Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


graph

graph

All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
autocracy Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 156, 157, 239, 240
Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 2, 4, 21, 28, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 86, 88, 92, 107, 119, 120, 122, 123, 128, 133, 200, 226, 230, 241, 244, 253
Tuori (2016), The Emperor of Law: The Emergence of Roman Imperial Adjudication<, 173, 180, 196, 237
autocracy, autocrats, tyranny, tyrants Poulsen (2021), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 47, 53, 54, 71, 73, 83, 86, 200, 227, 238, 243, 245, 246, 247, 253
autocracy, roman Keith and Edmondson (2016), Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 179, 184, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252
autocrats/autocracy, see also dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants , and divinity Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 30, 31, 74, 75
autocrats/autocracy, see also dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants , and theatre Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 3, 6, 17, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 32, 33, 66, 74, 88, 102, 103, 112, 163, 165, 166, 199, 228
autocrats/autocracy, see also dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants , displays of generosity by Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 26, 27
autocrats/autocracy, see also dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants , festivals named after Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 34
autocrats/autocracy, see also dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants , friendships with poets and actors Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 34, 35
autocrats/autocracy, see also dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants , theatrical self-presentation by Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 27, 28, 66, 67
autocrats/autocracy, see also dionysus, monarchy, satyrplay, tragedy, tyrants , writing/performing poetry Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 28

List of validated texts:
5 validated results for "autocracy"
1. Homer, Iliad, 2.212-2.220 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architect-autocrat relationship • autocracy, Roman,

 Found in books: Keith and Edmondson (2016), Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle 223; Oksanish (2019), Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction, 170, 171, 183

sup>
2.212 Θερσίτης δʼ ἔτι μοῦνος ἀμετροεπὴς ἐκολῴα, 2.213 ὃς ἔπεα φρεσὶν ᾗσιν ἄκοσμά τε πολλά τε ᾔδη 2.214 μάψ, ἀτὰρ οὐ κατὰ κόσμον, ἐριζέμεναι βασιλεῦσιν, 2.215 ἀλλʼ ὅ τι οἱ εἴσαιτο γελοίϊον Ἀργείοισιν 2.216 ἔμμεναι· αἴσχιστος δὲ ἀνὴρ ὑπὸ Ἴλιον ἦλθε· 2.217 φολκὸς ἔην, χωλὸς δʼ ἕτερον πόδα· τὼ δέ οἱ ὤμω 2.218 κυρτὼ ἐπὶ στῆθος συνοχωκότε· αὐτὰρ ὕπερθε 2.219 φοξὸς ἔην κεφαλήν, ψεδνὴ δʼ ἐπενήνοθε λάχνη. 2.220 ἔχθιστος δʼ Ἀχιλῆϊ μάλιστʼ ἦν ἠδʼ Ὀδυσῆϊ·'' None
sup>
2.212 thundereth on the long beach, and the deep roareth.Now the others sate them down and were stayed in their places, only there still kept chattering on Thersites of measureless speech, whose mind was full of great store of disorderly words, wherewith to utter revilings against the kings, idly, and in no orderly wise, 2.215 but whatsoever he deemed would raise a laugh among the Argives. Evil-favoured was he beyond all men that came to Ilios: he was bandy-legged and lame in the one foot, and his two shoulders were rounded, stooping together over his chest, and above them his head was warped, and a scant stubble grew thereon. 2.220 Hateful was he to Achilles above all, and to Odysseus, for it was they twain that he was wont to revile; but now again with shrill cries he uttered abuse against goodly Agamemnon. With him were the Achaeans exceeding wroth, and had indignation in their hearts. '' None
2. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.861-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • autocracy

 Found in books: Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 239; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 4, 76

