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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
thematic, abbreviation, reception, as Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 211, 212, 213
thematic, announcements Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 38, 39, 45, 49
thematic, battle, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 389, 432
thematic, by gentiles, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 48, 64, 307
thematic, celebrating of enemies defeats, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 78, 202
thematic, coherence in midrash Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 85, 86
thematic, coherence, authorial practices and purposes Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 13, 14, 15, 103, 161
thematic, concealing divisiveness, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 47, 50, 282, 325, 487
thematic, continuity Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 14, 20, 21, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 203, 204, 214, 219, 273, 305, 310, 311, 312, 347, 352, 393
thematic, despised nation, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 156
thematic, few defeat the many, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 173, 338
thematic, games with epiphanes, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 25, 81, 172, 355, 357
thematic, gentile kings are well-meaning, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 192, 211, 243, 244
thematic, gentiles are gods tools for punishing sinners, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 226, 250, 307
thematic, gentiles protest persecution of jews, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 237, 245
thematic, god rules history, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 65, 250
thematic, god turns away in anger, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 68, 69, 261, 262
thematic, hatred of evil, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 238
thematic, hellenistic kings are all evil, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 54
thematic, hellenistic virtues bestowed upon jews, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 173
thematic, in achilles tat., bodily integrity Cueva et al. (2018a), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 1: Greek Novels, 79, 97
thematic, innovation Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 20, 21, 26, 62, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 134, 142, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 214
thematic, jerusalem as greek polis, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 51, 52, 53, 240
thematic, jewish fatalities require explanation, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 418, 436
thematic, jews are gods children, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 315, 316
thematic, jews are victims even when on the offensive, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 386
thematic, links in aesthetic features of fable collections Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467
thematic, locus in herodotean reception, cities, as Kirkland (2022), Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception, 160, 166, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177
thematic, martyrdom catalyzes reconciliation, and motifs redemption Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 48, 50, 53, 65, 272, 317, 323
thematic, martyrs as heroes, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 50, 55, 282, 289, 305
thematic, motifs greek, see also under greek Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 253
thematic, officials, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 280, 333, 374, 421, 422, 482
thematic, overlaps with athenaeus, alciphron, letters König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 251
thematic, persian, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 35, 47, 302
thematic, poetic justice, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 239, 242, 256, 377, 451, 498, 507
thematic, problems are caused by misunderstanding, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 48, 53, 54, 55, 216, 242, 250, 257, 258
thematic, prominence of the city, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 50, 51
thematic, punishment as pedagogy, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 47, 298, 377
thematic, reconciliation, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 10, 21, 23, 24, 62, 63, 66, 298, 302, 303, 525, 526
thematic, royal respect for jews and judaism, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 188
thematic, sensitivities, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 485
thematic, sinning causes suffering, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 47, 48, 226, 250, 261
thematic, strength, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 399
thematic, struggle is between good and motifs evil, see also universalism Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 432, 436
thematic, tit for tat motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 25, 35, 47, 64, 78, 211, 226, 249, 317, 318, 345, 358, 365, 423, 485, 508
thematic, villains are jewish, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 264
thematic, villains as acting alone, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 49, 65, 215
thematic, willingness to die, motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 50, 301, 339
thematization Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 430, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472
thematized, in early rabbinic literature, aggadic passages on legal biblical units Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 465, 466, 467, 468, 470, 546
thematizing, social concerns, historiography, ancient as Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 81

List of validated texts:
35 validated results for "thematization"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.6 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), God Turns Away in Anger • fabula, theme

 Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 262; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 69, 105

sup>
3.6 And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me."'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.5, 31.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Persian • Motifs (Thematic), Reconciliation • Shema, themes • Thematization • reception, as thematic abbreviation

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 443; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 551, 553; Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 212; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 302

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6.4 שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5 וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃
31.19
וְעַתָּה כִּתְבוּ לָכֶם אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת וְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימָהּ בְּפִיהֶם לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה־לִּי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לְעֵד בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃'' None
sup>
6.4 HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE. 6.5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
31.19
Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach thou it the children of Israel; put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for Me against the children of Israel.'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.22, 19.9, 20.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Willingness to Die • Shema, themes • Thematic Innovation • Thematization • angelological themes/speculation

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 62, 142; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 438, 446, 457, 458; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 551; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 339; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 30

sup>
3.22 וְשָׁאֲלָה אִשָּׁה מִשְּׁכֶנְתָּהּ וּמִגָּרַת בֵּיתָהּ כְּלֵי־כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב וּשְׂמָלֹת וְשַׂמְתֶּם עַל־בְּנֵיכֶם וְעַל־בְּנֹתֵיכֶם וְנִצַּלְתֶּם אֶת־מִצְרָיִם׃
19.9
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃
20.2
אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃
20.2
לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃'' None
sup>
3.22 but every woman shall ask of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment; and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.’
19.9
And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD.
20.2
I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.'' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.6-1.7, 1.9, 3.24, 6.1-6.4, 9.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authorial practices and purposes, Thematic coherence • Grooms Qedushta, The (Qallir), wedding imagery and themes in • Irenaeus, other heresiological themes • Justin Martyr, themes of his Contra Galileos • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation • Thematization • True Discourse, of Celsus, themes • fabula, theme • theme, Zion in • themes in the fable • two cities, theme of

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 80, 82; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 855, 1262; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 88, 95, 96, 204; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 439; Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 13, 14, 15, 103; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 348; O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 197; Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 373, 374; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 82; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 217, 218

sup>
1.6 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7 וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.9
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
3.24
וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃
6.1
וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃
6.1
וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2 וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2 מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4 הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃
9.25
וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃' ' None
sup>
1.6 And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’ 1.7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.
1.9
And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so.
3.24
So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life.
6.1
And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 6.2 that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose. 6.3 And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’ 6.4 The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.
9.25
And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.' ' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thematic Continuity • Thematization

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 312; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 438

sup>
26.13 אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת׃'' None
sup>
26.13 I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you go upright.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 93.3-93.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Kingship of Yahweh, as theme • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation • Zion, and theme • conventions or themes, continuations • setting, and theme • theme, Zion in • theme, encounter with Yahweh • theme, kingship of Yahweh • theme, of Tamid Psalms • worship, motif of, and theme

 Found in books: Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 130; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 91, 204; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 211, 221

sup>
93.3 נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת יְהוָה נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת קוֹלָם יִשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת דָּכְיָם׃ 93.4 מִקֹּלוֹת מַיִם רַבִּים אַדִּירִים מִשְׁבְּרֵי־יָם אַדִּיר בַּמָּרוֹם יְהוָה׃' ' None
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93.3 The floods have lifted up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their roaring. 93.4 Above the voices of many waters, The mighty breakers of the sea, The LORD on high is mighty.' ' None
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 17.26, 17.36, 17.54 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Jews are Gods Children • Motifs (Thematic), Tit for Tat • fabula, theme

 Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 315, 508; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 11

sup>
17.26 וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־הָאֲנָשִׁים הָעֹמְדִים עִמּוֹ לֵאמֹר מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַכֶּה אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַלָּז וְהֵסִיר חֶרְפָּה מֵעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מִי הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הֶעָרֵל הַזֶּה כִּי חֵרֵף מַעַרְכוֹת אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים׃
17.36
גַּם אֶת־הָאֲרִי גַּם־הַדּוֹב הִכָּה עַבְדֶּךָ וְהָיָה הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הֶעָרֵל הַזֶּה כְּאַחַד מֵהֶם כִּי חֵרֵף מַעַרְכֹת אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים׃
17.54
וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת־רֹאשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיְבִאֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֶת־כֵּלָיו שָׂם בְּאָהֳלוֹ׃'' None
sup>
17.26 And David spoke to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that kills yonder Pelishtian, and takes away the reproach from Yisra᾽el? for who is this uncircumcised Pelishtian, that he should taunt the armies of the living God?
17.36
Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Pelishtian shall be as one of them, seeing he has defied the armies of the living God.
17.54
And David took the head of the Pelishtian, and brought it to Yerushalayim; and he put his armour in his tent.'' None
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 14.11, 14.13, 14.18-14.20, 40.12, 54.7-54.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lamentations, kedushtot themes and • Motifs (Thematic), Games with Epiphanes • Motifs (Thematic), God Turns Away in Anger • Motifs (Thematic), Sinning Causes Suffering • Motifs (Thematic), Tit for Tat • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 87, 204; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 261, 262, 357, 358, 365; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 126, 127

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14.11 הוּרַד שְׁאוֹל גְּאוֹנֶךָ הֶמְיַת נְבָלֶיךָ תַּחְתֶּיךָ יֻצַּע רִמָּה וּמְכַסֶּיךָ תּוֹלֵעָה׃
14.13
וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃
14.18
כָּל־מַלְכֵי גוֹיִם כֻּלָּם שָׁכְבוּ בְכָבוֹד אִישׁ בְּבֵיתוֹ׃ 14.19 וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ כְּנֵצֶר נִתְעָב לְבוּשׁ הֲרֻגִים מְטֹעֲנֵי חָרֶב יוֹרְדֵי אֶל־אַבְנֵי־בוֹר כְּפֶגֶר מוּבָס׃' 40.12 מִי־מָדַד בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ מַיִם וְשָׁמַיִם בַּזֶּרֶת תִּכֵּן וְכָל בַּשָּׁלִשׁ עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁקַל בַּפֶּלֶס הָרִים וּגְבָעוֹת בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃
54.7
בְּרֶגַע קָטֹן עֲזַבְתִּיךְ וּבְרַחֲמִים גְּדֹלִים אֲקַבְּצֵךְ׃ 54.8 בְּשֶׁצֶף קֶצֶף הִסְתַּרְתִּי פָנַי רֶגַע מִמֵּךְ וּבְחֶסֶד עוֹלָם רִחַמְתִּיךְ אָמַר גֹּאֲלֵךְ יְהוָה׃'' None
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14.11 Thy pomp is brought down to the nether-world, And the noise of thy psalteries; the maggot is spread under thee, And the worms cover thee.’
14.13
And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;
14.18
All the kings of the nations, all of them, sleep in glory, every one in his own house. 14.19 But thou art cast forth away from thy grave Like an abhorred offshoot, In the raiment of the slain, that are thrust through with the sword, That go down to the pavement of the pit, As a carcass trodden under foot. 14.20 Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, Thou hast slain thy people; the seed of evil-doers shall not be named for ever.
40.12
Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, And meted out heaven with the span, And comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, And weighed the mountains in scales, And the hills in a balance?
54.7
For a small moment have I forsaken thee; But with great compassion will I gather thee. 54.8 In a little wrath I hid My face from thee for a moment; But with everlasting kindness will I have compassion on thee, Saith the LORD thy Redeemer.'' None
9. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation • Thematization

