, and everything was shattered into pieces, while he saw my bitter chains. From fatigue, 635 dropping his sword, he is exhausted. For he, a man, dared to join battle with a god. Now I have quietly left the house and come to you, with no thought of Pentheus.But I think—at any rate I hear the tramping of feet inside—he will soon come to the front of the house. What will he say after this? 640 I shall easily bear him, even if he comes boasting greatly. For it is the part of a wise man to practice restrained good temper. Enter Pentheus Pentheu
goaded to madness have darted from this land with their fair feet, I have come to tell you and the city, lord, that they are doing terrible things, beyond marvel. I wish to hear whether I should tell you in free speech the situation there or whether I should repress my report,
First they let their hair loose over their shoulders, and secured their fawn-skins, as many of them as had released the fastenings of their knots, girding the dappled hides with serpents licking their jaws. And some, holding in their arms a gazelle or wild
Pentheus’ mother Agave out from the Bacchic revelry and do the king a favor? We thought he spoke well, and lay down in ambush, hiding ourselves in the foliage of bushes. They, at the appointed hour, began to wave the thyrsos in their revelries, 725 calling on Iacchus, the son of Zeus, Bromius, with united voice. The whole mountain revelled along with them and the beasts, and nothing was unmoved by their running. Agave happened to be leaping near me, and I sprang forth, wanting to snatch her, 730 abandoning the ambush where I had hidden myself. But she cried out: O my fleet hounds, we are hunted by these men; but follow me! follow armed with your thyrsoi in your hands! We fled and escaped 735 from being torn apart by the Bacchae, but they, with unarmed hands, sprang on the heifers browsing the grass. and you might see one rending asunder a fatted lowing calf, while others tore apart cows. 740 You might see ribs or cloven hooves tossed here and there; caught in the trees they dripped, dabbled in gore. Bulls who before were fierce, and showed their fury with their horns, stumbled to the ground, 745 dragged down by countless young hands. The garment of flesh was torn apart faster then you could blink your royal eyes. And like birds raised in their course, they proceeded along the level plains, which by the streams of the Asopu 750 produce the bountiful Theban crop. And falling like soldiers upon Hysiae and Erythrae, towns situated below the rock of Kithairon, they turned everything upside down. They were snatching children from their homes; 755 and whatever they put on their shoulders, whether bronze or iron, was not held on by bonds, nor did it fall to the ground. They carried fire on their locks, but it did not burn them. Some people in rage took up arms, being plundered by the Bacchae, 760 and the sight of this was terrible to behold, lord. For their pointed spears drew no blood, but the women, hurling the thyrsoi from their hands, kept wounding them and turned them to flight—women did this to men, not without the help of some god. 765 And they returned where they had come from, to the very fountains which the god had sent forth for them, and washed off the blood, and snakes cleaned the drops from the women’s cheeks with their tongues.Receive this god then, whoever he is, 770 into this city, master. For he is great in other respects, and they say this too of him, as I hear, that he gives to mortals the vine that puts an end to grief. Without wine there is no longer Aphrodite or any other pleasant thing for men. Chorus Leader
Oh look! I think I see two suns, and twin Thebes , the seven-gated city. 920 And you seem to lead me, being like a bull and horns seem to grow on your head. But were you ever before a beast? For you have certainly now become a bull. Dionysu 923 The god accompanies us, now at truce with us, though formerly not propitious. Now you see what you should see. Pentheu
Appear as a bull or many-headed serpent or raging lion to see. 1020 Go, Bacchus, with smiling face throw a deadly noose around the hunter of the Bacchae as he falls beneath the flock of Maenads. Second Messenger