sup>
15.861 Di, precor, Aeneae comites, quibus ensis et ignis 15.862 cesserunt, dique Indigetes genitorque Quirine 15.863 urbis et invicti genitor Gradive Quirini, 15.864 Vestaque Caesareos inter sacrata penates, 15.865 et cum Caesarea tu, Phoebe domestice, Vesta, 15.866 quique tenes altus Tarpeias Iuppiter arces,' '15.868 tarda sit illa dies et nostro serior aevo, 15.869 qua caput Augustum, quem temperat, orbe relicto 15.870 accedat caelo faveatque precantibus absens! 15.871 Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis 15.872 nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas. 15.874 ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi: 15.875 parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 15.876 astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 15.877 quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 15.878 ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 15.879 siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.'' None
sup>
15.861 in homage to you, Cippus, and your horns. 15.862 But you must promptly put aside delay; 15.863 hasten to enter the wide open gates— 15.864 the fates command you. Once received within 15.865 the city, you shall be its chosen king 15.866 and safely shall enjoy a lasting reign.”' "15.867 While this was happening, they began to seek,for one who could endure the weight of such,a task and could succeed a king so great;,and Fame, the harbinger of truth, destined,illustrious Numa for the sovereign power.,It did not satisfy his heart to know,only the Sabine ceremonials,,and he conceived in his expansive mind,much greater views, examining the depth,and cause of things. His country and his cares,forgotten, this desire led him to visit,the city that once welcomed Hercules .,Numa desired to know what founder built,a Grecian city on Italian shores.,One of the old inhabitants, who was well,acquainted with past history, replied:,turned from the ocean and with favoring wind,'Tis said he landed on Lacinian shores.,And, while the herd strayed in the tender grass,,he visited the house, the friendly home,,of far-famed Croton . There he rested from,his arduous labors. At the time of his,departure, he said, ‘Here in future days,hall be a city of your numerous race.’,The passing years have proved the promise true,,for Myscelus, choosing that site, marked out,a city's walls. Argive Alemon's son,,of all men in his generation, he,was most acceptable to the heavenly gods.,Bending over him once at dawn, while he,was overwhelmed with drowsiness of sleep,,the huge club-bearer Hercules addressed,him thus: ‘Come now, desert your native shores.,Go quickly to the pebbly flowing stream,of distant Aesar.’ And he threatened ill,in fearful words, unless he should obey.,Alemon's son, arising from his couch,,pondered his recent vision thoughtfully,,with his conclusions at cross purposes.—,the god commanded him to quit that land,,the laws forbade departure, threatening death,to all who sought to leave their native land.,his shining head, and darkest Night had then,put forth her starry face; and at that time,it seemed as if the same god Hercules,was present and repeating his commands,,threatening still more and graver penalties,,if he should fail to obey. Now sore afraid,he set about to move his household gods,to a new settlement, but rumors then,followed him through the city, and he was,accused of holding statutes in contempt.,when his offense was evidently proved,,even without a witness. Then he raised,his face and hands up to the gods above,and suppliant in neglected garb, exclaimed,,‘Oh mighty Hercules , for whom alone,the twice six labors gave the privilege,of heavenly residence, give me your aid,,for you were the true cause of my offence.’,to vote with chosen pebbles, white and black.,The white absolved, the black condemned the man.,And so that day the fateful votes were given—:,all cast into the cruel urn were black!,Soon as that urn inverted poured forth all,the pebbles to be counted, every one,was changed completely from its black to white,,and so the vote adjudged him innocent.,By that most fortunate aid of Hercules,he was exempted from the country's law.,with favoring wind sailed on the Ionian sea,,past Sallentine Neretum, Sybaris ,,Spartan Tarentum, and the Sirine Bay,,Crimisa, and on beyond the Iapygian fields.,Then, skirting shores which face these lands, he found,the place foretold the river Aesar's mouth,,and found not far away a burial mound,which covered with its soil the hallowed bones,of Croton .—There, upon the appointed land,,he built up walls—and he conferred the name,of Croton, who was there entombed, on his,new city, which has ever since been called,Crotona .” By tradition it is known,uch strange deeds caused that city to be built,,by men of Greece upon the Italian coast.,Here lived a man, by birth a Samian.,He had fled from Samos and the ruling class,,a voluntary exile, for his hate,against all tyranny. He had the gift,of holding mental converse with the gods,,who live far distant in the highth of heaven;,and all that Nature has denied to man,and human vision, he reviewed with eyes,of his enlightened soul. And, when he had,examined all things in his careful mind,with watchful study, he released his thoughts,to knowledge of the public.,to crowds of people, silent and amazed,,while he revealed to them the origin,of this vast universe, the cause of things,,what is nature, what a god, whence came the snow,,the cause of lightning—was it Jupiter,or did the winds, that thundered when the cloud,was rent asunder, cause the lightning flash?,What shook the earth, what laws controlled the stars,as they were moved—and every hidden thing,he was the first man to forbid the use,of any animal's flesh as human food,,he was the first to speak with learned lips,,though not believed in this, exhorting them.—,pollution of your bodies with such food,,for there are grain and good fruits which bear down,the branches by their weight, and ripened grapes,upon the vines, and herbs—those sweet by nature,and those which will grow tender and mellow with,a fire, and flowing milk is not denied,,nor honey, redolent of blossoming thyme.,affording dainties without slaughter, death,,and bloodshed. Dull beasts delight to satisfy,their hunger with torn flesh; and yet not all:,horses and sheep and cattle live on grass.,But all the savage animals—the fierce,Armenian tigers and ferocious lions,,and bears, together with the roving wolves—,delight in viands reeking with warm blood.,vitals in vitals gorged, one greedy body,fattening with plunder of another's flesh,,a living being fed on another's life!,In that abundance, which our Earth, the best,of mothers, will afford have you no joy,,unless your savage teeth can gnaw,the piteous flesh of some flayed animal,to reenact the Cyclopean crime?,And can you not appease the hungry void—,the perverted craving of a stomach's greed,,unless you first destroy another life?,of ‘Golden,’ was so blest in fruit of trees,,and in the good herbs which the earth produced,that it never would pollute the mouth with blood.,The birds then safely moved their wings in air,,the timid hares would wander in the fields,with no fear, and their own credulity,had not suspended fishes from the hook.,All life was safe from treacherous wiles,,fearing no injury, a peaceful world.,(it does not matter who it might have been),envied the ways of lions and gulped into,his greedy paunch stuff from a carcass vile.,He opened the foul paths of wickedness.,It may be that in killing beasts of prey,our steel was for the first time warmed with blood.,And that could be defended, for I hold,that predatory creatures which attempt,destruction of mankind, are put to death,without evasion of the sacred laws:,but, though with justice they are put to death,,that cannot be a cause for eating them.,was thought to have deserved death as the first,of victims, for with her long turned-up snout,he spoiled the good hope of a harvest year.,The ravenous goat, that gnawed a sprouting vine,,was led for slaughter to the altar fires,of angry Bacchus. It was their own fault,that surely caused the ruin of those two.,harmless and useful for the good of man,with nectar in full udders? Their soft wool,affords the warmest coverings for our use,,their life and not their death would help us more.,Why have the oxen of the field deserved,a sad end—innocent, without deceit,,and harmless, without guile, born to endure,hard labor? Without gratitude is he,,unworthy of the gift of harvest fields,,who, after he relieved his worker from,weight of the curving plow could butcher him,,could sever with an axe that toil worn neck,,by which so often with hard work the ground,had been turned up, so many harvests reared.,For some, even crimes like these are not enough,,they have imputed to the gods themselves,abomination—they believe a god,in heaven above, rejoices at the death,of a laborious ox.,of blemish and most beautiful in form,(perfection brings destruction) is adorned,with garlands and with gilded horns before,the altar. In his ignorance he hears,one praying, and he sees the very grain,he labored to produce, fixed on his head,between the horns, and felled, he stains with blood,the knife which just before he may have seen,reflected in clear water. Instantly,they snatch out entrails from his throbbing form,,and seek in them intentions of the gods.,Then, in your lust for a forbidden food,you will presume to batten on his flesh,,O race of mortals! Do not eat such food!,Give your attention to my serious words;,and, when you next present the slaughtered flesh,of oxen to your palates, know and feel,that you gnaw your fellow tillers of the soil.,I will obey the god who urges me,,and will disclose to you the heavens above,,and I will even reveal the oracles,of the Divine Will. I will sing to you,of things most wonderful, which never were,investigated by the intellects,of ancient times and things which have been long,concealed from man. In fancy I delight,to float among the stars or take my stand,on mighty Atlas' shoulders, and to look,afar down on men wandering here and there—,afraid in life yet dreading unknown death,,and in these words exhort them and reveal,the sequence of events ordained by fate!,alarms of icy death, afraid of Styx,,fearful of moving shadows and empty names—,of subjects harped on by the poets' tales,,the fabled perils of a fancied life?,Whether the funeral pile consumes your flesh,with hot flames, or old age dissolves it with,a gradual wasting power, be well assured,the body cannot meet with further ill.,And souls are all exempt from power of death.,When they have left their first corporeal home,,they always find and live in newer homes.,that in the days of the great Trojan War,,I was Euphorbus, son of Panthous.,In my opposing breast was planted then,the heavy spear-point of the younger son,of Atreus. Not long past I recognised,the shield, once burden of my left arm, where,it hung in Juno 's temple at ancient Argos ,,the realm of Abas. Everything must change:,but nothing perishes. The moving soul,may wander, coming from that spot to this,,from this to that—in changed possession live,in any limbs whatever. It may pass,from beasts to human bodies, and again,to those of beasts. The soul will never die,,in the long lapse of time. As pliant wax,is moulded to new forms and does not stay,as it has been nor keep the self same form,yet is the selfsame wax, be well assured,the soul is always the same spirit, though,it passes into different forms. Therefore,,that natural love may not be vanquished by,unnatural craving of the appetite,,I warn you, stop expelling kindred souls,by deeds abhorrent as cold murder.—Let,not blood be nourished with its kindred blood!,and I have given my full sails to the wind,,nothing in all the world remains unchanged.,All things are in a state of flux, all shapes,receive a changing nature. Time itself,glides on with constant motion, ever as,a flowing river. Neither river nor,the fleeting hour can stop its constant course.,But, as each wave drives on a wave, as each,is pressed by that which follows, and must press,on that before it, so the moments fly,,and others follow, so they are renewed.,The moment which moved on before is past,,and that which was not, now exists in Time,,and every one comes, goes, and is replaced.,on to the dawn, then brilliant light of day,ucceeds the dark night. There is not the same,appearance in the heavens,: when all things,for weariness are resting in vast night,,as when bright Lucifer rides his white steed.,And only think of that most glorious change,,when loved Aurora, Pallas' daughter, comes,before the day and tints the world, almost,delivered to bright Phoebus. Even the disk,of that god, rising from beneath the earth,,is of a ruddy color in the dawn,and ruddy when concealed beneath the world.,When highest, it is a most brilliant white,,for there the ether is quite purified,,and far away avoids infection from,impurities of earth. Diana's form,at night remains not equal nor the same!,'Tis less today than it will be tomorrow,,if she is waxing; greater, if she wanes.,four seasons, imitating human life:,in early Spring it has a nursling's ways,resembling infancy, for at that time,the blade is shooting and devoid of strength.,Its flaccid substance swelling gives delight,,to every watching husbandman, alive,in expectation. Then all things are rich,in blossom, and the genial meadow smiles,with tints of blooming flowers; but not as yet,is there a sign of vigor in the leaves.,it passes into Summer, and its youth,becomes robust. Indeed of all the year,the Summer is most vigorous and most,abounds with glowing and life-giving warmth.,removed, that ripe and mellow time succeeds,between youth and old age, and a few white hairs,are sprinkled here and there upon his brow.,follows, repulsive, strips of graceful locks,or white with those he has retained so long.,we are not now what we were yesterday,or we shall be tomorrow. And there was,a time when we were only seeds of man,,mere hopes that lived within a mother's womb.,But Nature changed us with her skilfull touch,,determined that our bodies should not be,held in such narrow room, below the entrails,in our distended parent; and in time,he brought us forth into the vacant air.,Then on all fours he lifts his body up,,feeling his way, like any young wild beast,,and then by slow degrees he stands upright,,weak-kneed and trembling, steadied by support,of some convenient prop. And soon more strong,and swift he passes through the hours of youth,,and, when the years of middle age are past,,lides down the steep path of declining age.,of former years: and Milon, now grown old,,weeps, when he sees his arms, which once were firm,with muscles big as those of Hercules,,hang flabby at his side: and Helen weeps,,when in the glass she sees her wrinkled face,,and wonders why two heroes fell in love,and carried her away.—O Time,,devourer of all things, and envious Age,,together you destroy all that exists,and, slowly gnawing, bring on lingering death.,do not endure. Now listen well to me,,and I will show the ways in which they change.,four elemental parts. And two of these,are heavy—earth and water—and are borne,downwards by weight. The other two devoid,of weight, are air and—even lighter—fire:,and, if these two are not constrained, they seek,the higher regions. These four elements,,though far apart in space, are all derived,from one another. Earth dissolves,as flowing water! Water, thinned still more,,departs as wind and air; and the light air,,till losing weight, sparkles on high as fire.,But they return, along their former way:,the fire, assuming weight, is changed to air;,and then, more dense, that air is changed again,to water; and that water, still more dense,,compacts itself again as primal earth.,and Nature, the renewer of all things,,continually changes every form,into some other shape. Believe my word,,in all this universe of vast extent,,not one thing ever perished. All have changed,appearance. Men say a certain thing is born,,if it takes a different form from what it had;,and yet they say, that certain thing has died,,if it no longer keeps the self same shape.,Though distant things move near, and near things far,,always the sum of all things is unchanged.,remains long under the same form unchanged.,Look at the change of times from gold to iron,:,look at the change in places. I have seen,what had been solid earth become salt waves,,and I have seen dry land made from the deep;,and, far away from ocean, sea-shells strewn,,and on the mountain-tops old anchors found.,Water has made that which was once a plain,into a valley, and the mountain has,been levelled by the floods down to a plain.,A former marshland is now parched dry sand,,and places which endured severest drought,are wet with standing pools. Here Nature has,opened fresh springs, but there has shut them up;,rivers aroused by ancient earthquakes have,rushed out or vanished, as they lost their depth.,a chasm in the earth, it rushes forth,at a distance and is reborn a different stream.,The Erasinus now flows down into a cave,,now runs beneath the ground a darkened course,,then rises lordly in the Argolic fields.,They say the Mysus, wearied of his spring,and of his former banks, appears elsewhere,and takes another name, the Caicus .,now smoothly rolling, at another time,is quenched, because its fountain springs are dry.,The water of the Anigros formerly,was used for drinking, but it pours out now,foul water which you would decline to touch,,because (unless all credit is denied,to poets) long ago the Centaurs, those,trange mortals double-limbed, bathed in the stream,wounds which club-bearing Hercules had made,with his strong bow.