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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
bee Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 192, 195
Singer and van Eijk (2018) 71, 72, 77, 78, 79, 104
bee, healing and medicines, honey, use of Taylor (2012) 315, 318, 319
bee, king Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 269
bee, maidens Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 117
bee, metaliterary symbols Mheallaigh (2014) 12
bee, metaphor, memory Ward (2022) 109, 110, 114, 115
bee, queen Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 254, 269
bee/drone, imagery Braund and Most (2004) 94, 95, 96, 97
bees Bloch (2022) 204, 214
Brule (2003) 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 78, 79, 167, 168
Davies (2004) 30, 39, 44, 103
Gagné (2020) 112, 114
Mueller (2002) 93
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 170, 276, 290
Xinyue (2022) 197, 198
de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 347
bees, and divination Johnston (2008) 111, 112
bees, and sophocles Jouanna (2018) 106, 664
bees, as a motif and bee, symbol, mythology Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 252
bees, as a motif and symbol, bee Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 269
bees, carthaginians, as Giusti (2018) 103, 104, 105
bees, in georgics, vergil Williams and Vol (2022) 230, 231, 232, 233, 239
bees, in the aeneid Giusti (2018) 103, 104, 105
bees, nikos a Brooten (1982) 75
bees, r. Del Lucchese (2019) 251
Pinheiro et al (2015) 26
bees, seneca, on Fertik (2019) 85, 187
bees, simile Greensmith (2021) 139, 186
bees, similes Greensmith (2021) 139, 186

List of validated texts:
28 validated results for "bees"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Four living beings

 Found in books: Rasimus (2009) 111; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 85

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One."''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, death of • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 81; Trudinger (2004) 95, 96, 104

32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃''. None
32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Four living beings • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings • divine beings, death of • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 234; Rasimus (2009) 107, 204; Trudinger (2004) 104

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃' '. None
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 81; Trudinger (2004) 95

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃''. None
1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 29.1, 82.6-82.7, 89.7, 104.4, 106.35-106.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings • divine beings • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps • sexual relations among divine beings

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 50; Frey and Levison (2014) 226; Ruzer (2020) 81, 82, 83; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 132; Trudinger (2004) 95, 98, 197

29.1. יְהוָה לַמַּבּוּל יָשָׁב וַיֵּשֶׁב יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ לְעוֹלָם׃
29.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד הָבוּ לַיהוָה בְּנֵי אֵלִים הָבוּ לַיהוָה כָּבוֹד וָעֹז׃
82.6. אֲ\u200dנִי־אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם וּבְנֵי עֶלְיוֹן כֻּלְּכֶם׃ 82.7. אָכֵן כְּאָדָם תְּמוּתוּן וּכְאַחַד הַשָּׂרִים תִּפֹּלוּ׃
89.7. כִּי מִי בַשַּׁחַק יַעֲרֹךְ לַיהוָה יִדְמֶה לַיהוָה בִּבְנֵי אֵלִים׃
104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃
106.35. וַיִּתְעָרְבוּ בַגּוֹיִם וַיִּלְמְדוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם׃ 106.36. וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־עֲצַבֵּיהֶם וַיִּהְיוּ לָהֶם לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃ 106.37. וַיִּזְבְּחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לַשֵּׁדִים׃ 106.38. וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ דָם נָקִי דַּם־בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר זִבְּחוּ לַעֲצַבֵּי כְנָעַן וַתֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ בַּדָּמִים׃''. None
29.1. A Psalm of David. Ascribe unto the LORD, O ye sons of might, Ascribe unto the LORD glory and strength.
82.6. I said: Ye are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High.' "82.7. Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.'" '
89.7. For who in the skies can be compared unto the LORD, Who among the sons of might can be likened unto the LORD,
104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers.
106.35. But mingled themselves with the nations, And learned their works; 106.36. And they served their idols, Which became a snare unto them; 106.37. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons, 106.38. And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, Whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; And the land was polluted with blood.''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.1-6.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Four living beings • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Rasimus (2009) 69; Trudinger (2004) 92, 95

6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃
6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 6.2. שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.4. וַיָּנֻעוּ אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים מִקּוֹל הַקּוֹרֵא וְהַבַּיִת יִמָּלֵא עָשָׁן׃ 6.5. וָאֹמַר אוֹי־לִי כִי־נִדְמֵיתִי כִּי אִישׁ טְמֵא־שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי וּבְתוֹךְ עַם־טְמֵא שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב כִּי אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת רָאוּ עֵינָי׃ 6.6. וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִים וּבְיָדוֹ רִצְפָּה בְּמֶלְקַחַיִם לָקַח מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.7. וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה נָגַע זֶה עַל־שְׂפָתֶיךָ וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ וְחַטָּאתְךָ תְּכֻפָּר׃''. None
6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple. 6.2. Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory. 6.4. And the posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke. 6.5. Then said I: Woe is me! for I am undone; Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For mine eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts. 6.6. Then flew unto me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar; 6.7. and he touched my mouth with it, and said: Lo, this hath touched thy lips; And thine iniquity is taken away, And thy sin expiated.''. None
7. Hesiod, Works And Days, 200 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • eternity, eternal human beings • justice, peculiar to human beings

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 161; Segev (2017) 105

200. Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ''. None
200. That’s given to the honest, just and kind.''. None
8. Homer, Iliad, 2.87-2.90 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Carthaginians, as bees • bees, simile • similes, bees

 Found in books: Giusti (2018) 104; Greensmith (2021) 139

2.87. ἠΰτε ἔθνεα εἶσι μελισσάων ἁδινάων 2.88. πέτρης ἐκ γλαφυρῆς αἰεὶ νέον ἐρχομενάων, 2.89. βοτρυδὸν δὲ πέτονται ἐπʼ ἄνθεσιν εἰαρινοῖσιν· 2.90. αἳ μέν τʼ ἔνθα ἅλις πεποτήαται, αἳ δέ τε ἔνθα·''. None
2.87. and the other sceptred kings rose up thereat and obeyed the shepherd of the host; and the people the while were hastening on. Even as the tribes of thronging bees go forth from some hollow rock, ever coming on afresh, and in clusters over the flowers of spring fly in throngs, some here, some there; 2.90. even so from the ships and huts before the low sea-beach marched forth in companies their many tribes to the place of gathering. And in their midst blazed forth Rumour, messenger of Zeus, urging them to go; and they were gathered. ''. None
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 20.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Four living beings • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps • sexual relations among divine beings

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 50; Rasimus (2009) 111; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 79; Trudinger (2004) 96

7. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms,and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they,became pregt, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed,all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against,them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and,fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones."
20.5. And these are the names of the holy angels who watch. Uriel, one of the holy angels, who is,over the world and over Tartarus. Raphael, one of the holy angels, who is over the spirits of men.,Raguel, one of the holy angels who takes vengeance on the world of the luminaries. Michael, one,of the holy angels, to wit, he that is set over the best part of mankind and over chaos. Saraqael,,one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits, who sin in the spirit. Gabriel, one of the holy,angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim. Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise.' "'. None
10. Anon., Testament of Levi, 8.2-8.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spiritual, powers, beings • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 267; Trudinger (2004) 94

8.2. And I saw seven men in white raiment saying unto me: Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment of truth, and the plate of faith, and the turban of the head, and the ephod of prophecy. 8.3. And they severally carried (these things) and put (them,) on me, and said unto me: From henceforth become a priest of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever.''. None
11. Cicero, On Divination, 1.73 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bees

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 228; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 276

1.73. Facta coniectura etiam in Dionysio est, paulo ante quam regnare coepit; qui cum per agrum Leontinum iter faciens equum ipse demisisset in flumen, submersus equus voraginibus non exstitit; quem cum maxima contentione non potuisset extrahere, discessit, ut ait Philistus, aegre ferens. Cum autem aliquantum progressus esset, subito exaudivit hinnitum respexitque et equum alacrem laetus aspexit, cuius in iuba examen apium consederat. Quod ostentum habuit hanc vim, ut Dionysius paucis post diebus regnare coeperit.''. None
1.73. Still another instance of conjectural divination occurred in the case of Dionysius, a little while before he began to reign. He was travelling through the Leontine district, and led his horse down into a river. The horse was engulfed in a whirlpool and disappeared. Dionysius did his utmost to extricate him but in vain and, so Philistus writes, went away greatly troubled. When he had gone on a short distance he heard a whinny, looked back and, to his joy, saw his horse eagerly following and with a swarm of bees in its mane. The sequel of this portent was that Dionysius began to reign within a few days. 34''. None
12. Cicero, De Finibus, 3.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bees • nature, of human beings

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 50; Long (2006) 28, 348

3.63. \xa0From this impulse is developed the sense of mutual attraction which unites human beings as such; this also is bestowed by nature. The mere fact of their common humanity requires that one man should feel another man to be akin to him. For just as some of the parts of the body, such as the eyes and the ears, are created as it were for their own sakes, while others like the legs or the hands also subserve the utility of the rest of the members, so some very large animals are born for themselves alone; whereas the seaâ\x80\x91pen, as it is called, in its roomy shell, and the creature named the 'pinoteres' because it keeps watch over the seaâ\x80\x91pen, which swims out of the seaâ\x80\x91pen's shell, then retires back into it and is shut up inside, thus appearing to have warned its host to be on its guard â\x80\x94 these creatures, and also the ant, the bee, the stork, do certain actions for the sake of others besides themselves. With human beings this bond of mutual aid is far more intimate. It follows that we are by nature fitted to form unions, societies and states. <"". None
13. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 3.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bees • nature, of human beings