house of the Sidonian old man who once sowed in the ground the earth-born harvest of the serpent Ophis, how I groan for you, though I am a slave, but still the masters’ affairs are a concern to good servants . This line is most likely interpolated from Eur. Med. 54 . Chorus Leader
He was seen by the Maenads more than he saw them, for sitting on high he was all but apparent, and the stranger was no longer anywhere to be seen, when a voice, Dionysus as I guess, cried out from the air: Young women, 1080 I bring the one who has made you and me and my rites a laughing-stock. Now punish him! And as he said this a light of holy fire was placed between heaven and earth. The air became quiet and the woody glen 1085 kept its leaves silent, nor would you have heard the sounds of animals. But they, not having heard the sound clearly, stood upright and looked all around. He repeated his order, and when the daughters of Kadmos recognized the clear command of Bacchus, 1090 they rushed forth, swift as a dove, running with eager speed of feet, his mother Agave, and her sisters, and all the Bacchae. They leapt through the torrent-streaming valley and mountain cliffs, frantic with the inspiration of the god. 1095 When they saw my master sitting in the pine, first they climbed a rock towering opposite the tree and began to hurl at him boulders violently thrown. Some aimed with pine branches and other women hurled their thyrsoi through the air 1100 at Pentheus, a sad target indeed. But they did not reach him, for the wretched man, caught with no way out, sat at a height too great for their eagerness. Finally like lightning they smashed oak branches and began to tear up the roots of the tree with ironless levers. 1105 When they did not succeed in their toils, Agave said: Come, standing round in a circle, each seize a branch, Maenads, so that we may catch the beast who has climbed aloft, and so that he does not make public the secret dances of the god. They applied countless hand 1110 to the pine and dragged it up from the earth. Pentheus fell crashing to the ground from his lofty seat, wailing greatly: for he knew he was in terrible trouble. His mother, as priestess, began the slaughter, 1115 and fell upon him. He threw the headband from his head so that the wretched Agave might recognize and not kill him. Touching her cheek, he said: It is I, mother, your son, Pentheus, whom you bore in the house of Echion. 1120 Pity me, mother, and do not kill me, your child, for my sins. But she, foaming at the mouth and twisting her eyes all about, not thinking as she ought, was possessed by Bacchus, and he did not persuade her. 1125 Seizing his left arm at the elbow and propping her foot against the unfortunate man’s side, she tore out his shoulder, not by her own strength, but the god gave facility to her hands. Ino began to work on the other side, 1130 tearing his flesh, while Autonoe and the whole crowd of the Bacchae pressed on. All were making noise together, he groaning as much as he had life left in him, while they shouted in victory. One of them bore his arm, another a foot, boot and all. His ribs were stripped bare 1135 from their tearings. The whole band, hands bloodied, were playing a game of catch with Pentheus’ flesh.His body lies in different places, part under the rugged rocks, part in the deep foliage of the woods, not easy to be sought. His miserable head, 1
which his mother happened to take in her hands, she fixed on the end of a thyrsos and carries through the midst of Kithairon like that of a savage lion, leaving her sisters among the Maenads’ dances. She is coming inside these walls, preening herself 1145 on the ill-fated prey, calling Bacchus her fellow hunter, her accomplice in the chase, the glorious victor—in whose service she wins a triumph of tears.And as for me, I will depart out of the way of this calamity before Agave reaches the house. ' None
3. Herodotus, Histories, 2.38-2.39, 2.42 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cambyses, Persian king, attacks the Apis bull • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • bull • bull's blood, in Egyptian religion • bull,Apis

