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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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subject book bibliographic info
anim, horvat Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 199, 314, 324, 335, 337, 473
animal Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 78, 149, 152
Faure (2022), Conceptions of Time in Greek and Roman Antiquity, 27, 67, 81, 85, 88, 89, 110
Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 1, 13, 14, 15, 166, 183, 207, 219, 221, 281, 321, 395
Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 117, 155, 163, 182, 201, 209, 231, 318, 319, 320, 321, 324, 325
Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 23, 24, 36, 37, 41, 42, 43, 44, 59, 60, 115, 122, 131, 173, 175
Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 62, 79, 83, 112
Laks (2022), Plato's Second Republic: An Essay on the Laws. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2022 144, 222
Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 59, 96, 98, 99, 104, 121, 131, 142, 153, 155, 315, 348, 362
d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 254, 286, 287
animal, abilities for, self-determination, human versus Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 193
animal, above the head, holding an Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 121
animal, above the holding an head, in egyptian sacrifice Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 260
animal, aegisthus in euripides electra, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 229, 230
animal, agency Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 327, 353
animal, agents Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 353
animal, analogies, body Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 76, 77, 78, 79, 88, 147, 174
animal, anecdotes, heliodorus Pinheiro et al. (2012b), The Ancient Novel and Early Christian and Jewish Narrative: Fictional Intersections, 66
animal, animais, castration of victim, uncastrated Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 161
animal, animal, hetaera, hide skins Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 514, 662
animal, animals, sacrifice, reason in Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 7, 306
animal, apocalypse Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 7, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89
Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 164, 179
Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 133
animal, apocalypse, adamin the Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 86
animal, as aesop Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 261, 262
animal, ass Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 39, 40, 239, 302, 327, 331
animal, ass, as sethian Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 351
animal, bears Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 206
animal, bee Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 205
animal, behemah Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29, 30, 32, 37, 38, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66
animal, bionic Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 19, 83, 84, 85, 88
animal, birds Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 7, 11, 31, 219, 230, 231, 304, 319
animal, body Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 223, 224, 225
animal, bones Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 32
Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 402
Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 127
animal, bones, burnt at sacrifices Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 32
animal, bones, debris from dining Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 37
animal, bones, holocausted Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 80
animal, bones, in funerary contexte Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 230, 232
animal, bones, thigh-bones Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 101, 115, 120, 201, 202, 230
animal, bovine Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 331
animal, breeding Faraone (1999), Ancient Greek Love Magic, 20, 21
Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 112, 121, 122, 223
animal, breeding, between wild and domesticated Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 235
animal, breeding, for appearance Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 46, 143, 156, 212
animal, breeding, for pest control Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 224
animal, breeding, geographical location of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 237
animal, breeding, in tbava kammah Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 94, 233
animal, breeding, restriction of for jews Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 94, 112, 129, 134
animal, breeding, rome restricting Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 102
animal, bride, as Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 265, 289
animal, bull Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 334
animal, burial Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 99, 100
animal, burials and subterranean passages, alexandria sarapieion, sacred Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 333, 334, 336, 591
animal, butchery Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 132
animal, carrion/torn Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 26
animal, catacombs, sacred animals, egyptian, shrines at sacred Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 333, 334, 415, 435, 436, 443, 444, 445, 446, 510
animal, cattle Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 157, 163, 307, 324, 325
animal, celestial d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 151
animal, colour of victim, black Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 61, 62, 65, 81, 99, 101, 102, 103, 113, 133, 192
animal, colour of victim, offerings coloured black Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 109
animal, colour of victim, white Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 97, 101, 133
animal, colour of victim, white clothing Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 334
animal, commodification Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 142
animal, community Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 18, 44, 60, 66, 98, 101, 149
animal, decision-making Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 56, 57, 58
animal, divine Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 17, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 176, 181, 182
animal, dog Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 290, 340
animal, domestic, ass as a domestic Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 257
animal, donkey Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 27, 128
animal, dragon Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 142
animal, eagle Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 58, 59
animal, empathy Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 40, 41, 47, 57, 63, 66, 75, 79, 92, 98, 107, 207, 211
animal, en boqeq, fat use of Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 339
animal, experience Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 38, 47, 54, 56, 63, 64, 77, 95, 105, 129
animal, fables, golden age, as setting for Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 40, 373, 374
animal, faculty of discourse, discrimination Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 87, 88
animal, female, principle distinguished from Trott (2019), Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation, 31, 46
animal, figures, ascetics as König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 8, 337, 343, 347
animal, fish Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 187
animal, flesh Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99, 366
animal, food, apuleius, human and König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 281, 288
animal, for self, substitution, of Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 50
animal, form, disappears Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 13, 235
animal, fox Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 187
animal, gasah vs. daqah, behemah Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 31, 50
animal, gaze Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 40, 41, 48, 88, 92, 173, 212
animal, gender Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 47, 49, 52, 53
animal, goats, as specific type of Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 148, 169, 179
animal, hair burned on altar, hair Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 43
animal, heifer Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 248
animal, horses Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 157, 204
animal, hunts hunting, venationes, before gladiator battles Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 538, 540
animal, husbandry, rome, as one part of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 55, 56, 136, 160, 162
animal, imagery Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 11, 21, 33, 71, 108, 117, 122, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142, 143, 151, 153, 176, 178, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 200, 223
Pillinger (2019), Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature, 40, 46, 131, 185, 188
animal, imagery and, passions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 180
animal, in formula, milk Edmonds (2004), Myths of the Underworld Journey: Plato, Aristophanes, and the ‘Orphic’ Gold Tablets, 88, 90
animal, in heraclitus, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 270
animal, in hesiod, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 47, 50, 51, 52
animal, in iamblichus, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 70, 71
animal, in pythagoras, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 269, 270
animal, in ritual Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 18, 73, 74, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 190, 203, 207, 212
animal, in rome Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 85, 88, 173
animal, in zaleucus, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 65, 66
animal, individual d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 149, 154
animal, insomnia Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 14
Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 14
animal, insults Richlin (2018), Slave Theater in the Roman Republic: Plautus and Popular Comedy, 151, 154, 160, 172, 173, 177, 228, 258, 288, 299
animal, jesus as parallel to Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 91, 92
animal, keeper occupation/occupational designations, therotrophos Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 460, 505
animal, labor, humans, and Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 104, 105
animal, labor, kilayim, in Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 104, 121
animal, lamb Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 196, 209
animal, lament Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 48, 52, 53, 56
animal, leopards Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 206
animal, life Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 82, 119, 121
Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 62, 67, 116, 118, 120, 127, 139, 160, 161, 164, 243, 244, 337, 352
animal, limb of a living Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 131
animal, lion Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 198, 200, 331, 340
animal, lions, sacred Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 109, 125, 164
animal, man as, political Omeara (2005), Platonopolis: Platonic Political Philosophy in Late Antiquity 122
animal, man as, social Omeara (2005), Platonopolis: Platonic Political Philosophy in Late Antiquity 44
animal, man vs. Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 332
animal, material Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 29, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 65, 69, 99, 104, 118, 120, 121, 133, 134, 145, 146, 161, 177, 202, 204, 215, 222, 236, 246, 247, 255, 279, 281, 286, 287
animal, medieval art, conflicts, ancient depictions of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 190
animal, moral status Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 16
animal, morality Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 73
animal, necropolis, saqqâra, individual structures and complexes, sacred Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 397, 416, 418, 426, 434, 435, 436, 445, 510, 544, 723, 724, 739
animal, necropolises and incubation, sacred animals, egyptian, sacred Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 333, 334, 414, 415, 418, 434, 435, 436, 445, 446, 447, 510
animal, nicknames Faraone (1999), Ancient Greek Love Magic, 154
animal, nicknames for, torture Richlin (2018), Slave Theater in the Roman Republic: Plautus and Popular Comedy, 166, 331, 456, 466
animal, non-human Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 167, 208, 383, 464, 467, 468, 469, 470, 474, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 528, 530, 542, 548
animal, oracles and artemis, oracles Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 174
animal, ox Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 19, 311, 315, 317, 319, 320, 321, 325, 326, 327, 329
animal, partly Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 52
animal, parts of King (2006), Common to Body and Soul: Philosophical Approaches to Explaining Living Behaviour in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 51
animal, pelles skins Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 47, 48, 622
animal, perception, sensation Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 83, 87, 88, 89, 90
animal, pig Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 182
animal, pre-battle, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 217, 218, 219
animal, psyche Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 155
animal, psycho-physical composite King (2006), Common to Body and Soul: Philosophical Approaches to Explaining Living Behaviour in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 216
animal, re-emergence Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 129, 136, 138, 142
animal, rejection of pythagoras sacrifice, ? Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 60
animal, rejection sacrifice, of empedocles Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 97, 270, 271
animal, rejection sacrifice, of porphyry Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 70, 74, 75
animal, rejection sacrifice, of theophrastus Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 73, 74, 76, 77
animal, relating Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 38, 43, 44, 54, 64, 66, 77, 78
animal, representations, dedicatory objects Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 177, 262, 263
animal, rooster Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 330
animal, sacrifi ce, jews and Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 192, 193, 309
animal, sacrifice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 240, 243, 394, 396, 397, 398, 401, 402, 403, 404, 411, 519
Dillon and Timotin (2015), Platonic Theories of Prayer, 26, 58, 66, 68, 95, 97
Janowitz (2002), Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians, 53
Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 4, 8, 51, 96, 98, 102
Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98
Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 26, 140, 281
Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 8, 307
Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 167
Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 177, 178, 179, 180
animal, sacrifice in leges sacrae linked to oropos amphiareion, incubation, ? Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 284, 285, 286
animal, sacrifice, and gnosticism Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 2, 21
animal, sacrifice, and the varronian chronology Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 55, 62
animal, sacrifice, chaldaean theology Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 3, 232
animal, sacrifice, concept of god Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 9, 242
animal, sacrifice, conceptual parallels with epicureanism Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 1, 133, 135, 137
animal, sacrifice, empedocles, rejecting Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 322, 337, 344
animal, sacrifice, epistemology Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157
animal, sacrifice, eschatology Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 90, 121, 146, 147, 148, 288
animal, sacrifice, human, in theophrastus Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 74
animal, sacrifice, human, of iphigenia in the agamemnon Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 145, 168, 272, 290
animal, sacrifice, platonic influence upon Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 1, 3, 182
animal, sacrifice, pollution, miasma from Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 424
animal, sacrifice, porphyry, philosophia ex oraculis Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 74, 305, 311
animal, sacrifice, porphyry, rejection of Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 70, 74, 75
animal, sacrifice, silent thoughts doctrine Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 6, 295
animal, sacrifice, use of varro Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 9, 58
animal, sacrifices Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 482, 483
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 121
animal, sacrifices, blood, of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 128, 133, 144, 396
animal, sentience Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 17, 129
animal, serpent Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 59, 117, 142, 314, 316
animal, sheep Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 157, 158, 196, 209, 345, 346
animal, sheep, as sacrificial Alvar Ezquerra (2008), Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras, 304
animal, sirens as, partly Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 68
animal, skin Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 33, 47, 52, 172, 189, 422, 478, 529, 544
animal, skins Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 47, 48, 197
animal, skins and bedding materials, asklepios and incubation reliefs, representation of Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 221, 222, 223, 255, 256, 258
animal, slaughter, sacrifice, thysia Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 14, 15, 16, 53, 181, 231, 242, 247, 265, 296, 391, 424, 467, 469, 471, 472, 544, 654
animal, snake Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 7, 12, 59, 117, 119, 134, 205
animal, soul Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 88, 89
animal, soul, transmigration, μετενσωμάτωσις, as outward association with Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 224
animal, souls d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 256
animal, species, bird Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 41, 308
animal, species, boar Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 255
animal, species, bull Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 33, 67, 68
animal, species, cattle Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 32, 134, 158, 166, 167, 175, 189
animal, species, cow Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 62, 138, 152
animal, species, dog Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 41, 228, 255
animal, species, ewe Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 62, 65, 68, 69, 158, 161, 162, 164, 166, 174, 254
animal, species, goat Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 61, 103, 113, 133, 141, 143, 146, 152, 324
animal, species, heifer Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 319
animal, species, horse Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 47, 97, 158, 159, 162
animal, species, lamb Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 101, 103, 109, 112, 133, 134, 142
animal, species, mare Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 261
animal, species, ox Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 47, 103, 104, 133, 140
animal, species, pig Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 143, 146, 152
animal, species, piglet Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 60, 61, 133, 134, 138, 141, 143
animal, species, puppies Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 65, 69
animal, species, ram Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 37
animal, species, sheep Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 37
animal, species, snake Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 316
animal, species, soul, in relation to characteristic activities of Singer and van Eijk (2018), Galen: Works on Human Nature: Volume 1, Mixtures (De Temperamentis), 10, 91, 92, 138
animal, species, wether Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 162, 164
animal, specification of Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 119, 168, 169, 179
animal, speech Kneebone (2020), Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity, 233, 239, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335
animal, statues used for divination, egyptian and greco-egyptian, oracles, ? Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 78, 435, 599, 600, 601
animal, stories, talking Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 67
animal, stories, talking characters, realism in Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40
animal, studies Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 9, 10, 203
animal, subjectivity Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 40, 47, 57, 64, 66, 76, 77, 79, 88, 98, 129, 138, 162
animal, subjugation Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 73, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88
animal, substituting mythical characters, sacrifice Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 281, 282, 283
animal, sympathy Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 75, 79, 96, 107
animal, terminology, sexuality Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 98, 101, 112
animal, that crushes things underfoot, educational metaphor Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 59
animal, unfit for consumption, terefah Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 200, 201
animal, unicorn Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 318, 320, 321, 330, 331
animal, victim by fire, destruction of Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 61, 63, 68, 69, 75, 80, 101, 102, 111, 112, 113, 133, 134, 155, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 252, 255, 256, 270, 308, 328, 332
animal, victim, castration of Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134
animal, victim, colour of Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 133
animal, victim, destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 252, 259, 277, 313, 316, 318, 328, 332
animal, victim, destruction sacrifice, total destruction of Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 70, 75, 101, 113, 171, 206, 207, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 252, 256, 313, 316, 328, 332
animal, victim, god's portion at sacrifice Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 42, 115, 120, 178, 180, 182, 199, 242, 288, 318, 328
animal, victim, hero's portion at sacrifice Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 179, 180, 181, 182, 185, 202
animal, victim, parts of bile Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 176
animal, victim, parts of ears Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 250
animal, victim, parts of feet Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 103, 225
animal, victim, parts of gall-bladder Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 308
animal, victim, parts of head Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 62, 297
animal, victim, parts of hide Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 152, 157, 224, 225, 249
animal, victim, parts of horn Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 250
animal, victim, parts of intestines Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 65, 217, 218, 242, 247, 248, 252, 319
animal, victim, parts of leg Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 142, 143, 217, 219
animal, victim, parts of muzzle Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 273
animal, victim, parts of neck Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 174, 192
animal, victim, parts of rind Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134
animal, victim, parts of shoulder Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 142, 220
animal, victim, parts of skin Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 157, 217, 223, 225, 265, 319
animal, victim, parts of stomach Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 65, 69, 247
animal, victim, parts of tail Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 250
animal, victim, parts of testicles Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 252
animal, victim, parts of thigh Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 140, 219, 316, 319
animal, victim, parts of tongue Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 143
animal, victim, prices and financial considerations Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 135, 146, 152, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 285, 292
animal, victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 220, 221, 222, 223, 235, 236, 237
animal, victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 235, 236, 237, 252
animal, victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 42, 53, 101, 103, 112, 115, 118, 120, 139, 140, 145, 178, 180, 181, 182, 185, 201, 202, 217, 218, 240, 289, 318, 328
animal, victim, treatment of burning of entire victim Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 60, 61, 63, 68, 69, 75, 80, 81, 101, 102, 112, 119, 133, 134, 155, 165, 179, 217, 218, 224, 225, 234, 235, 238, 255, 256, 270, 308, 328, 332
animal, victim, treatment of castrated Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134
animal, victim, treatment of decapitated Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 62, 174, 175, 176, 188, 271, 275
animal, victim, treatment of flayed Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 63, 134, 143, 269
animal, victim, treatment of killed with head bent towards the ground Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 269, 270, 271, 273, 275, 297
animal, victim, treatment of singed Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 134, 143
animal, victim, treatment of skin destroyed Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 156, 157, 217, 223, 225
animal, victim, treatment of throat cut, slit or pierced Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 65, 68, 135, 172, 173, 174, 184, 185, 252, 269, 270, 271, 273, 275
animal, victims, female Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 133, 161, 162
animal, victims, male Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 161, 162
animal, victims, male marathon, battle of Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 75, 76, 77, 83, 240
animal, victims, pregnant Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 138
animal, virtue Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143, 153, 156, 157, 158
animal, vs. hayah, behemah Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 91, 92, 94, 106, 107, 125, 206, 214, 215
animal, world, human and Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 33, 34, 370
animal, worship Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 357
Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 385
Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 72, 221, 408
Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 7, 9, 15, 16, 100, 118, 123, 127, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136
animal, worship, egyptians and Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 77, 102, 105, 109, 110, 112, 113, 328
animal, wrong incurs pollution, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 30, 51
animal-human, behavior, animals Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 14, 74, 224
animal/human, binaries Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 4, 10, 21
animal/living, being, cosmos, as Zachhuber (2022), Time and Soul: From Aristotle to St. Augustine. 3, 36, 38, 75, 76
animality Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 10, 11, 202
animality, ethnicity, and Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 65, 66, 67
animality, species, vs. Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 203
animalizing, humans Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 34, 66, 79, 88, 100, 107, 108, 203, 218
animals Alexiou and Cairns (2017), Greek Laughter and Tears: Antiquity and After. 4, 151, 154, 155, 158, 274
Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 100, 110, 203, 215, 232, 238, 251, 252, 260, 271, 274, 276, 282, 286, 289, 294, 301
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 333, 339, 396, 397, 519
Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 66, 86, 133, 137, 159, 179
Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 96, 97, 134
Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019), Greek Memories: Theories and Practices, 27, 29, 217, 240, 241, 242, 243, 253, 254, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 331, 359
Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 79, 181, 182
Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 93, 95, 96, 120, 121, 122, 126
Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 54, 68, 71, 78, 79, 89, 92, 94, 96, 102, 105, 143, 157, 158
Huffman (2019), A History of Pythagoreanism, 55, 57, 347, 427, 457, 573
Laemmle (2021), Lists and Catalogues in Ancient Literature and Beyond: Towards a Poetics of Enumeration, 63, 64, 70, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 217
Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 210, 264, 324, 420
Lateiner and Spatharas (2016), The Ancient Emotion of Disgust, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29, 31, 144, 145, 191, 192, 193, 205, 208, 213, 216, 219, 222, 227, 239, 256, 259
Lunn-Rockliffe (2007), The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context, 132, 155, 160, 161, 164
Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 15, 351, 352, 353, 363, 374, 375, 378, 379, 382, 391
Nisula (2012), Augustine and the Functions of Concupiscence, 20, 119, 140, 172, 204, 218, 225, 229, 258, 259
Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 5, 36, 48, 54, 59, 226
Osborne (1996), Eros Unveiled: Plato and the God of Love. 109
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 120
Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, 41, 43, 44, 51, 55, 61, 62, 66, 69, 70, 77, 78, 87, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105, 106, 107, 132, 138, 153, 165, 166, 167, 191, 196, 208, 209, 212, 214, 222, 225, 226, 227, 228, 232, 236, 245, 247, 253, 254, 255, 256, 266, 267
Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 65, 66, 82, 83, 84, 85, 130, 285, 306, 311, 403, 414, 430, 431, 478, 503, 535, 620, 667, 705, 735, 754, 764, 766, 783
Rosen-Zvi (2011), Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity. 73, 75, 122
Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 42, 45, 111, 119
Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 208, 209, 210, 211
Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 12, 18, 30, 31, 90, 212, 217, 218, 220, 222, 266
Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 288, 291, 666
Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 131, 132, 133, 134, 149, 254, 303
Thonemann (2020), An Ancient Dream Manual: Artemidorus' the Interpretation of Dreams, 5, 16, 27, 79, 80, 82, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 101, 102, 129, 136, 137, 139, 144, 186, 202, 203, 210
Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 170, 200, 222, 237, 239, 240, 241, 245, 249, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 315, 317, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327, 328, 337, 338
Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 110, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 257, 271, 275, 380
van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 175, 187, 207, 226
animals, abominable Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 58
animals, abstinence, from eating Schultz and Wilberding (2022), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism, 148, 151, 152, 161, 162, 165
animals, abundant in judaea Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 364, 365
animals, action, of Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 366
animals, adam bestowing, names, of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 4, 56
animals, adam naming Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 4, 56
animals, adam, human, vs. other Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 50, 51, 52
animals, adne ha-sadeh, field humans, as wild Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 92, 97, 219, 224
animals, aelianus, on Pinheiro et al. (2015), Philosophy and the Ancient Novel, 39, 46
animals, affected by disease Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 125
animals, affected by disease, disease compared to Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 89
animals, agents of divine providence Pinheiro et al. (2015), Philosophy and the Ancient Novel, 45
animals, all right because they have no reason for lust to rebel against, augustine, lust in Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 406
animals, also lack genuine seneca, the younger, stoic, posidonius' emotion, since they are capable of appearance but not of judgement Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 72, 129, 377
animals, analogies with humans Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 76, 77, 78, 79, 88, 147, 174
animals, ancient vs. modern names for Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 217, 224
animals, and children, aristotle, voluntariness extends more widely than proairesis to acts of Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 326, 327
animals, and children, impulse, hormē, non-rational kind in Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 103, 127
animals, and children, posidonius, stoic, hence the natural aggression in Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 125, 129
animals, and children, posidonius, stoic, nonrational impulse in Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 127
animals, and communication Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 31, 68, 158
animals, and crustaceans, acquatic Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 146, 184, 210, 281, 282, 294, 295
animals, and food Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 83
animals, and men, porphyry, philosophia ex oraculis Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 63, 256
animals, and plants, mazal, mazla, of Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 196, 197
animals, and sex Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 119
animals, and the beast within Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 298
animals, and women’s anger Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 180
animals, and, after the aquinas, thomas, fall, humans are inferior because neither can moderate lust by reason Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 406
animals, and, dionysus Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 315
animals, and, sennaar Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 134, 290, 293, 400, 401
animals, aquinas, thomas, in primary sense implies electio/proairesis, so excludes Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 328
animals, aristotle, biological works, history of Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 323
animals, aristotle, biological works, parts of Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 309
animals, aristotle, generation of Singer and van Eijk (2018), Galen: Works on Human Nature: Volume 1, Mixtures (De Temperamentis), 92
van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 260, 261, 264, 265, 272, 273
animals, aristotle, history of Tsouni (2019), Antiochus and Peripatetic Ethics, 103, 135, 187, 190
van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 15, 175, 259
animals, aristotle, on domestic vs. wild Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 215
animals, aristotle, on slaves and Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 211, 212
animals, aristotle, on the generation of Tsouni (2019), Antiochus and Peripatetic Ethics, 54
animals, aristotle, on the parts of Tsouni (2019), Antiochus and Peripatetic Ethics, 54
animals, aristotle, parts of Singer and van Eijk (2018), Galen: Works on Human Nature: Volume 1, Mixtures (De Temperamentis), 10, 32, 92, 139
van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 175
animals, artemis as “mistress of beasts, ” Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 174, 175, 177, 190, 327
animals, as criterion of emotion Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 94, 99, 238
animals, as diet for achilles Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 251, 278, 279
animals, as divinatory Johnston (2008), Ancient Greek Divination, 123, 128, 129, 130
animals, as effigies Faraone (1999), Ancient Greek Love Magic, 66, 67, 68, 69
animals, as fable characters Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 65, 66, 341, 342, 343, 351, 352
animals, as forbidden a priori, impurity, of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 206
animals, as irrational Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 134, 163, 394, 400, 401
animals, as luxuries, exoticized Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 230
animals, as metaphors Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 128, 144
animals, as oath sacrifices Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 3, 33, 45, 154, 292
animals, as oath sacrifices, and perjury Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 154
animals, as oath sacrifices, burning of Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 45, 139, 160
animals, as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 3, 22, 43
animals, as sacrifices Schultz and Wilberding (2022), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism, 152, 153, 154, 155, 161, 162, 164, 165
animals, as saviors Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 518, 519
animals, as virtuous Schultz and Wilberding (2022), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism, 86, 87, 149, 156, 157
animals, asklepios, as healer of Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 214, 263, 306
animals, association with, artemis Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 174, 175, 177, 190, 327
animals, association with, hermes Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 327, 396
animals, athens asklepieion, reliefs showing sacrificial Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 254, 255
animals, augustus, displays Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 208, 209
animals, beasts, the, as extinct Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 205, 208, 210, 212
animals, beasts, the, as natural Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 91, 215, 216, 217, 218
animals, beauty of Celykte (2020), The Stoic Theory of Beauty. 101, 118, 119, 120
animals, bites, by venomous Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 190
animals, blooded vs. bloodless Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 63, 216
animals, born from, fire Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 75, 76, 220, 221
animals, breeding of Huffman (2019), A History of Pythagoreanism, 95, 144, 379
animals, carcasses, of dead Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 53, 76, 77, 78, 97
animals, cattle Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 63
animals, classified by, aristotle Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 30, 31, 44, 45, 52, 63, 66, 215, 216, 218
animals, collections of Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 208, 209
animals, color descriptions and uses of birds Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 18, 25, 26, 77, 81, 140, 147, 159
animals, color descriptions and uses of cattle Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 18, 154
animals, color descriptions and uses of chameleons Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 138
animals, color descriptions and uses of crocodiles Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 124, 125
animals, color descriptions and uses of dogs Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 76
animals, color descriptions and uses of frogs Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 19
animals, color descriptions and uses of goats Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 103, 120
animals, color descriptions and uses of horses Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 13, 15, 17, 18, 43, 52, 55, 87, 88, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 102, 139, 146, 147, 151, 156
animals, color descriptions and uses of lions Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 14, 42, 102, 104, 105, 118
animals, color descriptions and uses of mice, rats Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 114
animals, color descriptions and uses of mollusks Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 2, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 155
animals, color descriptions and uses of mullet, fish Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 138, 158, 159
animals, color descriptions and uses of panthers Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 103
animals, color descriptions and uses of pigs Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 155, 156
animals, color descriptions and uses of sheep Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 28, 156
animals, color descriptions and uses of snakes Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 156
animals, combat scenes featuring Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 230
animals, combining Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 89
animals, communal laments Gera (2014), Judith, 183
animals, comparison of humans with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 179, 181, 196, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207
animals, complex behavior in Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 176, 240, 242
animals, connected to reincarnation Schultz and Wilberding (2022), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism, 43, 45, 263
animals, corrupted Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 247
animals, created from four elements Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 220
animals, cross-species comparisons Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 176
animals, cruelty to them leads to cruelty to humans Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 286
animals, cynic imitation of Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 653, 654, 675
animals, dangerous Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 112
animals, deteriorated in venetia, teutones and cimbri, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 313, 314
animals, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 367
animals, devouring the disobedient Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 555
animals, diabology, see devil, of man over Lunn-Rockliffe (2007), The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context, 91, 92
animals, dialogue on the rationality of diction, problem of Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 115, 128
animals, dietary regulations Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 367
animals, difference, between humans and Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 4, 9, 10, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 50, 51, 52
animals, dionysus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 315
animals, displayed in rome, saepta julia Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 209
animals, domestic Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 18, 30, 51, 67
animals, domestic vs. wild Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 89, 91, 92, 93, 106, 107, 124, 206, 235, 236
animals, domestic, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 124
animals, domesticated Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 51
animals, dreams, in greek and latin literature, aelian, on the nature of Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 124, 341, 342, 512, 513
animals, early man, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 203
animals, eating Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 28, 29, 39, 40, 49, 50, 52, 58, 59, 60, 148, 205
animals, entertainment featuring Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 230
animals, exotic Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 67, 69, 79, 93, 94, 96, 100
animals, exotic, vs. prosaic Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 69, 92, 93, 94
animals, fastidium ascribed to Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 189, 191
animals, fastidium ascribed to, pudor ascribed to Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 163, 165
animals, fighting spectacles Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 91
animals, figural graffiti drawings Benefiel and Keegan (2016), Inscriptions in the Private Sphere in the Greco-Roman World, 43, 61, 70, 71, 92
animals, fish, and birds Gera (2014), Judith, 48, 143, 146, 147, 148, 149, 153, 157, 158, 236, 237, 259, 354, 364, 365, 465
animals, fish, and birds, fast/ mourn/ in sackcloth Gera (2014), Judith, 47, 180, 183
animals, from, india Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 96, 108, 122, 224, 225, 229
animals, generative modes of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 62, 63, 64, 77, 79
animals, geographical origin of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 96
animals, germans, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 205, 206
animals, gesture, and Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 67, 68, 69, 143, 144, 145, 148
animals, goats Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 244
animals, golden Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 201, 202
animals, half sections of Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 22
animals, have proper functions Celykte (2020), The Stoic Theory of Beauty. 159
animals, heavenly Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 110
animals, herdsman, master of Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 15, 316
animals, hermes and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 327, 396
animals, hesiod, contrasting humans and Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 95
animals, houses and day itself, joy, of Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 7, 169
animals, houses and day itself, rejoicing, of Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 7, 169
animals, human beings a species of Rohmann (2016), Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity, 46, 118
animals, human nature, compared with Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 20, 26, 123
animals, humans as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 8, 34
animals, humans, as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 65, 66, 93, 174
animals, humans, vs. Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 4, 9, 10, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 50, 51, 52
animals, impressions of Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 24, 226, 240
animals, impressions, of Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 240
animals, in achilles tat., ecphrasis, of Cueva et al. (2018a), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 1: Greek Novels, 86
animals, in allegories Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 100, 101
animals, in animals, talking Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 374
animals, in apocryphal acts Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 176
animals, in babylonian thought Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 41, 43
animals, in diodorus’s response to the problem of luxury, luxury, problem of in greek literature, role of Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 129
animals, in form of bird, winged Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 312
animals, in forms of letters Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 285
animals, in forms of letters, in form of winged bird Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 311, 313
animals, in games Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 92
animals, in homer Kneebone (2020), Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity, 218, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 288, 327, 328
animals, in library, diodorus siculus Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 141, 142, 143
animals, in magic Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99
animals, in myth turned into dancers in ritual, chorus, khoros Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 281, 282, 283, 291, 309, 310, 311
animals, in physiognomics Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 151, 154, 157
animals, in sexual terminology Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 98, 101, 112
animals, in similes Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 248, 285
animals, in the holiness code Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 206
animals, in wise person Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 65, 115, 226
animals, included, providence Pinheiro et al. (2015), Philosophy and the Ancient Novel, 39
animals, intelligence of van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 226, 231, 232
animals, into, metamorphosis Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 33
animals, labor of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 88, 89, 104, 121, 125, 129
animals, labor, of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 104, 121, 129
animals, labor, of humans with other Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 104, 105
animals, limitations of Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 51
animals, loss of to the disobedient Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
animals, mating Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 346
animals, metamorphosis into Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 13, 22, 37, 58, 63, 68, 117, 131, 156
animals, metaphor for gentiles Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 144
animals, milk of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 65, 66
animals, mind of Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 111, 112, 199
animals, misogynistic likening to women Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 31, 32, 33, 34, 39, 76, 77, 98, 104, 112, 194
animals, mountain dwellers, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 204
animals, mutilation of sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 194, 204
animals, named by, adam Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 4, 56
animals, neutering Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 102
animals, no Osborne (1996), Eros Unveiled: Plato and the God of Love. 117, 124, 132, 182
animals, nomads, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 202
animals, non-greeks, characterized as Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 65, 66
animals, non-human, lack reason Harrison (2006), Augustine's Way into the Will: The Theological and Philosophical Significance of De libero, 66, 67, 94, 103, 145
animals, non-human, suffering of Harrison (2006), Augustine's Way into the Will: The Theological and Philosophical Significance of De libero, 31, 46, 146
animals, non-rational Segev (2017), Aristotle on Religion, 26, 106
animals, oath-rituals, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 184, 186, 187
animals, odour of Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 127, 225
animals, of pure lineage but not autochthonous, teutones and cimbri, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 139
animals, of the sea Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 481
animals, of wilderness/desert Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 290, 291
animals, of yahweh Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 35, 36, 49, 54, 55, 60, 61, 73, 79, 93, 94, 95, 170, 185, 190
animals, ofonius tigellinus, c., collects birds and Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 208, 209
animals, oikeiōsis = lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of Tsouni (2019), Antiochus and Peripatetic Ethics, 99, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191
animals, ong, walter, on the nature of aelian Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 102, 103, 108
animals, oropos amphiareion, sacrificial Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 222, 254, 281, 282
animals, ostraca, egyptian, figuring Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 27
animals, oxen Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 167, 185, 187
animals, paradise, and Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 45
animals, passions and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 180
animals, pasturing Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 27, 28
animals, peace, among Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 227, 228
animals, physiognomics, and comparisons with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 151, 152
animals, pigs Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 165
animals, place of Alvar Ezquerra (2008), Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras, 107, 109, 110
animals, placed on, scala naturae Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 109
animals, pliny, on Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 64, 96, 107, 108, 203
animals, podalirios, heroon at mt. drion, healing of domestic Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 305, 306
animals, polluting Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 15
animals, prey Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 74, 151
animals, priestly classification of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 61, 67
animals, pudor, ascribed to Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 163, 165
animals, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 183, 184, 185, 187
animals, punishment, of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184, 185
animals, purity of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 5, 28, 29, 30, 31, 39, 40, 41, 49, 50, 60, 61, 206
animals, purity of dead or alive Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 206
animals, purity of israel’s purity resembling Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 206
animals, recognise τὸ καλόν Celykte (2020), The Stoic Theory of Beauty. 49, 128
animals, rejoicing Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 7, 169
animals, rejoicing, behaving like men Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 27, 178
animals, religion, egyptian and greco-egyptian, healing of domestic Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 306
animals, responsible for what they do, democritus, presocratic Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 327
animals, responsible for what they do, epicurus, tame Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 327
animals, responsible for what they do, heracleides of pontos, platonist, in favour of erotic love Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 327
animals, responsible for what they do? Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 326, 327
animals, s/soul ch. of d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 246, 256
animals, sacred Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 218, 219, 220, 221
Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 29, 30
animals, sacred, at leontopolis Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 125, 126, 127
animals, sacred, egyptian, alexandria sarapieion catacombs Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 333, 334, 336
animals, sacred, egyptian, armant bucheion catacombs Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 424
animals, sacred, egyptian, demotic terms for burial sites Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 396, 415
animals, sacred, egyptian, periodic opening of necropolises to worshipers Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 446, 743
animals, sacred, egyptian, sacred falcons of horus and dreams Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 512
animals, sacred, egyptian, sacred fish of neith Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 742, 743
animals, sacred, egyptian, scarab beetle and dung-ball oracle Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 416
animals, sacred, greek, curative properties of dog and serpent saliva Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 216
animals, sacred, greek, dogs at athens asklepieion Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 184, 185, 215
animals, sacred, greek, dogs at epidauros asklepieion Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 214, 215, 216, 283
animals, sacred, greek, oracular serpent god glykon Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 353, 566
animals, sacred, greek, relief of encounter with sacred serpent Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 190
animals, sacred, greek, relief of serpents licking ears Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 215
animals, sacred, greek, serpent figure in automaton Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 597, 598
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at epidauros asklepieion Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182, 190, 215, 216, 273, 562, 604, 605
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at lebena asklepieion Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 190, 562
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at oropos amphiareion Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 215, 223, 273, 550
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at trophonion Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 572
animals, sacred, greek, serpents in aristophaness plutus scene Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 135, 136, 215, 239
animals, sacred, hekdesh status of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 165, 166, 168
animals, sacred, in babylonia Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 110
animals, sacred, in judea Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 35, 36, 49, 54, 55, 60, 61, 73, 79, 93, 94, 95, 170, 185, 190
animals, sacred, protecting the byproducts of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
animals, sacrifice of Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 95, 103, 137, 170, 246
animals, sacrifice prohibited Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 57, 58
animals, sacrifice, thysia, wild Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 15, 231
animals, sacrificial Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021), Benefactors and the Polis: The Public Gift in the Greek Cities from the Homeric World to Late Antiquity, 52
Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 76, 157, 159, 177, 187, 192, 207, 285, 294
animals, saqqâra, general, divinized sacred, general Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 432, 446, 447
animals, sarapis, tales of curing Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 306, 341, 342
animals, scythians, distinct from all other peoples, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 205, 207
animals, seals, marking Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 256, 259
animals, senses and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 134, 290, 293, 400, 401
animals, senses, of Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 99, 127, 225
animals, sexual behaviour of van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 259
animals, sexual desire, between humans and Kneebone (2020), Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity, 325, 326
animals, short life-spans Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 86
animals, skins Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 365, 366
animals, slaughter, of Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 21, 22, 37, 58, 98, 101, 109, 110, 111, 112, 121, 122, 128, 153
animals, slaves, according to theognis and xenophon, close to Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 176, 211, 212
animals, souls do not survive death Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 20
animals, sound of Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 127
animals, speaking Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 346, 350, 352, 357, 368
animals, species: birds, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 123
animals, species: boar, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 190, 191
animals, species: bull, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 195
animals, species: cow, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 231
animals, species: goats, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 123
animals, species: lamb, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 195
animals, species: oxen, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 123
animals, species: sheep, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 162, 196
animals, talking Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 65, 66, 341, 342, 343, 351, 352
animals, talking, in the apocryphal acts Cueva et al. (2018b), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 2: Roman Novels and Other Important Texts, 302
animals, teleological function of Celykte (2020), The Stoic Theory of Beauty. 155
animals, temurah, substitution of sacrificial Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 54, 56
animals, teutones and cimbri, compared with Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 202
animals, their emotions Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129
animals, theophrastus, on the wisdom and character of Tsouni (2019), Antiochus and Peripatetic Ethics, 189
animals, tithes, of Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 161, 190
animals, traded by, roman empire Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 102, 229
animals, transmigration, μετενσωμάτωσις, humans to Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 223, 224, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239
animals, treating humans as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 34, 66, 79, 88, 100, 107, 108, 203, 218
animals, triad of sacrificial Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 140
animals, tried in court Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 112
animals, types of sacrificed, worship of an ass Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 1047
animals, uterus likened to Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 96, 97
animals, vertebrates vs. invertebrates Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 62, 63, 79, 216
animals, vocation, of rational Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
animals, vs. geographically distant, animals, exoticized Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 226
animals, vs. humans Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 4, 9, 10, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 50, 51, 52
animals, weak or precipitate Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 65, 139, 244
animals, wild Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 190
Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 12, 96, 99
Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 290, 291
animals, wild, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 125
animals, wonder-culture, performing Mheallaigh (2014), Reading Fiction with Lucian: Fakes, Freaks and Hyperreality, 271, 272, 273, 274
animals, young Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 128, 129, 130, 168
animals/objects, destruction, of Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 197, 198, 204
animals’, food Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 22, 23, 28, 29, 31, 32, 55, 62, 94, 95, 116, 117, 142, 191, 196, 208, 212, 214, 247
animals“, human beings, as „mortal rational Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 3, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 139, 140
animate, objects Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 11, 12, 13, 89, 90, 229, 249
animate, sun, as Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 19
animate/inanimate Lightfoot (2021), Wonder and the Marvellous from Homer to the Hellenistic World, 19, 20, 29, 34, 36, 88, 89, 193, 194, 204
animating, breath Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35, 65, 97, 103
animating, capacity of vital heat Trott (2019), Aristotle on the Matter of Form: ? Feminist Metaphysics of Generation, 134, 177, 181, 224, 225
animating, description of air Williams (2012), The Cosmic Viewpoint: A Study of Seneca's 'Natural Questions', 242, 243, 244, 245
animating, statue in theurgy d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 223, 224, 225, 286
animating, the heavenly bodies, soul Osborne (1996), Eros Unveiled: Plato and the God of Love. 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 136
animation, of embryos Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 250
animation, of statues Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 46, 47, 49, 50, 90, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
animism Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 2
Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 237, 238, 239, 240
animism, soul Frede and Laks (2001), Traditions of Theology: Studies in Hellenistic Theology, its Background and Aftermath, 90, 104
judaean/jewish, animal, sacrifice Dijkstra and Raschle (2020), Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity, 191, 192, 194
“animal, agri cultura, distinction from pastio husbandry” Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 58, 61, 66, 70, 71, 123, 124, 159, 160, 208, 233, 234
“animal, body” Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 11, 93, 95, 107
“animal, husbandry of the pastio villatica villa”, concept of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 33, 49, 50, 51, 52, 171, 172, 182, 184, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 207, 208, 209, 217, 235
“animal, husbandry of the pastio villatica villa”, distinction from agri cultura Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 49, 50, 51, 58, 66, 208
“animal, husbandry of the pastio villatica villa”, ficial risks of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 171, 172, 174, 175, 183, 184, 188, 206, 207, 208, 209
“animal, husbandry of the pastio villatica villa”, moral perils of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 188, 189, 199, 208, 209
“animal, husbandry of the pastio villatica villa”, profitable venture of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 208, 217
“animal, husbandry of the pastio villatica villa”, taxonomy of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 56, 57, 189, 190
“animal, husbandry of the pleasure and delight, as secondary goal of pastio villaticia villa” Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 50, 51, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196
“animal, husbandry of the production and profit, as primary goal of pastio villatica villa” Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 49, 50, 51, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 183, 184, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204
“animal, italia, pastio husbandry”, in Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 94, 95, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168
“animal, leporaria hutches” Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 56, 57, 172, 189, 190, 191, 194, 195
“animal, pastio agrestis husbandry”, concept of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 33, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 142, 144, 159
“animal, pastio agrestis husbandry”, distinction from agri cultura Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 44, 45, 48, 49, 61, 66, 70, 71, 123, 124, 159, 160, 233, 234
“animal, pastio agrestis husbandry”, exemplifications of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164
“animal, pastio agrestis husbandry”, taxonomy of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 54, 55, 56, 125
“animal, pastio agrestis husbandry”, transhumance pastoralism Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 74, 94, 95, 130, 139, 140, 152, 162
“animal, pastio villatica, “animal, husbandry of the villa”, distinction from pastio agrestis husbandry” Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 49, 50, 51, 58, 66, 208
“animal, pleasure and delight, as secondary goal of pastio agrestis husbandry” Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 232
“animal, production and profit, as primary goal of pastio agrestis husbandry” Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 48, 49, 136, 139, 142, 143, 144, 151, 162, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174

