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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
blood Avery Peck et al. (2014) 58, 211, 212, 213, 236
Altmann (2019) 23, 34, 39, 61, 62, 71
Balberg (2014) 86, 91, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 112, 217, 218
Balberg (2017) 78, 94, 102, 177
Bay (2022) 50, 51, 52, 144, 160, 161, 164, 188, 189, 190, 203, 204, 227, 229, 251, 286, 288, 290, 299
Blidstein (2017) 25, 26, 34, 49, 50, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 137, 141, 142, 159, 167, 176, 190, 191, 192, 193, 205
Brule (2003) 82, 83, 84, 87, 88, 96, 112
Faure (2022) 61, 62
Feder (2022) 30, 43, 51, 52, 54, 55, 96, 97, 100, 102, 103, 112, 113, 114, 140, 143, 148, 161, 162, 163, 176, 188, 220, 221, 227, 229, 255, 256
Flynn (2018) 39, 188, 189
Gera (2014) 66, 223, 283, 306, 308, 309, 310, 358, 398, 399, 427, 467
Goldman (2013) 11, 12, 18, 29, 58, 104, 111, 112, 123, 124, 132, 144, 145, 149, 156, 157
Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 10, 105, 108, 110, 126, 134, 208, 228, 234, 251
Hasan Rokem (2003) 74
Hitch (2017) 223, 226, 229
Inwood and Warren (2020) 13, 14, 20, 44, 45, 46, 47, 64, 69, 75, 76, 80, 92
Janowitz (2002b) 96, 98, 99, 105
Jouanna (2012) 100, 121, 122, 184, 185, 200, 215, 230, 328, 335, 338, 343
Kalmin (2014) 68
Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2012) 49, 121, 204
King (2006) 51, 128, 193, 206
Klawans (2009) 33, 56, 57, 62, 64, 65, 68, 70, 79, 150, 271
Levison (2009) 45, 129, 139, 150, 231, 362, 373, 374, 376
Libson (2018) 67, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 88, 94, 95
Lynskey (2021) 46, 88, 117, 146, 292
Maier and Waldner (2022) 35, 53, 64, 68, 94, 96, 133, 145, 149, 161, 170, 182, 205, 206
McGowan (1999) 180, 206, 210, 236
Pachoumi (2017) 21, 118, 120, 133, 134, 135, 144, 145, 149
Porton (1988) 43, 44, 65, 79, 95, 100, 106, 152, 155, 163, 167, 227, 236, 269, 272, 273, 280
Rosen-Zvi (2012) 32, 33, 214, 215
Rosenblum (2016) 19, 20, 74, 79, 97, 98, 99, 113, 154, 155
Schwartz (2008) 50, 53, 65
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 4, 77, 90, 91, 93, 128, 134, 324, 347
Singer and van Eijk (2018) 9, 14, 28, 29, 32, 73, 90, 95, 96, 104, 105, 108, 111, 112, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 140, 141, 143, 150, 151, 157, 166, 171, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179
Stavrianopoulou (2006) 188, 195, 196, 197, 204
Vinzent (2013) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 136, 153, 155, 167, 175, 209, 216, 223
Walters (2020) 24
van der EIjk (2005) 129, 130, 131, 132, 135, 166
blood, amount of Trott (2019) 188, 190, 192
blood, and Balberg (2017) 67, 70, 87, 88, 103
blood, and consumption Balberg (2017) 70, 96, 99
blood, and miasma Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 28, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155
blood, and passover Balberg (2017) 146, 150, 162, 171, 172, 173
blood, and pollution Fabian Meinel (2015) 65, 125, 126, 127
blood, and purification Ekroth (2013) 114, 233, 253, 259, 263, 264, 265
blood, and war Ekroth (2013) 114, 135, 172, 173, 174, 175, 187, 188, 224, 252, 253, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 271, 273
blood, and water from christs side, ambrose, on Hillier (1993) 173, 174, 175
blood, and water from christs side, augustine, on Hillier (1993) 176, 177, 178, 179
blood, and water from christs side, baptismal significance, of Hillier (1993) 29, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179
blood, and water from christs side, prosper of aquitaine, on Hillier (1993) 176, 178
blood, and water from christs side, pseudo-chrysostom, on Hillier (1993) 172, 175
blood, and water from christs side, pseudo-cyprian, on Hillier (1993) 172
blood, and water from christs side, quodvultdeus, on Hillier (1993) 179
blood, and water from christs side, rufinus of aquileia, on Hillier (1993) 172, 175
blood, and water from christs side, sedulius, on Hillier (1993) 179
blood, and water from christs side, tertullian, on Hillier (1993) 172, 175
blood, and water from christs side, zeno of verona, on Hillier (1993) 172, 175
blood, apocalypse of peter, and Bremmer (2017) 286
blood, as homoeomerous part Trott (2019) 159, 165, 178
blood, as means of atonement/purification Balberg (2017) 67, 68, 89, 92
blood, as purification of the murderer, spitting, of Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 88
blood, as purificatory agent Hitch (2017) 110, 120, 121, 122
blood, as purpose of sacrifice, and Balberg (2017) 130, 215
blood, ash-altar, made of Ekroth (2013) 49
blood, asklepios, specific ailments cured, coughing up, hemoptysis Renberg (2017) 120, 184, 185, 231, 232
blood, avodat nonblood, work of ha-dam, versus Balberg (2017) 76, 82
blood, avodat work of ha-dam Balberg (2017) 71, 72, 73, 101, 103, 171
blood, avodat work of ha-dam, function of Balberg (2017) 89
blood, avodat work of ha-dam, in daily offering Balberg (2017) 199
blood, baptism, of Tabbernee (2007) 204, 247
blood, be shed, theurgy, whoever sheds the blood, of man, by man shall his Lorberbaum (2015) 126, 127, 128, 130, 132, 133, 165, 206, 214, 269
blood, bloodless, de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 143, 280, 293, 335, 373, 424
blood, bull's Hitch (2017) 223
blood, by john the baptist, of Hellholm et al. (2010) 1263, 1685
blood, circuit of Jouanna (2012) 217, 218, 219
blood, consumed raw Ekroth (2013) 249, 285
blood, consuming Feder (2022) 139, 141
blood, covenant, and Balberg (2017) 67, 173, 174
blood, curse Azar (2016) 147
blood, day, of the destruction of Stuckenbruck (2007) 392
blood, day, of unceasing Stuckenbruck (2007) 198, 266, 392, 398
blood, disposal of circumcision Cohen (2010) 446
blood, drunk Ekroth (2013) 63, 102, 118, 178, 265, 266, 267, 285
blood, embodied Maier and Waldner (2022) 74, 132
blood, empedocles Jouanna (2012) 218
blood, epilepsy, cured by Sider (2001) 25
blood, equated to circumcision, blood, menstrual Cohen (2010) 447, 448, 449
blood, feud Heymans (2021) 193, 194, 196
blood, feud, feud Riess (2012) 36, 97, 137, 146, 149, 152, 233
blood, field of Scopello (2008) 74, 75, 76
blood, first works attesting importance, circumcision Cohen (2010) 440
blood, formation of Trott (2019) 89, 102, 144, 145, 146, 150, 167, 183, 184, 185, 186, 193, 207
blood, formed through, concoct, concoction Trott (2019) 145, 152, 175, 183, 184
blood, gabinius, a., feasted on republic’s Walters (2020) 58
blood, genital discharge, menstrual Balberg (2014) 54, 174, 226
blood, genital discharge, non-menstrual Balberg (2014) 140
blood, guilt Hitch (2017) 125
blood, hakeldama, field of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 330
blood, heat hot, in Trott (2019) 146, 152, 153
blood, hippocratic view of Trott (2019) 131, 132, 139, 143
blood, human, blood, Ekroth (2013) 109
blood, in aristotle van der EIjk (2005) 153, 176, 185, 218, 220, 225, 230
blood, in daily offering, tamid, work of Balberg (2017) 199
blood, in egyptian religion, bull's Hitch (2017) 259
blood, in greek mythology Trott (2019) 124, 127, 129, 130
blood, in pirqei de rabbi eliezer and the tanhuma, circumcision Cohen (2010) 444, 445
blood, in process, sacrificial Balberg (2017) 103, 171
blood, in purification Lupu(2005) 281
blood, in purification, use of Lupu(2005) 281, 380, 384
blood, in sphagia Lupu(2005) 379, 380
blood, innocent, avenging of Kalmin (2014) 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 154, 161
blood, instruction/teaching, on shedding of Stuckenbruck (2007) 98, 611
blood, intention, and work of Balberg (2017) 72, 73
blood, is the soul, soul, the Lorberbaum (2015) 126, 127, 128
blood, isaac Kessler (2004) 134, 146
blood, kept, prepared and consumed Ekroth (2013) 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 285
blood, lack of references in torah to, circumcision Cohen (2010) 435, 436
blood, later developments in ritual and theology, circumcision Cohen (2010) 445, 446, 447
blood, libation, of Lupu(2005) 201
blood, libations, in oath-taking Hitch (2017) 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235
blood, libel Isaac (2004) 475
blood, libels Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 524
blood, linkage to paschal sacrifice by exodus, circumcision Cohen (2010) 12, 440, 441, 442, 443
blood, madness Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 142
blood, magical use of Jouanna (2012) 108
blood, manipulation of Balberg (2017) 71, 72
blood, meat and Balberg (2017) 68, 74, 75, 79, 94, 95, 162, 165
blood, menses formed from Trott (2019) 87, 159, 173, 221
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, as matter Trott (2019) 112, 144, 145, 146, 205, 239
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, as seed Trott (2019) 21, 31, 87, 144
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, compared with semen Trott (2019) 110, 116, 144, 145, 159, 188, 190
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, hippocratic view of Trott (2019) 138
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, in craft view of generation Trott (2019) 3, 219
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, in resemblance Trott (2019) 195, 200, 202, 208
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, in sexual differentiation Trott (2019) 210
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, interaction with semen Trott (2019) 19, 117, 168, 173, 179, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 191, 230, 231, 232
blood, menses, menstrual καταμενία, process of formation of Trott (2019) 58, 167, 183, 239
blood, menstrual Feder (2022) 30, 34, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 53, 55, 124, 125, 137, 175, 176, 186, 188, 192, 193, 207, 213, 218, 219, 220, 221, 223, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 235, 236, 237
Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 17, 28
Van der Horst (2014) 10, 13, 14
blood, menstruation, menstrual van der EIjk (2005) 270, 271
blood, menstruation, special powers of menstrual Janowitz (2002) 92, 93
blood, milk Penniman (2017) 166
blood, motif of as evidence of a unified rabbinic composition Kalmin (2014) 54, 57, 58, 63, 66
blood, of animal sacrifices Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 133, 144, 396
blood, of attis Bremmer (2008) 277
blood, of christ Balberg (2017) 90, 91, 92, 175
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 135, 143, 345, 428
Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 62, 64, 104, 136, 141, 146
blood, of christ jesus Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 62, 112, 134, 136, 141, 146, 156, 164, 165, 167, 169, 216
blood, of christ, sprinkling of the Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 134, 141, 164
blood, of isaiah Kalmin (2014) 42, 43
blood, of jesus christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 136, 141, 146
blood, of menstruation, circumcision blood, equating with the Cohen (2010) 447, 448, 449
blood, of the murderer, murder, expiation through the Lorberbaum (2015) 126, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 141, 142, 206, 207, 214
blood, of the republic feasted on Walters (2020) 58
blood, of ulysses Griffiths (1975) 49, 246
blood, of victim, purification. see also oaths, sacrifice, by Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 7, 10, 13, 25, 26
blood, of zechariah, tale of the Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 331
blood, on the altar Ekroth (2013) 49, 112, 217, 242, 245, 247, 249, 250, 257, 288
blood, plebs, as providing Walters (2020) 25
blood, poured into bothros or pit Ekroth (2013) 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 101, 102, 120, 173, 174, 176, 226, 271, 275, 297
blood, poured on the hero's tomb Ekroth (2013) 136, 176, 185, 236, 300
blood, primacy of Balberg (2017) 73, 75, 76, 77
blood, pure Feder (2022) 124, 125, 126, 127
blood, purification, by Fabian Meinel (2015) 136
blood, rise in significance from early middle ages, circumcision Cohen (2010) 436
blood, ritual, blood van der EIjk (2005) 131
blood, rituals Ekroth (2013) 135, 136, 148, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 182, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 207, 212, 242, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 269, 270, 271, 273, 275, 289, 293, 296, 298, 300, 328, 332
Stavrianopoulou (2006) 205
blood, rituals surrounding oaths Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 142, 152, 340
blood, rituals surrounding oaths, as analogy for wine Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 11, 60, 176
blood, role in courage of Trott (2019) 153
blood, rotation, of the soul, of the Jouanna (2012) 219
blood, sacrifice Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 202, 203
blood, sacrifice, sacrifice, thysia Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 422, 423, 424, 425
blood, scrubbed from forum with sponges Walters (2020) 48
blood, semen formed from Trott (2019) 58, 152, 154, 155, 170
blood, shedding of Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 20, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140
blood, social body Maier and Waldner (2022) 19
blood, spitting of Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 88
blood, story of moses and zipporah in exodus, circumcision Cohen (2010) 436, 443
blood, symbolism of Pinheiro et al (2012a) 59, 75, 82, 109, 114, 115, 117, 125, 139
blood, thesis of hoffmans covenant of blood, circumcision Cohen (2010) 436, 437
blood, through congregational sacrifice, and Balberg (2017) 125, 126
blood, ties of biological and religious Mueller (2002) 27, 81, 84, 97, 124, 134, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 152, 153, 190, 195, 196
blood, tossing of zeriqah Balberg (2017) 48, 71, 74
blood, tossing of zeriqah, and meat/eating Balberg (2017) 76, 79, 173, 181
blood, tossing of zeriqah, in passover Balberg (2017) 161, 162, 164, 168
blood, use in the cult of the dead Ekroth (2013) 254, 255, 256, 257, 265, 266, 267, 285, 286
blood, used as a libation Ekroth (2013) 75, 80, 104, 118, 120, 136, 178, 189, 190, 191, 217, 253
blood, used as an invitation Ekroth (2013) 266, 267, 285, 286
blood, used for purifications Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 27, 68, 69, 224
blood, vengeance, zechariah, son of jehoiada and Matthews (2010) 108
blood, versus, non-blood, substances, sacrificial Balberg (2017) 94, 96
blood, versus, nonblood, Balberg (2017) 79, 165
blood, vessels Jouanna (2012) 320, 322, 328
van der EIjk (2005) 142, 178
blood, wine and oaths, as analogy for Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 11, 60, 147, 176
blood, with, blood, washing, ritual Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 68, 69
blood, zeriqah, for [someones] tossing of sake Balberg (2017) 166, 167, 171

List of validated texts:
72 validated results for "blood"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.16, 12.22-12.24, 14.21, 15.23, 18.4, 21.4-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood-rites • Murder, Expiation through the Blood of the Murderer • Soul, The Blood is the Soul • Theurgy, Whoever Sheds the Blood of Man, by Man shall his Blood be Shed • blood • blood, and consumption • menstrual blood

 Found in books: Altmann (2019) 61, 62, 71; Balberg (2017) 99; Blidstein (2017) 49; Feder (2022) 51, 162, 163, 188; Gera (2014) 358; Lorberbaum (2015) 127, 128, 142; Neusner (2001) 335, 337, 338; Rosenblum (2016) 19, 20, 98, 113

12.16. רַק הַדָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃
12.22. אַךְ כַּאֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֶת־הַצְּבִי וְאֶת־הָאַיָּל כֵּן תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ הַטָּמֵא וְהַטָּהוֹר יַחְדָּו יֹאכְלֶנּוּ׃ 12.23. רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְלֹא־תֹאכַל הַנֶּפֶשׁ עִם־הַבָּשָׂר׃ 12.24. לֹא תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃
14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃
15.23. רַק אֶת־דָּמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵל עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃
18.4. רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וְרֵאשִׁית גֵּז צֹאנְךָ תִּתֶּן־לּוֹ׃
21.4. וְהוֹרִדוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא אֶת־הָעֶגְלָה אֶל־נַחַל אֵיתָן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֵעָבֵד בּוֹ וְלֹא יִזָּרֵעַ וְעָרְפוּ־שָׁם אֶת־הָעֶגְלָה בַּנָּחַל׃ 21.5. וְנִגְּשׁוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי כִּי בָם בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְעַל־פִּיהֶם יִהְיֶה כָּל־רִיב וְכָל־נָגַע׃ 21.6. וְכֹל זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא הַקְּרֹבִים אֶל־הֶחָלָל יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־הָעֶגְלָה הָעֲרוּפָה בַנָּחַל׃ 21.7. וְעָנוּ וְאָמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ לֹא שפכה שָׁפְכוּ אֶת־הַדָּם הַזֶּה וְעֵינֵינוּ לֹא רָאוּ׃ 21.8. כַּפֵּר לְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִיתָ יְהוָה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן דָּם נָקִי בְּקֶרֶב עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִכַּפֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּם׃ 21.9. וְאַתָּה תְּבַעֵר הַדָּם הַנָּקִי מִקִּרְבֶּךָ כִּי־תַעֲשֶׂה הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃' '. None
12.16. Only ye shall not eat the blood; thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water.
12.22. Howbeit as the gazelle and as the hart is eaten, so thou shalt eat thereof; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof alike. 12.23. Only be stedfast in not eating the blood; for the blood is the life; and thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh. 12.24. Thou shalt not eat it; thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water.
14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.
15.23. Only thou shalt not eat the blood thereof; thou shalt pour it out upon the ground as water.
18.4. The first-fruits of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him.
21.4. And the elders of that city shall bring down the heifer unto a rough valley, which may neither be plowed nor sown, and shall break the heifer’s neck there in the valley. 21.5. And the priests the sons of Levi shall come near—for them the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto Him, and to bless in the name of the LORD; and according to their word shall every controversy and every stroke be. 21.6. And all the elders of that city, who are nearest unto the slain man, shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley. 21.7. And they shall speak and say: ‘Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it. 21.8. Forgive, O LORD, Thy people Israel, whom Thou hast redeemed, and suffer not innocent blood to remain in the midst of Thy people Israel.’ And the blood shall be forgiven them. 21.9. So shalt thou put away the innocent blood from the midst of thee, when thou shalt do that which is right in the eyes of the LORD.' '. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.2, 12.5, 12.13, 12.29, 12.42-12.49, 13.11-13.13, 24.4-24.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood of Christ Jesus • Isaac, blood • Murder, Expiation through the Blood of the Murderer • Red Sea, as blood • Soul, The Blood is the Soul • Theurgy, Whoever Sheds the Blood of Man, by Man shall his Blood be Shed • blood • blood, and Passover • blood, and consumption • blood, of Christ • blood, of animal sacrifices • circumcision blood, linkage to Paschal sacrifice by Exodus • circumcision blood, story of Moses and Zipporah in Exodus • covenant, and blood • process, sacrificial, blood in • tossing of blood (zeriqah), and meat/eating • tossing of blood (zeriqah), for [someones] sake, • work of blood (avodat ha-dam)

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 99, 146, 171, 173, 174; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 133; Cohen (2010) 441, 442, 443; Gera (2014) 309; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 105; Kessler (2004) 134; Klawans (2009) 64, 79; Kosman (2012) 157; Lorberbaum (2015) 128; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 112; Vinzent (2013) 6, 8, 216

12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃
12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃
12.5. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן כֵּן עָשׂוּ׃
12.5. שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר בֶּן־שָׁנָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן־הָעִזִּים תִּקָּחוּ׃
12.13. וְהָיָה הַדָּם לָכֶם לְאֹת עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם שָׁם וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־הַדָּם וּפָסַחְתִּי עֲלֵכֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף לְמַשְׁחִית בְּהַכֹּתִי בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃

12.29. וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה וַיהוָה הִכָּה כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבְּכֹר פַּרְעֹה הַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ עַד בְּכוֹר הַשְּׁבִי אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית הַבּוֹר וְכֹל בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָה׃
12.42. לֵיל שִׁמֻּרִים הוּא לַיהוָה לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם הוּא־הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה לַיהוָה שִׁמֻּרִים לְכָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 12.43. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן זֹאת חֻקַּת הַפָּסַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.44. וְכָל־עֶבֶד אִישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּסֶף וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.45. תּוֹשָׁב וְשָׂכִיר לֹא־יֹאכַל־בּוֹ׃ 12.46. בְּבַיִת אֶחָד יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹצִיא מִן־הַבַּיִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בוֹ׃ 12.47. כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.49. תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃
13.11. וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃
24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃' '. None
12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.
12.5. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats;
12.13. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.

12.29. And it came to pass at midnight, that the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the first-born of cattle.
12.42. It was a night of watching unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt; this same night is a night of watching unto the LORD for all the children of Israel throughout their generations. 12.43. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘This is the ordice of the passover: there shall no alien eat thereof; 12.44. but every man’s servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. 12.45. A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof. 12.46. In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof. 12.47. All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. 12.49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’
13.11. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee, 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s. 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem.
24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD. 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar. 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’ 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’' '. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 3.16, 4.10-4.11, 9.1-9.7, 15.12, 32.25-32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood of Christ Jesus • Blood-rites • Instruction/Teaching, On Shedding of Blood • Murder, Expiation through the Blood of the Murderer • Purification. See also Oaths, Sacrifice, By blood of victim • Red Sea, as blood • Soul, The Blood is the Soul • Theurgy, Whoever Sheds the Blood of Man, by Man shall his Blood be Shed • blood • blood, • blood, consuming • blood, taboo on • circumcision blood, lack of references in Torah to

 Found in books: Altmann (2019) 61, 62, 71; Bay (2022) 290; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 25, 26; Blidstein (2017) 50; Cohen (2010) 435; Estes (2020) 224, 246; Feder (2022) 51, 139, 148, 161, 162; Gera (2014) 306, 308, 309, 310; Klawans (2009) 271; Kosman (2012) 157; Levison (2009) 150; Lorberbaum (2015) 126; McGowan (1999) 180; Neusner (2001) 163; Petropoulou (2012) 163; Porton (1988) 227; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 33; Rosenblum (2016) 19, 20, 74, 113; Stuckenbruck (2007) 98; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 156

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
3.16. אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃' '4.11. וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃
9.1. וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃
9.1. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.2. וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃ 9.2. וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃ 9.3. כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃ 9.4. אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 9.5. וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃ 9.6. שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃ 9.7. וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃
15.12. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָה נָפְלָה עַל־אַבְרָם וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה חֲשֵׁכָה גְדֹלָה נֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו׃
32.25. וַיִּוָּתֵר יַעֲקֹב לְבַדּוֹ וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ עַד עֲלוֹת הַשָּׁחַר׃ 32.26. וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף־יְרֵכוֹ וַתֵּקַע כַּף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּהֵאָבְקוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחֲךָ כִּי אִם־בֵּרַכְתָּנִי׃ 32.28. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃ 32.31. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם פְּנִיאֵל כִּי־רָאִיתִי אֱלֹהִים פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים וַתִּנָּצֵל נַפְשִׁי׃ 32.32. וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבַר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ׃ 32.33. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי נָגַע בְּכַף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה׃''. None
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
3.16. Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’
4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground. 4.11. And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand.
9.1. And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth. 9.2. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered. 9.3. Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all. 9.4. Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. 9.5. And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, will I require the life of man. 9.6. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man. 9.7. And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ .
15.12. And it came to pass, that, when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, a dread, even a great darkness, fell upon him.
32.25. And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day. 32.26. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him. 32.27. And he said: ‘Let me go, for the day breaketh.’ And he said: ‘I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.’ 32.28. And he said unto him: ‘What is thy name?’ And he said: ‘Jacob.’ 32.29. And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’ 32.30. And Jacob asked him, and said: ‘Tell me, I pray thee, thy name.’ And he said: ‘Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?’ And he blessed him there. 32.31. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: ‘for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.’ 32.32. And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh. 32.33. Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh-vein.' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood-rites • blood • sacrifice, blood

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 467; Klawans (2009) 79; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 203; Neusner (2001) 163

6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃''. None
6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.4-1.5, 1.14, 3.2-3.4, 3.16-3.17, 4.6, 5.3, 6.20, 7.22-7.33, 13.19, 13.24, 13.42-13.43, 14.2-14.8, 14.49, 14.52, 15.2-15.31, 16.14-16.19, 17.10-17.15, 22.3-22.4, 23.29, 24.5-24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood of Christ Jesus • Blood-rites • Murder, Expiation through the Blood of the Murderer • Soul, The Blood is the Soul • Theurgy, Whoever Sheds the Blood of Man, by Man shall his Blood be Shed • and blood • and blood, as purpose of sacrifice • and blood, through congregational sacrifice • blood • blood, and consumption • blood, as means of atonement/purification • blood, consuming • blood, of Christ • blood, primacy of • blood, taboo on • blood, versus nonblood • circumcision blood, equating with the blood of menstruation • genital discharge, blood (non-menstrual) • meat, and blood • menstrual blood • menstrual blood, equated to circumcision blood • substances, sacrificial, blood versus non-blood • tossing of blood (zeriqah) • tossing of blood (zeriqah), and meat/eating • work of blood (avodat ha-dam), versus nonblood

 Found in books: Altmann (2019) 61, 62, 71; Balberg (2014) 140; Balberg (2017) 68, 70, 74, 77, 78, 79, 82, 87, 88, 91, 94, 99, 126, 130, 215; Blidstein (2017) 49, 50, 205; Cohen (2010) 448; Feder (2022) 30, 44, 45, 46, 47, 96, 100, 137, 141, 230, 231, 232, 235, 255, 256; Gera (2014) 358; Klawans (2009) 33, 57, 62, 64; Libson (2018) 72, 85, 95; Lorberbaum (2015) 126, 128; Neusner (2001) 334, 335; Petropoulou (2012) 18, 162; Porton (1988) 227, 269, 280; Rosenblum (2016) 99, 154; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 156

