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subject book bibliographic info
targumim Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162
Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 70, 86
Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 89, 209
Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 58, 61, 102, 126, 127, 128, 141, 164, 192, 545, 605
targumim, aramaic Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 159, 162, 627, 642, 643
targumim, genre of dispute in Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 198
targumim, in synagogues Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 155, 156
targumim, men of the great assembly Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 161
targumim, qumran Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 160, 161, 162, 474
targumim, septuagint, and Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 159, 160
targumim, targum, xiii, xiv Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 206

List of validated texts:
46 validated results for "targumim"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.5 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum, • Targumim

 Found in books: Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 152, 158, 161; Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 141

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13.5 He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered.'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 17.17, 18.9-18.14, 31.10-31.13, 32.10-32.11, 32.17, 33.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, targumim • Onqelos, (Targum), • Targum • Targum Ps. Jonathan • Targum Pseudo-Jonathan • Targum, and the Zoroastrian priests • Targumim • Targums • Targums, Pentateuchal • interpretation, targumic • targum • targum,

 Found in books: Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 139, 142, 145; Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 72; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 285; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 126, 148; Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 154; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 642, 643; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 102; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 142; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 248, 260, 267; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 73, 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 73, 74; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 159

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6.5 וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃
17.17
וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃
18.9
כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃' '18.11 וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃ 18.12 כִּי־תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וּבִגְלַל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישׁ אוֹתָם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 18.13 תָּמִים תִּהְיֶה עִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 18.14 כִּי הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה יוֹרֵשׁ אוֹתָם אֶל־מְעֹנְנִים וְאֶל־קֹסְמִים יִשְׁמָעוּ וְאַתָּה לֹא כֵן נָתַן לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 31.11 בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12 הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13 וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 32.11 כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃
32.17
יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃
33.2
וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ מִימִינוֹ אשדת אֵשׁ דָּת לָמוֹ׃
33.2
וּלְגָד אָמַר בָּרוּךְ מַרְחִיב גָּד כְּלָבִיא שָׁכֵן וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹד׃'' None
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6.5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
17.17
Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold.
18.9
When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations. 18.10 There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer, 18.11 or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer. 18.12 For whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD; and because of these abominations the LORD thy God is driving them out from before thee. 18.13 Thou shalt be whole-hearted with the LORD thy God. 18.14 For these nations, that thou art to dispossess, hearken unto soothsayers, and unto diviners; but as for thee, the LORD thy God hath not suffered thee so to do.
31.10
And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles, 31.11 when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing. 31.12 Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law; 31.13 and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’
32.10
He found him in a desert land, and in the waste, a howling wilderness; He compassed him about, He cared for him, He kept him as the apple of His eye. 32.11 As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—
32.17
They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not.
33.2
And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them.'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.11, 13.21-13.22, 14.19, 15.18, 19.10-19.13, 19.15-19.24, 24.5, 33.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum • Targumim • interpretation, targumic • targum • targum,

 Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 293; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 145; Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 160; Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 325, 326; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 126; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 246, 247, 252, 255, 267; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 619; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 99, 137

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1.11 וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלָיו שָׂרֵי מִסִּים לְמַעַן עַנֹּתוֹ בְּסִבְלֹתָם וַיִּבֶן עָרֵי מִסְכְּנוֹת לְפַרְעֹה אֶת־פִּתֹם וְאֶת־רַעַמְסֵס׃
13.21
וַיהוָה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלַיְלָה בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָהֶם לָלֶכֶת יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 13.22 לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃
14.19
וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃
15.18
יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃' '19.11 וְהָיוּ נְכֹנִים לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יֵרֵד יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם עַל־הַר סִינָי׃ 19.12 וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.13 לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃
19.15
וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.16 וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר וַיְהִי קֹלֹת וּבְרָקִים וְעָנָן כָּבֵד עַל־הָהָר וְקֹל שֹׁפָר חָזָק מְאֹד וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 19.17 וַיּוֹצֵא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם לִקְרַאת הָאֱלֹהִים מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּתַחְתִּית הָהָר׃ 19.18 וְהַר סִינַי עָשַׁן כֻּלּוֹ מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר יָרַד עָלָיו יְהוָה בָּאֵשׁ וַיַּעַל עֲשָׁנוֹ כְּעֶשֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁן וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָהָר מְאֹד׃ 19.19 וַיְהִי קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק מְאֹד מֹשֶׁה יְדַבֵּר וְהָאֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶנּוּ בְקוֹל׃ 19.21 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רֵד הָעֵד בָּעָם פֶּן־יֶהֶרְסוּ אֶל־יְהוָה לִרְאוֹת וְנָפַל מִמֶּנּוּ רָב׃ 19.22 וְגַם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנִּגָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדָּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה׃ 19.23 וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֹא־יוּכַל הָעָם לַעֲלֹת אֶל־הַר סִינָי כִּי־אַתָּה הַעֵדֹתָה בָּנוּ לֵאמֹר הַגְבֵּל אֶת־הָהָר וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ׃ 19.24 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה לֶךְ־רֵד וְעָלִיתָ אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן עִמָּךְ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם אַל־יֶהֶרְסוּ לַעֲלֹת אֶל־יְהוָה פֶּן־יִפְרָץ־בָּם׃
24.5
וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃'' None
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1.11 Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh store-cities, Pithom and Raamses. 7 And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as the LORD had commanded; and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent.,And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘See, I have set thee in God’s stead to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.,And Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken.,And thou shalt say unto him: The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, hath sent me unto thee, saying: Let My people go, that they may serve Me in the wilderness; and, behold, hitherto thou hast not hearkened;,And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt.,And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Say unto Aaron: Take thy rod, and stretch out thy hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, over their streams, and over their pools, and over all their ponds of water, that they may become blood; and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’,thus saith the LORD: In this thou shalt know that I am the LORD—behold, I will smite with the rod that is in my hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.,And the magicians of Egypt did in like manner with their secret arts; and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken.,And the frogs shall come up both upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants.’,For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods.,And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river.,And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs.,Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river’s brink to meet him; and the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thy hand.,Thou shalt speak all that I command thee; and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.,And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three years old, when they spoke unto Pharaoh.,’When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying: Show a wonder for you; then thou shalt say unto Aaron: Take thy rod, and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it become a serpent.’,And the fish that were in the river died; and the river became foul, and the Egyptians could not drink water from the river; and the blood was throughout all the land of Egypt.,And the fish that are in the river shall die, and the river shall become foul; and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink water from the river.’,And Moses and Aaron did so; as the LORD commanded them, so did they.,And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch forth My hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them.’,And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.,But Pharaoh will not hearken unto you, and I will lay My hand upon Egypt, and bring forth My hosts, My people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt, by great judgments.,And the LORD spoke unto Moses: ‘Go in unto Pharaoh, and say unto him: Thus saith the LORD: Let My people go, that they may serve Me.,And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.,And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he lay even this to heart.,Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts.,And the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up and come into thy house, and into thy bed-chamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneading-troughs.,And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Pharaoh’s heart is stubborn, he refuseth to let the people go.,And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:13.21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night: 13.22 the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people.
14.19
And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;
15.18
The LORD shall reign for ever and ever.
19.10
And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go unto the people, and sanctify them to-day and to-morrow, and let them wash their garments, 19.11 and be ready against the third day; for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai. 19.12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death; 19.13 no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’
19.15
And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’ 19.16 And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of a horn exceeding loud; and all the people that were in the camp trembled. 19.17 And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount. 19.18 Now mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. 19.19 And when the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice. 19.20 And the LORD came down upon mount Sinai, to the top of the mount; and the LORD called Moses to the top of the mount; and Moses went up. 19.21 And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish. 19.22 And let the priests also, that come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.’ 19.23 And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘The people cannot come up to mount Sinai; for thou didst charge us, saying: Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it.’ 19.24 And the LORD said unto him: ‘Go, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee; but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the LORD, lest He break forth upon them.’
24.5
And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD.
33.20
And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’ ' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 5.24, 6.2, 28.12, 41.45, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Onqelos, (Targum), • Targum • Targum, • Targumim • Targums • interpretation, targumic • superscriptions, in Targums • targum • targum,

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 93; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 279; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 150; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 346; Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 214; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 49; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 136, 139, 213, 214, 216; Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 325; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 58, 126, 127, 128, 141, 545; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 143; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 46

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1.2 וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃
1.2
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
5.24
וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃
6.2
וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃
6.2
מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃
28.12
וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃
41.45
וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה שֵׁם־יוֹסֵף צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־אָסְנַת בַּת־פּוֹטִי פֶרַע כֹּהֵן אֹן לְאִשָּׁה וַיֵּצֵא יוֹסֵף עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃' ' None
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1.2 Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.
5.24
And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.
6.2
that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose. 19 And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi—the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day.,And the two angels came to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he fell down on his face to the earth;,And he urged them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat.,And it came to pass, when God destroyed the cities of the Plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, when He overthrew the cities in which Lot dwelt.,And they called unto Lot, and said unto him: ‘Where are the men that came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them.’,And they made their father drink wine that night. And the first-born went in, and lay with her father; and he knew not when she lay down, nor when she arose.,And he looked out toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the Plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of the land went up as the smoke of a furnace.,Hasten thou, escape thither; for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither.’—Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.—,And the first-born said unto the younger: ‘Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth.,And Lot went out unto them to the door, and shut the door after him.,for we will destroy this place, because the cry of them is waxed great before the LORD; and the LORD hath sent us to destroy it.’,And it came to pass on the morrow, that the first-born said unto the younger: ‘Behold, I lay yesternight with my father. Let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.’,and He overthrow those cities, and all the Plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.,But he lingered; and the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the LORD being merciful unto him. And they brought him forth, and set him without the city.,Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.’,Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father.,and he said: ‘Behold now, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant’s house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way.’ And they said: ‘Nay; but we will abide in the broad place all night.’,And the men said unto Lot: ‘Hast thou here any besides? son-in-law, and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whomsoever thou hast in the city; bring them out of the place;,Then the LORD caused to rain upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;,behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shown unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest the evil overtake me, and I die.,And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great; so that they wearied themselves to find the door.,And he said unto him: ‘See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow the city of which thou hast spoken.,And Abraham got up early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the LORD.,And Lot went out, and spoke unto his sons-in-law, who married his daughters, and said: ‘Up, get you out of this place; for the LORD will destroy the city.’ But he seemed unto his sons-in-law as one that jested.,And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar; and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters.,But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both young and old, all the people from every quarter.,And he said: ‘I pray you, my brethren, do not so wickedly.,But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.,The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came unto Zoar.,And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moab—the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day.,And Lot said unto them: ‘Oh, not so, my lord;,And they made their father drink wine that night also. And the younger arose, and lay with him; and he knew not when she lay down, nor when she arose.,And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying: ‘Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters that are here; lest thou be swept away in the iniquity of the city.’,And they said: ‘Stand back.’ And they said: ‘This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will needs play the judge; now will we deal worse with thee, than with them.’ And they pressed sore upon the man, even Lot, and drew near to break the door.,Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one; oh, let me escape thither—is it not a little one?—and my soul shall live.’,But the men put forth their hand, and brought Lot into the house to them, and the door they shut.,Behold now, I have two daughters that have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes; only unto these men do nothing; forasmuch as they are come under the shadow of my roof.’,And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he said: ‘Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the Plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be swept away.’28.12 And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.
41.45
And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.—
49.10
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be. ' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.34, 23.36 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum • targum,

 Found in books: Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 142; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 16, 219

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23.34 דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לַיהֹוָה׃
23.36
שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּקְרִיבוּ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה עֲצֶרֶת הִוא כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃'' None
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23.34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD.
23.36
Seven days ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD; on the eighth day shall be a holy convocation unto you; and ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD; it is a day of solemn assembly; ye shall do no manner of servile work.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.14, 3.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Targum

 Found in books: Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 161, 163, 172; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 177; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 404

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2.14 וַאֲמַרְתֶּם עַל־מָה עַל כִּי־יְהוָה הֵעִיד בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין אֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּגַדְתָּה בָּהּ וְהִיא חֲבֶרְתְּךָ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּרִיתֶךָ׃
3.23
הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃'' None
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2.14 Yet ye say: ‘Wherefore?’ Because the LORD hath been witness Between thee and the wife of thy youth, Against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, Though she is thy companion, And the wife of thy covet.
3.23
Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD.'' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 8.14, 15.30, 27.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Onqelos, (Targum), • Targum • Targumim • interpretation, targumic • targum

 Found in books: Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 147; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271, 277; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 151; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74

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8.14 וְהִבְדַּלְתָּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיוּ לִי הַלְוִיִּם׃' 27.21 וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃'' None
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8.14 Thus shalt thou separate the Levites from among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be Mine.
15.30
But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand, whether he be home-born or a stranger, the same blasphemeth the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people.
27.21
And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’'' None
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.19, 8.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Targumim

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 143

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3.19 יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃
8.22
יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃'' None
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3.19 The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens.
8.22
The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old.'' None
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 68.19, 91.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum Onqelos • Targum, • Targum, contrasted with midrash • Targumim • catalogues, of biblical songs in Song of Songs Targum • interpretation, targumic • midrash, contrasted with Targum • superscriptions, in Targums • targum • targum,

 Found in books: Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 146, 147; Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 203, 215; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 279; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 234; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 41, 354; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 605; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 138, 301; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 46

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68.19 עָלִיתָ לַמָּרוֹם שָׁבִיתָ שֶּׁבִי לָקַחְתָּ מַתָּנוֹת בָּאָדָם וְאַף סוֹרְרִים לִשְׁכֹּן יָהּ אֱלֹהִים׃
91.4
בְּאֶבְרָתוֹ יָסֶךְ לָךְ וְתַחַת־כְּנָפָיו תֶּחְסֶה צִנָּה וְסֹחֵרָה אֲמִתּוֹ׃' ' None
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68.19 Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive; Thou hast received gifts among men, Yea, among the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell there.
91.4
He will cover thee with His pinions, And under His wings shalt thou take refuge; His truth is a shield and a buckler. 92 To declare Thy lovingkindness in the morning, And Thy faithfulness in the night seasons,,For, lo, Thine enemies, O LORD, For, lo, Thine enemies shall perish: All the workers of iniquity shall be scattered.,It is a good thing to give thanks unto the LORD, And to sing praises unto Thy name, O Most High;,A brutish man knoweth not, Neither doth a fool understand this.,For Thou, LORD, hast made me glad through Thy work; I will exult in the works of Thy hands.,But Thou, O LORD, art on high for evermore.,With an instrument of ten strings, and with the psaltery; With a solemn sound upon the harp.,A Psalm, a Song. For the sabbath day.,Planted in the house of the LORD, They shall flourish in the courts of our God.,When the wicked spring up as the grass, And when all the workers of iniquity do flourish; It is that they may be destroyed for ever.,The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; He shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon.,To declare that the LORD is upright, My Rock, in whom there is no unrighteousness.,But my horn hast Thou exalted like the horn of the wild-ox; I am anointed with rich oil.,Mine eye also hath gazed on them that lie in wait for me, Mine ears have heard my desire of the evil-doers that rise up against me.,They shall still bring forth fruit in old age; They shall be full of sap and richness;,How great are Thy works, O LORD! Thy thoughts are very deep. 93 Above the voices of many waters, The mighty breakers of the sea, The LORD on high is mighty.,Thy throne is established of old; Thou art from everlasting.,The floods have lifted up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their roaring.,The LORD reigneth; He is clothed in majesty; The LORD is clothed, He hath girded Himself with strength; Yea, the world is established, that it cannot be moved.,Thy testimonies are very sure, Holiness becometh Thy house, O LORD, for evermore. 123 Behold, as the eyes of servants unto the hand of their master, As the eyes of a maiden unto the hand of her mistress; So our eyes look unto the LORD our God, Until He be gracious unto us.,Be gracious unto us, O LORD, be gracious unto us; For we are full sated with contempt.,A Song of Ascents. Unto Thee I lift up mine eyes, O Thou that art enthroned in the heavens.,Our soul is full sated With the scorning of those that are at ease, And with the contempt of the proud oppressors.'138 A Psalm of David. I will give Thee thanks with my whole heart, In the presence of the mighty will I sing praises unto Thee.,I will bow down toward Thy holy temple, And give thanks unto Thy name for Thy mercy and for Thy truth; For Thou hast magnified Thy word above all Thy name.,In the day that I called, Thou didst answer me; Thou didst encourage me in my soul with strength.,All the kings of the earth shall give Thee thanks, O LORD, For they have heard the words of Thy mouth.,For though the LORD be high, yet regardeth He the lowly, And the haughty He knoweth from afar.,The LORD will accomplish that which concerneth me; Thy mercy, O LORD, endureth for ever; Forsake not the work of Thine own hands.,Yea, they shall sing of the ways of the LORD; For great is the glory of the LORD.,Though I walk in the midst of trouble, Thou quickenest me; Thou stretchest forth Thy hand against the wrath of mine enemies, And Thy right hand doth save me.' "139 And if I say: ‘Surely the darkness shall envelop me, And the light about me shall be night';,And see if there be any way in me that is grievous, And lead me in the way everlasting.,Search me, O God, and know my heart, Try me, and know my thoughts;,Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, Thou understandest my thought afar off.,Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; Too high, I cannot attain unto it.,Whither shall I go from Thy spirit? Or whither shall I flee from Thy presence?,How weighty also are Thy thoughts unto me, O God! How great is the sum of them!,If I would count them, they are more in number than the sand; Were I to come to the end of them, I would still be with Thee.,If Thou but wouldest slay the wicked, O God— Depart from me therefore, ye men of blood;,I hate them with utmost hatred; I count them mine enemies.,Thou hast hemmed me in behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me.,For there is not a word in my tongue, But, lo, O LORD, Thou knowest it altogether.,I will give thanks unto Thee, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Wonderful are Thy works; and that my soul knoweth right well.,If I take the wings of the morning, And dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea;,Thou measurest my going about and my lying down, And art acquainted with all my ways.,For the Leader. A Psalm of David. O LORD, Thou hast searched me, and known me. .,Do not I hate them, O LORD, that hate Thee? And do not I strive with those that rise up against Thee?,Even the darkness is not too dark for Thee, But the night shineth as the day; The darkness is even as the light.,For Thou hast made my reins; Thou hast knit me together in my mother's womb.,If I ascend up into heaven, Thou art there; If I make my bed in the nether-world, behold, Thou art there.,My frame was not hidden from Thee, When I was made in secret, And curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth.,Thine eyes did see mine unformed substance, And in Thy book they were all written— Even the days that were fashioned, When as yet there was none of them.,Who utter Thy name with wicked thought, They take it for falsehood, even Thine enemies— .,Even there would Thy hand lead me, And Thy right hand would hold me." '' None
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targumim • Targums

 Found in books: Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 139; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 34

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2.11 וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃'' None
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2.11 And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.'' None
11. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 9.11 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • targum,

 Found in books: Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 255; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 63

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9.11 בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אָקִים אֶת־סֻכַּת דָּוִיד הַנֹּפֶלֶת וְגָדַרְתִּי אֶת־פִּרְצֵיהֶן וַהֲרִסֹתָיו אָקִים וּבְנִיתִיהָ כִּימֵי עוֹלָם׃'' None
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9.11 In that day will I raise up The tabernacle of David that is fallen, And close up the breaches thereof, And I will raise up his ruins, And I will build it as in the days of old;'' None
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 11.1-11.2, 11.5, 19.18, 52.2, 54.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Aramaic, targumim • God–Israel relationship, Targum Jonathan on • Second Isaiah, Targum Jonathan to • Targum • Targum Jonathan • Targum Jonathan, Aramaic of • Targum Jonathan, Zion desexualized in • Targum Jonathan, anthropomorphisms in • Targum Jonathan, emendations of text • Targum Jonathan, erotic trope emended in • Targum Jonathan, gendered personifications of Israel in • Targum Jonathan, interpretation of haftarah texts • Targum Jonathan, on barrenness • Targum, • Targums • Targums, Habakkuk • Targums, Isaiah • Zion, Targum Jonathan on • catalogues, of biblical songs in Song of Songs Targum • synagogues, targumim in • targum,

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 93; Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 113, 132; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 145; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 172; Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 75; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 643; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 355; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 53, 160, 364, 404; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 46, 47, 61, 177, 208, 219; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 156, 163, 164; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 161, 166

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6.3 וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃
11.1
וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃
11.1
וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.2 וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃
11.5
וְהָיָה צֶדֶק אֵזוֹר מָתְנָיו וְהָאֱמוּנָה אֵזוֹר חֲלָצָיו׃
19.18
בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיוּ חָמֵשׁ עָרִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מְדַבְּרוֹת שְׂפַת כְּנַעַן וְנִשְׁבָּעוֹת לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת עִיר הַהֶרֶס יֵאָמֵר לְאֶחָת׃
52.2
הִתְנַעֲרִי מֵעָפָר קוּמִי שְּׁבִי יְרוּשָׁלִָם התפתחו הִתְפַּתְּחִי מוֹסְרֵי צַוָּארֵךְ שְׁבִיָּה בַּת־צִיּוֹן׃
54.1
כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃'
54.1
רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ ' None
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6.3 And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.
11.1
And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots. 11.2 And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.
11.5
And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, And faithfulness the girdle of his reins.
19.18
In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the LORD of hosts; one shall be called The city of destruction.
52.2
Shake thyself from the dust; Arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem; Loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion. 53 But he was wounded because of our transgressions, He was crushed because of our iniquities: The chastisement of our welfare was upon him, And with his stripes we were healed.,Yet it pleased the LORD to crush him by disease; To see if his soul would offer itself in restitution, That he might see his seed, prolong his days, And that the purpose of the LORD might prosper by his hand:,Surely our diseases he did bear, and our pains he carried; Whereas we did esteem him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted.,He was despised, and forsaken of men, A man of pains, and acquainted with disease, And as one from whom men hide their face: He was despised, and we esteemed him not.,Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, And he shall divide the spoil with the mighty; Because he bared his soul unto death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet he bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors.,And they made his grave with the wicked, And with the rich his tomb; Although he had done no violence, Neither was any deceit in his mouth.’,By oppression and judgment he was taken away, And with his generation who did reason? For he was cut off out of the land of the living, For the transgression of my people to whom the stroke was due.,All we like sheep did go astray, We turned every one to his own way; And the LORD hath made to light on him The iniquity of us all.,'Who would have believed our report? And to whom hath the arm of the LORD been revealed?,of the travail of his soul he shall see to the full, even My servant, Who by his knowledge did justify the Righteous One to the many, And their iniquities he did bear.,He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth.,For he shot up right forth as a sapling, And as a root out of a dry ground; He had no form nor comeliness, that we should look upon him, Nor beauty that we should delight in him." 54.1 Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.' "58 Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, And thy healing shall spring forth speedily; And thy righteousness shall go before thee, The glory of the LORD shall be thy rearward.,If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;,Then shalt thou call, and the LORD will answer; Thou shalt cry, and He will say: ‘Here I am.’ If thou take away from the midst of thee the yoke, The putting forth of the finger, and speaking wickedness;,Is not this the fast that I have chosen? To loose the fetters of wickedness, To undo the bands of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And that ye break every yoke?,And they that shall be of thee shall build the old waste places, Thou shalt raise up the foundations of many generations; And thou shalt be called The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell in.,Cry aloud, spare not, Lift up they voice like a horn, And declare unto My people their transgression, And to the house of Jacob their sins.,Behold, ye fast for strife and contention, And to smite with the fist of wickedness; Ye fast not this day So as to make your voice to be heard on high.,Yet they seek Me daily, And delight to know My ways; As a nation that did righteousness, And forsook not the ordice of their God, They ask of Me righteous ordices, They delight to draw near unto God.,And the LORD will guide thee continually, And satisfy thy soul in drought, And make strong thy bones; And thou shalt be like a watered garden, And like a spring of water, whose waters fail not.,’Wherefore have we fasted, and Thou seest not? Wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and Thou takest no knowledge?’— Behold, in the day of your fast ye pursue your business, And exact all your labours.,Is such the fast that I have chosen? The day for a man to afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, And to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? Wilt thou call this a fast, And an acceptable day to the LORD?,And if thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, And satisfy the afflicted soul; Then shall thy light rise in darkness, And thy gloom be as the noon-day;,Then shalt thou delight thyself in the LORD, And I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, And I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.,Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, And that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? When thou seest the naked, that thou cover him, And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh? 62 And give Him no rest, Till He establish, And till He make Jerusalem A praise in the earth.’,Thou shalt also be a crown of beauty in the hand of the LORD, And a royal diadem in the open hand of thy God.,For Zion’s sake will I not hold My peace, And for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, Until her triumph go forth as brightness, And her salvation as a torch that burneth.,And the nations shall see thy triumph, And all kings thy glory; And thou shalt be called by a new name, Which the mouth of the LORD shall mark out.,I have set watchmen Upon thy walls, O Jerusalem, They shall never hold their peace Day nor night: ‘Ye that are the LORD’S remembrancers, Take ye no rest,,For as a young man espouseth a virgin, So shall thy sons espouse thee; And as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, So shall thy God rejoice over thee.,And they shall call them The holy people, The redeemed of the LORD; And thou shalt be called Sought out, A city not forsaken.,But they that have garnered it shall eat it, And praise the LORD, And they that have gathered it shall drink it In the courts of My sanctuary.,Go through, go through the gates, Clear ye the way of the people; Cast up, cast up the highway, Gather out the stones; Lift up an ensign over the peoples.,Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken, Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate; But thou shalt be called, My delight is in her, And thy land, Espoused; For the LORD delighteth in thee, And thy land shall be espoused.,The LORD hath sworn by His right hand, And by the arm of His strength: Surely I will no more give thy corn To be food for thine enemies; And strangers shall not drink thy wine, For which thou hast laboured;,Behold, the LORD hath proclaimed Unto the end of the earth: Say ye to the daughter of Zion: ‘Behold, thy salvation cometh; Behold, His reward is with Him, And His recompense before Him.’'' None
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.1-2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum Onqelos • Targum, cited in the Aramaic magic bowls

 Found in books: Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 233, 234; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 139

