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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
ancestral Lieu (2004) 58, 72, 109, 224, 243, 244, 245, 259, 263
Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 13, 32, 60, 65, 67, 69, 70, 71, 195, 196, 199, 200, 242, 243, 244, 259, 262, 272, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 284, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 292, 295, 315, 318, 325, 329, 331, 364
ancestral, and demes, gods Parker (2005) 21, 23
ancestral, and phratries, gods Parker (2005) 21, 23
ancestral, chrysogonus, owner of estates Humfress (2007) 101
ancestral, constitution Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 7, 28, 64, 109, 111, 142
ancestral, cult Lupu(2005) 86
ancestral, customs, porphyry, philosophia ex oraculis Simmons(1995) 28, 138, 142, 149, 160, 162, 203, 254
ancestral, customs, ta religious authority, patria Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 340
ancestral, father of the etruscans, tyrrhenos Marek (2019) 473
ancestral, fault Gagné (2020) 391
Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 256, 260
ancestral, frugality Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 12, 32, 36, 40, 76, 88, 196, 200, 365
ancestral, genealogy, family ideology importance of Peppard (2011) 74, 75
ancestral, gods on, thasos Parker (2005) 21, 22, 23, 24, 25
ancestral, gods, household, oikos Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 166
ancestral, homes in countryside Jenkyns (2013) 24, 67, 121, 124, 165, 166, 240, 253, 270
ancestral, imagines portraits Langlands (2018) 3, 94
ancestral, language Schwartz (2008) 19, 296, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 554
ancestral, law Lupu(2005) 54
ancestral, law/customs/religion Piotrkowski (2019) 61, 71, 75, 77, 244, 419
ancestral, laws Hayes (2022) 33, 110
Marincola et al (2021) 113, 114, 117
ancestral, laws, jewish Schwartz (2008) 19, 296, 298, 531
ancestral, laws, law , laws of their fathers / Witter et al. (2021) 17, 18, 24
ancestral, laws, torah Beyerle and Goff (2022) 75, 86, 222, 225, 232, 330
ancestral, manes dead Mueller (2002) 19, 20, 83, 84, 97, 100, 195
ancestral, mos maiorum custom Mueller (2002) 8, 9, 10, 53, 68, 95, 100, 101, 117, 118, 140
ancestral, mos maiorum custom, sanctitas morum Mueller (2002) 149
ancestral, patria, vs. additional sacrifice, thysia, epitheta Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 32, 33
ancestral, rites Rupke (2016) 29, 98
ancestral, temples, ancestors, athenian Martin (2009) 157, 158
ancestral, tombs Parker (2005) 23, 24, 25, 27
ancestral, tradition, aristobulus, fidelity to Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 172, 173
ancestral, tradition, pharisees Hayes (2022) 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 80, 105, 111, 113, 114, 118
ancestral, traditions Van der Horst (2014) 63, 64, 65
ancestral, traditions in josephus Noam (2018) 21
ancestral, traditions oral tora, pharisees Hayes (2022) 70
ancestral, πάτριοι sacrifices, θυσίαι Papazarkadas (2011) 77, 78, 80, 81
“ancestral, customs”, tradition Stavrianopoulou (2006) 284

List of validated texts:
40 validated results for "ancestral"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestral Language • ancestry, • ethnicity (common features), ancestry

 Found in books: Schwartz (2008) 477; Wilson (2010) 193; van Maaren (2022) 206

32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃' '. None
32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance.' '. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 6.9, 17.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestry • Augustus divine ancestry of • Tradition, of the fathers/ancestors • ancestors vs. descendants • ethnicity (common features), ancestry

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 207; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 179; Jaffee (2001) 48; Peppard (2011) 135; van Maaren (2022) 143

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃
17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃'
17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ '. None
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God.
17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 89.28-89.37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus divine ancestry of • ancestry, genealogy

 Found in books: Marcar (2022) 122; Peppard (2011) 135

89.28. אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 89.29. לְעוֹלָם אשמור־אֶשְׁמָר־ לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃' '89.31. אִם־יַעַזְבוּ בָנָיו תּוֹרָתִי וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי לֹא יֵלֵכוּן׃ 89.32. אִם־חֻקֹּתַי יְחַלֵּלוּ וּמִצְוֺתַי לֹא יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 89.33. וּפָקַדְתִּי בְשֵׁבֶט פִּשְׁעָם וּבִנְגָעִים עֲוֺנָם׃ 89.34. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָפִיר מֵעִמּוֹ וְלֹא־אֲשַׁקֵּר בֶּאֱמוּנָתִי׃ 89.35. לֹא־אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה׃ 89.36. אַחַת נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְקָדְשִׁי אִם־לְדָוִד אֲכַזֵּב׃ 89.37. זַרְעוֹ לְעוֹלָם יִהְיֶה וְכִסְאוֹ כַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נֶגְדִּי׃''. None
89.28. I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth. 89.29. For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him. 89.30. His seed also will I make to endure for ever, And his throne as the days of heaven. 89.31. If his children forsake My law, And walk not in Mine ordices; : 89.32. If they profane My statutes, And keep not My commandments; 89.33. Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with strokes. 89.34. But My mercy will I not break off from him, Nor will I be false to My faithfulness. 89.35. My covet will I not profane, Nor alter that which is gone out of My lips. 89.36. Once have I sworn by My holiness: Surely I will not be false unto David; 89.37. His seed shall endure for ever, And his throne as the sun before Me.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.13, 51.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pharisees, ancestral tradition • Tradition, of the fathers/ancestors • ancestry, genealogy • testing and trials, of forefathers

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 204; Hayes (2022) 66; Jaffee (2001) 47, 48; Marcar (2022) 250

29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃
51.2. בָּנַיִךְ עֻלְּפוּ שָׁכְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל־חוּצוֹת כְּתוֹא מִכְמָר הַמְלֵאִים חֲמַת־יְהוָה גַּעֲרַת אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃
51.2. הַבִּיטוּ אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם וְאֶל־שָׂרָה תְּחוֹלֶלְכֶם כִּי־אֶחָד קְרָאתִיו וַאֲבָרְכֵהוּ וְאַרְבֵּהוּ׃''. None
29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;
51.2. Look unto Abraham your father, And unto Sarah that bore you; For when he was but one I called him, And I blessed him, and made him many.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestry, genealogy • testing and trials, of forefathers

