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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
amram Allen and Dunne (2022) 89, 92, 93
Bloch (2022) 57, 58, 59, 63
Frey and Levison (2014) 229
Jonquière (2007) 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 101, 107, 113, 197, 230, 231, 238, 246, 267, 268
Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 345
Van der Horst (2014) 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36
amram, father of moses Salvesen et al (2020) 96, 97, 98, 102
amram, father of moses, visions of Salvesen et al (2020) 96, 97, 98, 109, 110, 111
amram, gaon, r. Levine (2005) 572, 591
amram, gaon, seder Kessler (2004) 32
amram, seder of amidah Kessler (2004) 147
amram, tropper Hidary (2017) 5, 42, 43, 134
Klawans (2019) 5, 72, 73, 75

List of validated texts:
7 validated results for "amram"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.22, 2.1-2.2, 6.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amram

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 92; Bloch (2022) 57, 58, 59; Jonquière (2007) 81; Van der Horst (2014) 30

1.22. וַיְצַו פַּרְעֹה לְכָל־עַמּוֹ לֵאמֹר כָּל־הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד הַיְאֹרָה תַּשְׁלִיכֻהוּ וְכָל־הַבַּת תְּחַיּוּן׃
2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃
2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃' 2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ '. None
1.22. And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying: ‘Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.’
2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi. 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months.
6.20. And Amram took him Jochebed his father’s sister to wife; and she bore him Aaron and Moses. And the years of the life of Amram were a hundred and thirty and seven years.''. None
2. Anon., Jubilees, 47.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amram • Amram, father of Moses

 Found in books: Salvesen et al (2020) 102; Van der Horst (2014) 30

47.9. And she said (unto her): "Go." And she went and called thy mother Jochebed, and she gave her wages, and she nursed thee.''. None
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.7 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amram

 Found in books: Bloch (2022) 63; Van der Horst (2014) 34

1.7. And his father and mother were among the most excellent persons of their time, and though they were of the same time, still they were induced to unite themselves together more from an uimity of feeling than because they were related in blood; and Moses is the seventh generation in succession from the original settler in the country who was the founder of the whole race of the Jews.''. None
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.210-2.217 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amram

 Found in books: Jonquière (2007) 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 230, 231, 246, 267, 268; Van der Horst (2014) 33, 34