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 50; Long (2006) 28, 348

3.63. ex hoc nascitur ut etiam etiam ut BE communis hominum inter homines naturalis sit commendatio, ut oporteat hominem ab homine ob id ipsum, quod homo sit, non alienum videri. ut enim in membris alia sunt sunt N 2 sint tamquam sibi nata, ut oculi, ut aures, alia alia Marsus aliqua ARN aliaque BE reliqua V etiam ceterorum membrorum usum adiuvant, ut crura, ut manus, sic inmanes quaedam bestiae bestie quedam BE sibi solum natae sunt, at illa, quae in concha patula pina dicitur, isque, qui enat e concha, qui, quod eam custodit, pinoteres vocatur in eandemque in eandemque BE in eamque cum se recepit recepit cod. Glogav. recipit includitur, ut videatur monuisse ut caveret, itemque formicae, apes, ciconiae aliorum etiam causa quaedam faciunt. multo haec coniunctius homines. coniunctius homines Mdv. coniunctio est hominis itaque natura sumus apti ad coetus, concilia, consilia Non. civitatis Non. RV civitates. itaque ... civitatis ( v. 18 ) Non. p. 234''. None
3.63. \xa0From this impulse is developed the sense of mutual attraction which unites human beings as such; this also is bestowed by nature. The mere fact of their common humanity requires that one man should feel another man to be akin to him. For just as some of the parts of the body, such as the eyes and the ears, are created as it were for their own sakes, while others like the legs or the hands also subserve the utility of the rest of the members, so some very large animals are born for themselves alone; whereas the seaâ\x80\x91pen, as it is called, in its roomy shell, and the creature named the 'pinoteres' because it keeps watch over the seaâ\x80\x91pen, which swims out of the seaâ\x80\x91pen's shell, then retires back into it and is shut up inside, thus appearing to have warned its host to be on its guard â\x80\x94 these creatures, and also the ant, the bee, the stork, do certain actions for the sake of others besides themselves. With human beings this bond of mutual aid is far more intimate. It follows that we are by nature fitted to form unions, societies and states. <"". None
14. Cicero, On Duties, 1.22, 1.49-1.50, 1.107-1.116, 3.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, on humans as political beings • bees • human beings, as θνητὰ λογικὰ ζῷα • human beings, defined by Epictetus • human beings, place and role in cosmos • nature, of human beings • ζῷον λογικόν θνητόν, human beings as • ζῷον λογικόν, gods and human beings as, in Stoic thought • ζῷον λογικόν, human beings as • θεωρία, vocation of human beings • θνητὰ λογικὰ ζῷα, human beings as

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 47, 115, 130, 131, 146; Gale (2000) 50; Long (2006) 330, 336, 349