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 422, 423; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 259; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 204

2.38 τοὺς δὲ βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας τοῦ Ἐπάφου εἶναι νομίζουσι, καὶ τούτου εἵνεκα δοκιμάζουσι αὐτοὺς ὧδε· τρίχα ἢν καὶ μίαν ἴδηται ἐπεοῦσαν μέλαιναν, οὐ καθαρὸν εἶναι νομίζει. δίζηται δὲ ταῦτα ἐπὶ τούτῳ τεταγμένος τῶν τις ἱρέων καὶ ὀρθοῦ ἑστεῶτος τοῦ κτήνεος καὶ ὑπτίου, καὶ τὴν γλῶσσαν ἐξειρύσας, εἰ καθαρὴ τῶν προκειμένων σημηίων, τὰ ἐγὼ ἐν ἄλλῳ λόγῳ ἐρέω· κατορᾷ δὲ καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῆς οὐρῆς εἰ κατὰ φύσιν ἔχει πεφυκυίας. ἢν δὲ τούτων πάντων ᾖ καθαρός, σημαίνεται βύβλῳ περὶ τὰ κέρεα εἱλίσσων καὶ ἔπειτα γῆν σημαντρίδα ἐπιπλάσας ἐπιβάλλει τὸν δακτύλιον, καὶ οὕτω ἀπάγουσι. ἀσήμαντον δὲ θύσαντι θάνατος ἡ ζημίη ἐπικέεται. δοκιμάζεται μέν νυν τὸ κτῆνος τρόπῳ τοιῷδε, θυσίη δέ σφι ἥδε κατέστηκε. 2.39 ἀγαγόντες τὸ σεσημασμένον κτῆνος πρὸς τὸν βωμὸν ὅκου ἂν θύωσι, πῦρ ἀνακαίουσι, ἔπειτα δὲ ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ οἶνον κατὰ τοῦ ἱρηίου ἐπισπείσαντες καὶ ἐπικαλέσαντες τὸν θεὸν σφάζουσι, σφάξαντες δὲ ἀποτάμνουσι τὴν κεφαλήν. σῶμα μὲν δὴ τοῦ κτήνεος δείρουσι, κεφαλῇ δὲ κείνῃ πολλὰ καταρησάμενοι φέρουσι, τοῖσι μὲν ἂν ᾖ ἀγορὴ καὶ Ἕλληνές σφι ἔωσι ἐπιδήμιοι ἔμποροι, οἳ δὲ φέροντες ἐς τὴν ἀγορὴν ἀπʼ ὦν ἔδοντο, τοῖσι δὲ ἂν μὴ παρέωσι Ἕλληνες, οἳ δʼ ἐκβάλλουσι ἐς τὸν ποταμόν· καταρῶνται δὲ τάδε λέγοντες τῇσι κεφαλῇσι, εἴ τι μέλλοι ἢ σφίσι τοῖσι θύουσι ἢ Αἰγύπτῳ τῇ συναπάσῃ κακὸν γενέσθαι, ἐς κεφαλὴν ταύτην τραπέσθαι. κατὰ μέν νυν τὰς κεφαλὰς τῶν θυομένων κτηνέων καὶ τὴν ἐπίσπεισιν τοῦ οἴνου πάντες Αἰγύπτιοι νόμοισι τοῖσι αὐτοῖσι χρέωνται ὁμοίως ἐς πάντα τὰ ἱρά, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ νόμου οὐδὲ ἄλλου οὐδενὸς ἐμψύχου κεφαλῆς γεύσεται Αἰγυπτίων οὐδείς.
ὅσοι μὲν δὴ Διὸς Θηβαιέος ἵδρυνται ἱρὸν ἤ νομοῦ τοῦ Θηβαίου εἰσί, οὗτοι μέν νυν πάντες ὀίων ἀπεχόμενοι αἶγας θύουσι. θεοὺς γὰρ δὴ οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς ἅπαντες ὁμοίως Αἰγύπτιοι σέβονται, πλὴν Ἴσιός τε καὶ Ὀσίριος, τὸν δὴ Διόνυσον εἶναι λέγουσι· τούτους δὲ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες σέβονται. ὅσοι δὲ τοῦ Μένδητος ἔκτηνται ἱρὸν ἢ νομοῦ τοῦ Μενδησίου εἰσί, οὗτοι δὲ αἰγῶν ἀπεχόμενοι ὄις θύουσι. Θηβαῖοι μέν νυν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ τούτους ὀίων ἀπέχονται, διὰ τάδε λέγουσι τὸν νόμον τόνδε σφίσι τεθῆναι. Ἡρακλέα θελῆσαι πάντως ἰδέσθαι τὸν Δία, καὶ τὸν οὐκ ἐθέλειν ὀφθῆναι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· τέλος δέ, ἐπείτε λιπαρέειν τὸν Ἡρακλέα, τάδε τὸν Δία μηχανήσασθαι· κριὸν ἐκδείραντα προσχέσθαι τε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποταμόντα τοῦ κριοῦ καὶ ἐνδύντα τὸ νάκος οὕτω οἱ ἑωυτὸν ἐπιδέξαι. ἀπὸ τούτου κριοπρόσωπον τοῦ Διὸς τὤγαλμα ποιεῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, ἀπὸ δὲ Αἰγυπτίων Ἀμμώνιοι, ἐόντες Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων ἄποικοι καὶ φωνὴν μεταξὺ ἀμφοτέρων νομίζοντες. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ τὸ οὔνομα Ἀμμώνιοι ἀπὸ τοῦδε σφίσι τὴν ἐπωνυμίην ἐποιήσαντο· Ἀμοῦν γὰρ Αἰγύπτιοι καλέουσι τὸν Δία. τοὺς δὲ κριοὺς οὐ θύουσι Θηβαῖοι, ἀλλʼ εἰσί σφι ἱροὶ διὰ τοῦτο. μιῇ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, ἐν ὁρτῇ τοῦ Διός, κριὸν ἕνα κατακόψαντες καὶ ἀποδείραντες κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἐνδύουσι τὤγαλμα τοῦ Διός, καὶ ἔπειτα ἄλλο ἄγαλμα Ἡρακλέος προσάγουσι πρὸς αὐτό. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τύπτονται οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱρὸν ἅπαντες τὸν κριὸν καὶ ἔπειτα ἐν ἱρῇ θήκῃ θάπτουσι αὐτόν.'' None