2.211. πρὸς ἱκετείαν τοῦ θεοῦ τρέπεται παρακαλῶν οἶκτον ἤδη τινὰ λαβεῖν αὐτὸν ἀνθρώπων μηδὲν τῆς εἰς αὐτὸν θρησκείας παραβεβηκότων δοῦναί τ' ἀπαλλαγὴν αὐτοῖς ὧν παρ' ἐκεῖνον ἐκακοπάθουν τὸν καιρὸν καὶ τῆς ἐπ' ἀπωλείᾳ τοῦ γένους αὐτῶν ἐλπίδος." '2.212. ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἐλεήσας αὐτὸν καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἱκεσίαν ἐπικλασθεὶς ἐφίσταται κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους αὐτῷ καὶ μήτε ἀπογινώσκειν αὐτὸν περὶ τῶν μελλόντων παρεκάλει τήν τε εὐσέβειαν αὐτῶν ἔλεγε διὰ μνήμης ἔχειν καὶ τὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἀμοιβὴν ἀεὶ παρέξειν, ἤδη μὲν καὶ τοῖς προγόνοις αὐτῶν δωρησάμενος τὸ γενέσθαι τοσοῦτον πλῆθος αὐτοὺς ἐξ ὀλίγων.' "2.213. καὶ ̔́Αβραμον μὲν μόνον ἐκ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν παραγενόμενον εὐδαιμονῆσαι τά τε ἄλλα καὶ τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτῷ πρὸς γονὴν ἀκάρπως ἐχούσης πρότερον ἔπειτα κατὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ βούλησιν ἀγαθῆς πρὸς τοῦτο γενομένης τεκνῶσαι παῖδας καὶ καταλιπεῖν μὲν ̓Ισμαήλῳ καὶ τοῖς ἐξ αὐτοῦ τὴν ̓Αράβων χώραν, τοῖς δ' ἐκ Κατούρας τὴν Τρωγλοδῦτιν, ̓Ισάκῳ δὲ τὴν Χαναναίαν." "2.214. “ὅσα τε πολεμῶν κατὰ τὴν ἐμήν, φησί, συμμαχίαν ἠνδραγάθησε κἂν ἀσεβεῖς εἶναι δόξητε καὶ μὴ διὰ μνήμης ἔχοντες. ̓Ιάκωβον δὲ καὶ τοῖς οὐχ ὁμοφύλοις γνώριμον εἶναι συμβέβηκεν ἐπί τε μεγέθει τῆς εὐδαιμονίας μεθ' ἧς ἐβίωσε καὶ παισὶ τοῖς αὐτοῦ κατέλιπεν, οὗ μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα τῶν πάντων εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀφικομένου ὑπὲρ ἑξήκοντά που μυριάδας ἤδη γεγόνατε." "2.215. νῦν δ' ἐμὲ τοῦ κοινῇ συμφέροντος ὑμῶν ἴστε προνοούμενον καὶ τῆς σῆς εὐκλείας: ὁ παῖς γὰρ οὗτος, οὗ τὴν γένεσιν Αἰγύπτιοι δεδιότες κατέκριναν ἀπολλύναι τὰ ἐξ ̓Ισραηλιτῶν τικτόμενα, σὸς ἔσται καὶ λήσεται μὲν τοὺς ἐπ' ὀλέθρῳ παραφυλάσσοντας," "2.216. τραφεὶς δὲ παραδόξως τὸ μὲν ̔Εβραίων γένος τῆς παρ' Αἰγυπτίοις ἀνάγκης ἀπολύσει, μνήμης δὲ ἐφ' ὅσον μενεῖ χρόνον τὰ σύμπαντα τεύξεται παρ' ἀνθρώποις οὐχ ̔Εβραίοις μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἀλλοφύλοις, ἐμοῦ τοῦτο χαριζομένου σοί τε καὶ τοῖς ἐκ σοῦ γενησομένοις. ἔσται δ' αὐτῷ καὶ ὁ ἀδελφὸς τοιοῦτος, ὥστε τὴν ἐμὴν ἕξειν ἱερωσύνην αὐτόν τε καὶ τοὺς ἐγγόνους αὐτοῦ διὰ παντὸς τοῦ χρόνου.”" "2.217. Ταῦτα τῆς ὄψεως αὐτῷ δηλωσάσης περιεγερθεὶς ὁ ̓Αμαράμης ἐδήλου τῇ ̓Ιωχαβέλῃ, γυνὴ δ' ἦν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὸ δέος ἔτι μεῖζον διὰ τὴν τοῦ ὀνείρου πρόρρησιν αὐτοῖς συνίστατο: οὐ γὰρ ὡς περὶ παιδὸς μόνον εὐλαβεῖς ἦσαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἐπὶ μεγέθει τοσαύτης εὐδαιμονίας ἐσομένου." ". None