—Yes, does not Hypanis,descending fresh from mountains of Sarmatia ,,become embittered with the taste of salt?,were once surrounded by the wavy sea:,they are not islands now. Long years ago,Leucas was mainland, if we can believe,what the old timers there will tell, but now,the waves sweep round it. Zancle was a part,of Italy , until the sea cut off,the neighboring land with strong waves in between.,Should you seek Helice and Buris, those,two cities of Achaea , you will find,them underneath the waves, where sailors point,to sloping roofs and streets in the clear deep.,quite bare of trees, was once a level plain,,but now is a hill, for (dreadful even to tell),the raging power of winds, long pent in deep,,dark caverns, tried to find a proper vent,,long struggling to attain free sky.,Finding no opening from the prison-caves,,imperious to their force, they raised the earth,,exactly as pent air breathed from the mouth,inflates a bladder, or the bottle-hides,tripped off the two-horned goats. The swollen earth,remained on that spot and has ever since,appearance of a high hill hardened by,the flight of time.,that I have heard and known, I will add a few.,Why, does not water give and take strange forms?,Your wave, O horned Ammon, will turn cold,at mid-day, but is always mild and warm,at sun-rise and at sun-set. I have heard,that Athamanians kindle wood, if they,pour water on it, when the waning moon,has shrunk away into her smallest orb.,The people of Ciconia have a stream,which turns the drinker's entrails into stone,,which changes into marble all it raves.,The Achaean Crathis and the Sybaris ,,which flow not far from here, will turn the hair,to something like clear amber or bright gold.,which change not only bodies but the minds:,who has no knowledge of the Salmacis,and of its ill famed waves? Who has not,heard of the lakes of Aethiopia:,how those who drink of them go raving mad,or fall in a deep sleep, most wonderful,in heaviness. Whoever quenches thirst,from the Clitorian spring will hate all wine,,and soberly secure great pleasure from,pure water. Either that spring has a power,the opposite of wine-heat, or perhaps,as natives tell us, after the famed son,of Amythaon by his charms and herbs,,delivered from their base insanity,the stricken Proetides, he threw the rest,of his mind healing herbs into the spring,,where hatred of all wine has since remained.,Unlike in nature flows another stream,of the country, called Lyncestius: everyone,who drinks of it, even with most temperate care,,will reel, as if he had drunk unmixed wine.,In Arcadia is a place, called Pheneos,by men of old, which is mistrusted for,the twofold nature of its waters. Stand,in dread of them at night; if drunk at night,,they harm you, but in daytime they will do,no harm at all.,So lakes and rivers have,now this, now that effect.,moved like a ship that drifts among the waves.,Now it is fixed. The Argo was in dread,of the Symplegades, which moved apart,with waves in-rushing. Now immovable,they stand, resisting the attack of winds.,will not be always concentrated fire,,nor was it always fiery. If the earth,is like an animal and is alive,and breathes out flame at many openings,,then it can change these many passages,used for its breathing and, when it is moved,,may close these caverns as it opens up,ome others. Or if rushing winds are penned,in deepest caverns, and they drive great stones,against the rock, and substances which have,the properties of flame and fire are made,by those concussions; when the winds are calmed,the caverns will, of course, be cool again.,or yellow sulphur burns with little smoke,,then surely, when the ground no longer gives,uch food and oily nutriment for flames,and they in time have ravined all their store,,their greedy nature soon will pine with death—,it will not bear such famine but depart,and, when deserted, will desert the place.,can cover all their bodies with light plumes,by plunging nine times in Minerva's marsh.,But I cannot believe another tale:,that Scythian women get a like result,by having poison sprinkled on their limbs.,proved by experience, we can surely know,whatever bodies are decayed by time,or by dissolving heat are by such means,changed into tiny animals—Come now,,bury choice bullocks killed for sacrifice,,and it is well known by experience,that the flower-gathering bees are so produced,,miraculous, from entrails putrefied.,These, like the faithful animals from which,they were produced, inhabit the green fields,,delight in toil, and labor for reward.,is a known source of hornets. If you cut,the bending claws off from the sea-shore crab,and bury the remainder in the earth,,a scorpion will come forth from the dead crab,buried there, threatening with its crooked tail.,a thing observable by husbandmen,,will change themselves to funeral butterflies.,Mud holds the seeds that generate green frogs,,at first producing tadpoles with no feet,,and soon it gives them legs adapted for,their swimming, and, so they may be as well,adapted to good leaping, their hind legs,are longer than the fore-legs. The mother bear,does not bring forth a cub but a limp mass,of flesh that hardly can be called alive.,By licking it the mother forms the limbs,,and brings it to a shape just like her own.,concealed in cells hexagonal, at first,get life with no limbs, and assume in time,both feet and wings? Unless the fact were known,,could anyone suppose it possible,that Juno's bird, whose tail is bright with stars;,the eagle, armor-bearer of high Jove;,the doves of Cytherea; and all birds,emerge from the middle part of eggs?,And some believe the human marrow turns,into a serpent when the spine at length,has putrefied in the closed sepulchre.,from other living forms. There is one bird,which reproduces and renews itself:,the Assyrians gave this bird his name—the Phoenix.,He does not live either on grain or herbs,,but only on small drops of frankincense,and juices of amomum. When this bird,completes a full five centuries of life,traightway with talons and with shining beak,he builds a nest among palm branches, where,they join to form the palm tree's waving top.,the cassia bark and ears of sweet spikenard,,and some bruised cinnamon with yellow myrrh,,he lies down on it and refuses life,among those dreamful odors.—And they say,that from the body of the dying bird,is reproduced a little Phoenix which,is destined to live just as many years.,and he is able to sustain the weight,,he lifts the nest up from the lofty tree,and dutifully carries from that place,his cradle and the parent's sepulchre.,As soon as he has reached through yielding air,the city of Hyperion, he will lay,the burden just before the sacred doors,within the temple of Hyperion.,we ought to wonder also, when we learn,that a hyena has a change of sex:,the female, quitting her embracing male,,herself becomes a male.—That animal,which feeds upon the winds and air, at once,assumes with contact any color touched.,lynxes, whose urine turns, they say to stones,,hardening in air. So coral, too, as soon,as it has risen above the sea, turns hard.,Below the waves it was a tender plant.,his panting horses in the deep sea waves,,before I can include in my discourse,the myriad things transforming to new shapes.,In lapse of time we see the nations change;,ome grow in power, some wane. Troy was once great,in riches and in men—so great she could,for ten unequalled years afford much blood;,now she lies low and offers to our gaze,but ancient ruins and, instead of wealth,,ancestral tombs. Sparta was famous once,and great Mycenae was most flourishing.,And Cecrops' citadel and Amphion's shone,in ancient power. Sparta is nothing now,ave barren ground, the proud Mycenae fell,,what is the Thebes of storied Oedipus,except a name? And of Pandion's Athens,what now remains beyond the name?,is rising, and beside the Tiber 's waves,,whose springs are high in the Apennines , is laying,her deep foundations. So in her growth,her form is changing, and one day she will,be the sole mistress of the boundless world.,revealers of our destiny, declare,this fate, and, if I recollect it right,,Helenus, son of Priam, prophesied,unto Aeneas, when he was in doubt,of safety and lamenting for the state,of Troy , about to fall, ‘O, son of a goddess,,if you yourself, will fully understand,this prophecy now surging in my mind,Troy shall not, while you are preserved to life,fall utterly. Flames and the sword shall give,you passage. You shall go and bear away,Pergama, ruined; till a foreign soil,,more friendly to you than your native land,,hall be the lot of Troy and of yourself.,that our posterity, born far from Troy ,,will build a city greater than exists,,or ever will exist, or ever has,been seen in former times. Through a long lapse,of ages other noted men shall make,it strong, but one of the race of Iulus;,hall make it the great mistress of the world.,After the earth has thoroughly enjoyed,his glorious life, aetherial abodes,hall gain him, and immortal heaven shall be,his destiny.’,Such was the prophesy,of Helenus, when great Aeneas took,away his guardian deities, and I,rejoice to see my kindred walls rise high,and realize how much the Trojans won,by that resounding victory of the Greeks!,forgetful of the goal, the heavens and all,beneath them and the earth and everything,upon it change in form. We likewise change,,who are a portion of the universe,,and, since we are not only things of flesh,but winged souls as well, we may be doomed,to enter into beasts as our abode;,and even to be hidden in the breasts,of cattle. Therefore, should we not allow,these bodies to be safe which may contain,the souls of parents, brothers, or of those,allied to us by kinship or of men,at least, who should be saved from every harm?,Let us not gorge down a Thyestean feast!,how impiously does he prepare himself,for shedding human blood, who with u knife,cuts the calf's throat and offers a deaf ear,to its death-longings! who can kill the kid,while it is sending forth heart rending cries,like those of a dear child; or who can feed,upon the bird which he has given food.,How little do such deeds as these fall short,of actual murder? Yes, where will they lead?,to weight of years; and let the sheep give us,defence against the cold of Boreas;,and let the well-fed she-goats give to man,their udders for the pressure of kind hands.,and fraudulent contrivances: deceive,not birds with bird-limed twigs: do not deceive,the trusting deer with dreaded feather foils:,do not conceal barbed hooks with treacherous bait:,if any beast is harmful, take his life,,but, even so, let killing be enough.,Taste not his flesh, but look for harmless food!”,They say that Numa with a mind well taught,by these and other precepts traveled back,to his own land and, being urged again,,assumed the guidance of the Latin state.,Blest with a nymph as consort, blest also with,the Muses for his guides, he taught the rites,of sacrifice and trained in arts of peace,a race accustomed long to savage war.,When, ripe in years, he ended reign and life,,the Latin matrons, the fathers of the state,,and all the people wept for Numa's death.,For the nymph, his widow, had withdrawn from Rome ,,concealed within the thick groves of the vale,Aricia , where with groans and wailing she,disturbed the holy rites of Cynthia,,established by Orestes. Ah! how often,nymphs of the grove and lake entreated her,to cease and offered her consoling words.,How often the son of Theseus said to her,“Control your sorrow; surely your sad lot,is not the only one; consider now,the like calamities by others borne,,and you can bear your sorrow. To my grief,my own disaster was far worse than yours.,At least it can afford you comfort now.,“Is it not true, discourse has reached yours ears,that one Hippolytus met with his death,through the credulity of his loved sire,,deceived by a stepmother's wicked art?,It will amaze you much, and I may fail,to prove what I declare, but I am he!,Long since the daughter of Pasiphae,tempted me to defile my father's bed,and, failing, feigned that I had wished to do,what she herself had wished. Perverting truth—,either through fear of some discovery,or else through spite at her deserved repulse—,he charged me with attempting the foul crime.,my father banished me and, while I was,departing, laid on me a mortal curse.,Towards Pittheus and Troezen I fled aghast,,guiding the swift chariot near the shore,of the Corinthian Gulf, when all at once,the sea rose up and seemed to arch itself,and lift high as a white topped mountain height,,make bellowings, and open at the crest.,Then through the parting waves a horned bull,emerged with head and breast into the wind,,pouting white foam from his nostrils and his mouth.,“The hearts of my attendants quailed with fear,,yet I unfrightened thought but of my exile.,Then my fierce horses turned their necks to face,the waters, and with ears erect they quaked,before the monster shape, they dashed in flight,along the rock strewn ground below the cliff.,I struggled, but with unavailing hand,,to use the reins now covered with white foam;,and throwing myself back, pulled on the thongs,with weight and strength. Such effort might have checked,the madness of my steeds, had not a wheel,,triking the hub on a projecting stump,,been shattered and hurled in fragments from the axle.,and with the reins entwined about my legs.,My palpitating entrails could be seen,dragged on, my sinews fastened on a stump.,My torn legs followed, but a part,remained behind me, caught by various snags.,The breaking bones gave out a crackling noise,,my tortured spirit soon had fled away,,no part of the torn body could be known—,all that was left was only one crushed wound—,how can, how dare you, nymph, compare your ills,to my disaster?,deprived of light: and I have bathed my flesh,,o tortured, in the waves of Phlegethon.,Life could not have been given again to me,,but through the remedies Apollo's son,applied to me. After my life returned—,by potent herbs and the Paeonian aid,,despite the will of Pluto—Cynthia then,threw heavy clouds around that I might not,be seen and cause men envy by new life:,and that she might be sure my life was safe,he made me seem an old man; and she changed,me so that I could not be recognized.,would give me Crete or Delos for my home.,Delos and Crete abandoned, she then brought,me here, and at the same time ordered me,to lay aside my former name—one which,when mentioned would remind me of my steeds.,She said to me, ‘You were Hippolytus,,but now instead you shall be Virbius.’,And from that time I have inhabited,this grove; and, as one of the lesser gods,,I live concealed and numbered in her train.”,of sad Egeria, and she laid herself,down at a mountain's foot, dissolved in tears,,till moved by pity for her faithful sorrow,,Diana changed her body to a spring,,her limbs into a clear continual stream.,This wonderful event surprised the nymphs,,and filled Hippolytus with wonder, just,as great as when the Etrurian ploughman saw,a fate-revealing clod move of its own,accord among the fields, while not a hand,was touching it, till finally it took,a human form, without the quality,of clodded earth, and opened its new mouth,and spoke, revealing future destinies.,The natives called him Tages. He was the first,who taught Etrurians to foretell events.,when he observed the spear, which once had grown,high on the Palatine , put out new leaves,and stand with roots—not with the iron point,which he had driven in. Not as a spear,it then stood there, but as a rooted tree,with limber twigs for many to admire,while resting under that surprising shade.,in the clear stream (he truly saw them there).,Believing he had seen a falsity,,he often touched his forehead with his hand,and, so returning, touched the thing he saw.,Assured at last that he could trust his eyes,,he stood entranced, as if he had returned,victorious from the conquest of his foes:,and, raising eyes and hands toward heaven, he cried,,“You gods above! Whatever is foretold,by this great prodigy, if it means good,,then let it be auspicious to my land,and to the inhabitants of Quirinus,—,if ill, let that misfortune fall on me.”,of grassy thick green turf, with fragrant fires,,presenting wine in bowls. And he took note,of panting entrails from new-slaughtered sheep,,to learn the meaning of the event for him.,he found the evidence of great events,,as yet obscure, and, when he raised keen eyes,up from the entrails to the horns of Cippus,,“O king, all hail!” he cried, “For in future time,this country and the Latin towers will live,in homage to you, Cippus, and your horns.,But you must promptly put aside delay;,hasten to enter the wide open gates—,the fates command you. Once received within,the city, you shall be its chosen king,and safely shall enjoy a lasting reign.”,eyes from the city's walls and said, “O far,,O far away, the righteous gods should drive,uch omens from me! Better it would be,that I should pass my life in exile than,be seen a king throned in the capitol.”,the people and the grave and honored Senate.,But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which,betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound,raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer,after the ancient mode, and then he said,,“There is one here who will be king, if you,do not expel him from your city—I,will show him to you surely by a sign;,although I will not tell his name. He wears,horns on his head. The augur prophecies,that, if he enters this your city, he,will give you laws as if you were his slaves.,for they stand open, but I have hindered him,,although nobody is to him so close,as I myself. Good Romans, then, forbid,your city to this man; or, if you find,that he deserves still worse, then bind him fast,with heavy fetters; or else end your fears,by knowledge of the destined tyrant's death.”,of pine trees thick above us, when the fierce,east wind is whistling in them, or as sound,produced by breaking waves, when it is heard,afar off, such the noise made by the crowd.,But in that angry stirring of the throng,one cry could be distinguished, “Which is he?”,And they examined foreheads, and they sought,predicted horns. Cippus then spoke again:,And, fearless of the people, he threw back,the chaplet from his forehead, so that all,could see his temples plainly, wonderful,for their two horns. All then turned down their eyes,and uttered groans and (was it possible?),they looked unwillingly upon that head,famed for its merit. They could not permit,him to remain there long, deprived,of honors, and they placed upon his head,the festive chaplet. And the Senate gave,you, Cippus, since you nevermore must come,within the walls, a proof of their esteem—,o much land as your oxen and their plow,could circle round from dawn to setting sun.,Moreover they engraved the shapely horns,on the bronze pillars of the city gate,,which for long ages kept his name revered.,Relate, O Muses, guardian deities,of poets (for you know, and the remote,antiquity conceals it not from you),,the reason why an island, which the deep stream,of Tiber closed about, has introduced,Coronis' child among the deities,guarding the city of famed Romulus.,the Latin air, and men's pale bodies were,deformed by a consumption that dried up,the blood. When, frightened by so many deaths,,they found all mortal efforts could avail,them nothing, and physicians' skill had no,effect, they sought the aid of heaven. They sent,envoys to Delphi center of the world,,and they entreated Phoebus to give aid,in their distress, and by response renew,their wasting lives and end a city's woe.,While ground, and laurels and the quivers which,the god hung there all shook, the tripod gave,this answer from the deep recesses hid,within the shrine, and stirred with trembling their,astonished hearts—,O Romans, you should seek for nearer you.,Then seek it nearer, for you do not need,Apollo to relieve your wasting plague,,you need Apollo's son. Go then to him,with a good omen and invite his aid.”,Phoebus Apollo's words, they took much pains,to learn what town the son of Phoebus might,inhabit. They despatched ambassadors,under full sail to the coast of Epidaurus .,When the curved ships had touched the shore, these men,in haste went to the Grecian elders there,and prayed that Rome might have the deity,whose presence would drive out the mortal ill,from their Ausonian nation; for they knew,response unerring had directed them.,on their reply: some thought that aid ought not,to be refused, but many more held back,,declaring it was wise to keep the god,for their own safety and not give away,a guardian deity. And, while they talked,,discussing it, the twilight had expelled,the waning day, and darkness on the earth,pread a thick mantle over the wide world.,appeared, O Roman leader, by your couch,,as in his temple he is used to stand,,holding in his left hand a rustic staff.,Stroking his long beard with his right, he seemed,to utter from his kindly breast these words:,and leave my altar. But now look well at,the serpent with its binding folds entwined,around this staff, and accurately mark,it with your eyes that you may recognize it.,I will transform myself into this shape,but of a greater size, I will appear,enlarged and of a magnitude to which,a heavenly being ought to be transformed.”,and sleep went, when the god and words were gone;,and genial light came, when the sleep had left.,The morning then dispersed fire-given stars.,The envoys met together in much doubt,within the temple of the long sought god.,They prayed the god to indicate for them,,by clear celestial tokens, in what spot,he wished to dwell.,for guidance, when the god all glittering,with gold and as a serpent, crest erect,,ent forth a hissing as to notify,a quick approach— and in his coming shook,his statue and the altars and the doors,,the marble pavement and the gilded roof.,Then up to his breast the serpent stood erect,within the temple. He gazed on all with eyes,that sparkled fire. The waiting multitude,was frightened; but the priest, his chaste hair bound,with a white fillet, knew the deity.,Think holy thoughts and walk in reverent silence,,all who are present. Oh, most Beautiful,,let us behold you to our benefit,,and give aid to this people that performs,your sacred rites.”,the deity as bidden by the priest.,The multitude repeated his good words,,and the descendants of Aeneas gave,good omen, with their feelings and their speech.,Nodding well pleased and moving his great crest,,the god at once assured them of his favor,and hissed repeatedly with darting tongue.,And then he glided down the polished steps;,turned back his head; and, ready to depart,,gazed on the altars he had known for so long—,a last salute to the temple of his love.,the great snake wound in sinuous course along,and, passing through the middle of their town,,came to the harbor and its curving wall.,He stopped there, and it seemed that he dismissed,his train and dutiful attendant crowd,,and with a placid countece he placed,his mighty body in the Ausonian