List of validated texts:
185 validated results for "animals"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Rule/Ruler, Animals, of • animals, fish, and birds

 Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 364; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 338

sup>
12.15 I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One."'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.23, 12.27, 14.4-14.5, 14.21, 18.3, 22.1-22.3, 22.9-22.11, 25.4, 26.1-26.11, 28.26, 28.48, 32.23-32.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animal Apocalypse • Animals • Animals, Devouring the Disobedient • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins • Aristotle, animals classified by • Aristotle, on domestic vs. wild animals • Flesh, Animal • Sacrifice, Animal • Strength, Animal’s teeth, of • Yahweh, animals of • animal • animal breeding • animal breeding, in tBava Kammah • animal breeding, restriction of, for Jews • animal imagery • animals, • animals, eating • animals, exotic • animals, exotic, vs. prosaic • animals, labor of • animals, sacred, in Judea • animals, treating humans as • behemah (animal), vs. hayah • carrion/torn animal • humans, animalizing • kilayim, in animal labor • labor, of animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 364, 365; Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 87; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 133, 186; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 36; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 155; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 96; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 414, 749; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 164, 179; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 58, 59, 88, 94, 121, 214, 215; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 166, 170; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 98; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 12, 26, 98; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 366, 555, 666; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 237, 239, 240, 241, 319, 320, 322

sup>
12.23 רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְלֹא־תֹאכַל הַנֶּפֶשׁ עִם־הַבָּשָׂר׃
12.27
וְעָשִׂיתָ עֹלֹתֶיךָ הַבָּשָׂר וְהַדָּם עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְדַם־זְבָחֶיךָ יִשָּׁפֵךְ עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַבָּשָׂר תֹּאכֵל׃ 14.5 אַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וְאַקּוֹ וְדִישֹׁן וּתְאוֹ וָזָמֶר׃
14.21
לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃
18.3
וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת הָעָם מֵאֵת זֹבְחֵי הַזֶּבַח אִם־שׁוֹר אִם־שֶׂה וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה׃
22.1
לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃
22.1
לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2 וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער לַנַּעֲרָה׃ 22.2 וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.3 וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃
22.9
לֹא־תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּשׁ הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם׃' 22.11 לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו׃
25.4
לֹא־תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ׃
26.1
וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בָּהּ׃
26.1
וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הֵבֵאתִי אֶת־רֵאשִׁית פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לִּי יְהוָה וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 26.2 וְלָקַחְתָּ מֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר תָּבִיא מֵאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וְשַׂמְתָּ בַטֶּנֶא וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃ 26.3 וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃ 26.4 וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַטֶּנֶא מִיָּדֶךָ וְהִנִּיחוֹ לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 26.5 וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6 וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7 וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8 וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9 וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃
26.11
וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל־הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּלְבֵיתֶךָ אַתָּה וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃
28.26
וְהָיְתָה נִבְלָתְךָ לְמַאֲכָל לְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃
28.48
וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃
32.23
אַסְפֶּה עָלֵימוֹ רָעוֹת חִצַּי אֲכַלֶּה־בָּם׃ 32.24 מְזֵי רָעָב וּלְחֻמֵי רֶשֶׁף וְקֶטֶב מְרִירִי וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמוֹת אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּם עִם־חֲמַת זֹחֲלֵי עָפָר׃'' None
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12.23 Only be stedfast in not eating the blood; for the blood is the life; and thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh.
12.27
and thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the LORD thy God; and the blood of thy sacrifices shall be poured out against the altar of the LORD thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh. 14.5 the hart, and the gazelle, and the roebuck, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the antelope, and the mountain-sheep.
14.21
Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.
18.3
And this shall be the priests’due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw.
22.1
Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother. 22.2 And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him. 22.3 And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself.
22.9
Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed; lest the fulness of the seed which thou hast sown be forfeited together with the increase of the vineyard.
22.10
Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together.
22.11
Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together. .
25.4
Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn.
26.1
And it shall be, when thou art come in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and dost possess it, and dwell therein; 26.2 that thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit of the ground, which thou shalt bring in from thy land that the LORD thy God giveth thee; and thou shalt put it in a basket and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there. 26.3 And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’ 26.4 And the priest shall take the basket out of thy hand, and set it down before the altar of the LORD thy God. 26.5 And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous. 26.6 And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage. 26.7 And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression. 26.8 And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders. 26.9 And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey.
26.10
And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the land, which Thou, O LORD, hast given me.’ And thou shalt set it down before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God.
26.11
And thou shalt rejoice in all the good which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thy house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is in the midst of thee.
28.26
And thy carcasses shall be food unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and there shall be none to frighten them away.
28.48
therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee.
32.23
I will heap evils upon them; I will spend Mine arrows upon them; 32.24 The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the fiery bolt, And bitter destruction; And the teeth of beasts will I send upon them, With the venom of crawling things of the dust.' ' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.15, 12.38, 13.11-13.13, 22.29, 23.4, 23.17, 24.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • Sacrifice, Animal • Yahweh, animals of • animals, • animals, fish, and birds • animals, sacred • animals, sacred, in Judea • blood, of animal sacrifices • sacrifice, animal, decline of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • tithes, of animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 133; Gera (2014), Judith, 148; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 36, 190; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 105; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 749; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 218; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 127, 165; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 41, 98, 212; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 99; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 275, 277

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12.15 שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מַצּוֹת תֹּאכֵלוּ אַךְ בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְּׂאֹר מִבָּתֵּיכֶם כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל חָמֵץ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִיּוֹם הָרִאשֹׁן עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי׃
12.38
וְגַם־עֵרֶב רַב עָלָה אִתָּם וְצֹאן וּבָקָר מִקְנֶה כָּבֵד מְאֹד׃
13.11
וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.12 וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13 וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃
22.29
כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשֹׁרְךָ לְצֹאנֶךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יִהְיֶה עִם־אִמּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּתְּנוֹ־לִי׃
23.4
כִּי תִפְגַּע שׁוֹר אֹיִבְךָ אוֹ חֲמֹרוֹ תֹּעֶה הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ׃
23.17
שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶל־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן יְהוָה׃
24.5
וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃'' None
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12.15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; howbeit the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
12.38
And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
13.11
And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee, 13.12 that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s. 13.13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem.
22.29
Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep; seven days it shall be with its dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it Me.
23.4
If thou meet thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again.
23.17
Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD.
24.5
And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD.'' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1-2.4, 1.4, 1.11, 1.12, 1.21, 1.22, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.31, 2, 2.7, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.23, 3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.22, 3.23, 4, 4.26, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6, 6.6, 6.9, 7, 7.14, 7.15, 8, 8.2, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 15.5, 15.6, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 22.1, 32.23, 32.24, 32.25, 32.26, 32.27, 32.28, 32.29, 32.30, 32.31, 32.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adam, animals named by • Animal • Animals • Animals, Devoured by the Giants • Animals, Dietary Regulations • Animals, of the Sea • Aristotle, animals classified by • Creation, Animals, of • Dialogue on the Rationality of Animals, diction, problem of • Dream imagery, animals • Flesh, Animal • Golden Age, as setting for animal fables • Rebellion, Animals, of • Rule/Ruler, Animals, of • Sennaar, animals and • Seth, Encounter with animal (beast) • Strength, Animal’s teeth, of • Submission, Animals to humans, of • Tent, Beast (animal), of • Yetzer, and animals • adne ha-sadeh (field humans), as wild animals • animal • animal breeding, for appearance • animal breeding, in tBava Kammah • animal imagery • animal life • animal(s), • animal, ass • animal, bovine • animal, bull • animal, ox • animal, serpent • animal, unicorn • animalism • animals • animals, • animals, Adam naming • animals, Priestly classification of • animals, as irrational • animals, created from four elements • animals, domestic vs. wild • animals, eating • animals, exotic • animals, fish, and birds • animals, generative modes of • animals, heavenly • animals, in the Holiness Code • animals, passions and • animals, punishment of • animals, purity of • animals, purity of, Israel’s purity resembling • animals, purity of, dead or alive • animals, senses and • animals, talking animals in • animals, vertebrates vs. invertebrates • animals, vs. humans • animating breath • beasts, the, as extinct animals • behemah (animal) • behemah (animal), gasah vs. daqah • behemah (animal), vs. hayah • binaries, animal/human • difference, between humans and animals • fire, animals born from • humans, vs. animals • impurity, of animals, as forbidden a priori • names, of animals, Adam bestowing • passions, animal imagery and • prey animals • punishment, of animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals • the sea, animals of

 Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 294; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 96, 97, 134, 163, 180, 184, 185, 290, 394; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 128, 129, 131, 134, 137, 153; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 107, 264; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35, 65, 103, 119, 121; Gera (2014), Judith, 158, 465; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 54, 71, 78, 79, 143; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 302, 314, 315, 318; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 4, 135, 193, 217, 290, 326, 394, 396, 402, 408, 412, 413, 416, 417, 426, 427, 429, 433, 468, 489, 656, 665, 682, 836, 902, 947, 948; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007), The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context, 160; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 39; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 4, 5, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 56, 60, 62, 67, 75, 77, 78, 110, 156, 205, 206, 219, 221, 233; Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 115; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 54; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 157, 163; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 61, 227; Rosen-Zvi (2011), Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity. 73, 188; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 21, 74, 111, 112; Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 31, 222; Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 205, 212; Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 373, 374; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99, 366, 367, 481; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 171; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021), The Reception of Greek Ethics in Late Antiquity and Byzantium, 22

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1.
4 וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃
1.
1
1
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.
1
2
וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃
1.
2
1
וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃

1.
2
2
וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים לֵאמֹר פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וְהָעוֹף יִרֶב בָּאָרֶץ׃

1.
2
4
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְחַיְתוֹ־אֶרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃

1.
2
5
וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃

1.
2
6
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

1.
2
7
וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃

1.
2
8
וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
1.
3
1
וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃

2.
7
וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
2.
1
4
וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת׃
2.
1
5
וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃
2.
1
6
וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃
2.
1
7
וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃
2.
1
8
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃
2.
1
9
וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃
2.
2
3
וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃

3.
4
וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃

3.
5
כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃

3.
6
וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃

3.
7
וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃

3.
8
וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃

3.
9
וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃
3.
1
1
וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הִגִּיד לְךָ כִּי עֵירֹם אָתָּה הֲמִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְבִלְתִּי אֲכָל־מִמֶּנּוּ אָכָלְתָּ׃
3.
1
2
וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה־לִּי מִן־הָעֵץ וָאֹכֵל׃
3.
1
3
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃
3.
1
4
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃
3.
1
5
וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃
3.
1
6
אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃
3.
1
7
וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃
3.
1
8
וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃
3.
1
9
בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃
3.
2
2
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃
3.
2
3
וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃
4.
2
6
וּלְשֵׁת גַּם־הוּא יֻלַּד־בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ אָז הוּחַל לִקְרֹא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃
5.
1
וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃
5.
1
זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃
5.
2
וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃
5.
2
זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָם אָדָם בְּיוֹם הִבָּרְאָם׃
5.
3
וַיְחִי אָדָם שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בִּדְמוּתוֹ כְּצַלְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת׃
5.
3
וַיְחִי־לֶמֶךְ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נֹחַ חָמֵשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃
6.
6
וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃

6.
9
אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃
7.
1
4
הֵמָּה וְכָל־הַחַיָּה לְמִינָהּ וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְמִינֵהוּ וְכָל־הָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ כֹּל צִפּוֹר כָּל־כָּנָף׃
7.
1
5
וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־נֹחַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם מִכָּל־הַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים׃
8.
2
וַיִּבֶן נֹחַ מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וַיִּקַּח מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה וּמִכֹּל הָעוֹף הַטָּהֹר וַיַּעַל עֹלֹת בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ׃
8.
2
וַיִּסָּכְרוּ מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמָיִם וַיִּכָּלֵא הַגֶּשֶׁם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
9.
1
וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃
9.
1
וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃
9.
2
וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃
9.
2
וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃
9.
3
כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃
9.
4
אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃
9.
5
וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃
9.
6
שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃
9.
7
וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃1
5.
5
וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃
1
5.
6
וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃
1
9.
1
9
הִנֵּה־נָא מָצָא עַבְדְּךָ חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַתַּגְדֵּל חַסְדְּךָ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי לְהַחֲיוֹת אֶת־נַפְשִׁי וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אוּכַל לְהִמָּלֵט הָהָרָה פֶּן־תִּדְבָּקַנִי הָרָעָה וָמַתִּי׃' 1
9.
2
1
וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה נָשָׂאתִי פָנֶיךָ גַּם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי הָפְכִּי אֶת־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃
2
2.
1
וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃
2
2.
1
וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃
3
2.
2
3
וַיָּקָם בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שְׁתֵּי נָשָׁיו וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּי שִׁפְחֹתָיו וְאֶת־אַחַד עָשָׂר יְלָדָיו וַיַּעֲבֹר אֵת מַעֲבַר יַבֹּק׃
3
2.
2
4
וַיִּקָּחֵם וַיַּעֲבִרֵם אֶת־הַנָּחַל וַיַּעֲבֵר אֶת־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃
3
2.
2
5
וַיִּוָּתֵר יַעֲקֹב לְבַדּוֹ וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ עַד עֲלוֹת הַשָּׁחַר׃
3
2.
2
6
וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף־יְרֵכוֹ וַתֵּקַע כַּף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּהֵאָבְקוֹ עִמּוֹ׃
3
2.
2
7
וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחֲךָ כִּי אִם־בֵּרַכְתָּנִי׃
3
2.
2
8
וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב׃
3
2.
2
9
וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃
3
2.
3
1
וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם פְּנִיאֵל כִּי־רָאִיתִי אֱלֹהִים פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים וַתִּנָּצֵל נַפְשִׁי׃
3
2.
3
2
וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבַר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ׃ ' None
sup>

1.
4 And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.
1.
1
1
And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so.
1.
1
2
And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good.
1.
2
1
And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good.

1.
2
2
And God blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’

1.
2
4
And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so.

1.
2
5
And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.

1.
2
6
And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’

1.
2
7
And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.

1.
2
8
And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’
1.
3
1
And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

2.
7
Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
2.
1
4
And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.
2.
1
5
And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
2.
1
6
And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;
2.
1
7
but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’
2.
1
8
And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’
2.
1
9
And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof.
2.
20
And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.
2.
2
3
And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’

3.
4
And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;

3.
5
for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’

3.
6
And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat.

3.
7
And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles.

3.
8
And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.

3.
9
And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’
3.
10
And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’
3.
1
1
And He said: ‘Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?’
3.
1
2
And the man said: ‘The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.’
3.
1
3
And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’
3.
1
4
And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.
3.
1
5
And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’
3.
1
6
Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’
3.
1
7
And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life.
3.
1
8
Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field.
3.
1
9
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’
3.
20
And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.
3.
2
2
And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’
3.
2
3
Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.
4.
2
6
And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh; then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.
5.
1
This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;
5.
2
male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.
5.
3
And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth.
6.
6
And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.

6.
9
These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God.
7.
1
4
they, and every beast after its kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind, and every fowl after its kind, every bird of every sort.
7.
1
5
And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh wherein is the breath of life.
8.
2
the fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained.
9.
1
And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth.
9.
2
And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered.
9.
3
Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all.
9.
4
Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.
9.
5
And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, will I require the life of man.
9.
6
Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man.
9.
7
And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ .'
1
5.
5
And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’
1
5.
6
And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness.
1
9.
1
9
behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shown unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest the evil overtake me, and I die.
1
9.
20
Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one; oh, let me escape thither—is it not a little one?—and my soul shall live.’
1
9.
2
1
And he said unto him: ‘See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow the city of which thou hast spoken.
2
2.
1
And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’
3
2.
2
3
And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two handmaids, and his eleven children, and passed over the ford of the Jabbok.
3
2.
2
4
And he took them, and sent them over the stream, and sent over that which he had.
3
2.
2
5
And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day.
3
2.
2
6
And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him.
3
2.
2
7
And he said: ‘Let me go, for the day breaketh.’ And he said: ‘I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.’
3
2.
2
8
And he said unto him: ‘What is thy name?’ And he said: ‘Jacob.’
3
2.
2
9
And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’
3
2.
30
And Jacob asked him, and said: ‘Tell me, I pray thee, thy name.’ And he said: ‘Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?’ And he blessed him there.
3
2.
3
1
And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: ‘for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.’
3
2.
3
2
And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh. ' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • offerings, sacrificial, animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Neusner (2001), The Theology of Halakha, 163; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 225

sup>
6.6 כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃'' None
sup>
6.6 For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 12.7-12.9, 41.7, 41.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • animal imagery • animals • animals, exotic • animals, exotic, vs. prosaic • beasts, the, as extinct animals • beasts, the, as natural animals

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 183; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 17; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 69; Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 212, 216; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 171

sup>
12.7 וְאוּלָם שְׁאַל־נָא בְהֵמוֹת וְתֹרֶךָּ וְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְיַגֶּד־לָךְ׃ 12.8 אוֹ שִׂיחַ לָאָרֶץ וְתֹרֶךָּ וִיסַפְּרוּ לְךָ דְּגֵי הַיָּם׃ 12.9 מִי לֹא־יָדַע בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה כִּי יַד־יְהוָה עָשְׂתָה זֹּאת׃
41.7
גַּאֲוָה אֲפִיקֵי מָגִנִּים סָגוּר חוֹתָם צָר׃' ' None
sup>
12.7 But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; And the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee; 12.8 Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee; And the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee; 12.9 Who knoweth not among all these, That the hand of the LORD hath wrought this?
41.7
His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal.' ' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.3-1.6, 1.12, 3.17, 5.1-5.2, 5.16-5.17, 5.24, 7.8, 7.24, 7.26-7.27, 11.1-11.38, 11.40, 11.44, 11.46, 14.2-14.8, 14.20, 17.10-17.14, 19.19, 22.27-22.28, 27.2-27.8, 27.30, 27.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adam, animals named by • Animal bones • Animals • Animals, of the Sea • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins • Animals’ food • Aristotle, animals classified by • Aristotle, on domestic vs. wild animals • Flesh, Animal • India, animals from • offerings, sacrificial, animals • Pliny, on animals • Sacrifice, Animal • Temurah (substitution of sacrificial animals) • Yahweh, animals of • adam (human), vs. other animals • adne ha-sadeh (field humans), as wild animals • animal • animal breeding • animal breeding, between wild and domesticated • animal breeding, for pest control • animal breeding, in tBava Kammah • animal imagery • animal tithes • animal, bull • animal, domestic, sacrificial • animal, ox • animal, unicorn • animals, • animals, Adam naming • animals, Priestly classification of • animals, amei ha’arets as • animals, ancient vs. modern names for • animals, blooded vs. bloodless • animals, created from four elements • animals, domestic vs. wild • animals, eating • animals, exotic • animals, exotic, vs. prosaic • animals, generative modes of • animals, in the Holiness Code • animals, labor of • animals, milk of • animals, purity of • animals, purity of, Israel’s purity resembling • animals, purity of, dead or alive • animals, sacred, in Judea • animals, treating humans as • animals, vertebrates vs. invertebrates • animals, vs. humans • behemah (animal) • behemah (animal), gasah vs. daqah • behemah (animal), vs. hayah • carcasses, of dead animals • difference, between humans and animals • fire, animals born from • humans, animalizing • humans, as animals • humans, vs. animals • impurity, of animals, as forbidden a priori • insults, animal • kilayim, in animal labor • labor, of animals • names, of animals, Adam bestowing • partly animal, sirens as • prey animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals • social behaviour (of animals) • substitution, of animal for self • the sea, animals of • tithes, of animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 76, 77, 78; Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 50, 78; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 364, 365; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 132, 133; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 35, 36, 49, 54, 55, 60, 73, 190; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 321; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 56; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 343, 348; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 695, 749; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 5, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 39, 50, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 77, 79, 88, 97, 121, 122, 206, 215, 218, 219, 220, 221, 224, 233, 235; Neusner (2001), The Theology of Halakha, 153, 162; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 18, 162, 165, 170, 176, 177, 225; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 32, 105, 227, 228; Richlin (2018), Slave Theater in the Roman Republic: Plautus and Popular Comedy, 173; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 12, 22, 99, 110, 151; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 135; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 9, 11; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 127; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 366, 481, 666; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 239, 296, 298, 306, 307, 309, 321, 322

sup>
1.3 אִם־עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַבָּקָר זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לִרְצֹנוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.4 וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 1.5 וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 1.6 וְהִפְשִׁיט אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְנִתַּח אֹתָהּ לִנְתָחֶיהָ׃
1.12
וְנִתַּח אֹתוֹ לִנְתָחָיו וְאֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וְאֶת־פִּדְרוֹ וְעָרַךְ הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃
3.17
חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־חֵלֶב וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃
5.1
וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃
5.1
וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.2 אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃ 5.2 וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃

5.16
וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם וְאֶת־חֲמִישִׁתוֹ יוֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן אֹתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן וְהַכֹּהֵן יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃
5.17
וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃
5.24
אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃
7.8
וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־עֹלַת אִישׁ עוֹר הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃
7.24
וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל־מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ׃
7.26
וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכְלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לָעוֹף וְלַבְּהֵמָה׃ 7.27 כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַל כָּל־דָּם וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃
11.1
וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם וּמִכֹּל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הֵם לָכֶם׃
11.1
וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אֲלֵהֶם׃ 11.2 דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.2 כֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃ 1
1.3
וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃ 1
1.3
כֹּל מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע פְּרָסֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 11.4 אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.4 וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.5 וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה לֹא יַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.6 וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת כִּי־מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסָה טְמֵאָה הִוא לָכֶם׃ 11.7 וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא־יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.8 מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃ 11.9 אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים אֹתָם תֹּאכֵלוּ׃' 11.11 וְשֶׁקֶץ יִהְיוּ לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָם תְּשַׁקֵּצוּ׃ 1
1.12
כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃
11.13
וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה׃
11.14
וְאֶת־הַדָּאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה לְמִינָהּ׃
11.15
אֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ׃
11.16
וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ׃
11.17
וְאֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף׃
11.18
וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָם׃
11.19
וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּף׃ 11.21 אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־לא לוֹ כְרָעַיִם מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.22 אֶת־אֵלֶּה מֵהֶם תֹּאכֵלוּ אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּה לְמִינוֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגֹּל לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הֶחָגָב לְמִינֵהוּ׃ 11.23 וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.24 וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.25 וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.26 לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת וְגֵרָה אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא׃ 11.27 וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.28 וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לָכֶם׃ 11.29 וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ׃ 1
1.31
אֵלֶּה הַטְּמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁרֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 1
1.32
וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל־עָלָיו מֵהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא מִכָּל־כְּלִי־עֵץ אוֹ בֶגֶד אוֹ־עוֹר אוֹ שָׂק כָּל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בָּהֶם בַּמַּיִם יוּבָא וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 1
1.33
וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מֵהֶם אֶל־תּוֹכוֹ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא וְאֹתוֹ תִשְׁבֹּרוּ׃ 1
1.34
מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא׃ 1
1.35
וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו יִטְמָא תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם יֻתָּץ טְמֵאִים הֵם וּטְמֵאִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם׃ 1
1.36
אַךְ מַעְיָן וּבוֹר מִקְוֵה־מַיִם יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר וְנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא׃ 1
1.37
וְכִי יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עַל־כָּל־זֶרַע זֵרוּעַ אֲשֶׁר יִזָּרֵעַ טָהוֹר הוּא׃ 1
1.38
וְכִי יֻתַּן־מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃
11.44
כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
11.46
זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
14.2
וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר׃
14.2
זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 14.3 וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת מִן־הַצָּרוּעַ׃ 14.3 וְעָשָׂה אֶת־הָאֶחָד מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ׃ 14.4 וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.4 וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃ 14.5 וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.5 וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.6 אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃ 14.7 וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 14.8 וְכִבֶּס הַמִּטַּהֵר אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְגִלַּח אֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָשַׁב מִחוּץ לְאָהֳלוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 17.11 כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12 עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13 וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14 כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃
19.19
אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃
22.27
שׁוֹר אוֹ־כֶשֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז כִּי יִוָּלֵד וְהָיָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּחַת אִמּוֹ וּמִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה יֵרָצֶה לְקָרְבַּן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 22.28 וְשׁוֹר אוֹ־שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃
27.2
דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ כִּי יַפְלִא נֶדֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ נְפָשֹׁת לַיהוָה׃
27.2
וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה וְאִם־מָכַר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר לֹא יִגָּאֵל עוֹד׃ 27.3 וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְעַד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 27.3 וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ לַיהוָה הוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃ 27.4 וְאִם־נְקֵבָה הִוא וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁקֶל׃ 27.5 וְאִם מִבֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְעַד בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר עֶשְׂרִים שְׁקָלִים וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשֶׂרֶת שְׁקָלִים׃ 27.6 וְאִם מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר חֲמִשָּׁה שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלֹשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף׃ 27.7 וְאִם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה אִם־זָכָר וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שָׁקֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשָׂרָה שְׁקָלִים׃ 2
7.8
וְאִם־מָךְ הוּא מֵעֶרְכֶּךָ וְהֶעֱמִידוֹ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱרִיךְ אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן עַל־פִּי אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יַד הַנֹּדֵר יַעֲרִיכֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן׃
27.32
וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר בָּקָר וָצֹאן כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲבֹר תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט הָעֲשִׂירִי יִהְיֶה־קֹּדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃'' None
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1.3 If his offering be a burnt-offering of the herd, he shall offer it a male without blemish; he shall bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the LORD. 1.4 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him. 1.5 And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting. 1.6 And he shall flay the burnt-offering, and cut it into its pieces.
1.12
And he shall cut it into its pieces; and the priest shall lay them, with its head and its suet, in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar.
3.17
It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood.
5.1
And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity; 5.2 or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;

5.16
And he shall make restitution for that which he hath done amiss in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest; and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering, and he shall be forgiven.
5.17
And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.
5.24
or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty.
7.8
And the priest that offereth any man’s burnt-offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering which he hath offered.
7.24
And the fat of that which dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn of beasts, may be used for any other service; but ye shall in no wise eat of it.
7.26
And ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings. 7.27 Whosoever it be that eateth any blood, that soul shall be cut off from his people.
11.1
And the LORD spoke unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them: 11.2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: These are the living things which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth. 1
1.3
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat. 11.4 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only part the hoof: the camel, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you. 11.5 And the rock-badger, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you. 11.6 And the hare, because she cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, she is unclean unto you 11.7 And the swine, because he parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you. 11.8 of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcasses ye shall not touch; they are unclean unto you. 11.9 These may ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them may ye eat.
11.10
And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that swarm in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are a detestable thing unto you,
11.11
and they shall be a detestable thing unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses ye shall have in detestation. 1
1.12
Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that is a detestable thing unto you.
11.13
And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;
11.14
and the kite, and the falcon after its kinds;
11.15
every raven after its kinds;
11.16
and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds;
11.17
and the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl;
11.18
and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture;
11.19
and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat. 11.20 All winged swarming things that go upon all fours are a detestable thing unto you. 11.21 Yet these may ye eat of all winged swarming things that go upon all fours, which have jointed legs above their feet, wherewith to leap upon the earth; 11.22 even these of them ye may eat: the locust after its kinds, and the bald locust after its kinds, and the cricket after its kinds, and the grasshopper after its kinds. 11.23 But all winged swarming things, which have four feet, are a detestable thing unto you. 11.24 And by these ye shall become unclean; whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until even. 11.25 And whosoever beareth aught of the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even. 11.26 Every beast which parteth the hoof, but is not cloven footed, nor cheweth the cud, is unclean unto you; every one that to toucheth them shall be unclean. 11.27 And whatsoever goeth upon its paws, among all beasts that go on all fours, they are unclean unto you; whoso toucheth their carcass shall be unclean until the even. 11.28 And he that beareth the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; they are unclean unto you. 11.29 And these are they which are unclean unto you among the swarming things that swarm upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kinds, 1
1.30
and the gecko, and the land-crocodile, and the lizard, and the sand-lizard, and the chameleon. 1
1.31
These are they which are unclean to you among all that swarm; whosoever doth touch them, when they are dead, shall be unclean until the even. 1
1.32
And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherewith any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; then shall it be clean. 1
1.33
And every earthen vessel whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean, and it ye shall break. 1
1.34
All food therein which may be eaten, that on which water cometh, shall be unclean; and all drink in every such vessel that may be drunk shall be unclean. 1
1.35
And every thing whereupon any part of their carcass falleth shall be unclean; whether oven, or range for pots, it shall be broken in pieces; they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you. 1
1.36
Nevertheless a fountain or a cistern wherein is a gathering of water shall be clean; but he who toucheth their carcass shall be unclean. 1
1.37
And if aught of their carcass fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it is clean. 1
1.38
But if water be put upon the seed, and aught of their carcass fall thereon, it is unclean unto you.
11.40
And he that eateth of the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; he also that beareth the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
11.44
For I am the LORD your God; sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am holy; neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth.
11.46
This is the law of the beast, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that swarmeth upon the earth;
14.2
This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest. 14.3 And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper; 14.4 then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop. 14.5 And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water. 14.6 As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water. 14.7 And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field. 14.8 And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and bathe himself in water, and he shall be clean; and after that he may come into the camp, but shall dwell outside his tent seven days.

14.20
And the priest shall offer the burnt-offering and the meal-offering upon the altar; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be clean.
17.10
And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people. 17.11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life. 17.12 Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood. 17.13 And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust. 17.14 For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.
19.19
Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.
22.27
When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, is brought forth, then it shall be seven days under the dam; but from the eighth day and thenceforth it may be accepted for an offering made by fire unto the LORD. 22.28 And whether it be cow or ewe, ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day.
27.2
Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When a man shall clearly utter a vow of persons unto the LORD, according to thy valuation, 27.3 then thy valuation shall be for the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy valuation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary. 27.4 And if it be a female, then thy valuation shall be thirty shekels. 27.5 And if it be from five years old even unto twenty years old, then thy valuation shall be for the male twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 27.6 And if it be from a month old even unto five years old, then thy valuation shall be for the male five shekels of silver, and for the female thy valuation shall be three shekels of silver. 27.7 And if it be from sixty years old and upward: if it be a male, then thy valuation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 2
7.8
But if he be too poor for thy valuation, then he shall be set before the priest, and the priest shall value him; according to the means of him that vowed shall the priest value him.
27.30
And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD’S; it is holy unto the LORD.
27.32
And all the tithe of the herd or the flock, whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the LORD.' ' None
8. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.10-1.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 397, 398; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 276

sup>1.11 כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.12 וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃' ' Nonesup>
1.10 Oh that there were even one among you that would shut the doors, That ye might not kindle fire on Mine altar in vain! I have no pleasure in you, Saith the LORD of hosts, Neither will I accept an offering at your hand. 1.11 For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts. 1.12 But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’'' None
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.8-18.20, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Yahweh, animals of • animal • animal, bovine • animal, bull • animal, unicorn • animals, • animals, sacred, in Judea

 Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 36, 73, 79, 185; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 105; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 318; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 240

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18.8 וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃ 18.9 זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃' '18.11 וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃ 18.12 כֹּל חֵלֶב יִצְהָר וְכָל־חֵלֶב תִּירוֹשׁ וְדָגָן רֵאשִׁיתָם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ נְתַתִּים׃ 18.13 בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃ 18.14 כָּל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.15 כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אַךְ פָּדֹה תִפְדֶּה אֵת בְּכוֹר הָאָדָם וְאֵת בְּכוֹר־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה תִּפְדֶּה׃ 18.16 וּפְדוּיָו מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ תִּפְדֶּה בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הוּא׃ 18.17 אַךְ בְּכוֹר־שׁוֹר אוֹ־בְכוֹר כֶּשֶׂב אוֹ־בְכוֹר עֵז לֹא תִפְדֶּה קֹדֶשׁ הֵם אֶת־דָּמָם תִּזְרֹק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּם תַּקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 18.18 וּבְשָׂרָם יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כַּחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וּכְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.19 כֹּל תְּרוּמֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה נָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם בְּרִית מֶלַח עוֹלָם הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אִתָּךְ׃
28.2
וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃
28.2
צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃'' None
sup>
18.8 And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever. 18.9 This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons. 18.10 In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee. 18.11 And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 18.12 All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the corn, the first part of them which they give unto the LORD, to thee have I given them. 18.13 The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 18.14 Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine. 18.15 Every thing that openeth the womb, of all flesh which they offer unto the LORD, both of man and beast, shall be thine; howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem. 18.16 And their redemption-money—from a month old shalt thou redeem them—shall be, according to thy valuation, five shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary—the same is twenty gerahs. 18.17 But the firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt dash their blood against the altar, and shalt make their fat smoke for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD. 18.18 And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave-breast and as the right thigh, it shall be thine. 18.19 All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; it is an everlasting covet of salt before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.’ 18.20 And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel.
28.2
Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season.'' None
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 5.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • educational metaphor, animal that crushes things underfoot • women, as animals

 Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 59; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 119

sup>
5.19 אַיֶּלֶת אֲהָבִים וְיַעֲלַת־חֵן דַּדֶּיהָ יְרַוֻּךָ בְכָל־עֵת בְּאַהֲבָתָהּ תִּשְׁגֶּה תָמִיד׃'' None
sup>
5.19 A lovely hind and a graceful doe, Let her breasts satisfy thee at all times; With her love be thou ravished always.'' None
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1, 8.6, 36.7, 104.18, 104.25-104.26, 104.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animals • Rule/Ruler, Animals, of • Seth, Encounter with animal (beast) • animal • animal imagery • animal, cattle • animals, created from four elements • animals, exotic • animals, exotic, vs. prosaic • animals, generative modes of • bodies, animal bodies • fire, animals born from • prey animals

 Found in books: Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 137; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 131; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 163; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 18, 25, 26; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 396, 601; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 69, 77, 78, 221; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 151; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 288; Wiebe (2021), Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine, 80

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1.1 אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃
8.6
וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃
36.7
צִדְקָתְךָ כְּהַרְרֵי־אֵל מִשְׁפָּטֶךָ תְּהוֹם רַבָּה אָדָם־וּבְהֵמָה תוֹשִׁיעַ יְהוָה׃
104.18
הָרִים הַגְּבֹהִים לַיְּעֵלִים סְלָעִים מַחְסֶה לַשְׁפַנִּים׃
104.25
זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם־רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם־גְּדֹלוֹת׃ 104.26 שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃' ' None
sup>
1.1 HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful.
8.6
Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour.
36.7
Thy righteousness is like the mighty mountains; Thy judgments are like the great deep; Man and beast Thou preservest, O LORD.
104.18
The high mountains are for the wild goats; The rocks are a refuge for the conies.
104.25
Yonder sea, great and wide, Therein are creeping things innumerable, Living creatures, both small and great. 104.26 There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein.
104.30
Thou sendest forth Thy spirit, they are created; and Thou renewest the face of the earth.'' None
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.1, 2.6, 7.11-7.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Rule/Ruler, Animals, of • animal, fish • animal, fox • animal, sheep • animals, • animals, fish, and birds, fast/ mourn/ in sackcloth

 Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 301; Gera (2014), Judith, 180; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 187, 345, 346; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947

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2.1 וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃
2.1
יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו מְרִיבָיו עלו עָלָיו בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃
2.6
יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃
7.11
וַיֵּצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הַמִּצְפָּה וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּכּוּם עַד־מִתַּחַת לְבֵית כָּר׃ 7.12 וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶבֶן אַחַת וַיָּשֶׂם בֵּין־הַמִּצְפָּה וּבֵין הַשֵּׁן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָהּ אֶבֶן הָעָזֶר וַיֹּאמַר עַד־הֵנָּה עֲזָרָנוּ יְהוָה׃ 7.13 וַיִּכָּנְעוּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים וְלֹא־יָסְפוּ עוֹד לָבוֹא בִּגְבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתְּהִי יַד־יְהוָה בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים כֹּל יְמֵי שְׁמוּאֵל׃'' None
sup>
2.1 And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation.
2.6
The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up.
7.11
And the men of Yisra᾽el went out of Miżpa and pursued the Pelishtim, and smote them, until they came under Bet-kar. 7.12 Then Shemu᾽el took a stone, and set it between Miżpa and Shen, and called the name of it Even-ha῾ezer, saying, Hitherto the Lord has helped us. 7.13 So the Pelishtim were subdued, and they came no more into the territory of Yisra᾽el: and the hand of the Lord was against the Pelishtim all the days of Shemu᾽el.'' None
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.6, 65.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery • peace, among animals,

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 135; Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 228

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11.6 וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃
65.25
זְאֵב וְטָלֶה יִרְעוּ כְאֶחָד וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן וְנָחָשׁ עָפָר לַחְמוֹ לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי אָמַר יְהוָה׃'' None
sup>
11.6 And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.
65.25
The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, And the lion shall eat straw like the ox; And dust shall be the serpent’s food. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, Saith the LORD.'' None
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 23.1-23.2, 25.31, 35.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dream imagery, animals • Rule/Ruler, Animals, of • animal imagery • animal life • animals, fish, and birds

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 138; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 121; Gera (2014), Judith, 143, 364; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 39