2.211. Hereupon he betook himself to prayer to God; and entreated him to have compassion on those men who had nowise transgressed the laws of his worship, and to afford them deliverance from the miseries they at that time endured, and to render abortive their enemies’ hopes of the destruction of their nation. 2.212. Accordingly God had mercy on him, and was moved by his supplication. He stood by him in his sleep, and exhorted him not to despair of his future favors. He said further, that he did not forget their piety towards him, and would always reward them for it, as he had formerly granted his favor to their forefathers, and made them increase from a few to so great a multitude. 2.213. He put him in mind, that when Abraham was come alone out of Mesopotamia into Canaan, he had been made happy, not only in other respects, but that when his wife was at first barren, she was afterwards by him enabled to conceive seed, and bare him sons. That he left to Ismael and to his posterity the country of Arabia; as also to his sons by Ketura, Troglodytis; and to Isaac, Canaan. 2.214. That by my assistance, said he, he did great exploits in war, which, unless you be yourselves impious, you must still remember. As for Jacob, he became well known to strangers also, by the greatness of that prosperity in which he lived, and left to his sons, who came into Egypt with no more than seventy souls, while you are now become above six hundred thousand. 2.215. Know therefore that I shall provide for you all in common what is for your good, and particularly for thyself what shall make thee famous; for that child, out of dread of whose nativity the Egyptians have doomed the Israelite children to destruction, shall be this child of thine, and shall be concealed from those who watch to destroy him: 2.216. and when he is brought up in a surprising way, he shall deliver the Hebrew nation from the distress they are under from the Egyptians. His memory shall be famous while the world lasts; and this not only among the Hebrews, but foreigners also:—all which shall be the effect of my favor to thee, and to thy posterity. He shall also have such a brother, that he shall himself obtain my priesthood, and his posterity shall have it after him to the end of the world. 2.217. 4. When the vision had informed him of these things, Amram awaked and told it to Jochebed who was his wife. And now the fear increased upon them on account of the prediction in Amram’s dream; for they were under concern, not only for the child, but on account of the great happiness that was to come to him also.' '. None
5. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amram

