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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
bird Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 13, 14, 15, 43, 44, 45, 59, 61
Jouanna (2012) 104
Mackay (2022) 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 64, 66, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 109, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165
Singer and van Eijk (2018) 81, 137, 155, 162
Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 54, 56, 60, 370, 372, 378, 394, 440, 442, 485
de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 141, 373, 374
bird, animal species Ekroth (2013) 41, 308
bird, animals, in forms of letters, in form of winged Griffiths (1975) 311, 313
bird, as joining david’s singing Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 57, 61, 74, 283
bird, as shielding david from the sun Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 60, 61
bird, divination, ancient near eastern, with burrowing Renberg (2017) 49
bird, imagery, educational metaphor Hirshman (2009) 42, 43, 70, 76, 77, 78, 79
bird, interpreters Johnston (2008) 7, 109, 128, 129, 130, 148
bird, marvelous, appearance ezekiel, exagoge, of Liapis and Petrides (2019) 130, 132
bird, michael f. Dürr (2022) 268
bird, nest, of a Rosenblum (2016) 22, 23, 24, 95, 127, 128, 129
bird, offerings Balberg (2017) 39, 40, 77, 97
bird, offerings to, heroes Hitch (2017) 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72
bird, omens and symbolism, augustus Peppard (2011) 77, 116, 117, 118, 119
bird, omens/symbolism in early christianity Peppard (2011) 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122
bird, omens/symbolism in roman life Peppard (2011) 77, 116, 117, 118, 119
bird, ornithomancy divination Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 157
bird, palaistra/jorge of burgos, the unwritten novel Mheallaigh (2014) 136
bird, phintys, the, phoenix Malherbe et al (2014) 621
bird, phoenix Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 289, 396
Manolaraki (2012) 189, 190, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204
bird, phyllis Sly (1990) 67
bird, sacrifices to, isis Hitch (2017) 78, 79, 82, 83, 86, 87
bird, soul, as Seaford (2018) 370, 376
bird, winged, animals in form of Griffiths (1975) 312
birds Altmann (2019) 14, 40, 47
Bortolani et al (2019) 30, 38, 48, 99, 104, 122, 145, 155, 159, 161, 163, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 197, 203, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 217, 219, 220, 222, 223, 232, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 255, 278, 286, 287
Brule (2003) 79, 101
Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 82, 146
Faraone (1999) 67, 68
Gagné (2020) 343, 365, 389
Hachlili (2005) 145
Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 41
Nisula (2012) 142, 173
Porton (1988) 67, 90, 99, 139, 212, 228, 246, 256, 265
Santangelo (2013) 26, 27, 28, 70, 161, 197, 219, 222, 226, 238, 262
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 96, 263, 269, 270, 290
Thonemann (2020) 28, 29, 74, 75, 79, 80, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 100, 101, 102, 112, 179, 180, 189, 201, 202
Trott (2019) 189
birds, = omens Van der Horst (2014) 241, 244
birds, and animals, ofonius tigellinus, c., collects Rutledge (2012) 208, 209
birds, and oaths Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 318, 324
birds, and, birdsong, Pillinger (2019) 36, 51, 52, 53, 54, 102, 131, 144, 216, 217
birds, animals, color descriptions and uses of Goldman (2013) 18, 25, 26, 77, 81, 140, 147, 159
birds, animals, fish, and Gera (2014) 48, 143, 146, 147, 148, 149, 153, 157, 158, 236, 237, 259, 354, 364, 365, 465
birds, aristophanes Cosgrove (2022) 139, 140, 141, 242
Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 334
Johnston and Struck (2005) 52, 161, 162, 163, 164, 180, 289, 290
birds, as metaphor for slaves Richlin (2018) 95, 407, 452, 457
birds, bearded vulture, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, black vulture, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, coruus, crow Mueller (2002) 56, 57, 114, 115
birds, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck (2007) 367
birds, devouring the disobedient Stuckenbruck (2007) 555
birds, dietary regulations Stuckenbruck (2007) 366, 367
birds, divination Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 162, 298, 477, 478, 485
birds, eagle owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, eagle, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11, 147, 151, 157
birds, eagle-owls Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 164
birds, eagles Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 135, 140, 146
birds, falcons, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, fast/ mourn/ in sackcloth, animals, fish, and Gera (2014) 47, 180, 183
birds, fisher owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, hawk, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 147, 151
birds, hawks Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 165
birds, hawks, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, hens Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 135, 139, 140, 146
birds, herons, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, hoopoe Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 325
birds, hoopoe, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, in awe of isis, majesty of Griffiths (1975) 324
birds, in awe of magna mater, see great mother majesty, of our goddess Griffiths (1975) 324
birds, in sky in awe of isis, sky, bodies in blessed or afflicted by moon-goddess Griffiths (1975) 324
birds, in sky in awe of majesty of isis Griffiths (1975) 324
birds, kite, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, kites Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 143, 146
birds, lampon Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 121, 123
birds, long-eared owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, metaphor for gentiles Stuckenbruck (2007) 144
birds, migratory Gagné (2020) 343, 344, 347
birds, mycenae, clay seal with column of hera, ?, flanked by oxen and Simon (2021) 65
birds, of prey Stuckenbruck (2007) 286, 288, 289
birds, oracles, use of Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 162, 298, 477, 478, 485
birds, ornithomancy Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 157
birds, osprey, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, parra, owl Mueller (2002) 206
birds, peisetaerus Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 121, 324, 339
birds, raven, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, removing nests Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 57
birds, sacrifice Lupu(2005) 57, 223
birds, sacrifice of Hitch (2017) 63, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 74, 75, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 100
birds, sacrificial animals, species: Stavrianopoulou (2006) 123
birds, sacrificial victims Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 14, 15
birds, scops owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, screech owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, short-eared owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, sparrow, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 151
birds, stork, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, stymphalian Simon (2021) 218
birds, swan, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 151
birds, symbol of sovereignty Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 44
birds, symbolism, of Hitch (2017) 100
birds, symbols Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 250, 261, 297, 329
birds, tawny owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
birds, tereus Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 120, 121, 325
birds, the, aristophanes, and tereus Jouanna (2018) 601
birds, the, aristophanes, on the great dionysia Jouanna (2018) 181, 182
birds, tuneful Griffiths (1975) 7, 169
birds, white owl, fowl Rosenblum (2016) 11
“bird, kuş gölü lake” Marek (2019) 171