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2.1 וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃
2.1
כִּי עִבְרוּ אִיֵּי כִתִּיִּים וּרְאוּ וְקֵדָר שִׁלְחוּ וְהִתְבּוֹנְנוּ מְאֹד וּרְאוּ הֵן הָיְתָה כָּזֹאת׃ 2.2 הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ בְאָזְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה זָכַרְתִּי לָךְ חֶסֶד נְעוּרַיִךְ אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה׃ 2.2 כִּי מֵעוֹלָם שָׁבַרְתִּי עֻלֵּךְ נִתַּקְתִּי מוֹסְרֹתַיִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי לֹא אעבד אֶעֱבוֹר כִּי עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָה גְּבֹהָה וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן אַתְּ צֹעָה זֹנָה׃ 2.3 לַשָּׁוְא הִכֵּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם מוּסָר לֹא לָקָחוּ אָכְלָה חַרְבְּכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם כְּאַרְיֵה מַשְׁחִית׃ 2.3 קֹדֶשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה רֵאשִׁית תְּבוּאָתֹה כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יֶאְשָׁמוּ רָעָה תָּבֹא אֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃'' None
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2.1 And the word of the LORD came to me, saying: 2.2 Go, and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I remember for thee the affection of thy youth, the love of thine espousals; how thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown. 2.3 Israel is the LORD’S hallowed portion, His first-fruits of the increase; all that devour him shall be held guilty, evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD.'' None
14. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 10.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum, • catalogues, of biblical songs in Song of Songs Targum

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 93; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 354

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10.12 אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם תֵּת יְהוָה אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמֶשׁ בְּגִבְעוֹן דּוֹם וְיָרֵחַ בְּעֵמֶק אַיָּלוֹן׃'' None
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10.12 Then spoke Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel: ‘Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.’'' None
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 3.12, 21.21-21.22, 37.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, targumim • Targum • Targum Onqelos • Targum, cited in the Aramaic magic bowls • Targums • targum,

 Found in books: Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 145; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 139; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume (2013), Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World, 233; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 643; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 139; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 562

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3.12 וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַע אַחֲרַי קוֹל רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל בָּרוּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ׃
21.21
הִתְאַחֲדִי הֵימִנִי הָשִׂימִי הַשְׂמִילִי אָנָה פָּנַיִךְ מֻעָדוֹת׃ 21.22 וְגַם־אֲנִי אַכֶּה כַפִּי אֶל־כַּפִּי וַהֲנִחֹתִי חֲמָתִי אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃
37.9
וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃'' None
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3.12 Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: ‘Blessed be the glory of the LORD from His place’;
21.21
Go thee one way to the right, or direct thyself to the left; whither is thy face set? 21.22 I will also smite My hands together, and I will satisfy My fury; I the LORD have spoken it.’
37.9
Then said He unto me: ‘Prophesy unto the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.’'' None
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1, 8.4, 8.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Onqelos, (Targum), • Song of Songs Targum • Targum • Targum Jonathan, Aramaic of • Targum Jonathan, translation and • Targum, genre of • targum, • targum, and Torah reading • targum, and liturgy • targum, synagogue as congregation

 Found in books: Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 172; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 84, 89; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 23, 376; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 36; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 120; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 157; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 186

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8.1 וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
8.1
וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃
8.4
וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃
8.8
וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃' ' None
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8.1 all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.
8.4
And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam.
8.8
And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. 8 And all the congregation of them that were come back out of the captivity made booths, and dwelt in the booths; for since the days of Joshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness.,Then he said unto them: ‘Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto him for whom nothing is prepared; for this day is holy unto our Lord; neither be ye grieved; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.’,So the Levites stilled all the people, saying: ‘Hold your peace, for the day is holy; neither be ye grieved.’,And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam.,And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up.,And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground.,Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the Law of God. And they kept the feast seven days;,And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law.,So the people went forth, and brought them, and made themselves booths, every one upon the roof of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of God, and in the broad place of the water gate, and in the broad place of the gate of Ephraim.,all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.,And all the people went their way to eat, and to drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth, because they had understood the words that were declared unto them.,And they found written in the Law, how that the LORD had commanded by Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in booths in the feast of the seventh month;,and that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying: ‘Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and branches of wild olive, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.’,Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place.,And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month.,And Nehemiah, who was the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people: ‘This day is holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep.’ For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law.,And on the second day were gathered together the heads of fathers’houses of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, unto Ezra the scribe, even to give attention to the words of the Law.,And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading.'' None
17. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 13-14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum • Targum, • targum,

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 139; Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 161; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 46

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13 And I will bring the third part through the fire, And will refine them as silver is refined, And will try them as gold is tried; They shall call on My name, And I will answer them; I will say: ‘It is My people’, And they shall say: ‘The LORD is my God.’,And one shall say unto him: ‘What are these wounds between thy hands?’ Then he shall answer: ‘Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends.’,And it shall come to pass in that day, Saith the LORD of hosts, That I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, And they shall no more be remembered; And also I will cause the prophets And the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.,Awake, O sword, against My shepherd, And against the man that is near unto Me, Saith the LORD of hosts; Smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered; And I will turn My hand upon the little ones.,And it shall come to pass that, when any shall yet prophesy, then his father and his mother that begot him shall say unto him: ‘Thou shalt not live, for thou speakest lies in the name of the LORD’; and his father and his mother that begot him shall thrust him through when he prophesieth.,but he shall say: ‘I am no prophet, I am a tiller of the ground; for I have been made a bondman from my youth.’,And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the LORD, Two parts therein shall be cut off and die; But the third shall be left therein.,And it shall come to pass in that day, that the prophets shall be brought to shame every one through his vision, when he prophesieth; neither shall they wear a hairy mantle to deceive;,In that day there shall be a fountain opened To the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, For purification and for sprinkling.'14 And it shall come to pass in that day, that there shall not be light, But heavy clouds and thick;,And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations that came against Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.,And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, they shall have no overflow; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the nations that go not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.,And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, And of all the beasts that shall be in those camps, as this plague.,Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holy unto the LORD of hosts; and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein; and in that day there shall be no more a trafficker in the house of the LORD of hosts.,Then shall the LORD go forth, And fight against those nations, As when He fighteth in the day of battle.,And it shall come to pass in that day, That living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, And half of them toward the western sea; In summer and in winter shall it be.,And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite All the peoples that have warred against Jerusalem: Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, And their eyes shall consume away in their sockets, And their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.,And His feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, Which is before Jerusalem on the east, And the mount of Olives shall cleft in the midst thereof Toward the east and toward the west, So that there shall be a very great valley; And half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, And half of it toward the south.,And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; For the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azel; Yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake In the days of Uzziah king of Judah; And the LORD my God shall come, And all the holy ones with Thee.,In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses: HOLY UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD’S house shall be like the basins before the altar.,And there shall be one day Which shall be known as the LORD’S, Not day, and not night; But it shall come to pass, that at evening time there shall be light.,This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all the nations that go not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.,Behold, a day of the LORD cometh, When thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee.,And Judah also shall fight against Jerusalem; And the wealth of all the nations round about shall be gathered together, Gold, and silver, and apparel, in great abundance.,And it shall be, that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain.,And the LORD shall be King over all the earth; In that day shall the LORD be One, and His name one.,All the land shall be turned as the Arabah, from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem; and she shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin’s gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hael unto the king’s winepresses.,For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; And the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, And the women ravished; And half of the city shall go forth into captivity, But the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.,And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; And they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, And his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour.,And men shall dwell therein, And there shall be no more extermination; But Jerusalem shall dwell safely. ' None
18. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.18, 14.21 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum Onkelos • Targumim • interpretation, targumic • targum

 Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 280; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 292; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 58, 127

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14.18 of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of
14.21
was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason"' "16 From the days of the slaughter and destruction and death of the giants, from the souls of whose flesh the spirits, having gone forth, shall destroy without incurring judgement -thus shall they destroy until the day of the consummation, the great judgement in which the age shall be,consummated, over the Watchers and the godless, yea, shall be wholly consummated.' And now as to the watchers who have sent thee to intercede for them, who had been aforetime in heaven, (say,to them): 'You have been in heaven, but all the mysteries had not yet been revealed to you, and you knew worthless ones, and these in the hardness of your hearts you have made known to the women, and through these mysteries women and men work much evil on earth.,Say to them therefore: ' You have no peace.'"' None
19. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targumim • interpretation, targumic • targum

 Found in books: Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 149, 155, 160; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 277

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5.1 אֵין עוֹמְדִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ כֹּבֶד רֹאשׁ. חֲסִידִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ שׁוֹהִים שָׁעָה אַחַת וּמִתְפַּלְּלִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּכַוְּנוּ אֶת לִבָּם לַמָּקוֹם. אֲפִלּוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ שׁוֹאֵל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, לֹא יְשִׁיבֶנּוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ נָחָשׁ כָּרוּךְ עַל עֲקֵבוֹ, לֹא יַפְסִיק:'' None
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5.1 One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him while praying he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop.'' None
20. Mishnah, Parah, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Song of Songs, Targum of • targum,

 Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 44; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 120

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3.2 חֲצֵרוֹת הָיוּ בִירוּשָׁלַיִם בְּנוּיוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי סֶלַע וְתַחְתֵּיהֶם חָלוּל, מִפְּנֵי קֶבֶר הַתְּהוֹם. וּמְבִיאִים נָשִׁים עֻבָּרוֹת וְיוֹלְדוֹת שָׁם וּמְגַדְּלוֹת שָׁם אֶת בְּנֵיהֶן. וּמְבִיאִים שְׁוָרִים וְעַל גַּבֵּיהֶן דְּלָתוֹת, וְתִינוֹקוֹת יוֹשְׁבִין עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן וְכוֹסוֹת שֶׁל אֶבֶן בְּיָדָם. הִגִּיעוּ לַשִּׁלּוֹחַ, יָרְדוּ וּמִלְאוּם, וְעָלוּ וְיָשְׁבוּ עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מִמְּקוֹמוֹ הָיָה מְשַׁלְשֵׁל וּמְמַלֵּא:'' None
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3.2 Courtyards were built in Jerusalem over rock, and beneath them there was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And they used to bring there pregt women, and there they gave birth to their children and there they raised them. And they brought oxen, upon whose backs were placed doors, and the children sat upon them with stone cups in their hands. When they reached the Shiloah spring they got down and filled the cups with water and then they ascended and sat again on the doors. Rabbi Yose said: each child used to let down his cup and fill it from his place.'' None
21. Mishnah, Zevahim, 14.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum • interpretation, targumic • targum

 Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 137

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14.4 עַד שֶׁלֹּא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת. מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּכֹּהֲנִים. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל:'' None
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14.4 Before the Tabernacle was set up bamot (local altars) were permitted and the service was performed by the firstborn. After the Tabernacle was set up bamot were forbidden and the service was performed by priests. Most holy sacrifices were then eaten within the curtains, and lesser sacrifices were eaten anywhere in the camp of the Israelites.'' None
22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.45-15.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Neofiti, Targum • Targum, • Targums, relationship to the New Testament

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 202; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 152

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15.45 οὕτως καὶ γέγραπταιἘγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν·ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζωοποιοῦν. 15.46 ἀλλʼ οὐ πρῶτον τὸ πνευματικὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ ψυχικόν, ἔπειτα τὸ πνευματικόν. ὁ πρῶτοςἄνθρωπος ἐκ γῆς Χοϊκός, 15.47 ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ.'' None
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15.45 So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.' "15.46 However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual." '15.47 The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven.'' None
23. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.16-4.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Targumim • targum,

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 141; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 255; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 64

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4.16 ὅτι αὐτὸς ὁ κύριος ἐν κελεύσματι, ἐν φωνῇ ἀρχαγγέλου καὶ ἐν σάλπιγγι θεοῦ, καταβήσεται ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ἐν Χριστῷ ἀναστήσονται πρῶτον, 4.17 ἔπειτα ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες οἱ περιλειπόμενοι ἅμα σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁρπαγησόμεθα ἐν νεφέλαις εἰς ἀπάντησιν τοῦ κυρίου εἰς ἀέρα· καὶ οὕτως πάντοτε σὺν κυρίῳ ἐσόμεθα.'' None
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4.16 For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first, " '4.17 then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. '" None
24. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.2, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Targumim

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 141; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 219

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2.2 εἰς τὸ μὴ ταχέως σαλευθῆναι ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ νοὸς μηδὲ θροεῖσθαι μήτε διὰ πνεύματος μήτε διὰ λόγου μήτε διʼ ἐπιστολῆς ὡς διʼ ἡμῶν, ὡς ὅτι ἐνέστηκεν ἡ ἡμέρα τοῦ κυρίου.
2.4
ὁ ἀντικείμενοςκαὶ ὑπεραιρόμενος ἐπὶ πάνταλεγόμενονθεὸνἢ σέβασμα, ὥστε αὐτὸνεἰς τὸνναὸντοῦ θεοῦ καθίξαι,ἀποδεικνύντα ἑαυτὸν ὅτι ἔστινθεός—.'' None
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2.2 not to be quickly shaken in your mind, nor yet be troubled, either by spirit, or by word, or by letter as from us, saying that the day of Christ had come.
2.4
he who opposes and exalts himself against all that is called God or that is worshiped; so that he sits as God in the temple of God, setting himself up as God. '' None
25. New Testament, Acts, 15.1, 15.13-15.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Targums

 Found in books: Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 261; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 61, 63

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15.1 ΚΑΙ ΤΙΝΕΣ ΚΑΤΕΛΘΟΝΤΕΣ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐδίδασκον τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὅτι Ἐὰν μὴ lt*gtιτμηθῆτε τῷ ἔθει τῷ Μωυσέως, οὐ δύνασθε σωθῆναι.

15.13
Μετὰ δὲ τὸ σιγῆσαι αὐτοὺς ἀπεκρίθη Ἰάκωβος λέγων Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἀκούσατέ μου.
15.14
Συμεὼν ἐξηγήσατο καθὼς πρῶτον ὁ θεὸς ἐπεσκέψατο λαβεῖν ἐξ ἐθνῶν λαὸν τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ.
15.15
καὶ τούτῳ συμφωνοῦσιν οἱ λόγοι τῶν προφητῶν, καθὼς γέγραπται
15.16

15.18

15.19
διὸ ἐγὼ κρίνω μὴ παρενοχλεῖν τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐπιστρέφουσιν ἐπὶ τὸν θεόν, 15.20 ἀλλὰ ἐπιστεῖλαι αὐτοῖς τοῦ ἀπέχεσθαι τῶν ἀλισγημάτων τῶν εἰδώλων καὶ τῆς πορνείας καὶ πνικτοῦ καὶ τοῦ αἵματος· 15.21 Μωυσῆς γὰρ ἐκ γενεῶν ἀρχαίων κατὰ πόλιν τοὺς κηρύσσοντας αὐτὸν ἔχει ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκόμενος.'' None
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15.1 Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can\'t be saved."

15.13
After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me.
15.14
Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name.
15.15
This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written, ' "
15.16
'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up, " 15.17 That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. ' "
15.18
All his works are known to God from eternity.' " 15.19 "Therefore my judgment is that we don\'t trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God, 15.20 but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21 For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath."'' None
26. New Testament, Philippians, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targumim • Targums

 Found in books: Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 126; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 141

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2.7 ἀλλὰ ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσεν μορφὴν δούλου λαβών, ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων γενόμενος· καὶ σχήματι εὑρεθεὶς ὡς ἄνθρωπος'' None
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2.7 but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. '' None
27. New Testament, Mark, 9.1-9.2, 14.62 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targumim • Targums • Targums, prophetic • targum,

 Found in books: Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 246; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 35, 61; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 255

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9.1 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι εἰσίν τινες ὧδε τῶν ἑστηκότων οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐληλυθυῖαν ἐν δυνάμει. 9.2 Καὶ μετὰ ἡμέρας ἓξ παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τὸν Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάνην, καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατʼ ἰδίαν μόνους. καὶ μετεμορφώθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν,
14.62
ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ ὄψεσθε τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ δεξιῶν καθήμενον τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ ἐρχόμενον μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.'' None
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9.1 He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death, until they see the Kingdom of God come with power." 9.2 After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them.
14.62
Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky."'' None
28. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Men of the Great Assembly, targumim • Onqelos, (Targum), • Qumran, targumim • gymnasiarch, and targum • priest, priests, targum • targum, Late Antiquity • targum, and Torah reading • targum, and liturgy • targum, dating

 Found in books: Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 138, 151; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 161, 578

29. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Job, targum of, • Qumran, targumim • Septuagint, and targumim • Targum Neofiti • Targum Onqelos • Targum Pseudo-Jonathan • Temple Mount, targum • targum, • targum, dating

 Found in books: Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 108, 119, 120; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 160, 474

30. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 3.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum

 Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74

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3.3 "R’ Yehoshua of Sakhnin explained the text as referring to Israel. A time to be born, the Holy One said ‘for a brief moment I was the midwife to my children,’ as is written “And as for your birth, on the day you were born…” (Yechezkiel 16:4) A time to die, as is written “…in this desert they will end, and there they will die.” (Bamidbar 14:35) A time to plant, as it says \\"And I will plant them on their land…” (Amos 9:15) A time to uproot the planted, as is written “And the Lord uprooted them from upon their land…” (Devarim 29:27) A time to kill, as is written “…and He has slain all that were pleasant to the eye…” (Eicha 2:4) A time to heal, as is written “Behold, I will bring it healing and cure…” (Yirmeyahu 33:6) A time to wreck, as is written “And through the breaches they shall emerge, each woman straight before her…” (Amos 4:3) A time to build, as is written “…and build it up as in the days of yore.” (Amos 9:11) A time to weep, as is written “She weeps, yea, she weeps in the night…” (Eicha 1:2) A time to laugh, as is written “Then our mouths will be filled with laughter…” (Tehillim 126:2) A time to lament, as is written “And the Lord God of Hosts called on that day, for weeping, and for lamenting…” (Yeshayahu 22:12) A time to dance, as is written “And the streets of the city shall be filled, with boys and girls playing in its streets.” (Zechariah 8:5) A time to scatter stones, as is written “The holy stones are scattered at the head of every street.” (Eicha 4:1) A time to gather stones, as is written “Behold, I have laid as a foundation a stone in Zion…” (Yeshayahu 28:16) A time to embrace, as is written “…and his right hand would embrace me.” (Shir haShirim 2:6) A time to shun embraces, as is written “And the Lord removes the people far away…” (Yeshayahu 6:12) A time to seek, as is written “And from there you will seek the Lord your God…” (Devarim 4:29) A time to lose, as is written “…and you will perish quickly from upon the good land that the Lord gives you.” (Devarim 11:17) A time to keep, as is written “Behold the Guardian of Israel will neither slumber nor sleep.” (Tehillim 121:4) A time to discard, as is written “…and He cast them to another land…” (Devarim 29:27) A time to rend, as is written “The Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel from you…” (Shmuel I 15:28) A time to mend, as is written “…and they shall be one in your hand.” (Yechezkel 37:17) A time to be silent, as is written “I was silent from time immemorial…” (Yeshayahu 42:14) A time to speak, as is written “Speak to the heart of Jerusalem…” (Yeshayahu 40:2) A time to love, as is written “I loved you, said the Lord…” (Malachi 1:2) A time to hate, as is written “…she raised her voice against Me; therefore, I hated her.” (Yirmiyahu 12:8) A time for war, as is written “…and He was turned to be their enemy; He fought with them.” (Yeshayahu 63:10) A time for peace, as is written “Behold, I will extend peace to you like a river…” (Yeshayahu 66:12)"'' None
31. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 25.1, 68.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum Onkelos • Targumim • Targums • interpretation, targumic • targum

 Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 279; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 292; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 139; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 127