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022) 89, 92; Bloch (2022) 58; Jonquière (2007) 81

6. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amram

 Found in books: Bloch (2022) 58; Van der Horst (2014) 34, 36

12a. דיקא נמי דכתיב (יהושע יד, ו) הקניזי ש"מ,עזובה זו מרים ולמה נקרא שמה עזובה שהכל עזבוה מתחילתה הוליד והלא מינסב הוה נסיב לה א"ר יוחנן כל הנושא אשה לשם שמים מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו ילדה,יריעות שהיו פניה דומין ליריעות,ואלה בניה אל תקרי בניה אלא בוניה ישר שישר את עצמו שובב ששיבב את יצרו וארדון שרדה את יצרו ואיכא דאמרי על שהיו פניה דומין לורד,(דברי הימים א ד, ה) ולאשחור אבי תקוע היו שתי נשים חלאה ונערה אשחור זה כלב ולמה נקרא שמו אשחור שהושחרו פניו בתעניות אבי שנעשה לה כאב תקוע שתקע את לבו לאביו שבשמים,היו שתי נשים נעשה מרים כשתי נשים חלאה ונערה לא חלאה ונערה הואי אלא בתחילה חלאה ולבסוף נערה,(דברי הימים א ד, ז) ובני חלאה צרת וצהר ואתנן צרת שנעשית צרה לחברותיה צהר שהיו פניה דומין כצהרים אתנן שכל הרואה אותה מוליך אתנן לאשתו,(שמות א, כב) ויצו פרעה לכל עמו א"ר יוסי בר\' חנינא אף על עמו גזר ואמר ר"י בר\' חנינא שלש גזירות גזר בתחילה אם בן הוא והמתן אותו ולבסוף כל הבן הילוד היאורה תשליכוהו ולבסוף אף על עמו גזר,(שמות ב, א) וילך איש מבית לוי להיכן הלך אמר רב יהודה בר זבינא שהלך בעצת בתו,תנא עמרם גדול הדור היה כיון (שראה שאמר) פרעה הרשע כל הבן הילוד היאורה תשליכוהו אמר לשוא אנו עמלין עמד וגירש את אשתו עמדו כולן וגירשו את נשותיהן,אמרה לו בתו אבא קשה גזירתך יותר משל פרעה שפרעה לא גזר אלא על הזכרים ואתה גזרת על הזכרים ועל הנקיבות פרעה לא גזר אלא בעוה"ז ואתה בעוה"ז ולעוה"ב,פרעה הרשע ספק מתקיימת גזירתו ספק אינה מתקיימת אתה צדיק בודאי שגזירתך מתקיימת שנאמר (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך עמד והחזיר את אשתו עמדו כולן והחזירו את נשותיהן,ויקח ויחזור מיבעי ליה א"ר יהודה בר זבינא שעשה לו מעשה ליקוחין הושיבה באפריון ואהרן ומרים מרקדין לפניה ומלאכי השרת אמרו (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,את בת לוי אפשר בת מאה ושלשים שנה הויא וקרי לה בת דא"ר חמא בר\' חנינא זו יוכבד שהורתה בדרך ולידתה בין החומות שנאמר (במדבר כו, נט) אשר ילדה אותה ללוי במצרים,לידתה במצרים ואין הורתה במצרים א"ר יהודה שנולדו בה סימני נערות,(שמות ב, ב) ותהר האשה ותלד בן והא הות מיעברא ביה תלתא ירחי מעיקרא א"ר יהודה בר זבינא מקיש לידתה להורתה מה הורתה שלא בצער אף לידתה שלא בצער מכאן לנשים צדקניות שלא היו בפיתקה של חוה,(שמות ב, ב) ותרא אותו כי טוב הוא תניא ר"מ אומר טוב שמו ר\' יהודה אומר טוביה שמו רבי נחמיה אומר הגון לנביאות אחרים אומרים נולד כשהוא מהול וחכמים אומרים בשעה שנולד משה נתמלא הבית כולו אור כתיב הכא ותרא אותו כי טוב הוא וכתיב התם (בראשית א, ד) וירא אלהים את האור כי טוב,(שמות ב, ב) ותצפנהו שלשה ירחים דלא מנו מצרים אלא משעה דאהדרה והיא הות מיעברא ביה תלתא ירחי מעיקרא,(שמות ב, ג) ולא יכלה עוד הצפינו אמאי תצפניה ותיזיל אלא כל היכא דהוו שמעי מצראי דמתיליד ינוקא ממטו ינוקא התם כי היכי דלישמעינהו ומעוי (בהדיהו) דכתיב (שיר השירים ב, טו) אחזו לנו שועלים שועלים קטנים וגו\',(שמות ב, ג) ותקח לו תבת גמא מאי שנא גומא א"ר אלעזר מיכן לצדיקים שממונם חביב עליהן יותר מגופן וכל כך למה לפי שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר דבר רך שיכול לעמוד בפני דבר רך ובפני דבר קשה,ותחמרה בחמר ובזפת תנא חמר מבפנים וזפת מבחוץ כדי שלא יריח אותו צדיק ריח רע,ותשם בה את הילד ותשם בסוף רבי אלעזר אומר ים סוף רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר''. None
12a. The Gemara comments: The language of another verse is also precise based on this explanation, as it is written: “And Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said unto him” (Joshua 14:6). Although his father was Jephunneh, he is known as “the Kenizzite,” although he was not actually a son of Kenaz. The Gemara accepts this proof and states: Conclude from it that Rava’s explanation is correct.,The verse states: “And Caleb, the son of Hezron, begot children of Azubah his wife, and of Jerioth, and these were her sons: Jesher, and Shobab, and Ardon” (I\xa0Chronicles 2:18). The Gemara analyzes the verse: The verse refers to the wife of Caleb by the name Azubah. The Sages teach that this is Miriam. And why is she called Azubah? As everyone initially abandoned her azavuha and did not want to marry her because she was sickly and unattractive. The verse additionally states: “And Caleb, the son of Hezron, begot children holid of Azubah his wife” (I\xa0Chronicles 2:18). The Gemara asks: Why use the term “holid,” begot children? But doesn’t this verse state that he married her? Rabbi Yoḥa says: This teaches us that with regard to anyone who marries a woman for the sake of Heaven, as he married her due to her righteousness without concern for her appearance, the verse ascribes him credit as if he gave birth to her.,The same verse refers to Miriam additionally as Jerioth, which the Gemara explains was appropriate, for her face was like extremely pallid curtains yeriot.,The verse continues: “And these were her sons vaneha.” The Gemara explains: Do not read it as vaneha, her sons; rather, read it as boneha, her builders. In other words, the rest of the names in the verse are not the names of her children, but rather appellations for her husband, whose marriage to her built her, as it were. The first appellation for Caleb, “Jesher,” is referring to his actions, as he set himself straight yisher and did not join in