|1. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.2 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Resurrection • afterlife
Found in books: Garcia (2021) 33, 63, 126; Piotrkowski (2019) 174; Stuckenbruck (2007) 498
|13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.''. None|
|2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28.20, 28.24-28.26, 28.29-28.31, 28.33, 28.38-28.42, 28.44, 30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • afterlife • afterlife,
Found in books: Corley (2002) 19; Huttner (2013) 248; Stuckenbruck (2007) 191, 205, 206, 254, 548, 553, 554
28.24. יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־מְטַר אַרְצְךָ אָבָק וְעָפָר מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם יֵרֵד עָלֶיךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ׃ 28.25. יִתֶּנְךָ יְהוָה נִגָּף לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד תֵּצֵא אֵלָיו וּבְשִׁבְעָה דְרָכִים תָּנוּס לְפָנָיו וְהָיִיתָ לְזַעֲוָה לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.26. וְהָיְתָה נִבְלָתְךָ לְמַאֲכָל לְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃
28.29. וְהָיִיתָ מְמַשֵּׁשׁ בַּצָּהֳרַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר יְמַשֵּׁשׁ הָעִוֵּר בָּאֲפֵלָה וְלֹא תַצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ עָשׁוּק וְגָזוּל כָּל־הַיָּמִים וְאֵין מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 28.31. שׁוֹרְךָ טָבוּחַ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְלֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ חֲמֹרְךָ גָּזוּל מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְלֹא יָשׁוּב לָךְ צֹאנְךָ נְתֻנוֹת לְאֹיְבֶיךָ וְאֵין לְךָ מוֹשִׁיעַ׃
28.33. פְּרִי אַדְמָתְךָ וְכָל־יְגִיעֲךָ יֹאכַל עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדָעְתָּ וְהָיִיתָ רַק עָשׁוּק וְרָצוּץ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃
28.38. זֶרַע רַב תּוֹצִיא הַשָּׂדֶה וּמְעַט תֶּאֱסֹף כִּי יַחְסְלֶנּוּ הָאַרְבֶּה׃ 28.39. כְּרָמִים תִּטַּע וְעָבָדְתָּ וְיַיִן לֹא־תִשְׁתֶּה וְלֹא תֶאֱגֹר כִּי תֹאכְלֶנּוּ הַתֹּלָעַת׃ 28.41. בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת תּוֹלִיד וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ לָךְ כִּי יֵלְכוּ בַּשֶּׁבִי׃ 28.42. כָּל־עֵצְךָ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֶךָ יְיָרֵשׁ הַצְּלָצַל׃
28.44. הוּא יַלְוְךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא תַלְוֶנּוּ הוּא יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה לְזָנָב׃
30.15. רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַחַיִּים וְאֶת־הַטּוֹב וְאֶת־הַמָּוֶת וְאֶת־הָרָע׃' '. None
|28.20. The LORD will send upon thee cursing, discomfiture, and rebuke, in all that thou puttest thy hand unto to do, until thou be destroyed, and until thou perish quickly; because of the evil of thy doings, whereby thou hast forsaken Me. |
28.24. The LORD will make the rain of thy land powder and dust; from heaven shall it come down upon thee, until thou be destroyed. 28.25. The LORD will cause thee to be smitten before thine enemies; thou shalt go out one way against them, and shalt flee seven ways before them; and thou shalt be a horror unto all the kingdoms of the earth. 28.26. And thy carcasses shall be food unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and there shall be none to frighten them away.
28.29. And thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness, and thou shalt not make thy ways prosperous; and thou shalt be only oppressed and robbed alway, and there shall be none to save thee. 28.30. Thou shalt betroth a wife, and another man shall lie with her; thou shalt build a house, and thou shalt not dwell therein; thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not use the fruit thereof. 28.31. Thine ox shall be slain before thine eyes, and thou shalt not eat thereof; thine ass shall be violently taken away from before thy face, and shall not be restored to thee; thy sheep shall be given unto thine enemies; and thou shalt have none to save thee.
28.33. The fruit of thy land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest not eat up; and thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed away:
28.38. Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather little in; for the locust shall consume it. 28.39. Thou shalt plant vineyards and dress them, but thou shalt neither drink of the wine, nor gather the grapes; for the worm shall eat them. 28.40. Thou shalt have olive-trees throughout all thy borders, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olives shall drop off. 28.41. Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be thine; for they shall go into captivity. 28.42. All thy trees and the fruit of thy land shall the locust possess.
28.44. He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him; he shall be the head, and thou shalt be the tail.
30.15. See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil,''. None
|3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7, 42.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • afterlife
Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 296, 297; Estes (2020) 22, 27; Garcia (2021) 34, 35, 64, 65; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 168; Piotrkowski (2019) 174; Stuckenbruck (2007) 363, 508
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
42.38. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא־יֵרֵד בְּנִי עִמָּכֶם כִּי־אָחִיו מֵת וְהוּא לְבַדּוֹ נִשְׁאָר וּקְרָאָהוּ אָסוֹן בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכוּ־בָהּ וְהוֹרַדְתֶּם אֶת־שֵׂיבָתִי בְּיָגוֹן שְׁאוֹלָה׃' '. None
|2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. |
42.38. And he said: ‘My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he only is left; if harm befall him by the way in which ye go, then will ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.' '. None
|4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 3.13, 38.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife, Angelic • Sleep Afterlife • Sleep Afterlife, Pleasant • afterlife,
Found in books: Bay (2022) 255; Collins (2016) 78; Stuckenbruck (2007) 442, 568
3.13. כִּי־עַתָּה שָׁכַבְתִּי וְאֶשְׁקוֹט יָשַׁנְתִּי אָז יָנוּחַ לִי׃
38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃''. None
|3.13. For now should I have lain still and been quiet; I should have slept; then had I been at rest— |
38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?''. None
|5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 26.19, 40.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Resurrection • Afterlife, and Qumran • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • Life / Afterlife, Eternal • Sleep Afterlife • afterlife • afterlife conceptions
Found in books: Collins (2016) 217; Garcia (2021) 34; Keener(2005) 176; Stuckenbruck (2007) 228, 288
26.19. יִחְיוּ מֵתֶיךָ נְבֵלָתִי יְקוּמוּן הָקִיצוּ וְרַנְּנוּ שֹׁכְנֵי עָפָר כִּי טַל אוֹרֹת טַלֶּךָ וָאָרֶץ רְפָאִים תַּפִּיל׃
40.31. וְקוֹיֵ יְהוָה יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ יַעֲלוּ אֵבֶר כַּנְּשָׁרִים יָרוּצוּ וְלֹא יִיגָעוּ יֵלְכוּ וְלֹא יִיעָפוּ׃''. None
|26.19. Thy dead shall live, my dead bodies shall arise— Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust— For Thy dew is as the dew of light, And the earth shall bring to life the shades. |
40.31. But they that wait for the LORD shall renew their strength; They shall mount up with wings as eagles; They shall run, and not be weary; They shall walk, and not faint.''. None
|6. Hesiod, Works And Days, 114-115, 122-142, 153-173 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Achilles, in the afterlife • Hesiod, afterlife beliefs • Homer, afterlife in • Pindar, afterlife beliefs in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots, Symposium of the Blessed • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, archaic beliefs • afterlife, compensation model • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, reward in • aretē/-a (virtue, excellence), reward in afterlife • daimones, in Hesiodic afterlife • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, Isles of the Blessed/Elysian Fields • death and the afterlife, Tartaros (abyss below Hades) • death and the afterlife, conceptions of death • death and the afterlife, corpse (soma) • death and the afterlife, funerary inscriptions • death and the afterlife, funerary reliefs • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, life and death dichotomy • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, reincarnation • death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) • happiness, in the afterlife • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • punishment, in the afterlife • sacrifice, in the afterlife
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 84, 86, 210; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 153, 385, 401, 557; Wolfsdorf (2020) 553, 561, 596, 605
114. γῆρας ἐπῆν, αἰεὶ δὲ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ὁμοῖοι'115. τέρποντʼ ἐν θαλίῃσι κακῶν ἔκτοσθεν ἁπάντων·
122. τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123. ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, 124. οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 125. ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν, 126. πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—, 127. δεύτερον αὖτε γένος πολὺ χειρότερον μετόπισθεν 128. ἀργύρεον ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες, 129. χρυσέῳ οὔτε φυὴν ἐναλίγκιον οὔτε νόημα. 130. ἀλλʼ ἑκατὸν μὲν παῖς ἔτεα παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ 131. ἐτρέφετʼ ἀτάλλων, μέγα νήπιος, ᾧ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ. 132. ἀλλʼ ὅτʼ ἄρʼ ἡβήσαι τε καὶ ἥβης μέτρον ἵκοιτο, 133. παυρίδιον ζώεσκον ἐπὶ χρόνον, ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντες 134. ἀφραδίῃς· ὕβριν γὰρ ἀτάσθαλον οὐκ ἐδύναντο 135. ἀλλήλων ἀπέχειν, οὐδʼ ἀθανάτους θεραπεύειν 136. ἤθελον οὐδʼ ἔρδειν μακάρων ἱεροῖς ἐπὶ βωμοῖς, 137. ἣ θέμις ἀνθρώποις κατὰ ἤθεα. τοὺς μὲν ἔπειτα 138. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ἔκρυψε χολούμενος, οὕνεκα τιμὰς 139. οὐκ ἔδιδον μακάρεσσι θεοῖς, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν. 140. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 141. τοὶ μὲν ὑποχθόνιοι μάκαρες θνητοῖς καλέονται, 142. δεύτεροι, ἀλλʼ ἔμπης τιμὴ καὶ τοῖσιν ὀπηδεῖ—,
153. βῆσαν ἐς εὐρώεντα δόμον κρυεροῦ Αίδαο 154. νώνυμνοι· θάνατος δὲ καὶ ἐκπάγλους περ ἐόντας 155. εἷλε μέλας, λαμπρὸν δʼ ἔλιπον φάος ἠελίοιο. 156. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψεν, 157. αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 158. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ἄρειον, 159. ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 160. ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161. καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162. τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163. ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164. τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165. ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166. ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 167. τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168. Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 169. Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169. ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169. τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169. τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169. τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170. καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171. ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 172. ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173. τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα. '. None
|114. If you should welcome it, another story:'115. Take it to heart. The selfsame ancestry |
122. of health, away from grief, they took delight 123. In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued 124. By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right, 125. Would bring forth plenteous fruit. In harmony 126. They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease 127. With all the gods. But when this progeny 128. Was buried underneath the earth – yet these 129. Live on, land-spirits, holy, pure and blessed, 130. Who guard mankind from evil, watching out 131. For all the laws and heinous deeds, while dressed 132. In misty vapour, roaming all about 133. The land, bestowing wealth, this kingly right 134. Being theirs – a second race the Olympians made, 135. A silver one, far worse, unlike, in sight 136. And mind, the golden, for a young child stayed, 137. A large bairn, in his mother’s custody, 138. Just playing inside for a hundred years. 139. But when they all reached their maturity, 140. They lived a vapid life, replete with tears, 141. Through foolishness, unable to forbear 142. To brawl, spurning the gods, refusing, too,
153. In hands, limbs, shoulders, and the arms they plied 154. Were bronze, their houses, too, their tools; they knew 155. of no black iron. Later, when they died 156. It was self-slaughter – they descended to 157. Chill Hades’ mouldy house, without a name. 158. Yes, black death took them off, although they’d been 159. Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 160. Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161. Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162. Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163. The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164. Called demigods. It was the race before 165. Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166. And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 167. While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168. The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 169. Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170. For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171. In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 172. Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173. Carefree, among the blessed isles, content '. None
|7. Homer, Iliad, 12.328, 19.259, 23.103-23.104 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hesiod, afterlife beliefs • Homer, afterlife in • afterlife • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, archaic beliefs • afterlife, compensation model • afterlife, continuation model • afterlife, punishment in • daimones, in Hesiodic afterlife • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, Isles of the Blessed/Elysian Fields • death and the afterlife, epic narratives • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, memorials • death and the afterlife, memory survival • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • punishment, in the afterlife
Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 266; Edmonds (2004) 136; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 554; Wolfsdorf (2020) 546, 556, 563, 596
12.328. ἴομεν ἠέ τῳ εὖχος ὀρέξομεν ἠέ τις ἡμῖν.
19.259. Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες, αἵ θʼ ὑπὸ γαῖαν
23.103. ὢ πόποι ἦ ῥά τίς ἐστι καὶ εἰν Ἀΐδαο δόμοισι 23.104. ψυχὴ καὶ εἴδωλον, ἀτὰρ φρένες οὐκ ἔνι πάμπαν·''. None
|12.328. nor should I send thee into battle where men win glory; but now—for in any case fates of death beset us, fates past counting, which no mortal may escape or avoid—now let us go forward, whether we shall give glory to another, or another to us. |
19.259. made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth
23.103. yet clasped him not; but the spirit like a vapour was gone beneath the earth, gibbering faintly. And seized with amazement Achilles sprang up, and smote his hands together, and spake a word of wailing:Look you now, even in the house of Hades is the spirit and phantom somewhat, albeit the mind be not anywise therein; 23.104. yet clasped him not; but the spirit like a vapour was gone beneath the earth, gibbering faintly. And seized with amazement Achilles sprang up, and smote his hands together, and spake a word of wailing:Look you now, even in the house of Hades is the spirit and phantom somewhat, albeit the mind be not anywise therein; ''. None
|8. Homeric Hymns, To Demeter, 480-482 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, continuation model • afterlife, reward in
Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 392, 393; Edmonds (2004) 140; Wolfsdorf (2020) 549, 598
|480. Also there were gathering blooms with me'481. Rhodope, Plouto, Calypso the Fair, 482. Styx, also, and Urania were there, '. None|
|9. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Achilles, in the afterlife • Hesiod, afterlife beliefs • Homer, Afterlife in • Homer, afterlife in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, • afterlife, Homeric • afterlife, archaic beliefs • afterlife, compensation model • afterlife, continuation model • afterlife, punishment in • aretē/-a (virtue, excellence), reward in afterlife • daimones, in Hesiodic afterlife • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, Isles of the Blessed/Elysian Fields • death and the afterlife, Tartaros (abyss below Hades) • death and the afterlife, communication with souls of the dead • death and the afterlife, conceptions of death • death and the afterlife, corpse (soma) • death and the afterlife, curse tablets • death and the afterlife, dead as conscious entities • death and the afterlife, epic narratives • death and the afterlife, funerary inscriptions • death and the afterlife, funerary reliefs • death and the afterlife, funerary ritual • death and the afterlife, ghosts/restless spirits/revenants • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, memorials • death and the afterlife, memory survival • death and the afterlife, necromancy and oracles • death and the afterlife, pollution and purification • death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) • honor (timē), in the afterlife • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • punishment, in the afterlife
Found in books: Bay (2022) 168; Edmonds (2004) 86, 135, 140, 154, 208; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 142, 398, 399, 400, 404, 405, 554, 555, 556, 557; Gee (2020) 22; Wolfsdorf (2020) 548, 550, 553, 563, 595, 596; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 181, 187
|10. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1558 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife, Homeric • afterlife, continuation model
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 208; Wolfsdorf (2020) 549
1558. πόρθμευμʼ ἀχέων''. None
|1558. Passage of Groans shall — both hands throwing ''. None|
|11. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, afterlife beliefs in • Homer, afterlife in • Orestes, afterlife punishment of • Orestes, as afterlife hero • Pindar, afterlife beliefs in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, reward in • afterlife, ritual absolution and • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, Isles of the Blessed/Elysian Fields • death and the afterlife, Tartaros (abyss below Hades) • death and the afterlife, funerary inscriptions • death and the afterlife, funerary reliefs • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • mystery cults, and afterlife in Pindar • punishment, in the afterlife
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 136; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 557; Shilo (2022) 139, 177, 178, 179; Wolfsdorf (2020) 554, 556, 603
|12. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, afterlife beliefs in • Homer, afterlife in • Orestes, afterlife punishment of • Pindar, afterlife beliefs in • afterlife • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, reward in • afterlife, ritual absolution and • mystery cults, and afterlife in Pindar • punishment, in the afterlife
Found in books: Shilo (2022) 179; Wolfsdorf (2020) 554, 603
|13. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • afterlife • afterlife, reward in
Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 392; Wolfsdorf (2020) 598
|14. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, dead as conscious entities • death and the afterlife, funerary ritual • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, memorials • death and the afterlife, memory survival • death and the afterlife, tending of tombs
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 553; Wolfsdorf (2020) 551
|15. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.19-3.20 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • afterlife
Found in books: Garcia (2021) 33, 34, 65; Stuckenbruck (2007) 205, 506, 508
3.19. כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃' '. None
|3.19. For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity. 3.20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust.''. None|
|16. Herodotus, Histories, 1.67-1.68, 2.81 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife lots, torment • afterlife, continuation model • death and the afterlife, life and death dichotomy • death, and hope for afterlife
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 15; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 388; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 304; Wolfsdorf (2020) 551
1.67. κατὰ μὲν δὴ τὸν πρότερον πόλεμον συνεχέως αἰεὶ κακῶς ἀέθλεον πρὸς τοὺς Τεγεήτας, κατὰ δὲ τὸν κατὰ Κροῖσον χρόνον καὶ τὴν Ἀναξανδρίδεώ τε καὶ Ἀρίστωνος βασιληίην ἐν Λακεδαίμονι ἤδη οἱ Σπαρτιῆται κατυπέρτεροι τῷ πολέμῳ ἐγεγόνεσαν, τρόπῳ τοιῷδε γενόμενοι. ἐπειδὴ αἰεὶ τῷ πολέμῳ ἑσσοῦντο ὑπὸ Τεγεητέων, πέμψαντες θεοπρόπους ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐπειρώτων τίνα ἂν θεῶν ἱλασάμενοι κατύπερθε τῷ πολέμῳ Τεγεητέων γενοίατο. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφι ἔχρησε τὰ Ὀρέστεω τοῦ Ἀγαμέμνονος ὀστέα ἐπαγαγομένους. ὡς δὲ ἀνευρεῖν οὐκ οἷοί τε ἐγίνοντο τὴν θήκην τοῦ Ὀρέστεω ἔπεμπον αὖτις τὴν ἐς θεὸν ἐπειρησομένους τὸν χῶρον ἐν τῷ κέοιτο Ὀρέστης. εἰρωτῶσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι θεοπρόποισι λέγει ἡ Πυθίη τάδε. ἔστι τις Ἀρκαδίης Τεγέη λευρῷ ἐνὶ χώρῳ, ἔνθʼ ἄνεμοι πνείουσι δύω κρατερῆς ὑπʼ ἀνάγκης, καὶ τύπος ἀντίτυπος, καὶ πῆμʼ ἐπὶ πήματι κεῖται. ἔνθʼ Ἀγαμεμνονίδην κατέχει φυσίζοος αἶα, τὸν σὺ κομισσάμενος Τεγέης ἐπιτάρροθος ἔσσῃ. ὡς δὲ καὶ ταῦτα ἤκουσαν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, ἀπεῖχον τῆς ἐξευρέσιος οὐδὲν ἔλασσον, πάντα διζήμενοι, ἐς οὗ δὴ Λίχης τῶν ἀγαθοεργῶν καλεομένων Σπαρτιητέων ἀνεῦρε, οἱ δὲ ἀγαθοεργοὶ εἰσὶ τῶν ἀστῶν, ἐξιόντες ἐκ τῶν ἱππέων αἰεὶ οἱ πρεσβύτατοι, πέντε ἔτεος ἑκάστου· τοὺς δεῖ τοῦτὸν τὸν ἐνιαυτόν, τὸν ἂν ἐξίωσι ἐκ τῶν ἱππέων, Σπαρτιητέων τῷ κοινῷ διαπεμπομένους μὴ ἐλινύειν ἄλλους ἄλλῃ. 1.68. τούτων ὦν τῶν ἀνδρῶν Λίχης ἀνεῦρε ἐν Τεγέῃ καὶ συντυχίῃ χρησάμενος καὶ σοφίῃ. ἐούσης γὰρ τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον ἐπιμιξίης πρὸς τοὺς Τεγεήτας, ἐλθὼν ἐς χαλκήιον ἐθηεῖτο σίδηρον ἐξελαυνόμενον, καὶ ἐν θώματι ἦν ὀρέων τὸ ποιεόμενον. μαθὼν, δέ μιν ὁ χαλκεὺς ἀποθωμάζοντα εἶπε παυσάμενος τοῦ ἔργου “ἦ κου ἄν, ὦ ξεῖνε Λάκων εἴ περ εἶδες τό περ ἐγώ, κάρτα ἂν ἐθώμαζες, ὅκου νῦν οὕτω τυγχάνεις θῶμα ποιεύμενος τὴν ἐργασίην τοῦ σιδήρου. ἐγὼ γὰρ ἐν τῇδε θέλων τῇ αὐλῇ φρέαρ ποιήσασθαι, ὀρύσσων ἐπέτυχον σορῷ ἑπταπήχεϊ· ὑπὸ δὲ ἀπιστίης μὴ μὲν γενέσθαι μηδαμὰ μέζονας ἀνθρώπους τῶν νῦν ἄνοιξα αὐτὴν καὶ εἶδον τὸν νεκρὸν μήκεϊ ἴσον ἐόντα τῇ σορῷ· μετρήσας δὲ συνέχωσα ὀπίσω.” ὃ μὲν δή οἱ ἔλεγε τά περ ὀπώπεε, ὁ δὲ ἐννώσας τὰ λεγόμενα συνεβάλλετο τὸν Ὀρέστεα κατὰ τὸ θεοπρόπιον τοῦτον εἶναι, τῇδε συμβαλλόμενος· τοῦ χαλκέος δύο ὁρέων φύσας τοὺς ἀνέμους εὕρισκε ἐόντας, τὸν δὲ ἄκμονα καὶ τὴν σφῦραν τόν τε τύπον καὶ τὸν ἀντίτυπον, τὸν δὲ ἐξελαυνόμενον σίδηρον τὸ πῆμα ἐπὶ πήματι κείμενον, κατὰ τοιόνδε τι εἰκάζων, ὡς ἐπὶ κακῷ ἀνθρώπου σίδηρος ἀνεύρηται. συμβαλόμενος δὲ ταῦτα καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἐς Σπάρτην ἔφραζε Λακεδαιμονίοσσι πᾶν τὸ πρῆγμα. οἳ δὲ ἐκ λόγου πλαστοῦ ἐπενείκαντὲς οἱ αἰτίην ἐδίωξαν. ὁ δὲ ἀπικόμενος ἐς Τεγέην καὶ φράζων τὴν ἑωυτοῦ συμφορὴν πρὸς τὸν χαλκέα ἐμισθοῦτο παρʼ οὐκ ἐκδιδόντος τὴν αὐλήν· χρόνῳ δὲ ὡς ἀνέγνωσε, ἐνοικίσθη, ἀνορύξας δὲ τὸν τάφον καὶ τὰ ὀστέα συλλέξας οἴχετο φέρων ἐς Σπάρτην. καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ χρόνου, ὅκως πειρῴατο ἀλλήλων, πολλῷ κατυπέρτεροι τῷ πολέμῳ ἐγίνοντο οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι· ἤδη δέ σφι καὶ ἡ πολλὴ τῆς Πελοποννήσου ἦν κατεστραμμένη.