1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃
1.14. וְאִם מִן־הָעוֹף עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיב מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ׃
3.2. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ קָרְבָּנוֹ וּשְׁחָטוֹ פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 3.3. וְהִקְרִיב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה אֶת־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַקֶּרֶב׃ 3.4. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיוֹת יְסִירֶנָּה׃
3.16. וְהִקְטִירָם הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ כָּל־חֵלֶב לַיהוָה׃ 3.17. חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־חֵלֶב וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃
4.6. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אֶצְבָּעוֹ בַּדָּם וְהִזָּה מִן־הַדָּם שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃
5.3. אוֹ כִי יִגַּע בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא בָּהּ וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם׃' '
7.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 7.23. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר כָּל־חֵלֶב שׁוֹר וְכֶשֶׂב וָעֵז לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 7.24. וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל־מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 7.25. כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל חֵלֶב מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב מִמֶּנָּה אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֹכֶלֶת מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 7.26. וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכְלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לָעוֹף וְלַבְּהֵמָה׃ 7.27. כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַל כָּל־דָּם וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 7.29. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו לַיהוָה יָבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה מִזֶּבַח שְׁלָמָיו׃ 7.31. וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְהָיָה הֶחָזֶה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו׃ 7.32. וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין תִּתְּנוּ תְרוּמָה לַכֹּהֵן מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיכֶם׃ 7.33. הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב מִבְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן לוֹ תִהְיֶה שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְמָנָה׃
13.19. וְהָיָה בִּמְקוֹם הַשְּׁחִין שְׂאֵת לְבָנָה אוֹ בַהֶרֶת לְבָנָה אֲדַמְדָּמֶת וְנִרְאָה אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃
3.24. אוֹ בָשָׂר כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְעֹרוֹ מִכְוַת־אֵשׁ וְהָיְתָה מִחְיַת הַמִּכְוָה בַּהֶרֶת לְבָנָה אֲדַמְדֶּמֶת אוֹ לְבָנָה׃
13.42. וְכִי־יִהְיֶה בַקָּרַחַת אוֹ בַגַּבַּחַת נֶגַע לָבָן אֲדַמְדָּם צָרַעַת פֹּרַחַת הִוא בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ׃ 13.43. וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה שְׂאֵת־הַנֶּגַע לְבָנָה אֲדַמְדֶּמֶת בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ כְּמַרְאֵה צָרַעַת עוֹר בָּשָׂר׃
14.2. וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר׃
14.2. זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 14.3. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת מִן־הַצָּרוּעַ׃ 14.3. וְעָשָׂה אֶת־הָאֶחָד מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃ 14.5. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 1
4.6. אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃ 14.7. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 14.8. וְכִבֶּס הַמִּטַּהֵר אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְגִלַּח אֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָשַׁב מִחוּץ לְאָהֳלוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃
14.49. וְלָקַח לְחַטֵּא אֶת־הַבַּיִת שְׁתֵּי צִפֳּרִים וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃
14.52. וְחִטֵּא אֶת־הַבַּיִת בְּדַם הַצִּפּוֹר וּבַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים וּבַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה וּבְעֵץ הָאֶרֶז וּבָאֵזֹב וּבִשְׁנִי הַתּוֹלָעַת׃
15.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא׃
15.2. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 1
5.3. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה טֻמְאָתוֹ בְּזוֹבוֹ רָר בְּשָׂרוֹ אֶת־זוֹבוֹ אוֹ־הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ מִזּוֹבוֹ טֻמְאָתוֹ הִוא׃ 1
5.3. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת־הָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ׃ 15.4. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.5. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.6. וְהַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.7. וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בִּבְשַׂר הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.8. וְכִי־יָרֹק הַזָּב בַּטָּהוֹר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.9. וְכָל־הַמֶּרְכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִרְכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא׃ 15.11. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא־שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.12. וּכְלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב יִשָּׁבֵר וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵץ יִשָּׁטֵף בַּמָּיִם׃ 15.13. וְכִי־יִטְהַר הַזָּב מִזּוֹבוֹ וְסָפַר לוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם חַיִּים וְטָהֵר׃ 15.14. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 15.15. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.17. וְכָל־בֶּגֶד וְכָל־עוֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה עָלָיו שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְכֻבַּס בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.19. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
15.21. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
15.22. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
15.23. וְאִם עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־הִוא יֹשֶׁבֶת־עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ־בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
15.24. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃
15.25. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת־נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי־תָזוּב עַל־נִדָּתָהּ כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא׃
15.26. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ כְּמִשְׁכַּב נִדָּתָהּ יִהְיֶה־לָּהּ וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה כְּטֻמְאַת נִדָּתָהּ׃
15.27. וְכָל־הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּם יִטְמָא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
15.28. וְאִם־טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאַחַר תִּטְהָר׃
15.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח־לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 1
5.31. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִטֻּמְאָתָם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ בְּטֻמְאָתָם בְּטַמְּאָם אֶת־מִשְׁכָּנִי אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָם׃
16.14. וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ׃ 16.15. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת־דָּמוֹ אֶל־מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת־דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 16.16. וְכִפֶּר עַל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִפִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה לְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד הַשֹּׁכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טֻמְאֹתָם׃ 16.17. וְכָל־אָדָם לֹא־יִהְיֶה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּבֹאוֹ לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 16.18. וְיָצָא אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וּמִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 16.19. וְהִזָּה עָלָיו מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְקִדְּשׁוֹ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃
22.3. אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה וְטֻמְאָתוֹ עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִלְּפָנַי אֲנִי יְהוָה׃
22.3. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.4. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן וְהוּא צָרוּעַ אוֹ זָב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא יֹאכַל עַד אֲשֶׁר יִטְהָר וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע׃
3.29. כִּי כָל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תְעֻנֶּה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וְנִכְרְתָה מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃
24.5. וְלָקַחְתָּ סֹלֶת וְאָפִיתָ אֹתָהּ שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה חַלּוֹת שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים יִהְיֶה הַחַלָּה הָאֶחָת׃ 2
4.6. וְשַׂמְתָּ אוֹתָם שְׁתַּיִם מַעֲרָכוֹת שֵׁשׁ הַמַּעֲרָכֶת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן הַטָּהֹר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 24.7. וְנָתַתָּ עַל־הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת לְבֹנָה זַכָּה וְהָיְתָה לַלֶּחֶם לְאַזְכָּרָה אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 24.8. בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת יַעַרְכֶנּוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תָּמִיד מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 24.9. וְהָיְתָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו וַאֲכָלֻהוּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא לוֹ מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חָק־עוֹלָם׃''. None
1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him. 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting.
1.14. And if his offering to the LORD be a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons.
3.2. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it at the door of the tent of meeting; and Aaron’s sons the priests shall dash the blood against the altar round about. 3.3. And he shall present of the sacrifice of peace-offerings an offering made by fire unto the LORD: the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 3.4. and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away hard by the kidneys.
3.16. And the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire, for a sweet savour; all the fat is the LORD’S. 3.17. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood.
4.6. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary.
5.3. or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever his uncleanness be wherewith he is unclean, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty;
6.20. Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy; and when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof upon any garment, thou shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in a holy place.
7.22. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying: 7.23. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: Ye shall eat no fat, of ox, or sheep, or goat. 7.24. And the fat of that which dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn of beasts, may be used for any other service; but ye shall in no wise eat of it. 7.25. For whosoever eateth the fat of the beast, of which men present an offering made by fire unto the LORD, even the soul that eateth it shall be cut off from his people. 7.26. And ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings. 7.27. Whosoever it be that eateth any blood, that soul shall be cut off from his people. 7.29. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: He that offereth his sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD shall bring his offering unto the LORD out of his sacrifice of peace-offerings. 7.30. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the LORD made by fire: the fat with the breast shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave-offering before the LORD. 7.31. And the priest shall make the fat smoke upon the altar; but the breast shall be Aaron’s and his sons’. 7.32. And the right thigh shall ye give unto the priest for a heave-offering out of your sacrifices of peace-offerings. 7.33. He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace-offerings, and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion.
13.19. and in the place of the boil there is a white rising, or a bright spot, reddish-white, then it shall be shown to the priest.
3.24. Or when the flesh hath in the skin thereof a burning by fire, and the quick flesh of the burning become a bright spot, reddish-white, or white;
13.42. But if there be in the bald head, or the bald forehead, a reddish-white plague, it is leprosy breaking out in his bald head, or his bald forehead. 13.43. Then the priest shall look upon him; and, behold, if the rising of the plague be reddish-white in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the appearance of leprosy in the skin of the flesh,
14.2. This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest. 14.3. And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper; 14.4. then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop. 14.5. And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water. 1
4.6. As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water. 14.7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field. 14.8. And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and bathe himself in water, and he shall be clean; and after that he may come into the camp, but shall dwell outside his tent seven days.
14.49. And he shall take to cleanse the house two birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop.
14.52. And he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird, and with the running water, and with the living bird, and with the cedar-wood, and with the hyssop, and with the scarlet.
15.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man hath an issue out of his flesh, his issue is unclean. 1
5.3. And this shall be his uncleanness in his issue: whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness. 15.4. Every bed whereon he that hath the issue lieth shall be unclean; and every thing whereon he sitteth shall be unclean. . 15.5. And whosoever toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.6. And he that sitteth on any thing whereon he that hath the issue sat shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.7. And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.8. And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean, then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.9. And what saddle soever he that hath the issue rideth upon shall be unclean. 15.10. And whosoever toucheth any thing that was under him shall be unclean until the even; and he that beareth those things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.11. And whomsoever he that hath the issue toucheth, without having rinsed his hands in water, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.12. And the earthen vessel, which he that hath the issue toucheth, shall be broken; and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water. 15.13. And when he that hath an issue is cleansed of his issue, then he shall number to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes; and he shall bathe his flesh in running water, and shall be clean. 15.14. And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tent of meeting, and give them unto the priest. 15.15. And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD for his issue. 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.17. And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the flow of seed, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even. 15.18. The woman also with whom a man shall lie carnally, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even. 15.19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even.
15.20. And every thing that she lieth upon in her impurity shall be unclean; every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean.
15.21. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.
15.22. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sitteth upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.
15.23. And if he be on the bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even.
15.24. And if any man lie with her, and her impurity be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and every bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. .
15.25. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days not in the time of her impurity, or if she have an issue beyond the time of her impurity; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness she shall be as in the days of her impurity: she is unclean.
15.26. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her impurity; and every thing whereon she sitteth shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her impurity.
15.27. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even.
15.28. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean.
15.29. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting. 1
5.30. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness. 1
5.31. Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness; that they die not in their uncleanness, when they defile My tabernacle that is in the midst of them.
16.14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the ark-cover on the east; and before the ark-cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times. 16.15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover. 16.16. And he shall make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleannesses of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions, even all their sins; and so shall he do for the tent of meeting, that dwelleth with them in the midst of their uncleannesses. 16.17. And there shall be no man in the tent of meeting when he goeth in to make atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the assembly of Israel. 16.18. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the LORD, and make atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about. 16.19. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleannesses of the children of Israel.
17.10. And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people. 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life. 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood. 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust. 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off. 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean.
22.3. Say unto them: Whosoever he be of all your seed throughout your generations, that approacheth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from before Me: I am the LORD. 22.4. What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath an issue, he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any one that is unclean by the dead; or from whomsoever the flow of seed goeth out;
3.29. For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from his people.
24.5. And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth parts of an ephah shall be in one cake. 2
4.6. And thou shalt set them in two rows, six in a row, upon the pure table before the LORD. 24.7. And thou shalt put pure frankincense with each row, that it may be to the bread for a memorial-part, even an offering made by fire unto the LORD. 24.8. Every sabbath day he shall set it in order before the LORD continually; it is from the children of Israel, an everlasting covet. 24.9. And it shall be for Aaron and his sons; and they shall eat it in a holy place; for it is most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, a perpetual due.’' '. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood

 Found in books: Klawans (2009) 79; Levison (2009) 45

6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃''. None
6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God.''. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.13-5.14, 19.14-19.16, 28.1-28.5, 31.8, 31.32, 35.33-35.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Murder, Expiation through the Blood of the Murderer • Theurgy, Whoever Sheds the Blood of Man, by Man shall his Blood be Shed • blood • blood, • blood, and Passover

 Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 236; Balberg (2014) 104, 217; Balberg (2017) 146; Bay (2022) 227; Blidstein (2017) 50; Feder (2022) 52, 162; Gera (2014) 306, 309; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 105; Klawans (2009) 57, 62, 70, 271; Lorberbaum (2015) 206, 214

5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃
19.14. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.15. וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ אֲשֶׁר אֵין־צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.16. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בַּחֲלַל־חֶרֶב אוֹ בְמֵת אוֹ־בְעֶצֶם אָדָם אוֹ בְקָבֶר יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃
28.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃
28.1. עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ לָהֶם זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְמִימִם שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם עֹלָה תָמִיד׃ 28.3. שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 28.4. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 28.5. וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃
31.8. וְאֶת־מַלְכֵי מִדְיָן הָרְגוּ עַל־חַלְלֵיהֶם אֶת־אֱוִי וְאֶת־רֶקֶם וְאֶת־צוּר וְאֶת־חוּר וְאֶת־רֶבַע חֲמֵשֶׁת מַלְכֵי מִדְיָן וְאֵת בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר הָרְגוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃
31.32. וַיְהִי הַמַּלְקוֹחַ יֶתֶר הַבָּז אֲשֶׁר בָּזְזוּ עַם הַצָּבָא צֹאן שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף וְשִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף וַחֲמֵשֶׁת־אֲלָפִים׃
35.33. וְלֹא־תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא־יְכֻפַּר לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּהּ כִּי־אִם בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ׃ 35.34. וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃''. None
5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act; 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;
19.14. This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days. 19.15. And every open vessel, which hath no covering close-bound upon it, is unclean. 19.16. And whosoever in the open field toucheth one that is slain with a sword, or one that dieth of himself, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days.
28.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying: 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season. 28.3. And thou shalt say unto them: This is the offering made by fire which ye shall bring unto the LORD: he-lambs of the first year without blemish, two day by day, for a continual burnt-offering. 28.4. The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at dusk; 28.5. and the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering, mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil.
31.8. And they slew the kings of Midian with the rest of their slain: Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, the five kings of Midian; Balaam also the son of Beor they slew with the sword.
31.32. Now the prey, over and above the booty which the men of war took, was six hundred thousand and seventy thousand and five thousand sheep,
35.33. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it. 35.34. And thou shalt not defile the land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.’''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 50.12-50.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 467; Klawans (2009) 65

50.12. אִם־אֶרְעַב לֹא־אֹמַר לָךְ כִּי־לִי תֵבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ׃ 50.13. הַאוֹכַל בְּשַׂר אַבִּירִים וְדַם עַתּוּדִים אֶשְׁתֶּה׃''. None
50.12. If I were hungry, I would not tell thee; for the world is Mine, and the fulness thereof. 50.13. Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?''. None
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 18.36-18.39 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • work of blood (avodat ha-dam), versus nonblood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 82; Klawans (2009) 79

18.36. וַיְהִי בַּעֲלוֹת הַמִּנְחָה וַיִּגַּשׁ אֵלִיָּהוּ הַנָּבִיא וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיִשְׂרָאֵל הַיּוֹם יִוָּדַע כִּי־אַתָּה אֱלֹהִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי עַבְדֶּךָ ובדבריך וּבִדְבָרְךָ עָשִׂיתִי אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 18.37. עֲנֵנִי יְהוָה עֲנֵנִי וְיֵדְעוּ הָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי־אַתָּה יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים וְאַתָּה הֲסִבֹּתָ אֶת־לִבָּם אֲחֹרַנִּית׃ 18.38. וַתִּפֹּל אֵשׁ־יְהוָה וַתֹּאכַל אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הָעֵצִים וְאֶת־הָאֲבָנִים וְאֶת־הֶעָפָר וְאֶת־הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר־בַּתְּעָלָה לִחֵכָה׃ 18.39. וַיַּרְא כָּל־הָעָם וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים׃''. None
18.36. And it came to pass at the time of the offering of the evening offering, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said: ‘O LORD, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that Thou art God in Israel, and that I am Thy servant, and that I have done all these things at Thy word. 18.37. Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that Thou, LORD, art God, for Thou didst turn their heart backward.’ 18.38. Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt-offering, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench. 18.39. And when all the people saw it, they fell on their faces; and they said: ‘The LORD, He is God; the LORD, He is God.’''. None
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 14.32-14.35, 15.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, as means of atonement/purification • meat, and blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 68; Gera (2014) 467; Klawans (2009) 79; Rosenblum (2016) 74

14.32. ויעש וַיַּעַט הָעָם אֶל־שלל הַשָּׁלָל וַיִּקְחוּ צֹאן וּבָקָר וּבְנֵי בָקָר וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ־אָרְצָה וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם עַל־הַדָּם׃ 14.33. וַיַּגִּידוּ לְשָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה הָעָם חֹטִאים לַיהוָה לֶאֱכֹל עַל־הַדָּם וַיֹּאמֶר בְּגַדְתֶּם גֹּלּוּ־אֵלַי הַיּוֹם אֶבֶן גְּדוֹלָה׃ 14.34. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל פֻּצוּ בָעָם וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לָהֶם הַגִּישׁוּ אֵלַי אִישׁ שׁוֹרוֹ וְאִישׁ שְׂיֵהוּ וּשְׁחַטְתֶּם בָּזֶה וַאֲכַלְתֶּם וְלֹא־תֶחֶטְאוּ לַיהוָה לֶאֱכֹל אֶל־הַדָּם וַיַּגִּשׁוּ כָל־הָעָם אִישׁ שׁוֹרוֹ בְיָדוֹ הַלַּיְלָה וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ־שָׁם׃ 14.35. וַיִּבֶן שָׁאוּל מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה אֹתוֹ הֵחֵל לִבְנוֹת מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה׃
15.22. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל הַחֵפֶץ לַיהוָה בְּעֹלוֹת וּזְבָחִים כִּשְׁמֹעַ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה הִנֵּה שְׁמֹעַ מִזֶּבַח טוֹב לְהַקְשִׁיב מֵחֵלֶב אֵילִים׃''. None
14.32. And the people flew upon the spoil, and took sheep, and oxen, and calves, and slew them on the ground: and the people did eat them with the blood. 14.33. Then they told Sha᾽ul, saying, Behold, the people sin against the Lord, in that they eat with the blood. And he said, You have transgressed: roll a great stone to me this day. 14.34. And Sha᾽ul said, Disperse yourselves among the people, and say to them, Bring me here every man his ox, and every man his sheep, and slay them here, and eat; and sin not against the Lord in eating with the blood. And all the people brought every man his ox with him that night, and slew them there. 14.35. And Sha᾽ul built an altar to the Lord: that was the first altar that he built to the Lord.
15.22. And Shemu᾽el said, Has the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams.''. None
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 24.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood,

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 144; Feder (2022) 113

24.16. וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְשַׁחֲתָהּ וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה אֶל־הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּשְׁחִית בָּעָם רַב עַתָּה הֶרֶף יָדֶךָ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הָיָה עִם־גֹּרֶן האורנה הָאֲרַוְנָה הַיְבֻסִי׃''. None
24.16. And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Yerushalayim to destroy it, the Lord relented of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed the people, It is enough: stay now thy hand. And the angel of the Lord was by the threshingplace of Aravna the Yevusi.''. None
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 25.8, 26.21, 30.22, 53.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Day, of Unceasing Blood • Zechariah, son of Jehoiada and blood vengeance • blood • blood, of Christ • blood, of animal sacrifices • menstrual blood

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 133; Feder (2022) 51, 188; Matthews (2010) 108; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398; Vinzent (2013) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 31, 36, 48, 98, 223

25.8. בִּלַּע הַמָּוֶת לָנֶצַח וּמָחָה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה דִּמְעָה מֵעַל כָּל־פָּנִים וְחֶרְפַּת עַמּוֹ יָסִיר מֵעַל כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃
26.21. כִּי־הִנֵּה יְהוָה יֹצֵא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ לִפְקֹד עֲוֺן יֹשֵׁב־הָאָרֶץ עָלָיו וְגִלְּתָה הָאָרֶץ אֶת־דָּמֶיהָ וְלֹא־תְכַסֶּה עוֹד עַל־הֲרוּגֶיהָ׃
30.22. וְטִמֵּאתֶם אֶת־צִפּוּי פְּסִילֵי כַסְפֶּךָ וְאֶת־אֲפֻדַּת מַסֵּכַת זְהָבֶךָ תִּזְרֵם כְּמוֹ דָוָה צֵא תֹּאמַר לוֹ׃
53.7. נִגַּשׂ וְהוּא נַעֲנֶה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח־פִּיו כַּשֶּׂה לַטֶּבַח יוּבָל וּכְרָחֵל לִפְנֵי גֹזְזֶיהָ נֶאֱלָמָה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח פִּיו׃' '. None
25.8. He will swallow up death for ever; And the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from off all faces; And the reproach of His people will He take away from off all the earth; For the LORD hath spoken it.
26.21. For, behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place To visit upon the inhabitants of the earth their iniquity; The earth also shall disclose her blood, And shall no more cover her slain.
30.22. And ye shall defile thy graven images overlaid with silver, And thy molten images covered with gold; Thou shalt put them far away as one unclean; Thou shalt say unto it: ‘Get thee hence.’
53.7. He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth.' '. None
13. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • circumcision blood, linkage to Paschal sacrifice by Exodus • covenant, and blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 174; Cohen (2010) 442

5.5. כִּי־מֻלִים הָיוּ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצְאִים וְכָל־הָעָם הַיִּלֹּדִים בַּמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא־מָלוּ׃''. None
5.5. For all the people that came out were circumcised; but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, had not been circumcised.''. None
14. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.15-13.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christ, Blood of • work of blood (avodat ha-dam), versus nonblood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 82; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 104

13.15. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה נַעְצְרָה־נָּא אוֹתָךְ וְנַעֲשֶׂה לְפָנֶיךָ גְּדִי עִזִּים׃ 13.16. וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־מָנוֹחַ אִם־תַּעְצְרֵנִי לֹא־אֹכַל בְּלַחְמֶךָ וְאִם־תַּעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה לַיהוָה תַּעֲלֶנָּה כִּי לֹא־יָדַע מָנוֹחַ כִּי־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הוּא׃ 13.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִי שְׁמֶךָ כִּי־יָבֹא דבריך דְבָרְךָ וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ׃ 13.18. וַיֹּאמֶר לּוֹ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה לָמָּה זֶּה תִּשְׁאַל לִשְׁמִי וְהוּא־פֶלִאי׃ 13.19. וַיִּקַּח מָנוֹחַ אֶת־גְּדִי הָעִזִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה וַיַּעַל עַל־הַצּוּר לַיהוָה וּמַפְלִא לַעֲשׂוֹת וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים׃' '. None
13.15. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, I pray thee, let us detain thee, until we shall have made ready a kid for thee. 13.16. And the angel of the Lord said to Manoaĥ, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread: and if thou wilt offer a burnt offering, thou must offer it to the Lord. For Manoaĥ knew not that he was an angel of the Lord. 13.17. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour? 13.18. And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is hidden? 13.19. So Manoaĥ took the kid with the meal offering, and offered it upon the rock to the Lord: and the angel did wondrously, and Manoaĥ and his wife looked on. 13.20. For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoaĥ and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground.''. None
15. Homer, Iliad, 2.341, 3.3, 3.285-3.287, 3.292-3.293, 3.295, 3.297-3.301, 23.175-23.176 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood rituals • Blood, and war • Blood, use in the cult of the dead • blood • blood feud • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood rituals • blood rituals surrounding oaths, as analogy for wine • wine and oaths, as analogy for blood

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252, 254, 255; Heymans (2021) 193, 194; Hitch (2017) 229; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 11, 147; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 188, 205

2.341. σπονδαί τʼ ἄκρητοι καὶ δεξιαί, ᾗς ἐπέπιθμεν·
3.3. ἠΰτε περ κλαγγὴ γεράνων πέλει οὐρανόθι πρό·
3.285. Τρῶας ἔπειθʼ Ἑλένην καὶ κτήματα πάντʼ ἀποδοῦναι, 3.286. τιμὴν δʼ Ἀργείοις ἀποτινέμεν ἥν τινʼ ἔοικεν, 3.287. ἥ τε καὶ ἐσσομένοισι μετʼ ἀνθρώποισι πέληται.
3.292. ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ στομάχους ἀρνῶν τάμε νηλέϊ χαλκῷ· 3.293. καὶ τοὺς μὲν κατέθηκεν ἐπὶ χθονὸς ἀσπαίροντας
3.295. οἶνον δʼ ἐκ κρητῆρος ἀφυσσόμενοι δεπάεσσιν
3.297. ὧδε δέ τις εἴπεσκεν Ἀχαιῶν τε Τρώων τε· 3.298. Ζεῦ κύδιστε μέγιστε καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι 3.299. ὁππότεροι πρότεροι ὑπὲρ ὅρκια πημήνειαν
3.300. ὧδέ σφʼ ἐγκέφαλος χαμάδις ῥέοι ὡς ὅδε οἶνος
3.301. αὐτῶν καὶ τεκέων, ἄλοχοι δʼ ἄλλοισι δαμεῖεν.
23.175. δώδεκα δὲ Τρώων μεγαθύμων υἱέας ἐσθλοὺς 23.176. χαλκῷ δηϊόων· κακὰ δὲ φρεσὶ μήδετο ἔργα·''. None
2.341. Nay, into the fire let us cast all counsels and plans of warriors, the drink-offerings of unmixed wine, and the hand-clasps wherein we put our trust. For vainly do we wrangle with words, nor can we find any device at all, for all our long-tarrying here. Son of Atreus, do thou as of old keep unbending purpose,
3.3. Now when they were marshalled, the several companies with their captains, the Trojans came on with clamour and with a cry like birds, even as the clamour of cranes ariseth before the face of heaven, when they flee from wintry storms and measureless rain,
3.285. then let the Trojans give back Helen and all her treasure, and pay to the Argives in requital such recompense as beseemeth, even such as shall abide in the minds of men that are yet to be. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be not minded to pay recompense unto me, when Alexander falleth, 3.287. then let the Trojans give back Helen and all her treasure, and pay to the Argives in requital such recompense as beseemeth, even such as shall abide in the minds of men that are yet to be. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be not minded to pay recompense unto me, when Alexander falleth, ' "
3.292. then will I fight on even thereafter, to get me recompense, and will abide here until I find an end of war. He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the pitiless bronze; and laid them down upon the ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze had robbed them of their strength. " "3.293. then will I fight on even thereafter, to get me recompense, and will abide here until I find an end of war. He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the pitiless bronze; and laid them down upon the ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze had robbed them of their strength. " '
3.295. Then they drew wine from the bowl into the cups, and poured it forth, and made prayer to the gods that are for ever. And thus would one of the Achaeans and Trojans say:Zeus, most glorious, most great, and ye other immortal gods, which host soever of the twain shall be first to work harm in defiance of the oaths, 3.299. Then they drew wine from the bowl into the cups, and poured it forth, and made prayer to the gods that are for ever. And thus would one of the Achaeans and Trojans say:Zeus, most glorious, most great, and ye other immortal gods, which host soever of the twain shall be first to work harm in defiance of the oaths, ' "
3.300. may their brains be thus poured forth upon the ground even as this wine, theirs and their children's; and may their wives be made slaves to others. " "
3.301. may their brains be thus poured forth upon the ground even as this wine, theirs and their children's; and may their wives be made slaves to others. " '
23.175. And twelve valiant sons of the great-souled Trojans slew he with the bronze—and grim was the work he purposed in his heart and thereto he set the iron might of fire, to range at large. Then he uttered a groan, and called on his dear comrade by name:Hail, I bid thee, O Patroclus, even in the house of Hades, 23.176. And twelve valiant sons of the great-souled Trojans slew he with the bronze—and grim was the work he purposed in his heart and thereto he set the iron might of fire, to range at large. Then he uttered a groan, and called on his dear comrade by name:Hail, I bid thee, O Patroclus, even in the house of Hades, ''. None
16. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood, and purification • Blood, and war • Blood, drunk • Blood, poured into bothros or pit • Blood, use in the cult of the dead • blood rituals • blood, bloodless • blood, in sphagia • purification, use of blood in

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 62, 174, 254, 265, 271, 275; Lupu(2005) 380; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 373

17. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 209-210, 1019-1021, 1037, 1389-1392, 1428 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood, and miasma • blood, and pollution • blood, madness • blood, shedding of • ejection / emission, of, blood • fluids in/of the body, blood

 Found in books: Fabian Meinel (2015) 126, 127; Hitch (2017) 227, 231, 234; Kazantzidis (2021) 59; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 134, 135, 138, 139, 140, 142, 145, 147

209. 1019. Who may, by singing spells, call back? '1020. Zeus had not else stopped one who rightly knew 1021. The way to bring the dead again.
1037. Partaker of hand-sprinklings, with the many
1389. And blowing forth a brisk blood-spatter, strikes me 1390. With the dark drop of slaughterous dew — rejoicing 1391. No less than, at the god-given dewy-comfort, 1392. The sown-stuff in its birth-throes from the calyx.
1428. Is frantic) that over the eyes, a patch
1428. Is plain for a pride!
1428. of blood — with blood to match — '. None
18. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 48, 152, 1027-1028 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood, and miasma • blood, and pollution • blood, shedding of

 Found in books: Fabian Meinel (2015) 125; Hitch (2017) 231; Jouanna (2012) 121; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 133, 134, 145, 147