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68.12 וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם (בראשית כח, יב), אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ דִּבְרֵי חֲלוֹמוֹת לֹא מַעֲלִין וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין, חַד בַּר נָשׁ אֲזַל לְגַבֵּי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי אָמְרִין לִי אֲזֵיל סַב פּוֹעָלַיָּא דַּאֲבוּךְ מִן קַפּוֹדְקִיָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וַאֲזַל אֲבוּךְ לְקַפּוֹדְקִיָּא מִן יוֹמֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ זִיל מְנֵי עֶשְׂרִים שְׁרָיֵי בְּכָרְסָא דְבֵיתָךְ אַתְּ מַשְׁכַּח לֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית בְּהוֹן עֶשְׂרִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאִי לֵית בְּהוֹן עֶשְׂרִין מְנֵי מִן רֵאשֵׁיהוֹן לְסוֹפֵיהוֹן וּמִן סוֹפֵיהוֹן לְרֵאשֵׁיהוֹן וְאַתְּ מַשְׁכַּח, אֲזַל מְנָא וְאַשְׁכַּח כֵּן. וּמִנַּיִן יַלִּיף לָהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן קַפּוֹדְקִיָּא. תָּנֵי בַּר קַפָּרָא לֵית חֲלוֹם שֶׁאֵין לוֹ פִּתְרוֹן, וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה הַכֶּבֶשׁ. מֻצָּב אַרְצָה, זֶה מִזְבֵּחַ (שמות כ, כד): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי, וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁרֵיחָן עוֹלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, אֵלּוּ כֹּהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים. עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ, שֶׁהֵם עוֹלִים וְיוֹרְדִים בַּכֶּבֶשׁ. (בראשית כח, יג): וְהִנֵּה ה\' נִצָּב עָלָיו, (עמוס ט, א): רָאִיתִי אֶת ה\' נִצָּב עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, רַבָּנָן פָּתְרִין לֵיהּ בְּסִינַי. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה סִינַי. מֻצָּב אַרְצָה (שמות יט, יז): וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּתַחְתִּית הָהָר. וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה (דברים ד, יא): וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד לֵב הַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה סִינַי, אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּדֵין הוּא אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּדֵין. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, עַל שֵׁם (תהלים סח, יח): רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן. וְלָמַדְנוּ לַנְּבִיאִים שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ מַלְאָכִים, דִּכְתִיב (חגי א, יג): וַיֹּאמֶר חַגַּי מַלְאַךְ ה\' בְּמַלְאֲכוּת ה\' לָעָם. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, זֶה משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן. עֹלִים (שמות יט, ג): וּמשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים. וְיֹרְדִים, זֶה משֶׁה (שמות יט, יד): וַיֵּרֶד משֶׁה. וְהִנֵּה ה\' נִצָּב עָלָיו (שמות יט, כ): וַיֵּרֶד ה\' עַל הַר סִינַי אֶל רֹאשׁ הָהָר, רַבִּי שַׂלְמוֹנִי בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר תַּרְכּוּסָא שֶׁל שָׁלשׁ רַגְלַיִם הֶרְאָה לוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אַתְּ הוּא רֶגֶל שְׁלִישִׁי. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר (דברים לב, ט): כִּי חֵלֶק ה\' עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ, מָה הַחֶבֶל הַזֶּה פָּחוּת מִשְׁלשָׁה אֵין מַפְקִיעִין אוֹתוֹ, כָּךְ הָאָבוֹת אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְׁלשָׁה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר עוֹלָם וּשְׁלִישׁ עוֹלָם הֶרְאָה לוֹ, עֹלִים אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁנַיִם וְיֹרְדִים שְׁנַיִם. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהַמַּלְאָךְ שְׁלִישׁוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל י, ו): וּגְוִיָּתוֹ כְתַרְשִׁישׁ וּפָנָיו כְּמַרְאֵה בָּרָק וְעֵינָיו כְּלַפִּידֵי אֵשׁ וּזְרֹעֹתָיו וּמַרְגְּלֹתָיו כְּעֵין נְחשֶׁת קָלָל. רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בַּסֻּלָּם, וְחַד אָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בְּיַעֲקֹב. מַאן דְּאָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בַּסֻּלָּם, נִיחָא. וּמַאן דְּאָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בְּיַעֲקֹב, מַעֲלִים וּמוֹרִידִים בּוֹ אָפְזִים בּוֹ קָפְזִים בּוֹ שׂוֹנְטִים בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מט, ג): יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר, אַתְּ הוּא שֶׁאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלְּךָ חֲקוּקָה לְמַעְלָה, עֹלִים לְמַעְלָה וְרוֹאִים אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְיֹרְדִים לְמַטָּה וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ יָשֵׁן. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וְדָן, עוֹלִים לְבַסִּילְקִי וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ דָּן, וְיוֹצְאִים בַּפַּרְוָד וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ יָשֵׁן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְמַעֲלָן, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זְכוּתוֹ, עוֹלֶה. חוֹבָתוֹ, יוֹרֵד. לְמַטָּן, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זְכוּתוֹ, יוֹרֵד. חוֹבָתוֹ, עוֹלֶה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ, עֹלִים אוֹתָם שֶׁלִּוּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, יֹרְדִים, אֵלּוּ שֶׁלִּוּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁגִּלּוּ מִסְטוֹרִין שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִדְחוּ מִמְּחִצָּתָן קל"ח שָׁנָה, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא הֲוָה מַפִּיק לִשָּׁנָא קָלָא. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנִּתְגָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ (בראשית יט, יג): כִּי מַשְׁחִיתִים אֲנַחְנוּ אֶת הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, הֵיכָן חָזְרוּ, כָּאן, עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים, עֹלִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹרְדִים.68.12 וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם <>(בראשית כח, יב)<>, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ דִּבְרֵי חֲלוֹמוֹת לֹא מַעֲלִין וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין, חַד בַּר נָשׁ אֲזַל לְגַבֵּי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי אָמְרִין לִי אֲזֵיל סַב פּוֹעָלַיָּא דַּאֲבוּךְ מִן קַפּוֹדְקִיָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וַאֲזַל אֲבוּךְ לְקַפּוֹדְקִיָּא מִן יוֹמֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ זִיל מְנֵי עֶשְׂרִים שְׁרָיֵי בְּכָרְסָא דְבֵיתָךְ אַתְּ מַשְׁכַּח לֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית בְּהוֹן עֶשְׂרִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאִי לֵית בְּהוֹן עֶשְׂרִין מְנֵי מִן רֵאשֵׁיהוֹן לְסוֹפֵיהוֹן וּמִן סוֹפֵיהוֹן לְרֵאשֵׁיהוֹן וְאַתְּ מַשְׁכַּח, אֲזַל מְנָא וְאַשְׁכַּח כֵּן. וּמִנַּיִן יַלִּיף לָהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן קַפּוֹדְקִיָּא. תָּנֵי בַּר קַפָּרָא לֵית חֲלוֹם שֶׁאֵין לוֹ פִּתְרוֹן, וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה הַכֶּבֶשׁ. מֻצָּב אַרְצָה, זֶה מִזְבֵּחַ <>(שמות כ, כד)<>: מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי, וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁרֵיחָן עוֹלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, אֵלּוּ כֹּהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים. עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ, שֶׁהֵם עוֹלִים וְיוֹרְדִים בַּכֶּבֶשׁ. <>(בראשית כח, יג)<>: וְהִנֵּה ה\' נִצָּב עָלָיו, <>(עמוס ט, א)<>: רָאִיתִי אֶת ה\' נִצָּב עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, רַבָּנָן פָּתְרִין לֵיהּ בְּסִינַי. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה סִינַי. מֻצָּב אַרְצָה <>(שמות יט, יז)<>: וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּתַחְתִּית הָהָר. וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה <>(דברים ד, יא)<>: וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד לֵב הַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה סִינַי, אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּדֵין הוּא אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּדֵין. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, עַל שֵׁם <>(תהלים סח, יח)<>: רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן. וְלָמַדְנוּ לַנְּבִיאִים שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ מַלְאָכִים, דִּכְתִיב <>(חגי א, יג)<>: וַיֹּאמֶר חַגַּי מַלְאַךְ ה\' בְּמַלְאֲכוּת ה\' לָעָם. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, זֶה משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן. עֹלִים <>(שמות יט, ג)<>: וּמשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים. וְיֹרְדִים, זֶה משֶׁה <>(שמות יט, יד)<>: וַיֵּרֶד משֶׁה. וְהִנֵּה ה\' נִצָּב עָלָיו <>(שמות יט, כ)<>: וַיֵּרֶד ה\' עַל הַר סִינַי אֶל רֹאשׁ הָהָר, רַבִּי שַׂלְמוֹנִי בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר תַּרְכּוּסָא שֶׁל שָׁלשׁ רַגְלַיִם הֶרְאָה לוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אַתְּ הוּא רֶגֶל שְׁלִישִׁי. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר <>(דברים לב, ט)<>: כִּי חֵלֶק ה\' עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ, מָה הַחֶבֶל הַזֶּה פָּחוּת מִשְׁלשָׁה אֵין מַפְקִיעִין אוֹתוֹ, כָּךְ הָאָבוֹת אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְׁלשָׁה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר עוֹלָם וּשְׁלִישׁ עוֹלָם הֶרְאָה לוֹ, עֹלִים אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁנַיִם וְיֹרְדִים שְׁנַיִם. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהַמַּלְאָךְ שְׁלִישׁוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(דניאל י, ו)<>: וּגְוִיָּתוֹ כְתַרְשִׁישׁ וּפָנָיו כְּמַרְאֵה בָּרָק וְעֵינָיו כְּלַפִּידֵי אֵשׁ וּזְרֹעֹתָיו וּמַרְגְּלֹתָיו כְּעֵין נְחשֶׁת קָלָל. רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בַּסֻּלָּם, וְחַד אָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בְּיַעֲקֹב. מַאן דְּאָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בַּסֻּלָּם, נִיחָא. וּמַאן דְּאָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בְּיַעֲקֹב, מַעֲלִים וּמוֹרִידִים בּוֹ אָפְזִים בּוֹ קָפְזִים בּוֹ שׂוֹנְטִים בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר <>(ישעיה מט, ג)<>: יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר, אַתְּ הוּא שֶׁאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלְּךָ חֲקוּקָה לְמַעְלָה, עֹלִים לְמַעְלָה וְרוֹאִים אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְיֹרְדִים לְמַטָּה וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ יָשֵׁן. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וְדָן, עוֹלִים לְבַסִּילְקִי וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ דָּן, וְיוֹצְאִים בַּפַּרְוָד וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ יָשֵׁן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְמַעֲלָן, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זְכוּתוֹ, עוֹלֶה. חוֹבָתוֹ, יוֹרֵד. לְמַטָּן, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זְכוּתוֹ, יוֹרֵד. חוֹבָתוֹ, עוֹלֶה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ, עֹלִים אוֹתָם שֶׁלִּוּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, יֹרְדִים, אֵלּוּ שֶׁלִּוּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁגִּלּוּ מִסְטוֹרִין שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִדְחוּ מִמְּחִצָּתָן קל"ח שָׁנָה, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא הֲוָה מַפִּיק לִשָּׁנָא קָלָא. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנִּתְגָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ <>(בראשית יט, יג)<>: כִּי מַשְׁחִיתִים אֲנַחְנוּ אֶת הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, הֵיכָן חָזְרוּ, כָּאן, עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים, עֹלִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹרְדִים. ' None
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25.1 "And he called his name Noach - Rabbi Yocha and Rabbi Shimon Ben Lakish dispute. Rabbi Yocha said: \\"The midrash is not the name, and the name is not the midrash. Rather, the verse only needed to say \\"Noach, this one will comfort us\\", or \\"Nachman, this one will comfort us\\". Rather, in the hour that the Holy One created Adam HaRishon (the First Human), He made him rule over all, the cow would listen to the plowman and the furrow would listen to the plowman. Since Adam sinned they rebelled against him, the cow would not listen to the plowman and the furrow would not listen to the plowman. When Noach stood/was established, they rested (nachu). And from where do we have this? Here we have the expression of rest (nichah), and there we have the expression of rest: \\"so that your ox and your donkey will rest (yanuach)\\" (Ex. 23:12). Just as in that case the expression has to do with the ox resting, so too here. Rabbi Shimeon Ben Lakish said: \\"The midrash is not the name, and the name is not the midrash. Rather, the verse only needed to say \\"Noach, this one will comfort us\\", or \\"Nachman, this one will comfort us\\". Rather, until the moment Noach stood the waters would not cease to come up and flood them inside their graves. Twice, as it is written: \\"Who summons the waters of the sea and pours them out upon the earth— His name is Ad-nai!\\" (Amos 5:8) this is regarding the two times per day that the waters come up and flood them inside their graves, once in Shacharit (morning) and once in Arvit (night), since it is written: \\"abandoned among the dead, like corpses lying in the grave of whom You are mindful no more, and who are cut off from Your care.\\" Their \\"bodies lying in the grave\\" were \\"abandoned corpses\\" - and when Noach stood up, they found rest. Here we have the expression of rest (nichah), and there we have the expression of rest: \\"Yet they shall come to peace, they shall have rest on their resting place, the ones who walked straightforward.\\" (Isaiah 57:2). Just as in that case the expression has to do with the resting in the grave, so too here. Rabbi Eliezer said: Noach was named after his sacrifice (korban) as it is written: \\"And Ad-nai smelled the pleasing hanichoach odor\\" (Gen. 8:21). Rabbi Yosi bar Rabbi Chanina said: He was named after the resting of the ark, as it says \\"and the ark rested tanach\\" (Gen. 8:4). Rabbi Yocha said: the celestial spheres did not move that entire twelve months. Rabbi Yonatan said to him: they did move, but their movements were not marked. \\"(So long as the earth endures, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night) shall not cease\\" (Gen 8:22) - Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbu Yehoshua dispute. Rabbi Eliezer said: shall not cease, from here we infer that they did not cease. And Rabbi Yehoshua: shall not cease, from here we infer that they did cease.",
68.12
"...And he took stones of the place - R. Judah and R. Nehemiah, and the Rabbis. Rabbi Yehuda said he took 12 Stones. God decreed that he establish twelve tribes. Jacob said; Abraham did not establish them, Isaac did not establish them, if the twelve stones join together, I know that I will merit twelve tribes. Once they did he knew he was going to merit establishing the twelve tribes . Rabbi Nehemiah said he took 3 stones. Jacob took three stones and said : God placed his name on Abraham, and on Isaac. I, if the stones join together, I know that God is the unifying name for me. And since joined, he knew that God would unify his names with Jacob. The Rabbis said that the minimum of the plural of stones is 2. Abraham produced negative attributes/waste- Ishmael and the sons of Keturah . And Isaac produced Esau and his generals. I, if you join these 2 stones together, I know that I will not produce any negative attributes in my descendants.", '' None
32. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 161, 305 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Onqelos, (Targum), • Song of Songs, Targum of • Targum, • synagogues, targumim in • targum, • targum, and midrash, study of

 Found in books: Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 128, 151; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 71; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 401; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 246; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 155

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161 (Devarim 17:19) "And it shall be with him": From here they ruled: When the king goes out to war, it is with him. When he presides in judgment, it is by him. When he sits down, it is beside him.,"and he shall read in it all the days of his life": "the 305 (Bamidbar 27:18) "And the L-rd said to Moses:
33. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 112 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum

 Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74

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112 " (Bamidbar 15:27) \\"And if one soul sin (the sin of idolatry) in error\\": Idolatry was in the category of all the mitzvoth — for which the individual brings a ewe-lamb or a she-goat; the leader (nassi), a he-goat; and the high-priest and beth-din, a bullock. And here (in respect to idolatry) Scripture removes them from their category, to have an individual, a Nassi, and the high-priest bring \\"a she-goat of the first year as a sin-offering\\" — for which reason this section was stated. You say that it speaks of idolatry, but perhaps it speaks of (any) one of all the mitzvoth written in the Torah! Would you say that? What is the subject under discussion? Idolatry! R. Yitzchak says: Scripture (here) speaks of idolatry. — But perhaps it speaks of (any) one of all the mitzvoth written in the Torah! — You reason as follows: The congregation was in the general category (of all of the mitzvoth, to bring a bullock), and (in respect to idolatry) its offerings were changed (to bring a bullock for a burnt-offering and a he-goat for a sin-offering.) And the individual was in the general category (of all the mitzvoth, etc.), and (in respect to idolatry) its offerings were changed, etc. Just as there (in respect to the congregation) Scripture speaks of idolatry; here, too, it is understood to be speaking of idolatry. \\"And if one soul sin (the sin of idolatry) in error\\": to exclude (from the offering) one who sins willfully (without witnesses or warning). For it would follow (otherwise), viz.: If \\"light\\" mitzvoth are liable (for an offering), willful (transgression) as unwitting, how much more the \\"grave\\" (transgression of idolatry)! It is, therefore, written \\"in error\\" — to exclude willful (transgression). \\"he shall bring a she-goat of the first year as a sin-offering.\\" This is a prototype, viz.: Wherever \\"goat\\" is written, it must be of the first year. (Ibid. 28) \\"And the Cohein shall make atonement for the soul that is unwitting in sinning\\": It is the sins that he has done (willfully), which have caused him to err. \\"unwitting in sinning\\": to exclude unwittingness of (its being) idolatry, (e.g., mistaking a church for a synagogue and bowing down to it.) For it would follow (otherwise), viz.: If he is liable (to bring an offering) for unwitting transgression of other mitzvoth, how much more so for the \\"grave\\" transgression of idolatry! It is, therefore, written \\"unwitting in sinning,\\" but not unwitting as to (its being) idolatry. \\"to atone for him\\": to exclude an instance of doubt (as to whether or not he had sinned). For it would follow (otherwise), viz.: If he must bring an offering for an instance of possible transgression of \\"light\\" mitzvoth, how much more so for an instance of possible transgression of idolatry (e.g., if there is a possibility of his having bowed down to an asheirah a tree devoted to idolatry)! It is, therefore, written \\"And he shall atone\\" (implying that there has been a sin), to exclude (an instance of) doubt (as to whether a sin has been committed.) \\"and he shall be forgiven\\": absolute forgiveness, as with all of the other \\"forgivings\\" in the Torah, (even though the sin of idolatry though unwitting has been committed). (Ibid. 15:29) \\"The native-born among the children of Israel, etc.\\" What is the intent of this? Because it is written (Vayikra 24:22) \\"All of the native-born in Israel shall sit in succoth,\\" I might think that only Israelites are intended. Whence do I derive the same for proselytes? It is, therefore, written \\"the native-born among the children of Israel and for the stranger that sojourns among them.\\" This is a prototype: wherever \\"native-born\\" is written, proselytes are also included. Variantly: What is the intent of \\"the native-born among the children of Israel\\"? For it would follow otherwise, viz.: Israelites are commanded against idolatry, and gentiles are commanded against idolatry. If I have learned that Israelites bring (an offering) for unwitting idolatry, so, gentiles should bring an offering for unwitting idolatry. It is, therefore, written \\"the native-born among the children of Israel\\": Israelites bring (an offering) for unwitting idolatry, but not gentiles. (Ibid.) \\"One Torah shall there be for you for him who acts unwittingly\\": for the individual, and for the Nassi, and for the high-priest. For I would think (otherwise), viz.: Since the congregation bring a bullock for (unwitting transgression of) all of the mitzvoth, and the high-priest brings a bullock for transgression of all of the mitzvoth, then if I have learned about the congregation that just as they bring a bullock for all of the mitzvoth, so, they bring a bullock for idolatry, then the high-priest, (too,) who brings a bullock for all of the mitzvoth, should bring a bullock for idolatry. And, furthermore, it follows a fortiori, viz.: If (in the Yom Kippur service), where the congregation does not bring a bullock, the high-priest does bring a bullock, then here, (in unwitting transgression of idolatry), where the congregation does bring a bullock, how much more so should the high-priest bring a bullock! It is, therefore, written \\"One Torah (a she-goat of the first year) shall there be for you\\": for the individual, and for the Nassi, and for the high-priest. \\"for him who acts unwittingly\\": R. Yehudah b. Betheira says: One who acts unwittingly (re idolatry) is (in principle) like one who serves idolatry, viz.: Just as serving idolatry is distinct in that it is an act in which deliberate transgression is punishable by kareth (cutting-off viz. Vayikra 20:3), and unwitting transgression, by a sin-offering (viz. Bamidbar 16:27) so, (the act of) all who act unwittingly, (in order to be liable to a sin-offering), must be an act where deliberate transgression is punishable by kareth and unwitting transgression by a sin-offering.", , " (Bamidbar 15:30) \\"And the soul who acts with a high hand\\": This is one who perverts the Torah, like Menasheh ben Chezkiah, who would sit and cast ridicule in the face of the L-rd, saying (for example): He should not have written in the Torah (Bereshit 30:14) \\"And Reuven went in the days of the wheat harvest.\\" And He should not have written (Ibid. 36:22) \\"And the sister of Lotan was Timna.\\" of one such as he it is written in the Tradition (Psalms 50:20) \\"You sit and speak against your brother; you cast ridicule against your mother. These you have done and I have kept silent. You thought I was one such as you\\": (i.e.), you thought that perhaps as the ways of flesh and blood are the ways of the L-rd. (Ibid.) \\"I will reprove you and set (them) forth before your eyes.\\" And of one such as he, Isaiah writes in the tradition (Isaiah 5:18) \\"Woe unto those who pull transgressions to themselves with strands of deceit, and sin as with the ropes of a wagon\\": In the beginning, sin is like the strands of a spider\'s web, and, in the end, sin is as (\\"stout\\" as) wagon ropes. Rebbi says: If a man does one mitzvah lishmah (for the sake of Heaven), let him rejoice not only in that mitzvah alone; for in the end, it will \\"pull along\\" many mitzvoth. And if a man commits one transgression, let him not despond over it alone, for in the end, it will pull along many transgressions. For mitzvah \\"tows\\" mitzvah, and transgression, transgression. (Bamidbar, Ibid.) \\"It is the L-rd whom he blasphemes (megadef).\\" R. Eliezer b. Azaryah says: As a man would say to his neighbor: \\"You have scraped out the dish (of food) and \'scraped\' (\'megaref,\' similar to \'megadef\') the \'dish\' itself.\\" (i.e., this is the ultimate insult). Issi b. Akiva says: As one would say to his neighbor: \\"You have scraped out the entire dish and left nothing in it.\\" (Ibid.) \\"and that soul will be cut off\\": \\"cutting-off\\" connotes cessation (of the family line, i.e., he will be childless). \\"that soul\\": who acts deliberately. \\"from the midst of its people\\": but its people will remain at peace. (Ibid. 31) \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": This is a Sadducee. \\"and His commandment he has broken\\": This is a heretic. Variantly: \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": This is one who distorts the Torah. \\"and His commandment he has broken\\": This is one who breaks the covet of the flesh (circumcision, i.e., one who does not circumcise his sons.) From here R. Elazar Hamodai said: One who desecrates the offerings, and cheapens the festivals, and breaks the covet (of circumcision) of our father Abraham — even if he has performed many mitzvoth, it were best to \\"thrust\\" him from the world! Variantly: \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": this is one who says there is no Torah from Heaven. And even if he says: The entire Torah is from the mouth of the Holy One (except for) this thing that Moses said on his own — And even if he said: The entire Torah I accept, except for this inference, this kal vachomer (a fortiori argument) — this is \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised.\\" Variantly: \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": This is one who learns, but does not teach others. R. Nechemiah says: This is one who is able to learn but does not. R. Nathan said: This is one who paid no heed at all to words of Torah. R. Yishmael says: The verse speaks of idolatry, as it is written \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\" — the first commandment of the Omnipotent One — (Shemot 20:2-3) \\"I am the L-rd your G-d … There shall be unto you no other gods before Me.\\" (Bamidbar, Ibid.) \\"cut off shall be cut off\\": \\"cut off\\" — in this world; \\"shall be cut off\\" — in the world to come. These are the words of R. Akiva. R. Yishmael says: But is it not already written (Ibid. 30) \\"It is the L-rd whom he blasphemes; and that soul shall be cut off\'? Are there three worlds? Rather, \\"and that soul shall be cut off\\" — in this world. \\"cut off\\" — in the world to come. \\"cut off shall be cut off\\" — Torah speaks in the language of man. (Ibid. 31) \\"its transgression is in it\\": All who die are atoned for by death; but this one, \\"its transgression is in it.\\" As it is written (Ezekiel 32:27) \\"And their transgressions shall be upon their bones.\\" — Even if they have repented? — It is, therefore, written (when) \\"its transgression is in it,\\" and not when he has repented. Similarly, (Devarim 32:5) \\"They have corrupted themselves — not His children — their blemish\\" — When their blemish is in them, they are not His children. When their blemish is not in them, they are His children. R. Yishmael says: \\"its transgression is in it\\": What is the intent of this? Because it is written (Shemot 20:5) \\"He visits the iniquity of the fathers upon sons,\\" I might think that (the father\'s sin of) idolatry, too, is visited upon sons \\"until the third and fourth generation\\"; it is, therefore, written (here, in respect to idolatry) \\"its transgression is in it\\" — in it (the soul of the doer) the transgression inheres, and it is not visited upon the sons, and not on the third and on the fourth generation. R. Nathan says: This (\\"its transgression is in it\\") is a good sign for a man, (indicating) that his transgressions are exacted of him after his death, (so that he may merit life in the world to come.) If a dead one is not eulogized or buried, or if he is eaten by an animal, or if rain descended upon it — this is a good sign, (indicating that his transgressions are being exacted of him after his death.) And even though there is no (Scriptural) proof for this, it is intimated in (Jeremiah 8:1-2) \\"At that time, says the L-rd, they will remove the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of its officers … And they will spread them out under the sun and the moon, etc.\\" R. Shimon b. Elazar said: From here (\\"its transgression is in it\\") I have exposed (as false) the books of the Samaritans. For they say: The dead do not live — whereupon I said to them: But it is written \\"That soul shall be cut off; its transgression is in it.\\" Let this not be stated (i.e., What purpose does it serve?) — It indicates that it (the soul) is destined to give an accounting on the day of judgment.", '' None
34. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targumim • Targums

 Found in books: Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 139; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 35

35. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Onqelos, (Targum), • Targum • Targums • interpretation, targumic • targum

 Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 277, 283, 307, 308; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 152; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 102; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 110; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 160