2.81. ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος.''. None
|1.67. In the previous war the Lacedaemonians continually fought unsuccessfully against the Tegeans, but in the time of Croesus and the kingship of Anaxandrides and Ariston in Lacedaemon the Spartans had gained the upper hand. This is how: ,when they kept being defeated by the Tegeans, they sent ambassadors to Delphi to ask which god they should propitiate to prevail against the Tegeans in war. The Pythia responded that they should bring back the bones of Orestes, son of Agamemnon. ,When they were unable to discover Orestes\' tomb, they sent once more to the god to ask where he was buried. The Pythia responded in hexameter to the messengers: ,|
2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this. ''. None
|17. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Orphic views of afterlife • afterlife lots, salvation
Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 257; Edmonds (2004) 95
400c. σῆμά τινές φασιν αὐτὸ εἶναι τῆς ψυχῆς, ὡς τεθαμμένης ἐν τῷ νῦν παρόντι· καὶ διότι αὖ τούτῳ σημαίνει ἃ ἂν σημαίνῃ ἡ ψυχή, καὶ ταύτῃ σῆμα ὀρθῶς καλεῖσθαι. δοκοῦσι μέντοι μοι μάλιστα θέσθαι οἱ ἀμφὶ Ὀρφέα τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα, ὡς δίκην διδούσης τῆς ψυχῆς ὧν δὴ ἕνεκα δίδωσιν, τοῦτον δὲ περίβολον ἔχειν, ἵνα σῴζηται, δεσμωτηρίου εἰκόνα· εἶναι οὖν τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦτο, ὥσπερ αὐτὸ ὀνομάζεται, ἕως ἂν ἐκτείσῃ τὰ ὀφειλόμενα, τὸ σῶμα, καὶ οὐδὲν δεῖν παράγειν οὐδʼ ἓν γράμμα.''. None
|400c. ign ( σῆμα ). But I think it most likely that the Orphic poets gave this name, with the idea that the soul is undergoing punishment for something; they think it has the body as an enclosure to keep it safe, like a prison, and this is, as the name itself denotes, the safe ( σῶμα ) for the soul, until the penalty is paid, and not even a letter needs to be changed.''. None|
|18. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hesiod, afterlife beliefs • Orphic views of afterlife • afterlife • afterlife, compensation model • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, reward in • afterlife, ritual absolution and • happiness, in the afterlife • homicide, punished in afterlife • punishment, in the afterlife • sacrifice, in the afterlife
Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 257; Mikalson (2010) 201, 202; Wolfsdorf (2020) 557, 561
493a. καὶ ἡμεῖς τῷ ὄντι ἴσως τέθναμεν· ἤδη γάρ του ἔγωγε καὶ ἤκουσα τῶν σοφῶν ὡς νῦν ἡμεῖς τέθναμεν καὶ τὸ μὲν σῶμά ἐστιν ἡμῖν σῆμα, τῆς δὲ ψυχῆς τοῦτο ἐν ᾧ ἐπιθυμίαι εἰσὶ τυγχάνει ὂν οἷον ἀναπείθεσθαι καὶ μεταπίπτειν ἄνω κάτω, καὶ τοῦτο ἄρα τις μυθολογῶν κομψὸς ἀνήρ, ἴσως Σικελός τις ἢ Ἰταλικός, παράγων τῷ ὀνόματι διὰ τὸ πιθανόν τε καὶ πειστικὸν ὠνόμασε πίθον, τοὺς δὲ ἀνοήτους ἀμυήτους,'523a. ΣΩ. ἄκουε δή, φασί, μάλα καλοῦ λόγου, ὃν σὺ μὲν ἡγήσῃ μῦθον, ὡς ἐγὼ οἶμαι, ἐγὼ δὲ λόγον· ὡς ἀληθῆ γὰρ ὄντα σοι λέξω ἃ μέλλω λέγειν. ὥσπερ γὰρ Ὅμηρος λέγει, διενείμαντο τὴν ἀρχὴν ὁ Ζεὺς καὶ ὁ Ποσειδῶν καὶ ὁ Πλούτων, ἐπειδὴ παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς παρέλαβον. ἦν οὖν νόμος ὅδε περὶ ἀνθρώπων ἐπὶ Κρόνου, καὶ ἀεὶ καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἔστιν ἐν θεοῖς, τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸν μὲν δικαίως τὸν βίον διελθόντα καὶ '. None
|493a. and we really, it may be, are dead; in fact I once heard sages say that we are now dead, and the body is our tomb, and the part of the soul in which we have desires is liable to be over-persuaded and to vacillate to and fro, and so some smart fellow, a Sicilian, I daresay, or Italian, made a fable in which—by a play of words—he named this part, as being so impressionable and persuadable, a jar, and the thoughtless he called uninitiate:'523a. Soc. Give ear then, as they say, to a right fine story, which you will regard as a fable, I fancy, but I as an actual account; for what I am about to tell you I mean to offer as the truth. By Homer’s account, Zeus, Poseidon, and Pluto divided the sovereignty amongst them when they took it over from their father. Now in the time of Cronos there was a law concerning mankind, and it holds to this very day amongst the gods, that every man who has passed a just and holy life departs after his decease '. None|
|19. Plato, Meno, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife lots, Symposium of the Blessed • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • homicide, punished in afterlife
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 83; Mikalson (2010) 200
81b. διδόναι· λέγει δὲ καὶ Πίνδαρος καὶ ἄλλοι πολλοὶ τῶν ποιητῶν ὅσοι θεῖοί εἰσιν. ἃ δὲ λέγουσιν, ταυτί ἐστιν· ἀλλὰ σκόπει εἴ σοι δοκοῦσιν ἀληθῆ λέγειν. φασὶ γὰρ τὴν ψυχὴν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἶναι ἀθάνατον, καὶ τοτὲ μὲν τελευτᾶν—ὃ δὴ ἀποθνῄσκειν καλοῦσι—τοτὲ δὲ πάλιν γίγνεσθαι, ἀπόλλυσθαι δʼ οὐδέποτε· δεῖν δὴ διὰ ταῦτα ὡς ὁσιώτατα διαβιῶναι τὸν βίον· οἷσιν γὰρ ἂν— Φερσεφόνα ποινὰν παλαιοῦ πένθεος δέξεται, εἰς τὸν ὕπερθεν ἅλιον κείνων ἐνάτῳ ἔτεϊ ἀνδιδοῖ ψυχὰς πάλιν,''. None
|81b. and many another poet of heavenly gifts. As to their words, they are these: mark now, if you judge them to be true. They say that the soul of man is immortal, and at one time comes to an end, which is called dying, and at another is born again, but never perishes. Consequently one ought to live all one’s life in the utmost holiness. For from whomsoever Persephone shall accept requital for ancient wrong, the souls of these she restores in the ninth year to the upper sun again; from them arise''. None|
|20. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots, Symposium of the Blessed • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, Homeric • afterlife, late fifth-century ideas • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, ritual absolution and • death and the afterlife • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, Isles of the Blessed/Elysian Fields • death and the afterlife, Tartaros (abyss below Hades) • death and the afterlife, conceptions of death • death and the afterlife, funerary inscriptions • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, memory survival • death and the afterlife, reincarnation • death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) • gods, and late fifth-century afterlife beliefs • homicide, punished in afterlife • punishment, in the afterlife
Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 4; Edmonds (2004) 136, 137, 208, 210, 211; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 218, 401, 562; Mikalson (2010) 245; Wolfsdorf (2020) 555, 608
69c. κάθαρσίς τις τῶν τοιούτων πάντων καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἀνδρεία, καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ φρόνησις μὴ καθαρμός τις ᾖ. καὶ κινδυνεύουσι καὶ οἱ τὰς τελετὰς ἡμῖν οὗτοι καταστήσαντες οὐ φαῦλοί τινες εἶναι, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι πάλαι αἰνίττεσθαι ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀμύητος καὶ ἀτέλεστος εἰς Ἅιδου ἀφίκηται ἐν βορβόρῳ κείσεται, ὁ δὲ κεκαθαρμένος τε καὶ τετελεσμένος ἐκεῖσε ἀφικόμενος μετὰ θεῶν οἰκήσει. εἰσὶν γὰρ δή, ὥς φασιν οἱ περὶ τὰς τελετάς, ναρθηκοφόροι 69e. χαλεπῶς φέρω οὐδ’ ἀγανακτῶ, ἡγούμενος κἀκεῖ οὐδὲν ἧττον ἢ ἐνθάδε δεσπόταις τε ἀγαθοῖς ἐντεύξεσθαι καὶ ἑταίροις: τοῖς δὲ πολλοῖς ἀπιστίαν παρέχει : εἴ τι οὖν ὑμῖν πιθανώτερός εἰμι ἐν τῇ ἀπολογίᾳ ἢ τοῖς Ἀθηναίων δικασταῖς, εὖ ἂν ἔχοι. ΦΑΙΔ. εἰπόντος δὴ τοῦ Σωκράτους ταῦτα, ὑπολαβὼν ὁ Κέβης ἔφη: ὦ Σώκρατες, τὰ μὲν ἄλλα ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ καλῶς λέγεσθαι, 108a. μὲν γὰρ ἁπλῆν οἶμόν φησιν εἰς Ἅιδου φέρειν, ἡ δ᾽ οὔτε ἁπλῆ οὔτε μία φαίνεταί μοι εἶναι. οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν ἡγεμόνων ἔδει: οὐ γάρ πού τις ἂν διαμάρτοι οὐδαμόσε μιᾶς ὁδοῦ οὔσης. νῦν δὲ ἔοικε σχίσεις τε καὶ τριόδους πολλὰς ἔχειν: ἀπὸ τῶν θυσιῶν τε καὶ νομίμων τῶν ἐνθάδε τεκμαιρόμενος λέγω. ἡ μὲν οὖν κοσμία τε καὶ φρόνιμος ψυχὴ ἕπεταί τε καὶ οὐκ ἀγνοεῖ τὰ παρόντα: ἡ δ’ ἐπιθυμητικῶς τοῦ σώματος ἔχουσα, ὅπερ ἐν τῷ ἔμπροσθεν εἶπον, περὶ ἐκεῖνο πολὺν'112e. δυνατὸν δέ ἐστιν ἑκατέρωσε μέχρι τοῦ μέσου καθιέναι, πέρα δ’ οὔ: ἄναντες γὰρ ἀμφοτέροις τοῖς ῥεύμασι τὸ ἑκατέρωθεν γίγνεται μέρος. ΦΑΙΔ. 114d. τὸ μὲν οὖν ταῦτα διισχυρίσασθαι οὕτως ἔχειν ὡς ἐγὼ διελήλυθα, οὐ πρέπει νοῦν ἔχοντι ἀνδρί: ὅτι μέντοι ἢ ταῦτ᾽ ἐστὶν ἢ τοιαῦτ’ ἄττα περὶ τὰς ψυχὰς ἡμῶν καὶ τὰς οἰκήσεις, ἐπείπερ ἀθάνατόν γε ἡ ψυχὴ φαίνεται οὖσα, τοῦτο καὶ πρέπειν μοι δοκεῖ καὶ ἄξιον κινδυνεῦσαι οἰομένῳ οὕτως ἔχειν — καλὸς γὰρ ὁ κίνδυνος — καὶ χρὴ τὰ τοιαῦτα ὥσπερ ἐπᾴδειν ἑαυτῷ, διὸ δὴ ἔγωγε καὶ πάλαι μηκύνω τὸν μῦθον. ἀλλὰ τούτων δὴ ἕνεκα θαρρεῖν χρὴ περὶ τῇ ἑαυτοῦ ψυχῇ '. None
|69c. from all these things, and self-restraint and justice and courage and wisdom itself are a kind of purification. And I fancy that those men who established the mysteries were not unenlightened, but in reality had a hidden meaning when they said long ago that whoever goes uninitiated and unsanctified to the other world will lie in the mire, but he who arrives there initiated and purified will dwell with the gods. For as they say in the mysteries, the thyrsus-bearers are many, but the mystics few ; 69e. because I believe that there, no less than here, I shall find good rulers and friends. If now I am more successful in convincing you by my defence than I was in convincing my Athenian judges, it is well. Phaedo. When Socrates had finished, Cebes answered and said: Socrates, I agree to 108a. for he says a simple path leads to the lower world, but I think the path is neither simple nor single, for if it were, there would be no need of guides, since no one could miss the way to any place if there were only one road. But really there seem to be many forks of the road and many windings; this I infer from the rites and ceremonies practiced here on earth. Now the orderly and wise soul follows its guide and understands its circumstances; but the soul that is desirous of the body, as I said before, flits about it, and in the visible world for a long time,'112e. Now it is possible to go down from each side to the center, but not beyond, for there the slope rises forward in front of the streams from either side of the earth. Phaedo. Now these streams are many and great and of all sorts, but among the many are four streams, the greatest and outermost of which is that called Oceanus, which flows round in a circle, and opposite this, flowing in the opposite direction, is Acheron, which flows through 114d. Now it would not be fitting for a man of sense to maintain that all this is just as I have described it, but that this or something like it is true concerning our souls and their abodes, since the soul is shown to be immortal, I think he may properly and worthily venture to believe; for the venture is well worth while; and he ought to repeat such things to himself as if they were magic charms, which is the reason why I have been lengthening out the story so long. This then is why a man should be of good cheer about his soul, who in his life '. None|
|21. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Orphic views of afterlife • afterlife • afterlife conceptions • afterlife, late fifth-century ideas • afterlife, ritual absolution and • gods, and late fifth-century afterlife beliefs • homicide, punished in afterlife
Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 257; Keener(2005) 177, 178; Mikalson (2010) 200; Wolfsdorf (2020) 608
248a. ΣΩ.'250c. μακαριωτάτην, ἣν ὠργιάζομεν ὁλόκληροι μὲν αὐτοὶ ὄντες καὶ ἀπαθεῖς κακῶν ὅσα ἡμᾶς ἐν ὑστέρῳ χρόνῳ ὑπέμενεν, ὁλόκληρα δὲ καὶ ἁπλᾶ καὶ ἀτρεμῆ καὶ εὐδαίμονα φάσματα μυούμενοί τε καὶ ἐποπτεύοντες ἐν αὐγῇ καθαρᾷ, καθαροὶ ὄντες καὶ ἀσήμαντοι τούτου ὃ νῦν δὴ σῶμα περιφέροντες ὀνομάζομεν, ὀστρέου τρόπον δεδεσμευμένοι. '. None
|248a. that which best follows after God and is most like him, raises the head of the charioteer up into the outer region and is carried round in the revolution, troubled by the horses and hardly beholding the realities; and another sometimes rises and sometimes sinks, and, because its horses are unruly, it sees some things and fails to see others. The other souls follow after, all yearning for the upper region but unable to reach it, and are carried round beneath,'250c. the most blessed of mysteries, which we celebrated in a state of perfection, when we were without experience of the evils which awaited us in the time to come, being permitted as initiates to the sight of perfect and simple and calm and happy apparitions, which we saw in the pure light, being ourselves pure and not entombed in this which we carry about with us and call the body, in which we are imprisoned like an oyster in its shell. So much, then, in honor of memory, on account of which I have now spoken at some length, through yearning for the joys of that other time. But beauty, '. None|
|22. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hesiod, afterlife beliefs • Homer, afterlife in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, compensation model • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, reward in • afterlife, ritual absolution and • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) • happiness, in the afterlife • homicide, punished in afterlife • poetry, justice and the afterlife in • punishment, in the afterlife • sacrifice, in the afterlife