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 204; Marcar (2022) 120

24.3. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ בִּגְבוּל נַחֲלָתוֹ בְּתִמְנַת־סֶרַח אֲשֶׁר בְּהַר־אֶפְרָיִם מִצְּפוֹן לְהַר־גָּעַשׁ׃'
24.3. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־אֲבִיכֶם אֶת־אַבְרָהָם מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר וָאוֹלֵךְ אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וארב וָאַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעוֹ וָאֶתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־יִצְחָק׃ '. None
24.3. And I took your father Abraham from beyond the River, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac.''. None
6. Homer, Iliad, 9.443 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athenian ancestors • constitution,, ancestral

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 17; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 28

9.443. μύθων τε ῥητῆρʼ ἔμεναι πρηκτῆρά τε ἔργων.''. None
9.443. a mere child, knowing naught as yet of evil war, neither of gatherings wherein men wax preeminent. For this cause sent he me to instruct thee in all these things, to be both a speaker of words and a doer of deeds. Wherefore, dear child, I am not minded hereafter ''. None
7. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 592, 704 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Io, ancestor of the Danaids • ancestrality

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 181; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 237

592. Ἥρᾳ στυγητὸς πρὸς βίαν γυμνάζεται. Ἰώ'
704. τλῆναι πρὸς Ἥρας τήνδε τὴν νεάνιδα. '. None
592. daughter of Inachus? It is she who fires the heart of Zeus with passion, and now, through Hera’s hate, is disciplined by force with interminable wandering. Io '
704. You gained your former request easily from me; for you first desired the story of her ordeal from her own lips. Hear now the sequel, the sufferings this maid is fated to endure at Hera’s hand. '. None
8. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Io, ancestor of the Danaids • ancestrality

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 181; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 237

9. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elijah, Judith’s forefather • Hilkiah, Judith’s ancestor • law\n, laws of their fathers / ancestral laws

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 257; Witter et al. (2021) 17

8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃''. None
8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam.''. None
10. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestors, wicked (incl. Titans) • ancestral fault

 Found in books: Graf and Johnston (2007) 195; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 260

400c. σῆμά τινές φασιν αὐτὸ εἶναι τῆς ψυχῆς, ὡς τεθαμμένης ἐν τῷ νῦν παρόντι· καὶ διότι αὖ τούτῳ σημαίνει ἃ ἂν σημαίνῃ ἡ ψυχή, καὶ ταύτῃ σῆμα ὀρθῶς καλεῖσθαι. δοκοῦσι μέντοι μοι μάλιστα θέσθαι οἱ ἀμφὶ Ὀρφέα τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα, ὡς δίκην διδούσης τῆς ψυχῆς ὧν δὴ ἕνεκα δίδωσιν, τοῦτον δὲ περίβολον ἔχειν, ἵνα σῴζηται, δεσμωτηρίου εἰκόνα· εἶναι οὖν τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦτο, ὥσπερ αὐτὸ ὀνομάζεται, ἕως ἂν ἐκτείσῃ τὰ ὀφειλόμενα, τὸ σῶμα, καὶ οὐδὲν δεῖν παράγειν οὐδʼ ἓν γράμμα.''. None
400c. ign ( σῆμα ). But I think it most likely that the Orphic poets gave this name, with the idea that the soul is undergoing punishment for something; they think it has the body as an enclosure to keep it safe, like a prison, and this is, as the name itself denotes, the safe ( σῶμα ) for the soul, until the penalty is paid, and not even a letter needs to be changed.''. None
11. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thasos, ancestral gods on • gods, ancestral and demes • gods, ancestral and phratries • household (oikos), ancestral gods • tombs, ancestral

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 166; Parker (2005) 23

887d. ἐκείνους οἳ τούτων ἡμῖν αἴτιοι τῶν λόγων γεγένηνται καὶ γίγνονται νῦν, οὐ πειθόμενοι τοῖς μύθοις οὓς ἐκ νέων παίδων ἔτι ἐν γάλαξι τρεφόμενοι τροφῶν τε ἤκουον καὶ μητέρων, οἷον ἐν ἐπῳδαῖς μετά τε παιδιᾶς καὶ μετὰ σπουδῆς λεγομένων καὶ μετὰ θυσιῶν ἐν εὐχαῖς αὐτοὺς ἀκούοντές τε, καὶ ὄψεις ὁρῶντες ἑπομένας αὐτοῖς ἃς ἥδιστα ὅ γε νέος ὁρᾷ τε καὶ ἀκούει πραττομένας θυόντων, ἐν σπουδῇ τῇ μεγίστῃ τοὺς αὑτῶν γονέας ὑπὲρ αὑτῶν τε καὶ ἐκείνων ἐσπουδακότας, ὡς''. None
887d. responsible for laying on us this burden of argument, through their disbelief in those stories which they used to hear, while infants and sucklings, from the lips of their nurses and mothers—stories chanted to them, as it were, in lullabies, whether in jest or in earnest; and the same stories they heard repeated also in prayers at sacrifices, and they saw spectacles which illustrated them, of the kind which the young delight to see and hear when performed at sacrifices; and their own parents they saw showing the utmost zeal on behalf of themselves and their children in addressing the gods in prayers and supplications, as though they most certainly existed; and at the rising and setting of the sun and moon''. None
12. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Critias, ancestry • Sokrates, and ancestry