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23.1 הוֹי רֹעִים מְאַבְּדִים וּמְפִצִים אֶת־צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃
23.1
כִּי מְנָאֲפִים מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ כִּי־מִפְּנֵי אָלָה אָבְלָה הָאָרֶץ יָבְשׁוּ נְאוֹת מִדְבָּר וַתְּהִי מְרוּצָתָם רָעָה וּגְבוּרָתָם לֹא־כֵן׃ 23.2 לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הָרֹעִים הָרֹעִים אֶת־עַמִּי אַתֶּם הֲפִצֹתֶם אֶת־צֹאנִי וַתַּדִּחוּם וְלֹא פְקַדְתֶּם אֹתָם הִנְנִי פֹקֵד עֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 23.2 לֹא יָשׁוּב אַף־יְהוָה עַד־עֲשֹׂתוֹ וְעַד־הֲקִימוֹ מְזִמּוֹת לִבּוֹ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים תִּתְבּוֹנְנוּ בָהּ בִּינָה׃
25.31
בָּא שָׁאוֹן עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה בַּגּוֹיִם נִשְׁפָּט הוּא לְכָל־בָּשָׂר הָרְשָׁעִים נְתָנָם לַחֶרֶב נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃' ' None
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23.1 Woe unto the shepherds that destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture! saith the LORD. 23.2 Therefore thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, against the shepherds that feed My people: Ye have scattered My flock, and driven them away, and have not taken care of them; behold, I will visit upon you the evil of your doings, saith the LORD.
25.31
A noise is come even to the end of the earth; For the LORD hath a controversy with the nations, He doth plead with all flesh; As for the wicked, He hath given them to the sword, Saith the LORD.' ' None
15. Hesiod, Works And Days, 155, 190-201, 276-278 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal Apocalypse • Animals • animals

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 160, 161; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016), The Ancient Emotion of Disgust, 144; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 179; Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 31

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155 εἷλε μέλας, λαμπρὸν δʼ ἔλιπον φάος ἠελίοιο.190 οὐδέ τις εὐόρκου χάρις ἔσσεται οὔτε δικαίου 191 οὔτʼ ἀγαθοῦ, μᾶλλον δὲ κακῶν ῥεκτῆρα καὶ ὕβριν 192 ἀνέρες αἰνήσουσι· δίκη δʼ ἐν χερσί, καὶ αἰδὼς 193 οὐκ ἔσται· βλάψει δʼ ὁ κακὸς τὸν ἀρείονα φῶτα 194 μύθοισιν σκολιοῖς ἐνέπων, ἐπὶ δʼ ὅρκον ὀμεῖται. 195 ζῆλος δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀιζυροῖσιν ἅπασι 196 δυσκέλαδος κακόχαρτος ὁμαρτήσει, στυγερώπης. 197 καὶ τότε δὴ πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἀπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 198 λευκοῖσιν φάρεσσι καλυψαμένα χρόα καλὸν 199 ἀθανάτων μετὰ φῦλον ἴτον προλιπόντʼ ἀνθρώπους 200 Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ 201 θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐκ ἔσσεται ἀλκή.
276
τόνδε γὰρ ἀνθρώποισι νόμον διέταξε Κρονίων 277 ἰχθύσι μὲν καὶ θηρσὶ καὶ οἰωνοῖς πετεηνοῖς 278 ἐσθέμεν ἀλλήλους, ἐπεὶ οὐ δίκη ἐστὶ μετʼ αὐτοῖς· ' None
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155 of no black iron. Later, when they died190 But mix good with the bad. Zeus will destroy 191 Them too when babies in their cribs shall grow 192 Grey hair. No bond a father with his boy 193 Shall share, nor guest with host, nor friend with friend – 194 No love of brothers as there was erstwhile, 195 Respect for aging parents at an end. 196 Their wretched children shall with words of bile 197 Find fault with them in their irreverence 198 And not repay their bringing up. We’ll find 199 Cities brought down. There’ll be no deference 200 That’s given to the honest, just and kind. 201 The evil and the proud will get acclaim,
276
For evil. You who hold supremacy 277 And swallow bribes, beware of this and shun 278 All crooked laws and deal in what is best. ' None
16. Hesiod, Theogony, 112-113 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mother of the Gods, and animals • animal victim, god's portion at sacrifice

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 199; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 33

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112 ὥς τʼ ἄφενος δάσσαντο καὶ ὡς τιμὰς διέλοντο'113 ἠδὲ καὶ ὡς τὰ πρῶτα πολύπτυχον ἔσχον Ὄλυμπον. ' None
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112 And all the gods who in Olympus dwell:'113 At once they then forget their heaviness – ' None
17. Homer, Iliad, 2.148, 2.459-2.463, 2.551, 3.103-3.106, 3.270, 3.273-3.274, 3.278-3.279, 3.284-3.287, 3.292-3.301, 3.310, 4.34-4.36, 12.200-12.209, 12.233-12.243, 18.417-18.418, 19.252-19.254, 19.258-19.260, 19.266-19.268, 19.404-19.418 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Homer, animals in • Mother of the Gods, and animals • Oath-rituals, sacrificial animals • Sacrifice, animal • Sacrificial animals • Sacrificial animals, species: boar • animal species, cattle • animal speech • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals • animals as diet for Achilles • animals as oath sacrifices • animals as oath sacrifices, and perjury • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • animals, weak or precipitate • animate/inanimate • animation, of statues • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • sacrifice, animal, rejection of, Empedocles • statues, animation of • triad of sacrificial animals

 Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 279; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 189, 252; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 98, 133, 262; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 244; Kanellakis (2020), Aristophanes and the Poetics of Surprise, 94; Kneebone (2020), Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity, 268, 269, 270, 327, 328; Lightfoot (2021), Wonder and the Marvellous from Homer to the Hellenistic World, 204; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 33; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 86; Roumpou (2023), Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature. 117; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 139, 140, 154; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 184, 186, 187, 190, 191, 197, 198; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 117; Thonemann (2020), An Ancient Dream Manual: Artemidorus' the Interpretation of Dreams, 91, 129

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2.148 λάβρος ἐπαιγίζων, ἐπί τʼ ἠμύει ἀσταχύεσσιν,
2.459
τῶν δʼ ὥς τʼ ὀρνίθων πετεηνῶν ἔθνεα πολλὰ 2.460 χηνῶν ἢ γεράνων ἢ κύκνων δουλιχοδείρων 2.461 Ἀσίω ἐν λειμῶνι Καϋστρίου ἀμφὶ ῥέεθρα 2.462 ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ποτῶνται ἀγαλλόμενα πτερύγεσσι 2.463 κλαγγηδὸν προκαθιζόντων, σμαραγεῖ δέ τε λειμών,
2.551
κοῦροι Ἀθηναίων περιτελλομένων ἐνιαυτῶν·
3.103
οἴσετε ἄρνʼ, ἕτερον λευκόν, ἑτέρην δὲ μέλαιναν, 3.104 Γῇ τε καὶ Ἠελίῳ· Διὶ δʼ ἡμεῖς οἴσομεν ἄλλον· 3.105 ἄξετε δὲ Πριάμοιο βίην, ὄφρʼ ὅρκια τάμνῃ 3.106 αὐτός, ἐπεί οἱ παῖδες ὑπερφίαλοι καὶ ἄπιστοι,
3.270
μίσγον, ἀτὰρ βασιλεῦσιν ὕδωρ ἐπὶ χεῖρας ἔχευαν.
3.273
ἀρνῶν ἐκ κεφαλέων τάμνε τρίχας· αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα 3.274 κήρυκες Τρώων καὶ Ἀχαιῶν νεῖμαν ἀρίστοις.
3.278
καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ γαῖα, καὶ οἳ ὑπένερθε καμόντας 3.279 ἀνθρώπους τίνυσθον ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,
3.284
εἰ δέ κʼ Ἀλέξανδρον κτείνῃ ξανθὸς Μενέλαος, 3.285 Τρῶας ἔπειθʼ Ἑλένην καὶ κτήματα πάντʼ ἀποδοῦναι, 3.286 τιμὴν δʼ Ἀργείοις ἀποτινέμεν ἥν τινʼ ἔοικεν, 3.287 ἥ τε καὶ ἐσσομένοισι μετʼ ἀνθρώποισι πέληται.
3.292
ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ στομάχους ἀρνῶν τάμε νηλέϊ χαλκῷ· 3.293 καὶ τοὺς μὲν κατέθηκεν ἐπὶ χθονὸς ἀσπαίροντας 3.294 θυμοῦ δευομένους· ἀπὸ γὰρ μένος εἵλετο χαλκός. 3.295 οἶνον δʼ ἐκ κρητῆρος ἀφυσσόμενοι δεπάεσσιν 3.296 ἔκχεον, ἠδʼ εὔχοντο θεοῖς αἰειγενέτῃσιν. 3.297 ὧδε δέ τις εἴπεσκεν Ἀχαιῶν τε Τρώων τε· 3.298 Ζεῦ κύδιστε μέγιστε καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι 3.299 ὁππότεροι πρότεροι ὑπὲρ ὅρκια πημήνειαν 3.300 ὧδέ σφʼ ἐγκέφαλος χαμάδις ῥέοι ὡς ὅδε οἶνος 3.301 αὐτῶν καὶ τεκέων, ἄλοχοι δʼ ἄλλοισι δαμεῖεν.
3.310
ἦ ῥα καὶ ἐς δίφρον ἄρνας θέτο ἰσόθεος φώς,
4.34
εἰ δὲ σύ γʼ εἰσελθοῦσα πύλας καὶ τείχεα μακρὰ 4.35 ὠμὸν βεβρώθοις Πρίαμον Πριάμοιό τε παῖδας 4.36 ἄλλους τε Τρῶας, τότε κεν χόλον ἐξακέσαιο.
12.200
ὄρνις γάρ σφιν ἐπῆλθε περησέμεναι μεμαῶσιν 12.201 αἰετὸς ὑψιπέτης ἐπʼ ἀριστερὰ λαὸν ἐέργων 12.202 φοινήεντα δράκοντα φέρων ὀνύχεσσι πέλωρον 12.203 ζωὸν ἔτʼ ἀσπαίροντα, καὶ οὔ πω λήθετο χάρμης, 12.204 κόψε γὰρ αὐτὸν ἔχοντα κατὰ στῆθος παρὰ δειρὴν 12.205 ἰδνωθεὶς ὀπίσω· ὃ δʼ ἀπὸ ἕθεν ἧκε χαμᾶζε 12.206 ἀλγήσας ὀδύνῃσι, μέσῳ δʼ ἐνὶ κάββαλʼ ὁμίλῳ, 12.207 αὐτὸς δὲ κλάγξας πέτετο πνοιῇς ἀνέμοιο. 12.208 Τρῶες δʼ ἐρρίγησαν ὅπως ἴδον αἰόλον ὄφιν 12.209 κείμενον ἐν μέσσοισι Διὸς τέρας αἰγιόχοιο.
12.233
εἰ δʼ ἐτεὸν δὴ τοῦτον ἀπὸ σπουδῆς ἀγορεύεις, 12.234 ἐξ ἄρα δή τοι ἔπειτα θεοὶ φρένας ὤλεσαν αὐτοί, 12.235 ὃς κέλεαι Ζηνὸς μὲν ἐριγδούποιο λαθέσθαι 12.236 βουλέων, ἅς τέ μοι αὐτὸς ὑπέσχετο καὶ κατένευσε· 12.237 τύνη δʼ οἰωνοῖσι τανυπτερύγεσσι κελεύεις 12.238 πείθεσθαι, τῶν οὔ τι μετατρέπομʼ οὐδʼ ἀλεγίζω 12.239 εἴτʼ ἐπὶ δεξίʼ ἴωσι πρὸς ἠῶ τʼ ἠέλιόν τε, 12.240 εἴτʼ ἐπʼ ἀριστερὰ τοί γε ποτὶ ζόφον ἠερόεντα. 12.241 ἡμεῖς δὲ μεγάλοιο Διὸς πειθώμεθα βουλῇ, 12.242 ὃς πᾶσι θνητοῖσι καὶ ἀθανάτοισιν ἀνάσσει. 12.243 εἷς οἰωνὸς ἄριστος ἀμύνεσθαι περὶ πάτρης.
18.417
χωλεύων· ὑπὸ δʼ ἀμφίπολοι ῥώοντο ἄνακτι 18.418 χρύσειαι ζωῇσι νεήνισιν εἰοικυῖαι.
19.252
Ἀτρεΐδης δὲ ἐρυσσάμενος χείρεσσι μάχαιραν, 19.253 ἥ οἱ πὰρ ξίφεος μέγα κουλεὸν αἰὲν ἄωρτο, 19.254 κάπρου ἀπὸ τρίχας ἀρξάμενος Διὶ χεῖρας ἀνασχὼν
19.258
ἴστω νῦν Ζεὺς πρῶτα θεῶν ὕπατος καὶ ἄριστος 19.259 Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες, αἵ θʼ ὑπὸ γαῖαν 19.260 ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,
19.266
ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ στόμαχον κάπρου τάμε νηλέϊ χαλκῷ. 19.267 τὸν μὲν Ταλθύβιος πολιῆς ἁλὸς ἐς μέγα λαῖτμα 19.268 ῥῖψʼ ἐπιδινήσας βόσιν ἰχθύσιν· αὐτὰρ Ἀχιλλεὺς
19.404
τὸν δʼ ἄρʼ ὑπὸ ζυγόφι προσέφη πόδας αἰόλος ἵππος 19.405 Ξάνθος, ἄφαρ δʼ ἤμυσε καρήατι· πᾶσα δὲ χαίτη 19.406 ζεύγλης ἐξεριποῦσα παρὰ ζυγὸν οὖδας ἵκανεν· 19.407 αὐδήεντα δʼ ἔθηκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη· 19.408 καὶ λίην σʼ ἔτι νῦν γε σαώσομεν ὄβριμʼ Ἀχιλλεῦ· 19.409 ἀλλά τοι ἐγγύθεν ἦμαρ ὀλέθριον· οὐδέ τοι ἡμεῖς 19.410 αἴτιοι, ἀλλὰ θεός τε μέγας καὶ Μοῖρα κραταιή. 19.411 οὐδὲ γὰρ ἡμετέρῃ βραδυτῆτί τε νωχελίῃ τε 19.412 Τρῶες ἀπʼ ὤμοιιν Πατρόκλου τεύχεʼ ἕλοντο· 19.413 ἀλλὰ θεῶν ὤριστος, ὃν ἠΰκομος τέκε Λητώ, 19.414 ἔκτανʼ ἐνὶ προμάχοισι καὶ Ἕκτορι κῦδος ἔδωκε. 19.415 νῶϊ δὲ καί κεν ἅμα πνοιῇ Ζεφύροιο θέοιμεν, 19.416 ἥν περ ἐλαφροτάτην φάσʼ ἔμμεναι· ἀλλὰ σοὶ αὐτῷ 19.417 μόρσιμόν ἐστι θεῷ τε καὶ ἀνέρι ἶφι δαμῆναι. 19.418 ὣς ἄρα φωνήσαντος Ἐρινύες ἔσχεθον αὐδήν.'' None
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2.148 which the East Wind or the South Wind has raised, rushing upon them from the clouds of father Zeus. And even as when the West Wind at its coming stirreth a deep cornfield with its violent blast, and the ears bow thereunder, even so was all their gathering stirred, and they with loud shouting rushed towards the ships;
2.459
Even as a consuming fire maketh a boundless forest to blaze on the peaks of a mountain, and from afar is the glare thereof to be seen, even so from their innumerable bronze, as they marched forth, went the dazzling gleam up through the sky unto the heavens. And as the many tribes of winged fowl, 2.460 wild geese or cranes or long-necked swans on the Asian mead by the streams of Caystrius, fly this way and that, glorying in their strength of wing, and with loud cries settle ever onwards, and the mead resoundeth; even so their many tribes poured forth from ships and huts
2.551
and there the youths of the Athenians, as the years roll on in their courses, seek to win his favour with sacrifices of bulls and rams;—these again had as leader Menestheus, son of Peteos. Like unto him was none other man upon the face of the earth for the marshalling of chariots and of warriors that bear the shield. ' "
3.103
because of my quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another; " "3.104 because of my quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another; " '3.105 and fetch ye hither the mighty Priam, that he may himself swear an oath with sacrifice, seeing that his sons are over-weening and faithless; lest any by presumptuous act should do violence to the oaths of Zeus. Ever unstable are the hearts of the young; but in whatsoever an old man taketh part, he looketh both before and after,
3.270
and poured water over the hands of the kings. And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut hair from off the heads of the lambs; and the heralds portioned it out to the chieftans of the Trojans and Achaeans.
3.278
Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath;
3.284
be ye witnesses, and watch over the oaths of faith. If Alexander slay Menelaus, then let him keep Helen and all her treasure; and we will depart in our seafaring ships. But if so be fair-haired Menelaus shall slay Alexander, 3.285 then let the Trojans give back Helen and all her treasure, and pay to the Argives in requital such recompense as beseemeth, even such as shall abide in the minds of men that are yet to be. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be not minded to pay recompense unto me, when Alexander falleth, 3.287 then let the Trojans give back Helen and all her treasure, and pay to the Argives in requital such recompense as beseemeth, even such as shall abide in the minds of men that are yet to be. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be not minded to pay recompense unto me, when Alexander falleth, ' "
3.292
then will I fight on even thereafter, to get me recompense, and will abide here until I find an end of war. He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the pitiless bronze; and laid them down upon the ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze had robbed them of their strength. " "3.294 then will I fight on even thereafter, to get me recompense, and will abide here until I find an end of war. He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the pitiless bronze; and laid them down upon the ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze had robbed them of their strength. " '3.295 Then they drew wine from the bowl into the cups, and poured it forth, and made prayer to the gods that are for ever. And thus would one of the Achaeans and Trojans say:Zeus, most glorious, most great, and ye other immortal gods, which host soever of the twain shall be first to work harm in defiance of the oaths, 3.299 Then they drew wine from the bowl into the cups, and poured it forth, and made prayer to the gods that are for ever. And thus would one of the Achaeans and Trojans say:Zeus, most glorious, most great, and ye other immortal gods, which host soever of the twain shall be first to work harm in defiance of the oaths, ' "3.300 may their brains be thus poured forth upon the ground even as this wine, theirs and their children's; and may their wives be made slaves to others. " "
3.310
So spake the godlike man, and let place the lambs in his chariot, and himself mounted, and drew back the reins, and by his side Antenor mounted the beauteous car; and the twain departed back to Ilios. But Hector, Priam's son, and goodly Odysseus " 4.34 Then, stirred to hot anger, spake to her Zeus, the cloud-gatherer:Strange queen, wherein do Priam and the sons of Priam work thee ills so many, that thou ragest unceasingly to lay waste the well-built citadel of Ilios? If thou wert to enter within the gates and the high walls, 4.35 and to devour Priam raw and the sons of Priam and all the Trojans besides, then perchance mightest thou heal thine anger. Do as thy pleasure is; let not this quarrel in time to come be to thee and me a grievous cause of strife between us twain. And another thing will I tell thee, and do thou lay it to heart.
12.200
For a bird had come upon them, as they were eager to cross over, an eagle of lofty flight, skirting the host on the left, and in its talons it bore a blood-red, monstrous snake, still alive as if struggling, nor was it yet forgetful of combat, it writhed backward, and smote him that held it on the breast beside the neck, 12.205 till the eagle, stung with pain, cast it from him to the ground, and let it fall in the midst of the throng, and himself with a loud cry sped away down the blasts of the wind. And the Trojans shuddered when they saw the writhing snake lying in the midst of them, a portent of Zeus that beareth the aegis.
12.233
Then with an angry glance from beneath his brows spake to him Hector of the flashing helm:Polydamas, this that thou sayest is no longer to my pleasure; yea, thou knowest how to devise better words than these. But if thou verily speakest thus in earnest, then of a surety have the gods themselves destroyed thy wits, 12.235 eeing thou biddest me forget the counsels of loud-thundering Zeus, that himself promised me and bowed his head thereto. But thou biddest us be obedient to birds long of wing, that I regard not, nor take thought thereof, whether they fare to the right, toward the Dawn and the sun, 12.239 eeing thou biddest me forget the counsels of loud-thundering Zeus, that himself promised me and bowed his head thereto. But thou biddest us be obedient to birds long of wing, that I regard not, nor take thought thereof, whether they fare to the right, toward the Dawn and the sun, ' "12.240 or to the left toward the murky darkness. nay, for us, let us be obedient to the counsel of great Zeus, that is king over all mortals and immortals. One omen is best, to fight for one's country. Wherefore dost thou fear war and battle? " "12.243 or to the left toward the murky darkness. nay, for us, let us be obedient to the counsel of great Zeus, that is king over all mortals and immortals. One omen is best, to fight for one's country. Wherefore dost thou fear war and battle? " 18.417 and his mighty neck and shaggy breast, and put upon him a tunic, and grasped a stout staff, and went forth halting; but there moved swiftly to support their lord handmaidens wrought of gold in the semblance of living maids. In them is understanding in their hearts, and in them speech 18.418 and his mighty neck and shaggy breast, and put upon him a tunic, and grasped a stout staff, and went forth halting; but there moved swiftly to support their lord handmaidens wrought of gold in the semblance of living maids. In them is understanding in their hearts, and in them speech ' "
19.252
rose up, and Talthybius, whose voice was like a god's, took his stand by the side of the shepherd of the people, holding a boar in his hands. And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut the firstling hairs from the boar, and lifting up his hands " "19.254 rose up, and Talthybius, whose voice was like a god's, took his stand by the side of the shepherd of the people, holding a boar in his hands. And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut the firstling hairs from the boar, and lifting up his hands " 19.258 made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth 19.259 made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth ' "19.260 take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath, that never laid I hand upon the girl Briseis either by way of a lover's embrace or anywise else, but she ever abode untouched in my huts. And if aught of this oath be false, may the gods give me woes " "
19.266
full many, even all that they are wont to give to him whoso sinneth against them in his swearing. He spake, and cut the boar's throat with the pitiless bronze, and the body Talthybius whirled and flung into the great gulf of the grey sea, to be food for the fishes; but Achilles uprose, and spake among the war-loving Argives: " "19.268 full many, even all that they are wont to give to him whoso sinneth against them in his swearing. He spake, and cut the boar's throat with the pitiless bronze, and the body Talthybius whirled and flung into the great gulf of the grey sea, to be food for the fishes; but Achilles uprose, and spake among the war-loving Argives: " 19.404 Xanthus and Balius, ye far-famed children of Podarge, in some other wise bethink you to bring your charioteer back safe to the host of the Danaans, when we have had our fill of war, and leave ye not him there dead, as ye did Patroclus. Then from beneath the yoke spake to him the horse Xanthus, of the swift-glancing feet; 19.405 on a sudden he bowed his head, and all his mane streamed from beneath the yoke-pad beside the yoke, and touched the ground; and the goddess, white-armed Hera, gave him speech: Aye verily, yet for this time will we save thee, mighty Achilles, albeit the day of doom is nigh thee, nor shall we be the cause thereof, 19.410 but a mighty god and overpowering Fate. For it was not through sloth or slackness of ours that the Trojans availed to strip the harness from the shoulders of Patroclus, but one, far the best of gods, even he that fair-haired Leto bare, slew him amid the foremost fighters and gave glory to Hector. 19.415 But for us twain, we could run swift as the blast of the West Wind, which, men say, is of all winds the fleetest; nay, it is thine own self that art fated to be slain in fight by a god and a mortal. When he had thus spoken, the Erinyes checked his voice. Then, his heart mightily stirred, spake to him swift-footed Achilles: 19.418 But for us twain, we could run swift as the blast of the West Wind, which, men say, is of all winds the fleetest; nay, it is thine own self that art fated to be slain in fight by a god and a mortal. When he had thus spoken, the Erinyes checked his voice. Then, his heart mightily stirred, spake to him swift-footed Achilles: '' None
18. Homeric Hymns, To Hermes, 567-568 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, animals, association with • Hermes, animals, association with • animals, Artemis as “Mistress of Beasts,” • animals, Hermes and • herdsman, master of animals

 Found in books: Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 15; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 327

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567 About. I give you them. If you enquire'568 Strictly of them, you’ll gain your heart’s desire. ' None
19. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Asklepios, as healer of animals • Hermes, animals, association with • Oath-rituals, sacrificial animals • Podalirios, heroon at Mt. Drion, healing of domestic animals • Religion (Egyptian and Greco-Egyptian), healing of domestic animals • Sarapis, tales of curing animals • Transmigration (μετενσωμάτωσις), humans to animals • animal species, cow • animal species, ewe • animal victim, parts of,head • animal victim, parts of,muzzle • animal victim, parts of,skin • animal victim, treatment of, decapitated • animal victim, treatment of, killed with head bent towards the ground • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animal, burial • animal, in ritual • animal, morality • animal, subjugation • animals • animals, Hermes and • animals, domestic • animals, in relation to the natural slave • animals, sacred • animation, of statues • colour of animal victim, black • sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter • statues, animation of

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 242, 472; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 62, 254, 265, 273; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 18; Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 244; Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 234; Lupu (2005), Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) 29; Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 73, 99; Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 305, 306; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 396; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 186; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 117; Thonemann (2020), An Ancient Dream Manual: Artemidorus' the Interpretation of Dreams, 95

20. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, domestic

 Found in books: Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 67; Kanellakis (2020), Aristophanes and the Poetics of Surprise, 80

21. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 136, 224-247, 720, 735, 1036-1037, 1056 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, animals, association with • animal imagery • animals • animals, Artemis as “Mistress of Beasts,” • animals, sacrificial • bride, as animal • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, Aegisthus in Euripides Electra • sacrifice, animal, human, of Iphigenia in the Agamemnon

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 104; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 229; Pillinger (2019), Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature, 40; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 289; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 166, 175

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136 225 θυτὴρ γενέσθαι θυγατρός, 226 γυναικοποίνων πολέμων ἀρωγὰν 227 καὶ προτέλεια ναῶν. Χορός 228 λιτὰς δὲ καὶ κληδόνας πατρῴους 229 παρʼ οὐδὲν αἰῶ τε παρθένειον 230 ἔθεντο φιλόμαχοι βραβῆς. 231 φράσεν δʼ ἀόζοις πατὴρ μετʼ εὐχὰν 232 δίκαν χιμαίρας ὕπερθε βωμοῦ 233 πέπλοισι περιπετῆ παντὶ θυμῷ προνωπῆ 235 λαβεῖν ἀέρδην, στόματός 236 τε καλλιπρῴρου φυλακᾷ κατασχεῖν 238 βίᾳ χαλινῶν τʼ ἀναύδῳ μένει. 239 κρόκου βαφὰς δʼ ἐς πέδον χέουσα 240 ἔβαλλʼ ἕκαστον θυτήρ- 241 ων ἀπʼ ὄμματος βέλει 242 φιλοίκτῳ, πρέπουσά θʼ ὡς ἐν γραφαῖς, προσεννέπειν 243 θέλουσʼ, ἐπεὶ πολλάκις 244 πατρὸς κατʼ ἀνδρῶνας εὐτραπέζους 245 ἔμελψεν, ἁγνᾷ δʼ ἀταύρωτος αὐδᾷ πατρὸς 246 φίλου τριτόσπονδον εὔ- 247 ποτμον παιῶνα φίλως ἐτίμα— Χορός
720
ἐν βιότου προτελείοις
1036
ἐπεί σʼ ἔθηκε Ζεὺς ἀμηνίτως δόμοις'1037 κοινωνὸν εἶναι χερνίβων, πολλῶν μέτα
1056
τρίβειν· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἑστίας μεσομφάλου ' None
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136
224 The sacrificer of his daughter — strange! — 225 He dared become, to expedite 226 Woman-avenging warfare, — anchors weighed 227 With such prelusive rite! 228 Prayings and callings 229 of these, and of the virgin-age, — 230 Captains heart-set on war to wage! 231 His ministrants, vows done, the father bade — 232 Kid-like, above the altar, swathed in pall, 233 Take her — lift high, and have no fear at all, 234 Head-downward, and the fair mouth’s guard 235 And frontage hold, — press hard 236 From utterance a curse against the House 238 By dint of bit-violence bridling speech. 239 And as to ground her saffron-vest she shed, 240 She smote the sacrificers all and each 241 From the eye only sped, — 241 With arrow sweet and piteous, 242 Just as in pictures: since, full many a time, 242 Significant of will to use a word, 243 In her sire’s guest-hall, by the well-heaped board 244 Had she made music, — lovingly with chime 245 of her chaste voice, that unpolluted thing, 246 Honoured the third libation, — paian that should bring 247 Good fortune to the sire she loved so well.
720
Gentle as yet,
1036
Since Zeus — not angrily—in household placed thee ' 1037 Partaker of hand-sprinklings, with the many
1056
To waste time: as concerns the hearth mid-navelled, ' None
22. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.19-1.20, 5.17, 14.21, 34.8, 44.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animal Apocalypse • Animals • Rule/Ruler, Animals, of • Yahweh, animals of • animal imagery • animals • animals, fish, and birds • animals, sacred, in Judea • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 397; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 138; Gera (2014), Judith, 364; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 93; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 98; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 408; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 179; Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 217

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1.19 וּבְלֶכֶת הַחַיּוֹת יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבְהִנָּשֵׂא הַחַיּוֹת מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ יִנָּשְׂאוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים׃' 34.8 חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אִם־לֹא יַעַן הֱיוֹת־צֹאנִי לָבַז וַתִּהְיֶינָה צֹאנִי לְאָכְלָה לְכָל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵין רֹעֶה וְלֹא־דָרְשׁוּ רֹעַי אֶת־צֹאנִי וַיִּרְעוּ הָרֹעִים אוֹתָם וְאֶת־צֹאנִי לֹא רָעוּ׃
44.16
הֵמָּה יָבֹאוּ אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי וְהֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֶל־שֻׁלְחָנִי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי׃'' None
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1.19 And when the living creatures went, the wheels went hard by them; and when the living creatures were lifted up from the bottom, the wheels were lifted up. 1.20 Whithersoever the spirit was to go, as the spirit was to go thither, so they went; and the wheels were lifted up beside them; for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.
34.8
As I live, saith the Lord GOD, surely forasmuch as My sheep became a prey, and My sheep became food to all the beasts of the field, because there was no shepherd, neither did My shepherds search for My sheep, but the shepherds fed themselves, and fed not My sheep;
44.16
they shall enter into My sanctuary, and they shall come near to My table, to minister unto Me, and they shall keep My charge.' ' None
23. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 139; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 204

24. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal • animal bones, thigh-bones • animal victim, god's portion at sacrifice • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 115; Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 14

25. Euripides, Bacchae, 66, 84, 87, 99-115, 138-140, 142-143, 150, 157, 726 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, rejoicing • Joy, of animals, houses and day itself • Mother of the Gods, and animals • Rejoicing, of animals, houses and day itself • animal material • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47, 172; Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 49, 54; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 169; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 56, 81

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66 Βρομίῳ πόνον ἡδὺν κάματόν τʼ εὐκάματον,
84 Βρόμιον παῖδα θεὸν θεοῦ
87
εὐρυχόρους ἀγυιάς, τὸν Βρόμιον· Χορός
99
ἔτεκεν δʼ, ἁνίκα Μοῖραι 100 τέλεσαν, ταυρόκερων θεὸν'101 στεφάνωσέν τε δρακόντων 102 στεφάνοις, ἔνθεν ἄγραν θηροτρόφον 103 μαινάδες ἀμφιβάλλονται 104 πλοκάμοις. Χορός 105 ὦ Σεμέλας τροφοὶ Θῆβαι, word split in text 106 στεφανοῦσθε κισσῷ· 107 βρύετε βρύετε χλοήρει 108 μίλακι καλλικάρπῳ 109 καὶ καταβακχιοῦσθε δρυὸς 110 ἢ ἐλάτας κλάδοισι, 111 στικτῶν τʼ ἐνδυτὰ νεβρίδων 112 στέφετε λευκοτρίχων πλοκάμων 113 μαλλοῖς· ἀμφὶ δὲ νάρθηκας ὑβριστὰς 114 ὁσιοῦσθʼ· αὐτίκα γᾶ πᾶσα χορεύσει— 115 Βρόμιος ὅστις ἄγῃ θιάσουσ—
138
ἔχων ἱερὸν ἐνδυτόν, ἀγρεύων 139 αἷμα τραγοκτόνον, ὠμοφάγον χάριν, ἱέμενος 140 ἐς ὄρεα Φρύγια, Λύδιʼ, ὁ δʼ ἔξαρχος Βρόμιος,
142
ῥεῖ δὲ γάλακτι πέδον, ῥεῖ δʼ οἴνῳ, ῥεῖ δὲ μελισσᾶν 143 νέκταρι.
150
τρυφερόν τε πλόκαμον εἰς αἰθέρα ῥίπτων.
157
βαρυβρόμων ὑπὸ τυμπάνων,
726
Βρόμιον καλοῦσαι· πᾶν δὲ συνεβάκχευʼ ὄρος ' None
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66 having left sacred Tmolus, I am swift to perform for Bromius my sweet labor and toil easily borne, celebrating the god Bacchus Lit. shouting the ritual cry εὐοῖ . . Who is in the way? Who is in the way? Who? Let him get out of the way indoors, and let everyone keep his mouth pure E. R. Dodds takes this passage Let everyone come outside being sure to keep his mouth pure . He does not believe that there should be a full stop after the third τίς . ,
84
brandishing the thyrsos, garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus.Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, escorting the god Bromius, child of a god,
87
from the Phrygian mountains to the broad streets of Hellas—Bromius, Choru
99
received him in a chamber fit for birth, and having covered him in his thigh shut him up with golden clasps, hidden from Hera.And he brought forth, when the Fate 100 had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru'101 had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru 105 O Thebes , nurse of Semele, crown yourself with ivy, flourish, flourish with the verdant yew bearing sweet fruit, and crown yourself in honor of Bacchus with branches of oak 110 or pine. Adorn your garments of spotted fawn-skin with fleeces of white sheep, and sport in holy games with insolent thyrsoi The thyrsos is a staff that is crowned with ivy and that is sacred to Dionysus and an emblem of his worship. . At once all the earth will dance— 115 whoever leads the sacred band is Bromius—to the mountain, to the mountain, where the crowd of women waits, goaded away from their weaving by Dionysus. Choru
138
He is sweet in the mountains cf. Dodds, ad loc. , whenever after the running dance he falls on the ground, wearing the sacred garment of fawn skin, hunting the blood of the slain goat, a raw-eaten delight, rushing to the 140 Phrygian, the Lydian mountains, and the leader of the dance is Bromius, evoe! A ritual cry of delight. The plain flows with milk, it flows with wine, it flows with the nectar of bees.
150
casting his rich locks into the air. And among the Maenad cries his voice rings deep: This last phrase taken verbatim from Dodds, ad loc. Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, with the luxury of Tmolus that flows with gold,
157
ing of Dionysus, beneath the heavy beat of drums, celebrating in delight the god of delight with Phrygian shouts and cries,
726
calling on Iacchus, the son of Zeus, Bromius, with united voice. The whole mountain revelled along with them and the beasts, and nothing was unmoved by their running. Agave happened to be leaping near me, and I sprang forth, wanting to snatch her, ' None
26. Euripides, Electra, 260-261 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal species, boar • animal species, dog • animal victim, treatment of burning of entire victim • destruction of animal victim by fire • sacrifice, animal, Aegisthus in Euripides Electra

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 255; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 229

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260 ξυνῆκ': ̓Ορέστῃ μή ποτ' ἐκτείσῃ δίκην."261 τοῦτ' αὐτὸ ταρβῶν, πρὸς δὲ καὶ σώφρων ἔφυ." "" None
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260 I understand; he fears that he may someday be punished by Orestes. Electra'261 He does fear that, but he is also a virtuous man. Oreste ' None
27. Euripides, Medea, 1200 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery, disease as an animal • animals, affected by disease, disease compared to

 Found in books: Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 89; Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 93

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1200 σάρκες δ' ἀπ' ὀστέων ὥστε πεύκινον δάκρυ"" None
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1200 and from her bones the flesh kept peeling off beneath the gnawing of those secret drugs, e’en as when the pine-tree weeps its tears of pitch, a fearsome sight to see. And all were afraid to touch the corpse, for we were warned by what had chanced. Anon came her hapless father'' None
28. Euripides, Orestes, 255-259 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, complex behavior in • animals, impressions of • impressions, of animals • sacrifice, animal, pre-battle

 Found in books: Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 240; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 219

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255 ὦ μῆτερ, ἱκετεύω σε, μὴ 'πίσειέ μοι"256 τὰς αἱματωποὺς καὶ δρακοντώδεις κόρας. 257 αὗται γὰρ αὗται πλησίον θρῴσκουσί μου.' "258 μέν', ὦ ταλαίπωρ', ἀτρέμα σοῖς ἐν δεμνίοις:" "259 ὁρᾷς γὰρ οὐδὲν ὧν δοκεῖς σάφ' εἰδέναι." "' None
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255 Mother, I implore you! Do not shake at me those maidens with their bloodshot eyes and snaky hair. Here they are, close by, to leap on me! Electra'256 Mother, I implore you! Do not shake at me those maidens with their bloodshot eyes and snaky hair. Here they are, close by, to leap on me! Electra 258 Lie still, poor sufferer, on your couch; your eye sees nothing, you only imagine that you recognize them. Oreste ' None
29. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 1194-1202 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, species: sheep • animal victim, god's portion at sacrifice • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • triad of sacrificial animals

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 42, 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 139, 140; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 196

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1194 ἢν δ' ὅρκον ἐκλιπόντες ἔλθωσιν, πάλιν"1195 κακῶς ὀλέσθαι πρόστρεπ' ̓Αργείων χθόνα." "1196 ἐν ᾧ δὲ τέμνειν σφάγια χρή ς', ἄκουέ μου." '1197 ἔστιν τρίπους σοι χαλκόπους ἔσω δόμων,' "1198 ὃν ̓Ιλίου ποτ' ἐξαναστήσας βάθρα" "1199 σπουδὴν ἐπ' ἄλλην ̔Ηρακλῆς ὁρμώμενος" "1200 στῆσαί ς' ἐφεῖτο Πυθικὴν πρὸς ἐσχάραν." '1201 ἐν τῷδε λαιμοὺς τρεῖς τριῶν μήλων τεμὼν 1202 ἔγγραψον ὅρκους τρίποδος ἐν κοίλῳ κύτει,' "" None
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1194 to take the oath for the whole realm of Argos. And this shall be the form thereof: We Argives swear we never will against this land lead on our mail-clad troops to war, and, if others come, we will repel them. But if they violate their oath and come against the city, pray'1195 that the land of Argos may be miserably destroyed. 1196 Now hearken while I tell thee where thou must slay the victims. Thou hast within thy halls a tripod with brazen feet, which Heracles, in days gone by, after he had o’erthrown the foundations of Ilium and was starting on another enterprise, 1200 enjoined thee to set up at the Pythian shrine. O’er it cut the throats of three sheep; then grave within the tripod’s hollow belly the oath; this done, deliver it to the god who watches over Delphi to keep, a witness and memorial unto Hellas of the oath. ' None
30. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.19-3.21, 4.1, 9.4 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • animal imagery • animal, dog • animal, lion • animating breath

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 131, 133; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 65; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 340; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 21

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3.19 כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃' '3.21 מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃
4.1
וְשַׁבְתִּי אֲנִי וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־כָּל־הָעֲשֻׁקִים אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשִׂים תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנֵּה דִּמְעַת הָעֲשֻׁקִים וְאֵין לָהֶם מְנַחֵם וּמִיַּד עֹשְׁקֵיהֶם כֹּחַ וְאֵין לָהֶם מְנַחֵם׃
4.1
כִּי אִם־יִפֹּלוּ הָאֶחָד יָקִים אֶת־חֲבֵרוֹ וְאִילוֹ הָאֶחָד שֶׁיִּפּוֹל וְאֵין שֵׁנִי לַהֲקִימוֹ׃
9.4
כִּי־מִי אֲשֶׁר יבחר יְחֻבַּר אֶל כָּל־הַחַיִּים יֵשׁ בִּטָּחוֹן כִּי־לְכֶלֶב חַי הוּא טוֹב מִן־הָאַרְיֵה הַמֵּת׃'' None
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3.19 For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity. 3.20 All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust. 3.21 Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth?
4.1
But I returned and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun; and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors there was power, but they had no comforter.
9.4
For to him that is joined to all the living there is hope; for a living dog is better than a dead lion.'' None
31. Herodotus, Histories, 1.78, 2.38-2.47, 2.57, 2.59, 2.64, 2.73, 2.81, 3.24, 7.57 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mother of the Gods, and animals • animal • animal victim, god's portion at sacrifice • animal victim, parts of,head • animal victim, parts of,leg • animal victim, parts of,shoulder • animal victim, parts of,thigh • animal victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, killed with head bent towards the ground • animals, and communication • animals, horses • animals, in Babylonian thought • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • ethnicity, and animality • holding an animal above the head, in Egyptian sacrifice • non-Greeks, characterized as animals • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, Olympian • sacrifice, animal, chthonian • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi • sacrifice, animal, in Pythagoras • seals, marking animals • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 422, 478; Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 66, 67; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 171, 219, 220, 226, 288, 297; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 31; Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 207; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 259, 260; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 99; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 43; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 34; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 57; Torok (2014), Herodotus In Nubia, 82; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 74