List of validated texts:
27 validated results for "bird"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 14.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birds • nest, of a bird

 Found in books: Altmann (2019) 14; Rosenblum (2016) 24, 95

14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃''. None
14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, fish, and birds • nest, of a bird

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 153; Rosenblum (2016) 129

3.13. וְנִשְׁלוֹחַ סְפָרִים בְּיַד הָרָצִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים מִנַּעַר וְעַד־זָקֵן טַף וְנָשִׁים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃''. None
3.13. And letters were sent by posts into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 23.19, 34.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birds • nest, of a bird

 Found in books: Altmann (2019) 14; Rosenblum (2016) 24, 95

23.19. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃
34.26. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃''. None
23.19. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.
34.26. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.13, 11.19, 19.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birds • Birds, Dietary Regulations • bird • bird omens/symbolism in early Christianity • fowl, birds, bearded vulture • fowl, birds, black vulture • fowl, birds, eagle • fowl, birds, eagle owl • fowl, birds, falcons • fowl, birds, fisher owl • fowl, birds, hawk • fowl, birds, hawks • fowl, birds, herons • fowl, birds, hoopoe • fowl, birds, kite • fowl, birds, long-eared owl • fowl, birds, osprey • fowl, birds, raven • fowl, birds, scops owl • fowl, birds, screech owl • fowl, birds, short-eared owl • fowl, birds, sparrow • fowl, birds, stork • fowl, birds, swan • fowl, birds, tawny owl • fowl, birds, white owl

 Found in books: Altmann (2019) 14; Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 61; Peppard (2011) 121; Rosenblum (2016) 11, 151; Stuckenbruck (2007) 366

11.13. וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה׃
11.19. וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּף׃
19.26. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַל־הַדָּם לֹא תְנַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא תְעוֹנֵנוּ׃' '. None
11.13. And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;
11.19. and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat.
19.26. Ye shall not eat with the blood; neither shall ye practise divination nor soothsaying.' '. None
5. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, fish, and birds • birds

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 465; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 41

6. Hesiod, Works And Days, 747 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bird, omen • birds

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 133; Lipka (2021) 69

747. μή τοι ἐφεζομένη κρώξῃ λακέρυζα κορώνη.''. None
747. Don’t place aboard all your commodities –''. None
7. Homer, Iliad, 2.459-2.463, 23.69-23.92 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, Birds • bird • birds

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 133; Johnston and Struck (2005) 289; Mackay (2022) 55; Thonemann (2020) 91; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 374

2.459. τῶν δʼ ὥς τʼ ὀρνίθων πετεηνῶν ἔθνεα πολλὰ 2.460. χηνῶν ἢ γεράνων ἢ κύκνων δουλιχοδείρων 2.461. Ἀσίω ἐν λειμῶνι Καϋστρίου ἀμφὶ ῥέεθρα 2.462. ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ποτῶνται ἀγαλλόμενα πτερύγεσσι 2.463. κλαγγηδὸν προκαθιζόντων, σμαραγεῖ δέ τε λειμών,
23.69. εὕδεις, αὐτὰρ ἐμεῖο λελασμένος ἔπλευ Ἀχιλλεῦ. 23.70. οὐ μέν μευ ζώοντος ἀκήδεις, ἀλλὰ θανόντος· 23.71. θάπτέ με ὅττι τάχιστα πύλας Ἀΐδαο περήσω. 23.72. τῆλέ με εἴργουσι ψυχαὶ εἴδωλα καμόντων, 23.73. οὐδέ μέ πω μίσγεσθαι ὑπὲρ ποταμοῖο ἐῶσιν, 23.74. ἀλλʼ αὔτως ἀλάλημαι ἀνʼ εὐρυπυλὲς Ἄϊδος δῶ. 23.75. καί μοι δὸς τὴν χεῖρʼ· ὀλοφύρομαι, οὐ γὰρ ἔτʼ αὖτις 23.76. νίσομαι ἐξ Ἀΐδαο, ἐπήν με πυρὸς λελάχητε. 23.77. οὐ μὲν γὰρ ζωοί γε φίλων ἀπάνευθεν ἑταίρων 23.78. βουλὰς ἑζόμενοι βουλεύσομεν, ἀλλʼ ἐμὲ μὲν κὴρ 23.79. ἀμφέχανε στυγερή, ἥ περ λάχε γιγνόμενόν περ· 23.80. καὶ δὲ σοὶ αὐτῷ μοῖρα, θεοῖς ἐπιείκελʼ Ἀχιλλεῦ, 23.81. τείχει ὕπο Τρώων εὐηφενέων ἀπολέσθαι. 23.82. ἄλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω καὶ ἐφήσομαι αἴ κε πίθηαι· 23.83. μὴ ἐμὰ σῶν ἀπάνευθε τιθήμεναι ὀστέʼ Ἀχιλλεῦ, 23.84. ἀλλʼ ὁμοῦ ὡς ἐτράφημεν ἐν ὑμετέροισι δόμοισιν, 23.85. εὖτέ με τυτθὸν ἐόντα Μενοίτιος ἐξ Ὀπόεντος 23.86. ἤγαγεν ὑμέτερόνδʼ ἀνδροκτασίης ὕπο λυγρῆς, 23.87. ἤματι τῷ ὅτε παῖδα κατέκτανον Ἀμφιδάμαντος 23.88. νήπιος οὐκ ἐθέλων ἀμφʼ ἀστραγάλοισι χολωθείς· 23.89. ἔνθά με δεξάμενος ἐν δώμασιν ἱππότα Πηλεὺς 23.90. ἔτραφέ τʼ ἐνδυκέως καὶ σὸν θεράποντʼ ὀνόμηνεν· 23.91. ὣς δὲ καὶ ὀστέα νῶϊν ὁμὴ σορὸς ἀμφικαλύπτοι 23.92. χρύσεος ἀμφιφορεύς, τόν τοι πόρε πότνια μήτηρ.''. None
2.459. Even as a consuming fire maketh a boundless forest to blaze on the peaks of a mountain, and from afar is the glare thereof to be seen, even so from their innumerable bronze, as they marched forth, went the dazzling gleam up through the sky unto the heavens. And as the many tribes of winged fowl, 2.460. wild geese or cranes or long-necked swans on the Asian mead by the streams of Caystrius, fly this way and that, glorying in their strength of wing, and with loud cries settle ever onwards, and the mead resoundeth; even so their many tribes poured forth from ships and huts 2.463. wild geese or cranes or long-necked swans on the Asian mead by the streams of Caystrius, fly this way and that, glorying in their strength of wing, and with loud cries settle ever onwards, and the mead resoundeth; even so their many tribes poured forth from ships and huts ' "
23.69. then there came to him the spirit of hapless Patroclus, in all things like his very self, in stature and fair eyes and in voice, and in like raiment was he clad withal; and he stood above Achilles' head and spake to him, saying:Thou sleepest, and hast forgotten me, Achilles. " '23.70. Not in my life wast thou unmindful of me, but now in my death! Bury me with all speed, that I pass within the gates of Hades. Afar do the spirits keep me aloof, the phantoms of men that have done with toils, neither suffer they me to join myself to them beyond the River, but vainly I wander through the wide-gated house of Hades. 23.75. And give me thy hand, I pitifully entreat thee, for never more again shall I come back from out of Hades, when once ye have given me my due of fire. Never more in life shall we sit apart from our dear comrades and take counsel together, but for me hath loathly fate 23.80. opened its maw, the fate that was appointed me even from my birth. Aye, and thou thyself also, Achilles like to the gods, art doomed to be brought low beneath the wall of the waelthy Trojans. And another thing will I speak, and charge thee, if so be thou wilt hearken. Lay not my bones apart from thine, Achilles, but let them lie together, even as we were reared in your house, 23.84. opened its maw, the fate that was appointed me even from my birth. Aye, and thou thyself also, Achilles like to the gods, art doomed to be brought low beneath the wall of the waelthy Trojans. And another thing will I speak, and charge thee, if so be thou wilt hearken. Lay not my bones apart from thine, Achilles, but let them lie together, even as we were reared in your house, ' "23.85. when Menoetius brought me, being yet a little lad, from Opoeis to your country, by reason of grievous man-slaying, on the day when I slew Amphidamus' son in my folly, though I willed it not, in wrath over the dice. Then the knight Peleus received me into his house " "23.89. when Menoetius brought me, being yet a little lad, from Opoeis to your country, by reason of grievous man-slaying, on the day when I slew Amphidamus' son in my folly, though I willed it not, in wrath over the dice. Then the knight Peleus received me into his house " '23.90. and reared me with kindly care and named me thy squire; even so let one coffer enfold our bones, a golden coffer with handles twain, the which thy queenly mother gave thee. 23.92. and reared me with kindly care and named me thy squire; even so let one coffer enfold our bones, a golden coffer with handles twain, the which thy queenly mother gave thee. ''. None
8. Homeric Hymns, To Hermes, 295, 303 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bird, omen • Birds (= omens)