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 84, 136, 140; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 558, 560; Mikalson (2010) 200; Wolfsdorf (2020) 554, 557, 559, 561
363d. ἤδη διάγειν μεθύοντας, ἡγησάμενοι κάλλιστον ἀρετῆς μισθὸν μέθην αἰώνιον. οἱ δʼ ἔτι τούτων μακροτέρους ἀποτείνουσιν μισθοὺς παρὰ θεῶν· παῖδας γὰρ παίδων φασὶ καὶ γένος κατόπισθεν λείπεσθαι τοῦ ὁσίου καὶ εὐόρκου. ταῦτα δὴ καὶ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα ἐγκωμιάζουσιν δικαιοσύνην· τοὺς δὲ ἀνοσίους αὖ καὶ ἀδίκους εἰς πηλόν τινα κατορύττουσιν ἐν Ἅιδου καὶ κοσκίνῳ ὕδωρ ἀναγκάζουσι φέρειν, ἔτι τε ζῶντας 615a. μὲν ὀδυρομένας τε καὶ κλαούσας, ἀναμιμνῃσκομένας ὅσα τε καὶ οἷα πάθοιεν καὶ ἴδοιεν ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ γῆς πορείᾳ—εἶναι δὲ τὴν πορείαν χιλιέτη—τὰς δʼ αὖ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εὐπαθείας διηγεῖσθαι καὶ θέας ἀμηχάνους τὸ κάλλος. τὰ μὲν οὖν πολλά, ὦ Γλαύκων, πολλοῦ χρόνου διηγήσασθαι· τὸ δʼ οὖν κεφάλαιον ἔφη τόδε εἶναι, ὅσα πώποτέ τινα ἠδίκησαν καὶ ὅσους ἕκαστοι, ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων δίκην δεδωκέναι ἐν μέρει, ὑπὲρ ἑκάστου δεκάκις—τοῦτο δʼ εἶναι κατὰ ἑκατονταετηρίδα' '. None
|363d. they entertain the time henceforth with wine, as if the fairest meed of virtue were an everlasting drunk. And others extend still further the rewards of virtue from the gods. For they say that the children’s children of the pious and oath-keeping man and his race thereafter never fail. Such and such-like are their praises of justice. But the impious and the unjust they bury in mud in the house of Hades and compel them to fetch water in a sieve, and, while they still live, 615a. and wailing as they recalled how many and how dreadful things they had suffered and seen in their journey beneath the earth—it lasted a thousand years—while those from heaven related their delights and visions of a beauty beyond words. To tell it all, Glaucon, would take all our time, but the sum, he said, was this. For all the wrongs they had ever done to anyone and all whom they had severally wronged they had paid the penalty in turn tenfold for each, and the measure of this was by periods of a hundred years each,' '. None|
|23. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Reward • afterlife • afterlife, late fifth-century ideas • afterlife, ritual absolution and • gods, and late fifth-century afterlife beliefs
Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 573; Wolfsdorf (2020) 608
42b. τε ἑπόμενα αὐτοῖς καὶ ὁπόσα ἐναντίως πέφυκε διεστηκότα· ὧν εἰ μὲν κρατήσοιεν, δίκῃ βιώσοιντο, κρατηθέντες δὲ ἀδικίᾳ. καὶ ὁ μὲν εὖ τὸν προσήκοντα χρόνον βιούς, πάλιν εἰς τὴν τοῦ συννόμου πορευθεὶς οἴκησιν ἄστρου, βίον εὐδαίμονα καὶ συνήθη ἕξοι, σφαλεὶς δὲ τούτων εἰς γυναικὸς φύσιν ἐν τῇ'42c. δευτέρᾳ γενέσει μεταβαλοῖ· μὴ παυόμενός τε ἐν τούτοις ἔτι κακίας, τρόπον ὃν κακύνοιτο, κατὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῆς τοῦ τρόπου γενέσεως εἴς τινα τοιαύτην ἀεὶ μεταβαλοῖ θήρειον φύσιν, ἀλλάττων τε οὐ πρότερον πόνων λήξοι, πρὶν τῇ ταὐτοῦ καὶ ὁμοίου περιόδῳ τῇ ἐν αὑτῷ συνεπισπώμενος τὸν πολὺν ὄχλον καὶ ὕστερον προσφύντα ἐκ πυρὸς καὶ ὕδατος καὶ ἀέρος '. None
|42b. and all such emotions as are naturally allied thereto, and all such as are of a different and opposite character. And if they shall master these they will live justly, but if they are mastered, unjustly. And he that has lived his appointed time well shall return again to his abode in his native star, and shall gain a life that is blessed and congenial but whoso has failed therein shall be changed into woman’s nature at the second birth; and if, in that shape, he still refraineth not from wickedne'42c. he shall be changed every time, according to the nature of his wickedness, into some bestial form after the similitude of his own nature; nor in his changings shall he cease from woes until he yields himself to the revolution of the Same and Similar that is within him, and dominating by force of reason that burdensome mass which afterwards adhered to him of fire and water '. None|
|24. Xenophon, Memoirs, 2.2.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, dead as conscious entities • death and the afterlife, funerary ritual • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, memorials • death and the afterlife, memory survival • death and the afterlife, tending of tombs
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 553; Wolfsdorf (2020) 550
2.2.13. ἔγωγε, ἔφη. εἶτα τούτων μὲν ἐπιμελεῖσθαι παρεσκεύασαι, τὴν δὲ μητέρα τὴν πάντων μάλιστά σε φιλοῦσαν οὐκ οἴει δεῖν θεραπεύειν; οὐκ οἶσθʼ ὅτι καὶ ἡ πόλις ἄλλης μὲν ἀχαριστίας οὐδεμιᾶς ἐπιμελεῖται οὐδὲ δικάζει, ἀλλὰ περιορᾷ τοὺς εὖ πεπονθότας χάριν οὐκ ἀποδόντας, ἐὰν δέ τις γονέας μὴ θεραπεύῃ, τούτῳ δίκην τε ἐπιτίθησι καὶ ἀποδοκιμάζουσα οὐκ ἐᾷ ἄρχειν τοῦτον, ὡς οὔτε ἂν τὰ ἱερὰ εὐσεβῶς θυόμενα ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως τούτου θύοντος οὔτε ἄλλο καλῶς καὶ δικαίως οὐδὲν ἂν τούτου πράξαντος; καὶ νὴ Δία ἐάν τις τῶν γονέων τελευτησάντων τοὺς τάφους μὴ κοσμῇ, καὶ τοῦτο ἐξετάζει ἡ πόλις ἐν ταῖς τῶν ἀρχόντων δοκιμασίαις.''. None
|2.2.13. And yet, when you are resolved to cultivate these, you don’t think courtesy is due to your mother, who loves you more than all? Don’t you know that even the state ignores all other forms of ingratitude and pronounces no judgment on them, Cyropaedia I. ii. 7. caring nothing if the recipient of a favour neglects to thank his benefactor, but inflicts penalties on the man who is discourteous to his parents and rejects him as unworthy of office, holding that it would be a sin for him to offer sacrifices on behalf of the state and that he is unlikely to do anything else honourably and rightly? Aye, and if one fail to honour his parents’ graves, the state inquires into that too, when it examines the candidates for office. ''. None|
|25. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife, in material culture • afterlife, late fifth-century ideas • afterlife, separating body and soul • gods, and late fifth-century afterlife beliefs
Found in books: Shilo (2022) 5, 6; Wolfsdorf (2020) 607
|26. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Homer, afterlife in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots, bliss and festivities • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, late fifth-century ideas • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, reward in • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) • gods, and late fifth-century afterlife beliefs • happiness, in the afterlife • punishment, in the afterlife • sacrifice, in the afterlife • sexual activity, in the afterlife
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 136, 140, 141; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 560; Wolfsdorf (2020) 555, 556, 560, 598, 606; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 181, 187
|27. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Homer, afterlife in • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model
Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 266; Wolfsdorf (2020) 562
|28. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife, in epitaphs • afterlife, continuation model
Found in books: Parker (2005) 366; Wolfsdorf (2020) 550
|29. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, corpse (soma) • death and the afterlife, dead as conscious entities • death and the afterlife, feasting • death and the afterlife, funerary processions • death and the afterlife, funerary ritual • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, memorials • death and the afterlife, memory survival • death and the afterlife, pollution and purification • death and the afterlife, processions • death and the afterlife, role of women in death ceremonies • death and the afterlife, tending of tombs
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 526, 553; Wolfsdorf (2020) 550
|30. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, dead as conscious entities • death and the afterlife, funerary ritual • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, memorials • death and the afterlife, memory survival • death and the afterlife, tending of tombs
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 553; Wolfsdorf (2020) 550
|31. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Homer, afterlife in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, reincarnation • death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) • death and the afterlife, transmigration of souls
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 561; Wolfsdorf (2020) 562
|32. Anon., 1 Enoch, 12.4, 22.1-22.13, 81.5, 81.9, 82.2, 87.3, 90.28-90.29, 94.7, 95.3, 96.1, 98.12, 99.13, 102.4-102.5, 103.9-103.15, 104.2, 104.12, 105.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Resurrection • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Angelic • Life / Afterlife, Book of • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • Life / Afterlife, Eschatological • Life / Afterlife, Eternal • Life / Afterlife, Fountain of • Sleep Afterlife • Sleep Afterlife, Pleasant • afterlife • afterlife conceptions
Found in books: Collins (2016) 78, 90; Garcia (2021) 147; Janowitz (2002) 71; Keener(2005) 176, 178, 180; Stuckenbruck (2007) 2, 3, 150, 154, 161, 174, 177, 178, 189, 191, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203, 205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 216, 221, 228, 229, 231, 249, 281, 282, 288, 294, 301, 302, 306, 311, 315, 325, 335, 336, 364, 374, 388, 419, 421, 423, 425, 435, 443, 450, 458, 460, 488, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 506, 508, 511, 512, 518, 520, 522, 523, 524, 525, 530, 531, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 545, 548, 549, 550, 551, 553, 554, 568, 570, 571, 572, 573, 575, 581, 587, 594, 599, 600, 602, 603, 619, 620, 683, 692, 693, 697, 700, 703, 706, 708, 711, 713, 716, 719, 720, 723, 724, 728, 733, 734, 741
|1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, And appear from His camp And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."2. Observe ye everything that takes place in the heaven, how they do not change their orbits, and the luminaries which are in the heaven, how they all rise and set in order each in its season, and,transgress not against their appointed order. Behold ye the earth, and give heed to the things which take place upon it from first to last, how steadfast they are, how none of the things upon earth,change, but all the works of God appear to you. Behold the summer and the winter, how the whole earth is filled with water, and clouds and dew and rain lie upon it. 3. Observe and see how (in the winter) all the trees seem as though they had withered and shed all their leaves, except fourteen trees, which do not lose their foliage but retain the old foliage from two to three years till the new comes. 4. And again, observe ye the days of summer how the sun is above the earth over against it. And you seek shade and shelter by reason of the heat of the sun, and the earth also burns with growing heat, and so you cannot tread on the earth, or on a rock by reason of its heat. 5. Observe ye how the trees cover themselves with green leaves and bear fruit: wherefore give ye heed and know with regard to all His works, and recognize how He that liveth for ever hath made them so.,And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done.,And behold how the sea and the rivers in like manner accomplish and change not their tasks from His commandments\'.",But ye -ye have not been steadfast, nor done the commandments of the Lord, But ye have turned away and spoken proud and hard words With your impure mouths against His greatness. Oh, ye hard-hearted, ye shall find no peace.,Therefore shall ye execrate your days, And the years of your life shall perish, And the years of your destruction shall be multiplied in eternal execration, And ye shall find no mercy.,In those days ye shall make your names an eternal execration unto all the righteous, b And by you shall all who curse, curse, And all the sinners and godless shall imprecate by you,,And for you the godless there shall be a curse.",And all the . . . shall rejoice, e And there shall be forgiveness of sins, f And every mercy and peace and forbearance: g There shall be salvation unto them, a goodly light.I And for all of you sinners there shall be no salvation, j But on you all shall abide a curse.,But for the elect there shall be light and joy and peace, b And they shall inherit the earth.,And then there shall be bestowed upon the elect wisdom, And they shall all live and never again sin, Either through ungodliness or through pride: But they who are wise shall be humble.,And they shall not again transgress, Nor shall they sin all the days of their life, Nor shall they die of (the divine) anger or wrath, But they shall complete the number of the days of their life.And their lives shall be increased in peace, And the years of their joy shall be multiplied, In eternal gladness and peace, All the days of their life. |
12.4. called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve" '