1.22. Sed quoniam, ut praeclare scriptum est a Platone, non nobis solum nati sumus ortusque nostri partem patria vindicat, partem amici, atque, ut placet Stoicis, quae in terris gigtur, ad usum hominum omnia creari, homines autem hominum causa esse generatos, ut ipsi inter se aliis alii prodesse possent, in hoc naturam debemus ducem sequi, communes utilitates in medium afferre mutatione officiorum, dando accipiendo, tum artibus, tum opera, tum facultatibus devincire hominum inter homines societatem.
1.49. Acceptorum autem beneficiorum sunt dilectus habendi, nec dubium, quin maximo cuique plurimum debeatur. In quo tamen in primis, quo quisque animo, studio, benivolentia fecerit, ponderandum est. Multi enim faciunt multa temeritate quadam sine iudicio vel morbo in omnes vel repentino quodam quasi vento impetu animi incitati; quae beneficia aeque magna non sunt habenda atque ea, quae iudicio, considerate constanterque delata sunt. Sed in collocando beneficio et in referenda gratia, si cetera paria sunt, hoc maxime officii est, ut quisque maxime opis indigeat, ita ei potissimum opitulari; quod contra fit a plerisque; a quo enim plurimum sperant, etiamsi ille iis non eget, tamen ei potissimum inserviunt. 1.50. Optime autem societas hominum coniunctioque servabitur, si, ut quisque erit coniunctissimus, ita in eum benignitatis plurimum conferetur. Sed, quae naturae principia sint communitatis et societatis humanae, repetendum videtur altius; est enim primum, quod cernitur in universi generis humani societate. Eius autem vinculum est ratio et oratio, quae docendo, discendo, communicando, disceptando, iudicando conciliat inter se homines coniungitque naturali quadam societate; neque ulla re longius absumus a natura ferarum, in quibus inesse fortitudinem saepe dicimus, ut in equis, in leonibus, iustitiam, aequitatem, bonitatem non dicimus; sunt enim rationis et orationis expertes.
1.107. Intellegendum etiam cst duabus quasi nos a natura indutos esse personis; quarum una communis est ex eo, quod omnes participes sumus rationis praestantiaeque eius, qua antecellimus bestiis, a qua omne honestum decorumque trahitur, et ex qua ratio inveniendi officii exquiritur, altera autem, quae proprie singulis est tributa. Ut enim in corporibus magnae dissimilitudines sunt (alios videmus velocitate ad cursum, alios viribus ad luctandum valere, itemque in formis aliis dignitatem inesse, aliis venustatem), sic in animis exsistunt maiores etiam varietates. 1.108. Erat in L. Crasso, in L. Philippo multus lepos, maior etiam magisque de industria in C. Caesare L. filio; at isdem temporibus in M. Scauro et in M. Druso adulescente singularis severitas, in C. Laelio multa hilaritas, in eius familiari Scipione ambitio maior, vita tristior. De Graecis autem dulcem et facetum festivique sermonis atque in omni oratione simulatorem, quem ei)/rwna Graeci nominarunt, Socratem accepimus, contra Pythagoram et Periclem summam auctoritatem consecutos sine ulla hilaritate. Callidum Hannibalem ex Poenorum, ex nostris ducibus Q. Maximum accepimus, facile celare, tacere, dissimulare, insidiari, praeripere hostium consilia. In quo genere Graeci Themistoclem et Pheraeum Iasonem ceteris anteponunt; in primisque versutum et callidum factum Solonis, qui, quo et tutior eius vita esset et plus aliquanto rei publicae prodesset, furere se simulavit. 1.109. Sunt his alii multum dispares, simplices et aperti. qui nihil ex occulto, nihil de insidiis agendum putant, veritatis cultores, fraudis inimici, itemque alii, qui quidvis perpetiantur, cuivis deserviant, dum, quod velint, consequantur, ut Sullam et M. Crassum videbamus. Quo in genere versutissimum et patientissimum Lacedaemonium Lysandrum accepimus, contraque Callicratidam, qui praefectus classis proximus post Lysandrum fuit; itemque in sermonibus alium quemque, quamvis praepotens sit, efficere, ut unus de multis esse videatur; quod in Catulo, et in patre et in filio, itemque in Q. Mucio ° Mancia vidimus. Audivi ex maioribus natu hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem eius, illum qui Ti. Gracchi conatus perditos vindicavit, nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis ne Xenocratem quidem, severissimum philosophorum, ob eamque rem ipsam magnum et clarum fuisse. Innumerabiles aliae dissimilitudines sunt naturae morumque, minime tamen vituperandorum. 1.110. Admodum autem tenenda sunt sua cuique non vitiosa, sed tamen propria, quo facilius decorum illud, quod quaerimus, retineatur. Sic enim est faciendum, ut contra universam naturam nihil contendamus, ea tamen conservata propriam nostram sequamur, ut, etiamsi sint alia graviora atque meliora, tamen nos studia nostra nostrae naturae regula metiamur; neque enim attinet naturae repugnare nec quicquam sequi, quod assequi non queas. Ex quo magis emergit, quale sit decorum illud, ideo quia nihil decet invita Minerva, ut aiunt, id est adversante et repugte natura. 1.111. Omnino si quicquam est decorum, nihil est profecto magis quam aequabilitas cum universae vitae, tum singularum actionum, quam conservare non possis, si aliorum naturam imitans omittas tuam. Ut enim sermone eo debemus uti, qui innatus est nobis, ne, ut quidam, Graeca verba inculcantes iure optimo rideamur, sic in actiones omnemque vitam nullam discrepantiam conferre debemus. 1.112. Atque haec differentia naturarum tantam habet vim, ut non numquam mortem sibi ipse consciscere alius debeat, alius in eadem causa non debeat. Num enim alia in causa M. Cato fuit, alia ceteri, qui se in Africa Caesari tradiderunt? Atqui ceteris forsitan vitio datum esset, si se interemissent, propterea quod lenior eorum vita et mores fuerant faciliores, Catoni cum incredibilem tribuisset natura gravitatem eamque ipse perpetua constantia roboravisset semperque in proposito susceptoque consilio permansisset, moriendum potius quam tyranni vultus aspiciendus fuit. 1.113. Quam multa passus est Ulixes in illo errore diuturno, cum et mulieribus, si Circe et Calypso mulieres appellandae sunt, inserviret et in omni sermone omnibus affabilem et iucundum esse se vellet! domi vero etiam contumelias servorun ancillarumque pertulit, ut ad id aliquando, quod cupiebat, veniret. At Aiax, quo animo traditur, milies oppetere mortem quam illa perpeti maluisset. Quae contemplantes expendere oportebit, quid quisque habeat sui, eaque moderari nee velle experiri, quam se aliena deceant; id enim maxime quemque decet, quod est cuiusque maxime suum. 1.114. Suum quisque igitur noscat ingenium acremque se et bonorum et vitiorum suorum iudicem praebeat, ne scaenici plus quam nos videantur habere prudentiae. Illi enim non optimas, sed sibi accommodatissimas fabulas eligunt; qui voce freti sunt, Epigonos Medumque, qui gestu, Melanippam, Clytemnestram, semper Rupilius, quem ego memini, Antiopam, non saepe Aesopus Aiacem. Ergo histrio hoc videbit in scaena, non videbit sapiens vir in vita? Ad quas igitur res aptissimi erimus, in iis potissimum elaborabimus; sin aliquando necessitas nos ad ea detruserit, quae nostri ingenii non erunt, omnis adhibenda erit cura, meditatio, diligentia, ut ea si non decore, at quam minime indecore facere possimus; nec tam est enitendum, ut bona, quae nobis data non sint, sequamur, quam ut vitia fugiamus. 1.115. Ac duabus iis personis, quas supra dixi, tertia adiungitur, quam casus aliqui aut tempus imponit; quarta etiam, quam nobismet ipsi iudicio nostro accommodamus. Nam regna, imperia, nobilitas, honores, divitiae, opes eaque, quae sunt his contraria, in casu sita temporibus gubertur; ipsi autem gerere quam personam velimus, a nostra voluntate proficiscitur. Itaque se alii ad philosophiam, alii ad ius civile, alii ad eloquentiam applicant, ipsarumque virtutum in alia alius mavult excellere. 1.116. Quorum vero patres aut maiores aliqua gloria praestiterunt, ii student plerumque eodem in genere laudis excellere, ut Q. Mucius P. f. in iure civili, Pauli filius Africanus in re militari. Quidam autem ad eas laudes, quas a patribus acceperunt, addunt aliquam suam, ut hic idem Africanus eloquentia cumulavit bellicam gloriam; quod idem fecit Timotheus Cononis filius, qui cum belli laude non inferior fuisset quam pater, ad eam laudem doctrinae et ingenii gloriam adiecit. Fit autem interdum, ut non nulli omissa imitatione maiorum suum quoddam institutum consequantur, maximeque in eo plerumque elaborant ii, qui magna sibi proponunt obscuris orti maioribus.
3.27. Atque etiam, si hoc natura praescribit, ut homo homini, quicumque sit, ob eam ipsam causam, quod is homo sit, consultum velit, necesse est secundum eandem naturam omnium utilitatem esse communem. Quod si ita est, una continemur omnes et eadem lege naturae, idque ipsum si ita est, certe violare alterum naturae lege prohibemur. Verum autem primum; verum igitur extremum.''. None
1.22. \xa0But since, as Plato has admirably expressed it, we are not born for ourselves alone, but our country claims a share of our being, and our friends a share; and since, as the Stoics hold, everything that the earth produces is created for man's use; and as men, too, are born for the sake of men, that they may be able mutually to help one another; in this direction we ought to follow Nature as our guide, to contribute to the general good by an interchange of acts of kindness, by giving and receiving, and thus by our skill, our industry, and our talents to cement human society more closely together, man to man. <" '
1.49. \xa0Furthermore, we must make some discrimination between favours received; for, as a matter of course the greater the favour, the greater is the obligation. But in deciding this we must above all give due weight to the spirit, the devotion, the affection that prompted the favour. For many people often do favours impulsively for everybody without discrimination, prompted by a morbid sort of benevolence or by a sudden impulse of the heart, shifting the wind. Such acts of generosity are not to be so highly esteemed as those which are performed with judgment, deliberation, and mature consideration. But in bestowing a kindness, as well as in making a requital, the first rule of duty requires us â\x80\x94 other things being equal â\x80\x94 to lend assistance preferably to people in proportion to their individual need. Most people adopt the contrary course: they put themselves most eagerly at the service of the one from whom they hope to receive the greatest favours even though he has no need of their help. < 1.50. \xa0The interests of society, however, and its common bonds will be best conserved, if kindness be shown to each individual in proportion to the closeness of his relationship. But it seems we must trace back to their ultimate sources the principles of fellowship and society that Nature has established among men. The first principle is that which is found in the connection subsisting between all the members of the human race; and that bond of connection is reason and speech, which by the processes of teaching and learning, of communicating, discussing, and reasoning associate men together and unite them in a sort of natural fraternity. In no other particular are we farther removed from the nature of beasts; for we admit that they may have courage (horses and lions, for example); but we do not admit that they have justice, equity, and goodness; for they are not endowed with reason or speech. <
1.107. \xa0We must realize also that we are invested by Nature with two characters, as it were: one of these is universal, arising from the fact of our being all alike endowed with reason and with that superiority which lifts us above the brute. From this all morality and propriety are derived, and upon it depends the rational method of ascertaining our duty. The other character is the one that is assigned to individuals in particular. In the matter of physical endowment there are great differences: some, we see, excel in speed for the race, others in strength for wrestling; so in point of personal appearance, some have stateliness, others comeliness. <' "1.108. \xa0Diversities of character are greater still. Lucius Crassus and Lucius Philippus had a large fund of wit; Gaius Caesar, Lucius's son, had a still richer fund and employed it with more studied purpose. Contemporary with them, Marcus Scaurus and Marcus Drusus, the younger, were examples of unusual seriousness; Gaius Laelius, of unbounded jollity; while his intimate friend, Scipio, cherished more serious ideals and lived a more austere life. Among the Greeks, history tells us, Socrates was fascinating and witty, a genial conversationalist; he was what the Greeks call εἴÏ\x81Ï\x89ν in every conversation, pretending to need information and professing admiration for the wisdom of his companion. Pythagoras and Pericles, on the other hand, reached the heights of influence and power without any seasoning of mirthfulness. We read that Hannibal, among the Carthaginian generals, and Quintus Maximus, among our own, were shrewd and ready at concealing their plans, covering up their tracks, disguising their movements, laying stratagems, forestalling the enemy's designs. In these qualities the Greeks rank Themistocles and Jason of Pherae above all others. Especially crafty and shrewd was the device of Solon, who, to make his own life safer and at the same time to do a considerably larger service for his country, feigned insanity. <" '1.109. \xa0Then there are others, quite different from these, straightforward and open, who think that nothing should be done by underhand means or treachery. They are lovers of truth, haters of fraud. There are others still who will stoop to anything, truckle to anybody, if only they may gain their ends. Such, we saw, were Sulla and Marcus Crassus. The most crafty and most persevering man of this type was Lysander of Sparta, we are told; of the opposite type was Callicratidas, who succeeded Lysander as admiral of the fleet. So we find that another, no matter how eminent he may be, will condescend in social intercourse to make himself appear but a very ordinary person. Such graciousness of manner we have seen in the case of Catulus â\x80\x94 both father and son â\x80\x94 and also of Quintus Mucius Mancia. I\xa0have heard from my elders that Publius Scipio Nasica was another master of this art; but his father, on the other hand â\x80\x94 the man who punished Tiberius Gracchus for his nefarious undertakings â\x80\x94 had no such gracious manner in social intercourse .\xa0.\xa0., and because of that very fact he rose to greatness and fame. Countless other dissimilarities exist in natures and characters, and they are not in the least to be criticized. < 1.110. \xa0Everybody, however, must resolutely hold fast to his own peculiar gifts, in so far as they are peculiar only and not vicious, in order that propriety, which is the object of our inquiry, may the more easily be secured. For we must so act as not to oppose the universal laws of human nature, but, while safeguarding those, to follow the bent of our own particular nature; and even if other careers should be better and nobler, we may still regulate our own pursuits by the standard of our own nature. For it is of no avail to fight against one\'s nature or to aim at what is impossible of attainment. From this fact the nature of that propriety defined above comes into still clearer light, inasmuch as nothing is proper that "goes against the grain," as the saying is â\x80\x94 that is, if it is in direct opposition to one\'s natural genius. <' "1.111. \xa0If there is any such thing as propriety at all, it can be nothing more than uniform consistency in the course of our life as a whole and all its individual actions. And this uniform consistency one could not maintain by copying the personal traits of others and eliminating one's own. For as we ought to employ our mother-tongue, lest, like certain people who are continually dragging in Greek words, we draw well-deserved ridicule upon ourselves, so we ought not to introduce anything foreign into our actions or our life in general. <" '1.112. \xa0Indeed, such diversity of character carries with it so great significance that suicide may be for one man a duty, for another under the same circumstances a crime. Did Marcus Cato find himself in one predicament, and were the others, who surrendered to Caesar in Africa, in another? And yet, perhaps, they would have been condemned, if they had taken their lives; for their mode of life had been less austere and their characters more pliable. But Cato had been endowed by nature with an austerity beyond belief, and he himself had strengthened it by unswerving consistency and had remained ever true to his purpose and fixed resolve; and it was for him to die rather than to look upon the face of a tyrant. <' "1.113. \xa0How much Ulysses endured on those long wanderings, when he submitted to the service even of women (if Circe and Calypso may be called women) and strove in every word to be courteous and complaisant to all! And, arrived at home, he brooked even the insults of his men-servants and maidservants, in order to attain in the end the object of his desire. But Ajax, with the temper he is represented as having, would have chosen to meet death a\xa0thousand times rather than suffer such indignities! If we take this into consideration, we shall see that it is each man's duty to weigh well what are his own peculiar traits of character, to regulate these properly, and not to wish to try how another man's would suit him. For the more peculiarly his own a man's character is, the better it fits him. <" '1.114. \xa0Everyone, therefore, should make a proper estimate of his own natural ability and show himself a critical judge of his own merits and defects; in this respect we should not let actors display more practical wisdom than we have. They select, not the best plays, but the ones best suited to their talents. Those who rely most upon the quality of their voice take the Epigoni and the Medus; those who place more stress upon the action choose the Melanippa and the Clytaemnestra; Rupilius, whom I\xa0remember, always played in the Antiope, Aesopus rarely in the Ajax. Shall a player have regard to this in choosing his rôle upon the stage, and a wise man fail to do so in selecting his part in life? We shall, therefore, work to the best advantage in that rôle to which we are best adapted. But if at some time stress of circumstances shall thrust us aside into some uncongenial part, we must devote to it all possible thought, practice, and pains, that we may be able to perform it, if not with propriety, at least with as little impropriety as possible; and we need not strive so hard to attain to points of excellence that have not been vouchsafed to us as to correct the faults we have. < 1.115. \xa0To the two above-mentioned characters is added a\xa0third, which some chance or some circumstance imposes, and a\xa0fourth also, which we assume by our own deliberate choice. Regal powers and military commands, nobility of birth and political office, wealth and influence, and their opposites depend upon chance and are, therefore, controlled by circumstances. But what rôle we ourselves may choose to sustain is decided by our own free choice. And so some turn to philosophy, others to the civil law, and still others to oratory, while in case of the virtues themselves one man prefers to excel in one, another in another. <' "1.116. \xa0They, whose fathers or forefathers have achieved distinction in some particular field, often strive to attain eminence in the same department of service: for example, Quintus, the son of Publius Mucius, in the law; Africanus, the son of Paulus, in the army. And to that distinction which they have severally inherited from their fathers some have added lustre of their own; for example, that same Africanus, who crowned his inherited military glory with his own eloquence. Timotheus, Conon's son, did the same: he proved himself not inferior to his father in military renown and added to that distinction the glory of culture and intellectual power. It happens sometimes, too, that a man declines to follow in the footsteps of his fathers and pursues a vocation of his own. And in such callings those very frequently achieve signal success who, though sprung from humble parentage, have set their aims high. <" "
3.27. \xa0And further, if Nature ordains that one man shall desire to promote the interests of a fellow-man, whoever he may be, just because he is a fellow-man, then it follows, in accordance with that same Nature, that there are interests that all men have in common. And, if this is true, we are all subject to one and the same law of Nature; and, if this also is true, we are certainly forbidden by Nature's law to wrong our neighbour. Now the first assumption is true; therefore the conclusion is likewise true. <"". None
15. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.10, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • divine beings, death of • divine beings, in Ps • heavenly hierarchy divine beings