ship,,which plainly showed the great weight of the god.,rejoiced, and they sacrificed a bull beside,the harbor, wreathed the ship with flowers, and loosed,the twisted hawsers from the shore. As a soft breeze,impelled the ship, within her curving stern,the god reclined, his coils uprising high,,and gazed down on the blue Ionian waves.,So wafted by the favoring winds, they came,in six days to the shores of Italy .,ennobled by the goddess Juno's shrine,,and Scylacean coasts. He left behind,Iapygia; then he shunned Amphrysian rocks,upon the left and on the other side,escaped Cocinthian crags. He passed, near by,,Romechium and Caulon and Naricia;,crossed the Sicilian sea; went through the strait;,ailed by Pelorus and the island home,of Aeolus and by the copper mines,of Temesa. He turned then toward Leucosia,and toward mild Paestum , famous for the rose.,He coasted by Capreae and around,Minerva's promontory and the hills,ennobled with Surrentine vines, from there,to Herculaneum and Stabiae,and then Parthenope built for soft ease.,He sailed near the Cumaean Sibyl's temple.,He passed the Warm Springs and Linternum, where,the mastick trees grow, and the river called,Volturnus, where thick sand whirls in the stream,,over to Sinuessa 's snow-white doves;,and then to Antium and its rocky coast.,the harbor there (for now the seas grew rough),,the god uncoiled his folds, and, gliding out,with sinuous curves and all his mighty length,,entered the temple of his parent, where,it skirts that yellow shore. But, when the sea,was calm again, the Epidaurian god,departing from his father's shrine, where he,a while had shared the sacred residence,reared to a kindred deity, furrowed,the sandy shore with weight of crackling scales,,again he climbed into the lofty stern,and near the rudder laid his head at rest.,by Castrum and Lavinium 's sacred homes,to where the Tiber flows into the sea,there all the people of Rome came rushing out—,mothers and fathers and even those who tend,your sacred fire, O Trojan goddess Vesta—,and joyous shouted welcome to the god.,Wherever the swift ship steered through the tide,,they built up many altars in a line,,o that perfuming frankincense with smoke,crackled along the banks on either hand,,and victims made the keen knives hot with blood.,the world's new capital and, lifting up,his head above the summit of the mast,,looked far and near for a congenial home.,The river there, dividing, flows about,a place known as the Island, on both sides,an equal stream glides past dry middle ground.,And here the serpent child of Phoebus left,the Roman ship, took his own heavenly form,,and brought the mourning city health once more,Apollo's son came to us from abroad,,but Caesar is a god in his own land.,The first in war and peace, he rose by wars,,which closed in triumphs, and by civic deeds,to glory quickly won, and even more,his offspring's love exalted him as a new,,a heavenly, sign and brightly flaming star.,of all the achievements of great Julius Caesar,not one is more ennobling to his fame,than being father of his glorious son.,the Britons guarded by their sheltering sea,or lead his fleet victorious up the stream,even mouthed of the papyrus hearing Nile ;,to bring beneath the Roman people s rule,rebel Numidia , Libyan Juba, and,trong Pontus , proud of Mithridates' fame;,to have some triumphs and deserve far more;,than to be father of so great a man,,with whom as ruler of the human race,,O gods, you bless us past all reckoning?,Julius Caesar must change and be a god.,When the golden mother of Aeneas was,aware of this and saw a grievous end,plotted against her high priest, saw the armed,conspiracy preparing for his death,,with pallid face she met each god and said:,against my cause; with how much guile it dooms,the head which is the last that I have left,from old-time Iulus, prince and heir of Troy .,Shall I alone be harassed through all time,by fear well grounded? First the son of Tydeus,must wound me with his Calydonian spear;,and then I tremble at the tottering walls,of ill defended Troy ; I watch my son,driven in long wanderings, tossed upon the sea,,descending to the realm of silent shades,,and waging war with Turnus—or, if I should speak,the truth, with Juno! Why do I recall,disasters of my race from long ago?,The present dread forbids my looking back,at ills now past. See how the wicked swords,are whetted for the crime! Forbid it now,,I pray you, and prevent the deed,,let not the priest's warm blood quench vestal fires!”,Venus proclaimed through all the heavens, in vain.,The gods were moved, and, since they could not break,the ancient sisters' iron decree, they gave,instead clear portents of approaching woe.,the black clouds and unearthly trumpet blasts,and clarions heard through all the highest heavens,,forewarned men of the crime. The sad sun's face,gave to the frightened world a livid light;,and in the night-time torches seemed to burn,amid the stars, and often drops of blood,fell in rain-showers. Then Lucifer shone blue,with all his visage stained by darksome rust.,The chariot of the moon was sprinkled with,red blood. The Stygian owl gave to the world,ill omens. In a thousand places, tears,were shed by the ivory statues. Dirges, too,,are said to have been heard, and threatening words,by unknown speakers in the sacred groves.,the fibers showed great tumults imminent,,the liver's cut-off edge was found among,the entrails. In the Forum, it is said,,and round men's homes and temples of the gods,dogs howled all through the night, and silent shades,wandered abroad, and earthquakes shook the city.,the plots of men and stay approaching fate.,Into a temple naked swords were brought—,into the Senate House. No other place,in all our city was considered fit,for perpetrating such a dreadful crime!,With both hands Cytherea beat her breast,,and in a cloud she strove to hide the last,of great Aeneas' line, as in times past,he had hid Paris from fierce Menelaus,Aeneas from the blade of Diomed.,“Do you my daughter, without aid, alone,,attempt to change the fixed decrees of Fate?,Unaided you may enter the abode,of the three sisters and can witness there,a register of deeds the future brings.,These, wrought of brass and solid iron with,vast labor, are unchangeable through all,eternity; and have no weakening fears,of thunder-shocks from heaven, nor from the rage,of lightnings they are perfectly secure,from all destruction. You will surely find,the destinies of your descendants there,,engraved in everlasting adamant.,'Tis certain. I myself, have read them there:,and I, with care have marked them in my mind.,I will repeat them so that you may have,unerring knowledge of those future days.,o anxious, already has completed his,alloted time. The years are ended which,he owed to life on earth. You with his son,,who now as heir to his estate must bear,the burden of that government, will cause,him, as a deity, to reach the heavens,,and to be worshipped in the temples here.,who killed his father and will have our aid,in all his battles. The defeated walls,of scarred Mutina , which he will besiege,,hall sue for peace. Pharsalia 's plain will dread,his power and Macedonian Philippi,be drenched with blood a second time, the name,of one acclaimed as ‘Great’ shall be subdued,in the Sicilian waves. Then Egypt 's queen,,wife of the Roman general, Antony,,hall fall, while vainly trusting in his word,,while vainly threatening that our Capitol,must be submissive to Canopus ' power.,“Why should I mention all the barbarous lands,and nations east and west by ocean's rim?,Whatever habitable earth contains,hall bow to him, the sea shall serve his will!,he then will turn his mind to civil rule,and as a prudent legislator will,enact wise laws. And he will regulate,the manners of his people by his own,example. Looking forward to the days,of future time and of posterity,,he will command the offspring born of his,devoted wife, to assume the imperial name,and the burden of his cares. Nor till his age,hall equal Nestor's years will he ascend,to heavenly dwellings and his kindred stars.,Meanwhile transform the soul, which shall be reft,from this doomed body, to a starry light,,that always god-like Julius may look down,in future from his heavenly residence,upon our Forum and our Capitol.”,when kindly Venus, although seen by none,,tood in the middle of the Senate-house,,and caught from the dying limbs and trunk,of her own Caesar his departing soul.,She did not give it time so that it could,dissolve in air, but bore it quickly up,,toward all the stars of heaven; and on the way,,he saw it gleam and blaze and set it free.,Above the moon it mounted into heaven,,leaving behind a long and fiery trail,,and as a star it glittered in the sky.,Julius confessed they were superior,to all of his, and he rejoiced because,his son was greater even than himself.,Although the son forbade men to regard,his own deeds as the: mightier! Fame, that moves,free and untrammelled by the laws of men,,preferred him even against his own desire,and in that one point disobeyed his will.,of Agamemnon, Aegeus yields to Theseus,,and Peleus to Achilles, or, to name,a parallel befitting these two gods,,o Saturn yields to Jove. Now Jupiter,rules in high heavens and is the suzerain,over the waters and the world of shades,,and now Augustus rules in all the lands—,o each is both a father and a god.,both swords and fire gave way, and native gods,of Italy , and Father Quirinus—,patron of Rome , and you Gradivus too—,the sire of Quirinus the invincible,,and Vesta hallowed among Caesar's gods,,and Phoebus ever worshipped at his hearth,,and Jupiter who rules the citadel,high on Tarpeia's cliff, and other gods—,all gods to whom a poet rightfully,and with all piety may make appeal;,far be that day—postponed beyond our time,,when great Augustus shall foresake the earth,which he now governs, and mount up to heaven,,from that far height to hear his people's prayers!,which not Jove's anger, and not fire nor steel,,nor fast-consuming time can sweep away.,Whenever it will, let the day come, which has,dominion only over this mortal frame,,and end for me the uncertain course of life.,Yet in my better part I shall be borne,immortal, far above the stars on high,,and mine shall be a name indelible.,Wherever Roman power extends her sway,over the conquered lands, I shall be read,by lips of men. If Poets' prophecies,have any truth, through all the coming years,of future ages, I shall live in fame." "15.868 eyes from the city's walls and said, “O far," '15.869 O far away, the righteous gods should drive 15.870 uch omens from me! Better it would be 15.871 that I should pass my life in exile than 15.872 be seen a king throned in the capitol.”' "15.873 While this was happening, they began to seek,for one who could endure the weight of such,a task and could succeed a king so great;,and Fame, the harbinger of truth, destined,illustrious Numa for the sovereign power.,It did not satisfy his heart to know,only the Sabine ceremonials,,and he conceived in his expansive mind,much greater views, examining the depth,and cause of things. His country and his cares,forgotten, this desire led him to visit,the city that once welcomed Hercules .,Numa desired to know what founder built,a Grecian city on Italian shores.,One of the old inhabitants, who was well,acquainted with past history, replied:,turned from the ocean and with favoring wind,'Tis said he landed on Lacinian shores.,And, while the herd strayed in the tender grass,,he visited the house, the friendly home,,of far-famed Croton . There he rested from,his arduous labors. At the time of his,departure, he said, ‘Here in future days,hall be a city of your numerous race.’,The passing years have proved the promise true,,for Myscelus, choosing that site, marked out,a city's walls. Argive Alemon's son,,of all men in his generation, he,was most acceptable to the heavenly gods.,Bending over him once at dawn, while he,was overwhelmed with drowsiness of sleep,,the huge club-bearer Hercules addressed,him thus: ‘Come now, desert your native shores.,Go quickly to the pebbly flowing stream,of distant Aesar.’ And he threatened ill,in fearful words, unless he should obey.,Alemon's son, arising from his couch,,pondered his recent vision thoughtfully,,with his conclusions at cross purposes.—,the god commanded him to quit that land,,the laws forbade departure, threatening death,to all who sought to leave their native land.,his shining head, and darkest Night had then,put forth her starry face; and at that time,it seemed as if the same god Hercules,was present and repeating his commands,,threatening still more and graver penalties,,if he should fail to obey. Now sore afraid,he set about to move his household gods,to a new settlement, but rumors then,followed him through the city, and he was,accused of holding statutes in contempt.,when his offense was evidently proved,,even without a witness. Then he raised,his face and hands up to the gods above,and suppliant in neglected garb, exclaimed,,‘Oh mighty Hercules , for whom alone,the twice six labors gave the privilege,of heavenly residence, give me your aid,,for you were the true cause of my offence.’,to vote with chosen pebbles, white and black.,The white absolved, the black condemned the man.,And so that day the fateful votes were given—:,all cast into the cruel urn were black!,Soon as that urn inverted poured forth all,the pebbles to be counted, every one,was changed completely from its black to white,,and so the vote adjudged him innocent.,By that most fortunate aid of Hercules,he was exempted from the country's law.,with favoring wind sailed on the Ionian sea,,past Sallentine Neretum, Sybaris ,,Spartan Tarentum, and the Sirine Bay,,Crimisa, and on beyond the Iapygian fields.,Then, skirting shores which face these lands, he found,the place foretold the river Aesar's mouth,,and found not far away a burial mound,which covered with its soil the hallowed bones,of Croton .—There, upon the appointed land,,he built up walls—and he conferred the name,of Croton, who was there entombed, on his,new city, which has ever since been called,Crotona .” By tradition it is known,uch strange deeds caused that city to be built,,by men of Greece upon the Italian coast.,Here lived a man, by birth a Samian.,He had fled from Samos and the ruling class,,a voluntary exile, for his hate,against all tyranny. He had the gift,of holding mental converse with the gods,,who live far distant in the highth of heaven;,and all that Nature has denied to man,and human vision, he reviewed with eyes,of his enlightened soul. And, when he had,examined all things in his careful mind,with watchful study, he released his thoughts,to knowledge of the public.,to crowds of people, silent and amazed,,while he revealed to them the origin,of this vast universe, the cause of things,,what is nature, what a god, whence came the snow,,the cause of lightning—was it Jupiter,or did the winds, that thundered when the cloud,was rent asunder, cause the lightning flash?,What shook the earth, what laws controlled the stars,as they were moved—and every hidden thing,he was the first man to forbid the use,of any animal's flesh as human food,,he was the first to speak with learned lips,,though not believed in this, exhorting them.—,pollution of your bodies with such food,,for there are grain and good fruits which bear down,the branches by their weight, and ripened grapes,upon the vines, and herbs—those sweet by nature,and those which will grow tender and mellow with,a fire, and flowing milk is not denied,,nor honey, redolent of blossoming thyme.,affording dainties without slaughter, death,,and bloodshed. Dull beasts delight to satisfy,their hunger with torn flesh; and yet not all:,horses and sheep and cattle live on grass.,But all the savage animals—the fierce,Armenian tigers and ferocious lions,,and bears, together with the roving wolves—,delight in viands reeking with warm blood.,vitals in vitals gorged, one greedy body,fattening with plunder of another's flesh,,a living being fed on another's life!,In that abundance, which our Earth, the best,of mothers, will afford have you no joy,,unless your savage teeth can gnaw,the piteous flesh of some flayed animal,to reenact the Cyclopean crime?,And can you not appease the hungry void—,the perverted craving of a stomach's greed,,unless you first destroy another life?,of ‘Golden,’ was so blest in fruit of trees,,and in the good herbs which the earth produced,that it never would pollute the mouth with blood.,The birds then safely moved their wings in air,,the timid hares would wander in the fields,with no fear, and their own credulity,had not suspended fishes from the hook.,All life was safe from treacherous wiles,,fearing no injury, a peaceful world.,(it does not matter who it might have been),envied the ways of lions and gulped into,his greedy paunch stuff from a carcass vile.,He opened the foul paths of wickedness.,It may be that in killing beasts of prey,our steel was for the first time warmed with blood.,And that could be defended, for I hold,that predatory creatures which attempt,destruction of mankind, are put to death,without evasion of the sacred laws:,but, though with justice they are put to death,,that cannot be a cause for eating them.,was thought to have deserved death as the first,of victims, for with her long turned-up snout,he spoiled the good hope of a harvest year.,The ravenous goat, that gnawed a sprouting vine,,was led for slaughter to the altar fires,of angry Bacchus. It was their own fault,that surely caused the ruin of those two.,harmless and useful for the good of man,with nectar in full udders? Their soft wool,affords the warmest coverings for our use,,their life and not their death would help us more.,Why have the oxen of the field deserved,a sad end—innocent, without deceit,,and harmless, without guile, born to endure,hard labor? Without gratitude is he,,unworthy of the gift of harvest fields,,who, after he relieved his worker from,weight of the curving plow could butcher him,,could sever with an axe that toil worn neck,,by which so often with hard work the ground,had been turned up, so many harvests reared.,For some, even crimes like these are not enough,,they have imputed to the gods themselves,abomination—they believe a god,in heaven above, rejoices at the death,of a laborious ox.,of blemish and most beautiful in form,(perfection brings destruction) is adorned,with garlands and with gilded horns before,the altar. In his ignorance he hears,one praying, and he sees the very grain,he labored to produce, fixed on his head,between the horns, and felled, he stains with blood,the knife which just before he may have seen,reflected in clear water. Instantly,they snatch out entrails from his throbbing form,,and seek in them intentions of the gods.,Then, in your lust for a forbidden food,you will presume to batten on his flesh,,O race of mortals! Do not eat such food!,Give your attention to my serious words;,and, when you next present the slaughtered flesh,of oxen to your palates, know and feel,that you gnaw your fellow tillers of the soil.,I will obey the god who urges me,,and will disclose to you the heavens above,,and I will even reveal the oracles,of the Divine Will. I will sing to you,of things most wonderful, which never were,investigated by the intellects,of ancient times and things which have been long,concealed from man. In fancy I delight,to float among the stars or take my stand,on mighty Atlas' shoulders, and to look,afar down on men wandering here and there—,afraid in life yet dreading unknown death,,and in these words exhort them and reveal,the sequence of events ordained by fate!,alarms of icy death, afraid of Styx,,fearful of moving shadows and empty names—,of subjects harped on by the poets' tales,,the fabled perils of a fancied life?,Whether the funeral pile consumes your flesh,with hot flames, or old age dissolves it with,a gradual wasting power, be well assured,the body cannot meet with further ill.,And souls are all exempt from power of death.,When they have left their first corporeal home,,they always find and live in newer homes.,that in the days of the great Trojan War,,I was Euphorbus, son of Panthous.,In my opposing breast was planted then,the heavy spear-point of the younger son,of Atreus. Not long past I recognised,the shield, once burden of my left arm, where,it hung in Juno 's temple at ancient Argos ,,the realm of Abas. Everything must change:,but nothing perishes. The moving soul,may wander, coming from that spot to this,,from this to that—in changed possession live,in any limbs whatever. It may pass,from beasts to human bodies, and again,to those of beasts. The soul will never die,,in the long lapse of time. As pliant wax,is moulded to new forms and does not stay,as it has been nor keep the self same form,yet is the selfsame wax, be well assured,the soul is always the same spirit, though,it passes into different forms. Therefore,,that natural love may not be vanquished by,unnatural craving of the appetite,,I warn you, stop expelling kindred souls,by deeds abhorrent as cold murder.