2.38 They believe that bulls belong to Epaphus, and for this reason scrutinize them as follows; if they see even one black hair on them, the bull is considered impure. ,One of the priests, appointed to the task, examines the beast, making it stand and lie, and drawing out its tongue, to determine whether it is clean of the stated signs which I shall indicate hereafter. He looks also to the hairs of the tail, to see if they grow naturally. ,If it is clean in all these respects, the priest marks it by wrapping papyrus around the horns, then smears it with sealing-earth and stamps it with his ring; and after this they lead the bull away. But the penalty is death for sacrificing a bull that the priest has not marked. Such is the manner of approving the beast; I will now describe how it is sacrificed. 2.39 After leading the marked beast to the altar where they will sacrifice it, they kindle a fire; then they pour wine on the altar over the victim and call upon the god; then they cut its throat, and having done so sever the head from the body. ,They flay the carcass of the victim, then invoke many curses on its head, which they carry away. Where there is a market, and Greek traders in it, the head is taken to the market and sold; where there are no Greeks, it is thrown into the river. ,The imprecation which they utter over the heads is that whatever ill threatens those who sacrifice, or the whole of Egypt, fall upon that head. ,In respect of the heads of sacrificed beasts and the libation of wine, the practice of all Egyptians is the same in all sacrifices; and from this ordice no Egyptian will taste of the head of anything that had life. ' "
All that have a temple of Zeus of Thebes or are of the Theban district sacrifice goats, but will not touch sheep. ,For no gods are worshipped by all Egyptians in common except Isis and Osiris, who they say is Dionysus; these are worshipped by all alike. Those who have a temple of Mendes or are of the Mendesian district sacrifice sheep, but will not touch goats. ,The Thebans, and those who by the Theban example will not touch sheep, give the following reason for their ordice: they say that Heracles wanted very much to see Zeus and that Zeus did not want to be seen by him, but that finally, when Heracles prayed, Zeus contrived ,to show himself displaying the head and wearing the fleece of a ram which he had flayed and beheaded. It is from this that the Egyptian images of Zeus have a ram's head; and in this, the Egyptians are imitated by the Ammonians, who are colonists from Egypt and Ethiopia and speak a language compounded of the tongues of both countries. ,It was from this, I think, that the Ammonians got their name, too; for the Egyptians call Zeus “Amon”. The Thebans, then, consider rams sacred for this reason, and do not sacrifice them. ,But one day a year, at the festival of Zeus, they cut in pieces and flay a single ram and put the fleece on the image of Zeus, as in the story; then they bring an image of Heracles near it. Having done this, all that are at the temple mourn for the ram, and then bury it in a sacred coffin. "' None
4. Sophocles, Antigone, 1146-1148 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • bull