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 84; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 462

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5.4 יְהוָה בְּצֵאתְךָ מִשֵּׂעִיר בְּצַעְדְּךָ מִשְּׂדֵה אֱדוֹם אֶרֶץ רָעָשָׁה גַּם־שָׁמַיִם נָטָפוּ גַּם־עָבִים נָטְפוּ מָיִם׃'' None
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5.4 Lord, when Thou didst go out of Se῾ir, when Thou didst march out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, the clouds also dropped water.'' None
10. Hesiod, Theogony, 27-28 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crime detection, and curses, as theme in the Sisyphus • gigantomachy, as poetic theme

 Found in books: Hesk (2000), Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens, 183; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 54, 57

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27 ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα,'28 ἴδμεν δʼ, εὖτʼ ἐθέλωμεν, ἀληθέα γηρύσασθαι. ' None
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27 Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me:'28 “You who tend sheep, full of iniquity, ' None
11. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Troy and Trojan themes in literature • blindness; as theme, xii • philosophers; blindness as theme of • poets; blindness as theme of • rhetorical schemata, and Lord-Parry ‘theme’ • wandering, Odyssean theme

 Found in books: Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 203; Folit-Weinberg (2022), Homer, Parmenides, and the Road to Demonstration, 122; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 36; Sider (2001), Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire: The Witness of Tertullian, 3

12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 28.18 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice • Motifs (Thematic), Reconciliation • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 87; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 62, 451

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28.18 מֵרֹב עֲוֺנֶיךָ בְּעֶוֶל רְכֻלָּתְךָ חִלַּלְתָּ מִקְדָּשֶׁיךָ וָאוֹצִא־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ וָאֶתֶּנְךָ לְאֵפֶר עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינֵי כָּל־רֹאֶיךָ׃'' None
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28.18 By the multitude of thine iniquities, in the unrighteousness of thy traffic, thou hast profaned thy sanctuaries; therefore have I brought forth a fire from the midst of thee, it hath devoured thee, and I have turned thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.'' None
13. Polybius, Histories, 2.38.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Hatred of Evil • conventions or themes, political or military focus

 Found in books: Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 67; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 238

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2.38.5 δῆλον ὡς τύχην μὲν λέγειν οὐδαμῶς ἂν εἴη πρέπον· φαῦλον γάρ· αἰτίαν δὲ μᾶλλον ζητεῖν. χωρὶς γὰρ ταύτης οὔτε τῶν κατὰ λόγον οὔτε τῶν παρὰ λόγον εἶναι δοκούντων οὐδὲν οἷόν τε συντελεσθῆναι. ἔστι δʼ οὖν, ὡς ἐμὴ δόξα, τοιαύτη τις.'' None
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2.38.5 \xa0It is evident that we should not say it is the result of chance, for that is a poor explanation. We must rather seek for a cause, for every event whether probable or improbable must have some cause. The cause here, I\xa0believe to be more or less the following. <'' None
14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.11-1.15, 1.64, 3.52, 4.52-4.54, 7.40-7.42, 12.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Concealing Divisiveness • Motifs (Thematic), Gentile Kings Are Well-Meaning • Motifs (Thematic), Martyrdom Catalyzes Reconciliation (and Redemption) • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice • Motifs (Thematic), Problems are Caused by Misunderstanding • Motifs (Thematic), Punishment as Pedagogy • Motifs (Thematic), Sinning Causes Suffering • Motifs (Thematic), Tit for Tat • Motifs (Thematic), Villains as Acting Alone • Motifs (Thematic), by Gentiles • theme, Zion in

 Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 48, 49, 211, 256, 272, 317, 325, 377, 507; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 221

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1.11 In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covet with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us." 1.12 This proposal pleased them, 1.13 and some of the people eagerly went to the king. He authorized them to observe the ordices of the Gentiles. 1.14 So they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to Gentile custom, 1.15 and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covet. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.
1.64
And very great wrath came upon Israel.
3.52
And behold, the Gentiles are assembled against us to destroy us;thou knowest what they plot against us.
4.52
Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year, 4.53 they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54 At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals.
7.40
And Judas encamped in Adasa with three thousand men. Then Judas prayed and said, 7.41 "When the messengers from the king spoke blasphemy, thy angel went forth and struck down one hundred and eighty-five thousand of the Assyrians. 7.42 So also crush this army before us today; let the rest learn that Nicanor has spoken wickedly against the sanctuary, and judge him according to this wickedness."
12.13
But as for ourselves, many afflictions and many wars have encircled us; the kings round about us have waged war against us.'' None
15. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.23-2.32, 4.17, 4.38, 5.12-5.13, 5.15-5.17, 5.21, 6.26, 6.30, 7.9, 7.14, 7.23, 7.29, 7.36, 8.11, 9.4-9.18, 9.20, 9.27-9.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Celebrating of Enemies Defeats • Motifs (Thematic), Concealing Divisiveness • Motifs (Thematic), Despised Nation • Motifs (Thematic), Games with Epiphanes • Motifs (Thematic), Gentile Kings Are Well-Meaning • Motifs (Thematic), Gentiles Protest Persecution of Jews • Motifs (Thematic), Gentiles are Gods Tools for Punishing Sinners • Motifs (Thematic), God Rules History • Motifs (Thematic), God Turns Away in Anger • Motifs (Thematic), Jerusalem as Greek Polis • Motifs (Thematic), Martyrdom Catalyzes Reconciliation (and Redemption) • Motifs (Thematic), Martyrs as Heroes • Motifs (Thematic), officials • Motifs (Thematic), Persian • Motifs (Thematic), Poetic Justice • Motifs (Thematic), Problems are Caused by Misunderstanding • Motifs (Thematic), Prominence of the City • Motifs (Thematic), Punishment as Pedagogy • Motifs (Thematic), Reconciliation • Motifs (Thematic), Royal Respect for Jews and Judaism • Motifs (Thematic), Sinning Causes Suffering • Motifs (Thematic), Tit for Tat • Motifs (Thematic), Villains are Jewish • Motifs (Thematic), Villains as Acting Alone • Motifs (Thematic), Willingness to Die • Motifs (Thematic), by Gentiles • conventions or themes, moral focus • tragic themes

 Found in books: Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 45, 91, 233; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 21, 23, 24, 25, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 62, 64, 65, 68, 69, 78, 81, 156, 188, 202, 211, 226, 242, 245, 250, 256, 257, 258, 261, 264, 280, 289, 298, 303, 305, 307, 318, 323, 345, 355, 357, 365, 374, 423, 451, 487, 498

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2.23 all this, which has been set forth by Jason of Cyrene in five volumes, we shall attempt to condense into a single book.'" "2.24 For considering the flood of numbers involved and the difficulty there is for those who wish to enter upon the narratives of history because of the mass of material,'" "2.25 we have aimed to please those who wish to read, to make it easy for those who are inclined to memorize, and to profit all readers.'" "2.26 For us who have undertaken the toil of abbreviating, it is no light matter but calls for sweat and loss of sleep,'" "2.27 just as it is not easy for one who prepares a banquet and seeks the benefit of others. However, to secure the gratitude of many we will gladly endure the uncomfortable toil,'" "2.28 leaving the responsibility for exact details to the compiler, while devoting our effort to arriving at the outlines of the condensation.'" "2.29 For as the master builder of a new house must be concerned with the whole construction, while the one who undertakes its painting and decoration has to consider only what is suitable for its adornment, such in my judgment is the case with us.'" "2.30 It is the duty of the original historian to occupy the ground and to discuss matters from every side and to take trouble with details,'" '2.31 but the one who recasts the narrative should be allowed to strive for brevity of expression and to forego exhaustive treatment."' "2.32 At this point therefore let us begin our narrative, adding only so much to what has already been said; for it is foolish to lengthen the preface while cutting short the history itself.'" 4.17 For it is no light thing to show irreverence to the divine laws -- a fact which later events will make clear."' "
4.38
and inflamed with anger, he immediately stripped off the purple robe from Andronicus, tore off his garments, and led him about the whole city to that very place where he had committed the outrage against Onias, and there he dispatched the bloodthirsty fellow. The Lord thus repaid him with the punishment he deserved.'" 5.12 And he commanded his soldiers to cut down relentlessly every one they met and to slay those who went into the houses."' "5.13 Then there was killing of young and old, destruction of boys, women, and children, and slaughter of virgins and infants.'" "
5.15
Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.'" "5.16 He took the holy vessels with his polluted hands, and swept away with profane hands the votive offerings which other kings had made to enhance the glory and honor of the place.'" "5.17 Antiochus was elated in spirit, and did not perceive that the Lord was angered for a little while because of the sins of those who dwelt in the city, and that therefore he was disregarding the holy place.'" "
5.21
So Antiochus carried off eighteen hundred talents from the temple, and hurried away to Antioch, thinking in his arrogance that he could sail on the land and walk on the sea, because his mind was elated.'" "
6.26
For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.'" "
6.30
When he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: 'It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him.'" "
7.9
And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.'" "
7.14
And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!'" "
7.23
Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.'" "
7.29
Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.'" "
7.36
For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.'" "
8.11
And he immediately sent to the cities on the seacoast, inviting them to buy Jewish slaves and promising to hand over ninety slaves for a talent, not expecting the judgment from the Almighty that was about to overtake him.'" "
9.4
Transported with rage, he conceived the idea of turning upon the Jews the injury done by those who had put him to flight; so he ordered his charioteer to drive without stopping until he completed the journey. But the judgment of heaven rode with him! For in his arrogance he said, 'When I get there I will make Jerusalem a cemetery of Jews.'" "9.5 But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him an incurable and unseen blow. As soon as he ceased speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels for which there was no relief and with sharp internal tortures --'" "9.6 and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions.'" "9.7 Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to hasten the journey. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body.'" "9.8 Thus he who had just been thinking that he could command the waves of the sea, in his superhuman arrogance, and imagining that he could weigh the high mountains in a balance, was brought down to earth and carried in a litter, making the power of God manifest to all.'" "9.9 And so the ungodly man's body swarmed with worms, and while he was still living in anguish and pain, his flesh rotted away, and because of his stench the whole army felt revulsion at his decay.'" '9.10 Because of his intolerable stench no one was able to carry the man who a little while before had thought that he could touch the stars of heaven."' "9.11 Then it was that, broken in spirit, he began to lose much of his arrogance and to come to his senses under the scourge of God, for he was tortured with pain every moment.'" "9.12 And when he could not endure his own stench, he uttered these words: 'It is right to be subject to God, and no mortal should think that he is equal to God.'" "9.13 Then the abominable fellow made a vow to the Lord, who would no longer have mercy on him, stating'" "9.14 that the holy city, which he was hastening to level to the ground and to make a cemetery, he was now declaring to be free;'" "9.15 and the Jews, whom he had not considered worth burying but had planned to throw out with their children to the beasts, for the birds to pick, he would make, all of them, equal to citizens of Athens;'" "9.16 and the holy sanctuary, which he had formerly plundered, he would adorn with the finest offerings; and the holy vessels he would give back, all of them, many times over; and the expenses incurred for the sacrifices he would provide from his own revenues;'" '9.17 and in addition to all this he also would become a Jew and would visit every inhabited place to proclaim the power of God."' "9.18 But when his sufferings did not in any way abate, for the judgment of God had justly come upon him, he gave up all hope for himself and wrote to the Jews the following letter, in the form of a supplication. This was its content:'" "
9.20
If you and your children are well and your affairs are as you wish, I am glad. As my hope is in heaven,'" "
9.27
For I am sure that he will follow my policy and will treat you with moderation and kindness.'" "9.28 So the murderer and blasphemer, having endured the more intense suffering, such as he had inflicted on others, came to the end of his life by a most pitiable fate, among the mountains in a strange land.'" " None
16. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Kingship of Yahweh, as theme • Motifs (Thematic), Tit for Tat • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation • conventions or themes • conventions or themes, continuations • fabula, theme • theme, defined • theme, kingship of Yahweh • theme, of Tamid Psalms