—Let,not blood be nourished with its kindred blood!,and I have given my full sails to the wind,,nothing in all the world remains unchanged.,All things are in a state of flux, all shapes,receive a changing nature. Time itself,glides on with constant motion, ever as,a flowing river. Neither river nor,the fleeting hour can stop its constant course.,But, as each wave drives on a wave, as each,is pressed by that which follows, and must press,on that before it, so the moments fly,,and others follow, so they are renewed.,The moment which moved on before is past,,and that which was not, now exists in Time,,and every one comes, goes, and is replaced.,on to the dawn, then brilliant light of day,ucceeds the dark night. There is not the same,appearance in the heavens,: when all things,for weariness are resting in vast night,,as when bright Lucifer rides his white steed.,And only think of that most glorious change,,when loved Aurora, Pallas' daughter, comes,before the day and tints the world, almost,delivered to bright Phoebus. Even the disk,of that god, rising from beneath the earth,,is of a ruddy color in the dawn,and ruddy when concealed beneath the world.,When highest, it is a most brilliant white,,for there the ether is quite purified,,and far away avoids infection from,impurities of earth. Diana's form,at night remains not equal nor the same!,'Tis less today than it will be tomorrow,,if she is waxing; greater, if she wanes.,four seasons, imitating human life:,in early Spring it has a nursling's ways,resembling infancy, for at that time,the blade is shooting and devoid of strength.,Its flaccid substance swelling gives delight,,to every watching husbandman, alive,in expectation. Then all things are rich,in blossom, and the genial meadow smiles,with tints of blooming flowers; but not as yet,is there a sign of vigor in the leaves.,it passes into Summer, and its youth,becomes robust. Indeed of all the year,the Summer is most vigorous and most,abounds with glowing and life-giving warmth.,removed, that ripe and mellow time succeeds,between youth and old age, and a few white hairs,are sprinkled here and there upon his brow.,follows, repulsive, strips of graceful locks,or white with those he has retained so long.,we are not now what we were yesterday,or we shall be tomorrow. And there was,a time when we were only seeds of man,,mere hopes that lived within a mother's womb.,But Nature changed us with her skilfull touch,,determined that our bodies should not be,held in such narrow room, below the entrails,in our distended parent; and in time,he brought us forth into the vacant air.,Then on all fours he lifts his body up,,feeling his way, like any young wild beast,,and then by slow degrees he stands upright,,weak-kneed and trembling, steadied by support,of some convenient prop. And soon more strong,and swift he passes through the hours of youth,,and, when the years of middle age are past,,lides down the steep path of declining age.,of former years: and Milon, now grown old,,weeps, when he sees his arms, which once were firm,with muscles big as those of Hercules,,hang flabby at his side: and Helen weeps,,when in the glass she sees her wrinkled face,,and wonders why two heroes fell in love,and carried her away.—O Time,,devourer of all things, and envious Age,,together you destroy all that exists,and, slowly gnawing, bring on lingering death.,do not endure. Now listen well to me,,and I will show the ways in which they change.,four elemental parts. And two of these,are heavy—earth and water—and are borne,downwards by weight. The other two devoid,of weight, are air and—even lighter—fire:,and, if these two are not constrained, they seek,the higher regions. These four elements,,though far apart in space, are all derived,from one another. Earth dissolves,as flowing water! Water, thinned still more,,departs as wind and air; and the light air,,till losing weight, sparkles on high as fire.,But they return, along their former way:,the fire, assuming weight, is changed to air;,and then, more dense, that air is changed again,to water; and that water, still more dense,,compacts itself again as primal earth.,and Nature, the renewer of all things,,continually changes every form,into some other shape. Believe my word,,in all this universe of vast extent,,not one thing ever perished. All have changed,appearance. Men say a certain thing is born,,if it takes a different form from what it had;,and yet they say, that certain thing has died,,if it no longer keeps the self same shape.,Though distant things move near, and near things far,,always the sum of all things is unchanged.,remains long under the same form unchanged.,Look at the change of times from gold to iron,:,look at the change in places. I have seen,what had been solid earth become salt waves,,and I have seen dry land made from the deep;,and, far away from ocean, sea-shells strewn,,and on the mountain-tops old anchors found.,Water has made that which was once a plain,into a valley, and the mountain has,been levelled by the floods down to a plain.,A former marshland is now parched dry sand,,and places which endured severest drought,are wet with standing pools. Here Nature has,opened fresh springs, but there has shut them up;,rivers aroused by ancient earthquakes have,rushed out or vanished, as they lost their depth.,a chasm in the earth, it rushes forth,at a distance and is reborn a different stream.,The Erasinus now flows down into a cave,,now runs beneath the ground a darkened course,,then rises lordly in the Argolic fields.,They say the Mysus, wearied of his spring,and of his former banks, appears elsewhere,and takes another name, the Caicus .,now smoothly rolling, at another time,is quenched, because its fountain springs are dry.,The water of the Anigros formerly,was used for drinking, but it pours out now,foul water which you would decline to touch,,because (unless all credit is denied,to poets) long ago the Centaurs, those,trange mortals double-limbed, bathed in the stream,wounds which club-bearing Hercules had made,with his strong bow.—Yes, does not Hypanis,descending fresh from mountains of Sarmatia ,,become embittered with the taste of salt?,were once surrounded by the wavy sea:,they are not islands now. Long years ago,Leucas was mainland, if we can believe,what the old timers there will tell, but now,the waves sweep round it. Zancle was a part,of Italy , until the sea cut off,the neighboring land with strong waves in between.,Should you seek Helice and Buris, those,two cities of Achaea , you will find,them underneath the waves, where sailors point,to sloping roofs and streets in the clear deep.,quite bare of trees, was once a level plain,,but now is a hill, for (dreadful even to tell),the raging power of winds, long pent in deep,,dark caverns, tried to find a proper vent,,long struggling to attain free sky.,Finding no opening from the prison-caves,,imperious to their force, they raised the earth,,exactly as pent air breathed from the mouth,inflates a bladder, or the bottle-hides,tripped off the two-horned goats. The swollen earth,remained on that spot and has ever since,appearance of a high hill hardened by,the flight of time.,that I have heard and known, I will add a few.,Why, does not water give and take strange forms?,Your wave, O horned Ammon, will turn cold,at mid-day, but is always mild and warm,at sun-rise and at sun-set. I have heard,that Athamanians kindle wood, if they,pour water on it, when the waning moon,has shrunk away into her smallest orb.,The people of Ciconia have a stream,which turns the drinker's entrails into stone,,which changes into marble all it raves.,The Achaean Crathis and the Sybaris ,,which flow not far from here, will turn the hair,to something like clear amber or bright gold.,which change not only bodies but the minds:,who has no knowledge of the Salmacis,and of its ill famed waves? Who has not,heard of the lakes of Aethiopia:,how those who drink of them go raving mad,or fall in a deep sleep, most wonderful,in heaviness. Whoever quenches thirst,from the Clitorian spring will hate all wine,,and soberly secure great pleasure from,pure water. Either that spring has a power,the opposite of wine-heat, or perhaps,as natives tell us, after the famed son,of Amythaon by his charms and herbs,,delivered from their base insanity,the stricken Proetides, he threw the rest,of his mind healing herbs into the spring,,where hatred of all wine has since remained.,Unlike in nature flows another stream,of the country, called Lyncestius: everyone,who drinks of it, even with most temperate care,,will reel, as if he had drunk unmixed wine.,In Arcadia is a place, called Pheneos,by men of old, which is mistrusted for,the twofold nature of its waters. Stand,in dread of them at night; if drunk at night,,they harm you, but in daytime they will do,no harm at all.,So lakes and rivers have,now this, now that effect.,moved like a ship that drifts among the waves.,Now it is fixed. The Argo was in dread,of the Symplegades, which moved apart,with waves in-rushing. Now immovable,they stand, resisting the attack of winds.,will not be always concentrated fire,,nor was it always fiery. If the earth,is like an animal and is alive,and breathes out flame at many openings,,then it can change these many passages,used for its breathing and, when it is moved,,may close these caverns as it opens up,ome others. Or if rushing winds are penned,in deepest caverns, and they drive great stones,against the rock, and substances which have,the properties of flame and fire are made,by those concussions; when the winds are calmed,the caverns will, of course, be cool again.,or yellow sulphur burns with little smoke,,then surely, when the ground no longer gives,uch food and oily nutriment for flames,and they in time have ravined all their store,,their greedy nature soon will pine with death—,it will not bear such famine but depart,and, when deserted, will desert the place.,can cover all their bodies with light plumes,by plunging nine times in Minerva's marsh.,But I cannot believe another tale:,that Scythian women get a like result,by having poison sprinkled on their limbs.,proved by experience, we can surely know,whatever bodies are decayed by time,or by dissolving heat are by such means,changed into tiny animals—Come now,,bury choice bullocks killed for sacrifice,,and it is well known by experience,that the flower-gathering bees are so produced,,miraculous, from entrails putrefied.,These, like the faithful animals from which,they were produced, inhabit the green fields,,delight in toil, and labor for reward.,is a known source of hornets. If you cut,the bending claws off from the sea-shore crab,and bury the remainder in the earth,,a scorpion will come forth from the dead crab,buried there, threatening with its crooked tail.,a thing observable by husbandmen,,will change themselves to funeral butterflies.,Mud holds the seeds that generate green frogs,,at first producing tadpoles with no feet,,and soon it gives them legs adapted for,their swimming, and, so they may be as well,adapted to good leaping, their hind legs,are longer than the fore-legs. The mother bear,does not bring forth a cub but a limp mass,of flesh that hardly can be called alive.,By licking it the mother forms the limbs,,and brings it to a shape just like her own.,concealed in cells hexagonal, at first,get life with no limbs, and assume in time,both feet and wings? Unless the fact were known,,could anyone suppose it possible,that Juno's bird, whose tail is bright with stars;,the eagle, armor-bearer of high Jove;,the doves of Cytherea; and all birds,emerge from the middle part of eggs?,And some believe the human marrow turns,into a serpent when the spine at length,has putrefied in the closed sepulchre.,from other living forms. There is one bird,which reproduces and renews itself:,the Assyrians gave this bird his name—the Phoenix.,He does not live either on grain or herbs,,but only on small drops of frankincense,and juices of amomum. When this bird,completes a full five centuries of life,traightway with talons and with shining beak,he builds a nest among palm branches, where,they join to form the palm tree's waving top.,the cassia bark and ears of sweet spikenard,,and some bruised cinnamon with yellow myrrh,,he lies down on it and refuses life,among those dreamful odors.—And they say,that from the body of the dying bird,is reproduced a little Phoenix which,is destined to live just as many years.,and he is able to sustain the weight,,he lifts the nest up from the lofty tree,and dutifully carries from that place,his cradle and the parent's sepulchre.,As soon as he has reached through yielding air,the city of Hyperion, he will lay,the burden just before the sacred doors,within the temple of Hyperion.,we ought to wonder also, when we learn,that a hyena has a change of sex:,the female, quitting her embracing male,,herself becomes a male.—That animal,which feeds upon the winds and air, at once,assumes with contact any color touched.,lynxes, whose urine turns, they say to stones,,hardening in air. So coral, too, as soon,as it has risen above the sea, turns hard.,Below the waves it was a tender plant.,his panting horses in the deep sea waves,,before I can include in my discourse,the myriad things transforming to new shapes.,In lapse of time we see the nations change;,ome grow in power, some wane. Troy was once great,in riches and in men—so great she could,for ten unequalled years afford much blood;,now she lies low and offers to our gaze,but ancient ruins and, instead of wealth,,ancestral tombs. Sparta was famous once,and great Mycenae was most flourishing.,And Cecrops' citadel and Amphion's shone,in ancient power. Sparta is nothing now,ave barren ground, the proud Mycenae fell,,what is the Thebes of storied Oedipus,except a name? And of Pandion's Athens,what now remains beyond the name?,is rising, and beside the Tiber 's waves,,whose springs are high in the Apennines , is laying,her deep foundations. So in her growth,her form is changing, and one day she will,be the sole mistress of the boundless world.,revealers of our destiny, declare,this fate, and, if I recollect it right,,Helenus, son of Priam, prophesied,unto Aeneas, when he was in doubt,of safety and lamenting for the state,of Troy , about to fall, ‘O, son of a goddess,,if you yourself, will fully understand,this prophecy now surging in my mind,Troy shall not, while you are preserved to life,fall utterly. Flames and the sword shall give,you passage. You shall go and bear away,Pergama, ruined; till a foreign soil,,more friendly to you than your native land,,hall be the lot of Troy and of yourself.,that our posterity, born far from Troy ,,will build a city greater than exists,,or ever will exist, or ever has,been seen in former times. Through a long lapse,of ages other noted men shall make,it strong, but one of the race of Iulus;,hall make it the great mistress of the world.,After the earth has thoroughly enjoyed,his glorious life, aetherial abodes,hall gain him, and immortal heaven shall be,his destiny.’,Such was the prophesy,of Helenus, when great Aeneas took,away his guardian deities, and I,rejoice to see my kindred walls rise high,and realize how much the Trojans won,by that resounding victory of the Greeks!,forgetful of the goal, the heavens and all,beneath them and the earth and everything,upon it change in form. We likewise change,,who are a portion of the universe,,and, since we are not only things of flesh,but winged souls as well, we may be doomed,to enter into beasts as our abode;,and even to be hidden in the breasts,of cattle. Therefore, should we not allow,these bodies to be safe which may contain,the souls of parents, brothers, or of those,allied to us by kinship or of men,at least, who should be saved from every harm?,Let us not gorge down a Thyestean feast!,how impiously does he prepare himself,for shedding human blood, who with u knife,cuts the calf's throat and offers a deaf ear,to its death-longings! who can kill the kid,while it is sending forth heart rending cries,like those of a dear child; or who can feed,upon the bird which he has given food.,How little do such deeds as these fall short,of actual murder? Yes, where will they lead?,to weight of years; and let the sheep give us,defence against the cold of Boreas;,and let the well-fed she-goats give to man,their udders for the pressure of kind hands.,and fraudulent contrivances: deceive,not birds with bird-limed twigs: do not deceive,the trusting deer with dreaded feather foils:,do not conceal barbed hooks with treacherous bait:,if any beast is harmful, take his life,,but, even so, let killing be enough.,Taste not his flesh, but look for harmless food!”,They say that Numa with a mind well taught,by these and other precepts traveled back,to his own land and, being urged again,,assumed the guidance of the Latin state.,Blest with a nymph as consort, blest also with,the Muses for his guides, he taught the rites,of sacrifice and trained in arts of peace,a race accustomed long to savage war.,When, ripe in years, he ended reign and life,,the Latin matrons, the fathers of the state,,and all the people wept for Numa's death.,For the nymph, his widow, had withdrawn from Rome ,,concealed within the thick groves of the vale,Aricia , where with groans and wailing she,disturbed the holy rites of Cynthia,,established by Orestes. Ah! how often,nymphs of the grove and lake entreated her,to cease and offered her consoling words.,How often the son of Theseus said to her,“Control your sorrow; surely your sad lot,is not the only one; consider now,the like calamities by others borne,,and you can bear your sorrow. To my grief,my own disaster was far worse than yours.,At least it can afford you comfort now.,“Is it not true, discourse has reached yours ears,that one Hippolytus met with his death,through the credulity of his loved sire,,deceived by a stepmother's wicked art?,It will amaze you much, and I may fail,to prove what I declare, but I am he!,Long since the daughter of Pasiphae,tempted me to defile my father's bed,and, failing, feigned that I had wished to do,what she herself had wished. Perverting truth—,either through fear of some discovery,or else through spite at her deserved repulse—,he charged me with attempting the foul crime.,my father banished me and, while I was,departing, laid on me a mortal curse.,Towards Pittheus and Troezen I fled aghast,,guiding the swift chariot near the shore,of the Corinthian Gulf, when all at once,the sea rose up and seemed to arch itself,and lift high as a white topped mountain height,,make bellowings, and open at the crest.,Then through the parting waves a horned bull,emerged with head and breast into the wind,,pouting white foam from his nostrils and his mouth.,“The hearts of my attendants quailed with fear,,yet I unfrightened thought but of my exile.,Then my fierce horses turned their necks to face,the waters, and with ears erect they quaked,before the monster shape, they dashed in flight,along the rock strewn ground below the cliff.,I struggled, but with unavailing hand,,to use the reins now covered with white foam;,and throwing myself back, pulled on the thongs,with weight and strength. Such effort might have checked,the madness of my steeds, had not a wheel,,triking the hub on a projecting stump,,been shattered and hurled in fragments from the axle.,and with the reins entwined about my legs.,My palpitating entrails could be seen,dragged on, my sinews fastened on a stump.,My torn legs followed, but a part,remained behind me, caught by various snags.,The breaking bones gave out a crackling noise,,my tortured spirit soon had fled away,,no part