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 62; Van der Horst (2014) 241

295. His herds and thick-fleeced sheep in your great thirst'
303. A wretched envoy, and immediately '. None
9. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, fish, and birds • bird

 Found in books: Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 61; Gera (2014) 259

10. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birds (= omens) • bird interpreters • birds • birds and birdsong

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 135, 136; Johnston (2008) 130; Pillinger (2019) 52; Van der Horst (2014) 241

11. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 111-130 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bird, omen • bird interpreters

 Found in books: Johnston (2008) 130; Lipka (2021) 123

111. πέμπει σὺν δορὶ καὶ χερὶ πράκτορι'112. θούριος ὄρνις Τευκρίδʼ ἐπʼ αἶαν, 113. οἰωνῶν βασιλεὺς βασιλεῦσι νε-' '115. ῶν ὁ κελαινός, ὅ τʼ ἐξόπιν ἀργᾶς, 116. φανέντες ἴ- 117. κταρ μελάθρων χερὸς ἐκ δοριπάλτου 118. παμπρέπτοις ἐν ἕδραισιν, 119. βοσκόμενοι λαγίναν, ἐρικύμονα φέρματι γένναν, 120. βλαβέντα λοισθίων δρόμων. 121. αἴλινον αἴλινον εἰπέ, τὸ δʼ εὖ νικάτω. Χορός 122. κεδνὸς δὲ στρατόμαντις ἰδὼν δύο λήμασι δισσοὺς 123. Ἀτρεΐδας μαχίμους ἐδάη λαγοδαίτας 124. πομπούς τʼ ἀρχάς· 125. οὕτω δʼ εἶπε τερᾴζων· 126. χρόνῳ μὲν ἀγρεῖ 127.
484. no ointment, nor any drink—but for lack of medicine they wasted away, until I showed them how to mix soothing remedies with which they now ward off all their disorders. And I marked out many ways by which they might read the future, '485. and among dreams I first discerned which are destined to come true; and voices baffling interpretation I explained to them, and signs from chance meetings. The flight of crook-taloned birds I distinguished clearly— which by nature are auspicious, 490. which sinister—their various modes of life, their mutual feuds and loves, and their consortings; and the smoothness of their entrails, and what color the gall must have to please 495. the gods, also the speckled symmetry of the liver-lobe; and the thigh-bones, wrapped in fat, and the long chine I burned and initiated mankind into an occult art. Also I cleared their vision to discern signs from flames,which were obscure before this. '. None
13. Herodotus, Histories, 1.159 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, Birds • birds, removing nests

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 57; Johnston and Struck (2005) 52