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1.78 ταῦτα ἐπιλεγομένῳ Κροίσῳ τὸ προάστειον πᾶν ὀφίων ἐνεπλήσθη· φανέντων δὲ αὐτῶν οἱ ἵπποι μετιέντες τὰς νομὰς νέμεσθαι φοιτέοντες κατήσθιον. ἰδόντι δὲ τοῦτο Κροίσῳ, ὥσπερ καὶ ἦν ἔδοξε τέρας εἶναι· αὐτίκα δὲ ἔπεμπε θεοπρόπους ἐς τῶν ἐξηγητέων Τελμησσέων. ἀπικομένοισι δὲ τοῖσι θεοπρόποισι καὶ μαθοῦσι πρὸς Τελμησσέων τὸ θέλει σημαίνειν τὸ τέρας, οὐκ ἐξεγένετο Κροίσῳ ἀπαγγεῖλαι· πρὶν γὰρ ἢ ὀπίσω σφέας ἀναπλῶσαι ἐς τὰς Σάρδις ἥλω ὁ Κροῖσος. Τελμησσέες μέντοι τάδε ἔγνωσαν, στρατὸν ἀλλόθροον προσδόκιμον εἶναι Κροίσῳ ἐπὶ τὴν χώρην, ἀπικόμενον δὲ τοῦτον καταστρέψεσθαι τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους, λέγοντες ὄφιν εἶναι γῆς παῖδα, ἵππον δὲ πολέμιόν τε καὶ ἐπήλυδα. Τελμησσέες μέν νυν ταῦτα ὑπεκρίναντο Κροίσῳ ἤδη ἡλωκότι, οὐδὲν κω εἰδότες τῶν ἦν περὶ Σάρδις τε καὶ αὐτὸν Κροῖσον.
2.38
τοὺς δὲ βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας τοῦ Ἐπάφου εἶναι νομίζουσι, καὶ τούτου εἵνεκα δοκιμάζουσι αὐτοὺς ὧδε· τρίχα ἢν καὶ μίαν ἴδηται ἐπεοῦσαν μέλαιναν, οὐ καθαρὸν εἶναι νομίζει. δίζηται δὲ ταῦτα ἐπὶ τούτῳ τεταγμένος τῶν τις ἱρέων καὶ ὀρθοῦ ἑστεῶτος τοῦ κτήνεος καὶ ὑπτίου, καὶ τὴν γλῶσσαν ἐξειρύσας, εἰ καθαρὴ τῶν προκειμένων σημηίων, τὰ ἐγὼ ἐν ἄλλῳ λόγῳ ἐρέω· κατορᾷ δὲ καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῆς οὐρῆς εἰ κατὰ φύσιν ἔχει πεφυκυίας. ἢν δὲ τούτων πάντων ᾖ καθαρός, σημαίνεται βύβλῳ περὶ τὰ κέρεα εἱλίσσων καὶ ἔπειτα γῆν σημαντρίδα ἐπιπλάσας ἐπιβάλλει τὸν δακτύλιον, καὶ οὕτω ἀπάγουσι. ἀσήμαντον δὲ θύσαντι θάνατος ἡ ζημίη ἐπικέεται. δοκιμάζεται μέν νυν τὸ κτῆνος τρόπῳ τοιῷδε, θυσίη δέ σφι ἥδε κατέστηκε. 2.39 ἀγαγόντες τὸ σεσημασμένον κτῆνος πρὸς τὸν βωμὸν ὅκου ἂν θύωσι, πῦρ ἀνακαίουσι, ἔπειτα δὲ ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ οἶνον κατὰ τοῦ ἱρηίου ἐπισπείσαντες καὶ ἐπικαλέσαντες τὸν θεὸν σφάζουσι, σφάξαντες δὲ ἀποτάμνουσι τὴν κεφαλήν. σῶμα μὲν δὴ τοῦ κτήνεος δείρουσι, κεφαλῇ δὲ κείνῃ πολλὰ καταρησάμενοι φέρουσι, τοῖσι μὲν ἂν ᾖ ἀγορὴ καὶ Ἕλληνές σφι ἔωσι ἐπιδήμιοι ἔμποροι, οἳ δὲ φέροντες ἐς τὴν ἀγορὴν ἀπʼ ὦν ἔδοντο, τοῖσι δὲ ἂν μὴ παρέωσι Ἕλληνες, οἳ δʼ ἐκβάλλουσι ἐς τὸν ποταμόν· καταρῶνται δὲ τάδε λέγοντες τῇσι κεφαλῇσι, εἴ τι μέλλοι ἢ σφίσι τοῖσι θύουσι ἢ Αἰγύπτῳ τῇ συναπάσῃ κακὸν γενέσθαι, ἐς κεφαλὴν ταύτην τραπέσθαι. κατὰ μέν νυν τὰς κεφαλὰς τῶν θυομένων κτηνέων καὶ τὴν ἐπίσπεισιν τοῦ οἴνου πάντες Αἰγύπτιοι νόμοισι τοῖσι αὐτοῖσι χρέωνται ὁμοίως ἐς πάντα τὰ ἱρά, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ νόμου οὐδὲ ἄλλου οὐδενὸς ἐμψύχου κεφαλῆς γεύσεται Αἰγυπτίων οὐδείς. 2.40 ἡ δὲ δὴ ἐξαίρεσις τῶν ἱρῶν καὶ ἡ καῦσις ἄλλη περὶ ἄλλο ἱρόν σφι κατέστηκε· τὴν δʼ ὦν μεγίστην τε δαίμονα ἥγηνται εἶναι καὶ μεγίστην οἱ ὁρτὴν ἀνάγουσι, ταύτην ἔρχομαι ἐρέων ἐπεὰν ἀποδείρωσι τὸν βοῦν, κατευξάμενοι κοιλίην μὲν κείνην πᾶσαν ἐξ ὦν εἷλον, σπλάγχνά δὲ αὐτοῦ λείπουσι ἐν τῷ σώματι καὶ τὴν πιμελήν, σκέλεα δὲ ἀποτάμνουσι καὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν ἄκρην καὶ τοὺς ὤμους τε καὶ τὸν τράχηλον. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τὸ ἄλλο σῶμα τοῦ βοὸς πιμπλᾶσι ἄρτων καθαρῶν καὶ μέλιτος καὶ ἀσταφίδος καὶ σύκων καὶ λιβανωτοῦ καὶ σμύρνης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων θυωμάτων, πλήσαντες δὲ τούτων καταγίζουσι, ἔλαιον ἄφθονον καταχέοντες· προνηστεύσαντες δὲ θύουσι, καιομένων δὲ τῶν ἱρῶν τύπτονται πάντες, ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀποτύψωνται, δαῖτα προτίθενται τὰ ἐλίποντο τῶν ἱρῶν. 2.41 τοὺς μέν νυν καθαροὺς βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας καὶ τοὺς μόσχους οἱ πάντες Αἰγύπτιοι θύουσι, τὰς δὲ θηλέας οὔ σφι ἔξεστι θύειν, ἀλλὰ ἱραί εἰσι τῆς Ἴσιος· τὸ γὰρ τῆς Ἴσιος ἄγαλμα ἐὸν γυναικήιον βούκερων ἐστὶ κατά περ Ἕλληνες τὴν Ἰοῦν γράφουσι, καὶ τὰς βοῦς τὰς θηλέας Αἰγύπτιοι πάντες ὁμοίως σέβονται προβάτων πάντων μάλιστα μακρῷ. τῶν εἵνεκα οὔτε ἀνὴρ Αἰγύπτιος οὔτε γυνὴ ἄνδρα Ἕλληνα φιλήσειε ἂν τῷ στόματι, οὐδὲ μαχαίρῃ ἀνδρὸς Ἕλληνος χρήσεται οὐδὲ ὀβελοῖσι οὐδὲ λέβητι, οὐδὲ κρέως καθαροῦ βοὸς διατετμημένου Ἑλληνικῇ μαχαίρῃ γεύσεται. θάπτουσι δὲ τοὺς ἀποθνήσκοντας βοῦς τρόπον τόνδε· τὰς μὲν θηλέας ἐς τὸν ποταμὸν ἀπιεῖσι, τοὺς δὲ ἔρσενας κατορύσσουσι ἕκαστοι ἐν τοῖσι προαστείοισι, τὸ κέρας τὸ ἕτερον ἢ καὶ ἀμφότερα ὑπερέχοντα σημηίου εἵνεκεν· ἐπεὰν δὲ σαπῇ καὶ προσίῃ ὁ τεταγμένος χρόνος, ἀπικνέεται ἐς ἑκάστην πόλιν βᾶρις ἐκ τῆς Προσωπίτιδος καλευμένης νήσου. ἣ δʼ ἔστι μὲν ἐν τῷ Δέλτα, περίμετρον δὲ αὐτῆς εἰσὶ σχοῖνοι ἐννέα. ἐν ταύτῃ ὦ τῇ Προσωπίτιδι νήσῳ ἔνεισι μὲν καὶ ἄλλαι πόλιες συχναί, ἐκ τῆς δὲ αἱ βάριες παραγίνονται ἀναιρησόμεναι τὰ ὀστέα τῶν βοῶν, οὔνομα τῇ πόλι Ἀτάρβηχις, ἐν δʼ αὐτῇ Ἀφροδίτης ἱρὸν ἅγιον ἵδρυται. ἐκ ταύτης τῆς πόλιος πλανῶνται πολλοὶ ἄλλοι ἐς ἄλλας πόλις, ἀνορύξαντες δὲ τὰ ὀστέα ἀπάγουσι καὶ θάπτουσι ἐς ἕνα χῶρον πάντες. κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ τοῖσι βουσὶ καὶ τἆλλα κτήνεα θάπτουσι ἀποθνήσκοντα· καὶ γὰρ περὶ ταῦτα οὕτω σφι νενομοθέτηται· κτείνουσι γὰρ δὴ οὐδὲ ταῦτα. 2.42 ὅσοι μὲν δὴ Διὸς Θηβαιέος ἵδρυνται ἱρὸν ἤ νομοῦ τοῦ Θηβαίου εἰσί, οὗτοι μέν νυν πάντες ὀίων ἀπεχόμενοι αἶγας θύουσι. θεοὺς γὰρ δὴ οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς ἅπαντες ὁμοίως Αἰγύπτιοι σέβονται, πλὴν Ἴσιός τε καὶ Ὀσίριος, τὸν δὴ Διόνυσον εἶναι λέγουσι· τούτους δὲ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες σέβονται. ὅσοι δὲ τοῦ Μένδητος ἔκτηνται ἱρὸν ἢ νομοῦ τοῦ Μενδησίου εἰσί, οὗτοι δὲ αἰγῶν ἀπεχόμενοι ὄις θύουσι. Θηβαῖοι μέν νυν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ τούτους ὀίων ἀπέχονται, διὰ τάδε λέγουσι τὸν νόμον τόνδε σφίσι τεθῆναι. Ἡρακλέα θελῆσαι πάντως ἰδέσθαι τὸν Δία, καὶ τὸν οὐκ ἐθέλειν ὀφθῆναι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· τέλος δέ, ἐπείτε λιπαρέειν τὸν Ἡρακλέα, τάδε τὸν Δία μηχανήσασθαι· κριὸν ἐκδείραντα προσχέσθαι τε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποταμόντα τοῦ κριοῦ καὶ ἐνδύντα τὸ νάκος οὕτω οἱ ἑωυτὸν ἐπιδέξαι. ἀπὸ τούτου κριοπρόσωπον τοῦ Διὸς τὤγαλμα ποιεῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, ἀπὸ δὲ Αἰγυπτίων Ἀμμώνιοι, ἐόντες Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων ἄποικοι καὶ φωνὴν μεταξὺ ἀμφοτέρων νομίζοντες. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ τὸ οὔνομα Ἀμμώνιοι ἀπὸ τοῦδε σφίσι τὴν ἐπωνυμίην ἐποιήσαντο· Ἀμοῦν γὰρ Αἰγύπτιοι καλέουσι τὸν Δία. τοὺς δὲ κριοὺς οὐ θύουσι Θηβαῖοι, ἀλλʼ εἰσί σφι ἱροὶ διὰ τοῦτο. μιῇ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, ἐν ὁρτῇ τοῦ Διός, κριὸν ἕνα κατακόψαντες καὶ ἀποδείραντες κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἐνδύουσι τὤγαλμα τοῦ Διός, καὶ ἔπειτα ἄλλο ἄγαλμα Ἡρακλέος προσάγουσι πρὸς αὐτό. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τύπτονται οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱρὸν ἅπαντες τὸν κριὸν καὶ ἔπειτα ἐν ἱρῇ θήκῃ θάπτουσι αὐτόν. 2.43 Ἡρακλέος δὲ πέρι τόνδε τὸν λόγον ἤκουσα, ὅτι εἴη τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν· τοῦ ἑτέρου δὲ πέρι Ἡρακλέος, τὸν Ἕλληνες οἴδασι, οὐδαμῇ Αἰγύπτου ἐδυνάσθην ἀκοῦσαι. καὶ μὴν ὅτι γε οὐ παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον τὸ οὔνομα Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦ Ἡρακλέος, ἀλλὰ Ἕλληνες μᾶλλον παρʼ Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Ἑλλήνων οὗτοι οἱ θέμενοι τῷ Ἀμφιτρύωνος γόνῳ τοὔνομα Ἡρακλέα, πολλά μοι καὶ ἄλλα τεκμήρια ἐστὶ τοῦτο οὕτω ἔχειν, ἐν δὲ καὶ τόδε, ὅτι τε τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τούτου οἱ γονέες ἀμφότεροι ἦσαν Ἀμφιτρύων καὶ Ἀλκμήνη γεγονότες τὸ ἀνέκαθεν ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ διότι Αἰγύπτιοι οὔτε Ποσειδέωνος οὔτε Διοσκούρων τὰ οὐνόματα φασὶ εἰδέναι, οὐδέ σφι θεοὶ οὗτοι ἐν τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι ἀποδεδέχαται. καὶ μὴν εἴ γε παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον οὔνομά τευ δαίμονος, τούτων οὐκ ἥκιστα ἀλλὰ μάλιστα ἔμελλον μνήμην ἕξειν, εἴ περ καὶ τότε ναυτιλίῃσι ἐχρέωντο καὶ ἦσαν Ἑλλήνων τινὲς ναυτίλοι, ὡς ἔλπομαί τε καὶ ἐμὴ γνώμη αἱρέει· ὥστε τούτων ἂν καὶ μᾶλλον τῶν θεῶν τὰ οὐνόματα ἐξεπιστέατο Αἰγύπτιοι ἢ τοῦ Ἡρακλέος. ἀλλά τις ἀρχαῖος ἐστὶ θεὸς Αἰγυπτίοισι Ἡρακλέης· ὡς δὲ αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, ἔτεα ἐστὶ ἑπτακισχίλια καὶ μύρια ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλεύσαντα, ἐπείτε ἐκ τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν οἱ δυώδεκα θεοὶ ἐγένοντο τῶν Ἡρακλέα ἕνα νομίζουσι. 2.44 καὶ θέλων δὲ τούτων πέρι σαφές τι εἰδέναι ἐξ ὧν οἷόν τε ἦν, ἔπλευσα καὶ ἐς Τύρον τῆς Φοινίκης, πυνθανόμενος αὐτόθι εἶναι ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἅγιον. καὶ εἶδον πλουσίως κατεσκευασμένον ἄλλοισί τε πολλοῖσι ἀναθήμασι, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἦσαν στῆλαι δύο, ἣ μὲν χρυσοῦ ἀπέφθου, ἣ δὲ σμαράγδου λίθου λάμποντος τὰς νύκτας μέγαθος. ἐς λόγους δὲ ἐλθὼν τοῖσι ἱρεῦσι τοῦ θεοῦ εἰρόμην ὁκόσος χρόνος εἴη ἐξ οὗ σφι τὸ ἱρὸν ἵδρυται. εὗρον δὲ οὐδὲ τούτους τοῖσι Ἕλλησι συμφερομένους· ἔφασαν γὰρ ἅμα Τύρῳ οἰκιζομένῃ καὶ τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἱδρυθῆναι, εἶναι δὲ ἔτεα ἀπʼ οὗ Τύρον οἰκέουσι τριηκόσια καὶ δισχίλια. εἶδον δὲ ἐν τῇ Τύρῳ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντος Θασίου εἶναι· ἀπικόμην δὲ καὶ ἐς Θάσον, ἐν τῇ εὗρον ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ὑπὸ Φοινίκων ἱδρυμένον, οἳ κατʼ Εὐρώπης ζήτησιν ἐκπλώσαντες Θάσον ἔκτισαν· καὶ ταῦτα καὶ πέντε γενεῇσι ἀνδρῶν πρότερα ἐστὶ ἢ τὸν Ἀμφιτρύωνος Ἡρακλέα ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι γενέσθαι. τὰ μέν νυν ἱστορημένα δηλοῖ σαφέως παλαιὸν θεὸν Ἡρακλέα ἐόντα, καὶ δοκέουσι δέ μοι οὗτοι ὀρθότατα Ἑλλήνων ποιέειν, οἳ διξὰ Ἡράκλεια ἱδρυσάμενοι ἔκτηνται, καὶ τῷ μὲν ὡς ἀθανάτῳ Ὀλυμπίῳ δὲ ἐπωνυμίην θύουσι, τῷ δὲ ἑτέρῳ ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζουσι. 2.45 λέγουσι δὲ πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα ἀνεπισκέπτως οἱ Ἕλληνες, εὐήθης δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ ὅδε ὁ μῦθος ἐστὶ τὸν περὶ τοῦ Ἡρακλέος λέγουσι, ὡς αὐτὸν ἀπικόμενον ἐς Αἴγυπτον στέψαντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ὑπὸ πομπῆς ἐξῆγον ὡς θύσοντες τῷ Διί· τὸν δὲ τέως μὲν ἡσυχίην ἔχειν, ἐπεὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τῷ βωμῷ κατάρχοντο, ἐς ἀλκὴν τραπόμενον πάντας σφέας καταφονεῦσαι. ἐμοὶ μέν νυν δοκέουσι ταῦτα λέγοντες τῆς Αἰγυπτίων φύσιος καὶ τῶν νόμων πάμπαν ἀπείρως ἔχειν οἱ Ἕλληνες· τοῖσι γὰρ οὐδὲ κτήνεα ὁσίη θύειν ἐστὶ χωρὶς ὑῶν καὶ ἐρσένων βοῶν καὶ μόσχων, ὅσοι ἂν καθαροὶ ἔωσι, καὶ χηνῶν, κῶς ἂν οὗτοι ἀνθρώπους θύοιεν; ἔτι δὲ ἕνα ἐόντα τὸν Ἡρακλέα καὶ ἔτι ἄνθρωπον, ὡς δὴ φασί, κῶς φύσιν ἔχει πολλὰς μυριάδας φονεῦσαι; καὶ περὶ μὲν τούτων τοσαῦτα ἡμῖν εἰποῦσι καὶ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν καὶ παρὰ τῶν ἡρώων εὐμένεια εἴη. 2.46 τὰς δὲ δὴ αἶγας καὶ τοὺς τράγους τῶνδε εἵνεκα οὐ θύουσι Αἰγυπτίων οἱ εἰρημένοι· τὸν Πᾶνα τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν λογίζονται εἶναι οἱ Μενδήσιοι, τοὺς δὲ ὀκτὼ θεοὺς τούτους προτέρους τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν φασι γενέσθαι. γράφουσί τε δὴ καὶ γλύφουσι οἱ ζωγράφοι καὶ οἱ ἀγαλματοποιοὶ τοῦ Πανὸς τὤγαλμα κατά περ Ἕλληνες αἰγοπρόσωπον καὶ τραγοσκελέα, οὔτι τοιοῦτον νομίζοντες εἶναί μιν ἀλλὰ ὁμοῖον τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι· ὅτευ δὲ εἵνεκα τοιοῦτον γράφουσι αὐτόν, οὔ μοι ἥδιον ἐστὶ λέγειν. σέβονται δὲ πάντας τοὺς αἶγας οἱ Μενδήσιοι, καὶ μᾶλλον τοὺς ἔρσενας τῶν θηλέων, καὶ τούτων οἱ αἰπόλοι τιμὰς μέζονας ἔχουσι· ἐκ δὲ τούτων ἕνα μάλιστα, ὅστις ἐπεὰν ἀποθάνῃ, πένθος μέγα παντὶ τῷ Μενδησίῳ νομῷ τίθεται. καλέεται δὲ ὅ τε τράγος καὶ ὁ Πὰν Αἰγυπτιστὶ Μένδης. ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ νομῷ τούτῳ ἐπʼ ἐμεῦ τοῦτο τὸ τέρας· γυναικὶ τράγος ἐμίσγετο ἀναφανδόν. τοῦτο ἐς ἐπίδεξιν ἀνθρώπων ἀπίκετο. 2.47 ὗν δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι μιαρὸν ἥγηνται θηρίον εἶναι, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν ἤν τις ψαύσῃ αὐτῶν παριὼν αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἱματίοισι ἀπʼ ὦν ἔβαψε ἑωυτὸν βὰς ἐς τὸν ποταμόν· τοῦτο δὲ οἱ συβῶται ἐόντες Αἰγύπτιοι ἐγγενέες ἐς ἱρὸν οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἐσέρχονται μοῦνοι πάντων, οὐδέ σφι ἐκδίδοσθαι οὐδεὶς θυγατέρα ἐθέλει οὐδʼ ἄγεσθαι ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἀλλʼ ἐκδίδονταί τε οἱ συβῶται καὶ ἄγονται ἐξ ἀλλήλων. τοῖσι μέν νυν ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι θύειν ὗς οὐ δικαιοῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, Σελήνῃ δὲ καὶ Διονύσῳ μούνοισι τοῦ αὐτοῦ χρόνου, τῇ αὐτῇ πανσελήνῳ, τοὺς ὗς θύσαντες πατέονται τῶν κρεῶν. διότι δὲ τοὺς ὗς ἐν μὲν τῇσι ἄλλῃσι ὁρτῇσι ἀπεστυγήκασι ἐν δὲ ταύτῃ θύουσι, ἔστι μὲν λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων λεγόμενος, ἐμοὶ μέντοι ἐπισταμένῳ οὐκ εὐπρεπέστερος ἐστὶ λέγεσθαι. θυσίη δὲ ἥδε τῶν ὑῶν τῇ Σελήνῃ ποιέεται· ἐπεὰν θύσῃ, τὴν οὐρὴν ἄκρην καὶ τὸν σπλῆνα καὶ τὸν ἐπίπλοον συνθεὶς ὁμοῦ κατʼ ὦν ἐκάλυψε πάσῃ τοῦ κτήνεος τῇ πιμελῇ τῇ περὶ τὴν νηδὺν γινομένῃ, καὶ ἔπειτα καταγίζει πυρί· τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα σιτέονται ἐν τῇ πανσελήνῳ ἐν τῇ ἂν τὰ ἱρὰ θύσωσι, ἐν ἄλλῃ δὲ ἡμέρῃ οὐκ ἂν ἔτι γευσαίατο. οἱ δὲ πένητες αὐτῶν ὑπʼ ἀσθενείης βίου σταιτίνας πλάσαντες ὗς καὶ ὀπτήσαντες ταύτας θύουσι.
2.57
πελειάδες δέ μοι δοκέουσι κληθῆναι πρὸς Δωδωναίων ἐπὶ τοῦδε αἱ γυναῖκες, διότι βάρβαροι ἦσαν, ἐδόκεον δέ σφι ὁμοίως ὄρνισι φθέγγεσθαι· μετὰ δὲ χρόνον τὴν πελειάδα ἀνθρωπηίῃ φωνῇ αὐδάξασθαι λέγουσι, ἐπείτε συνετά σφι ηὔδα ἡ γυνή· ἕως δὲ ἐβαρβάριζε, ὄρνιθος τρόπον ἐδόκεέ σφι φθέγγεσθαι, ἐπεὶ τέῳ ἂν τρόπῳ πελειάς γε ἀνθρωπηίῃ φωνῇ φθέγξαιτο; μέλαιναν δὲ λέγοντες εἶναι τὴν πελειάδα σημαίνουσι ὅτι Αἰγυπτίη ἡ γυνὴ ἦν. ἡ δὲ μαντηίη ἥ τε ἐν Θήβῃσι τῇσι Αἰγυπτίῃσι καὶ ἐν Δωδώνῃ παραπλήσιαι ἀλλήλῃσι τυγχάνουσι ἐοῦσαι. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τῶν ἱρῶν ἡ μαντικὴ ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἀπιγμένη.
2.59
πανηγυρίζουσι δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι οὐκ ἅπαξ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, πανηγύρις δὲ συχνάς, μάλιστα μὲν καὶ προθυμότατα ἐς Βούβαστιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι, δεύτερα δὲ ἐς Βούσιριν πόλιν τῇ Ἴσι· ἐν ταύτῃ γὰρ δὴ τῇ πόλι ἐστὶ μέγιστον Ἴσιος ἱρόν, ἵδρυται δὲ ἡ πόλις αὕτη τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἐν μέσῳ τῷ Δέλτα· Ἶσις δὲ ἐστὶ κατὰ τὴν Ἑλλήνων γλῶσσαν Δημήτηρ. τρίτα δὲ ἐς Σάιν πόλιν τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ πανηγυρίζουσι, τέταρτα δὲ ἐς Ἡλίου πόλιν τῷ Ἡλίω, πέμπτα δὲ ἐς Βουτοῦν πόλιν τῇ Λητοῖ, ἕκτα δὲ ἐς Πάπρημιν πόλιν τῷ Ἄρεϊ.
2.64
καὶ τὸ μὴ μίσγεσθαι γυναιξὶ ἐν ἱροῖσι μηδὲ ἀλούτους ἀπὸ γυναικῶν ἐς ἱρὰ ἐσιέναι οὗτοι εἰσὶ οἱ πρῶτοι θρησκεύσαντες. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι σχεδὸν πάντες ἄνθρωποι, πλὴν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Ἑλλήνων, μίσγονται ἐν ἱροῖσι καὶ ἀπὸ γυναικῶν ἀνιστάμενοι ἄλουτοι ἐσέρχονται ἐς ἱρόν, νομίζοντες ἀνθρώπους εἶναι κατά περ τὰ ἄλλα κτήνεα· καὶ γὰρ τὰ ἄλλα κτήνεα ὁρᾶν καὶ ὀρνίθων γένεα ὀχευόμενα ἔν τε τοῖσι νηοῖσι τῶν θεῶν καὶ ἐν τοῖσι τεμένεσι· εἰ ὦν εἶναι τῷ θεῷ τοῦτο μὴ φίλον, οὐκ ἂν οὐδὲ τὰ κτήνεα ποιέειν. οὗτοι μέν νυν τοιαῦτα ἐπιλέγοντες ποιεῦσι ἔμοιγε οὐκ ἀρεστά·
2.73
ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλος ὄρνις ἱρός, τῷ οὔνομα φοῖνιξ. ἐγὼ μέν μιν οὐκ εἶδον εἰ μὴ ὅσον γραφῇ· καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ σπάνιος ἐπιφοιτᾷ σφι, διʼ ἐτέων, ὡς Ἡλιοπολῖται λέγουσι, πεντακοσίων· φοιτᾶν δὲ τότε φασὶ ἐπεάν οἱ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ πατήρ. ἔστι δέ, εἰ τῇ γραφῇ παρόμοιος, τοσόσδε καὶ τοιόσδε· τὰ μὲν αὐτοῦ χρυσόκομα τῶν πτερῶν τὰ δὲ ἐρυθρὰ ἐς τὰ μάλιστα· αἰετῷ περιήγησιν ὁμοιότατος καὶ τὸ μέγαθος. τοῦτον δὲ λέγουσι μηχανᾶσθαι τάδε, ἐμοὶ μὲν οὐ πιστὰ λέγοντες· ἐξ Ἀραβίης ὁρμώμενον ἐς τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ Ἡλίου κομίζειν τὸν πατέρα ἐν σμύρνῃ ἐμπλάσσοντα καὶ θάπτειν ἐν τοῦ Ἡλίου τῷ ἱρῷ, κομίζειν δὲ οὕτω· πρῶτον τῆς σμύρνης ᾠὸν πλάσσειν ὅσον τε δυνατός ἐστι φέρειν, μετὰ δὲ πειρᾶσθαι αὐτὸ φορέοντα, ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀποπειρηθῇ, οὕτω δὴ κοιλήναντα τὸ ᾠὸν τὸν πατέρα ἐς αὐτὸ ἐντιθέναι, σμύρνῃ δὲ ἄλλῃ ἐμπλάσσειν τοῦτο κατʼ ὅ τι τοῦ ᾠοῦ ἐκκοιλήνας ἐνέθηκε τὸν πατέρα· ἐσκειμένου δὲ τοῦ πατρὸς γίνεσθαι τὠυτὸ βάρος· ἐμπλάσαντα δὲ κομίζειν μιν ἐπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἐς τοῦ Ἡλίου τὸ ἱρόν. ταῦτα μὲν τοῦτον τὸν ὄρνιν λέγουσι ποιέειν.
2.81
ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος.
3.24
μετὰ δὲ ταύτην τελευταίας ἐθεήσαντο τὰς θήκας αὐτῶν, αἳ λέγονται σκευάζεσθαι ἐξ ὑέλου τρόπῳ τοιῷδε· ἐπεὰν τὸν νεκρὸν ἰσχνήνωσι, εἴτε δὴ κατά περ Αἰγύπτιοι εἴτε ἄλλως κως, γυψώσαντες ἅπαντα αὐτὸν γραφῇ κοσμέουσι, ἐξομοιεῦντες τὸ εἶδος ἐς τὸ δυνατόν, ἔπειτα δέ οἱ περιιστᾶσι στήλην ἐξ ὑέλου πεποιημένην κοίλην· ἣ δέ σφι πολλὴ καὶ εὐεργὸς ὀρύσσεται. ἐν μέσῃ δὲ τῇ στήλῃ ἐνεὼν διαφαίνεται ὁ νέκυς, οὔτε ὀδμὴν οὐδεμίαν ἄχαριν παρεχόμενος οὔτε ἄλλο ἀεικὲς οὐδέν, καὶ ἔχει πάντα φανερὰ ὁμοίως αὐτῷ τῷ νέκυϊ. ἐνιαυτὸν μὲν δὴ ἔχουσι τὴν στήλην ἐν τοῖσι οἰκίοισι οἱ μάλιστα προσήκοντες, πάντων ἀπαρχόμενοι καὶ θυσίας οἱ προσάγοντες· μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐκκομίσαντες ἱστᾶσι περὶ τὴν πόλιν.
7.57
ὡς δὲ διέβησαν πάντες, ἐς ὁδὸν ὁρμημένοισι τέρας σφι ἐφάνη μέγα, τὸ Ξέρξης ἐν οὐδενὶ λόγῳ ἐποιήσατο καίπερ εὐσύμβλητον ἐόν· ἵππος γὰρ ἔτεκε λαγόν. εὐσύμβλητον ὦν τῇδε τοῦτο ἐγένετο, ὅτι ἔμελλε μὲν ἐλᾶν στρατιὴν ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα Ξέρξης ἀγαυρότατα καὶ μεγαλοπρεπέστατα, ὀπίσω δὲ περὶ ἑωυτοῦ τρέχων ἥξειν ἐς τὸν αὐτὸν χῶρον. ἐγένετο δὲ καὶ ἕτερον αὐτῷ τέρας ἐόντι ἐν Σάρδισι· ἡμίονος γὰρ ἔτεκε ἡμίονον διξὰ ἔχουσαν αἰδοῖα, τὰ μὲν ἔρσενος τὰ δὲ θηλέης· κατύπερθε δὲ ἦν τὰ τοῦ ἔρσενος. τῶν ἀμφοτέρων λόγον οὐδένα ποιησάμενος τὸ πρόσω ἐπορεύετο, σὺν δέ οἱ ὁ πεζὸς στρατός.'' None
sup>
1.78 This was how Croesus reasoned. Meanwhile, snakes began to swarm in the outer part of the city; and when they appeared the horses, leaving their accustomed pasture, devoured them. When Croesus saw this he thought it a portent, and so it was. ,He at once sent to the homes of the Telmessian interpreters, to inquire concerning it; but though his messengers came and learned from the Telmessians what the portent meant, they could not bring back word to Croesus, for he was a prisoner before they could make their voyage back to Sardis . ,Nonetheless, this was the judgment of the Telmessians: that Croesus must expect a foreign army to attack his country, and that when it came, it would subjugate the inhabitants of the land: for the snake, they said, was the offspring of the land, but the horse was an enemy and a foreigner. This was the answer which the Telmessians gave Croesus, knowing as yet nothing of the fate of Sardis and of the king himself; but when they gave it, Croesus was already taken.
2.38
They believe that bulls belong to Epaphus, and for this reason scrutinize them as follows; if they see even one black hair on them, the bull is considered impure. ,One of the priests, appointed to the task, examines the beast, making it stand and lie, and drawing out its tongue, to determine whether it is clean of the stated signs which I shall indicate hereafter. He looks also to the hairs of the tail, to see if they grow naturally. ,If it is clean in all these respects, the priest marks it by wrapping papyrus around the horns, then smears it with sealing-earth and stamps it with his ring; and after this they lead the bull away. But the penalty is death for sacrificing a bull that the priest has not marked. Such is the manner of approving the beast; I will now describe how it is sacrificed. 2.39 After leading the marked beast to the altar where they will sacrifice it, they kindle a fire; then they pour wine on the altar over the victim and call upon the god; then they cut its throat, and having done so sever the head from the body. ,They flay the carcass of the victim, then invoke many curses on its head, which they carry away. Where there is a market, and Greek traders in it, the head is taken to the market and sold; where there are no Greeks, it is thrown into the river. ,The imprecation which they utter over the heads is that whatever ill threatens those who sacrifice, or the whole of Egypt, fall upon that head. ,In respect of the heads of sacrificed beasts and the libation of wine, the practice of all Egyptians is the same in all sacrifices; and from this ordice no Egyptian will taste of the head of anything that had life. 2.40 But in regard to the disembowelling and burning of the victims, there is a different way for each sacrifice. I shall now, however, speak of that goddess whom they consider the greatest, and in whose honor they keep highest festival. ,After praying in the foregoing way, they take the whole stomach out of the flayed bull, leaving the entrails and the fat in the carcass, and cut off the legs, the end of the loin, the shoulders, and the neck. ,Having done this, they fill what remains of the carcass with pure bread, honey, raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh, and other kinds of incense, and then burn it, pouring a lot of oil on it. ,They fast before the sacrifice, and while it is burning, they all make lamentation; and when their lamentation is over, they set out a meal of what is left of the victim. ' "2.41 All Egyptians sacrifice unblemished bulls and bull-calves; they may not sacrifice cows: these are sacred to Isis. ,For the images of Isis are in woman's form, horned like a cow, exactly as the Greeks picture Io, and cows are held by far the most sacred of all beasts of the herd by all Egyptians alike. ,For this reason, no Egyptian man or woman will kiss a Greek man, or use a knife, or a spit, or a cauldron belonging to a Greek, or taste the flesh of an unblemished bull that has been cut up with a Greek knife. ,Cattle that die are dealt with in the following way. Cows are cast into the river, bulls are buried by each city in its suburbs, with one or both horns uncovered for a sign; then, when the carcass is decomposed, and the time appointed is at hand, a boat comes to each city from the island called Prosopitis, ,an island in the Delta, nine schoeni in circumference. There are many other towns on Prosopitis; the one from which the boats come to gather the bones of the bulls is called Atarbekhis; a temple of Aphrodite stands in it of great sanctity. ,From this town many go out, some to one town and some to another, to dig up the bones, which they then carry away and all bury in one place. As they bury the cattle, so do they all other beasts at death. Such is their ordice respecting these also; for they, too, may not be killed. " "2.42 All that have a temple of Zeus of Thebes or are of the Theban district sacrifice goats, but will not touch sheep. ,For no gods are worshipped by all Egyptians in common except Isis and Osiris, who they say is Dionysus; these are worshipped by all alike. Those who have a temple of Mendes or are of the Mendesian district sacrifice sheep, but will not touch goats. ,The Thebans, and those who by the Theban example will not touch sheep, give the following reason for their ordice: they say that Heracles wanted very much to see Zeus and that Zeus did not want to be seen by him, but that finally, when Heracles prayed, Zeus contrived ,to show himself displaying the head and wearing the fleece of a ram which he had flayed and beheaded. It is from this that the Egyptian images of Zeus have a ram's head; and in this, the Egyptians are imitated by the Ammonians, who are colonists from Egypt and Ethiopia and speak a language compounded of the tongues of both countries. ,It was from this, I think, that the Ammonians got their name, too; for the Egyptians call Zeus “Amon”. The Thebans, then, consider rams sacred for this reason, and do not sacrifice them. ,But one day a year, at the festival of Zeus, they cut in pieces and flay a single ram and put the fleece on the image of Zeus, as in the story; then they bring an image of Heracles near it. Having done this, all that are at the temple mourn for the ram, and then bury it in a sacred coffin. " '2.43 Concerning Heracles, I heard it said that he was one of the twelve gods. But nowhere in Egypt could I hear anything about the other Heracles, whom the Greeks know. ,I have indeed a lot of other evidence that the name of Heracles did not come from Hellas to Egypt, but from Egypt to Hellas (and in Hellas to those Greeks who gave the name Heracles to the son of Amphitryon), besides this: that Amphitryon and Alcmene, the parents of this Heracles, were both Egyptian by descent ; and that the Egyptians deny knowing the names Poseidon and the Dioscuri, nor are these gods reckoned among the gods of Egypt . ,Yet if they got the name of any deity from the Greeks, of these not least but in particular would they preserve a recollection, if indeed they were already making sea voyages and some Greeks, too, were seafaring men, as I expect and judge; so that the names of these gods would have been even better known to the Egyptians than the name of Heracles. ,But Heracles is a very ancient god in Egypt ; as the Egyptians themselves say, the change of the eight gods to the twelve, one of whom they acknowledge Heracles to be, was made seventeen thousand years before the reign of Amasis. 2.44 Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero. 2.45 And the Greeks say many other ill-considered things, too; among them, this is a silly story which they tell about Heracles: that when he came to Egypt, the Egyptians crowned him and led him out in a procession to sacrifice him to Zeus; and for a while (they say) he followed quietly, but when they started in on him at the altar, he resisted and killed them all. ,Now it seems to me that by this story the Greeks show themselves altogether ignorant of the character and customs of the Egyptians; for how should they sacrifice men when they are forbidden to sacrifice even beasts, except swine and bulls and bull-calves, if they are unblemished, and geese? ,And furthermore, as Heracles was alone, and, still, only a man, as they say, how is it natural that he should kill many myriads? In talking so much about this, may I keep the goodwill of gods and heroes! 2.46 This is why the Egyptians of whom I have spoken sacrifice no goats, male or female: the Mendesians reckon Pan among the eight gods who, they say, were before the twelve gods. ,Now in their painting and sculpture, the image of Pan is made with the head and the legs of a goat, as among the Greeks; not that he is thought to be in fact such, or unlike other gods; but why they represent him so, I have no wish to say. ,The Mendesians consider all goats sacred, the male even more than the female, and goatherds are held in special estimation: one he-goat is most sacred of all; when he dies, it is ordained that there should be great mourning in all the Mendesian district. ,In the Egyptian language Mendes is the name both for the he-goat and for Pan. In my lifetime a strange thing occurred in this district: a he-goat had intercourse openly with a woman. This came to be publicly known. 2.47 Swine are held by the Egyptians to be unclean beasts. In the first place, if an Egyptian touches a hog in passing, he goes to the river and dips himself in it, clothed as he is; and in the second place, swineherds, though native born Egyptians, are alone of all men forbidden to enter any Egyptian temple; nor will any give a swineherd his daughter in marriage, nor take a wife from their women; but swineherds intermarry among themselves. ,Nor do the Egyptians think it right to sacrifice swine to any god except the Moon and Dionysus; to these, they sacrifice their swine at the same time, in the same season of full moon; then they eat the meat. The Egyptians have an explanation of why they sacrifice swine at this festival, yet abominate them at others; I know it, but it is not fitting that I relate it. ,But this is how they sacrifice swine to the Moon: the sacrificer lays the end of the tail and the spleen and the caul together and covers them up with all the fat that he finds around the belly, then consigns it all to the fire; as for the rest of the flesh, they eat it at the time of full moon when they sacrifice the victim; but they will not taste it on any other day. Poor men, with but slender means, mold swine out of dough, which they then take and sacrifice.
2.57
I expect that these women were called “doves” by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; ,then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian . ,The fashions of divination at Thebes of Egypt and at Dodona are like one another; moreover, the practice of divining from the sacrificed victim has also come from Egypt .
2.59
The Egyptians hold solemn assemblies not once a year, but often. The principal one of these and the most enthusiastically celebrated is that in honor of Artemis at the town of Bubastis , and the next is that in honor of Isis at Busiris. ,This town is in the middle of the Egyptian Delta, and there is in it a very great temple of Isis, who is Demeter in the Greek language. ,The third greatest festival is at Saïs in honor of Athena; the fourth is the festival of the sun at Heliopolis, the fifth of Leto at Buto, and the sixth of Ares at Papremis.
2.64
Furthermore, it was the Egyptians who first made it a matter of religious observance not to have intercourse with women in temples or to enter a temple after such intercourse without washing. Nearly all other peoples are less careful in this matter than are the Egyptians and Greeks, and consider a man to be like any other animal; ,for beasts and birds (they say) are seen to mate both in the temples and in the sacred precincts; now were this displeasing to the god, the beasts would not do so. This is the reason given by others for practices which I, for my part, dislike;
2.73
There is another sacred bird, too, whose name is phoenix. I myself have never seen it, only pictures of it; for the bird seldom comes into Egypt : once in five hundred years, as the people of Heliopolis say. ,It is said that the phoenix comes when his father dies. If the picture truly shows his size and appearance, his plumage is partly golden and partly red. He is most like an eagle in shape and size. ,What they say this bird manages to do is incredible to me. Flying from Arabia to the temple of the sun, they say, he conveys his father encased in myrrh and buries him at the temple of the Sun. ,This is how he conveys him: he first molds an egg of myrrh as heavy as he can carry, then tries lifting it, and when he has tried it, he then hollows out the egg and puts his father into it, and plasters over with more myrrh the hollow of the egg into which he has put his father, which is the same in weight with his father lying in it, and he conveys him encased to the temple of the Sun in Egypt . This is what they say this bird does.
2.81
They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this.
3.24
Last after this they viewed the Ethiopian coffins; these are said to be made of alabaster, as I shall describe: ,they cause the dead body to shrink, either as the Egyptians do or in some other way, then cover it with gypsum and paint it all as far as possible in the likeness of the living man; ,then they set it within a hollow pillar of alabaster, which they dig in abundance from the ground, and it is easily worked; the body can be seen in the pillar through the alabaster, no evil stench nor anything unpleasant proceeding from it, and showing clearly all its parts, as if it were the man himself. ,The nearest of kin keep the pillar in their house for a year, giving it of the first-fruits and offering it sacrifices; after which they bring the pillars out and set them round about the city.
7.57
When all had passed over and were ready for the road, a great portent appeared among them. Xerxes took no account of it, although it was easy to interpret: a mare gave birth to a hare. The meaning of it was easy to guess: Xerxes was to march his army to Hellas with great pomp and pride, but to come back to the same place fleeing for his life. ,There was another portent that was shown to him at Sardis: a mule gave birth to a mule that had double genitals, both male and female, the male above the other. But he took no account of either sign and journeyed onward; the land army was with him.'' None
32. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • sacrifice, animal, in Pythagoras • sacrifice, animal, in Zaleucus • soul, animism