48. τί γὰρ λύτρον πεσόντος αἵματος πέδοι;
152. ἵετε δάκρυ καναχὲς ὀλόμενον
1027. κτανεῖν τέ φημι μητέρʼ οὐκ ἄνευ δίκης,'1028. πατροκτόνον μίασμα καὶ θεῶν στύγος. '. None
48. he sends me forth, godless woman that she is. But I am afraid to utter the words she charged me to speak. For what atonement is there for blood fallen to earth? Ah, hearth of utter grief!
152. Pour forth your tears, splashing as they fall for our fallen lord, to accompany this protection against evil, this charm for the good
1027. But while I am still in my senses, I proclaim to those who hold me dear and declare that not without justice did I slay my mother, the unclean murderess of my father, and a thing loathed by the gods. And for the spells that gave me the courage for this deed I count Loxias, the prophet of Pytho, '1028. But while I am still in my senses, I proclaim to those who hold me dear and declare that not without justice did I slay my mother, the unclean murderess of my father, and a thing loathed by the gods. And for the spells that gave me the courage for this deed I count Loxias, the prophet of Pytho, '. None
19. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.6-16.8, 33.25 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • circumcision blood, first works attesting importance • circumcision blood, in Pirqei de Rabbi Eliezer and the Tanhuma • circumcision blood, later developments in ritual and theology • circumcision blood, linkage to Paschal sacrifice by Exodus • circumcision blood, thesis of Hoffmans Covenant of Blood • covenant, and blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 174; Blidstein (2017) 50; Cohen (2010) 437, 440, 441, 442, 444, 445; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 214, 215; Rosenblum (2016) 19

16.6. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָךְ בִּימֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ וַהֲקִמוֹתִי לָךְ בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃
16.6. וָאֶעֱבֹר עָלַיִךְ וָאֶרְאֵךְ מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת בְּדָמָיִךְ וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי׃ 16.7. רְבָבָה כְּצֶמַח הַשָּׂדֶה נְתַתִּיךְ וַתִּרְבִּי וַתִּגְדְּלִי וַתָּבֹאִי בַּעֲדִי עֲדָיִים שָׁדַיִם נָכֹנוּ וּשְׂעָרֵךְ צִמֵּחַ וְאַתְּ עֵרֹם וְעֶרְיָה׃ 16.8. וָאֶעֱבֹר עָלַיִךְ וָאֶרְאֵךְ וְהִנֵּה עִתֵּךְ עֵת דֹּדִים וָאֶפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפִי עָלַיִךְ וָאֲכַסֶּה עֶרְוָתֵךְ וָאֶשָּׁבַע לָךְ וָאָבוֹא בִבְרִית אֹתָךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וַתִּהְיִי לִי׃
33.25. לָכֵן אֱמֹר אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה עַל־הַדָּם תֹּאכֵלוּ וְעֵינֵכֶם תִּשְׂאוּ אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְדָם תִּשְׁפֹּכוּ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּירָשׁוּ׃''. None
16.6. And when I passed by thee, and saw thee wallowing in thy blood, I said unto thee: In thy blood, live; yea, I said unto thee: In thy blood, live; 16.7. I cause thee to increase, even as the growth of the field. And thou didst increase and grow up, and thou camest to excellent beauty: thy breasts were fashioned, and thy hair was grown; yet thou wast naked and bare. 16.8. Now when I passed by thee, and looked upon thee, and, behold, thy time was the time of love, I spread my skirt over thee, and covered thy nakedness; yea, I swore unto thee, and entered into a covet with thee, saith the Lord GOD, and thou becamest Mine.
33.25. Wherefore say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD. Ye eat with the blood, and lift up your eyes unto your idols, and shed blood; and shall ye possess the land?''. None
20. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Purification. See also Oaths, Sacrifice, By blood of victim • blood • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood rituals surrounding oaths, as analogy for wine • blood, and miasma • blood, as purificatory agent • blood, in Greek mythology • blood, in purification • purification, by blood • purification, use of blood in • wine and oaths, as analogy for blood

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 7; Fabian Meinel (2015) 136; Hitch (2017) 110, 228, 231; Jouanna (2012) 121; Lupu(2005) 281; Pachoumi (2017) 133; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 11; Trott (2019) 127, 129, 130

21. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood, and war • blood • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood rituals • blood rituals surrounding oaths • blood rituals surrounding oaths, as analogy for wine • bull's blood • wine and oaths, as analogy for blood

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Hitch (2017) 223; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 60, 142, 340; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 195, 204

22. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 1189-1202, 1205-1210 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood, and war • blood rituals • blood rituals surrounding oaths, as analogy for wine • wine and oaths, as analogy for blood

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 60; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 196

1189. ̓́Αδραστον: οὗτος κύριος, τύραννος ὤν,'1190. πάσης ὑπὲρ γῆς Δαναϊδῶν ὁρκωμοτεῖν.' "1191. ὁ δ' ὅρκος ἔσται, μήποτ' ̓Αργείους χθόνα" "1192. ἐς τήνδ' ἐποίσειν πολέμιον παντευχίαν," "1193. ἄλλων τ' ἰόντων ἐμποδὼν θήσειν δόρυ." "1194. ἢν δ' ὅρκον ἐκλιπόντες ἔλθωσιν, πάλιν" "1195. κακῶς ὀλέσθαι πρόστρεπ' ̓Αργείων χθόνα." "1196. ἐν ᾧ δὲ τέμνειν σφάγια χρή ς', ἄκουέ μου." '1197. ἔστιν τρίπους σοι χαλκόπους ἔσω δόμων,' "1198. ὃν ̓Ιλίου ποτ' ἐξαναστήσας βάθρα" "1199. σπουδὴν ἐπ' ἄλλην ̔Ηρακλῆς ὁρμώμενος" "1200. στῆσαί ς' ἐφεῖτο Πυθικὴν πρὸς ἐσχάραν." '1201. ἐν τῷδε λαιμοὺς τρεῖς τριῶν μήλων τεμὼν 1202. ἔγγραψον ὅρκους τρίποδος ἐν κοίλῳ κύτει,' "
1205. ᾗ δ' ἂν διοίξῃς σφάγια καὶ τρώσῃς φόνον" '1206. ὀξύστομον μάχαιραν ἐς γαίας μυχοὺς' "1207. κρύψον παρ' αὐτὰς ἑπτὰ πυρκαιὰς νεκρῶν:" "1208. φόβον γὰρ αὐτοῖς, ἤν ποτ' ἔλθωσιν πόλιν," '1209. δειχθεῖσα θήσει καὶ κακὸν νόστον πάλιν. 1210. δράσας δὲ ταῦτα πέμπε γῆς ἔξω νεκρούς. '. None
1189. Give not these bones to the children to carry to the land of Argos, letting them go so lightly; nay, take first an oath of them that they will requite thee and thy city for your efforts. This oath must Adrastus swear, for as their king it is his right'1190. to take the oath for the whole realm of Argos. And this shall be the form thereof: We Argives swear we never will against this land lead on our mail-clad troops to war, and, if others come, we will repel them. But if they violate their oath and come against the city, pray 1195. that the land of Argos may be miserably destroyed. 1196. Now hearken while I tell thee where thou must slay the victims. Thou hast within thy halls a tripod with brazen feet, which Heracles, in days gone by, after he had o’erthrown the foundations of Ilium and was starting on another enterprise, 1200. enjoined thee to set up at the Pythian shrine. O’er it cut the throats of three sheep; then grave within the tripod’s hollow belly the oath; this done, deliver it to the god who watches over Delphi to keep, a witness and memorial unto Hellas of the oath.
1205. And bury the sharp-edged knife, wherewith thou shalt have laid the victims open and shed their blood, deep in the bowels of the earth, hard by the pyres where the seven chieftains burn; for its appearance shall strike them with dismay, if e’er against thy town they come, and shall cause them to return with sorrow. 1210. When thou hast done all this, dismiss the dead from thy land. And to the god resign as sacred land the spot where their bodies were purified by fire, there by the meeting of the triple roads that lead unto the Isthmus. Thus much to thee, Theseus, I address; next to the sons of Argos I speak; when ye are grown to men’s estate, the town beside Ismenus shall ye sack, '. None
23. Herodotus, Histories, 2.44, 3.11, 6.67-6.68 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood, poured into bothros or pit • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood rituals • blood, in sphagia • bull's blood, in Egyptian religion • purification, use of blood in

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 171, 226, 297; Hitch (2017) 225, 230, 259; Lupu(2005) 380; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 195, 204

2.44. καὶ θέλων δὲ τούτων πέρι σαφές τι εἰδέναι ἐξ ὧν οἷόν τε ἦν, ἔπλευσα καὶ ἐς Τύρον τῆς Φοινίκης, πυνθανόμενος αὐτόθι εἶναι ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἅγιον. καὶ εἶδον πλουσίως κατεσκευασμένον ἄλλοισί τε πολλοῖσι ἀναθήμασι, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἦσαν στῆλαι δύο, ἣ μὲν χρυσοῦ ἀπέφθου, ἣ δὲ σμαράγδου λίθου λάμποντος τὰς νύκτας μέγαθος. ἐς λόγους δὲ ἐλθὼν τοῖσι ἱρεῦσι τοῦ θεοῦ εἰρόμην ὁκόσος χρόνος εἴη ἐξ οὗ σφι τὸ ἱρὸν ἵδρυται. εὗρον δὲ οὐδὲ τούτους τοῖσι Ἕλλησι συμφερομένους· ἔφασαν γὰρ ἅμα Τύρῳ οἰκιζομένῃ καὶ τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἱδρυθῆναι, εἶναι δὲ ἔτεα ἀπʼ οὗ Τύρον οἰκέουσι τριηκόσια καὶ δισχίλια. εἶδον δὲ ἐν τῇ Τύρῳ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντος Θασίου εἶναι· ἀπικόμην δὲ καὶ ἐς Θάσον, ἐν τῇ εὗρον ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ὑπὸ Φοινίκων ἱδρυμένον, οἳ κατʼ Εὐρώπης ζήτησιν ἐκπλώσαντες Θάσον ἔκτισαν· καὶ ταῦτα καὶ πέντε γενεῇσι ἀνδρῶν πρότερα ἐστὶ ἢ τὸν Ἀμφιτρύωνος Ἡρακλέα ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι γενέσθαι. τὰ μέν νυν ἱστορημένα δηλοῖ σαφέως παλαιὸν θεὸν Ἡρακλέα ἐόντα, καὶ δοκέουσι δέ μοι οὗτοι ὀρθότατα Ἑλλήνων ποιέειν, οἳ διξὰ Ἡράκλεια ἱδρυσάμενοι ἔκτηνται, καὶ τῷ μὲν ὡς ἀθανάτῳ Ὀλυμπίῳ δὲ ἐπωνυμίην θύουσι, τῷ δὲ ἑτέρῳ ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζουσι.
3.11. οἱ δὲ Πέρσαι ἐπείτε διεξελάσαντες τὴν ἄνυδρον ἵζοντο πέλας τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ὡς συμβαλέοντες, ἐνθαῦτα οἱ ἐπίκουροι οἱ τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου, ἐόντες ἄνδρες Ἕλληνές τε καὶ Κᾶρες, μεμφόμενοι τῷ Φάνῃ ὅτι στρατὸν ἤγαγε ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον ἀλλόθροον, μηχανῶνται πρῆγμα ἐς αὐτὸν τοιόνδε. ἦσαν τῷ Φάνῃ παῖδες ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ καταλελειμμένοι· τοὺς ἀγαγόντες ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον καὶ ἐς ὄψιν τοῦ πατρὸς κρητῆρα ἐν μέσῳ ἔστησαν ἀμφοτέρων τῶν στρατοπέδων, μετὰ δὲ ἀγινέοντες κατὰ ἕνα ἕκαστον τῶν παίδων ἔσφαζον ἐς τὸν κρητῆρα· διὰ πάντων δὲ διεξελθόντες τῶν παίδων οἶνόν τε καὶ ὕδωρ ἐσεφόρεον ἐς αὐτόν, ἐμπιόντες δὲ τοῦ αἵματος πάντες οἱ ἐπίκουροι οὕτω δὴ συνέβαλον. μάχης δὲ γενομένης καρτερῆς καὶ πεσόντων ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων τῶν στρατοπέδων πλήθεϊ πολλῶν ἐτράποντο οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι.
6.67. κατὰ μὲν δὴ Δημαρήτου τὴν κατάπαυσιν τῆς βασιληίης οὕτω ἐγένετο, ἔφυγε δὲ Δημάρητος ἐκ Σπάρτης ἐς Μήδους ἐκ τοιοῦδε ὀνείδεος. μετὰ τῆς βασιληίης τὴν κατάπαυσιν ὁ Δημάρητος ἦρχε αἱρεθεὶς ἀρχήν. ἦσαν μὲν δὴ γυμνοπαιδίαι, θεωμένου δὲ τοῦ Δημαρήτου ὁ Λευτυχίδης γεγονὼς ἤδη βασιλεὺς αὐτὸς ἀντʼ ἐκείνου, πέμψας τὸν θεράποντα ἐπὶ γέλωτί τε καὶ λάσθῃ εἰρώτα τὸν Δημάρητον ὁκοῖόν τι εἴη τὸ ἄρχειν μετὰ τὸ βασιλεύειν. ὁ δὲ ἀλγήσας τῷ ἐπειρωτήματι εἶπε φὰς αὐτὸς μὲν ἀμφοτέρων ἤδη πεπειρῆσθαι, κεῖνον δὲ οὔ, τὴν μέντοι ἐπειρώτησιν ταύτην ἄρξειν Λακεδαιμονίοισι ἢ μυρίης κακότητος ἢ μυρίης εὐδαιμονίης. ταῦτα δὲ εἴπας καὶ κατακαλυψάμενος ἤιε ἐκ τοῦ θεήτρου ἐς τὰ ἑωυτοῦ οἰκία, αὐτίκα δὲ παρασκευασάμενος ἔθυε τῷ Διὶ βοῦν, θύσας δὲ τὴν μητέρα ἐκάλεσε. 6.68. ἀπικομένῃ δὲ τῇ μητρὶ ἐσθεὶς ἐς τὰς χεῖράς οἱ τῶν σπλάγχνων κατικέτευε, τοιάδε λέγων. “ὦ μῆτερ, θεῶν σε τῶν τε ἄλλων καταπτόμενος ἱκετεύω καὶ τοῦ ἑρκείου Διὸς τοῦδε φράσαι μοι τὴν ἀληθείην, τίς μευ ἐστὶ πατὴρ ὀρθῷ λόγῳ. Λευτυχίδης μὲν γὰρ ἔφη ἐν τοῖσι νείκεσι λέγων κυέουσάν σε ἐκ τοῦ προτέρου ἀνδρὸς οὕτω ἐλθεῖν παρὰ Ἀρίστωνα· οἱ δὲ καὶ τὸν ματαιότερον λόγον λέγοντες φασί σε ἐλθεῖν παρὰ τῶν οἰκετέων τὸν ὀνοφορβόν, καὶ ἐμὲ ἐκείνου εἶναι παῖδα. ἐγώ σε ὦν μετέρχομαι τῶν θεῶν εἰπεῖν τὠληθές· οὔτε γάρ, εἴ περ πεποίηκάς τι τῶν λεγομένων, μούνη δὴ πεποίηκας, μετὰ πολλέων δέ· ὅ τε λόγος πολλὸς ἐν Σπάρτῃ ὡς Ἀρίστωνι σπέρμα παιδοποιὸν οὐκ ἐνῆν· τεκεῖν γὰρ ἄν οἱ καὶ τὰς προτέρας γυναῖκας.”''. None
2.44. Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero. ' "
3.11. When the Persians had crossed the waterless country and encamped near the Egyptians intending to engage them, the Egyptian mercenaries, Greeks and Carians, devised a plan to punish Phanes, angered at him for leading a foreign army into Egypt . ,Phanes had left sons in Egypt ; these they brought to the camp, into their father's sight, and set a great bowl between the two armies; then they brought the sons one by one and cut their throats over the bowl. ,When all the sons had been slaughtered, they poured wine and water into the bowl, and the mercenaries drank this and then gave battle. The fighting was fierce, and many of both armies fell; but at last the Egyptians were routed. " "
6.67. So it was concerning Demaratus' loss of the kingship, and from Sparta he went into exile among the Medes because of the following reproach: after he was deposed from the kingship, he was elected to office. ,When it was the time of the
24. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 2.2.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood, and war • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood rituals • blood rituals surrounding oaths • blood, in sphagia • purification, use of blood in

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Hitch (2017) 225; Lupu(2005) 380; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 142; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 196, 204

2.2.9. ταῦτα δʼ ὤμοσαν, σφάξαντες ταῦρον καὶ κάπρον καὶ κριὸν εἰς ἀσπίδα, οἱ μὲν Ἕλληνες βάπτοντες ξίφος, οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι λόγχην.''. None
2.2.9. These oaths they sealed by sacrificing a bull, a boar, and a ram over a shield, the Greeks dipping a sword in the blood and the barbarians a lance. ''. None
25. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood libations, in oath-taking • blood rituals surrounding oaths • blood rituals surrounding oaths, as analogy for wine • wine and oaths, as analogy for blood

 Found in books: Hitch (2017) 232, 233, 234; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 60, 142, 340

26. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood

 Found in books: Faure (2022) 61; King (2006) 51

27. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood • blood, blood ritual

 Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020) 75; Jouanna (2012) 100; van der EIjk (2005) 131

28. Anon., 1 Enoch, 15.4 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood, menstrual • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 50; Van der Horst (2014) 13

15.4. of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those also do who die''. None
29. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood, as purificatory agent • blood, in purification • purification, use of blood in

 Found in books: Hitch (2017) 120, 121, 122; Lupu(2005) 281

30. Anon., Jubilees, 6.6-6.14, 7.28-7.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Theurgy, Whoever Sheds the Blood of Man, by Man shall his Blood be Shed • and blood • blood • blood, and consumption

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 70; Blidstein (2017) 50; Klawans (2009) 271; Lorberbaum (2015) 269; Rosenblum (2016) 74

6.6. that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7. "And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man.' "6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." '6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth." 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh,
7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. "And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark, 7.33. and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness; for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk,''. None
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.117, 4.119-4.125 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, taboo on

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 49; Petropoulou (2012) 162, 163; Rosenblum (2016) 74

4.117. But doves, and pigeons, and turtle-doves, and all the flocks of cranes, and geese, and birds of that kind, he numbers in the class of domestic, and tame, and eatable creatures, allowing every one who chooses to partake of them with impunity.
4.119. Moreover, Moses Commands{25}{4.120. Now many of the lawgivers both among the Greeks and barbarians, praise those who are skilful in hunting, and who seldom fail in their pursuit or miss their aim, and who pride themselves on their successful hunts, especially when they divide the limbs of the animals which they have caught with the huntsmen and the hounds, as being not only brave hunters but men of very sociable dispositions. But any one who was a sound interpreter of the sacred constitution and code of laws would very naturally blame them, since the lawgiver of that code has expressly forbidden any enjoyment of carcasses or of bodies torn by beasts for the reasons before mentioned. 4.121. But if any one of those persons who devote themselves wholly to meditations on and to the practice of virtue were suddenly to become fond of gymnastic exercises and of hunting, looking upon hunting as a sort of prelude to and representation of the wars and dangers that have to be encountered against the enemy, then, whenever such a man is successful in his sport, he ought to give the beasts which he has slain to his dogs as a feast for them, and as a reward or wages for their successful boldness and their irreproachable alliance. But he ought not himself to touch them, inasmuch as he has been previously taught in the case of irrational animals, what sentiments he ought to entertain, respecting his enemies. For he ought to carry on war against them, not for the sake of unrighteous gain like those who make a dishonest traffic of all their actions, but either in revenge for some calamities which he has previously suffered at their hands, or with a view toward some which he expects to suffer. 4.122. But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life, {26}{4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{4.124. But Moses commanded men to abstain from eating fat, because it is gross. And again, he gave us this injunction, in order to inculcate temperance and a zeal for an austere life: for some things we easily abandon, and without any hesitation; though we do not willingly encounter any anxieties or labours for the sake of the acquisition of virtue. 4.125. For which reason these two parts are to be taken out of every victim and burnt with fire, as a kind of first fruits, namely, the fat and the blood; the one being poured upon the altar as a libation; and the other as a fuel to the flame, being applied instead of oil, by reason of its fatness, to the consecrated and holy flame. ''. None
32. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, as means of atonement/purification • blood, of Christ

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 92; Vinzent (2013) 60

5.1. For if He had not come in the flesh neither would men have looked upon Him and been saved, forasmuch as when they look upon the sun that shall cease to be, which is the work of His own hands, they cannot face its rays.'
5.1. For to this end the Lord endured to deliver His flesh unto corruption, that by the remission of sins we might be cleansed, which cleansing is through the blood of His sprinkling. '. None
33. Anon., Didache, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 72; Rosenblum (2016) 155

6.3. See that no one cause you to err from this way of the Teaching, since apart from God it teaches you. For if you are able to bear all the yoke of the Lord, you will be perfect; but if you are not able, what you are able that do. And concerning food, bear what you are able; but against that which is sacrificed to idols be exceedingly on your guard; for it is the service of dead gods. ''. None
34. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 193; Maier and Waldner (2022) 170

4.2. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my sepulchre and may leave no part of my body behind, so that I may not, when I am fallen asleep, be burdensome to any one. Then shall I be truly a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not so much as see my body. Supplicate the Lord for me, that through these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God. ''. None
35. Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood

 Found in books: Porton (1988) 95; Rosenblum (2016) 98

2.1. יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל אָדָם בַּתְּחִלָּה מִיּוֹם טוֹב לַשַּׁבָּת, אֲבָל מְבַשֵּׁל הוּא לְיוֹם טוֹב, וְאִם הוֹתִיר, הוֹתִיר לַשַּׁבָּת, וְעוֹשֶׂה תַבְשִׁיל מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְסוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, תַּבְשִׁיל אֶחָד. וְשָׁוִין בְּדָג וּבֵיצָה שֶׁעָלָיו שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. אֲכָלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאָבַד, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל עָלָיו בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם שִׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ כָל שֶׁהוּא, סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת:
2.1. עֲגָלָה שֶׁל קָטָן טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס וְנִטֶּלֶת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵינָהּ נִגְרֶרֶת אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֵין נִגְרָרִין חוּץ מִן הָעֲגָלָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כוֹבֶשֶׁת:''. None
2.1. Yom Tov which fell on the eve of Shabbat, one should not begin to cook on Yom Tov for Shabbat. But he may cook for Yom Tov, and if any is left over it is left over for Shabbat. And he may prepare a dish on the eve of Yom Tov and rely upon it to prepare food for Shabbat. Bet Shammai says: two dishes. But Bet Hillel says: one dish. Yet they both agree that a fish and an egg upon it are considered as two dishes. If he ate it or it was lost, he may not begin to cook relying on it. But if he left over any small portion of it, he may rely on it to cook for Shabbat.''. None
36. Mishnah, Hulin, 3.6, 6.1-6.2, 6.7, 8.1, 8.6, 11.1, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood-rites • blood • blood, taboo on, treatment of • meat, and blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 95; Neusner (2001) 334, 335; Petropoulou (2012) 196; Porton (1988) 100; Rosenblum (2016) 97, 98, 99

3.6. סִימָנֵי בְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה נֶאֶמְרוּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְסִימָנֵי הָעוֹף לֹא נֶאֱמָרוּ. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל עוֹף הַדּוֹרֵס, טָמֵא. כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ אֶצְבַּע יְתֵרָה, וְזֶפֶק, וְקֻרְקְבָנוֹ נִקְלָף, טָהוֹר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בַּר צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, כָּל עוֹף הַחוֹלֵק אֶת רַגְלָיו, טָמֵא:
6.1. כִּסּוּי הַדָּם נוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, בְּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בְמֻקְדָּשִׁים. וְנוֹהֵג בְּחַיָּה וּבְעוֹף, בִּמְזֻמָּן וּבְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. וְנוֹהֵג בְּכוֹי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק. וְאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתוֹ בְיוֹם טוֹב. וְאִם שְׁחָטוֹ, אֵין מְכַסִּין אֶת דָּמוֹ: 6.2. הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט חֻלִּין בִּפְנִים, וְקָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ, חַיָּה וָעוֹף הַנִּסְקָלִים, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין. הַשׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְיָדוֹ, הַנּוֹחֵר, וְהַמְעַקֵּר, פָּטוּר מִלְּכַסּוֹת:
6.7. בַּמֶּה מְכַסִּין, וּבַמָּה אֵין מְכַסִּין. מְכַסִּין בְּזֶבֶל הַדַּק, וּבְחֹל הַדַּק, בְּסִיד, וּבְחַרְסִית, וּבִלְבֵנָה וּבִמְגוּפָה שֶׁכְּתָשָׁן. אֲבָל אֵין מְכַסִּין לֹא בְזֶבֶל הַגַּס, וְלֹא בְחוֹל הַגַּס, וְלֹא בִלְבֵנָה וּמְגוּפָה שֶׁלֹא כְתָשָׁן, וְלֹא יִכְפֶּה עָלָיו אֶת הַכֶּלִי. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, דָּבָר שֶׁמְּגַדֵּל בּוֹ צְמָחִין, מְכַסִּין בּוֹ. וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְגַדֵּל צְמָחִין, אֵין מְכַסִּין בּוֹ:
8.1. כָּל הַבָּשָׂר אָסוּר לְבַשֵּׁל בְּחָלָב, חוּץ מִבְּשַׂר דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים. וְאָסוּר לְהַעֲלוֹתוֹ עִם הַגְּבִינָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, חוּץ מִבְּשַׂר דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַבָּשָׂר, מֻתָּר בִּבְשַׂר דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים. הָעוֹף עוֹלֶה עִם הַגְּבִינָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל, דִּבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, לֹא עוֹלֶה וְלֹא נֶאֱכָל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, זוֹ מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. בְּאֵיזֶה שֻׁלְחָן אָמְרוּ, בַּשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁאוֹכֵל עָלָיו. אֲבָל בַּשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁסּוֹדֵר עָלָיו אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל, נוֹתֵן זֶה בְצַד זֶה וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ:
8.6. חֹמֶר בַּחֵלֶב מִבַּדָּם, וְחֹמֶר בַּדָּם מִבַּחֵלֶב. חֹמֶר בַּחֵלֶב, שֶׁהַחֵלֶב מוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ, וְחַיָּבִין עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל וְנוֹתָר וְטָמֵא, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּדָּם. וְחֹמֶר בַּדָּם, שֶׁהַדָּם נוֹהֵג בִּבְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה וָעוֹף, בֵּין טְמֵאִים וּבֵין טְהוֹרִים, וְחֵלֶב אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בִּבְהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה בִלְבָד:
11.1. רֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז נוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, בְּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בְמֻקְדָּשִׁין. חֹמֶר בַּזְּרוֹעַ וּבַלְּחָיַיִם וּבַקֵּבָה מֵרֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז, שֶׁהַזְּרוֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה נוֹהֲגִים בְּבָקָר וּבְצֹאן, בִּמְרֻבֶּה וּבְמֻעָט, וְרֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בִרְחֵלוֹת, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בִמְרֻבֶּה:
12.1. שִׁלּוּחַ הַקֵּן, נוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, בְּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בְמֻקְדָּשִׁין. חֹמֶר בְּכִסּוּי הַדָּם מִשִּׁלּוּחַ הַקֵּן, שֶׁכִּסּוּי הַדָּם נוֹהֵג בְּחַיָּה וּבְעוֹף, בִּמְזֻמָּן וּבְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. וְשִׁלּוּחַ הַקֵּן, אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בְעוֹף, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. אֵיזֶהוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. כְּגוֹן אַוָּזִין וְתַרְנְגוֹלִין שֶׁקִּנְּנוּ בְפַרְדֵּס. אֲבָל אִם קִנְּנוּ בְּבַיִת, וְכֵן יוֹנֵי הַרְדְּסִיאוֹת, פָּטוּר מִשִּׁלּוּחַ:''. None
3.6. The characteristics of cattle and of wild animals are stated in the Torah. The characteristics of birds are not stated, but the sages said: every bird that seizes its prey is unclean. Every bird that has an extra toe, or a crop and a gizzard that can be peeled, is clean. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: every bird that parts its toes is unclean.' "
6.1. The law of “covering up the blood” applies both within the land of Israel and outside it, both during the existence of the Temple and after it, It applies to unconsecrated animal, but not consecrated animals. It applies only to wild animals and birds, whether they are at one's disposal or not. It applies also to a koy, for it is an animal about which there is a doubt. It may therefore not be slaughtered on a festival; and if it was slaughtered on a festival one may not cover up its blood." '6.2. If a person slaughtered a wild animal or a bird and it was found to be terefah, or if he slaughtered it as an offering to idols, or if he slaughtered that which was unconsecrated inside the sanctuary or that which was consecrated outside, or if he slaughtered a wild animal or a bird that was condemned to be stoned: Rabbi Meir makes him liable to cover up the blood; But the sages make him exempt. If he slaughtered a wild animal or a bird and it became nevelah under his hand, or if he stabbed it, or tore away the organs of the throat, he is exempt from covering up the blood.
6.7. With what may one cover up the blood and with what may one not cover it up?One may cover it up with fine dung, with fine sand, with lime, with white clay, or a brick or an earthenware stopper of a cask that have been ground into powder. But one may not cover it up with coarse dung or coarse sand, or with a brick or an earthenware stopper of a cask that have not been ground into powder. Nor may one cover it with a vessel. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel stated a general rule: one may cover it with anything in which plants would grow; but one may not cover it with anything in which plants would not grow.
8.1. Every kind of flesh is forbidden to be cooked in milk, except for the flesh of fish and of locusts. And it is also forbidden to place it upon the table with cheese, except for the flesh of fish and of locusts. Fowl may be placed upon the table together with cheese but may not be eaten with it, the words of Bet Shammai. Bet Hillel say: it may neither be placed upon the table together with cheese nor eaten with it. Rabbi Yose said: this is one of the leniencies of Bet shammai and the stringencies of Bet Hillel . Concerning what table did they speak? Concerning the table upon which one eats; but on the table whereon the food is set out one may place the one beside the other, and not be concerned.
8.6. In certain respects the prohibition of the fat is stricter than the prohibition of the blood, and in certain respects the prohibition of the blood is stricter than the prohibition of the fat. The prohibition of the fat is stricter, in that the fat is subject to the law of sacrilege, and one is obligated over it for piggul, notar, and uncleanness which is not the case with the blood. And the prohibition of the blood is stricter, for it applies to cattle, wild animals and fowl, whether clean or unclean; but the prohibition of the fat applies to clean cattle only.
11.1. The law of the first of the fleece is in force both within the Land and outside it, both during the existence of the Temple and after it, in respect of unconsecrated animals but not consecrated animals. The law of the shoulder and the cheeks and the stomach is of stricter application than the law of the first of the fleece; for the law of the shoulder and the cheeks and the stomach applies both to herds and flocks, whether they are many or few, whereas the law of the first of the fleece applies only to sheep, and only when there are many.' "
12.1. The law of letting the mother bird go from the nest is in force both within the holy land and outside it, both during the existence of the Temple and after it, in respect of unconsecrated birds but not consecrated birds. The law of covering up the blood is of broader application than the law of letting the mother bird go; for the law of covering up the blood applies to wild animals as well as to birds, whether they are at one's disposal or not, whereas the law of letting the mother bird go from the nest applies only to birds and only to those which are not at one's disposal. Which are they that are not at one's disposal? Such as geese and fowls that made their nests in the open field. But if they made their nests within a house or in the case of Herodian doves, one is not bound to let the mother bird go."'. None
37. Mishnah, Keritot, 1.1-1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood-rites • and blood, as purpose of sacrifice • blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 130; Neusner (2001) 153; Rosenblum (2016) 99