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 280; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 112

1146 O Leader of the chorus of the stars whose breath is fire, overseer of the chants in the night, son begotten of Zeus,'1147 O Leader of the chorus of the stars whose breath is fire, overseer of the chants in the night, son begotten of Zeus, ' None
5. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, species: bull • bulls as oath sacrifices

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 40, 140; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 195

6. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bulls, Black • Bulls, Red • Bulls, White • bull-calf • bull-calf, horse

 Found in books: Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 179; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 96

89 And one of those four went to that white bull and instructed him in a secret, without his being terrified: he was born a bull and became a man, and built for himself a great vessel and dwelt thereon;,and three bulls dwelt with him in that vessel and they were covered in. And again I raised mine eyes towards heaven and saw a lofty roof, with seven water torrents thereon, and those torrents,flowed with much water into an enclosure. And I saw again, and behold fountains were opened on the surface of that great enclosure, and that water began to swell and rise upon the surface,,and I saw that enclosure till all its surface was covered with water. And the water, the darkness, and mist increased upon it; and as I looked at the height of that water, that water had risen above the height of that enclosure, and was streaming over that enclosure, and it stood upon the earth.,And all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until I saw how they sank and were",swallowed up and perished in that water. But that vessel floated on the water, while all the oxen and elephants and camels and asses sank to the bottom with all the animals, so that I could no longer see them, and they were not able to escape, (but) perished and sank into the depths. And again I saw in the vision till those water torrents were removed from that high roof, and the chasms,of the earth were leveled up and other abysses were opened. Then the water began to run down into these, till the earth became visible; but that vessel settled on the earth, and the darkness,retired and light appeared. But that white bull which had become a man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, and one of those three was white like that bull, and one of them was red as blood, and one black: and that white bull departed from them.,And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens; and among them was born a white bull. And they began to bite one another; but that white bull which was born amongst them begat a wild ass and a white bull with it, and the,wild asses multiplied. But that bull which was born from him begat a black wild boar and a white",sheep; and the former begat many boars, but that sheep begat twelve sheep. And when those twelve sheep had grown, they gave up one of them to the asses, and those asses again gave up that sheep to the wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. And the Lord brought the eleven sheep to live with it and to pasture with it among the wolves: and they multiplied and became many flocks of sheep. And the wolves began to fear them, and they oppressed them until they destroyed their little ones, and they cast their young into a river of much water: but those sheep began to,cry aloud on account of their little ones, and to complain unto their Lord. And a sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled and escaped to the wild asses; and I saw the sheep how they lamented and cried, and besought their Lord with all their might, till that Lord of the sheep descended at the voice of the sheep from a lofty abode, and came to them and pastured them. And He called that sheep which had escaped the wolves, and spake with it concerning the wolves that it should,admonish them not to touch the sheep. And the sheep went to the wolves according to the word of the Lord, and another sheep met it and went with it, and the two went and entered together into the assembly of those wolves, and spake with them and admonished them not to touch the,sheep from henceforth. And thereupon I saw the wolves, and how they oppressed the sheep,exceedingly with all their power; and the sheep cried aloud. And the Lord came to the sheep and they began to smite those wolves: and the wolves began to make lamentation; but the sheep became",quiet and forthwith ceased to cry out. And I saw the sheep till they departed from amongst the wolves; but the eyes of the wolves were blinded, and those wolves departed in pursuit of the sheep,with all their power. And the Lord of the sheep went with them, as their leader, and all His sheep,followed Him: and his face was dazzling and glorious and terrible to behold. But the wolves",began to pursue those sheep till they reached a sea of water. And that sea was divided, and the water stood on this side and on that before their face, and their Lord led them and placed Himself between,them and the wolves. And as those wolves did not yet see the sheep, they proceeded into the midst of that sea, and the wolves followed the sheep, and those wolves ran after them into that sea.,And when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to flee before His face, but that sea gathered itself together, and became as it had been created, and the water swelled and rose till it covered,those wolves. And I saw till all the wolves who pursued those sheep perished and were drowned.",But the sheep escaped from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there was no water and no grass; and they began to open their eyes and to see; and I saw the Lord of the sheep,pasturing them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep going and leading them. And that,sheep ascended to the summit of that lofty rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it to them. And after that I saw the Lord of the sheep who stood before them, and His appearance was great and,terrible and majestic, and all those sheep saw Him and were afraid before His face. And they all feared and trembled because of Him, and they cried to that sheep with them which was amongst,them: \' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.\' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander,from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen,away. And when they saw it they feared and trembled at its presence, and desired to return to their,folds. And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those sheep which had fallen away, and began to slay them; and the sheep feared its presence, and thus that sheep brought back those,sheep that had fallen away, and they returned to their folds. And I saw in this vision till that sheep became a man and built a house for the Lord of the sheep, and placed all the sheep in that house.,And I saw till this sheep which had met that sheep which led them fell asleep: and I saw till all the great sheep perished and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a pasture, and,approached a stream of water. Then that sheep, their leader which had become a man, withdrew,from them and fell asleep, and all the sheep sought it and cried over it with a great crying. And I saw till they left off crying for that sheep and crossed that stream of water, and there arose the two sheep as leaders in the place of those which had led them and fallen asleep (lit. \' had fallen asleep and led,them \'). And I saw till the sheep came to a goodly place, and a pleasant and glorious land, and I saw till those sheep were satisfied; and that house stood amongst them in the pleasant land.,And sometimes their eyes were opened, and sometimes blinded, till another sheep arose and led them and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened.,And the dogs and the foxes and the wild boars began to devour those sheep till the Lord of the sheep raised up another sheep a ram from their",midst, which led them. And that ram began to butt on either side those dogs, foxes, and wild,boars till he had destroyed them all. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself,unseemly. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that",ram which had forsaken its glory. And it went to it and spake to it alone, and raised it to being a ram, and made it the prince and leader of the sheep; but during all these things those dogs,oppressed the sheep. And the first ram pursued that second ram, and that second ram arose and fled before it; and I saw till those dogs pulled,down the first ram. And that second ram arose",and led the little sheep. And those sheep grew and multiplied; but all the dogs, and foxes, and wild boars feared and fled before it, and that ram butted and killed the wild beasts, and those wild beasts had no longer any power among the,sheep and robbed them no more of ought. And that ram begat many sheep and fell asleep; and a little sheep became ram in its stead, and became prince and leader of those sheep.,And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him.,And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep,,but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from,the sheep, and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell there. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to testify unto them and lament over them. And after that I saw that when they forsook the house of the Lord and His tower they fell away entirely, and their eyes were blinded; and I saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until,those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild,beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep. And I saw that He forsook that their house and their tower and gave them all into the hand of the lions, to tear and devour them,,into the hand of all the wild beasts. And I began to cry aloud with all my power, and to appeal to the Lord of the sheep, and to represent to Him in regard to the sheep that they were devoured,by all the wild beasts. But He remained unmoved, though He saw it, and rejoiced that they were devoured and swallowed and robbed, and left them to be devoured in the hand of all the beasts.,And He called seventy shepherds, and cast those sheep to them that they might pasture them, and He spake to the shepherds and their companions: \' Let each individual of you pasture the sheep,henceforward, and everything that I shall command you that do ye. And I will deliver them over unto you duly numbered, and tell you which of them are to be destroyed-and them destroy ye.\' And,He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: \' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than",I have commanded them. And every excess and the destruction which will be wrought through the shepherds, record (namely) how many they destroy according to my command, and how many according to their own caprice: record against every individual shepherd all the destruction he,effects. And read out before me by number how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against them, and know every deed of the shepherds, that I may comprehend and see what they do, whether or not they abide by my,command which I have commanded them. But they shall not know it, and thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but only record against each individual all the destruction which,the shepherds effect each in his time and lay it all before me.\' And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their season, and they began to slay and to destroy more than they were bidden, and they delivered,those sheep into the hand of the lions. And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished,that house. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that tower because that house of the sheep was demolished, and afterwards I was unable to see if those sheep entered that house.,And the shepherds and their associates delivered over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour them, and each one of them received in his time a definite number: it was written by the other,in a book how many each one of them destroyed of them. And each one slew and destroyed many",more than was prescribed; and I began to weep and lament on account of those sheep. And thus in the vision I saw that one who wrote, how he wrote down every one that was destroyed by those shepherds, day by day, and carried up and laid down and showed actually the whole book to the Lord of the sheep-(even) everything that they had done, and all that each one of them had made,away with, and all that they had given over to destruction. And the book was read before the Lord of the sheep, and He took the book from his hand and read it and sealed it and laid it down.,And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that,house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure.,And as touching all this the eyes of those sheep were blinded so that they saw not, and (the eyes of) their shepherds likewise; and they delivered them in large numbers to their shepherds for,destruction, and they trampled the sheep with their feet and devoured them. And the Lord of the sheep remained unmoved till all the sheep were dispersed over the field and mingled with them (i.e. the,beasts), and they (i.e. the shepherds) did not save them out of the hand of the beasts. And this one who wrote the book carried it up, and showed it and read it before the Lord of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and besought Him on their account as he showed Him all the doings,of the shepherds, and gave testimony before Him against all the shepherds. And he took the actual book and laid it down beside Him and departed.'' None
7. Anon., Jubilees, 8.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bulls, Black • Bulls, Red • Bulls, White • animal, bull