 Found in books: Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 39; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 85, 86; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 358; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 176; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 208

17. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Troy and Trojan themes in literature • contentment, theme of

 Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 18; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 81

18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.173, 13.296 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Tit for Tat • Motifs (Thematic), by Gentiles • Second Temple literature, style or themes

 Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 298; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 64

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13.173 Σαδδουκαῖοι δὲ τὴν μὲν εἱμαρμένην ἀναιροῦσιν οὐδὲν εἶναι ταύτην ἀξιοῦντες οὐδὲ κατ' αὐτὴν τὰ ἀνθρώπινα τέλος λαμβάνειν, ἅπαντα δὲ ἐφ' ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς κεῖσθαι, ὡς καὶ τῶν ἀγαθῶν αἰτίους ἡμᾶς γινομένους καὶ τὰ χείρω παρὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν ἀβουλίαν λαμβάνοντας. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἀκριβεστέραν πεποίημαι δήλωσιν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ βίβλῳ τῆς ̓Ιουδαϊκῆς πραγματείας." "
13.296
ὥστε τῇ Σαδδουκαίων ἐποίησεν προσθέσθαι μοίρᾳ τῶν Φαρισαίων ἀποστάντα καὶ τά τε ὑπ' αὐτῶν κατασταθέντα νόμιμα τῷ δήμῳ καταλῦσαι καὶ τοὺς φυλάττοντας αὐτὰ κολάσαι. μῖσος οὖν ἐντεῦθεν αὐτῷ τε καὶ τοῖς υἱοῖς παρὰ τοῦ πλήθους ἐγένετο."" None
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13.173 And for the Sadducees, they take away fate, and say there is no such thing, and that the events of human affairs are not at its disposal; but they suppose that all our actions are in our own power, so that we are ourselves the causes of what is good, and receive what is evil from our own folly. However, I have given a more exact account of these opinions in the second book of the Jewish War.
13.296
that he made him leave the party of the Pharisees, and abolish the decrees they had imposed on the people, and to punish those that observed them. From this source arose that hatred which he and his sons met with from the multitude:'' None
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 7.431 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Villains as Acting Alone • Zion, and theme • theme, Zion in • theme, of Tamid Psalms

 Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 215; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 213

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7.431 οὐ μὴν ̓Ονίας ἐξ ὑγιοῦς γνώμης ταῦτα ἔπραττεν, ἀλλ' ἦν αὐτῷ φιλονεικία πρὸς τοὺς ἐν τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ̓Ιουδαίους ὀργὴν τῆς φυγῆς ἀπομνημονεύοντι, καὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἱερὸν ἐνόμιζε κατασκευάσας εἰς αὐτὸ περισπάσειν ἀπ' ἐκείνων τὸ πλῆθος."" None
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7.431 Yet did not Onias do this out of a sober disposition, but he had a mind to contend with the Jews at Jerusalem, and could not forget the indignation he had for being banished thence. Accordingly, he thought that by building this temple he should draw away a great number from them to himself.'' None
20. New Testament, Acts, 2.14-2.40, 8.10, 8.18-8.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antichrist, heresiological theme • Christianity, royal priesthood theme • Irenaeus, other heresiological themes • conventions or themes • conventions or themes, continuations • current, themes

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 113; Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 79, 148; Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 124, 130; Huebner and Laes (2019), Aulus Gellius and Roman Reading Culture: Text, Presence and Imperial Knowledge in the 'Noctes Atticae', 213, 215

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2.14 Σταθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος σὺν τοῖς ἕνδεκα ἐπῆρεν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀπεφθέγξατο αὐτοῖς Ἄνδρες Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ οἱ κατοικοῦντες Ἰερουσαλὴμ πάντες, τοῦτο ὑμῖν γνωστὸν ἔστω καὶ ἐνωτίσασθε τὰ ῥήματά μου. 2.15 οὐ γὰρ ὡς ὑμεῖς ὑπολαμβάνετε οὗτοι μεθύουσιν, ἔστιν γὰρ ὥρα τρίτη τῆς ἡμέρας, 2.16 ἀλλὰ τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ εἰρημένον διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Ἰωήλ 2.17 2.19 2.22 Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τούτους. Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον, ἄνδρα ἀποδεδειγμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς δυνάμεσι καὶ τέρασι καὶ σημείοις οἷς ἐποίησεν διʼ αὐτοῦ ὁ θεὸς ἐν μέσῳ ὑμῶν, καθὼς αὐτοὶ οἴδατε, 2.23 τοῦτον τῇ ὡρισμένῃ βουλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τοῦ θεοῦ ἔκδοτον διὰ χειρὸς ἀνόμων προσπήξαντες ἀνείλατε, 2.24 ὃν ὁ θεὸς ἀνέστησεν λύσας τὰς ὠδῖνας τοῦ θανάτου, καθότι οὐκ ἦν δυνατὸν κρατεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· 2.25 Δαυεὶδ γὰρ λέγει εἰς αὐτόν 2.29 Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἐξὸν εἰπεῖν μετὰ παρρησίας πρὸς ὑμᾶς περὶ τοῦ πατριάρχου Δαυείδ, ὅτι καὶ ἐτελεύτησεν καὶ ἐτάφη καὶ τὸ μνῆμα αὐτοῦ ἔστιν ἐν ἡμῖν ἄχρι τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης· 2.30 προφήτης οὖν ὑπάρχων, καὶ εἰδὼς ὅτι ὅρκῳ ὤμοσεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸςἐκ καρποῦ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτοῦ καθίσαι ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον αὐτοῦ, 2.31 προιδὼν ἐλάλησεν περὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ χριστοῦ ὅτι οὔτε ἐνκατελείφθη εἰς ᾄδην οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ αὐτοῦεἶδεν διαφθοράν. 2.32 τοῦτον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀνέστησεν ὁ θεός, οὗ πάντες ἡμεῖς ἐσμὲν μάρτυρες. 2.33 τῇ δεξιᾷ οὖν τοῦ θεοῦ ὑψωθεὶς τήν τε ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου λαβὼν παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐξέχεεν τοῦτο ὃ ὑμεῖς καὶ βλέπετε καὶ ἀκούετε. 2.34 οὐ γὰρ Δαυεὶδ ἀνέβη εἰς τοὺς οὐρανούς, λέγει δὲ αὐτός 2.36 ἀσφαλῶς οὖν γινωσκέτω πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ ὅτι καὶ κύριον αὐτὸν καὶ χριστὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ θεός, τοῦτον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὃν ὑμεῖς ἐσταυρώσατε. 2.37 Ἀκούσαντες δὲ κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν, εἶπάν τε πρὸς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀποστόλους Τί ποιήσωμεν, 2.38 ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί; Πέτρος δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Μετανοήσατε, καὶ βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν, καὶ λήμψεσθε τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος· 2.39 ὑμῖν γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ἐπαγγελία καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις ὑμῶν καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς εἰς μακρὰν ὅσους ἂν προσκαλέσηται Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν. 2.40 ἑτέροις τε λόγοις πλείοσιν διεμαρτύρατο, καὶ παρεκάλει αὐτοὺς λέγων Σώθητε ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς τῆς σκολιᾶς ταύτης.
8.10
ᾧ προσεῖχον πάντες ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου λέγοντες Οὗτός ἐστιν ἡ Δύναμις τοῦ θεοῦ ἡ καλουμένη Μεγάλη.
8.18
Ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Σίμων ὅτι διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν τῶν ἀποστόλων δίδοται τὸ πνεῦμα προσήνεγκεν αὐτοῖς χρήματα λέγων Δότε κἀμοὶ τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ἵνα ᾧ ἐὰν ἐπιθῶ τὰς χεῖ 8.19 ρας λαμβάνῃ πνεῦμα ἅγιον. 8.20 Πέτρος δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Τὸ ἀργύριόν σου σὺν σοὶ εἴη εἰς ἀπώλειαν, ὅτι τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐνόμισας διὰ χρημάτων κτᾶσθαι. 8.21 οὐκ ἔστιν σοι μερὶς οὐδὲ κλῆρος ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ, ἡ γὰρκαρδία σου οὐκ ἔστιν εὐθεῖα ἔναντι τοῦ θεοῦ. 8.22 μετανόησον οὖν ἀπὸ τῆς κακίας σου ταύτης, καὶ δεήθητι τοῦ κυρίου εἰ ἄρα ἀφεθήσεταί σοι ἡ ἐπίνοια τῆς καρδίας σου· 8.23 εἰς γὰρ χολὴν πικρίας καὶσύνδεσμον ἀδικίας ὁρῶ σε ὄντα. 8.24 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Σίμων εἶπεν Δεήθητε ὑμεῖς ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύριον ὅπως μηδὲν ἐπέλθῃ ἐπʼ ἐμὲ ὧν εἰρήκατε.'' None
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2.14 But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and spoke out to them, "You men of Judea, and all you who dwell at Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and listen to my words. ' "2.15 For these aren't drunken, as you suppose, seeing it is only the third hour of the day. " '2.16 But this is what has been spoken through the prophet Joel: ' "2.17 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. " '2.18 Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.19 I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20 The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. ' "2.21 It will be, that whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.' " '2.22 "You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know, 2.23 him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 2.24 whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it. ' "2.25 For David says concerning him, 'I saw the Lord always before my face, For he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved. " '2.26 Therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced. Moreover my flesh also will dwell in hope; 2.27 Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. ' "2.28 You made known to me the ways of life. You will make me full of gladness with your presence.' " '2.29 "Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2.30 Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, he would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne, 2.31 he foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was his soul left in Hades, nor did his flesh see decay. 2.32 This Jesus God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 2.33 Being therefore exalted by the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this, which you now see and hear. 2.34 For David didn\'t ascend into the heavens, but he says himself, \'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit by my right hand, 2.35 Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."\ '2.36 "Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified." 2.37 Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Brothers, what shall we do?" 2.38 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.39 For to you is the promise, and to your children, and to all who are far off, even as many as the Lord our God will call to himself." 2.40 With many other words he testified, and exhorted them, saying, "Save yourselves from this crooked generation!"
8.10
to whom they all listened, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is that great power of God."' "
8.18
Now when Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands, he offered them money, " '8.19 saying, "Give me also this power, that whoever I lay my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit." 8.20 But Peter said to him, "May your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain the gift of God with money! ' "8.21 You have neither part nor lot in this matter, for your heart isn't right before God. " '8.22 Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. 8.23 For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity." 8.24 Simon answered, "Pray for me to the Lord, that none of the things which you have spoken come on me."'' None
21. New Testament, John, 14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antichrist, heresiological theme • Authorial practices and purposes, Thematic coherence • Origen, themes on heresy in the Commentary on Matthew