 Found in books: Moss (2010) 115; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 79; Trudinger (2004) 95, 104

12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃'
12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ '. None
7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened.
12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.''. None
16. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 201; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 79

17. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps • mystical traditions of Judaism, regarding celestial beings

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 25, 179, 182; Scopello (2008) 131; Trudinger (2004) 97

18. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bees

 Found in books: Davies (2004) 30, 39, 44, 103; Gale (2000) 228; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 276

19. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle,, on bees • Jove, and bees • bees • bees, as Golden Age ideal • bees, as Roman paradigm • bees, as morally flawed • bees, in Georgic • bees, significance of • nature, of human beings • readers of Georgics and ambiguity of text,, unmoved by bees and Aristaeus' success

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 49, 78; Long (2006) 211; Perkell (1989) 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 185

20. New Testament, Galatians, 4.4-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 89; Trudinger (2004) 97

4.4. ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον, 4.5. ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ, ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν.''. None
4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law, 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. ''. None
21. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • heavenly hierarchy divine beings

 Found in books: Moss (2010) 115; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 132

1.12. ''. None
1.12. As a mantle you will roll them up, And they will be changed; But you are the same. Your years will not fail."''. None
22. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 121.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • human beings, place and role in cosmos • nature, of human beings

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 128; Long (2006) 352

121.14. You maintain, do you, says the objector, "that every living thing is at the start adapted to its constitution, but that man\'s constitution is a reasoning one, and hence man is adapted to himself not merely as a living, but as a reasoning, being? For man is dear to himself in respect of that wherein he is a man. How, then, can a child, being not yet gifted with reason, adapt himself to a reasoning constitution?" ''. None
23. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.86, 7.149 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • irrational beings • nature, of human beings • ζῷον λογικόν, gods and human beings as, in Stoic thought • ζῷον λογικόν, human beings as

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 41, 46; Long (2006) 30; Schibli (2002) 334

7.86. As for the assertion made by some people that pleasure is the object to which the first impulse of animals is directed, it is shown by the Stoics to be false. For pleasure, if it is really felt, they declare to be a by-product, which never comes until nature by itself has sought and found the means suitable to the animal's existence or constitution; it is an aftermath comparable to the condition of animals thriving and plants in full bloom. And nature, they say, made no difference originally between plants and animals, for she regulates the life of plants too, in their case without impulse and sensation, just as also certain processes go on of a vegetative kind in us. But when in the case of animals impulse has been superadded, whereby they are enabled to go in quest of their proper aliment, for them, say the Stoics, Nature's rule is to follow the direction of impulse. But when reason by way of a more perfect leadership has been bestowed on the beings we call rational, for them life according to reason rightly becomes the natural life. For reason supervenes to shape impulse scientifically." '
7.149. Nature, they hold, aims both at utility and at pleasure, as is clear from the analogy of human craftsmanship. That all things happen by fate or destiny is maintained by Chrysippus in his treatise De fato, by Posidonius in his De fato, book ii., by Zeno and by Boethus in his De fato, book i. Fate is defined as an endless chain of causation, whereby things are, or as the reason or formula by which the world goes on. What is more, they say that divination in all its forms is a real and substantial fact, if there is really Providence. And they prove it to be actually a science on the evidence of certain results: so Zeno, Chrysippus in the second book of his De divinatione, Athenodorus, and Posidonius in the second book of his Physical Discourse and the fifth book of his De divinatione. But Panaetius denies that divination has any real existence.'". None
24. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abydos Memnonion, question of Bes replacing Osiris-Sarapis as dream-oracle issuer • Bes • Bes (god) • Bes and Dionysos cult, and divinatory incubation at Abydos • Bes and Dionysos cult, apotropaic function • Bes and Dionysos cult, dream-divination rituals in the magical papyri • Bes(as)

 Found in books: Bortolani et al (2019) 102, 108, 115, 150, 151, 154, 155, 158, 165; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 143; Johnston and Struck (2005) 241, 242, 262; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 100; Pachoumi (2017) 159, 160, 161, 162; Renberg (2017) 434, 485, 486, 492, 496, 506

25. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 82; Trudinger (2004) 93

5a. לומר לך שאם חטא יחיד אומרים לו כלך אצל יחיד ואם חטאו צבור אומרים לו כלך אצל צבור,וצריכא דאי אשמועינן יחיד משום דלא מפרסם חטאיה אבל צבור דמפרסם חטאיהו אימא לא ואי אשמועינן צבור משום דנפישי רחמייהו אבל יחיד דלא אלימא זכותיה אימא לא צריכא,והיינו דרבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,וא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר\' יונתן כל העושה מצוה אחת בעולם הזה מקדמתו והולכת לפניו לעולם הבא שנאמר (ישעיהו נח, ח) והלך לפניך צדקך וכבוד ה\' יאספך וכל העובר עבירה אחת מלפפתו ומוליכתו ליום הדין שנאמר (איוב ו, יח) ילפתו ארחות דרכם וגו\',ר"א אומר קשורה בו ככלב שנאמר (בראשית לט, י) ולא שמע אליה לשכב אצלה להיות עמה לשכב אצלה בעוה"ז להיות עמה בעוה"ב,אמר ר"ל בואו ונחזיק טובה לאבותינו שאלמלא הן לא חטאו אנו לא באנו לעולם שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון וגו\',למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מולדו והכתיב (בראשית ט, ז) ואתם פרו ורבו עד סיני בסיני נמי כתיב (דברים ה, כז) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם לשמחת עונה,והכתיב (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם וגו\' לאותן העומדים על הר סיני,והאמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם וגו\' וכי ספר היה לו לאדם הראשון מלמד שהראה לו הקב"ה לאדם הראשון דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו דור דור ופרנסיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של ר"ע שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל וגו\',וא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו נשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי לא לעולם אריב ולא לנצח אקצוף כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,לא תימא אנו לא באנו לעולם אלא כמי שלא באנו לעולם למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מייתי והכתיב פרשת יבמות ופרשת נחלות,על תנאי ומי כתיבי קראי על תנאי אין דהכי אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית א, לא) ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום הששי מלמד שהתנה הקב"ה עם מעשה בראשית ואמר אם מקבלין ישראל את התורה מוטב ואם לאו אחזיר אתכם לתוהו ובוהו,מיתיבי (דברים ה, כו) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם לבטל מהם מלאך המות א"א שכבר נגזרה גזרה,הא לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא תהא אומה ולשון שולטת בהן שנאמר (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם,הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא רבי יוסי אומר לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא יהא מלאך המות שולט בהן שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון,ורבי יוסי נמי הכתיב למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם טובה הוא דהויא הא מיתה איכא (רבי יוסי) אמר לך כיון דליכא מיתה אין לך טובה גדולה מזו,ות"ק נמי הכתיב אכן כאדם תמותון מאי מיתה עניות דאמר מר ארבעה חשובים כמתים אלו הן עני סומא ומצורע ומי שאין לו בנים,עני דכתיב (שמות ד, יט) כי מתו כל האנשים ומאן נינהו דתן ואבירם ומי מתו מיהוי הוו אלא שירדו מנכסיהם,סומא דכתיב (איכה ג, ו) במחשכים הושיבני כמתי עולם מצורע דכתיב (במדבר יב, יב) אל נא תהי כמת ומי שאין לו בנים דכתיב (בראשית ל, א) הבה לי בנים ואם אין מתה אנכי,תנו רבנן (ויקרא כו, ג) אם בחקתי תלכו אין אם אלא לשון תחנונים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים פא, יד) לו עמי שומע לי וגו\' כמעט אויביהם אכניע ואומר (ישעיהו מח, יח) לו הקשבת למצותי ויהי כנהר שלומך וגו\' ויהי כחול זרעך וצאצאי מעיך וגו\',תנו רבנן (דברים ה, כז) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם אמר להן משה לישראל כפויי טובה בני כפויי טובה בשעה שאמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם היה להם לומר תן אתה,כפויי טובה דכתיב (במדבר כא, ה) ונפשנו קצה''. None
5a. This serves to say to you that if an individual has sinned, one says to him: Go to that famous individual who sinned, King David, and learn from him that one can repent. And if the community sinned, one says to them: Go to the community that sinned, i.e., the Jewish people at the time of the Golden Calf.,The Gemara notes: And it is necessary to learn about repentance both in the case of an individual and in the case of a community. The reason is that if we had learned this idea only with regard to an individual, one might have thought that he has the option to repent only because his sin is not publicized. But in the case of a community, whose sin is publicized, one might say that the community cannot repent. And likewise, if we had learned this idea only with regard to a community, one might have said that their repentance is accepted because their prayers are more numerous than those of an individual, and they are heard before God. But in the case of an individual, whose merit is not as strong, one might say that he is not able to repent. Therefore, it is necessary to teach both cases.,And this is similar to that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man raised on high al (II\xa0Samuel 23:1)? This is the meaning of the verse: The saying of David, son of Yishai, who raised and lightened the yoke ullah of repentance, as he taught the power of repentance through his own example.,And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani further says that Rabbi Yonatan says: With regard to anyone who performs one mitzva in this world, the mitzva will precede him and walk before him in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And your righteousness shall go before you, the glory of the Lord shall be your reward” (Isaiah 58:8). And with regard to anyone who commits one transgression, that transgression will shroud him and lead him on the Day of Judgment, as it is stated: “The paths of their way do wind, they go up into the waste, and are lost” (Job 6:18).,Rabbi Elazar says: The transgression is tied to him like a dog and does not leave him, as it is stated with regard to Joseph and Potiphar’s wife: “And he did not listen to her, to lie by her, or to be with her” (Genesis 39:10). This teaches that Joseph refused “to lie by her” in this world, which would have meant that he would have had “to be with her” in the World-to-Come.,§ The Gemara further discusses the sin of the Golden Calf. Reish Lakish says: Come and let us be grateful to our ancestors who sinned with the Golden Calf, as had they not sinned we would not have come into the world. Reish Lakish explains: As it is stated about the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: “I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High” (Psalms 82:6), which indicates that they had become like angels and would not have propagated offspring. Then, God states: After you ruined your deeds: “Yet you shall die like a man, and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: Is this to say that if they had not sinned with the Golden Calf they would not have sired children? But isn’t it written that Noah and his children were instructed: “And you, be fruitful, and multiply” (Genesis 9:7)? The Gemara answers: This instruction was issued only until the revelation at Sinai, but the Jewish people would have become like angels there, had they not sinned. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it also written about the Jewish people who were at the revelation at Sinai: “Go say to them: Return to your tents” (Deuteronomy 5:27), which means that they were instructed to resume marital relations? The Gemara answers: That verse is referring to the enjoyment of conjugal rights, not to procreation.,The Gemara further asks: But isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26), which indicates that they would continue to bear children? The Gemara answers: This verse is referring to those children who stood with them at Mount Sinai, not to future generations.,The Gemara raises a further difficulty: But doesn’t Reish Lakish say: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam, in the day that God created man” (Genesis 5:1)? Did Adam the first man have a book? Rather, the verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Adam, the first man, every generation and its expositors, every generation and its Sages, and every generation and its leaders. When Adam arrived at the generation of Rabbi Akiva, he rejoiced in his Torah and was saddened by his death, as Rabbi Akiva was tortured and murdered. Adam said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God! How great is the sum of them” (Psalms 139:17). It is evident from here that the Jews were destined to bear future generations from the beginning of time.,And similarly, Rabbi Yosei says: The Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. As it is stated: “For I will not contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth; for the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made” (Isaiah 57:16). According to Rabbi Yosei, in order for the Messiah to come in the end of days, it is necessary for the future generations to be born.,The Gemara answers: Do not say that if our ancestors had not sinned we would not have come into the world, as we still would have been born; rather, it would have been as though we had not come into the world. We would have been of no importance, due to the previous generations that would have still been alive. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that if the Jewish people had not sinned with the Golden Calf then they would not have died? But isn’t the chapter that addresses widows whose husbands die childless (Deuteronomy 25:5–10) written in the Torah, and the chapter that addresses the inheritance a deceased father bequeaths to his sons (Numbers 27:8–11) is also written?,The Gemara answers: These passages were written conditionally, i.e., if the Jewish people were to sin and not become like angels, those halakhot would take effect. The Gemara asks: And are verses written conditionally in this manner? The Gemara answers: Yes, as this is what Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day” (Genesis 1:31)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the acts of Creation, and He said: If the Jewish people accept the Torah at the revelation at Sinai, all is well and the world will continue to exist. But if they do not accept it, I will return you to the primordial state of chaos and disorder.,The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita to the new formulation of Reish Lakish’s statement, according to which the Jewish people would have become immortal had they not sinned with the Golden Calf. The verse states about the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). The baraita states that although they had reached such an elevated state, it was not possible to nullify the power of the Angel of Death over them, as the decree of death was already issued from the time of creation.,Rather, the baraita explains that the Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that no nation or tongue would rule over them, as it is stated in the same verse: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever.” This indicates that had the Jewish people not sinned they would not have achieved immortality, which contradicts Reish Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: Reish Lakish said his statement in accordance with the opinion of that tanna. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that the Angel of Death would not rule over them, as it is stated: “I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High” (Psalms 82:6), i.e., they had become immortal like angels. Then, God states: After you ruined your deeds, “yet you shall die like a man, and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: And also, according to Rabbi Yosei, isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever,” from which it may be inferred that although it will be good for them if they remain in this elevated state, there will still be death? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Since there is no death, there is no greater good than this, i.e., the promise of the verse is immortality.,The Gemara inquires: And according to the first tanna as well, isn’t it written: “Yet you shall die like a man,” which indicates that their mortality was decreed only due to the sin of the Golden Calf? The Gemara answers: What is meant by death? It means poverty. As the Master said: Four are considered as though they were dead: These are a pauper, a blind person, a leper, and one who has no children.,A pauper is considered as though dead, as it is written that God said to Moses: “Go, return to Egypt; for all the men that sought your life are dead” (Exodus 4:19). And who were these men? They were Dathan and Abiram. But did they really die? They were still alive, as they participated in the rebellion of Korah, which took place years later. Rather, the verse does not mean that they had died, but that they had lost their property and become impoverished. This demonstrates that a pauper is considered as though he were dead.,A blind person is considered as though he were dead, as it is written: “He has made me to dwell in dark places, as those that have been long dead” (Lamentations 3:6). A leper is considered as though he were dead, as it is written that Aaron said to Moses when Miriam was struck with leprosy: “Let her not, I pray, be as one dead” (Numbers 12:12). And one who has no children is considered as though he were dead, as it is written that Rachel said to Jacob: “Give me children, or else I am dead” (Genesis 30:1).,The Sages taught with regard to the verse: “If you walk in My statutes” (Leviticus 26:3): In this context, “if” is a term that means nothing other than supplication, i.e., God is hoping that the Jewish people will observe the Torah. And similarly, it is stated: “Oh that My people would hearken to Me, that Israel would walk in My ways, I would soon subdue their enemies” (Psalms 81:14–15). And it states: “Oh that you would hearken to My commandments! Then your peace would be as a river, and your righteousness as the waves of the sea. Your seed also would be as the sand, and the offspring of your body like its grains” (Isaiah 48:18–19).,§ The Gemara returns to a verse cited above. The Sages taught with regard to the verse: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). At a later stage, Moses said to the Jewish people: Ingrates, children of ingrates! When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always,” they should have said: You should give us a heart to fear You.,The Gemara explains that Moses calls the Jewish people ingrates, as it is written that the Jewish people spoke disparagingly of the manna: “And our soul loathes''. None
26. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.430-1.436, 7.64
 Tagged with subjects: • Carthaginians, as bees • bees

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 228, 266; Giusti (2018) 103; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 276

1.430. Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura 1.431. exercet sub sole labor, cum gentis adultos 1.432. educunt fetus, aut cum liquentia mella 1.433. stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas, 1.434. aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto 1.435. ignavom fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent: 1.436. fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella.
7.64. Huius apes summum densae (mirabile dictu),''. None
1.430. Deep to the midmost wood he went, and there 1.431. his Mother in his path uprose; she seemed 1.432. in garb and countece a maid, and bore, 1.433. like Spartan maids, a weapon; in such guise 1.434. Harpalyce the Thracian urges on 1.435. her panting coursers and in wild career 1.436. outstrips impetuous Hebrus as it flows. ' "
7.64. to King Latinus' body no heirs male: "'. None
27. Vergil, Georgics, 1.118-1.124, 1.127, 1.501, 2.45-2.46, 2.311, 2.490-2.494, 3.3-3.8, 3.244, 3.525, 3.534-3.535, 4.1-4.50, 4.59-4.61, 4.67-4.115, 4.127-4.129, 4.134-4.146, 4.149-4.215, 4.217-4.280, 4.287-4.294, 4.308-4.314, 4.464-4.466, 4.471-4.477, 4.481-4.484, 4.495, 4.510, 4.564-4.565
 Tagged with subjects: • Bees • Jove, and bees • Vergil, bees in Georgics • Virgil, father kept bees • bees • bees, as Golden Age ideal • bees, as Roman paradigm • bees, as morally flawed • bees, in Georgic • bees, significance of • readers of Georgics and ambiguity of text,, unmoved by bees and Aristaeus' success

 Found in books: Bloch (2022) 204; Gale (2000) 19, 49, 50, 51, 56, 77, 78, 95, 96, 102, 135, 137, 159, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 192, 193, 227, 228, 229, 230, 259, 266, 267, 268, 269, 273, 274; Goldschmidt (2019) 17; Perkell (1989) 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 185; Williams and Vol (2022) 230, 231, 232, 233; Xinyue (2022) 197, 198; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 347

