|1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 14.28-14.29, 18.4, 24.19-24.21, 26.3, 26.6, 26.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Agricultural matters • Agriculture, Division of • Agriculture, Firstfruits • agriculture
Found in books: Brooks (1983) 17; Gardner (2015) 31; Neusner (2001) 66, 68; Porton (1988) 176, 177, 184, 193, 198, 199
14.28. מִקְצֵה שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים תּוֹצִיא אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִוא וְהִנַּחְתָּ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 14.29. וּבָא הַלֵּוִי כִּי אֵין־לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְאָכְלוּ וְשָׂבֵעוּ לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה׃
18.4. רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וְרֵאשִׁית גֵּז צֹאנְךָ תִּתֶּן־לּוֹ׃
24.19. כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃' '24.21. כִּי תִבְצֹר כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃
26.3. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃
26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃
26.12. כִּי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁת שְׁנַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְנָתַתָּה לַלֵּוִי לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה וְאָכְלוּ בִשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂבֵעוּ׃''. None
|14.28. At the end of every three years, even in the same year, thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine increase, and shall lay it up within thy gates. 14.29. And the Levite, because he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hand which thou doest. |
18.4. The first-fruits of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him.
24.19. When thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go back to fetch it; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hands. 24.20. When thou beatest thine olive-tree, thou shalt not go over the boughs again; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow. 24.21. When thou gatherest the grapes of thy vineyard, thou shalt not glean it after thee; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.
26.3. And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’
26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage.
26.12. When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithe of thine increase in the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, to the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be satisfied,''. None
|2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.9-19.10, 23.22, 27.30-27.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Agricultural matters • Agriculture, Division of • agriculture
Found in books: Brooks (1983) 17, 177; Gardner (2015) 31; Porton (1988) 176, 177, 178, 184, 198
19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃' '
23.22. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא־תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ בְּקֻצְרֶךָ וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 27.31. וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאַל אִישׁ מִמַּעַשְׂרוֹ חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו׃''. None
|19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest. 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God. |
23.22. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest; thou shalt leave them for the poor, and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God.
27.30. And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD’S; it is holy unto the LORD. 27.31. And if a man will redeem aught of his tithe, he shall add unto it the fifth part thereof.''. None
|3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.8-18.13, 18.21-18.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Agricultural matters • Agriculture, Division of
Found in books: Brooks (1983) 177; Porton (1988) 176, 178, 193
18.8. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃ 18.9. זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃' '18.11. וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃ 18.12. כֹּל חֵלֶב יִצְהָר וְכָל־חֵלֶב תִּירוֹשׁ וְדָגָן רֵאשִׁיתָם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ נְתַתִּים׃ 18.13. בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃
18.21. וְלִבְנֵי לֵוִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְנַחֲלָה חֵלֶף עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם עֹבְדִים אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 18.24. כִּי אֶת־מַעְשַׂר בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה נָתַתִּי לַלְוִיִּם לְנַחֲלָה עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃''. None
|18.8. And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever. 18.9. This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons. 18.10. In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee. 18.11. And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 18.12. All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the corn, the first part of them which they give unto the LORD, to thee have I given them. 18.13. The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. |
18.21. And unto the children of Levi, behold, I have given all the tithe in Israel for an inheritance, in return for their service which they serve, even the service of the tent of meeting. 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die. 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance. 18.24. For the tithe of the children of Israel, which they set apart as a gift unto the LORD, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance; therefore I have said unto them: Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.’''. None
|4. Hesiod, Works And Days, 11-20, 26, 299-301, 346-351, 383-387, 465-469, 559-563, 574-581, 612-614, 619-625, 639-640, 724-726, 730, 733-734, 738-741, 757-759 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aeneid (Vergil), agriculture, economic rules of • Lucretius, agriculture in • agricultural calendar • agricultural cycle and festival cycle • agriculture • agriculture, as a metapoetic metaphor in Hesiod • imagery, agricultural • labour, agricultural • war, and agriculture
Found in books: Esler (2000) 7; Gale (2000) 63, 157, 249, 252; Galinsky (2016) 310; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 51; Ker and Wessels (2020) 25, 26, 27, 30; Kirichenko (2022) 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90; Parker (2005) 197
11. οὐκ ἄρα μοῦνον ἔην Ἐρίδων γένος, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ γαῖαν'12. εἰσὶ δύω· τὴν μέν κεν ἐπαινέσσειε νοήσας, 13. ἣ δʼ ἐπιμωμητή· διὰ δʼ ἄνδιχα θυμὸν ἔχουσιν. 14. ἣ μὲν γὰρ πόλεμόν τε κακὸν καὶ δῆριν ὀφέλλει, 15. σχετλίη· οὔτις τήν γε φιλεῖ βροτός, ἀλλʼ ὑπʼ ἀνάγκης 16. ἀθανάτων βουλῇσιν Ἔριν τιμῶσι βαρεῖαν. 17. τὴν δʼ ἑτέρην προτέρην μὲν ἐγείνατο Νὺξ ἐρεβεννή, 18. θῆκε δέ μιν Κρονίδης ὑψίζυγος, αἰθέρι ναίων, 19. γαίης ἐν ῥίζῃσι, καὶ ἀνδράσι πολλὸν ἀμείνω· 20. ἥτε καὶ ἀπάλαμόν περ ὁμῶς ἐπὶ ἔργον ἔγειρεν.