1.159. ἀπικομένων δὲ ἐς Βραγχίδας ἐχρηστηριάζετο ἐκ πάντων Ἀριστόδικος ἐπειρωτῶν τάδε. “ὦναξ, ἦλθε παρʼ ἡμέας ἱκέτης Πακτύης ὁ Λυδός, φεύγων θάνατον βίαιον πρὸς Περσέων· οἳ δέ μιν ἐξαιτέονται, προεῖναι Κυμαίους κελεύοντες. ἡμεῖς δὲ δειμαίνοντες τὴν Περσέων δύναμιν τὸν ἱκέτην ἐς τόδε οὐ τετολμήκαμεν ἐκδιδόναι, πρὶν ἂν τὸ ἀπὸ σεῦ ἡμῖν δηλωθῇ ἀτρεκέως ὁκότερα ποιέωμεν.” ὃ μὲν ταῦτα ἐπειρώτα, ὃ δʼ αὖτις τὸν αὐτόν σφι χρησμὸν ἔφαινε, κελεύων ἐκδιδόναι Πακτύην Πέρσῃσι. πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Ἀριστόδικος ἐκ προνοίης ἐποίεε τάδε· περιιὼν τὸν νηὸν κύκλῳ ἐξαίρεε τοὺς στρουθοὺς καὶ ἄλλα ὅσα ἦν νενοσσευμένα ὀρνίθων γένεα ἐν τῷ νηῷ. ποιέοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ταῦτα λέγεται φωνὴν ἐκ τοῦ ἀδύτου γενέσθαι φέρουσαν μὲν πρὸς τὸν Ἀριστόδικον, λέγουσαν δὲ τάδε “ἀνοσιώτατε ἀνθρώπων, τί τάδε τολμᾷς ποιέειν; τοὺς ἱκέτας μου ἐκ τοῦ νηοῦ κεραΐζεις;” Ἀριστόδικον δὲ οὐκ ἀπορήσαντα πρὸς ταῦτα εἰπεῖν “ὦναξ, αὐτὸς μὲν οὕτω τοῖσι ἱκέτῃσι βοηθέεις, Κυμαίους δὲ κελεύεις τὸν ἱκέτην ἐκδιδόναι;” τὸν δὲ αὖτις ἀμείψασθαι τοῖσιδε “ναὶ κελεύω, ἵνα γε ἀσεβήσαντες θᾶσσον ἀπόλησθε, ὡς μὴ τὸ λοιπὸν περὶ ἱκετέων ἐκδόσιος ἔλθητε ἐπὶ τὸ χρηστήριον.”''. None
1.159. When they came to Branchidae, Aristodicus, speaking for all, put this question to the oracle: “Lord, Pactyes the Lydian has come to us a suppliant fleeing a violent death at the hands of the Persians; and they demand him of us, telling the men of Cyme to surrender him. ,But we, as much as we fear the Persian power, have not dared give up this suppliant of ours until it is clearly made known to us by you whether we are to do this or not.” Thus Aristodicus inquired; and the god again gave the same answer, that Pactyes should be surrendered to the Persians. ,With that Aristodicus did as he had already decided; he went around the temple, and took away the sparrows and all the families of nesting birds that were in it. But while he was doing so, a voice (they say) came out of the inner shrine calling to Aristodicus, and saying, “Vilest of men, how dare you do this? Will you rob my temple of those that take refuge with me?” ,Then Aristodicus had his answer ready: “Lord,” he said, “will you save your own suppliants, yet tell the men of Cyme to deliver up theirs?” But the god replied, “Yes, I do command them, so that you may perish all the sooner for your impiety, and never again come to inquire of my oracle about giving up those that seek refuge with you.”''. None
14. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, Birds • Birds, The (Aristophanes), on the Great Dionysia

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 242; Jouanna (2018) 181, 182

15. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bird, omen • Peisetaerus (Birds)

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 123; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 339

16. Cicero, On Divination, 1.105, 1.118, 1.131, 2.34-2.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bird interpreters • birds • birds, divination • oracles, use of birds

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 485; Johnston (2008) 128; Santangelo (2013) 26, 70, 262; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 263