22.1. And thence I went to another place, and he mountain and of hard rock.
22.1. water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their" 22.2. And there was in it four hollow places, deep and wide and very smooth. How smooth are the hollow places and deep and dark to look at.' "22.3. Then Raphael answered, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should" "22.4. assemble therein, yea that all the souls of the children of men should assemble here. And these places have been made to receive them till the day of their judgement and till their appointed period till the period appointed, till the great judgement (comes) upon them.' I saw (the spirit of) a dead man making suit," '22.5. and his voice went forth to heaven and made suit. And I asked Raphael the angel who was"' "22.6. with me, and I said unto him: 'This spirit which maketh suit, whose is it, whose voice goeth forth and maketh suit to heaven '" "22.7. And he answered me saying: 'This is the spirit which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, and he makes his suit against him till his seed is destroyed from the face of the earth, and his seed is annihilated from amongst the seed of men.'" "22.8. The I asked regarding it, and regarding all the hollow places: 'Why is one separated from the other'" "22.9. And he answered me and said unto me: 'These three have been made that the spirits of the dead might be separated. And such a division has been make (for) the spirits of the righteous, in which there is the bright spring of" '
22.10. And thence I went to another place, and he mountain and of hard rock.,And there was in it four hollow places, deep and wide and very smooth. How smooth are the hollow places and deep and dark to look at.,Then Raphael answered, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: \'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should,assemble therein, yea that all the souls of the children of men should assemble here. And these places have been made to receive them till the day of their judgement and till their appointed period till the period appointed, till the great judgement (comes) upon them.\' I saw (the spirit of) a dead man making suit,,and his voice went forth to heaven and made suit. And I asked Raphael the angel who was",with me, and I said unto him: \'This spirit which maketh suit, whose is it, whose voice goeth forth and maketh suit to heaven \',And he answered me saying: \'This is the spirit which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, and he makes his suit against him till his seed is destroyed from the face of the earth, and his seed is annihilated from amongst the seed of men.\',The I asked regarding it, and regarding all the hollow places: \'Why is one separated from the other\',And he answered me and said unto me: \'These three have been made that the spirits of the dead might be separated. And such a division has been make (for) the spirits of the righteous, in which there is the bright spring of,water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their",lifetime. Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain till the great day of judgement and punishment and torment of those who curse for ever and retribution for their spirits. There",He shall bind them for ever. And such a division has been made for the spirits of those who make their suit, who make disclosures concerning their destruction, when they were slain in the days,of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.\',The I blessed the Lord of glory and said: \'Blessed be my Lord, the Lord of righteousness, who ruleth for ever.\'
22.11. lifetime. Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain till the great day of judgement and punishment and torment of those who curse for ever and retribution for their spirits. There"
22.12. He shall bind them for ever. And such a division has been made for the spirits of those who make their suit, who make disclosures concerning their destruction, when they were slain in the day' "
22.13. of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.'" "72. The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world,and unto eternity, till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity. And this is the first law of the luminaries: the luminary the Sun has its rising in the eastern portals of the heaven,,and its setting in the western portals of the heaven. And I saw six portals in which the sun rises, and six portals in which the sun sets and the moon rises and sets in these portals, and the leaders of the stars and those whom they lead: six in the east and six in the west, and all following each other,in accurately corresponding order: also many windows to the right and left of these portals. And first there goes forth the great luminary, named the Sun, and his circumference is like the,circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illuminating and heating fire. The chariot on which he ascends, the wind drives, and the sun goes down from the heaven and returns through the north in order to reach the east, and is so guided that he comes to the appropriate (lit. \' that \') portal and,shines in the face of the heaven. In this way he rises in the first month in the great portal, which,is the fourth those six portals in the cast. And in that fourth portal from which the sun rises in the first month are twelve window-openings, from which proceed a flame when they are opened in,their season. When the sun rises in the heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty,,mornings in succession, and sets accurately in the fourth portal in the west of the heaven. And during this period the day becomes daily longer and the night nightly shorter to the thirtieth,morning. On that day the day is longer than the night by a ninth part, and the day amounts exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings, and rises from it and sets in the fifth,portal. And then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts to eleven parts, and the night,becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth",portal, and rises and sets in the sixth portal one-and-thirty mornings on account of its sign. On that day the day becomes longer than the night, and the day becomes double the night, and the day,becomes twelve parts, and the night is shortened and becomes six parts. And the sun mounts up to make the day shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east and enters into the,sixth portal, and rises from it and sets thirty mornings. And when thirty mornings are accomplished,,the day decreases by exactly one part, and becomes eleven parts, and the night seven. And the sun goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to the east and rises in the fifth portal for,thirty mornings, and sets in the west again in the fifth western portal. On that day the day decreases by two parts, and amounts to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun goes forth from that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, and rises in the fourth portal for one-,and-thirty mornings on account of its sign, and sets in the west. On that day the day is equalized with the night, and becomes of equal length, and the night amounts to nine parts and the day to,nine parts. And the sun rises from that portal and sets in the west, and returns to the east and rises,thirty mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third portal. And on that day the night becomes longer than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight,parts. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the third portal in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty mornings rises,in the second portal in the east, and in like manner sets in the second portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night amounts to eleven,parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty,mornings, and sets in the first portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night becomes longer and amounts to the double of the day: and the night amounts exactly to twelve parts and,the day to six. And the sun has (therewith) traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on those divisions of his orbit, and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also in the west,opposite to it. And on that night has the night decreased in length by a ninth part, and the night,has become eleven parts and the day seven parts. And the sun has returned and entered into the second portal in the east, and returns on those his divisions of his orbit for thirty mornings, rising,and setting. And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night amounts to ten parts,and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven.,On that day the night decreases and amounts to nine parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night,is equal to the day and the year is exactly as to its days three hundred and sixty-four. And the length of the day and of the night, and the shortness of the day and of the night arise-through the course,of the sun these distinctions are made (lit. \' they are separated \'). So it comes that its course becomes",daily longer, and its course nightly shorter. And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great luminary which is named the sun, for ever and ever. And that which (thus) rises is the great luminary, and is so named according to,its appearance, according as the Lord commanded. As he rises, so he sets and decreases not, and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is sevenfold brighter than that of the moon; but as regards size they are both equal. 73. And after this law I saw another law dealing with the smaller luminary, which is named the Moon. And her circumference is like the circumference of the heaven, and her chariot in which she rides is driven by the wind, and light is given to her in (definite) measure. And her rising and setting change every month: and her days are like the days of the sun, and when her light is uniform (i.e. full) it amounts to the seventh part of the light of the sun. And thus she rises. And her first phase in the east comes forth on the thirtieth morning: and on that day she becomes visible, and constitutes for you the first phase of the moon on the thirtieth day together with the sun in the portal where the sun rises. And the one half of her goes forth by a seventh part, and her whole circumference is empty, without light, with the exception of one-seventh part of it, (and) the,fourteenth part of her light. And when she receives one-seventh part of the half of her light, her light,amounts to one-seventh part and the half thereof. And she sets with the sun, and when the sun rises the moon rises with him and receives the half of one part of light, and in that night in the beginning of her morning in the commencement of the lunar day the moon sets with the sun, and,is invisible that night with the fourteen parts and the half of one of them. And she rises on that day with exactly a seventh part, and comes forth and recedes from the rising of the sun, and in her remaining days she becomes bright in the (remaining) thirteen parts. 74. And I saw another course, a law for her, (and) how according to that law she performs her monthly,revolution. And all these Uriel, the holy angel who is the leader of them all, showed to me, and their positions, and I wrote down their positions as he showed them to me, and I wrote down their months,as they were, and the appearance of their lights till fifteen days were accomplished. In single seventh parts she accomplishes all her light in the east, and in single seventh parts accomplishes all her,darkness in the west. And in certain months she alters her settings, and in certain months she pursues,her own peculiar course. In two months the moon sets with the sun: in those two middle portals the",third and the fourth. She goes forth for seven days, and turns about and returns again through the portal where the sun rises, and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes from the sun, and in eight,days enters the sixth portal from which the sun goes forth. And when the sun goes forth from the fourth portal she goes forth seven days, until she goes forth from the fifth and turns back again in seven days into the fourth portal and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes and enters into the,first portal in eight days. And she returns again in seven days into the fourth portal from which the",sun goes forth. Thus I saw their position -how the moons rose and the sun set in those days. And if five years are added together the sun has an overplus of thirty days, and all the days which accrue,to it for one of those five years, when they are full, amount to,days. And the overplus of the sun and of the stars amounts to six days: in",years",days every year come to",days: and the",moon falls behind the sun and stars to the number of",days. And the sun and the stars bring in all the years exactly, so that they do not advance or delay their position by a single day unto eternity; but complete the years with perfect justice in,days. In",years there are",days, and in,years",days, so that in,years there are",days. For the moon alone the days amount in",years to",days, and in,years she falls",days behind: i.e. to the sum (of",there is",to be added (1,000 and),days. And in",years there are",days, so that for the moon the days,in",years amount to",days. For in",years she falls behind to the amount of",days, all the,days she falls behind in",years are",And the year is accurately completed in conformity with their world-stations and the stations of the sun, which rise from the portals through which it (the sun) rises and sets,days."' "75. And the leaders of the heads of the thousands, who are placed over the whole creation and over all the stars, have also to do with the four intercalary days, being inseparable from their office, according to the reckoning of the year, and these render service on the four days which are not,reckoned in the reckoning of the year. And owing to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly render service on the world-stations, one in the first portal, one in the third portal of the heaven, one in the fourth portal, and one in the sixth portal, and the exactness of the year is,accomplished through its separate three hundred and sixty-four stations. For the signs and the times and the years and the days the angel Uriel showed to me, whom the Lord of glory hath set for ever over all the luminaries of the heaven, in the heaven and in the world, that they should rule on the face of the heaven and be seen on the earth, and be leaders for the day and the night, i.e. the sun, moon, and stars, and all the ministering creatures which make their revolution in all the chariots,of the heaven. In like manner twelve doors Uriel showed me, open in the circumference of the sun's chariot in the heaven, through which the rays of the sun break forth: and from them is warmth,diffused over the earth, when they are opened at their appointed seasons. And for the winds and,the spirit of the dew when they are opened, standing open in the heavens at the ends. As for the twelve portals in the heaven, at the ends of the earth, out of which go forth the sun, moon, and stars,,and all the works of heaven in the east and in the west, There are many windows open to the left and right of them, and one window at its (appointed) season produces warmth, corresponding (as these do) to those doors from which the stars come forth according as He has commanded them,,and wherein they set corresponding to their number. And I saw chariots in the heaven, running,in the world, above those portals in which revolve the stars that never set. And one is larger than all the rest, and it is that that makes its course through the entire world." '76. And at the ends of the earth I saw twelve portals open to all the quarters (of the heaven), from,which the winds go forth and blow over the earth. Three of them are open on the face (i.e. the east) of the heavens, and three in the west, and three on the right (i.e. the south) of the heaven, and,three on the left (i.e. the north). And the three first are those of the east, and three are of the,north, and three after those on the left of the south, and three of the west. Through four of these come winds of blessing and prosperity, and from those eight come hurtful winds: when they are sent, they bring destruction on all the earth and on the water upon it, and on all who dwell thereon, and on everything which is in the water and on the land.,And the first wind from those portals, called the east wind, comes forth through the first portal which is in the east, inclining towards the south: from it come forth desolation, drought, heat,,and destruction. And through the second portal in the middle comes what is fitting, and from it there come rain and fruitfulness and prosperity and dew; and through the third portal which lies toward the north come cold and drought.,And after these come forth the south winds through three portals: through the first portal of",them inclining to the east comes forth a hot wind. And through the middle portal next to it there",come forth fragrant smells, and dew and rain, and prosperity and health. And through the third portal lying to the west come forth dew and rain, locusts and desolation.,And after these the north winds: from the seventh portal in the east come dew and rain, locusts and desolation. And from the middle portal come in a direct direction health and rain and dew and prosperity; and through the third portal in the west come cloud and hoar-frost, and snow and rain, and dew and locusts.,And after these four are the west winds: through the first portal adjoining the north come forth dew and hoar-frost, and cold and snow and frost. And from the middle portal come forth dew and rain, and prosperity and blessing; and through the last portal which adjoins the south come forth drought and desolation, and burning and destruction. And the twelve portals of the four quarters of the heaven are therewith completed, and all their laws and all their plagues and all their benefactions have I shown to thee, my son Methuselah. 77. And the first quarter is called the east, because it is the first: and the second, the south, because the Most High will descend there, yea, there in quite a special sense will He who is blessed for ever,descend. And the west quarter is named the diminished, because there all the luminaries of the,heaven wane and go down. And the fourth quarter, named the north, is divided into three parts: the first of them is for the dwelling of men: and the second contains seas of water, and the abysses and forests and rivers, and darkness and clouds; and the third part contains the garden of righteousness.,I saw seven high mountains, higher than all the mountains which are on the earth: and thence,comes forth hoar-frost, and days, seasons, and years pass away. I saw seven rivers on the earth larger than all the rivers: one of them coming from the west pours its waters into the Great Sea.,And these two come from the north to the sea and pour their waters into the Erythraean Sea in the",east. And the remaining, four come forth on the side of the north to their own sea, two of them to the Erythraean Sea, and two into the Great Sea and discharge themselves there and some say:,into the desert. Seven great islands I saw in the sea and in the mainland: two in the mainland and five in the Great Sea." 78. And the names of the sun are the following: the first Orjares, and the second Tomas. And the moon has four names: the first name is Asonja, the second Ebla, the third Benase, and the fourth,Erae. These are the two great luminaries: their circumference is like the circumference of the",heaven, and the size of the circumference of both is alike. In the circumference of the sun there are seven portions of light which are added to it more than to the moon, and in definite measures it is s transferred till the seventh portion of the sun is exhausted. And they set and enter the portals of the west, and make their revolution by the north, and come forth through the eastern portals,on the face of the heaven. And when the moon rises one-fourteenth part appears in the heaven:",the light becomes full in her: on the fourteenth day she accomplishes her light. And fifteen parts of light are transferred to her till the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished, according to the sign of the year, and she becomes fifteen parts, and the moon grows by (the addition of) fourteenth,parts. And in her waning (the moon) decreases on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second to thirteen parts of light, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, on the fifth to ten, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the tenth to five, on the eleventh to four, on the twelfth to three, on the thirteenth to two, on the,fourteenth to the half of a seventh, and all her remaining light disappears wholly on the fifteenth. And,in certain months the month has twenty-nine days and once twenty-eight. And Uriel showed me another law: when light is transferred to the moon, and on which side it is transferred to her by the sun. During all the period during which the moon is growing in her light, she is transferring it to herself when opposite to the sun during fourteen days her light is accomplished in the heaven,,and when she is illumined throughout, her light is accomplished full in the heaven. And on the first,day she is called the new moon, for on that day the light rises upon her. She becomes full moon exactly on the day when the sun sets in the west, and from the east she rises at night, and the moon shines the whole night through till the sun rises over against her and the moon is seen over against the sun. On the side whence the light of the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all the light vanishes and all the days of the month are at an end, and her circumference is empty, void of,light. And three months she makes of thirty days, and at her time she makes three months of twenty- nine days each, in which she accomplishes her waning in the first period of time, and in the first,portal for one hundred and seventy-seven days. And in the time of her going out she appears for three months (of) thirty days each, and for three months she appears (of) twenty-nine each. At night she appears like a man for twenty days each time, and by day she appears like the heaven, and there is nothing else in her save her light. 79. And now, my son, I have shown thee everything, and the law of all the stars of the heaven is,completed. And he showed me all the laws of these for every day, and for every season of bearing rule, and for every year, and for its going forth, and for the order prescribed to it every month,and every week: And the waning of the moon which takes place in the sixth portal: for in this",sixth portal her light is accomplished, and after that there is the beginning of the waning: (And the waning) which takes place in the first portal in its season, till one hundred and seventy-seven,days are accomplished: reckoned according to weeks, twenty-five (weeks) and two days. She falls behind the sun and the order of the stars exactly five days in the course of one period, and when,this place which thou seest has been traversed. Such is the picture and sketch of every luminary which Uriel the archangel, who is their leader, showed unto me. 80. And in those days the angel Uriel answered and said to me: \' Behold, I have shown thee everything, Enoch, and I have revealed everything to thee that thou shouldst see this sun and this moon, and the leaders of the stars of the heaven and all those who turn them, their tasks and times and departures.,And in the days of the sinners the years shall be shortened, And their seed shall be tardy on their lands and fields, And all things on the earth shall alter, And shall not appear in their time: And the rain shall be kept back And the heaven shall withhold (it).,And in those times the fruits of the earth shall be backward, And shall not grow in their time, And the fruits of the trees shall be withheld in their time.,And the moon shall alter her order, And not appear at her time.,And in those days the sun shall be seen and he shall journey in the evening on the extremity of the great chariot in the west And shall shine more brightly than accords with the order of light.",And many chiefs of the stars shall transgress the order (prescribed). And these shall alter their orbits and tasks, And not appear at the seasons prescribed to them.,And the whole order of the stars shall be concealed from the sinners, And the thoughts of those on the earth shall err concerning them, And they shall be altered from all their ways, Yea, they shall err and take them to be gods.,And evil shall be multiplied upon them, And punishment shall come upon them So as to destroy all.\'' "
81.5. And those seven holy ones brought me and placed me on the earth before the door of my house, and said to me: ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, and show to all thy children that no" "
81.9. And those who practice righteousness shall die on account of the deeds of men, And be taken away on account of the doings of the godless.'" '81. And he said unto me: ' Observe, Enoch, these heavenly tablets, And read what is written thereon, And mark every individual fact.',And I observed the heavenly tablets, and read everything which was written (thereon) and understood everything, and read the book of all the deeds of mankind, and of all the children of flesh,that shall be upon the earth to the remotest generations. And forthwith I blessed the great Lord the King of glory for ever, in that He has made all the works of the world,And I extolled the Lord because of His patience, And blessed Him because of the children of men.,And after that I said: ' Blessed is the man who dies in righteousness and goodness, Concerning whom there is no book of unrighteousness written, And against whom no day of judgement shall be found.',And those seven holy ones brought me and placed me on the earth before the door of my house, and said to me: ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, and show to all thy children that no,flesh is righteous in the sight of the Lord, for He is their Creator. One year we will leave thee with thy son, till thou givest thy (last) commands, that thou mayest teach thy children and record (it) for them, and testify to all thy children; and in the second year they shall take thee from their midst.,Let thy heart be strong, For the good shall announce righteousness to the good;The righteous with the righteous shall rejoice, And shall offer congratulation to one another.,But the sinners shall die with the sinners, And the apostate go down with the apostate.,And those who practice righteousness shall die on account of the deeds of men, And be taken away on account of the doings of the godless.',And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world." '
82.2. I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, And thy children that shall be to thee, That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought.' "
82.2. in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida'ljal, Ke'el, and He'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions." '82. And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father\'s hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world.,I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, And thy children that shall be to thee, That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought.,And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food.,Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which,lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them,accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.,And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the,Lord of the whole creation of the world hath subjected the host of heaven. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to cause the light to give light to men -sun, moon, and stars,,and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months.,And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder,the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between",leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki\'el, Hel\'emmelek, and Mel\'ejal,,and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar\'el, and Ijasusa\'el, and \'Elome\'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam\'aini and sun, and,all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka\'el, Zelebs\'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end.,The next leader after him is Hel\'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the days,of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that is,in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida\'ljal, Ke\'el, and He\'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa\'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions.
87.3. and three with them. And those three that had last come forth grasped me by my hand and took me up, away from the generations of the earth, and raised me up to a lofty place, and showed me
90.28. And I stood up to see till they folded up that old house; and carried off all the pillars, and all the beams and ornaments of the house were at the same time folded up with it, and they carried 90.29. it off and laid it in a place in the south of the land. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep brought a new house greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place of the first which had beer folded up: all its pillars were new, and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first, the old one which He had taken away, and all the sheep were within it. 91. And now, my son Methuselah, call to me all thy brothers And gather together to me all the sons of thy mother; For the word calls me, And the spirit is poured out upon me, That I may show you everything That shall befall you for ever.\',And there upon Methuselah went and summoned to him all his brothers and assembled his relatives.",And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said:",Hear,ye sons of Enoch, all the words of your father, And hearken aright to the voice of my mouth; For I exhort you and say unto you, beloved:,Love uprightness and walk therein. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, And associate not with those of a double heart,But walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths, And righteousness shall be your companion.,For I know that violence must increase on the earth, And a great chastisement be executed on the earth, And all unrighteousness come to an end:Yea, it shall be cut off from its roots, And its whole structure be destroyed.,And unrighteousness shall again be consummated on the earth, And all the deeds of unrighteousness and of violence And transgression shall prevail in a twofold degree.,And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth.,In those days violence shall be cut off from its roots, And the roots of unrighteousness together with deceit, And they shall be destroyed from under heaven.,And all the idols of the heathen shall be abandoned, And the temples burned with fire, And they shall remove them from the whole earth,And they (i.e. the heathen) shall be cast into the judgement of fire, And shall perish in wrath and in grievous judgement for ever.,And the righteous shall arise from their sleep, And wisdom shall arise and be given unto them.,after that the roots of unrighteousness shall be cut off, and the sinners shall be destroyed by the sword . . . shall be cut off from the blasphemers in every place, and those who plan violence and those who commit blasphemy shall perish by the sword.,And now I tell you, my sons, and show you The paths of righteousness and the paths of violence. Yea, I will show them to you again That ye may know what will come to pass.,And now, hearken unto me, my sons, And walk in the paths of righteousness, And walk not in the paths of violence; For all who walk in the paths of unrighteousness shall perish for ever.\',And after that there shall be another, the eighth week, that of righteousness, And a sword shall be given to it that a righteous judgement may be executed on the oppressors, And sinners shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous.,And at its close they shall acquire houses through their righteousness, And a house shall be built for the Great King in glory for evermore,,And all mankind shall look to the path of uprightness.",And after that, in the ninth week, the righteous judgement shall be revealed to the whole world, b And all the works of the godless shall vanish from all the earth, c And the world shall be written down for destruction.,And after this, in the tenth week in the seventh part, There shall be the great eternal judgement, In which He will execute vengeance amongst the angels.,And the first heaven shall depart and pass away, And a new heaven shall appear, And all the powers of the heavens shall give sevenfold light.,And after that there will be many weeks without number for ever, And all shall be in goodness and righteousness, And sin shall no more be mentioned for ever. 91. Hear,ye sons of Enoch, all the words of your father, And hearken aright to the voice of my mouth; For I exhort you and say unto you, beloved: 92. The book written by Enoch-Enoch indeed wrote this complete doctrine of wisdom, (which is) praised of all men and a judge of all the earth for all my children who shall dwell on the earth. And for the future generations who shall observe uprightness and peace.,Let not your spirit be troubled on account of the times; For the Holy and Great One has appointed days for all things.",And the righteous one shall arise from sleep, Shall arise and walk in the paths of righteousness, And all his path and conversation shall be in eternal goodness and grace.,He will be gracious to the righteous and give him eternal uprightness, And He will give him power so that he shall be (endowed) with goodness and righteousness. And he shall walk in eternal light.,And sin shall perish in darkness for ever, And shall no more be seen from that day for evermore. 93. And after that Enoch both gave and began to recount from the books. And Enoch said:",Concerning the children of righteousness and concerning the elect of the world, And concerning the plant of uprightness, I will speak these things, Yea, I Enoch will declare (them) unto you, my sons:According to that which appeared to me in the heavenly vision, And which I have known through the word of the holy angels, And have learnt from the heavenly tablets.\',And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: \' I was born the seventh in the first week, While judgement and righteousness still endured.,And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore.,And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them.,And after that in the fifth week, at its close, The house of glory and dominion shall be built for ever.,And after that in the sixth week all who live in it shall be blinded, And the hearts of all of them shall godlessly forsake wisdom.And in it a man shall ascend; And at its close the house of dominion shall be burnt with fire, And the whole race of the chosen root shall be dispersed.,And after that in the seventh week shall an apostate generation arise, And many shall be its deeds, And all its deeds shall be apostate.,And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation.,For who is there of all the children of men that is able to hear the voice of the Holy One without being troubled And who can think His thoughts and who is there that can behold all the works",of heaven And how should there be one who could behold the heaven, and who is there that could understand the things of heaven and see a soul or a spirit and could tell thereof, or ascend and see,all their ends and think them or do like them And who is there of all men that could know what is the breadth and the length of the earth, and to whom has been shown the measure of all of them,Or is there any one who could discern the length of the heaven and how great is its height, and upon what it is founded, and how great is the number of the stars, and where all the luminaries rest
94.7. Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish. 94. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish.,And to certain men of a generation shall the paths of violence and of death be revealed, And they shall hold themselves afar from them, And shall not follow them.,And now I say unto you the righteous: Walk not in the paths of wickedness, nor in the paths of death, And draw not nigh to them, lest ye be destroyed.,But seek and choose for yourselves righteousness and an elect life, And walk in the paths of peace, And ye shall live and prosper.,And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish.,Woe to those who build unrighteousness and oppression And lay deceit as a foundation; For they shall be suddenly overthrown, And they shall have no peace.,Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.,Woe to you, ye rich, for ye have trusted in your riches, And from your riches shall ye depart, Because ye have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches.,Ye have committed blasphemy and unrighteousness, And have become ready for the day of slaughter, And the day of darkness and the day of the great judgement.,Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction.,And your righteous ones in those days shall be A reproach to the sinners and the godless."
95.3. Fear not the sinners, ye righteous; For again will the Lord deliver them into your hands, That ye may execute judgement upon them according to your desires. 95. Oh that mine eyes were a cloud of waters That I might weep over you, And pour down my tears as a cloud of waters: That so I might rest from my trouble of heart!,who has permitted you to practice reproaches and wickedness And so judgement shall overtake you, sinners.,Fear not the sinners, ye righteous; For again will the Lord deliver them into your hands, That ye may execute judgement upon them according to your desires.,Woe to you who fulminate anathemas which cannot be reversed: Healing shall therefore be far from you because of your sins.",Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works.",Woe to you, lying witnesses, And to those who weigh out injustice, For suddenly shall ye perish.,Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you.
96.1. Be hopeful, ye righteous; for suddenly shall the sinners perish before you, And ye shall have lordship over them according to your desires. 96. Be hopeful, ye righteous; for suddenly shall the sinners perish before you, And ye shall have lordship over them according to your desires.,And in the day of the tribulation of the sinners, Your children shall mount and rise as eagles, And higher than the vultures will be your nest, And ye shall ascend and enter the crevices of the earth, And the clefts of the rock for ever as coneys before the unrighteous, And the sirens shall sigh because of you-and weep.,Wherefore fear not, ye that have suffered; For healing shall be your portion, And a bright light shall enlighten you, And the voice of rest ye shall hear from heaven.,Woe unto you, ye sinners, for your riches make you appear like the righteous, But your hearts convict you of being sinners, And this fact shall be a testimony against you for a memorial of (your) evil deeds.,Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat, And drink wine in large bowls, And tread under foot the lowly with your might.,Woe to you who drink water from every fountain, For suddenly shall ye be consumed and wither away, Because ye have forsaken the fountain of life.,Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil.",Woe to you, ye mighty, Who with might oppress the righteous; For the day of your destruction is coming.In those days many and good days shall come to the righteous-in the day of your judgement.' "97. Believe, ye righteous, that the sinners will become a shame And perish in the day of unrighteousness.,Be it known unto you (ye sinners) that the Most High is mindful of your destruction, And the angels of heaven rejoice over your destruction.,What will ye do, ye sinners, And whither will ye flee on that day of judgement, When ye hear the voice of the prayer of the righteous,Yea, ye shall fare like unto them, Against whom this word shall be a testimony: ' Ye have been companions of sinners.,And in those days the prayer of the righteous shall reach unto the Lord, And for you the days of your judgement shall come.,And all the words of your unrighteousness shall be read out before the Great Holy One, And your faces shall be covered with shame, And He will reject every work which is grounded on unrighteousness.,Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you.,Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired.,And now let us do what we purposed: For we have gathered silver,,And many are the husbandmen in our houses.,And our granaries are (brim) full as with water,,Yea and like water your lies shall flow away; For your riches shall not abide But speedily ascend from you;For ye have acquired it all in unrighteousness, And ye shall be given over to a great curse." '
98.12. Woe to you who love the deeds of unrighteousness: wherefore do ye hope for good hap unto yourselves know that ye shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they shall cut 98. And now I swear unto you, to the wise and to the foolish, For ye shall have manifold experiences on the earth.,For ye men shall put on more adornments than a woman, And coloured garments more than a virgin: In royalty and in grandeur and in power, And in silver and in gold and in purple, And in splendour and in food they shall be poured out as water.,Therefore they shall be wanting in doctrine and wisdom, And they shall perish thereby together with their possessions; And with all their glory and their splendour, And in shame and in slaughter and in great destitution, Their spirits shall be cast into the furnace of fire.,I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it.,And barrenness has not been given to the woman, But on account of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children.,I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, by the Holy Great One, That all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens, And that none of your deeds of oppression are covered and hidden.,And do not think in your spirit nor say in your heart that ye do not know and that ye do not see",that every sin is every day recorded in heaven in the presence of the Most High. From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith ye oppress is written down every day till the day of your judgement.",Woe to you, ye fools, for through your folly shall ye perish: and ye transgress against the wise,,and so good hap shall not be your portion. And now, know ye that ye are prepared for the day of destruction: wherefore do not hope to live, ye sinners, but ye shall depart and die; for ye know no ransom; for ye are prepared for the day of the great judgement, for the day of tribulation and great shame for your spirits.,Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace.,Woe to you who love the deeds of unrighteousness: wherefore do ye hope for good hap unto yourselves know that ye shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they shall cut,off your necks and slay you, and have no mercy upon you. Woe to you who rejoice in the tribulation of the righteous; for no grave shall be dug for you. Woe to you who set at nought the words of,the righteous; for ye shall have no hope of life. Woe to you who write down lying and godless words; for they write down their lies that men may hear them and act godlessly towards (their)",neighbour. Therefore they shall have no peace but die a sudden death."
99.13. Woe to you who build your houses through the grievous toil of others, And all their building materials are the bricks and stones of sin; I tell you ye shall have no peace. 99. Woe to you who work godlessness, And glory in lying and extol them: Ye shall perish, and no happy life shall be yours.,Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not into sinners: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth.,In those days make ready, ye righteous, to raise your prayers as a memorial, And place them as a testimony before the angels, That they may place the sin of the sinners for a memorial before the Most High.,In those days the nations shall be stirred up, And the families of the nations shall arise on the day of destruction.,And in those days the destitute shall go forth and carry off their children, And they shall abandon them, so that their children shall perish through them: Yea, they shall abandon their children (that are still) sucklings, and not return to them, And shall have no pity on their beloved ones.,And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them.,And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams.,Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish.,But in those days blessed are all they who accept the words of wisdom, and understand them, And observe the paths of the Most High, and walk in the path of His righteousness, And become not godless with the godless; For they shall be saved.,Woe to you who spread evil to your neighbours; For you shall be slain in Sheol.",Woe to you who make deceitful and false measures, And (to them) who cause bitterness on the earth; For they shall thereby be utterly consumed.,Woe to you who build your houses through the grievous toil of others, And all their building materials are the bricks and stones of sin; I tell you ye shall have no peace.,Woe to them who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers And whose souls follow after idols; For they shall have no rest.",Woe to them who work unrighteousness and help oppression, And slay their neighbours until the day of the great judgement.,For He shall cast down your glory, And bring affliction on your hearts, And shall arouse His fierce indignation And destroy you all with the sword; And all the holy and righteous shall remember your sins.' "100. And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall be smitten And brothers one with another shall fall in death Till the streams flow with their blood.",For a man shall not withhold his hand from slaying his sons and his sons\' sons, And the sinner shall not withhold his hand from his honoured brother: From dawn till sunset they shall slay one another.,And the horse shall walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, And the chariot shall be submerged to its height.,In those days the angels shall descend into the secret places And gather together into one place all those who brought down sin And the Most High will arise on that day of judgement To execute great judgement amongst sinners.",And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint guardians from amongst the holy angels To guard them as the apple of an eye, Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have nought to fear.,And (then) the children of the earth shall see the wise in security, And shall understand all the words of this book, And recognize that their riches shall not be able to save them In the overthrow of their sins.,Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works.,Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you.,Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn.,And now, know ye that from the angels He will inquire as to your deeds in heaven, from the sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to your sins because upon the earth ye execute,judgement on the righteous. And He will summon to testify against you every cloud and mist and dew and rain; for they shall all be withheld because of you from descending upon you, and they,shall be mindful of your sins. And now give presents to the rain that it be not withheld from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, when it has received gold and silver from you that it may descend. When the hoar-frost and snow with their chilliness, and all the snow-storms with all their plagues fall upon you, in those days ye shall not be able to stand before them. 101. Observe the heaven, ye children of heaven, and every work of the Most High, and fear ye Him,and work no evil in His presence. If He closes the windows of heaven, and withholds the rain and,the dew from descending on the earth on your account, what will ye do then And if He sends His anger upon you because of your deeds, ye cannot petition Him; for ye spake proud and insolent,words against His righteousness: therefore ye shall have no peace. And see ye not the sailors of the ships, how their ships are tossed to and fro by the waves, and are shaken by the winds, and are,in sore trouble And therefore do they fear because all their goodly possessions go upon the sea with them, and they have evil forebodings of heart that the sea will swallow them and they will,perish therein. Are not the entire sea and all its waters, and all its movements, the work of the Most,High, and has He not set limits to its doings, and confined it throughout by the sand And at His reproof it is afraid and dries up, and all its fish die and all that is in it; But ye sinners that are,on the earth fear Him not. Has He not made the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein Who has given understanding and wisdom to everything that moves on the earth and in the sea.,Do not the sailors of the ships fear the sea Yet sinners fear not the Most High."' "
102.4. Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness. 102.5. And grieve not if your soul into Sheol has descended in grief, And that in your life your body fared not according to your goodness, But wait for the day of the judgement of sinners And for the day of cursing and chastisement.' "102. In those days when He hath brought a grievous fire upon you, Whither will ye flee, and where will ye find deliverance And when He launches forth His Word against you Will you not be affrighted and fear,And all the luminaries shall be affrighted with great fear, And all the earth shall be affrighted and tremble and be alarmed.,And all the angels shall execute their commandst And shall seek to hide themselves from the presence of the Great Glory, And the children of earth shall tremble and quake; And ye sinners shall be cursed for ever, And ye shall have no peace.,Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness.,And grieve not if your soul into Sheol has descended in grief, And that in your life your body fared not according to your goodness, But wait for the day of the judgement of sinners And for the day of cursing and chastisement.,And yet when ye die the sinners speak over you: ' As we die, so die the righteous, And what benefit do they reap for their deeds,Behold, even as we, so do they die in grief and darkness, And what have they more than we From henceforth we are equal.,And what will they receive and what will they see for ever Behold, they too have died, And henceforth for ever shall they see no light.,I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content to eat and drink, and rob and sin, and strip men naked, and,acquire wealth and see good days. Have ye seen the righteous how their end falls out, that no manner,of violence is found in them till their death ' Nevertheless they perished and became as though they had not been, and their spirits descended into Sheol in tribulation." '
103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small." '103.10. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by the glory of the Great and Honoured and,Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them:,That all goodness and joy and glory are prepared for them, And written down for the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, And that manifold good shall be given to you in recompense for your labours, And that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the living.,And the spirits of you who have died in righteousness shall live and rejoice, And their spirits shall not perish, nor their memorial from before the face of the Great One Unto all the generations of the world: wherefore no longer fear their contumely.,Woe to you, ye sinners, when ye have died, If ye die in the wealth of your sins, And those who are like you say regarding you: \' Blessed are the sinners: they have seen all their days.,And how they have died in prosperity and in wealth, And have not seen tribulation or murder in their life; And they have died in honour, And judgement has not been executed on them during their life.,Know ye, that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol And they shall be wretched in their great tribulation.,And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace.,Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: \' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small.,And we have been destroyed and have not found any to help us even with a word: We have been tortured and destroyed, and not hoped to see life from day to day.,We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us.,They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not.",We desired to get away from them that we might escape and be at rest, But found no place whereunto we should flee and be safe from them.,And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice.,And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 103.12. They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not." 103.13. We desired to get away from them that we might escape and be at rest, But found no place whereunto we should flee and be safe from them. 103.14. And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice. 103.15. And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us.
104.2. One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven,
104.12. concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the 104. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great,One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven,,ye shall shine and ye shall be seen, and the portals of heaven shall be opened to you. And in your cry, cry for judgement, and it shall appear to you; for all your tribulation shall be visited on the,rulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal,judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them,,but keep afar from their violence; for ye shall become companions of the hosts of heaven. And, although ye sinners say: \' All our sins shall not be searched out and be written down, nevertheless",they shall write down all your sins every day. And now I show unto you that light and darkness,,day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your,idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning,their words. But when they write down truthfully all my words in their languages, and do not change or minish ought from my words but write them all down truthfully -all that I first testified,concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the,wise to become a cause of joy and uprightness and much wisdom. And to them shall the books be given, and they shall believe in them and rejoice over them, and then shall all the righteous who have learnt therefrom all the paths of uprightness be recompensed.\'
105.1. In those days the Lord bade (them) to summon and testify to the children of earth concerning their wisdom: Show (it) unto them; for ye are their guides, and a recompense over the whole earth. ". None
|33. Anon., Jubilees, 1.29, 23.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife, Earthly
Found in books: Collins (2016) 102; Stuckenbruck (2007) 149, 150, 386
|1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. |
23.14. and to decrease in jubilees, and to grow old quickly, and to be full of their days by reason of manifold tribulation and the wickedness of their ways,''. None
|34. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2-12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Resurrection • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Angelic • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • Life / Afterlife, Eternal • Sleep Afterlife • Sleep Afterlife, Pleasant • afterlife
Found in books: Collins (2016) 123; Garcia (2021) 34, 112; Janowitz (2002) 71; Stuckenbruck (2007) 54, 150, 228, 229, 364, 388, 442, 496, 520, 524, 568, 569, 570, 735, 736
12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃' '. None
|12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence. 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.' '. None|
|35. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 11.28, 14.16, 15.17, 17.27-17.28, 31.2, 33.7-33.15, 41.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Resurrection • Life / Afterlife • afterlife
Found in books: Corley (2002) 19, 102, 103, 225; Garcia (2021) 46, 126; Stuckenbruck (2007) 249, 264, 347, 498
|14.16. Give, and take, and beguile yourself,because in Hades one cannot look for luxury. |
15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him.
17.27. Who will sing praises to the Most High in Hades,as do those who are alive and give thanks? 17.28. From the dead, as from one who does not exist,thanksgiving has ceased;he who is alive and well sings the Lords praises.
31.2. Healthy sleep depends on moderate eating;he rises early, and feels fit. The distress of sleeplessness and of nausea and colic are with the glutton.
31.2. Wakeful anxiety prevents slumber,and a severe illness carries off sleep.
33.7. Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.8. By the Lords decision they were distinguished,and he appointed the different seasons and feasts; 33.9. some of them he exalted and hallowed,and some of them he made ordinary days. 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12. some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other.
41.4. and how can you reject the good pleasure of the Most High?Whether life is for ten or a hundred or a thousand years,there is no inquiry about it in Hades.' '. None
|36. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1-3.2, 3.4, 9.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Resurrection • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • Life / Afterlife, Eternal • afterlife • afterlife conceptions
Found in books: Garcia (2021) 134, 154; Keener(2005) 176, 178, 180; Stuckenbruck (2007) 506, 524
|3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. |
3.1. Why sleepest thou, O my soul, And blessest not the Lord? 3.2. In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died,and their departure was thought to be an affliction, 3.2. Sing a new song, Unto God who is worthy to be praised. Sing and be wakeful against His awaking, For good is a psalm (sung) to God from a glad heart.
3.4. For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality.
3.4. The righteous despiseth not the chastening of the Lord; His will is always before the Lord.
9.15. Thou blessest the righteous, and dost not reprove them for the sins that they have committed; And Thy goodness is upon them that sin, when they repent.
9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind.''. None
|37. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model
Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 392; Wolfsdorf (2020) 549
|38. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • afterlife,
Found in books: Bay (2022) 168; Stuckenbruck (2007) 450
|39. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 17.354, 18.14, 18.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • Essenes, afterlife beliefs • Josephus Essenes, death and afterlife beliefs • Sleep Afterlife • afterlife
Found in books: Garcia (2021) 140, 210; Klawans (2019) 48; Stuckenbruck (2007) 496; Taylor (2012) 83
17.354. ̓Εγὼ δὲ οὐκ ἀλλότρια νομίσας αὐτὰ τῷδε τῷ λόγῳ εἶναι διὰ τὸ περὶ τῶν βασιλέων αὐτὸν ἐνεστηκέναι καὶ ἄλλως ἐπὶ παραδείγματι φέρειν τοῦ τε ἀμφὶ τὰς ψυχὰς ἀθανασίας ἐμφεροῦς καὶ τοῦ θείου προμηθείᾳ τὰ ἀνθρώπεια περιειληφότος τῇ αὐτοῦ, καλῶς ἔχειν ἐνόμισα εἰπεῖν. ὅτῳ δὲ ἀπιστεῖται τὰ τοιάδε γνώμης ὀνινάμενος τῆς ἑαυτοῦ κώλυμα οὐκ ἂν γένοιτο τῷ ἐπ' ἀρετὴν αὐτῷ προστιθεμένῳ." '
18.14. ̓Αλεξάνδρῳ δὲ Τιγράνης ὁμώνυμος τῷ ἀδελφῷ γίνεται παῖς καὶ βασιλεὺς ̓Αρμενίας ὑπὸ Νέρωνος ἐκπέμπεται υἱός τε ̓Αλέξανδρος αὐτῷ γίνεται. γαμεῖ δ' οὗτος ̓Αντιόχου τοῦ Κομμαγηνῶν βασιλέως θυγατέρα ̓Ιωτάπην, ἡσίοδός τε τῆς ἐν Κιλικίᾳ Οὐεσπασιανὸς αὐτὸν ἵσταται βασιλέα." '
18.14. ἀθάνατόν τε ἰσχὺν ταῖς ψυχαῖς πίστις αὐτοῖς εἶναι καὶ ὑπὸ χθονὸς δικαιώσεις τε καὶ τιμὰς οἷς ἀρετῆς ἢ κακίας ἐπιτήδευσις ἐν τῷ βίῳ γέγονεν, καὶ ταῖς μὲν εἱργμὸν ἀίδιον προτίθεσθαι, ταῖς δὲ ῥᾳστώνην τοῦ ἀναβιοῦν.' "
18.18. ̓Εσσηνοῖς δὲ ἐπὶ μὲν θεῷ καταλείπειν φιλεῖ τὰ πάντα ὁ λόγος, ἀθανατίζουσιν δὲ τὰς ψυχὰς περιμάχητον ἡγούμενοι τοῦ δικαίου τὴν πρόσοδον.
18.18. τιμία δὲ ἦν ̓Αντωνία Τιβερίῳ εἰς τὰ πάντα συγγενείας τε ἀξιώματι, Δρούσου γὰρ ἦν ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ γυνή, καὶ ἀρετῇ τοῦ σώφρονος: νέα γὰρ χηρεύειν παρέμεινεν γάμῳ τε ἀπεῖπεν τῷ πρὸς ἕτερον καίπερ τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ κελεύοντός τινι γαμεῖσθαι, καὶ λοιδοριῶν ἀπηλλαγμένον διεσώσατο αὐτῆς τὸν βίον.'". None
|17.354. So Archelaus’s country was laid to the province of Syria; and Cyrenius, one that had been consul, was sent by Caesar to take account of people’s effects in Syria, and to sell the house of Archelaus. |
18.14. Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possession of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero; he had a son, Alexander, who married Jotape, the daughter of Antiochus, the king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia.
18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again;
18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for;
18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach.''. None
|40. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.153-2.165, 3.362-3.379, 3.381-3.382, 6.47, 7.358-7.369 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • Essenes, afterlife beliefs • Josephus Essenes, death and afterlife beliefs • Sleep Afterlife • afterlife • afterlife,
Found in books: Bay (2022) 249, 254, 255, 264; Garcia (2021) 134, 137, 138, 142, 154, 210; Klawans (2019) 44, 45; Stuckenbruck (2007) 496, 573; Taylor (2012) 82, 83
2.153. μειδιῶντες δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἀλγηδόσιν καὶ κατειρωνευόμενοι τῶν τὰς βασάνους προσφερόντων εὔθυμοι τὰς ψυχὰς ἠφίεσαν ὡς πάλιν κομιούμενοι.' "2.154. Καὶ γὰρ ἔρρωται παρ' αὐτοῖς ἥδε ἡ δόξα, φθαρτὰ μὲν εἶναι τὰ σώματα καὶ τὴν ὕλην οὐ μόνιμον αὐτῶν, τὰς δὲ ψυχὰς ἀθανάτους ἀεὶ διαμένειν, καὶ συμπλέκεσθαι μὲν ἐκ τοῦ λεπτοτάτου φοιτώσας αἰθέρος ὥσπερ εἱρκταῖς τοῖς σώμασιν ἴυγγί τινι φυσικῇ κατασπωμένας," "2.155. ἐπειδὰν δὲ ἀνεθῶσι τῶν κατὰ σάρκα δεσμῶν, οἷα δὴ μακρᾶς δουλείας ἀπηλλαγμένας τότε χαίρειν καὶ μετεώρους φέρεσθαι. καὶ ταῖς μὲν ἀγαθαῖς ὁμοδοξοῦντες παισὶν ̔Ελλήνων ἀποφαίνονται τὴν ὑπὲρ ὠκεανὸν δίαιταν ἀποκεῖσθαι καὶ χῶρον οὔτε ὄμβροις οὔτε νιφετοῖς οὔτε καύμασι βαρυνόμενον, ἀλλ' ὃν ἐξ ὠκεανοῦ πραὺ̈ς ἀεὶ ζέφυρος ἐπιπνέων ἀναψύχει: ταῖς δὲ φαύλαις ζοφώδη καὶ χειμέριον ἀφορίζονται μυχὸν γέμοντα τιμωριῶν ἀδιαλείπτων." "2.156. δοκοῦσι δέ μοι κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔννοιαν ̔́Ελληνες τοῖς τε ἀνδρείοις αὐτῶν, οὓς ἥρωας καὶ ἡμιθέους καλοῦσιν, τὰς μακάρων νήσους ἀνατεθεικέναι, ταῖς δὲ τῶν πονηρῶν ψυχαῖς καθ' ᾅδου τὸν ἀσεβῶν χῶρον, ἔνθα καὶ κολαζομένους τινὰς μυθολογοῦσιν, Σισύφους καὶ Ταντάλους ̓Ιξίονάς τε καὶ Τιτυούς, πρῶτον μὲν ἀιδίους ὑφιστάμενοι τὰς ψυχάς, ἔπειτα εἰς προτροπὴν ἀρετῆς καὶ κακίας ἀποτροπήν." '2.157. τούς τε γὰρ ἀγαθοὺς γίνεσθαι κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀμείνους ἐλπίδι τιμῆς καὶ μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν, τῶν τε κακῶν ἐμποδίζεσθαι τὰς ὁρμὰς δέει προσδοκώντων, εἰ καὶ λάθοιεν ἐν τῷ ζῆν, μετὰ τὴν διάλυσιν ἀθάνατον τιμωρίαν ὑφέξειν. 2.158. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ̓Εσσηνοὶ περὶ ψυχῆς θεολογοῦσιν ἄφυκτον δέλεαρ τοῖς ἅπαξ γευσαμένοις τῆς σοφίας αὐτῶν καθιέντες.' "2.159. Εἰσὶν δ' ἐν αὐτοῖς οἳ καὶ τὰ μέλλοντα προγινώσκειν ὑπισχνοῦνται, βίβλοις ἱεραῖς καὶ διαφόροις ἁγνείαις καὶ προφητῶν ἀποφθέγμασιν ἐμπαιδοτριβούμενοι: σπάνιον δ' εἴ ποτε ἐν ταῖς προαγορεύσεσιν ἀστοχοῦσιν." "2.161. δοκιμάζοντες μέντοι τριετίᾳ τὰς γαμετάς, ἐπειδὰν τρὶς καθαρθῶσιν εἰς πεῖραν τοῦ δύνασθαι τίκτειν, οὕτως ἄγονται. ταῖς δ' ἐγκύμοσιν οὐχ ὁμιλοῦσιν, ἐνδεικνύμενοι τὸ μὴ δι' ἡδονὴν ἀλλὰ τέκνων χρείαν γαμεῖν. λουτρὰ δὲ ταῖς γυναιξὶν ἀμπεχομέναις ἐνδύματα, καθάπερ τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἐν περιζώματι. τοιαῦτα μὲν ἔθη τοῦδε τοῦ τάγματος." '2.162. Δύο δὲ τῶν προτέρων Φαρισαῖοι μὲν οἱ μετὰ ἀκριβείας δοκοῦντες ἐξηγεῖσθαι τὰ νόμιμα καὶ τὴν πρώτην ἀπάγοντες αἵρεσιν εἱμαρμένῃ τε καὶ θεῷ προσάπτουσι πάντα, 2.163. καὶ τὸ μὲν πράττειν τὰ δίκαια καὶ μὴ κατὰ τὸ πλεῖστον ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις κεῖσθαι, βοηθεῖν δὲ εἰς ἕκαστον καὶ τὴν εἱμαρμένην: ψυχήν τε πᾶσαν μὲν ἄφθαρτον, μεταβαίνειν δὲ εἰς ἕτερον σῶμα τὴν τῶν ἀγαθῶν μόνην, τὰς δὲ τῶν φαύλων ἀιδίῳ τιμωρίᾳ κολάζεσθαι. 2.164. Σαδδουκαῖοι δέ, τὸ δεύτερον τάγμα, τὴν μὲν εἱμαρμένην παντάπασιν ἀναιροῦσιν καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἔξω τοῦ δρᾶν τι κακὸν ἢ ἐφορᾶν τίθενται:' "2.165. φασὶν δ' ἐπ' ἀνθρώπων ἐκλογῇ τό τε καλὸν καὶ τὸ κακὸν προκεῖσθαι καὶ κατὰ γνώμην ἑκάστου τούτων ἑκατέρῳ προσιέναι. ψυχῆς τε τὴν διαμονὴν καὶ τὰς καθ' ᾅδου τιμωρίας καὶ τιμὰς ἀναιροῦσιν." '
3.362. “τί γὰρ τοσοῦτον, ἔφη, σφῶν αὐτῶν, ἑταῖροι, φονῶμεν; ἢ τί τὰ φίλτατα διαστασιάζομεν, σῶμα καὶ ψυχήν; ἠλλάχθαι τις ἐμέ φησιν.' "3.363. ἀλλ' οἴδασιν ̔Ρωμαῖοι τοῦτό γε. καλὸν ἐν πολέμῳ θνήσκειν, ἀλλὰ πολέμου νόμῳ, τουτέστιν ὑπὸ τῶν κρατούντων." "3.364. εἰ μὲν οὖν τὸν ̔Ρωμαίων ἀποστρέφομαι σίδηρον, ἄξιος ἀληθῶς εἰμι τοὐμοῦ ξίφους καὶ χειρὸς τῆς ἐμῆς: εἰ δ' ἐκείνους εἰσέρχεται φειδὼ πολεμίου, πόσῳ δικαιότερον ἂν ἡμᾶς ἡμῶν αὐτῶν εἰσέλθοι; καὶ γὰρ ἠλίθιον ταῦτα δρᾶν σφᾶς αὐτούς, περὶ ὧν πρὸς ἐκείνους διιστάμεθα." "3.365. καλὸν γὰρ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἀποθνήσκειν: φημὶ κἀγώ, μαχομένους μέντοι, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀφαιρουμένων αὐτήν. νῦν δ' οὔτ' εἰς μάχην ἀντιάζουσιν ἡμῖν οὔτ' ἀναιροῦσιν ἡμᾶς: δειλὸς δὲ ὁμοίως ὅ τε μὴ βουλόμενος θνήσκειν ὅταν δέῃ καὶ ὁ βουλόμενος, ὅταν μὴ δέῃ." '3.366. τί δὲ καὶ δεδοικότες πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους οὐκ ἄνιμεν;' "3.367. ἆρ' οὐχὶ θάνατον; εἶθ' ὃν δεδοίκαμεν ἐκ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ὑποπτευόμενον ἑαυτοῖς βέβαιον ἐπιστήσομεν; ἀλλὰ δουλείαν, ἐρεῖ τις. πάνυ γοῦν νῦν ἐσμὲν ἐλεύθεροι." "3.368. γενναῖον γὰρ ἀνελεῖν ἑαυτόν, φήσει τις. οὐ μὲν οὖν, ἀλλ' ἀγενέστατον, ὡς ἔγωγε καὶ κυβερνήτην ἡγοῦμαι δειλότατον, ὅστις χειμῶνα δεδοικὼς πρὸ τῆς θυέλλης ἐβάπτισεν ἑκὼν τὸ σκάφος." '3.369. ἀλλὰ μὴν ἡ αὐτοχειρία καὶ τῆς κοινῆς ἁπάντων ζῴων φύσεως ἀλλότριον καὶ πρὸς τὸν κτίσαντα θεὸν ἡμᾶς ἐστιν ἀσέβεια.' "3.371. τὸν δὲ θεὸν οὐκ οἴεσθε ἀγανακτεῖν, ὅταν ἄνθρωπος αὐτοῦ τὸ δῶρον ὑβρίζῃ; καὶ γὰρ εἰλήφαμεν παρ' ἐκείνου τὸ εἶναι καὶ τὸ μηκέτι εἶναι πάλιν ἐκείνῳ δίδομεν." "3.372. τὰ μέν γε σώματα θνητὰ πᾶσιν καὶ ἐκ φθαρτῆς ὕλης δεδημιούργηται, ψυχὴ δὲ ἀθάνατος ἀεὶ καὶ θεοῦ μοῖρα τοῖς σώμασιν ἐνοικίζεται: εἶτ' ἐὰν μὲν ἀφανίσῃ τις ἀνθρώπου παρακαταθήκην ἢ διαθῆται κακῶς, πονηρὸς εἶναι δοκεῖ καὶ ἄπιστος, εἰ δέ τις τοῦ σφετέρου σώματος ἐκβάλλει τὴν παρακαταθήκην τοῦ θεοῦ, λεληθέναι δοκεῖ τὸν ἀδικούμενον;" '3.373. καὶ κολάζειν μὲν τοὺς ἀποδράντας οἰκέτας δίκαιον νενόμισται κἂν πονηροὺς καταλείπωσι δεσπότας, αὐτοὶ δὲ κάλλιστον δεσπότην ἀποδιδράσκοντες τὸν θεὸν οὐ δοκοῦμεν ἀσεβεῖν;' "3.374. ἆρ' οὐκ ἴστε ὅτι τῶν μὲν ἐξιόντων τοῦ βίου κατὰ τὸν τῆς φύσεως νόμον καὶ τὸ ληφθὲν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ χρέος ἐκτινύντων, ὅταν ὁ δοὺς κομίσασθαι θέλῃ, κλέος μὲν αἰώνιον, οἶκοι δὲ καὶ γενεαὶ βέβαιοι, καθαραὶ δὲ καὶ ἐπήκοοι μένουσιν αἱ ψυχαί, χῶρον οὐράνιον λαχοῦσαι τὸν ἁγιώτατον, ἔνθεν ἐκ περιτροπῆς αἰώνων ἁγνοῖς πάλιν ἀντενοικίζονται σώμασιν:" "3.375. ὅσοις δὲ καθ' ἑαυτῶν ἐμάνησαν αἱ χεῖρες, τούτων ᾅδης μὲν δέχεται τὰς ψυχὰς σκοτεινότερος, ὁ δὲ τούτων πατὴρ θεὸς εἰς ἐγγόνους τιμωρεῖται τοὺς τῶν πατέρων ὑβριστάς." '3.376. διὰ τοῦτο μεμίσηται παρὰ θεῷ τοῦτο καὶ παρὰ τῷ σοφωτάτῳ κολάζεται νομοθέτῃ: 3.377. τοὺς γοῦν ἀναιροῦντας ἑαυτοὺς παρὰ μὲν ἡμῖν μέχρις ἡλίου δύσεως ἀτάφους ἐκρίπτειν ἔκριναν καίτοι καὶ πολεμίους θάπτειν θεμιτὸν ἡγούμενοι,' "3.378. παρ' ἑτέροις δὲ καὶ τὰς δεξιὰς τῶν τοιούτων νεκρῶν ἀποκόπτειν ἐκέλευσαν, αἷς ἐστρατεύσαντο καθ' ἑαυτῶν, ἡγούμενοι καθάπερ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ψυχῆς ἀλλότριον, οὕτως καὶ τὴν χεῖρα τοῦ σώματος." '3.379. καλὸν οὖν, ἑταῖροι, δίκαια φρονεῖν καὶ μὴ ταῖς ἀνθρωπίναις συμφοραῖς προσθεῖναι τὴν εἰς τὸν κτίσαντα ἡμᾶς δυσσέβειαν.' "
3.381. οὐ μεταβήσομαι δ' ἐγὼ εἰς τὴν τῶν πολεμίων τάξιν, ἵν' ἐμαυτοῦ προδότης γένωμαι: καὶ γὰρ ἂν εἴην πολὺ τῶν αὐτομολούντων πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους ἠλιθιώτερος, εἴ γ' ἐκεῖνοι μὲν ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ τοῦτο πράττουσιν, ἐγὼ δὲ ἐπὶ ἀπωλείᾳ, καί γε τῇ ἐμαυτοῦ." "3.382. τὴν μέντοι ̔Ρωμαίων ἐνέδραν εὔχομαι: μετὰ γὰρ δεξιὰν ἀναιρούμενος ὑπ' αὐτῶν εὔθυμος τεθνήξομαι, τὴν τῶν ψευσαμένων ἀπιστίαν νίκης μείζονα ἀποφέρων παραμυθίαν.”" "
6.47. τίς γὰρ οὐκ οἶδε τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀνδρῶν ὅτι τὰς μὲν ἐν παρατάξει ψυχὰς σιδήρῳ τῶν σαρκῶν ἀπολυθείσας τὸ καθαρώτατον στοιχεῖον αἰθὴρ ξενοδοχῶν ἄστροις ἐγκαθιδρύει, δαίμονες δ' ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἥρωες εὐμενεῖς ἰδίοις ἐγγόνοις ἐμφανίζονται, τὰς δὲ ἐν νοσοῦσι τοῖς σώμασι συντακείσας," "
7.358. ἀλλ' εἴ γε καὶ τοὺς ἐναντίους ἐξ ἀρχῆς λόγους ἐπαιδεύθημεν, ὡς ἄρα μέγιστον ἀγαθὸν ἀνθρώποις ἐστὶ τὸ ζῆν συμφορὰ δ' ὁ θάνατος, ὁ γοῦν καιρὸς ἡμᾶς παρακαλεῖ φέρειν εὐκαρδίως αὐτὸν θεοῦ γνώμῃ καὶ κατ' ἀνάγκας τελευτήσαντας:" "7.359. πάλαι γάρ, ὡς ἔοικε, κατὰ τοῦ κοινοῦ παντὸς ̓Ιουδαίων γένους ταύτην ἔθετο τὴν ψῆφον ὁ θεός, ὥσθ' ἡμᾶς τοῦ ζῆν ἀπηλλάχθαι μὴ μέλλοντας αὐτῷ χρῆσθαι κατὰ τρόπον." '7.361. ποίοις γὰρ ὅπλοις ̔Ρωμαίων τεθνήκασιν οἱ Καισάρειαν ̓Ιουδαῖοι κατοικοῦντες;' "7.362. ἀλλ' οὐδὲ μελλήσαντας αὐτοὺς ἐκείνων ἀφίστασθαι, μεταξὺ δὲ τὴν ἑβδόμην ἑορτάζοντας τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Καισαρέων ἐπιδραμὸν μηδὲ χεῖρας ἀνταίροντας ἅμα γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις κατέσφαξαν, οὐδ' αὐτοὺς ̔Ρωμαίους ἐντραπέντες, οἳ μόνους ἡμᾶς ἡγοῦντο πολεμίους τοὺς ἀφεστηκότας." "7.363. ἀλλὰ φήσει τις, ὅτι Καισαρεῦσιν ἦν ἀεὶ διαφορὰ πρὸς τοὺς παρ' αὐτοῖς, καὶ τοῦ καιροῦ λαβόμενοι τὸ παλαιὸν μῖσος ἀπεπλήρωσαν." "7.364. τί οὖν τοὺς ἐν Σκυθοπόλει φῶμεν; ἡμῖν γὰρ ἐκεῖνοι διὰ τοὺς ̔́Ελληνας πολεμεῖν ἐτόλμησαν, ἀλλ' οὐ μετὰ τῶν συγγενῶν ἡμῶν ̔Ρωμαίους ἀμύνεσθαι." "7.365. πολὺ τοίνυν ὤνησεν αὐτοὺς ἡ πρὸς ἐκείνους εὔνοια καὶ πίστις: ὑπ' αὐτῶν μέντοι πανοικεσίᾳ πικρῶς κατεφονεύθησαν ταύτην τῆς συμμαχίας ἀπολαβόντες ἀμοιβήν:" "7.366. ἃ γὰρ ἐκείνους ὑφ' ἡμῶν ἐκώλυσαν ταῦθ' ὑπέμειναν ὡς αὐτοὶ δρᾶσαι θελήσαντες. μακρὸν ἂν εἴη νῦν ἰδίᾳ περὶ ἑκάστων λέγειν:" "7.367. ἴστε γὰρ ὅτι τῶν ἐν Συρίᾳ πόλεων οὐκ ἔστιν ἥτις τοὺς παρ' αὐτῇ κατοικοῦντας ̓Ιουδαίους οὐκ ἀνῄρηκεν, ἡμῖν πλέον ἢ ̔Ρωμαίοις ὄντας πολεμίους:" '7.368. ὅπου γε Δαμασκηνοὶ μηδὲ πρόφασιν εὔλογον πλάσαι δυνηθέντες φόνου μιαρωτάτου τὴν αὐτῶν πόλιν ἐνέπλησαν ὀκτακισχιλίους πρὸς τοῖς μυρίοις ̓Ιουδαίους ἅμα γυναιξὶ καὶ γενεαῖς ἀποσφάξαντες.' "7.369. τὸ δ' ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ πλῆθος τῶν μετ' αἰκίας ἀνῃρημένων ἕξ που μυριάδας ὑπερβάλλειν ἐπυνθανόμεθα. κἀκεῖνοι μὲν ἴσως ἐπ' ἀλλοτρίας γῆς οὐδὲν ἀντίπαλον εὑράμενοι τοῖς πολεμίοις οὕτως ἀπέθανον, τοῖς δ' ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκείας τὸν πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους πόλεμον ἀραμένοις ἅπασι τε τῶν ἐλπίδα νίκης ἐχυρᾶς παρασχεῖν δυναμένων οὐχ ὑπῆρξε;" '. None
|2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate or providence, and to God, 2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. 2.164. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; 2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. |
3.362. when he said thus to them:—“O my friends, why are we so earnest to kill ourselves? and why do we set our soul and body, which are such dear companions, at such variance? 3.363. Can anyone pretend that I am not the man I was formerly? Nay, the Romans are sensible how that matter stands well enough. It is a brave thing to die in war; but so that it be according to the law of war, by the hand of conquerors. 3.364. If, therefore, I avoid death from the sword of the Romans, I am truly worthy to be killed by my own sword, and my own hand; but if they admit of mercy, and would spare their enemy, how much more ought we to have mercy upon ourselves, and to spare ourselves? For it is certainly a foolish thing to do that to ourselves which we quarrel with them for doing to us. 3.365. I confess freely that it is a brave thing to die for liberty; but still so that it be in war, and done by those who take that liberty from us; but in the present case our enemies do neither meet us in battle, nor do they kill us. Now, he is equally a coward who will not die when he is obliged to die, and he who will die when he is not obliged so to do. 3.366. What are we afraid of, when we will not go up to the Romans? Is it death? 3.367. If so, what we are afraid of, when we but suspect our enemies will inflict it on us, shall we inflict it on ourselves for certain? But it may be said we must be slaves. 3.368. And are we then in a clear state of liberty at present? It may also be said that it is a manly act for one to kill himself. No, certainly, but a most unmanly one; as I should esteem that pilot to be an arrant coward, who, out of fear of a storm, should sink his ship of his own accord. 3.369. Now, self-murder is a crime most remote from the common nature of all animals, and an instance of impiety against God our Creator; 3.371. And do not you think that God is very angry when a man does injury to what he hath bestowed on him? For from him it is that we have received our being, and we ought to leave it to his disposal to take that being away from us. 3.372. The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and are created out of corruptible matter; but the soul is ever immortal, and is a portion of the divinity that inhabits our bodies. Besides, if anyone destroys or abuses a depositum he hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked and perfidious person; but then if anyone cast out of his body this Divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is thereby affronted does not know of it. 3.373. Moreover, our law justly ordains that slaves which run away from their masters shall be punished, though the masters they run away from may have been wicked masters to them. And shall we endeavor to run away from God, who is the best of all masters, and not think ourselves highly guilty of impiety? 3.374. Do not you know that those who depart out of this life, according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which was received from God, when he that lent it us is pleased to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame? that their houses and their posterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from whence, in the revolution of ages, they are again sent into pure bodies; 3.375. while the souls of those whose hands have acted madly against themselves are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their Father, punishes those that offend against either of them in their posterity? 3.376. for which reason God hates such doings, and the crime is punished by our most wise legislator. 3.377. Accordingly, our laws determine that the bodies of such as kill themselves should be exposed till the sun be set, without burial, although at the same time it be allowed by them to be lawful to bury our enemies sooner. 3.378. The laws of other nations also enjoin such men’s hands to be cut off when they are dead, which had been made use of in destroying themselves when alive, while they reckoned that as the body is alien from the soul, so is the hand alien from the body. 3.379. It is therefore, my friends, a right thing to reason justly, and not add to the calamities which men bring upon us impiety towards our Creator.
3.381. For my part, I will not run over to our enemies’ quarters, in order to be a traitor to myself; for certainly I should then be much more foolish than those that deserted to the enemy, since they did it in order to save themselves, and I should do it for destruction, for my own destruction. 3.382. However, I heartily wish the Romans may prove treacherous in this matter; for if, after their offer of their right hand for security, I be slain by them, I shall die cheerfully, and carry away with me the sense of their perfidiousness, as a consolation greater than victory itself.”
6.47. For what man of virtue is there who does not know, that those souls which are severed from their fleshly bodies in battles by the sword are received by the ether, that purest of elements, and joined to that company which are placed among the stars; that they become good demons, and propitious heroes, and show themselves as such to their posterity afterwards?
7.358. But put the case that we had been brought up under another persuasion, and taught that life is the greatest good which men are capable of, and that death is a calamity; however, the circumstances we are now in ought to be an inducement to us to bear such calamity courageously, since it is by the will of God, and by necessity, that we are to die; 7.359. for it now appears that God hath made such a decree against the whole Jewish nation, that we are to be deprived of this life which he knew we would not make a due use of. 7.361. What Roman weapons, I pray you, were those by which the Jews at Caesarea were slain? 7.362. On the contrary, when they were no way disposed to rebel, but were all the while keeping their seventh day festival, and did not so much as lift up their hands against the citizens of Caesarea, yet did those citizens run upon them in great crowds, and cut their throats, and the throats of their wives and children, and this without any regard to the Romans themselves, who never took us for their enemies till we revolted from them. 7.363. But some may be ready to say, that truly the people of Caesarea had always a quarrel against those that lived among them, and that when an opportunity offered itself, they only satisfied the old rancor they had against them. 7.364. What then shall we say to those of Scythopolis, who ventured to wage war with us on account of the Greeks? Nor did they do it by way of revenge upon the Romans, when they acted in concert with our countrymen. 7.365. Wherefore you see how little our goodwill and fidelity to them profited us, while they were slain, they and their whole families, after the most inhuman manner, which was all the requital that was made them for the assistance they had afforded the others; 7.366. for that very same destruction which they had prevented from falling upon the others did they suffer themselves from them, as if they had been ready to be the actors against them. It would be too long for me to speak at this time of every destruction brought upon us; 7.367. for you cannot but know that there was not anyone Syrian city which did not slay their Jewish inhabitants, and were not more bitter enemies to us than were the Romans themselves; 7.368. nay, even those of Damascus, when they were able to allege no tolerable pretense against us, filled their city with the most barbarous slaughters of our people, and cut the throats of eighteen thousand Jews, with their wives and children. 7.369. And as to the multitude of those that were slain in Egypt, and that with torments also, we have been informed they were more than sixty thousand; those, indeed, being in a foreign country, and so naturally meeting with nothing to oppose against their enemies, were killed in the manner forementioned. As for all those of us who have waged war against the Romans in our own country, had we not sufficient reason to have sure hopes of victory?' '. None
|41. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.161-2.162, 2.211, 2.218-2.219 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • Essenes, afterlife beliefs • Josephus Essenes, death and afterlife beliefs
Found in books: Klawans (2019) 44, 48; Stuckenbruck (2007) 371, 573; Taylor (2012) 83
2.161. οὐθὲν ἀνέχονται ἐξαμαρτεῖν. τοιοῦτος μὲν δή τις αὐτὸς ἡμῶν ὁ νομοθέτης, οὐ γόης οὐδ' ἀπατεών, ἅπερ λοιδοροῦντες λέγουσιν ἀδίκως, ἀλλ' οἵους παρὰ τοῖς ̔́Ελλησιν αὐχοῦσιν τὸν Μίνω γεγονέναι" '2.162. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα τοὺς ἄλλους νομοθέτας: οἱ μὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν τοὺς νόμους ὑποτίθενται, ὁ δέ γε Μίνως ἔλεγεν ὅτι εἰς τὸν ̓Απόλλω καὶ τὸ Δελφικὸν αὐτοῦ μαντεῖον τὰς τῶν νόμων μαντείας ἀνέφερεν, ἤτοι τἀληθὲς οὕτως ἔχειν νομίζοντες ἢ πείσειν ῥᾷον ὑπολαμβάνοντες.
2.211. Τἆλλα δὲ προείρηκεν, ὧν ἡ μετάδοσίς ἐστιν ἀναγκαία: πᾶσι παρέχειν τοῖς δεομένοις πῦρ ὕδωρ τροφήν, ὁδοὺς φράζειν, ἄταφον μὴ περιορᾶν, ἐπιεικεῖς δὲ καὶ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους' "
2.218. καὶ τοιαύτη τις ἀνακήρυξις, ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ἕκαστος αὑτῷ τὸ συνειδὸς ἔχων μαρτυροῦν πεπίστευκεν, τοῦ μὲν νομοθέτου προφητεύσαντος, τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τὴν πίστιν ἰσχυρὰν παρεσχηκότος, ὅτι τοῖς τοὺς νόμους διαφυλάξασι κἂν εἰ δέοι θνήσκειν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν προθύμως ἀποθανεῖν ἔδωκεν ὁ θεὸς γενέσθαι τε πάλιν καὶ βίον ἀμείνω λαβεῖν ἐκ περιτροπῆς." "2.219. ὤκνουν δ' ἂν ἐγὼ ταῦτα γράφειν, εἰ μὴ διὰ τῶν ἔργων ἅπασιν ἦν φανερόν, ὅτι πολλοὶ καὶ πολλάκις ἤδη τῶν ἡμετέρων περὶ τοῦ μηδὲ ῥῆμα φθέγξασθαι παρὰ τὸν νόμον πάντα παθεῖν γενναίως προείλοντο."". None
|2.161. and this is the character of our legislator; he was no impostor, no deceiver, as his revilers say, though unjustly, but such a one as they brag Minos to have been among the Greeks, and other legislators after him; 2.162. for some of them suppose that they had their laws from Jupiter, while Minos said that the revelation of his laws was to be referred to Apollo, and his oracle at Delphi, whether they really thought they were so derived, or supposed, however, that they could persuade the people easily that so it was; |
2.211. 30. However, there are other things which our legislator ordained for us beforehand, which of necessity we ought to do in common to all men; as to afford fire, and water, and food to such as want it; to show them the roads; nor to let any one lie unburied. He also would have us treat those that are esteemed our enemies with moderation:
2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before. 2.219. Nor would I venture to write thus at this time, were it not well known to all by our actions that many of our people have many a time bravely resolved to endure any sufferings, rather than speak one word against our law.
|42. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.9, 15.9, 15.44, 15.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Resurrection • Afterlife, Reward • Epicureanism, afterlife, view of • Josephus Essenes, death and afterlife beliefs • Life / Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • afterlife
Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 296, 297, 298; Garcia (2021) 140; Malherbe et al (2014) 370; Stuckenbruck (2007) 265, 281, 520, 523; Taylor (2012) 83
2.9. ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπταιἋ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν καὶοὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν
15.9. Ἐγὼ γάρ εἰμι ὁ ἐλάχιστος τῶν ἀποστόλων, ὃς οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς καλεῖσθαι ἀπόστολος, διότι ἐδίωξα τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ·
15.44. σπείρεται σῶμα ψυχικόν, ἐγείρεται σῶμα πνευματικόν. Εἰ ἔστιν σῶμα ψυχικόν, ἔστιν καὶ πνευματικόν.
15.51. ἰδοὺ μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· πάντες οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα πάντες δὲ ἀλλαγησόμεθα,' '. None
|2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn\'t see, and an ear didn\'t hear,Which didn\'t enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him." |
15.9. For I am the least of theapostles, who is not worthy to be called an apostle, because Ipersecuted the assembly of God.
15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody.
15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed,' '. None
|43. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.5-5.6, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Resurrection • Afterlife, Reward • Epicureanism, afterlife, view of • Sleep Afterlife
Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 370; Stuckenbruck (2007) 229, 733, 735
5.5. πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς υἱοὶ φωτός ἐστε καὶ υἱοὶ ἡμέρας. Οὐκ ἐσμὲν νυκτὸς οὐδὲ σκότους· 5.6. ἄρα οὖν μὴ καθεύδωμεν ὡς οἱ λοιποί, ἀλλὰ γρηγορῶμεν καὶ νήφωμεν.
5.10. τοῦ ἀποθανόντος περὶ ἡμῶν ἵνα εἴτε γρηγορῶμεν εἴτε καθεύδωμεν ἅμα σὺν αὐτῷ ζήσωμεν.''. None
|5.5. You are all sons of light, and sons of the day. We don't belong to the night, nor to darkness, " "5.6. so then let's not sleep, as the rest do, but let's watch and be sober. " '|
5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him. '". None
|44. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • afterlife conceptions
Found in books: Keener(2005) 180; Stuckenbruck (2007) 534
14.13. Καὶ ἤκουσα φωνῆς ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ λεγούσης Γράψον Μακάριοι οἱ νεκροὶ οἱ ἐν κυρίῳ ἀποθνήσκοντες ἀπʼ ἄρτι. ναί, λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα, ἵνα ἀναπαήσονται ἐκ τῶν κόπων αὐτῶν, τὰ γὰρ ἔργα αὐτῶν ἀκολουθεῖ μετʼ αὐτῶν.''. None
|14.13. I heard the voice from heaven saying, "Write, \'Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from now on.\'""Yes," says the Spirit, "that they may rest from their labors; for their works follow with them."''. None|
|45. New Testament, Colossians, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • afterlife conceptions
Found in books: Keener(2005) 177; Stuckenbruck (2007) 728
3.1. Εἰ οὖν συνηγέρθητε τῷ χριστῷ, τὰ ἄνω ζητεῖτε, οὗ ὁ χριστός ἐστινἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ καθήμενος·''. None
|3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. ''. None|
|46. New Testament, Ephesians, 3.4-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Epicureanism, afterlife, view of • Life / Afterlife
Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 370; Stuckenbruck (2007) 520
3.4. πρὸς ὃ δύνασθε ἀναγινώσκοντες νοῆσαι τὴν σύνεσίν μου ἐν τῷ μυστηρίῳ τοῦ χριστοῦ, 3.5. ὃ ἑτέραις γενεαῖς οὐκ ἐγνωρίσθη τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὡς νῦν ἀπεκαλύφθη τοῖς ἁγίοις ἀποστόλοις αὐτοῦ καὶ προφήταις ἐν πνεύματι,''. None
|3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; ''. None|
|47. New Testament, Philippians, 1.21, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife, Earthly • afterlife conceptions • afterlife,
Found in books: Bay (2022) 264; Keener(2005) 178, 180; Stuckenbruck (2007) 720, 728
1.21. Ἐμοὶ γὰρ τὸ ζῇν Χριστὸς καὶ τὸ ἀποθανεῖν κέρδος.
3.19. ὧν τὸ τέλος ἀπώλεια, ὧν ὁ θεὸς ἡ κοιλία καὶ ἡ δόξα ἐν τῇ αἰσχύνῃ αὐτῶν, οἱ τὰ ἐπίγεια φρονοῦντες.''. None
|1.21. For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. |
3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. ''. None
|48. New Testament, Romans, 11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Life / Afterlife
Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 298; Stuckenbruck (2007) 520
11.25. Οὐ γὰρ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο, ἵνα μὴ ἦτε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς φρόνιμοι, ὅτι πώρωσις ἀπὸ μέρους τῷ Ἰσραὴλ γέγονεν ἄχρι οὗ τὸ πλήρωμα τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰσέλθῃ, καὶ οὕτως πᾶς Ἰσραὴλ σωθήσεται·''. None
|11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in, "". None|
|49. New Testament, Matthew, 22.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • afterlife,
Found in books: Bay (2022) 264; Stuckenbruck (2007) 709
22.13. τότε ὁ βασιλεὺς εἶπεν τοῖς διακόνοις Δήσαντες αὐτοῦ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ἐκβάλετε αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον· ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων.''. None
|22.13. Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.' "". None|
|50. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Resurrection • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife, Angelic • Sleep Afterlife • afterlife conceptions
Found in books: Keener(2005) 177, 178; Stuckenbruck (2007) 440, 568, 600
|51. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • afterlife • death and the afterlife, corpse (soma) • death and the afterlife, feasting • death and the afterlife, funerary processions • death and the afterlife, funerary ritual • death and the afterlife, pollution and purification • death and the afterlife, processions • death and the afterlife, role of women in death ceremonies
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 526; Humphreys (2018) 28
|52. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.11.6-6.11.9, 10.28.4-10.28.7, 10.31.9, 10.31.11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Homer, afterlife in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife lots, filth and muck • afterlife, punishment in • afterlife, ritual absolution and • death and the afterlife, Hades (Underworld) • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, life and death dichotomy • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • punishment, in the afterlife
Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 137; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 384, 558, 559; Eisenfeld (2022) 19; Wolfsdorf (2020) 555, 556, 557
6.11.6. ὡς δὲ ἀπῆλθεν ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, ἀνὴρ τῶν τις ἀπηχθημένων ζῶντι αὐτῷ παρεγίνετο ἀνὰ πᾶσαν νύκτα ἐπὶ τοῦ Θεαγένους τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ἐμαστίγου τὸν χαλκὸν ἅτε αὐτῷ Θεαγένει λυμαινόμενος· καὶ τὸν μὲν ὁ ἀνδριὰς ἐμπεσὼν ὕβρεως παύει, τοῦ ἀνθρώπου δὲ τοῦ ἀποθανόντος οἱ παῖδες τῇ εἰκόνι ἐπεξῄεσαν φόνου. καὶ οἱ Θάσιοι καταποντοῦσι τὴν εἰκόνα ἐπακολουθήσαντες γνώμῃ τῇ Δράκοντος, ὃς Ἀθηναίοις θεσμοὺς γράψας φονικοὺς ὑπερώρισε καὶ τὰ ἄψυχα, εἴγε ἐμπεσόν τι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀποκτείνειεν ἄνθρωπον. 6.11.7. ἀνὰ χρόνον δέ, ὡς τοῖς Θασίοις οὐδένα ἀπεδίδου καρπὸν ἡ γῆ, θεωροὺς ἀποστέλλουσιν ἐς Δελφούς, καὶ αὐτοῖς ἔχρησεν ὁ θεὸς καταδέχεσθαι τοὺς δεδιωγμένους. καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ καταδεχθέντες οὐδὲν τῆς ἀκαρπίας παρείχοντο ἴαμα· δεύτερα οὖν ἐπὶ τὴν Πυθίαν ἔρχονται, λέγοντες ὡς καὶ ποιήσασιν αὐτοῖς τὰ χρησθέντα διαμένοι τὸ ἐκ τῶν θεῶν μήνιμα. 6.11.8. ἐνταῦθα ἀπεκρίνατό σφισιν ἡ Πυθία· Θεαγένην δʼ ἄμνηστον ἀφήκατε τὸν μέγαν ὑμέων. ἀπορούντων δὲ αὐτῶν ὁποίᾳ μηχανῇ τοῦ Θεαγένους τὴν εἰκόνα ἀνασώσωνται, φασὶν ἁλιέας ἀναχθέντας ἐς τὸ πέλαγος ἐπὶ ἰχθύων θήραν περισχεῖν τῷ δικτύῳ τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ἀνενεγκεῖν αὖθις ἐς τὴν γῆν· Θάσιοι δὲ ἀναθέντες, ἔνθα καὶ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἔκειτο, νομίζουσιν ἅτε θεῷ θύειν. 6.11.9. πολλαχοῦ δὲ καὶ ἑτέρωθι ἔν τε Ἕλλησιν οἶδα καὶ παρὰ βαρβάροις ἀγάλματα ἱδρυμένα Θεαγένους καὶ νοσήματά τε αὐτὸν ἰώμενον καὶ ἔχοντα παρὰ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων τιμάς. ὁ δὲ ἀνδριὰς τοῦ Θεαγένους ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἄλτει, τέχνη τοῦ Αἰγινήτου Γλαυκίου .
10.28.4. ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ Ἀχέροντος τῇ ὄχθῃ μάλιστα θέας ἄξιον, ὅτι ὑπὸ τοῦ Χάρωνος τὴν ναῦν ἀνὴρ οὐ δίκαιος ἐς πατέρα ἀγχόμενός ἐστιν ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρός. περὶ πλείστου γὰρ δὴ ἐποιοῦντο οἱ πάλαι γονέας, ὥσπερ ἔστιν ἄλλοις τε τεκμήρασθαι καὶ ἐν Κατάνῃ τοῖς καλουμένοις Εὐσεβέσιν, οἵ, ἡνίκα ἐπέρρει τῇ Κατάνῃ πῦρ τὸ ἐκ τῆς Αἴτνης, χρυσὸν μὲν καὶ ἄργυρον ἐν οὐδενὸς μερίδι ἐποιήσαντο, οἱ δὲ ἔφευγον ὁ μὲν ἀράμενος μητέρα, ὁ δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν πατέρα· προϊόντας δὲ οὐ σὺν ῥᾳστώνῃ καταλαμβάνει σφᾶς τὸ πῦρ ἐπειγόμενον τῇ φλογί· καὶ —οὐ γὰρ κατετίθεντο οὐδʼ οὕτω τοὺς γονέας— διχῇ σχισθῆναι λέγεται τὸν ῥύακα, καὶ αὐτούς τε τοὺς νεανίσκους, σὺν δὲ αὐτοῖς τοὺς γονέας τὸ πῦρ οὐδέν σφισι λυμηνάμενον παρεξῆλθεν. 10.28.5. οὗτοι μὲν δὴ τιμὰς καὶ ἐς ἐμὲ ἔτι παρὰ Καταναίων ἔχουσιν, ἐν δὲ τῇ Πολυγνώτου γραφῇ πλησίον τοῦ ἀνδρός, ὃς τῷ πατρὶ ἐλυμαίνετο καὶ διʼ αὐτὸ ἐν Ἅιδου κακὰ ἀναπίμπλησι, τούτου πλησίον ἱερὰ σεσυληκὼς ἀνὴρ ὑπέσχε δίκην· γυνὴ δὲ ἡ κολάζουσα αὐτὸν φάρμακα ἄλλα τε καὶ ἐς αἰκίαν οἶδεν ἀνθρώπων. 10.28.6. περισσῶς δὲ ἄρα εὐσεβείᾳ θεῶν ἔτι προσέκειντο οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ὡς Ἀθηναῖοί τε δῆλα ἐποίησαν, ἡνίκα εἷλον Ὀλυμπίου Διὸς ἐν Συρακούσαις ἱερόν, οὔτε κινήσαντες τῶν ἀναθημάτων οὐδὲν τὸν ἱερέα τε τὸν Συρακούσιον φύλακα ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς ἐάσαντες· ἐδήλωσε δὲ καὶ ὁ Μῆδος Δᾶτις λόγοις τε οὓς εἶπε πρὸς Δηλίους καὶ τῷ ἔργῳ, ἡνίκα ἐν Φοινίσσῃ νηὶ ἄγαλμα εὑρὼν Ἀπόλλωνος ἀπέδωκεν αὖθις Ταναγραίοις ἐς Δήλιον. οὕτω μὲν τὸ θεῖον καὶ οἱ πάντες τότε ἦγον ἐν τιμῇ, καὶ ἐπὶ λόγῳ τοιούτῳ τὰ ἐς τὸν συλήσαντα ἱερὰ ἔγραψε Πολύγνωτος. 10.28.7. ἔστι δὲ ἀνωτέρω τῶν κατειλεγμένων Εὐρύνομος· δαίμονα εἶναι τῶν ἐν Ἅιδου φασὶν οἱ Δελφῶν ἐξηγηταὶ τὸν Εὐρύνομον, καὶ ὡς τὰς σάρκας περιεσθίει τῶν νεκρῶν, μόνα σφίσιν ἀπολείπων τὰ ὀστᾶ. ἡ δὲ Ὁμήρου ποίησις ἐς Ὀδυσσέα καὶ ἡ Μινυάς τε καλουμένη καὶ οἱ Νόστοι—μνήμη γὰρ δὴ ἐν ταύταις καὶ Ἅιδου καὶ τῶν ἐκεῖ δειμάτων ἐστὶν—ἴσασιν οὐδένα Εὐρύνομον δαίμονα. τοσοῦτο μέντοι δηλώσω, ὁποῖός τε ὁ Εὐρύνομος καὶ ἐπὶ ποίου γέγραπται τοῦ σχήματος· κυανοῦ τὴν χρόαν μεταξύ ἐστι καὶ μέλανος, ὁποῖαι καὶ τῶν μυιῶν αἱ πρὸς τὰ κρέα εἰσὶ προσιζάνουσαι, τοὺς δὲ ὀδόντας φαίνει, καθεζομένῳ δὲ ὑπέστρωταί οἱ δέρμα γυπός.
10.31.9. αἱ δὲ ὑπὲρ τὴν Πενθεσίλειαν φέρουσαι μέν εἰσιν ὕδωρ ἐν κατεαγόσιν ὀστράκοις, πεποίηται δὲ ἡ μὲν ἔτι ὡραία τὸ εἶδος, ἡ δὲ ἤδη τῆς ἡλικίας προήκουσα· ἰδίᾳ μὲν δὴ οὐδὲν ἐπίγραμμα ἐπὶ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν γυναικῶν, ἐν κοινῷ δέ ἐστιν ἐπὶ ἀμφοτέραις εἶναι σφᾶς τῶν οὐ μεμυημένων γυναικῶν.
10.31.11. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πίθος ἐν τῇ γραφῇ, πρεσβύτης δὲ ἄνθρωπος, ὁ δὲ ἔτι παῖς, καὶ γυναῖκες, νέα μὲν ὑπὸ τῇ πέτρᾳ, παρὰ δὲ τὸν πρεσβύτην ἐοικυῖα ἐκείνῳ τὴν ἡλικίαν· οἱ μὲν δὴ ἄλλοι φέρουσιν ὕδωρ, τῇ δὲ γραῒ κατεᾶχθαι τὴν ὑδρίαν εἰκάσεις· ὅσον δὲ ἐν τῷ ὀστράκῳ λοιπόν ἦν τοῦ ὕδατος, ἐκχέουσά ἐστιν αὖθις ἐς τὸν πίθον. ἐτεκμαιρόμεθα δʼ εἶναι καὶ τούτους τῶν τὰ δρώμενα Ἐλευσῖνι ἐν οὐδενὶ θεμένων λόγῳ· οἱ γὰρ ἀρχαιότεροι τῶν Ἑλλήνων τελετὴν τὴν Ἐλευσινίαν πάντων ὁπόσα ἐς εὐσέβειαν ἥκει τοσούτῳ ἦγον ἐντιμότερον ὅσῳ καὶ θεοὺς ἐπίπροσθεν ἡρώων.''. None
|6.11.6. When he departed this life, one of those who were his enemies while he lived came every night to the statue of Theagenes and flogged the bronze as though he were ill-treating Theagenes himself. The statue put an end to the outrage by falling on him, but the sons of the dead man prosecuted the statue for murder. So the Thasians dropped the statue to the bottom of the sea, adopting the principle of Draco, who, when he framed for the Athenians laws to deal with homicide, inflicted banishment even on lifeless things, should one of them fall and kill a man. 6.11.7. But in course of time, when the earth yielded no crop to the Thasians, they sent envoys to Delphi, and the god instructed them to receive back the exiles. At this command they received them back, but their restoration brought no remedy of the famine. So for the second time they went to the Pythian priestess, saying that although they had obeyed her instructions the wrath of the gods still abode with them. 6.11.8. Whereupon the Pythian priestess replied to them :— But you have forgotten your great Theagenes. And when they could not think of a contrivance to recover the statue of Theagenes, fishermen, they say, after putting out to sea for a catch of fish caught the statue in their net and brought it back to land. The Thasians set it up in its original position, and are wont to sacrifice to him as to a god. 6.11.9. There are many other places that I know of, both among Greeks and among barbarians, where images of Theagenes have been set up, who cures diseases and receives honors from the natives. The statue of Theagenes is in the Altis, being the work of Glaucias of Aegina . |
10.28.4. On the bank of Acheron there is a notable group under the boat of Charon, consisting of a man who had been undutiful to his father and is now being throttled by him. For the men of old held their parents in the greatest respect, as we may infer, among other instances, from those in Catana called the Pious, who, when the fire flowed down on Catana from Aetna, held of no account gold or silver, but when they fled took up, one his mother and another his father. As they struggled on, the fire rushed up and caught them in the flames. Not even so would they put down their parents, and it is said that the stream of lava divided itself in two, and the fire passed on, doing no hurt to either young men or their parents. These Catanians even at the present day receive honors from their fellow countrymen.' "10.28.5. Near to the man in Polygnotus' picture who maltreated his father and for this drinks his cup of woe in Hades, is a man who paid the penalty for sacrilege. The woman who is punishing him is skilled in poisonous and other drugs." '10.28.6. So it appears that in those days men laid the greatest stress on piety to the gods, as the Athenians showed when they took the sanctuary of Olympian Zeus at Syracuse ; they moved none of the offerings, but left the Syracusan priest as their keeper. Datis the Persian too showed his piety in his address to the Delians, and in this act as well, when having found an image of Apollo in a Phoenician ship he restored it to the Tanagraeans at Delium . So at that time all men held the divine in reverence, and this is why Polygnotus has depicted the punishment of him who committed sacrilege.' "10.28.7. Higher up than the figures I have enumerated comes Eurynomus, said by the Delphian guides to be one of the demons in Hades, who eats off all the flesh of the corpses, leaving only their bones. But Homer's Odyssey, the poem called the Minyad, and the Returns, although they tell of Hades, and its horrors, know of no demon called Eurynomus. However, I will describe what he is like and his attitude in the painting. He is of a color between blue and black, like that of meat flies; he is showing his teeth and is seated, and under him is spread a vulture's skin." '
10.31.9. The women beyond Penthesileia are carrying water in broken pitchers; one is depicted as in the bloom of youth, the other is already advanced in years. There is no separate inscription on either woman, but there is one common to the pair, which states that they are of the number of the uninitiated.' "
10.31.11. There is also in the painting a jar, and an old man, with a boy and two women. One of these, who is young, is under the rock; the other is beside the old man and of a like age to his. The others are carrying water, but you will guess that the old woman's water-jar is broken. All that remains of the water in the sherd she is pouring out again into the jar. We inferred that these people too were of those who had held of no account the rites at Eleusis . For the Greeks of an earlier period looked upon the Eleusinian mysteries as being as much higher than all other religious acts as gods are higher than heroes."'. None
|53. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.36, 8.77 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Homer, afterlife in • Plato, conception of the afterlife • afterlife • afterlife, continuation model • death and the afterlife, judgement and punishment • death and the afterlife, link between living and the dead • death and the afterlife, reincarnation • death and the afterlife, soul (psyche) • death and the afterlife, transmigration of souls
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 561; Wolfsdorf (2020) 562
|8.36. This is what Alexander says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs. What follows is Aristotle's.But Pythagoras's great dignity not even Timon overlooked, who, although he digs at him in his Silli, speaks ofPythagoras, inclined to witching works and ways,Man-snarer, fond of noble periphrase.Xenophanes confirms the statement about his having been different people at different times in the elegiacs beginning:Now other thoughts, another path, I show.What he says of him is as follows:They say that, passing a belaboured whelp,He, full of pity, spake these words of dole:Stay, smite not ! 'Tis a friend, a human soul;I knew him straight whenas I heard him yelp !" '|
8.77. The sun he calls a vast collection of fire and larger than the moon; the moon, he says, is of the shape of a quoit, and the heaven itself crystalline. The soul, again, assumes all the various forms of animals and plants. At any rate he says:Before now I was born a boy and a maid, a bush and a bird, and a dumb fish leaping out of the sea.His poems On Nature and Purifications run to 5000 lines, his Discourse on Medicine to 600. of the tragedies we have spoken above.'". None
|54. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.14-7.16, 7.37, 7.91, 7.95-7.98
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife, Eschatological Punishment • Afterlife, Reward • Life / Afterlife, Angelic • afterlife conceptions
Found in books: Keener(2005) 176, 178; Stuckenbruck (2007) 74, 453, 568, 600
|7.14. Therefore unless the living pass through the difficult and vain experiences, they can never receive those things that have been reserved for them. 7.15. But now why are you disturbed, seeing that you are to perish? And why are you moved, seeing that you are mortal? 7.16. And why have you not considered in your mind what is to come, rather than what is now present?" |
7.37. Then the Most High will say to the nations that have been raised from the dead, `Look now, and understand whom you have denied, whom you have not served, whose commandments you have despised!
7.91. First of all, they shall see with great joy the glory of him who receives them, for they shall have rest in seven orders.
7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.96. The fifth order, they rejoice that they have now escaped what is corruptible, and shall inherit what is to come; and besides they see the straits and toil from which they have been delivered, and the spacious liberty which they are to receive and enjoy in immortality. 7.97. The sixth order, when it is shown to them how their face is to shine like the sun, and how they are to be made like the light of the stars, being incorruptible from then on. 7.98. The seventh order, which is greater than all that have been mentioned, because they shall rejoice with boldness, and shall be confident without confusion, and shall be glad without fear, for they hasten to behold the face of him whom they served in life and from whom they are to receive their reward when glorified.''. None
|55. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 17.7
Tagged with subjects: • Afterlife • Life / Afterlife, Book of
Found in books: Collins (2016) 176; Stuckenbruck (2007) 702
|17.7. They in no wise glorified Thy honourable name; They set a (worldly) monarchy in place of (that which was) their excellency;''. None|
|56. Demosthenes, Orations, 60.34
Tagged with subjects: • Achilles, in the afterlife • Homer, afterlife in • afterlife • afterlife, in Funeral Orations • afterlife, compensation model • afterlife, continuation model • aretē/-a (virtue, excellence), reward in afterlife • poetry, justice and the afterlife in
Found in books: Parker (2005) 364; Wolfsdorf (2020) 545, 551, 552
|60.34. With excellent reason one might declare them to be now seated beside the gods below, possessing the same rank as the brave men who have preceded them in the islands of the blest. For though no man has been there to see or brought back this report concerning them, yet those whom the living have assumed to be worthy of honors in the world above, these we believe, basing our surmise on their fame, receive the same honors also in the world beyond. A similar sentiment is found in Hyp. 43 . ''. None|
|57. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Orphic views of afterlife • afterlife • afterlife, reward in • happiness, in the afterlife • sacrifice, in the afterlife • sexual activity, in the afterlife
Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 257; Wolfsdorf (2020) 560