26. καὶ πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει καὶ ἀοιδὸς ἀοιδῷ.
299. ἐργάζευ, Πέρση, δῖον γένος, ὄφρα σε λιμὸς 300. ἐχθαίρῃ, φιλέῃ δέ σʼ ἐυστέφανος Δημήτηρ 301. αἰδοίη, βιότου δὲ τεὴν πιμπλῇσι καλιήν·
346. πῆμα κακὸς γείτων, ὅσσον τʼ ἀγαθὸς μέγʼ ὄνειαρ. 347. ἔμμορέ τοι τιμῆς, ὅς τʼ ἔμμορε γείτονος ἐσθλοῦ. 348. οὐδʼ ἂν βοῦς ἀπόλοιτʼ, εἰ μὴ γείτων κακὸς εἴη. 349. εὖ μὲν μετρεῖσθαι παρὰ γείτονος, εὖ δʼ ἀποδοῦναι, 350. αὐτῷ τῷ μέτρῳ, καὶ λώιον, αἴ κε δύνηαι, 351. ὡς ἂν χρηίζων καὶ ἐς ὕστερον ἄρκιον εὕρῃς.
383. πληιάδων Ἀτλαγενέων ἐπιτελλομενάων 384. ἄρχεσθʼ ἀμήτου, ἀρότοιο δὲ δυσομενάων. 385. αἳ δή τοι νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα τεσσαράκοντα 386. κεκρύφαται, αὖτις δὲ περιπλομένου ἐνιαυτοῦ 387. φαίνονται τὰ πρῶτα χαρασσομένοιο σιδήρου.
465. εὔχεσθαι δὲ Διὶ χθονίῳ Δημήτερί θʼ ἁγνῇ, 466. ἐκτελέα βρίθειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτήν, 467. ἀρχόμενος τὰ πρῶτʼ ἀρότου, ὅτʼ ἂν ἄκρον ἐχέτλης 468. χειρὶ λαβὼν ὅρπηκα βοῶν ἐπὶ νῶτον ἵκηαι 469. ἔνδρυον ἑλκόντων μεσάβων. ὁ δὲ τυτθὸς ὄπισθε
559. τῆμος τὤμισυ βουσίν, ἐπʼ ἀνέρι δὲ πλέον εἴη 560. ἁρμαλιῆς· μακραὶ γὰρ ἐπίρροθοι εὐφρόναι εἰσίν. 561. ταῦτα φυλασσόμενος τετελεσμένον εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν 562. ἰσοῦσθαι νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα, εἰσόκεν αὖτις 563. γῆ πάντων μήτηρ καρπὸν σύμμικτον ἐνείκῃ.
574. φεύγειν δὲ σκιεροὺς θώκους καὶ ἐπʼ ἠόα κοῖτον 575. ὥρῃ ἐν ἀμήτου, ὅτε τʼ ἠέλιος χρόα κάρφει. 576. τημοῦτος σπεύδειν καὶ οἴκαδε καρπὸν ἀγινεῖν 577. ὄρθρου ἀνιστάμενος, ἵνα τοι βίος ἄρκιος εἴη. 578. ἠὼς γὰρ ἔργοιο τρίτην ἀπομείρεται αἶσαν, 579. ἠώς τοι προφέρει μὲν ὁδοῦ, προφέρει δὲ καὶ ἔργου, 580. ἠώς, ἥτε φανεῖσα πολέας ἐπέβησε κελεύθου 581. ἀνθρώπους πολλοῖσί τʼ ἐπὶ ζυγὰ βουσὶ τίθησιν.