1.105. Quid de auguribus loquar? Tuae partes sunt, tuum inquam, auspiciorum patrocinium debet esse. Tibi App. Claudius augur consuli nuntiavit addubitato Salutis augurio bellum domesticum triste ac turbulentum fore; quod paucis post mensibus exortum paucioribus a te est diebus oppressum. Cui quidem auguri vehementer adsentior; solus enim multorum annorum memoria non decantandi augurii, sed dividi tenuit disciplinam. Quem inridebant collegae tui eumque tum Pisidam, tum Soranum augurem esse dicebant; quibus nulla videbatur in auguriis aut praesensio aut scientia veritatis futurae; sapienter aiebant ad opinionem imperitorum esse fictas religiones. Quod longe secus est; neque enim in pastoribus illis, quibus Romulus praefuit, nec in ipso Romulo haec calliditas esse potuit, ut ad errorem multitudinis religionis simulacra fingerent. Sed difficultas laborque discendi disertam neglegentiam reddidit; malunt enim disserere nihil esse in auspiciis quam, quid sit, ediscere.
1.118. Sed distinguendum videtur, quonam modo. Nam non placet Stoicis singulis iecorum fissis aut avium cantibus interesse deum; neque enim decorum est nec dis dignum nec fieri ullo pacto potest; sed ita a principio inchoatum esse mundum, ut certis rebus certa signa praecurrerent, alia in extis, alia in avibus, alia in fulgoribus, alia in ostentis, alia in stellis, alia in somniantium visis, alia in furentium vocibus. Ea quibus bene percepta sunt, ii non saepe falluntur; male coniecta maleque interpretata falsa sunt non rerum vitio, sed interpretum inscientia. Hoc autem posito atque concesso, esse quandam vim divinam hominum vitam continentem, non difficile est, quae fieri certe videmus, ea qua ratione fiant, suspicari. Nam et ad hostiam deligendam potest dux esse vis quaedam sentiens, quae est toto confusa mundo, et tum ipsum, cum immolare velis, extorum fieri mutatio potest, ut aut absit aliquid aut supersit; parvis enim momentis multa natura aut adfingit aut mutat aut detrahit.
1.131. Democritus autem censet sapienter instituisse veteres, ut hostiarum immolatarum inspicerentur exta; quorum ex habitu atque ex colore tum salubritatis, tum pestilentiae signa percipi, non numquam etiam, quae sit vel sterilitas agrorum vel fertilitas futura. Quae si a natura profecta observatio atque usus agnovit, multa adferre potuit dies, quae animadvertendo notarentur, ut ille Pacuvianus, qui in Chryse physicus inducitur, minime naturam rerum cognosse videatur: nam isti quí linguam avium intéllegunt Plusque éx alieno iécore sapiunt quam éx suo, Magis aúdiendum quam aúscultandum cénseo. Cur? quaeso, cum ipse paucis interpositis versibus dicas satis luculente: Quídquid est hoc, ómnia animat, fórmat, alit, augét, creat, Sépelit recipitque ín sese omnia ómniumque idémst pater, Índidemque eadem aéque oriuntur de íntegro atque eodem óccidunt. Quid est igitur, cur, cum domus sit omnium una, eaque communis, cumque animi hominum semper fuerint futurique sint, cur ii, quid ex quoque eveniat, et quid quamque rem significet, perspicere non possint? Haec habui, inquit, de divinatione quae dicerem.
2.34. Quid de fretis aut de marinis aestibus plura dicam? quorum accessus et recessus lunae motu gubertur. Sescenta licet eiusdem modi proferri, ut distantium rerum cognatio naturalis appareat)—demus hoc; nihil enim huic disputationi adversatur; num etiam, si fissum cuiusdam modi fuerit in iecore, lucrum ostenditur? qua ex coniunctione naturae et quasi concentu atque consensu, quam sumpa/qeian Graeci appellant, convenire potest aut fissum iecoris cum lucello meo aut meus quaesticulus cum caelo, terra rerumque natura? Concedam hoc ipsum, si vis, etsi magnam iacturam causae fecero, si ullam esse convenientiam naturae cum extis concessero; 2.35. sed tamen eo concesso qui evenit, ut is, qui impetrire velit, convenientem hostiam rebus suis immolet? Hoc erat, quod ego non rebar posse dissolvi. At quam festive dissolvitur! pudet me non tui quidem, cuius etiam memoriam admiror, sed Chrysippi, Antipatri, Posidonii, qui idem istuc quidem dicunt, quod est dictum a te, ad hostiam deligendam ducem esse vim quandam sentientem atque divinam, quae toto confusa mundo sit. Illud vero multo etiam melius, quod et a te usurpatum est et dicitur ab illis: cum immolare quispiam velit, tum fieri extorum mutationem, ut aut absit aliquid aut supersit; 2.36. deorum enim numini parere omnia. Haec iam, mihi crede, ne aniculae quidem existimant. An censes, eundem vitulum si alius delegerit, sine capite iecur inventurum; si alius, cum capite? Haec decessio capitis aut accessio subitone fieri potest, ut se exta ad immolatoris fortunam accommodent? non perspicitis aleam quandam esse in hostiis deligendis, praesertim cum res ipsa doceat? Cum enim tristissuma exta sine capite fuerunt, quibus nihil videtur esse dirius, proxuma hostia litatur saepe pulcherrime. Ubi igitur illae minae superiorum extorum? aut quae tam subito facta est deorum tanta placatio? Sed adfers in tauri opimi extis immolante Caesare cor non fuisse; id quia non potuerit accidere, ut sine corde victuma illa viveret, iudicandum esse tum interisse cor, cum immolaretur. 2.37. Qui fit, ut alterum intellegas, sine corde non potuisse bovem vivere, alterum non videas, cor subito non potuisse nescio quo avolare? Ego enim possum vel nescire, quae vis sit cordis ad vivendum, vel suspicari contractum aliquo morbo bovis exile et exiguum et vietum cor et dissimile cordis fuisse; tu vero quid habes, quare putes, si paulo ante cor fuerit in tauro opimo, subito id in ipsa immolatione interisse? an quod aspexit vestitu purpureo excordem Caesarem, ipse corde privatus est? Urbem philosophiae, mihi crede, proditis, dum castella defenditis; nam, dum haruspicinam veram esse vultis, physiologiam totam pervertitis. Caput est in iecore, cor in extis; iam abscedet, simul ac molam et vinum insperseris; deus id eripiet, vis aliqua conficiet aut exedet. Non ergo omnium ortus atque obitus natura conficiet, et erit aliquid, quod aut ex nihilo oriatur aut in nihilum subito occidat. Quis hoc physicus dixit umquam? haruspices dicunt; his igitur quam physicis credendum potius existumas? 2.38. Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum. 2.39. An, cum in Aequimaelium misimus, qui adferat agnum, quem immolemus, is mihi agnus adfertur, qui habet exta rebus accommodata, et ad eum agnum non casu, sed duce deo servus deducitur? Nam si casum in eo quoque dicis esse quasi sortem quandam cum deorum voluntate coniunctam, doleo tantam Stoicos nostros Epicureis inridendi sui facultatem dedisse; non enim ignoras, quam ista derideant.''. None
1.105. Why need I speak of augurs? That is your rôle; the duty to defend auspices, I maintain, is yours. For it was to you, while you were consul, that the augur Appius Claudius declared that because the augury of safety was unpropitious a grievous and violent civil war was at hand. That war began few months later, but you brought it to an end in still fewer days. Appius is one augur of whom I heartily approve, for not content merely with the sing-song ritual of augury, he, alone, according to the record of many years, has maintained a real system of divination. I know that your colleagues used to laugh at him and call him the one time a Pisidian and at another a Soran. They did not concede to augury any power of prevision or real knowledge of the future, and used to say that it was a superstitious practice shrewdly invented to gull the ignorant. But the truth is far otherwise, for neither those herdsmen whom Romulus governed, nor Romulus himself, could have had cunning enough to invent miracles with which to mislead the people. It is the trouble and hard work involved in mastering the art that has induced this eloquent contempt; for men prefer to say glibly that there is nothing in auspices rather than to learn what auspices are.
1.118. But it seems necessary to settle the principle on which these signs depend. For, according to the Stoic doctrine, the gods are not directly responsible for every fissure in the liver or for every song of a bird; since, manifestly, that would not be seemly or proper in a god and furthermore is impossible. But, in the beginning, the universe was so created that certain results would be preceded by certain signs, which are given sometimes by entrails and by birds, sometimes by lightnings, by portents, and by stars, sometimes by dreams, and sometimes by utterances of persons in a frenzy. And these signs do not often deceive the persons who observe them properly. If prophecies, based on erroneous deductions and interpretations, turn out to be false, the fault is not chargeable to the signs but to the lack of skill in the interpreters.Assuming the proposition to be conceded that there is a divine power which pervades the lives of men, it is not hard to understand the principle directing those premonitory signs which we see come to pass. For it may be that the choice of a sacrificial victim is guided by an intelligent force, which is diffused throughout the universe; or, it may be that at the moment when the sacrifice is offered, a change in the vitals occurs and something is added or taken away; for many things are added to, changed, or diminished in an instant of time.
1.131. Again, Democritus expresses the opinion that the ancients acted wisely in providing for the inspection of the entrails of sacrifices; because, as he thinks, the colour and general condition of the entrails are prophetic sometimes of health and sometimes of sickness and sometimes also of whether the fields will be barren or productive. Now, if it is known by observation and experience that these means of divination have their source in nature, it must be that the observations made and records kept for a long period of time have added much to our knowledge of this subject. Hence, that natural philosopher introduced by Pacuvius into his play of Chryses, seems to show very scanty apprehension of the laws of nature when he speaks as follows:The men who know the speech of birds and moreDo learn from other livers than their own —Twere best to hear, I think, and not to heed.I do not know why this poet makes such a statement when only a few lines further on he says clearly enough:Whateer the power may be, it animates,Creates, gives form, increase, and nourishmentTo everything: of everything the sire,It takes all things unto itself and hidesWithin its breast; and as from it all thingsArise, likewise to it all things return.Since all things have one and the same and that a common home, and since the human soul has always been and will always be, why, then, should it not be able to understand what effect will follow any cause, and what sign will precede any event?This, said Quintus, is all that I had to say on divination. 58
2.34. There is no need to go on and mention the seas and straits with their tides, whose ebb and flow are governed by the motion of the moon. Innumerable instances of the same kind may be given to prove that some natural connexion does exist between objects apparently unrelated. Concede that it does exist; it does not contravene the point I make, that no sort of a cleft in a liver is prophetic of ficial gain. What natural tie, or what symphony, so to speak, or association, or what sympathy, as the Greeks term it, can there be between a cleft in a liver and a petty addition to my purse? Or what relationship between my miserable money-getting, on the one hand, and heaven, earth, and the laws of nature on the other?15 However, I will concede even this if you wish, though it will greatly weaken my case to admit that there is any connexion between nature and the condition of the entrails; 2.35. yet, suppose the concession is made, how is it brought about that the man in search of favourable signs will find a sacrifice suitable to his purpose? I thought the question insoluble. But what a fine solution is offered! I am not ashamed of you — I am actually astonished at your memory; but I am ashamed of Chrysippus, Antipater, and Posidonius who say exactly what you said: The choice of the sacrificial victim is directed by the sentient and divine power which pervades the entire universe.But even more absurd is that other pronouncement of theirs which you adopted: At the moment of sacrifice a change in the entrails takes place; something is added or something taken away; for all things are obedient to the Divine Will. 2.36. Upon my word, no old woman is credulous enough now to believe such stuff! Do you believe that the same bullock, if chosen by one man, will have a liver without a head, and if chosen by another will have a liver with a head? And is it possible that this sudden going or coming of the livers head occurs so that the entrails may adapt themselves to the situation of the person who offers the sacrifice? Do you Stoics fail to see in choosing the victim it is almost like a throw of the dice, especially as facts prove it? For when the entrails of the first victim have been without a head, which is the most fatal of all signs, it often happens that the sacrifice of the next victim is altogether favourable. Pray what became of the warnings of the first set of entrails? And how was the favour of the gods so completely and so suddenly gained?16 But, you say, Once, when Caesar was offering a sacrifice, there was no heart in the entrails of the sacrificial bull; and, and, since it would have been impossible for the victim to live without a heart, the heart must have disappeared at the moment of immolation. 2.37. How does it happen that you understand the one fact, that the bull could not have lived without a heart and do not realize the other, that the heart could not suddenly have vanished I know not where? As for me, possibly I do not know what vital function the heart performs; if I do I suspect that the bulls heart, as the result of a disease, became much wasted and shrunken and lost its resemblance to a heart. But, assuming that only a little while before the heart was in the sacrificial bull, why do you think it suddenly disappeared at the very moment of immolation? Dont you think, rather, that the bull lost his heart when he saw that Caesar in his purple robe had lost his head?Upon my word you Stoics surrender the very city of philosophy while defending its outworks! For, by your insistence on the truth of soothsaying, you utterly overthrow physiology. There is a head to the liver and a heart in the entrails, presto! they will vanish the very second you have sprinkled them with meal and wine! Aye, some god will snatch them away! Some invisible power will destroy them or eat them up! Then the creation and destruction of all things are not due to nature, and there are some things which spring from nothing or suddenly become nothing. Was any such statement ever made by any natural philosopher? It is made, you say, by soothsayers. Then do you think that soothsayers are worthier of belief than natural philosophers? 17 2.38. Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices. 2.39. When I send a slave to Aequimelium to bring me a lamb for a sacrifice and he brings me the lamb which has entrails suited to the exigencies of my particular case, it was not chance, I suppose, but a god that led the slave to that particular lamb! If you say that in this case too chance is, as it were, a sort of lot in accordance with the divine will, then I am sorry that our Stoic friends have given the Epicureans so great an opportunity for laughter, for you know how much fun they make of statements like that.''. None
17. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bird • birds