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 684; Wolfsdorf (2020) 245

20e. Σόλων ποτʼ ἔφη. ἦν μὲν οὖν οἰκεῖος καὶ σφόδρα φίλος ἡμῖν Δρωπίδου τοῦ προπάππου, καθάπερ λέγει πολλαχοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν τῇ ποιήσει· ΚΡ. πρὸς δὲ Κριτίαν τὸν ἡμέτερον πάππον εἶπεν, ὡς ἀπεμνημόνευεν αὖ πρὸς ἡμᾶς ὁ γέρων, ὅτι μεγάλα καὶ θαυμαστὰ τῆσδʼ εἴη παλαιὰ ἔργα τῆς πόλεως ὑπὸ χρόνου καὶ φθορᾶς ἀνθρώπων ἠφανισμένα, πάντων δὲ ἓν μέγιστον,''. None
20e. the wisest of the Seven, once upon a time declared. Now Solon—as indeed he often says himself in his poems—was a relative and very dear friend of our great-grandfather Dropides; Crit. and Dropides told our grandfather Critias as the old man himself, in turn, related to us—that the exploits of this city in olden days, the record of which had perished through time and the destruction of its inhabitants, were great and marvellous, the greatest of all being one which it would be proper''. None
13. Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.4.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sokrates, and ancestry • Thasos, ancestral gods on • gods, ancestral and demes • gods, ancestral and phratries • tombs, ancestral

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 685; Parker (2005) 23

2.4.21. In the name of the gods of our fathers and mothers, in the name of our ties of kinship and marriage and comradeship,—for all these many of us share with one another,—cease, out of shame before gods and men, to sin against your fatherland, and do not obey those most accursed Thirty, who for the sake of their private gain have killed in eight months more Athenians, almost, than all the Peloponnesians in ten years of war.''. None
14. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestors, praise of • Topos of the bravery of the ancestors • ancestors, Athenian, ancestral temples • burial, tombs of ancestors

 Found in books: Martin (2009) 158; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 116

15. Anon., Jubilees, 12.25-12.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestral • testing and trials, of forefathers

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 204; Lieu (2004) 72

12.25. And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying: 12.26. "Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I shall show thee, 12.27. and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I shall bless thee And I shall make thy name great, And thou wilt be blessed in the earth,''. None
16. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.1-2.9, 2.17, 6.1-6.9, 7.10, 7.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestral Language • Simeon, ancestor of Judith • ancestral law/customs/religion • testing and trials, of forefathers

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 284, 313, 317; Piotrkowski (2019) 244; Schwartz (2008) 450, 477, 486

2.1. And because you love the house of Israel, you promised that if we should have reverses, and tribulation should overtake us, you would listen to our petition when we come to this place and pray.
2.1. Then the high priest Simon, facing the sanctuary, bending his knees and extending his hands with calm dignity, prayed as follows: 2.2. "Lord, Lord, king of the heavens, and sovereign of all creation, holy among the holy ones, the only ruler, almighty, give attention to us who are suffering grievously from an impious and profane man, puffed up in his audacity and power. 2.2. Speedily let your mercies overtake us, and put praises in the mouth of those who are downcast and broken in spirit, and give us peace." 2.3. For you, the creator of all things and the governor of all, are a just Ruler, and you judge those who have done anything in insolence and arrogance. 2.3. In order that he might not appear to be an enemy to all, he inscribed below: "But if any of them prefer to join those who have been initiated into the mysteries, they shall have equal citizenship with the Alexandrians." 2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood. 2.5. You consumed with fire and sulphur the men of Sodom who acted arrogantly, who were notorious for their vices; and you made them an example to those who should come afterward. 2.6. You made known your mighty power by inflicting many and varied punishments on the audacious Pharaoh who had enslaved your holy people Israel. 2.7. And when he pursued them with chariots and a mass of troops, you overwhelmed him in the depths of the sea, but carried through safely those who had put their confidence in you, the Ruler over the whole creation. 2.8. And when they had seen works of your hands, they praised you, the Almighty. 2.9. You, O King, when you had created the boundless and immeasurable earth, chose this city and sanctified this place for your name, though you have no need of anything; and when you had glorified it by your magnificent manifestation, you made it a firm foundation for the glory of your great and honored name.

2.17. Do not punish us for the defilement committed by these men, or call us to account for this profanation, lest the transgressors boast in their wrath or exult in the arrogance of their tongue, saying,
6.1. Even if our lives have become entangled in impieties in our exile, rescue us from the hand of the enemy, and destroy us, Lord, by whatever fate you choose.
6.1. Then a certain Eleazar, famous among the priests of the country, who had attained a ripe old age and throughout his life had been adorned with every virtue, directed the elders around him to cease calling upon the holy God and prayed as follows: 6.2. "King of great power, Almighty God Most High, governing all creation with mercy, 6.2. Even the king began to shudder bodily, and he forgot his sullen insolence. 6.3. look upon the descendants of Abraham, O Father, upon the children of the sainted Jacob, a people of your consecrated portion who are perishing as foreigners in a foreign land. 6.3. Then the king, when he had returned to the city, summoned the official in charge of the revenues and ordered him to provide to the Jews both wines and everything else needed for a festival of seven days, deciding that they should celebrate their rescue with all joyfulness in that same place in which they had expected to meet their destruction. 6.4. Pharaoh with his abundance of chariots, the former ruler of this Egypt, exalted with lawless insolence and boastful tongue, you destroyed together with his arrogant army by drowning them in the sea, manifesting the light of your mercy upon the nation of Israel. 6.4. Then they feasted, provided with everything by the king, until the fourteenth day, on which also they made the petition for their dismissal. 6.5. Sennacherib exulting in his countless forces, oppressive king of the Assyrians, who had already gained control of the whole world by the spear and was lifted up against your holy city, speaking grievous words with boasting and insolence, you, O Lord, broke in pieces, showing your power to many nations. 6.6. The three companions in Babylon who had voluntarily surrendered their lives to the flames so as not to serve vain things, you rescued unharmed, even to a hair, moistening the fiery furnace with dew and turning the flame against all their enemies. 6.7. Daniel, who through envious slanders was cast down into the ground to lions as food for wild beasts, you brought up to the light unharmed. 6.8. And Jonah, wasting away in the belly of a huge, sea-born monster, you, Father, watched over and restored unharmed to all his family. 6.9. And now, you who hate insolence, all-merciful and protector of all, reveal yourself quickly to those of the nation of Israel -- who are being outrageously treated by the abominable and lawless Gentiles.
7.12. The king then, admitting and approving the truth of what they said, granted them a general license so that freely and without royal authority or supervision they might destroy those everywhere in his kingdom who had transgressed the law of God.' '. None
17. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.7, 2.21, 3.1-3.7, 3.12, 3.21, 3.24-3.26, 3.30, 3.39, 4.7, 4.10-4.11, 4.19, 4.21, 4.23, 4.25, 5.5-5.6, 5.8, 5.15, 5.21, 5.27, 6.1-6.2, 6.6, 6.12-6.16, 6.21, 7.2, 7.23, 7.30, 7.37, 8.1-8.4, 8.29, 8.36, 9.4, 9.7, 10.2, 10.4, 10.7-10.8, 13.7, 13.14, 14.3, 14.5, 14.7-14.8, 14.10, 14.13-14.14, 14.26, 14.31, 14.33-14.34, 14.36, 14.38, 15.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestral Language • Laws, Jewish, Ancestral • Simeon, ancestor of Judith • Torah, Ancestral Laws • ancestral • ethnicity (common features), ancestry