45a דחנקתיה אומצא:,רבי טרפון אומר בורא נפשות רבות וחסרונן: אמר ליה רבא בר רב חנן לאביי ואמרי לה לרב יוסף הלכתא מאי אמר ליה פוק חזי מאי עמא דבר:,61a הכל לטובה:,ואמר רב הונא אמר רב משום ר\' מאיר לעולם יהיו דבריו של אדם מועטין לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (קהלת ה, א) אל תבהל על פיך ולבך אל ימהר להוציא דבר לפני האלהים כי האלהים בשמים ואתה על הארץ על כן יהיו דבריך מעטים:,דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, ז) וייצר ה\' אלהים את האדם בשני יודי"ן שני יצרים ברא הקב"ה אחד יצר טוב ואחד יצר רע,מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אלא מעתה בהמה דלא כתיב בה וייצר לית לה יצרא והא קא חזינן דמזקא ונשכא ובעטא אלא כדר"ש בן פזי דאמר ר\' שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיוצרי ואוי לי מיצרי,אי נמי כדר\' ירמיה בן אלעזר דאמר ר\' ירמיה בן אלעזר דו פרצופין ברא הקב"ה באדם הראשון שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני:,(בראשית ב, כב) ויבן ה\' אלהים את הצלע,רב ושמואל חד אמר פרצוף וחד אמר זנב,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב אחור וקדם צרתני אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי אחור וקדם צרתני כדרבי אמי דאמר ר\' אמי אחור למעשה בראשית וקדם לפורענות,בשלמא אחור למעשה בראשית דלא אברי עד מעלי שבתא אלא וקדם לפורענות פורענות דמאי אילימא פורענות דנחש והתניא רבי אומר בגדולה מתחילין מן הגדול ובקללה מתחילין מן הקטן,בגדולה מתחילין מן הגדול דכתיב (ויקרא י, יב) וידבר משה אל אהרן ואל אלעזר ואל איתמר בניו הנותרים קחו וגו\' בקללה מתחילין מן הקטן בתחלה נתקלל נחש ולבסוף נתקללה חוה ולבסוף נתקלל אדם,אלא פורענות דמבול דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה מאדם ועד בהמה ברישא אדם והדר בהמה,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב וייצר בשני יודי"ן אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי וייצר,כדר"ש בן פזי דאמר ר\' שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיוצרי אוי לי מיצרי,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי זכר ונקבה בראם כדר\' אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב זכר ונקבה בראם וכתיב (בראשית ט, ו) כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם הא כיצד בתחלה עלה במחשבה לבראת ב\' ולבסוף לא נברא אלא אחד,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויסגור בשר תחתנה אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי ויסגור בשר תחתנה א"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רב זביד ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא נצרכה אלא למקום חתך,בשלמא למ"ד זנב היינו דכתיב ויבן אלא למ"ד פרצוף מאי ויבן,לכדר"ש בן מנסיא דדרש ר"ש בן מנסיא מאי דכתיב ויבן ה\' את הצלע מלמד שקלעה הקב"ה לחוה והביאה לאדם הראשון שכן בכרכי הים קורין לקליעתא בנייתא,דבר אחר ויבן אמר רב חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מלמד שבנאה הקב"ה לחוה כבנין אוצר מה אוצר זה קצר מלמעלה ורחב מלמטה כדי לקבל את הפירות אף אשה קצרה מלמעלה ורחבה מלמטה כדי לקבל את הולד,ויביאה אל האדם א"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר מלמד שנעשה הקב"ה שושבין לאדם הראשון מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שיחזור גדול עם קטן בשושבינות ואל ירע לו,ולמאן דאמר פרצוף הי מינייהו סגי ברישא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא דגברא סגי ברישא דתניא לא יהלך אדם אחורי אשה בדרך ואפי\' אשתו נזדמנה לו על הגשר יסלקנה לצדדין וכל העובר אחורי אשה בנהר אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,תנו רבנן המרצה מעות לאשה מידו לידה כדי להסתכל בה אפילו יש בידו תורה ומעשים טובים כמשה רבינו לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם שנאמר (משלי יא, כא) יד ליד לא ינקה רע לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם,א"ר נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה דכתיב (שופטים יג, יא) וילך מנוח אחרי אשתו,מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אלא מעתה גבי אלקנה דכתיב וילך אלקנה אחרי אשתו וגבי אלישע דכתיב (מלכים ב ד, ל) ויקם וילך אחריה הכי נמי אחריה ממש אלא אחרי דבריה ואחרי עצתה הכא נמי אחרי דבריה ואחרי עצתה,א"ר אשי ולמאי דקאמר רב נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה אפי\' בי רב נמי לא קרא שנאמר (בראשית כד, סא) ותקם רבקה ונערותיה ותרכבנה על הגמלים ותלכנה אחרי האיש ולא לפני האיש,א"ר יוחנן אחורי ארי ולא אחורי אשה אחורי אשה ולא אחורי עכו"ם אחורי עכו"ם ולא אחורי בהכ"נ בשעה שהצבור מתפללין,ולא אמרן אלא דלא דרי מידי ואי דרי מידי לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דליכא פתחא אחרינא ואי איכא פתחא אחרינא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא רכיב חמרא אבל רכיב חמרא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא מנח תפילין אבל מנח תפילין לית לן בה:,אמר רב יצר הרע דומה לזבוב ויושב בין שני מפתחי הלב שנא\' (קהלת י, א) זבובי מות יבאיש יביע שמן רוקח ושמואל אמר כמין חטה הוא דומה שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) לפתח חטאת רובץ,ת"ר שתי כליות יש בו באדם אחת יועצתו לטובה ואחת יועצתו לרעה ומסתברא דטובה לימינו ורעה לשמאלו דכתיב (קהלת י, ב) לב חכם לימינו ולב כסיל לשמאלו:,תנו רבנן כליות יועצות לב מבין לשון מחתך פה גומר ושט מכניס ומוציא כל מיני מאכל קנה מוציא קול 61b ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר\' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר\' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר\' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו\' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו\': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר\' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר\' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: ' None45a who was choked by a piece of meat and drank water in order to wash it down. He need not recite a blessing.,We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Tarfon says: Over water one recites: Who creates the many forms of life and their needs. Rava bar Rav Ḥa said to Abaye, and some say to Rav Yosef: What is the halakha in this dispute? He said to him: Go out and observe what the people are doing and act accordingly.,,halakhot pertaining to the invitation to recite Grace after Meals after a joint meal zimmun: Three people who ate as one are required to form a zimmun and recite Grace after Meals. If, among the diners, one ate doubtfully tithed produce demai, and first tithe from which its teruma was already taken, or second tithe, and consecrated food that were redeemed and therefore permitted to be eaten; and even the waiter who served the meal to the diners and who ate at least an olive-bulk from the meal, and the Samaritan Kuti who ate with two others at a meal; each of these people is included among the three to obligate those with whom they ate in a zimmun.,However, one who ate untithed produce tevel, and first tithe from which its teruma was not separated, and second tithe, and consecrated food that were not redeemed, and the waiter who did not eat an olive-bulk, and the gentile who ate with two Jews, none of these people is included among the three to obligate those with whom they ate in a zimmun. Women, slaves, and minors do not obligate those with whom they ate in a zimmun. How much must one eat to obligate those with whom he ate in a zimmun? An olive-bulk of food suffices to obligate those with whom they ate in a zimmun. Rabbi Yehuda says: An egg-bulk is the minimum measure to obligate those with whom they ate in a zimmun.,zimmun, the Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived, that after a meal in which three diners participated, a zimmun must be recited? Rav Asi said: As the verse states: “Praise God with me, and we will exalt His name together” (Psalms 34:4), i.e., the one reciting the blessing turns to at least two others to praise God together. Rabbi Abbahu said: The source of the mitzva of zimmun is derived from the verse here: “When I call the Name of the Lord, give plural praise to our God” (Deuteronomy 32:3).,Having mentioned these verses, the Gemara cites related matters. Rav Ḥa bar Abba said: From where is it derived that one who answers amen should not raise his voice louder than the one reciting the blessing? As it is stated: “Praise God with me, and we will exalt His Name together”; together and not with the respondent raising his voice louder than the one reciting the blessing.,Similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: From where is it derived that the translator who translated the public Torah reading into Aramaic is not permitted to raise his voice louder than the reader? As it is stated: “Moses spoke, and God responded in a voice” (Exodus 19:19). This verse requires further consideration, as there is no need for the verse to state: In a voice. The phrase, in a voice, adds nothing. Rather, to what purpose did the verse state: In a voice? In Moses’ voice, i.e., in a voice no louder than Moses’ voice. This verse instructs subsequent generations that Torah readers and translators should keep their voices at an equal volume just as Moses transmitted God’s word to the people and their voices were equal in volume.,This was also taught in a baraita: The translator is not permitted to raise his voice louder than the reader. The converse is also true; and if the translator cannot raise his voice to match that of the reader, the reader should lower his voice and read.,The mishna rules that three who ate as one are required to join together and recite Grace after Meals. The Gemara discusses this halakha further: It was stated: Two who ate as one and wish to join together in a zimmun, although they are under no obligation, are they permitted to do so? Rav and Rabbi Yoḥa disagreed: One said: If they wanted to join together, they may form a zimmun. The other said: Even if they wanted to join together, they may not form a zimmun.,The Gemara cites a proof from what we learned in our mishna: Three who ate as one are required to join together and recite Grace after Meals. By inference: Three, yes, they form a zimmun; two, no, they do not form a zimmun. This contradicts the opinion that holds that two individuals who wish to form a zimmun may do so.,The Gemara answers: There is no proof from the mishna, as there, the mishna discussed an obligatory zimmun; here, the amora’im disagree with regard to an optional zimmun.,The Gemara cites an additional proof. Come and hear: Three who ate as one are required to join together and recite Grace after Meals and may not disperse to recite Grace after Meals individually. Apparently, three, yes, they form a zimmun; two, no, they do not form a zimmun. If a zimmun was possible with two people, three people would not be forbidden to disperse, as even if one recited Grace after Meals alone, the remaining two would constitute a zimmun.,The Gemara rejects this proof: It is different there, in the case of a group of three who dispersed, because from the outset, they established themselves as a group of three who were obligated to form a zimmun. Consequently, they are not permitted to forego an obligatory zimmun in favor of an optional one.,The Gemara cites an additional proof. Come and hear, based on what was taught in a baraita: A waiter who was serving two people eats with them, although they did not give him permission to do so, because he will thereby be eligible to join them in a zimmun. If a waiter was serving three people, he may not eat with them unless they gave him permission to do so. Evidently, two may not form a zimmun. If that were the case, the waiter would require permission even when serving two people.,The Gemara responds: It is different there,'61a He does for the best.,And Rav Huna said that Rav said in the name of Rabbi Meir: One’s words should always be few before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Be not rash with your mouth and let not your heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and you upon earth. Therefore, let your words be few” (Ecclesiastes 5:1).,Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Then the Lord God formed vayyitzer man” (Genesis 2:7), with a double yod? This double yod alludes to that fact that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created two inclinations; one a good inclination and one an evil inclination.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this: If that is so, does an animal, with regard to whom vayyitzer is not written with a double yod, not have an inclination? Don’t we see that it causes damage and bites and kicks? Rather, interpret the double yod homiletically, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: This alludes to the difficulty of human life; woe unto me from my Creator yotzri and woe unto me from my inclination yitzri. If one opts to follow either his Creator or his inclination, woe unto him from the other.,Alternatively, this duplication in the language of creation can be explained in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar, as Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, created two faces du partzufin on Adam the first man; he was created both male and female in a single body, as it is stated: “You have formed me tzartani behind and before” (Psalms 139:5); tzartani is derived from the word tzura face. God formed two faces on a single creation, back and front.,It is stated: “And the tzela which the Lord, God, had taken from the man, He made a woman, and brought her unto the man” (Genesis 2:22).,Rav and Shmuel disagree over the meaning of the word tzela: One said: It means face. Eve was originally one face or side of Adam. And one said: It means tail, which he explains to mean that the tzela was an appendage, i.e., one of the ribs in Adam’s chest.,The Gemara analyzes this dispute: Granted, according to the one who said that tzela means face; that is why it is written: “You have formed me tzartani behind and before.” However, according to the one who said that tzela means tail, what is meant by the verse: “You have formed me tzartani behind and before”? The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Behind means Adam was created at the end of the act of creation; and before means that he was first for punishment.,The Gemara asks: Granted, Adam was behind, or last, in the act of creation, meaning that he was not created until the sixth day, Shabbat eve; however, before, or first, for punishment, to what punishment does this refer? If you say that he was first for punishment in the wake of the episode with the snake, wasn’t it taught in a baraita that, with regard to punishment, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: In conferring honor, one begins with the greatest; in cursing, one begins with the least significant.,The Gemara explains: In conferring honor, one begins with the greatest, as it is written: “And Moses said unto Aaron, and Elazar and Itamar, his remaining sons: Take the meal-offering that remains” (Leviticus 10:12). Aaron, who was the greatest among those involved, is mentioned first. And in cursing, one begins with the least significant, as first the snake was cursed, then Eve was cursed, and ultimately Adam himself was cursed. The punishment did not begin with Adam.,Rather, this refers to the punishment of the flood, as it is written: “And He blotted out every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle, creeping things and fowl of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23); the punishment began with man, then the animals, and ultimately all the other creatures.,Returning to interpretation of vayyitzer, the Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was originally a face or side of Adam; that is why it is written vayyitzer, with a double yod, which allude to the two formations. However, according to the one who said that she was a tail, or appendage, of Adam, what is conveyed by spelling vayyitzer with a double yod?,The Gemara responds: This is interpreted homiletically in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: This comes to emphasize that which a person says to himself in every circumstance: Woe unto me from my Creator and woe unto me from my inclination.,Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a face, that is why it is written: “Male and female, He created them” (Genesis 5:2). However, according to the one who said that Eve was a tail, what is the meaning of the verse: “Male and female, He created them”? The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu. As Rabbi Abbahu raised a contradiction between the verses: On the one hand it is written: “Male and female, He created them,” and on the other hand it is written: “For in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6), indicating that man was created alone. How, then, does he resolve the contradiction? At first, the thought entered God’s mind to create two, and ultimately, only one was actually created.,The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a face, that is why it is written: “And He took one of his sides and closed up the place with flesh in its place” (Genesis 2:21), as it was necessary to close the side that was open. However, according to the one who said that Eve was originally a tail, what is meant by the verse: “And closed up the place with flesh in its place”? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say Rav Zevid said, and some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It was necessary to say that only with regard to the place of the incision.,The Gemara challenges the other opinion: Granted, according to the one who said that Eve was a tail, that is why it is written: “And the Lord God built the tzela” (Genesis 2:22); it was a completely new building. However, according to the one who said that Eve was a complete face or side, what is the meaning of: “And He built”? What needed to be built?,The Gemara responds: This must be interpreted homiletically, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya, as Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And the Lord God built the tzela”? This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, braided Eve’s hair, and then brought her to Adam, as in the coastal towns, they call braiding hair, building.,Alternatively, the verse: And He built, could be understood as a description of her basic shape, as Rav Ḥisda said, and some say that it is taught in a baraita: This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, built Eve like the structure of a storehouse. Just as a storehouse is built narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold produce without collapsing; so too a woman is created narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold the fetus.,With regard to the verse: “And brought her unto the man” (Genesis 2:22), Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, was Adam the first man’s best man. From here, the Torah taught that it is a desired mode of behavior for a greater individual to seek out a lesser individual to assist him and serve as his best man. The greater individual should help the lesser and should not feel badly about it, that it might be beneath his dignity.,The Gemara asks: And according to the one who said that Eve was a face or side of Adam, which one of them walked in front? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable to say that the man walked in front, as it is taught in a baraita: A man should not walk behind a woman on a path, as he will look at her constantly, even if it is his wife. If a woman happens upon him along a bridge, he should walk quickly in order to move her to his side so that she will not walk in front of him. And anyone who walks behind a woman in a river in order to see her exposed skin when she lifts her clothing as she passes through the water has no portion in the World-to-Come.,The Sages taught: One who counts money for a woman from his hand to her hand in order to look upon her, even if he has accumulated Torah and good deeds like Moses our teacher, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, as it is stated: “Hand to hand, the evil man shall not go unpunished” (Proverbs 11:21); one who hands money from his hand to her hand, even if he received the Torah from God’s hand to his own, like Moses, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, which is called evil.,Rav Naḥman said: From the following verse we know that Samson’s father, Manoah, was an ignoramus, as it is written: “And Manoah…went after his wife” (Judges 13:11).,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this: If that is so that you understand the verse literally, what do you say about the verse with regard to Elkana, the father of the prophet Samuel, as it is written: “And Elkana walked after his wife,” and what of the verse with regard to the prophet Elisha, as it is written: “And he arose and followed her” (II Kings 4:30)? Does this verse mean that he literally walked after her? Rather, certainly this verse means that he followed her words and advice. Here, too, then the verse concerning Manoah may be similarly interpreted; he followed his wife’s words and followed her advice, and did not literally walk behind her.,Rav Ashi said: And according to what Rav Naḥman said, that Manoah was an ignoramus; he did not even learn to read the basic Torah stories that even children learn in school, as it is stated: “Rebecca arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man” (Genesis 24:61); they followed him and did not walk before the man.,On this topic, Rabbi Yoḥa said: It is preferable to walk behind a lion and not behind a woman, and preferable to walk behind a woman and not behind idolatry, for then it will appear as if he is accompanying the idolatry. It is preferable to walk behind idolatry and not behind a synagogue when the congregation is praying, as he appears to separate himself from the community in that he does not wish to join them in prayer.,This last halakha has numerous caveats: And we only said this in a case where he is not carrying something, and if he is carrying something, this does not apply, as everyone will understand why he did not enter the synagogue. And we only said this in a case where there is no other entrance to the synagogue, and if there is another entrance, this does not apply. And we only said this in a case where he is not riding a donkey, and if he is riding a donkey, this does not apply. And we only said this in a case where he is not donning phylacteries, but if he is donning phylacteries, this does not apply.,Rav said: The evil inclination is like a fly and it sits between the two entrances of the heart, as it is stated: “Dead flies make the ointment of the perfumer fetid and putrid” (Ecclesiastes 10:1). And Shmuel said: The evil inclination is like a type of wheat, as it is stated: “Transgression ḥatat couches at the door” (Genesis 4:7); ḥatat is interpreted homiletically as related to ḥitta, wheat.,The Sages taught in a baraita: A person has two kidneys; one advises him to do good and one advises him to do evil. And it stands to reason that the one advising him to do good is to his right and the one that advises him to do evil is to his left, as it is written: “A wise man’s understanding is at his right hand, but a fool’s understanding is at his left” (Ecclesiastes 10:2).,Tangential to the subject of kidneys, the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the roles of various organs: The kidneys advise, the heart understands, the tongue shapes the sounds that emerges from the mouth, the mouth completes the shaping of the voice, the esophagus takes in and lets out all kinds of food, the trachea produces the voice, 61b and the lungs draw all kinds of liquids, the liver becomes angry, the gall bladder injects a drop of gall into the liver and allays anger, the spleen laughs, the maw grinds the food, and the stomach brings sleep, the nose awakens. If they reversed roles such that the organ which brings on sleep were to awaken, or the organ which awakens were to bring on sleep, the individual would gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If both bring on sleep or both awaken, the person immediately dies.,With regard to one’s inclinations, it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me” (Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The evil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes” (Psalms 36:2). Middling people are ruled by both the good and evil inclinations, as it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul” (Psalms 109:31).,Rabba said: People like us are middling. Abaye, his student and nephew, said to him: If the Master claims that he is merely middling, he does not leave room for any creature to live. If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?,And Rava said: The world was created only for the sake of the full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous; others do not live complete lives in either world. Rava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous, as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. Rav said: The world was only created for the wicked Ahab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa. The Gemara explains: For Ahab ben Omri, this world was created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Come was created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”? Conversely, if it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather, this means that if one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”; one must give his soul in sanctification of God. And if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”; with all your assets. Rabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul” means: Even if God takes your soul.,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. The Sages taught: One time, after the bar Kokheva rebellion, the evil empire of Rome decreed that Israel may not engage in the study and practice of Torah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torah study. Pappos said to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire?,Rabbi Akiva answered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared? It is like a fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gathering and fleeing from place to place. rThe fox said to them: From what are you fleeing? rThey said to him: We are fleeing from the nets that people cast upon us. rHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? rThe fish said to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid in the water, our natural habitat which gives us life, then in a habitat that causes our death, all the more so. rThe moral is: So too, we Jews, now that we sit and engage in Torah study, about which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days” (Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire to this extent; if we proceed to sit idle from its study, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, all the more so will we fear the empire.,The Sages said: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Pappos, who brought you here? Pappos replied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested on the charge of engaging in Torah study. Woe unto Pappos who was seized on the charge of engaging in idle matters.,The Gemara relates: When they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of Shema. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he was reciting Shema, thereby accepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now, as you suffer, you recite Shema? He said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul, meaning: Even if God takes your soul. I said to myself: When will the opportunity be afforded me to fulfill this verse? Now that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolonged his uttering of the word: One, until his soul left his body as he uttered his final word: One. A voice descended from heaven and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul left your body as you uttered: One.,The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward? As it is stated: “From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from death of the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God said the end of the verse to the ministering angels: “Whose portion is in this life.” And then a Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come, as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that one may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies. Limiting this halakha, Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They only said this halakha with regard to irreverent behavior from Mount Scopus Tzofim and within, and specifically areas from where one can see the Temple. It is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only said this halakha with regard to Mount Scopus and within, when one can see, and when there is no fence obstructing his view, and when the Divine Presence is resting there, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, the Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecate when facing east and west, for then he is facing Jerusalem; rather he should do so facing north and south. But in the Galilee which is north of Jerusalem, one should only defecate facing east and west. Rabbi Yosei permits doing so, as Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibited doing so when one can see the Temple, where there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is resting there. And the Rabbis prohibit doing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the Rabbis, who prohibit this, is identical to that of the first anonymous tanna, who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference between them is with regard to the sides, i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first tanna, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted.,It was taught in another baraita: One who defecates in Judea should not defecate when facing east and west; rather, he should only do so facing north and south. And in the Galilee, defecating while facing north and south is prohibited, while east and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitted doing so, as Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibited doing so when one can see the Temple. Rabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited, but when the Temple is not standing, it is permitted. The Gemara adds that Rabbi Akiva prohibits defecating anywhere while facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: Rabbi Akiva’s position is identical to that of the first, anonymous tanna, who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference between them is with regard to places outside of Eretz Yisrael, as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in Rabba’s bathroom, the bricks were placed east and west in order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. Abaye went and placed them north and south, to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. Rabba entered and fixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: It is prohibited everywhere. ' None
36. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targumim • interpretation, targumic • targum

 Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 279; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 128, 164

91b הנה הוא זורה את גורן השעורים,רבי אבהו אמר מהכא (בראשית כב, ג) וישכם אברהם בבקר ויחבוש את וגו\',ורבנן אמרי מהכא (בראשית לז, יד) לך נא ראה את שלום אחיך ואת שלום וגו\',רב אמר מהכא (בראשית לב, לב) ויזרח לו השמש,אמר ר\' עקיבא שאלתי את רבן גמליאל ואת רבי יהושע באיטליז של אימאום שהלכו ליקח בהמה למשתה בנו של רבן גמליאל כתיב ויזרח לו השמש וכי שמש לו לבד זרחה והלא לכל העולם זרחה,אמר ר\' יצחק שמש הבאה בעבורו זרחה בעבורו דכתיב (בראשית כח, י) ויצא יעקב מבאר שבע וילך חרנה וכתיב ויפגע במקום כי מטא לחרן אמר אפשר עברתי על מקום שהתפללו אבותי ואני לא התפללתי כד יהיב דעתיה למיהדר קפצה ליה ארעא מיד ויפגע במקום,כד צלי בעי למיהדר אמר הקב"ה צדיק זה בא לבית מלוני ויפטר בלא לינה מיד בא השמש,כתיב (בראשית כח, יא) ויקח מאבני המקום וכתיב ויקח את האבן אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שנתקבצו כל אותן אבנים למקום אחד וכל אחת ואחת אומרת עלי יניח צדיק זה ראשו תנא וכולן נבלעו באחד,(בראשית כח, יב) ויחלום והנה סולם מוצב ארצה תנא כמה רחבו של סולם שמונת אלפים פרסאות דכתיב (בראשית כח, יב) והנה מלאכי אלהים עולים ויורדים בו עולים שנים ויורדים שנים וכי פגעו בהדי הדדי הוו להו ארבעה,וכתיב ביה במלאך (דניאל י, ו) וגויתו כתרשיש וגמירי דתרשיש תרי אלפי פרסי הוו,תנא עולין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מעלה ויורדין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מטה בעו לסכוניה מיד (בראשית כח, יג) והנה ה\' נצב עליו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאמרו כאדם שמניף על בנו,(בראשית כח, יג) הארץ אשר אתה שוכב עליה וגו\' מאי רבותיה אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שקפלה הקב"ה לכל ארץ ישראל והניחה תחת יעקב אבינו שתהא נוחה ליכבש לבניו,(בראשית כח, א) ויאמר שלחני כי עלה השחר אמר לו גנב אתה או קוביוסטוס אתה שמתיירא מן השחר אמר לו מלאך אני ומיום שנבראתי לא הגיע זמני לומר שירה עד עכשיו,מסייע ליה לרב חננאל אמר רב דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב שלש כתות של מלאכי השרת אומרות שירה בכל יום אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ה\' צבאות,מיתיבי חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה יותר ממלאכי השרת שישראל אומרים שירה בכל שעה ומלאכי השרת אין אומרים שירה אלא פעם אחת ביום ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבת ואמרי לה פעם אחת בחודש ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשנה ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעם אחת ביובל ואמרי לה פעם אחת בעולם,וישראל מזכירין את השם אחר שתי תיבות שנאמר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה\' וגו\' ומלאכי השרת אין מזכירין את השם אלא לאחר ג\' תיבות כדכתיב (ישעיהו ו, ג) קדוש קדוש קדוש ה\' צבאות,ואין מה"ש אומרים שירה למעלה עד שיאמרו ישראל למטה שנאמר (איוב לח, ז) ברן יחד כוכבי בקר והדר ויריעו כל בני אלהים,אלא אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש קדוש ה\' צבאות והאיכא ברוך'' None91b “And now is there not Boaz our kinsman, whose maidens you were with? Behold, he winnows barley tonight in the threshing floor…and it shall be, when he lies down, that you shall mark the place where he shall lie” (Ruth 3:2–3). This teaches that the reason Boaz did not return home from the threshing floor was that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,Rabbi Abbahu said that the source is from here: “And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went to the place that God had told him” (Genesis 22:3). The fact that Abraham waited until morning and did not set off at night, even though others were traveling with him, indicates that a Torah scholar should not go out at night at all, and certainly not alone.,And the Rabbis say that the source is from here, the verse that describes when Jacob sent Joseph to his brothers: “And he said to him: Go now, see whether it is well with you brothers and well with the flock; and bring me back word. So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem” (Genesis 37:14). The verse indicates that Jacob sent Joseph at a time when he could see his brothers, i.e., during the day. This shows that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,Rav said that the source is from here: “And the sun rose for him as he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). This indicates that Jacob remained where he was all night and left in the morning, because a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,The Gemara cites an incident involving the final verse cited above. Rabbi Akiva says: I asked the following question of Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua in the meat market be’itliz of the town Emmaus, where they went to purchase an animal for the wedding feast of Rabban Gamliel’s son: It is written in the verse: “And the sun shone for him when he passed Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). But did the sun shine only for him? Didn’t it shine for the entire world?,Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The verse means that the sun, which set early exclusively for him, also shone early exclusively for him in order to rectify the disparity created by the premature sunset. The Gemara explains when the sun set early for him: As it is written: “And Jacob went out from Beersheba and went toward Haran” (Genesis 28:10). And it is written thereafter: “And he encountered the place, and he slept there, because the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). When Jacob arrived at Haran, he said: Is it possible that I passed a place where my fathers prayed and I did not pray there? When he set his mind to return, the land contracted for him. Immediately the verse states: “And he encountered the place,” indicating that he arrived there miraculously.,When he had finished praying and he wanted to return to Haran, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: This righteous man came to my lodging place and he will depart without remaining overnight? Immediately, the sun set before its proper time so that Jacob would stay overnight in that place.,The Gemara cites another exposition of Rabbi Yitzḥak to explain an apparent contradiction between two verses pertaining to this incident. It is written: “And he took of the stones of the place, and placed them under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep” (Genesis 28:11). And it is written: “And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and he took the stone that he had placed under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (Genesis 28:18). The first verse indicates that Jacob took several stones, whereas the latter verse indicates that he took only one stone. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: This teaches that all those stones gathered to one place and each one said: Let this righteous man place his head upon me. And it was taught: And all of them were absorbed into one large rock.,The Gemara expounds other verses pertaining to the same incident. The verse states: “And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it” (Genesis 28:12). It was taught: How wide was the ladder? It was eight thousand parasangs parsaot, as it is written: “And behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.” The word “ascending olim,” written in plural, indicates that there were two angels ascending simultaneously. Likewise, the term “and descending veyordim,” also in the plural, indicates that two angels were descending simultaneously. And when they met one another they were a total of four in one place, so the ladder must have been wide enough to accommodate four angels.,And it is written in a verse with regard to an angel: “His body was like Tarshish” (Daniel 10:6). And it is learned as a tradition that the city of Tarshish was two thousand parasangs. Consequently, in order to accommodate four angels, the ladder must have been eight thousands parasangs wide.,It was taught that the angels were ascending and gazing at the image of bidyokeno Jacob above, engraved on the Throne of Glory, and descending and gazing at his image below. The angels subsequently became jealous of Jacob, and wanted to endanger his life. Immediately Jacob received divine protection, as the verse states: “And behold, the Lord stood over him” (Genesis 28:13). Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Were it not written in a verse it would be impossible to utter it, in deference to God, since it describes God as standing over Jacob to protect him from the angels like a man who waves a fan over his son to cool him down.,The Gemara explains another verse from Jacob’s dream. “And behold, the Lord stood over him and said: I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. The land upon which you lie, to you will I give it, and to your seed” (Genesis 28:13). The Gemara asks: What is the greatness of this promise, i.e., why is it expressed in this way despite the fact that in a literal sense Jacob was lying on a very small amount of land? Rabbi Yitzḥak says: This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, folded up the entirety of Eretz Yisrael and placed it under Jacob, our patriarch, so that it would be easy for his children to conquer.,The Gemara returns to the verses that describe Jacob wrestling with the angel. “And he said: Let me go, for the dawn has risen. And he said: I will not let you go until you bless me” (Genesis 32:27). Jacob said to the angel: Are you a thief, or are you a gambler kuveyustus, who is afraid of dawn? The angel said to him: I am an angel, and from the day I was created my time to recite a song before God has not arrived, until now. Now I must ascend so that I can sing songs of praise to God.,The Gemara comments: This supports the opinion of Rav Ḥael when he related what Rav said. As Rav Ḥael said that Rav said: Three groups of ministering angels recite a song every day from the verse “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord”; one says: “Holy,” and another one says: “Holy,” and another one says: “Holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3).,The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: The Jewish people are more dear to the Holy One, Blessed be He, than the ministering angels, as the Jewish people may recite a song of praise to God at any time, but ministering angels recite a song of praise only one time per day. And some say that the ministering angels recite a song of praise one time per week. And some say that they recite a song of praise one time per month. And some say that they recite a song of praise one time per year. And some say that they recite a song of praise one time in every seven years. And some say that they recite a song of praise one time per Jubilee. And some say that they recite a song of praise one time in the entire history of the world.,And furthermore, the Jewish people mention the name of God after two words, as it is stated: “Hear, Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4). But the ministering angels mention the name of God only after three words, as it is written: “And one called unto another, and said: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3).,And the ministering angels do not recite their song above until the Jewish people recite their song below, on earth, as it is stated: “When the morning stars sang together” (Job 38:7), referring to the Jewish people, who are compared to stars; and only then does the verse state: “And all the sons of God shouted for joy,” which is a reference to the angels. This baraita teaches that the angels mention the name of God only after three words, i.e., after saying the word “holy” three times, whereas according to what Rav Ḥael stated that Rav said, the third group of angels says the word “holy” once and then immediately mentions the name of God.,The Gemara emends Rav Ḥael’s statement citing Rav: Rather, Rav said that one group of ministering angels says: “Holy,” and another one says: “Holy, holy,” and another one says: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.” The Gemara challenges the statement of the baraita that the angels mention the name of God only after three words: But there is the verse: “Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: Blessed be the glory of the Lord from His place” (Ezekiel 3:12). In this praise, “Blessed be the glory of the Lord,” the word “Lord” appears as the third Hebrew word, apparently uttered by the ministering angels.'' None
37. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum

 Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74

7b הכי קאמר מגדף מביא קרבן הואיל ובא בו כרת במקום קרבן דברי ר"ע קסבר מיגו דבעי מכתב כרת בעלמא וכתיב כרת במקום קרבן שמע מינה מייתי קרבן,ואומר (במדבר ט, יג) חטאו ישא אתא לרבנן והכי קאמר ר"ע לרבנן אמריתו מגדף לית ביה מעשה מהו מגדף מברך את השם אלא כרת דכתיב למאי אתא,אמרי ליה ליתן כרת למקלל דכתיב במקלל ((במדבר ט, יג) חטאו ישא האיש ההוא) וכתיב בפסח שני (במדבר ט, יג) חטאו ישא מה להלן כרת אף כאן כרת,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) את ה\' מגדף איסי בן יהודה אומר כאדם האומר לחבירו גירפתה הקערה וחיסרתה קסבר מגדף מברך את השם הוא,ר\' אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כאדם האומר לחבירו גירפתה הקערה ולא חיסרתה קסבר מגדף היינו עובד ע"ז,תניא אידך את ה\' רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר בעובד ע"ז הכתוב מדבר וחכמים אומרים לא בא הכתוב אלא ליתן כרת למברך השם:,7b The Gemara answers that this is what Rabbi Akiva is saying: One who unwittingly blasphemes brings an offering, since its punishment of karet comes, i.e., is written, in a place where the Torah discusses an offering, i.e., karet is mentioned in a passage that discusses a sin offering (see Numbers 15:27–31). This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, as he maintains: Since the verse should have written karet in general, i.e., without connecting it to bringing an offering, and yet this karet is written in a place where the Torah discusses an offering, conclude from it that the unwitting blasphemer brings an offering for his transgression.,The Gemara analyzes the next clause of the baraita: And the verse states: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15). The Gemara explains: Here we arrive at the opinion of the Rabbis, and this is what Rabbi Akiva is saying to the Rabbis: You say that the transgression of one who blasphemes does not involve an action, as what is the case of one who blasphemes? It is one who blesses, i.e., curses, the Name, i.e., God. But if so, then concerning the punishment of karet that is written: “That person blasphemes the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off venikhreta from among his people” (Numbers 15:30), for what purpose does it come, if not to render him liable to bring an offering?,The Rabbis say to him: It comes to give the punishment of karet to one who curses God, in order to teach that the phrase: “Shall bear his sin,” written in the verse: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), is referring to karet, so that one can derive by verbal analogy that an individual who was obligated to bring a Paschal offering for the second Pesaḥ and did not do so is likewise liable to receive karet. As it is written with regard to one who curses God: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin,” and it is written with regard to one who was obligated to bring a Paschal offering for the second Pesaḥ and did not do so: “That man shall bear his sin” (Numbers 9:13). Just as there, with regard to one who curses God it is referring to the punishment of karet, so too here, with regard to the Paschal offering it is referring to the punishment of karet.,With regard to one who blasphemes, the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: “That person blasphemes megaddef the Lord” (Numbers 15:30). Isi ben Yehuda says: This is like a person who says to another: You cleaned geirafta the bowl and rendered it lacking, i.e., the transgression of blasphemy is so severe that it is compared to one who does actual damage to God. Isi ben Yehuda maintains that the case of the blasphemer is identical to that of one who blesses, i.e., curses, the Name, i.e., God, which is a particularly severe transgression.,Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says that this is like a person who says to another: You cleaned the bowl and removed its contents, but did not render it lacking, i.e., the transgression of blasphemy is not compared to one who does actual damage to God. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya maintains that the case of the blasphemer is the same as that of an idol worshipper, which is a less severe transgression.,This dispute as to the nature of the transgression of the blasphemer is taught in another baraita: “That person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The verse is speaking of an idol worshipper. And the Rabbis say: The verse comes only to give the punishment of karet to one who blesses, i.e., curses, the Name, i.e., God.,There are some women who bring a sin offering of a woman after childbirth and the offering is eaten by the priests. And there are some women who bring a sin offering but it is not eaten. And there are some women who do not bring a sin offering at all.,The mishna elaborates: The following women bring a sin offering and it is eaten by the priests: One who miscarries a fetus with a form similar to a domesticated animal, one who miscarries a fetus with a form similar to an undomesticated animal, or one who miscarries a fetus with a form similar to a bird; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: She does not bring a sin offering unless the fetus has the form of a person.,With regard to a woman who miscarries a sandal fetus, i.e., one that has the form of a flat fish; or if she miscarries the placenta; or an amniotic sac in which tissue developed; or a fetus that emerged cut, i.e., in pieces; and likewise a Canaanite maidservant, owned by a Jew, who miscarried; in all these cases she brings a sin offering and it is eaten by the priests.,And these women bring sin offerings but their sin offerings are not eaten: One who miscarries and does not know the nature of what she miscarried; and two women who miscarried, in a case where one miscarried a fetus of a type for which a woman is exempt from bringing an offering and the other one miscarried a fetus of a type for which a woman is liable to bring an offering, and they do not know which miscarried which type. Rabbi Yosei said: When is their sin offering not eaten? It is when both women went to different places within the Temple to bring their offerings, e.g., this woman went to the east and that woman went to the west. But if both of them were standing together, both of them together bring one sin offering, and it is eaten.,These women do not bring a sin offering: A woman who miscarries an amniotic sac full of water, or one full of blood, or one full of different colors; and likewise a woman who miscarries a fetus with a form similar to fish, or grasshoppers, or repugt creatures, or creeping animals; and a woman who miscarries on the fortieth day of her pregcy; and a woman who gives birth by caesarean section. Rabbi Shimon deems a woman liable to bring a sin offering in the case where she gives birth by caesarean section.,From where do we derive that in the case of a Canaanite maidservant, owned by a Jew, who miscarried, she brings a sin offering and it is eaten? As the Sages taught in a baraita: The passage discussing the halakhot of a woman following childbirth begins with the verse: “Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a woman conceives and gives birth to a male” (Leviticus 12:2). From this verse I have derived only that the full-fledged children of Israel are included in these halakhot; from where do I derive that a convert and a Canaanite maidservant are also included in these halakhot? The verse states “a woman,” which includes other women.,The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the special emphasis in the mishna: And likewise a Canaanite maidservant? Why does the mishna deem it necessary to write this halakha? The Gemara answers: It might enter your mind to say that when we say: With regard to any mitzva in which a woman is obligated a Canaanite slave is also obligated in that mitzva, this statement applies with regard to a matter that is the same for a man and for a woman. But with regard to the offerings of a woman after childbirth, which is a category that applies to women but does not apply to men, one might say a Canaanite maidservant is not obligated to bring these offerings. It is for this reason the mishna taught the case of a Canaanite maidservant.,§ The mishna teaches: These women bring a sin offering but their sin offerings are not eaten. It then teaches that in a case where one miscarried a fetus of a type for which a woman is exempt from bringing an offering and the other one miscarried a fetus of a type for which a woman is obligated to bring an offering, Rabbi Yosei maintains that if both are standing together they bring one offering together. The Gemara asks: What exactly do they do? The two of them bring one definite burnt offering, and a sin offering of a bird due to uncertainty, and they each stipulate that if she is obligated to bring the sin offering the animal is hers, and if not then it belongs to the other woman.,The Gemara asks: And is Rabbi Yosei of the opinion that a stipulation is effective in the case of a sin offering? But didn’t we learn in a mishna (23a): With regard to a situation where one of two women unwittingly ate a piece of forbidden fat and is obligated to bring a sin offering, but it is unknown which woman, Rabbi Shimon says: They both bring one sin offering together, and Rabbi Yosei says: They do not both bring one sin offering together. Evidently, Rabbi Yosei is not of the opinion that a stipulation is effective with regard to a sin offering.,Rava said: Rabbi Yosei concedes that a stipulation is effective with regard to one who has not yet brought an atonement offering to complete the purification process, as is the case concerning a woman after childbirth. And likewise, when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to one who has not yet brought an atonement offering that a stipulation is effective.,The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this difference between the sin offering of one who has not yet brought an atonement offering and standard sin offerings? The Gemara answers: There, with regard to a sin offering brought for a transgression, the man requires definite awareness of his transgression for him to be obligated to bring a sin offering, as it is written: “If his sin, which he has sinned, be known to him” (Leviticus 4:28). Therefore, in the case where one of two women ate forbidden fat, they do not bring a sin offering together and stipulate that it should be for whichever of them ate the forbidden fat. But here, with regard to a woman after a miscarriage, when these women bring their sin offering they do so only in order to become permitted in the consumption of sacrificial food, and therefore the stipulation is effective.,The Gemara cites a proof that this distinction is in fact the opinion of Rabbi Yosei: As it is taught in the latter clause of that mishna that Rabbi Yosei says: With regard to any sin offering that comes as atonement for a sin, two people do not bring it together. This indicates that if a sin offering does not atone for a sin, two people can bring it together.,§ The mishna teaches: And these women do not bring a sin offering, and among them are a woman who gives birth by caesarean section. Rabbi Shimon deems a woman liable to bring an offering in a case where she gives birth by caesarean section. The Gemara asks: What is the reason of Rabbi Shimon? Reish Lakish said that the verse states: “But if she bears a girl” (Leviticus 12:5). The term “she bears” is superfluous in the context of the passage, and it serves to include another type of birth, and what is it? This is a birth by caesarean section.,The Gemara asks: And as for the Rabbis, what is their reasoning? Rabbi Mani bar Pattish said that their ruling is derived from the verse: “If a woman conceives tazria and gives birth to a male” (Leviticus 12:2). The word tazria literally means to receive seed, indicating that all the halakhot mentioned in that passage do not apply unless she gives birth through the place where she receives seed, not through any other place, such as in the case of a caesarean section.,who miscarries a fetus on the night of, i.e., preceding, the eighty-first day, Beit Shammai deem her exempt from bringing a second offering and Beit Hillel deem her liable to bring a second offering.,Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: What is different between the night of the eighty-first and the day of the eighty-first? If they are equal with regard to the halakhot of ritual impurity, i.e., the blood flow of this woman on the eighty-first night renders her ritually impure and all the standard strictures of ritual impurity apply to her, will the two time periods not be equal with regard to liability to bring an additional offering as well?,Beit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: No, there is a difference between that night and the following day. If you said with regard to a woman who miscarries on the eighty-first day that she is obligated to bring an additional offering, this is logical, as she emerged into a period that is fit for her to bring her offering. Would you say the same with regard to a woman who miscarries on the night of the eighty-first day, where she did not emerge into a period that is fit for her to bring her offering, as offerings are not sacrificed at night?,Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: But let the case of a woman who miscarries on the eighty-first day that occurs on Shabbat prove that this distinction is incorrect, as she did not emerge into a period that is fit for her to bring her offering because individual offerings are not sacrificed on Shabbat, and nevertheless she is obligated to bring an additional offering.,Beit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: No, there is a difference between these cases. If you said this ruling with regard to a woman who miscarries on the eighty-first day that occurs on Shabbat, the reason is that although Shabbat is unfit for the sacrifice of an individual offering, it is fit for the sacrifice of a communal offering whose time is fixed, e.g., the daily offering. Would you say the same with regard to a woman who miscarries on the night of the eighty-first day, as the night is completely unfit, since neither an individual offering nor a communal offering is sacrificed at night?,Beit Shammai add: And as for the ritual impurity status of the blood, i.e., Beit Hillel’s opinion that the two time periods are equal with regard to the halakhot of ritual impurity, this does not prove what the halakha should be with regard to offerings, as with regard to a woman who miscarries before the completion of the term of eighty days, her blood is impure like the blood of a woman after childbirth, and nevertheless she is exempt from bringing the offering.'' None
38. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Onqelos, (Targum), • Targum • interpretation, targumic • targum • targum, • targum, and Torah reading

 Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 275; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 89, 138; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 577; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 240; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 162, 185, 186

3a בנס היו עומדין,אין מהוה הוו ולא הוו ידעי הי באמצע תיבה והי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים ותקינו פתוחין באמצע תיבה וסתומין בסוף תיבה,סוף סוף אלה המצות שאין נביא עתיד לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,וא"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא תרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו מפי ר\' אליעזר ור\' יהושע תרגום של נביאים יונתן בן עוזיאל אמרו מפי חגי זכריה ומלאכי ונזדעזעה ארץ ישראל ארבע מאות פרסה על ארבע מאות פרסה יצתה בת קול ואמרה מי הוא זה שגילה סתריי לבני אדם,עמד יונתן בן עוזיאל על רגליו ואמר אני הוא שגליתי סתריך לבני אדם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא אלא לכבודך עשיתי שלא ירבו מחלוקת בישראל,ועוד ביקש לגלות תרגום של כתובים יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו דייך מ"ט משום דאית ביה קץ משיח,ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו והא אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב מאי דכתיב (נחמיה ח, ח) ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים מפורש ושום שכל ויבינו במקרא ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים זה מקרא מפורש זה תרגום,ושום שכל אלו הפסוקין ויבינו במקרא אלו פיסקי טעמים ואמרי לה אלו המסורת שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,מאי שנא דאורייתא דלא אזדעזעה ואדנביאי אזדעזעה דאורייתא מיפרשא מלתא דנביאי איכא מילי דמיפרשן ואיכא מילי דמסתמן דכתיב (זכריה יב, יא) ביום ההוא יגדל המספד בירושלם כמספד הדדרימון בבקעת מגידון,ואמר רב יוסף אלמלא תרגומא דהאי קרא לא ידענא מאי קאמר ביומא ההוא יסגי מספדא בירושלים כמספדא דאחאב בר עמרי דקטל יתיה הדדרימון בן טברימון ברמות גלעד וכמספדא דיאשיה בר אמון דקטל יתיה פרעה חגירא בבקעת מגידו,(דניאל י, ז) וראיתי אני דניאל לבדי את המראה והאנשים אשר היו עמי לא ראו את המראה אבל חרדה גדולה נפלה עליהם ויברחו בהחבא מאן נינהו אנשים אמר ר\' ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא זה חגי זכריה ומלאכי,אינהו עדיפי מיניה ואיהו עדיף מינייהו אינהו עדיפי מיניה דאינהו נביאי ואיהו לאו נביא איהו עדיף מינייהו דאיהו חזא ואינהו לא חזו,וכי מאחר דלא חזו מ"ט איבעיתו אע"ג דאינהו לא חזו מזלייהו חזו,אמר רבינא שמע מינה האי מאן דמיבעית אע"ג דאיהו לא חזי מזליה חזי מאי תקנתיה ליקרי ק"ש ואי קאים במקום הטנופת לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע גרמידי ואי לא לימא הכי עיזא דבי טבחי שמינא מינאי:,והשתא דאמרת מדינה ומדינה ועיר ועיר לדרשה משפחה ומשפחה למאי אתא אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא להביא משפחות כהונה ולויה שמבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,תניא נמי הכי כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה מכאן סמכו של בית רבי שמבטלין תלמוד תורה ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה קל וחומר מעבודה ומה עבודה שהיא חמורה מבטלינן תלמוד תורה לא כל שכן,ועבודה חמורה מתלמוד תורה והכתיב (יהושע ה, יג) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו וישא עיניו וירא והנה איש עומד לנגדו וגו\' וישתחו (לאפיו),והיכי עביד הכי והאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אסור לאדם שיתן שלום לחבירו בלילה חיישינן שמא שד הוא שאני התם דאמר ליה כי אני שר צבא ה\',ודלמא משקרי גמירי דלא מפקי שם שמים לבטלה,אמר לו אמש בטלתם תמיד של בין הערבים ועכשיו בטלתם תלמוד תורה אמר לו על איזה מהן באת אמר לו עתה באתי מיד (יהושע ח, ט) וילן יהושע בלילה ההוא בתוך העמק אמר רבי יוחנן 31a ברכות וקללות אין מפסיקין בקללות אלא אחד קורא את כולן,בשני ובחמישי בשבת במנחה קורין כסדרן ואין עולים להם מן החשבון,שנאמר (ויקרא כג, מד) וידבר משה את מועדי ה\' אל בני ישראל מצותן שיהו קורין כל אחד ואחד בזמנו:,3a stood by way of a miracle?,The Gemara answers: Yes, two forms of these letters did exist at that time, but the people did not know which one of them was to be used in the middle of the word and which at the end of the word, and the Seers came and established that the open forms are to used be in the middle of the word and the closed forms at the end of the word.,The Gemara asks: Ultimately, however, doesn’t the phrase “these are the commandments” (Leviticus 27:34) indicate that a prophet is not permitted to initiate any matter of halakha from now on? Rather, it may be suggested that the final letters already existed at the time of the giving of the Torah, but over the course of time the people forgot them, and the prophets then came and reestablished them.,§ The Gemara cites another ruling of Rabbi Yirmeya or Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba. Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who said: The Aramaic translation of the Torah used in the synagogues was composed by Onkelos the convert based on the teachings of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua. The Aramaic translation of the Prophets was composed by Yonatan ben Uzziel based on a tradition going back to the last prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The Gemara relates that when Yonatan ben Uzziel wrote his translation, Eretz Yisrael quaked over an area of four hundred parasangs parsa by four hundred parasangs, and a Divine Voice emerged and said: Who is this who has revealed My secrets to mankind?,Yonatan ben Uzziel stood up on his feet and said: I am the one who has revealed Your secrets to mankind through my translation. However, it is revealed and known to You that I did this not for my own honor, and not for the honor of the house of my father, but rather it was for Your honor that I did this, so that discord not increase among the Jewish people. In the absence of an accepted translation, people will disagree about the meaning of obscure verses, but with a translation, the meaning will be clear.,And Yonatan ben Uzziel also sought to reveal a translation of the Writings, but a Divine Voice emerged and said to him: It is enough for you that you translated the Prophets. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that he was denied permission to translate the Writings? Because it has in it a revelation of the end, when the Messiah will arrive. The end is foretold in a cryptic manner in the book of Daniel, and were the book of Daniel translated, the end would become manifestly revealed to all.,The Gemara asks: Was the translation of the Torah really composed by Onkelos the convert? Didn’t Rav Ika bar Avin say that Rav Ḥael said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written with respect to the days of Ezra: “And they read in the book, the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and they caused them to understand the reading” (Nehemiah\xa08:8)? The verse should be understood as follows: “And they read in the book, the Torah of God,” this is the scriptural text; “distinctly,” this is the translation, indicating that they immediately translated the text into Aramaic, as was customary during public Torah readings.,“And they gave the sense,” these are the divisions of the text into separate verses. “And they caused them to understand the reading,” these are the cantillation notes, through which the meaning of the text is further clarified. And some say that these are the Masoretic traditions with regard to the manner in which each word is to be written. This indicates that the Aramaic translation already existed at the beginning of the Second Temple period, well before the time of Onkelos. The Gemara answers: The ancient Aramaic translation was forgotten and then Onkelos came and reestablished it.,The Gemara asks: What is different about the translation of Prophets? Why is it that when Onkelos revealed the translation of the Torah, Eretz Yisrael did not quake, and when he revealed the translation of the Prophets, it quaked? The Gemara explains: The meaning of matters discussed in the Torah is clear, and therefore its Aramaic translation did not reveal the meaning of passages that had not been understood previously. Conversely, in the Prophets, there are matters that are clear and there are matters that are obscure, and the Aramaic translation revealed the meaning of obscure passages. The Gemara cites an example of an obscure verse that is clarified by the Aramaic translation: As it is written: “On that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon” (Zechariah 12:11).,And with regard to that verse, Rav Yosef said: Were it not for the Aramaic translation of this verse, we would not have known what it is saying, as the Bible does not mention any incident involving Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. The Aramaic translation reads as follows: On that day, the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning for Ahab, son of Omri, who was slain by Hadadrimmon, son of Tavrimon, in Ramoth-Gilead, and like the mourning for Josiah, son of Amon, who was slain by Pharaoh the lame in the valley of Megiddon. The translation clarifies that the verse is referring to two separate incidents of mourning, and thereby clarifies the meaning of this verse.,§ The Gemara introduces another statement from the same line of tradition. The verse states: “And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, for the men who were with me did not see the vision; but a great trembling fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves” (Daniel 10:7). Who were these men? The term “men” in the Bible indicates important people; who were they? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who said: These are the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.,The Gemara comments: In certain ways they, the prophets, were greater than him, Daniel, and in certain ways he, Daniel, was greater than them. They were greater than him, as they were prophets and he was not a prophet. Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were sent to convey the word of God to the Jewish people, while Daniel was not sent to reveal his visions to others. In another way, however, he was greater than them, as he saw this vision, and they did not see this vision, indicating that his ability to perceive obscure and cryptic visions was greater than theirs.,The Gemara asks: Since they did not see the vision, what is the reason that they were frightened? The Gemara answers: Even though they did not see the vision, their guardian angels saw it, and therefore they sensed that there was something fearful there and they fled.,Ravina said: Learn from this incident that with regard to one who is frightened for no apparent reason, although he does not see anything menacing, his guardian angel sees it, and therefore he should take steps in order to escape the danger. The Gemara asks: What is his remedy? He should recite Shema, which will afford him protection. And if he is standing in a place of filth, where it is prohibited to recite verses from the Torah, he should distance himself four cubits from his current location in order to escape the danger. And if he is not able to do so, let him say the following incantation: The goat of the slaughterhouse is fatter than I am, and if a calamity must fall upon something, it should fall upon it.,§ After this digression, the Gemara returns to the exposition of a verse cited above. Now that you have said that the phrases “every province” and “every city” appear for the purposes of midrashic exposition, for what exposition do the words “every family” appear in that same verse (Esther 9:28)? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: These words come to include the priestly and Levitical families, and indicate that they cancel their service in the Temple and come to hear the reading of the Megilla.,As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The priests at their Temple service, the Levites on their platform in the Temple, where they sung the daily psalm, and the Israelites at their watches, i.e., the group of Israelites, corresponding to the priestly watches, who would come to Jerusalem and gather in other locations as representatives of the entire nation to observe or pray for the success of the Temple service, all cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla.,This is also taught in a baraita: The priests at their service, the Levites on the platform, and the Israelites at their watches, all cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla. The Sages of the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi relied upon the halakha stated here and determined that one cancels his Torah study and comes to hear the reading of the Megilla. They derived this principle by means of an a fortiori inference from the Temple service: Just as one who is engaged in performing service in the Temple, which is very important, cancels his service in order to hear the Megilla, is it not all the more so obvious that one who is engaged in Torah study cancels his study to hear the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: Is the Temple service more important than Torah study? Isn’t it written: “And it came to pass when Joshua was by Jericho that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a man stood over against him with his sword drawn in his hand. And Joshua went over to him and said to him: Are you for us, or for our adversaries? And he said, No, but I am captain of the host of the Lord, I have come now. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down” (Joshua 5:13–14).,The Gemara first seeks to clarify the incident described in the verse. How did Joshua do this, i.e., how could he bow to a figure he did not recognize? Didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: It is prohibited for a person to greet his fellow at night if he does not recognize him, as we are concerned that perhaps it is a demon? How did Joshua know that it was not a demon? The Gemara answers: There it was different, as the visitor said to him: But I am captain of the host of the Lord.,The Gemara asks: Perhaps this was a demon and he lied? The Gemara answers: It is learned as a tradition that demons do not utter the name of Heaven for naught, and therefore since the visitor had mentioned the name of God, Joshua was certain that this was indeed an angel.,As for the angel’s mission, the Gemara explains that the angel said to Joshua: Yesterday, i.e., during the afternoon, you neglected the afternoon daily offering due to the impending battle, and now, at night, you have neglected Torah study, and I have come to rebuke you. Joshua said to him: For which of these sins have you come? He said to him: I have come now, indicating that neglecting Torah study is more severe than neglecting to sacrifice the daily offering. Joshua immediately determined to rectify the matter, as the verses states: “And Joshua lodged that night” (Joshua 8:9) “in the midst of the valley ha’emek” (Joshua 8:13), and Rabbi Yoḥa said: 31a they read the portion of blessings and curses (Leviticus, chapter 26). One should not interrupt the reading of the curses by having two different people read them. Rather, one person reads all of them.,On Mondays, and on Thursdays, and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, they read in accordance with the regular weekly order, i.e., they proceed to read the first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning. However, these readings are not counted as a progression in the reckoning of reading the Torah portions, i.e., they do not proceed on Monday to read the section that immediately follows the section read on Shabbat during the afternoon, and then the following section on Thursday. Rather, until the reading on the following Shabbat morning, they return to and read the same first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning.,On Festivals and holidays, they read a portion relating to the character of the day, as it is stated: “And Moses declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44), which indicates that part of the mitzva of the Festivals is that the people should read the portion relating to them, each one in its appointed time.,The Sages taught in a baraita: On the first day of Passover, the congregation reads from the portion of the Festivals (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), and they read as the haftara the account of the Passover celebrated at Gilgal (Joshua 5:2–14). The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two Festival days of Passover, on the first day they read as the haftara the account of the Passover celebrated at Gilgal, and on the next day they read from the account of the Passover observed by Josiah (II\xa0Kings 23).,The baraita continues: And on the other days of Passover, one collects and reads from various Torah portions of matters relating to Passover. The Gemara asks: What are these portions? Rav Pappa said: A mnemonic for them is mem, alef, peh vav. Each letter stands for a different reading: Mem for the portion of: “Draw out mishkhu and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51); alef for the portion of “If im you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19); peh for the portion of “Hew pesol for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26); and vav for the portion “And the Lord spoke vaydabber” (Numbers 9:1–14).,The baraita continues: On the last Festival day of Passover, they read the portion of “And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go” (Exodus 13:17–15:26), because it includes the account of the splitting of the Red Sea, and they read as the haftara the portion “And David spoke” (II\xa0Samuel 22), which is the song of David. And in the Diaspora, on the next day, the eighth day of Passover, they read the portion “All the firstborns” (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17), and they read as the haftara the portion of “This very day” (Isaiah 10:32–12:6), because it discusses the downfall of Sennacherib, which occurred on the night of Passover.,Abaye said: And nowadays, on the eight days of Passover in the Diaspora, everyone is accustomed to read portions that are indicated by the mnemonic phrase: Draw the bull, sanctify with money, hew in the wilderness, send the firstborn. This alludes to the following portions: “Draw out and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51) and “A bull or a sheep” (Leviticus 22:26–23:44); “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn” (Exodus 13:1–16) and “If you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19); “Hew for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26) and “And the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai” (Numbers 9:1–14); “And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go” (Exodus 13:17–15:26) and “All the firstborns” (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17).,The baraita continues: On Shavuot they read the portion of “Seven weeks,” and they read as the haftara from Habakkuk, chapter 2, since it mentions the giving of the Torah at Sinai. Others say: They read the portion of “In the third month” (Exodus 19:1–20:23), which describes the giving of the Torah, and they read as the haftara from the account of the Divine Chariot (Ezekiel\xa01). The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two days of Shavuot, we act in accordance with both opinions, but in the reverse order. On the first day they read the portion of “In the third month,” and on the second day they read the portion of “Seven weeks.”,The baraita continues: On Rosh HaShana they read the portion of “On the seventh month on the first of the month” (Numbers 29:1–6) and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?” (Jeremiah 31:1–20), as it contains the verse: “I earnestly remember him still,” which recalls God’s love for His people. And some say that they read “And the Lord visited Sarah” (Genesis 21), which describes how God blessed her that she should have a child, and, according to tradition, God blessed her on Rosh HaShana. And they read as the haftara from the account of Hannah (I\xa0Samuel 1:1–2:10), who, according to tradition, was also blessed on Rosh HaShana that she should have a child.,The Gemara comments: And nowadays, when there are two days of Rosh HaShana, on the first day they read Genesis 21 in accordance with the opinion cited as: Some say. And on the next day they read “And God tested Abraham” (Genesis 22), in order to mention the merit of the binding of Isaac on the day of God’s judgment, and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?”,The baraita continues: On Yom Kippur they read the portion of “After the death” (Leviticus 16), and they read as the haftara the portion of “For thus says the High and Lofty One” (Isaiah 57:14–58:14), which deals with fasting and repentance. And during the afternoon service they read from the portion detailing forbidden sexual relations (Leviticus 18) to convey the severity of these transgressions, so that if anyone transgressed any of these prohibitions he will repent on Yom Kippur. And they read as the haftara the book of Jonah, which mentions the repentance of the people of Nineveh.,Having mentioned the haftara read on Yom Kippur, the Gemara cites that which Rabbi Yoḥa said: Wherever you find a reference in the Bible to the might of the Holy One, Blessed be He, you also find a reference to His humility adjacent to it. Evidence of this fact is written in the Torah, repeated in the Prophets, and stated a third time in the Writings.,It is written in the Torah: “For the Lord your God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords” (Deuteronomy 10:17), and it is written immediately afterward: “He executes the judgment of the fatherless and widow” (Deuteronomy 10:18), displaying his humility in caring for even the weakest parts of society. It is repeated in the Prophets: “For thus says the High and Lofty One that inhabits eternity, Whose name is sacred” (Isaiah 57:15), and it is written immediately afterward: “In the high and holy place I dwell with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones” (Isaiah 57:15). It is stated a third time in the Writings, as it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the clouds, Whose name is the Lord” (Psalms 68:5), and it is written immediately afterward: “A father of the fatherless, and a judge of widows” (Psalms 68:6).,The baraita continues: On the first Festival day of Sukkot, they read from the portion of the Festivals found in Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), and they read as the haftara the portion of “Behold the day of the Lord comes” (Zechariah 14), which mentions the festival of Sukkot. The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two Festival days of Sukkot, on the next day, they read the same Torah portion. But what do they read as the haftara? They read the portion of “And all the men of Israel assembled themselves to King Solomon” (I\xa0Kings 8:2–21), which describes events that took place on the festival of Sukkot.,The baraita continues: And on all the other days of Sukkot, they read selections from the portion of the offerings of Sukkot found in the book of Numbers, chapter 29. On the last Festival day of Sukkot, i.e., the Eighth Day of Assembly, they read the portion of “All the firstborns,” starting with the portion of “You shall tithe,” since it includes many mitzvot and statutes relating to gifts for the poor, who should be helped during this period of rejoicing, and it concludes with the halakhot governing firstborns (Deuteronomy 14:22–16:17). And they read as the haftara the portion of “And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying” (I\xa0Kings 8:54–9:1), which occurred on that day. On the next day, the second day of the Eighth Day of Assembly in the Diaspora, they read the portion of “And this is the blessing” (Deuteronomy, chapters 33–34) until the end of the Torah, and they read as the haftara “And Solomon stood” (I\xa0Kings 8:22–53).,Rav Huna said that Rav said: When Shabbat occurs on one of the intermediate days of a Festival, whether on Passover or on Sukkot, they read the Torah portion of “See, You say to me” (Exodus 33:12–34:26), as it includes the halakhot of the Festivals and the intermediate days. They read as the haftara, on Passover, from the portion of the dry bones (Ezekiel 37:1–14), which portrays redemption from servitude, and on Sukkot they read “And it shall come to pass on that day when Gog shall come” (Ezekiel 38:18–39:16), which speaks of the future redemption.,The baraita continues: On each day of Hanukkah they read a selection from the portion of the dedication of the altar by the tribal princes (Numbers 7), and they read as the haftara from the portion of the lamps of Zechariah (Zechariah 2:14–4:7). The Gemara comments: And if it occurs that there are two Shabbatot during Hanukkah, on the first Shabbat they read from the portion of the lamps of Zechariah, and on the latter one they read from the portion of the lamps of Solomon (I\xa0Kings 7:40–50), which discusses the lamps in the Temple.,The baraita continues: On Purim they read the portion of “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8–16). On the New Moon they read the portion of “And in the beginnings of your month” (Numbers 28:11–15). When the New Moon occurs on Shabbat, they read as the haftara the portion that concludes with “And it shall come to pass that every New Moon, and every Shabbat, shall all flesh come to bow down on the ground before Me” (Isaiah 66), as it mentions both Shabbat and the New Moon. When the New Moon occurs on Sunday, on the previous day, i.e., Shabbat, they read as the haftara the portion of “And Jonathan said to him: Tomorrow is the New Moon” (I\xa0Samuel 20:18–42), which describes events that took place on the eve of the New Moon.,Rav Huna said:'' None
39. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Onqelos, (Targum), • Qumran, targumim • Septuagint, and targumim • Targum • Targum Neofiti • Targum Onqelos • Targum Pseudo-Jonathan • Temple Mount, targum • targum, • targum, dating