 Found in books: Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 43; Santangelo (2013) 28

18. Ovid, Fasti, 1.451-1.454 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Isis, bird sacrifices to • birds • birds, sacrifice of

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 109; Hitch (2017) 74, 78

1.451. ergo saepe suo coniunx abducta marito 1.452. uritur Idaliis alba columba focis; 1.453. nec defensa iuvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 1.454. det iecur in lances, Inachi lauta, tuas;''. None
1.451. So the white dove, torn from her mate, 1.452. Is often burned in the Idalian flames: 1.453. Nor did saving the Capitol benefit the goose, 1.454. Who yielded his liver on a dish to you, Inachus’ daughter:''. None
19. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 2.547-2.550, 6.669 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • birds • birds and birdsong

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 131, 135; Pillinger (2019) 54, 216

2.547. ad dominum tendebat iter. Quem garrula motis 2.548. consequitur pennis, scitetur ut omnia, cornix, 2.549. auditaque viae causa “non utile carpis” 2.550. inquit “iter: ne sperne meae praesagia linguae.
6.669. altera tecta subit; neque adhuc de pectore caedis''. None
2.547. “Avoid me not!” “Avoid me not!” returns. 2.548. encircle Phoebus as he makes complaint, 2.549. and with their supplications they entreat 2.549. by this alternate voice, and calls aloud; 2.550. him not to plunge the world in darkness. Jove 2.550. “Oh let us come together!” Echo cries,
6.669. now met together and implored their king''. None
20. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • birds