612. δεῖξαι δʼ ἠελίῳ δέκα τʼ ἤματα καὶ δέκα νύκτας, 613. πέντε δὲ συσκιάσαι, ἕκτῳ δʼ εἰς ἄγγεʼ ἀφύσσαι 614. δῶρα Διωνύσου πολυγηθέος. αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δὴ
619. εὖτʼ ἂν Πληιάδες σθένος ὄβριμον Ὠαρίωνος 620. φεύγουσαι πίπτωσιν ἐς ἠεροειδέα πόντον, 621. δὴ τότε παντοίων ἀνέμων θυίουσιν ἀῆται· 622. καὶ τότε μηκέτι νῆας ἔχειν ἐνὶ οἴνοπι πόντῳ, 623. γῆν ἐργάζεσθαι μεμνημένος, ὥς σε κελεύω. 624. νῆα δʼ ἐπʼ ἠπείρου ἐρύσαι πυκάσαι τε λίθοισι 625. πάντοθεν, ὄφρʼ ἴσχωσʼ ἀνέμων μένος ὑγρὸν ἀέντων,
639. νάσσατο δʼ ἄγχʼ Ἑλικῶνος ὀιζυρῇ ἐνὶ κώμῃ, 640. Ἄσκρῃ, χεῖμα κακῇ, θέρει ἀργαλέῃ, οὐδέ ποτʼ ἐσθλῇ.
724. μηδέ ποτʼ ἐξ ἠοῦς Διὶ λειβέμεν αἴθοπα οἶνον 725. χερσὶν ἀνίπτοισιν μηδʼ ἄλλοις ἀθανάτοισιν· 7
26. οὐ γὰρ τοί γε κλύουσιν, ἀποπτύουσι δέ τʼ ἀράς.
730. μηδʼ ἀπογυμνωθείς· μακάρων τοι νύκτες ἔασιν·
733. μηδʼ αἰδοῖα γονῇ πεπαλαγμένος ἔνδοθι οἴκου 734. ἱστίῃ ἐμπελαδὸν παραφαινέμεν, ἀλλʼ ἀλέασθαι.
738. ποσσὶ περᾶν, πρίν γʼ εὔξῃ ἰδὼν ἐς καλὰ ῥέεθρα, 739. χεῖρας νιψάμενος πολυηράτῳ ὕδατι λευκῷ. 740. ὃς ποταμὸν διαβῇ κακότητʼ ἰδὲ χεῖρας ἄνιπτος, 741. τῷ δὲ θεοὶ νεμεσῶσι καὶ ἄλγεα δῶκαν ὀπίσσω.
757. μηδέ ποτʼ ἐν προχοῇς ποταμῶν ἅλαδε προρεόντων 758. μηδʼ ἐπὶ κρηνάων οὐρεῖν, μάλα δʼ ἐξαλέασθαι· 759. μηδʼ ἐναποψύχειν· τὸ γὰρ οὔ τοι λώιόν ἐστιν. '. None
|11. Not one, but two Strifes live on earth: when these'12. Are known, one’s praised, one blamed, because these two 13. Far differ. For the one makes foul war thrive, 14. The wretch, unloved of all, but the gods on high 15. Gave the decree that every man alive 16. Should that oppressive goddess glorify. 17. The other, black Night’s first-born child, the son 18. of Cronus, throned on high, set in the soil, 19. A greater boon to men; she urges on 20. Even the slack to work. One craves to toil |
26. A beggar bears his fellow-beggar spite,
299. I tell you things of great utility, 300. Foolish Perses; to take and capture sin 301. En masse is easy: she is very near,
346. Lies with his brother’s wife or sinfully 347. Brings harm upon a little orphan child, 348. Or else insults with harsh contumely 349. His aged father, thus provoking Zeu 350. And paying dearly for his sins. But you 351. Must keep your foolish heart from such abuse
383. And leave ferocious famine far behind; 384. If to a little you a little more 385. Should add and do this often, with great speed 386. It will expand. A man has little care 387. For what he has at home: there’s greater need
465. In conflict in the furrows nor will break 466. The plough or leave the work undone. And now 467. A forty-year-old stalwart you should take 468. Who will, before he ventures out to plough, 469. Consume a quartered, eight-slice loaf, one who,
559. They stay indoors, who as yet do not know 560. Gold Aphrodite’s work, a comfort to 561. Their darling mothers, and their tender skin 562. They wash and smear with oil in winter’s space 563. And slumber in a bedroom far within
574. To hold him up, they wander as they try 575. To circumvent the snow. As I ordain, 576. Shelter your body, too, when snow is nigh – 577. A fleecy coat and, reaching to the floor, 578. A tunic. Both the warp and woof must you 579. Entwine but of the woof there must be more 580. Than of the warp. Don this, for, if you do, 581. Your hair stays still, not shaking everywhere.