the counsel of the spies. The second appellation, “Shobab,” is referring to the fact that he broke sibbev his evil inclination by rebelling against the other spies. The third appellation, “and Ardon veArdon,” is referring to the fact that he ruled rada over his evil inclination. And some say: Because the face of his wife Miriam became beautiful like a rose vered after they were married, she was also called Vardon, due to her rose-like complexion.,The Gemara interprets an additional verse as referring to Caleb. It is stated: “And Ashhur the father of Tekoa had two wives, Helah and Naarah” (I\xa0Chronicles 4:5). Ashhur is Caleb. And why was he called Ashhur? Because his face became blackened husheḥaru from the extensive fasts that he accepted upon himself so that he would not be entrapped by the counsel of the spies. “The father of” is also referring to Caleb, as he became like a father to his wife. The next word in the verse, “Tekoa,” is an additional reference to Caleb, as he attached taka his heart to his Father in Heaven.,The phrase in the verse “had two wives” actually means it is as if Miriam became like two wives, because she changed over the course of time. And therefore the two names written in the verse: “Helah and Naarah,” were not two separate women, Helah and Naarah. Rather, initially Miriam was sickly ḥela and forlorn, and ultimately she was healthy and beautiful like a young woman na’ara.,The Gemara expounds the following verse as referring to Miriam: “And the children of Helah were Zereth Tzeret and Zohar and Eth” (I\xa0Chronicles 4:7). She was now called Tzeret,” for she became so beautiful that she was like a rival tzara to other women, as they were jealous of her beauty. She is called “Zohar,” as her face shined like the sun does at noon tzohorayim. She is called “Eth,” as any man that saw her would be aroused so much that he would bring a gift et to his wife to entice her.,§ The Gemara returns to the discussion of the bondage in Egypt. “And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying: Every son that is born you shall cast into the river, and every daughter you shall save alive” (Exodus 1:22). Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The use of the phrase “every son that is born” indicates that he decreed even on his own nation that all their male babies must be killed. And Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says further: He decreed three decrees. Initially, he commanded the midwives only with regard to Jewish infants: “You shall look upon the stones. If it be a son, then you shall kill him; but if it be a daughter, then she shall live” (Exodus 1:16). And afterward, he decreed with regard to the Jewish infants: “Every son that is born you shall cast into the river” (Exodus 1:22). And ultimately, he decreed even on his own nation that Egyptian infant boys should be cast into the river as well.,The verse states: “And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took for a wife a daughter of Levi” (Exodus 2:1). The Gemara asks: To where did he go? Rav Yehuda bar Zevina says: He went according to the advice of his daughter Miriam, as the Gemara will proceed to explain.,A Sage teaches: Amram, the father of Moses, was the great man of his generation. Once he saw that the wicked Pharaoh said: “Every son that is born you shall cast into the river, and every daughter you shall save alive” (Exodus 1:22), he said: We are laboring for nothing by bringing children into the world to be killed. Therefore, he arose and divorced his wife. All others who saw this followed his example and arose and divorced their wives.,His daughter, Miriam, said to him: Father, your decree is more harsh for the Jewish people than that of Pharaoh, as Pharaoh decreed only with regard to the males, but you decreed both on the males and on the females. And now no children will be born. Additionally, Pharaoh decreed to kill them only in this world, but you decreed in this world and in the World-to-Come, as those not born will not enter the World-to-Come.,Miriam continued: Additionally, concerning Pharaoh the wicked, it is uncertain whether his decree will be fulfilled, and it is uncertain if his decree will not be fulfilled. You are a righteous person, and as such, your decrees will certainly be fulfilled, as it is stated with regard to the righteous: “You shall also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto you” (Job 22:28). Amram accepted his daughter’s words and arose and brought back, i.e., remarried, his wife, and all others who saw this followed his example and arose and brought back their wives.,The Gemara asks: If Amram remarried Jochebed, rather than say: “And took for a wife a daughter of Levi” (Exodus 2:1), it should have stated: “And returned for a wife the daughter of Levi.” Rav Yehuda bar Zevina says: He performed an act of marriage just as one would do for a first marriage. He sat her on a palanquin appiryon, and Aaron and Miriam danced before her, and the ministering angels said: “A joyful mother of children” (Psalms 113:9).,The verse is referring to Jochebed as “a daughter of Levi” (Exodus 2:1). The Gemara asks: Is it possible that this is Jochebed? Jochebed