1.1. שְׁלשִׁים וָשֵׁשׁ כְּרֵתוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה. הַבָּא עַל הָאֵם, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת הָאָב, וְעַל הַכַּלָּה, הַבָּא עַל הַזְּכוּר, וְעַל הַבְּהֵמָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה הַמְבִיאָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה עָלֶיהָ, הַבָּא עַל אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו, וְעַל הַנִּדָּה, הַמְגַדֵּף, וְהָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַנּוֹתֵן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ, וּבַעַל אוֹב, הַמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְטָמֵא שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהַבָּא לַמִּקְדָּשׁ טָמֵא, הָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב, וְדָם, נוֹתָר, וּפִגּוּל, הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמַּעֲלֶה בַּחוּץ, הָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, הַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. הַפֶּסַח וְהַמִּילָה בְּמִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה: 1.2. עַל אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִים עַל זְדוֹנָם כָּרֵת, וְעַל שִׁגְגָתָם חַטָּאת, וְעַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁלָּהֶן אָשָׁם תָּלוּי, חוּץ מִן הַמְטַמֵּא מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו, מִפְנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְעוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף הַמְגַדֵּף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו), תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לָעֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה, יָצָא מְגַדֵּף, שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה:''. None
1.1. There are in the Torah thirty-six transgressions which are punishable with karet:When one has intercourse with his mother, His father's wife; Or his daughter-in-law; When a man has intercourse with a male, Or with a beast, Or when a woman brings a beast upon herself; When one has intercourse with a woman and her daughter; Or with a married woman; Or with his sister; Or with his father's sister; Or his mother's sister; Or his wife's sister; Or his brother's wife; Or the wife of his father's brother; Or with a menstruating woman; One who blasphemes the Lord; One who worships idols; Or dedicates his children to Molech; Or has a ba’al ov; Or desecrates the Shabbat; When an unclean person eats of sacred food; Or when one enters the precincts of the Temple in an unclean state; When one eats forbidden fat, Or blood; Notar; Or piggul; When one slaughters Or offers up a consecrated animal outside the Temple; One who eats anything leavened on Pesah; One who eats Or works on Yom Kippur; One who compounds the oil of anointing; Or compounds incense; Or uses unlawfully oil of anointing; And when one transgresses the laws of the pesah, And circumcision from among positive commandments." '1.2. For these transgressions one is liable to karet if committed intentionally, and if committed unwittingly to a hatat. If there is a doubt whether he had committed the transgression to an asham talui, except in the case of one who defiled the Temple or its consecrated things, for in that case one is liable in this case to a sliding-scale sacrifice, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: also the blasphemer is an exception, as it says: “You shall have one law for one that acts in error” (Numbers 15:29), this excludes the blasphemer who performs no action.'". None
38. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood

 Found in books: Libson (2018) 87; Porton (1988) 65

8.3. הַמֵּטִיל טִפִּין עָבוֹת מִתּוֹךְ הָאַמָּה, טָמֵא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא. הַמְהַרְהֵר בַּלַּיְלָה וְעָמַד וּמָצָא בְשָׂרוֹ חַם, טָמֵא. הַפּוֹלֶטֶת זֶרַע בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, טְהוֹרָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהֵם אַרְבַּע עוֹנוֹת, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהֵם חָמֵשׁ, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהֵם שֵׁשׁ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם חָמֵשׁ:''. None
8.3. If he emitted thick drops from his member, he is unclean, the words of Rabbi Elazar Hisma. If one had sexual dreams in the night and arose and found his flesh heated, he is unclean. If a woman discharged semen on the third day, she is clean, the words of Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah. Rabbi Ishmael says: sometimes there are four time periods, and sometimes five, and sometimes six. Rabbi Akiva says: there are always five.''. None
39. Mishnah, Negaim, 7.1, 11.1, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • genital discharge, blood (menstrual)

 Found in books: Balberg (2014) 226; Porton (1988) 272

7.1. אֵלּוּ בֶהָרוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת. שֶׁהָיוּ בוֹ קֹדֶם לְמַתַּן תּוֹרָה, בְּנָכְרִי וְנִתְגַּיֵּר, בְּקָטָן וְנוֹלַד, בְּקֶמֶט וְנִגְלָה, בָּרֹאשׁ וּבַזָּקָן, בַּשְּׁחִין וּבַמִּכְוָה וְקֶדַח וּבַמּוֹרְדִין. חָזַר הָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן וְנִקְרְחוּ, הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְהַקֶּדַח וְנַעֲשׂוּ צָרֶבֶת, טְהוֹרִים. הָרֹאשׁ וְהַזָּקָן עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר, הֶעֱלוּ שֵׂעָר וְנִקְרְחוּ, הַשְּׁחִין וְהַמִּכְוָה וְהַקֶּדַח עַד שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂוּ צָרֶבֶת, נַעֲשׂוּ צָרֶבֶת וְחָיוּ, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב מְטַמֵּא, שֶׁתְּחִלָּתָן וְסוֹפָן טָמֵא. וַחֲכָמִים מְטַהֲרִים:
11.1. כָּל הַבְּגָדִים מִטַּמְּאִין בַּנְּגָעִים, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל נָכְרִים. הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּגָדִים מִן הַנָּכְרִים, יֵרָאוּ בַתְּחִלָּה. וְעוֹרוֹת הַיָּם אֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין בַּנְּגָעִים. חִבֵּר לָהֶם מִן הַגָּדֵל בָּאָרֶץ, אֲפִלּוּ חוּט, אֲפִלּוּ מְשִׁיחָה, דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה, טָמֵא:
11.1. נִרְאָה בַּשְּׁתִי הָעוֹמֵד, הָאָרִיג טָהוֹר. נִרְאָה בָאָרִיג, הַשְּׁתִי הָעוֹמֵד טָהוֹר. נִרְאָה בַסָּדִין, שׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַנִּימִין. נִרְאָה בַנִּימִין, הַסָּדִין טָהוֹר. חָלוּק שֶׁנִּרְאָה בוֹ נֶגַע, מַצִּיל אֶת הָאֻמְרִיּוֹת שֶׁבּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הֵן אַרְגָּמָן:
12.1. כָּל הַבָּתִּים מִטַּמְּאִין בַּנְּגָעִים, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל נָכְרִים. הַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּתִּים מִן הַנָּכְרִים, יֵרָאוּ בַתְּחִלָּה. בַּיִת עָגֹל, בַּיִת טְרִיגוֹן, בַּיִת הַבָּנוּי בִּסְפִינָה אוֹ בְאַסְקַרְיָא, עַל אַרְבַּע קוֹרוֹת, אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בַנְּגָעִים. וְאִם הָיָה מְרֻבָּע, אֲפִלּוּ עַל אַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדִים, מִטַּמֵּא:''. None
7.1. The following bright spots are clean:Those that one had before the Torah was given, Those that a non-Jew had when he converted; Or a child when it was born, Or those that were in a crease and were subsequently uncovered. If they were on the head or the beard, on a boil, a burn or a blister that is festering, and subsequently the head or the beard became bald, and the boil, burn or blister turned into a scar, they are clean. If they were on the head or the beard before they grew hair, and they then grew hair and subsequently became bald, or if they were on the body before the boil, burn or blister before they were festering and then these formed a scar or were healed: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said that they are unclean since at the beginning and at the end they were unclean, But the sages say: they are clean.
11.1. All garments can contract the uncleanness of negaim except those of non-Jews. One who buys garments with signs of negaim from non-Jews they must be inspected as if the signs had then first appeared. The hides of animals of the sea do not contract the uncleanness of negaim. If one joined to them anything which grows on land, even if it is only a thread or a cord, as long as it is something that is susceptible to uncleanness, they also become susceptible to uncleanness.
12.1. All houses may contract negaim uncleanness, except those of non-Jews. If one bought houses from non-Jews, any it must be inspected as if they had then first appeared. A round house, a triangular house, or a house built on a ship, on a raft or on four beams, is not susceptible to negaim uncleanness. But if it was four-sided, even if it was built on four pillars, it is susceptible to uncleanness.''. None
40. Mishnah, Niddah, 2.1, 4.2-4.3, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood • genital discharge, blood (menstrual) • menstruation, special powers of menstrual blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2014) 174, 226; Hasan Rokem (2003) 74; Janowitz (2002) 93; Libson (2018) 69, 74, 87; Porton (1988) 43, 65, 79, 152, 272, 273

2.1. כָּל הַיָּד הַמַּרְבָּה לִבְדֹּק בְּנָשִׁים, מְשֻׁבַּחַת. וּבַאֲנָשִׁים, תִּקָּצֵץ. הַחֵרֶשֶׁת וְהַשּׁוֹטָה וְהַסּוּמָא וְשֶׁנִּטְרְפָה דַעְתָּהּ, אִם יֶשׁ לָהֶן פִּקְחוֹת, מְתַקְּנוֹת אוֹתָן וְהֵן אוֹכְלוֹת בַּתְּרוּמָה. דֶּרֶךְ בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל, מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת בִּשְׁנֵי עִדִּים, אֶחָד לוֹ וְאֶחָד לָהּ. הַצְּנוּעוֹת מְתַקְּנוֹת לָהֶן שְׁלִישִׁי, לְתַקֵּן אֶת הַבָּיִת:
4.2. בְּנוֹת צְדוֹקִין, בִּזְמַן שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶן, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּכוּתִיּוֹת. פֵּרְשׁוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּיִשְׂרְאֵלִית. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הֵן כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד שֶׁיִּפְרְשׁוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶן: 4.3. דַּם נָכְרִית וְדַם טָהֳרָה שֶׁל מְצֹרַעַת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִים. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כְּרֻקָּהּ וּכְמֵימֵי רַגְלֶיהָ. דַּם יוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁלֹּא טָבְלָה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, כְּרֻקָּהּ וּכְמֵימֵי רַגְלֶיהָ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מְטַמֵּא לַח וְיָבֵשׁ. וּמוֹדִים בְּיוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב, שֶׁהִיא מְטַמְּאָה לַח וְיָבֵשׁ:
7.3. כָּל הַכְּתָמִין הַבָּאִים מֵרֶקֶם, טְהוֹרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְטַמֵּא, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם גֵּרִים וְטוֹעִין. הַבָּאִין מִבֵּין הַגּוֹיִם, טְהוֹרִין. מִבֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִבֵּין הַכּוּתִים, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מְטַמֵּא. וַחֲכָמִים מְטַהֲרִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נֶחְשְׁדוּ עַל כִּתְמֵיהֶן:''. None
2.1. Every hand that makes frequent examination: In the case of women is praiseworthy, But in the case of men it ought to be cut off. In the case of a deaf, an person not of sound senses, a blind or an insane woman, if other women of sound senses are available they attend to her, and they may eat terumah. It is the custom of the daughters of Israel to have intercourse using two testing-rags, one for the man and the other for herself. Virtuous women prepare also a third rag to prepare the \\"house\\" before intercourse.
4.2. The daughters of the Sadducees, so long as they are accustomed to walking in the paths of their fathers, are to be regarded as Samaritan women. If they left those paths to walk in the paths of Israel, they are to be regarded as Israelite women. Rabbi Yose says: they are always regarded as Israelite women unless they leave the paths of Israel to walk in the paths of their fathers. 4.3. The blood of a Gentile and the clean blood of a metzoraat (a woman with scale disease): Bet Shammai declares clean. And Bet Hillel holds that it is like her spittle or her urine. The blood of a woman after childbirth who did not immerse in a mikveh: Bet Shammai says it is like her spittle or her urine, But Bet Hillel says: it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry. They agree that if she gave birth while in zivah, it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry.
7.3. All bloodstains that come from Rekem are clean. Rabbi Judah declares them unclean, because the people who live there are proselytes though misguided. Those that come from non-Jews are clean. Those that come from Israelites or from Samaritans: Rabbi Meir declares them unclean, But the sages declare them clean because they are not suspected in regard to their stains.''. None
41. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 159; Janowitz (2002b) 96

9.15. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי מֵאִיר, בָּטְלוּ מוֹשְׁלֵי מְשָׁלִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן עַזַּאי, בָּטְלוּ הַשַּׁקְדָּנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן זוֹמָא, בָּטְלוּ הַדַּרְשָׁנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, פָּסְקָה טוֹבָה מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, בָּא גוֹבַי וְרַבּוּ צָרוֹת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, פָּסַק הָעשֶׁר מִן הַחֲכָמִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן דּוֹסָא, בָּטְלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי קַטְנוּתָא, פָּסְקוּ חֲסִידִים. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ קַטְנוּתָא, שֶׁהָיָה קַטְנוּתָן שֶׁל חֲסִידִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, בָּטַל זִיו הַחָכְמָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה וּמֵתָה טָהֳרָה וּפְרִישׁוּת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פָּאבִי, בָּטַל זִיו הַכְּהֻנָּה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי, בָּטְלָה עֲנָוָה וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, בּוֹשׁוּ חֲבֵרִים וּבְנֵי חוֹרִין, וְחָפוּ רֹאשָׁם, וְנִדַּלְדְּלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה, וְגָבְרוּ בַעֲלֵי זְרוֹעַ וּבַעֲלֵי לָשׁוֹן, וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, וְאֵין שׁוֹאֵל, עַל מִי לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הַגָּדוֹל אוֹמֵר, מִיּוֹם שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שָׁרוּ חַכִּימַיָּא לְמֶהֱוֵי כְסָפְרַיָּא, וְסָפְרַיָּא כְּחַזָּנָא, וְחַזָּנָא כְּעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא, וְעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא אָזְלָא וְדַלְדְּלָה, וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. בְּעִקְּבוֹת מְשִׁיחָא חֻצְפָּא יִסְגֵּא, וְיֹקֶר יַאֲמִיר, הַגֶּפֶן תִּתֵּן פִּרְיָהּ וְהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר, וְהַמַּלְכוּת תֵּהָפֵךְ לְמִינוּת, וְאֵין תּוֹכֵחָה, בֵּית וַעַד יִהְיֶה לִזְנוּת, וְהַגָּלִיל יֶחֱרַב, וְהַגַּבְלָן יִשּׁוֹם, וְאַנְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל יְסוֹבְבוּ מֵעִיר לְעִיר וְלֹא יְחוֹנָּנוּ, וְחָכְמַת סוֹפְרִים תִּסְרַח, וְיִרְאֵי חֵטְא יִמָּאֲסוּ, וְהָאֱמֶת תְּהֵא נֶעְדֶּרֶת. נְעָרִים פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים יַלְבִּינוּ, זְקֵנִים יַעַמְדוּ מִפְּנֵי קְטַנִּים. (מיכה ז) בֵּן מְנַבֵּל אָב, בַּת קָמָה בְאִמָּהּ, כַּלָּה בַּחֲמֹתָהּ, אֹיְבֵי אִישׁ אַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ. פְּנֵי הַדּוֹר כִּפְנֵי הַכֶּלֶב, הַבֵּן אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָבִיו. וְעַל מִי יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת, וּנְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טָהֳרָה, וְטָהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי פְרִישׁוּת, וּפְרִישׁוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדֻשָּׁה, וּקְדֻשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה, וַעֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא, וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת, וַחֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְבִיאָה לִידֵי תְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, וּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים בָּא עַל יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב, אָמֵן:''. None
9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students of Torah ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place of scholars will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about begging from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”''. None
42. Mishnah, Yoma, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood • meat, and blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 95; Porton (1988) 95; Rosenblum (2016) 113

5.6. הִזָּה עַל טָהֳרוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים, וּשְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם הָיָה שׁוֹפֵךְ עַל יְסוֹד מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן, וְשֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן הָיָה שׁוֹפֵךְ עַל יְסוֹד דְּרוֹמִי. אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מִתְעָרְבִין בָּאַמָּה וְיוֹצְאִין לְנַחַל קִדְרוֹן, וְנִמְכָּרִין לַגַּנָּנִין לְזֶבֶל, וּמוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן:''. None
5.6. Then he sprinkled the top of the altar seven times. And he would pour out the remainder of the blood at the western base of the outer altar. And the remainder of the blood sprinkled on the outer altar he poured out at the southern base. Both mingled in the aqueduct and flowed into Nahal Kidron, and they were sold to gardeners as manure and by using them one transgresses the law of trespass (meilah).''. None
43. Mishnah, Zevahim, 2.2-2.3, 9.1, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood-rites • blood • blood, manipulation of • blood, taboo on, treatment of • meat, and blood • substances, sacrificial, blood versus non-blood • tossing of blood (zeriqah) • work of blood (avodat ha-dam)

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 48, 71, 74, 78, 94; Neusner (2001) 162; Petropoulou (2012) 193

2.2. הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַזֶּבַח לִזְרֹק דָּמוֹ בַחוּץ אוֹ מִקְצָת דָּמוֹ בַחוּץ, לְהַקְטִיר אֶת אֵמוּרָיו בַּחוּץ אוֹ מִקְצָת אֵמוּרָיו בַּחוּץ, לֶאֱכֹל בְּשָׂרוֹ בַחוּץ אוֹ כַזַּיִת מִבְּשָׂרוֹ בַחוּץ אוֹ לֶאֱכֹל כַּזַּיִת מֵעוֹר הָאַלְיָה בַחוּץ, פָּסוּל וְאֵין בּוֹ כָרֵת. לִזְרֹק דָּמוֹ לְמָחָר אוֹ מִקְצָת דָּמוֹ לְמָחָר, לְהַקְטִיר אֵמוּרָיו לְמָחָר אוֹ מִקְצָת אֵמוּרָיו לְמָחָר, לֶאֱכֹל בְּשָׂרוֹ לְמָחָר אוֹ כַזַּיִת מִבְּשָׂרוֹ לְמָחָר אוֹ כַּזַּיִת מֵעוֹר הָאַלְיָה לְמָחָר, פִּגּוּל וְחַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת: 2.3. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמְקַבֵּל וְהַמְהַלֵּךְ וְהַזּוֹרֵק, לֶאֱכֹל דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לֶאֱכֹל, לְהַקְטִיר דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהַקְטִיר, חוּץ לִמְקוֹמוֹ, פָּסוּל וְאֵין בּוֹ כָרֵת. חוּץ לִזְמַנּוֹ, פִּגּוּל וְחַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּקְרַב הַמַּתִּיר כְּמִצְוָתוֹ:
9.1. הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת הָרָאוּי לוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, כָּל הָרָאוּי לָאִשִּׁים, אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו), הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. מָה עוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לָאִשִּׁים, אִם עָלְתָה לֹא תֵרֵד, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לָאִשִּׁים, אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כָּל הָרָאוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ, אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. מַה עוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אִם עָלְתָה לֹא תֵרֵד, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד. אֵין בֵּין דִּבְרֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶלָּא הַדָּם וְהַנְּסָכִים, שֶׁרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר לֹא יֵרְדוּ, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר יֵרֵדוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַזֶּבַח כָּשֵׁר וְהַנְּסָכִים פְּסוּלִים, הַנְּסָכִים כְּשֵׁרִין וְהַזֶּבַח פָּסוּל, אֲפִלּוּ זֶה וָזֶה פְּסוּלִין, הַזֶּבַח לֹא יֵרֵד, וְהַנְּסָכִים יֵרֵדוּ:
12.1. טְבוּל יוֹם וּמְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים, אֵינָן חוֹלְקִים בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֶאֱכֹל לָעָרֶב. אוֹנֵן, נוֹגֵעַ וְאֵינוֹ מַקְרִיב, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק לֶאֱכֹל לָעָרֶב. בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין קְבוּעִין, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין עוֹבְרִין, חוֹלְקִין וְאוֹכְלִין, אֲבָל לֹא מַקְרִיבִין. וְכֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָעֲבוֹדָה, אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק בַּבָּשָׂר. וְכֹל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בַּבָּשָׂר, אֵין לוֹ בָעוֹרוֹת. אֲפִלּוּ טָמֵא בִשְׁעַת זְרִיקַת דָּמִים וְטָהוֹר בִּשְׁעַת הֶקְטֵר חֲלָבִים, אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק בַּבָּשָׂר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז), הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים וְאֶת הַחֵלֶב מִבְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן לוֹ תִהְיֶה שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְמָנָה:''. None
2.2. One who slaughters a sacrifice intending: To sprinkle its blood outside the Temple or part of its blood outside; To burn its innards or part of its innards outside; To eat its flesh or as much as an olive of its flesh outside, Or to eat as much as an olive of the skin of the fat-tail outside, It is invalid, but it does not involve karet. One he slaughters a sacrifice intending: To sprinkle its blood or part of its blood the next day, To burn its innards or part of its innards on the next day; To eat its flesh or as much as an olive of its flesh on the next day; Or to eat as much as an olive of the skin of its fat-tail on the next day, It is piggul, and involves kareth. 2.3. This is the general rule: anyone who slaughters or receives the blood, or carries it or sprinkles it intending to eat as much as an olive of that which is normally eaten or to burn on the altar as much as an olive of that which is normally burned outside its prescribed place, the sacrifice is invalid, but it does not involve karet; Intending to eat or burn after its designated time, it is piggul and it involves karet. Provided that the mattir is offered in accordance with the law.
9.1. The altar sanctifies whatever is eligible for it. Rabbi Joshua says: whatever is eligible for the altar fire does not descend once it has ascended, as it is said, “The olah itself shall remain where it is burned upon the altar all night until morning, while the fire of the altar is kept going on it” (Leviticus 6:: just as the olah, which is eligible for the altar fire, does not descend once it has ascended, so whatever is eligible for the altar fire does not descend once it ascended. Rabbi Gamaliel said: whatever is eligible for the altar does not descend once it ascended, as it is said: “The olah itself shall remain where it is burned upon the altar all night until morning, while the fire of the altar is kept going on it” (Leviticus 6:2): just as the olah, which is eligible for the altar, does not descend once it ascended, so whatever is eligible for the altar does not descend once it ascended. The only difference between Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Joshua is in respect of the blood and libations, for Rabban Gamaliel says that they cannot descend, while Rabbi Joshua says that they can descend. Rabbi Shimon says: if the sacrifice is fit while the libations which accompanied it are unfit; or if the libations are fit while the sacrifice is unfit; or even if both are unfit, the sacrifice does not descend, while the libations do descend.
12.1. A tebul yom and one who lacks atonement do not share in sacrifices for consumption in the evening. An onen may handle sacrifices, but he may not offer them, and he does not receive a share for consumption in the evening. Priests with blemishes, whether permanent or passing, receive a share and may eat of the sacrifices but they may not offer them. Whoever is not eligible for service does not share in the flesh. And he who does not share in the flesh does not share in the hides. Even if one was unclean when the blood was sprinkled but clean when the fats were burned on the altar, he does not share in the flesh, for it is said: “he among the sons of Aaron, that offers the blood of the shelamim, and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion” (Leviticus 7:33).''. None
44. New Testament, 1 John, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, of Christ

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 91; Vinzent (2013) 71

1.7. ἐὰν δὲ ἐν τῷ φωτὶ περιπατῶμεν ὡς αὐτὸς ἔστιν ἐν τῷ φωτί, κοινωνίαν ἔχομεν μετʼ ἀλλήλων καὶ τὸ αἷμα Ἰησοῦ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ καθαρίζει ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ πάσης ἁμαρτίας.''. None
1.7. But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanses us from all sin. ''. None
45. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.7-5.8, 11.23-11.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, as means of atonement/purification • blood, of Christ • work of blood (avodat ha-dam), function of

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 89, 90; Blidstein (2017) 137, 141; Estes (2020) 325; Vinzent (2013) 57, 223