 Found in books: Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 318; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 96

8.19 and his portion goeth towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this river goeth forth'' None
8. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • bull

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 505; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 54; Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 170

9. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cretan bull • Dionysos, Dionysos as bull • bull, Dionysos as

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 52; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 255

2.5.2 δεύτερον δὲ ἆθλον ἐπέταξεν αὐτῷ τὴν Λερναίαν ὕδραν κτεῖναι· αὕτη δὲ ἐν τῷ τῆς Λέρνης ἕλει ἐκτραφεῖσα ἐξέβαινεν εἰς τὸ πεδίον καὶ τά τε βοσκήματα καὶ τὴν χώραν διέφθειρεν. εἶχε δὲ ἡ ὕδρα ὑπερμέγεθες σῶμα, κεφαλὰς ἔχον ἐννέα, τὰς μὲν ὀκτὼ θνητάς, τὴν δὲ μέσην ἀθάνατον. ἐπιβὰς οὖν ἅρματος, ἡνιοχοῦντος Ἰολάου, παρεγένετο εἰς τὴν Λέρνην, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἵππους ἔστησε, τὴν δὲ ὕδραν εὑρὼν ἔν τινι λόφῳ 1 -- παρὰ τὰς πηγὰς τῆς Ἀμυμώνης, ὅπου ὁ φωλεὸς αὐτῆς ὑπῆρχε, βάλλων βέλεσι πεπυρωμένοις ἠνάγκασεν ἐξελθεῖν, ἐκβαίνουσαν δὲ αὐτὴν κρατήσας κατεῖχεν. ἡ δὲ θατέρῳ 2 -- τῶν ποδῶν ἐνείχετο 3 -- περιπλακεῖσα. τῷ ῥοπάλῳ δὲ τὰς κεφαλὰς κόπτων οὐδὲν ἀνύειν ἠδύνατο· 4 -- μιᾶς γὰρ κοπτομένης κεφαλῆς δύο ἀνεφύοντο. ἐπεβοήθει δὲ καρκίνος τῇ ὕδρᾳ ὑπερμεγέθης, δάκνων τὸν πόδα. διὸ τοῦτον ἀποκτείνας ἐπεκαλέσατο καὶ αὐτὸς βοηθὸν τὸν Ἰόλαον, ὃς μέρος τι καταπρήσας τῆς ἐγγὺς ὕλης τοῖς δαλοῖς ἐπικαίων τὰς ἀνατολὰς τῶν κεφαλῶν ἐκώλυεν ἀνιέναι. καὶ 5 -- τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον τῶν ἀναφυομένων κεφαλῶν περιγενόμενος, τὴν ἀθάνατον ἀποκόψας κατώρυξε καὶ βαρεῖαν ἐπέθηκε πέτραν, παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν φέρουσαν διὰ Λέρνης εἰς Ἐλαιοῦντα 6 -- τὸ δὲ σῶμα τῆς ὕδρας ἀνασχίσας τῇ χολῇ τοὺς ὀιστοὺς ἔβαψεν. Εὐρυσθεὺς δὲ ἔφη μὴ δεῖν καταριθμῆσαι τοῦτον 7 -- ἐν τοῖς δέκα 8 -- τὸν ἆθλον· οὐ γὰρ μόνος ἀλλὰ καὶ μετὰ Ἰολάου τῆς ὕδρας περιεγένετο.'' None
2.5.2 As a second labour he ordered him to kill the Lernaean hydra. That creature, bred in the swamp of Lerna, used to go forth into the plain and ravage both the cattle and the country. Now the hydra had a huge body, with nine heads, eight mortal, but the middle one immortal. So mounting a chariot driven by Iolaus, he came to Lerna, and having halted his horses, he discovered the hydra on a hill beside the springs of the Amymone, where was its den. By pelting it with fiery shafts he forced it to come out, and in the act of doing so he seized and held it fast. But the hydra wound itself about one of his feet and clung to him. Nor could he effect anything by smashing its heads with his club, for as fast as one head was smashed there grew up two. A huge crab also came to the help of the hydra by biting his foot. So he killed it, and in his turn