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 75, 222, 225, 232; Gera (2014) 317; Lieu (2004) 109, 243, 244; Schwartz (2008) 19, 422, 423, 425, 431, 433, 441, 444, 447, 451, 452, 455, 456, 459, 466, 468, 469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 490, 531; van Maaren (2022) 156

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'" "
1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom'" "
2.21. and the appearances which came from heaven to those who strove zealously on behalf of Judaism, so that though few in number they seized the whole land and pursued the barbarian hordes,'" "
3.1. While the holy city was inhabited in unbroken peace and the laws were very well observed because of the piety of the high priest Onias and his hatred of wickedness,'" "3.2. it came about that the kings themselves honored the place and glorified the temple with the finest presents,'" "3.3. o that even Seleucus, the king of Asia, defrayed from his own revenues all the expenses connected with the service of the sacrifices.'" "3.4. But a man named Simon, of the tribe of Benjamin, who had been made captain of the temple, had a disagreement with the high priest about the administration of the city market;'" "3.5. and when he could not prevail over Onias he went to Apollonius of Tarsus, who at that time was governor of Coelesyria and Phoenicia.'" "3.6. He reported to him that the treasury in Jerusalem was full of untold sums of money, so that the amount of the funds could not be reckoned, and that they did not belong to the account of the sacrifices, but that it was possible for them to fall under the control of the king.'" "3.7. When Apollonius met the king, he told him of the money about which he had been informed. The king chose Heliodorus, who was in charge of his affairs, and sent him with commands to effect the removal of the aforesaid money.'" '

3.12. And he said that it was utterly impossible that wrong should be done to those people who had trusted in the holiness of the place and in the sanctity and inviolability of the temple which is honored throughout the whole world."
3.21. There was something pitiable in the prostration of the whole populace and the anxiety of the high priest in his great anguish."' "
3.24. But when he arrived at the treasury with his bodyguard, then and there the Sovereign of spirits and of all authority caused so great a manifestation that all who had been so bold as to accompany him were astounded by the power of God, and became faint with terror.'" "3.25. For there appeared to them a magnificently caparisoned horse, with a rider of frightening mien, and it rushed furiously at Heliodorus and struck at him with its front hoofs. Its rider was seen to have armor and weapons of gold.'" "3.26. Two young men also appeared to him, remarkably strong, gloriously beautiful and splendidly dressed, who stood on each side of him and scourged him continuously, inflicting many blows on him.'" "
3.30. they praised the Lord who had acted marvelously for his own place. And the temple, which a little while before was full of fear and disturbance, was filled with joy and gladness, now that the Almighty Lord had appeared.'" "
3.39. For he who has his dwelling in heaven watches over that place himself and brings it aid, and he strikes and destroys those who come to do it injury.'" "
4.7. When Seleucus died and Antiochus who was called Epiphanes succeeded to the kingdom, Jason the brother of Onias obtained the high priesthood by corruption,'" "
4.10. When the king assented and Jason came to office, he at once shifted his countrymen over to the Greek way of life.'" "4.11. He set aside the existing royal concessions to the Jews, secured through John the father of Eupolemus, who went on the mission to establish friendship and alliance with the Romans; and he destroyed the lawful ways of living and introduced new customs contrary to the law.'" "
4.19. the vile Jason sent envoys, chosen as being Antiochian citizens from Jerusalem, to carry three hundred silver drachmas for the sacrifice to Hercules. Those who carried the money, however, thought best not to use it for sacrifice, because that was inappropriate, but to expend it for another purpose.'" "
4.21. When Apollonius the son of Menestheus was sent to Egypt for the coronation of Philometor as king, Antiochus learned that Philometor had become hostile to his government, and he took measures for his own security. Therefore upon arriving at Joppa he proceeded to Jerusalem.'" "
4.23. After a period of three years Jason sent Menelaus, the brother of the previously mentioned Simon, to carry the money to the king and to complete the records of essential business.'" "
4.25. After receiving the king's orders he returned, possessing no qualification for the high priesthood, but having the hot temper of a cruel tyrant and the rage of a savage wild beast.'" "
5.5. When a false rumor arose that Antiochus was dead, Jason took no less than a thousand men and suddenly made an assault upon the city. When the troops upon the wall had been forced back and at last the city was being taken, Menelaus took refuge in the citadel.'" "5.6. But Jason kept relentlessly slaughtering his fellow citizens, not realizing that success at the cost of one's kindred is the greatest misfortune, but imagining that he was setting up trophies of victory over enemies and not over fellow countrymen.'" "
5.8. Finally he met a miserable end. Accused before Aretas the ruler of the Arabs, fleeing from city to city, pursued by all men, hated as a rebel against the laws, and abhorred as the executioner of his country and his fellow citizens, he was cast ashore in Egypt;'" "
5.15. Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.'" "
5.21. So Antiochus carried off eighteen hundred talents from the temple, and hurried away to Antioch, thinking in his arrogance that he could sail on the land and walk on the sea, because his mind was elated.'" "
5.27. But Judas Maccabeus, with about nine others, got away to the wilderness, and kept himself and his companions alive in the mountains as wild animals do; they continued to live on what grew wild, so that they might not share in the defilement.'" "
6.1. Not long after this, the king sent an Athenian senator to compel the Jews to forsake the laws of their fathers and cease to live by the laws of God,'" "6.2. and also to pollute the temple in Jerusalem and call it the temple of Olympian Zeus, and to call the one in Gerizim the temple of Zeus the Friend of Strangers, as did the people who dwelt in that place.'" "
6.6. A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.'" "