5.7. ἐκκαθάρατε τὴν παλαιὰν ζύμην, ἵνα ἦτε νέον φύραμα, καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι. καὶ γὰρτὸ πάσχαἡμῶνἐτύθηΧριστός· 5.8. ὥστε ἑορτάζωμεν, μὴ ἐν ζύμῃ παλαιᾷ μηδὲ ἐν ζύμῃ κακίας καὶ πονηρίας, ἀλλʼ ἐν ἀζύμοις εἰλικρινίας καὶ ἀληθείας.
11.23. ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, ὃ καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ παρεδίδετο ἔλαβεν ἄρτον καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ εἶπεν 11.24. Τοῦτό μού ἐστιν τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων 11.25. Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴδιαθήκηἐστὶν ἐντῷἐμῷαἵματι·τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 11.26. ὁσάκις γὰρ ἐὰν ἐσθίητε τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον καὶ τὸ ποτήριον πίνητε, τὸν θάνατον τοῦ κυρίου καταγγέλλετε, ἄχρι οὗ ἔλθῃ. 11.27. ὥστε ὃς ἂν ἐσθίῃ τὸν ἄρτον ἢ πίνῃ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ κυρίου ἀναξίως, ἔνοχος ἔσται τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου.''. None
5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.8. Therefore let us keepthe feast, not with old yeast, neither with the yeast of malice andwickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme." 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me."' "11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes." "11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord."'. None
46. New Testament, Acts, 1.16-1.25, 2.1-2.13, 2.38, 15.28-15.29, 21.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Field of Blood • Hakeldama, Field of Blood • baptismal significance, of blood and water from Christs side • blood • the thirty pieces of silver, and Field of Blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 70, 71, 137; Hillier (1993) 29; Levison (2009) 231; Maier and Waldner (2022) 35; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 330; Rosenblum (2016) 79, 154; Scopello (2008) 75, 76; Vinzent (2013) 97

1.16. Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἔδει πληρωθῆναι τὴν γραφὴν ἣν προεῖπε τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον διὰ στόματος Δαυεὶδ περὶ Ἰούδα τοῦ γενομένου ὁδηγοῦ τοῖς συλλαβοῦσιν Ἰησοῦν, 1.17. ὅτι κατηριθμημένος ἦν ἐν ἡμῖν καὶ ἔλαχεν τὸν κλῆρον τῆς διακονίας ταύτης. 1.18. — Οὗτος μὲν οὖν ἐκτήσατο χωρίον ἐκ μισθοῦ τῆς ἀδικίας, καὶ πρηνὴς γενόμενος ἐλάκησεν μέσος, καὶ ἐξεχύθη πάντα τὰ σπλάγχνα αὐτοῦ. 1.19. καὶ γνωστὸν ἐγένετο πᾶσι τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ, ὥστε κληθῆναι τὸ χωρίον ἐκεῖνο τῇ διαλέκτῳ αὐτῶν Ἁκελδαμάχ, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν Χωρίον Αἵματος. 1.20. — Γέγραπται γὰρ ἐν Βίβλῳ Ψαλμῶν 1.21. δεῖ οὖν τῶν συνελθόντων ἡμῖν ἀνδρῶν ἐν παντὶ χρόνῳ ᾧ εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς, 1.22. ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ τοῦ βαπτίσματος Ἰωάνου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ἧς ἀνελήμφθη ἀφʼ ἡμῶν, μάρτυρα τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ σὺν ἡμῖν γενέσθαι ἕνα τούτων. 1.23. καὶ ἔστησαν δύο, Ἰωσὴφ τὸν καλούμενον Βαρσαββᾶν, ὃς ἐπεκλήθη Ἰοῦστος, καὶ Μαθθίαν. 1.24. καὶ προσευξάμενοι εἶπαν Σὺ κύριε καρδιογνῶστα πάντων, ἀνάδειξον ὃν ἐξελέξω, ἐκ τούτων τῶν δύο ἕνα, 1.25. λαβεῖν τὸν τόπον τῆς διακονίας ταύτης καὶ ἀποστολῆς, ἀφʼ ἧς παρέβη Ἰούδας πορευθῆναι εἰς τὸν τόπον τὸν ἴδιον.
2.1. Καὶ ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς πεντηκοστῆς ἦσαν πάντες ὁμοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό, 2.2. καὶ ἐγένετο ἄφνω ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἦχος ὥσπερ φερομένης πνοῆς βιαίας καὶ ἐπλήρωσεν ὅλον τὸν οἶκον οὗ ἦσαν καθήμενοι, 2.3. καὶ ὤφθησαν αὐτοῖς διαμεριζόμεναι γλῶσσαι ὡσεὶ πυρός, καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐφʼ ἕνα ἕκαστον αὐτῶν, 2.4. καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες πνεύματος ἁγίου, καὶ ἤρξαντο λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γλώσσαις καθὼς τὸ πνεῦμα ἐδίδου ἀποφθέγγεσθαι αὐτοῖς. 2.5. Ἦσαν δὲ ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ κατοικοῦντες Ἰουδαῖοι, ἄνδρες εὐλαβεῖς ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔθνους τῶν ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανόν· 2.6. γενομένης δὲ τῆς φωνῆς ταύτης συνῆλθε τὸ πλῆθος καὶ συνεχύθη, ὅτι ἤκουσεν εἷς ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ λαλούντων αὐτῶν· 2.7. ἐξίσταντο δὲ καὶ ἐθαύμαζον λέγοντες Οὐχὶ ἰδοὺ πάντες οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ λαλοῦντες Γαλιλαῖοι; 2.8. καὶ πῶς ἡμεῖς ἀκούομεν ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ ἡμῶν ἐν ᾗ ἐγεννήθημεν; 2.9. Πάρθοι καὶ Μῆδοι καὶ Ἐλαμεῖται, καὶ οἱ κατοικοῦντες τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν, Ἰουδαίαν τε καὶ Καππαδοκίαν, Πόντον καὶ τὴν Ἀσίαν,
2.10. Φρυγίαν τε καὶ Παμφυλίαν, Αἴγυπτον καὶ τὰ μέρη τῆς Λιβύης τῆς κατὰ Κυρήνην, καὶ οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες Ῥωμαῖοι,
2.11. Ἰουδαῖοί τε καὶ προσήλυτοι, Κρῆτες καὶ Ἄραβες, ἀκούομεν λαλούντων αὐτῶν ταῖς ἡμετέραις γλώσσαις τὰ μεγαλεῖα τοῦ θεοῦ.
2.12. ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες Τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
2.13. ἕτεροι δὲ διαχλευάζοντες ἔλεγον ὅτι Γλεύκους μεμεστωμένοι εἰσίν.
2.38. ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί; Πέτρος δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Μετανοήσατε, καὶ βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν, καὶ λήμψεσθε τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος·
15.28. ἔδοξεν γὰρ τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ καὶ ἡμῖν μηδὲν πλέον ἐπιτίθεσθαι ὑμῖν βάρος πλὴν τούτων τῶν ἐπάναγκες, ἀπέχεσθαι εἰδωλοθύτων καὶ αἵματος καὶ πνικτῶν καὶ πορνείας· 15.29. ἐξ ὧν διατηροῦντες ἑαυτοὺς εὖ πράξετε. Ἔρρωσθε.
21.25. περὶ δὲ τῶν πεπιστευκότων ἐθνῶν ἡμεῖς ἀπεστείλαμεν κρίναντες φυλάσσεσθαι αὐτοὺς τό τε εἰδωλόθυτον καὶ αἷμα καὶ πνικτὸν καὶ πορνείαν.' '. None
1.16. "Brothers, it was necessary that this Scripture should be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus. 1.17. For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry. 1.18. Now this man obtained a field with the reward for his wickedness, and falling headlong, his body burst open, and all his intestines gushed out. ' "1.19. It became known to everyone who lived in Jerusalem that in their language that field was called 'Akeldama,' that is, 'The field of blood.' " "1.20. For it is written in the book of Psalms, 'Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein,' and, 'Let another take his office.' " '1.21. of the men therefore who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and went out among us, 1.22. beginning from the baptism of John, to the day that he was received up from us, of these one must become a witness with us of his resurrection." 1.23. They put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. 1.24. They prayed, and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two you have chosen 1.25. to take part in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas fell away, that he might go to his own place."
2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2.2. Suddenly there came from the sky a sound like the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 2.3. Tongues like fire appeared and were distributed to them, and it sat on each one of them. 2.4. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability to speak. 2.5. Now there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under the sky. 2.6. When this sound was heard, the multitude came together, and were bewildered, because everyone heard them speaking in his own language. 2.7. They were all amazed and marveled, saying to one another, "Behold, aren\'t all these who speak Galileans? 2.8. How do we hear, everyone in our own native language? 2.9. Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and people from Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia,
2.10. Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, the parts of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes,
2.11. Cretans and Arabians: we hear them speaking in our languages the mighty works of God!"
2.12. They were all amazed, and were perplexed, saying one to another, "What does this mean?"
2.13. Others, mocking, said, "They are filled with new wine."
2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell."
21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality."' '. None
47. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.1, 1.4-1.7, 1.18, 5.9-5.10, 5.12-5.13, 7.14, 11.15, 20.4-20.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood of Christ Jesus • blood • blood, of Christ • blood, of animal sacrifices

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 91; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 135, 143, 144; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 112; Vinzent (2013) 18, 32, 46, 72, 73

1.1. ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΗΣΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ, ἥν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ,ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαιἐν τάχει, καὶ ἐσήμανεν ἀποστείλας διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ Ἰωάνει,
1.4. ΙΩΑΝΗΣ ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸὁ ὢνκαὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἑπτὰ πνευμάτων ἃ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου αὐτοῦ, 1.5. καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστός,ὁπρωτότοκοςτῶν νεκρῶν καὶ ὁἄρχων τῶν βασιλέων τῆς γῆς.Τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶλύσαντιἡμᾶςἐκ τῶν αμαρτιῶνἡμῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ, 1.6. — καὶ ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶςβασιλείαν, ἱερεῖς τῷ θεῷκαὶ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, — αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας· ἀμήν. 1.7. Ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν,καὶὄψεταιαὐτὸν πᾶς ὀφθαλμὸς καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸνἐξεκέντησαν, καὶ κόψονται ἐπʼ αὐτὸν πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς.ναί, ἀμήν.

1.18. — καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς καὶ ἰδοὺ ζῶν εἰμὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, — καὶ ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾄδου.
5.9. καὶᾁδουσιν ᾠδὴν καινὴνλέγοντες Ἄξιος εἶ λαβεῖν τὸ βιβλίον καὶ ἀνοῖξαι τὰς σφραγῖδας αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἐσφάγης καὶ ἠγόρασας τῷ θεῷ ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς καὶ γλώσσης καὶ λαοῦ καὶ ἔθνους, 5.10. καὶ ἐποίησας αὐτοὺς τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν βασιλείαν καὶ ἱερεῖς, καὶ βασιλεύουσιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς·
5.12. λέγοντες φωνῇ μεγάλῃ Ἄξιόν ἐστιν τὸ ἀρνίον τὸ ἐσφαγμένον λαβεῖν τὴν δύναμιν καὶ πλοῦτον καὶ σοφίαν καὶ ἰσχὺν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ δόξαν καὶ εὐλογίαν. 5.13. καὶ πᾶν κτίσμα ὃ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης ἐστίν, καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς πάντα, ἤκουσα λέγοντας Τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.
7.14. καὶ εἴρηκα αὐτῷ Κύριέ μου, σὺ οἶδας. καὶ εἶπέν μοι Οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆςθλίψεωςτῆς μεγάλης, καὶἔπλυναν τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶνκαὶ ἐλεύκαναν αὐτὰςἐν τῷ αἵματιτοῦ ἀρνίου. 1
1.15. Καὶ ὁ ἕβδομος ἄγγελος ἐσάλπισεν· καὶ ἐγένοντο φωναὶ μεγάλαι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, λέγοντες Ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κόσμου τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ τοῦ χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ, καὶ βασιλεύσει εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.
20.4. Καὶεἶδον θρόνους,καὶἐκάθισανἐπʼ αὐτούς,καὶ κρίμͅα ἐδόθηαὐτοῖς, καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν πεπελεκισμένων διὰ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ καὶ διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ οἵτινες οὐ προσεκύνησαν τὸ θηρίον οὐδὲ τὴν εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἔλαβον τὸ χάραγμα ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν χεῖρα αὐτῶν· καὶ ἔζησαν καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν μετὰ τοῦ χριστοῦ χίλια ἔτη. 20.5. οἱ λοιποὶ τῶν νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔζησαν ἄχρι τελεσθῇ τὰ χίλια ἔτη. αὕτη ἡ ἀνάστασις ἡ πρώτη.' '. None
1.1. This is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things which must happen soon, which he sent and made known by his angel to his servant, John,
1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 1.6. and he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father; to him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen. 1.7. Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, including those who pierced him. All the tribes of the earth will mourn over him. Even so, Amen.

1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades.
5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation, 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth."
5.12. saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb who has been killed to receive the power, riches, wisdom, might, honor, glory, and blessing!" 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen."
7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb\'s blood. 1
1.15. The seventh angel sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ. He will reign forever and ever!"' "
20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years." "20.5. The rest of the dead didn't live until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. " '. None
48. New Testament, Colossians, 1.16, 1.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood of Christ Jesus • Sprinkling of the Blood of Christ • blood • blood, of Christ

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 91; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 164; Vinzent (2013) 46

1.16. ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, τὰ ὁρατὰ καὶ τὰ ἀόρατα, εἴτε θρόνοι εἴτε κυριότητες εἴτε ἀρχαὶ εἴτε ἐξουσίαι· τὰ πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται·
1.20. καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ ἀποκαταλλάξαι τὰ πάντα εἰς αὐτόν, εἰρηνοποιήσας διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ σταυροῦ αὐτοῦ, διʼ αὐτοῦ εἴτε τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εἴτε τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·''. None
1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him.
1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. ''. None
49. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, of Christ

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 91; Vinzent (2013) 46

1.7. ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων,''. None
1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace, ''. None
50. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.1, 6.4-6.6, 7.3, 7.12, 7.24-7.26, 9.11-9.12, 9.22, 13.9-13.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood of Christ Jesus • blood • blood, as means of atonement/purification • blood, manipulation of • blood, of Christ • blood, social body • tossing of blood (zeriqah) • work of blood (avodat ha-dam)

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 71, 91, 92; Blidstein (2017) 77, 193; Levison (2009) 231; Maier and Waldner (2022) 19, 35; McGowan (1999) 236; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 156; Vinzent (2013) 53, 55, 56

5.1. Πᾶς γὰρ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐξ ἀνθρώπων λαμβανόμενος ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων καθίσταται τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, ἵνα προσφέρῃ δῶρά τε καὶ θυσίας ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτιῶν,
6.4. Ἀδύνατον γὰρ τοὺς ἅπαξ φωτισθέντας γευσαμένους τε τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς ἐπουρανίου καὶ μετόχους γενηθέντας πνεύματος ἁγίου 6.5. καὶ καλὸν γευσαμένους θεοῦ ῥῆμα δυνάμεις τε μέλλοντος αἰῶνος, 6.6. καὶ παραπεσόντας, πάλιν ἀνακαινίζειν εἰς μετάνοιαν, ἀνασταυροῦντας ἑαυτοῖς τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ παραδειγματίζοντας.
7.3. ἀπάτωρ, ἀμήτωρ, ἀγενεαλόγητος, μήτε ἀρχὴν ἡμερῶν μήτε ζωῆς τέλος ἔχων, ἀφωμοιωμένος δὲ τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ θεοῦ, μένειἱερεὺςεἰς τὸ διηνεκές.
7.12. μετατιθεμένης γὰρ τῆς ἱερωσύνης ἐξ ἀνάγκης καὶ νόμου μετάθεσις γίνεται.
7.24. ὁ δὲ διὰ τὸ μένειν αὐτὸνεἰς τὸν αἰῶναἀπαράβατον· ἔχει τὴν ἱερωσύνην· 7.25. ὅθεν καὶ σώζειν εἰς τὸ παντελὲς δύναται τοὺς προσερχομένους διʼ αὐτοῦ τῷ θεῷ, πάντοτε ζῶν εἰς τὸ ἐντυγχάνειν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν. 7.26. Τοιοῦτος γὰρ ἡμῖν καὶ ἔπρεπεν ἀρχιερεύς, ὅσιος, ἄκακος, ἀμίαντος, κεχωρισμένος ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν, καὶ ὑψηλότερος τῶν οὐρανῶν γενόμενος·
9.11. Χριστὸς δὲ παραγενόμενος ἀρχιερεὺς τῶν γενομένων ἀγαθῶν διὰ τῆς μείζονος καὶ τελειοτέρας σκηνῆς οὐ χειροποιήτου, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν οὐ ταύτης τῆς κτίσεως, 9.12. οὐδὲ διʼ αἵματος τράγων καὶ μόσχων διὰ δὲ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος, εἰσῆλθεν ἐφάπαξ εἰς τὰ ἅγια, αἰωνίαν λύτρωσιν εὑράμενος.
9.22. καὶ σχεδὸν ἐν αἵματι πάντα καθαρίζεται κατὰ τὸν νόμον, καὶ χωρὶς αἱματεκχυσίας οὐ γίνεται ἄφεσις.
13.9. καλὸν γὰρ χάριτι βεβαιοῦσθαι τὴν καρδίαν, οὐ βρώμασιν, ἐν οἷς οὐκ ὠφελήθησαν οἱ περιπατοῦντες. 13.10. ἔχομεν θυσιαστήριον ἐξ οὗ φαγεῖν οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἐξουσίαν οἱ τῇ σκηνῇ λατρεύοντες. 13.11. ὧν γὰρεἰσφέρεταιζῴωντὸ αἷμα περὶ ἁμαρτίας εἰς τὰ ἅγιαδιὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, τούτων τὰ σώματακατα καίεται ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς· 13.12. διὸ καὶ Ἰησοῦς, ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος τὸν λαόν, ἔξω τῆς πύλης ἔπαθεν. 13.13. τοίνυν ἐξερχώμεθα πρὸς αὐτὸνἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς,τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν αὐτοῦ φέροντες, 13.14. οὐ γὰρ ἔχομεν ὧδε μένουσαν πόλιν, ἀλλὰ τὴν μέλλουσαν ἐπιζητοῦμεν·''. None
5.1. For every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins.
6.4. For concerning those who were once enlightened and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Spirit, 6.5. and tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the age to come, 6.6. and then fell away, it is impossible to renew them again to repentance; seeing they crucify the Son of God for themselves again, and put him to open shame.
7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually.
7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law.
7.24. But he, because he lives forever, has his priesthood unchangeable. 7.25. Therefore he is also able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through him, seeing he ever lives to make intercession for them. 7.26. For such a high priest was fitting for us: holy, guiltless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;
9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation, 9.12. nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the Holy Place, having obtained eternal redemption.
9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission. ' "
13.9. Don't be carried away by various and strange teachings, for it is good that the heart be established by grace, not by food, through which those who were so occupied were not benefited. " '13.10. We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat. 13.11. For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp. 13.12. Therefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people through his own blood, suffered outside of the gate. 13.13. Let us therefore go forth to him outside of the camp, bearing his reproach. ' "13.14. For we don't have here an enduring city, but we seek that which is to come. "'. None
51. New Testament, Philippians, 2.10-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood of Christ Jesus • blood

 Found in books: Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 169; Vinzent (2013) 41

2.10. ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦπᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃἐπουρανίων καὶ ἐπιγείων καὶ καταχθονίων, 2.11. καὶ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσηταιὅτι ΚΥΡΙΟΣ ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ εἰς δόξανθεοῦπατρός.''. None
2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth, 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. ''. None
52. New Testament, Romans, 1.1-1.4, 6.2-6.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 193; Lynskey (2021) 117; Vinzent (2013) 34, 52, 67, 153

1.1. ΠΑΥΛΟΣ δοῦλος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, κλητὸς ἀπόστολος, ἀφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ 1.2. ὃ προεπηγγείλατο διὰ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν γραφαῖς ἁγίαις 1.3. περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, τοῦ γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυεὶδ κατὰ σάρκα, 1.4. τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει κατὰ πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης ἐξ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν,
6.2. μὴ γένοιτο· οἵτινες ἀπεθάνομεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, πῶς ἔτι ζήσομεν ἐν αὐτῇ; 6.3. ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε ὅτι ὅσοι ἐβαπτίσθημεν εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ἐβαπτίσθημεν; 6.4. συνετάφημεν οὖν αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος εἰς τὸν θάνατον, ἵνα ὥσπερ ἠγέρθη Χριστὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν διὰ τῆς δόξης τοῦ πατρός, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατήσωμεν. 6.5. εἰ γὰρ σύμφυτοι γεγόναμεν τῷ ὁμοιώματι τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως ἐσόμεθα· 6.6. τοῦτο γινώσκοντες ὅτι ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος συνεσταυρώθη, ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας, τοῦ μηκέτι δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ,''. None
1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, 1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, 1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,
6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? ' "6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? " '6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. ''. None
53. New Testament, John, 1.13, 2.19-2.21, 4.13-4.14, 6.53-6.56, 19.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood, menstrual • blood • blood, of Christ • covenant, and blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 174, 175; Blidstein (2017) 78; Levison (2009) 373, 374, 376; Lynskey (2021) 117; McGowan (1999) 236; Van der Horst (2014) 14; Vinzent (2013) 41, 95, 104

1.13. οἳ οὐκ ἐξ αἱμάτων οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρὸς ἀλλʼ ἐκ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν.
2.19. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Λύσατε τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον καὶ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερῶ αὐτόν. 2.20. εἶπαν οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι Τεσσεράκοντα καὶ ἓξ ἔτεσιν οἰκοδομήθη ὁ ναὸς οὗτος, καὶ σὺ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερεῖς αὐτόν; 2.21. ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἔλεγεν περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ.
4.13. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Πᾶς ὁ πίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος τούτου διψήσει πάλιν· 4.14. ὃς δʼ ἂν πίῃ ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος οὗ ἐγὼ δώσω αὐτῷ, οὐ μὴ διψήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ ὃ δώσω αὐτῷ γενήσεται ἐν αὐτῷ πηγὴ ὕδατος ἁλλομένου εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον.
6.53. εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς. 6.54. ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον, κἀγὼ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ· 6.55. ἡ γὰρ σάρξ μου ἀληθής ἐστι βρῶσις, καὶ τὸ αἷμά μου ἀληθής ἐστι πόσις. 6.56. ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἐν ἐμοὶ μένει κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ.
19.34. ἀλλʼ εἷς τῶν στρατιωτῶν λόγχῃ αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευρὰν ἔνυξεν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν εὐθὺς αἷμα καὶ ὕδωρ.''. None
1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up." 2.20. The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days?" 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body.
4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again, 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life."
6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don\'t have life in yourselves. 6.54. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6.56. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him.
19.34. However one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out. ''. None
54. New Testament, Luke, 11.51, 22.18-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood of Christ Jesus • blood • blood, innocent, avenging of • blood, of Christ

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 90, 175; Estes (2020) 325; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 108; Kalmin (2014) 154; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 156

11.51. ἀπὸ αἵματος Ἅβελ ἕως αἵματος Ζαχαρίου τοῦ ἀπολομένου μεταξὺ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου καὶ τοῦ οἴκου· ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐκζητηθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης.
22.18. λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως οὗ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἔλθῃ. 22.19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου ⟦τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 22.20. καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὡσαύτως μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον⟧.''. None
11.51. from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. " '
22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes." 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me." 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. '". None
55. New Testament, Mark, 14.22-14.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, of Christ

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 90, 175; Estes (2020) 325

14.22. Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν Λάβετε, τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου. 14.23. καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες. 14.24. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶν·''. None
14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body." 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. ''. None
56. New Testament, Matthew, 23.35, 26.26, 26.28, 27.3-27.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • Blood of Christ Jesus • Field of Blood • Hakeldama, Field of Blood • Jesus, Christ, body and blood, • blood, innocent, avenging of • blood, of Christ • the thirty pieces of silver, and Field of Blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 175; Bowersock (1997) 126; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 108; Kalmin (2014) 142, 154; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 330; Scopello (2008) 75; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 156

23.35. ὅπως ἔλθῃ ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς πᾶν αἱμα δίκαιον ἐκχυννόμενον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ αἵματος Ἅβελ τοῦ δικαίου ἕως τοῦ αἵματος Ζαχαρίου υἱοῦ Βαραχίου, ὅν ἐφονεύσατε μεταξὺ τοῦ ναοῦ καὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου.
26.26. Ἐσθιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν λαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἄρτον καὶ εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ δοὺς τοῖς μαθηταῖς εἶπεν Λάβετε φάγετε, τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου.
26.28. Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν·
27.3. Τότε ἰδὼν Ἰούδας ὁ παραδοὺς αὐτὸν ὅτι κατεκρίθη μεταμεληθεὶς ἔστρεψεν τὰ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ πρεσβυτέροις λέγων Ἥμαρτον παραδοὺς αἷμα δίκαιον. 27.4. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Τί πρὸς ἡμᾶς; σὺ ὄψῃ. 27.5. καὶ ῥίψας τὰ ἀργύρια εἰς τὸν ναὸν ἀνεχώρησεν, καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἀπήγξατο. 27.6. Οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς λαβόντες τὰ ἀργύρια εἶπαν Οὐκ ἔξεστιν βαλεῖν αὐτὰ εἰς τὸν κορβανᾶν, ἐπεὶ τιμὴ αἵματός ἐστιν· 27.7. συμβούλιον δὲ λαβόντες ἠγόρασαν ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν Ἀγρὸν τοῦ Κεραμέως εἰς ταφὴν τοῖς ξένοις. 27.8. διὸ ἐκλήθη ὁ ἀγρὸς ἐκεῖνος Ἀγρὸς Αἵματος ἕως τῆς σήμερον.''. None
23.35. that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar.
26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body."
26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins.
27.3. Then Judas, who betrayed him, when he saw that Jesus was condemned, felt remorse, and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, 27.4. saying, "I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood."But they said, "What is that to us? You see to it." 27.5. He threw down the pieces of silver in the sanctuary, and departed. He went away and hanged himself. 27.6. The chief priests took the pieces of silver, and said, "It\'s not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood."' "27.7. They took counsel, and bought the potter's field with them, to bury strangers in. " '27.8. Therefore that field was called "The Field of Blood" to this day. ''. None
57. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood • blood

 Found in books: Porton (1988) 167; Rosenblum (2016) 98

58. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • covenant, and blood

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 174; Vinzent (2013) 34

59. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • menstruation / menstrual blood • menstruation, special powers of menstrual blood

 Found in books: Janowitz (2002) 92; Kazantzidis (2021) 113, 114

60. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 13, 111 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, as means of atonement/purification • blood, of Christ

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 92; Blidstein (2017) 193; Vinzent (2013) 175, 223