called for help on Iolaus who, by setting fire to a piece of the neighboring wood and burning the roots of the heads with the brands, prevented them from sprouting. Having thus got the better of the sprouting heads, he chopped off the immortal head, and buried it, and put a heavy rock on it, beside the road that leads through Lerna to Elaeus. But the body of the hydra he slit up and dipped his arrows in the gall. However, Eurystheus said that this labour should not be reckoned among the ten because he had not got the better of the hydra by himself, but with the help of Iolaus.'' None
10. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mithras, bull killing • bull

 Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 107; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 214

11. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bull • divine, bull

 Found in books: Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 127; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 156, 157

12. Strabo, Geography, 17.1.31
 Tagged with subjects: • Apis the Bull • Cambyses, Persian king, attacks the Apis bull

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 204; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 529

17.1.31 Memphis itself also, the residence of the kings of Egypt, is near, being only three schoeni distant from the Delta. It contains temples, among which is that of Apis, who is the same as Osiris. Here the ox Apis is kept in a sort of sanctuary, and is held, as I have said, to be a god. The forehead and some other small parts of its body are white; the other parts are black. By these marks the fitness of the successor is always determined, when the animal to which they pay these honours dies. In front of the sanctuary is a court, in which there is another sanctuary for the dam of Apis. . Into this court the Apis is let loose at times, particularly for the purpose of exhibiting him to strangers. He is seen through a door in the sanctuary, and he is permitted to be seen also out of it. After he has frisked about a little in the court, he is taken back to his own stall.The temple of Apis is near the Hephaesteium (or temple of Vulcan); the Hephaesteium itself is very sumptuously constructed, both as regards the size of the naos and in other respects. In front of the Dromos is a colossal figure consisting of a single stone. It is usual to celebrate bull-fights in this Dromos; the bulls are bred expressly for this purpose, like horses. They are let loose, and fight with one another, the conqueror receiving a prize.At Memphis also there is a temple of Venus, who is accounted a Grecian deity. But some say that it is a temple dedicated to Selene, or the moon.'' None
13. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, species: bull • bulls as oath sacrifices

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 139; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 195

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