was then 130 years old and the verse still calls her a daughter? Jochebed’s age is established based on a tradition concerning the number of the descendants of Jacob who came to Egypt, as follows: While the verse states that Leah had thirty-three descendants (Genesis 46:15), only thirty-two were enumerated. This was explained as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The “daughter of Levi” is Jochebed, whose conception was on the road, as the family of Jacob descended to Egypt, and she was born between the walls, i.e., in Egypt, as it is stated: “And the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt” (Numbers 26:59).,This interpolation concerning her birth is interpreted: Her birth was in Egypt, but her conception was not in Egypt. Since the Jewish people were in Egypt for two hundred ten years and Moses was eighty years old at the time of the exodus, Jochebed was one hundred thirty years old when Moses was born. In light of this, the Gemara is asking how the verse can refer to her as a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says: The signs of a young woman were born in her when her husband remarried her, and she became like a young girl again.,§ The verse states concerning Moses: “And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months” (Exodus 2:2). The Gemara asks: But Jochebed was pregt with Moses for three months at the outset, before Amram remarried her, as will be explained further. Rav Yehuda bar Zevina said: The intention of the verse is to juxtapose her giving birth to her becoming pregt. Just as her becoming pregt was without pain, so too, her giving birth was without pain. From here it is derived concerning righteous women that they were not included in the verdict pitkah of Eve that a woman will suffer pain during childbirth (see Genesis 3:16).,The verse states with regard to the birth of Moses: “And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly tov child, she hid him three months” (Exodus 2:2). It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir says: “Tov” is his, Moses’, real name, as it was given to him by his parents when he was born. Rabbi Yehuda says: His name was Toviya. Rabbi Neḥemya says: They said he was good because they saw that he was fit for prophecy. Others say: They said he was good because he was born when he was already circumcised. And the Rabbis say: At the time when Moses was born, the entire house was filled with light, as it is written here: “And when she saw him that he was a goodly tov child,” and it is written there: “And God saw the light, that it was good tov (Genesis 1:4).,The verse continues: “And she hid him three months” (Exodus 2:2). The Gemara explains that she was able to hide him for three months because the Egyptians counted the nine months of her pregcy only from the time her husband took her back, but she was pregt with Moses for three months from the outset of her remarriage.,The next verse states: “And when she could no longer hide him” (Exodus 2:3). The Gemara asks: Why couldn’t she hide him any longer? Let her continue to hide him. Rather, anywhere that the Egyptians heard that a baby was born and they wanted to locate the baby, they would bring another baby there in order that it could be heard crying, and the two babies would cry together, as it is written: “Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vineyards; for our vineyards are in blossom” (Song of Songs 2:15). The infants who were used to uncover the hidden babies are referred to as little foxes.,The verse states: “And when she could no longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with bitumen and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the willows by the river’s bank” (Exodus 2:3). The Gemara asks: What is different about bulrushes that she decided to use them? Rabbi Elazar says: From here it is derived concerning righteous people that their money is more precious to them than their bodies, as she took an inexpensive material to build the ark. And why do they care so much about their money? Because they do not stretch out their hands to partake of stolen property. Therefore, their own property is very precious to them.,Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says an alternative reason for her taking bulrushes for the ark: She took a soft material like bulrush, which is able to withstand an impact both before a soft item and before a hard item. She feared that if she would have made the box from a hard material like wood, if it were to collide with a hard item in the water it might break.,The verse continues: “And daubed it with bitumen and with pitch” (Exodus 2:3). A Sage teaches: She daubed bitumen on the interior and pitch on the exterior, so that righteous person, i.e., Moses, would not smell a foul odor, such as that of pitch.,The verse continues: “And she put the child therein, and laid it in the willows bassuf (Exodus 2:3). Rabbi Elazar says: This means she placed him in the Suf Sea, i.e., the Red Sea. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:''. None
7. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 1.13 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amram