612. of spring. Before then, the best strategy 613. Is pruning of your vines. But when the snail 614. Climbs up the stems to flee the Pleiades,
619. One’s skin. Bring in your crops and don’t be slow. 620. Rise early to secure your food supply. 621. For Dawn will cut your labour by a third, 622. Who aids your journey and you toil, through whom 623. Men find the road and put on many a herd 624. of oxen many a yoke. When thistles bloom 625. And shrill cicadas chirp up in the tree
639. And pour three-fourths of water from the spring, 640. A spring untroubled that will never fade,
724. Seafarers slaughter, nor will any man 725. Shatter his ship, unless such is the will 7
26. of earth-shaking Poseidon or our king,
730. Your ship with confidence and place all freight
733. Or fast-approaching blizzards, new-made wine, 734. The South Wind’s dreadful blasts – he stirs the sea
738. On fig-tree-tops, as tiny as the mark 739. A raven leaves, the sea becomes serene 740. For sailing. Though spring bids you to embark, 741. I’ll not praise it – it does not gladden me.
757. Marry a maid. The best would be one who 758. Lives near you, but you must with care look round 759. Lest neighbours make a laughingstock of you. '. None
|5. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 79-82 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Exodus, On Agriculture, Philos treatment in • Miriam the prophetess,in Life of Moses 2 and Agriculture • Philo Judaeus, Agriculture, choirs
Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 279; Kraemer (2010) 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 98, 99, 102, 103
|79. But the divine army is the body of virtues, the champions of the souls that love God, whom it becomes, when they see the adversary defeated, to sing a most beautiful and becoming hymn to the God who giveth the victory and the glorious triumph; and two choruses, the one proceeding from the conclave of the men, and the other from the company of the women, will stand up and sing in alternate songs a melody responsive to one another's voices. "80. And the chorus of men will have Moses for their leader; and that of the women will be under the guidance of Miriam, "the purified outward Sense." For it is just that hymns and praises should be uttered in honour of God without any delay, both in accordance with the suggestions of the intellect and the perceptions of the outward senses, and that each instrument should be struck in harmony, I mean those both of the mind and of the outward sense, in gratitude and honour to the holy Saviour. 81. Accordingly, all the men sing the song on the sea-shore, not indeed with a blind mind, but seeing sharply, Moses being the leader of the song; and women sing, who are in good truth the most excellent of their sex, having been enrolled in the lists of the republic of virtue, Miriam being their leader. XVIII. 82. And the same hymn is sung by both the choruses, having a most admirable burden of the song which is beautiful to be sung. And it is as follows: "Let us sing unto the Lord, for he has been glorified gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the Sea." ' "'. None|
|6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 29 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Exodus, On Agriculture, Philos treatment in • Philo, De Agricultura, genre
Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 8; Kraemer (2010) 93
|29. They have also writings of ancient men, who having been the founders of one sect or another have left behind them many memorials of the allegorical system of writing and explanation, whom they take as a kind of model, and imitate the general fashion of their sect; so that they do not occupy themselves solely in contemplation, but they likewise compose psalms and hymns to God in every kind of metre and melody imaginable, which they of necessity arrange in more dignified rhythm. ''. None|