1.118. Nec tamen, haec cum sint hominumque boumque labores 1.119. versando terram experti, nihil inprobus anser 1.120. Strymoniaeque grues et amaris intiba fibris 1.121. officiunt aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi 1.122. haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem 1.123. movit agros curis acuens mortalia corda 1.124. nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.
1.127. fas erat: in medium quaerebant ipsaque tellus
1.501. ne prohibete! Satis iam pridem sanguine nostro
2.45. In manibus terrae; non hic te carmine ficto 2.46. atque per ambages et longa exorsa tenebo.
2.311. incubuit glomeratque ferens incendia ventus.
2.490. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, 2.491. atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum 2.492. subiecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari. 2.493. Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestis, 2.494. panaque Silvanumque senem Nymphasque sorores:
3.3. Cetera, quae vacuas tenuissent carmine mentes, 3.4. omnia iam volgata: quis aut Eurysthea durum 3.5. aut inlaudati nescit Busiridis aras? 3.6. Cui non dictus Hylas puer et Latonia Delos 3.7. Hippodameque umeroque Pelops insignis eburno, 3.8. acer equis? Temptanda via est, qua me quoque possim
3.244. in furias. ignemque ruunt. Amor omnibus idem.
3.525. Quid labor aut benefacta iuvant? Quid vomere terras
3.534. Ergo aegre rastris terram rimantur et ipsis 3.535. unguibus infodiunt fruges montisque per altos' '
4.1. Protinus aerii mellis caelestia dona 4.2. exsequar: hanc etiam, Maecenas, adspice partem. 4.3. Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum 4.4. magimosque duces totiusque ordine gentis 4.5. mores et studia et populos et proelia dicam. 4.6. In tenui labor; at tenuis non gloria, si quem 4.7. numina laeva sinunt auditque vocatus Apollo. 4.8. Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda, 4.9. quo neque sit ventis aditus—nam pabula venti
4.10. ferre domum prohibent—neque oves haedique petulci
4.11. floribus insultent aut errans bucula campo
4.12. decutiat rorem et surgentes atterat herbas.
4.13. Absint et picti squalentia terga lacerti
4.14. pinguibus a stabulis meropesque aliaeque volucres
4.15. et manibus Procne pectus signata cruentis;
4.16. omnia nam late vastant ipsasque volantes
4.17. ore ferunt dulcem nidis immitibus escam.
4.18. At liquidi fontes et stagna virentia musco
4.19. adsint et tenuis fugiens per gramina rivus, 4.20. palmaque vestibulum aut ingens oleaster inumbret, 4.21. ut, cum prima novi ducent examina reges 4.22. vere suo ludetque favis emissa iuventus, 4.23. vicina invitet decedere ripa calori, 4.24. obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos. 4.25. In medium, seu stabit iners seu profluet umor, 4.26. transversas salices et grandia conice saxa, 4.27. pontibus ut crebris possint consistere et alas 4.28. pandere ad aestivum solem, si forte morantes 4.29. sparserit aut praeceps Neptuno immerserit Eurus. 4.30. Haec circum casiae virides et olentia late 4.31. serpylla et graviter spirantis copia thymbrae 4.32. floreat inriguumque bibant violaria fontem. 4.33. Ipsa autem, seu corticibus tibi suta cavatis, 4.34. seu lento fuerint alvaria vimine texta, 4.35. angustos habeant aditus: nam frigore mella 4.36. cogit hiems, eademque calor liquefacta remittit. 4.37. Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda; neque illae 4.38. nequiquam in tectis certatim tenuia cera 4.39. spiramenta linunt fucoque et floribus oras 4.40. explent collectumque haec ipsa ad munera gluten 4.41. et visco et Phrygiae servant pice lentius Idae. 4.42. Saepe etiam effossis, si vera est fama, latebris 4.43. sub terra fovere larem, penitusque repertae 4.44. pumicibusque cavis exesaeque arboris antro. 4.45. Tu tamen et levi rimosa cubilia limo 4.46. ungue fovens circum et raras superinice frondes. 4.47. Neu propius tectis taxum sine, neve rubentes 4.48. ure foco cancros, altae neu crede paludi, 4.49. aut ubi odor caeni gravis aut ubi concava pulsu 4.50. saxa sot vocisque offensa resultat imago.
4.59. nare per aestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen 4.60. obscuramque trahi vento mirabere nubem, 4.61. contemplator: aquas dulces et frondea semper
4.67. Sin autem ad pugnam exierint, nam saepe duobus 4.68. regibus incessit magno discordia motu, 4.69. continuoque animos vulgi et trepidantia bello 4.70. corda licet longe praesciscere; namque morantes 4.71. Martius ille aeris rauci canor increpat et vox 4.72. auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum; 4.73. tum trepidae inter se coeunt pennisque coruscant 4.74. spiculaque exacuunt rostris aptantque lacertos 4.75. et circa regem atque ipsa ad praetoria densae 4.76. miscentur magnisque vocant clamoribus hostem. 4.77. Ergo ubi ver nactae sudum camposque patentes, 4.78. erumpunt portis; concurritur, aethere in alto 4.79. fit sonitus, magnum mixtae glomerantur in orbem 4.80. praecipitesque cadunt; non densior aere grando, 4.81. nec de concussa tantum pluit ilice glandis. 4.82. ipsi per medias acies insignibus alis 4.83. ingentes animos angusto in pectore versant, 4.84. usque adeo obnixi non cedere, dum gravis aut hos 4.85. aut hos versa fuga victor dare terga subegit. 4.86. Hi motus animorum atque haec certamina tanta 4.87. pulveris exigui iactu compressa quiescent. 4.88. Verum ubi ductores acie revocaveris ambo, 4.89. deterior qui visus, eum, ne prodigus obsit, 4.90. dede neci; melior vacua sine regnet in aula. 4.91. Alter erit maculis auro squalentibus ardens; 4.92. nam duo sunt genera: hic melior, insignis et ore 4.93. et rutilis clarus squamis, ille horridus alter 4.94. desidia latamque trahens inglorius alvum. 4.95. Ut binae regum facies, ita corpora plebis. 4.96. Namque aliae turpes horrent, ceu pulvere ab alto 4.97. cum venit et sicco terram spuit ore viator 4.98. aridus; elucent aliae et fulgore coruscant 4.99. ardentes auro et paribus lita corpora guttis.
4.100. Haec potior suboles, hinc caeli tempore certo
4.101. dulcia mella premes, nec tantum dulcia, quantum
4.102. et liquida et durum Bacchi domitura saporem.
4.103. At cum incerta volant caeloque examina ludunt
4.104. contemnuntque favos et frigida tecta relinquunt,
4.105. instabiles animos ludo prohibebis ii.
4.106. Nec magnus prohibere labor: tu regibus alas
4.107. eripe; non illis quisquam cunctantibus altum
4.108. ire iter aut castris audebit vellere signa.
4.109. Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti
4.110. et custos furum atque avium cum falce saligna
4.111. Hellespontiaci servet tutela Priapi.
4.112. Ipse thymum pinosque ferens de montibus altis
4.113. tecta serat late circum, cui talia curae;
4.114. ipse labore manum duro terat, ipse feraces
4.115. figat humo plantas et amicos inriget imbres.

4.127. Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti
4.128. iugera ruris erant, nec fertilis illa iuvencis
4.129. nec pecori opportuna seges nec commoda Baccho.

4.134. Primus vere rosam atque autumno carpere poma,
4.135. et cum tristis hiems etiamnum frigore saxa
4.136. rumperet et glacie cursus frenaret aquarum,
4.137. ille comam mollis iam tondebat hyacinthi
4.138. aestatem increpitans seram Zephyrosque morantes.
4.139. Ergo apibus fetis idem atque examine multo
4.140. primus abundare et spumantia cogere pressis
4.141. mella favis; illi tiliae atque uberrima pinus,
4.142. quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos
4.143. induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat.
4.144. Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos
4.145. eduramque pirum et spinos iam pruna ferentes
4.146. iamque ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras.