 Found in books: Santangelo (2013) 197; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 96

21. Tacitus, Annals, 12.43, 12.64.1, 13.58 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • birds • birds, eagle-owls • birds, hawks

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 164, 165; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 269, 270, 290

12.43. Multa eo anno prodigia evenere. insessum diris avibus Capitolium, crebris terrae motibus prorutae domus, ac dum latius metuitur, trepidatione vulgi invalidus quisque obtriti; frugum quoque egestas et orta ex eo fames in prodigium accipiebatur. nec occulti tantum questus, sed iura reddentem Claudium circumvasere clamoribus turbidis, pulsumque in extremam fori partem vi urgebant, donec militum globo infensos perrupit. quindecim dierum alimenta urbi, non amplius superfuisse constitit, magnaque deum benignitate et modestia hiemis rebus extremis subventum. at hercule olim Italia legionibus longinquas in provincias commeatus portabat, nec nunc infecunditate laboratur, sed Africam potius et Aegyptum exercemus, navibusque et casibus vita populi Romani permissa est.' '
13.58. Eodem anno Ruminalem arborem in comitio, quae octingentos et triginta ante annos Remi Romulique infantiam texerat, mortuis ramalibus et arescente trunco deminutam prodigii loco habitum est, donec in novos fetus revivesceret.''. None
12.43. \xa0Many prodigies occurred during the year. Ominous birds took their seat on the Capitol; houses were overturned by repeated shocks of earthquake, and, as the panic spread, the weak were trampled underfoot in the trepidation of the crowd. A\xa0shortage of corn, again, and the famine which resulted, were construed as a supernatural warning. Nor were the complaints always whispered. Claudius, sitting in judgement, was surrounded by a wildly clamorous mob, and, driven into the farthest corner of the Forum, was there subjected to violent pressure, until, with the help of a body of troops, he forced a way through the hostile throng. It was established that the capital had provisions for fifteen days, no more; and the crisis was relieved only by the especial grace of the gods and the mildness of the winter. And yet, Heaven knows, in the past, Italy exported supplies for the legions into remote provinces; nor is sterility the trouble now, but we cultivate Africa and Egypt by preference, and the life of the Roman nation has been staked upon cargo-boats and accidents. <
12.64.1. \xa0In the consulate of Marcus Asinius and Manius Acilius, it was made apparent by a sequence of prodigies that a change of conditions for the worse was foreshadowed. Fire from heaven played round the standards and tents of the soldiers; a\xa0swarm of bees settled on the pediment of the Capitol; it was stated that hermaphrodites had been born, and that a pig had been produced with the talons of a hawk. It was counted among the portents that each of the magistracies found its numbers diminished, since a quaestor, an aedile, and a tribune, together with a praetor and a consul, had died within a\xa0few months. But especial terror was felt by Agrippina. Disquieted by a remark let fall by Claudius in his cups, that it was his destiny first to suffer and finally to punish the infamy of his wives, she determined to act â\x80\x94 and speedily. First, however, she destroyed Domitia Lepida on a feminine quarrel. For, as the daughter of the younger Antonia, the grand-niece of Augustus, the first cousin once removed of Agrippina, and also the sister of her former husband Gnaeus Domitius, Lepida regarded her family distinctions as equal to those of the princess. In looks, age, and fortune there was little between the pair; and since each was as unchaste, as disreputable, and as violent as the other, their competition in the vices was not less keen than in such advantages as they had received from the kindness of fortune. But the fiercest struggle was on the question whether the domit influence with Nero was to be his aunt or his mother: for Lepida was endeavouring to captivate his youthful mind by a smooth tongue and an open hand, while on the other side Agrippina stood grim and menacing, capable of presenting her son with an empire but not of tolerating him as emperor.
13.58. \xa0In the same year, the tree in the Comitium, known as the Ruminalis, which eight hundred and thirty years earlier had sheltered the infancy of Remus and Romulus, through the death of its boughs and the withering of its stem, reached a stage of decrepitude which was regarded as a portent, until it renewed its verdure in fresh shoots.''. None
22. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • birds • birds, ornithomancy • ornithomancy (bird divination)

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 157; Santangelo (2013) 26

23. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 41.61.4-41.61.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • birds • birds, ornithomancy • ornithomancy (bird divination)

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 157; Santangelo (2013) 26

41.61.4. \xa0in Tralles a palm tree grew up in the temple of Victory and the goddess herself turned about toward an image of Caesar that stood beside her; in Syria two young men announced the result of the battle and vanished; and in Patavium, which now belongs to Italy but was then still a part of Gaul, some birds not only brought news of it but even acted it out to some extent, 41.61.5. \xa0for one Gaius Cornelius drew from their actions accurate information of all that had taken place, and narrated it to the bystanders. These several things happened on that very same day and though they were, not unnaturally, distrusted at the time, yet when news of the actual facts was brought, they were marvelled at.''. None
24. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.11.7, 2.17.4, 10.32.16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Isis, bird sacrifices to • animal species, bird • birds • birds, sacrifice of • birds, sacrificial victims • birds, symbol of sovereignty • heroes, bird offerings to

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 15, 44; Ekroth (2013) 308; Hitch (2017) 69, 78, 87; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 118