|7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.256 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Exodus, On Agriculture, Philos treatment in • Philo Judaeus, Agriculture, choirs
Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 279; Kraemer (2010) 90, 98, 99
|2.256. For this mercy Moses very naturally honoured his Benefactor with hymns of gratitude. For having divided the host into two choruses, one of men and one of women, he himself became the leader of that of the men, and appointed his sister to be the chief of that of the women, that they might sing hymns to their father and Creator, joining in harmonies responsive to one another, by a combination of dispositions and melody, the former being eager to offer the same requital for the mercies which they had received, and the latter consisting of a symphony of the deep male with the high female voices, for the tones of men are deep and those of women are high; and when there is a perfect and harmonious combination of the two a most delightful and thoroughly harmonious melody is effected. ''. None|
|8. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, agriculture in • agriculture • imagery, agricultural • war, and agriculture
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022) 212, 218, 323; Gale (2000) 63, 66, 81, 172, 249
|9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.42-3.43, 4.468 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Galilee, agriculture • Josephus, on agricultural qualities of Jewish territory • Samaria (region), agricultural qualities of • agriculture, economic importance of
Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 109; Esler (2000) 122; Gardner (2015) 43
3.42. αἱ δέ εἰσιν κρημνοὶ βαθεῖς καὶ προύχουσαι σπιλάδες εἰς τὸ πέλαγος, ἔνθα καὶ τῶν ̓Ανδρομέδας δεσμῶν ἔτι δεικνύμενοι τύποι πιστοῦνται τὴν ἀρχαιότητα τοῦ μύθου,
3.42. μάχιμοί τε γὰρ ἐκ νηπίων καὶ πολλοὶ Γαλιλαῖοι πάντοτε, καὶ οὔτε δειλία ποτὲ τοὺς ἄνδρας οὔτε λιπανδρία τὴν χώραν κατέσχεν, ἐπειδὴ πίων τε πᾶσα καὶ εὔβοτος καὶ δένδρεσι παντοίοις κατάφυτος, ὡς ὑπὸ τῆς εὐπετείας προκαλέσασθαι καὶ τὸν ἥκιστα γῆς φιλόπονον. 3.43. ἵν' οὗτοι μὲν κατὰ χώραν μένοντες φρουρῶσι τὸ στρατόπεδον, οἱ δ' ἱππεῖς προνομεύωσι τὴν πέριξ καὶ τὰς περιοίκους κώμας τε καὶ πολίχνας ἐξαιρῶσιν τῆς ̓Ιόππης." '3.43. προσησκήθη γοῦν ὑπὸ τῶν οἰκητόρων πᾶσα, καὶ μέρος αὐτῆς ἀργὸν οὐδέν, ἀλλὰ καὶ πόλεις πυκναὶ καὶ τὸ τῶν κωμῶν πλῆθος πανταχοῦ πολυάνθρωπον διὰ τὴν εὐθηνίαν, ὡς τὴν ἐλαχίστην ὑπὲρ πεντακισχιλίους πρὸς τοῖς μυρίοις ἔχειν οἰκήτορας.' "
4.468. τῶν δὲ φοινίκων ἐπαρδομένων γένη πολλὰ ταῖς γεύσεσι καὶ ταῖς παρηγορίαις διάφορα: τούτων οἱ πιότεροι πατούμενοι καὶ μέλι δαψιλὲς ἀνιᾶσιν οὐ πολλῷ τοῦ λοιποῦ χεῖρον.''. None
|3.42. for the Galileans are inured to war from their infancy, and have been always very numerous; nor hath the country been ever destitute of men of courage, or wanted a numerous set of them; for their soil is universally rich and fruitful, and full of the plantations of trees of all sorts, insomuch that it invites the most slothful to take pains in its cultivation, by its fruitfulness; |
3.42. where there are deep precipices, and great stones that jut out into the sea, and where the chains wherewith Andromeda was bound have left their footsteps, which attest to the antiquity of that fable. 3.43. accordingly, it is all cultivated by its inhabitants, and no part of it lies idle. Moreover, the cities lie here very thick, and the very many villages there are here are everywhere so full of people, by the richness of their soil, that the very least of them contain above fifteen thousand inhabitants. 3.43. that these last might stay there and guard the camp, and the horsemen might spoil the country that lay round it, and might destroy the neighboring villages and smaller cities.