13. Justin: For Isaiah did not send you to a bath, there to wash away murder and other sins, which not even all the water of the sea were sufficient to purge; but, as might have been expected, this was that saving bath of the olden time which followed those who repented, and who no longer were purified by the blood of goats and of sheep, or by the ashes of an heifer, or by the offerings of fine flour, but by faith through the blood of Christ, and through His death, who died for this very reason, as Isaiah himself said, when he spoke thus: The Lord shall make bare His holy arm in the eyes of all the nations, and all the nations and the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of God. Depart, depart, depart, go out from thence, and touch no unclean thing; go out of the midst of her, be clean that bear the vessels of the Lord, for you go not with haste. For the Lord shall go before you; and the Lord, the God of Israel, shall gather you together. Behold, my servant shall deal prudently; and He shall be exalted, and be greatly glorified. As many were astonished at You, so Your form and Your glory shall be marred more than men. So shall many nations be astonished at Him, and the kings shall shut their mouths; for that which had not been told them concerning Him shall they see, and that which they had not heard shall they consider. Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We have announced Him as a child before Him, as a root in a dry ground. He has no form or comeliness, and when we saw Him He had no form or beauty; but His form is dishonoured, and fails more than the sons of men. He is a man in affliction, and acquainted with bearing sickness, because His face has been turned away; He was despised, and we esteemed Him not. He bears our sins, and is distressed for us; and we esteemed Him to be in toil and in affliction, and in evil treatment. But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him. With His stripes we are healed. All we, like sheep, have gone astray. Every man has turned to his own way; and the Lord laid on Him our iniquities, and by reason of His oppression He opens not His mouth. He was brought as a sheep to the slaughter; and as a lamb before her shearer is dumb, so He opens not His mouth. In His humiliation His judgment was taken away. And who shall declare His generation? For His life is taken from the earth. Because of the transgressions of my people He came unto death. And I will give the wicked for His grave, and the rich for His death, because He committed no iniquity, and deceit was not found in His mouth. And the Lord wills to purify Him from affliction. If he has been given for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived seed. And the Lord wills to take His soul away from trouble, to show Him light, and to form Him in understanding, to justify the righteous One who serves many well. And He shall bear our sins; therefore He shall inherit many, and shall divide the spoil of the strong, because His soul was delivered to death; and He was numbered with the transgressors, and He bore the sins of many, and was delivered for their transgression. Sing, O barren, who bear not; break forth and cry aloud, you who do not travail in pain: for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife. For the Lord said, Enlarge the place of your tent and of your curtains; fix them, spare not, lengthen your cords, and strengthen your stakes; stretch forth to your right and your left; and your seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and you shall make the desolate cities to be inherited. Fear not because you are ashamed, neither be confounded because you have been reproached; for you shall forget everlasting shame, and shall not remember the reproach of your widowhood, because the Lord has made a name for Himself, and He who has redeemed you shall be called through the whole earth the God of Israel. The Lord has called you as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, as a woman hated from her youth.' " "
111. The two advents were signified by the two goats. Other figures of the first advent, in which the Gentiles are freed by the blood of Christ Justin: And that it was declared by symbol, even in the time of Moses, that there would be two advents of this Christ, as I have mentioned previously, is manifest from the symbol of the goats presented for sacrifice during the fast. And again, by what Moses and Joshua did, the same thing was symbolically announced and told beforehand. For the one of them, stretching out his hands, remained till evening on the hill, his hands being supported; and this reveals a type of no other thing than of the cross: and the other, whose name was altered to Jesus (Joshua), led the fight, and Israel conquered. Now this took place in the case of both those holy men and prophets of God, that you may perceive how one of them could not bear up both the mysteries: I mean, the type of the cross and the type of the name. For this is, was, and shall be the strength of Him alone, whose name every power dreads, being very much tormented because they shall be destroyed by Him. Therefore our suffering and crucified Christ was not cursed by the law, but made it manifest that He alone would save those who do not depart from His faith. And the blood of the passover, sprinkled on each man's door-posts and lintel, delivered those who were saved in Egypt, when the first-born of the Egyptians were destroyed. For the passover was Christ, who was afterwards sacrificed, as also Isaiah said, 'He was led as a sheep to the slaughter.' Isaiah 53:7 And it is written, that on the day of the passover you seized Him, and that also during the passover you crucified Him. And as the blood of the passover saved those who were in Egypt, so also the blood of Christ will deliver from death those who have believed. Would God, then, have been deceived if this sign had not been above the doors? I do not say that; but I affirm that He announced beforehand the future salvation for the human race through the blood of Christ. For the sign of the scarlet thread, which the spies, sent to Jericho by Joshua, son of Nave (Nun), gave to Rahab the harlot, telling her to bind it to the window through which she let them down to escape from their enemies, also manifested the symbol of the blood of Christ, by which those who were at one time harlots and unrighteous persons out of all nations are saved, receiving remission of sins, and continuing no longer in sin."". None
61. Tertullian, Apology, 9.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood, kept, prepared and consumed • Blood, on the altar • blood • blood rituals

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 77, 78; Ekroth (2013) 250

9.13. That I may refute more thoroughly these charges, I will show that in part openly, in part secretly, practices prevail among you which have led you perhaps to credit similar things about us. Children were openly sacrificed in Africa to Saturn as lately as the proconsulship of Tiberius, who exposed to public gaze the priests suspended on the sacred trees overshadowing their temple - so many crosses on which the punishment which justice craved overtook their crimes, as the soldiers of our country still can testify who did that very work for that proconsul. And even now that sacred crime still continues to be done in secret. It is not only Christians, you see, who despise you; for all that you do there is neither any crime thoroughly and abidingly eradicated, nor does any of your gods reform his ways. When Saturn did not spare his own children, he was not likely to spare the children of others; whom indeed the very parents themselves were in the habit of offering, gladly responding to the call which was made on them, and keeping the little ones pleased on the occasion, that they might not die in tears. At the same time, there is a vast difference between homicide and parricide. A more advanced age was sacrificed to Mercury in Gaul. I hand over the Tauric fables to their own theatres. Why, even in that most religious city of the pious descendants of Æneas, there is a certain Jupiter whom in their games they lave with human blood. It is the blood of a beast-fighter, you say. Is it less, because of that, the blood of a man? Or is it viler blood because it is from the veins of a wicked man? At any rate it is shed in murder. O Jove, yourself a Christian, and in truth only son of your father in his cruelty! But in regard to child murder, as it does not matter whether it is committed for a sacred object, or merely at one's own self-impulse - although there is a great difference, as we have said, between parricide and homicide - I shall turn to the people generally. How many, think you, of those crowding around and gaping for Christian blood, - how many even of your rulers, notable for their justice to you and for their severe measures against us, may I charge in their own consciences with the sin of putting their offspring to death? As to any difference in the kind of murder, it is certainly the more cruel way to kill by drowning, or by exposure to cold and hunger and dogs. A maturer age has always preferred death by the sword. In our case, murder being once for all forbidden, we may not destroy even the fœtus in the womb, while as yet the human being derives blood from other parts of the body for its sustece. To hinder a birth is merely a speedier man-killing; nor does it matter whether you take away a life that is born, or destroy one that is coming to the birth. That is a man which is going to be one; you have the fruit already in its seed. As to meals of blood and such tragic dishes, read - I am not sure where it is told (it is in Herodotus, I think)- how blood taken from the arms, and tasted by both parties, has been the treaty bond among some nations. I am not sure what it was that was tasted in the time of Catiline. They say, too, that among some Scythian tribes the dead are eaten by their friends. But I am going far from home. At this day, among ourselves, blood consecrated to Bellona, blood drawn from a punctured thigh and then partaken of, seals initiation into the rites of that goddess. Those, too, who at the gladiator shows, for the cure of epilepsy, quaff with greedy thirst the blood of criminals slain in the arena, as it flows fresh from the wound, and then rush off - to whom do they belong? Those, also, who make meals on the flesh of wild beasts at the place of combat - who have keen appetites for bear and stag? That bear in the struggle was bedewed with the blood of the man whom it lacerated: that stag rolled itself in the gladiator's gore. The entrails of the very bears, loaded with as yet undigested human viscera, are in great request. And you have men rifting up man-fed flesh? If you partake of food like this, how do your repasts differ from those you accuse us Christians of? And do those, who, with savage lust, seize on human bodies, do less because they devour the living? Have they less the pollution of human blood on them because they only lick up what is to turn into blood? They make meals, it is plain, not so much of infants, as of grown-up men. Blush for your vile ways before the Christians, who have not even the blood of animals at their meals of simple and natural food; who abstain from things strangled and that die a natural death, for no other reason than that they may not contract pollution, so much as from blood secreted in the viscera. To clench the matter with a single example, you tempt Christians with sausages of blood, just because you are perfectly aware that the thing by which you thus try to get them to transgress they hold unlawful. And how unreasonable it is to believe that those, of whom you are convinced that they regard with horror the idea of tasting the blood of oxen, are eager after blood of men; unless, perhaps, you have tried it, and found it sweeter to the taste! Nay, in fact, there is here a test you should apply to discover Christians, as well as the fire-pan and the censer. They should be proved by their appetite for human blood, as well as by their refusal to offer sacrifice; just as otherwise they should be affirmed to be free of Christianity by their refusal to taste of blood, as by their sacrificing; and there would be no want of blood of men, amply supplied as that would be in the trial and condemnation of prisoners. Then who are more given to the crime of incest than those who have enjoyed the instruction of Jupiter himself? Ctesias tells us that the Persians have illicit intercourse with their mothers. The Macedonians, too, are suspected on this point; for on first hearing the tragedy of Œdipus they made mirth of the incest-doer's grief, exclaiming, &". None
62. Tertullian, On Baptism, 16.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • baptism, of blood • by John the Baptist, of blood

 Found in books: Hellholm et al. (2010) 1685; Tabbernee (2007) 247

16.2. We have indeed, likewise, a second font, (itself withal one with the former,) of blood, to wit; concerning which the Lord said, I have to be baptized with a baptism, when He had been baptized already. For He had come by means of water and blood, 1 John 5:6 just as John has written; that He might be baptized by the water, glorified by the blood; to make us, in like manner, called by water, chosen by blood. These two baptisms He sent out from the wound in His pierced side, in order that they who believed in His blood might be bathed with the water; they who had been bathed in the water might likewise drink the blood. This is the baptism which both stands in lieu of the fontal bathing when that has not been received, and restores it when lost. ''. None
63. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Zechariah, son of Jehoiada and blood vengeance • Zechariah, tale of the blood of

 Found in books: Matthews (2010) 108; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 331

57b. אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים בבקעה זו הרג נבוזראדן רב טבחים מאתים ואחת עשרה רבוא ובירושלים הרג תשעים וארבע רבוא על אבן אחת עד שהלך דמן ונגע בדמו של זכריה לקיים מה שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) ודמים בדמים נגעו,אשכחיה לדמיה דזכריה דהוה קא מרתח וסליק אמר מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים דאשתפוך אייתי דמי ולא אידמו,אמר להו אי אמריתו לי מוטב ואי לאו מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזלי אמרי ליה מאי נימא לך נבייא הוה בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיא קמינן עילויה וקטלינן ליה והא כמה שנין דלא קא נייח דמיה,אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי סנהדרי גדולה וסנהדרי קטנה קטל עילויה ולא נח בחורים ובתולות קטל עילויה ולא נח אייתי תינוקות של בית רבן קטל עילויה ולא נח א"ל זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאבדינהו לכולהו כדאמר ליה הכי נח,בההיא שעתא הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר ומה אם על נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא דקטל כל הני נשמתא על אחת כמה וכמה ערק אזל שדר שטר פרטתא בביתיה ואגייר,תנא נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזראדן גר צדק היה,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תינוקות בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב למדו תורה ברבים מאן אינון שמעיה ואבטליון,היינו דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, ח) נתתי את דמה על צחיח סלע לבלתי הכסות,(בראשית כז, כב) הקול קול יעקב והידים ידי עשו הקול זה אדריינוס קיסר שהרג באלכסנדריא של מצרים ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא כפלים כיוצאי מצרים קול יעקב זה אספסיינוס קיסר שהרג בכרך ביתר ארבע מאות רבוא ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים רבוא והידים ידי עשו זו מלכות הרשעה שהחריבה את בתינו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,דבר אחר הקול קול יעקב אין לך תפלה שמועלת שאין בה מזרעו של יעקב והידים ידי עשו אין לך מלחמה שנוצחת שאין בה מזרעו של עשו,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר (איוב ה, כא) בשוט לשון תחבא בחירחורי לשון תחבא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלז, א) על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה לדוד חורבן בית ראשון וחורבן בית שני חורבן בית ראשון שנאמר על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בית שני דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה\' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים האומרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ואיתימא רבי אמי ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מעשה בד\' מאות ילדים וילדות שנשבו לקלון הרגישו בעצמן למה הן מתבקשים אמרו אם אנו טובעין בים אנו באין לחיי העולם הבא דרש להן הגדול שבהן (תהלים סח, כג) אמר ה\' מבשן אשיב אשיב ממצולות ים מבשן אשיב מבין שיני אריה אשיב ממצולות ים אלו שטובעין בים,כיון ששמעו ילדות כך קפצו כולן ונפלו לתוך הים נשאו ילדים ק"ו בעצמן ואמרו מה הללו שדרכן לכך כך אנו שאין דרכנו לכך על אחת כמה וכמה אף הם קפצו לתוך הים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים מד, כג) כי עליך הורגנו כל היום נחשבנו כצאן טבחה,ורב יהודה אמר זו אשה ושבעה בניה אתיוהו קמא לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה\' אלהיך אפקוהו וקטלוהו,ואתיוהו לאידך לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על פני אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כב, יט) זובח לאלהים יחרם אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות לד, יד) לא תשתחוה לאל אחר אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה\' אלהינו ה\' אחד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה\' הוא האלהים בשמים ממעל ועל הארץ מתחת אין עוד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים כו, יז) את ה\' האמרת וגו\' וה\' האמירך היום כבר נשבענו להקדוש ברוך הוא שאין אנו מעבירין אותו באל אחר ואף הוא נשבע לנו שאין מעביר אותנו באומה אחרת,א"ל קיסר אישדי לך גושפנקא וגחין ושקליה כי היכי דלימרו קביל עליה הרמנא דמלכא א"ל חבל עלך קיסר חבל עלך קיסר על כבוד עצמך כך על כבוד הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,אפקוהו למיקטליה אמרה להו אימיה יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתא אמרה לו בניי לכו ואמרו לאברהם אביכם אתה עקדת מזבח אחד ואני עקדתי שבעה מזבחות אף היא עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,ר\' יהושע בן לוי אמר זו מילה שניתנה בשמיני ר\' שמעון בן לקיש אמר אלו ת"ח שמראין הלכות שחיטה בעצמן דאמר רבא כל מילי ליחזי איניש בנפשיה בר משחיטה ודבר אחר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שממיתין עצמן על דברי תורה כדר\' שמעון בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליהם שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל וגו\' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ארבעים סאה''. None
57b. § With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: An old man from among the inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valley that lies before you, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, killed 2,110,000 people. And in Jerusalem itself he killed 940,000 people on one stone, until the blood of his victims flowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: “And blood touches blood” (Hosea 4:2).,The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan found the blood of Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw that it was bubbling up from the ground, and he said: What is this? Those in the Temple said to him: It is sacrificial blood that had been poured there. He brought animal blood, compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, and saw that it was not similar to it.,Nebuzaradan said to them: If you tell me whose blood this is, it will be well for you. But if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters, and we rose up against him, and killed him (II\xa0Chronicles 24:20–22), and for many years now his blood has not settled.,Nebuzaradan said to them: I will appease Zechariah. He brought the members of the Great Sanhedrin and of a lesser Sanhedrin and killed them alongside the bubbling blood, but it still did not settle. He then brought young men and virgins and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. He then brought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, but it still did not settle. Finally Nebuzaradan said to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them. Would it please you if I destroyed them all? When he said this, the blood at last settled.,At that moment Nebuzaradan contemplated the idea of repentance and said to himself: If, for the death of one soul, that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in this manner, then that man, that is to say, I, who has killed all of those souls, all the more so will be I be subject to great punishment from God. He fled, sent to his house a document detailing what was to be done with his property, and converted to Judaism.,A Sage taught a baraita relating to this matter: Naaman, commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II\xa0Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he was a ger toshav, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan, by contrast, was a convert, as explained previously.,The Gemara adds that some of Haman’s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak, and some of Sisera’s descendants taught children Torah in Jerusalem, and some of Sennacherib’s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they? They are Shemaya and Avtalyon, the teachers of Hillel the Elder.,As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, this is alluded to by that which is written: “I have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered” (Ezekiel 24:8).,§ Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: “The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau” (Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: “The voice”; this is the cry stirred up by the emperor Hadrian, who caused the Jewish people to cry out when he killed six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twice the number of men who left Egypt. “The voice of Jacob”; this is the cry aroused by the emperor Vespasian, who killed four million people in the city of Beitar. And some say: He killed forty million people. “And the hands are the hands of Esau”; this is the wicked kingdom of Rome that destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land.,Alternatively, “the voice is the voice of Jacob” means that no prayer is effective in the world unless some member of the seed of Jacob has a part in it. The second clause in the verse, “and the hands are the hands of Esau,” means that no war grants victory unless some member of the seed of Esau has a part in it.,And this is what Rabbi Elazar says: The verse that says: “You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue” (Job 5:21), means: You shall need to hide on account of quarrels provoked by the tongue. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “By the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion” (Psalms 137:1)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple. He saw the destruction of the First Temple, as it is stated: “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.” He saw the destruction of the Second Temple, as it is written later in that same psalm: “Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation” (Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, “the children of Edom.”,Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says, and some say that it was Rabbi Ami who says this, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives for the purpose of prostitution. These children sensed on their own what they were expected to do, and they said: If we commit suicide and drown in the sea, will we come to eternal life in the World-to-Come? The oldest child among them expounded the verse: “The Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea” (Psalms 68:23). “I will bring back from Bashan,” i.e., from between the teeth bein shen of the lion, and “I will bring them back from the depths of the sea” is referring to those who drown in the sea for the sake of Heaven.,When the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boys then drew an a fortiori inference with regard to themselves and said: If these girls, for whom sexual intercourse with men is their natural way, act in such a manner, then we, for whom sexual intercourse with men is not our natural way, should all the more so conduct ourselves likewise. They too leapt into the sea. Concerning them and others like them the verse states: “As For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter” (Psalms 44:23).,And Rav Yehuda said: This verse applies to the woman and her seven sons who died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God’s name. The incident occurred as follows: They brought in the first of the woman’s sons before the emperor and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: “I am the Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2). They immediately took him out and killed him.,And they then brought in another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: “You shall have no other gods beside Me” (Exodus 20:3). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son before the emperor, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: “He that sacrifices to any god, save to the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed” (Exodus 22:19). And so they took him out and killed him.,They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: “You shall not bow down to any other god” (Exodus 34:14). And so they took him out and killed him. They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One” (Deuteronomy 6:4). And so they took him out and killed him.,They then brought in another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: “Know therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other” (Deuteronomy 4:39). And so they took him out and killed him.,They then brought in yet another son, and said to him: Worship the idol. He said to them: I cannot do so, as it is written in the Torah: “You have avouched the Lord this day to be your God…and the Lord has avouched you this day to be a people for His own possession” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). We already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation.,It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy’s life, the emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so that people will say that he has accepted the king’s authority harmana. The boy said to him: Woe ḥaval to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar. If you think that for the sake of your honor I should fulfill your command and do this, then for the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so should I fulfill His command.,As they were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound one son to the altar, but I bound seven altars. She too in the end went up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “A joyful mother of children” (Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says concerning the verse: “For Your sake we are killed all the day long” (Psalms 44:23), that this is referring to circumcision, which was given for the eighth day, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covet with God. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This verse was stated in reference to Torah scholars who demonstrate the halakhot of slaughter on themselves, meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is as Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himself to illustrate the act except for slaughter and another matter, a euphemism for sexual intercourse.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: These people in the verse are Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: “This is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent” (Numbers 19:14). Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: Forty se’a''. None
64. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • menstrual blood

 Found in books: Feder (2022) 229; Rosenblum (2016) 113

31a. גידפי דמיפרמי,והא בעי כסוי וכי תימא דמכסו ליה והאמר רבי זירא אמר רב השוחט צריך שיתן עפר למטה ועפר למעלה שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יג) וכסהו בעפר עפר לא נאמר אלא בעפר מלמד שהשוחט צריך שיתן עפר למטה ועפר למעלה,דמזמין ליה לעפר דכולה פתקא:,היה שוחט והתיז וכו\': אמר רבי זירא מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר,איבעיא להו מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר כמלא צואר דהוו לה תרי צוארי או דלמא מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר משהו,תא שמע היה שוחט והתיז שני ראשין בבת אחת אם יש לסכין מלא צואר אחד כשר מאי מלא צואר אחד אילימא מלא צואר אחד ותו לא השתא בבהמה אחת בעינן מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר בשתי בהמות סגי להו כמלא צואר אחד אלא פשיטא מלא צואר חוץ לשני צוארין,ש"מ מלא צואר חוץ לצואר ש"מ:,בד"א בזמן שהוליך ולא הביא וכו\': אמר רב מנשה באיזמל שאין לו קרנים,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב אויא לרב מנשה מחטא מאי אמר ליה מחטא מבזע בזע,מחטא דאושכפי מאי אמר ליה תנינא אפילו כל שהוא מאי לאו מחטא דאושכפי לא איזמל איזמל בהדיא קתני לה פרושי קא מפרש מאי כל שהו איזמל,ה"נ מסתברא דאי ס"ד מחטא דאושכפי השתא מחטא דאושכפי שריא איזמל מיבעיא איזמל אצטריכא ליה ס"ד אמינא ליגזר איזמל שאין לו קרנים אטו איזמל שיש לו קרנים קא משמע לן:,
31a. that the feathers at the front of the neck were unraveled by the arrow, a clear indication that slaughter was performed from the front of the neck.,The Gemara notes another difficulty encountered in the slaughter of a flying bird with an arrow. But doesn’t the bird’s blood require covering with earth? And if you would say that Rabbi Yona bar Taḥlifa covers the blood, but doesn’t Rabbi Zeira say that Rav says: In fulfilling the mitzva of covering the blood, one who slaughters an undomesticated animal or bird must place earth beneath the blood and earth above it, as it is stated: “He shall spill its blood, and cover it in earth” (Leviticus 17:13). It is not stated: Cover it with earth, but rather “in earth.” This teaches that one who slaughters must place earth beneath the blood and earth above the blood, so that the blood will be within the earth.,The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yona bar Taḥlifa would designate for himself the earth of the entire valley patka before shooting the arrow. That earth would serve as the layer of earth beneath the blood and he would proceed to cover the blood with another layer of earth.,§ The mishna teaches: In a case where one was in the process of slaughtering the animal in the standard manner and he decapitated the animal in one motion, if the length of the knife is equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s entire neck, the slaughter is valid. Rabbi Zeira says: The knife must be equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s entire neck and extend beyond the neck.,A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Did Rabbi Zeira mean: Equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s entire neck and extend beyond the neck by an amount equivalent to the breadth of the entire neck, in which case the length of the knife would equal the breadth of two necks? Or perhaps he meant: Equivalent to the breadth of the entire neck and beyond the neck by any amount?,The Gemara suggests: Come and hear proof to resolve the dilemma from the continuation of the mishna: If one was in the process of slaughtering two animals simultaneously, and he decapitated two heads in one motion, if the length of the knife is equivalent to the breadth of an entire neck of one of the animals the slaughter is valid. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: The breadth of an entire neck of one of the animals? If we say that it means the breadth of one entire neck and nothing more, that is difficult. Now, for the slaughter of one animal, we require that the knife be equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s entire neck and extend beyond the neck; for the slaughter of two animals, is it possible that a knife whose length is equivalent to the breadth of one animal’s entire neck would be sufficient? Rather, it is obvious that it means that the length of the knife must be equivalent to the breadth of one entire neck beyond the breadth of two necks.,The Gemara suggests: Learn from the mishna that Rabbi Zeira means that the length of the knife must be equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s entire neck and extend beyond the neck by the breadth of the entire neck. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this was Rabbi Zeira’s intent.,§ The mishna continues: In what case is this statement said? It is when one drew the knife back and did not draw it forth, or drew it forth and did not draw it back. But if he drew it back and forth, even if the knife was of any length, even if he slaughtered with a scalpel, the slaughter is valid. Rav Menashe said: This is the halakha in the case of a scalpel that does not have protrusions from the sides. If there are protrusions, since the scalpel is short, there is concern that the corners may perforate the simanim or enter between the simanim and invalidate the slaughter.,Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Avya, said to Rav Menashe: What is the halakha with regard to slaughter with a needle? Rav Menashe said to him: A needle pierces the simanim, as it perforates the neck instead of cutting it.,Rav Aḥa then asked Rav Menashe: What is the halakha with regard to slaughtering with a cobbler’s needle, which is flat and has sharp sides? Rav Menashe said to him: We already learn in the mishna: Even if the knife was of any length, the slaughter is valid. What, is it not referring to slaughter with a cobbler’s needle? The Gemara responds: No. The reference is to slaughtering with a scalpel, which is larger than a cobbler’s needle. The Gemara objects: The tanna teaches the case of a scalpel explicitly in the mishna. Therefore, the phrase in the mishna: A knife of any length, must be referring to an item smaller than a scalpel. The Gemara explains: The subsequent mention of the scalpel is explaining the phrase: Even if the knife was of any length. What is the knife of any length with which slaughter is valid? It is a scalpel.,This too stands to reason, as, if it enters your mind that the phrase: A knife of any length, is referring to a cobbler’s needle, now that it is permitted to slaughter with a cobbler’s needle, is it necessary for the tanna to teach that it is permitted to slaughter with a scalpel, which is larger than a cobbler’s needle? The Gemara rejects that reasoning: It is necessary for the mishna to teach both the case of a cobbler’s needle and the case of a scalpel, as it could enter your mind to say that it is prohibited to slaughter with a scalpel even though it is permitted to slaughter with a cobbler’s needle. The reasoning for this distinction would be: Let the Sages issue a decree prohibiting the use of a scalpel with no protrusions due to the prohibition against using a scalpel with protrusions. Therefore, the tanna teaches us that there is no decree and it is permitted to slaughter with a scalpel that has no protrusions.,a knife fell and slaughtered an animal, although the knife slaughtered the animal in the standard manner, the slaughter is not valid, as it is stated: “And you shall slaughter…and you shall eat” (Deuteronomy 27:7), from which it is derived: That which you slaughter you may eat, and that which was slaughtered on its own, you may not eat.,The reason the slaughter is not valid is that the knife fell. But by inference, if one dropped the knife the slaughter is valid, and that is the halakha even though when dropping the knife he did not intend to slaughter the animal.,The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who holds that we do not require intent for slaughter? Rava said: It is Rabbi Natan, as Oshaya, the youngest of the company of Sages, taught a baraita: If one threw a knife to embed it in the wall and in the course of its flight the knife went and slaughtered an animal in its proper manner, Rabbi Natan deems the slaughter valid and the Rabbis deem the slaughter not valid. Oshaya teaches the baraita and he says about it: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan that there is no need for intent to perform a valid act of slaughter.,The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rava already say it one time that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan? As we learned in a mishna (2a): And with regard to any of them, a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor, who slaughtered an animal and others see and supervise them, their slaughter is valid even though they are incapable of intent. And we said: Who is the tanna who holds that we do not require intent for slaughter? And Rava said: It is Rabbi Natan.,The Gemara answers: Both statements are necessary. As had Rava taught us his statement there with regard to a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, one would have thought that the slaughter is valid due to the fact that although the individual lacks intent to slaughter the animal, he intends his action for the sake of cutting in general. But here, with regard to throwing a knife at the wall, where he does not intend to cut at all, say no, the slaughter is not valid.,And had Rava taught us his statement here with regard to throwing the knife, one would have thought that the slaughter is valid is due to the fact that it comes due to the action of a mentally competent person. But there, with regard to slaughter by a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor, where the slaughter does not come due to the action of a mentally competent person, say that the slaughter is not valid. Therefore, it is necessary for Rava to teach both cases.,§ The mishna is now cited as proof in an amoraic dispute. It was stated: With regard to a menstruating woman who, after the menstrual flow ended, was compelled against her will and immersed in a ritual bath, Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: She is ritually pure vis-à-vis her house, i.e., it is permitted for her to engage in intercourse with her husband, but it is prohibited for her to partake of teruma because the immersion is not considered valid for that purpose. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: She was not purified even vis-à-vis her house.,Rava said to Rav Naḥman: According to the opinion of Rav, who says that she is ritually pure vis-à-vis her house but it is prohibited for her to partake of teruma, it is difficult. With regard to a transgression punishable by karet, i.e., intercourse with a menstruating woman, she was rendered permitted by immersion against her will; with regard to partaking of teruma, a prohibition punishable by death at the hand of Heaven, which is a lesser punishment, is it necessary to say that it is permitted for her through immersion against her will? Why then does Rav deem it prohibited for her to partake of teruma?,Rav Naḥman said to him: The halakhic status of her husband is non-sacred, and non-sacred items do not require intent for purification. And from where do you say so? It is as we learned in a mishna (Mikvaot 5:6): In the case of a wave that was detached from the sea, and in it were forty se’a of water, and that wave fell on an impure person or on impure vessels, they are ritually pure. What, is it not that a person is similar to vessels? Just as vessels do not intend to be purified and they are purified by the wave, so too, a person does not require intent in order to be purified.,The Gemara rejects that proof: From where is there proof that this is the meaning of the mishna? Perhaps we are dealing with the case of one who sits near the water and waits to determine when the wave will be detached, which is tantamount to having intent to immerse,''. None
65. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, of Isaiah