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001), Traditions of Theology: Studies in Hellenistic Theology, its Background and Aftermath, 90; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 66

886a ΑΘ. πῶς; ΚΛ. πρῶτον μὲν γῆ καὶ ἥλιος ἄστρα τε καὶ τὰ σύμπαντα, καὶ τὰ τῶν ὡρῶν διακεκοσμημένα καλῶς οὕτως, ἐνιαυτοῖς τε καὶ μησὶν διειλημμένα· καὶ ὅτι πάντες Ἕλληνές τε καὶ βάρβαροι νομίζουσιν εἶναι θεούς. ΑΘ. φοβοῦμαί γε, ὦ μακάριε, τοὺς μοχθηρούς—οὐ γὰρ δή ποτε εἴποιμʼ ἂν ὥς γε αἰδοῦμαι—μή πως ἡμῶν καταφρονήσωσιν. ὑμεῖς μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ἴστε αὐτῶν πέρι τὴν τῆς διαφορᾶς αἰτίαν, ἀλλʼ ἡγεῖσθε ἀκρατείᾳ μόνον ἡδονῶν τε'' None886a that gods exist? Ath. How so? Clin. First, there is the evidence of the earth, the sun, the stars, and all the universe, and the beautiful ordering of the seasons, marked out by years and months; and then there is the further fact that all Greeks and barbarians believe in the existence of gods. Ath. My dear sir, these bad men cause me alarm—for I will never call it awe —lest haply they scoff at us. For the cause of the corruption in their case is one you are not aware of; since you imagine that it is solely by their incontinence in regard to pleasures and desire'' None
33. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • sacrifice, animal, rejection of, Theophrastus

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 176; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 76

69b καὶ τούτου μὲν πάντα καὶ μετὰ τούτου ὠνούμενά τε καὶ πιπρασκόμενα τῷ ὄντι ᾖ καὶ ἀνδρεία καὶ σωφροσύνη καὶ δικαιοσύνη καὶ συλλήβδην ἀληθὴς ἀρετή, μετὰ φρονήσεως, καὶ προσγιγνομένων καὶ ἀπογιγνομένων καὶ ἡδονῶν καὶ φόβων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πάντων τῶν τοιούτων: χωριζόμενα δὲ φρονήσεως καὶ ἀλλαττόμενα ἀντὶ ἀλλήλων μὴ σκιαγραφία τις ᾖ ἡ τοιαύτη ἀρετὴ καὶ τῷ ὄντι ἀνδραποδώδης τε καὶ οὐδὲν ὑγιὲς οὐδ’ ἀληθὲς ἔχῃ, τὸ δ’ ἀληθὲς τῷ ὄντι ᾖ'' None69b must be exchanged and by means of and with which all these things are to be bought and sold, is in fact wisdom; and courage and self-restraint and justice and, in short, true virtue exist only with wisdom, whether pleasures and fears and other things of that sort are added or taken away. And virtue which consists in the exchange of such things for each other without wisdom, is but a painted imitation of virtue and is really slavish and has nothing healthy or true in it; but truth is in fact a purification'' None
34. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal (paradigm of) • Animals, as virtuous • Animals, connected to reincarnation • animal, non-human • celestial animal • fire, animals born from • sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter

 Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 49, 52, 143; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 467, 470, 481, 483, 486, 489; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 654; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 221; Schultz and Wilberding (2022), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism, 43, 149; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 151

30a παρʼ ἀνδρῶν φρονίμων ἀποδεχόμενος ὀρθότατα ἀποδέχοιτʼ ἄν. βουληθεὶς γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ἀγαθὰ μὲν πάντα, φλαῦρον δὲ μηδὲν εἶναι κατὰ δύναμιν, οὕτω δὴ πᾶν ὅσον ἦν ὁρατὸν παραλαβὼν οὐχ ἡσυχίαν ἄγον ἀλλὰ κινούμενον πλημμελῶς καὶ ἀτάκτως, εἰς τάξιν αὐτὸ ἤγαγεν ἐκ τῆς ἀταξίας, ἡγησάμενος ἐκεῖνο τούτου πάντως ἄμεινον. θέμις δʼ οὔτʼ ἦν οὔτʼ ἔστιν τῷ ἀρίστῳ δρᾶν ἄλλο πλὴν τὸ κάλλιστον·' 40a πτηνὸν καὶ ἀεροπόρον, τρίτη δὲ ἔνυδρον εἶδος, πεζὸν δὲ καὶ χερσαῖον τέταρτον. τοῦ μὲν οὖν θείου τὴν πλείστην ἰδέαν ἐκ πυρὸς ἀπηργάζετο, ὅπως ὅτι λαμπρότατον ἰδεῖν τε κάλλιστον εἴη, τῷ δὲ παντὶ προσεικάζων εὔκυκλον ἐποίει, τίθησίν τε εἰς τὴν τοῦ κρατίστου φρόνησιν ἐκείνῳ συνεπόμενον, νείμας περὶ πάντα κύκλῳ τὸν οὐρανόν, κόσμον ἀληθινὸν αὐτῷ πεποικιλμένον εἶναι καθʼ ὅλον. κινήσεις δὲ δύο προσῆψεν ἑκάστῳ, τὴν μὲν ἐν ταὐτῷ κατὰ ταὐτά, περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἀεὶ 42b τε ἑπόμενα αὐτοῖς καὶ ὁπόσα ἐναντίως πέφυκε διεστηκότα· ὧν εἰ μὲν κρατήσοιεν, δίκῃ βιώσοιντο, κρατηθέντες δὲ ἀδικίᾳ. καὶ ὁ μὲν εὖ τὸν προσήκοντα χρόνον βιούς, πάλιν εἰς τὴν τοῦ συννόμου πορευθεὶς οἴκησιν ἄστρου, βίον εὐδαίμονα καὶ συνήθη ἕξοι, σφαλεὶς δὲ τούτων εἰς γυναικὸς φύσιν ἐν τῇ ' None30a For God desired that, so far as possible, all things should be good and nothing evil; wherefore, when He took over all that was visible, seeing that it was not in a state of rest but in a state of discordant and disorderly motion, He brought it into order out of disorder, deeming that the former state is in all ways better than the latter. For Him who is most good it neither was nor is permissible to perform any action save what is most fair. As He reflected, therefore, He perceived that of such creatures as are by nature visible,' 40a another the winged kind which traverses the air; thirdly, the class which inhabits the waters; and fourthly, that which goes on foot on dry land. The form of the divine class He wrought for the most part out of fire, that this kind might be as bright as possible to behold and as fair; and likening it to the All He made it truly spherical; and He placed it in the intelligence of the Supreme to follow therewith, distributing it round about over all the Heaven, to be unto it a veritable adornment cunningly traced over the whole. And each member of this class He endowed with two motions, whereof the one is uniform motion in the same spot, whereby it conceives always identical thoughts about the same objects, 42b and all such emotions as are naturally allied thereto, and all such as are of a different and opposite character. And if they shall master these they will live justly, but if they are mastered, unjustly. And he that has lived his appointed time well shall return again to his abode in his native star, and shall gain a life that is blessed and congenial but whoso has failed therein shall be changed into woman’s nature at the second birth; and if, in that shape, he still refraineth not from wickedne ' None
35. Sophocles, Philoctetes, 400 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mother of the Gods, and animals • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 173; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107, 126

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400 to the son of Laertes . Hear it, blessed queen, who rides on bull-slaughtering lions! Philoctete'' None
36. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 2.2.8-2.2.9, 5.3.7-5.3.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, domestic • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • Sacrificial animals, species: sheep • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, prices and financial considerations • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • animals, sacrificial • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 252, 292; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021), Benefactors and the Polis: The Public Gift in the Greek Cities from the Homeric World to Late Antiquity, 52; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 139; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 124, 194, 196, 204

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2.2.8 Κλέαρχος δὲ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἡγεῖτο κατὰ τὰ παρηγγελμένα, οἱ δʼ εἵποντο· καὶ ἀφικνοῦνται εἰς τὸν πρῶτον σταθμὸν παρʼ Ἀριαῖον καὶ τὴν ἐκείνου στρατιὰν ἀμφὶ μέσας νύκτας· καὶ ἐν τάξει θέμενοι τὰ ὅπλα συνῆλθον οἱ στρατηγοὶ καὶ λοχαγοὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων παρʼ Ἀριαῖον· καὶ ὤμοσαν οἵ τε Ἕλληνες καὶ ὁ Ἀριαῖος καὶ τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ οἱ κράτιστοι μήτε προδώσειν ἀλλήλους σύμμαχοί τε ἔσεσθαι· οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι προσώμοσαν καὶ ἡγήσεσθαι ἀδόλως. 2.2.9 ταῦτα δʼ ὤμοσαν, σφάξαντες ταῦρον καὶ κάπρον καὶ κριὸν εἰς ἀσπίδα, οἱ μὲν Ἕλληνες βάπτοντες ξίφος, οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι λόγχην.
5.3.7
ἐπειδὴ δʼ ἔφευγεν ὁ Ξενοφῶν, κατοικοῦντος ἤδη αὐτοῦ ἐν Σκιλλοῦντι ὑπὸ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων οἰκισθέντος παρὰ τὴν Ὀλυμπίαν ἀφικνεῖται Μεγάβυζος εἰς Ὀλυμπίαν θεωρήσων καὶ ἀποδίδωσι τὴν παρακαταθήκην αὐτῷ. Ξενοφῶν δὲ λαβὼν χωρίον ὠνεῖται τῇ θεῷ ὅπου ἀνεῖλεν ὁ θεός. 5.3.8 ἔτυχε δὲ διαρρέων διὰ τοῦ χωρίου ποταμὸς Σελινοῦς. καὶ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ δὲ παρὰ τὸν τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος νεὼν Σελινοῦς ποταμὸς παραρρεῖ. καὶ ἰχθύες τε ἐν ἀμφοτέροις ἔνεισι καὶ κόγχαι· ἐν δὲ τῷ ἐν Σκιλλοῦντι χωρίῳ καὶ θῆραι πάντων ὁπόσα ἐστὶν ἀγρευόμενα θηρία. 5.3.9 ἐποίησε δὲ καὶ βωμὸν καὶ ναὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἀργυρίου, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν δὲ ἀεὶ δεκατεύων τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ ὡραῖα θυσίαν ἐποίει τῇ θεῷ, καὶ πάντες οἱ πολῖται καὶ οἱ πρόσχωροι ἄνδρες καὶ γυναῖκες μετεῖχον τῆς ἑορτῆς. παρεῖχε δὲ ἡ θεὸς τοῖς σκηνοῦσιν ἄλφιτα, ἄρτους, οἶνον, τραγήματα, καὶ τῶν θυομένων ἀπὸ τῆς ἱερᾶς νομῆς λάχος, καὶ τῶν θηρευομένων δέ. 5.3.10 καὶ γὰρ θήραν ἐποιοῦντο εἰς τὴν ἑορτὴν οἵ τε Ξενοφῶντος παῖδες καὶ οἱ τῶν ἄλλων πολιτῶν, οἱ δὲ βουλόμενοι καὶ ἄνδρες ξυνεθήρων· καὶ ἡλίσκετο τὰ μὲν ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἱεροῦ χώρου, τὰ δὲ καὶ ἐκ τῆς Φολόης, σύες καὶ δορκάδες καὶ ἔλαφοι.'' None
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2.2.8 But Clearchus put himself at the head of the rest of the troops, following out the plan of his previous orders, and they followed; and they reached the first stopping-place, See Xen. Anab. 2.1.3 . and there joined Ariaeus and his army, at about midnight. Then, while they halted under arms in line of battle, the generals and captains had a meeting with Ariaeus; and the two parties—the Greek officers, and Ariaeus together with the highest in rank of his followers—made oath that they would not betray each other and that they would be allies, while the barbarians took an additional pledge to lead the way without treachery. 2.2.9 These oaths they sealed by sacrificing a bull, a boar, and a ram over a shield, the Greeks dipping a sword in the blood and the barbarians a lance.
5.3.7
In the time of Xenophon’s exile Which was probably due to his taking part in the expedition of Cyrus . cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.5 . and while he was living at Scillus, near Olympia, where he had been established as a colonist by the Lacedaemonians, Megabyzus came to Olympia to attend the games and returned to him his deposit. Upon receiving it Xenophon bought a plot of ground for the goddess in a place which Apollo’s oracle appointed.
5.3.7
Such were his words. And the soldiers—not only his own men, but the rest also—when they heard that he said he would not go on to the King’s capital, commended him; and more than two thousand of the troops under Xenias and Pasion took their arms and their baggage train and encamped with Clearchus. 5.3.8 As it chanced, there flowed through the plot a river named Selinus ; and at Ephesus likewise a Selinus river flows past the temple of Artemis. In both streams, moreover, there are fish and mussels, while in the plot at Scillus there is hunting of all manner of beasts of the chase. 5.3.8 But Cyrus, perplexed and distressed by this situation, sent repeatedly for Clearchus. Clearchus refused to go to him, but without the knowledge of the soldiers he sent a messenger and told him not to be discouraged, because, he said, this matter would be settled in the right way. He directed Cyrus, however, to keep on sending for him, though he himself, he said, would refuse to go. 5.3.9 After this Clearchus gathered together his own soldiers, those who had come over to him, and any others who wanted to be present, and spoke as follows: Fellow-soldiers, it is clear that the relation of Cyrus to us is precisely the same as ours to him; that is, we are no longer his soldiers, since we decline to follow him, and likewise he is no longer our paymaster. 5.3.9 Here Xenophon built an altar and a temple with the sacred money, and from that time forth he would every year take the tithe of the products of the land in their season and offer sacrifice to the goddess, all the citizens and the men and women of the neighbourhood taking part in the festival. And the goddess would provide for the banqueters barley meal and loaves of bread, wine and sweetmeats, and a portion of the sacrificial victims from the sacred herd as well as of the victims taken in the chase. 5.3.10 I know, however, that he considers himself wronged by us. Therefore, although he keeps sending for me, I decline to go, chiefly, it is true, from a feeling of shame, because I am conscious that I have proved utterly false to him, but, besides that, from fear that he may seize me and inflict punishment upon me for the wrongs he thinks he has suffered at my hands. 5.3.10 For Xenophon’s sons and the sons of the other citizens used to have a hunting expedition at the time of the festival, and any grown men who so wished would join them; and they captured their game partly from the sacred precinct itself and partly from Mount Pholoe—boars and gazelles and stags. '' None
37. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal nicknames • animals, misogynistic likening to women

 Found in books: Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 194; Faraone (1999), Ancient Greek Love Magic, 154

38. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, and food • animals, as fable characters • talking animals

 Found in books: Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 72, 93; Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 66

39. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • Sacrificial animals, species: bull • Sacrificial animals, species: lamb • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • triad of sacrificial animals

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 43, 140; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 195, 204

40. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aesop, animal, as • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, species: boar • animals • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • chorus, khoros, animals in myth turned into dancers in ritual • sacrifice, animal substituting mythical characters

 Found in books: Kanellakis (2020), Aristophanes and the Poetics of Surprise, 112; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 281; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 191, 198; Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 261

41. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aesop, animal, as • animals

 Found in books: Lateiner and Spatharas (2016), The Ancient Emotion of Disgust, 17; Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 261

42. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacred animals (Greek), dogs at Athens Asklepieion • Sacred animals (Greek), serpents in Aristophaness Plutus scene • animals

 Found in books: Kanellakis (2020), Aristophanes and the Poetics of Surprise, 80; Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 185, 239

43. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal imagery • animals

 Found in books: Kanellakis (2020), Aristophanes and the Poetics of Surprise, 100; Michalopoulos et al. (2021), The Rhetoric of Unity and Division in Ancient Literature, 152

44. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mother of the Gods, and animals • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 47; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 56

45. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal worship, Egyptians and • sacrifice, animal, in Pythagoras

 Found in books: Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 105; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 57

46. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal material • sacrifice, animal, rejection of, Empedocles

 Found in books: Bortolani et al. (2019), William Furley, Svenja Nagel, and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices: Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions, 49; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 83

47. Aeschines, Letters, 1.114, 2.87 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • animals as oath sacrifices • animals as oath sacrifices, and perjury • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22, 154; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 194, 204

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1.114 In consequence of this experience so great became his contempt for you that immediately, on the occasion of the revision of the citizen lists, he gathered in two thousand drachmas. For he asserted that Philotades of Cydathenaeon, a citizen, was a former slave of his own, and he persuaded the members of the deme to disfranchise him. He took charge of the prosecution in court,See on Aeschin. 1.77. and after he had taken the sacred offerings in his hand and sworn that he had not taken a bribe and would not,
2.87
Is it not, therefore, an outrage, gentlemen, if one dares utter such lies about a man who is his own—no, I hasten to correct myself, not his own, but your—fellow citizen, when he is in peril of his life? Wisely, indeed, did our fathers prescribe that, in the trials for bloodshed which are held at the Palladion, the one who wins his case must cut in pieces the sacrificial flesh, and take a solemn oath (and the custom of your fathers is in force to this day), affirming that those jurors who have voted on his side have voted what is true and right, and that he himself has spoken no falsehood; and he calls down destruction upon himself and his household, if this be not true, and prays for many blessings for the jurors. A right provision, fellow citizens, and worthy of a democracy.'' None
48. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal sacrifice • animals • animals, sacrificial

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 107; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016), The Ancient Emotion of Disgust, 144; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 177

49. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 22; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 194

50. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, emotions (affections, passions) of • animals, no • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), human and animal • soul, animating the heavenly bodies

 Found in books: Osborne (1996), Eros Unveiled: Plato and the God of Love. 124; Sattler (2021), Ancient Ethics and the Natural World, 119

51. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • non-rational animals

 Found in books: Segev (2017), Aristotle on Religion, 26; Thonemann (2020), An Ancient Dream Manual: Artemidorus' the Interpretation of Dreams, 5; van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 187

52. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle,, Generation of Animals • Aristotle,, Parts of Animals • Seneca, the Younger, Stoic, Posidonius' animals also lack genuine emotion, since they are capable of appearance but not of judgement • Virtue, animal • animals • animals, emotions (affections, passions) of • animals, intelligence of • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), human and animal • soul,, in relation to characteristic activities of animal species

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 186; Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 153; Sattler (2021), Ancient Ethics and the Natural World, 119; Singer and van Eijk (2018), Galen: Works on Human Nature: Volume 1, Mixtures (De Temperamentis), 10, 92; Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 72; van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 226

53. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, Responsible for what they do? • Aristotle, Voluntariness extends more widely than proairesis to acts of animals and children • Democritus, Presocratic, Animals responsible for what they do • Epicurus, Tame animals responsible for what they do • Heracleides of Pontos, Platonist, In favour of erotic love, Animals responsible for what they do • action, denied to animals • animals • animals, complex behavior in • animals, impressions of • impressions, of animals • soul, animating the heavenly bodies

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 67, 170, 171; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 240; Osborne (1996), Eros Unveiled: Plato and the God of Love. 125; Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 326, 327

54. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Aristotle, History of Animals • animals • animals, emotions (affections, passions) of • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), human and animal • friendship, animals • oikeiōsis = Lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of animals

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006), Aristotle's Practical Side: On his Psychology, Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric, 184, 186; Sattler (2021), Ancient Ethics and the Natural World, 116, 117; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 288; Tsouni (2019), Antiochus and Peripatetic Ethics, 187

55. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, emotions (affections, passions) of • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), human and animal • political animal, man as

 Found in books: Omeara (2005), Platonopolis: Platonic Political Philosophy in Late Antiquity 122; Sattler (2021), Ancient Ethics and the Natural World, 115

56. Anon., 1 Enoch, 90.6, 90.8-90.9, 90.33 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adamin the Animal Apocalypse • Animal Apocalypse • Animals, Metaphor for Gentiles • Rebellion, Animals, of • animal imagery

 Found in books: Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 7, 85, 86, 87, 88; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 136; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 402; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 164; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 133; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 144

sup>20 And these are the names of the holy angels who watch. Uriel, one of the holy angels, who is,over the world and over Tartarus. Raphael, one of the holy angels, who is over the spirits of men.,Raguel, one of the holy angels who takes vengeance on the world of the luminaries. Michael, one,of the holy angels, to wit, he that is set over the best part of mankind and over chaos. Saraqael,,one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits, who sin in the spirit. Gabriel, one of the holy,angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim. Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise.'21 And I proceeded to where things were chaotic. And I saw there something horrible: I saw neither",a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. And there I saw,seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then,I said: \'For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither\' Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: \'Enoch, why,dost thou ask, and why art thou eager for the truth These are of the number of the stars of heaven, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years,,the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.\' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of,fire: neither its extent or magnitude could I see, nor could I conjecture. Then I said: \'How,fearful is the place and how terrible to look upon!\' Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: \'Enoch, why hast thou such fear and affright\' And,I answered: \'Because of this fearful place, and because of the spectacle of the pain.\' And he said unto me: \'This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will be imprisoned for ever.\' 22 And thence I went to another place, and he mountain and of hard rock.,And there was in it four hollow places, deep and wide and very smooth. How smooth are the hollow places and deep and dark to look at.,Then Raphael answered, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: \'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should,assemble therein, yea that all the souls of the children of men should assemble here. And these places have been made to receive them till the day of their judgement and till their appointed period till the period appointed, till the great judgement (comes) upon them.\' I saw (the spirit of) a dead man making suit,,and his voice went forth to heaven and made suit. And I asked Raphael the angel who was",with me, and I said unto him: \'This spirit which maketh suit, whose is it, whose voice goeth forth and maketh suit to heaven \',And he answered me saying: \'This is the spirit which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, and he makes his suit against him till his seed is destroyed from the face of the earth, and his seed is annihilated from amongst the seed of men.\',The I asked regarding it, and regarding all the hollow places: \'Why is one separated from the other\',And he answered me and said unto me: \'These three have been made that the spirits of the dead might be separated. And such a division has been make (for) the spirits of the righteous, in which there is the bright spring of,water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their",lifetime. Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain till the great day of judgement and punishment and torment of those who curse for ever and retribution for their spirits. There",He shall bind them for ever. And such a division has been made for the spirits of those who make their suit, who make disclosures concerning their destruction, when they were slain in the days,of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.\',The I blessed the Lord of glory and said: \'Blessed be my Lord, the Lord of righteousness, who ruleth for ever.\' 23 From thence I went to another place to the west of the ends of the earth. And I saw a burning",fire which ran without resting, and paused not from its course day or night but (ran) regularly. And,I asked saying: \'What is this which rests not\' Then Raguel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered me and said unto me: \'This course of fire which thou hast seen is the fire in the west which persecutes all the luminaries of heaven.\'' "24 And from thence I went to another place of the earth, and he showed me a mountain range of,fire which burnt day and night. And I went beyond it and saw seven magnificent mountains all differing each from the other, and the stones (thereof) were magnificent and beautiful, magnificent as a whole, of glorious appearance and fair exterior: three towards the east, one founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon the other, and deep rough ravines, no one of which,joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them,in height, resembling the seat of a throne: and fragrant trees encircled the throne. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet smelt, neither was any amongst them nor were others like it: it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood wither not for ever:,and its fruit is beautiful, and its fruit n resembles the dates of a palm. Then I said: 'How beautiful is this tree, and fragrant, and its leaves are fair, and its blooms very delightful in appearance.',Then answered Michael, one of the holy and honoured angels who was with me, and was their leader." '25 And he said unto me: \'Enoch, why dost thou ask me regarding the fragrance of the tree,,and why dost thou wish to learn the truth\' Then I answered him saying: \'I wish to",know about everything, but especially about this tree.\' And he answered saying: \'This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit,the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgement, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring (everything) to its consummation,for ever. It shall then be given to the righteous and holy. Its fruit shall be for food to the elect: it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King.,Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, And into the holy place shall they enter; And its fragrance shall be in their bones, And they shall live a long life on earth, Such as thy fathers lived:And in their days shall no sorrow or plague Or torment or calamity touch them.\',Then blessed I the God of Glory, the Eternal King, who hath prepared such things for the righteous, and hath created them and promised to give to them. 26 And I went from thence to the middle of the earth, and I saw a blessed place in which there were,trees with branches abiding and blooming of a dismembered tree. And there I saw a holy mountain,,and underneath the mountain to the east there was a stream and it flowed towards the south. And I saw towards the east another mountain higher than this, and between them a deep and narrow,ravine: in it also ran a stream underneath the mountain. And to the west thereof there was another mountain, lower than the former and of small elevation, and a ravine deep and dry between them: and another deep and dry ravine was at the extremities of the three mountains. And all the ravines were deep rand narrow, (being formed) of hard rock, and trees were not planted upon,them. And I marveled at the rocks, and I marveled at the ravine, yea, I marveled very much. 27 Then said I: \'For what object is this blessed land, which is entirely filled with trees, and this,accursed valley between\' Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered and said: \'This accursed valley is for those who are accursed for ever: Here shall all the accursed be gathered together who utter with their lips against the Lord unseemly words and of His glory speak hard things. Here shall they be gathered together, and here,shall be their place of judgement. In the last days there shall be upon them the spectacle of righteous judgement in the presence of the righteous for ever: here shall the merciful bless the Lord of glory, the Eternal King.,In the days of judgement over the former, they shall bless Him for the mercy in accordance with,which He has assigned them (their lot).\' Then I blessed the Lord of Glory and set forth His glory and lauded Him gloriously." 28 And thence I went towards the east, into the midst of the mountain range of the desert, and,I saw a wilderness and it was solitary, full of trees and plants. And water gushed forth from,above. Rushing like a copious watercourse which flowed towards the north-west it caused clouds and dew to ascend on every side." 29 And thence I went to another place in the desert, and approached to the east of this mountain,range. And there I saw aromatic trees exhaling the fragrance of frankincense and myrrh, and the trees also were similar to the almond tree. 30 And beyond these, I went afar to the east, and I saw another place, a valley (full) of water. And,therein there was a tree, the colour () of fragrant trees such as the mastic. And on the sides of those valleys I saw fragrant cinnamon. And beyond these I proceeded to the east. 31 And I saw other mountains, and amongst them were groves of trees, and there flowed forth from,them nectar, which is named sarara and galbanum. And beyond these mountains I saw another mountain to the east of the ends of the earth, whereon were aloe-trees, and all the trees were full,of stacte, being like almond-trees. And when one burnt it, it smelt sweeter than any fragrant odour.' "32 And after these fragrant odours, as I looked towards the north over the mountains I saw seven mountains full of choice nard and fragrant trees and cinnamon and pepper.,And thence I went over the summits of all these mountains, far towards the east of the earth, and passed above the Erythraean sea and went far from it, and passed over the angel Zotiel. And I came to the Garden of Righteousness,,I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom.,That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit,is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then,I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.'" '33 And from thence I went to the ends of the earth and saw there great beasts, and each differed from the other; and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and voice, the one differing from the other. And to the east of those beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon the heaven,rests, and the portals of the heaven open. And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and,I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their,times and their months, as Uriel the holy angel who was with me showed me. He showed all things to me and wrote them down for me: also their names he wrote for me, and their laws and their companies. 34 And from thence I went towards the north to the ends of the earth, and there I saw a great and,glorious device at the ends of the whole earth. And here I saw three portals of heaven open in the heaven: through each of them proceed north winds: when they blow there is cold, hail, frost,,snow, dew, and rain. And out of one portal they blow for good: but when they blow through the other two portals, it is with violence and affliction on the earth, and they blow with violence. 35 And from thence I went towards the west to the ends of the earth, and saw there three portals of the heaven open such as I had seen in the east, the same number of portals, and the same number of outlets. 36 And from thence I went to the south to the ends of the earth, and saw there three open portals,of the heaven: and thence there come dew, rain, and wind. And from thence I went to the east to the ends of the heaven, and saw here the three eastern portals of heaven open and small portals,above them. Through each of these small portals pass the stars of heaven and run their course to the west on the path which is shown to them. And as often as I saw I blessed always the Lord of Glory, and I continued to bless the Lord of Glory who has wrought great and glorious wonders, to show the greatness of His work to the angels and to spirits and to men, that they might praise His work and all His creation: that they might see the work of His might and praise the great work of His hands and bless Him for ever.' "83 And now, my son Methuselah, I will show thee all my visions which I have seen, recounting,them before thee. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the one was quite unlike the other: the first when I was learning to write: the second before I took thy mother, (when) I saw a terrible,vision. And regarding them I prayed to the Lord. I had laid me down in the house of my grandfather Mahalalel, (when) I saw in a vision how the heaven collapsed and was borne off and fell to,the earth. And when it fell to the earth I saw how the earth was swallowed up in a great abyss, and mountains were suspended on mountains, and hills sank down on hills, and high trees were rent,from their stems, and hurled down and sunk in the abyss. And thereupon a word fell into my mouth,,and I lifted up (my voice) to cry aloud, and said: ' The earth is destroyed.' And my grandfather Mahalalel waked me as I lay near him, and said unto me: ' Why dost thou cry so, my son, and why,dost thou make such lamentation' And I recounted to him the whole vision which I had seen, and he said unto me: ' A terrible thing hast thou seen, my son, and of grave moment is thy dream- vision as to the secrets of all the sin of the earth: it must sink into the abyss and be destroyed with,a great destruction. And now, my son, arise and make petition to the Lord of glory, since thou art a believer, that a remt may remain on the earth, and that He may not destroy the whole,earth. My son, from heaven all this will come upon the earth, and upon the earth there will be great,destruction. After that I arose and prayed and implored and besought, and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, and I will show everything to thee, my son Methuselah. And when I had gone forth below and seen the heaven, and the sun rising in the east, and the moon setting in the west, and a few stars, and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in the beginning, then I blessed the Lord of judgement and extolled Him because He had made the sun to go forth from the windows of the east, and he ascended and rose on the face of the heaven, and set out and kept traversing the path shown unto him." "84 And I lifted up my hands in righteousness and blessed the Holy and Great One, and spake with the breath of my mouth, and with the tongue of flesh, which God has made for the children of the flesh of men, that they should speak therewith, and He gave them breath and a tongue and a mouth that they should speak therewith:,Blessed be Thou, O Lord, King, Great and mighty in Thy greatness, Lord of the whole creation of the heaven, King of kings and God of the whole world.And Thy power and kingship and greatness abide for ever and ever, And throughout all generations Thy dominion; And all the heavens are Thy throne for ever, And the whole earth Thy footstool for ever and ever.,For Thou hast made and Thou rulest all things, And nothing is too hard for Thee, Wisdom departs not from the place of Thy throne, Nor turns away from Thy presence. And Thou knowest and seest and hearest everything, And there is nothing hidden from Thee for Thou seest everything.,And now the angels of Thy heavens are guilty of trespass, And upon the flesh of men abideth Thy wrath until the great day of judgement.,And now, O God and Lord and Great King, I implore and beseech Thee to fulfil my prayer, To leave me a posterity on earth, And not destroy all the flesh of man, And make the earth without inhabitant, So that there should be an eternal destruction.,And now, my Lord, destroy from the earth the flesh which has aroused Thy wrath, But the flesh of righteousness and uprightness establish as a plant of the eternal seed, And hide not Thy face from the prayer of Thy servant, O Lord.'" "85 And after this I saw another dream, and I will show the whole dream to thee, my son. And Enoch lifted up (his voice) and spake to his son Methuselah: ' To thee, my son, will I speak: hear my words-incline thine ear to the dream-vision of thy father. Before I took thy mother Edna, I saw in a vision on my bed, and behold a bull came forth from the earth, and that bull was white; and after it came forth a heifer, and along with this (latter) came forth two bulls, one of them black and,the other red. And that black bull gored the red one and pursued him over the earth, and thereupon,I could no longer see that red bull. But that black bull grew and that heifer went with him, and,I saw that many oxen proceeded from him which resembled and followed him. And that cow, that first one, went from the presence of that first bull in order to seek that red one, but found him,not, and lamented with a great lamentation over him and sought him. And I looked till that first,bull came to her and quieted her, and from that time onward she cried no more. And after that she bore another white bull, and after him she bore many bulls and black cows.,And I saw in my sleep that white bull likewise grow and become a great white bull, and from Him proceeded many white bulls, and they resembled him. And they began to beget many white bulls, which resembled them, one following the other, (even) many." '86 And again I saw with mine eyes as I slept, and I saw the heaven above, and behold a star fell,from heaven, and it arose and eat and pastured amongst those oxen. And after that I saw the large and the black oxen, and behold they all changed their stalls and pastures and their cattle, and began,to live with each other. And again I saw in the vision, and looked towards the heaven, and behold I saw many stars descend and cast themselves down from heaven to that first star, and they became,bulls amongst those cattle and pastured with them amongst them. And I looked at them and saw, and behold they all let out their privy members, like horses, and began to cover the cows of the oxen,,and they all became pregt and bare elephants, camels, and asses. And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their,horns. And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them.' "87 And again I saw how they began to gore each other and to devour each other, and the earth,began to cry aloud. And I raised mine eyes again to heaven, and I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven beings who were like white men: and four went forth from that place,and three with them. And those three that had last come forth grasped me by my hand and took me up, away from the generations of the earth, and raised me up to a lofty place, and showed me,a tower raised high above the earth, and all the hills were lower. And one said unto me: ' Remain here till thou seest everything that befalls those elephants, camels, and asses, and the stars and the oxen, and all of them.'" '88 And I saw one of those four who had come forth first, and he seized that first star which had fallen from the heaven, and bound it hand and foot and cast it into an abyss: now that abyss was,narrow and deep, and horrible and dark. And one of them drew a sword, and gave it to those elephants and camels and asses: then they began to smite each other, and the whole earth quaked,because of them. And as I was beholding in the vision, lo, one of those four who had come forth stoned (them) from heaven, and gathered and took all the great stars whose privy members were like those of horses, and bound them all hand and foot, and cast them in an abyss of the earth. 89 And one of those four went to that white bull and instructed him in a secret, without his being terrified: he was born a bull and became a man, and built for himself a great vessel and dwelt thereon;,and three bulls dwelt with him in that vessel and they were covered in. And again I raised mine eyes towards heaven and saw a lofty roof, with seven water torrents thereon, and those torrents,flowed with much water into an enclosure. And I saw again, and behold fountains were opened on the surface of that great enclosure, and that water began to swell and rise upon the surface,,and I saw that enclosure till all its surface was covered with water. And the water, the darkness, and mist increased upon it; and as I looked at the height of that water, that water had risen above the height of that enclosure, and was streaming over that enclosure, and it stood upon the earth.,And all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until I saw how they sank and were",swallowed up and perished in that water. But that vessel floated on the water, while all the oxen and elephants and camels and asses sank to the bottom with all the animals, so that I could no longer see them, and they were not able to escape, (but) perished and sank into the depths. And again I saw in the vision till those water torrents were removed from that high roof, and the chasms,of the earth were leveled up and other abysses were opened. Then the water began to run down into these, till the earth became visible; but that vessel settled on the earth, and the darkness,retired and light appeared. But that white bull which had become a man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, and one of those three was white like that bull, and one of them was red as blood, and one black: and that white bull departed from them.,And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens; and among them was born a white bull. And they began to bite one another; but that white bull which was born amongst them begat a wild ass and a white bull with it, and the,wild asses multiplied. But that bull which was born from him begat a black wild boar and a white",sheep; and the former begat many boars, but that sheep begat twelve sheep. And when those twelve sheep had grown, they gave up one of them to the asses, and those asses again gave up that sheep to the wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. And the Lord brought the eleven sheep to live with it and to pasture with it among the wolves: and they multiplied and became many flocks of sheep. And the wolves began to fear them, and they oppressed them until they destroyed their little ones, and they cast their young into a river of much water: but those sheep began to,cry aloud on account of their little ones, and to complain unto their Lord. And a sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled and escaped to the wild asses; and I saw the sheep how they lamented and cried, and besought their Lord with all their might, till that Lord of the sheep descended at the voice of the sheep from a lofty abode, and came to them and pastured them. And He called that sheep which had escaped the wolves, and spake with it concerning the wolves that it should,admonish them not to touch the sheep. And the sheep went to the wolves according to the word of the Lord, and another sheep met it and went with it, and the two went and entered together into the assembly of those wolves, and spake with them and admonished them not to touch the,sheep from henceforth. And thereupon I saw the wolves, and how they oppressed the sheep,exceedingly with all their power; and the sheep cried aloud. And the Lord came to the sheep and they began to smite those wolves: and the wolves began to make lamentation; but the sheep became",quiet and forthwith ceased to cry out. And I saw the sheep till they departed from amongst the wolves; but the eyes of the wolves were blinded, and those wolves departed in pursuit of the sheep,with all their power. And the Lord of the sheep went with them, as their leader, and all His sheep,followed Him: and his face was dazzling and glorious and terrible to behold. But the wolves",began to pursue those sheep till they reached a sea of water. And that sea was divided, and the water stood on this side and on that before their face, and their Lord led them and placed Himself between,them and the wolves. And as those wolves did not yet see the sheep, they proceeded into the midst of that sea, and the wolves followed the sheep, and those wolves ran after them into that sea.,And when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to flee before His face, but that sea gathered itself together, and became as it had been created, and the water swelled and rose till it covered,those wolves. And I saw till all the wolves who pursued those sheep perished and were drowned.",But the sheep escaped from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there was no water and no grass; and they began to open their eyes and to see; and I saw the Lord of the sheep,pasturing them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep going and leading them. And that,sheep ascended to the summit of that lofty rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it to them. And after that I saw the Lord of the sheep who stood before them, and His appearance was great and,terrible and majestic, and all those sheep saw Him and were afraid before His face. And they all feared and trembled because of Him, and they cried to that sheep with them which was amongst,them: \' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.\' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander,from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen,away. And when they saw it they feared and trembled at its presence, and desired to return to their,folds. And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those sheep which had fallen away, and began to slay them; and the sheep feared its presence, and thus that sheep brought back those,sheep that had fallen away, and they returned to their folds. And I saw in this vision till that sheep became a man and built a house for the Lord of the sheep, and placed all the sheep in that house.,And I saw till this sheep which had met that sheep which led them fell asleep: and I saw till all the great sheep perished and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a pasture, and,approached a stream of water. Then that sheep, their leader which had become a man, withdrew,from them and fell asleep, and all the sheep sought it and cried over it with a great crying. And I saw till they left off crying for that sheep and crossed that stream of water, and there arose the two sheep as leaders in the place of those which had led them and fallen asleep (lit. \' had fallen asleep and led,them \'). And I saw till the sheep came to a goodly place, and a pleasant and glorious land, and I saw till those sheep were satisfied; and that house stood amongst them in the pleasant land.,And sometimes their eyes were opened, and sometimes blinded, till another sheep arose and led them and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened.,And the dogs and the foxes and the wild boars began to devour those sheep till the Lord of the sheep raised up another sheep a ram from their",midst, which led them. And that ram began to butt on either side those dogs, foxes, and wild,boars till he had destroyed them all. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself,unseemly. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that",ram which had forsaken its glory. And it went to it and spake to it alone, and raised it to being a ram, and made it the prince and leader of the sheep; but during all these things those dogs,oppressed the sheep. And the first ram pursued that second ram, and that second ram arose and fled before it; and I saw till those dogs pulled,down the first ram. And that second ram arose",and led the little sheep. And those sheep grew and multiplied; but all the dogs, and foxes, and wild boars feared and fled before it, and that ram butted and killed the wild beasts, and those wild beasts had no longer any power among the,sheep and robbed them no more of ought. And that ram begat many sheep and fell asleep; and a little sheep became ram in its stead, and became prince and leader of those sheep.,And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him.,And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep,,but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from,the sheep, and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell there. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to testify unto them and lament over them. And after that I saw that when they forsook the house of the Lord and His tower they fell away entirely, and their eyes were blinded; and I saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until,those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild,beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep. And I saw that He forsook that their house and their tower and gave them all into the hand of the lions, to tear and devour them,,into the hand of all the wild beasts. And I began to cry aloud with all my power, and to appeal to the Lord of the sheep, and to represent to Him in regard to the sheep that they were devoured,by all the wild beasts. But He remained unmoved, though He saw it, and rejoiced that they were devoured and swallowed and robbed, and left them to be devoured in the hand of all the beasts.,And He called seventy shepherds, and cast those sheep to them that they might pasture them, and He spake to the shepherds and their companions: \' Let each individual of you pasture the sheep,henceforward, and everything that I shall command you that do ye. And I will deliver them over unto you duly numbered, and tell you which of them are to be destroyed-and them destroy ye.\' And,He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: \' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than",I have commanded them. And every excess and the destruction which will be wrought through the shepherds, record (namely) how many they destroy according to my command, and how many according to their own caprice: record against every individual shepherd all the destruction he,effects. And read out before me by number how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against them, and know every deed of the shepherds, that I may comprehend and see what they do, whether or not they abide by my,command which I have commanded them. But they shall not know it, and thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but only record against each individual all the destruction which,the shepherds effect each in his time and lay it all before me.\' And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their season, and they began to slay and to destroy more than they were bidden, and they delivered,those sheep into the hand of the lions. And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished,that house. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that tower because that house of the sheep was demolished, and afterwards I was unable to see if those sheep entered that house.,And the shepherds and their associates delivered over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour them, and each one of them received in his time a definite number: it was written by the other,in a book how many each one of them destroyed of them. And each one slew and destroyed many",more than was prescribed; and I began to weep and lament on account of those sheep. And thus in the vision I saw that one who wrote, how he wrote down every one that was destroyed by those shepherds, day by day, and carried up and laid down and showed actually the whole book to the Lord of the sheep-(even) everything that they had done, and all that each one of them had made,away with, and all that they had given over to destruction. And the book was read before the Lord of the sheep, and He took the book from his hand and read it and sealed it and laid it down.,And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that,house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure.,And as touching all this the eyes of those sheep were blinded so that they saw not, and (the eyes of) their shepherds likewise; and they delivered them in large numbers to their shepherds for,destruction, and they trampled the sheep with their feet and devoured them. And the Lord of the sheep remained unmoved till all the sheep were dispersed over the field and mingled with them (i.e. the,beasts), and they (i.e. the shepherds) did not save them out of the hand of the beasts. And this one who wrote the book carried it up, and showed it and read it before the Lord of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and besought Him on their account as he showed Him all the doings,of the shepherds, and gave testimony before Him against all the shepherds. And he took the actual book and laid it down beside Him and departed.
90.6
But behold lambs were borne by those white sheep, and they began to open their eyes and to see,
90.8
them, but were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes were very exceedingly blinded. And I saw in the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep 90.9 in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the ravens cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those sheep, and their eye
90.33
heep were all white, and their wool was abundant and clean. And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to 90 And I saw till that in this manner thirty-five shepherds undertook the pasturing (of the sheep), and they severally completed their periods as did the first; and others received them into their,hands, to pasture them for their period, each shepherd in his own period. And after that I saw in my vision all the birds of heaven coming, the eagles, the vultures, the kites, the ravens; but the eagles led all the birds; and they began to devour those sheep, and to pick out their eyes and to,devour their flesh. And the sheep cried out because their flesh was being devoured by the birds,,and as for me I looked and lamented in my sleep over that shepherd who pastured the sheep. And I saw until those sheep were devoured by the dogs and eagles and kites, and they left neither flesh nor skin nor sinew remaining on them till only their bones stood there: and their bones too fell,to the earth and the sheep became few. And I saw until that twenty-three had undertaken the pasturing and completed in their several periods fifty-eight times.",But behold lambs were borne by those white sheep, and they began to open their eyes and to see,,and to cry to the sheep. Yea, they cried to them, but they did not hearken to what they said to,them, but were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes were very exceedingly blinded. And I saw in the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep,in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the ravens cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those sheep, and their eyes,were opened. And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the,rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those eagles and vultures and ravens and kites still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out. And those ravens fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it. All the eagles and vultures and ravens and kites were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram.,And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face. And I saw that man, who wrote the book according to the command of the Lord, till he opened that book concerning the destruction which those twelve last shepherds had wrought, and showed that they had destroyed much more than their predecessors, before the Lord of the sheep. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep came unto them and took in His hand the staff of His wrath, and smote the earth, and the earth clave asunder, and all the beasts and all the birds of the heaven fell from among those sheep, and were swallowed up in the earth and it covered them.,And I saw till a throne was erected in the pleasant land, and the Lord of the sheep sat Himself thereon, and the other took the sealed books and opened those books before the Lord of the sheep.,And the Lord called those men the seven first white ones, and commanded that they should bring before Him, beginning with the first star which led the way, all the stars whose privy members,were like those of horses, and they brought them all before Him. And He said to that man who wrote before Him, being one of those seven white ones, and said unto him: \' Take those seventy shepherds to whom I delivered the sheep, and who taking them on their own authority slew more,than I commanded them.\' And behold they were all bound, I saw, and they all stood before Him.,And the judgement was held first over the stars, and they were judged and found guilty, and went to the place of condemnation, and they were cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full,of pillars of fire. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast,into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep, and they were all judged and found guilty and,cast into this fiery abyss, and they burned; now this abyss was to the right of that house. And I saw those sheep burning and their bones burning.,And I stood up to see till they folded up that old house; and carried off all the pillars, and all the beams and ornaments of the house were at the same time folded up with it, and they carried,it off and laid it in a place in the south of the land. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep brought a new house greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place of the first which had beer folded up: all its pillars were new, and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first, the old one which He had taken away, and all the sheep were within it.,And I saw all the sheep which had been left, and all the beasts on the earth, and all the birds of the heaven, falling down and doing homage to those sheep and making petition to and obeying,them in every thing. And thereafter those three who were clothed in white and had seized me by my hand who had taken me up before, and the hand of that ram also seizing hold of me, they,took me up and set me down in the midst of those sheep before the judgement took place. And those",sheep were all white, and their wool was abundant and clean. And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to,His house. And I saw till they laid down that sword, which had been given to the sheep, and they brought it back into the house, and it was sealed before the presence of the Lord, and all the sheep,were invited into that house, but it held them not. And the eyes of them all were opened, and they,saw the good, and there was not one among them that did not see. And I saw that that house was large and broad and very full.,And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the,birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep,rejoiced over it and over all the oxen. And I slept in their midst: and I awoke and saw everything.",This is the vision which I saw while I slept, and I awoke and blessed the Lord of righteousness and,gave Him glory. Then I wept with a great weeping and my tears stayed not till I could no longer endure it: when I saw, they flowed on account of what I had seen; for everything shall come and,be fulfilled, and all the deeds of men in their order were shown to me. On that night I remembered the first dream, and because of it I wept and was troubled-because I had seen that vision.Section V. XCI-CIV (i.e. XCII, XCI.,XCIII.",XCI.",XCIV-CIV.). A Book of Exhortation and Promised Blessing for the Righteous and of Malediction and Woe for the Sinners." ' None
57. Cato, Marcus Porcius, On Agriculture, 141 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, sacrificial • young animals