4.468. There are in it many sorts of palm trees that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and name; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey.''. None
|10. Mishnah, Peah, 1.6, 2.7-2.8, 4.6-4.8, 8.2-8.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Agricultural matters • Agriculture, Division of • agriculture
Found in books: Brooks (1983) 17, 41, 177; Gardner (2015) 31; Porton (1988) 26, 45, 46, 81, 140, 153, 182, 183, 184
1.6. לְעוֹלָם הוּא נוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם הֶפְקֵר וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה וְלַחַיָּה וְלָעוֹפוֹת וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְזוֹרֵעַ וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. כֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁלָּקְחוּ אֶת הַגֹּרֶן, הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. הַמַּקְדִּישׁ וּפוֹדֶה, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ הַגִּזְבָּר:
2.7. שָׂדֶה שֶׁקְּצָרוּהָ כּוּתִים, קְצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים, קִרְסְמוּהָ נְמָלִים, שְׁבָרַתָּהּ הָרוּחַ אוֹ בְהֵמָה, פְּטוּרָה. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצְרוּ לִסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ, פְּטוּרָה, שֶׁחוֹבַת הַפֵּאָה בַּקָּמָה: 2.8. קְצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצַר הוּא חֶצְיָהּ, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִמַּה שֶּׁקָּצָר. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וּמָכַר חֶצְיָהּ, הַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְהִקְדִּישׁ חֶצְיָהּ, הַפּוֹדֶה מִיַּד הַגִּזְבָּר, הוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל:
4.6. עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁקָּצַר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיֵּר, פָּטוּר מִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה וּמִן הַפֵּאָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְחַיֵּב בְּשִׁכְחָה, שֶׁאֵין הַשִּׁכְחָה אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת הָעִמּוּר: 4.7. הִקְדִּישׁ קָמָה וּפָדָה קָמָה, חַיָּב. עֳמָרִין וּפָדָה עֳמָרִין, חַיָּב. קָמָה וּפָדָה עֳמָרִין, פְּטוּרָה, שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת חוֹבָתָהּ הָיְתָה פְטוּרָה: 4.8. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, הַמַּקְדִּישׁ פֵּרוֹתָיו עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, וּפְדָאָן, חַיָּבִין. מִשֶּׁבָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, וּפְדָאָן, חַיָּבִין. הִקְדִּישָׁן עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרוּ וּגְמָרָן הַגִּזְבָּר, וְאַחַר כָּךְ פְּדָאָן, פְּטוּרִים, שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת חוֹבָתָן הָיוּ פְטוּרִים:
8.2. נֶאֱמָנִים עַל הַלֶּקֶט וְעַל הַשִּׁכְחָה וְעַל הַפֵּאָה בִּשְׁעָתָן, וְעַל מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בְּכָל שְׁנָתוֹ. וּבֶן לֵוִי נֶאֱמָן לְעוֹלָם. וְאֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִין אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁבְּנֵי אָדָם נוֹהֲגִין כֵּן: 8.3. נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַחִטִּים, וְאֵין נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַקֶּמַח וְלֹא עַל הַפָּת. נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַשְּׂעוֹרָה שֶׁל אֹרֶז, וְאֵין נֶאֱמָנִין עָלָיו בֵּין חַי בֵּין מְבֻשָּׁל. נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַפּוֹל, וְאֵין נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַגְּרִיסִין, לֹא חַיִּים וְלֹא מְבֻשָּׁלִין. נֶאֱמָנִין עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן לוֹמַר שֶׁל מַעְשַׂר עָנִי הוּא, וְאֵין נֶאֱמָנִין עָלָיו לוֹמַר שֶׁל זֵיתֵי נִקּוּף הוּא: 8.4. נֶאֱמָנִים עַל הַיָּרָק חַי, וְאֵין נֶאֱמָנִים עַל הַמְבֻשָּׁל, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה לוֹ דָּבָר מֻעָט, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לִהְיוֹת מוֹצִיא מִלְּפָסוֹ:''. None
|1.6. He may always give peah and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. One who gives to the poor as ownerless produce and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may feed cattle, wild animals and birds and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may take from the threshing floor and use it as seed and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack, the words of Rabbi Akiva. A priest or Levite who purchase grain of a threshing floor, the tithes are theirs unless the owner has already made a stack. One who dedicated his crop and redeems it afterwards is obligated to give tithes until the Temple treasurer has made a stack. |
2.7. A field harvested by gentiles, or harvested by robbers, or which ants have bitten the stalks at the roots, or which wind and cattle have broken down, is exempt from peah. If the owner harvested half of it and robbers harvested half, it is exempt from peah, for the obligation of peah is in the standing grain. 2.8. If robbers harvested half and the owner the other half, he gives peah from what he has harvested. If he harvested half and sold the other half, then the purchaser must give peah for the whole. If he harvested half and dedicated the other half, then he who redeems it from the Temple treasurer must give peah for the whole.