6.12. Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.'" "
6.13. In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.'" "
6.14. For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,'" '
6.15. in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height."' "
6.16. Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.'" "
6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,'" "
7.2. One of them, acting as their spokesman, said, 'What do you intend to ask and learn from us? For we are ready to die rather than transgress the laws of our fathers.'" "

7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.'" "
7.30. While she was still speaking, the young man said, 'What are you waiting for? I will not obey the king's command, but I obey the command of the law that was given to our fathers through Moses.'" "
7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,'" "
8.1. But Judas, who was also called Maccabeus, and his companions secretly entered the villages and summoned their kinsmen and enlisted those who had continued in the Jewish faith, and so they gathered about six thousand men.'" "8.2. They besought the Lord to look upon the people who were oppressed by all, and to have pity on the temple which had been profaned by ungodly men,'" "8.3. and to have mercy on the city which was being destroyed and about to be leveled to the ground, and to hearken to the blood that cried out to him,'" "8.4. and to remember also the lawless destruction of the innocent babies and the blasphemies committed against his name, and to show his hatred of evil.'" "
8.29. When they had done this, they made common supplication and besought the merciful Lord to be wholly reconciled with his servants.'" "
8.36. Thus he who had undertaken to secure tribute for the Romans by the capture of the people of Jerusalem proclaimed that the Jews had a Defender, and that therefore the Jews were invulnerable, because they followed the laws ordained by him.'" "
9.4. Transported with rage, he conceived the idea of turning upon the Jews the injury done by those who had put him to flight; so he ordered his charioteer to drive without stopping until he completed the journey. But the judgment of heaven rode with him! For in his arrogance he said, 'When I get there I will make Jerusalem a cemetery of Jews.'" "
9.7. Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to hasten the journey. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body.'" "
10.2. and they tore down the altars which had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.'" "
10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.'" "
10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.'" '10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year."' "
13.7. By such a fate it came about that Menelaus the lawbreaker died, without even burial in the earth.'" "
3.14. So, committing the decision to the Creator of the world and exhorting his men to fight nobly to the death for the laws, temple, city, country, and commonwealth, he pitched his camp near Modein.'" "
14.3. Now a certain Alcimus, who had formerly been high priest but had wilfully defiled himself in the times of separation, realized that there was no way for him to be safe or to have access again to the holy altar,'" '
14.5. But he found an opportunity that furthered his mad purpose when he was invited by Demetrius to a meeting of the council and was asked about the disposition and intentions of the Jews. He answered:"' "
4.7. Therefore I have laid aside my ancestral glory -- I mean the high priesthood -- and have now come here,'" "14.8. first because I am genuinely concerned for the interests of the king, and second because I have regard also for my fellow citizens. For through the folly of those whom I have mentioned our whole nation is now in no small misfortune.'" "
4.10. For as long as Judas lives, it is impossible for the government to find peace.'" "
14.13. with orders to kill Judas and scatter his men, and to set up Alcimus as high priest of the greatest temple.'" "14.14. And the Gentiles throughout Judea, who had fled before Judas, flocked to join Nicanor, thinking that the misfortunes and calamities of the Jews would mean prosperity for themselves.'" "
14.26. But when Alcimus noticed their good will for one another, he took the covet that had been made and went to Demetrius. He told him that Nicanor was disloyal to the government, for he had appointed that conspirator against the kingdom, Judas, to be his successor.'" "

14.31. When the latter became aware that he had been cleverly outwitted by the man, he went to the great and holy temple while the priests were offering the customary sacrifices, and commanded them to hand the man over.'" "

14.33. he stretched out his right hand toward the sanctuary, and swore this oath: 'If you do not hand Judas over to me as a prisoner, I will level this precinct of God to the ground and tear down the altar, and I will build here a splendid temple to Dionysus.'" "
14.34. Having said this, he went away. Then the priests stretched forth their hands toward heaven and called upon the constant Defender of our nation, in these words:'" "

14.36. o now, O holy One, Lord of all holiness, keep undefiled for ever this house that has been so recently purified.'" "

14.38. For in former times, when there was no mingling with the Gentiles, he had been accused of Judaism, and for Judaism he had with all zeal risked body and life.'" "
15.31. And when he arrived there and had called his countrymen together and stationed the priests before the altar, he sent for those who were in the citadel.'" ". None
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ethnicity (common features), ancestry • testing and trials, of forefathers

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 286; van Maaren (2022) 84

44.21. Therefore the Lord assured him by an oath that the nations would be blessed through his posterity;that he would multiply him like the dust of the earth,and exalt his posterity like the stars,and cause them to inherit from sea to sea and from the River to the ends of the earth.''. None
19. Septuagint, Judith, 4.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestral Language • Simeon, ancestor of Judith

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 317; Schwartz (2008) 452

4.3. For they had only recently returned from the captivity, and all the people of Judea were newly gathered together, and the sacred vessels and the altar and the temple had been consecrated after their profanation. ''. None
20. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Trojans, as Rome’s ancestors • countryside, ancestral homes in

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 253; Rutledge (2012) 87

21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestral • countryside, ancestral homes in

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 124; Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 272

22. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.89 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • countryside, ancestral homes in • mythic origins as identity marker, legendary ancestors