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 531; Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 161

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14.6 λέγει αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ διʼ ἐμοῦ.'' None
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14.6 Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. '' None
22. New Testament, Luke, 24.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authorial practices and purposes, Thematic coherence • themes in the fable

 Found in books: Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 103; Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 351

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24.25 καὶ αὐτὸς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Ὦ ἀνόητοι καὶ βραδεῖς τῇ καρδίᾳ τοῦ πιστεύειν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν οἷς ἐλάλησαν οἱ προφῆται·'' None
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24.25 He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! '' None
23. New Testament, Matthew, 12.33, 16.3, 16.6, 23.25, 24.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antichrist, heresiological theme • Christianity, royal priesthood theme • Motifs (Thematic), Royal Respect for Jews and Judaism • Origen, themes on heresy in the Commentary on Matthew • eros, erotic themes, erotization

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 517, 521, 532, 535; Huebner and Laes (2019), Aulus Gellius and Roman Reading Culture: Text, Presence and Imperial Knowledge in the 'Noctes Atticae', 215; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 71; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 188

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12.33 Ἢ ποιήσατε τὸ δένδρον καλὸν καὶ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ καλόν, ἢ ποιήσατε τὸ δένδρον σαπρὸν καὶ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ σαπρόν· ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ καρποῦ τὸ δένδρον γινώσκεται.
16.3
καὶ πρωί Σήμερον χειμών, πυρράζει γὰρ στυγνάζων ὁ οὐρανός. τὸ μὲν πρόσωπον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ γινώσκετε διακρίνειν, τὰ δὲ σημεῖα τῶν καιρῶν οὐ δύνασθε.⟧
16.6
ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ὁρᾶτε καὶ προσέχετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων.
23.25
Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, γραμματεῖς καὶ Φαρισαῖοι ὑποκριταί, ὅτι καθαρίζετε τὸ ἔξωθεν τοῦ ποτηρίου καὶ τῆς παροψίδος, ἔσωθεν δὲ γέμουσιν ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς καὶ ἀκρασίας.
24.15
Ὅταν οὖν ἴδητε τὸ Βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Δανιὴλ τοῦ προφήτου ἑστὸς ἐν τόπῳ ἁγίῳ, ὁ ἀναγινώσκων νοείτω,'' None
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12.33 "Either make the tree good, and its fruit good, or make the tree corrupt, and its fruit corrupt; for the tree is known by its fruit. ' "
16.3
In the morning, 'It will be foul weather today, for the sky is red and threatening.' Hypocrites! You know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but you can't discern the signs of the times! " 16.6 Jesus said to them, "Take heed and beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees."
23.25
"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness.
24.15
"When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), '' None
24. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antichrist, heresiological theme • Origen, themes on heresy in the Commentary on Matthew • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 532; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 86

25. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.20.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antichrist, heresiological theme • Authorial practices and purposes, Thematic coherence • Irenaeus, other heresiological themes

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 96, 186; Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 161

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5.20.1 Now all these heretics are of much later date than the bishops to whom the apostles committed the Churches; which fact I have in the third book taken all pains to demonstrate. It follows, then, as a matter of course, that these heretics aforementioned, since they are blind to the truth, and deviate from the right way, will walk in various roads; and therefore the footsteps of their doctrine are scattered here and there without agreement or connection. But the path of those belonging to the Church circumscribes the whole world, as possessing the sure tradition from the apostles, and gives unto us to see that the faith of all is one and the same, since all receive one and the same God the Father, and believe in the same dispensation regarding the incarnation of the Son of God, and are cognizant of the same gift of the Spirit, and are conversant with the same commandments, and preserve the same form of ecclesiastical constitution, and expect the same advent of the Lord, and await the same salvation of the complete man, that is, of the soul and body. And undoubtedly the preaching of the Church is true and stedfast, in which one and the same way of salvation is shown throughout the whole world. For to her is entrusted the light of God; and therefore the "wisdom" of God, by means of which she saves all men, "is declared in its going forth; it uttereth its voice faithfully in the streets, is preached on the tops of the walls, and speaks continually in the gates of the city." For the Church preaches the truth everywhere, and she is the seven-branched candlestick which bears the light of Christ.'' None
26. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thematization • aggadic passages on legal biblical units, thematized in early rabbinic literature

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 435, 441, 442, 468, 469, 470; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 468

27. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Thematization • themes, of dialectical proficiency

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 430, 446; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 44

59b וזה הוא תנור של עכנאי מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שהקיפו דברים כעכנא זו וטמאוהו תנא באותו היום השיב רבי אליעזר כל תשובות שבעולם ולא קיבלו הימנו,אמר להם אם הלכה כמותי חרוב זה יוכיח נעקר חרוב ממקומו מאה אמה ואמרי לה ארבע מאות אמה אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מן החרוב חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי אמת המים יוכיחו חזרו אמת המים לאחוריהם אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מאמת המים,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי כותלי בית המדרש יוכיחו הטו כותלי בית המדרש ליפול גער בהם רבי יהושע אמר להם אם תלמידי חכמים מנצחים זה את זה בהלכה אתם מה טיבכם לא נפלו מפני כבודו של רבי יהושע ולא זקפו מפני כבודו של ר"א ועדיין מטין ועומדין,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי מן השמים יוכיחו יצאתה בת קול ואמרה מה לכם אצל ר"א שהלכה כמותו בכ"מ,עמד רבי יהושע על רגליו ואמר (דברים ל, יב) לא בשמים היא מאי לא בשמים היא אמר רבי ירמיה שכבר נתנה תורה מהר סיני אין אנו משגיחין בבת קול שכבר כתבת בהר סיני בתורה (שמות כג, ב) אחרי רבים להטות אשכחיה רבי נתן לאליהו א"ל מאי עביד קוב"ה בההיא שעתא א"ל קא חייך ואמר נצחוני בני נצחוני בני,אמרו אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום באש ונמנו עליו וברכוהו ואמרו מי ילך ויודיעו אמר להם ר"ע אני אלך שמא ילך אדם שאינו הגון ויודיעו ונמצא מחריב את כל העולם כולו,מה עשה ר"ע לבש שחורים ונתעטף שחורים וישב לפניו ברחוק ארבע אמות אמר לו ר"א עקיבא מה יום מיומים אמר לו רבי כמדומה לי שחבירים בדילים ממך אף הוא קרע בגדיו וחלץ מנעליו ונשמט וישב על גבי קרקע,זלגו עיניו דמעות לקה העולם שליש בזיתים ושליש בחטים ושליש בשעורים ויש אומרים אף בצק שבידי אשה טפח תנא אך גדול היה באותו היום שבכל מקום שנתן בו עיניו ר"א נשרף,ואף ר"ג היה בא בספינה עמד עליו נחשול לטבעו אמר כמדומה לי שאין זה אלא בשביל ר"א בן הורקנוס עמד על רגליו ואמר רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא עשיתי אלא לכבודך שלא ירבו מחלוקות בישראל נח הים מזעפו,אימא שלום דביתהו דר"א אחתיה דר"ג הואי מההוא מעשה ואילך לא הוה שבקה ליה לר"א למיפל על אפיה ההוא יומא ריש ירחא הוה ואיחלף לה בין מלא לחסר איכא דאמרי אתא עניא וקאי אבבא אפיקא ליה ריפתא,אשכחתיה דנפל על אנפיה אמרה ליה קום קטלית לאחי אדהכי נפק שיפורא מבית רבן גמליאל דשכיב אמר לה מנא ידעת אמרה ליה כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא כל השערים ננעלים חוץ משערי אונאה,תנו רבנן המאנה את הגר עובר בשלשה לאוין והלוחצו עובר בשנים,מאי שנא מאנה דכתיבי שלשה לאוין (שמות כב, כ) וגר לא תונה (ויקרא יט, לג) וכי יגור אתך גר בארצכם לא תונו אותו (ויקרא כה, יז) ולא תונו איש את עמיתו וגר בכלל עמיתו הוא לוחצו נמי שלשה כתיבי (שמות כב, כ) ולא תלחצנו (שמות כג, ט) וגר לא תלחץ (שמות כב, כד) ולא תהיה לו כנושה וגר בכלל הוא אלא אחד זה ואחד זה בשלשה,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר מפני מה הזהירה תורה בל"ו מקומות ואמרי לה במ"ו מקומות בגר מפני שסורו רע,מאי דכתיב וגר לא תונה ולא תלחצנו כי גרים הייתם בארץ מצרים (תנינא) רבי נתן אומר מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך והיינו דאמרי אינשי דזקיף ליה זקיפא בדיותקיה לא נימא ליה לחבריה זקיף ביניתא:,59b And this is known as the oven of akhnai. The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of akhnai, a snake, in this context? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is characterized in that manner due to the fact that the Rabbis surrounded it with their statements like this snake, which often forms a coil when at rest, and deemed it impure. The Sages taught: On that day, when they discussed this matter, Rabbi Eliezer answered all possible answers in the world to support his opinion, but the Rabbis did not accept his explanations from him.,After failing to convince the Rabbis logically, Rabbi Eliezer said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, this carob tree will prove it. The carob tree was uprooted from its place one hundred cubits, and some say four hundred cubits. The Rabbis said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from the carob tree. Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the stream will prove it. The water in the stream turned backward and began flowing in the opposite direction. They said to him: One does not cite halakhic proof from a stream.,Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, the walls of the study hall will prove it. The walls of the study hall leaned inward and began to fall. Rabbi Yehoshua scolded the walls and said to them: If Torah scholars are contending with each other in matters of halakha, what is the nature of your involvement in this dispute? The Gemara relates: The walls did not fall because of the deference due Rabbi Yehoshua, but they did not straighten because of the deference due Rabbi Eliezer, and they still remain leaning.,Rabbi Eliezer then said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my opinion, Heaven will prove it. A Divine Voice emerged from Heaven and said: Why are you differing with Rabbi Eliezer, as the halakha is in accordance with his opinion in every place that he expresses an opinion?,Rabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said: It is written: “It is not in heaven” (Deuteronomy 30:12). The Gemara asks: What is the relevance of the phrase “It is not in heaven” in this context? Rabbi Yirmeya says: Since the Torah was already given at Mount Sinai, we do not regard a Divine Voice, as You already wrote at Mount Sinai, in the Torah: “After a majority to incline” (Exodus 23:2). Since the majority of Rabbis disagreed with Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, the halakha is not ruled in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara relates: Years after, Rabbi Natan encountered Elijah the prophet and said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do at that time, when Rabbi Yehoshua issued his declaration? Elijah said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, smiled and said: My children have triumphed over Me; My children have triumphed over Me.,The Sages said: On that day, the Sages brought all the ritually pure items deemed pure by the ruling of Rabbi Eliezer with regard to the oven and burned them in fire, and the Sages reached a consensus in his regard and ostracized him. And the Sages said: Who will go and inform him of his ostracism? Rabbi Akiva, his beloved disciple, said to them: I will go, lest an unseemly person go and inform him in a callous and offensive manner, and he would thereby destroy the entire world.,What did Rabbi Akiva do? He wore black and wrapped himself in black, as an expression of mourning and pain, and sat before Rabbi Eliezer at a distance of four cubits, which is the distance that one must maintain from an ostracized individual. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva, what is different about today from other days, that you comport yourself in this manner? Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, it appears to me that your colleagues are distancing themselves from you. He employed euphemism, as actually they distanced Rabbi Eliezer from them. Rabbi Eliezer too, rent his garments and removed his shoes, as is the custom of an ostracized person, and he dropped from his seat and sat upon the ground.,The Gemara relates: His eyes shed tears, and as a result the entire world was afflicted: One-third of its olives were afflicted, and one-third of its wheat, and one-third of its barley. And some say that even dough kneaded in a woman’s hands spoiled. The Sages taught: There was great anger on that day, as any place that Rabbi Eliezer fixed his gaze was burned.,And even Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin at Yavne, the head of the Sages who were responsible for the decision to ostracize Rabbi Eliezer, was coming on a boat at the time, and a large wave swelled over him and threatened to drown him. Rabban Gamliel said: It seems to me that this is only for the sake of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, as God punishes those who mistreat others. Rabban Gamliel stood on his feet and said: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that neither was it for my honor that I acted when ostracizing him, nor was it for the honor of the house of my father that I acted; rather, it was for Your honor, so that disputes will not proliferate in Israel. In response, the sea calmed from its raging.,The Gemara further relates: Imma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was the sister of Rabban Gamliel. From that incident forward, she would not allow Rabbi Eliezer to lower his head and recite the taḥanun prayer, which includes supplication and entreaties. She feared that were her husband to bemoan his fate and pray at that moment, her brother would be punished. A certain day was around the day of the New Moon, and she inadvertently substituted a full thirty-day month for a deficient twenty-nine-day month, i.e., she thought that it was the New Moon, when one does not lower his head in supplication, but it was not. Some say that a pauper came and stood at the door, and she took bread out to him. The result was that she left her husband momentarily unsupervised.,When she returned, she found him and saw that he had lowered his head in prayer. She said to him: Arise, you already killed my brother. Meanwhile, the sound of a shofar emerged from the house of Rabban Gamliel to announce that the Nasi had died. Rabbi Eliezer said to her: From where did you know that your brother would die? She said to him: This is the tradition that I received from the house of the father of my father: All the gates of Heaven are apt to be locked, except for the gates of prayer for victims of verbal mistreatment.The Sages taught: One who verbally mistreats the convert violates three prohibitions, and one who oppresses him in other ways violates two.,The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to verbal mistreatment, that three prohibitions are written concerning it: “And you shall neither mistreat a convert” (Exodus 22:20); “And when a convert lives in your land, you shall not mistreat him” (Leviticus 19:33); “And you shall not mistreat, each man his colleague” (Leviticus 25:17), and a convert is included in the category of colleague? With regard to one who also oppresses a convert as well, three prohibitions are written: “And you shall neither mistreat a convert, nor oppress him” (Exodus 22:20); “And you shall not oppress a convert (Exodus 23:9); “And you shall not be to him like a creditor” (Exodus 22:24). This last prohibition is a general prohibition, in which converts are included. Consequently, it is not correct that one who oppresses a convert violates only two prohibitions. Rather, both this one, who verbally mistreats a convert, and that one, who oppresses him, violate three prohibitions.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: For what reason did the Torah issue warnings in thirty-six places, and some say in forty-six places, with regard to causing any distress to a convert? It is due to the fact that a convert’s inclination is evil, i.e., he is prone to return to his previous way of living.,What is the meaning of that which is written: “And you shall not mistreat a convert nor oppress him, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt” (Exodus 22:20)? We learned in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: A defect that is in you, do not mention it in another. Since the Jewish people were themselves strangers, they are not in a position to demean a convert because he is a stranger in their midst. And this explains the adage that people say: One who has a person hanged in his family bidyotkei, does not say to another member of his household: Hang a fish for me, as the mention of hanging is demeaning for that family.,One may not intermingle produce bought from one supplier with other produce, even if he intermingles new produce with other new produce and ostensibly the buyer suffers no loss from his doing so.'' None
28. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bavli (Babylonian Talmud), themes in • Palestinian sources, themes in • Stammaim, and theme of dialectics • Thematization • argumentation, dialectical, as Babylonian theme • themes, Babylonian vs. Palestinian • themes, of dialectical proficiency

 Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 430, 445; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 47

13b ונמלך ומצאו בן עירו ואמר שמך כשמי ושם אשתך כשם אשתי פסול לגרש בו,הכי השתא התם (דברים כד, א) וכתב לה כתיב בעינן כתיבה לשמה הכא ועשה לה כתיב בעינן עשייה לשמה עשייה דידה מחיקה היא,א"ר אחא בר חנינא גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שאין בדורו של רבי מאיר כמותו ומפני מה לא קבעו הלכה כמותו שלא יכלו חביריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו שהוא אומר על טמא טהור ומראה לו פנים על טהור טמא ומראה לו פנים,תנא לא ר"מ שמו אלא רבי נהוראי שמו ולמה נקרא שמו ר"מ שהוא מאיר עיני חכמים בהלכה ולא נהוראי שמו אלא רבי נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה רבי אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה,אמר רבי האי דמחדדנא מחבראי דחזיתיה לר\' מאיר מאחוריה ואילו חזיתיה מקמיה הוה מחדדנא טפי דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך,א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן תלמיד היה לו לר"מ וסומכוס שמו שהיה אומר על כל דבר ודבר של טומאה ארבעים ושמונה טעמי טומאה ועל כל דבר ודבר של טהרה ארבעים ושמונה טעמי טהרה,תנא תלמיד ותיק היה ביבנה שהיה מטהר את השרץ במאה וחמשים טעמים,אמר רבינא אני אדון ואטהרנו ומה נחש שממית ומרבה טומאה טהור שרץ שאין ממית ומרבה טומאה לא כ"ש,ולא היא מעשה קוץ בעלמא קעביד,א"ר אבא אמר שמואל שלש שנים נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה הללו אומרים הלכה כמותנו והללו אומרים הלכה כמותנו יצאה בת קול ואמרה אלו ואלו דברי אלהים חיים הן והלכה כב"ה,וכי מאחר שאלו ואלו דברי אלהים חיים מפני מה זכו ב"ה לקבוע הלכה כמותן מפני שנוחין ועלובין היו ושונין דבריהן ודברי ב"ש ולא עוד אלא שמקדימין דברי ב"ש לדבריהן,כאותה ששנינו מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושלחנו בתוך הבית בית שמאי פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את ר\' יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושלחנו בתוך הבית אמרו להן בית שמאי (אי) משם ראיה אף הן אמרו לו אם כך היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,ללמדך שכל המשפיל עצמו הקב"ה מגביהו וכל המגביה עצמו הקב"ה משפילו כל המחזר על הגדולה גדולה בורחת ממנו וכל הבורח מן הגדולה גדולה מחזרת אחריו וכל הדוחק את השעה שעה דוחקתו וכל הנדחה מפני שעה שעה עומדת לו,ת"ר שתי שנים ומחצה נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה הללו אומרים נוח לו לאדם שלא נברא יותר משנברא והללו אומרים נוח לו לאדם שנברא יותר משלא נברא נמנו וגמרו נוח לו לאדם שלא נברא יותר משנברא עכשיו שנברא יפשפש במעשיו ואמרי לה ימשמש במעשיו,13b but later reconsidered and did not divorce her, and a resident of his city found him and said: Your name is the same as my name, and your wife’s name is the same as my wife’s name, and we reside in the same town; give me the bill of divorce, and I will use it to divorce my wife, then this document is invalid to divorce with it? Apparently, a man may not divorce his wife with a bill of divorce written for another woman, and the same should apply to the scroll of a sota.,The Gemara rejects this argument: How can you compare the two cases? There, with regard to a bill of divorce, it is written: “And he shall write for her” (Deuteronomy 24:1), and therefore we require writing it in her name, specifically for her; whereas here, with regard to a sota, it is written: “And he shall perform with her all this ritual” (Numbers 5:30), and therefore we require performance in her name. In her case, the performance is erasure; however, writing of the scroll need not be performed specifically for her.,On the topic of Rabbi Meir and his Torah study, the Gemara cites an additional statement. Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that in the generation of Rabbi Meir there was no one of the Sages who is his equal. Why then didn’t the Sages establish the halakha in accordance with his opinion? It is because his colleagues were unable to ascertain the profundity of his opinion. He was so brilliant that he could present a cogent argument for any position, even if it was not consistent with the prevalent halakha. As he would state with regard to a ritually impure item that it is pure, and display justification for that ruling, and likewise he would state with regard to a ritually pure item that it is impure, and display justification for that ruling. The Sages were unable to distinguish between the statements that were halakha and those that were not.,It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Meir was not his name; rather, Rabbi Nehorai was his name. And why was he called by the name Rabbi Meir? It was because he illuminates meir the eyes of the Sages in matters of the halakha. And Rabbi Nehorai was not the name of the tanna known by that name; rather, Rabbi Neḥemya was his name, and some say: Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his name. And why was he called by the name Rabbi Nehorai? It is because he enlightens manhir the eyes of the Sages in matters of the halakha.,The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: The fact that I am more incisive than my colleagues is due to the fact that I saw Rabbi Meir from behind, i.e., I sat behind him when I was his student. Had I seen him from the front, I would be even more incisive, as it is written: “And your eyes shall see your teacher” (Isaiah 30:20). Seeing the face of one’s teacher increases one’s understanding and sharpens one’s mind.,And the Gemara stated that Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: Rabbi Meir had a disciple, and his name was Sumakhus, who would state with regard to each and every matter of ritual impurity forty-eight reasons in support of the ruling of impurity, and with regard to each and every matter of ritual purity forty-eight reasons in support of the ruling of purity.,It was taught in a baraita: There was a distinguished disciple at Yavne who could with his incisive intellect purify the creeping animal, explicitly deemed ritually impure by the Torah, adducing one hundred and fifty reasons in support of his argument.,Ravina said: I too will deliberate and purify it employing the following reasoning: And just as a snake that kills people and animals and thereby increases ritual impurity in the world, as a corpse imparts impurity through contact, through being carried, and by means of a tent, is ritually pure and transmits no impurity, a creeping animal that does not kill and does not increase impurity in the world, all the more so should it be pure.,The Gemara rejects this: And it is not so; that is not a valid a fortiori argument, as it can be refuted. A snake is performing a mere act of a thorn. A thorn causes injury and even death; nevertheless, it is not ritually impure. The same applies to a snake, and therefore this a fortiori argument is rejected.,Rabbi Abba said that Shmuel said: For three years Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disagreed. These said: The halakha is in accordance with our opinion, and these said: The halakha is in accordance with our opinion. Ultimately, a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed: Both these and those are the words of the living God. However, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel.,The Gemara asks: Since both these and those are the words of the living God, why were Beit Hillel privileged to have the halakha established in accordance with their opinion? The reason is that they were agreeable and forbearing, showing restraint when affronted, and when they taught the halakha they would teach both their own statements and the statements of Beit Shammai. Moreover, when they formulated their teachings and cited a dispute, they prioritized the statements of Beit Shammai to their own statements, in deference to Beit Shammai.,As in the mishna that we learned: In the case of one whose head and most of his body were in the sukka, but his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deem this sukka invalid; and Beit Hillel deem it valid. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: Wasn’t there an incident in which the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit, and they found him sitting with his head and most of his body in the sukka, but his table was in the house? Beit Shammai said to them: From there do you seek to adduce a proof? Those visitors, too, said to him: If that was the manner in which you were accustomed to perform the mitzva, you have never fulfilled the mitzva of sukka in all your days. It is apparent from the phrasing of the mishna that when the Sages of Beit Hillel related that the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel visited Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit, they mentioned the Elders of Beit Shammai before their own Elders.,This is to teach you that anyone who humbles himself, the Holy One, Blessed be He, exalts him, and anyone who exalts himself, the Holy One, Blessed be He, humbles him. Anyone who seeks greatness, greatness flees from him, and, conversely, anyone who flees from greatness, greatness seeks him. And anyone who attempts to force the moment and expends great effort to achieve an objective precisely when he desires to do so, the moment forces him too, and he is unsuccessful. And conversely, anyone who is patient and yields to the moment, the moment stands by his side, and he will ultimately be successful.,The Sages taught the following baraita: For two and a half years, Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disagreed. These say: It would have been preferable had man not been created than to have been created. And those said: It is preferable for man to have been created than had he not been created. Ultimately, they were counted and concluded: It would have been preferable had man not been created than to have been created. However, now that he has been created, he should examine his actions that he has performed and seek to correct them. And some say: He should scrutinize his planned actions and evaluate whether or not and in what manner those actions should be performed, so that he will not sin.,The cross beam, which the Sages stated may be used to render an alleyway fit for one to carry within it, must be wide enough to receive and hold a small brick. And this small brick is half a large brick, which measures three handbreadths, i.e., a handbreadth and a half. It is sufficient that the cross beam will be a handbreadth in width, not a handbreadth and a half, enough to hold a small brick across its width.,And the cross beam must be wide enough to hold a small brick and also sturdy enough to hold a small brick and not collapse. Rabbi Yehuda says: If it is wide enough to hold the brick, even though it is not sturdy enough to actually support it, it is sufficient. Therefore, even if the cross beam is made of straw or reeds, one considers it as though it were made of metal.,If the cross beam is curved, so that a small brick cannot rest on it, one considers it as though it were straight; if it is round, one considers it as though it were square. The following principle was stated with regard to a round cross beam: Any beam with a circumference of three handbreadths is a handbreadth in width, i.e., in diameter.'' None
29. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Motifs (Thematic), Tit for Tat • Motifs (Thematic), by Gentiles • Second Temple literature, style or themes

 Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 297, 298, 299; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 64

66a שורך נרבע והלה שותק נאמן ותנא תונא ושנעבדה בו עבירה ושהמית על פי עד אחד או ע"פ הבעלים נאמן האי ע"פ עד אחד היכי דמי אי דקא מודו בעלים היינו ע"פ הבעלים אלא לאו דשתיק,וצריכא דאי אשמעינן הך קמייתא אי לאו דקים ליה בנפשיה דעבד חולין בעזרה לא הוה מייתי,אבל נטמאו טהרותיך מימר אמרינן האי דשתיק דסבר חזי ליה בימי טומאתו,ואי אשמעינן הא משום דקא מפסיד ליה בימי טהרתו אבל שורו נרבע מימר אמר כל השוורים לאו לגבי מזבח קיימי צריכא,איבעיא להו אשתו זינתה בעד אחד ושותק מהו אמר אביי נאמן רבא אמר אינו נאמן הוי דבר שבערוה ואין דבר שבערוה פחות משנים,אמר אביי מנא אמינא לה דההוא סמיא דהוה מסדר מתנייתא קמיה דמר שמואל יומא חד נגה ליה ולא הוה קאתי שדר שליחא אבתריה אדאזיל שליח בחדא אורחא אתא איהו בחדא כי אתא שליח אמר אשתו זינתה אתא לקמיה דמר שמואל א"ל אי מהימן לך זיל אפקה ואי לא לא תפיק,מאי לאו אי מהימן עלך דלאו גזלנא הוא ורבא אי מהימן לך כבי תרי זיל אפקה ואי לא לא תפקה,ואמר אביי מנא אמינא לה דתניא מעשה בינאי המלך שהלך לכוחלית שבמדבר וכיבש שם ששים כרכים ובחזרתו היה שמח שמחה גדולה וקרא לכל חכמי ישראל אמר להם אבותינו היו אוכלים מלוחים בזמן שהיו עסוקים בבנין בית המקדש אף אנו נאכל מלוחים זכר לאבותינו והעלו מלוחים על שולחנות של זהב ואכלו,והיה שם אחד איש לץ לב רע ובליעל ואלעזר בן פועירה שמו ויאמר אלעזר בן פועירה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך לבם של פרושים עליך ומה אעשה הקם להם בציץ שבין עיניך הקים להם בציץ שבין עיניו,היה שם זקן אחד ויהודה בן גדידיה שמו ויאמר יהודה בן גדידיה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך רב לך כתר מלכות הנח כתר כהונה לזרעו של אהרן שהיו אומרים אמו נשבית במודיעים ויבוקש הדבר ולא נמצא ויבדלו חכמי ישראל בזעם,ויאמר אלעזר בן פועירה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך הדיוט שבישראל כך הוא דינו ואתה מלך וכהן גדול כך הוא דינך ומה אעשה אם אתה שומע לעצתי רומסם ותורה מה תהא עליה הרי כרוכה ומונחת בקרן זוית כל הרוצה ללמוד יבוא וילמוד,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מיד נזרקה בו אפיקורסות דהוה ליה למימר תינח תורה שבכתב תורה שבעל פה מאי מיד ותוצץ הרעה על ידי אלעזר בן פועירה ויהרגו כל חכמי ישראל והיה העולם משתומם עד שבא שמעון בן שטח והחזיר את התורה ליושנה,היכי דמי אילימא דבי תרי אמרי אישתבאי ובי תרי אמרי לא אישתבאי מאי חזית דסמכת אהני סמוך אהני,אלא בעד אחד וטעמא דקא מכחשי ליה בי תרי הא לאו הכי מהימן,ורבא לעולם תרי ותרי וכדאמר רב אחא בר רב מניומי בעדי הזמה הכא נמי בעדי הזמה,ואיבעית אימא כדרבי יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק שפחה הכניסו תחתיה,אמר רבא'' None66a Your ox was used by a man for an act of bestiality and is therefore unfit for an offering, and the other, the owner of the ox, is silent, the witness is deemed credible. And the tanna of the mishna also taught (Bekhorot 41a): And with regard to an animal that was used for a transgression or that killed, if this is attested to by one witness or by the owner, he is deemed credible. The Gemara clarifies this case: What are the circumstances of this case of the mishna, where the knowledge is established by one witness? If the owner admits to the claim, this is the same as: By the owner. Rather, is it not referring to a case where the owner remains silent?,The Gemara comments: And each of these statements of Abaye is necessary. As, had he taught us only that first case, where the witness said someone ate forbidden fat, one might have said that he is deemed credible for the following reason: Were it not for the fact that he himself was convinced that he had committed a transgression, he would not commit the transgression of bringing a non-sacred animal to the Temple courtyard on the basis of the testimony of one witness. Consequently, his silence is evidently an admission.,But if the witness said: Your ritually pure foods were rendered ritually impure, and the accused was silent, we would say: The reason that he is silent and refrains from denying the claim is that he thinks he is not suffering any significant loss, as the food is fit for him to eat on his days of ritual impurity, because he is not required to destroy ritually impure foods.,And had Abaye taught us only the case of: Your ritually pure food was rendered ritually impure, one might have said that the reason this witness is deemed credible is that he causes him a loss on his days of ritual impurity, and therefore his silence is tantamount to a confession. But in the case of: His ox was used by a man for an act of bestiality, the owner of the ox can say with regard to his animal: Not all the oxen stand ready to be sacrificed as an offering on the altar. Perhaps one would think that the owner does not bother denying the claim because he merely forfeits the possibility of sacrificing his ox as an offering, which he considers an inconsequential matter. It is only if there were two witnesses to the act that the animal is put to death, whereas here there was only one witness. It is therefore necessary for Abaye to specify all these cases.,§ A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If a husband is told by one witness that his wife committed adultery, and the husband remains silent, what is the halakha? Abaye said: The witness is deemed credible. Rava said: He is not deemed credible. Why not? Because it is a matter involving forbidden relations, and there is no matter of testimony for forbidden sexual relations that can be attested to by fewer than two witnesses.,Abaye said: From where do I say this claim of mine? It happened that there was a certain blind man who would review mishnayot before Mar Shmuel. One day the blind man was late for him and was not arriving. Mar Shmuel sent a messenger after him to assist him. While the messenger was going to the blind man’s house by one way, the blind man arrived at the house of study by a different route, and therefore the messenger missed him and reached his house. When the messenger came back, he said that he had been to the blind man’s house and saw that his wife committed adultery. The blind man came before Mar Shmuel to inquire whether he must pay heed to this testimony. Mar Shmuel said to him: If this messenger is trusted by you, go and divorce her, but if not, do not divorce her.,Abaye comments: What, is it not correct to say that this means that if he is trusted by you that he is not a thief but is a valid witness, you must rely on him? This would prove that a single witness can testify in a case of this kind. And Rava explains that Mar Shmuel meant: If he is trusted by you like two witnesses, go and divorce her, but if not, do not divorce her. Consequently, Rava maintains that this episode affords no proof.,And Abaye said: From where do I say this claim of mine? As it is taught in a baraita: An incident occurred with King Yannai, who went to the region of Koḥalit in the desert and conquered sixty cities there. And upon his return he rejoiced with a great happiness over his victory. And he subsequently summoned all the Sages of the Jewish people and said to them: Our ancestors in their poverty would eat salty foods when they were busy with the building of the Temple; we too shall eat salty foods in memory of our ancestors. And they brought salty food on tables of gold, and ate.,And there was one person present, a scoffer, a man of an evil heart and a scoundrel called Elazar ben Po’ira. And Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the hearts of the Pharisees, the Sages, are against you. In other words, they harbor secret resentment against you and do not like you. The king replied: And what shall I do to clarify this matter? Elazar responded: Have them stand by wearing the frontplate between your eyes. Since the frontplate bears the Divine Name, they should stand in its honor. Yannai, who was a member of the priestly Hasmonean family, also served as High Priest, who wears the frontplate. He had the Pharisees stand by wearing the frontplate between his eyes.,Now there was a certain elder present called Yehuda ben Gedidya, and Yehuda ben Gedidya said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the crown of the monarchy suffices for you, i.e., you should be satisfied that you are king. Leave the crown of the priesthood for the descendants of Aaron. The Gemara explains this last comment: As they would say that Yannai’s mother was taken captive in Modi’in, and she was therefore disqualified from marrying into the priesthood, which meant that Yannai was a ḥalal. And the matter was investigated and was not discovered, i.e., they sought witnesses for that event but none were found. And the Sages of Israel were expelled in the king’s rage, due to this rumor.,And Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, such is the judgment of a common person in Israel. In other words, merely expelling a slanderer is appropriate if the subject of the slander is a commoner. But you are a king and a High Priest. Is this your judgment as well? Yannai replied: And what should I do? Elazar responded: If you listen to my advice, crush them. Yannai countered: But what will become of the Torah? He retorted: Behold, it is wrapped and placed in the corner. Anyone who wishes to study can come and study. We have no need for the Sages.,The Gemara interjects: Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Immediately, heresy was injected into Yannai, as he should have said to Elazar ben Po’ira: This works out well with regard to the Written Torah, as it can be studied by all on their own, but what will become of the Oral Torah? The Oral Torah is transmitted only by the Sages. The baraita continues: Immediately, the evil arose and caught fire through Elazar ben Po’ira, and all the Sages of the Jewish people were killed. And the world was desolate of Torah until Shimon ben Shataḥ came and restored the Torah to its former glory. This completes the baraita.,Abaye asks: What are the circumstances of this case? How did those who conducted the investigation refute the rumor that Yannai’s mother had been taken captive? If we say that two witnesses said that she was taken captive, and two others said that she was not taken captive, what did you see that you rely on these who said that she was not taken captive? Instead, rely on these who said that she was taken captive. In such a scenario, one cannot say definitively that the matter was investigated and found to be false.,Rather, it must be referring to one witness who testified she was taken captive, and two testified that she was not taken captive. And the reason that the lone witness is not deemed credible is only that he is contradicted by the other two, from which it may be inferred that if not for that fact, he would be deemed credible. This supports Abaye’s claim that an uncontested lone witness is deemed credible in a case of this kind.,And Rava could reply that this incident affords no proof, for the following reason: Actually, one can say that there were two witnesses who testified that she was captured and two who testified that she was not, and the case was decided in accordance with that which Rav Aḥa bar Rav Minyumi says in a different context, that it is referring to conspiring witnesses. The second pair of witnesses did not contradict the testimony of the first pair but established them as liars by stating that the first pair were not there to witness the event. This serves to disqualify the testimony of the first pair altogether. Here too, it is referring to witnesses who rendered the first set conspiring witnesses.,And if you wish, say that this is in accordance with the version of the story stated by Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: They replaced Yannai’s mother with a maidservant. The first witnesses saw that Yannai’s mother was about to be taken captive, but the second pair revealed that she had actually been replaced with a maidservant, thereby negating the testimony of the first set.,Rava says:'' None
30. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antisthenes, works and themes • themes in the fable

 Found in books: Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 363; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 356

sup>
6.5 Being asked what was the height of human bliss, he replied, To die happy. When a friend complained to him that he had lost his notes, You should have inscribed them, said he, on your mind instead of on paper. As iron is eaten away by rust, so, said he, the envious are consumed by their own passion. Those who would fain be immortal must, he declared, live piously and justly. States, said he, are doomed when they are unable to distinguish good men from bad. Once, when he was applauded by rascals, he remarked, I am horribly afraid I have done something wrong.When brothers agree, no fortress is so strong as their common life, he said. The right outfit for a voyage, he said, is such as, even if you are shipwrecked, will go through the water with you.'' None
31. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.23.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Irenaeus, other heresiological themes • historiography, ancient as thematizing social concerns

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 97; Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 81

sup>
2.23.4 James, the brother of the Lord, succeeded to the government of the Church in conjunction with the apostles. He has been called the Just by all from the time of our Saviour to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James.'' None
32. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • City of God, its themes in other works of Augustine • love, as unifying theme of Scripture

 Found in books: O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 302; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 223

33. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.257-1.277, 1.279-1.296, 6.273-6.281, 6.719-6.721, 6.730-6.734, 6.791-6.805, 6.826-6.835, 7.317, 7.785, 8.635-8.641, 8.688-8.713, 10.6-10.15, 10.106
 Tagged with subjects: • Coins with Egypt themes • Punic Wars (, as epic theme • Troy and Trojan themes in literature • gigantomachy, as poetic theme • son-in-law theme • tragedy, as a theme • two cities, theme of • wandering, Odyssean theme

 Found in books: Cairns (1989), Virgil's Augustan Epic. 95, 96, 97, 98, 103; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 177, 187, 248, 264; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 31, 56; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 76; O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 249, 250

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1.257 Parce metu, Cytherea: manent immota tuorum 1.258 fata tibi; cernes urbem et promissa Lavini 1.259 moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli 1.260 magimum Aenean; neque me sententia vertit. 1.261 Hic tibi (fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet, 1.262 longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo) 1.263 bellum ingens geret Italia, populosque feroces 1.264 contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, 1.266 ternaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis. 1.267 At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo 1.268 additur,—Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno,— 1.269 triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbis 1.270 imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 1.271 transferet, et longam multa vi muniet Albam. 1.272 Hic iam ter centum totos regnabitur annos 1.273 gente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos, 1.274 Marte gravis, geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. 1.275 Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 1.276 Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 1.277 moenia, Romanosque suo de nomine dicet.
1.279
imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Iuno, 1.280 quae mare nunc terrasque metu caelumque fatigat, 1.281 consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit 1.282 Romanos rerum dominos gentemque togatam: 1.283 sic placitum. Veniet lustris labentibus aetas, 1.284 cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas 1.285 servitio premet, ac victis dominabitur Argis. 1.286 Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar, 1.287 imperium oceano, famam qui terminet astris,— 1.288 Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo. 1.289 Hunc tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, 1.290 accipies secura; vocabitur hic quoque votis. 1.291 Aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis; 1.292 cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus, 1.293 iura dabunt; dirae ferro et compagibus artis 1.294 claudentur Belli portae; Furor impius intus, 1.295 saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus aenis 1.296 post tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento.
6.273
Vestibulum ante ipsum, primisque in faucibus Orci 6.274 Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; 6.275 pallentesque habitant Morbi, tristisque Senectus, 6.276 et Metus, et malesuada Fames, ac turpis Egestas, 6.277 terribiles visu formae: Letumque, Labosque; 6.278 tum consanguineus Leti Sopor, et mala mentis 6.280 ferreique Eumenidum thalami, et Discordia demens, 6.281 vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis.
6.719
O pater, anne aliquas ad caelum hinc ire putandum est 6.720 sublimis animas, iterumque ad tarda reverti 6.721 corpora? Quae lucis miseris tam dira cupido?
6.730
Igneus est ollis vigor et caelestis origo 6.731 seminibus, quantum non noxia corpora tardant, 6.732 terrenique hebetant artus moribundaque membra. 6.733 Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque, neque auras 6.734 dispiciunt clausae tenebris et carcere caeco.
6.791
Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 6.792 Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea condet 6.793 saecula qui rursus Latio regnata per arva 6.794 Saturno quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 6.795 proferet imperium: iacet extra sidera tellus, 6.796 extra anni solisque vias, ubi caelifer Atlas 6.797 axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 6.798 Huius in adventum iam nunc et Caspia regna 6.799 responsis horrent divom et Maeotia tellus, 6.800 et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 6.801 Nec vero Alcides tantum telluris obivit, 6.802 fixerit aeripedem cervam licet, aut Erymanthi 6.803 pacarit nemora, et Lernam tremefecerit arcu; 6.804 nec, qui pampineis victor iuga flectit habenis, 6.805 Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigres.
6.826
Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis, 6.827 concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 6.828 heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae 6.829 attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt! 6.830 Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci 6.831 descendens, gener adversis instructus Eois. 6.832 Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella, 6.833 neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires; 6.834 tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo, 6.835 proice tela manu, sanguis meus!—
7.785
Cui triplici crinita iuba galea alta Chimaeram
8.635
Nec procul hinc Romam et raptas sine more Sabinas 8.636 consessu caveae magnis circensibus actis 8.637 addiderat subitoque novum consurgere bellum 8.638 Romulidis Tatioque seni Curibusque severis. 8.639 Post idem inter se posito certamine reges 8.640 armati Iovis ante aram paterasque tenentes 8.641 stabant et caesa iungebant foedera porca.
8.688
Bactra vehit, sequiturque (nefas) Aegyptia coniunx. 8.689 Una omnes ruere, ac totum spumare reductis 8.690 convolsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 8.691 alta petunt: pelago credas innare revolsas 8.692 Cycladas aut montis concurrere montibus altos, 8.693 tanta mole viri turritis puppibus instant. 8.694 stuppea flamma manu telisque volatile ferrum 8.695 spargitur, arva nova Neptunia caede rubescunt. 8.696 Regina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro 8.697 necdum etiam geminos a tergo respicit anguis. 8.698 omnigenumque deum monstra et latrator Anubis 8.699 contra Neptunum et Venerem contraque Minervam 8.700 tela tenent. Saevit medio in certamine Mavors 8.701 caelatus ferro tristesque ex aethere Dirae, 8.702 et scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla, 8.703 quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello. 8.704 Actius haec cernens arcum tendebat Apollo 8.705 desuper: omnis eo terrore Aegyptus et Indi, 8.706 omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabaei. 8.707 Ipsa videbatur ventis regina vocatis 8.708 vela dare et laxos iam iamque inmittere funis. 8.709 Illam inter caedes pallentem morte futura 8.710 fecerat Ignipotens undis et Iapyge ferri, 8.711 contra autem magno maerentem corpore Nilum 8.712 pandentemque sinus et tota veste vocantem 8.713 caeruleum in gremium latebrosaque flumina victos.
10.6
Caelicolae magni, quianam sententia vobis 10.7 versa retro tantumque animis certatis iniquis? 10.8 Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris. 10.9 Quae contra vetitum discordia? Quis metus aut hos 10.10 aut hos arma sequi ferrumque lacessere suasit? 10.11 Adveniet iustum pugnae, ne arcessite, tempus, 10.12 cum fera Karthago Romanis arcibus olim 10.13 exitium magnum atque Alpes immittet apertas: 10.14 tum certare odiis, tum res rapuisse licebit. 10.15 Nunc sinite et placitum laeti componite foedus.
10.106
haud licitum, nec vestra capit discordia finem:' ' None
sup>
1.257 in panic through the leafy wood, nor ceased 1.258 the victory of his bow, till on the ground 1.259 lay seven huge forms, one gift for every ship. 1.260 Then back to shore he sped, and to his friends 1.261 distributed the spoil, with that rare wine 1.262 which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263 had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264 with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266 “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267 calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268 far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269 also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by ' "1.270 infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. " "1.271 Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! " '1.272 No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273 ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274 Through chance and change and hazard without end, 1.275 our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276 beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277 that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all!
1.279
Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care, 1.280 feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore, ' "1.281 and locked within his heart a hero's pain. " '1.282 Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283 they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284 and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives, 1.285 and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale, 1.286 place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287 Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green, 1.288 they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289 on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290 But hunger banished and the banquet done, 1.291 in long discourse of their lost mates they tell, ' "1.292 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows " '1.293 whether the lost ones live, or strive with death, 1.294 or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295 Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends, 1.296 Orontes brave and fallen Amycus,
6.273
Whose seed is never from the parent tree ' "6.274 O'er whose round limbs its tawny tendrils twine,— " "6.275 So shone th' out-leafing gold within the shade " '6.276 of dark holm-oak, and so its tinsel-bract 6.277 Rustled in each light breeze. Aeneas grasped 6.278 The lingering bough, broke it in eager haste, 6.280 Meanwhile the Trojans on the doleful shore 6.281 Bewailed Misenus, and brought tribute there
6.719
Hence groans are heard, fierce cracks of lash and scourge, 6.720 Loud-clanking iron links and trailing chains. 6.721 Aeneas motionless with horror stood
6.730
And showed me all. There Cretan Rhadamanth 6.731 His kingdom keeps, and from unpitying throne 6.732 Chastises and lays bare the secret sins 6.733 of mortals who, exulting in vain guile, 6.734 Elude till death, their expiation due.
6.791
What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape ' "6.792 of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. " '6.793 Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels, 6.794 Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795 Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796 Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797 In warning through the darkness, calling loud, 6.798 ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799 Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800 Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801 In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802 Another did incestuously take 6.803 His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804 All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805 And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell,
6.826
On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827 of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828 On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb, 6.829 Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long ' "6.830 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; " '6.831 With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song, 6.832 Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833 The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad, 6.834 Discoursing seven-noted melody, 6.835 Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand,
7.785
my bark away! O wretches, your own blood
8.635
because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636 a city on an ancient rock is seen, 8.637 Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638 built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639 for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640 of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641 his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds
8.688
pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689 a master and example, while he learns ' "8.690 the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds " '8.691 let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692 with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693 two hundred horsemen of Arcadia, 8.694 our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695 in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696 to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697 With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698 Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart, 8.699 mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. ' "8.700 But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen " "8.701 gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome " '8.702 a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703 tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall, 8.704 and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705 All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706 crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707 looked clearest hung a visionary cloud, 8.708 whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. ' "8.709 All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son " '8.710 knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711 her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried, 8.712 “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read ' "8.713 the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me " "
10.6
and Teucria's camp and Latium 's fierce array. " '10.7 Beneath the double-gated dome the gods 10.8 were sitting; Jove himself the silence broke: 10.9 “O people of Olympus, wherefore change 10.10 your purpose and decree, with partial minds 10.11 in mighty strife contending? I refused ' "10.12 uch clash of war 'twixt Italy and Troy . " '10.13 Whence this forbidden feud? What fears 10.14 educed to battles and injurious arms ' "10.15 either this folk or that? Th' appointed hour " 10.106 Venilia? For what offence would Troy ' ' None
34. Vergil, Georgics, 1.511-1.514
 Tagged with subjects: • gigantomachy, as poetic theme • technology, as central theme of Georgics

 Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 56; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 98

sup>
1.511 arma ferunt; saevit toto Mars inpius orbe; 1.512 ut cum carceribus sese effudere quadrigae, 1.513 addunt in spatia et frustra retinacula tendens 1.514 fertur equis auriga neque audit currus habenas.'' None
sup>
1.511 Distinct in clearest air is Nisus seen 1.512 Towering, and Scylla for the purple lock 1.513 Pays dear; for whereso, as she flies, her wing 1.514 The light air winnow, lo! fierce, implacable,'' None
35. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Thematic Continuity • Thematic Innovation • Thematization

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 142, 196; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 446




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