4.6. A non-Jew who harvested his field and then converted, he is exempt from leaving gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah. Rabbi Judah makes him liable to leave the forgotten sheaf, since he becomes liable for the forgotten sheaf at the time of their binding. 4.7. One who dedicated standing grain to the Temple and then redeemed it while it was still standing grain, he is liable to give the agricultural gifts to the poor. If he dedicated sheaves and redeemed them while they were still sheaves, he is liable. If he dedicated standing grain and redeemed it when it was already in sheaves, he is exempt, since at the time when it became liable it was exempt. 4.8. Similarly one who dedicates his produce prior to the stage when they are subject to tithes and then redeemed them, they are liable to be tithed. If he dedicated them when they had already become subject to tithes and then redeemed them, they are liable to be tithed. If he dedicated them before they had ripened, and they became ripe while in the possession of the Temple treasurer, and he then redeemed them, they are exempt, since at the time when they would have been liable, they were exempt.
8.2. They amei haaretz are to be believed concerning gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah during their harvest season, and concerning the poor man’s tithe during its whole year. A Levite is always to be trusted. They are only believed in those things which men are accustomed to give them. 8.3. They are trusted concerning wheat, but they are not trusted when it is flour or bread. They are trusted concerning rice in its husk, but they are not trusted when it is either raw or cooked. They are trusted concerning beans but they are not trusted when they have been pounded, neither raw nor cooked. They are trusted when concerning oil, to declare that it is from the poor person’s tithe, but they are not trusted over oil when they claim that it is from the olives left on the top of the tree. 8.4. They are trusted concerning raw vegetables, but they are not trusted concerning are cooked ones, unless he has only a little bit, for so it was the custom of a householder to take out of his stew-pot and give a little to the poor.''. None
|11. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Agricultural matters • agriculture
Found in books: Gardner (2015) 31; Porton (1988) 81, 90, 134, 165, 192
|12. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Agriculture • economy, Roman, agriculture
Found in books: Verhagen (2022) 96; Vlassopoulos (2021) 58
|13. Vergil, Georgics, 1.133, 1.160, 1.270, 1.316-1.321, 1.464-1.514, 2.174-2.175
Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, agriculture in • agriculture • imagery, agricultural • politics, and agriculture in Vergil’s Georgics • war, and agriculture
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022) 218, 323; Gale (2000) 19, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 63, 64, 65, 66, 86, 161, 206, 209, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 259, 268; Johnson (2008) 55, 56; Rüpke (2011) 166
1.133. ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis
1.160. Dicendum et, quae sint duris agrestibus arma,
1.270. religio vetuit, segeti praetendere saepem,
1.316. Saepe ego, cum flavis messorem induceret arvis 1.317. agricola et fragili iam stringeret hordea culmo, 1.318. omnia ventorum concurrere proelia vidi, 1.319. quae gravidam late segetem ab radicibus imis 1.320. sublimem expulsam eruerent; ita turbine nigro 1.321. ferret hiems culmumque levem stipulasque volantis.
1.464. audeat. Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus 1.465. saepe monet fraudemque et operta tumescere bella. 1.466. Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam, 1.467. cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit 1.468. inpiaque aeternam timuerunt saecula noctem. 1.469. Tempore quamquam illo tellus quoque et aequora ponti 1.470. obscenaeque canes inportunaeque volucres 1.471. signa dabant. Quotiens Cyclopum effervere in agros 1.472. vidimus undantem ruptis fornacibus Aetnam 1.473. flammarumque globos liquefactaque volvere saxa! 1.474. Armorum sonitum toto Germania caelo 1.475. audiit, insolitis tremuerunt motibus Alpes. 1.476. Vox quoque per lucos volgo exaudita silentis 1.477. ingens et simulacra modis pallentia miris 1.478. visa sub obscurum noctis, pecudesque locutae, 1.479. infandum! sistunt amnes terraeque dehiscunt 1.480. et maestum inlacrimat templis ebur aeraque sudant. 1.481. Proluit insano contorquens vertice silvas 1.482. fluviorum rex Eridanus camposque per omnis 1.483. cum stabulis armenta tulit. Nec tempore eodem 1.484. tristibus aut extis fibrae adparere minaces 1.485. aut puteis manare cruor cessavit et altae 1.486. per noctem resonare lupis ululantibus urbes. 1.487. Non alias caelo ceciderunt plura sereno 1.488. fulgura nec diri totiens arsere cometae. 1.489. ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis 1.490. Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi; 1.491. nec fuit indignum superis, bis sanguine nostro 1.492. Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos. 1.493. Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum finibus illis 1.494. agricola incurvo terram molitus aratro 1.495. exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila 1.496. aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit iis 1.497. grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris. 1.498. Di patrii, Indigetes, et Romule Vestaque mater, 1.499. quae Tuscum Tiberim et Romana Palatia servas, 1.500. hunc saltem everso iuvenem succurrere saeclo 1.501. ne prohibete! Satis iam pridem sanguine nostro 1.502. Laomedonteae luimus periuria Troiae; 1.503. iam pridem nobis caeli te regia, Caesar, 1.504. invidet atque hominum queritur curare triumphos; 1.505. quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas: tot bella per orbem, 1.506. tam multae scelerum facies; non ullus aratro 1.507. dignus honos, squalent abductis arva colonis 1.508. et curvae rigidum falces conflantur in ensem. 1.509. Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum; 1.510. vicinae ruptis inter se legibus urbes 1.511. arma ferunt; saevit toto Mars inpius orbe; 1.512. ut cum carceribus sese effudere quadrigae, 1.513. addunt in spatia et frustra retinacula tendens 1.514. fertur equis auriga neque audit currus habenas.