 Found in books: Kalmin (2014) 43; Libson (2018) 88

103b. (תהלים צא, יד) כי בי חשק ואפלטהו אשגבהו כי ידע שמי יקראני ואענהו עמו אנכי בצרה אחלצהו ואכבדהו אורך ימים אשביעהו ואראהו בישועתי,אמר ר"ש בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (איוב לח, טו) וימנע מרשעים אורם וזרוע רמה תשבר מפני מה עי"ן של רשעים תלויה כיון שנעשה אדם רש מלמטה נעשה רש מלמעלה,ולא נכתביה כלל ר\' יוחנן ור"א חד אמר מפני כבודו של דוד וחד אמר משום כבודו של נחמיה בן חכליה,תנו רבנן מנשה היה שונה חמשים וחמשה פנים בתורת כהנים כנגד שני מלכותו אחאב שמנים וחמשה ירבעם מאה ושלשה,תניא היה ר"מ אומר אבשלום אין לו חלק לעוה"ב שנאמר (שמואל ב יח, טו) ויכו את אבשלום וימיתוהו ויכוהו בעוה"ז וימיתוהו לעוה"ב תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ אחז ואחזיה וכל מלכי ישראל שכתוב בהן ויעש הרע בעיני ה\' לא חיין ולא נידונין,(מלכים ב כא, טז) וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה הרבה מאד עד אשר מלא את ירושלים פה לפה לבד מחטאתו אשר החטיא את יהודה לעשות הרע בעיני ה\' הכא תרגימו שהרג ישעיה במערבא אמרי שעשה צלם משאוי אלף בני אדם ובכל יום ויום הורג (את) כולם כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה שקולה נשמה של צדיק אחד כנגד כל העולם כולו כמ"ד ישעיה הרג,כתיב (דברי הימים ב לג, ז) פסל וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לג, כב) פסילים א"ר יוחנן בתחלה עשה לו פרצוף אחד ולבסוף עשה לו ארבעה פרצופים כדי שתראה שכינה ותכעוס,אחז העמידו בעלייה שנאמר (מלכים ב כג, יב) ואת המזבחות אשר על הגג עליית אחז וגו\' מנשה העמידו בהיכל שנאמר (מלכים ב כא, ז) וישם את פסל האשרה אשר עשה בבית אשר אמר ה\' אל דוד ואל שלמה בנו בבית הזה ובירושלים אשר בחרתי מכל שבטי ישראל אשים את שמי לעולם אמון הכניסו לבית קדשי הקדשים שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, כ) כי קצר המצע מהשתרע והמסכה צרה כהתכנס,מאי כי קצר המצע מהשתרע אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כי קצר המצע זה מלהשתרר עליו שני רעים כאחד מאי והמסכה צרה וגו\' אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני רבי יונתן כי הוה מטי להאי קרא הוה קא בכי מי שכתב בו (תהלים לג, ז) כונס כנד מי הים תעשה לו מסכה צרה,אחז בטל את העבודה וחתם את התורה שנאמר (ישעיהו ח, טז) צור תעודה חתום תורה בלמודי מנשה קדר את האזכרות והרס את המזבח אמון שרף את התורה והעלה שממית על גבי המזבח אחז התיר את הערוה מנשה בא על אחותו,אמון בא על אמו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לג, כג) כי הוא אמון הרבה אשמה רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר ששרף את התורה וחד אמר שבא על אמו אמרה לו אמו כלום יש לך הנאה ממקום שיצאת ממנו א"ל כלום אני עושה אלא להכעיס את בוראי,כי אתא יהויקים אמר קמאי לא ידעי לארגוזי כלום אנו צריכין אלא לאורו יש לנו זהב פרויים שאנו משתמשין בו יטול אורו אמרו לו והלא כסף וזהב שלו הוא שנאמר (חגי ב, ח) לי הכסף ולי הזהב נאם ה\' צבאות אמר להם כבר נתנו לנו שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה\' והארץ נתן לבני האדם,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי מפני מה לא מנו את יהויקים משום דכתיב ביה (דברי הימים ב לו, ח) ויתר דברי יהויקים ותועבותיו אשר עשה והנמצא עליו מאי והנמצא עליו רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר שחקק שם עבודת כוכבים על אמתו וחד אמר שחקק שם שמים על אמתו,א"ל במלכים לא שמעתי בהדיוטות שמעתי מפני מה לא מנו את מיכה מפני שפתו מצויה לעוברי דרכים שנאמר כל העובר ושב אל הלוים,(זכריה י, יא) ועבר בים צרה והכה בים גלים א"ר יוחנן זה פסלו של מיכה תניא רבי נתן אומר מגרב לשילה ג\' מילין והיה עשן המערכה ועשן פסל מיכה מתערבין זה בזה,בקשו מלאכי השרת לדוחפו אמר להן הקב"ה הניחו לו שפתו מצויה לעוברי דרכים ועל דבר זה נענשו אנשי פלגש בגבעה אמר להן הקב"ה בכבודי לא מחיתם על כבודו של בשר ודם מחיתם,א"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן קסמא גדולה לגימה שהרחיקה שתי משפחות מישראל שנאמר (דברים כג, ה) על דבר אשר לא קדמו אתכם בלחם ובמים ורבי יוחנן דידיה אמר מרחקת את הקרובים ומקרבת את הרחוקים ומעלמת עינים מן הרשעים ומשרה שכינה על נביאי הבעל ושגגתו עולה זדון,מרחקת את הקרובים''. None
103b. “Because he has desired Me, therefore I will deliver him; I will set him on high, because he has known My name. He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble; I will deliver him, and honor him. With long life I will satisfy him, and show him My salvation” (Psalms 91:14–16).,Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And He will withhold their light from the wicked resha’im, and the high arm shall be broken” (Job 38:15)? For what reason is the letter ayin of the word resha’im suspended slightly above the rest of the letters? It is suspended so that the word will be read rashim, meaning poor people. It means: Once a person becomes poor on earth below and the number of his enemies grows, he becomes poor in Heaven above, as he is certainly a sinner and that is why he is hated.,The Gemara challenges: If that is the meaning, let the ayin not be written at all and let the verse say: Rashim. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both explain why the ayin was not omitted. One says: It was due to the desire to preserve the honor of David, who had numerous enemies below despite the fact that he was a righteous person and had a place in the World-to-Come. And one says: It was due to the desire to preserve the honor of Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah, who also had numerous enemies below, despite his righteousness.,§ The Sages taught in a baraita: Manasseh, king of Judea, would study fifty-five different aspects in interpreting Torat Kohanim, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, corresponding to the years of his reign, indicating that he possessed great knowledge. Ahab was greater and studied eighty-five aspects, and Jeroboam was greater still and studied one hundred and three aspects.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: Absalom has no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And they smote Absalom and they killed him” (II\xa0Samuel 18:15). “And they smote Absalom” is referring to death in this world, while “and they killed him” is referring to death in the World-to-Come. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir: Ahaz and Ahaziah, kings of Judea, and all of the kings of the kingdom of Israel about whom it is written: “And he did evil in the eyes of the Lord” (see, e.g., I\xa0Kings 15:34), neither live in the World-to-Come nor are sentenced to Gehenna.,It is stated: “And Manasseh shed a great deal of innocent blood, until he filled Jerusalem from one end to another peh lafeh, beside his sin that he made Judea sin, to do evil in the eyes of the Lord” (II\xa0Kings 21:16). Here, in Babylonia, they interpret the verse to mean that he killed the prophet Isaiah (see Yevamot 49b). In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say that Manasseh crafted an idol so large that it was a burden requiring one thousand people to carry it, and each and every day he would require them to carry it, which would kill all of them. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabba bar bar Ḥana says: The soul of one righteous person is equal in value to the entire world? It is in accordance with the opinion of the one who says: He killed Isaiah.,It is written that Manasseh crafted “an idol” (II\xa0Chronicles 33:7), and it is written that Manasseh crafted “idols” (II\xa0Chronicles 33:19). Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initially, he crafted one face partzuf for the idol, and ultimately, he crafted four faces for it so that the Divine Presence would see it from each side and become angry.,Ahaz placed that idol in the upper chamber in the Temple, as it is stated: “And the altars that were on the roof of the upper chamber of Ahaz” (II\xa0Kings 23:12). Manasseh placed it in the Sanctuary itself, as it is stated: “And he set the graven image of the ashera that he had crafted, in that house of which the Lord said to David, and to Solomon his son: In this house, and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen from all the tribes of Israel, will I put My name forever” (II\xa0Kings 21:7). Amon introduced it into the Holy of Holies, as it is stated: “For the bed is too short for spreading, and the covering too narrow for when he gathers himself” (Isaiah 28:20).,What is the meaning of the phrase “For the bed is too short for spreading”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says that it means: For his bed is too narrow for two colleagues to spread upon it together, as it is impossible that service of God and idol worship will coexist there. What is the meaning of the phrase “and the covering masekha too narrow tzara for when he gathers himself kehitkanes”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: When Rabbi Yonatan would reach this verse he would cry. He about whom it is written: “He gathers kones the waters of the sea like a rampart” (Psalms 33:7), shall a graven image masekha be a rival tzara?,Ahaz nullified the Temple service and sealed the Torah, prohibiting its study, as it is stated: “Bind up the testimony, seal the Torah among my disciples” (Isaiah 8:16). Manasseh excised the mentions of God’s names from sacred books and destroyed the altar. Amon burned the Torah and sacrificed a gecko, an impure creeping animal, upon the altar. Ahaz permitted engaging in sexual intercourse with forbidden relatives, and announced that marriage between those relatives is permitted. Manasseh exploited that pronouncement and engaged in sexual intercourse with his sister.,Amon engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother, as it is stated: “But Amon increased his guilt” (II\xa0Chronicles 33:23), indicating that he performed a greater and more disgraceful transgression than anyone else. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar disagreed about his transgression; one says that he burned the Torah, and one says that he engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother. His mother said to him: Do you have any pleasure by engaging in intercourse from the place from which you emerged? He said to her: I am doing this only to express insolence to my Creator, not for my pleasure.,When Jehoiakim came along and reigned, he said: My predecessors did not know how to express insolence to God. Do we need God even for his light? Since we have parvayim gold that we use that shines, let God take His light from the world. They said to him: Aren’t the silver and the gold His, as it is stated: “The silver is mine and the gold is mine says the Lord of hosts” (Haggai 2:8)? Jehoiakim said to them: He has already given it to us, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord, but the earth He has given to the children of men” (Psalms 115:16).,§ Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: For what reason did the tanna’im not enumerate Jehoiakim among the kings who have no share in the World-to-Come? One would imagine that he has no share in the World-to-Come, because it is written concerning him: “And the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim and his abominations that he did, and that which was found on him” (II\xa0Chronicles 36:8). The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the phrase “and that which was found on him”? Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar disagree; one says that he etched the name of idols on his penis due to his devotion to them, and one says that he etched the name of Heaven on his penis in a display of contempt.,Rabba bar Mari said to Rava: With regard to the list of kings, I did not hear why Jehoiakim was excluded; but with regard to the list of commoners, I heard why a certain sinner was excluded. For what reason did the tanna’im not enumerate Micah among those with no share in the World-to-Come? After all, he crafted idols that the Jewish people worshipped (see Judges, chapter 17). It is due to the fact that his bread was available for passersby, as it is stated: All those who pass by the Levites. He would provide sustece to all hosted in his house.,With regard to that which is written: “And He shall pass through the sea with affliction and shall strike the waves in the sea” (Zechariah 10:11), Rabbi Yoḥa says: This affliction is a reference to the idol of Micah, as Micah passed through the sea during the exodus from Egypt. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: The distance from Gerav, where Micah resided, to Shiloh, where the Tabernacle was at that time, was three mil, and the smoke from the arrangement of wood on the altar in Shiloh and the smoke from the worship of the idol of Micah would intermingle with each other.,The ministering angels sought to dismiss him from the world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Leave him, as his bread is available for travelers. And it is for this matter, the sin of Micah’s idol, that the people involved in the incident of the concubine in Gibeah were punished. The tribes of Israel waged war with the tribe of Benjamin and forty thousand of them were killed. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: You did not protest for My honor and took no action to destroy Micah’s idol, but you protested for the honor of one of flesh and blood who was killed? Therefore, the other tribes were initially unsuccessful, and many of their soldiers were killed.,Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma: Great is eating, as it distanced two clans from the Jewish people, as it is stated: “An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord…because they met you not with bread and with water” (Deuteronomy 23:4–5). And Rabbi Yoḥa himself says: Food distances the near, and draws near the distant, and averts eyes from the wicked, sparing them from punishment, and causes the Divine Presence to rest on the prophets of the Baal; and an unwitting transgression with regard to it is at times considered an intentional transgression.,The Gemara elaborates: The fact that it distances the near is derived''. None
66. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.29 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 205; Rosenblum (2016) 154

8.29. But it is to be observed that the Jews, who claim for themselves a correct understanding of the law of Moses, carefully restrict their food to such things as are accounted clean, and abstain from those that are unclean. They also do not use in their food the blood of an animal nor the flesh of an animal torn by wild beasts, and some other things which it would take too long for us at present to detail. But Jesus, wishing to lead all men by His teaching to the pure worship and service of God, and anxious not to throw any hindrance in the way of many who might be benefited by Christianity, through the imposition of a burdensome code of rules in regard to food, has laid it down, that not that which goes into the mouth defiles a man, but that which comes out of the mouth; for whatsoever enters in at the mouth goes into the belly, and is cast out into the draught. But those things which proceed out of the mouth are evil thoughts when spoken, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies. Paul also says, Meat commends us not to God: for neither, if we eat, are we the better; neither, if we eat not, are we the worse. Wherefore, as there is some obscurity about this matter, without some explanation is given, it seemed good to the apostles of Jesus and the elders assembled together at Antioch, and also, as they themselves say, to the Holy Spirit, to write a letter to the Gentile believers, forbidding them to partake of those things from which alone they say it is necessary to abstain, namely, things offered to idols, things strangled, and blood. ''. None
67. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Zechariah, son of Jehoiada and blood vengeance • blood, embodied

 Found in books: Maier and Waldner (2022) 74; Matthews (2010) 108

68. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 71, 78, 192, 193; McGowan (1999) 180; Rosenblum (2016) 155

69. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.27-1.71 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 192, 193; McGowan (1999) 180; Vinzent (2013) 75, 95