4.149. Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Iuppiter ipse
4.150. addidit, expediam, pro qua mercede canoros
4.151. Curetum sonitus crepitantiaque aera secutae
4.152. Dictaeo caeli regem pavere sub antro.
4.153. Solae communes natos, consortia tecta
4.154. urbis habent magnisque agitant sub legibus aevum,
4.155. et patriam solae et certos novere penates,
4.156. venturaeque hiemis memores aestate laborem
4.157. experiuntur et in medium quaesita reponunt.
4.158. Namque aliae victu invigilant et foedere pacto
4.159. exercentur agris; pars intra saepta domorum
4.160. Narcissi lacrimam et lentum de cortice gluten
4.161. prima favis ponunt fundamina, deinde tenaces
4.162. suspendunt ceras: aliae spem gentis adultos
4.163. educunt fetus, aliae purissima mella
4.164. stipant et liquido distendunt nectare cellas.
4.165. Sunt quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sorti,
4.166. inque vicem speculantur aquas et nubila caeli
4.167. aut onera accipiunt venientum aut agmine facto
4.168. ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent.
4.169. Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella.
4.170. ac veluti lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis
4.171. cum properant, alii taurinis follibus auras
4.172. accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia tingunt
4.173. aera lacu; gemit impositis incudibus Aetna;
4.174. illi inter sese magna vi bracchia tollunt
4.175. in numerum versantque tenaci forcipe ferrum:
4.176. non aliter, si parva licet componere magnis,
4.177. Cecropias innatus apes amor urget habendi,
4.178. munere quamque suo. Grandaevis oppida curae
4.179. et munire favos et daedala fingere tecta.
4.180. At fessae multa referunt se nocte minores,
4.181. crura thymo plenae; pascuntur et arbuta passim
4.182. et glaucas salices casiamque crocumque rubentem
4.183. et pinguem tiliam et ferrugineos hyacinthos.
4.184. Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus:
4.185. mane ruunt portis; nusquam mora; rursus easdem
4.186. vesper ubi e pastu tandem decedere campis
4.187. admonuit, tum tecta petunt, tum corpora curant;
4.188. fit sonitus, mussantque oras et limina circum.
4.189. Post, ubi iam thalamis se composuere, siletur
4.190. in noctem fessosque sopor suus occupat artus.
4.191. Nec vero a stabulis pluvia impendente recedunt
4.192. longius aut credunt caelo adventantibus Euris,
4.193. sed circum tutae sub moenibus urbis aquantur,
4.194. excursusque breves temptant et saepe lapillos,
4.195. ut cumbae instabiles fluctu iactante saburram,
4.196. tollunt, his sese per iia nubila librant.
4.197. Illum adeo placuisse apibus mirabere morem,
4.198. quod neque concubitu indulgent nec corpora segnes
4.199. in Venerem solvunt aut fetus nixibus edunt: 4.200. verum ipsae e foliis natos, e suavibus herbis 4.201. ore legunt, ipsae regem parvosque Quirites 4.202. sufficiunt aulasque et cerea regna refigunt. 4.203. saepe etiam duris errando in cotibus alas 4.204. attrivere ultroque animam sub fasce dedere: 4.205. tantus amor florum et generandi gloria mellis. 4.206. Ergo ipsas quamvis angusti terminus aevi 4.207. excipiat, neque enim plus septima ducitur aestas, 4.208. at genus immortale manet multosque per annos 4.209. stat fortuna domus et avi numerantur avorum. 4.210. Praeterea regem non sic Aegyptus et ingens 4.211. Lydia nec populi Parthorum aut Medus Hydaspes 4.212. observant. Rege incolumi mens omnibus una est; 4.213. amisso rupere fidem constructaque mella 4.214. diripuere ipsae et crates solvere favorum. 4.215. Ille operum custos, illum admiruntur et omnes
4.217. et saepe attollunt umeris et corpora bello 4.218. obiectant pulchramque petunt per vulnera mortem. 4.219. His quidam signis atque haec exempla secuti 4.220. esse apibus partem divinae mentis et haustus 4.221. aetherios dixere; deum namque ire per omnes 4.222. terrasque tractusque maris caelumque profundum. 4.223. Hinc pecudes, armenta, viros, genus omne ferarum, 4.224. quemque sibi tenues nascentem arcessere vitas; 4.225. scilicet huc reddi deinde ac resoluta referri 4.226. omnia nec morti esse locum, sed viva volare 4.227. sideris in numerum atque alto succedere caelo. 4.228. Si quando sedem angustam servataque mella 4.229. thesauris relines, prius haustu sparsus aquarum 4.230. ora fove fumosque manu praetende sequaces. 4.231. Bis gravidos cogunt fetus, duo tempora messis, 4.232. Taygete simul os terris ostendit honestum 4.233. Pleas et Oceani spretos pede reppulit amnes, 4.234. aut eadem sidus fugiens ubi Piscis aquosi 4.235. tristior hibernas caelo descendit in undas. 4.236. Illis ira modum supra est, laesaeque venenum 4.237. morsibus inspirant et spicula caeca relinquunt 4.238. adfixae venis animasque in vulnere ponunt. 4.239. Sin duram metues hiemem parcesque futuro 4.240. contunsosque animos et res miserabere fractas, 4.241. at suffire thymo cerasque recidere ies 4.242. quis dubitet? nam saepe favos ignotus adedit 4.243. stellio et lucifugis congesta cubilia blattis 4.244. immunisque sedens aliena ad pabula fucus 4.245. aut asper crabro imparibus se immiscuit armis, 4.246. aut dirum tiniae genus, aut invisa Minervae 4.247. laxos in foribus suspendit aranea casses. 4.248. Quo magis exhaustae fuerint, hoc acrius omnes 4.249. incumbent generis lapsi sarcire ruinas 4.250. complebuntque foros et floribus horrea texent. 4.251. Si vero, quoniam casus apibus quoque nostros 4.252. vita tulit, tristi languebunt corpora morbo— 4.253. quod iam non dubiis poteris cognoscere signis: 4.254. continuo est aegris alius color, horrida vultum 4.255. deformat macies, tum corpora luce carentum 4.256. exportant tectis et tristia funera ducunt; 4.257. aut illae pedibus conexae ad limina pendent, 4.258. aut intus clausis cunctantur in aedibus, omnes 4.259. ignavaeque fame et contracto frigore pigrae. 4.260. Tum sonus auditur gravior, tractimque susurrant, 4.261. frigidus ut quondam silvis immurmurat Auster, 4.262. ut mare sollicitum stridit refluentibus undis, 4.263. aestuat ut clausis rapidus fornacibus ignis: 4.264. hic iam galbaneos suadebo incendere odores 4.265. mellaque harundineis inferre canalibus, ultro 4.266. hortantem et fessas ad pabula nota vocantem. 4.267. Proderit et tunsum gallae admiscere saporem 4.268. Arentesque rosas aut igni pinguia multo 4.269. defruta vel psithia passos de vite racemos 4.270. Cecropiumque thymum et grave olentia centaurea. 4.271. Est etiam flos in pratis, cui nomen amello 4.272. fecere agricolae, facilis quaerentibus herba; 4.273. namque uno ingentem tollit de caespite silvam, 4.274. aureus ipse, sed in foliis, quae plurima circum 4.275. funduntur, violae sublucet purpura nigrae; 4.276. saepe deum nexis ornatae torquibus arae 4.277. asper in ore sapor; tonsis in vallibus illum 4.278. pastores et curva legunt prope flumina Mellae. 4.279. Huius odorato radices incoque Baccho 4.280. pabulaque in foribus plenis adpone canistris.
4.287. Nam qua Pellaei gens fortunata Canopi 4.288. accolit effuso stagtem flumine Nilum 4.289. et circum pictis vehitur sua rura phaselis, 4.290. quaque pharetratae vicinia Persidis urget, 4.291. et viridem Aegyptum nigra fecundat harena, 4.292. et diversa ruens septem discurrit in ora 4.293. usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis 4.294. omnis in hac certam regio iacit arte salutem.
4.308. Interea teneris tepefactus in ossibus umor 4.309. aestuat et visenda modis animalia miris, 4.310. trunca pedum primo, mox et stridentia pennis, 4.311. miscentur tenuemque magis magis aera carpunt, 4.312. donec, ut aestivis effusus nubibus imber, 4.313. erupere aut ut nervo pulsante sagittae, 4.314. prima leves ineunt si quando proelia Parthi.
4.464. Ipse cava solans aegrum testudine amorem 4.465. te, dulcis coniunx, te solo in litore secum, 4.466. te veniente die, te decedente canebat.
4.471. At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 4.472. umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque luce carentum, 4.473. quam multa in foliis avium se milia condunt 4.474. vesper ubi aut hibernus agit de montibus imber, 4.475. matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita 4.476. magimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 4.477. impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum,
4.481. Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti 4.482. tartara caeruleosque implexae crinibus angues 4.483. Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora 4.484. atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis.
4.495. quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro
4.510. mulcentem tigres et agentem carmine quercus;
4.564. Parthenope studiis florentem ignobilis oti, 4.565. carmina qui lusi pastorum audaxque iuventa,''. None
1.118. Hales o'er them; from the far Olympian height" '1.119. Him golden Ceres not in vain regards; 1.120. And he, who having ploughed the fallow plain 1.121. And heaved its furrowy ridges, turns once more 1.122. Cross-wise his shattering share, with stroke on stroke 1.123. The earth assails, and makes the field his thrall. 1.124. Pray for wet summers and for winters fine,
1.127. No tilth makes 2.45. Pear-tree transformed the ingrafted apple yield, 2.46. And stony cornels on the plum-tree blush.
2.311. In big drops issuing through the osier-withes,' "
2.490. Till hollow vale o'erflows, and gorge profound," "2.491. Where'er the god hath turned his comely head." '2.492. Therefore to Bacchus duly will we sing 2.493. Meet honour with ancestral hymns, and cate 2.494. And dishes bear him; and the doomed goat
3.3. You, woods and waves Lycaean. All themes beside, 3.4. Which else had charmed the vacant mind with song, 3.5. Are now waxed common. of harsh Eurystheus who 3.6. The story knows not, or that praiseless king 3.7. Busiris, and his altars? or by whom 3.8. Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young,' "
3.244. And rippling plains 'gin shiver with light gusts;" '
3.525. Lie stretched along the grass, when, slipped his slough,
3.534. And rough thorns rend their bodies. Hence it i 3.535. Shepherds their whole flock steep in running streams,
4.1. of air-born honey, gift of heaven, I now 4.2. Take up the tale. Upon this theme no le 4.3. Look thou, Maecenas, with indulgent eye. 4.4. A marvellous display of puny powers,' "4.5. High-hearted chiefs, a nation's history," '4.6. Its traits, its bent, its battles and its clans, 4.7. All, each, shall pass before you, while I sing.' "4.8. Slight though the poet's theme, not slight the praise," '4.9. So frown not heaven, and Phoebus hear his call.
4.10. First find your bees a settled sure abode,
4.11. Where neither winds can enter (winds blow back
4.12. The foragers with food returning home)
4.13. Nor sheep and butting kids tread down the flowers,
4.14. Nor heifer wandering wide upon the plain
4.15. Dash off the dew, and bruise the springing blades.
4.16. Let the gay lizard too keep far aloof
4.17. His scale-clad body from their honied stalls,
4.18. And the bee-eater, and what birds beside,
4.19. And Procne smirched with blood upon the breast 4.20. From her own murderous hands. For these roam wide 4.21. Wasting all substance, or the bees themselve 4.22. Strike flying, and in their beaks bear home, to glut 4.23. Those savage nestlings with the dainty prey. 4.24. But let clear springs and moss-green pools be near, 4.25. And through the grass a streamlet hurrying run,' "4.26. Some palm-tree o'er the porch extend its shade," '4.27. Or huge-grown oleaster, that in Spring, 4.28. Their own sweet Spring-tide, when the new-made chief 4.29. Lead forth the young swarms, and, escaped their comb, 4.30. The colony comes forth to sport and play, 4.31. The neighbouring bank may lure them from the heat, 4.32. Or bough befriend with hospitable shade.' "4.33. O'er the mid-waters, whether swift or still," '4.34. Cast willow-branches and big stones enow, 4.35. Bridge after bridge, where they may footing find 4.36. And spread their wide wings to the summer sun, 4.37. If haply Eurus, swooping as they pause, 4.38. Have dashed with spray or plunged them in the deep. 4.39. And let green cassias and far-scented thymes, 4.40. And savory with its heavy-laden breath 4.41. Bloom round about, and violet-beds hard by 4.42. Sip sweetness from the fertilizing springs.' "4.43. For the hive's self, or stitched of hollow bark," '4.44. Or from tough osier woven, let the door' "4.45. Be strait of entrance; for stiff winter's cold" '4.46. Congeals the honey, and heat resolves and thaws, 4.47. To bees alike disastrous; not for naught 4.48. So haste they to cement the tiny pore 4.49. That pierce their walls, and fill the crevice 4.50. With pollen from the flowers, and glean and keep
4.59. But near their home let neither yew-tree grow, 4.60. Nor reddening crabs be roasted, and mistrust 4.61. Deep marish-ground and mire with noisome smell,' "
4.67. Forthwith they roam the glades and forests o'er," '4.68. Rifle the painted flowers, or sip the streams, 4.69. Light-hovering on the surface. Hence it i 4.70. With some sweet rapture, that we know not of, 4.71. Their little ones they foster, hence with skill 4.72. Work out new wax or clinging honey mould. 4.73. So when the cage-escaped hosts you see 4.74. Float heavenward through the hot clear air, until 4.75. You marvel at yon dusky cloud that spread 4.76. And lengthens on the wind, then mark them well;' "4.77. For then 'tis ever the fresh springs they seek" '4.78. And bowery shelter: hither must you bring 4.79. The savoury sweets I bid, and sprinkle them,' "4.80. Bruised balsam and the wax-flower's lowly weed," '4.81. And wake and shake the tinkling cymbals heard 4.82. By the great Mother: on the anointed spot 4.83. Themselves will settle, and in wonted wise' "4.84. Seek of themselves the cradle's inmost depth." '4.85. But if to battle they have hied them forth—' "4.86. For oft 'twixt king and king with uproar dire" '4.87. Fierce feud arises, and at once from far 4.88. You may discern what passion sways the mob, 4.89. And how their hearts are throbbing for the strife; 4.90. Hark! the hoarse brazen note that warriors know 4.91. Chides on the loiterers, and the ear may catch' "4.92. A sound that mocks the war-trump's broken blasts;" '4.93. Then in hot haste they muster, then flash wings, 4.94. Sharpen their pointed beaks and knit their thews, 4.95. And round the king, even to his royal tent, 4.96. Throng rallying, and with shouts defy the foe. 4.97. So, when a dry Spring and clear space is given, 4.98. Forth from the gates they burst, they clash on high; 4.99. A din arises; they are heaped and rolled
4.100. Into one mighty mass, and headlong fall,
4.101. Not denselier hail through heaven, nor pelting so
4.102. Rains from the shaken oak its acorn-shower.
4.103. Conspicuous by their wings the chiefs themselve
4.104. Press through the heart of battle, and display' "
4.105. A giant's spirit in each pigmy frame," '
4.106. Steadfast no inch to yield till these or those' "
4.107. The victor's ponderous arm has turned to flight." '
4.108. Such fiery passions and such fierce assault
4.109. A little sprinkled dust controls and quells.
4.110. And now, both leaders from the field recalled,
4.111. Who hath the worser seeming, do to death,
4.112. Lest royal waste wax burdensome, but let
4.113. His better lord it on the empty throne.
4.114. One with gold-burnished flakes will shine like fire,
4.115. For twofold are their kinds, the nobler he,