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 106; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 130

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141 The following is the formula for purifying land: Bidding the suovetaurilia to be led around, use the words: "That with the good help of the gods success may crown our work, I\xa0bid thee, Manius, to take care to purify my farm, my land, my ground with this suovetaurilia, in whatever part thou thinkest best for them to be driven or carried around." \xa0Make a prayer with wine to Janus and Jupiter, and say: "Father Mars, I\xa0pray and beseech thee that thou be gracious and merciful to me, my house, and my household; to which intent I\xa0have bidden this suovetaurilia to be led around my land, my ground, my farm; that thou keep away, ward off, and remove sickness, seen and unseen, barrenness and destruction, ruin and unseasonable influence; \xa0and that thou permit my harvests, my grain, my vineyards, and my plantations to flourish and to come to good issue, preserve in health my shepherds and my flocks, and give good health and strength to me, my house, and my household. To this intent, to the intent of purifying my farm, my land, my ground, and of making an expiation, as I\xa0have said, deign to accept the offering of these suckling victims; Father Mars, to the same intent deign to accept the offering of these suckling offering." \xa0Also heap the cakes with the knife and see that the oblation cake be hard by, then present the victims. When you offer up the pig, the lamb, and the calf, use this formula: "To this intent deign to accept the offering of these victims." .\xa0.\xa0. If favourable omens are not obtained in response to all, speak thus: "Father Mars, if aught hath not pleased thee in the offering of those sucklings, I\xa0make atonement with these victims." If there is doubt about one or two, use these words: "Father Mars, inasmuch as thou wast not pleased by the offering of that pig, I\xa0make atonement with this pig."'' None
58. Anon., Jubilees, 4.23-4.26, 6.4-6.16, 7.28-7.32, 8.19, 21.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Flesh, Animal • Sacrifice, Animal • animal • animal, bovine • animal, bull • animal, unicorn • animals, fish, and birds • prey animals

 Found in books: Gera (2014), Judith, 259; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 318; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 749; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 74; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99, 366

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4.23 And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 4.24 And what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the day of judgment; 4.25 he saw and understood everything, and wrote his testimony, and placed the testimony on earth for all the children of men and for their generations.' "4.26 And in the twelfth jubilee, in the seventh week thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Ednî, the daughter of Dânêl, the daughter of his father's brother, and in the sixth year in this week she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah." 6.4 and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before the Lord. 6.5 And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covet with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; 6.6 that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7 "And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8 The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9 And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10 But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11 At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man.' "6.12 Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." '6.13 And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth." 6.14 And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh, 6.15 and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16 On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever.
7.28
And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29 And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, 7.30 and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31 And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32 "And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark,
8.19
and his portion goeth towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this river goeth forth
21.18
(but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and new growth; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, for its fragrance is gone for there is no longer fragrance in it as before.'' None
59. Cicero, On Divination, 2.37-2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals as divinatory • animals, oxen

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019), Esther Eidinow, Ancient Divination and Experience, 181, 185; Johnston (2008), Ancient Greek Divination, 128

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2.37 Qui fit, ut alterum intellegas, sine corde non potuisse bovem vivere, alterum non videas, cor subito non potuisse nescio quo avolare? Ego enim possum vel nescire, quae vis sit cordis ad vivendum, vel suspicari contractum aliquo morbo bovis exile et exiguum et vietum cor et dissimile cordis fuisse; tu vero quid habes, quare putes, si paulo ante cor fuerit in tauro opimo, subito id in ipsa immolatione interisse? an quod aspexit vestitu purpureo excordem Caesarem, ipse corde privatus est? Urbem philosophiae, mihi crede, proditis, dum castella defenditis; nam, dum haruspicinam veram esse vultis, physiologiam totam pervertitis. Caput est in iecore, cor in extis; iam abscedet, simul ac molam et vinum insperseris; deus id eripiet, vis aliqua conficiet aut exedet. Non ergo omnium ortus atque obitus natura conficiet, et erit aliquid, quod aut ex nihilo oriatur aut in nihilum subito occidat. Quis hoc physicus dixit umquam? haruspices dicunt; his igitur quam physicis credendum potius existumas? 2.38 Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum.'' None
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2.37 How does it happen that you understand the one fact, that the bull could not have lived without a heart and do not realize the other, that the heart could not suddenly have vanished I know not where? As for me, possibly I do not know what vital function the heart performs; if I do I suspect that the bulls heart, as the result of a disease, became much wasted and shrunken and lost its resemblance to a heart. But, assuming that only a little while before the heart was in the sacrificial bull, why do you think it suddenly disappeared at the very moment of immolation? Dont you think, rather, that the bull lost his heart when he saw that Caesar in his purple robe had lost his head?Upon my word you Stoics surrender the very city of philosophy while defending its outworks! For, by your insistence on the truth of soothsaying, you utterly overthrow physiology. There is a head to the liver and a heart in the entrails, presto! they will vanish the very second you have sprinkled them with meal and wine! Aye, some god will snatch them away! Some invisible power will destroy them or eat them up! Then the creation and destruction of all things are not due to nature, and there are some things which spring from nothing or suddenly become nothing. Was any such statement ever made by any natural philosopher? It is made, you say, by soothsayers. Then do you think that soothsayers are worthier of belief than natural philosophers? 17 2.38 Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices.'' None
60. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.30, 3.62 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, animals in • animals • animals, • animals, complex behavior in • animals, cross-species comparisons • animals, in Lucretius

 Found in books: Atkins (2021), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy 168, 176; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 90; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 176

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3.62 Pertinere autem ad rem arbitrantur intellegi natura fieri ut liberi a parentibus amentur. a quo initio profectam communem humani generis societatem persequimur. quod primum intellegi debet figura membrisque corporum, quae ipsa declarant procreandi a natura habitam esse rationem. neque vero haec inter se congruere possent, possent N 2 possint ut natura et procreari vellet et diligi procreatos non curaret. atque etiam in bestiis vis naturae perspici potest; quarum in fetu et in educatione laborem cum cernimus, naturae ipsius vocem videmur audire. quare ut perspicuum est natura nos a dolore add. P. Man. abhorrere, sic apparet a natura ipsa, ut eos, quos genuerimus, amemus, inpelli.' ' None
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3.62 \xa0"Again, it is held by the Stoics to be important to understand that nature creates in parents an affection for their children; and parental affection is the source to which we trace the origin of the association of the human race in communities. This cannot but be clear in the first place from the conformation of the body and its members, which by themselves are enough to show that nature\'s scheme included the procreation of offspring. Yet it could not be consistent that nature should at once intend offspring to be born and make no provision for that offspring when born to be loved and cherished. Even in the lower animals nature\'s operation can be clearly discerned; when we observe the labour that they spend on bearing and rearing their young, we seem to be listening to the actual voice of nature. Hence as it is manifest that it is natural for us to shrink from pain, so it is clear that we derive from nature herself the impulse to love those to whom we have given birth. <' ' None
61. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.30, 2.133, 2.146, 2.160, 3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Lucretius, animals in • animal life • animal, ass • animals • animals, Animal-human behavior • animals, in Lucretius • animals, sacrificial • oikeiōsis = Lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of animals

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 90, 112; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 302; Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 115; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 116; Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 351; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 14; Tsouni (2019), Antiochus and Peripatetic Ethics, 185

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2.30 Now we observe that the parts of the world (and nothing exists in all the world which is not a part of the whole world) possess sensation and reason. Therefore it follows that that part which contains the ruling principle of the world must necessarily possess sensation and reason, and these in a more intense and higher form. Hence it follows that the world possesses wisdom, and that the element which holds all things in its embrace is pre‑eminently and perfectly rational, and therefore that the world is god, and all the forces of the world are held together by the divine nature. "Moreover that glowing heat of the world is far purer and more brilliant and far more mobile, and therefore more stimulating to the senses, than this warmth of ours by which the things that we know are preserved and vitalized.
2.133
"Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature.
2.146
The ears are likewise marvellously skilful organs of discrimination; they judge differences of tone, of pitch and of key in the music of the voice and of wind and stringed instruments, and many different qualities of voice, sonorous and dull, smooth and rough, bass and treble, flexible and hard, distinctions discriminated by the human ear alone. Likewise the nostrils, the taste and in some measure the touch have highly sensitive faculties of discrimination. And the arts invented to appeal to and indulge these senses are even more numerous than I could wish. The developments of perfumery and of the meretricious adornment of the person are obvious examples. ' "
2.160
As for the pig, it can only furnish food; indeed Chrysippus actually says that its soul was given it to serve as salt and keep it from putrefaction; and because this animal was fitted for the food of man, nature made it the most prolific of all her offspring. Why should I speak of the teeming swarms of delicious fish? or of birds, which afford us so much pleasure that our Stoic Providence appears to have been at times a disciple of Epicurus? and they could not even be caught save by man's intelligence and cunning; — although some birds, birds of flight and birds of utterance as our augurs call them, we believe to have been created for the purpose of giving omens. " 3.5 "Very well," rejoined Cotta, "let us then proceed as the argument itself may lead us. But before we come to the subject, let me say a few words about myself. I am considerably influenced by your authority, Balbus, and by the plea that you put forward at the conclusion of your discourse, when you exhorted me to remember that I am both a Cotta and a pontife. This no doubt meant that I ought to uphold the beliefs about the immortal gods which have come down to us from our ancestors, and the rites and ceremonies and duties of religion. For my part I always shall uphold them and always have done so, and no eloquence of anybody, learned or unlearned, shall ever dislodge me from the belief as to the worship of the immortal gods which I have inherited from our forefathers. But on any question of el I am guided by the high pontifes, Titus Coruncanius, Publius Scipio and Publius Scaevola, not by Zeno or Cleanthes or Chrysippus; and I have Gaius Laelius, who was both an augur and a philosopher, to whose discourse upon religion, in his famous oration, I would rather listen than to any leader of the Stoics. The religion of the Roman people comprises ritual, auspices, and the third additional division consisting of all such prophetic warnings as the interpreters of the Sybil or the soothsayers have derived from portents and prodigies. While, I have always thought that none of these departments of religion was to be despised, and I have held the conviction that Romulus by his auspices and Numa by his establishment of our ritual laid the foundations of our state, which assuredly could never have been as great as it is had not the fullest measure of divine favour been obtained for it. '' None
62. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.1, 13.4, 17.3, 20.29, 24.23, 25.15, 25.21, 25.23, 33.13, 44.5, 50.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal Apocalypse • Rebellion, Animals, of • Sacrifice, Animal • animal imagery • animal life • animals • animals, • animating breath • blood, of animal sacrifices • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 394, 396, 401; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 33, 71, 117, 128, 183, 188, 200; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 65, 82, 119; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 412, 695; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 164; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278

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17.3 He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image.
24.23
All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
25.21
Do not be ensnared by a womans beauty,and do not desire a woman for her possessions.
25.23
A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy.
33.13
As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides.
50.12
And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees,' ' None
63. Septuagint, Judith, 16.17, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Yahweh, animals of • animal imagery • animals, fish, and birds • animals, sacred, in Judea

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 200; Gera (2014), Judith, 48, 364, 465; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 79

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16.17 Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever.
16.19
Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord. '' None
64. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.3, 15.11, 50.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animal Apocalypse • Sacrifice, Animal • Strength, Animal’s teeth, of • animal life • animals • blood, of animal sacrifices • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 394, 396; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 121; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 142; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 414, 695; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 179

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13.3 If through delight in the beauty of these things men assumed them to be gods,let them know how much better than these is their Lord,for the author of beauty created them.
13.3
Noisome beasts ran upon them: With their teeth they tore their flesh, And with their molars crushed their bones. But from all these things the Lord delivered us,
15.11
And the inheritance of sinners is destruction and darkness, And their iniquities shall pursue them unto Sheol beneath.
15.11
because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit."' ' None
65. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • India, animals from • Italia, pastio (“animal husbandry”) in • Roman Empire, animals traded by • Rome,, as one part of animal husbandry • agri cultura, distinction from pastio (“animal husbandry”) • animal breeding, for appearance • animals • animals, color descriptions and uses of, cattle • animals, color descriptions and uses of, mollusks • animals, color descriptions and uses of, pigs • animals, fastidium ascribed to • leporaria (“animal hutches”) • pastio agrestis (“animal husbandry”), distinction from agri cultura • pastio agrestis (“animal husbandry”), exemplifications of • pastio agrestis (“animal husbandry”), taxonomy of • pastio villatica (“animal husbandry of the villa”), concept of • pastio villatica (“animal husbandry of the villa”), ficial risks of • pastio villatica (“animal husbandry of the villa”), moral perils of • pastio villatica (“animal husbandry of the villa”), profitable venture of • pastio villatica (“animal husbandry of the villa”), taxonomy of • pleasure and delight, as secondary goal of pastio villaticia (“animal husbandry of the villa”) • production and profit, as primary goal of pastio agrestis (“animal husbandry”) • production and profit, as primary goal of pastio villatica (“animal husbandry of the villa”) • young animals

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 29, 222, 263, 266; Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 154, 155; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 129; Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 189; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 143, 229; Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 55, 56, 151, 160, 161, 165, 188, 194, 204, 206

66. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, animals in • animals • animals, • animals, in Lucretius

 Found in books: Atkins (2021), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy 168; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 90

67. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal life • animals, • animals, corrupted

 Found in books: Atkins (2021), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy 190; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 247; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 62

68. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal worship • animal worship, Egyptians and • animals, humans compared with

 Found in books: Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 109; Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 357; Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 194

69. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal Apocalypse • Rebellion, Animals, of

 Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 402; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 164

70. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal Apocalypse • animal, lion • animals, fish, and birds

 Found in books: Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 87; Gera (2014), Judith, 48; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 200; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 133

71. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.28-1.29, 1.87, 5.56.5-5.56.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Library (Diodorus Siculus),, animals in • animal bones • animal bones, burnt at sacrifices • animal species, cattle • animal worship, Egyptians and • animals • ethnicity, and animality • sacrifice, animal, continuity in • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi

 Found in books: Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 67, 141; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 32; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 52; Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 113; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 51

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1.28 1. \xa0Now the Egyptians say that also after these events a great number of colonies were spread from Egypt over all the inhabited world. To Babylon, for instance, colonists were led by Belus, who was held to be the son of Poseidon and Libya; and after establishing himself on the Euphrates river he appointed priests, called Chaldaeans by the Babylonians, who were exempt from taxation and free from every kind of service to the state, as are the priests of Egypt; and they also make observations of the stars, following the example of the Egyptian priests, physicists, and astrologers.,2. \xa0They say also that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city in Greece, Argos, and that the nation of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews, which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country;,3. \xa0and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these two peoples to circumcise their male children, the custom having been brought over from Egypt.,4. \xa0Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Saïs in Egypt, and they undertake to offer proofs of such a relationship; for the Athenians are the only Greeks who call their city "Asty," a name brought over from the city Asty in Egypt. Furthermore, their body politic had the same classification and division of the people as found in Egypt, where the citizens have been divided into three orders:,5. \xa0the first Athenian class consisted of the "eupatrids," as they were called, being those who were such as had received the best education and were held worthy of the highest honour, as is the case with the priests of Egypt; the second was that of the "geomoroi," who were expected to possess arms and to serve in defence of the state, like those in Egypt who are known as husbandmen and supply the warriors; and the last class was reckoned to be that of the "demiurgoi," who practise the mechanical arts and render only the most menial services to the state, this class among the Egyptians having a similar function.,6. \xa0Moreover, certain of the rulers of Athens were originally Egyptians, they say. Petes, for instance, the father of that Menestheus who took part in the expedition against Troy, having clearly been an Egyptian, later obtained citizenship at Athens and the kingship. .\xa0.\xa0.,7. \xa0He was of double form, and yet the Athenians are unable from their own point of view to give the true explanation of this nature of his, although it is patent to all that it was because of his double citizenship, Greek and barbarian, that he was held to be of double form, that is, part animal and part man. 1.29 1. \xa0In the same way, they continue, Erechtheus also, who was by birth an Egyptian, became king of Athens, and in proof of this they offer the following considerations. Once when there was a great drought, as is generally agreed, which extended over practically all the inhabited earth except Egypt because of the peculiar character of that country, and there followed a destruction both of crops and of men in great numbers, Erechtheus, through his racial connection with Egypt, brought from there to Athens a great supply of grain, and in return those who had enjoyed this aid made their benefactor king.,2. \xa0After he had secured the throne he instituted the initiatory rites of Demeter in Eleusis and established the mysteries, transferring their ritual from Egypt. And the tradition that an advent of the goddess into Attica also took place at that time is reasonable, since it was then that the fruits which are named after her were brought to Athens, and this is why it was thought that the discovery of the seed had been made again, as though Demeter had bestowed the gift.,3. \xa0And the Athenians on their part agree that it was in the reign of Erechtheus, when a lack of rain had wiped out the crops, that Demeter came to them with the gift of grain. Furthermore, the initiatory rites and mysteries of this goddess were instituted at Eleusis at that time.,4. \xa0And their sacrifices as well as their ancient ceremonies are observed by the Athenians in the same way as by the Egyptians; for the Eumolpidae were derived from the priests of Egypt and the Ceryces from the pastophoroi. They are also the only Greeks who swear by Isis, and they closely resemble the Egyptians in both their appearance and manners.,5. \xa0By many other statements like these, spoken more out of a love for glory than with regard for the truth, as I\xa0see the matter, they claim Athens as a colony of theirs because of the fame of that city. In general, the Egyptians say that their ancestors sent forth numerous colonies to many parts of the inhabited world, the pre-eminence of their former kings and their excessive population;,6. \xa0but since they offer no precise proof whatsoever for these statements, and since no historian worthy of credence testifies in their support, we have not thought that their accounts merited recording. So far as the ideas of the Egyptians about the gods are concerned, let what we have said suffice, since we are aiming at due proportion in our account, but with regard to the land, the Nile, and everything else worth hearing about we shall endeavour, in each case, to give the several facts in summary.' "
1.87
1. \xa0The third cause which they adduce in connection with the dispute in question is the service which each one of these animals renders for the benefit of community life and of mankind.,2. \xa0The cow, for example, bears workers and ploughs the lighter soil; the sheep lamb twice in the year and provide by their wool both protection for the body and its decorous covering, while by their milk and cheese they furnish food that is both appetizing and abundant. Again, the dog is useful both for the hunt and for man's protection, and this is why they represent the god whom they call Anubis with a dog's head, showing in this way that he was the bodyguard of Osiris and Isis.,3. \xa0There are some, however, who explain that dogs guided Isis during her search for Osiris and protected her from wild beasts and wayfarers, and that they helped her in her search, because of the affection they bore for her, by baying; and this is the reason why at the Festival of Isis the procession is led by dogs, those who introduced the rite showing forth in this way the kindly service rendered by this animal of old.,4. \xa0The cat is likewise useful against asps with their deadly bite and the other reptiles that sting, while the ichneumon keeps a look-out for the newly-laid seed of the crocodile and crushes the eggs left by the female, doing this carefully and zealously even though it receives no benefit from the act.,5. \xa0Were this not done, the river would have become impassable because of the multitude of beasts that would be born. And the crocodiles themselves are also killed by this animal in an astonishing and quite incredible manner; for the ichneumons roll themselves over and over in the mud, and when the crocodiles go to sleep on the land with their mouths open they jump down their mouths into the centre of their body; then, rapidly gnawing through the bowels, they get out unscathed themselves and at the same time kill their victims instantly.,6. \xa0And of the sacred birds the ibis is useful as a protector against the snakes, the locusts, and the caterpillars, and the hawk against the scorpions, horned serpents, and the small animals of noxious bite which cause the greatest destruction of men.,7. \xa0But some maintain that the hawk is honoured because it is used as a bird of omen by the soothsayers in predicting to the Egyptians events which are to come.,8. \xa0Others, however, say that in primitive times a hawk brought to the priests in Thebes a book wrapped about with a purple band, which contained written directions concerning the worship of gods and the honours due to them; and it is for this reason, they add, that the sacred scribes wear on their heads a purple band and the wing of a hawk.,9. \xa0The eagle also is honoured by the Thebans because it is believed to be a royal animal and worthy of Zeus. " 5.56.5 \xa0His seven sons were Ochimus, Cercaphus, Macar, Actis, Tenages, Triopas, and Candalus, and there was one daughter, Electryonê, who quit this life while still a maiden and attained at the hands of the Rhodians to honours like those accorded to the heroes. And when the Heliadae attained to manhood they were told by Helius that the first people to offer sacrifices to Athena would ever enjoy the presence of the goddess; and the same thing, we are told, was disclosed by him to the inhabitants of Attica. 5.56.6 \xa0Consequently, men say, the Heliadae, forgetting in their haste to put fire beneath the victims, nevertheless laid them on the altars at the time, whereas Cecrops, who was king at the time of the Athenians, performed the sacrifice over fire, but later than the Heliadae.'' None
72. Horace, Sermones, 2.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals as effigies

 Found in books: Faraone (1999), Ancient Greek Love Magic, 67; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016), The Ancient Emotion of Disgust, 205

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2.8 2. Now, although I cannot but think that I have already demonstrated, and that abundantly, more than was necessary, that our fathers were not originally Egyptians, nor were thence expelled, either on account of bodily diseases, or any other calamities of that sort,
2.8
for Apion hath the impudence to pretend, that “the Jews placed an ass’s head in their holy place;” and he affirms that this was discovered when Antiochus Epiphanes spoiled our temple, and found that ass’s head there made of gold, and worth a great deal of money. '' None
73. Ovid, Fasti, 1.337-1.456, 5.444, 5.585-5.594 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • agency, animal • agents, animal • animal sacrifice • animals • animals, Animal-human behavior • animals, Sacrifice of • animals, burial • animals, dogs • animals, fastidium ascribed to, pudor ascribed to • animals, sacrificial • pudor, ascribed to animals

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 107, 108, 109, 111; Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 165; Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 353, 363; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 14, 246; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 95; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 177, 178, 179