1.27. In the beginning, when God had made the heaven and the earth, Genesis 1:1 as one house, the shadow which was cast by the mundane bodies involved in darkness those things which were enclosed in it. But when the will of God had introduced light, that darkness which had been caused by the shadows of bodies was straightway dispelled: then at length light is appointed for the day, darkness for the night. And now the water which was within the world, in the middle space of that first heaven and earth, congealed as if with frost, and solid as crystal, is distended, and the middle spaces of the heaven and earth are separated as by a firmament of this sort; and that firmament the Creator called heaven, so called by the name of that previously made: and so He divided into two portions that fabric of the universe, although it was but one house. The reason of the division was this, that the upper portion might afford a dwelling-place to angels, and the lower to men. After this, the place of the sea and the chaos which had been made received that portion of the water which remained below, by order of the eternal Will; and these flowing down to the sunk and hollow places, the dry land appeared; and the gatherings of the waters were made seas. And after this the earth, which had appeared, produced various species of herbs and shrubs. It gave forth fountains also, and rivers, not only in the plains, but on the mountains. And so all things were prepared, that men who were to dwell in it might have it in their power to use all these things according to their will, that is, either for good or evil. 1.28. After this He adorns that visible heaven with stars. He places in it also the sun and the moon, that the day might enjoy the light of the one, the night that of the other; and that at the same time they might be for an indication of things past, present, and future. For they were made for signs of seasons and of days, which, although they are seen indeed by all, are understood only by the learned and intelligent. And when, after this, He had ordered living creatures to be produced from the earth and the waters, He made Paradise, which also He named a place of delights. But after all these things He made man, on whose account He had prepared all things, whose internal species is older, and for whose sake all things that are were made, given up to his service, and assigned to the uses of his habitation. 1.29. All things therefore being completed which are in heaven, and in earth, and in the waters, and the human race also having multiplied, in the eighth generation, righteous men, who had lived the life of angels, being allured by the beauty of women, fell into promiscuous and illicit connections with these; and thenceforth acting in all things without discretion, and disorderly, they changed the state of human affairs and the divinely prescribed order of life, so that either by persuasion or force they compelled all men to sin against God their Creator. In the ninth generation are born the giants, so called from of old, not dragon-footed, as the fables of the Greeks relate, but men of immense bodies, whose bones, of enormous size, are still shown in some places for confirmation. But against these the righteous providence of God brought a flood upon the world, that the earth might be purified from their pollution, and every place might be turned into a sea by the destruction of the wicked. Yet there was then found one righteous man, by name Noah, who, being delivered in an ark with his three sons and their wives, became the colonizer of the world after the subsiding of the waters, with those animals and seeds which he had shut up with him. ' "1.30. In the twelfth generation, when God had blessed men, and they had begun to multiply, Genesis 9:1 they received a commandment that they should not taste blood, for on account of this also the deluge had been sent. In the thirteenth generation, when the second of Noah's three sons had done an injury to his father, and had been cursed by him, he brought the condition of slavery upon his posterity. His elder brother meantime obtained the lot of a dwelling-place in the middle region of the world, in which is the country of Jud a; the younger obtained the eastern quarter, and he the western. In the fourteenth generation one of the cursed progeny first erected an altar to demons, for the purpose of magical arts, and offered there bloody sacrifices. In the fifteenth generation, for the first time, men set up an idol and worshipped it. Until that time the Hebrew language, which had been given by God to men, bore sole sway. In the sixteenth generation the sons of men migrated from the east, and, coming to the lands that had been assigned to their fathers, each one marked the place of his own allotment by his own name. In the seventeenth generation Nimrod I. reigned in Babylonia, and built a city, and thence migrated to the Persians, and taught them to worship fire. " '1.31. In the eighteenth generation walled cities were built, armies were organized and armed, judges and laws were sanctioned, temples were built, and the princes of nations were adored as gods. In the nineteenth generation the descendants of him who had been cursed after the flood, going beyond their proper bounds which they had obtained by lot in the western regions, drove into the eastern lands those who had obtained the middle portion of the world, and pursued them as far as Persia, while themselves violently took possession of the country from which they expelled them. In the twentieth generation a son for the first time died before his father, Genesis 11:28 on account of an incestuous crime. ' "1.32. In the twenty-first generation there was a certain wise man, of the race of those who were expelled, of the family of Noah's eldest son, by name Abraham, from whom our Hebrew nation is derived. When the whole world was again overspread with errors, and when for the hideousness of its crimes destruction was ready for it, this time not by water, but fire, and when already the scourge was hanging over the whole earth, beginning with Sodom, this man, by reason of his friendship with God, who was well pleased with him, obtained from God that the whole world should not equally perish. From the first this same man, being an astrologer, was able, from the account and order of the stars, to recognise the Creator, while all others were in error, and understood that all things are regulated by His providence. Whence also an angel, standing by him in a vision, instructed him more fully concerning those things which he was beginning to perceive. He showed him also what belonged to his race and posterity, and promised him that those districts should be restored rather than given to them. " '1.33. Therefore Abraham, when he was desirous to learn the causes of things, and was intently pondering upon what had been told him, the true Prophet appeared to him, who alone knows the hearts and purpose of men, and disclosed to him all things which he desired. He taught him the knowledge of the Divinity; intimated the origin of the world, and likewise its end; showed him the immortality of the soul, and the manner of life which was pleasing to God; declared also the resurrection of the dead, the future judgment, the reward of the good, the punishment of the evil - all to be regulated by righteous judgment: and having given him all this information plainly and sufficiently, He departed again to the invisible abodes. But while Abraham was still in ignorance, as we said to you before, two sons were born to him, of whom the one was called Ismael, and the other Heliesdros. From the one are descended the barbarous nations, from the other the people of the Persians, some of whom have adopted the manner of living and the institutions of their neighbours, the Brachmans. Others settled in Arabia, of whose posterity some also have spread into Egypt. From them some of the Indians and of the Egyptians have learned to be circumcised, and to be of purer observance than others, although in process of time most of them have turned to impiety what was the proof and sign of purity. 1.34. Nevertheless, as he had got these two sons during the time while he still lived in ignorance of things, having received the knowledge of God, he asked of the Righteous One that he might merit to have offspring by Sarah, who was his lawful wife, though she was barren. She obtained a son. whom he named Isaac, from whom came Jacob, and from him the twelve patriarchs, and from these twelve seventy-two. These, when famine befell came into Egypt with all their family; and in the course of four hundred years, being multiplied by the blessing and promise of God, they were afflicted by the Egyptians. And when they were afflicted the true Prophet appeared to Moses, Exodus iii and struck the Egyptians with ten plagues, when they refused to let the Hebrew people depart from them, and return to their native land; and he brought the people of God out of Egypt. But those of the Egyptians who survived the plagues, being infected with the animosity of their king, pursued after the Hebrews. And when they had overtaken them at the sea-shore, and thought to destroy and exterminate them all, Moses, pouring out prayer to God, divided the sea into two parts, so that the water was held on the right hand and on the left as if it had been frozen, and the people of God passed as over a dry road; but the Egyptians who were pursuing them, rashly entering, were drowned. For when the last of the Hebrews came out, the last of the Egyptians went down into the sea; and straightway the waters of the sea, which by his command were held bound as with frost, were loosed by his command who had bound them, and recovering their natural freedom, inflicted punishment on the wicked nation. ' "1.35. After this, Moses, by the command of God, whose providence is over all, led out the people of the Hebrews into the wilderness; and, leaving the shortest road which leads from Egypt to Jud a, he led the people through long windings of the wilderness, that, by the discipline of forty years, the novelty of a changed manner of life might root out the evils which had clung to them by a long-continued familiarity with the customs of the Egyptians. Meantime they came to Mount Sinai, and thence the law was given to them with voices and sights from heaven, written in ten precepts, of which the first and greatest was that they should worship God Himself alone, and not make to themselves any appearance or form to worship. But when Moses had gone up to the mount, and was staying there forty days, the people, although they had seen Egypt struck with the ten plagues, and the sea parted and passed over by them on foot, manna also given to them from heaven for bread, and drink supplied to them out of the rock that followed 1 Corinthians 10:4 them, which kind of food was turned into whatever taste any one desired; and although, being placed under the torrid region of heaven, they were shaded by a cloud in the day-time, that they might not be scorched by the heat, and by night were enlightened by a pillar of fire, lest the horror of darkness should be added to the wasteness of the wilderness;- those very people, I say, when Moses stayed in the mount, made and worshipped a golden calf's head, after the fashion of Apis, whom they had seen worshipped in Egypt; and after so many and so great marvels which they had seen, were unable to cleanse and wash out from themselves the defilements of old habit. On this account, leaving the short road which leads from Egypt to Jud a, Moses conducted them by an immense circuit of the desert, if haply he might be able, as we mentioned before, to shake off the evils of old habit by the change of a new education. " "1.36. When meantime Moses, that faithful and wise steward, perceived that the vice of sacrificing to idols had been deeply ingrained into the people from their association with the Egyptians, and that the root of this evil could not be extracted from them, he allowed them indeed to sacrifice, but permitted it to be done only to God, that by any means he might cut off one half of the deeply ingrained evil, leaving the other half to be corrected by another, and at a future time; by Him, namely, concerning whom he said himself, 'A prophet shall the Lord your God raise unto you, whom you shall hear even as myself, according to all things which He shall say to you. Whosoever shall not hear that prophet, his soul shall be cut off from his people. " '1.37. In addition to these things, he also appointed a place in which alone it should be lawful to them to sacrifice to God. And all this was arranged with this view, that when the fitting time should come, and they should learn by means of the Prophet that God desires mercy and not sacrifice, they might see Him who should teach them that the place chosen of God, in which it was suitable that victims should be offered to God, is his Wisdom; and that on the other hand they might hear that this place, which seemed chosen for a time, often harassed as it had been by hostile invasions and plunderings, was at last to be wholly destroyed. And in order to impress this upon them, even before the coming of the true Prophet, who was to reject at once the sacrifices and the place, it was often plundered by enemies and burnt with fire, and the people carried into captivity among foreign nations, and then brought back when they betook themselves to the mercy of God; that by these things they might be taught that a people who offer sacrifices are driven away and delivered up into the hands of the enemy, but they who do mercy and righteousness are without sacrifices freed from captivity, and restored to their native land. But it fell out that very few understood this; for the greater number, though they could perceive and observe these things, yet were held by the irrational opinion of the vulgar: for right opinion with liberty is the prerogative of a few. ' "1.38. Moses, then, having arranged these things, and having set over the people one Auses to bring them to the land of their fathers, himself by the command of the living God went up to a certain mountain, and there died. Yet such was the manner of his death, that till this day no one has found his burial-place. When, therefore, the people reached their fathers' land, by the providence of God, at their first onset the inhabitants of wicked races are routed, and they enter upon their paternal inheritance, which was distributed among them by lot. For some time thereafter they were ruled not by kings, but judges, and remained in a somewhat peaceful condition. But when they sought for themselves tyrants rather than kings, then also with regal ambition they erected a temple in the place which had been appointed to them for prayer; and thus, through a succession of wicked kings, the people fell away to greater and still greater impiety. " '1.39. But when the time began to draw near that what was wanting in the Mosaic institutions should be supplied, as we have said, and that the Prophet should appear, of whom he had foretold that He should warn them by the mercy of God to cease from sacrificing; lest haply they might suppose that on the cessation of sacrifice there was no remission of sins for them, He instituted baptism by water among them, in which they might be absolved from all their sins on the invocation of His name, and for the future, following a perfect life, might abide in immortality, being purified not by the blood of beasts, but by the purification of the Wisdom of God. Subsequently also an evident proof of this great mystery is supplied in the fact, that every one who, believing in this Prophet who had been foretold by Moses, is baptized in His name, shall be kept unhurt from the destruction of war which impends over the unbelieving nation, and the place itself; but that those who do not believe shall be made exiles from their place and kingdom, that even against their will they may understand and obey the will of God. 1.40. These things therefore having been fore-arranged, He who was expected comes, bringing signs and miracles as His credentials by which He should be made manifest. But not even so did the people believe, though they had been trained during so many ages to the belief of these things. And not only did they not believe, but they added blasphemy to unbelief, saying that He was a gluttonous man and a belly-slave, and that He was actuated by a demon, even He who had come for their salvation. To such an extent does wickedness prevail by the agency of evil ones; so that, but for the Wisdom of God assisting those who love the truth, almost all would have been involved in impious delusion. Therefore He chose us twelve, Matthew x the first who believed in Him, whom He named apostles; and afterwards other seventy-two most approved disciples, Luke x that, at least in this way recognising the pattern of Moses, Numbers 11:16 the multitude might believe that this is He of whom Moses foretold, the Prophet that was to come. Deuteronomy 18:15 1.41. But some one perhaps may say that it is possible for any one to imitate a number; but what shall we say of the signs and miracles which He wrought? For Moses had wrought miracles and cures in Egypt. He also of whom he foretold that He should rise up a prophet like himself, though He cured every sickness and infirmity among the people, wrought innumerable miracles, and preached eternal life, was hurried by wicked men to the cross; which deed was, however, by His power turned to good. In short, while He was suffering, all the world suffered with Him; for the sun was darkened, the mountains were torn asunder, the graves were opened, the veil of the temple was rent, as in lamentation for the destruction impending over the place. And yet, though all the world was moved, they themselves are not even now moved to the consideration of these so great things. ' "1.42. But inasmuch as it was necessary that the Gentiles should be called into the room of those who remained unbelieving, so that the number might be filled up which had been shown to Abraham, the preaching of the blessed kingdom of God is sent into all the world. On this account worldly spirits are disturbed, who always oppose those who are in quest of liberty, and who make use of the engines of error to destroy God's building; while those who press on to the glory of safety and liberty, being rendered braver by their resistance to these spirits, and by the toil of great struggles against them, attain the crown of safety not without the palm of victory. Meantime, when He had suffered, and darkness had overwhelmed the world from the sixth even to the ninth hour, Matthew 27:45 as soon as the sun shone out again, and things were returned to their usual course, even wicked men returned to themselves and their former practices, their fear having abated. For some of them, watching the place with all care, when they could not prevent His rising again, said that He was a magician; others pretended that he was stolen away. Matthew 28:13 " '1.43. Nevertheless, the truth everywhere prevailed; for, in proof that these things were done by divine power, we who had been very few became in the course of a few days, by the help of God, far more than they. So that the priests at one time were afraid, lest haply, by the providence of God, to their confusion, the whole of the people should come over to our faith. Therefore they often sent to us, and asked us to discourse to them concerning Jesus, whether He were the Prophet whom Moses foretold, who is the eternal Christ. John 12:34 For on this point only does there seem to be any difference between us who believe in Jesus, and the unbelieving Jews. But while they often made such requests to us, and we sought for a fitting opportunity, a week of years was completed from the passion of the Lord, the Church of the Lord which was constituted in Jerusalem was most plentifully multiplied and grew, being governed with most righteous ordices by James, who was ordained bishop in it by the Lord. 1.44. But when we twelve apostles, on the day of the passover, had come together with an immense multitude, and entered into the church of the brethren, each one of us, at the request of James, stated briefly, in the hearing of the people, what we had done in every place. While this was going on, Caiaphas, the high priest, sent priests to us, and asked us to come to him, that either we should prove to him that Jesus is the eternal Christ, or he to us that He is not, and that so all the people should agree upon the one faith or the other; and this he frequently entreated us to do. But we often put it off, always seeking for a more convenient time. Then I, Clement, answered to this: I think that this very question, whether He is the Christ, is of great importance for the establishment of the faith; otherwise the high priest would not so frequently ask that he might either learn or teach concerning the Christ. Then Peter: You have answered rightly, O Clement; for as no one can see without eyes, nor hear without ears, nor smell without nostrils, nor taste without a tongue, nor handle anything without hands, so it is impossible, without the true Prophet, to know what is pleasing to God. And I answered: I have already learned from your instruction that this true prophet is the Christ; but I should wish to learn what the Christ means, or why He is so called, that a matter of so great importance may not be vague and uncertain to me. 1.45. Then Peter began to instruct me in this manner: When God had made the world, as Lord of the universe, He appointed chiefs over the several creatures, over the trees even, and the mountains, and the fountains, and the rivers, and all things which He had made, as we have told you; for it were too long to mention them one by one. He set, therefore, an angel as chief over the angels, a spirit over the spirits, a star over the stars, a demon over the demons, a bird over the birds, a beast over the beasts, a serpent over the serpents, a fish over the fishes, a man over men, who is Christ Jesus. But He is called Christ by a certain excellent rite of religion; for as there are certain names common to kings, as Arsaces among the Persians, C sar among the Romans, Pharaoh among the Egyptians, so among the Jews a king is called Christ. And the reason of this appellation is this: Although indeed He was the Son of God, and the beginning of all things, He became man; Him first God anointed with oil which was taken from the wood of the tree of life: from that anointing therefore He is called Christ. Thence, moreover, He Himself also, according to the appointment of His Father, anoints with similar oil every one of the pious when they come to His kingdom, for their refreshment after their labours, as having got over the difficulties of the way; so that their light may shine, and being filled with the Holy Spirit, they may be endowed with immortality. But it occurs to me that I have sufficiently explained to you the whole nature of that branch from which that ointment is taken. 1.46. But now also I shall, by a very short representation, recall you to the recollection of all these things. In the present life, Aaron, the first high priest, was anointed with a composition of chrism, which was made after the pattern of that spiritual ointment of which we have spoken before. He was prince of the people, and as a king received first-fruits and tribute from the people, man by man; and having undertaken the office of judging the people, he judged of things clean and things unclean. But if any one else was anointed with the same ointment, as deriving virtue from it, he became either king, or prophet, or priest. If, then, this temporal grace, compounded by men, had such efficacy, consider now how potent was that ointment extracted by God from a branch of the tree of life, when that which was made by men could confer so excellent dignities among men. For what in the present age is more glorious than a prophet, more illustrious than a priest, more exalted than a king? ' "1.47. To this, I replied: I remember, Peter, that you told me of the first man that he was a prophet; but you did not say that he was anointed. If then there be no prophet without anointing, how could the first man be a prophet, since he was not anointed? Then Peter, smiling, said: If the first man prophesied, it is certain that he was also anointed. For although he who has recorded the law in his pages is silent as to his anointing, yet he has evidently left us to understand these things. For as, if he had said that he was anointed, it would not be doubted that he was also a prophet, although it were not written in the law; so, since it is certain that he was a prophet, it is in like manner certain that he was also anointed, because without anointing he could not be a prophet. But you should rather have said, If the chrism was compounded by Aaron, by the perfumer's art, how could the first man be anointed before Aaron's time, the arts of composition not yet having been discovered? Then I answered, Do not misunderstand me, Peter; for I do not speak of that compounded ointment and temporal oil, but of that simple and eternal ointment, which you told me was made by God, after whose likeness you say that that other was compounded by men. " '1.48. Then Peter answered, with an appearance of indignation: What! Do you suppose, Clement, that all of us can know all things before the time? But not to be drawn aside now from our proposed discourse, we shall at another time, when your progress is more manifest, explain these things more distinctly. Then, however, a priest or a prophet, being anointed with the compounded ointment, putting fire to the altar of God, was held illustrious in all the world. But after Aaron, who was a priest, another is taken out of the waters. I do not speak of Moses, but of Him who, in the waters of baptism, was called by God His Son. Matthew 3:17 For it is Jesus who has put out, by the grace of baptism, that fire which the priest kindled for sins; for, from the time when He appeared, the chrism has ceased, by which the priesthood or the prophetic or the kingly office was conferred. 1.49. His coming, therefore, was predicted by Moses, who delivered the law of God to men; but by another also before him, as I have already informed you. He therefore intimated that He should come, humble indeed in His first coming, but glorious in His second. And the first, indeed, has been already accomplished; since He has come and taught, and He, the Judge of all, has been judged and slain. But at His second coming He shall come to judge, and shall indeed condemn the wicked, but shall take the pious into a share and association with Himself in His kingdom. Now the faith of His second coming depends upon His first. For the prophets- especially Jacob and Moses- spoke of the first, but some also of the second. But the excellency of prophecy is chiefly shown in this, that the prophets spoke not of things to come, according to the sequence of things; otherwise they might seem merely as wise men to have conjectured what the sequence of things pointed out. 1.50. But what I say is this: It was to be expected that Christ should be received by the Jews, to whom He came, and that they should believe in Him who was expected for the salvation of the people, according to the traditions of the fathers; but that the Gentiles should be averse to Him, since neither promise nor announcement concerning Him had been made to them, and indeed he had never been made known to them even by name. Yet the prophets, contrary to the order and sequence of things, said that He should be the expectation of the Gentiles, and not of the Jews. Genesis 49:10 And so it happened. For when He came, he was not at all acknowledged by those who seemed to expect Him, in consequence of the tradition of their ancestors; whereas those who had heard nothing at all of Him, both believe that He has come, and hope that he is to come. And thus in all things prophecy appears faithful, which said that He was the expectation of the Gentiles. The Jews, therefore, have erred concerning the first coming of the Lord; and on this point only there is disagreement between us and them. For they themselves know and expect that Christ shall come; but that he has come already in humility - even he who is called Jesus - they do not know. And this is a great confirmation of His coming, that all do not believe in Him. 1.51. Him, therefore, has God appointed in the end of the world; because it was impossible that the evils of men could be removed by any other, provided that the nature of the human race were to remain entire, i.e., the liberty of the will being preserved. This condition, therefore, being preserved inviolate, He came to invite to His kingdom all righteous ones, and those who have been desirous to please Him. For these He has prepared unspeakable good things, and the heavenly city Jerusalem, which shall shine above the brightness of the sun, for the habitation of the saints. But the unrighteous, and the wicked and those who have despised God, and have devoted the life given them to diverse wickednesses, and have given to the practice of evil the time which was given them for the work of righteousness He shall hand over to fitting and condign vengeance. But the rest of the things which shall then be done, it is neither in the power of angels nor of men to tell or to describe. This only it is enough for us to know, that God shall confer upon the good an eternal possession of good things. 1.52. When he had thus spoken, I answered: If those shall enjoy the kingdom of Christ, whom His coming shall find righteous, shall then those be wholly deprived of the kingdom who have died before His coming? Then Peter says: You compel me, O Clement, to touch upon things that are unspeakable. But so far as it is allowed to declare them, I shall not shrink from doing so. Know then that Christ, who was from the beginning, and always, was ever present with the pious, though secretly, through all their generations: especially with those who waited for Him, to whom He frequently appeared. But the time was not yet that there should be a resurrection of the bodies that were dissolved; but this seemed rather to be their reward from God, that whoever should be found righteous, should remain longer in the body; or, at least, as is clearly related in the writings of the law concerning a certain righteous man, that God translated him. Genesis 5:24 In like manner others were dealt with, who pleased His will, that, being translated to Paradise, they should be kept for the kingdom. But as to those who have not been able completely to fulfil the rule of righteousness, but have had some remts of evil in their flesh, their bodies are indeed dissolved, but their souls are kept in good and blessed abodes, that at the resurrection of the dead, when they shall recover their own bodies, purified even by the dissolution, they may obtain an eternal inheritance in proportion to their good deeds. And therefore blessed are all those who shall attain to the kingdom of Christ; for not only shall they escape the pains of hell, but shall also remain incorruptible, and shall be the first to see God the Father, and shall obtain the rank of honour among the first in the presence of God. 1.53. Wherefore there is not the least doubt concerning Christ; and all the unbelieving Jews are stirred up with boundless rage against us, fearing lest haply He against whom they have sinned should be He. And their fear grows all the greater, because they know that, as soon as they fixed Him on the cross, the whole world showed sympathy with Him; and that His body, although they guarded it with strict care, could nowhere be found; and that innumerable multitudes are attaching themselves to His faith. Whence they, together with the high priest Caiaphas, were compelled to send to us again and again, that an inquiry might be instituted concerning the truth of His name. And when they were constantly entreating that they might either learn or teach concerning Jesus, whether He were the Christ, it seemed good to us to go up into the temple, and in the presence of all the people to bear witness concerning Him, and at the same time to charge the Jews with many foolish things which they were doing. For the people was now divided into many parties, ever since the days of John the Baptist. 1.54. For when the rising of Christ was at hand for the abolition of sacrifices, and for the bestowal of the grace of baptism, the enemy, understanding from the predictions that the time was at hand, wrought various schisms among the people, that, if haply it might be possible to abolish the former sin, the latter fault might be incorrigible. The first schism, therefore, was that of those who were called Sadducees, which took their rise almost in the time of John. These, as more righteous than others, began to separate themselves from the assembly of the people, and to deny the resurrection of the dead, Matthew 22:23 and to assert that by an argument of infidelity, saying that it was unworthy that God should be worshipped, as it were, under the promise of a reward. The first author of this opinion was Dositheus; the second was Simon. Another schism is that of the Samaritans; for they deny the resurrection of the dead, and assert that God is not to be worshipped in Jerusalem, but on Mount Gerizim. They indeed rightly, from the predictions of Moses, expect the one true Prophet; but by the wickedness of Dositheus they were hindered from believing that Jesus is He whom they were expecting. The scribes also, and Pharisees, are led away into another schism; but these, being baptized by John, and holding the word of truth received from the tradition of Moses as the key of the kingdom of heaven, have hid it from the hearing of the people. Luke 11:52 Yea, some even of the disciples of John, who seemed to be great ones, have separated themselves from the people, and proclaimed their own master as the Christ. But all these schisms have been prepared, that by means of them the faith of Christ and baptism might be hindered. 1.55. However, as we were proceeding to say, when the high priest had often sent priests to ask us that we might discourse with one another concerning Jesus; when it seemed a fit opportunity, and it pleased all the Church, we went up to the temple, and, standing on the steps together with our faithful brethren, the people kept perfect silence; and first the high priest began to exhort the people that they should hear patiently and quietly, and at the same time witness and judge of those things that were to be spoken. Then, in the next place, exalting with many praises the rite or sacrifice which had been bestowed by God upon the human race for the remission of sins, he found fault with the baptism of our Jesus, as having been recently brought in in opposition to the sacrifices. But Matthew, meeting his propositions, showed clearly, that whosoever shall not obtain the baptism of Jesus shall not only be deprived of the kingdom of heaven, but shall not be without peril at the resurrection of the dead, even though he be fortified by the prerogative of a good life and an upright disposition. Having made these and such like statements, Matthew stopped. ' "1.56. But the party of the Sadducees, who deny the resurrection of the dead, were in a rage, so that one of them cried out from among the people, saying that those greatly err who think that the dead ever arise. In opposition to him, Andrew, my brother, answering, declared that it is not an error, but the surest matter of faith, that the dead rise, in accordance with the teaching of Him of whom Moses foretold that He should come the true Prophet. 'Or if,' says he, 'you do not think that this is He whom Moses foretold, let this first be inquired into, so that when this is clearly proved to be He, there may be no further doubt concerning the things which He taught.' These, and many such like things, Andrew proclaimed, and then stopped. " "1.57. But a certain Samaritan, speaking against the people and against God, and asserting that neither are the dead to rise, nor is that worship of God to be maintained which is in Jerusalem, but that Mount Gerizim is to be reverenced, added also this in opposition to us, that our Jesus was not He whom Moses foretold as a Prophet to come into the world. Against him, and another who supported him in what he said, James and John, the sons of Zebedee, strove vigorously; and although they had a command not to enter into their cities, Matthew 10:5 nor to bring the word of preaching to them, yet, lest their discourse, unless it were confined, should hurt the faith of others, they replied so prudently and so powerfully, that they put them to perpetual silence. For James made an oration concerning the resurrection of the dead, with the approbation of all the people; while John showed that if they would abandon the error of Mount Gerizim, they should consequently acknowledge that Jesus was indeed He who, according to the prophecy of Moses, was expected to come; since, indeed, as Moses wrought signs and miracles, so also did Jesus. And there is no doubt but that the likeness of the signs proves Him to be that prophet of whom he said that He should come, 'like himself.' Having declared these things, and more to the same effect, they ceased. " "1.58. And, behold, one of the scribes, shouting out from the midst of the people, says: 'The signs and miracles which your Jesus wrought, he wrought not as a prophet, but as a magician.' Him Philip eagerly encounters, showing that by this argument he accused Moses also. For when Moses wrought signs and miracles in Egypt, in like manner as Jesus also did in Jud a, it cannot be doubted that what was said of Jesus might as well be said of Moses. Having made these and such like protestations, Philip was silent. " '1.59. Then a certain Pharisee, hearing this, chid Philip because he put Jesus on a level with Moses. To whom Bartholomew, answering, boldly declared that we do not only say that Jesus was equal to Moses, but that He was greater than he, because Moses was indeed a prophet, as Jesus was also, but that Moses was not the Christ, as Jesus was, and therefore He is doubtless greater who is both a prophet and the Christ, than he who is only a prophet. After following out this train of argument, he stopped. After him James the son of Alph us gave an address to the people, with the view of showing that we are not to believe in Jesus on the ground that the prophets foretold concerning Him, but rather that we are to believe the prophets, that they were really prophets, because the Christ bears testimony to them; for it is the presence and coming of Christ that show that they are truly prophets: for testimony must be borne by the superior to his inferiors, not by the inferiors to their superior. After these and many similar statements, James also was silent. After him Lebb us began vehemently to charge it upon the people that they did not believe in Jesus, who had done them so much good by teaching them the things that are of God, by comforting the afflicted, healing the sick, relieving the poor; yet for all these benefits their return had been hatred and death. When he had declared these and many more such things to the people, he ceased. ' "1.60. And, behold, one of the disciples of John asserted that John was the Christ, and not Jesus, inasmuch as Jesus Himself declared that John was greater than all men and all prophets. Matthew 11:9, 11 'If, then,' said he, 'he be greater than all, he must be held to be greater than Moses, and than Jesus himself. But if he be the greatest of all, then must he be the Christ.' To this Simon the Canaanite, answering, asserted that John was indeed greater than all the prophets, and all who are born of women, yet that he is not greater than the Son of man. Accordingly Jesus is also the Christ, whereas John is only a prophet: and there is as much difference between him and Jesus, as between the forerunner and Him whose forerunner he is; or as between Him who gives the law, and him who keeps the law. Having made these and similar statements, the Canaanite also was silent. After him Barnabas, who also is called Matthias, who was substituted as an apostle in the place of Judas, began to exhort the people that they should not regard Jesus with hatred, nor speak evil of Him. For it were far more proper, even for one who might be in ignorance or in doubt concerning Jesus, to love than to hate Him. For God has affixed a reward to love, a penalty to hatred. 'For the very fact,' said he, 'that He assumed a Jewish body, and was born among the Jews, how has not this incited us all to love Him?' When he had spoken this, and more to the same effect, he stopped. " '1.61. Then Caiaphas attempted to impugn the doctrine of Jesus, saying that He spoke vain things, for He said that the poor are blessed; and promised earthly rewards; and placed the chief gift in an earthly inheritance; and promised that those who maintain righteousness shall be satisfied with meat and drink; and many things of this sort He is charged with teaching. Thomas, in reply, proves that his accusation is frivolous; showing that the prophets, in whom Caiaphas believes, taught these things much more, and did not show in what manner these things are to be, or how they are to be understood; whereas Jesus pointed out how they are to be taken. And when he had spoken these things, and others of like kind, Thomas also held his peace. 1.62. Therefore Caiaphas, again looking at me, and sometimes in the way of warning and sometimes in that of accusation, said that I ought for the future to refrain from preaching Christ Jesus, lest I should do it to my own destruction, and lest, being deceived myself, I should also deceive others. Then, moreover, he charged me with presumption, because, though I was unlearned, a fisherman, and a rustic, I dared to assume the office of a teacher. As he spoke these things, and many more of like kind, I said in reply, that I incurred less danger, if, as he said, this Jesus were not the Christ, because I received Him as a teacher of the law; but that he was in terrible danger if this be the very Christ, as assuredly He is: for I believe in Him who has appeared; but for whom else, who has never appeared, does he reserve his faith? But if I, an unlearned and uneducated man, as you say, a fisherman and a rustic, have more understanding than wise elders, this, said I, ought the more to strike terror into you. For if I disputed with any learning, and won over you wise and learned men, it would appear that I had acquired this power by long learning, and not by the grace of divine power; but now, when, as I have said, we unskilled men convince and overcome you wise men, who that has any sense does not perceive that this is not a work of human subtlety, but of divine will and gift? 1.63. Thus we argued and bore witness; and we who were unlearned men and fishermen, taught the priests concerning the one only God of heaven; the Sadducees, concerning the resurrection of the dead; the Samaritans, concerning the sacredness of Jerusalem (not that we entered into their cities, but disputed with them in public); the scribes and Pharisees, concerning the kingdom of heaven; the disciples of John, that they should not suffer John to be a stumbling-block to them; and all the people, that Jesus is the eternal Christ. At last, however, I warned them, that before we should go forth to the Gentiles, to preach to them the knowledge of God the Father, they should themselves be reconciled to God, receiving His Son; for I showed them that in no way else could they be saved, unless through the grace of the Holy Spirit they hasted to be washed with the baptism of threefold invocation, and received the Eucharist of Christ the Lord, whom alone they ought to believe concerning those things which He taught, that so they might merit to attain eternal salvation; but that otherwise it was utterly impossible for them to be reconciled to God, even if they should kindle a thousand altars and a thousand high altars to Him. ' "1.64. 'For we,' said I, 'have ascertained beyond doubt that God is much rather displeased with the sacrifices which you offer, the time of sacrifices having now passed away; and because ye will not acknowledge that the time for offering victims is now past, therefore the temple shall be destroyed, and the abomination of desolation shall stand in the holy place; and then the Gospel shall be preached to the Gentiles for a testimony against you, that your unbelief may be judged by their faith. For the whole world at different times suffers under various maladies, either spreading generally over all, or affecting specially. Therefore it needs a physician to visit it for its salvation. We therefore bear witness to you, and declare to you what has been hidden from every one of you. It is for you to consider what is for your advantage.' " "1.65. When I had thus spoken, the whole multitude of the priests were in a rage, because I had foretold to them the overthrow of the temple. Which when Gamaliel, a chief of the people, saw - who was secretly our brother in the faith, but by our advice remained among them - because they were greatly enraged and moved with intense fury against us, he stood up, and said, Acts 5:35-39 'Be quiet for a little, O men of Israel, for you do not perceive the trial which hangs over you. Wherefore refrain from these men; and if what they are engaged in be of human counsel, it will soon come to an end; but if it be from God, why will you sin without cause, and prevail nothing? For who can overpower the will of God? Now therefore, since the day is declining towards evening, I shall myself dispute with these men tomorrow, in this same place, in your hearing, so that I may openly oppose and clearly confute every error.' By this speech of his their fury was to some extent checked, especially in the hope that next day we should be publicly convicted of error; and so he dismissed the people peacefully. " '1.66. Now when we had come to our James, while we detailed to him all that had been said and done, we supped, and remained with him, spending the whole night in supplication to Almighty God, that the discourse of the approaching disputation might show the unquestionable truth of our faith. Therefore, on the following day, James the bishop went up to the temple with us, and with the whole church. There we found a great multitude, who had been waiting for us from the middle of the night. Therefore we took our stand in the same place as before, in order that, standing on an elevation, we might be seen by all the people. Then, when profound silence was obtained, Gamaliel, who, as we have said, was of our faith, but who by a dispensation remained among them, that if at any time they should attempt anything unjust or wicked against us, he might either check them by skillfully adopted counsel, or might warn us, that we might either be on our guard or might turn it aside;- he therefore, as if acting against us, first of all looking to James the bishop, addressed him in this manner:- ' "1.67. 'If I, Gamaliel, deem it no reproach either to my learning or to my old age to learn something from babes and unlearned ones, if haply there be anything which it is for profit or for safety to acquire (for he who lives reasonably knows that nothing is more precious than the soul), ought not this to be the object of love and desire to all, to learn what they do not know, and to teach what they have learned? For it is most certain that neither friendship, nor kindred, nor lofty power, ought to be more precious to men than truth. Therefore you, O brethren, if you know anything more, shrink not from laying it before the people of God who are present, and also before your brethren; while the whole people shall willingly and in perfect quietness hear what you say. For why should not the people do this, when they see even me equally with themselves willing to learn from you, if haply God has revealed something further to you? But if you in anything are deficient, be not ye ashamed in like manner to be taught by us, that God may fill up whatever is wanting on either side. But if any fear now agitates you on account of some of our people whose minds are prejudiced against you, and if through fear of their violence you dare not openly speak your sentiments, in order that I may deliver you from this fear, I openly swear to you by Almighty God, who lives for ever, that I will suffer no one to lay hands upon you. Since, then, you have all this people witnesses of this my oath, and you hold the covet of our sacrament as a fitting pledge, let each one of you, without any hesitation, declare what he has learned; and let us, brethren, listen eagerly and in silence.' " "1.68. These sayings of Gamaliel did not much please Caiaphas; and holding him in suspicion, as it seemed, he began to insinuate himself cunningly into the discussions: for, smiling at what Gamaliel had said, the chief of the priests asked of James, the chief of the bishops, that the discourse concerning Christ should not be drawn but from the Scriptures; 'that we may know,' said he, 'whether Jesus be the very Christ or no.' Then said James, 'We must first inquire from what Scriptures we are especially to derive our discussion.' Then he, with difficulty, at length overcome by reason, answered, that it must be derived from the law; and afterwards he made mention also of the prophets. " "1.69. To him our James began to show, that whatsoever things the prophets say they have taken from the law, and what they have spoken is in accordance with the law. He also made some statements respecting the books of the Kings, in what way, and when, and by whom they were written, and how they ought to be used. And when he had discussed most fully concerning the law, and had, by a most clear exposition, brought into light whatever things are in it concerning Christ, he showed by most abundant proofs that Jesus is the Christ, and that in Him are fulfilled all the prophecies which related to His humble advent. For he showed that two advents of Him are foretold: one in humiliation, which He has accomplished; the other in glory, which is hoped for to be accomplished, when He shall come to give the kingdom to those who believe in Him, and who observe all things which He has commanded. And when he had plainly taught the people concerning these things, he added this also: That unless a man be baptized in water, in the name of the threefold blessedness, as the true Prophet taught, he can neither receive remission of sins nor enter into the kingdom of heaven; and he declared that this is the prescription of the unbegotten God. To which he added this also: 'Do not think that we speak of two unbegotten Gods, or that one is divided into two, or that the same is made male and female. But we speak of the only-begotten Son of God, not sprung from another source, but ineffably self-originated; and in like manner we speak of the Paraclete.' But when he had spoken some things also concerning baptism, through seven successive days he persuaded all the people and the high priest that they should hasten straightway to receive baptism. " "1.70. And when matters were at that point that they should come and be baptized, some one of our enemies, entering the temple with a few men, began to cry out, and to say, 'What mean ye, O men of Israel? Why are you so easily hurried on? Why are you led headlong by most miserable men, who are deceived by Simon, a magician.' While he was thus speaking, and adding more to the same effect, and while James the bishop was refuting him, he began to excite the people and to raise a tumult, so that the people might not be able to hear what was said. Therefore he began to drive all into confusion with shouting, and to undo what had been arranged with much labour, and at the same time to reproach the priests, and to enrage them with revilings and abuse, and, like a madman, to excite every one to murder, saying, 'What are you doing? Why do you hesitate? Oh sluggish and inert, why do we not lay hands upon them, and pull all these fellows to pieces?' When he had said this, he first, seizing a strong brand from the altar, set the example of smiting. Then others also, seeing him, were carried away with like readiness. Then ensued a tumult on either side, of the beating and the beaten. Much blood is shed; there is a confused flight, in the midst of which that enemy attacked James, and threw him headlong from the top of the steps; and supposing him to be dead, he cared not to inflict further violence upon him. " '1.71. But our friends lifted him up, for they were both more numerous and more powerful than the others; but, from their fear of God, they rather suffered themselves to be killed by an inferior force, than they would kill others. But when the evening came the priests shut up the temple, and we returned to the house of James, and spent the night there in prayer. Then before daylight we went down to Jericho, to the number of 5000 men. Then after three days one of the brethren came to us from Gamaliel, whom we mentioned before, bringing to us secret tidings that that enemy had received a commission from Caiaphas, the chief priest, that he should arrest all who believed in Jesus, and should go to Damascus with his letters, and that there also, employing the help of the unbelievers, he should make havoc among the faithful; and that he was hastening to Damascus chiefly on this account, because he believed that Peter had fled there. And about thirty days thereafter he stopped on his way while passing through Jericho going to Damascus. At that time we were absent, having gone out to the sepulchres of two brethren which were whitened of themselves every year, by which miracle the fury of many against us was restrained, because they saw that our brethren were had in remembrance before God. ''. None
70. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • blood

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 205; Rosenblum (2016) 154

71. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Blood, on the altar • Women, and blood sacrifice

 Found in books: Connelly (2007) 182; Ekroth (2013) 288

72. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • blood • blood, in purification • blood, in sphagia • blood, shedding of • blood, used for purifications • purification, use of blood in

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25; Lupu(2005) 281, 380, 384; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 20, 27, 137

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