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 104; Jenkyns (2013) 270

1.89. 1. \xa0Such, then, are the facts concerning the origin of the Romans which I\xa0have been able to discover a reading very diligently many works written by both Greek and Roman authors. Hence, from now on let the reader forever renounce the views of those who make Rome a retreat of barbarians, fugitives and vagabonds, and let him confidently affirm it to be a Greek city, â\x80\x94 which will be easy when he shows that it is at once the most hospitable and friendly of all cities, and when he bears in mind that the Aborigines were Oenotrians, and these in turn Arcadians,,2. \xa0and remembers those who joined with them in their settlement, the Pelasgians who were Argives by descent and came into Italy from Thessaly; and recalls, moreover, the arrival of Evander and the Arcadians, who settled round the Palatine hill, after the Aborigines had granted the place to them; and also the Peloponnesians, who, coming along with Hercules, settled upon the Saturnian hill; and, last of all, those who left the Troad and were intermixed with the earlier settlers. For one will find no nation that is more ancient or more Greek than these.,3. \xa0But the admixtures of the barbarians with the Romans, by which the city forgot many of its ancient institutions, happened at a later time. And it may well seem a cause of wonder to many who reflect on the natural course of events that Rome did not become entirely barbarized after receiving the Opicans, the Marsians, the Samnites, the Tyrrhenians, the Bruttians and many thousands of Umbrians, Ligurians, Iberians and Gauls, besides innumerable other nations, some of whom came from Italy itself and some from other regions and differed from one another both in their language and habits; for their very ways of life, diverse as they were and thrown into turmoil by such dissoce, might have been expected to cause many innovations in the ancient order of the city.,4. \xa0For many others by living among barbarians have in a short time forgotten all their Greek heritage, so that they neither speak the Greek language nor observe the customs of the Greeks nor acknowledge the same gods nor have the same equitable laws (by which most of all the spirit of the Greeks differs from that of the barbarians) nor agree with them in anything else whatever that relates to the ordinary intercourse of life. Those Achaeans who are settled near the Euxine sea are a sufficient proof of my contention; for, though originally Eleans, of a nation the most Greek of any, they are now the most savage of all barbarians. ''. None
23. Ovid, Fasti, 5.492 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cults, ancestors • manes (ancestral dead) • mos maiorum (ancestral custom)

 Found in books: Mueller (2002) 100; Waldner et al (2016) 95

5.492. inter se nulla continuata die.''. None
5.492. People say unlucky women wed in the month of May.''. None
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.142, 12.240, 12.387, 13.62, 13.298, 20.235, 20.237 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestral Language • Josephus, ancestral traditions in • Tradition, of the fathers/ancestors • ancestral law/customs/religion • law\n, laws of their fathers / ancestral laws

 Found in books: Jaffee (2001) 51; Noam (2018) 21; Piotrkowski (2019) 61, 419; Schwartz (2008) 469, 470, 475; Witter et al. (2021) 18

12.142. πολιτευέσθωσαν δὲ πάντες οἱ ἐκ τοῦ ἔθνους κατὰ τοὺς πατρίους νόμους, ἀπολυέσθω δ' ἡ γερουσία καὶ οἱ ἱερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ ἱεροῦ καὶ ἱεροψάλται ὧν ὑπὲρ τῆς κεφαλῆς τελοῦσιν καὶ τοῦ στεφανιτικοῦ φόρου καὶ τοῦ περὶ τῶν ἄλλων." "
12.387. ὁ δὲ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως υἱὸς ̓Ονίας, ὃν προείπομεν ἔτι παῖδα τελευτήσαντος ἀφίεσθαι τοῦ πατρός, ἰδὼν ὅτι τὸν θεῖον αὐτοῦ Μενέλαον ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀνελὼν τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην ̓Αλκίμῳ δέδωκεν οὐκ ὄντι τῆς τῶν ἀρχιερέων γενεᾶς, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ Λυσίου πεισθεὶς μεταθεῖναι τὴν τιμὴν ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς οἰκίας εἰς ἕτερον οἶκον, φεύγει πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον τὸν Αἰγύπτου βασιλέα." '
13.62. ̔Ο δὲ ̓Ονίου τοῦ ἀρχιερέως υἱὸς ὁμώνυμος δὲ ὢν τῷ πατρί, ὃς ἐν ̓Αλεξανδρείᾳ φυγὼν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Πτολεμαῖον τὸν ἐπικαλούμενον Φιλομήτορα διῆγεν, ὡς καὶ πρότερον εἰρήκαμεν, ἰδὼν τὴν ̓Ιουδαίαν κακουμένην ὑπὸ τῶν Μακεδόνων καὶ τῶν βασιλέων αὐτῶν,
13.298. καὶ περὶ τούτων ζητήσεις αὐτοῖς καὶ διαφορὰς γίνεσθαι συνέβαινεν μεγάλας, τῶν μὲν Σαδδουκαίων τοὺς εὐπόρους μόνον πειθόντων τὸ δὲ δημοτικὸν οὐχ ἑπόμενον αὐτοῖς ἐχόντων, τῶν δὲ Φαρισαίων τὸ πλῆθος σύμμαχον ἐχόντων. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων τῶν δύο καὶ τῶν ̓Εσσηνῶν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ μου τῶν ̓Ιουδαϊκῶν ἀκριβῶς δεδήλωται.' "
20.235. Πρῶτος δ' ̓Αντίοχος ὁ προειρημένος καὶ ὁ στρατηγὸς αὐτοῦ Λυσίας τὸν ̓Ονίαν, ᾧ Μενέλαος ἐπίκλην, παύουσι τῆς ἀρχιερωσύνης ἀνελόντες αὐτὸν ἐν Βεροίᾳ καὶ καθιστᾶσιν ̓Ιάκιμον ἀρχιερέα, γένους μὲν τοῦ ̓Ααρῶνος, οὐκ ὄντα δὲ τῆς οἰκίας ταύτης." "
20.237. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τοῦ ἱεροῦ τοῦ κατασκευασθέντος ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ πολλάκις ἐδηλώσαμεν. ὁ δὲ ̓Ιάκιμος ἔτη τρία τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην κατασχὼν ἐτελεύτησεν. διεδέξατο δ' αὐτὸν οὐδείς, ἀλλὰ διετέλεσεν ἡ πόλις ἐνιαυτοὺς ἑπτὰ χωρὶς ἀρχιερέως οὖσα." ". None
12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also.
12.387. Now as to Onias, the son of the high priest, who, as we before informed you, was left a child when his father died, when he saw that the king had slain his uncle Menelaus, and given the high priesthood to Alcimus, who was not of the high priest stock, but was induced by Lysias to translate that dignity from his family to another house, he fled to Ptolemy, king of Egypt;
13.62. 1. But then the son of Onias the high priest, who was of the same name with his father, and who fled to king Ptolemy, who was called Philometor, lived now at Alexandria, as we have said already. When this Onias saw that Judea was oppressed by the Macedonians and their kings,
13.298. And concerning these things it is that great disputes and differences have arisen among them, while the Sadducees are able to persuade none but the rich, and have not the populace obsequious to them, but the Pharisees have the multitude on their side. But about these two sects, and that of the Essenes, I have treated accurately in the second book of Jewish affairs.
20.235. and then the forementioned Antiochus, and Lysias the general of his army, deprived Onias, who was also called Menelaus, of the high priesthood, and slew him at Berea; and driving away the son of Onias the third, put Jacimus into the place of the high priest, one that was indeed of the stock of Aaron, but not of the family of Onias.
20.237. but as for that temple which was built in Egypt, we have spoken of it frequently already. Now when Jacimus had retained the priesthood three years, he died, and there was no one that succeeded him, but the city continued seven years without a high priest.' '. None
25. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.193 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestral • ancestral law/customs/religion