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1.337 ante, deos homini quod conciliare valeret, 1.338 far erat et puri lucida mica salis, 1.339 nondum pertulerat lacrimatas cortice murras 1.340 acta per aequoreas hospita navis aquas, 1.341 tura nec Euphrates nec miserat India costum, 1.342 nec fuerant rubri cognita fila croci. 1.343 ara dabat fumos herbis contenta Sabinis 1.344 et non exiguo laurus adusta sono. 1.345 si quis erat, factis prati de flore coronis 1.346 qui posset violas addere, dives erat. 1.347 hic, qui nunc aperit percussi viscera tauri, 1.348 in sacris nullum culter habebat opus. 1.349 prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae 1.350 ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes; 1.351 nam sata vere novo teneris lactentia sulcis 1.352 eruta saetigerae comperit ore suis. 1.353 sus dederat poenas: exemplo territus huius 1.354 palmite debueras abstinuisse, caper. 1.355 quem spectans aliquis dentes in vite prementem 1.356 talia non tacito dicta dolore dedit: 1.357 ‘rode, caper, vitem! tamen hinc, cum stabis ad aram, 1.358 in tua quod spargi cornua possit, erit.’ 1.359 verba fides sequitur: noxae tibi deditus hostis 1.360 spargitur adfuso cornua, Bacche, mero. 1.361 culpa sui nocuit, nocuit quoque culpa capellae: 1.362 quid bos, quid placidae commeruistis oves? 1.363 flebat Aristaeus, quod apes cum stirpe necatas 1.364 viderat inceptos destituisse favos. 1.365 caerula quem genetrix aegre solata dolentem 1.366 addidit haec dictis ultima verba suis: 1.367 ‘siste, puer, lacrimas! Proteus tua damna levabit, 1.368 quoque modo repares quae periere, dabit, 1.369 decipiat ne te versis tamen ille figuris, 1.370 impediant geminas vincula firma manus.’ 1.371 pervenit ad vatem iuvenis resolutaque somno 1.372 alligat aequorei brachia capta senis, 1.373 ille sua faciem transformis adulterat arte: 1.374 mox domitus vinclis in sua membra redit, 1.375 oraque caerulea tollens rorantia barba, 1.376 qua dixit ‘repares arte, requiris, apes? 1.377 obrue mactati corpus tellure iuvenci: 1.378 quod petis a nobis, obrutus ille dabit.’ 1.379 iussa facit pastor: fervent examina putri 1.380 de bove: mille animas una necata dedit, 1.381 poscit ovem fatum: verbenas improba carpsit, 1.382 quas pia dis ruris ferre solebat anus. 1.383 quid tuti superest, animam cum ponat in aris 1.384 lanigerumque pecus ruricolaeque boves? 1.385 placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum, 1.386 ne detur celeri victima tarda deo. 1.387 quod semel est triplici pro virgine caesa Dianae, 1.388 nunc quoque pro nulla virgine cerva cadit, 1.389 exta canum vidi Triviae libare Sapaeos, 1.390 et quicumque tuas accolit, Haeme, nives, 1.391 caeditur et rigido custodi ruris asellus; 1.392 causa pudenda quidem, sed tamen apta deo. 1.393 festa corymbiferi celebrabas, Graecia, Bacchi, 1.394 tertia quae solito tempore bruma refert. 1.395 di quoque cultores in idem venere Lyaei, 1.396 et quicumque iocis non alienus erat, 1.397 Panes et in Venerem Satyrorum prona iuventus, 1.398 quaeque colunt amnes solaque rura deae. 1.399 venerat et senior pando Silenus asello, 1.400 quique ruber pavidas inguine terret aves, 1.401 dulcia qui dignum nemus in convivia nacti 1.402 gramine vestitis accubuere toris, vina 1.403 vina dabat Liber, tulerat sibi quisque coronam, 1.404 miscendas parce rivus agebat aquas. 1.405 Naides effusis aliae sine pectinis usu, 1.406 pars aderant positis arte manuque comis: 1.407 illa super suras tunicam collecta ministrat, 1.408 altera dissuto pectus aperta sinu: 1.409 exserit haec humerum, vestem trahit illa per herbas, 1.410 impediunt teneros vincula nulla pedes, 1.411 hinc aliae Satyris incendia mitia praebent, 1.412 pars tibi, qui pinu tempora nexa geris, 1.413 te quoque, inextinctae Silene libidinis, urunt: 1.414 nequitia est, quae te non sinit esse senem. 1.415 at ruber, hortorum decus et tutela, Priapus 1.416 omnibus ex illis Lotide captus erat: 1.417 hanc cupit, hanc optat, sola suspirat in illa, 1.418 signaque dat nutu, sollicitatque notis, 1.419 fastus inest pulchris, sequiturque superbia formam: 1.420 irrisum voltu despicit illa suo. 1.421 nox erat, et vino somnum faciente iacebant 1.422 corpora diversis victa sopore locis. 1.423 Lotis in herbosa sub acernis ultima ramis, 1.424 sicut erat lusu fessa, quievit humo. 1.425 surgit amans animamque tenens vestigia furtim 1.426 suspenso digitis fert taciturna gradu, 1.427 ut tetigit niveae secreta cubilia nymphae, 1.428 ipsa sui flatus ne sonet aura, cavet, 1.429 et iam finitima corpus librabat in herba: 1.430 illa tamen multi plena soporis erat. 1.431 gaudet et, a pedibus tracto velamine, vota 1.432 ad sua felici coeperat ire via. 1.433 ecce rudens rauco Sileni vector asellus 1.434 intempestivos edidit ore sonos. 1.435 territa consurgit nymphe manibusque Priapum 1.436 reicit et fugiens concitat omne nemus; 1.437 at deus obscena nimium quoque parte paratus 1.438 omnibus ad lunae lumina risus erat. 1.439 morte dedit poenas auctor clamoris, et haec est 1.440 Hellespontiaco victima grata deo. 1.441 intactae fueratis aves, solacia ruris, 1.442 adsuetum silvis innocuumque genus, 1.443 quae facitis nidos et plumis ova fovetis 1.444 et facili dulces editis ore modos; 1.445 sed nil ista iuvant, quia linguae crimen habetis, 1.446 dique putant mentes vos aperire suas. 1.447 nec tamen hoc falsum: nam, dis ut proxima quaeque, 1.448 nunc penna veras, nunc datis ore notas, 1.449 tuta diu volucrum proles tum denique caesa est, 1.450 iuveruntque deos indicis exta sui. 1.451 ergo saepe suo coniunx abducta marito 1.452 uritur Idaliis alba columba focis; 1.453 nec defensa iuvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 1.454 det iecur in lances, Inachi lauta, tuas; 1.455 nocte deae Nocti cristatus caeditur ales, 1.456 quod tepidum vigili provocet ore diem.
5.444
respicit et pure sacra peracta putat.
5.585
signa, decus belli, Parthus Romana tenebat, 5.586 Romanaeque aquilae signifer hostis erat. 5.587 isque pudor mansisset adhuc, nisi fortibus armis 5.588 Caesaris Ausoniae protegerentur opes. 5.589 ille notas veteres et longi dedecus aevi 5.590 sustulit: agnorunt signa recepta suos. 5.591 quid tibi nunc solitae mitti post terga sagittae, 5.592 quid loca, quid rapidi profuit usus equi, 5.593 Parthe? refers aquilas, victos quoque porrigis arcus: 5.594 pignora iam nostri nulla pudoris habes.'' None
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1.337 Cornmeal, and glittering grains of pure salt, 1.338 Were once the means for men to placate the gods. 1.339 No foreign ship had yet brought liquid myrrh 1.340 Extracted from tree’s bark, over the ocean waves: 1.341 Euphrates had not sent incense, nor India balm, 1.342 And the threads of yellow saffron were unknown. 1.343 The altar was happy to fume with Sabine juniper, 1.344 And the laurel burned with a loud crackling. 1.345 He was rich, whoever could add violet 1.346 To garlands woven from meadow flowers. 1.347 The knife that bares the entrails of the stricken bull, 1.348 Had no role to perform in the sacred rites. 1.349 Ceres was first to delight in the blood of the greedy sow, 1.350 Her crops avenged by the rightful death of the guilty creature, 1.351 She learned that in spring the grain, milky with sweet juice, 1.352 Had been uprooted by the snouts of bristling pigs. 1.353 The swine were punished: terrified by that example, 1.354 You should have spared the vine-shoots, he-goat. 1.355 Watching a goat nibbling a vine someone once 1.356 Vented their indignation in these words: 1.357 ‘Gnaw the vine, goat! But when you stand at the altar 1.358 There’ll be something from it to sprinkle on your horns.’ 1.359 Truth followed: Bacchus, your enemy is given you 1.360 To punish, and sprinkled wine flows over its horns. 1.361 The sow suffered for her crime, and the goat for hers: 1.362 But what were you guilty of you sheep and oxen? 1.363 Aristaeus wept because he saw his bees destroyed, 1.364 And the hives they had begun left abandoned. 1.365 His azure mother, Cyrene, could barely calm his grief, 1.366 But added these final words to what she said: 1.367 ‘Son, cease your tears! Proteus will allay your loss, 1.368 And show you how to recover what has perished. 1.369 But lest he still deceives you by changing shape, 1.370 Entangle both his hands with strong fastenings.’ 1.371 The youth approached the seer, who was fast asleep, 1.372 And bound the arms of that Old Man of the Sea. 1.373 He by his art altered his shape and transformed his face, 1.374 But soon reverted to his true form, tamed by the ropes. 1.375 Then raising his dripping head, and sea-green beard, 1.376 He said: ‘Do you ask how to recover your bees? 1.377 Kill a heifer and bury its carcase in the earth, 1.378 Buried it will produce what you ask of me.’ 1.379 The shepherd obeyed: the beast’s putrid corpse 1.380 Swarmed: one life destroyed created thousands. 1.381 Death claims the sheep: wickedly, it grazed the vervain 1.382 That a pious old woman offered to the rural gods. 1.383 What creature’s safe if woolly sheep, and oxen 1.384 Broken to the plough, lay their lives on the altar? 1.385 Persia propitiates Hyperion, crowned with rays, 1.386 With horses, no sluggish victims for the swift god. 1.387 Because a hind was once sacrificed to Diana the twin, 1.388 Instead of Iphigeneia, a hind dies, though not for a virgin now. 1.389 I have seen a dog’s entrails offered to Trivia by Sapaeans, 1.390 Whose homes border on your snows, Mount Haemus. 1.391 A young ass too is sacrificed to the erect rural guardian, 1.392 Priapus, the reason’s shameful, but appropriate to the god. 1.393 Greece, you held a festival of ivy-berried Bacchus, 1.394 That used to recur at the appointed time, every third winter. 1.395 There too came the divinities who worshipped him as Lyaeus, 1.396 And whoever else was not averse to jesting, 1.397 The Pans and the young Satyrs prone to lust, 1.398 And the goddesses of rivers and lonely haunts. 1.399 And old Silenus came on a hollow-backed ass, 1.400 And crimson Priapus scaring the timid birds with his rod. 1.401 Finding a grove suited to sweet entertainment, 1.402 They lay down on beds of grass covered with cloths. 1.403 Liber offered wine, each had brought a garland, 1.404 A stream supplied ample water for the mixing. 1.405 There were Naiads too, some with uncombed flowing hair, 1.406 Others with their tresses artfully bound. 1.407 One attends with tunic tucked high above the knee, 1.408 Another shows her breast through her loosened robe: 1.409 One bares her shoulder: another trails her hem in the grass, 1.410 Their tender feet are not encumbered with shoes. 1.411 So some create amorous passion in the Satyrs, 1.412 Some in you, Pan, brows wreathed in pine. 1.413 You too Silenus, are on fire, insatiable lecher: 1.414 Wickedness alone prevents you growing old. 1.415 But crimson Priapus, guardian and glory of gardens, 1.416 of them all, was captivated by Lotis: 1.417 He desires, and prays, and sighs for her alone, 1.418 He signals to her, by nodding, woos her with signs. 1.419 But the lovely are disdainful, pride waits on beauty: 1.420 She laughed at him, and scorned him with a look. 1.421 It was night, and drowsy from the wine, 1.422 They lay here and there, overcome by sleep. 1.423 Tired from play, Lotis rested on the grassy earth, 1.424 Furthest away, under the maple branches. 1.425 Her lover stood, and holding his breath, stole 1.426 Furtively and silently towards her on tiptoe. 1.427 Reaching the snow-white nymph’s secluded bed, 1.428 He took care lest the sound of his breath escaped. 1.429 Now he balanced on his toes on the grass nearby: 1.430 But she was still completely full of sleep. 1.431 He rejoiced, and drawing the cover from her feet, 1.432 He happily began to have his way with her. 1.433 Suddenly Silenus’ ass braying raucously, 1.434 Gave an untimely bellow from its jaws. 1.435 Terrified the nymph rose, pushed Priapus away, 1.436 And, fleeing, gave the alarm to the whole grove. 1.437 But the over-expectant god with his rigid member, 1.438 Was laughed at by them all, in the moonlight. 1.439 The creator of that ruckus paid with his life, 1.440 And he’s the sacrifice dear to the Hellespontine god. 1.441 You were chaste once, you birds, a rural solace, 1.442 You harmless race that haunt the woodlands, 1.443 Who build your nests, warm your eggs with your wings, 1.444 And utter sweet measures from your ready beaks, 1.445 But that is no help to you, because of your guilty tongues, 1.446 And the gods’ belief that you reveal their thoughts. 1.447 Nor is that false: since the closer you are to the gods, 1.448 The truer the omens you give by voice and flight. 1.449 Though long untouched, birds were killed at last, 1.450 And the gods delighted in the informers’ entrails. 1.451 So the white dove, torn from her mate, 1.452 Is often burned in the Idalian flames: 1.453 Nor did saving the Capitol benefit the goose, 1.454 Who yielded his liver on a dish to you, Inachus’ daughter: 1.455 The cock is sacrificed at night to the Goddess, Night, 1.456 Because he summons the day with his waking cries,
5.444
And asks the spirit to leave his house.
5.585
The nation’s pride had been roused by the death 5.586 of the Crassi, when army, leader, standards all were lost. 5.587 The Parthians kept the Roman standards, ornament 5.588 of war, and an enemy bore the Roman eagle. 5.589 That shame would have remained, if Italy’s power 5.590 Had not been defended by Caesar’s strong weapons. 5.591 He ended the old reproach, a generation of disgrace: 5.592 The standards were regained, and knew their own. 5.593 What use now the arrows fired from behind your backs, 5.594 Your deserts and your swift horses, you Parthians?'' None
74. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.76-1.86, 1.381-1.412, 1.414-1.415, 2.530, 2.534-2.583, 2.593, 3.339, 3.482, 6.139, 6.318, 6.339-6.347, 6.349-6.350, 6.352-6.364, 6.366-6.371, 6.373-6.381, 8.93, 11.166, 11.684-11.700, 11.702-11.704, 11.706-11.709, 11.741, 14.95 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals, place of • Lucretius, animals in • animal imagery • animal, decision-making • animal, empathy • animal, subjectivity • animals • animals, and communication • animals, color descriptions and uses of, horses • animals, domestic • animals, in Lucretius • animals, metamorphosis into • animals, punishment of • lions, sacred animal • punishment, of animals

 Found in books: Alvar Ezquerra (2008), Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras, 109; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 185; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 18, 68, 121, 158; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 90, 128, 130, 131, 132, 134; Goldman (2013), Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome, 43; Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 57; Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 125; Pillinger (2019), Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature, 188; Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 222

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1.76 Sanctius his animal mentisque capacius altae 1.77 deerat adhuc et quod dominari in cetera posset. 1.78 Natus homo est, sive hunc divino semine fecit 1.79 ille opifex rerum, mundi melioris origo, 1.80 sive recens tellus seductaque nuper ab alto 1.81 aethere cognati retinebat semina caeli; 1.82 quam satus Iapeto mixtam pluvialibus undis 1.83 finxit in effigiem moderantum cuncta deorum. 1.84 Pronaque cum spectent animalia cetera terram, 1.85 os homini sublime dedit, caelumque videre 1.86 iussit et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus.
1.381
Mota dea est sortemque dedit: “Discedite templo 1.382 et velate caput cinctasque resolvite vestes 1.383 ossaque post tergum magnae iactate parentis.” 1.384 Obstipuere diu, rumpitque silentia voce 1.385 Pyrrha prior iussisque deae parere recusat, 1.386 detque sibi veniam pavido rogat ore, pavetque 1.387 laedere iactatis maternas ossibus umbras. 1.389 verba datae sortis secum inter seque volutant. 1.390 Inde Promethides placidis Epimethida dictis 1.391 mulcet et “aut fallax” ait “est sollertia nobis, 1.392 aut pia sunt nullumque nefas oracula suadent. 1.393 Magna parens terra est, lapides in corpore terrae 1.394 ossa reor dici; iacere hos post terga iubemur.” 1.395 Coniugis augurio quamquam Titania mota est, 1.396 spes tamen in dubio est: adeo caelestibus ambo 1.397 diffidunt monitis. Sed quid temptare nocebit? 1.398 Discedunt velantque caput tunicasque recingunt 1.399 et iussos lapides sua post vestigia mittunt. 1.400 Saxa (quis hoc credat, nisi sit pro teste vetustas?) 1.401 ponere duritiem coepere suumque rigorem 1.402 mollirique mora mollitaque ducere formam. 1.403 Mox ubi creverunt naturaque mitior illis 1.404 contigit, ut quaedam, sic non manifesta, videri 1.405 forma potest hominis, sed, uti de marmore coepta, 1.406 non exacta satis rudibusque simillima signis. 1.407 Quae tamen ex illis aliquo pars umida suco 1.408 et terrena fuit, versa est in corporis usum; 1.409 quod solidum est flectique nequit, mutatur in ossa; 1.410 quae modo vena fuit, sub eodem nomine mansit; 1.411 inque brevi spatio superorum numine saxa 1.412 missa viri manibus faciem traxere virorum,
1.414
Inde genus durum sumus experiensque laborum 1.415 et documenta damus qua simus origine nati.
2.530
pellite, ne puro tingatur in aequore paelex.”
2.534
quam tu nuper eras, cum candidus ante fuisses, 2.535 corve loquax, subito nigrantes versus in alas. 2.536 Nam fuit haec quondam niveis argentea pennis 2.537 ales ut aequaret totas sine labe columbas 2.538 nec servaturis vigili Capitolia voce 2.539 cederet anseribus nec amanti flumina cycno. 2.540 Lingua fuit damno; lingua faciente loquaci 2.541 qui color albus erat, nunc est contrarius albo. 2.542 Pulchrior in tota, quam Larisaea Coronis, 2.543 non fuit Haemonia: placuit tibi, Delphice, certe, 2.544 dum vel casta fuit vel inobservata. Sed ales 2.545 sensit adulterium Phoebeius, utque latentem 2.546 detegeret culpam, non exorabilis index, 2.547 ad dominum tendebat iter. Quem garrula motis 2.548 consequitur pennis, scitetur ut omnia, cornix, 2.549 auditaque viae causa “non utile carpis” 2.550 inquit “iter: ne sperne meae praesagia linguae. 2.551 Quid fuerim quid simque vide, meritumque require: 2.552 invenies nocuisse fidem. Nam tempore quodam 2.553 Pallas Erichthonium, prolem sine matre creatam, 2.554 clauserat Actaeo texta de vimine cista 2.555 virginibusque tribus gemino de Cecrope natis 2.556 et legem dederat, sua ne secreta viderent. 2.557 Abdita fronde levi densa speculabar ab ulmo, 2.558 quid facerent. Commissa duae sine fraude tuentur, 2.559 Pandrosos atque Herse; timidas vocat una sorores 2.560 Aglauros nodosque manu diducit, et intus 2.561 infantemque vident adporrectumque draconem. 2.562 Acta deae refero. Pro quo mihi gratia talis 2.563 redditur, ut dicar tutela pulsa Minervae 2.564 et ponar post noctis avem. Mea poena volucres 2.565 admonuisse potest ne voce pericula quaerant. 2.566 At, puto, non ultro nec quicquam tale rogantem 2.567 me petiit? ipsa licet hoc a Pallade quaeras: 2.568 quamvis irata est, non hoc irata negabit. 2.569 Nam me Phocaica clarus tellure Coroneus 2.570 (nota loquor) genuit fueramque ego regia virgo 2.571 divitibusque procis (ne me contemne) petebar. 2.572 Forma mihi nocuit. Nam cum per litora lentis 2.573 passibus, ut soleo, summa spatiarer harena, 2.574 vidit et incaluit pelagi deus; utque precando 2.575 tempora cum blandis absumpsit iia verbis, 2.576 vim parat et sequitur. Fugio densumque relinquo 2.577 litus et in molli nequiquam lassor harena. 2.578 Inde deos hominesque voco; nec contigit ullum 2.579 vox mea mortalem: mota est pro virgine virgo 2.580 auxiliumque tulit. Tendebam bracchia caelo: 2.581 bracchia coeperunt levibus nigrescere pennis. 2.582 Reicere ex umeris vestem molibar: at illa
6.318
non impune deam veteres sprevere coloni.
6.339
Iamque Chimaeriferae, cum sol gravis ureret arva, 6.340 finibus in Lyciae longo dea fessa labore 6.341 sidereo siccata sitim conlegit ab aestu, 6.342 uberaque ebiberant avidi lactantia nati. 6.343 Forte lacum mediocris aquae prospexit in imis 6.345 vimina cum iuncis gratamque paludibus ulvam. 6.346 Accessit positoque genu Titania terram 6.347 pressit, ut hauriret gelidos potura liquores.
6.349
“Quid prohibetis aquis? usus communis aquarum est. 6.350 Nec solem proprium natura nec aera fecit
6.352
Quae tamen ut detis, supplex peto. Non ego nostros 6.353 abluere hic artus lassataque membra parabam, 6.354 sed relevare sitim. Caret os umore loquentis 6.355 et fauces arent, vixque est via vocis in illis. 6.356 Haustus aquae mihi nectar erit, vitamque fatebor 6.357 accepisse simul: vitam dederitis in unda. 6.358 Hi quoque vos moveant, qui nostro bracchia tendunt 6.359 parva sinu:” et casu tendebant bracchia nati. 6.360 Quem non blanda deae potuissent verba movere? 6.361 Hi tamen orantem perstant prohibere minasque, 6.362 ni procul abscedat, conviciaque insuper addunt. 6.363 Nec satis est, ipsos etiam pedibusque manuque 6.364 turbavere lacus imoque e gurgite mollem
6.366
Distulit ira sitim: neque enim iam filia Coei 6.367 supplicat indignis nec dicere sustinet ultra 6.368 verba minora dea, tollensque ad sidera palmas 6.369 “aeternum stagno” dixit “vivatis in isto.” 6.370 Eveniunt optata deae: iuvat esse sub undis 6.371 et modo tota cava submergere membra palude,
6.373
saepe super ripam stagni consistere, saepe 6.374 in gelidos resilire lacus. Sed nunc quoque turpes 6.375 litibus exercent linguas pulsoque pudore, 6.376 quamvis sint sub aqua, sub aqua maledicere temptant. 6.377 Vox quoque iam rauca est, inflataque colla tumescunt, 6.378 ipsaque dilatant patulos convicia rictus. 6.379 Terga caput tangunt, colla intercepta videntur, 6.380 spina viret, venter, pars maxima corporis, albet, 6.381 limosoque novae saliunt in gurgite ranae.””
8.93
purpureum crinem, nec me nunc tradere crinem,
11.166
verrit humum Tyrio saturata murice palla,
11.684
“nulla est Alcyone, nulla est!” ait. “Occidit una 11.685 cum Ceyce suo! Solantia tollite verba! 11.686 Naufragus interiit! Vidi agnovique manusque 11.687 ad discedentem cupiens retinere, tetendi. 11.688 Umbra fuit, — sed et umbra tamen manifesta virique 11.689 vera mei! Non ille quidem, si quaeris, habebat 11.690 adsuetos vultus, nec quo prius, ore nitebat: 11.691 pallentem nudumque et adhuc umente capillo 11.692 infelix vidi. Stetit hoc miserabilis ipse 11.694 “Hoc erat, hoc, animo quod divite timebam, 11.695 et ne me fugeres, ventos sequerere, rogabam. 11.696 At certe vellem, quoniam periturus abibas, 11.697 me quoque duxisses! Multum fuit utile tecum 11.698 ire mihi: neque enim de vitae tempore quicquam 11.699 non simul egissem, nec mors discreta fuisset. 11.700 Nunc absens perii, iactor quoque fluctibus absens,
11.702
sit mihi mens pelago, si vitam ducere nitar 11.703 longius et tanto pugnem superesse dolori. 11.704 Sed neque pugnabo, nec te, miserande, relinquam
11.706
si non urna, tamen iunget nos littera: si non 11.707 ossibus ossa meis, at nomen nomine tangam.” 11.708 Plura dolor prohibet, verboque intervenit omni 11.709 plangor, et attonito gemitus a corde trahuntur.' ' None
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1.76 and brought the lightning on destructive wind 1.77 that also waft the cold. Nor did the great 1.78 Artificer permit these mighty wind 1.79 to blow unbounded in the pathless skies, 1.80 but each discordant brother fixed in space, 1.81 although His power can scarce restrain their rage 1.82 to rend the universe. At His command 1.83 to far Aurora, Eurus took his way, 1.84 to Nabath, Persia , and that mountain range' "1.85 first gilded by the dawn; and Zephyr's flight" '1.86 was towards the evening star and peaceful shores,
1.381
and holy temples, and their sacred urns. 1.382 The mansions that remained, resisting vast 1.383 and total ruin, deepening waves concealed 1.384 and whelmed their tottering turrets in the flood 1.385 and whirling gulf. And now one vast expanse, 1.386 the land and sea were mingled in the waste 1.387 of endless waves—a sea without a shore. 1.389 another sitting in his curved boat, 1.390 plied the long oar where he was wont to plow; 1.391 another sailed above his grain, above 1.392 his hidden dwelling; and another hooked 1.393 a fish that sported in a leafy elm. 1.394 Perchance an anchor dropped in verdant fields, 1.395 or curving keels were pushed through tangled vines; 1.396 and where the gracile goat enjoyed the green, 1.397 unsightly seals reposed. Beneath the wave 1.398 were wondering Nereids, viewing cities, grove 1.399 and houses. Dolphins darting mid the trees, 1.400 meshed in the twisted branches, beat against 1.401 the shaken oak trees. There the sheep, affrayed, 1.402 wim with the frightened wolf, the surging wave 1.403 float tigers and lions: availeth naught 1.404 his lightning shock the wild boar, nor avail' "1.405 the stag's fleet footed speed. The wandering bird," '1.406 eeking umbrageous groves and hidden vales, 1.407 with wearied pinion droops into the sea. 1.408 The waves increasing surge above the hills, 1.409 and rising waters dash on mountain tops. 1.410 Myriads by the waves are swept away, 1.411 and those the waters spare, for lack of food, 1.412 tarvation slowly overcomes at last.
1.414
beneath a wilderness of rising waves,' "1.415 'Twixt Oeta and Aonia , Phocis lies," 2.530 he loved him and she followed him, with soft
2.530
of Phaethon, as dark as when eclipse bedim
2.534
his countece, and thus laments; “My lot 2.535 To plead in soft entreaty! to implore his love! 2.535 was ever restless from the dawn of time, 2.536 But now, till others have begun, a mute 2.536 and I am weary of this labour, void 2.537 and endless. Therefore, let who will urge forth 2.537 of Nature she must be. She cannot choose 2.538 but wait the moment when his voice may give 2.538 my car, light-bearing, and if none may dare, 2.539 to her an answer. 2.539 when all the Gods of Heaven acknowledge it, 2.540 let Jove himself essay the task. Perchance, 2.541 by chance divided from his trusted friends, 2.541 when he takes up the reins, he may forget 2.542 cries loudly, “Who is here?” and Echo, “Here!”' "2.542 his dreadful lightning that bereaves of child 2.543 Replies. Amazed, he casts his eyes around, 2.543 a father's love; and as he tries the strength" '2.544 and calls with louder voice, “Come here!” “Come here!” 2.544 of those flame-footed steeds will know, in truth, 2.545 She calls the youth who calls.—He turns to see 2.545 the lad who failed to guide my chariot 2.546 deserved not death.” 2.546 who calls him and, beholding naught exclaims, 2.547 “Avoid me not!” “Avoid me not!” returns. 2.548 encircle Phoebus as he makes complaint, 2.549 and with their supplications they entreat 2.549 by this alternate voice, and calls aloud; 2.550 him not to plunge the world in darkness. Jove 2.550 “Oh let us come together!” Echo cries, 2.551 would find excuses for the lightning-bolt, 2.551 “Oh let us come together!” Never sound 2.552 eemed sweeter to the Nymph, and from the wood 2.552 hurled from his hand, and adds imperious threat 2.553 he hastens in accordance with her words, 2.553 to his entreaties. Phoebus calls his steeds, 2.554 and strives to wind her arms around his neck. 2.554 frenzied with their maddening fires, and 2.555 He flies from her and as he leaves her says, 2.555 break 2.556 their fury, as he vents with stinging lash 2.556 “Take off your hands! you shall not fold your arm 2.557 around me. Better death than such a one 2.557 his rage upon them, and in passion lay 2.558 hould ever caress me!” Naught she answers save, 2.558 on them the death of Phaethon his son. 2.559 Now after Phaethon had suffered death 2.559 “Caress me!” 2.560 for the vast ruin wrought by scorching flames,' "2.561 all the great walls of Heaven's circumference," '2.561 in the deep woods, hiding her blushing face 2.562 unmeasured, views the Father of the Gods, 2.562 with the green leaves; and ever after live 2.563 concealed in lonely caverns in the hills. 2.563 with searching care, that none impaired by heat 2.564 may fall in ruins. Well assured they stand 2.565 her miserable body wastes away, 2.565 in self-sustaining strength, his view, at last, 2.566 on all the mundane works of man is turned;— 2.566 wakeful with sorrows; leanness shrivels up 2.567 her skin, and all her lovely features melt, 2.567 his loving gaze long resting on his own 2.568 Arcadia . And he starts the streams and spring 2.568 as if dissolved upon the wafting winds— 2.569 nothing remains except her bones and voice— 2.569 that long have feared to flow; paints the wide earth 2.570 her voice continues, in the wilderness; 2.570 with verdant fields; covers the trees with leaves, 2.571 and clothes the injured forests in their green. 2.571 her bones have turned to stone. She lies concealed 2.572 in the wild woods, nor is she ever seen 2.573 on lonely mountain range; for, though we hear 2.573 when he beheld the lovely Nymph, Calisto, 2.574 and fires of love were kindled in his breast.' "2.574 her calling in the hills, 'tis but a voice," '2.575 a voice that lives, that lives among the hills. 2.576 nor did she deck her hair in artful coils; 2.577 but with a buckle she would gird her robe, 2.577 prung from the mountains or the sparkling waves; 2.578 and bind her long hair with a fillet white. 2.578 and thus he slighted many an amorous youth.— 2.579 She bore a slender javelin in her hand, 2.579 and therefore, some one whom he once despised, 2.580 lifting his hands to Heaven, implored the Gods, 2.580 or held the curving bow; and thus in arm 2.581 as chaste Diana, none of Maenalu 2.581 “If he should love deny him what he loves!” 2.582 and as the prayer was uttered it was heard 2.582 was loved by that fair goddess more than she.
6.318
and must no longer worship, in despite
6.339
Even so deprived, I could not be reduced 6.340 to only two, as this Latona , who, 6.341 might quite as well be childless.—Get you gone 6.342 from this insensate sacrifice. Make haste! 6.343 Cast off the wreathing laurels from your brows!” 6.345 the sacrifice, obedient to her will, 6.346 although in gentle murmurs they adored 6.347 the goddess Niobe had so defamed.
6.349
flew swiftly to the utmost peak of Cynthus, 6.350 and spoke to her two children in these words:
6.352
uch glorious children! I will yield 6.353 prestige before no goddess—save alone 6.354 immortal Juno ! I have been debased, 6.355 and driven for all ages from my own— 6.356 my altars, unto me devoted long, 6.357 and so must languish through eternity, 6.358 unless by you sustained. Nor is this all;. 6.359 That daughter of Tantalus, bold Niobe, 6.360 has added curses to her evil deeds,' "6.361 and with a tongue as wicked as her sire's," '6.362 has raised her base-born children over mine. 6.363 Has even called me childless! A sad fate 6.364 more surely should be hers! Oh, I entreat”—
6.366
is necessary, for it only serve 6.367 to hinder the swift sequel of her doom.” 6.368 And with the same words Phoebe answered her. 6.369 And having spoken, they descended through 6.370 the shielding shadows of surrounding clouds, 6.371 and hovered on the citadel of Cadmus .
6.373
which swept around those walls; where trampling steeds, 6.374 with horny hoofs, and multitudinous wheels, 6.375 had beaten a wide track. And on the field 6.376 the older sons of Niobe on steed 6.377 emblazoned with bright dyes and harness rich 6.378 with studded gold were circling.—One of these, 6.379 Ismenus, first-born of his mother, while' "6.380 controlling his fleet courser's foaming mouth," '6.381 cried out, “Ah wretched me!” A shaft had pierced
8.93
instead of my consuming love, prevail' "
11.166
of Bacchus' word by touching everything." 11.684 they take entire possession of the deep, 11.685 and nothing is forbidden their attack; 11.686 and all the rights of every land and sea 11.687 are disregarded by them. They insult 11.688 even the clouds of heaven and their wild 11.689 concussions urge the lightnings to strike fires. 11.690 The more I know of them, for I knew 11.691 them in my childhood and I often saw' "11.692 them from my father's home, the more I fear." '11.694 can not be altered by my prayers and fears, 11.695 and if you are determined, take me, too: 11.696 ome comfort may be gained, if in the storm 11.697 we may be tossed together. I shall fear 11.698 only the ills that really come to us, 11.699 together we can certainly endure 11.700 discomforts till we gain that distant land.”
11.702
gave Ceyx, famed son of the Morning Star , 11.703 much thought and sorrow; for the flame of love 11.704 burned in his heart as strongly as in hers.
11.706
to make Halcyone his partner on 11.707 the dangerous sea, he answered her complaint 11.708 in many ways to pacify her breast, 11.709 but could not comfort her until at last' ' None
75. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 74, 76-80 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Yahweh, animals of • animals, sacred • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 95, 127; Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 98; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 219, 220

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74 Do you therefore pray to become like those erections of yours, that so you may reap the most supreme happiness, neither seeing with your eyes, nor hearing with your ears, nor respiring, nor smelling with your nostrils, nor speaking, nor tasting with your mouth, nor taking, nor giving, nor doing anything with your hands, nor walking with your feet, nor doing anything at all with any one of your members, but being as it were confined and guarded in the temple, as if in a prison, and day and night continually imbibing the steam from the sacrifices offered up; for this is the only one good thing which can be attributed to any kind of building or erection." 76 Let no one therefore of those beings who are endowed with souls, worship any thing that is devoid of a soul; for it would be one of the most absurd things possible for the works of nature to be diverted to the service of those things which are made by hand; and against Egypt, not only is that common accusation brought, to which the whole country is liable, but another charge also, which is of a more special character, and with great fitness; for besides falling down to statues, and images they have also introduced irrational animals, to the honours due to the gods, such as bulls, and rams, and goats, inventing some prodigious fiction with regard to each of them; 77 and as to these particular animals, they have indeed some reason for what they do, for they are the most domestic, and the most useful to life. The bull, as a plougher, draws furrows for the reception of the seed, and is again the most powerful of all animals to thresh the corn out when it is necessary to purify it of the chaff; the ram gives us the most beautiful garments for the coverings of our persons; for if our bodies were naked, they would easily be destroyed either through heat, or though intense cold, caused at one time by the blaze of the sun, and at another by the cooling of the air. 78 But as it is they go beyond these animals, and select the most fierce, and untameable of all wild animals, honouring lions, and crocodiles, and of reptiles the poisonous asp, with temples, and sacred precincts, and sacrifices, and assemblies in their honour, and solemn processions, and things of that kind. For if they were to seek out in both elements, among all the things given to man for his use by God, searching through earth and water, they would never find any animal on the land more savage than the lion, or any aquatic animal more fierce than the crocodile, both which creatures they honour and worship; 79 they have also deified many other animals, dogs, ichneumons, wolves, birds, ibises, and hawks, and even fish, taking sometimes the whole, and sometimes only a part; and what can be more ridiculous than this Conduct? 80 And, accordingly, the first foreigners who arrived in Egypt were quite worn out with laughing at and ridiculing these superstitions, till their minds had become impregnated with the conceit of the natives; but all those who have tasted of right instruction, are amazed and struck with consternation, at their system of ennobling things which are not noble, and pity those who give into it, thinking the men, as is very natural, more miserable than even the objects which they honour, since they in their souls are changed into those very animals, so as to appear to be merely brutes in human form, now returning to their original nature. ' None
76. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 88 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, • animals, punishment of • punishment, of animals

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 185; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 301

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88 for the charioteers sit behind their beasts of burden, and are placed at, their backs, and yet when they have the reins in their hands, they guide them wherever they choose, and at one time they urge them on to a swift pace, and at another time they hold them back, if they are going on at a speed greater than is desirable. And pilots again, sitting in the hindmost part of the ship, that is the stern are, as one may say, the most important of all the people in the ship, inasmuch as they have the safety of the ship and of all those who are in it, in their hands. And so the Creator has made man to be as it were a charioteer and pilot over all other animals, in order that he may hold the reins and direct the course of every thing upon earth, having the superintendence of all animals and plants, as a sort of viceroy of the principal and mighty King. XXX. '' None
77. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.74-1.75, 1.150-1.151, 1.260, 2.145, 2.148, 4.103, 4.117, 4.122-4.125 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins • Yahweh, animals of • animal, domestic, sacrificial • animals, • animals, exotic • animals, in allegories • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • animals, treating humans as • goats, as specific type of animal • humans, animalizing • prey animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Balberg (2017), Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature, 148; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 364, 366; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 95, 127; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 100; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 151, 155, 160, 162, 163, 164, 169, 170, 183; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 120; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 74, 151; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 301, 308

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1.74 But there is no grove of plantation in the space which surrounds it, in accordance with the prohibitions of the law, which for many reasons forbid this. In the first place, because a building which is truly a temple does not aim at pleasure and seductive allurements, but at a rigid and austere sanctity. Secondly, because it is not proper that those things which conduce to the verdure of trees should be introduced, such as the dung of irrational animals and of men. Thirdly, because those trees which do not admit of cultivation are of no use, but are as the poets say, the burden of the earth; while those which do admit of cultivation, and which are productive of wholesome fruit, draw off the attention of the fickle-minded from the thoughts of the respect due to the holy place itself, and to the ceremonies in which they are engaged. 1.75 And besides these reasons, shady places and dense thickets are places of refuge for evil doers, since by their enveloping them in darkness they give them safety and enable them, as from an ambuscade, suddenly to fall upon any whom they choose to attack. But wide spaces, open and uncovered in every direction, where there is nothing which can hinder the sight, are the most suitable for the distinct sight of all those who enter and remain in the temple.XIV.
1.150
Appetite therefore, being a profane, and impure, and unholy thing, is driven beyond the territories of virtue, and is banished as it ought to be; but temperance, being a pure and unblemished virtue, neglecting everything which relates to eating and drinking, and boasting itself as superior to the pleasures of the belly, may be allowed to approach the sacred altars, bringing forward as it does the excrescence of the body, as a memorial that it may be reminded to despise all insatiability and gluttony, and all those things which excite the appetites to this pitch.XXX. 1.151 And beyond all these things he also orders that the priests who minister the offering of the sacrifices, shall receive the skins of the whole burnt offerings (and they amount to an unspeakable number, this being no slight gift, but one of the most exceeding value and importance
1.260
for you will find that this exceeding accuracy of investigation into the animals, figuratively signifies the amelioration of your own disposition and conduct; for the law was not established for the sake of irrational animals, but for that of those who have intellect and reason." So that the real object taken care of is not the condition of the victims sacrificed in order that they may have no blemish, but that of the sacrificers that they may not be defiled by any unlawful passion.
2.145
And after the feast of the new moon comes the fourth festival, that of the passover, which the Hebrews call pascha, on which the whole people offer sacrifice, beginning at noonday and continuing till evening.
2.148
And each house is at that time invested with the character and dignity of a temple, the victim being sacrificed so as to make a suitable feast for the man who has provided it and of those who are collected to share in the feast, being all duly purified with holy ablutions. And those who are to share in the feast come together not as they do to other entertainments, to gratify their bellies with wine and meat, but to fulfil their hereditary custom with prayer and songs of praise.
4.103
One might very likely suppose it to be just that those beasts which feed upon human flesh should receive at the hands of men similar treatment to that which they inflict on men, but Moses has ordained that we should abstain from the enjoyment of all such things, and with a due consideration of what is becoming to the gentle soul, he proposes a most gentle and most pleasant banquet; for though it is proper that those who inflict evils should suffer similar calamities themselves, yet it may not be becoming to those whom they ill treated to retaliate, lest without being aware of it they become brutalized by anger, which is a savage passion;
4.117
But doves, and pigeons, and turtle-doves, and all the flocks of cranes, and geese, and birds of that kind, he numbers in the class of domestic, and tame, and eatable creatures, allowing every one who chooses to partake of them with impunity.
4.122
But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life, {26}{4.123 On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{4.124 But Moses commanded men to abstain from eating fat, because it is gross. And again, he gave us this injunction, in order to inculcate temperance and a zeal for an austere life: for some things we easily abandon, and without any hesitation; though we do not willingly encounter any anxieties or labours for the sake of the acquisition of virtue. 4.125 For which reason these two parts are to be taken out of every victim and burnt with fire, as a kind of first fruits, namely, the fat and the blood; the one being poured upon the altar as a libation; and the other as a fuel to the flame, being applied instead of oil, by reason of its fatness, to the consecrated and holy flame. '' None
78. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.27, 2.60, 2.65 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sennaar, animals and • animals, as irrational • animals, punishment of • animals, sacred • animals, senses and • punishment, of animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 185, 187, 401; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 219, 221; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 160

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2.27 but when, from the daily and uninterrupted respect shown to them by those to whom they had been given, and from their ceaseless observance of their ordices, other nations also obtained an understanding of them, their reputation spread over all lands; for what was really good, even though it may through envy be overshadowed for a short time, still in time shines again through the intrinsic excellence of its nature. Some persons, thinking it a scandalous thing that these laws should only be known among one half portion of the human race, namely, among the barbarians, and that the Greek nation should be wholly and entirely ignorant of them, turned their attention to their translation.
2.60
For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; ' "
2.65
These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb"' None
79. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 82 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dialogue on the Rationality of Animals, diction, problem of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 115; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 157

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82 Would you not say that the perfect high priest when, being in the inmost shrine, he is performing his national sacrifices, is both within and without at the same time? within in respect of his visible body, but without in respect of his soul, which is roaming about and wandering? And again, on the other hand, would you not say that a man who was not of the family consecrated to the priesthood, but who was a lover of God and beloved by God, though standing without the holy shrine, was nevertheless in reality in its inmost parts? looking upon his whole life in the body as a sojourning in a foreign land; but while he is able to live only in the soul, then he thinks that he is abiding in his own country. '' None
80. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 139 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, as criterion of emotion • animals, passions and • passions, animal imagery and

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 180; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 238

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139 On which account Moses, after he had previously mentioned with respect to Enos that "he hoped to call upon the name of the Lord his God," adds in express words, "This is the book of the generation of Men;" speaking with perfect correctness: for it is written in the book of God that man is the only creature with a good hope. So that arguing by contraries, he who has no good hope is not a man. The definition, therefore, of our concrete being is that it is a living rational mortal being; but the definition of man, according to Moses, is a disposition of the soul hoping in the truly living God. '' None
81. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 8.3.21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • chorus, khoros, animals in myth turned into dancers in ritual • sacrifice, animal substituting mythical characters

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 127; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 282

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8.3.21 21. In Arcadia, at the well-known city of Clitorium, is a cave flowing with water, of which those who drink become abstemious. At the spring is an epigram inscribed on stone, in Greek verses, to the following effect: that it is not fit for bathing, and also that it is injurious to the vine, because, near the spot, Melampus cured the daughters of Proteus of their madness, and restored them to reason. The epigram is as follows: Rustic, by Clitor's stream who takest thy way, Should thirst oppress thee in the noon of day Drink at this fount, and in the holy keep of guardian Naiads place thy goats and sheep. But dip not thou thy hand, if wine inflame, Lest e'en the vapour chill thy fever'd frame; Fly thou my sober spring. Melampus here Cleansed the mad Proetides, what time the seer Arcadia's rugged hills from Argos sought, With purifying power my stream was fraught."" None
82. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, Orpheus and

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 186; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 102

83. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • peace, among animals,

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 226; Huttner (2013), Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, 228

84. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Celsus, against the superiority of humans over animals • Lucretius, animals in • Sacrifice, animal • Skins, Animal • animal imagery, animalization caused by disease • animal imagery, humans and animals • animal imagery, humans as animals • animal imagery, the animal” within the human body • animal life • animal sacrifice • animal sacrifice, epistemology • animal sacrifice, eschatology • animals • animals, horses • animals, in Lucretius • animals, sacrificial • pelles (animal skins) • social behaviour (of animals)

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 279; Faure (2022), Conceptions of Time in Greek and Roman Antiquity, 88, 89; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 29, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51, 56, 76, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 104, 105, 110, 111, 124, 126, 136, 137, 139, 140, 165, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 186, 191, 204, 206, 216, 220, 221, 223, 226, 261, 262, 264; Hankinson (1998), Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, 231; Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 69, 76, 81, 95, 119, 149; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 160; Radicke (2022), Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development, 48; Roumpou (2023), Ritual and the Poetics of Closure in Flavian Literature. 117; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 134; Simmons(1995), Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian, 146, 147, 148; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 74; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 179

85. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 1.9.12, 3.5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mother of the Gods, and animals • animals • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 52; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 127; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 81