2.11.7. τῷ δὲ Ἀλεξάνορι καὶ Εὐαμερίωνι—καὶ γὰρ τούτοις ἀγάλματά ἐστι—τῷ μὲν ὡς ἥρωι μετὰ ἥλιον δύναντα ἐναγίζουσιν, Εὐαμερίωνι δὲ ὡς θεῷ θύουσιν. εἰ δὲ ὀρθῶς εἰκάζω, τὸν Εὐαμερίωνα τοῦτον Περγαμηνοὶ Τελεσφόρον ἐκ μαντεύματος, Ἐπιδαύριοι δὲ Ἄκεσιν ὀνομάζουσι. τῆς δὲ Κορωνίδος ἔστι μὲν καὶ ταύτης ξόανον, καθίδρυται δὲ οὐδαμοῦ τοῦ ναοῦ· θυομένων δὲ τῷ θεῷ ταύρου καὶ ἀρνὸς καὶ ὑὸς ἐς Ἀθηνᾶς ἱερὸν τὴν Κορωνίδα μετενεγκόντες ἐνταῦθα τιμῶσιν. ὁπόσα δὲ τῶν θυομένων καθαγίζουσιν, οὐδὲ ἀποχρᾷ σφισιν ἐκτέμνειν τοὺς μηρούς· χαμαὶ δὲ καίουσι πλὴν τοὺς ὄρνιθας, τούτους δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ.
2.17.4. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἥρας ἐπὶ θρόνου κάθηται μεγέθει μέγα, χρυσοῦ μὲν καὶ ἐλέφαντος, Πολυκλείτου δὲ ἔργον· ἔπεστι δέ οἱ στέφανος Χάριτας ἔχων καὶ Ὥρας ἐπειργασμένας, καὶ τῶν χειρῶν τῇ μὲν καρπὸν φέρει ῥοιᾶς, τῇ δὲ σκῆπτρον. τὰ μὲν οὖν ἐς τὴν ῥοιὰν—ἀπορρητότερος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ λόγος—ἀφείσθω μοι· κόκκυγα δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ σκήπτρῳ καθῆσθαί φασι λέγοντες τὸν Δία, ὅτε ἤρα παρθένου τῆς Ἥρας, ἐς τοῦτον τὸν ὄρνιθα ἀλλαγῆναι, τὴν δὲ ἅτε παίγνιον θηρᾶσαι. τοῦτον τὸν λόγον καὶ ὅσα ἐοικότα εἴρηται περὶ θεῶν οὐκ ἀποδεχόμενος γράφω, γράφω δὲ οὐδὲν ἧσσον.
10.32.16. μετὰ δὲ μεσοῦσαν τὴν ἡμέραν τρέπονται πρὸς θυσίαν. θύουσι δὲ καὶ βοῦς καὶ ἐλάφους οἱ εὐδαιμονέστεροι, ὅσοι δέ εἰσιν ἀποδέοντες πλούτῳ, καὶ χῆνας καὶ ὄρνιθας τὰς μελεαγρίδας· οἰσὶ δὲ ἐς τὴν θυσίαν οὐ νομίζουσιν οὐδὲ ὑσὶ χρῆσθαι καὶ αἰξίν. ὅσοις μὲν δὴ καθαγίσασι τὰ ἱερεῖα ἐς τὸ ἄδυτον ἀποστεῖλαι πεποιημένους ἀρχήν, καθελίξαι δεῖ σφᾶς τὰ ἱερεῖα λίνου τελαμῶσιν ἢ βύσσου· τρόπος δὲ τῆς σκευασίας ἐστὶν ὁ Αἰγύπτιος.''. None
2.11.7. There are images also of Alexanor and of Euamerion; to the former they give offerings as to a hero after the setting of the sun; to Euamerion, as being a god, they give burnt sacrifices. If I conjecture aright, the Pergamenes, in accordance with an oracle, call this Euamerion Telesphorus (Accomplisher) while the Epidaurians call him Acesis (Cure). There is also a wooden image of Coronis, but it has no fixed position anywhere in the temple. While to the god are being sacrificed a bull, a lamb, and a pig, they remove Coronis to the sanctuary of Athena and honor her there. The parts of the victims which they offer as a burnt sacrifice, and they are not content with cutting out the thighs, they burn on the ground, except the birds, which they burn on the altar.
2.17.4. The statue of Hera is seated on a throne; it is huge, made of gold and ivory, and is a work of Polycleitus. She is wearing a crown with Graces and Seasons worked upon it, and in one hand she carries a pomegranate and in the other a sceptre. About the pomegranate I must say nothing, for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery. The presence of a cuckoo seated on the sceptre they explain by the story that when Zeus was in love with Hera in her maidenhood he changed himself into this bird, and she caught it to be her pet. This tale and similar legends about the gods I relate without believing them, but I relate them nevertheless.
10.32.16. After mid-day they turn to sacrificing. The more wealthy sacrifice oxen and deer, the poorer people geese and guinea fowl. But it is not the custom to use for the sacrifice sheep, pigs or goats. Those whose business it is to burn the victims This scarcely makes sense, and the emendation of Kayser is ingenious: “Those whom Isis has invited to send the victims.” and send them into the shrine...having made a beginning must wrap the victims in bandages of coarse or fine linen; the mode of preparing is the Egyptian.''. None
25. Vergil, Aeneis, 12.247
 Tagged with subjects: • bird • birds

 Found in books: Mackay (2022) 151; Santangelo (2013) 226

12.247. Namque volans rubra fulvus Iovis ales in aethra''. None
12.247. this votive prayer: “O Sun in heaven; and thou, ''. None
26. Vergil, Georgics, 4.442, 4.511-4.515, 4.517-4.520
 Tagged with subjects: • bird • birds

 Found in books: Bortolani et al (2019) 220; Gagné (2020) 389; Gale (2000) 54, 135, 136, 137, 138, 185; Mackay (2022) 77

4.442. ignemque horribilemque feram fluviumque liquentem.
4.511. qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra 4.512. amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 4.513. observans nido implumes detraxit; at illa 4.514. flet noctem ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 4.515. integrat et maestis late loca questibus implet.
4.517. Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 4.518. arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis 4.519. lustrabat raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis 4.520. dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres''. None
4.442. Fair Clymene was telling o'er the tale" '
4.511. His wiles will break and spend themselves in vain. 4.512. I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires, 4.513. When the blades thirst, and cattle love the shade,' "4.514. Myself will guide thee to the old man's haunt," '4.515. Whither he hies him weary from the waves,
4.517. But when thou hast gripped him fast with hand and gyve, 4.518. Then divers forms and bestial semblance 4.519. Shall mock thy grasp; for sudden he will change 4.520. To bristly boar, fell tigress, dragon scaled,'". None
27. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • birds, sacrifice • birds, sacrifice of • heroes, bird offerings to

 Found in books: Hitch (2017) 66, 67; Lupu(2005) 57, 223

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