 Found in books: Lieu (2004) 224; Piotrkowski (2019) 71

2.193. Εἷς ναὸς ἑνὸς θεοῦ, φίλον γὰρ ἀεὶ παντὶ τὸ ὅμοιον, κοινὸς ἁπάντων κοινοῦ θεοῦ ἁπάντων. τοῦτον θεραπεύσουσιν μὲν διὰ παντὸς οἱ ἱερεῖς, ἡγήσεται δὲ τούτων ὁ πρῶτος ἀεὶ κατὰ γένος.''. None
2.193. 24. There ought also to be but one temple for one God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreement. This temple ought to be common to all men, because he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be their ruler perpetually. ''. None
26. New Testament, Acts, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ancestral Language • Tradition, of the fathers/ancestors

 Found in books: Jaffee (2001) 45; Schwartz (2008) 442, 444

23.8. Σαδδουκαῖοι γὰρ λέγουσιν μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν μήτε ἄγγελον μήτε πνεῦμα, Φαρισαῖοι δὲ ὁμολογοῦσιν τὰ ἀμφότερα.''. None
23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. ''. None
27. New Testament, Galatians, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pharisees, ancestral tradition • Tradition, of the fathers/ancestors

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 67; Jaffee (2001) 45

1.14. καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων.''. None
1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. "". None
28. New Testament, Philippians, 3.5-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pharisees, ancestral tradition • Tradition, of the fathers/ancestors

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 67; Jaffee (2001) 45

3.5. περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος, ἐκ γένους Ἰσραήλ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, Ἐβραῖος ἐξ Ἐβραίων, κατὰ νόμον Φαρισαῖος, 3.6. κατὰ ζῆλος διώκων τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, κατὰ δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν νόμῳ γενόμενος ἄμεμπτος.''. None
3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. ''. None
29. New Testament, Romans, 8.15, 8.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus divine ancestry of • ancestry, genealogy

 Found in books: Marcar (2022) 149; Peppard (2011) 135

8.15. οὐ γὰρ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα δουλείας πάλιν εἰς φόβον, ἀλλὰ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἐν ᾧ κράζομεν
8.23. οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τοῦ πνεύματος ἔχοντες ἡμεῖς καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς στενάζομεν, υἱοθεσίαν ἀπεκδεχόμενοι τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν.''. None
8.15. For you didn\'t receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father!"
8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. ''. None
30. New Testament, Mark, 7.5-7.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pharisees, ancestral tradition • Tradition, of the fathers/ancestors

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 66, 67, 68; Jaffee (2001) 47, 48

7.5. —καὶ ἐπερωτῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς Διὰ τί οὐ περιπατοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταί σου κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ κοιναῖς χερσὶν ἐσθίουσιν τὸν ἄρτον; 7.6. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν Ἠσαίας περὶ ὑμῶν τῶν ὑποκριτῶν, ὡς γέγραπται ὅτι Οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· 7.7. μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με, διδάσκοντες διδασκαλίας ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων· 7.8. ἀφέντες τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κρατεῖτε τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων.''. None
7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don\'t your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?" 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, \'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. ' "7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' " '7.8. "For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things."''. None
31. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 44.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestor images • ancestry • ancestry,

 Found in books: Keane (2015) 101, 102; Wilson (2010) 383

44.5. Then who is well-born? He who is by nature well fitted for virtue. That is the one point to be considered; otherwise, if you hark back to antiquity, every one traces back to a date before which there is nothing. From the earliest beginnings of the universe to the present time, we have been led forward out of origins that were alternately illustrious and ignoble. A hall full of smoke-begrimed busts does not make the nobleman. No past life has been lived to lend us glory, and that which has existed before us is not ours; the soul alone renders us noble, and it may rise superior to Fortune out of any earlier condition, no matter what that condition has been.3 ''. None
32. Tacitus, Annals, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Trojans, as Rome’s ancestors • patrimony

 Found in books: Rutledge (2012) 270; Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 80