 Found in books: Bloch (2022) 58; Van der Horst (2014) 34

1.13. כְּשֶׁרָאָה שֶׁהֵם פָּרִים וְרָבִים, גָּזַר עַל הַזְּכָרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות א, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם לַמְיַלְּדֹת וגו'. מִי הָיוּ הַמְיַלְּדוֹת, רַב אָמַר כַּלָּה וַחֲמוֹתָהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וֶאֱלִישֶׁבַע בַּת עֲמִינָדָב. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר, אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וּמִרְיָם. וְלֹא הָיוּ לְמִרְיָם אֶלָּא חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים, שֶׁאַהֲרֹן גָּדוֹל מִמּשֶׁה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה הוֹלֶכֶת הָיְתָה עִם יוֹכֶבֶד אִמָּהּ וְעוֹשָׂה צְרָכֶיהָ, וְהָיְתָה זְרִיזָה, שֶׁעַד שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק קָטָן הוּא נִכָּר. הוּא שֶׁאָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה (משלי כ, יא): גַּם בְּמַעֲלָלָיו יִתְנַכֶּר נָעַר וגו'. אֲשֶׁר שֵׁם הָאַחַת שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת אֶת הַתִּינוֹק, כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מָלֵא דָּם, פּוּעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נוֹפַעַת יַיִן בַּתִּינוֹק אַחַר אִמָּהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁפָּרוּ וְרָבוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עָלֶיהָ. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַפִּיעָה אֶת הַתִּינוֹק כְּשֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מֵת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁשִּׁפְּרָה מַעֲשֶׂיהָ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פַּרְעֹה, וְזָקְפָה חָטְמָהּ בּוֹ, וְאָמְרָה לוֹ, אוֹי לוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא הָאֱלֹהִים לִפָּרַע מִמֶּנּוּ. נִתְמַלֵּא עָלֶיהָ חֵמָה לְהָרְגָהּ. שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת עַל דִּבְרֵי בִתָּהּ וּמְפַיֶּסֶת עָלֶיהָ. אָמְרָה לוֹ, אַתָּה מַשְׁגִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ, תִּינֹקֶת הִיא וְאֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת כְּלוּם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר רַב יִצְחָק אָמַר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים, שֶׁבִּשְׁבִילָם נִבְרְאוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶם (איוב כו, יג): בְּרוּחוֹ שָׁמַיִם שִׁפְרָה. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ, שֶׁהָיָה עַמְרָם רֹאשׁ סַנְהֶדְּרִין בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּזַר פַּרְעֹה וְאָמַר (שמות א, כב): כָּל הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד, אָמַר עַמְרָם וְלָרִיק יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹלִידִים, מִיָּד הוֹצִיא אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד וּפֵרַשׁ עַצְמוֹ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה, וְגֵרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ כְּשֶׁהִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת מִשְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֵרְשׁוּ אֶת נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן. אָמְרָה לוֹ בִּתּוֹ גְּזֵרָתְךָ קָשָׁה מִשֶּׁל פַּרְעֹה, שֶׁפַּרְעֹה לֹא גָזַר אֶלָּא עַל הַזְּכָרִים, וְאַתָּה עַל הַזְּכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת. פַּרְעֹה רָשָׁע הוּא וּגְזֵרָתוֹ סָפֵק מִתְקַיֶּמֶת סָפֵק אֵינָהּ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת, אֲבָל אַתָּה צַדִּיק וּגְזֵרָתְךָ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. עָמַד הוּא וְהֶחֱזִיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֶחֱזִירוּ נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם. הֱוֵי פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ."". None
1.13. "And the king of Egypt said to the midwives, etc. Who are the midwives. Rav says a woman and her daughter in law - Yocheved and Elisheva bat Aminadav. And Rabi Shmuel bar Nachman says a woman and her daughter Yocheved and Miriam. That one of their names was Shifra - she beautified the baby when it would come out full of blood. Puah - that she squirted wine into the babies mouth after it came out of its mother. Another thing, Shifra: that B\\"Y were fruitful and multiplied under her. Puah: that she would cause the newborn to cry out when it was thought to be stillborn. Another thing, Shifra that she beautified her actions before Hashem Another thing, Puah - that she appeared to B\\"Y for Hashem - she taught B\\"Y. Puah - she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) toward Pharaoh and looked down her nose at him. She told him: “Woe to you on the day of judgment, when God will come to demand punishment of you.” Pharaoh immediately became enraged and wanted to kill her. Shifra, that she beautified her daughters words to Paraoh and mollified him and said to him: “Do you take notice of her? She is a baby, and knows nothing” (Ex. Rabbah, loc. cit.). Rav Chanina the son of Rav Yitzchak said: Shifra: that she supported Yisrael for Hashem that for them the world was created that it says, By His breath He made the heavens. In another midrashic account, she was called Puah because of her insolence which, in this depiction, was directed against her father Amram. When Pharaoh ordered the Israelite boys to be cast into the Nile, Amram said: “Shall an Israelite lie with his wife for nothing?” He immediately separated from Jochebed and divorced her. When the Israelites saw this action by Amram, who was the head of the Sanhedrin at the time, they also divorced their wives. Puah told her father: “Father, your decree is harsher than that of Pharaoh! He only decreed against the males, but you have decreed against both the males and the females. It is doubtful whether the decree of the wicked Pharaoh will come to pass, but you are righteous, and so your decree will be fulfilled.” Amram immediately took back his wife, and following his lead, all the other Israelite men did the same. Miriam was accordingly given the name of Puah, since she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) to her father.", ''. None

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