4.127. Sweet honey, nor yet so sweet as passing clear,' "
4.128. And mellowing on the tongue the wine-god's fire." '
4.129. But when the swarms fly aimlessly abroad,

4.134. While these prove loiterers, none beside will dare
4.135. Mount heaven, or pluck the standards from the camp.
4.136. Let gardens with the breath of saffron flower
4.137. Allure them, and the lord of 4.138. Priapus, wielder of the willow-scythe,
4.139. Safe in his keeping hold from birds and thieves.
4.140. And let the man to whom such cares are dear
4.141. Himself bring thyme and pine-trees from the heights,
4.142. And strew them in broad belts about their home;
4.143. No hand but his the blistering task should ply,
4.144. Plant the young slips, or shed the genial showers.
4.145. And I myself, were I not even now' "
4.146. Furling my sails, and, nigh the journey's end," '

4.149. Makes the trim garden smile; of 4.150. Whose roses bloom and fade and bloom again;
4.151. How endives glory in the streams they drink,
4.152. And green banks in their parsley, and how the gourd
4.153. Twists through the grass and rounds him to paunch;
4.154. Nor of Narcissus had my lips been dumb,
4.155. That loiterer of the flowers, nor supple-stemmed
4.156. Acanthus, with the praise of ivies pale,
4.157. And myrtles clinging to the shores they love.' "
4.158. For 'neath the shade of tall Oebalia's towers," '
4.159. Where dark Galaesus laves the yellowing fields,
4.160. An old man once I mind me to have seen—
4.161. From Corycus he came—to whom had fallen
4.162. Some few poor acres of neglected land,' "
4.163. And they nor fruitful' neath the plodding steer," '
4.164. Meet for the grazing herd, nor good for vines.
4.165. Yet he, the while his meagre garden-herb
4.166. Among the thorns he planted, and all round
4.167. White lilies, vervains, and lean poppy set,
4.168. In pride of spirit matched the wealth of kings,
4.169. And home returning not till night was late,
4.170. With unbought plenty heaped his board on high.
4.171. He was the first to cull the rose in spring,
4.172. He the ripe fruits in autumn; and ere yet
4.173. Winter had ceased in sullen ire to rive
4.174. The rocks with frost, and with her icy bit
4.175. Curb in the running waters, there was he
4.176. Plucking the rathe faint hyacinth, while he chid' "
4.177. Summer's slow footsteps and the lagging West." '
4.178. Therefore he too with earliest brooding bee' "
4.179. And their full swarms o'erflowed, and first was he" '
4.180. To press the bubbling honey from the comb;
4.181. Lime-trees were his, and many a branching pine;
4.182. And all the fruits wherewith in early bloom
4.183. The orchard-tree had clothed her, in full tale
4.184. Hung there, by mellowing autumn perfected.
4.185. He too transplanted tall-grown elms a-row,
4.186. Time-toughened pear, thorns bursting with the plum
4.187. And plane now yielding serviceable shade
4.188. For dry lips to drink under: but these things,
4.189. Shut off by rigorous limits, I pass by,
4.190. And leave for others to sing after me.
4.191. Come, then, I will unfold the natural power
4.192. Great Jove himself upon the bees bestowed,
4.193. The boon for which, led by the shrill sweet strain
4.194. of the Curetes and their clashing brass,' "
4.195. They fed the King of heaven in Dicte's cave." '
4.196. Alone of all things they receive and hold
4.197. Community of offspring, and they house
4.198. Together in one city, and beneath
4.199. The shelter of majestic laws they live; 4.200. And they alone fixed home and country know, 4.201. And in the summer, warned of coming cold, 4.202. Make proof of toil, and for the general store 4.203. Hoard up their gathered harvesting. For some' "4.204. Watch o'er the victualling of the hive, and these" '4.205. By settled order ply their tasks afield; 4.206. And some within the confines of their home' "4.207. Plant firm the comb's first layer, Narcissus' tear," '4.208. And sticky gum oozed from the bark of trees, 4.209. Then set the clinging wax to hang therefrom. 4.210. Others the while lead forth the full-grown young,' "4.211. Their country's hope, and others press and pack" '4.212. The thrice repured honey, and stretch their cell 4.213. To bursting with the clear-strained nectar sweet. 4.214. Some, too, the wardship of the gates befalls, 4.215. Who watch in turn for showers and cloudy skies,
4.217. Or form a band and from their precincts drive 4.218. The drones, a lazy herd. How glows the work! 4.219. How sweet the honey smells of perfumed thyme 4.220. Like the Cyclopes, when in haste they forge 4.221. From the slow-yielding ore the thunderbolts,' "4.222. Some from the bull's-hide bellows in and out" "4.223. Let the blasts drive, some dip i' the water-trough" "4.224. The sputtering metal: with the anvil's weight" '4.225. Groans 4.287. of the Divine Intelligence, and to drink 4.288. Pure draughts of ether; for God permeates all— 4.289. Earth, and wide ocean, and the vault of heaven— 4.290. From whom flocks, herds, men, beasts of every kind, 4.291. Draw each at birth the fine essential flame; 4.292. Yea, and that all things hence to Him return, 4.293. Brought back by dissolution, nor can death 4.294. Find place: but, each into his starry rank,
4.308. Venom into their bite, cleave to the vein 4.309. And let the sting lie buried, and leave their live 4.310. Behind them in the wound. But if you dread 4.311. Too rigorous a winter, and would fain 4.312. Temper the coming time, and their bruised heart 4.313. And broken estate to pity move thy soul, 4.314. Yet who would fear to fumigate with thyme,
4.464. Arched mountain-wise closed round him, and within 4.465. Its mighty bosom welcomed, and let speed 4.466. To the deep river-bed. And now, with eye
4.471. All streams beneath the mighty earth that glide, 4.472. Phasis and Lycus, and that fountain-head 4.473. Whence first the deep Enipeus leaps to light, 4.474. Whence father 4.495. “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer," '
4.510. With rigorous force and fetters; against these
4.564. But when no trickery found a path for flight, 4.565. Baffled at length, to his own shape returned,'". None
28. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Bees • bee (bees), as a motif and symbol, mythology

 Found in books: Bloch (2022) 214; Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 252

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