1.4. Eo in metu arguere Germanicum omnes quod non ad superiorem exercitum pergeret, ubi obsequia et contra rebellis auxilium: satis superque missione et pecunia et mollibus consultis peccatum. vel si vilis ipsi salus, cur filium parvulum, cur gravidam coniugem inter furentis et omnis humani iuris violatores haberet? illos saltem avo et rei publicae redderet. diu cunctatus aspertem uxorem, cum se divo Augusto ortam neque degenerem ad pericula testaretur, postremo uterum eius et communem filium multo cum fletu complexus, ut abiret perpulit. incedebat muliebre et miserabile agmen, profuga ducis uxor, parvulum sinu filium gerens, lamentantes circum amicorum coniuges quae simul trahebantur nec minus tristes qui manebant.'
1.4. Igitur verso civitatis statu nihil usquam prisci et integri moris: omnes exuta aequalitate iussa principis aspectare, nulla in praesens formidine, dum Augustus aetate validus seque et domum et pacem sustentavit. postquam provecta iam senectus aegro et corpore fatigabatur aderatque finis et spes novae, pauci bona libertatis in cassum disserere, plures bellum pavescere, alii cupere. pars multo maxima inminentis dominos variis rumoribus differebant: trucem Agrippam et ignominia accensum non aetate neque rerum experientia tantae moli parem, Tiberium Neronem maturum annis, spectatum bello, sed vetere atque insita Claudiae familiae superbia, multaque indicia saevitiae, quamquam premantur, erumpere. hunc et prima ab infantia eductum in domo regnatrice; congestos iuveni consulatus, triumphos; ne iis quidem annis quibus Rhodi specie secessus exul egerit aliud quam iram et simulationem et secretas libidines meditatum. accedere matrem muliebri inpotentia: serviendum feminae duobusque insuper adulescentibus qui rem publicam interim premant quandoque distrahant. '. None
1.4. \xa0It was thus an altered world, and of the old, unspoilt Roman character not a trace lingered. Equality was an outworn creed, and all eyes looked to the mandate of the sovereign â\x80\x94 with no immediate misgivings, so long as Augustus in the full vigour of his prime upheld himself, his house, and peace. But when the wearing effects of bodily sickness added themselves to advancing years, and the end was coming and new hopes dawning, a\xa0few voices began idly to discuss the blessings of freedom; more were apprehensive of war; others desired it; the great majority merely exchanged gossip derogatory to their future masters:â\x80\x94 "Agrippa, fierce-tempered, and hot from his humiliation, was unfitted by age and experience for so heavy a burden. Tiberius Nero was mature in years and tried in war, but had the old, inbred arrogance of the Claudian family, and hints of cruelty, strive as he would to repress them, kept breaking out. He had been reared from the cradle in a regt house; consulates and triumphs had been heaped on his youthful head: even during the years when he lived at Rhodes in ostensible retirement and actual exile, he had studied nothing save anger, hypocrisy, and secret lasciviousness. Add to the tale his mother with her feminine caprice: they must be slaves, it appeared, to the distaff, and to a pair of striplings as well, who in the interval would oppress the state and in the upshot rend it asunder!" <''. None
33. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestors • ancestry, ancestor

 Found in books: Marek (2019) 476; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 182

34. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestry • patrimony

 Found in books: Keane (2015) 156; Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020) 34

35. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Procopius, on Rome’s patrimony • Tacitus, on Rome’s patrimony • ancestors • ancestry, importance in Roman society

 Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 92; Galinsky (2016) 181; Rutledge (2012) 288

36. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 3.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Critias, ancestry • Sokrates, and ancestry

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 684, 685; Wolfsdorf (2020) 245

3.1. BOOK 3: PLATONPlato was the son of Ariston and a citizen of Athens. His mother was Perictione (or Potone), who traced back her descent to Solon. For Solon had a brother, Dropides; he was the father of Critias, who was the father of Callaeschrus, who was the father of Critias, one of the Thirty, as well as of Glaucon, who was the father of Charmides and Perictione. Thus Plato, the son of this Perictione and Ariston, was in the sixth generation from Solon. And Solon traced his descent to Neleus and Poseidon. His father too is said to be in the direct line from Codrus, the son of Melanthus, and, according to Thrasylus, Codrus and Melanthus also trace their descent from Poseidon.''. None
37. Aeschines, Or., 2.74-2.75
 Tagged with subjects: • Athenian ancestors • ancestors, Athenian, defeating Persians

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 16, 125; Martin (2009) 52

2.74. Such was the situation of the city, such the circumstances under which the debate on the peace took place. But the popular speakers arose and with one consent ignored the question of the safety of the state, but called on you to gaze at the Propylaea of the Acropolis, and remember the battle of , Salamis , and the tombs and trophies of our forefathers.' "2.75. I replied that we must indeed remember all these, but must imitate the wisdom of our forefathers, and beware of their mistakes and their unseasonable jealousies; I urged that we should emulate the battle that we fought at Plataea , the struggles off the shores of Salamis , the battles of Marathon and Artemisium , and the generalship of Tolmides, who with a thousand picked men of the Athenians fearlessly marched straight through the Peloponnesus , the enemy's country."'. None
38. Demosthenes, Orations, 19.16, 23.204-23.206
 Tagged with subjects: • Athenian ancestors • ancestors, Athenian • ancestors, Athenian, defeating Persians • eusebia (piety), of ancestors

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 16, 17, 125; Martin (2009) 52, 228

19.16. using language for which, as Heaven is my witness, he deserves to die many times over. He told you that you ought to forget the achievements of your forefathers; that you should not tolerate all that talk about old trophies and sea-fights; and that he would draft and enact a law forbidding aid to any Greeks who had not previously brought aid to you. This speech the shameless reprobate found courage to make while the ambassadors, whom you summoned from the Greek cities at his own suggestion, before he had sold himself, were standing at his elbow and listening to what he said.
23.204. For this progress along the road of dishonor, men of Athens, if I am to tell the truth in all candor, nobody is more to blame than yourselves. You are no longer willing to bring malefactors to justice: retribution has disappeared from our city. Yet consider how our ancestors castigated those who had done them wrong, and ask whether their way was not better than yours. 23.205. When they caught Themistocles presumptuously setting himself above the people, they banished him from Athens, and found him guilty of siding with the Medes. Because Cimon had dislocated the ancestral constitution by his personal efforts, they acquitted him by a majority of three votes only on the capital charge, and made him pay fifty talents. Such was their attitude to the men who had rendered those signal services. And they were right; they would not sell to those men their own freedom and their pride in their own achievements; Or, if ἔργων is, as some take it, genitive of price, sell their freedom and their pride to those men in return for their achievements. they honored them as long as they did right, but resisted them when they tried to do wrong. 23.206. You, men of Athens, acquit men who have committed the gravest crimes and are clearly proved guilty, if they treat you to one or two pleasantries, or if a few advocates chosen from their own tribe ask you to be so good. If ever you do bring them in guilty, you assess the penalty at five-and-twenty drachmas. In those old times the State was wealthy and splendid, but in private life no man held his head higher than the multitude.''. None
39. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 3.2.5
 Tagged with subjects: • Julius Caesar, C., and Trojan ancestry • mos maiorum (ancestral custom)

 Found in books: Mueller (2002) 101; Rutledge (2012) 7

3.2.5. Nor ought we to separate the memory of M. Marcellus from these examples, who had so great a courage, that he attacked the king of the Gauls, who was surrounded by a great army near the river Po, with only a few horsemen; forthwith he cut off his head, and despoiled him of his arms, which he dedicated to Jupiter .''. None
40. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestors • ancestors, at Nakone

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 288; Lupu(2005) 354, 355

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