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1.9.12 Βίας δὲ 3 -- ἐμνηστεύετο Πηρὼ τὴν Νηλέως· ὁ δὲ πολλῶν αὐτῷ μνηστευομένων τὴν θυγατέρα δώσειν ἔφη τῷ τὰς Φυλάκου 1 -- βόας κομίσαντι αὐτῷ. αὗται δὲ ἦσαν ἐν Φυλάκῃ, καὶ κύων ἐφύλασσεν αὐτὰς οὗ οὔτε ἄνθρωπος οὔτε θηρίον πέλας ἐλθεῖν ἠδύνατο. ταύτας ἀδυνατῶν Βίας τὰς βόας κλέψαι παρεκάλει τὸν ἀδελφὸν συλλαβέσθαι. Μελάμπους δὲ ὑπέσχετο, καὶ προεῖπεν ὅτι φωραθήσεται κλέπτων καὶ δεθεὶς ἐνιαυτὸν οὕτω τὰς βόας λήψεται. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ὑπόσχεσιν εἰς Φυλάκην ἀπῄει καί, καθάπερ προεῖπε, φωραθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ κλοπῇ δέσμιος 2 -- ἐν οἰκήματι ἐφυλάσσετο. λειπομένου δὲ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ βραχέος χρόνου, τῶν κατὰ τὸ κρυφαῖον 3 -- τῆς στέγης σκωλήκων ἀκούει, τοῦ μὲν ἐρωτῶντος πόσον ἤδη μέρος τοῦ δοκοῦ διαβέβρωται, τῶν δὲ ἀποκρινομένων 4 -- λοιπὸν ἐλάχιστον εἶναι. καὶ ταχέως ἐκέλευσεν αὑτὸν εἰς ἕτερον οἴκημα μεταγαγεῖν, γενομένου δὲ τούτου μετʼ οὐ πολὺ συνέπεσε τὸ οἴκημα. θαυμάσας δὲ Φύλακος, καὶ μαθὼν ὅτι ἐστὶ μάντις ἄριστος, λύσας παρεκάλεσεν εἰπεῖν ὅπως αὐτοῦ τῷ παιδὶ Ἰφίκλῳ παῖδες γένωνται. ὁ δὲ ὑπέσχετο ἐφʼ ᾧ τὰς βόας λήψεται. καὶ καταθύσας ταύρους δύο καὶ μελίσας τοὺς οἰωνοὺς προσεκαλέσατο· παραγενομένου δὲ αἰγυπιοῦ, παρὰ τούτου μανθάνει δὴ ὅτι Φύλακός ποτε κριοὺς τέμνων ἐπὶ τῶν αἰδοίων 5 -- παρὰ τῷ Ἰφίκλῳ τὴν μάχαιραν ᾑμαγμένην ἔτι κατέθετο, δείσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ φυγόντος αὖθις κατὰ τῆς ἱερᾶς δρυὸς αὐτὴν ἔπηξε, καὶ ταύτην ἀμφιτροχάσας 1 -- ἐκάλυψεν ὁ φλοιός. ἔλεγεν οὖν, εὑρεθείσης τῆς μαχαίρας εἰ ξύων τὸν ἰὸν ἐπὶ ἡμέρας δέκα Ἰφίκλῳ δῷ πιεῖν, παῖδα γεννήσειν. ταῦτα μαθὼν παρʼ αἰγυπιοῦ Μελάμπους τὴν μὲν μάχαιραν εὗρε, τῷ δὲ Ἰφίκλῳ τὸν ἰὸν ξύσας ἐπὶ ἡμέρας δέκα δέδωκε πιεῖν, καὶ παῖς αὐτῷ Ποδάρκης ἐγένετο. τὰς δὲ βόας εἰς Πύλον ἤλασε, καὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ τὴν Νηλέως θυγατέρα λαβὼν ἔδωκε. καὶ μέχρι μέν τινος ἐν Μεσσήνῃ κατῴκει, ὡς δὲ τὰς ἐν Ἄργει γυναῖκας ἐξέμηνε Διόνυσος, ἐπὶ 2 -- μέρει τῆς 3 -- βασιλείας ἰασάμενος αὐτὰς ἐκεῖ μετὰ Βίαντος κατῴκησε.
3.5.1
Διόνυσος δὲ εὑρετὴς ἀμπέλου γενόμενος, Ἥρας μανίαν αὐτῷ ἐμβαλούσης περιπλανᾶται Αἴγυπτόν τε καὶ Συρίαν. καὶ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον Πρωτεὺς αὐτὸν ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς Αἰγυπτίων, αὖθις δὲ εἰς Κύβελα τῆς Φρυγίας ἀφικνεῖται, κἀκεῖ καθαρθεὶς ὑπὸ Ῥέας καὶ τὰς τελετὰς ἐκμαθών, καὶ λαβὼν παρʼ ἐκείνης τὴν στολήν, ἐπὶ Ἰνδοὺς 1 -- διὰ τῆς Θράκης ἠπείγετο. Λυκοῦργος δὲ παῖς Δρύαντος, Ἠδωνῶν βασιλεύων, οἳ Στρυμόνα ποταμὸν παροικοῦσι, πρῶτος ὑβρίσας ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. καὶ Διόνυσος μὲν εἰς θάλασσαν πρὸς Θέτιν τὴν Νηρέως κατέφυγε, Βάκχαι δὲ ἐγένοντο αἰχμάλωτοι καὶ τὸ συνεπόμενον Σατύρων πλῆθος αὐτῷ. αὖθις δὲ αἱ Βάκχαι ἐλύθησαν ἐξαίφνης, Λυκούργῳ δὲ μανίαν ἐνεποίησε 2 -- Διόνυσος. ὁ δὲ μεμηνὼς Δρύαντα τὸν παῖδα, ἀμπέλου νομίζων κλῆμα κόπτειν, πελέκει πλήξας ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ ἀκρωτηριάσας αὐτὸν ἐσωφρόνησε. 1 -- τῆς δὲ γῆς ἀκάρπου μενούσης, ἔχρησεν ὁ θεὸς καρποφορήσειν αὐτήν, ἂν θανατωθῇ Λυκοῦργος. Ἠδωνοὶ δὲ ἀκούσαντες εἰς τὸ Παγγαῖον αὐτὸν ἀπαγαγόντες ὄρος ἔδησαν, κἀκεῖ κατὰ Διονύσου βούλησιν ὑπὸ ἵππων διαφθαρεὶς ἀπέθανε.'' None
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1.9.12 Bias wooed Pero, daughter of Neleus. But as there were many suitors for his daughter's hand, Neleus said that he would give her to him who should bring him the kine of Phylacus. These were in Phylace, and they were guarded by a dog which neither man nor beast could come near. Unable to steal these kine, Bias invited his brother to help him. Melampus promised to do so, and foretold that he should be detected in the act of stealing them, and that he should get the kine after being kept in bondage for a year. After making this promise he repaired to Phylace and, just as he had foretold, he was detected in the theft and kept a prisoner in a cell. When the year was nearly up, he heard the worms in the hidden part of the roof, one of them asking how much of the beam had been already gnawed through, and others answering that very little of it was left. At once he bade them transfer him to another cell, and not long after that had been done the cell fell in. Phylacus marvelled, and perceiving that he was an excellent soothsayer, he released him and invited him to say how his son Iphiclus might get children. Melampus promised to tell him, provided he got the kine. And having sacrificed two bulls and cut them in pieces he summoned the birds; and when a vulture came, he learned from it that once, when Phylacus was gelding rams, he laid down the knife, still bloody, beside Iphiclus, and that when the child was frightened and ran away, he stuck the knife on the sacred oak, and the bark encompassed the knife and hid it. He said, therefore, that if the knife were found, and he scraped off the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus to drink for ten days, he would beget a son. Having learned these things from the vulture, Melampus found the knife, scraped the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus for ten days to drink, and a son Podarces was born to him. But he drove the kine to Pylus, and having received the daughter of Neleus he gave her to his brother. For a time he continued to dwell in Messene, but when Dionysus drove the women of Argos mad, he healed them on condition of receiving part of the kingdom, and settled down there with Bias." "
3.5.1
Dionysus discovered the vine, and being driven mad by Hera he roamed about Egypt and Syria . At first he was received by Proteus, king of Egypt, but afterwards he arrived at Cybela in Phrygia . And there, after he had been purified by Rhea and learned the rites of initiation, he received from her the costume and hastened through Thrace against the Indians. But Lycurgus, son of Dryas, was king of the Edonians, who dwell beside the river Strymon, and he was the first who insulted and expelled him. Dionysus took refuge in the sea with Thetis, daughter of Nereus, and the Bacchanals were taken prisoners together with the multitude of Satyrs that attended him. But afterwards the Bacchanals were suddenly released, and Dionysus drove Lycurgus mad. And in his madness he struck his son Dryas dead with an axe, imagining that he was lopping a branch of a vine, and when he had cut off his son's extremities, he recovered his senses. But the land remaining barren, the god declared oracularly that it would bear fruit if Lycurgus were put to death. On hearing that, the Edonians led him to Mount Pangaeum and bound him, and there by the will of Dionysus he died, destroyed by horses."" None
86. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal life • human beings, as „mortal rational animals“

 Found in books: Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 140; Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 337

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2.9.1 It is no common (easy) thing to do this only, to fulfil the promise of a man’s nature. For what is a man? The answer is, a rational and mortal being. Then by the rational faculty from whom are we separated? From wild beasts. And from what others? From sheep and like animals. Take care then to do nothing like a wild beast; but if you do, you have lost the character of a man; you have not fulfilled your promise. See that you do nothing like a sheep; but if you do, in this case also the man is lost. What then do we do as sheep? When we act gluttonously, when we act lewdly, when we act rashly, filthily, inconsiderately, to what have we declined? To sheep. What have we lost? The rational faculty. When we act contentiously and harmfully and passionately, and violently, to what have we declined? To wild beasts. Consequently some of us are great wild beasts, and others little beasts, of a bad disposition and small, whence we may say, Let me be eaten by a lion. But in all these ways the promise of a man acting as a man is destroyed. For when is a conjunctive (complex) proposition maintained? When it fulfils what its nature promises; so that the preservation of a complex proposition is when it is a conjunction of truths. When is a disjunctive maintained? When it fulfils what it promises. When are flutes, a lyre, a horse, a dog, preserved? (when they severally keep their promise). What is the wonder then if man also in like manner is preserved, and in like manner is lost? Each man is improved and preserved by corresponding acts, the carpenter by acts of carpentry, the grammarian by acts of grammar. But if a man accustoms himself to write ungrammatically, of necessity his art will be corrupted and destroyed. Thus modest actions preserve the modest man, and immodest actions destroy him: and actions of fidelity preserve the faithful man, and the contrary actions destroy him. And on the other hand contrary actions strengthen contrary characters: shamelessness strengthens the shameless man, faithlessness the faithless man, abusive words the abusive man, anger the man of an angry temper, and unequal receiving and giving make the avaricious man more avaricious. For this reason philosophers admonish us not to be satisfied with learning only, but also to add study, and then practice. For we have long been accustomed to do contrary things, and we put in practice opinions which are contrary to true opinions. If then we shall not also put in practice right opinions, we shall be nothing more than the expositors of the opinions of others. For now who among us is not able to discourse according to the rules of art about good and evil things (in this fashion)? That of things some are good, and some are bad, and some are indifferent: the good then are virtues, and the things which participate in virtues; and the bad are the contrary; and the indifferent are wealth, health, reputation.— Then, if in the midst of our talk there should happen some greater noise than usual, or some of those who are present should laugh at us, we are disturbed. Philosopher, where are the things which you were talking about? Whence did you produce and utter them. From the lips, and thence only. Why then do you corrupt the aids provided by others? Why do you treat the weightiest matters as if you were playing a game of dice? For it is one thing to lay up bread and wine as in a storehouse, and another thing to eat. That which has been eaten, is digested, distributed, and is become sinews, flesh, bones, blood, healthy colour, healthy breath. Whatever is stored up, when you choose you can readily take and show it; but you have no other advantage from it except so far as to appear to possess it. For what is the difference between explaining these doctrines and those of men who have different opinions? Sit down now and explain according to the rules of art the opinions of Epicurus, and perhaps you will explain his opinions in a more useful manner than Epicurus himself. Why then do you call yourself a Stoic? Why do you deceive the many? Why do you act the part of a Jew, when you are a Greek? Do you not see how (why) each is called a Jew, or a Syrian or an Egyptian? and when we see a man inclining to two sides, we are accustomed to say, This man is not a Jew, but he acts as one. But when he has assumed the affects of one who has been imbued with Jewish doctrine and has adopted that sect, then he is in fact and he is named a Jew. Thus we too being falsely imbued (baptized), are in name Jews, but in fact we are something else. Our affects (feelings) are inconsistent with our words; we are far from practising what we say, and that of which we are proud, as if we knew it. Thus being unable to fulfil even what the character of a man promises, we even add to it the profession of a philosopher, which is as heavy a burden, as if a man who is unable to bear ten pounds should attempt to raise the stone which Ajax lifted.'' None
87. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.323, 12.146, 13.66-13.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins • Yahweh, animals of • animal worship • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • prey animals • sacrifice, animal, fices of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 364, 365, 366; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 95, 125, 126, 127; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 142; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 72, 408; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 74

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11.323 τοῦτο δ' εἶναι καὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ συμφέρον εἰς δύο διῃρῆσθαι τὴν ̓Ιουδαίων δύναμιν, ἵνα μὴ ὁμογνωμονοῦν τὸ ἔθνος μηδὲ συνεστός, εἰ νεωτερίσειέν ποτε, χαλεπὸν ᾖ τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν, καθὼς καὶ πρότερον τοῖς ̓Ασσυρίων ἄρξασιν ἐγένετο." "
12.146
μηδ' εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἰσφερέσθω ἵππεια κρέα μηδὲ ἡμιόνεια μηδὲ ἀγρίων ὄνων καὶ ἡμέρων παρδάλεών τε καὶ ἀλωπέκων καὶ λαγῶν καὶ καθόλου δὲ πάντων τῶν ἀπηγορευμένων ζῴων τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις: μηδὲ τὰς δορὰς εἰσφέρειν ἐξεῖναι, ἀλλὰ μηδὲ τρέφειν τι τούτων ἐν τῇ πόλει: μόνοις δὲ τοῖς προγονικοῖς θύμασιν, ἀφ' ὧν καὶ τῷ θεῷ δεῖ καλλιερεῖν, ἐπιτετράφθαι χρῆσθαι. ὁ δέ τι τούτων παραβὰς ἀποτινύτω τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ἀργυρίου δραχμὰς τρισχιλίας.”" 13.66 καὶ πλείστους εὑρὼν παρὰ τὸ καθῆκον ἔχοντας ἱερὰ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο δύσνους ἀλλήλοις, ὃ καὶ Αἰγυπτίοις συμβέβηκεν διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἱερῶν καὶ τὸ περὶ τὰς θρησκείας οὐχ ὁμόδοξον, ἐπιτηδειότατον εὑρὼν τόπον ἐν τῷ προσαγορευομένῳ τῆς ἀγρίας Βουβάστεως ὀχυρώματι βρύοντα ποικίλης ὕλης καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν ζῴων μεστόν,' "13.67 δέομαι συγχωρῆσαί μοι τὸ ἀδέσποτον ἀνακαθάραντι ἱερὸν καὶ συμπεπτωκὸς οἰκοδομῆσαι ναὸν τῷ μεγίστῳ θεῷ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν τοῦ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις αὐτοῖς μέτροις ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ τῆς σῆς γυναικὸς καὶ τῶν τέκνων, ἵν' ἔχωσιν οἱ τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατοικοῦντες ̓Ιουδαῖοι εἰς αὐτὸ συνιόντες κατὰ τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὁμόνοιαν ταῖς σαῖς ἐξυπηρετεῖν χρείαις:" '13.68 καὶ γὰρ ̔Ησαί̈ας ὁ προφήτης τοῦτο προεῖπεν: ἔσται θυσιαστήριον ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ κυρίῳ τῷ θεῷ: καὶ πολλὰ δὲ προεφήτευσεν ἄλλα τοιαῦτα διὰ τὸν τόπον.”' "13.69 Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ὁ ̓Ονίας τῷ βασιλεῖ Πτολεμαίῳ γράφει. κατανοήσειε δ' ἄν τις αὐτοῦ τὴν εὐσέβειαν καὶ Κλεοπάτρας τῆς ἀδελφῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ γυναικὸς ἐξ ἧς ἀντέγραψαν ἐπιστολῆς: τὴν γὰρ ἁμαρτίαν καὶ τὴν τοῦ νόμου παράβασιν εἰς τὴν ̓Ονίου κεφαλὴν ἀνέθεσαν:" "13.71 ἐπεὶ δὲ σὺ φῂς ̔Ησαί̈αν τὸν προφήτην ἐκ πολλοῦ χρόνου τοῦτο προειρηκέναι, συγχωροῦμέν σοι, εἰ μέλλει τοῦτ' ἔσεσθαι κατὰ τὸν νόμον: ὥστε μηδὲν ἡμᾶς δοκεῖν εἰς τὸν θεὸν ἐξημαρτηκέναι.”" " None
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11.323 that it would be for the king’s advantage to have the strength of the Jews divided into two parts, lest when the nation is of one mind, and united, upon any attempt for innovation, it prove troublesome to kings, as it had formerly proved to the kings of Assyria.
12.146
Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.”
13.66
where I found that the greatest part of your people had temples in an improper manner, and that on this account they bare ill-will one against another, which happens to the Egyptians by reason of the multitude of their temples, and the difference of opinions about divine worship. Now I found a very fit place in a castle that hath its name from the country Diana; this place is full of materials of several sorts, and replenished with sacred animals; 13.67 I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages; 13.68 for the prophet Isaiah foretold that, ‘there should be an altar in Egypt to the Lord God;’” and many other such things did he prophesy relating to that place. 13.69 2. And this was what Onias wrote to king Ptolemy. Now any one may observe his piety, and that of his sister and wife Cleopatra, by that epistle which they wrote in answer to it; for they laid the blame and the transgression of the law upon the head of Onias. And this was their reply: 13.71 But since thou sayest that Isaiah the prophet foretold this long ago, we give thee leave to do it, if it may be done according to your law, and so that we may not appear to have at all offended God herein.”' ' None
88. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.148, 7.426-7.430 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal species, goat • animal species, lamb • animal victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animal victim, treatment of burning of entire victim • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • colour of animal victim, black • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • sacrifice, animal, decline of • sacrifice, animal, fices of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 112, 113, 235; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 125; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 127, 142

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1.148 ̓́Ενθα δὴ πολλὰ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων κακοπαθούντων ὁ Πομπήιος τά τε ἄλλα τῆς καρτερίας τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους ἀπεθαύμαζεν καὶ μάλιστα τοῦ μηδὲν παραλῦσαι: τῆς θρησκείας ἐν μέσοις τοῖς βέλεσιν ἀνειλημένους: ὥσπερ γὰρ εἰρήνης βαθείας κατεχούσης τὴν πόλιν αἵ τε θυσίαι καθ' ἡμέραν καὶ οἱ ἐναγισμοὶ καὶ πᾶσα θεραπεία κατὰ τἀκριβὲς ἐξετελεῖτο τῷ θεῷ, καὶ οὐδὲ κατ' αὐτὴν τὴν ἅλωσιν περὶ τῷ βωμῷ φονευόμενοι τῶν καθ' ἡμέραν νομίμων εἰς τὴν θρησκείαν ἀπέστησαν." "
7.426
Πεισθεὶς Πτολεμαῖος τοῖς λεγομένοις δίδωσιν αὐτῷ χώραν ἑκατὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς ὀγδοήκοντα σταδίους ἀπέχουσαν Μέμφεως: νομὸς δ' οὗτος ̔Ηλιοπολίτης καλεῖται." '7.427 φρούριον ἔνθα κατασκευασάμενος ̓Ονίας τὸν μὲν ναὸν οὐχ ὅμοιον ᾠκοδόμησε τῷ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις, ἀλλὰ πύργῳ παραπλήσιον λίθων μεγάλων εἰς ἑξήκοντα πήχεις ἀνεστηκότα: 7.428 τοῦ βωμοῦ δὲ τὴν κατασκευὴν πρὸς τὸν οἰκεῖον ἐξεμιμήσατο καὶ τοῖς ἀναθήμασιν ὁμοίως ἐκόσμησεν χωρὶς τῆς περὶ τὴν λυχνίαν κατασκευῆς: 7.429 οὐ γὰρ ἐποίησε λυχνίαν, αὐτὸν δὲ χαλκευσάμενος λύχνον χρυσοῦν ἐπιφαίνοντα σέλας χρυσῆς ἁλύσεως ἐξεκρέμασε. τὸ δὲ τέμενος πᾶν ὀπτῇ πλίνθῳ περιτετείχιστο πύλας ἔχον λιθίνας.' " None
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1.148 4. Now, here it was that, upon the many hardships which the Romans underwent, Pompey could not but admire not only at the other instances of the Jews’ fortitude, but especially that they did not at all intermit their religious services, even when they were encompassed with darts on all sides; for, as if the city were in full peace, their daily sacrifices and purifications, and every branch of their religious worship, was still performed to God with the utmost exactness. Nor indeed when the temple was actually taken, and they were every day slain about the altar, did they leave off the instances of their Divine worship that were appointed by their law;
7.426
3. So Ptolemy complied with his proposals, and gave him a place one hundred and eighty furlongs distant from Memphis. That Nomos was called the Nomos of Heliopoli 7.427 where Onias built a fortress and a temple, not like to that at Jerusalem, but such as resembled a tower. He built it of large stones to the height of sixty cubits; 7.428 he made the structure of the altar in imitation of that in our own country, and in like manner adorned with gifts, excepting the make of the candlestick, 7.429 for he did not make a candlestick, but had a single lamp hammered out of a piece of gold, which illuminated the place with its rays, and which he hung by a chain of gold;' ' None
89. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.225, 2.66, 2.81, 2.86, 2.112-2.114, 2.213 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Types of Animals Sacrificed, Worship of an Ass • Yahweh, animals of • animals, • animals, sacred • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 524; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 95, 127; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 220; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 58; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276, 307

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1.225 κοινὸν μὲν γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἐστι πάτριον τὸ ταῦτα θεοὺς νομίζειν, ἰδίᾳ δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐν ταῖς τιμαῖς αὐτῶν διαφέρονται. κοῦφοι δὲ καὶ ἀνόητοι παντάπασιν ἄνθρωποι κακῶς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εἰθισμένοι δοξάζειν περὶ θεῶν μιμήσασθαι μὲν τὴν σεμνότητα τῆς ἡμετέρας θεολογίας οὐκ
2.66
φοεδερε δε ρελιγιονε ξοντενδιτις? αν ξερτε προπτερεα νον υος ομνες διξιμυς αεγψπτιος ετ νεθυε ξομμυνιτερ ηομινες, θυονιαμ βεστιας αδυερσαντες νατυραε νοστραε ξολιτις μυλτα διλιγεντια νυτριεντες, ξυμ
2.81
αδ ηαεξ ιγιτυρ πριυς εθυιδεμ διξο, θυονιαμ αεγψπτιυς, υελ σι αλιθυιδ ταλε απυδ νος φυισσετ, νεθυαθυαμ δεβυερατ ινξρεπαρε, ξυμ νον σιτ δετεριορ ασινυς φυρονιβυς ετ ηιρξις ετ αλιις, θυαε συντ απυδ εος διι.
2.86
νος ιταθυε ασινις νεθυε ηονορεμ νεθυε ποτεστατεμ αλιθυαμ δαμυς, σιξυτ αεγψπτιι ξροξοδιλλις ετ ασπιδιβυς, θυανδο εος θυι αβ ιστις μορδεντυρ ετ α ξροξοδιλλις ραπιυντυρ φελιξες ετ δεο διγνι αρβιτραντυρ.
2.112
ρυρσυμθυε ταμθυαμ πιισσιμυς δεριδετ αδιξιενς φαβυλαε συαε μνασεαμ. αιτ ενιμ ιλλυμ ρετυλισσε, δυμ βελλυμ ιυδαει ξοντρα ιυδαεος ηαβερεντ λονγο θυοδαμ τεμπορε ιν αλιθυα ξιυιτατε ιυδαεορυμ, θυι δοριι νομιναντυρ, θυενδαμ εορυμ θυι ιν εα απολλινεμ ξολεβατ υενισσε αδ ιυδαεος, ξυιυς ηομινις νομεν διξιτ ζαβιδον δεινδε θυι εις προμισισσετ τραδιτυρυμ σε εις απολλινεμ δευμ δοριενσιυμ υεντυρυμθυε ιλλυμ αδ νοστρυμ τεμπλυμ, σι ομνες αβσξεδερεντ. 2.113 ετ ξρεδιδισσε ομνεμ μυλτιτυδινεμ ιυδαεορυμ; ζαβιδον υερο φεξισσε θυοδδαμ μαξηιναμεντυμ λιγνευμ ετ ξιρξυμποσυισσε σιβι ετ ιν εο τρες ορδινες ινφιχισσε λυξερναρυμ ετ ιτα αμβυλασσε, υτ προξυλ σταντιβυς αππαρερετ, θυασι στελλαε περ τερραμ 2.114 τὴν πορείαν ποιουμένων, τοὺς μὲν ̓Ιουδαίους ὑπὸ τοῦ παραδόξου τῆς θέας καταπεπληγμένους πόρρω μένοντας ἡσυχίαν ἄγειν, τὸν δὲ Ζάβιδον ἐπὶ πολλῆς ἡσυχίας εἰς τὸν ναὸν παρελθεῖν καὶ τὴν χρυσῆν ἀποσῦραι τοῦ κάνθωνος κεφαλήν, οὕτω γὰρ ἀστεϊζόμενος' "
2.213
μάλιστα δὲ γυναικῶν. οὕτως δ' ἡμερότητα καὶ φιλανθρωπίαν ἡμᾶς ἐξεπαίδευσεν, ὡς μηδὲ τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων ὀλιγωρεῖν, ἀλλὰ μόνην ἐφῆκε τούτων χρῆσιν τὴν νόμιμον, πᾶσαν δ' ἑτέραν ἐκώλυσεν: ἃ δ' ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντα προσφεύγει ταῖς οἰκίαις ἀπεῖπεν ἀνελεῖν. οὐδὲ νεοττοῖς τοὺς γονέας αὐτῶν ἐπέτρεψε συνεξαιρεῖν, φείδεσθαι δὲ κἀν τῇ πολεμίᾳ τῶν ἐργαζομένων ζῴων"' None
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1.225 for so far they all agree through the whole country, to esteem such animals as gods, although they differ from one another in the peculiar worship they severally pay to them; and certainly men they are entirely of vain and foolish minds, who have thus accustomed themselves from the beginning to have such bad notions concerning their gods, and could not think of imitating that decent form of divine worship which we made use of, though, when they saw our institutions approved of by many others, they could not but envy us on that account;
2.66
At this rate we must not call you all Egyptians, nor indeed in general men, because you breed up with great care beasts of a nature quite contrary to that of men, although the nature of all men seems to be one and the same.
2.81
To this my first answer shall be this, that had there been any such thing among us, an Egyptian ought by no means to have thrown it in our teeth, since an ass is not a more contemptible animal than ... and goats, and other such creatures, which among them are gods.
2.86
Asses are the same with us which they are with other wise men, viz., creatures that bear the burdens that we lay upon them;
2.112
10. Nay, this miracle of piety derides us farther, and adds the following pretended facts to his former fable; for he says that this man related how, “while the Jews were once in a long war with the Idumeans, there came a man out of one of the cities of the Idumeans, who there had worshipped Apollo. This man, whose name is said to have been Zabidus, came to the Jews, and promised that he would deliver Apollo, the god of Dora into their hands, and that he would come to our temple, if they would all come up with him, 2.113 and bring the whole multitude of the Jews with them; that Zabidus made him a certain wooden instrument, and put it round about him, and set three rows of lamps therein, and walked after such a manner, that he appeared to those that stood a great way off him, to be a kind of star walking upon the earth: 2.114 that the Jews were terribly frightened at so surprising an appearance, and stood very quiet at a distance; and that Zabidus, while they continued so very quiet, went into the holy house, and carried off that golden head of an ass (for so facetiously does he write), and then went his way back again to Dora in great haste.”
2.213
Indeed he hath taught us gentleness and humanity so effectually, that he hath not despised the care of brute beasts, by permitting no other than a regular use of them, and forbidding any other; and if any of them come to our houses, like supplicants, we are forbidden to slay them: nor may we kill the dams, together with their young ones; but we are obliged, even in an enemy’s country, to spare and not kill those creatures that labor for mankind. '' None
90. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.207 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal, gaze • animal, lament • animals, in similes

 Found in books: Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 248; Mackay (2022), Animal Encounters in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 48

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1.207 To rise above their country: might their law: Decrees are forced from Senate and from Plebs: Consul and Tribune break the laws alike: Bought are the fasces, and the people sell For gain their favour: bribery's fatal curse Corrupts the annual contests of the Field. Then covetous usury rose, and interest Was greedier ever as the seasons came; Faith tottered; thousands saw their gain in war. Caesar has crossed the Alps, his mighty soul "" None
91. Mishnah, Bava Metzia, 2.3, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • animal • animals,

 Found in books: Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 155; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 87, 98; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276

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2.10 If he found an animal in a stable, he is not responsible for it even though the stable door was loose and unguarded. But if he found it in the public domain he is responsible for it. If it was in a cemetery he need not contract uncleanness because of it. If his father said to him, “Contract uncleanness”, or if he said to him, “Do not return it”, he may not listen to him. If he unloaded the ass fallen under its load and reloaded it and again unloaded it and reloaded it, even four or five times he is still obligated, for it is written, “You must surely raise it with him”. If the owner went and sat down and said, “Since the commandment is upon you, if you wish to unload, unload”, he is not obligated, for it is written “with him”. But if the owner was aged or sick, he is obligated. It is a commandment from the Torah to unload but not to reload. Rabbi Shimon says, “To reload as well.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says, “If the beast was carrying more than its proper load he is not obligated to help unload it, for it is written, “under its load”, which is to say a load which it is able to endure.' ' None
92. Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 95; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 98

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2.1 יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל אָדָם בַּתְּחִלָּה מִיּוֹם טוֹב לַשַּׁבָּת, אֲבָל מְבַשֵּׁל הוּא לְיוֹם טוֹב, וְאִם הוֹתִיר, הוֹתִיר לַשַּׁבָּת, וְעוֹשֶׂה תַבְשִׁיל מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְסוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, תַּבְשִׁיל אֶחָד. וְשָׁוִין בְּדָג וּבֵיצָה שֶׁעָלָיו שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. אֲכָלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאָבַד, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל עָלָיו בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם שִׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ כָל שֶׁהוּא, סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת:
2.1
עֲגָלָה שֶׁל קָטָן טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס וְנִטֶּלֶת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵינָהּ נִגְרֶרֶת אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֵין נִגְרָרִין חוּץ מִן הָעֲגָלָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כוֹבֶשֶׁת:'' None
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2.1 Yom Tov which fell on the eve of Shabbat, one should not begin to cook on Yom Tov for Shabbat. But he may cook for Yom Tov, and if any is left over it is left over for Shabbat. And he may prepare a dish on the eve of Yom Tov and rely upon it to prepare food for Shabbat. Bet Shammai says: two dishes. But Bet Hillel says: one dish. Yet they both agree that a fish and an egg upon it are considered as two dishes. If he ate it or it was lost, he may not begin to cook relying on it. But if he left over any small portion of it, he may rely on it to cook for Shabbat.'' None
93. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 1.2, 3.1, 5.1, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • Aristotle, animals classified by • Aristotle, on domestic vs. wild animals • adam (human), vs. other animals • animal breeding, between wild and domesticated • animal, domestic, topology of its body • animals, domestic vs. wild • animals, eating • animals, purity of • animals, vs. humans • behemah (animal) • behemah (animal), gasah vs. daqah • behemah (animal), vs. hayah • difference, between humans and animals • humans, vs. animals • sacrifice, animal, comparison between Greek and Jewish • sacrifice, animal, fices of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • wild animals

 Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 32, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 49, 50, 148, 215, 235; Petropoulou (2012), Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200, 194, 196, 201, 202; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 20, 26, 62, 267; Rosenblum (2016), The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World, 99

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1.2 פָּרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין חֲמוֹר, וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין סוּס, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַיּוֹלֵד חֲמוֹר וְהַנּוֹלָד חֲמוֹר. וּמָה הֵם בַּאֲכִילָה. בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וּטְמֵאָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַטָּמֵא, טָמֵא. וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַטָּהוֹר, טָהוֹר. דָּג טָמֵא שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָהוֹר, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וְטָהוֹר שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָמֵא, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גִדּוּלָיו:
3.1
הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּהֵמָה מִן הַנָּכְרִי וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם בִּכְּרָה וְאִם לֹא בִכְּרָה, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, עֵז בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ וַדַּאי לַכֹּהֵן, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ סָפֵק. רָחֵל בַּת שְׁתַּיִם וַדַּאי לַכֹּהֵן, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ סָפֵק. פָּרָה וַחֲמוֹר בְּנוֹת שָׁלשׁ וַדַּאי לַכֹּהֵן, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ סָפֵק. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אִלּוּ בַּוָּלָד בִּלְבַד בְּהֵמָה נִפְטֶרֶת, הָיָה כִדְבָרֶיךָ, אֶלָּא אָמְרוּ, סִימַן הַוָּלָד בִּבְהֵמָה דַקָּה, טִנוּף. וּבְגַסָּה, שִׁלְיָא. וּבְאִשָּׁה, שְׁפִיר וְשִׁלְיָא. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁיָדוּעַ שֶׁבִּכְּרָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. וְכֹל שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה לַכֹּהֵן. אִם סָפֵק, יֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמוֹ לַבְּעָלִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה שֶׁשָּׁפְעָה חֲרָרַת דָּם, הֲרֵי זוֹ תִקָּבֵר, וְנִפְטְרָה מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה:
5.1
כָּל פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין (הֲנָאָתָן לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ), נִמְכָּרִין בָּאִטְלִיז (וְנִשְׁחָטִין בָּאִטְלִיז) וְנִשְׁקָלִין בְּלִטְרָא, חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר, שֶׁהֲנָיָתָן לַבְּעָלִים. פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין הֲנָיָתָן לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְשׁוֹקְלִין מָנֶה כְנֶגֶד מָנֶה בַּבְּכוֹר:
5.3
הַצּוֹרֵם בְּאֹזֶן הַבְּכוֹר, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשָּׁחֵט עוֹלָמִית, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, כְּשֶׁיִּוָּלֵד לוֹ מוּם אַחֵר, יִשָּׁחֵט עָלָיו. מַעֲשֶׂה בְזָכָר שֶׁל רְחֵלִים זָקֵן וּשְׂעָרוֹ מְדֻלְדָּל, רָאָהוּ קַסְדּוֹר אֶחָד, אָמַר, מַה טִּיבוֹ שֶׁל זֶה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, בְּכוֹר הוּא וְאֵינוֹ נִשְׁחָט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בּוֹ מוּם. נָטַל פִּגְיוֹן וְצָרַם בְּאָזְנוֹ, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּהוּ. רָאָה שֶׁהִתִּירוּ, וְהָלַךְ וְצָרַם בְּאָזְנֵי בְכוֹרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְאָסָרוּ. פַּעַם אַחַת הָיוּ תִינוֹקוֹת מְשַׂחֲקִין בַּשָּׂדֶה וְקָשְׁרוּ זַנְבוֹת טְלָאִים זֶה לָזֶה, וְנִפְסְקָה זְנָבוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶם וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְכוֹר, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּהוּ. רָאוּ שֶׁהִתִּירוּ, וְהָלְכוּ וְקָשְׁרוּ זַנְבוֹת בְּכוֹרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְאָסָרוּ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, אָסוּר. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, מֻתָּר:'' None
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1.2 If a cow gave birth to a species of donkey, or a donkey gave birth to a species of horse, it is exempt from the law of the firstling, for it is said, “the firstling of a donkey,” “the firstling of a donkey,” twice to teach that the law of the firstling does not apply until that which gives birth is a donkey and that which is born is a donkey. And what is the law with regard to eating them? If a clean animal gave birth to a species of unclean animal, it is permitted to be eaten. But if an unclean animal gave birth to a species of a clean animal, it is forbidden to be eaten, for that which comes out of the unclean is unclean and that which comes out of the clean is clean. If an unclean fish swallowed a clean fish, it is permitted to be eaten. But if a clean fish has swallowed an unclean fish, the latter is forbidden to be eaten, because it is not the clean fish's growth." 3.1 If one buys an animal from a non-Jew and it is not known whether it had given birth or had not given birth: Rabbi Ishmael says: that born of a goat in its first year certainly belongs to the priest; after that, it is a questionable case of a first-born. That born of a ewe two years old certainly belongs to the priest; after that, it is a questionable case of a first born. That born of a cow or a donkey three years old certainly belongs to the priest; after that, it is a questionable case of a first born. Rabbi Akiva to him: if an animal were exempted from the law of the first born only with the birth of actual offspring, it would be as you say. But they said: the sign of offspring in small cattle is a discharge from the womb. In large cattle, the after-birth; in a woman, the signs are the fetus and the after-birth. This is the general rule: Whenever it is known that it had given birth, the priest receives nothing. Whenever it had never given birth, it belongs to the priest. If there is a doubt, it shall be eaten blemished by the owners. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: if a large domestic animal has discharged a clot of blood, it the clot shall be buried, and it the mother is exempted from the law of the first born.
5.1
All dedicated animals which became unfit for the altar are sold in a market, slaughtered in a market and weighed by the liter, except for a first born or a tithed animal, as their profit goes to the owners, whereas the profit on dedicated objects which became unfit goes to the Temple. One can weigh one piece of meat of the first-born against another piece of ordinary meat.
5.3
If one makes a slit in the ear of a firstborn animal, he may never slaughter it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: when another blemish appears, he may slaughter it on account of it. It happened that a quaestor (a Roman official) saw an old male lamb with its long wool hanging down and asked: what is the meaning of this? They replied: “It is a first born and is not to be slaughtered until it has a blemish,” The quaestor took a dagger and slit its ear. The matter came before the sages and they permitted it. After they had permitted, he went and sliced the ears of other first borns. The sages forbade them. Once children were once playing in a field. They tied the tails of sheep one to the other and one tail which belonged to a first born was severed. The matter came before the rabbis and they permitted the first born. When the children saw that they had permitted the first born to be slaughtered, they proceeded to tie the tails of other first borns. The sages forbade the other first borns. This is the rule: wherever the blemish is caused with the knowledge and consent of the owner it is forbidden, but, if it is not with his knowledge and consent, it is permitted.'" None
94. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 365; Rosen-Zvi (2011), Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity. 75

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9.5 חַיָּב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרָעָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטּוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו) וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְיָ אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ. בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ, בִּשְׁנֵי יְצָרֶיךָ, בְּיֵצֶר טוֹב וּבְיֵצֶר רָע. וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת נַפְשֶׁךָ. וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מָמוֹנֶךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מִדָּה וּמִדָּה שֶׁהוּא מוֹדֵד לְךָ הֱוֵי מוֹדֶה לוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד. לֹא יָקֵל אָדָם אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח, שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקָּדָשִׁים. לֹא יִכָּנֵס לְהַר הַבַּיִת בְּמַקְלוֹ, וּבְמִנְעָלוֹ, וּבְפֻנְדָּתוֹ, וּבְאָבָק שֶׁעַל רַגְלָיו, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ קַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, וּרְקִיקָה מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר. כָּל חוֹתְמֵי בְרָכוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁקִּלְקְלוּ הַמִּינִין, וְאָמְרוּ, אֵין עוֹלָם אֶלָּא אֶחָד, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהוּ אוֹמְרִים, מִן הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעוֹלָם. וְהִתְקִינוּ, שֶׁיְּהֵא אָדָם שׁוֹאֵל אֶת שְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בַּשֵּׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (רות ב) וְהִנֵּה בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם, וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים יְיָ עִמָּכֶם, וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ, יְבָרֶכְךָ יְיָ. וְאוֹמֵר (שופטים ו) יְיָ עִמְּךָ גִּבּוֹר הֶחָיִל. וְאוֹמֵר (משלי כג) אַל תָּבוּז כִּי זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ. וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים קיט) עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר, הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ:'' None
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9.5 One must bless God for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul life away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting is forbidden. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever lit. as long as the world is.” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant