|1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 18.9-18.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • magic, Greco-Roman etiologies of • metalworking, Greco-Roman etiologies of • prophecy, etiology of
Found in books: DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 70; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 40
18.9 כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃' '18.11 וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃ 18.12 כִּי־תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וּבִגְלַל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישׁ אוֹתָם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 18.13 תָּמִים תִּהְיֶה עִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 18.14 כִּי הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה יוֹרֵשׁ אוֹתָם אֶל־מְעֹנְנִים וְאֶל־קֹסְמִים יִשְׁמָעוּ וְאַתָּה לֹא כֵן נָתַן לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃'' None
18.9 When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations. 18.10 There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer, 18.11 or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer. 18.12 For whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD; and because of these abominations the LORD thy God is driving them out from before thee. 18.13 Thou shalt be whole-hearted with the LORD thy God. 18.14 For these nations, that thou art to dispossess, hearken unto soothsayers, and unto diviners; but as for thee, the LORD thy God hath not suffered thee so to do.'' None
|2. Hesiod, Works And Days, 42-44, 47-48, 50, 91, 106-180, 747 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology of labor’ • aetiology of sacrifice • etiology
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 44; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 61, 62, 133; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 148; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 79, 204; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 69; Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 118
42 κρύψαντες γὰρ ἔχουσι θεοὶ βίον ἀνθρώποισιν· 43 ῥηιδίως γάρ κεν καὶ ἐπʼ ἤματι ἐργάσσαιο, 44 ὥστε σε κεἰς ἐνιαυτὸν ἔχειν καὶ ἀεργὸν ἐόντα·
47 ἀλλὰ Ζεὺς ἔκρυψε χολωσάμενος φρεσὶν ᾗσιν, 48 ὅττι μιν ἐξαπάτησε Προμηθεὺς ἀγκυλομήτης·
50 κρύψε δὲ πῦρ· τὸ μὲν αὖτις ἐὺς πάις Ἰαπετοῖο
91 νόσφιν ἄτερ τε κακῶν καὶ ἄτερ χαλεποῖο πόνοιο
106 εἰ δʼ ἐθέλεις, ἕτερόν τοι ἐγὼ λόγον ἐκκορυφώσω'107 εὖ καὶ ἐπισταμένως· σὺ δʼ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν. 108 ὡς ὁμόθεν γεγάασι θεοὶ θνητοί τʼ ἄνθρωποι. 109 χρύσεον μὲν πρώτιστα γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων 110 ἀθάνατοι ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες. 111 οἳ μὲν ἐπὶ Κρόνου ἦσαν, ὅτʼ οὐρανῷ ἐμβασίλευεν· 112 ὥστε θεοὶ δʼ ἔζωον ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 113 νόσφιν ἄτερ τε πόνων καὶ ὀιζύος· οὐδέ τι δειλὸν 114 γῆρας ἐπῆν, αἰεὶ δὲ πόδας καὶ χεῖρας ὁμοῖοι 115 τέρποντʼ ἐν θαλίῃσι κακῶν ἔκτοσθεν ἁπάντων· 116 θνῇσκον δʼ ὥσθʼ ὕπνῳ δεδμημένοι· ἐσθλὰ δὲ πάντα 117 τοῖσιν ἔην· καρπὸν δʼ ἔφερε ζείδωρος ἄρουρα 118 αὐτομάτη πολλόν τε καὶ ἄφθονον· οἳ δʼ ἐθελημοὶ 119 ἥσυχοι ἔργʼ ἐνέμοντο σὺν ἐσθλοῖσιν πολέεσσιν. 120 ἀφνειοὶ μήλοισι, φίλοι μακάρεσσι θεοῖσιν. 121 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 122 τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123 ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων, 124 οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα 125 ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπʼ αἶαν, 126 πλουτοδόται· καὶ τοῦτο γέρας βασιλήιον ἔσχον—, 127 δεύτερον αὖτε γένος πολὺ χειρότερον μετόπισθεν 128 ἀργύρεον ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες, 129 χρυσέῳ οὔτε φυὴν ἐναλίγκιον οὔτε νόημα. 130 ἀλλʼ ἑκατὸν μὲν παῖς ἔτεα παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ 131 ἐτρέφετʼ ἀτάλλων, μέγα νήπιος, ᾧ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ. 132 ἀλλʼ ὅτʼ ἄρʼ ἡβήσαι τε καὶ ἥβης μέτρον ἵκοιτο, 133 παυρίδιον ζώεσκον ἐπὶ χρόνον, ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντες 134 ἀφραδίῃς· ὕβριν γὰρ ἀτάσθαλον οὐκ ἐδύναντο 135 ἀλλήλων ἀπέχειν, οὐδʼ ἀθανάτους θεραπεύειν 136 ἤθελον οὐδʼ ἔρδειν μακάρων ἱεροῖς ἐπὶ βωμοῖς, 137 ἣ θέμις ἀνθρώποις κατὰ ἤθεα. τοὺς μὲν ἔπειτα 138 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ἔκρυψε χολούμενος, οὕνεκα τιμὰς 139 οὐκ ἔδιδον μακάρεσσι θεοῖς, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν. 140 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,— 141 τοὶ μὲν ὑποχθόνιοι μάκαρες θνητοῖς καλέονται, 1
42 δεύτεροι, ἀλλʼ ἔμπης τιμὴ καὶ τοῖσιν ὀπηδεῖ—, 143 Ζεὺς δὲ πατὴρ τρίτον ἄλλο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων 144 χάλκειον ποίησʼ, οὐκ ἀργυρέῳ οὐδὲν ὁμοῖον, 145 ἐκ μελιᾶν, δεινόν τε καὶ ὄβριμον· οἷσιν Ἄρηος 146 ἔργʼ ἔμελεν στονόεντα καὶ ὕβριες· οὐδέ τι σῖτον 1
47 ἤσθιον, ἀλλʼ ἀδάμαντος ἔχον κρατερόφρονα θυμόν, 148 ἄπλαστοι· μεγάλη δὲ βίη καὶ χεῖρες ἄαπτοι 149 ἐξ ὤμων ἐπέφυκον ἐπὶ στιβαροῖσι μέλεσσιν. 1
50 ὧν δʼ ἦν χάλκεα μὲν τεύχεα, χάλκεοι δέ τε οἶκοι 151 χαλκῷ δʼ εἰργάζοντο· μέλας δʼ οὐκ ἔσκε σίδηρος. 152 καὶ τοὶ μὲν χείρεσσιν ὕπο σφετέρῃσι δαμέντες 153 βῆσαν ἐς εὐρώεντα δόμον κρυεροῦ Αίδαο 154 νώνυμνοι· θάνατος δὲ καὶ ἐκπάγλους περ ἐόντας 155 εἷλε μέλας, λαμπρὸν δʼ ἔλιπον φάος ἠελίοιο. 156 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψεν, 157 αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ 158 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ἄρειον, 159 ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 160 ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161 καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162 τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163 ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164 τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165 ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166 ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 167 τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 169 Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169 ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169 τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169 τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169 τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170 καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171 ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 172 ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173 τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα. 174 μηκέτʼ ἔπειτʼ ὤφελλον ἐγὼ πέμπτοισι μετεῖναι 175 ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλʼ ἢ πρόσθε θανεῖν ἢ ἔπειτα γενέσθαι. 176 νῦν γὰρ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ σιδήρεον· οὐδέ ποτʼ ἦμαρ 177 παύονται καμάτου καὶ ὀιζύος, οὐδέ τι νύκτωρ 178 φθειρόμενοι. χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας· 179 ἀλλʼ ἔμπης καὶ τοῖσι μεμείξεται ἐσθλὰ κακοῖσιν. 180 Ζεὺς δʼ ὀλέσει καὶ τοῦτο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων, 7
47 μή τοι ἐφεζομένη κρώξῃ λακέρυζα κορώνη. ' None
42 To judge such cases. Fools! They do not know 43 That half may well transcend the total store 44 Or how the asphodel and the mallow
47 Could one work for one day, then, free from strife, 48 One’s rudder packed away, live lazily,
50 That fraudulent Prometheus duped him, Zeu
91 This perfect trap, Hermes, that man of fame,
106 (The lid already stopped her, by the will'107 of aegis-bearing Zeus). But all about 108 There roam among mankind all kinds of ill, 109 Filling both land and sea, while every day 110 Plagues haunt them, which, unwanted, come at night 111 As well, in silence, for Zeus took away 112 Their voice – it is not possible to fight 113 The will of Zeus. I’ll sketch now skilfully, 114 If you should welcome it, another story: 115 Take it to heart. The selfsame ancestry 116 Embraced both men and gods, who, in their glory 117 High on Olympus first devised a race 118 of gold, existing under Cronus’ reign 119 When he ruled Heaven. There was not a trace 120 of woe among them since they felt no pain; 121 There was no dread old age but, always rude 122 of health, away from grief, they took delight 123 In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued 124 By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right, 125 Would bring forth plenteous fruit. In harmony 126 They lived, with countless flocks of sheep, at ease 127 With all the gods. But when this progeny 128 Was buried underneath the earth – yet these 129 Live on, land-spirits, holy, pure and blessed, 130 Who guard mankind from evil, watching out 131 For all the laws and heinous deeds, while dressed 132 In misty vapour, roaming all about 133 The land, bestowing wealth, this kingly right 134 Being theirs – a second race the Olympians made, 135 A silver one, far worse, unlike, in sight 136 And mind, the golden, for a young child stayed, 137 A large bairn, in his mother’s custody, 138 Just playing inside for a hundred years. 139 But when they all reached their maturity, 140 They lived a vapid life, replete with tears, 141 Through foolishness, unable to forbear 1
42 To brawl, spurning the gods, refusing, too, 143 To sacrifice (a law kept everywhere). 144 Then Zeus, since they would not give gods their due, 145 In rage hid them, as did the earth – all men 146 Have called the race Gods Subterranean, 1
47 Second yet honoured still. A third race then 148 Zeus fashioned out of bronze, quite different than 149 The second, with ash spears, both dread and stout; 1
50 They liked fell warfare and audacity; 151 They ate no corn, encased about 152 With iron, full invincibility 153 In hands, limbs, shoulders, and the arms they plied 154 Were bronze, their houses, too, their tools; they knew 155 of no black iron. Later, when they died 156 It was self-slaughter – they descended to 157 Chill Hades’ mouldy house, without a name. 158 Yes, black death took them off, although they’d been 159 Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 160 Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161 Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162 Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163 The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164 Called demigods. It was the race before 165 Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166 And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 167 While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168 The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 169 Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170 For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171 In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 172 Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173 Carefree, among the blessed isles, content 174 And affluent, by the deep-swirling sea. 175 Sweet grain, blooming three times a year, was sent 176 To them by the earth, that gives vitality 177 To all mankind, and Cronus was their lord, 178 Far from the other gods, for Zeus, who reign 179 Over gods and men, had cut away the cord 180 That bound him. Though the lowest race, its gain 7
47 Don’t place aboard all your commodities – ' None
|3. Hesiod, Theogony, 27, 30, 574-584 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology of sacrifice
Found in books: Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 148; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 6; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 189, 204; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 69
27 ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα,30 καί μοι σκῆπτρον ἔδον δάφνης ἐριθηλέος ὄζον
574 ἀργυφέη ἐσθῆτι· κατὰ κρῆθεν δὲ καλύπτρην 575 δαιδαλέην χείρεσσι κατέσχεθε, θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι· 576 ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ στεφάνους, νεοθηλέος ἄνθεα ποίης, 577 ἱμερτοὺς περίθηκε καρήατι Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. 578 ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ στεφάνην χρυσέην κεφαλῆφιν ἔθηκε, 579 τὴν αὐτὸς ποίησε περικλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 580 ἀσκήσας παλάμῃσι, χαριζόμενος Διὶ πατρί. 581 τῇ δʼ ἐνὶ δαίδαλα πολλὰ τετεύχατο, θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι, 582 κνώδαλʼ, ὅσʼ ἤπειρος πολλὰ τρέφει ἠδὲ θάλασσα, 583 τῶν ὅ γε πόλλʼ ἐνέθηκε,—χάρις δʼ ἀπελάμπετο πολλή,— 584 θαυμάσια, ζῴοισιν ἐοικότα φωνήεσσιν. ' None
27 Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me:30 False things that yet seem true, but we know well
574 A torment from the very first, for he 575 Married the maid whom Zeus had formed. But Zeu 576 At villainous Menoetius let loose 577 His lurid bolt because his vanity 578 And strength had gone beyond the boundary 579 of moderation: down to Erebu 580 He went headlong. Atlas was tirele 581 In holding up wide Heaven, forced to stand 582 Upon the borders of this earthly land 583 Before the clear-voiced daughters of the West, 584 A task assigned at wise Zeus’s behest. ' None
|4. Homer, Iliad, 15.187-15.192, 19.117-19.119 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Nemean Games, aetiological myth • aetiology • aitiology
Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 138; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 189; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 173; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 53
15.187 τρεῖς γάρ τʼ ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοὶ οὓς τέκετο Ῥέα 15.188 Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δʼ Ἀΐδης ἐνέροισιν ἀνάσσων. 15.189 τριχθὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται, ἕκαστος δʼ ἔμμορε τιμῆς· 15.190 ἤτοι ἐγὼν ἔλαχον πολιὴν ἅλα ναιέμεν αἰεὶ 15.191 παλλομένων, Ἀΐδης δʼ ἔλαχε ζόφον ἠερόεντα, 15.192 Ζεὺς δʼ ἔλαχʼ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἐν αἰθέρι καὶ νεφέλῃσι·
19.117 ἣ δʼ ἐκύει φίλον υἱόν, ὃ δʼ ἕβδομος ἑστήκει μείς· 19.118 ἐκ δʼ ἄγαγε πρὸ φόως δὲ καὶ ἠλιτόμηνον ἐόντα, 19.119 Ἀλκμήνης δʼ ἀπέπαυσε τόκον, σχέθε δʼ Εἰλειθυίας.'' None
15.187 Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.190 I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet 15.192 I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet ' "
19.117 and swiftly came to Achaean Argos, where she knew was the stately wife of Sthenelus, son of Perseus, that bare a son in her womb, and lo, the seventh month was come. This child Hera brought forth to the light even before the full tale of the months, but stayed Alcmene's bearing, and held back the Eileithyiae. " "19.119 and swiftly came to Achaean Argos, where she knew was the stately wife of Sthenelus, son of Perseus, that bare a son in her womb, and lo, the seventh month was come. This child Hera brought forth to the light even before the full tale of the months, but stayed Alcmene's bearing, and held back the Eileithyiae. "' None
|5. Hymn To Dionysus, To Dionysus, 50 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology, and thauma
Found in books: Lightfoot (2021), Wonder and the Marvellous from Homer to the Hellenistic World, 97; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 56, 110
50 ἔσταν ἄρ’ ἐκπληγέντες: ὃ δ’ ἐξαπίνης ἐπορούσας'' None
50 He was a shaggy bear, rapaciously'' None
|6. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Apollo Delios/Dalios (Delos), birth of (aetiology) • aetiologies, specific, Apollo and Artemis (Delos) • aetiology • aetiology, and thauma
Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 78; Lightfoot (2021), Wonder and the Marvellous from Homer to the Hellenistic World, 97; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 53, 56
|7. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aitiological myths • aitiological myths in tragedy • aitiology in
Found in books: Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 99, 100; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 101; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 141, 382
|8. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, aetiology • Apollo Pythaieus, at Asine, aetiology • Artemis, S. Biagio at Metapontion, alternative aetiological myths • aetiologies, specific, Apollo Pythaieus (Asine) • aetiologies, specific, Athena on Rhodes • aetiology • aitiology • time, transcendance of, in aetiology
Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 126, 127, 128, 136, 138, 141, 142, 143, 144; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 25; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 30, 136, 227, 228, 229, 230; Morrison (2020), Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography, 100, 101
|9. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Theoxenia, Delphi, aetiology • aitiology
Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 65; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 183
|10. Euripides, Hippolytus, 1423-1427 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alexandra, aetiology/allusions to cults in • aetiology
Found in books: Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 109; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 94
1423 σοὶ δ', ὦ ταλαίπωρ', ἀντὶ τῶνδε τῶν κακῶν"1424 τιμὰς μεγίστας ἐν πόλει Τροζηνίᾳ 1425 δώσω: κόραι γὰρ ἄζυγες γάμων πάρος' "1426 κόμας κεροῦνταί σοι, δι' αἰῶνος μακροῦ" '1427 πένθη μέγιστα δακρύων καρπουμένῳ.' "' None
1423 For I with mine own hand will with these unerring shafts avenge me on another, Adonis. who is her votary, dearest to her of all the sons of men. And to thee, poor sufferer, for thy anguish now will I grant high honours in the city of Troezen;'1424 For I with mine own hand will with these unerring shafts avenge me on another, Adonis. who is her votary, dearest to her of all the sons of men. And to thee, poor sufferer, for thy anguish now will I grant high honours in the city of Troezen; 1425 for thee shall maids unwed before their marriage cut off their hair, thy harvest through the long roll of time of countless bitter tears. Yea, and for ever shall the virgin choir hymn thy sad memory, ' None
|11. Euripides, Ion, 1575-1594 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology
Found in books: Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 106; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 95
1575 ἔσται τ' ἀν' ̔Ελλάδ' εὐκλεής. οἱ τοῦδε γὰρ"1576 παῖδες γενόμενοι τέσσαρες ῥίζης μιᾶς 1577 ἐπώνυμοι γῆς κἀπιφυλίου χθονὸς' "1578 λαῶν ἔσονται, σκόπελον οἳ ναίους' ἐμόν." '1579 Γελέων μὲν ἔσται πρῶτος: εἶτα δεύτερος 1580 &λτ;&γτ;' "1580 ̔́Οπλητες ̓Αργαδῆς τ', ἐμῆς τ' ἀπ' αἰγίδος" "1581 ἔμφυλον ἕξους' Αἰγικορῆς. οἱ τῶνδε δ' αὖ" '1582 παῖδες γενόμενοι σὺν χρόνῳ πεπρωμένῳ 1583 Κυκλάδας ἐποικήσουσι νησαίας πόλεις 1584 χέρσους τε παράλους, ὃ σθένος τἠμῇ χθονὶ' "1585 δίδωσιν: ἀντίπορθμα δ' ἠπείροιν δυοῖν" '1586 πεδία κατοικήσουσιν, ̓Ασιάδος τε γῆς' "1587 Εὐρωπίας τε: τοῦδε δ' ὀνόματος χάριν" '1588 ̓́Ιωνες ὀνομασθέντες ἕξουσιν κλέος. 1589 Ξούθῳ δὲ καὶ σοὶ γίγνεται κοινὸν γένος, 1590 Δῶρος μέν, ἔνθεν Δωρὶς ὑμνηθήσεται' "1591 πόλις κατ' αἶαν Πελοπίαν: ὁ δεύτερος" '1592 ̓Αχαιός, ὃς γῆς παραλίας ̔Ρίου πέλας 1593 τύραννος ἔσται, κἀπισημανθήσεται' "1594 κείνου κεκλῆσθαι λαὸς ὄνομ' ἐπώνυμος." "' None
1575 Through Hellas shall his fame extend; for his children,—four branches springing from one root,—shall give their names to the land and to the tribes of folk therein that dwell upon the rock I love. Teleona shall be the first; and next in order shall come'1576 Through Hellas shall his fame extend; for his children,—four branches springing from one root,—shall give their names to the land and to the tribes of folk therein that dwell upon the rock I love. Teleona shall be the first; and next in order shall come 1580 the Hopletes and Argades; and then the Aegicores, called after my aegis, shall form one tribe. And their children again shall in the time appointed found an island home amid the Cyclades and on the sea-coast, thereby strengthening my country; 1585 for they shall dwell upon the shores of two continents, of Europe and of Asia, on either side the strait; and in honour of Ion’s name shall they be called Ionians and win them high renown. From Xuthus too and thee I see a common stock arise; 1590 Dorus, whence the famous Dorian state will spring; and after him Achaeus in the land of Pelops; he shall lord it o’er the seaboard nigh to Rhium, and his folk, that bear his name, shall win the proud distinction of their leader’s title. ' None
|12. Herodotus, Histories, 1.67, 5.82-5.88, 8.37 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, aetiology • Thucydides, and aetiology • Zeus Hellanios, aetiology • aetiologies • aetiology • place, religious, and aetiology • time, transcendance of, in aetiology
Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 26, 222; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 141; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 24; Morrison (2020), Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography, 99, 100
1.67 κατὰ μὲν δὴ τὸν πρότερον πόλεμον συνεχέως αἰεὶ κακῶς ἀέθλεον πρὸς τοὺς Τεγεήτας, κατὰ δὲ τὸν κατὰ Κροῖσον χρόνον καὶ τὴν Ἀναξανδρίδεώ τε καὶ Ἀρίστωνος βασιληίην ἐν Λακεδαίμονι ἤδη οἱ Σπαρτιῆται κατυπέρτεροι τῷ πολέμῳ ἐγεγόνεσαν, τρόπῳ τοιῷδε γενόμενοι. ἐπειδὴ αἰεὶ τῷ πολέμῳ ἑσσοῦντο ὑπὸ Τεγεητέων, πέμψαντες θεοπρόπους ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐπειρώτων τίνα ἂν θεῶν ἱλασάμενοι κατύπερθε τῷ πολέμῳ Τεγεητέων γενοίατο. ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφι ἔχρησε τὰ Ὀρέστεω τοῦ Ἀγαμέμνονος ὀστέα ἐπαγαγομένους. ὡς δὲ ἀνευρεῖν οὐκ οἷοί τε ἐγίνοντο τὴν θήκην τοῦ Ὀρέστεω ἔπεμπον αὖτις τὴν ἐς θεὸν ἐπειρησομένους τὸν χῶρον ἐν τῷ κέοιτο Ὀρέστης. εἰρωτῶσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι θεοπρόποισι λέγει ἡ Πυθίη τάδε. ἔστι τις Ἀρκαδίης Τεγέη λευρῷ ἐνὶ χώρῳ, ἔνθʼ ἄνεμοι πνείουσι δύω κρατερῆς ὑπʼ ἀνάγκης, καὶ τύπος ἀντίτυπος, καὶ πῆμʼ ἐπὶ πήματι κεῖται. ἔνθʼ Ἀγαμεμνονίδην κατέχει φυσίζοος αἶα, τὸν σὺ κομισσάμενος Τεγέης ἐπιτάρροθος ἔσσῃ. ὡς δὲ καὶ ταῦτα ἤκουσαν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, ἀπεῖχον τῆς ἐξευρέσιος οὐδὲν ἔλασσον, πάντα διζήμενοι, ἐς οὗ δὴ Λίχης τῶν ἀγαθοεργῶν καλεομένων Σπαρτιητέων ἀνεῦρε, οἱ δὲ ἀγαθοεργοὶ εἰσὶ τῶν ἀστῶν, ἐξιόντες ἐκ τῶν ἱππέων αἰεὶ οἱ πρεσβύτατοι, πέντε ἔτεος ἑκάστου· τοὺς δεῖ τοῦτὸν τὸν ἐνιαυτόν, τὸν ἂν ἐξίωσι ἐκ τῶν ἱππέων, Σπαρτιητέων τῷ κοινῷ διαπεμπομένους μὴ ἐλινύειν ἄλλους ἄλλῃ.
5.82 ἡ δὲ ἔχθρη ἡ προοφειλομένη ἐς Ἀθηναίους ἐκ τῶν Αἰγινητέων ἐγένετο ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοιῆσδε. Ἐπιδαυρίοισι ἡ γῆ καρπὸν οὐδένα ἀνεδίδου. περὶ ταύτης ὦν τῆς συμφορῆς οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι ἐχρέωντο ἐν Δελφοῖσι· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφέας ἐκέλευε Δαμίης τε καὶ Αὐξησίης ἀγάλματα ἱδρύσασθαι καί σφι ἱδρυσαμένοισι ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι. ἐπειρώτεον ὦν οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι κότερα χαλκοῦ ποιέωνται τὰ ἀγάλματα ἢ λίθου· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οὐδέτερα τούτων ἔα, ἀλλὰ ξύλου ἡμέρης ἐλαίης. ἐδέοντο ὦν οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι Ἀθηναίων ἐλαίην σφι δοῦναι ταμέσθαι, ἱρωτάτας δὴ κείνας νομίζοντες εἶναι. λέγεται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἐλαῖαι ἦσαν ἄλλοθι γῆς οὐδαμοῦ κατὰ χρόνον ἐκεῖνον ἢ ἐν Ἀθήνῃσι. οἳ δὲ ἐπὶ τοῖσιδε δώσειν ἔφασαν ἐπʼ ᾧ ἀπάξουσι ἔτεος ἑκάστου τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ τε τῇ Πολιάδι ἱρὰ καὶ τῷ Ἐρεχθέι. καταινέσαντες δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοισι οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι τῶν τε ἐδέοντο ἔτυχον καὶ ἀγάλματα ἐκ τῶν ἐλαιέων τουτέων ποιησάμενοι ἱδρύσαντο· καὶ ἥ τε γῆ σφι ἔφερε καρπὸν καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι ἐπετέλεον τὰ συνέθεντο. 5.83 τοῦτον δʼ ἔτι τὸν χρόνον καὶ πρὸ τοῦ Αἰγινῆται Ἐπιδαυρίων ἤκουον τά τε ἄλλα καὶ δίκας διαβαίνοντες ἐς Ἐπίδαυρον ἐδίδοσάν τε καὶ ἐλάμβανον παρʼ ἀλλήλων οἱ Αἰγινῆται· τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦδε νέας τε πηξάμενοι καὶ ἀγνωμοσύνῃ χρησάμενοι ἀπέστησαν ἀπὸ τῶν Ἐπιδαυρίων. ἅτε δὲ ἐόντες διάφοροι ἐδηλέοντο αὐτούς, ὥστε θαλασσοκράτορες ἐόντες, καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ ἀγάλματα ταῦτα τῆς τε Δαμίης καὶ τῆς Αὐξησίης ὑπαιρέονται αὐτῶν, καί σφεα ἐκόμισάν τε καὶ ἱδρύσαντο τῆς σφετέρης χώρης ἐς τὴν μεσόγαιαν, τῇ Οἴη μὲν ἐστὶ οὔνομα, στάδια δὲ μάλιστά κῃ ἀπὸ τῆς πόλιος ὡς εἴκοσι ἀπέχει. ἱδρυσάμενοι δὲ ἐν τούτῳ τῷ χώρῳ θυσίῃσί τε σφέα καὶ χοροῖσι γυναικηίοισι κερτομίοισι ἱλάσκοντο, χορηγῶν ἀποδεικνυμένων ἑκατέρῃ τῶν δαιμόνων δέκα ἀνδρῶν· κακῶς δὲ ἠγόρευον οἱ χοροὶ ἄνδρα μὲν οὐδένα, τὰς δὲ ἐπιχωρίας γυναῖκας. ἦσαν δὲ καὶ τοῖσι Ἐπιδαυρίοισι αἱ αὐταὶ ἱροεργίαι· εἰσὶ δέ σφι καὶ ἄρρητοι ἱρουργίαι. 5.84 κλεφθέντων δὲ τῶνδε τῶν ἀγαλμάτων οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι τὰ συνέθεντο οὐκ ἐπετέλεον. πέμψαντες δὲ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐμήνιον τοῖσι Ἐπιδαυρίοισι· οἳ δὲ ἀπέφαινον λόγῳ ὡς οὐκ ἀδικέοιεν· ὅσον μὲν γὰρ χρόνον εἶχον τὰ ἀγάλματα ἐν τῇ χώρῃ, ἐπιτελέειν τὰ συνέθεντο, ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐστερῆσθαι αὐτῶν, οὐ δίκαιον εἶναι ἀποφέρειν ἔτι, ἀλλὰ τοὺς ἔχοντας αὐτὰ Αἰγινήτας πρήσσεσθαι ἐκέλευον. πρὸς ταῦτα οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐς Αἴγιναν πέμψαντες ἀπαίτεον τὰ ἀγάλματα· οἱ δὲ Αἰγινῆται ἔφασαν σφίσι τε καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι εἶναι οὐδὲν πρῆγμα. 5.85 Ἀθηναῖοι μέν νυν λέγουσι μετὰ τὴν ἀπαίτησιν ἀποσταλῆναι τριήρεϊ μιῇ τῶν ἀστῶν τούτους οἳ ἀποπεμφθέντες ἀπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ καὶ ἀπικόμενοι ἐς Αἴγιναν τὰ ἀγάλματα ταῦτα ὡς σφετέρων ξύλων ἐόντα ἐπειρῶντο ἐκ τῶν βάθρων ἐξανασπᾶν, ἵνα σφέα ἀνακομίσωνται. οὐ δυναμένους δὲ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ αὐτῶν κρατῆσαι, περιβαλόντας σχοινία ἕλκειν τὰ ἀγάλματα, καί σφι ἕλκουσι βροντήν τε καὶ ἅμα τῇ βροντῇ σεισμὸν ἐπιγενέσθαι· τοὺς δὲ τριηρίτας τοὺς ἕλκοντας ὑπὸ τούτων ἀλλοφρονῆσαι, παθόντας δὲ τοῦτο κτείνειν ἀλλήλους ἅτε πολεμίους, ἐς ὃ ἐκ πάντων ἕνα λειφθέντα ἀνακομισθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐς Φάληρον. 5.86 Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν οὕτω γενέσθαι λέγουσι, Αἰγινῆται δὲ οὐ μιῇ νηὶ ἀπικέσθαι Ἀθηναίους· μίαν μὲν γὰρ καὶ ὀλίγῳ πλεῦνας μιῆς, καὶ εἰ σφίσι μὴ ἔτυχον ἐοῦσαι νέες, ἀπαμύνεσθαι ἂν εὐπετέως· ἀλλὰ πολλῇσι νηυσὶ ἐπιπλέειν σφίσι ἐπὶ τὴν χώρην, αὐτοὶ δέ σφι εἶξαι καὶ οὐ ναυμαχῆσαι. οὐκ ἔχουσι δὲ τοῦτο διασημῆναι ἀτρεκέως, οὔτε εἰ ἥσσονες συγγινωσκόμενοι εἶναι τῇ ναυμαχίῃ κατὰ τοῦτο εἶξαν, οὔτε εἰ βουλόμενοι ποιῆσαι οἷόν τι καὶ ἐποίησαν. Ἀθηναίους μέν νυν, ἐπείτε σφι οὐδεὶς ἐς μάχην κατίστατο, ἀποβάντας ἀπὸ τῶν νεῶν τραπέσθαι πρὸς τὰ ἀγάλματα, οὐ δυναμένους δὲ ἀνασπάσαι ἐκ τῶν βάθρων αὐτὰ οὕτω δὴ περιβαλομένους σχοινία ἕλκειν, ἐς οὗ ἑλκόμενα τὰ ἀγάλματα ἀμφότερα τὠυτὸ ποιῆσαι, ἐμοὶ μὲν οὐ πιστὰ λέγοντες, ἄλλῳ δὲ τεῷ· ἐς γούνατα γάρ σφι αὐτὰ πεσεῖν, καὶ τὸν ἀπὸ τούτου χρόνον διατελέειν οὕτω ἔχοντα. Ἀθηναίους μὲν δὴ ταῦτα ποιέειν· σφέας δὲ Αἰγινῆται λέγουσι πυθομένους τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ὡς μέλλοιεν ἐπὶ σφέας στρατεύεσθαι, ἑτοίμους Ἀργείους ποιέεσθαι. τούς τε δὴ Ἀθηναίους ἀποβεβάναι ἐς τὴν Αἰγιναίην, καὶ ἥκειν βοηθέοντας σφίσι τοὺς Ἀργείους καὶ λαθεῖν τε ἐξ Ἐπιδαύρου διαβάντας ἐς τὴν νῆσον καὶ οὐ προακηκοόσι τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι ἐπιπεσεῖν ὑποταμομένους τὸ ἀπὸ τῶν νεῶν, ἅμα τε ἐν τούτῳ τὴν βροντήν τε γενέσθαι καὶ τὸν σεισμὸν αὐτοῖσι. 5.87 λέγεται μέν νυν ὑπʼ Ἀργείων τε καὶ Αἰγινητέων τάδε, ὁμολογέεται δὲ καὶ ὑπʼ Ἀθηναίων ἕνα μοῦνον τὸν ἀποσωθέντα αὐτῶν ἐς τὴν Ἀττικὴν γενέσθαι· πλὴν Ἀργεῖοι μὲν λέγουσι αὐτῶν τὸ Ἀττικὸν στρατόπεδον διαφθειράντων τὸν ἕνα τοῦτον περιγενέσθαι, Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ τοῦ δαιμονίου· περιγενέσθαι μέντοι οὐδὲ τοῦτον τὸν ἕνα, ἀλλʼ ἀπολέσθαι τρόπῳ τοιῷδε. κομισθεὶς ἄρα ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας ἀπήγγελλε τὸ πάθος· πυθομένας δὲ τὰς γυναῖκας τῶν ἐπʼ Αἴγιναν στρατευσαμένων ἀνδρῶν, δεινόν τι ποιησαμένας κεῖνον μοῦνον ἐξ ἁπάντων σωθῆναι, πέριξ τὸν ἄνθρωπον τοῦτον λαβούσας καὶ κεντεύσας τῇσι περόνῃσι τῶν ἱματίων εἰρωτᾶν ἑκάστην αὐτέων ὅκου εἴη ὁ ἑωυτῆς ἀνήρ. καὶ τοῦτον μὲν οὕτω διαφθαρῆναι, Ἀθηναίοισι δὲ ἔτι τοῦ πάθεος δεινότερόν τι δόξαι εἶναι τὸ τῶν γυναικῶν ἔργον. ἄλλῳ μὲν δὴ οὐκ ἔχειν ὅτεῳ ζημιώσωσι τὰς γυναῖκας, τὴν δὲ ἐσθῆτα μετέβαλον αὐτέων ἐς τὴν Ἰάδα· ἐφόρεον γὰρ δὴ πρὸ τοῦ αἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων γυναῖκες ἐσθῆτα Δωρίδα, τῇ Κορινθίῃ παραπλησιωτάτην· μετέβαλον ὦν ἐς τὸν λίνεον κιθῶνα, ἵνα δὴ περόνῃσι μὴ χρέωνται. 5.88 ἔστι δὲ ἀληθέι λόγῳ χρεωμένοισι οὐκ Ἰὰς αὕτη ἡ ἐσθὴς τὸ παλαιὸν ἀλλὰ Κάειρα, ἐπεὶ ἥ γε Ἑλληνικὴ ἐσθὴς πᾶσα ἡ ἀρχαίη τῶν γυναικῶν ἡ αὐτὴ ἦν τὴν νῦν Δωρίδα καλέομεν. τοῖσι δὲ Ἀργείοισι καὶ τοῖσι Αἰγινήτῃσι καὶ πρὸς ταῦτα ἔτι τόδε ποιῆσαι 1 νόμον εἶναι παρὰ σφίσι ἑκατέροισι τὰς περόνας ἡμιολίας ποιέεσθαι τοῦ τότε κατεστεῶτος μέτρου, καὶ ἐς τὸ ἱρὸν τῶν θεῶν τουτέων περόνας μάλιστα ἀνατιθέναι τὰς γυναῖκας, Ἀττικὸν δὲ μήτε τι ἄλλο προσφέρειν πρὸς τὸ ἱρὸν μήτε κέραμον, ἀλλʼ ἐκ χυτρίδων ἐπιχωριέων νόμον τὸ λοιπὸν αὐτόθι εἶναι πίνειν.
8.37 ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀγχοῦ ἦσαν οἱ βάρβαροι ἐπιόντες καὶ ἀπώρων τὸ ἱρόν, ἐν τούτῳ ὁ προφήτης, τῷ οὔνομα ἦν Ἀκήρατος, ὁρᾷ πρὸ τοῦ νηοῦ ὅπλα προκείμενα ἔσωθεν ἐκ τοῦ μεγάρου ἐξενηνειγμένα ἱρά, τῶν οὐκ ὅσιον ἦν ἅπτεσθαι ἀνθρώπων οὐδενί. ὃ μὲν δὴ ἤιε Δελφῶν τοῖσι παρεοῦσι σημανέων τὸ τέρας· οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι ἐπειδὴ ἐγίνοντο ἐπειγόμενοι κατὰ τὸ ἱρὸν τῆς Προναίης Ἀθηναίης, ἐπιγίνεταί σφι τέρεα ἔτι μέζονα τοῦ πρὶν γενομένου τέρεος. θῶμα μὲν γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο κάρτα ἐστί, ὅπλα ἀρήια αὐτόματα φανῆναι ἔξω προκείμενα τοῦ νηοῦ· τὰ δὲ δὴ ἐπὶ τούτῳ δεύτερα ἐπιγενόμενα καὶ διὰ πάντων φασμάτων ἄξια θωμάσαι μάλιστα. ἐπεὶ γὰρ δὴ ἦσαν ἐπιόντες οἱ βάρβαροι κατὰ τὸ ἱρὸν τῆς Προναίης Ἀθηναίης, ἐν τούτῳ ἐκ μὲν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κεραυνοὶ αὐτοῖσι ἐνέπιπτον, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Παρνησοῦ ἀπορραγεῖσαι δύο κορυφαὶ ἐφέροντο πολλῷ πατάγῳ ἐς αὐτοὺς καὶ κατέβαλον συχνούς σφεων, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ ἱροῦ τῆς Προναίης βοή τε καὶ ἀλαλαγμὸς ἐγίνετο.'' None
1.67 In the previous war the Lacedaemonians continually fought unsuccessfully against the Tegeans, but in the time of Croesus and the kingship of Anaxandrides and Ariston in Lacedaemon the Spartans had gained the upper hand. This is how: ,when they kept being defeated by the Tegeans, they sent ambassadors to Delphi to ask which god they should propitiate to prevail against the Tegeans in war. The Pythia responded that they should bring back the bones of Orestes, son of Agamemnon. ,When they were unable to discover Orestes\' tomb, they sent once more to the god to ask where he was buried. The Pythia responded in hexameter to the messengers: ,
5.82 This was the beginning of the Aeginetans' long-standing debt of enmity against the Athenians. The Epidaurians' land bore no produce. For this reason they inquired at Delphi concerning this calamity, and the priestess bade them set up images of Damia and Auxesia, saying that if they so did their luck would be better. The Epidaurians then asked in addition whether they should make the images of bronze or of stone, and the priestess bade them do neither, but make them of the wood of the cultivated olive. ,So the men of Epidaurus asked the Athenians to permit them to cut down some olive trees, supposing the olives there to be the holiest. Indeed it is said that at that time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. ,The Athenians consented to give the trees, if the Epidaurians would pay yearly sacred dues to Athena, the city's goddess, and to Erechtheus. The Epidaurians agreed to this condition, and their request was granted. When they set up images made of these olive trees, their land brought forth fruit, and they fulfilled their agreement with the Athenians." '5.83 Now at this time, as before it, the Aeginetans were in all matters still subject to the Epidaurians and even crossed to Epidaurus for the hearing of their own private lawsuits. From this time, however, they began to build ships, and stubbornly revolted from the Epidaurians. ,In the course of this struggle, they did the Epidaurians much damage and stole their images of Damia and Auxesia. These they took away and set them up in the middle of their own country at a place called Oea, about twenty furlongs distant from their city. ,Having set them up in this place they sought their favor with sacrifices and female choruses in the satirical and abusive mode. Ten men were appointed providers of a chorus for each of the deities, and the choruses aimed their raillery not at any men but at the women of the country. The Epidaurians too had the same rites, and they have certain secret rites as well. 5.84 When these images were stolen, the Epidaurians ceased from fulfilling their agreement with the Athenians. Then the Athenians sent an angry message to the Epidaurians who pleaded in turn that they were doing no wrong. “For as long,” they said, “as we had the images in our country, we fulfilled our agreement. Now that we are deprived of them, it is not just that we should still be paying. Ask your dues of the men of Aegina, who have the images.” ,The Athenians therefore sent to Aegina and demanded that the images be restored, but the Aeginetans answered that they had nothing to do with the Athenians. ' "5.85 The Athenians report that after making this demand, they despatched one trireme with certain of their citizens who, coming in the name of the whole people to Aegina, attempted to tear the images, as being made of Attic wood, from their bases so that they might carry them away. ,When they could not obtain possession of them in this manner, they tied cords around the images with which they could be dragged. While they were attempting to drag them off, they were overtaken both by a thunderstorm and an earthquake. This drove the trireme's crew to such utter madness that they began to slay each other as if they were enemies. At last only one of all was left, who returned by himself to Phalerum." '5.86 This is the Athenian version of the matter, but the Aeginetans say that the Athenians came not in one ship only, for they could easily have kept off a single ship, or several, for that matter, even if they had no navy themselves. The truth was, they said, that the Athenians descended upon their coasts with many ships and that they yielded to them without making a fight of it at sea. ,They are not able to determine clearly whether it was because they admitted to being weaker at sea-fighting that they yielded, or because they were planning what they then actually did. ,When, as the Aeginetans say, no man came out to fight with them, the Athenians disembarked from their ships and turned their attention to the images. Unable to drag them from the bases, they fastened cords on them and dragged them until they both—this I cannot believe, but another might—fell on their knees. Both have remained in this position ever since. ,This is what the Athenians did, but the Aeginetans say that they discovered that the Athenians were about to make war upon them and therefore assured themselves of help from the Argives. So when the Athenians disembarked on the land of Aegina, the Argives came to aid the Aeginetans, crossing over from Epidaurus to the island secretly. They then fell upon the Athenians unaware and cut them off from their ships. It was at this moment that the thunderstorm and earthquake came upon them 5.87 This, then, is the story told by the Argives and Aeginetans, and the Athenians too acknowledge that only one man of their number returned safely to Attica. ,The Argives, however, say that he escaped after they had destroyed the rest of the Athenian force, while the Athenians claim that the whole thing was to be attributed to divine power. This one man did not survive but perished in the following manner. It would seem that he made his way to Athens and told of the mishap. When the wives of the men who had gone to attack Aegina heard this, they were very angry that he alone should be safe. They gathered round him and stabbed him with the brooch-pins of their garments, each asking him where her husband was. ,This is how this man met his end, and the Athenians found the action of their women to be more dreadful than their own misfortune. They could find, it is said, no other way to punish the women than changing their dress to the Ionian fashion. Until then the Athenian women had worn Dorian dress, which is very like the Corinthian. It was changed, therefore, to the linen tunic, so that they might have no brooch-pins to use. 5.88 The truth of the matter, however, is that this form of dress is not in its origin Ionian, but Carian, for in ancient times all women in Greece wore the costume now known as Dorian. ,As for the Argives and Aeginetans, this was the reason of their passing a law in both their countries that brooch-pins should be made half as long as they used to be and that brooches should be the principal things offered by women in the shrines of these two goddesses. Furthermore, nothing else Attic should be brought to the temple, not even pottery, and from that time on only drinking vessels made in the country should be used.
8.37 Now when the barbarians drew near and could see the temple, the prophet, whose name was Aceratus, saw certain sacred arms, which no man might touch without sacrilege, brought out of the chamber within and laid before the shrine. ,So he went to tell the Delphians of this miracle, but when the barbarians came with all speed near to the temple of Athena Pronaea, they were visited by miracles yet greater than the aforesaid. Marvellous indeed it is, that weapons of war should of their own motion appear lying outside in front of the shrine, but the visitation which followed was more wondrous than anything else ever seen. ,When the barbarians were near to the temple of Athena Pronaea, they were struck by thunderbolts from the sky, and two peaks broken off from Parnassus came rushing among them with a mighty noise and overwhelmed many of them. In addition to this a shout and a cry of triumph were heard from the temple of Athena. '' None
|13. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aitiology
Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022), Pindar and Greek Religion Theologies of Mortality in the Victory Odes, 65; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 174, 175
|14. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Theoxenia, Delphi, aetiology • aetiology
Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 200; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 94
|15. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artemis Hemera (Lousoi), aetiology jumbled with that of Hera Argeia • Proitids, and aetiology for Artemis of Lousoi • aetiologies, specific, Artemis at Lousoi/Metapontion • aetiology • aetiology, • aitiological myths
Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 275; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 94; Marincola et al. (2021), Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians, 307; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 382
|16. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology
Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 30; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 7
|17. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • etiology • locality, various linked through aetiology
Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 28; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 173; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 380; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 72; Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 335, 366
|18. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology
Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 28; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 21; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 36; Morrison (2020), Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography, 110
|19. Ovid, Fasti, 1.337-1.456, 2.511-2.512, 3.291-3.346, 3.661-3.674 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology, origins, causae • inventions, of aetiologies
Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 39, 140, 147, 197, 214; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 107, 108, 109; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 180, 182, 187, 210, 212; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 158
1.337 ante, deos homini quod conciliare valeret, 1.338 far erat et puri lucida mica salis, 1.339 nondum pertulerat lacrimatas cortice murras 1.340 acta per aequoreas hospita navis aquas, 1.341 tura nec Euphrates nec miserat India costum, 1.342 nec fuerant rubri cognita fila croci. 1.343 ara dabat fumos herbis contenta Sabinis 1.344 et non exiguo laurus adusta sono. 1.345 si quis erat, factis prati de flore coronis 1.346 qui posset violas addere, dives erat. 1.347 hic, qui nunc aperit percussi viscera tauri, 1.348 in sacris nullum culter habebat opus. 1.349 prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae 1.350 ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes; 1.351 nam sata vere novo teneris lactentia sulcis 1.352 eruta saetigerae comperit ore suis. 1.353 sus dederat poenas: exemplo territus huius 1.354 palmite debueras abstinuisse, caper. 1.355 quem spectans aliquis dentes in vite prementem 1.356 talia non tacito dicta dolore dedit: 1.357 ‘rode, caper, vitem! tamen hinc, cum stabis ad aram, 1.358 in tua quod spargi cornua possit, erit.’ 1.359 verba fides sequitur: noxae tibi deditus hostis 1.360 spargitur adfuso cornua, Bacche, mero. 1.361 culpa sui nocuit, nocuit quoque culpa capellae: 1.362 quid bos, quid placidae commeruistis oves? 1.363 flebat Aristaeus, quod apes cum stirpe necatas 1.364 viderat inceptos destituisse favos. 1.365 caerula quem genetrix aegre solata dolentem 1.366 addidit haec dictis ultima verba suis: 1.367 ‘siste, puer, lacrimas! Proteus tua damna levabit, 1.368 quoque modo repares quae periere, dabit, 1.369 decipiat ne te versis tamen ille figuris, 1.370 impediant geminas vincula firma manus.’ 1.371 pervenit ad vatem iuvenis resolutaque somno 1.372 alligat aequorei brachia capta senis, 1.373 ille sua faciem transformis adulterat arte: 1.374 mox domitus vinclis in sua membra redit, 1.375 oraque caerulea tollens rorantia barba, 1.376 qua dixit ‘repares arte, requiris, apes? 1.377 obrue mactati corpus tellure iuvenci: 1.378 quod petis a nobis, obrutus ille dabit.’ 1.379 iussa facit pastor: fervent examina putri 1.380 de bove: mille animas una necata dedit, 1.381 poscit ovem fatum: verbenas improba carpsit, 1.382 quas pia dis ruris ferre solebat anus. 1.383 quid tuti superest, animam cum ponat in aris 1.384 lanigerumque pecus ruricolaeque boves? 1.385 placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum, 1.386 ne detur celeri victima tarda deo. 1.387 quod semel est triplici pro virgine caesa Dianae, 1.388 nunc quoque pro nulla virgine cerva cadit, 1.389 exta canum vidi Triviae libare Sapaeos, 1.390 et quicumque tuas accolit, Haeme, nives, 1.391 caeditur et rigido custodi ruris asellus; 1.392 causa pudenda quidem, sed tamen apta deo. 1.393 festa corymbiferi celebrabas, Graecia, Bacchi, 1.394 tertia quae solito tempore bruma refert. 1.395 di quoque cultores in idem venere Lyaei, 1.396 et quicumque iocis non alienus erat, 1.397 Panes et in Venerem Satyrorum prona iuventus, 1.398 quaeque colunt amnes solaque rura deae. 1.399 venerat et senior pando Silenus asello, 1.400 quique ruber pavidas inguine terret aves, 1.401 dulcia qui dignum nemus in convivia nacti 1.402 gramine vestitis accubuere toris, vina 1.403 vina dabat Liber, tulerat sibi quisque coronam, 1.404 miscendas parce rivus agebat aquas. 1.405 Naides effusis aliae sine pectinis usu, 1.406 pars aderant positis arte manuque comis: 1.407 illa super suras tunicam collecta ministrat, 1.408 altera dissuto pectus aperta sinu: 1.409 exserit haec humerum, vestem trahit illa per herbas, 1.410 impediunt teneros vincula nulla pedes, 1.411 hinc aliae Satyris incendia mitia praebent, 1.412 pars tibi, qui pinu tempora nexa geris, 1.413 te quoque, inextinctae Silene libidinis, urunt: 1.414 nequitia est, quae te non sinit esse senem. 1.415 at ruber, hortorum decus et tutela, Priapus 1.416 omnibus ex illis Lotide captus erat: 1.417 hanc cupit, hanc optat, sola suspirat in illa, 1.418 signaque dat nutu, sollicitatque notis, 1.419 fastus inest pulchris, sequiturque superbia formam: 1.420 irrisum voltu despicit illa suo. 1.421 nox erat, et vino somnum faciente iacebant 1.422 corpora diversis victa sopore locis. 1.423 Lotis in herbosa sub acernis ultima ramis, 1.424 sicut erat lusu fessa, quievit humo. 1.425 surgit amans animamque tenens vestigia furtim 1.426 suspenso digitis fert taciturna gradu, 1.427 ut tetigit niveae secreta cubilia nymphae, 1.428 ipsa sui flatus ne sonet aura, cavet, 1.429 et iam finitima corpus librabat in herba: 1.430 illa tamen multi plena soporis erat. 1.431 gaudet et, a pedibus tracto velamine, vota 1.432 ad sua felici coeperat ire via. 1.433 ecce rudens rauco Sileni vector asellus 1.434 intempestivos edidit ore sonos. 1.435 territa consurgit nymphe manibusque Priapum 1.436 reicit et fugiens concitat omne nemus; 1.437 at deus obscena nimium quoque parte paratus 1.438 omnibus ad lunae lumina risus erat. 1.439 morte dedit poenas auctor clamoris, et haec est 1.440 Hellespontiaco victima grata deo. 1.441 intactae fueratis aves, solacia ruris, 1.442 adsuetum silvis innocuumque genus, 1.443 quae facitis nidos et plumis ova fovetis 1.444 et facili dulces editis ore modos; 1.445 sed nil ista iuvant, quia linguae crimen habetis, 1.446 dique putant mentes vos aperire suas. 1.447 nec tamen hoc falsum: nam, dis ut proxima quaeque, 1.448 nunc penna veras, nunc datis ore notas, 1.449 tuta diu volucrum proles tum denique caesa est, 1.450 iuveruntque deos indicis exta sui. 1.451 ergo saepe suo coniunx abducta marito 1.452 uritur Idaliis alba columba focis; 1.453 nec defensa iuvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 1.454 det iecur in lances, Inachi lauta, tuas; 1.455 nocte deae Nocti cristatus caeditur ales, 1.456 quod tepidum vigili provocet ore diem.
2.511 templa deo fiunt, collis quoque dictus ab illo est, 2.512 et referunt certi sacra paterna dies.
3.291 sed poterunt ritum Picus Faunusque piandi 3.292 tradere, Romani numen utrumque soli. 3.293 nec sine vi tradent: adhibe tu vincula captis.’ 3.294 atque ita qua possint edidit arte capi. 3.295 lucus Aventino suberat niger ilicis umbra, 3.296 quo posses viso dicere numen inest. 3.297 in medio gramen, muscoque adoperta virenti 3.298 manabat saxo vena perennis aquae: 3.299 inde fere soli Faunus Picusque bibebant. 3.300 huc venit et fonti rex Numa mactat ovem, 3.301 plenaque odorati disponit pocula Bacchi, 3.302 cumque suis antro conditus ipse latet, 3.303 ad solitos veniunt silvestria numina fontes 3.304 et relevant multo pectora sicca mero. 3.305 vina quies sequitur; gelido Numa prodit ab antro 3.306 vinclaque sopitas addit in arta manus, 3.307 somnus ut abscessit, pugdo vincula temptant 3.308 rumpere: pugtes fortius illa tenent. 3.309 tunc Numa: ‘di nemorum, factis ignoscite nostris, 3.310 si scelus ingenio scitis abesse meo; 3.311 quoque modo possit fulmen, monstrate, piari.’ 3.312 sic Numa; sic quatiens cornua Faunus ait: 3.313 ‘magna petis nec quae monitu tibi discere nostro 3.314 fas sit: habent finis numina nostra suos. 3.315 di sumus agrestes et qui dominemur in altis 3.316 montibus: arbitrium est in sua tela Iovi. 3.317 hunc tu non poteris per te deducere caelo, 3.318 at poteris nostra forsitan usus ope.’ 3.319 dixerat haec Faunus; par est sententia Pici: 3.320 deme tamen nobis vincula, Picus ait: 3.321 ‘Iuppiter huc veniet, valida perductus ab arte. 3.322 nubila promissi Styx mihi testis erit.’ 3.323 emissi laqueis quid agant, quae carmina dicant, 3.324 quaque trahant superis sedibus arte Iovem, 3.325 scire nefas homini: nobis concessa canentur 3.326 quaeque pio dici vatis ab ore licet, 3.327 eliciunt caelo te, Iuppiter, unde minores 3.328 nunc quoque te celebrant Eliciumque vocant, 3.329 constat Aventinae tremuisse cacumina silvae, 3.330 terraque subsedit pondere pressa Iovis, 3.331 corda micant regis, totoque e corpore sanguis 3.332 fugit, et hirsutae deriguere comae, 3.333 ut rediit animus, da certa piamina dixit 3.334 ‘fulminis, altorum rexque paterque deum, 3.335 si tua contigimus manibus donaria puris, 3.336 hoc quoque, quod petitur, si pia lingua rogat.’ 3.337 adnuit oranti, sed verum ambage remota 3.338 abdidit et dubio terruit ore virum. 3.339 caede caput dixit: cui rex parebimus, inquit 3.340 caedenda est hortis eruta caepa meis. 3.341 addidit, hic hominis: sumes ait ille capillos. 3.342 postulat hic animam, cui Numa piscis ait. 3.343 risit et his inquit ‘facito mea tela procures, 3.344 o vir conloquio non abigende deum. 3.345 sed tibi, protulerit cum totum crastinus orbem 3.346 Cynthius, imperii pignora certa dabo.’
3.661 haec quoque, quam referam, nostras pervenit ad aures 3.662 fama nec a veri dissidet illa fide. 3.663 plebs vetus et nullis etiam nunc tuta tribunis 3.664 fugit et in Sacri vertice montis erat; 3.665 iam quoque, quem secum tulerant, defecerat illos 3.666 victus et humanis usibus apta Ceres, 3.667 orta suburbanis quaedam fuit Anna Bovillis, 3.668 pauper, sed multae sedulitatis anus. 3.669 illa levi mitra canos incincta capillos 3.670 Angebat tremula rustica liba manu, 3.671 atque ita per populum fumantia mane solebat 3.672 dividere: haec populo copia grata fuit. 3.673 pace domi facta signum posuere Perennae, 3.674 quod sibi defectis illa ferebat opem.'' None
1.337 Cornmeal, and glittering grains of pure salt, 1.338 Were once the means for men to placate the gods. 1.339 No foreign ship had yet brought liquid myrrh 1.340 Extracted from tree’s bark, over the ocean waves: 1.341 Euphrates had not sent incense, nor India balm, 1.342 And the threads of yellow saffron were unknown. 1.343 The altar was happy to fume with Sabine juniper, 1.344 And the laurel burned with a loud crackling. 1.345 He was rich, whoever could add violet 1.346 To garlands woven from meadow flowers. 1.347 The knife that bares the entrails of the stricken bull, 1.348 Had no role to perform in the sacred rites. 1.349 Ceres was first to delight in the blood of the greedy sow, 1.350 Her crops avenged by the rightful death of the guilty creature, 1.351 She learned that in spring the grain, milky with sweet juice, 1.352 Had been uprooted by the snouts of bristling pigs. 1.353 The swine were punished: terrified by that example, 1.354 You should have spared the vine-shoots, he-goat. 1.355 Watching a goat nibbling a vine someone once 1.356 Vented their indignation in these words: 1.357 ‘Gnaw the vine, goat! But when you stand at the altar 1.358 There’ll be something from it to sprinkle on your horns.’ 1.359 Truth followed: Bacchus, your enemy is given you 1.360 To punish, and sprinkled wine flows over its horns. 1.361 The sow suffered for her crime, and the goat for hers: 1.362 But what were you guilty of you sheep and oxen? 1.363 Aristaeus wept because he saw his bees destroyed, 1.364 And the hives they had begun left abandoned. 1.365 His azure mother, Cyrene, could barely calm his grief, 1.366 But added these final words to what she said: 1.367 ‘Son, cease your tears! Proteus will allay your loss, 1.368 And show you how to recover what has perished. 1.369 But lest he still deceives you by changing shape, 1.370 Entangle both his hands with strong fastenings.’ 1.371 The youth approached the seer, who was fast asleep, 1.372 And bound the arms of that Old Man of the Sea. 1.373 He by his art altered his shape and transformed his face, 1.374 But soon reverted to his true form, tamed by the ropes. 1.375 Then raising his dripping head, and sea-green beard, 1.376 He said: ‘Do you ask how to recover your bees? 1.377 Kill a heifer and bury its carcase in the earth, 1.378 Buried it will produce what you ask of me.’ 1.379 The shepherd obeyed: the beast’s putrid corpse 1.380 Swarmed: one life destroyed created thousands. 1.381 Death claims the sheep: wickedly, it grazed the vervain 1.382 That a pious old woman offered to the rural gods. 1.383 What creature’s safe if woolly sheep, and oxen 1.384 Broken to the plough, lay their lives on the altar? 1.385 Persia propitiates Hyperion, crowned with rays, 1.386 With horses, no sluggish victims for the swift god. 1.387 Because a hind was once sacrificed to Diana the twin, 1.388 Instead of Iphigeneia, a hind dies, though not for a virgin now. 1.389 I have seen a dog’s entrails offered to Trivia by Sapaeans, 1.390 Whose homes border on your snows, Mount Haemus. 1.391 A young ass too is sacrificed to the erect rural guardian, 1.392 Priapus, the reason’s shameful, but appropriate to the god. 1.393 Greece, you held a festival of ivy-berried Bacchus, 1.394 That used to recur at the appointed time, every third winter. 1.395 There too came the divinities who worshipped him as Lyaeus, 1.396 And whoever else was not averse to jesting, 1.397 The Pans and the young Satyrs prone to lust, 1.398 And the goddesses of rivers and lonely haunts. 1.399 And old Silenus came on a hollow-backed ass, 1.400 And crimson Priapus scaring the timid birds with his rod. 1.401 Finding a grove suited to sweet entertainment, 1.402 They lay down on beds of grass covered with cloths. 1.403 Liber offered wine, each had brought a garland, 1.404 A stream supplied ample water for the mixing. 1.405 There were Naiads too, some with uncombed flowing hair, 1.406 Others with their tresses artfully bound. 1.407 One attends with tunic tucked high above the knee, 1.408 Another shows her breast through her loosened robe: 1.409 One bares her shoulder: another trails her hem in the grass, 1.410 Their tender feet are not encumbered with shoes. 1.411 So some create amorous passion in the Satyrs, 1.412 Some in you, Pan, brows wreathed in pine. 1.413 You too Silenus, are on fire, insatiable lecher: 1.414 Wickedness alone prevents you growing old. 1.415 But crimson Priapus, guardian and glory of gardens, 1.416 of them all, was captivated by Lotis: 1.417 He desires, and prays, and sighs for her alone, 1.418 He signals to her, by nodding, woos her with signs. 1.419 But the lovely are disdainful, pride waits on beauty: 1.420 She laughed at him, and scorned him with a look. 1.421 It was night, and drowsy from the wine, 1.422 They lay here and there, overcome by sleep. 1.423 Tired from play, Lotis rested on the grassy earth, 1.424 Furthest away, under the maple branches. 1.425 Her lover stood, and holding his breath, stole 1.426 Furtively and silently towards her on tiptoe. 1.427 Reaching the snow-white nymph’s secluded bed, 1.428 He took care lest the sound of his breath escaped. 1.429 Now he balanced on his toes on the grass nearby: 1.430 But she was still completely full of sleep. 1.431 He rejoiced, and drawing the cover from her feet, 1.432 He happily began to have his way with her. 1.433 Suddenly Silenus’ ass braying raucously, 1.434 Gave an untimely bellow from its jaws. 1.435 Terrified the nymph rose, pushed Priapus away, 1.436 And, fleeing, gave the alarm to the whole grove. 1.437 But the over-expectant god with his rigid member, 1.438 Was laughed at by them all, in the moonlight. 1.439 The creator of that ruckus paid with his life, 1.440 And he’s the sacrifice dear to the Hellespontine god. 1.441 You were chaste once, you birds, a rural solace, 1.442 You harmless race that haunt the woodlands, 1.443 Who build your nests, warm your eggs with your wings, 1.444 And utter sweet measures from your ready beaks, 1.445 But that is no help to you, because of your guilty tongues, 1.446 And the gods’ belief that you reveal their thoughts. 1.447 Nor is that false: since the closer you are to the gods, 1.448 The truer the omens you give by voice and flight. 1.449 Though long untouched, birds were killed at last, 1.450 And the gods delighted in the informers’ entrails. 1.451 So the white dove, torn from her mate, 1.452 Is often burned in the Idalian flames: 1.453 Nor did saving the Capitol benefit the goose, 1.454 Who yielded his liver on a dish to you, Inachus’ daughter: 1.455 The cock is sacrificed at night to the Goddess, Night, 1.456 Because he summons the day with his waking cries,
2.511 Temples were built for the god, the hill named for him, 2.512 And on certain days the ancestral rites are re-enacted.
3.291 Can teach you the rites of expiation. But they won’t 3.292 Teach them unless compelled: so catch and bind them.’ 3.293 And she revealed the arts by which they could be caught. 3.294 There was a grove, dark with holm-oaks, below the Aventine, 3.295 At sight of which you would say: ‘There’s a god within.’ 3.296 The centre was grassy, and covered with green moss, 3.297 And a perennial stream of water trickled from the rock. 3.298 Faunus and Picus used to drink there alone. 3.299 Numa approached and sacrificed a sheep to the spring, 3.300 And set out cups filled with fragrant wine. 3.301 Then he hid with his people inside the cave. 3.302 The woodland spirits came to their usual spring, 3.303 And quenched their dry throats with draughts of wine. 3.304 Sleep succeeded wine: Numa emerged from the icy cave 3.305 And clasped the sleepers’ hands in tight shackles. 3.306 When sleep vanished, they fought and tried to burst 3.307 Their bonds, which grew tighter the more they struggled. 3.308 Then Numa spoke: ‘Gods of the sacred groves, if you accept 3.309 My thoughts were free of wickedness, forgive my actions: 3.310 And show me how the lightning may be averted.’ 3.311 So Numa: and, shaking his horns, so Faunus replied: 3.312 ‘You seek great things, that it’s not right for you to know 3.313 Through our admission: our powers have their limits. 3.314 We are rural gods who rule in the high mountains: 3.315 Jupiter has control of his own weapons. 3.316 You could never draw him from heaven by yourself, 3.317 But you may be able, by making use of our aid.’ 3.318 Faunus spoke these words: Picus too agreed, 3.319 ‘But remove our shackles,’ Picus added: 3.320 ‘Jupiter will arrive here, drawn by powerful art. 3.321 Cloudy Styx will be witness to my promise.’ 3.322 It’s wrong for men to know what the gods enacted when loosed 3.323 From the snare, or what spells they spoke, or by what art 3.324 They drew Jupiter from his realm above. My song will sing 3.325 of lawful things, such as a poet may speak with pious lips. 3.326 The drew you (eliciunt) from the sky, Jupiter, and later 3.327 Generations now worship you, by the name of Elicius. 3.328 It’s true that the crowns of the Aventine woods trembled, 3.329 And the earth sank under the weight of Jove. 3.330 The king’s heart shook, the blood fled from his body, 3.331 And the bristling hair stood up stiffly on his head. 3.332 When he regained his senses, he said: ‘King and father 3.333 To the high gods, if I have touched your offering 3.334 With pure hands, and if a pious tongue, too, asks for 3.335 What I seek, grant expiation from your lightning,’ 3.336 The god accepted his prayer, but hid the truth with deep 3.337 Ambiguities, and terrified him with confusing words. 3.338 ‘Sever a head,’ said the god: the king replied; ‘I will, 3.339 We’ll sever an onion’s, dug from my garden.’ 3.340 The god added: ‘of a man’: ‘You’ll have the hair,’ 3.341 Said the king. He demanded a life, Numa replied: ‘A fish’s’. 3.342 The god laughed and said: ‘Expiate my lightning like this, 3.343 O man who cannot be stopped from speaking with gods. 3.344 And when Apollo’s disc is full tomorrow, 3.345 I’ll give you sure pledges of empire.’ 3.346 He spoke, and was carried above the quaking sky,
3.661 And it’s not so far away from the truth. 3.662 The Plebs of old, not yet protected by Tribunes, 3.663 Fled, and gathered on the Sacred Mount: 3.664 The food supplies they’d brought with them failed, 3.665 Also the stores of bread fit for human consumption. 3.666 There was a certain Anna from suburban Bovillae, 3.667 A poor woman, old, but very industrious. 3.668 With her grey hair bound up in a light cap, 3.669 She used to make coarse cakes with a trembling hand, 3.670 And distribute them, still warm, among the people, 3.671 Each morning: this supply of hers pleased them all. 3.672 When peace was made at home, they set up a statue 3.673 To Perenna, because she’d helped supply their needs. 3.674 Now it’s left for me to tell why the girls sing coarse songs:'' None
|20. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.237, 1.437, 1.441-1.451, 1.457-1.460, 8.11-8.20, 8.22-8.33, 8.35-8.50, 8.52, 8.54-8.59, 8.61-8.68, 8.70-8.72, 8.74-8.77, 8.79-8.88, 8.90-8.96, 8.98-8.101, 8.103-8.108, 8.110-8.115, 8.117-8.125, 8.127-8.133, 8.135-8.138, 8.140-8.150, 10.197-10.199, 10.204-10.208, 14.806-14.807, 15.110-15.125, 15.127-15.134, 15.136-15.142, 15.745 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology / aition • aetiology of labor’ • aetiology, origins, causae • etiology • metamorphosis, as etiological
Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 140; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 24; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 107, 108, 109, 128, 130; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 5, 187, 344; Mayor (2017), Religion and Memory in Tacitus’ Annals, 155, 172; Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 334, 335, 366, 368
1.237 fit lupus et veteris servat vestigia formae.
1.441 Hunc deus arquitenens, et numquam talibus armis 1.442 ante nisi in dammis capreisque fugacibus usus, 1.443 mille gravem telis exhausta paene pharetra 1.444 perdidit effuso per vulnera nigra veneno. 1.445 Neve operis famam posset delere vetustas, 1.446 instituit sacros celebri certamine ludos, 1.447 Pythia perdomitae serpentis nomine dictos. 1.448 Hic iuvenum quicumque manu pedibusve rotave 1.449 vicerat, aesculeae capiebat frondis honorem: 1.450 nondum laurus erat, longoque decentia crine 1.451 tempora cingebat de qualibet arbore Phoebus.
1.457 dixerat, “ista decent umeros gestamina nostros, 1.458 qui dare certa ferae, dare vulnera possumus hosti, 1.460 stravimus innumeris tumidum Pythona sagittis.
8.11 Sexta resurgebant orientis cornua lunae, 8.12 et pendebat adhuc belli fortuna: diuque 8.13 inter utrumque volat dubiis Victoria pennis. 8.14 Regia turris erat vocalibus addita muris, 8.15 in quibus auratam proles Letoia fertur 8.16 deposuisse lyram: saxo sonus eius inhaesit. 8.18 et petere exiguo resotia saxa lapillo, 8.19 tum cum pax esset: bello quoque saepe solebat 8.20 spectare ex illa rigidi certamina Martis.
8.22 armaque equosque habitusque Cydonaeasque pharetras. 8.23 Noverat ante alios faciem ducis Europaei, 8.24 plus etiam, quam nosse sat est. Hac iudice Minos, 8.25 seu caput abdiderat cristata casside pennis, 8.26 in galea formosus erat; seu sumpserat aere 8.27 fulgentem clipeum, clipeum sumpsisse decebat. 8.28 Torserat adductis hastilia lenta lacertis: 8.29 laudabat virgo iunctam cum viribus artem. 8.30 Imposito calamo patulos sinuaverat arcus: 8.31 sic Phoebum sumptis iurabat stare sagittis. 8.32 Cum vero faciem dempto nudaverat aere 8.33 purpureusque albi stratis insignia pictis
8.35 vix sua, vix sanae virgo Niseia compos 8.36 mentis erat. Felix iaculum, quod tangeret ille, 8.37 quaeque manu premeret, felicia frena vocabat. 8.38 Impetus est illi, liceat modo, ferre per agmen 8.39 virgineos hostile gradus, est impetus illi 8.40 turribus e summis in Gnosia mittere corpus 8.41 castra, vel aeratas hosti recludere portas, 8.42 vel siquid Minos aliud velit. Utque sedebat 8.43 candida Dictaei spectans tentoria regis, 8.44 “laeter,” ait “doleamne geri lacrimabile bellum, 8.45 in dubio est. Doleo, quod Minos hostis amanti est: 8.46 sed nisi bella forent, numquam mihi cognitus esset. 8.47 Me tamen accepta poterat deponere bellum 8.48 obside, me comitem, me pacis pignus haberet. 8.49 Si quae te peperit, talis, pulcherrime rerum, 8.50 qualis es ipsa fuit, merito deus arsit in illa.
8.52 Gnosiaci possem castris insistere regis
8.54 vellet emi! tantum patrias ne posceret arces. 8.55 Nam pereant potius sperata cubilia, quam sim 8.56 proditione potens! — Quamvis saepe utile vinci 8.57 victoris placidi fecit clementia multis: 8.58 iusta gerit certe pro nato bella perempto 8.59 et causaque valet causamque tenentibus armis,
8.61 cum suus haec illi reserabit moenia Mavors 8.62 et non noster amor? Melius sine caede moraque 8.63 impensaque sui poterit superare cruoris. 8.64 Non metuam certe, ne quis tua pectora, Minos, 8.65 vulneret imprudens. Quis enim tam durus, ut in te 8.66 dirigere inmitem non inscius audeat hastam? 8.67 Coepta placent, et stat sententia tradere mecum 8.68 dotalem patriam finemque imponere bello.
8.70 claustraque portarum genitor tenet: hunc ego solum 8.71 infelix timeo, solus mea vota moratur. 8.72 Di facerent, sine patre forem! — Sibi quisque profecto
8.74 Altera iamdudum succensa cupidine tanto 8.75 perdere gauderet quodcumque obstaret amori. 8.76 Et cur ulla foret me fortior? Ire per ignes 8.77 et gladios ausim. Nec in hoc tamen ignibus ullis
8.79 Illa mihi est auro pretiosior, illa beatam 8.80 purpura me votique mei factura potentem.” 8.81 Talia dicenti curarum maxima nutrix 8.82 nox intervenit, tenebrisque audacia crevit. 8.83 Prima quies aderat, qua curis fessa diurnis 8.84 pectora somnus habet: thalamos taciturna paternos 8.85 intrat et (heu facinus!) fatali nata parentem 8.86 crine suum spoliat praedaque potita nefanda 8.87 fert secum spolium celeris progressaque porta 8.88 per medios hostes (meriti fiducia tanta est)
8.90 “Suasit amor facinus. Proles ego regia Nisi 8.91 Scylla tibi trado patriaeque meosque penates. 8.92 Praemia nulla peto nisi te. Cape pignus amoris 8.93 purpureum crinem, nec me nunc tradere crinem, 8.94 sed patrium tibi crede caput.” Scelerataque dextra 8.95 munera porrexit. Minos porrecta refugit 8.96 turbatusque novi respondit imagine facti:
8.98 orbe suo, tellusque tibi pontusque negetur. 8.99 Certe ego non patiar Iovis incunabula, Creten, 8.100 qui meus est orbis, tantum contingere monstrum.” 8.101 Dixit, et ut leges captis iustissimus auctor
8.103 iussit et aeratas impelli remige puppes. 8.104 Scylla freto postquam deductas nare carinas 8.105 nec praestare ducem sceleris sibi praemia vidit, 8.106 consumptis precibus violentam transit in iram, 8.107 intendensque manus, passis furibunda capillis, 8.108 “quo fugis” exclamat, “meritorum auctore relicta,
8.110 Quo fugis, inmitis? cuius victoria nostrum
8.111 et scelus et meritum est. Nec te data munera, nec te
8.112 noster amor movit, nec quod spes omnis in unum
8.113 te mea congesta est? Nam quo deserta revertar?
8.114 In patriam? Superata iacet. Sed finge manere:
8.115 proditione mea clausa est mihi. Patris ad ora?
8.117 finitimi exemplum metuunt: exponimur orbae,
8.118 terrarum nobis ut Crete sola pateret.
8.119 Hac quoque si prohibes et nos, ingrate, relinquis, 8.120 non genetrix Europa tibi ea, sed inhospita Syrtis, 8.121 Armeniae tigres austroque agitata Charybdis. 8.122 Nec Iove tu natus, nec mater imagine tauri 8.123 ducta tua est (generis falsa est ea fabula !): verus 8.124 et ferus et captus nullius amore iuvencae, 8.125 qui te progenuit, taurus fuit. Exige poenas,
8.127 moenia! nam fateor, merui et sum digna perire. 8.128 Sed tamen ex illis aliquis, quos impia laesi, 8.129 me perimat. Cur, qui vicisti crimine nostro, 8.130 insequeris crimen? Scelus hoc patriaeque patrique, 8.131 officium tibi sit. Te vere coniuge digna est, 8.132 quae torvum ligno decepit adultera taurum 8.133 discordemque utero fetum tulit. Ecquid ad aures
8.135 verba ferunt idemque tuas, ingrate, carinas? 8.136 Iam iam Pasiphaen non est mirabile taurum 8.137 praeposuisse tibi: tu plus feritatis habebas. 8.138 Me miseram! properare iubet, divulsaque remis
8.140 Nil agis, o frustra meritorum oblite meorum: 8.141 insequar invitum, puppimque amplexa recurvam 8.142 per freta longa trahar.” Vix dixerat, insilit undis 8.143 consequiturque rates, faciente cupidine vires, 8.144 Gnosiacaeque haeret comes invidiosa carinae. 8.145 Quam pater ut vidit (nam iam pendebat in aura 8.146 et modo factus erat fulvis haliaeetus alis), 8.147 ibat, ut haerentem rostro laceraret adunco. 8.148 Illa metu puppim dimisit, et aura cadentem 8.149 sustinuisse levis, ne tangeret aequora, visa est. 8.150 Pluma fuit: plumis in avem mutata vocatur
10.197 Phoebus ait “videoque tuum, mea crimina, vulnus. 10.198 Tu dolor es facinusque meum: mea dextera leto 10.199 inscribenda tuo est! Ego sum tibi funeris auctor.
10.204 semper eris mecum memorique haerebis in ore. 10.205 Te lyra pulsa manu, te carmina nostra sonabunt, 10.206 flosque novus scripto gemitus imitabere nostros. 10.207 Tempus et illud erit, quo se fortissimus heros 10.208 addat in hunc florem folioque legatur eodem.”
14.806 Romule, iura dabas, posita cum casside Mavors 14.807 talibus adfatur divumque hominumque parentem:
15.110 sed quam danda neci, tam non epulanda fuerunt. 15.111 Longius inde nefas abiit, et prima putatur 15.112 hostia sus meruisse mori, quia semina pando 15.113 eruerit rostro spemque interceperit anni. 15.114 Vite caper morsa Bacchi mactatus ad aras 15.115 dicitur ultoris; nocuit sua culpa duobus! 15.116 Quid meruistis oves, placidum pecus, inque tuendos 15.117 natum homines, pleno quae fertis in ubere nectar, 15.119 praebetis vitaque magis quam morte iuvatis? 15.120 Quid meruere boves, animal sine fraude dolisque, 15.121 innocuum, simplex, natum tolerare labores? 15.122 Inmemor est demum nec frugum munere dignus, 15.123 qui potuit curvi dempto modo pondere aratri 15.124 ruricolam mactare suum, qui trita labore 15.125 illa, quibus totiens durum renovaverat arvum,
15.127 Nec satis est, quod tale nefas committitur: ipsos 15.128 inscripsere deos sceleri, numenque supernum 15.129 caede laboriferi credunt gaudere iuvenci. 15.130 Victima labe carens et praestantissima forma 15.131 (nam placuisse nocet) vittis insignis et auro 15.132 sistitur ante aras auditque ignara precantem 15.133 imponique suae videt inter cornua fronti, 15.134 quas coluit, fruges percussaque sanguine cultros
15.136 Protinus ereptas viventi pectore fibras 15.137 inspiciunt mentesque deum scrutantur in illis: 15.138 unde (fames homini vetitorum tanta ciborum!) 15.139 audetis vesci, genus o mortale? Quod, oro, 15.140 ne facite, et monitis animos advertite nostris! 15.141 Cumque boum dabitis caesorum membra palato, 15.142 mandere vos vestros scite et sentite colonos.
15.745 Hic tamen accessit delubris advena nostris:' ' None
1.237 the King of all above the throng sat high,
1.441 in purple shells.—He bade the Triton blow, 1.442 blow in his sounding shell, the wandering stream 1.443 and rivers to recall with signal known: 1.444 a hollow wreathed trumpet, tapering wide 1.445 and slender stemmed, the Triton took amain 1.446 and wound the pearly shell at midmost sea. 1.447 Betwixt the rising and the setting sun 1.448 the wildered notes resounded shore to shore, 1.449 and as it touched his lips, wet with the brine 1.450 beneath his dripping beard, sounded retreat: 1.451 and all the waters of the land and sea
1.457 and after length of days the trees put forth, 1.458 with ooze on bending boughs, their naked tops. 1.460 but as he viewed the vast and silent world
8.11 He gathered a great army round the wall 8.12 built by Alcathous, where reigned in splendor 8.13 King Nisus—mighty and renowned in war— 8.14 upon the center of whose hoary head 8.15 a lock of purple hair was growing.—It 8.16 proved virtue gave protection to his throne. 8.18 and still the changing fortune of the war 8.19 was in suspense; so, Victory day by day 8.20 between them hovered on uncertain wings.
8.22 on tuneful walls; where once Apollo laid 8.23 his golden harp; and in the throbbing stone 8.24 the sounds remained. And there, in times of peace 8.25 the daughter of king Nisus loved to mount 8.26 the walls and strike the sounding stone with pebbles: 8.27 o, when the war began, she often viewed 8.28 the dreadful contest from that height; 8.29 until, so long the hostile camp remained, 8.30 he had become acquainted with the names, 8.31 and knew the habits, horses and the arm 8.32 of many a chief, and could discern the sign 8.33 of their Cydonean quivers.
8.35 the features of King Minos were engraved 8.36 upon the tablets of her mind. And when 8.37 he wore his helmet, crested with gay plumes, 8.38 he deemed it glorious; when he held his shield 8.39 hining with gold, no other seemed so grand; 8.40 and when he poised to hurl the tough spear home, 8.41 he praised his skill and strength; and when he bent 8.42 his curving bow with arrow on the cord, 8.43 he pictured him as Phoebus taking aim,— 8.44 but when, arrayed in purple, and upon 8.45 the back of his white war horse, proudly decked 8.46 with richly broidered housings, he reined in 8.47 the nervous steed, and took his helmet off, 8.48 howing his fearless features, then the maid, 8.49 daughter of Nisus, could control herself 8.50 no longer; and a frenzy seized her mind.
8.52 and blessed were the reins within his hand.
8.54 a tender virgin, through the hostile ranks, 8.55 or cast her body from the topmost tower 8.56 into the Gnossian camp. She had a wild 8.57 desire to open to the enemy 8.58 the heavy brass-bound gates, or anything 8.59 that Minos could desire.
8.61 beholding the white tents, she cried, “Alas! 8.62 Should I rejoice or grieve to see this war? 8.63 I grieve that Minos is the enemy 8.64 of her who loves him; but unless the war 8.65 had brought him, how could he be known to me? 8.66 But should he take me for a hostage? That 8.67 might end the war—a pledge of peace, he might 8.68 keep me for his companion.
8.70 of mankind! she who bore you must have been 8.71 as beautiful as you are; ample cause 8.72 for Jove to lose his heart.
8.74 If moving upon wings through yielding air, 8.75 I could alight within the hostile camp 8.76 in front of Minos, and declare to him 8.77 my name and passion!
8.79 what dowry he could wish, and would provide 8.80 whatever he might ask, except alone 8.81 the city of my father. Perish all 8.82 my secret hopes before one act of mine 8.83 hould offer treason to accomplish it. 8.84 And yet, the kindness of a conqueror 8.85 has often proved a blessing, manifest 8.86 to those who were defeated. Certainly 8.87 the war he carries on is justified 8.88 by his slain son.
8.90 thrice strengthened in his cause. Undoubtedly 8.91 we shall be conquered, and, if such a fate 8.92 awaits our city, why should he by force 8.93 instead of my consuming love, prevail 8.94 to open the strong gates? Without delay 8.95 and dreadful slaughter, it is best for him 8.96 to conquer and decide this savage war.
8.98 hould any warrior hurl his cruel spear 8.99 and pierce you by mischance, for surely none 8.100 can be so hardened to transfix your breast 8.101 with purpose known.”
8.103 to open for his army the great gates. 8.104 Only the thought of it, has filled her soul; 8.105 he is determined to deliver up 8.106 her country as a dowry with herself, 8.107 and so decide the war! But what avail 8.108 this idle talk.
8.110 my father keeps the keys, and he alone
8.111 is my obstruction, and the innocent
8.112 account of my despair. Would to the God
8.113 I had no father! Is not man the God
8.114 of his own fortune, though his idle prayer
8.115 avail not to compel his destiny?
8.117 which now inflame me, would not hesitate,
8.118 but with a fierce abandon would destroy
8.119 whatever checked her passion. Who is there 8.120 with love to equal mine? I dare to go 8.121 through flames and swords; but swords and flame 8.122 are not now needed, for I only need' "8.123 my royal father's lock of purple hair." '8.124 More precious than fine gold, it has a power 8.125 to give my heart all that it may desire.”
8.127 came on, and she grew bolder in the dark. 8.128 And now it is the late and silent hour 8.129 when slumber takes possession of the breast. 8.130 Outwearied with the cares of busy day; 8.131 then as her father slept, with stealthy tread 8.132 he entered his abode, and there despoiled, 8.133 and clipped his fatal lock of purple hair.
8.135 of crime degenerate, she at once went forth 8.136 a gate unguarded, and with shameless haste 8.137 ped through the hostile army to the tent 8.138 of Minos, whom, astonished, she addressed:
8.140 The daughter of King Nisus, I am called 8.141 the maiden Scylla. Unto you I come 8.142 and offer up a power that will prevail 8.143 against my country, and I stipulate 8.144 no recompense except yourself. Take then 8.145 this purple hair, a token of my love.— 8.146 Deem it not lightly as a lock of hair 8.147 held idly forth to you; it is in truth' "8.148 my father's life.” And as she spoke" '8.149 he held out in her guilty hand the prize, 8.150 and begged him to accept it with her love.
10.197 and, wearied of all action, found relief 10.198 under the cool shade of the forest trees; 10.199 that as he lay there Cyparissus pierced
10.204 What did not Phoebus say to comfort him? 10.205 He cautioned him to hold his grief in check, 10.206 consistent with the cause. But still the lad 10.207 lamented, and with groans implored the God 10.208 that he might mourn forever. His life force
14.806 they have endured among the boisterous waves, 14.807 they often give a helping hand to ship
15.110 or did the winds, that thundered when the cloud 15.111 was rent asunder, cause the lightning flash? 15.112 What shook the earth, what laws controlled the star 15.113 as they were moved—and every hidden thing 15.114 he was the first man to forbid the use' "15.115 of any animal's flesh as human food," '15.116 he was the first to speak with learned lips, 15.117 though not believed in this, exhorting them.— 15.119 pollution of your bodies with such food, 15.120 for there are grain and good fruits which bear down 15.121 the branches by their weight, and ripened grape 15.122 upon the vines, and herbs—those sweet by nature 15.123 and those which will grow tender and mellow with 15.124 a fire, and flowing milk is not denied, 15.125 nor honey, redolent of blossoming thyme.
15.127 affording dainties without slaughter, death, 15.128 and bloodshed. Dull beasts delight to satisfy 15.129 their hunger with torn flesh; and yet not all: 15.130 horses and sheep and cattle live on grass. 15.131 But all the savage animals—the fierce 15.132 Armenian tigers and ferocious lions, 15.133 and bears, together with the roving wolves— 15.134 delight in viands reeking with warm blood.
15.136 vitals in vitals gorged, one greedy body' "15.137 fattening with plunder of another's flesh," "15.138 a living being fed on another's life!" '15.139 In that abundance, which our Earth, the best 15.140 of mothers, will afford have you no joy, 15.141 unless your savage teeth can gnaw 15.142 the piteous flesh of some flayed animal
15.745 and, failing, feigned that I had wished to do' ' None
|21. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology, origins, causae
Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 140; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 158
|22. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology of labor’ • metamorphosis, as etiological
Found in books: Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 151; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 30, 67, 71, 133, 221; Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 231, 232, 234, 235
|23. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology, origins, causae
Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 15; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 61
|24. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.4, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • case stories, stories, etiological • etiological stories • etiology • narrative and law, etiological stories • taqqanot, stories, etiological
Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 531; Rosen-Zvi (2012), The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash, 243; Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 11, 211, 214
4.4 מִצְוַת לוּלָב כֵּיצַד. יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, מוֹלִיכִין אֶת לוּלְבֵיהֶן לְהַר הַבַּיִת, וְהַחַזָּנִין מְקַבְּלִין מֵהֶן וְסוֹדְרִין אוֹתָן עַל גַּב הָאִצְטַבָּא, וְהַזְּקֵנִים מַנִּיחִין אֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן בַּלִּשְׁכָּה. וּמְלַמְּדִים אוֹתָם לוֹמַר, כָּל מִי שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לוּלָבִי בְיָדוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא לוֹ בְמַתָּנָה. לְמָחָר מַשְׁכִּימִין וּבָאִין, וְהַחַזָּנִין זוֹרְקִין אוֹתָם לִפְנֵיהֶם. וְהֵן מְחַטְּפִין וּמַכִּין אִישׁ אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. וּכְשֶׁרָאוּ בֵית דִּין שֶׁבָּאוּ לִידֵי סַכָּנָה, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא כָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד נוֹטֵל בְּבֵיתוֹ:
4.9 נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם כֵּיצַד. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחֲזֶקֶת שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּים הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל סִיד הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מֻשְׁחָרִין פְּנֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַיָּיִן. וּמְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין, אֶחָד מְעֻבֶּה וְאֶחָד דַּק, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כָּלִין בְּבַת אַחַת. מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מַיִם, מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל יָיִן. עֵרָה שֶׁל מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יַיִן, וְשֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל מַיִם, יָצָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּלֹג הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ כָּל שְׁמֹנָה. וְלַמְנַסֵּךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הַגְבַּהּ יָדֶךָ, שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלָיו, וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן:'' None
4.4 The mitzvah of the lulav how was it carried out? If the first day of the festival fell on Shabbat, they brought their lulavim to the Temple Mount, and the attendants would receive them and arrange them on top of the portico, and the elders laid theirs in the chamber. And they would teach the people to say, “Whoever gets my lulav in his hand, let it be his as a gift.” The next day they got up early, and came to the Temple Mount and the attendants threw down their lulavim before them, and they snatched at them, and so they used to come to blows with one another. When the court saw that they reached a state of danger, they instituted that each man should take his lulav in his own home.' "
4.9 How was the water libation performed? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah long blast, a teru'ah a staccato note and again a teki'ah. The priest then went up the ascent of the altar and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster but they looked silver because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To the priest who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs."' None
|25. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • case stories, stories, etiological • etiological stories • narrative and law, etiological stories • taqqanot, stories, etiological
Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 531; Simon-Shushan (2012), Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna, 212
|26. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.16.11, 7.19.6, 7.19.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Myth, aetiological • aetiology, • myths, aetiological
Found in books: Marincola et al. (2021), Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians, 307; Stavrianopoulou (2006), Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, 122; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 83, 86
3.16.11 μαστιγοῦντές ποτε ὑποφειδόμενοι παίωσι κατὰ ἐφήβου κάλλος ἢ ἀξίωμα, τότε ἤδη τῇ γυναικὶ τὸ ξόανον γίνεται βαρὺ καὶ οὐκέτι εὔφορον, ἡ δὲ ἐν αἰτίᾳ τοὺς μαστιγοῦντας ποιεῖται καὶ πιέζεσθαι διʼ αὐτούς φησιν. οὕτω τῷ ἀγάλματι ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ταυρικῇ θυσιῶν ἐμμεμένηκεν ἀνθρώπων αἵματι ἥδεσθαι· καλοῦσι δὲ οὐκ Ὀρθίαν μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ Λυγοδέσμαν τὴν αὐτήν, ὅτι ἐν θάμνῳ λύγων εὑρέθη, περιειληθεῖσα δὲ ἡ λύγος ἐποίησε τὸ ἄγαλμα ὀρθόν.
7.19.6 παύσασθαι δὲ οὕτω λέγονται θύοντες τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι ἀνθρώπους. ἐκέχρητο δὲ αὐτοῖς πρότερον ἔτι ἐκ Δελφῶν ὡς βασιλεὺς ξένος παραγενόμενός σφισιν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν, ξενικὸν ἅμα ἀγόμενος δαίμονα, τὰ ἐς τὴν θυσίαν τῆς Τρικλαρίας παύσει. Ἰλίου δὲ ἁλούσης καὶ νεμομένων τὰ λάφυρα τῶν Ἑλλήνων, Εὐρύπυλος ὁ Εὐαίμονος λαμβάνει λάρνακα· Διονύσου δὲ ἄγαλμα ἦν ἐν τῇ λάρνακι, ἔργον μὲν ὥς φασιν Ἡφαίστου, δῶρον δὲ ὑπὸ Διὸς ἐδόθη Δαρδάνῳ.
7.19.9 καὶ οὕτω τῷ Εὐρυπύλῳ τε ἡ νόσος καὶ τοῖς ἐνταῦθα ἀνθρώποις τὰ ἐς τὴν θυσίαν ἐπαύσθη, τό τε ὄνομα ἐτέθη τὸ νῦν τῷ ποταμῷ Μείλιχος. ἔγραψαν δὲ ἤδη τινὲς οὐ τῷ Θεσσαλῷ συμβάντα Εὐρυπύλῳ τὰ εἰρημένα, ἀλλὰ Εὐρύπυλον Δεξαμενοῦ παῖδα τοῦ ἐν Ὠλένῳ βασιλεύσαντος ἐθέλουσιν ἅμα Ἡρακλεῖ στρατεύσαντα ἐς Ἴλιον λαβεῖν παρὰ τοῦ Ἡρακλέους τὴν λάρνακα· τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ εἰρήκασι καὶ οὗτοι.'' None
3.16.11 but if ever the scourgers spare the lash because of a lad's beauty or high rank, then at once the priestess finds the image grow so heavy that she can hardly carry it. She lays the blame on the scourgers, and says that it is their fault that she is being weighed down. So the image ever since the sacrifices in the Tauric land keeps its fondness for human blood. They call it not only Orthia, but also Lygodesma (Willow-bound), because it was found in a thicket of willows, and the encircling willow made the image stand upright. " 7.19.6 The sacrifice to Artemis of human beings is said to have ceased in this way. An oracle had been given from Delphi to the Patraeans even before this, to the effect that a strange king would come to the land, bringing with him a strange divinity, and this king would put an end to the sacrifice to Triclaria. When Troy was captured, and the Greeks divided the spoils, Eurypylus the son of Euaemon got a chest. In it was an image of Dionysus, the work, so they say, of Hephaestus, and given as a gift by Zeus to Dardanus.
7.19.9 And so the malady of Eurypylus and the sacrifice of these people came to an end, and the river was given its present name Meilichus. Certain writers have said that the events I have related happened not to the Thessalian Eurypylus, but to Eurypylus the son of Dexamenus who was king in Olenus, holding that this man joined Heracles in his campaign against Troy and received the chest from Heracles. The rest of their story is the same as mine.'" None
|27. Vergil, Aeneis, 7.46
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology of labor’
Found in books: Cairns (1989), Virgil's Augustan Epic. 63; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 162
7.46 iam senior longa placidas in pace regebat.'' None
7.46 Hail, Erato! while olden kings and thrones '' None
|28. Vergil, Georgics, 2.136-2.139, 2.536-2.540, 3.10-3.11, 3.558-3.559, 4.317-4.558
Tagged with subjects: • aetiology • aetiology of labor’ • etiology
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 219; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 18, 51, 77, 81, 99, 107, 108, 135, 248; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 180, 182; Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 337
2.136 sed neque Medorum, silvae ditissima, terra, 2.137 nec pulcher Ganges atque auro turbidus Hermus 2.138 laudibus Italiae certent, non Bactra neque Indi 2.139 totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis harenis.
2.536 Ante etiam sceptrum Dictaei regis et ante 2.537 inpia quam caesis gens est epulata iuvencis, 2.538 aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat; 2.539 necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum 2.540 inpositos duris crepitare incudibus enses.
3.10 Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 3.11 Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas;
3.558 donec humo tegere ac foveis abscondere discunt. 3.559 Nam neque erat coriis usus nec viscera quisquam
4.317 Pastor Aristaeus fugiens Peneia Tempe, 4.318 amissis, ut fama, apibus morboque fameque, 4.319 tristis ad extremi sacrum caput adstitit amnis 4.320 multa querens atque hac adfatus voce parentem: 4.321 “Mater, Cyrene mater, quae gurgitis huius 4.322 ima tenes, quid me praeclara stirpe deorum, 4.323 si modo, quem perhibes, pater est Thymbraeus Apollo, 4.324 invisum fatis genuisti? aut quo tibi nostri 4.325 pulsus amor? quid me caelum sperare iubebas? 4.326 En etiam hunc ipsum vitae mortalis honorem, 4.327 quem mihi vix frugum et pecudum custodia sollers 4.328 omnia temptanti extuderat, te matre relinquo. 4.329 Quin age et ipsa manu felices erue silvas, 4.330 fer stabulis inimicum ignem atque interfice messes, 4.331 ure sata et validam in vites molire bipennem, 4.332 tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis.” 4.333 At mater sonitum thalamo sub fluminis alti 4.334 sensit. Eam circum Milesia vellera Nymphae 4.335 carpebant hyali saturo fucata colore, 4.336 drymoque Xanthoque Ligeaque Phyllodoceque, 4.337 caesariem effusae nitidam per candida colla, 4.338 Nesaee Spioque Thaliaque Cymodoceque, 4.339 Cydippeque et flava Lycorias, altera virgo, 4.340 altera tum primos Lucinae experta labores, 4.341 Clioque et Beroe soror, Oceanitides ambae, 4.342 ambae auro, pictis incinctae pellibus ambae, 4.343 atque Ephyre atque Opis et Asia Deiopea 4.344 et tandem positis velox Arethusa sagittis. 4.345 Inter quas curam Clymene narrabat iem 4.346 Vulcani Martisque dolos et dulcia furta, 4.347 aque Chao densos divum numerabat amores 4.348 carmine quo captae dum fusis mollia pensa 4.349 devolvunt, iterum maternas impulit aures 4.350 luctus Aristaei, vitreisque sedilibus omnes 4.351 obstipuere; sed ante alias Arethusa sorores 4.352 prospiciens summa flavum caput extulit unda 4.353 et procul: “O gemitu non frustra exterrita tanto, 4.354 Cyrene soror, ipse tibi, tua maxima cura, 4.355 tristis Aristaeus Penei genitoris ad undam 4.356 stat lacrimans et te crudelem nomine dicit.” 4.357 Huic percussa nova mentem formidine mater, 4.358 “duc, age, duc ad nos; fas illi limina divum 4.359 tangere,” ait. Simul alta iubet discedere late 4.360 flumina, qua iuvenis gressus inferret. At illum 4.361 curvata in montis faciem circumstetit unda 4.362 accepitque sinu vasto misitque sub amnem. 4.363 Iamque domum mirans genetricis et umida regna 4.364 speluncisque lacus clausos lucosque sotes 4.365 ibat et ingenti motu stupefactus aquarum 4.366 omnia sub magna labentia flumina terra 4.367 spectabat diversa locis, Phasimque Lycumque 4.368 et caput, unde altus primum se erumpit Enipeus 4.369 unde pater Tiberinus et unde Aniena fluenta 4.370 saxosusque sos Hypanis Mysusque Caicus, 4.371 et gemina auratus taurino cornua vultu 4.372 Eridanus, quo non alius per pinguia culta 4.373 in mare purpureum violentior effluit amnis. 4.374 Postquam est in thalami pendentia pumice tecta 4.375 perventum et nati fletus cognovit ies 4.376 Cyrene, manibus liquidos dant ordine fontes 4.377 germanae tonsisque ferunt mantelia villis; 4.378 pars epulis onerant mensas et plena reponunt 4.379 pocula, Panchaeis adolescunt ignibus arae; 4.380 et mater, “Cape Maeonii carchesia Bacchi: 4.381 Oceano libemus,” ait. Simul ipsa precatur 4.382 Oceanumque patrem rerum Nymphasque sorores 4.383 centum quae silvas, centum quae flumina servant. 4.384 Ter liquido ardentem perfundit nectare Vestam, 4.385 ter flamma ad summum tecti subiecta reluxit. 4.386 Omine quo firmans animum sic incipit ipsa: 4.387 “Est in Carphatio Neptuni gurgite vates 4.388 caeruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus aequor 4.389 et iuncto bipedum curru metitur equorum. 4.390 Hic nunc Emathiae portus patriamque revisit 4.391 Pallenen, hunc et Nymphae veneramur et ipse 4.392 grandaevus Nereus; novit namque omnia vates, 4.393 quae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantur; 4.394 quippe ita Neptuno visum est, immania cuius 4.395 armenta et turpes pascit sub gurgite phocas. 4.396 Hic tibi, nate, prius vinclis capiendus, ut omnem 4.397 expediat morbi causam eventusque secundet. 4.398 Nam sine vi non ulla dabit praecepta, neque illum 4.399 orando flectes; vim duram et vincula capto 4.400 tende; doli circum haec demum frangentur ies. 4.401 Ipsa ego, te, medios cum sol accenderit aestus, 4.402 cum sitiunt herbae et pecori iam gratior umbra est, 4.403 in secreta senis ducam, quo fessus ab undis 4.404 se recipit, facile ut somno adgrediare iacentem. 4.405 Verum ubi correptum manibus vinclisque tenebis, 4.406 tum variae eludent species atque ora ferarum 4.407 Fiet enim subito sus horridus atraque tigris 4.408 squamosusque draco et fulva cervice leaena, 4.409 aut acrem flammae sonitum dabit atque ita vinclis 4.410 excidet, aut in aquas tenues dilapsus abibit. 4.411 Sed quanto ille magis formas se vertet in omnes, 4.412 tanto, nate, magis contende tenacia vincla, 4.413 donec talis erit mutato corpore, qualem 4.414 videris, incepto tegeret cum lumina somno.” 4.415 Haec ait et liquidum ambrosiae defundit odorem, 4.416 quo totum nati corpus perduxit; at illi 4.417 dulcis compositis spiravit crinibus aura 4.418 atque habilis membris venit vigor. Est specus ingens 4.419 exesi latere in montis, quo plurima vento 4.420 cogitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos, 4.421 deprensis olim statio tutissima nautis; 4.422 intus se vasti Proteus tegit obice saxi. 4.423 Hic iuvenem in latebris aversum a lumine Nympha 4.424 collocat; ipsa procul nebulis obscura resistit. 4.425 Iam rapidus torrens sitientes Sirius Indos 4.426 ardebat, caelo et medium sol igneus orbem 4.427 hauserat; arebant herbae et cava flumina siccis 4.428 faucibus ad limum radii tepefacta coquebant: 4.429 cum Proteus consueta petens e fluctibus antra 4.430 ibat; eum vasti circum gens umida ponti 4.431 exsultans rorem late dispergit amarum. 4.432 Sternunt se somno diversae in litore phocae. 4.433 Ipse, velut stabuli custos in montibus olim, 4.434 vesper ubi e pastu vitulos ad tecta reducit, 4.435 auditisque lupos acuunt balatibus agni, 4.436 considit scopulo medius numerumque recenset. 4.437 Cuius Aristaeo quoniam est oblata facultas, 4.438 vix defessa senem passus componere membra 4.439 cum clamore ruit magno manicisque iacentem 4.440 occupat. Ille suae contra non immemor artis 4.441 omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum, 4.442 ignemque horribilemque feram fluviumque liquentem. 4.443 Verum ubi nulla fugam reperit fallacia, victus 4.444 in sese redit atque hominis tandem ore locutus: 4.445 “Nam quis te, iuvenum confidentissime, nostras 4.446 iussit adire domos? Quidve hinc petis?” inquit. At ille: 4.447 “Scis, Proteu, scis ipse; neque est te fallere quicquam 4.448 sed tu desine velle. Deum praecepta secuti 4.449 venimus hinc lapsis quaesitum oracula rebus.” 4.450 Tantum effatus. Ad haec vates vi denique multa 4.451 ardentes oculos intorsit lumine glauco 4.452 et graviter frendens sic fatis ora resolvit. 4.453 “Non te nullius exercent numinis irae; 4.454 magna luis commissa: tibi has miserabilis Orpheus 4.455 haudquaquam ob meritum poenas, ni fata resistant, 4.456 suscitat et rapta graviter pro coniuge saevit. 4.457 Illa quidem, dum te fugeret per flumina praeceps, 4.458 immanem ante pedes hydrum moritura puella 4.459 servantem ripas alta non vidit in herba. 4.460 At chorus aequalis Dryadum clamore supremos 4.461 implerunt montes; flerunt Rhodopeiae arces 4.462 altaque Pangaea et Rhesi mavortia tellus 4.463 atque Getae atque Hebrus et Actias Orithyia. 4.464 Ipse cava solans aegrum testudine amorem 4.465 te, dulcis coniunx, te solo in litore secum, 4.466 te veniente die, te decedente canebat. 4.467 Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis, 4.468 et caligantem nigra formidine lucum 4.469 ingressus manesque adiit regemque tremendum 4.470 nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda. 4.471 At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 4.472 umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque luce carentum, 4.473 quam multa in foliis avium se milia condunt 4.474 vesper ubi aut hibernus agit de montibus imber, 4.475 matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita 4.476 magimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 4.477 impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum, 4.478 quos circum limus niger et deformis harundo 4.479 Cocyti tardaque palus inamabilis unda 4.480 alligat et noviens Styx interfusa coercet. 4.481 Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti 4.482 tartara caeruleosque implexae crinibus angues 4.483 Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora 4.484 atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis. 4.485 Iamque pedem referens casus evaserat omnes; 4.486 redditaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras, 4.487 pone sequens, namque hanc dederat Proserpina legem, 4.488 cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem, 4.489 ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere manes. 4.490 Restitit Eurydicenque suam iam luce sub ipsa 4.491 immemor heu! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis 4.492 effusus labor atque immitis rupta tyranni 4.493 foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis. 4.494 Illa, “Quis et me,” inquit, “miseram et te perdidit, Orpheu, 4.495 quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro 4.496 Fata vocant, conditque natantia lumina somnus. 4.497 Iamque vale: feror ingenti circumdata nocte 4.498 invalidasque tibi tendens, heu non tua, palmas!” 4.499 dixit et ex oculis subito, ceu fumus in auras 4.500 commixtus tenues, fugit diversa, neque illum, 4.501 prensantem nequiquam umbras et multa volentem 4.502 dicere, praeterea vidit, nec portitor Orci 4.503 amplius obiectam passus transire paludem. 4.504 Quid faceret? Quo se rapta bis coniuge ferret? 4.505 Quo fletu Manis, quae numina voce moveret? 4.506 Illa quidem Stygia nabat iam frigida cumba. 4.507 Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses 4.508 rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam 4.509 flesse sibi et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris 4.510 mulcentem tigres et agentem carmine quercus; 4.511 qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra 4.512 amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 4.513 observans nido implumes detraxit; at illa 4.514 flet noctem ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 4.515 integrat et maestis late loca questibus implet. 4.516 Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei. 4.517 Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 4.518 arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis 4.519 lustrabat raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis 4.520 dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres 4.521 inter sacra deum nocturnique orgia Bacchi 4.522 discerptum latos iuvenem sparsere per agros. 4.523 Tum quoque marmorea caput a cervice revulsum 4.524 gurgite cum medio portans Oeagrius Hebrus 4.525 volveret, Eurydicen vox ipsa et frigida lingua 4.526 “ah miseram Eurydicen!” anima fugiente vocabat: 4.527 “Eurydicen” toto referebant flumine ripae.” 4.528 Haec Proteus, et se iactu dedit aequor in altum, 4.529 quaque dedit, spumantem undam sub vertice torsit. 4.530 At non Cyrene; namque ultro adfata timentem: 4.531 “Nate, licet tristes animo deponere curas. 4.532 Haec omnis morbi causa; hinc miserabile Nymphae, 4.533 cum quibus illa choros lucis agitabat in altis, 4.534 exitium misere apibus. Tu munera supplex 4.535 tende petens pacem et faciles venerare Napaeas; 4.536 namque dabunt veniam votis irasque remittent. 4.537 Sed modus orandi qui sit, prius ordine dicam. 4.538 Quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros, 4.539 qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei, 4.540 delige et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas. 4.541 Quattuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum 4.542 constitue et sacrum iugulis demitte cruorem, 4.543 corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere luco. 4.544 Post, ubi nona suos Aurora ostenderit ortus, 4.545 inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes 4.546 et nigram mactabis ovem lucumque revises: 4.547 placatam Eurydicen vitula venerabere caesa.” 4.548 Haud mora; continuo matris praecepta facessit; 4.549 ad delubra venit, monstratas excitat aras, 4.550 quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros 4.551 ducit et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas. 4.552 Post, ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus, 4.553 inferias Orphei mittit lucumque revisit. 4.554 Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum 4.555 adspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto 4.556 stridere apes utero et ruptis effervere costis, 4.557 immensasque trahi nubes, iamque arbore summa 4.558 confluere et lentis uvam demittere ramis.'' None
2.136 But lo! how many kinds, and what their names, 2.137 There is no telling, nor doth it boot to tell; 2.138 Who lists to know it, he too would list to learn 2.139 How many sand-grains are by Zephyr tossed
2.536 With fruit is swelling, and the wild haunts of bird 2.537 Blush with their blood-red berries. Cytisu 2.538 Is good to browse on, the tall forest yield 2.539 Pine-torches, and the nightly fires are fed 2.540 And shoot forth radiance. And shall men be loath
3.10 And Pelops for his ivory shoulder famed, 3.11 Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried,' "
3.558 oft to the shade's mild covert win, or pull" '3.559 The grass tops listlessly, or hindmost lag,
4.317 And the light-loathing beetles crammed their bed,' "4.318 And he that sits at others' board to feast," "4.319 The do-naught drone; or 'gainst the unequal foe" "4.320 Swoops the fierce hornet, or the moth's fell tribe;" "4.321 Or spider, victim of Minerva's spite," '4.322 Athwart the doorway hangs her swaying net. 4.323 The more impoverished they, the keenlier all 4.324 To mend the fallen fortunes of their race 4.325 Will nerve them, fill the cells up, tier on tier, 4.326 And weave their granaries from the rifled flowers. 4.327 Now, seeing that life doth even to bee-folk bring 4.328 Our human chances, if in dire disease' "4.329 Their bodies' strength should languish—which anon" '4.330 By no uncertain tokens may be told— 4.331 Forthwith the sick change hue; grim leanness mar 4.332 Their visage; then from out the cells they bear 4.333 Forms reft of light, and lead the mournful pomp; 4.334 Or foot to foot about the porch they hang, 4.335 Or within closed doors loiter, listless all 4.336 From famine, and benumbed with shrivelling cold. 4.337 Then is a deep note heard, a long-drawn hum, 4.338 As when the chill South through the forests sighs, 4.339 As when the troubled ocean hoarsely boom 4.340 With back-swung billow, as ravening tide of fire 4.341 Surges, shut fast within the furnace-walls. 4.342 Then do I bid burn scented galbanum, 4.343 And, honey-streams through reeden troughs instilled, 4.344 Challenge and cheer their flagging appetite 4.345 To taste the well-known food; and it shall boot 4.346 To mix therewith the savour bruised from gall, 4.347 And rose-leaves dried, or must to thickness boiled 4.348 By a fierce fire, or juice of raisin-grape 4.349 From Psithian vine, and with its bitter smell 4.350 Centaury, and the famed Cecropian thyme. 4.351 There is a meadow-flower by country folk' "4.352 Hight star-wort; 'tis a plant not far to seek;" '4.353 For from one sod an ample growth it rears, 4.354 Itself all golden, but girt with plenteous leaves, 4.355 Where glory of purple shines through violet gloom. 4.356 With chaplets woven hereof full oft are decked' "4.357 Heaven's altars: harsh its taste upon the tongue;" '4.358 Shepherds in vales smooth-shorn of nibbling flock 4.359 By 4.360 The roots of this, well seethed in fragrant wine, 4.361 Set in brimmed baskets at their doors for food.' "4.362 But if one's whole stock fail him at a stroke," '4.363 Nor hath he whence to breed the race anew,' "4.364 'Tis time the wondrous secret to disclose" '4.365 Taught by the swain of Arcady, even how 4.366 The blood of slaughtered bullocks oft has borne 4.367 Bees from corruption. I will trace me back' "4.368 To its prime source the story's tangled thread," '4.369 And thence unravel. For where thy happy folk, 4.370 Canopus , city of Pellaean fame, 4.371 Dwell by the 4.373 Skim in their painted wherries; where, hard by, 4.374 The quivered Persian presses, and that flood 4.375 Which from the swart-skinned Aethiop bears him down, 4.376 Swift-parted into sevenfold branching mouth 4.377 With black mud fattens and makes Aegypt green,' "4.378 That whole domain its welfare's hope secure" '4.379 Rests on this art alone. And first is chosen 4.380 A strait recess, cramped closer to this end, 4.381 Which next with narrow roof of tiles atop' "4.382 'Twixt prisoning walls they pinch, and add hereto" '4.383 From the four winds four slanting window-slits. 4.384 Then seek they from the herd a steer, whose horn' "4.385 With two years' growth are curling, and stop fast," '4.386 Plunge madly as he may, the panting mouth 4.387 And nostrils twain, and done with blows to death,' "4.388 Batter his flesh to pulp i' the hide yet whole," '4.389 And shut the doors, and leave him there to lie.' "4.390 But 'neath his ribs they scatter broken boughs," '4.391 With thyme and fresh-pulled cassias: this is done 4.392 When first the west winds bid the waters flow, 4.393 Ere flush the meadows with new tints, and ere 4.394 The twittering swallow buildeth from the beams. 4.395 Meanwhile the juice within his softened bone 4.396 Heats and ferments, and things of wondrous birth, 4.397 Footless at first, anon with feet and wings, 4.398 Swarm there and buzz, a marvel to behold; 4.399 And more and more the fleeting breeze they take, 4.400 Till, like a shower that pours from summer-clouds, 4.401 Forth burst they, or like shafts from quivering string 4.402 When 4.403 Say what was he, what God, that fashioned forth' "4.404 This art for us, O Muses? of man's skill" '4.405 Whence came the new adventure? From thy vale, 4.406 Peneian Tempe, turning, bee-bereft, 4.407 So runs the tale, by famine and disease, 4.408 Mournful the shepherd Aristaeus stood 4.409 Fast by the haunted river-head, and thu 4.410 With many a plaint to her that bare him cried: 4.411 “Mother, Cyrene, mother, who hast thy home 4.412 Beneath this whirling flood, if he thou sayest, 4.413 Apollo, lord of Thymbra, be my sire,' "4.414 Sprung from the Gods' high line, why barest thou me" "4.415 With fortune's ban for birthright? Where is now" '4.416 Thy love to me-ward banished from thy breast? 4.417 O! wherefore didst thou bid me hope for heaven? 4.418 Lo! even the crown of this poor mortal life, 4.419 Which all my skilful care by field and fold, 4.420 No art neglected, scarce had fashioned forth,' "4.421 Even this falls from me, yet thou call'st me son." '4.422 Nay, then, arise! With thine own hands pluck up 4.423 My fruit-plantations: on the homestead fling 4.424 Pitiless fire; make havoc of my crops; 4.425 Burn the young plants, and wield the stubborn axe 4.426 Against my vines, if there hath taken the 4.427 Such loathing of my greatness.” 4.428 But that cry, 4.429 Even from her chamber in the river-deeps, 4.430 His mother heard: around her spun the nymph 4.431 Milesian wool stained through with hyaline dye, 4.432 Drymo, Xantho, Ligea, Phyllodoce,' "4.433 Their glossy locks o'er snowy shoulders shed," '4.434 Cydippe and Lycorias yellow-haired, 4.435 A maiden one, one newly learned even then' "4.436 To bear Lucina's birth-pang. Clio, too," '4.437 And Beroe, sisters, ocean-children both, 4.438 Both zoned with gold and girt with dappled fell, 4.439 Ephyre and Opis, and from Asian mead 4.440 Deiopea, and, bow at length laid by, 4.441 Fleet-footed Arethusa. But in their midst' "4.442 Fair Clymene was telling o'er the tale" "4.443 of Vulcan's idle vigilance and the stealth" "4.444 of Mars' sweet rapine, and from Chaos old" '4.445 Counted the jostling love-joys of the Gods. 4.446 Charmed by whose lay, the while their woolly task 4.447 With spindles down they drew, yet once again' "4.448 Smote on his mother's ears the mournful plaint" '4.449 of Aristaeus; on their glassy throne 4.450 Amazement held them all; but Arethuse 4.451 Before the rest put forth her auburn head, 4.452 Peering above the wave-top, and from far 4.453 Exclaimed, “Cyrene, sister, not for naught' "4.454 Scared by a groan so deep, behold! 'tis he," "4.455 Even Aristaeus, thy heart's fondest care," '4.456 Here by the brink of the Peneian sire 4.457 Stands woebegone and weeping, and by name 4.458 Cries out upon thee for thy cruelty.” 4.459 To whom, strange terror knocking at her heart, 4.460 “Bring, bring him to our sight,” the mother cried; 4.461 “His feet may tread the threshold even of Gods.” 4.462 So saying, she bids the flood yawn wide and yield 4.463 A pathway for his footsteps; but the wave 4.464 Arched mountain-wise closed round him, and within 4.465 Its mighty bosom welcomed, and let speed 4.466 To the deep river-bed. And now, with eye' "4.467 of wonder gazing on his mother's hall" '4.468 And watery kingdom and cave-prisoned pool 4.469 And echoing groves, he went, and, stunned by that 4.470 Stupendous whirl of waters, separate saw 4.471 All streams beneath the mighty earth that glide, 4.472 Phasis and Lycus, and that fountain-head 4.473 Whence first the deep Enipeus leaps to light, 4.474 Whence father 4.475 And Hypanis that roars amid his rocks, 4.476 And Mysian Caicus, and, bull-browed' "4.477 'Twixt either gilded horn, 4.480 Soon as the chamber's hanging roof of stone" '4.481 Was gained, and now Cyrene from her son 4.482 Had heard his idle weeping, in due course 4.483 Clear water for his hands the sisters bring, 4.484 With napkins of shorn pile, while others heap 4.485 The board with dainties, and set on afresh 4.486 The brimming goblets; with Panchaian fire 4.487 Upleap the altars; then the mother spake, 4.488 “Take beakers of Maconian wine,” she said, 4.489 “Pour we to Ocean.” Ocean, sire of all, 4.490 She worships, and the sister-nymphs who guard 4.491 The hundred forests and the hundred streams;' "4.492 Thrice Vesta's fire with nectar clear she dashed," '4.493 Thrice to the roof-top shot the flame and shone: 4.494 Armed with which omen she essayed to speak:' "4.495 “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer," '4.496 Caerulean Proteus, he who metes the main 4.497 With fish-drawn chariot of two-footed steeds; 4.498 Now visits he his native home once more, 4.499 Pallene and the Emathian ports; to him 4.500 We nymphs do reverence, ay, and Nereus old; 4.501 For all things knows the seer, both those which are 4.502 And have been, or which time hath yet to bring; 4.503 So willed it Neptune, whose portentous flocks,' "4.504 And loathly sea-calves 'neath the surge he feeds." '4.505 Him first, my son, behoves thee seize and bind 4.506 That he may all the cause of sickness show, 4.507 And grant a prosperous end. For save by force 4.508 No rede will he vouchsafe, nor shalt thou bend 4.509 His soul by praying; whom once made captive, ply 4.510 With rigorous force and fetters; against these 4.511 His wiles will break and spend themselves in vain. 4.512 I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires, 4.513 When the blades thirst, and cattle love the shade,' "4.514 Myself will guide thee to the old man's haunt," '4.515 Whither he hies him weary from the waves, 4.516 That thou mayst safelier steal upon his sleep. 4.517 But when thou hast gripped him fast with hand and gyve, 4.518 Then divers forms and bestial semblance 4.519 Shall mock thy grasp; for sudden he will change 4.520 To bristly boar, fell tigress, dragon scaled, 4.521 And tawny-tufted lioness, or send forth 4.522 A crackling sound of fire, and so shake of 4.523 The fetters, or in showery drops anon 4.524 Dissolve and vanish. But the more he shift 4.525 His endless transformations, thou, my son, 4.526 More straitlier clench the clinging bands, until' "4.527 His body's shape return to that thou sawest," '4.528 When with closed eyelids first he sank to sleep.” 4.529 So saying, an odour of ambrosial dew 4.530 She sheds around, and all his frame therewith 4.531 Steeps throughly; forth from his trim-combed lock 4.532 Breathed effluence sweet, and a lithe vigour leapt 4.533 Into his limbs. There is a cavern vast 4.534 Scooped in the mountain-side, where wave on wave' "4.535 By the wind's stress is driven, and breaks far up" '4.536 Its inmost creeks—safe anchorage from of old 4.537 For tempest-taken mariners: therewithin,' "4.538 Behind a rock's huge barrier, Proteus hides." "4.539 Here in close covert out of the sun's eye" '4.540 The youth she places, and herself the while 4.541 Swathed in a shadowy mist stands far aloof. 4.542 And now the ravening dog-star that burns up 4.543 The thirsty Indians blazed in heaven; his course 4.544 The fiery sun had half devoured: the blade 4.545 Were parched, and the void streams with droughty jaw 4.546 Baked to their mud-beds by the scorching ray, 4.547 When Proteus seeking his accustomed cave 4.548 Strode from the billows: round him frolicking 4.549 The watery folk that people the waste sea 4.550 Sprinkled the bitter brine-dew far and wide. 4.551 Along the shore in scattered groups to feed 4.552 The sea-calves stretch them: while the seer himself, 4.553 Like herdsman on the hills when evening bid 4.554 The steers from pasture to their stall repair,' "4.555 And the lambs' bleating whets the listening wolves," '4.556 Sits midmost on the rock and tells his tale. 4.557 But Aristaeus, the foe within his clutch, 4.558 Scarce suffering him compose his aged limbs,'' None