2.174. magna virum; tibi res antiquae laudis et artem 2.175. ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis,''. None
|1.133. And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade |
1.160. Even this was impious; for the common stock
1.270. Aye, more than time to bend above the plough,
1.316. And when the first breath of his panting steed 1.317. On us the Orient flings, that hour with them' "1.318. Red Vesper 'gins to trim his 'lated fires." '1.319. Hence under doubtful skies forebode we can 1.320. The coming tempests, hence both harvest-day 1.321. And seed-time, when to smite the treacherous main
1.464. From heaven shoot headlong, and through murky night 1.465. Long trails of fire white-glistening in their wake, 1.466. Or light chaff flit in air with fallen leaves, 1.467. Or feathers on the wave-top float and play. 1.468. But when from regions of the furious North 1.469. It lightens, and when thunder fills the hall 1.470. of Eurus and of Zephyr, all the field 1.471. With brimming dikes are flooded, and at sea 1.472. No mariner but furls his dripping sails. 1.473. Never at unawares did shower annoy: 1.474. Or, as it rises, the high-soaring crane 1.475. Flee to the vales before it, with face 1.476. Upturned to heaven, the heifer snuffs the gale 1.477. Through gaping nostrils, or about the mere 1.478. Shrill-twittering flits the swallow, and the frog 1.479. Crouch in the mud and chant their dirge of old. 1.480. oft, too, the ant from out her inmost cells, 1.481. Fretting the narrow path, her eggs conveys; 1.482. Or the huge bow sucks moisture; or a host 1.483. of rooks from food returning in long line 1.484. Clamour with jostling wings. Now mayst thou see 1.485. The various ocean-fowl and those that pry 1.486. Round Asian meads within thy fresher-pools, 1.487. Cayster, as in eager rivalry, 1.488. About their shoulders dash the plenteous spray, 1.489. Now duck their head beneath the wave, now run 1.490. Into the billows, for sheer idle joy 1.491. of their mad bathing-revel. Then the crow 1.492. With full voice, good-for-naught, inviting rain, 1.493. Stalks on the dry sand mateless and alone.' "1.494. Nor e'en the maids, that card their nightly task," '1.495. Know not the storm-sign, when in blazing crock 1.496. They see the lamp-oil sputtering with a growth 1.497. of mouldy snuff-clots. 1.498. So too, after rain, 1.499. Sunshine and open skies thou mayst forecast, 1.500. And learn by tokens sure, for then nor dimmed' "1.501. Appear the stars' keen edges, nor the moon" "1.502. As borrowing of her brother's beams to rise," '1.503. Nor fleecy films to float along the sky.' "1.504. Not to the sun's warmth then upon the shore" '1.505. Do halcyons dear to Thetis ope their wings, 1.506. Nor filthy swine take thought to toss on high 1.507. With scattering snout the straw-wisps. But the cloud 1.508. Seek more the vales, and rest upon the plain, 1.509. And from the roof-top the night-owl for naught' "1.510. Watching the sunset plies her 'lated song." '1.511. Distinct in clearest air is Nisus seen 1.512. Towering, and Scylla for the purple lock 1.513. Pays dear; for whereso, as she flies, her wing 1.514. The light air winnow, lo! fierce, implacable,
2.174. And ease the panting breathlessness of age. 2.175. But no, not Mede-land with its wealth of woods,''. None
|14. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • agriculture • economy, Roman, agriculture
Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 673; Verhagen (2022) 75, 76