of the torn body could be known—,all that was left was only one crushed wound—,how can, how dare you, nymph, compare your ills,to my disaster?,deprived of light: and I have bathed my flesh,,o tortured, in the waves of Phlegethon.,Life could not have been given again to me,,but through the remedies Apollo's son,applied to me. After my life returned—,by potent herbs and the Paeonian aid,,despite the will of Pluto—Cynthia then,threw heavy clouds around that I might not,be seen and cause men envy by new life:,and that she might be sure my life was safe,he made me seem an old man; and she changed,me so that I could not be recognized.,would give me Crete or Delos for my home.,Delos and Crete abandoned, she then brought,me here, and at the same time ordered me,to lay aside my former name—one which,when mentioned would remind me of my steeds.,She said to me, ‘You were Hippolytus,,but now instead you shall be Virbius.’,And from that time I have inhabited,this grove; and, as one of the lesser gods,,I live concealed and numbered in her train.”,of sad Egeria, and she laid herself,down at a mountain's foot, dissolved in tears,,till moved by pity for her faithful sorrow,,Diana changed her body to a spring,,her limbs into a clear continual stream.,This wonderful event surprised the nymphs,,and filled Hippolytus with wonder, just,as great as when the Etrurian ploughman saw,a fate-revealing clod move of its own,accord among the fields, while not a hand,was touching it, till finally it took,a human form, without the quality,of clodded earth, and opened its new mouth,and spoke, revealing future destinies.,The natives called him Tages. He was the first,who taught Etrurians to foretell events.,when he observed the spear, which once had grown,high on the Palatine , put out new leaves,and stand with roots—not with the iron point,which he had driven in. Not as a spear,it then stood there, but as a rooted tree,with limber twigs for many to admire,while resting under that surprising shade.,in the clear stream (he truly saw them there).,Believing he had seen a falsity,,he often touched his forehead with his hand,and, so returning, touched the thing he saw.,Assured at last that he could trust his eyes,,he stood entranced, as if he had returned,victorious from the conquest of his foes:,and, raising eyes and hands toward heaven, he cried,,“You gods above! Whatever is foretold,by this great prodigy, if it means good,,then let it be auspicious to my land,and to the inhabitants of Quirinus,—,if ill, let that misfortune fall on me.”,of grassy thick green turf, with fragrant fires,,presenting wine in bowls. And he took note,of panting entrails from new-slaughtered sheep,,to learn the meaning of the event for him.,he found the evidence of great events,,as yet obscure, and, when he raised keen eyes,up from the entrails to the horns of Cippus,,“O king, all hail!” he cried, “For in future time,this country and the Latin towers will live,in homage to you, Cippus, and your horns.,But you must promptly put aside delay;,hasten to enter the wide open gates—,the fates command you. Once received within,the city, you shall be its chosen king,and safely shall enjoy a lasting reign.”,eyes from the city's walls and said, “O far,,O far away, the righteous gods should drive,uch omens from me! Better it would be,that I should pass my life in exile than,be seen a king throned in the capitol.”,the people and the grave and honored Senate.,But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which,betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound,raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer,after the ancient mode, and then he said,,“There is one here who will be king, if you,do not expel him from your city—I,will show him to you surely by a sign;,although I will not tell his name. He wears,horns on his head. The augur prophecies,that, if he enters this your city, he,will give you laws as if you were his slaves.,for they stand open, but I have hindered him,,although nobody is to him so close,as I myself. Good Romans, then, forbid,your city to this man; or, if you find,that he deserves still worse, then bind him fast,with heavy fetters; or else end your fears,by knowledge of the destined tyrant's death.”,of pine trees thick above us, when the fierce,east wind is whistling in them, or as sound,produced by breaking waves, when it is heard,afar off, such the noise made by the crowd.,But in that angry stirring of the throng,one cry could be distinguished, “Which is he?”,And they examined foreheads, and they sought,predicted horns. Cippus then spoke again:,And, fearless of the people, he threw back,the chaplet from his forehead, so that all,could see his temples plainly, wonderful,for their two horns. All then turned down their eyes,and uttered groans and (was it possible?),they looked unwillingly upon that head,famed for its merit. They could not permit,him to remain there long, deprived,of honors, and they placed upon his head,the festive chaplet. And the Senate gave,you, Cippus, since you nevermore must come,within the walls, a proof of their esteem—,o much land as your oxen and their plow,could circle round from dawn to setting sun.,Moreover they engraved the shapely horns,on the bronze pillars of the city gate,,which for long ages kept his name revered.,Relate, O Muses, guardian deities,of poets (for you know, and the remote,antiquity conceals it not from you),,the reason why an island, which the deep stream,of Tiber closed about, has introduced,Coronis' child among the deities,guarding the city of famed Romulus.,the Latin air, and men's pale bodies were,deformed by a consumption that dried up,the blood. When, frightened by so many deaths,,they found all mortal efforts could avail,them nothing, and physicians' skill had no,effect, they sought the aid of heaven. They sent,envoys to Delphi center of the world,,and they entreated Phoebus to give aid,in their distress, and by response renew,their wasting lives and end a city's woe.,While ground, and laurels and the quivers which,the god hung there all shook, the tripod gave,this answer from the deep recesses hid,within the shrine, and stirred with trembling their,astonished hearts—,O Romans, you should seek for nearer you.,Then seek it nearer, for you do not need,Apollo to relieve your wasting plague,,you need Apollo's son. Go then to him,with a good omen and invite his aid.”,Phoebus Apollo's words, they took much pains,to learn what town the son of Phoebus might,inhabit. They despatched ambassadors,under full sail to the coast of Epidaurus .,When the curved ships had touched the shore, these men,in haste went to the Grecian elders there,and prayed that Rome might have the deity,whose presence would drive out the mortal ill,from their Ausonian nation; for they knew,response unerring had directed them.,on their reply: some thought that aid ought not,to be refused, but many more held back,,declaring it was wise to keep the god,for their own safety and not give away,a guardian deity. And, while they talked,,discussing it, the twilight had expelled,the waning day, and darkness on the earth,pread a thick mantle over the wide world.,appeared, O Roman leader, by your couch,,as in his temple he is used to stand,,holding in his left hand a rustic staff.,Stroking his long beard with his right, he seemed,to utter from his kindly breast these words:,and leave my altar. But now look well at,the serpent with its binding folds entwined,around this staff, and accurately mark,it with your eyes that you may recognize it.,I will transform myself into this shape,but of a greater size, I will appear,enlarged and of a magnitude to which,a heavenly being ought to be transformed.”,and sleep went, when the god and words were gone;,and genial light came, when the sleep had left.,The morning then dispersed fire-given stars.,The envoys met together in much doubt,within the temple of the long sought god.,They prayed the god to indicate for them,,by clear celestial tokens, in what spot,he wished to dwell.,for guidance, when the god all glittering,with gold and as a serpent, crest erect,,ent forth a hissing as to notify,a quick approach— and in his coming shook,his statue and the altars and the doors,,the marble pavement and the gilded roof.,Then up to his breast the serpent stood erect,within the temple. He gazed on all with eyes,that sparkled fire. The waiting multitude,was frightened; but the priest, his chaste hair bound,with a white fillet, knew the deity.,Think holy thoughts and walk in reverent silence,,all who are present. Oh, most Beautiful,,let us behold you to our benefit,,and give aid to this people that performs,your sacred rites.”,the deity as bidden by the priest.,The multitude repeated his good words,,and the descendants of Aeneas gave,good omen, with their feelings and their speech.,Nodding well pleased and moving his great crest,,the god at once assured them of his favor,and hissed repeatedly with darting tongue.,And then he glided down the polished steps;,turned back his head; and, ready to depart,,gazed on the altars he had known for so long—,a last salute to the temple of his love.,the great snake wound in sinuous course along,and, passing through the middle of their town,,came to the harbor and its curving wall.,He stopped there, and it seemed that he dismissed,his train and dutiful attendant crowd,,and with a placid countece he placed,his mighty body in the Ausonian ship,,which plainly showed the great weight of the god.,rejoiced, and they sacrificed a bull beside,the harbor, wreathed the ship with flowers, and loosed,the twisted hawsers from the shore. As a soft breeze,impelled the ship, within her curving stern,the god reclined, his coils uprising high,,and gazed down on the blue Ionian waves.,So wafted by the favoring winds, they came,in six days to the shores of Italy .,ennobled by the goddess Juno's shrine,,and Scylacean coasts. He left behind,Iapygia; then he shunned Amphrysian rocks,upon the left and on the other side,escaped Cocinthian crags. He passed, near by,,Romechium and Caulon and Naricia;,crossed the Sicilian sea; went through the strait;,ailed by Pelorus and the island home,of Aeolus and by the copper mines,of Temesa. He turned then toward Leucosia,and toward mild Paestum , famous for the rose.,He coasted by Capreae and around,Minerva's promontory and the hills,ennobled with Surrentine vines, from there,to Herculaneum and Stabiae,and then Parthenope built for soft ease.,He sailed near the Cumaean Sibyl's temple.,He passed the Warm Springs and Linternum, where,the mastick trees grow, and the river called,Volturnus, where thick sand whirls in the stream,,over to Sinuessa 's snow-white doves;,and then to Antium and its rocky coast.,the harbor there (for now the seas grew rough),,the god uncoiled his folds, and, gliding out,with sinuous curves and all his mighty length,,entered the temple of his parent, where,it skirts that yellow shore. But, when the sea,was calm again, the Epidaurian god,departing from his father's shrine, where he,a while had shared the sacred residence,reared to a kindred deity, furrowed,the sandy shore with weight of crackling scales,,again he climbed into the lofty stern,and near the rudder laid his head at rest.,by Castrum and Lavinium 's sacred homes,to where the Tiber flows into the sea,there all the people of Rome came rushing out—,mothers and fathers and even those who tend,your sacred fire, O Trojan goddess Vesta—,and joyous shouted welcome to the god.,Wherever the swift ship steered through the tide,,they built up many altars in a line,,o that perfuming frankincense with smoke,crackled along the banks on either hand,,and victims made the keen knives hot with blood.,the world's new capital and, lifting up,his head above the summit of the mast,,looked far and near for a congenial home.,The river there, dividing, flows about,a place known as the Island, on both sides,an equal stream glides past dry middle ground.,And here the serpent child of Phoebus left,the Roman ship, took his own heavenly form,,and brought the mourning city health once more,Apollo's son came to us from abroad,,but Caesar is a god in his own land.,The first in war and peace, he rose by wars,,which closed in triumphs, and by civic deeds,to glory quickly won, and even more,his offspring's love exalted him as a new,,a heavenly, sign and brightly flaming star.,of all the achievements of great Julius Caesar,not one is more ennobling to his fame,than being father of his glorious son.,the Britons guarded by their sheltering sea,or lead his fleet victorious up the stream,even mouthed of the papyrus hearing Nile ;,to bring beneath the Roman people s rule,rebel Numidia , Libyan Juba, and,trong Pontus , proud of Mithridates' fame;,to have some triumphs and deserve far more;,than to be father of so great a man,,with whom as ruler of the human race,,O gods, you bless us past all reckoning?,Julius Caesar must change and be a god.,When the golden mother of Aeneas was,aware of this and saw a grievous end,plotted against her high priest, saw the armed,conspiracy preparing for his death,,with pallid face she met each god and said:,against my cause; with how much guile it dooms,the head which is the last that I have left,from old-time Iulus, prince and heir of Troy .,Shall I alone be harassed through all time,by fear well grounded? First the son of Tydeus,must wound me with his Calydonian spear;,and then I tremble at the tottering walls,of ill defended Troy ; I watch my son,driven in long wanderings, tossed upon the sea,,descending to the realm of silent shades,,and waging war with Turnus—or, if I should speak,the truth, with Juno! Why do I recall,disasters of my race from long ago?,The present dread forbids my looking back,at ills now past. See how the wicked swords,are whetted for the crime! Forbid it now,,I pray you, and prevent the deed,,let not the priest's warm blood quench vestal fires!”,Venus proclaimed through all the heavens, in vain.,The gods were moved, and, since they could not break,the ancient sisters' iron decree, they gave,instead clear portents of approaching woe.,the black clouds and unearthly trumpet blasts,and clarions heard through all the highest heavens,,forewarned men of the crime. The sad sun's face,gave to the frightened world a livid light;,and in the night-time torches seemed to burn,amid the stars, and often drops of blood,fell in rain-showers. Then Lucifer shone blue,with all his visage stained by darksome rust.,The chariot of the moon was sprinkled with,red blood. The Stygian owl gave to the world,ill omens. In a thousand places, tears,were shed by the ivory statues. Dirges, too,,are said to have been heard, and threatening words,by unknown speakers in the sacred groves.,the fibers showed great tumults imminent,,the liver's cut-off edge was found among,the entrails. In the Forum, it is said,,and round men's homes and temples of the gods,dogs howled all through the night, and silent shades,wandered abroad, and earthquakes shook the city.,the plots of men and stay approaching fate.,Into a temple naked swords were brought—,into the Senate House. No other place,in all our city was considered fit,for perpetrating such a dreadful crime!,With both hands Cytherea beat her breast,,and in a cloud she strove to hide the last,of great Aeneas' line, as in times past,he had hid Paris from fierce Menelaus,Aeneas from the blade of Diomed.,“Do you my daughter, without aid, alone,,attempt to change the fixed decrees of Fate?,Unaided you may enter the abode,of the three sisters and can witness there,a register of deeds the future brings.,These, wrought of brass and solid iron with,vast labor, are unchangeable through all,eternity; and have no weakening fears,of thunder-shocks from heaven, nor from the rage,of lightnings they are perfectly secure,from all destruction. You will surely find,the destinies of your descendants there,,engraved in everlasting adamant.,'Tis certain. I myself, have read them there:,and I, with care have marked them in my mind.,I will repeat them so that you may have,unerring knowledge of those future days.,o anxious, already has completed his,alloted time. The years are ended which,he owed to life on earth. You with his son,,who now as heir to his estate must bear,the burden of that government, will cause,him, as a deity, to reach the heavens,,and to be worshipped in the temples here.,who killed his father and will have our aid,in all his battles. The defeated walls,of scarred Mutina , which he will besiege,,hall sue for peace. Pharsalia 's plain will dread,his power and Macedonian Philippi,be drenched with blood a second time, the name,of one acclaimed as ‘Great’ shall be subdued,in the Sicilian waves. Then Egypt 's queen,,wife of the Roman general, Antony,,hall fall, while vainly trusting in his word,,while vainly threatening that our Capitol,must be submissive to Canopus ' power.,“Why should I mention all the barbarous lands,and nations east and west by ocean's rim?,Whatever habitable earth contains,hall bow to him, the sea shall serve his will!,he then will turn his mind to civil rule,and as a prudent legislator will,enact wise laws. And he will regulate,the manners of his people by his own,example. Looking forward to the days,of future time and of posterity,,he will command the offspring born of his,devoted wife, to assume the imperial name,and the burden of his cares. Nor till his age,hall equal Nestor's years will he ascend,to heavenly dwellings and his kindred stars.,Meanwhile transform the soul, which shall be reft,from this doomed body, to a starry light,,that always god-like Julius may look down,in future from his heavenly residence,upon our Forum and our Capitol.”,when kindly Venus, although seen by none,,tood in the middle of the Senate-house,,and caught from the dying limbs and trunk,of her own Caesar his departing soul.,She did not give it time so that it could,dissolve in air, but bore it quickly up,,toward all the stars of heaven; and on the way,,he saw it gleam and blaze and set it free.,Above the moon it mounted into heaven,,leaving behind a long and fiery trail,,and as a star it glittered in the sky.,Julius confessed they were superior,to all of his, and he rejoiced because,his son was greater even than himself.,Although the son forbade men to regard,his own deeds as the: mightier! Fame, that moves,free and untrammelled by the laws of men,,preferred him even against his own desire,and in that one point disobeyed his will.,of Agamemnon, Aegeus yields to Theseus,,and Peleus to Achilles, or, to name,a parallel befitting these two gods,,o Saturn yields to Jove. Now Jupiter,rules in high heavens and is the suzerain,over the waters and the world of shades,,and now Augustus rules in all the lands—,o each is both a father and a god.,both swords and fire gave way, and native gods,of Italy , and Father Quirinus—,patron of Rome , and you Gradivus too—,the sire of Quirinus the invincible,,and Vesta hallowed among Caesar's gods,,and Phoebus ever worshipped at his hearth,,and Jupiter who rules the citadel,high on Tarpeia's cliff, and other gods—,all gods to whom a poet rightfully,and with all piety may make appeal;,far be that day—postponed beyond our time,,when great Augustus shall foresake the earth,which he now governs, and mount up to heaven,,from that far height to hear his people's prayers!,which not Jove's anger, and not fire nor steel,,nor fast-consuming time can sweep away.,Whenever it will, let the day come, which has,dominion only over this mortal frame,,and end for me the uncertain course of life.,Yet in my better part I shall be borne,immortal, far above the stars on high,,and mine shall be a name indelible.,Wherever Roman power extends her sway,over the conquered lands, I shall be read,by lips of men. If Poets' prophecies,have any truth, through all the coming years,of future ages, I shall live in fame." '15.874 the people and the grave and honored Senate. 15.875 But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which 15.876 betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound 15.877 raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer 15.878 after the ancient mode, and then he said, 15.879 “There is one here who will be king, if you'' None
3. Vergil, Georgics, 3.8-3.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architect-autocrat relationship • autocracy • autocracy, Roman,

 Found in books: Keith and Edmondson (2016), Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle 246; Oksanish (2019), Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction, 179, 180; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 2, 200, 226, 230, 241

sup>
3.8 acer equis? Temptanda via est, qua me quoque possim 3.9 tollere humo victorque virum volitare per ora. 3.10 Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 3.11 Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas; 3.12 primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas, 3.13 et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 3.14 propter aquam. Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 3.15 Mincius et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 3.16 In medio mihi Caesar erit templumque tenebit: 3.17 illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro 3.18 centum quadriiugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 3.19 Cuncta mihi Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi 3.20 cursibus et crudo decernet Graecia caestu. 3.21 Ipse caput tonsae foliis ornatus olivae 3.22 dona feram. Iam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas 3.23 ad delubra iuvat caesosque videre iuvencos, 3.24 vel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus utque 3.25 purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 3.26 In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto 3.27 Gangaridum faciam victorisque arma Quirini, 3.28 atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem 3.29 Nilum ac navali surgentis aere columnas. 3.30 Addam urbes Asiae domitas pulsumque Niphaten 3.31 fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis, 3.32 et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea 3.33 bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentes. 3.34 Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa, 3.35 Assaraci proles demissaeque ab Iove gentis 3.36 nomina, Trosque parens et Troiae Cynthius auctor. 3.37 Invidia infelix Furias amnemque severum 3.38 Cocyti metuet tortosque Ixionis anguis 3.39 immanemque rotam et non exsuperabile saxum. 3.40 Interea Dryadum silvas saltusque sequamur 3.41 intactos, tua, Maecenas, haud mollia iussa. 3.42 Te sine nil altum mens incohat; en age segnis 3.43 rumpe moras; vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron 3.44 Taygetique canes domitrixque Epidaurus equorum 3.45 et vox adsensu nemorum ingeminata remugit. 3.46 Mox tamen ardentis accingar dicere pugnas 3.47 Caesaris et nomen fama tot ferre per annos, 3.48 Tithoni prima quot abest ab origine Caesar.'' None
sup>
3.8 Hath not the tale been told of Hylas young, 3.9 Latonian Delos and Hippodame, 3.10 And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed, 3.11 Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried, 3.12 By which I too may lift me from the dust, 3.13 And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14 Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure, 3.15 To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16 To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17 I, 3.18 of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19 On thy green plain fast by the water-side, 3.20 Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils, 3.21 And rims his margent with the tender reed.' "3.22 Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell." '3.23 To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24 In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25 A hundred four-horse cars. All 3.27 On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28 Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned,' "3.29 Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy" '3.30 To lead the high processions to the fane, 3.31 And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32 Sunders with shifted face, and 3.33 Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34 of gold and massive ivory on the door' "3.35 I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides," "3.36 And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there" '3.37 Surging with war, and hugely flowing, the 3.38 And columns heaped on high with naval brass. 3.39 And 3.40 And quelled Niphates, and the Parthian foe, 3.41 Who trusts in flight and backward-volleying darts, 3.42 And trophies torn with twice triumphant hand' "3.43 From empires twain on ocean's either shore." '3.44 And breathing forms of Parian marble there 3.45 Shall stand, the offspring of Assaracus, 3.46 And great names of the Jove-descended folk, 3.47 And father Tros, and 3.48 of Cynthus. And accursed Envy there'' None
4. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • autocracy

 Found in books: Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 239; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 226

5. Tacitus, Annals, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • autocracy, Roman, • autocracy, autocrat(s), tyranny, tyrant(s)

 Found in books: Keith and Edmondson (2016), Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle 171; Poulsen (2021), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 227

sup>
3.1 Nihil intermissa navigatione hiberni maris Agrippina Corcyram insulam advehitur, litora Calabriae contra sitam. illic paucos dies componendo animo insumit, violenta luctu et nescia tolerandi. interim adventu eius audito intimus quisque amicorum et plerique militares, ut quique sub Germanico stipendia fecerant, multique etiam ignoti vicinis e municipiis, pars officium in principem rati, plures illos secuti, ruere ad oppidum Brundisium, quod naviganti celerrimum fidissimumque adpulsu erat. atque ubi primum ex alto visa classis, complentur non modo portus et proxima maris sed moenia ac tecta, quaque longissime prospectari poterat, maerentium turba et rogitantium inter se silentione an voce aliqua egredientem exciperent. neque satis constabat quid pro tempore foret, cum classis paulatim successit, non alacri, ut adsolet, remigio sed cunctis ad tristitiam compositis. postquam duobus cum liberis, feralem urnam tenens, egressa navi defixit oculos, idem omnium gemitus; neque discerneres proximos alienos, virorum feminarumve planctus, nisi quod comitatum Agrippinae longo maerore fessum obvii et recentes in dolore antibant.
3.1
Postera die Fulcinius Trio Pisonem apud consules postulavit. contra Vitellius ac Veranius ceterique Germanicum comitati tendebant, nullas esse partis Trioni; neque se accusatores sed rerum indices et testis mandata Germanici perlaturos. ille dimissa eius causae delatione, ut priorem vitam accusaret obtinuit, petitumque est a principe cognitionem exciperet. quod ne reus quidem abnuebat, studia populi et patrum metuens: contra Tiberium spernendis rumoribus validum et conscientiae matris innexum esse; veraque aut in deterius credita iudice ab uno facilius discerni, odium et invidiam apud multos valere. haud fallebat Tiberium moles cognitionis quaque ipse fama distraheretur. igitur paucis familiarium adhibitis minas accusantium et hinc preces audit integramque causam ad senatum remittit. 3.2 Eodem anno Tacfarinas, quem priore aestate pulsum a Camillo memoravi, bellum in Africa renovat, vagis primum populationibus et ob pernicitatem inultis, dein vicos excindere, trahere gravis praedas; postremo haud procul Pagyda flumine cohortem Romanam circumsedit. praeerat castello Decrius impiger manu, exercitus militia et illam obsidionem flagitii ratus. is cohortatus milites, ut copiam pugnae in aperto faceret aciem pro castris instruit. primoque impetu pulsa cohorte promptus inter tela occursat fugientibus, increpat signiferos quod inconditis aut desertoribus miles Romanus terga daret; simul exceptat vulnera et quamquam transfosso oculo adversum os in hostem intendit neque proelium omisit donec desertus suis caderet.'3.2 Miserat duas praetorias cohortis Caesar, addito ut magistratus Calabriae Apulique et Campani suprema erga memoriam filii sui munera fungerentur. igitur tribunorum centurionumque umeris cineres portabantur; praecedebant incompta signa, versi fasces; atque ubi colonias transgrederentur, atrata plebes, trabeati equites pro opibus loci vestem odores aliaque funerum sollemnia cremabant. etiam quorum diversa oppida, tamen obvii et victimas atque aras dis Manibus statuentes lacrimis et conclamationibus dolorem testabantur. Drusus Tarracinam progressus est cum Claudio fratre liberisque Germanici, qui in urbe fuerant. consules M. Valerius et M. Aurelius (iam enim magistratum occeperant) et senatus ac magna pars populi viam complevere, disiecti et ut cuique libitum flentes; aberat quippe adulatio, gnaris omnibus laetam Tiberio Germanici mortem male dissimulari. ' None
sup>
3.1 \xa0Without once pausing in her navigation of the wintry sea, Agrippina reached the island of Corcyra opposite the Calabrian coast. There, frantic with grief and unschooled to suffering, she spent a\xa0few days in regaining her composure. Meanwhile, at news of her advent, there was a rush of people to Brundisium, as the nearest and safest landing-place for the voyager. Every intimate friend was present; numbers of military men, each with his record of service under Germanicus; even many strangers from the local towns, some thinking it respectful to the emperor, the majority following their example. The moment her squadron was sighted in the offing, not only the harbour and the points nearest the sea but the city-walls and house-roofs, all posts, indeed, commanding a wide enough prospect, were thronged by a crowd of mourners, who asked each other if they ought to receive her landing in silence, or with some audible expression of feeling. It was not yet clear to them what the occasion required, when little by little the flotilla drew to shore, not with the accustomed eager oarsman­ship, but all with an ordered melancholy. When, clasping the fatal urn, she left the ship with her two children, and fixed her eyes on the ground, a single groan arose from the whole multitude; nor could a distinction be traced between the relative and the stranger, the wailings of women or of men; only, the attendants of Agrippina, exhausted by long-drawn sorrow, were less demonstrative than the more recent mourners by whom they were met.' "
3.1
\xa0Without once pausing in her navigation of the wintry sea, Agrippina reached the island of Corcyra opposite the Calabrian coast. There, frantic with grief and unschooled to suffering, she spent a\xa0few days in regaining her composure. Meanwhile, at news of her advent, there was a rush of people to Brundisium, as the nearest and safest landing-place for the voyager. Every intimate friend was present; numbers of military men, each with his record of service under Germanicus; even many strangers from the local towns, some thinking it respectful to the emperor, the majority following their example. The moment her squadron was sighted in the offing, not only the harbour and the points nearest the sea but the city-walls and house-roofs, all posts, indeed, commanding a wide enough prospect, were thronged by a crowd of mourners, who asked each other if they ought to receive her landing in silence, or with some audible expression of feeling. It was not yet clear to them what the occasion required, when little by little the flotilla drew to shore, not with the accustomed eager oarsmanship, but all with an ordered melancholy. When, clasping the fatal urn, she left the ship with her two children, and fixed her eyes on the ground, a single groan arose from the whole multitude; nor could a distinction be traced between the relative and the stranger, the wailings of women or of men; only, the attendants of Agrippina, exhausted by long-drawn sorrow, were less demonstrative than the more recent mourners by whom they were met. < 3.2 \xa0The Caesar had sent two cohorts of his Guard; with further orders that the magistrates of Calabria, Apulia, and Campania should render the last offices to the memory of his son. And so his ashes were borne on the shoulders of tribunes and centurions: before him the standards went unadorned, the Axes reversed; while, at every colony they passed, the commons in black and the knights in official purple burned raiment, perfumes, and other of the customary funeral tributes, in proportion to the resources of the district. Even the inhabitants of outlying towns met the procession, devoted their victims and altars to the departed spirit, and attested their grief with tears and cries. Drusus came up to Tarracina, with Germanicus' brother Claudius and the children who had been left in the capital. The consuls, Marcus Valerius and Marcus Aurelius (who had already begun their magistracy), the senate, and a considerable part of the people, filled the road, standing in scattered parties and weeping as they pleased: for of adulation there was none, since all men knew that Tiberius was with difficulty dissembling his joy at the death of Germanicus. <" "3.2 \xa0The Caesar had sent two cohorts of his Guard; with further orders that the magistrates of Calabria, Apulia, and Campania should render the last offices to the memory of his son. And so his ashes were borne on the shoulders of tribunes and centurions: before him the standards went unadorned, the Axes reversed; while, at every colony they passed, the commons in black and the knights in official purple burned raiment, perfumes, and other of the customary funeral tributes, in proportion to the resources of the district. Even the inhabitants of outlying towns met the procession, devoted their victims and altars to the departed spirit, and attested their grief with tears and cries. Drusus came up to Tarracina, with Germanicus' brother Claudius and the children who had been left in the capital. The consuls, Marcus Valerius and Marcus Aurelius (who had already begun their magistracy), the senate, and a considerable part of the people, filled the road, standing in scattered parties and weeping as they pleased: for of adulation there was none, since all men knew that Tiberius was with difficulty dissembling his joy at the death of Germanicus."' None



Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.