 Found in books: Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 89; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 160; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 186

37b אם אבדו אינו חייב באחריותן ואם היה שכיר שבת שכיר חדש שכיר שנה שכיר שבוע נותן לו שכר שבת לפיכך אם אבדו חייב באחריותן,אלא גבי שבת היינו טעמא דאין קוראין בתחילה משום דיפנו אבהתהון דינוקי למצותא דשבתא ואיבעית אימא משום דבשבתא אכלין ושתין ויקיר עליהון עלמא כדאמר שמואל שינוי וסת תחילת חולי מעיים,ולמאן דאמר שכר פיסוק טעמים מאי טעמא לא אמר שכר שימור קסבר בנות מי קא בעיין שימור,ולמאן דאמר שכר שימור מאי טעמא לא אמר שכר פיסוק טעמים קסבר (שכר) פיסוק טעמים דאורייתא הוא,דאמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב מאי דכתיב (נחמיה ח, ח) ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים מפורש ושום שכל ויבינו במקרא ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים זה מקרא מפורש זה תרגום ושום שכל אלו הפסוקים ויבינו במקרא זה פיסוק טעמים ואמרי לה אלו המסורות,אמר רבי יצחק מקרא סופרים ועיטור סופרים וקריין ולא כתיבן וכתיבן ולא קריין הלכה למשה מסיני,מקרא סופרים אָרֶץ שָׁמַיִם מִצְרַיִם,עיטור סופרים אחר תעבורו (בראשית יח, ה) אחר תלכו (בראשית כד, נה) אחר תאסף (במדבר יב, יד) קדמו שרים אחר נוגנים (תהלים סח, כו) צדקתך כהררי אל (תהלים לו, ז),קריין ולא כתיבן פרת דבלכתו (שמואל ב ח, ג) איש דכאשר ישאל איש בדבר האלהים (שמואל ב טז, כג) באים דונבנתה (ירמיהו לא, לח) לה דפליטה (ירמיהו נ, כט) את דהגד הוגד (רות ב, יא) אלי דהגורן (רות ג, ה) אלי דהשעורים (רות ג, יז) הלין קריין ולא כתבן,וכתבן ולא קריין נא דיסלח (מלכים ב ה, יח)'' None37b if the items that the laborer was entrusted to watch were lost on Shabbat, he does not bear ficial responsibility to compensate the owners for them, since he is not a paid bailee on that day. And if he is a laborer hired for a week, hired for a month, hired for a year, or hired for seven years, the one who hired him gives him payment for labor performed on Shabbat as well. Therefore, if the items were lost on Shabbat, he bears ficial responsibility to compensate the owners for them. If payment for Shabbat is incorporated within payment for a longer period, it is not prohibited to accept payment for permitted actions performed on Shabbat.,Rather, with regard to Shabbat, this is the reason that children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat, so that the fathers of the children will be at leisure to fulfill the mitzva of delighting in Shabbat. Teaching new material to their children would occupy more of their fathers’ time, limiting their opportunity to fulfill that mitzva. And if you wish, say instead: Due to the fact that on Shabbat children eat and drink more than they are accustomed to eating, their world is heavy upon them, i.e., their head and their limbs are sluggish, and they are incapable of concentrating and studying well, as Shmuel said: A change in routine veset in eating and the like causes the onset of an intestinal ailment.,And according to the one who says that the payment for teach-ing Bible is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, and therefore in the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow, that other person may not teach his sons and daughters Bible, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for watching the children? The Gemara answers: He holds: Do girls need watching? They stay home and are not accustomed to going out.,The Gemara asks: And according to the one who says that the payment for teaching Bible is payment for watching the children, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes? The Gemara answers: He holds that the punctuation of the text with cantillation notes is by Torah law; therefore, it is included in the prohibition against taking payment for teaching Torah.,This is as Rav Ika bar Avin said that Rav Ḥael said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And they read in the book, in the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading” (Nehemiah 8:8)? The Gemara explains: “They read in the book, in the Torah of God”; that is the Bible. “Distinctly”; that is the Aramaic translation. “And they gave the sense”; these are the division into verses. “And caused them to understand the reading”; this is punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, which facilitate the understanding of the verses. And some say: These are the traditions that determine the proper vocalization of the Bible. Rav holds that the cantillation notes are an integral part of Torah study.,On a related note, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: The vocalization of the scribes, and the ornamentation of the scribes, and the verses with words that are read but not written, and those that are written but not read are all halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai.,The Gemara elaborates: The vocalization of the scribes is referring to words that when they appear at the end of phrases, clauses, or verses, their vocalization changes, e.g., eretz with a segol under the letter alef to aretz with a kamatz under the letter alef; shamayim with a pataḥ under the letter mem, to shamayim with a kamatz under the letter mem; and mitzrayim with a pataḥ under the letter reish, to mitzrayim with a kamatz under the letter reish.,The ornamentation of the scribes are expressions that the scribes understood in a manner that differs slightly from its plain understanding. For example: “Then aḥar go on” (Genesis 18:5); “then aḥar she will go” (Genesis 24:55); “afterward aḥar you will be gathered” (Numbers 31:2); “the singers go before, the minstrels follow after aḥar (Psalms 68:26); “Your righteousness is like the mighty mountains” (Psalms 36:7).,Words that are read but not written are included in the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. For example, the word “Euphrates” that is in the phrase “as he went to establish his control over the river Euphrates” (II\xa0Samuel 8:3) is not written in the text of the Bible. The same is true for the word “man” that is in the verse “now the counsel of Ahithophel, which he counseled in those days, was as if a man inquired of the word of God” (II\xa0Samuel 16:23); and for the word “come” that is in the verse “behold, the days come, says the Lord, that the city shall be built to the Lord from the tower of Hael unto the gate of the corner” (Jeremiah 31:37); and for “her” that is in the phrase “let her not have escape” (Jeremiah 50:29); unto that is in the verse “it has been told me, all that you have done unto your mother-in-law” (Ruth 2:11); and for “to me” that is found in the passage “and she said unto her: All that you say to me I will do. And she went down to the threshing floor” (Ruth 3:4–5); and for “to me” that is in the verse “he gave me these six measures of barley; for he said to me” (Ruth 3:17). These words are read but not written.,And there are words that are written but not read. For example, the word “may” that is in the verse “may God forgive your servant” (II\xa0Kings 5:18) appears in the Bible text but is not vocalized.'' None
40. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum

 Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74

93b קסבר מגדף היינו מברך השם וכתיב במברך את השם (ויקרא כד, טו) ונשא חטאו,וגמר האי חטאו דהכא מחטאו דהתם מה להלן כרת אף כאן נמי כרת,ור\' נתן סבר (במדבר ט, יג) וחדל לעשות הפסח ונכרתה דהאי כי לשון דהא הוא וה"ק רחמנא דהא קרבן ה\' לא הקריב במועדו בראשון,האי חטאו ישא מאי עביד ליה קסבר מגדף לאו היינו מברך את השם וגמר האי חטאו דהתם מהאי חטאו דהכא מה הכא כרת אף התם כרת,ור\' חנניא בן עקביא סבר וחדל לעשות הפסח ונכרתה אי קרבן ה\' לא הקריב במועדו בשני,והאי חטאו ישא מאי עביד ליה כדאמרן,הלכך הזיד בזה ובזה דברי הכל חייב שגג בזה ובזה דברי הכל פטור,הזיד בראשון ושגג בשני לרבי ולר\' נתן מחייבי לרבי חנניא בן עקביא פטור,שגג בראשון והזיד בשני לרבי חייב לר\' נתן ולר\' חנניא בן עקביא פטור:,93b He holds that with regard to the case of the blasphemer mentioned in the verse: “That person blasphemes the Lord and that soul shall be cut off karet from among his people” (Numbers 15:30), this is identical to the case of one who blesses the name of God, a euphemism for cursing God’s name. And it is written with regard to one who blesses the name of God: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15). Therefore, the punishment of karet applies to a sin about which the Torah states: Shall bear his sin.,And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi learned the meaning of this phrase: “And he shall bear his sin,” stated here, with regard to one who did not sacrifice the Paschal lamb, by way of a verbal analogy from the phrase: “Shall bear his sin” stated there, with regard to the blasphemer. Just as later, with regard to the blasphemer, it is referring to the punishment of karet, so too here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, it is referring to the punishment of karet. This concludes the Gemara’s explanation of the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.,And Rabbi Natan holds that the verse should be understood differently. In the verse: “And refrains from offering the Paschal lamb, that soul shall be cut off from his people; because ki he did not bring the offering of the Lord in its appointed season” (Numbers 9:13), this word ki has the meaning of: Because. And this is what the Torah is saying: “Because he did not bring the offering of the Lord in its appointed season,” referring to participating in the Paschal lamb on the first Pesaḥ, he is liable to receive karet.,The Gemara asks: If so, that part of the verse which says: He shall bear his sin, what does Rabbi Natan do with it? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Natan holds that the case of the blasphemer is not identical with the case of one who blesses the name of God; blasphemy refers instead to one who sings praises to false gods. Thus, the Torah does not specify the punishment of one who curses God. He learned the meaning of that phrase “his sin,” there, with regard to one who curses God, by way of a verbal analogy from this phrase “his sin” here, in the case of one who did not offer the Paschal lamb. Just as here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the punishment is karet, so too there, with regard to one who curses God, the phrase: He shall bear his sin, is a reference to the punishment of karet.,And Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya holds that the word ki in the verse should be rendered: If, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi interpreted it, but the verse should be understood as follows: “And refrained from participating in the offering of the Paschal lamb, that soul shall be cut off from his people if he did not bring the offering of the Lord in its appointed season,” which is on the second Pesaḥ.,The Gemara asks: And with regard to that phrase: “He shall bear his sin,” what does Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya do with it? The Gemara answers: He uses it in the same way as Rabbi Natan, as we said above, to derive the punishment for one who curses God.,Therefore, if one intentionally refrained from offering the Paschal lamb on both the first and second Pesaḥ, all agree that he is liable to receive karet. If one unwittingly forgot on both the first and second Pesaḥ, all agree that he is exempt from karet.,If one intentionally refrained from offering the Paschal lamb on the first Pesaḥ and unwittingly forgot on the second, according to the opinions of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Rabbi Natan he is liable to receive karet, because he intentionally refrained from offering the sacrifice on the first Pesaḥ and did not rectify his mistake on the second Pesaḥ; however, according to the opinion of Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya he is exempt, because he holds that one is liable only if he intentionally refrained both times from offering the Paschal lamb.,If one unwittingly forgot on the first Pesaḥ and intentionally refrained from bringing the offering on the second Pesaḥ, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi he is liable, because Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi considers the second Pesaḥ an independent Festival that is mandatory for all those who did not offer the Paschal lamb on the first Pesaḥ. According to the opinions of Rabbi Natan and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya, who hold that the second Pesaḥ is a chance to redress the sin of the first Pesaḥ, since he did not intentionally fail to offer the Paschal lamb on the first Pesaḥ, he is exempt from the punishment of karet even if he intentionally failed to offer the Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ.,What is the definition of a distant journey that exempts one from observing the first Pesaḥ? Anywhere from the city of Modi’im and beyond, and from anywhere located an equal distance from Jerusalem and beyond in every direction; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: From the threshold of the Temple courtyard and beyond is considered a distant journey; therefore, anyone located outside the courtyard at the time that the Paschal lamb is slaughtered is exempt from observing the first Pesaḥ. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Therefore, the word is dotted over the letter heh in the word “distant reḥokato say that the meaning of the word should be qualified: It should be understood that it is not because he is really distant; rather, it includes anyone located from the threshold of the Temple courtyard and beyond.,Ulla said: The distance from the city of Modi’im to Jerusalem is fifteen mil. He held like this following opinion that Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: How far can an average person walk on an average day? One can walk ten parasangs parsaot, which are forty mil. This is divided in the following way: From dawn until sunrise one can walk a distance of five mil, and from sunset until the emergence of the stars one can walk another five mil. There are thirty mil remaining that one can walk in a day: Fifteen from the morning until midday, and fifteen from midday until evening.,The Gemara explains that Ulla conforms to his standard line of reasoning below, as Ulla said: What is the definition of a distant journey? It is any distance from which one is unable to reach Jerusalem and enter the Temple by the earliest time of the slaughter of the Paschal lamb. The obligation to slaughter the Paschal lamb begins at noon; therefore, if one is a distance of fifteen mil from the Temple in the morning, he will not be able to arrive there before the time that the offering may be slaughtered.,The Gemara addresses the previously mentioned discussion: The Master said that from dawn until sunrise one can walk a distance of five mil. From where do we derive this? As it is written: “And when the morning arose, the angels hastened Lot, saying: Arise, take your wife and your two daughters that are here, lest you be swept away in the iniquity of the city” (Genesis 19:15), and it is written: “The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came to Zoar” (Genesis 19:23). Therefore, the distance between Sodom and Zoar is the distance one can walk between dawn and sunrise, and Rabbi Ḥanina said: I myself saw that place, and it is a distance of five mil. This serves as a biblical proof that one can walk five mil between dawn and sunrise.,The Gemara discusses the matter of the above statement itself. Ulla said: What is the definition of a distant journey; any journey of a distance from which one is unable to reach Jerusalem and enter the Temple by the earliest time of the slaughter of the Paschal lamb. And Rav Yehuda said: Any journey of a distance from which one is unable to reach Jerusalem, where the Paschal lamb is eaten, and enter during the time of the eating, the following night.,Rabba said to Ulla: According to your opinion it is difficult, and according to Rav Yehuda’s opinion it is difficult. According to your opinion it is difficult, as you said that any journey of a distance from which one is unable to reach Jerusalem and enter the Temple courtyard by the time of the slaughter of the Paschal lamb is considered a distant journey. Yet with regard to one who is ritually impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal, who is unable to enter the Temple courtyard at the time of the slaughter due to his impurity, you said: One may slaughter the Paschal lamb and sprinkle its blood on behalf of one who is ritually impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal, even though he will only become pure after nightfall, when the Paschal lamb is eaten.,And according to Rav Yehuda’s opinion it is difficult, as he said that any journey of a distance from which one is unable to enter Jerusalem during the time of the eating is considered a distant journey; yet with regard to one who is ritually impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal, who is able to enter Jerusalem and participate in consuming the offering at the time of the eating, he said the opposite: One may not slaughter the Paschal lamb and sprinkle its blood on behalf of one who is ritually impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal, even though he will be able to immerse and become ritually pure by nightfall, when the offering is to be eaten.,Ulla said to him: According to my opinion it is not difficult, and according to Rav Yehuda’s opinion it is not difficult. According to my opinion it is not difficult because I hold that the concept of a distant journey applies only to one who is ritually pure, and the principle of a distant journey does not apply to one who is ritually impure. If one is ritually impure at the time of the slaughter, his obligation is immediately deferred to the second Pesaḥ regardless of the fact that he will become ritually pure in time to eat the offering at nightfall.'' None
41. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum • gymnasiarch, and targum • targum, Late Antiquity • targum, and Torah reading • targum, and midrash, study of

 Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 401, 578; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 161

49a גט פשוט עדיו מתוכו מקושר עדיו מאחוריו פשוט שכתבו עדיו מאחוריו ומקושר שכתבו עדיו מתוכו שניהם פסולים ר\' חנינא בן גמליאל אומר מקושר שכתבו עדיו מתוכו כשר שיכול לעשותו פשוט רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הכל כמנהג המדינה,והוינן בה ותנא קמא לית ליה מנהג המדינה ואמר רב אשי באתרא דנהיגי בפשוט ועבד ליה מקושר א"נ באתרא דנהיגי במקושר ועבד ליה פשוט כולי עלמא לא פליגי דודאי קפידא,כי פליגי באתרא דנהיגי בין בפשוט בין במקושר ואמר ליה עביד לי פשוט ואזל ועבד ליה מקושר מר סבר קפידא ומר סבר מראה מקום הוא לו,ר\' אלעזר דתנן האשה שאמרה התקבל לי גיטי ממקום פלוני וקבל לה גיטה ממקום אחר פסול ורבי אלעזר מכשיר אלמא קסבר מראה מקום היא לו,אמר עולא מחלוקת בשבח ממון אבל בשבח יוחסין דברי הכל אינה מקודשת מאי טעמא מסאנא דרב מכרעאי לא בעינא תניא נמי הכי מודה ר\' שמעון אם הטעה לשבח יוחסים אינה מקודשת,אמר רב אשי מתניתין נמי דיקא דקתני ע"מ שאני כהן ונמצא לוי לוי ונמצא כהן נתין ונמצא ממזר ממזר ונמצא נתין ולא פליג ר"ש,מתקיף לה מר בר רב אשי אלא דקתני ע"מ שיש לי בת או שפחה מגודלת ואין לו על מנת שאין לו ויש לו דשבח ממון הוא הכי נמי דלא פליג,אלא פליג ברישא וה"ה לסיפא הכא נמי פליג ברישא וה"ה לסיפא,הכי השתא התם אידי ואידי דשבח ממון פליג ברישא והוא הדין בסיפא הכא דשבח יוחסים הוא אם איתא דפליג נתני,איבעית אימא הכא נמי שבח יוחסים מי סברת מאי מגודלת גדולה ממש מאי מגודלת גדלת דאמרה היא לא ניחא לי דשקלה מילי מינאי ואזלא נדיא קמי שיבבותיי,תנו רבנן על מנת שאני קריינא כיון שקרא שלשה פסוקים בבית הכנסת הרי זו מקודשת ר\' יהודה אומר עד שיקרא ויתרגם יתרגם מדעתיה והתניא ר\' יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף עליו הרי זה מחרף ומגדף אלא מאי תרגום תרגום דידן,והני מילי דא"ל קריינ\' אבל אמר לה קרא אנא עד דקרי אורייתא נביאי וכתובי בדיוקא,על מנת שאני שונה חזקיה אמר הלכות ור\' יוחנן אמר תורה,מיתיבי איזו היא משנה ר\' מאיר אומר הלכות ר\' יהודה אומר מדרש'' None49a In an ordinary document, its witnesses are to sign inside it, i.e., on the written side of the paper. In a folded and tied document, its witnesses are to sign on the back of it. With regard to an ordinary document whose witnesses wrote their signatures on the back of it, or a tied document whose witnesses wrote their signatures inside of it, both of these are not valid. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel says: A tied document whose witnesses wrote their signatures inside of it is valid, because one can transform it into an ordinary document by untying it. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everything is in accordance with regional custom. If an ordinary document is generally used and one wrote a bound one, or vice versa, the document is invalid.,And we discussed it: And does the first tanna not accept that one should follow the regional custom? It is not reasonable that he should take issue with such a basic concept. And Rav Ashi says that they have a dispute in a case where one instructed a scribe to write a document for him: If they are in a place where the custom is to write an ordinary document, and he made a tied one for him; alternatively, if they are in a place where the custom is to write a tied document, and he made an ordinary one for him; in both of these cases, everyone agrees that he was certainly particular in his instructions to the agent that he should follow the regional custom, and if the latter deviated from the custom the document is invalid.,The situation in which they disagree is where they are in a place where the custom is to use either an ordinary document or a tied one, and the one requesting the document said to the scribe: Make an ordinary document for me, and the scribe went and made a tied document for him. In such a case, one Sage, the first tanna, holds that the one requesting the document was particular about wanting an ordinary document, and since the scribe wrote a tied document, it is considered to have been written without his consent. And one Sage, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, holds that the one requesting the document merely indicating his position to the scribe, stating that if the scribe wanted to save himself the trouble of writing a tied document there would no objection.,Rabbi Elazar also holds that when one instructs an agent in such a manner he is merely indicating his position to him, as we learned in a mishna (Gittin 65a): If there was a woman who said to her agent: Receive my bill of divorce for me from my husband in such and such a place, and he received her bill of divorce for her elsewhere, it is invalid. And Rabbi Elazar deems it valid. Apparently, he holds that she is merely indicating a place to him where he can receive the bill of divorce, but she does not insist that he accept it in that particular spot.,§ Ulla says: The dispute in the mishna between the first tanna and Rabbi Shimon is only where he misled her with enhanced monetary value, i.e., he gave her something worth more than the item he had stipulated. But where he misled her with enhanced lineage, so that she was under the impression that his genealogy was less impressive than it in fact is, everyone agrees that she is not betrothed. What is the reason for this? A woman says: I do not desire a shoe that is larger than my foot. She does not wish to marry a man whose social standing is far greater than her own. This is also taught in a baraita (Tosefta 2:6): Rabbi Shimon concedes that if he misled her with enhanced lineage, she is not betrothed.,Rav Ashi says: The wording of the mishna is also precise, as the following mishna (49b) teaches: If one betroths a woman and states that the betrothal is: On the condition that I am a priest, and he was found to be a Levite; or: On the condition that I am a Levite, and he was found to be a priest; or: On the condition that I am a Gibeonite, a people prohibited by rabbinic law from marrying into the congregation, i.e., from marrying a Jew of fit lineage, and he was found to be a mamzer, who is prohibited by Torah law from marrying into the congregation; or: On the condition that I am a mamzer, and he was found to be a Gibeonite, in all of these cases she is not betrothed. And Rabbi Shimon does not disagree with these rulings. This indicates that if one misled a woman with regard to his lineage, Rabbi Shimon concedes that she is not betrothed.,Mar bar Rav Ashi objects to this inference: But what about that which is taught in the same mishna: If one betroths a woman and states that the betrothal is: On the condition that I have a grown daughter or maidservant, and he does not have one; or if one betroths a woman on the condition that he does not have a grown daughter or maidservant and he does have one, the latter of which is an issue of enhanced monetary value, as the difference between one who has a maidservant and one who does not impacts how hard the woman will have to work in the home; in these cases will you also say that Rabbi Shimon does not disagree simply because the mishna does not mention his opinion in that case?,Rather, it must be that he disagrees in the first clause of the mishna with regard to enhanced monetary value, and the same is true with regard to the latter clause, i.e., he also disagrees in that clause, and it was not necessary to state his dispute another time. Here too, with regard to lineage, he disagrees in the first clause, and the same is true with regard to the latter clause.,The Gemara rejects this: How can these cases be compared? There, where both this case and that case involve an inaccuracy of enhanced monetary value, it is possible that he disagreed in the first clause and the same is true in the last clause, and the mishna did not need to restate his opinion. But here, where it is a case of enhanced lineage, which is a different issue, if it is so that Rabbi Shimon disagrees, let him teach that explicitly. The fact that no dispute is recorded in the case of enhanced lineage is proof that he concedes in that case.,If you wish, say instead: Here too, the issue of a daughter or maidservant involves enhanced lineage, not enhanced monetary value. His statement should be understood differently. Do you maintain that what is the meaning of his statement that he has a grown daughter or maidservant; that she is actually grown up, so that she can be of help to his wife? That is not the meaning of his statement. Rather, what is the meaning of: Grown? That she grows and plaits hair, i.e., he has a daughter or maidservant who is a hairdresser. Why might the potential bride view this as a drawback? Because she can say: It is not satisfactory for me to live in the house with a hairdresser, as she will take words she hears from me and will go pass them before my neighbors, meaning she will gossip about me to others. This concern is more akin to a matter of lineage than a matter of monetary value.,§ The Sages taught: If one said to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am literate with regard to the Torah, once he has read three verses in the synagogue she is betrothed. Rabbi Yehuda says that she is not betrothed until he reads and translates the verses. The Gemara asks: Does Rabbi Yehuda mean that one translates according to his own understanding? But isn’t it taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Megilla 3:21) that Rabbi Yehuda says: One who translates a verse literally is a liar, since he distorts the meaning of the text, and conversely, one who adds his own translation is tantamount to one who curses and blasphemes God? Rather, to which translation is Rabbi Yehuda referring? He is referring to our accepted translation.,And this statement applies only if he said to her: I am literate, but if he said to her: I am a reader, this indicates that he is an expert in the reading of the Torah, and she is not betrothed unless he knows how to read the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings with precision.,The Gemara discusses a similar case: If one said to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I study shoneh, Ḥizkiyya says it means that he studies halakhot, and Rabbi Yoḥa says it means that he studies Torah, i.e., the written Torah.,The Gemara raises an objection to Rabbi Yoḥa from a baraita: What is the meaning of: Mishna? Rabbi Meir says halakhot, Rabbi Yehuda says homiletics. Neither of them, however, says that it refers to the written Torah.'' None
42. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic, Targum, targumic • Neofiti, Targum • Targum • Targum, • interpretation, targumic • targum • targum,

 Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 201; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 279; Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 324; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 255, 267; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 177; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 188

38b גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו\',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו\' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה\' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה\' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר\' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה\' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה\' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר\' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר\' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה\' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו\',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר\' ישמעאל בר\' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה\' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה\' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר\' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר\' יוחנן ג\' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש'65b מתיב ר\' זירא יצאו עדים זוממין שאין בהן מעשה ואמאי הא ליתנהו בלב,אמר רבא שאני עדים זוממין הואיל וישנו בקול,וקול לרבי יוחנן לאו מעשה הוא והא איתמר חסמה בקול והנהיגה בקול רבי יוחנן אמר חייב ור"ל אמר פטור,רבי יוחנן אמר חייב עקימת פיו הוי מעשה ר"ל אמר פטור עקימת פיו לא הוי מעשה,אלא אמר רבא שאני עדים זוממין הואיל וישנן בראיה,ת"ר בעל אוב זה המדבר בין הפרקים ומבין אצילי ידיו ידעוני זה המניח עצם ידוע בפיו והוא מדבר מאליו,מיתיבי (ישעיהו כט, ד) והיה כאוב מארץ קולך מאי לאו דמשתעי כי אורחיה לא דסליק ויתיב בין הפרקים ומשתעי,תא שמע (שמואל א כח, יג) ותאמר האשה אל שאול אלהים ראיתי עולים מן הארץ מאי לאו דמשתעי כי אורחיה לא דיתיב בין הפרקים ומשתעי,ת"ר בעל אוב אחד המעלה בזכורו ואחד הנשאל בגולגולת מה בין זה לזה מעלה בזכורו אינו עולה כדרכו ואינו עולה בשבת נשאל בגולגולת עולה כדרכו ועולה בשבת,עולה להיכא סליק הא קמיה מנח אלא אימא עונה כדרכו ועונה בשבת,ואף שאלה זו שאל טורנוסרופוס את ר"ע אמר לו ומה יום מיומים אמר לו ומה גבר מגוברין א"ל דמרי צבי שבת נמי דמרי צבי,א"ל הכי קאמינא לך מי יימר דהאידנא שבתא אמר לו נהר סבטיון יוכיח בעל אוב יוכיח קברו של אביו יוכיח שאין מעלה עשן בשבת אמר לו ביזיתו ביישתו וקיללתו,שואל אוב היינו ודורש אל המתים,דורש למתים כדתניא (דברים יח, יא) ודורש אל המתים זה המרעיב עצמו והולך ולן בבה"ק כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טומאה,וכשהיה ר"ע מגיע למקרא זה היה בוכה ומה המרעיב עצמו כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טומאה שורה עליו רוח טומאה המרעיב עצמו כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טהרה על אחת כמה וכמה אבל מה אעשה שעונותינו גרמו לנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, ב) כי אם עונותיכם היו מבדילים ביניכם לבין אלהיכם,אמר רבא אי בעו צדיקי ברו עלמא שנאמר כי עונותיכם היו מבדילים וגו\',רבא ברא גברא שדריה לקמיה דר\' זירא הוה קא משתעי בהדיה ולא הוה קא מהדר ליה אמר ליה מן חבריא את הדר לעפריך,רב חנינא ורב אושעיא הוו יתבי כל מעלי שבתא ועסקי בספר יצירה ומיברו להו עיגלא תילתא ואכלי ליה,תנו רבנן מעונן ר\' שמעון אומר זה המעביר שבעה מיני זכור על העין וחכ"א זה האוחז את העינים ר"ע אומר זה המחשב עתים ושעות ואומר היום יפה לצאת למחר יפה ליקח לימודי ערבי שביעיות חיטין יפות עיקורי קטניות מהיות רעות,תנו רבנן מנחש זה האומר פתו נפלה מפיו מקלו נפלה מידו בנו קורא לו מאחריו עורב קורא לו צבי הפסיקו בדרך נחש מימינו ושועל משמאלו 98a מלכים יראו וקמו שרים וישתחוו,אמר לו רבי אליעזר והלא כבר נאמר (ירמיהו ד, א) אם תשוב ישראל נאום ה\' אלי תשוב אמר לו רבי יהושע והלא כבר נאמר (דניאל יב, ז) ואשמע את האיש לבוש הבדים אשר ממעל למימי היאור וירם ימינו ושמאלו אל השמים וישבע בחי העולם כי למועד מועדים וחצי וככלות נפץ יד עם קדש תכלינה כל אלה וגו\' ושתק רבי אליעזר,ואמר רבי אבא אין לך קץ מגולה מזה שנאמר (יחזקאל לו, ח) ואתם הרי ישראל ענפכם תתנו ופריכם תשאו לעמי ישראל וגו\' רבי (אליעזר) אומר אף מזה שנאמר (זכריה ח, י) כי לפני הימים (האלה) ההם שכר האדם לא נהיה ושכר הבהמה איננה וליוצא ולבא אין שלום מן הצר,מאי ליוצא ולבא אין שלום מן הצר רב אמר אף תלמידי חכמים שכתוב בהם שלום דכתיב (תהלים קיט, קסה) שלום רב לאהבי תורתך אין שלום מפני צר ושמואל אמר עד שיהיו כל השערים כולן שקולין,אמר רבי חנינא אין בן דוד בא עד שיתבקש דג לחולה ולא ימצא שנאמר (יחזקאל לב, יד) אז אשקיע מימיהם ונהרותם כשמן אוליך וכתב (בתריה) (יחזקאל כט, כא) ביום ההוא אצמיח קרן לבית ישראל,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא אין בן דוד בא עד שתכלה מלכות הזלה מישראל שנאמר (ישעיהו יח, ה) וכרת הזלזלים במזמרות וכתיב בתריה בעת ההיא יובל שי לה\' צבאות עם ממשך ומורט,אמר זעירי אמר רבי חנינא אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו גסי הרוח מישראל שנאמר (צפניה ג, יא) כי אז אסיר מקרבך עליזי גאותך וכתיב (צפניה ג, יב) והשארתי בקרבך עם עני ודל וחסו בשם ה\',אמר רבי שמלאי משום רבי אלעזר בר"ש אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל שופטים ושוטרים מישראל שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כה) ואשיבה ידי עליך ואצרוף כבור סיגיך וגו\' ואשיבה שופטיך,אמר עולא אין ירושלים נפדית אלא בצדקה שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כז) ציון במשפט תפדה ושביה בצדקה אמר רב פפא אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי אי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי דכתיב (ישעיהו א, כה) ואצרוף כבור סיגיך ואסירה כל בדיליך ואי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי דכתיב (צפניה ג, טו) הסיר ה\' משפטיך פנה אויבך,אמר ר\' יוחנן אם ראית דור שמתמעט והולך חכה לו שנאמר (שמואל ב כב, כח) ואת עם עני תושיע וגו\' אמר רבי יוחנן אם ראית דור שצרות רבות באות עליו כנהר חכה לו שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, יט) כי יבא כנהר צר (ו) רוח ה\' נוססה בו וסמיך ליה ובא לציון גואל,ואמר רבי יוחנן אין בן דוד בא אלא בדור שכולו זכאי או כולו חייב בדור שכולו זכאי דכתיב (ישעיהו ס, כא) ועמך כולם צדיקים לעולם יירשו ארץ בדור שכולו חייב דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, טז) וירא כי אין איש וישתומם כי אין מפגיע וכתיב (ישעיהו מח, יא) למעני אעשה,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי רבי יהושע בן לוי רמי כתיב (ישעיהו ס, כב) בעתה וכתיב אחישנה זכו אחישנה לא זכו בעתה,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי רבי יהושע בן לוי רמי כתיב (דניאל ז, יג) וארו עם ענני שמיא כבר אינש אתה וכתיב (זכריה ט, ט) עני ורוכב על חמור זכו עם ענני שמיא לא זכו עני רוכב על חמור,אמר ליה שבור מלכא לשמואל אמריתו משיח על חמרא אתי אישדר ליה סוסיא ברקא דאית לי אמר ליה מי אית לך בר חיור גווני,ר\' יהושע בן לוי אשכח לאליהו דהוי קיימי אפיתחא דמערתא דרבי שמעון בן יוחאי אמר ליה אתינא לעלמא דאתי אמר ליה אם ירצה אדון הזה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שנים ראיתי וקול ג\' שמעתי,אמר ליה אימת אתי משיח אמר ליה זיל שייליה לדידיה והיכא יתיב אפיתחא דקרתא ומאי סימניה יתיב ביני עניי סובלי חלאים וכולן שרו ואסירי בחד זימנא איהו שרי חד ואסיר חד אמר דילמא מבעינא דלא איעכב,אזל לגביה אמר ליה שלום עליך רבי ומורי אמר ליה שלום עליך בר ליואי א"ל לאימת אתי מר א"ל היום אתא לגבי אליהו א"ל מאי אמר לך א"ל שלום עליך בר ליואי א"ל אבטחך לך ולאבוך לעלמא דאתי א"ל שקורי קא שקר בי דאמר לי היום אתינא ולא אתא א"ל הכי אמר לך (תהלים צה, ז) היום אם בקולו תשמעו,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי יוסי בן קיסמא אימתי בן דוד בא אמר מתיירא אני שמא תבקשו ממני אות אמרו לו אין אנו מבקשין ממך אות,א"ל לכשיפול השער הזה ויבנה ויפול ויבנה ויפול ואין מספיקין לבנותו עד שבן דוד בא אמרו לו רבינו תן לנו אות אמר להם ולא כך אמרתם לי שאין אתם מבקשין ממני אות,אמרו לו ואף על פי כן אמר להם אם כך יהפכו מי מערת פמייס לדם ונהפכו לדם,בשעת פטירתו אמר להן העמיקו לי ארוני 99b זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר (משלי טז, כו) נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא,(משלי ו, לב) ונואף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי,אמר וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא (בראשית לו, כב) ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פלגש לאליפז (בראשית ל, יד) וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה יצאה ב"ק ואמרה לו (תהלים נ, כ-כא) תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דופי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך,ועליו מפורש בקבלה (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה מאי כעבות העגלה א"ר אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה,דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא,בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה,וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא בר\' יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי ר\' יונתן אמר (סיבסוך) סביסקי:,א"ר אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ה) או יחזק במעוזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי:,רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ואשים דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטוע שמים וליסד ארץ (אמר ריש לקיש) רבי יוחנן אמר אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ולאמר לציון עמי אתה,אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר (בראשית יב, ה) ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן ר\' (אליעזר) אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אותם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אותם אל תקרי אותם אלא אתם,אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר (שמות יז, ה) ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה:,אפיקורוס: רב ור\' חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן ור\' יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ור\' חנינא אמרי זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו,אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר (בראשית יח, כו) ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם,אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם ' None38b his torso was fashioned from dust taken from Babylonia, and his head was fashioned from dust taken from Eretz Yisrael, the most important land, and his limbs were fashioned from dust taken from the rest of the lands in the world. With regard to his buttocks, Rav Aḥa says: They were fashioned from dust taken from Akra De’agma, on the outskirts of Babylonia.,Rabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hours long, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the first hour of the day, his dust was gathered. In the second, an undefined figure was fashioned. In the third, his limbs were extended. In the fourth, a soul was cast into him. In the fifth, he stood on his legs. In the sixth, he called the creatures by the names he gave them. In the seventh, Eve was paired with him. In the eighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four, i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the ninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. In the tenth, he sinned. In the eleventh, he was judged. In the twelfth, he was expelled and left the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “But man abides not in honor; he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night.,Rami bar Ḥama says in explanation of the end of that verse: A wild animal does not have power over a person unless that person seems to the wild animal like an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.”,The Gemara presents a mnemonic for the statements that follow: At the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them: If you agree, let us fashion a person in our image. The angels said before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions of this person You suggest to create? God said to them: His actions are such and such, according to human nature.,The angels said before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?” (Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God outstretched His small finger among them and burned them with fire. And the same occurred with a second group of angels. The third group of angels that He asked said before Him: Master of the Universe, the first two groups who spoke their mind before You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do. God then created the first person.,When history arrived at the time of the people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion, i.e., the Tower of Babel, whose actions were ruinous, the angels said before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t the first set of angels speak appropriately before You, that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God said to them concerning humanity: “Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you; I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws.,Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man spanned from one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other” (Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. Once Adam sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him.,Rabbi Elazar says: The height of Adam the first man was from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.” Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. Once Adam sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of the verses contradict each other. The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: This and that, from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, are one measure, i.e., the same distance.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man spoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is stated in the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God” (Psalms 139:17).,And this, i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what Reish Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam” (Genesis 5:1)? This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Adam every generation and its Torah interpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived at his vision of the generation of Rabbi Akiva, Adam was gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by his manner of death. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,” i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man was a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”? (Genesis 3:9), meaning, to where has your heart turned, indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He was one who drew his foreskin forward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It is written here: “And they like men adam have transgressed the covet” (Hosea 6:7), and it is written there: “And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covet” (Genesis 17:14).,Rav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principle of belief in God. It is written here: “And they like men adam have transgressed the covet,” and it is written there: “He has broken My covet,” and it is written in a third verse: “And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their God and worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ We learned in a mishna there (Avot 2:14): Rabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic la’apikoros. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This was taught only with regard to a gentile heretic, but not with regard to a Jewish heretic, as one should not respond to him. All the more so, if one does respond he will become more heretical. His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position.,Rabbi Yoḥa says: Any place in the Bible from where the heretics attempt to prove their heresy, i.e., that there is more than one god, the response to their claim is alongside them, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: “Let us make man in our image” (Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, but it then states: “And God created man in His image” (Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: “Come, let us go down and there confound their language” (Genesis 11:7), but it also states: “And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower” (Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: “There God was revealed niglu to him when he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: “To God Who answers haoneh me in the day of my distress” (Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: “For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, kerovim, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: “And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?” (II\xa0Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, halekhu, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld till thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit” (Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, kharsavan, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: Why do I need these instances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above, i.e., the angels, as it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones” (Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This works out well for almost all the verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but what is there to say concerning the verse: “I beheld till thrones were placed”? The Gemara answers: One throne is for Him and one throne is for David, i.e., the messiah, as it is taught in a baraita: One throne is for Him and one throne is for David; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presence by equating God with a person? Rather, the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as one throne is for judgment and one throne is for righteousness.,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva accept this explanation from Rabbi Yosei or did he not accept it from him? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof to the matter from what was taught in another baraita, as it is taught in a baraita: One throne is for judgment and one throne is for righteousness; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near, i.e., discussing, matters of aggada? Go near tractates Nega’im and Oholot, which examine the complex halakhot of ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. Rather, the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, one is for a throne and one is for a stool. There is a throne for God to sit upon, and a stool that serves as His footstool.,Rav Naḥman says: This one, i.e., any person, who knows how to respond to the heretics as effectively as Rav Idit should respond to them, but if he does not know, he should not respond to them. The Gemara relates: A certain heretic said to Rav Idit: It is written in the verse concerning God: “And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord” (Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: It should have stated: Come up to Me. Rav Idit said to him: This term, “the Lord,” in that verse is referring to the angel Metatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written: “Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, for My name is in him” (Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: If so, if this angel is equated with God, we should worship him as we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It is written: “Do not defy tammer him,” which alludes to: Do not replace Me temireni with him. The heretic said to him: If so, why do I need the clause “For he will not pardon your transgression”? Rav Idit said to him: We believe that we did not accept the angel even as a guide befarvanka for the journey, as it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with me raise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: A certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: It is written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: It should have stated: From Him out of heaven. A certain launderer said to Rabbi Yishmael: Leave him be; I will respond to him. This is as it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech, hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: It should have been written: My wives, and not: “Wives of Lemech.” Rather, it is the style of the verse to speak in this manner. Here too, it is the style of the verse to speak in this manner. Rabbi Yishmael said to the launderer: From where did you hear this interpretation? The launderer said to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir.,The Gemara comments: This is as Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third halakha, one-third aggada, and one-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had, i.e., taught, three hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three.'65b Rabbi Zeira raises an objection to Rava’s answer, as it is stated in a baraita that one who unwittingly commits a transgression punishable by death is obligated to bring a sin-offering, excluding conspiring witnesses, who are not obligated to bring a sin-offering, as their transgressions do not involve an action. Rabbi Zeira asks: And why is a false witness’s testimony not considered a transgression that involves an action? The testimony is delivered through speech, which should be considered an action, as this is not a transgression that is committed in the heart; the witnesses are liable for what they said, and not for their intention.,Rava says: Conspiring witnesses are different, since their transgression is committed through their voice. The essence of their transgression is not speech itself but rather making themselves heard by the court. Therefore, since the projection of one’s voice does not involve action, the transgression of conspiring witnesses is considered not be to involving action.,The Gemara asks: And is projecting one’s voice not considered an action according to Rabbi Yoḥa? But wasn’t it stated that amora’im engaged in a dispute concerning the following case: If one muzzled an animal by projecting his voice, by berating it whenever it tried to eat, has he transgressed the prohibition of: “You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the corn” (Deuteronomy 25:4)? And similarly, if one led different species to work together by projecting his voice, without performing any action, has he transgressed the prohibition of: “You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together” (Deuteronomy 22:10)? Rabbi Yoḥa says he is liable, and Reish Lakish says he is exempt.,The Gemara explains the reasoning behind their opinions: Rabbi Yoḥa says he is liable, as he maintains that the twisting of one’s mouth to speak is considered an action, whereas Reish Lakish says he is exempt, because he holds that that the twisting of one’s mouth to speak is not considered an action. Evidently, Rabbi Yoḥa holds that a transgression one commits by projecting his voice is considered to involve an action.,Rather, Rava says there is a different answer to Rabbi Zeira’s objection: Conspiring witnesses are different, since they are rendered liable mainly through sight, i.e., the important part of their testimony is what they saw, which is not considered an action.,§ The Sages taught: A necromancer is one who causes the voice of the dead to be heard speaking from between his joints or from his armpit. A sorcerer yideoni is one who places a bone of an animal called a yadua in his mouth, and the bone speaks on its own.,The Gemara raises an objection from the verse: “And your voice shall be as a ghost out of the ground” (Isaiah 29:4). What, does the dead person not speak from the grave on his own? The Gemara answers: No, this is not so, as the dead person rises by sorcery and sits between the joints of the necromancer and speaks.,The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the statement of the necromancer to King Saul: “And the woman said to Saul, I see a godlike being coming up out of the earth” (I\xa0Samuel 28:13). What, does the verse not mean to say that the dead person spoke on his own? The Gemara refutes this proof: No, this is not so, as the dead person sits between the joints of the necromancer and speaks.,The Sages taught: The category of a necromancer includes both one who raises the dead with his zekhur, which is a form of sorcery, and one who inquires about the future from a skull begulgolet. What is the difference between this type of necromancer and that type of necromancer? When one raises the dead with his zekhur, the dead does not rise in its usual manner, but appears upside-down, and it does not rise on Shabbat. By contrast, when one inquires about the future from a skull, the dead rises in its usual manner, and it rises oleh even on Shabbat.,The Gemara asks with regard to the wording of the last statement: Rises? To where does it rise? Isn’t the skull lying before him? Rather, say as follows: The dead answers in its usual manner, and it answers ve’oneh even on Shabbat.,With regard to the statement that the dead do not rise on Shabbat, the Gemara relates: The wicked Turnus Rufus, the Roman governor of Judea, asked this question of Rabbi Akiva as well. Turnus Rufus said to him: And what makes this day, Shabbat, different from other days? Rabbi Akiva said to him: And what makes this man, referring to his interlocutor, more distinguished than other men? Turnus Rufus said to him: I am more distinguished because my master the emperor wants it that way. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Shabbat too is unique because my Master wants it that way, as he has sanctified that day.,Turnus Rufus said to him: This is what I mean to say to you: Who is to say that now is Shabbat? Perhaps a different day of the week is Shabbat. Rabbi Akiva said to him: The Sabbatyon River can prove that today is Shabbat, as it is calm only on Shabbat. A necromancer can also prove this, as the dead do not rise on Shabbat. The grave of his father, referring to Turnus Rufus’s father, can also prove this, as it does not emit smoke on Shabbat, although smoke rises from it all week, as during the week he is being punished in Gehenna. Turnus Rufus said to him: You have demeaned my father, you have publicly shamed him, and you have cursed him by saying that he is being punished in Gehenna.,§ The Gemara asks: Isn’t one who inquires about the future from a necromancer the same as what is described in the verse: “Or directs inquiries to the dead” (Deuteronomy 18:11)? Why are they mentioned separately in the verse?,The Gemara answers: One who directs inquiries to the dead em-ploys a different method to contact the dead, as it is taught in a baraita: “Or directs inquiries to the dead”; this is one who starves himself and goes and sleeps overnight in a graveyard so that a spirit of impurity should settle upon him, and he can listen to what the dead are saying.,And when Rabbi Akiva would arrive at this verse he would weep and say: If one who starves himself so that a spirit of impurity will settle upon him succeeds in doing so, and a spirit of impurity settles upon him, all the more so one who starves himself so that a spirit of purity will settle upon him should be successful, and a spirit of purity should settle upon him. But what can I do, as our iniquities have caused us not to merit the spirit of sanctity and purity, as it is stated: “But your iniquities have separated between you and your God, and your sins have hid His face from you, that He will not hear” (Isaiah 59:2).,Rava says: If the righteous wish to do so, they can create a world, as it is stated: “But your iniquities have separated between you and your God.” In other words, there is no distinction between God and a righteous person who has no sins, and just as God created the world, so can the righteous.,Indeed, Rava created a man, a golem, using forces of sanctity. Rava sent his creation before Rabbi Zeira. Rabbi Zeira would speak to him but he would not reply. Rabbi Zeira said to him: You were created by one of the members of the group, one of the Sages. Return to your dust.,The Gemara relates another fact substantiating the statement that the righteous could create a world if they so desired: Rav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya would sit every Shabbat eve and engage in the study of Sefer Yetzira, and a third-born calf igla tilta would be created for them, and they would eat it in honor of Shabbat.,§ The Sages taught: What is the definition of the soothsayer mentioned in the verse: “There shall not be found among you…a soothsayer” (Deuteronomy 18:10)? Rabbi Shimon says: This is one who applies seven types of semen zekhur to one’s eye in order to perform sorcery. And the Rabbis say: This is one who deceives the eyes, as though he is performing sorcery. Rabbi Akiva says: This is one who calculates the fortune of times and hours, and says, for example: Today is a propitious day for going away on a journey; tomorrow is propitious for purchasing property successfully. Or he says that on the eve of the Sabbatical Years, the wheat harvest is generally good; uprooting legumes rather than cutting them from above the ground prevents them from going bad.,The Sages taught: The enchanter mentioned in the verse (Deuteronomy 18:10) is one who relies on superstitious signs, e.g., one who says: If one’s bread fell from his mouth, that is a bad sign for him; or: If one’s staff fell from his hand, it is a bad sign; or: If one’s son calls him from behind, it is a sign that he should return from his journey; or: If a raven calls to him, or if a deer blocks him on the way, or if a snake is to his right, or if a fox is to his left, all of these are bad signs. An enchanter is one who relies on these as bad signs and consequently changes his course of action. 98a Kings shall see and arise, princes shall prostrate themselves, because of the Lord, Who is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel, Who has chosen you” (Isaiah 49:7), indicating that redemption will come independent of repentance?,Rabbi Eliezer said to him: But isn’t it already stated: “If you will return, Israel, says the Lord, return to Me” (Jeremiah 4:1), indicating that redemption is contingent upon repentance? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: But isn’t it already stated: “And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand to heaven and swore by the One Who lives forever that it shall be for a period, periods, and a half; when the crushing of the power of the holy people shall have been completed, all these things shall be finished” (Daniel 12:7), indicating that the time for redemption is set and unrelated to repentance? And Rabbi Eliezer was silent, unable to refute the proof from that verse.,§ And Rabbi Abba says: You have no more explicit manifestation of the end of days than this following phenomenon, as it is stated: “But you, mountains of Israel, you shall give your branches, and yield your fruit to My people of Israel, for they will soon be coming” (Ezekiel 36:8). When produce will grow in abundance in Eretz Yisrael, it is an indication that the Messiah will be coming soon. Rabbi Eliezer says: You have no greater manifestation of the end of days than this following phenomenon as well, as it is stated: “For before these days there was no hire for man, nor any hire for beast; nor was there peace from the oppressor to him who exits and to him who enters” (Zechariah 8:10). When there are no wages for work and no rent paid for use of one’s animal, that is an indication that the coming of the Messiah is at hand.,The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: “Nor was there peace from the oppressor to him who exits and to him who enters”? Rav says: It means that even for Torah scholars, with regard to whom the promise of peace is written, as it is written: “Great peace have they who love Your Torah; and there is no obstacle for them” (Psalms 119:165), there will be no peace from the oppressor. And Shmuel says: It means that the Messiah will not come until all the prices are equal.,Rabbi Ḥanina says: The son of David will not come until a fish will be sought for an ill person and will not be found, as it is stated with regard to the downfall of Egypt: “Then I will make their waters clear and cause their rivers to run like oil” (Ezekiel 32:14), meaning that the current in the rivers will come to a virtual standstill. And it is written thereafter: “On that day I will cause the glory of the house of Israel to flourish” (Ezekiel 29:21).,Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The son of David will not come until the contemptuous hazalla kingdom of Rome will cease from the Jewish people, as it is stated: “And He shall sever the sprigs hazalzallim with pruning hooks” (Isaiah 18:5). And it is written thereafter: “At that time shall a present be brought to the Lord of hosts, by a people scattered and hairless” (Isaiah 18:7).,Ze’eiri says that Rabbi Ḥanina says: The son of David will not come until the arrogant will cease to exist from among the Jewish people, as it is stated: “For then I will remove from your midst your proudly exulting ones” (Zephaniah 3:11), and it is written afterward: “And I will leave in your midst a poor and lowly people, and they shall take refuge in the name of the Lord” (Zephaniah 3:12).,Rabbi Simlai says in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: The son of David will not come until all the judges and officers will cease to exist from among the Jewish people, and there will be no more autonomous government in Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “And I will turn My hand against you and purge away your dross as with lye and take away your base alloy. And I will restore your judges as at the first” (Isaiah 1:25–26).,Ulla says: Jerusalem is redeemed only by means of righteousness, as it is stated: “Zion shall be redeemed with justice and those who return to it with righteousness” (Isaiah 1:27). Rav Pappa says: If the arrogant will cease to exist, the Persian sorcerers will cease to exist as well. If the deceitful judges will cease to exist, the royal officers gazirpatei and taskmasters will cease to exist. Rav Pappa elaborates: If the arrogant will cease, the Persian sorcerers will cease, as it is written: “And I will purge away your dross sigayikh as with lye, and I will remove all your alloy bedilayikh.” When the arrogant sigim are purged, the sorcerers, who are separated muvdalim from the fear of God, will also cease. And if the deceitful judges cease to exist, the royal officers and taskmasters will cease to exist, as it is written: “The Lord has removed your judgments; cast out your enemy” (Zephaniah 3:15).,Rabbi Yoḥa says: If you saw a generation whose wisdom and Torah study is steadily diminishing, await the coming of the Messiah, as it is stated: “And the afflicted people You will redeem” (II\xa0Samuel 22:28). Rabbi Yoḥa says: If you saw a generation whose troubles inundate it like a river, await the coming of the Messiah, as it is stated: “When distress will come like a river that the breath of the Lord drives” (Isaiah 59:19). And juxtaposed to it is the verse: “And a redeemer will come to Zion” (Isaiah 59:20).,And Rabbi Yoḥa says: The son of David will come only in a generation that is entirely innocent, in which case they will be deserving of redemption, or in a generation that is entirely guilty, in which case there will be no alternative to redemption. He may come in a generation that is entirely innocent, as it is written: “And your people also shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land forever” (Isaiah 60:21). He may come in a generation that is entirely guilty, as it is written: “And He saw that there was no man, and was astonished that there was no intercessor; therefore His arm brought salvation to Him, and His righteousness, it sustained Him” (Isaiah 59:16). And it is written: “For My own sake, for My own sake will I do it; for how should it be profaned? And My glory I will not give it to another” (Isaiah 48:11).,§ Rabbi Alexandri says: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi raises a contradiction in a verse addressing God’s commitment to redeem the Jewish people. In the verse: “I the Lord in its time I will hasten it” (Isaiah 60:22), it is written: “In its time,” indicating that there is a designated time for the redemption, and it is written: “I will hasten it,” indicating that there is no set time for the redemption. Rabbi Alexandri explains: If they merit redemption through repentance and good deeds I will hasten the coming of the Messiah. If they do not merit redemption, the coming of the Messiah will be in its designated time.,Rabbi Alexandri says: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi raises a contradiction between two depictions of the coming of the Messiah. It is written: “There came with the clouds of heaven, one like unto a son of man…and there was given him dominion and glory and a kingdom…his dominion is an everlasting dominion” (Daniel 7:13–14). And it is written: “Behold, your king will come to you; he is just and victorious; lowly and riding upon a donkey and upon a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Zechariah 9:9). Rabbi Alexandri explains: If the Jewish people merit redemption, the Messiah will come in a miraculous manner with the clouds of heaven. If they do not merit redemption, the Messiah will come lowly and riding upon a donkey.,King Shapur of Persia said to Shmuel mockingly: You say that the Messiah will come on a donkey; I will send him the riding barka horse that I have. Shmuel said to him: Do you have a horse with one thousand colors bar ḥivar gavanei like the donkey of the Messiah? Certainly his donkey will be miraculous.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi found Elijah the prophet, who was standing at the entrance of the burial cave of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: Will I be privileged to come to the World-to-Come? Elijah said to him: If this Master, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will wish it so. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Two I saw, Elijah and me, and the voice of three I heard, as the Divine Presence was also there, and it was in reference to Him that Elijah said: If this Master will wish it so.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to Elijah: When will the Messiah come? Elijah said to him: Go ask him. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: And where is he sitting? Elijah said to him: At the entrance of the city of Rome. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked him: And what is his identifying sign by means of which I can recognize him? Elijah answered: He sits among the poor who suffer from illnesses. And all of them untie their bandages and tie them all at once, but the Messiah unties one bandage and ties one at a time. He says: Perhaps I will be needed to serve to bring about the redemption. Therefore, I will never tie more than one bandage, so that I will not be delayed.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi went to the Messiah. He said to the Messiah: Greetings to you, my rabbi and my teacher. The Messiah said to him: Greetings to you, bar Leva’i. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: When will the Master come? The Messiah said to him: Today. Sometime later, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi came to Elijah. Elijah said to him: What did the Messiah say to you? He said to Elijah that the Messiah said: Greetings shalom to you, bar Leva’i. Elijah said to him: He thereby guaranteed that you and your father will enter the World-to-Come, as he greeted you with shalom. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to Elijah: The Messiah lied to me, as he said to me: I am coming today, and he did not come. Elijah said to him that this is what he said to you: He said that he will come “today, if you will listen to his voice” (Psalms 95:7).,§ Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma’s students asked him: When will the son of David come? Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma said: I am hesitant to answer you, lest you request from me a sign to corroborate my statement. They said to him: We are not asking you for a sign.,Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma said to them: You will see when this existing gate of Rome falls and will be rebuilt, and will fall a second time and will be rebuilt, and will fall a third time. And they will not manage to rebuild it until the son of David comes. The students said to him: Our rabbi, give us a sign. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma said to them: But didn’t you say to me that you are not asking me for a sign?,They said to him: And nevertheless, provide us with a sign. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma said to them: If it is as I say, the water of the Cave of Pamyas will be transformed into blood. The Gemara relates: And it was transformed into blood.,At the time of his death, Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma said to his students: Place my coffin deep in the ground, 99b Sing every day, sing every day, i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says: From what verse is this derived? It is as it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him” (Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. He labors in Torah in this place, this world, and his Torah labors for him in another place, the World-to-Come.,Rabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil” (Job 5:7). Based on this verse, I do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth, speech, or whether he was created for the toil of labor. When the verse states: “For his mouth presses upon him” (Proverbs 16:26), you must say that he was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not know with regard to the toil of the mouth whether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. When the verse states: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth” (Joshua 1:8), you must say that he was created for the toil of Torah. And that is the meaning of what Rava said: All bodies are like receptacles to store items until use. Happy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah.,The verse states: “He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding” (Proverbs 6:32). Reish Lakish says: This is a reference to one who studies Torah intermittently, who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, as it is stated about words of Torah: “For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips” (Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.,§ The Sages taught in a baraita that with regard to the verse: “But the person who acts high-handedly, whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), this is a reference to Manasseh ben Hezekiah, king of Israel, who would sit and teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives.,Manasseh said: But did Moses need to write only insignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: “And Lotan’s sister was Timna” (Genesis 36:22), or: “And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: “And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found duda’im in the field” (Genesis 30:14)? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes” (Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import.,And about Manasseh ben Hezekiah it is stated explicitly in the texts of tradition, the Prophets: “Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope” (Isaiah 5:18). What is the meaning of the phrase “as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says: This is a reference to the evil inclination. Initially, it seems like a flimsy spinning kuveya thread and ultimately it seems like a sturdy cart rope.,Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse that we came to discuss, in any event, what is the significance of the phrase in the verse “And Lotan’s sister was Timna”? The Gemara explains: Timna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan” (Genesis 36:29), and: “The chief of Timna” (Genesis 36:40), and each chief is a member of a monarchy, albeit without a crown. That is why they are called chief and not king.,Timna sought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said, referring to herself: It is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation. Ultimately, Amalek, son of Eliphaz, emerged from her, and that tribe afflicted the Jewish people. What is the reason that the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact that they should not have rejected her when she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant.,“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest” (Genesis 30:14). Rava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says that Rav says: From here it can be seen that the righteous do not extend their hands to engage in robbery even of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless duda’im. The verse continues: “And he found duda’im in the field.” The Gemara asks: What are duda’im? Rav says: They are a plant called yavruḥei. Levi says: They are violets. Rabbi Yonatan says: They are seviskei.,§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, Rabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages in the study of Torah for its own sake introduces peace into the heavenly entourage above and into the earthly entourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold ma’uzi, that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me” (Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called oz, introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were.,Rav says: It is as though he built a palace of heaven above and of earth below, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth, and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. Rabbi Yoḥa says: One who engages in Torah study also protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advances the coming of the redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.”,Reish Lakish said: With regard to anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes him credit as though he formed that student, as it is stated: “And Abram took Sarai his wife…and the souls that they formed in Haran” (Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. Rabbi Elazar says: It is as though he fashioned asa’an the words of Torah themselves, as it is stated: “Observe the words of this covet, va’asitem otam (Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. Rava says: It is as though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “Va’asitem otam.” Do not readva’asitem otam as: And you shall fashion them; rather, read it as va’asitem atem, meaning: You shall fashion yourself.,Rabbi Abbahu says: With regard to anyone who causes another to engage in a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him credit as though he performed it himself, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses…and your rod, with which you struck the river, take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). And was it Moses who struck the river? But isn’t it written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that Aaron struck the river? Rather, that verse serves to say to you: Anyone who causes another to engage in a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him credit as though he performed it himself.,§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include an epikoros. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: This is one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This is one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar.,The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is the epikoros mentioned in the mishna, one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt is characterized as one who interprets the Torah inappropriately, due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. But according to the one who says that one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is the epikoros mentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one who interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like what individual does such a person conduct himself? He is like Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives.,And there are those who teach this dispute with regard to the latter clause of the baraita: From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: One who interprets the Torah inappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: This is one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This is one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar.,The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is the one mentioned in the baraita who interprets the Torah inappropriately, one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is characterized as the epikoros mentioned in the mishna. But according to the one who says that one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is the one mentioned in the baraita who interprets the Torah inappropriately, how would he characterize the epikoros mentioned in the mishna? Like whom does he conduct himself? Rav Yosef says: It is referring to one who conducts himself like those who say: In what manner have the Sages benefited us with all their Torah study? They read the Bible for their own benefit and they study the Mishna for their own benefit.,Abaye said to him: That person who questions the benefit provided by Sages is also in the category of one who interprets the Torah inappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, as it is written: “If not for My covet, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covet of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too conclude the same concept from it, as it is stated: “If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, then I will spare the entire place for their sakes” (Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside.,Rather, the epikoros mentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself like one who sits before his teacher and a halakha that he learned from another place happens to fall into his consciousness and the student says: This is what we say there, and he does not say deferentially: This is what the Master said, even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. Rava said: The term epikoros is referring to one who conducts himself like those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say: In what manner have the Sages benefited us with all their Torah study? Never ' None
43. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum

 Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74

75a שכן יריעה שנפל בה דרנא קורעין בה ותופרין אותה,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב המותח חוט של תפירה בשבת חייב חטאת והלומד דבר אחד מן המגוש חייב מיתה והיודע לחשב תקופות ומזלות ואינו חושב אסור לספר הימנו,מגושתא רב ושמואל חד אמר חרשי וחד אמר גדופי תסתיים דרב דאמר גדופי דאמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב הלומד דבר אחד מן המגוש חייב מיתה דאי ס"ד חרשי הכתיב (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות תסתיים,אר"ש בן פזי א"ר יהושע בן לוי משום בר קפרא כל היודע לחשב בתקופות ומזלות ואינו חושב עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו ה, יב) ואת פועל ה\' לא יביטו ומעשה ידיו לא ראו א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יוחנן מנין שמצוה על האדם לחשב תקופות ומזלות שנאמר (דברים ד, ו) ושמרתם ועשיתם כי היא חכמתכם ובינתכם לעיני העמים איזו חכמה ובינה שהיא לעיני העמים הוי אומר זה חישוב תקופות ומזלות:,הצד צבי וכו\': ת"ר הצד חלזון והפוצעו אינו חייב אלא אחת רבי יהודה אומר חייב שתים שהיה ר\' יהודה אומר פציעה בכלל דישה אמרו לו אין פציעה בכלל דישה אמר רבא מ"ט דרבנן קסברי אין דישה אלא לגדולי קרקע וליחייב נמי משום נטילת נשמה אמר רבי יוחנן שפצעו מת,רבא אמר אפילו תימא שפצעו חי מתעסק הוא אצל נטילת נשמה והא אביי ורבא דאמרי תרווייהו מודה ר"ש בפסיק רישא ולא ימות שאני הכא דכמה דאית ביה נשמה טפי ניחא ליה כי היכי דליציל ציבעיה:,השוחטו: שוחט משום מאי חייב רב אמר משום צובע ושמואל אמר משום נטילת נשמה'' None75a As, when a curtain had a worm which made a tear in it, they would tear the curtain further to lengthen the tear, and that enabled them to then sew it in a manner that obscured the tear.,Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said: One who tightens the thread of a stitch on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. If two parts of a garment that were sewn together begin to separate, and one pulls the thread to reattach them, it is tantamount to having sewn them. The Gemara cites additional halakhot cited by Rav Zutra in the name of Rav. And one who learns even one matter from a magosh, a Persian priest, is liable to receive the death penalty. And one who knows how to calculate astronomical seasons and the movement of constellations, and does not do so, one may not speak with him because his actions are improper.,The Gemara proceeds to discuss the additional halakhot cited by Rav Zutra bar Toviya. With regard to the magosh, Rav and Shmuel disagreed. One said that they are sorcerers, while the other said they are heretics. The Gemara adds: Conclude that Rav is the one who said that they are heretics, as Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said: One who learns one matter from the magosh is liable to receive the death penalty. As, if it should enter your mind that they are sorcerers, wasn’t it written: “When you come into the land which the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to do after the abominations of those nations. There shall not be found among you any one that makes his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that uses divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer” (Deuteronomy 18:9–10)? And the Sages inferred: You shall not learn to do, but you may learn to understand and to teach the topic of sorcery. Apparently, merely learning about sorcery does not violate a prohibition. Only acting upon that learning is prohibited. Rav, who prohibited learning even a single matter from a magosh, must hold that they are heretics, not merely sorcerers. The Gemara states: Indeed, conclude that Rav is the one who said that they are heretics.,Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Anyone who knows how to calculate astronomical seasons and the movement of constellations and does not do so, the verse says about him: “They do not take notice of the work of God, and they do not see His handiwork” (Isaiah 5:12). And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: From where is it derived that there is a mitzva incumbent upon a person to calculate astronomical seasons and the movement of constellations? As it was stated: “And you shall guard and perform, for it is your wisdom and understanding in the eyes of the nations” (Deuteronomy 4:6). What wisdom and understanding is there in the Torah that is in the eyes of the nations, i.e., appreciated and recognized by all? You must say: This is the calculation of astronomical seasons and the movement of constellations, as the calculation of experts is witnessed by all.,We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: One who traps a deer or any other living creature. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One who traps a ḥilazon and breaks its shell to remove its blood for the dye is liable to bring only one sin-offering. He is not liable for breaking the shell. Rabbi Yehuda says: He is liable to bring two, for performing the prohibited labors of trapping and for threshing, as Rabbi Yehuda would say: The breaking of a ḥilazon is included in the primary category of threshing, as its objective is to extract the matter that he desires from the shell that he does not. The Rabbis said to him: Breaking the shell is not included in the primary category of threshing. Rava said: What is the rationale for the opinion of the Rabbis? They hold: Threshing applies only to produce that grows from the ground. One who extracts other materials from their covering is exempt. The Gemara asks: Even if extracting blood is not considered threshing, let him be liable for taking a life as well. Rabbi Yoḥa said: This is referring to a case where he broke its shell after it was dead.,Rava said: Even if you say that he broke it when it was alive, he is exempt. Since he had no intention of killing the ḥilazon, he is considered as one who is acting unawares with regard to taking a life. The Gemara raises a difficulty: Didn’t Abaye and Rava both say that Rabbi Shimon, who rules that an unintentional act is permitted, agrees that in a case of: Cut off its head and will it not die, one is liable? One who performs an action that will inevitably result in a prohibited labor cannot claim that he did not intend for his action to lead to that result. Lack of intention is only a valid claim when the result is merely possible, not inevitable. Since one who extracts blood from a ḥilazon inevitably takes its life, how can Rava claim that his action is unintentional? The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as the longer the ḥilazon lives, the better it is for the trapper, so that its dye will become clear. Dye extracted from a live ḥilazon is a higher quality than that which is extracted from a dead one. Rabbi Shimon agrees that one who performs an action with inevitable consequences is liable only in a case where the consequences are not contrary to his interests. Since he prefers that the ḥilazon remain alive as long as possible, he is not liable for the inevitable consequences.,We learned in the mishna, among those liable for performing primary categories of labor: And one who slaughters an animal on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: As there was no slaughter necessary for construction of the Tabernacle, one who slaughters an animal, due to what prohibited labor is he liable? Rav said: He is liable due to dyeing, as in the course of the slaughter the hide is dyed with blood. And Shmuel said: He is liable due to taking a life.'' None
44. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum • Targum, and the Zoroastrian priests

 Found in books: Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 142; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 73; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 73

22a שקרא ושנה ולא שימש תלמידי חכמים,אתמר קרא ושנה ולא שימש ת"ח ר\' אלעזר אומר הרי זה עם הארץ ר\' שמואל בר נחמני אמר הרי זה בור ר\' ינאי אומר ה"ז כותי,רב אחא בר יעקב אומר הרי זה מגוש אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כרב אחא בר יעקב דאמרי אינשי רטין מגושא ולא ידע מאי אמר תני תנא ולא ידע מאי אמר,ת"ר איזהו ע"ה כל שאינו קורא ק"ש שחרית וערבית בברכותיה דברי ר\' מאיר וחכ"א כל שאינו מניח תפילין בן עזאי אומר כל שאין לו ציצית בבגדו ר\' יונתן בן יוסף אמר כל שיש לו בנים ואינו מגדלן ללמוד תורה אחרים אומרים אפילו קורא ושונה ולא שימש ת"ח זהו ע"ה,קרא ולא שנה הרי זה בור לא קרא ולא שנה עליו הכתוב אומר (ירמיהו לא, כז) וזרעתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה זרע אדם וזרע בהמה,(משלי כד, כא) ירא את ה\' בני ומלך ועם שונים אל תתערב אמר רבי יצחק אלו ששונים הלכות פשיטא מהו דתימא שונין בחטא וכדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו קמ"ל,תנא התנאים מבלי עולם מבלי עולם ס"ד אמר רבינא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן תניא נמי הכי א"ר יהושע וכי מבלי עולם הן והלא מיישבי עולם הן שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ו) הליכות עולם לו אלא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן,אשה פרושה וכו\' ת"ר בתולה צליינית ואלמנה שובבית וקטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הרי אלו מבלי עולם,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן למדנו יראת חטא מבתולה וקיבול שכר מאלמנה יראת חטא מבתולה דר\' יוחנן שמעה לההיא בתולה דנפלה אאפה וקאמרה רבש"ע בראת גן עדן ובראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים ובראת רשעים יהי רצון מלפניך שלא יכשלו בי בני אדם,קיבול שכר מאלמנה דההיא אלמנה דהואי בי כנישתא בשיבבותה כל יומא הות אתיא ומצלה בי מדרשיה דר\' יוחנן אמר לה בתי לא בית הכנסת בשיבבותך אמרה ליה רבי ולא שכר פסיעות יש לי,כי קאמר כגון יוחני בת רטיבי,מאי קטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הכא תרגימו זה ת"ח המבעט ברבותיו,רבי אבא אמר זה תלמיד שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה דא"ר אבהו אמר רב הונא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי ז, כו) כי רבים חללים הפילה ועצומים כל הרוגיה כי רבים חללים הפילה זה ת"ח שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה ועצומים כל הרוגיה זה ת"ח שהגיע להוראה ואינו מורה'' None22a is one who read the Written Torah and learned the Mishna but did not serve Torah scholars in order to learn the reasoning behind the halakhot. Since he believes himself knowledgeable, he issues halakhic rulings, but due to his lack of understanding he rules erroneously and is therefore considered wicked. His cunning is in his public display of knowledge, which misleads others into considering him a true Torah scholar.,It was stated: With regard to one who read the Written Torah and learned the Mishna but did not serve Torah scholars, Rabbi Elazar says: This person is an ignoramus. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: This person is a boor. Rabbi Yannai says: This person is comparable to a Samaritan, who follows the Written Torah but not the traditions of the Sages.,Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: This person is comparable to a sorcerer magosh, who uses his knowledge to mislead people. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable to accept the opinion of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, as people say proverbially: The sorcerer chants and does not know what he is saying; so too, the tanna teaches the Mishna and does not know what he is saying.The Sages taught: Who is an ignoramus am ha’aretz? It is anyone who does not recite Shema in the morning and evening with its blessings; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is anyone who does not don phylacteries. Ben Azzai says: It is anyone who does not have ritual fringes on his garment. Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef said: It is anyone who has sons and does not raise them to study Torah. Aḥerim say: Even if one reads the Written Torah and learns the Mishna but does not serve Torah scholars, he is an ignoramus.,If one read the Written Torah but did not learn the Mishna, he is a boor. With regard to one who did not read and did not learn at all, the verse states: “Behold, the days come, says the Lord, and I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast” (Jeremiah 31:26). One who has not studied at all is comparable to a beast.,The verse states: “My son, fear the Lord and the king; and meddle not with those who are repeating” (Proverbs 24:21). Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These are individuals who repeatedly learn the halakhot but do not know the reasons behind them. The Gemara asks: Isn’t that obvious? How else could the verse be understood? The Gemara answers: He states this lest you say that the verse is referring to individuals who repeatedly commit sins, and this is in accordance with the words of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: Once a person committed a transgression and repeated it, in his eyes it became permitted for him. Since the verse could be interpreted in this manner, Rabbi Yitzḥak teaches us that the verse is referring to those who learn without understanding.,It was taught in a baraita: The tanna’im, who recite the tannaitic sources by rote, are individuals who erode the world. The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: Could it enter your mind that they are individuals who erode the world? Ravina says: This statement is referring to those who issue halakhic rulings based on their knowledge of mishnayot. This is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua said: Are they individuals who erode the world? Aren’t they settling the world, as it is stated: “His ways halikhot are eternal” (Habakkuk 3:6)? The Sages read the term halikhot as halakhot, inferring that one who learns halakhot attains eternal life. Rather, this is referring to those who issue halakhic rulings based on their knowledge of mishnayot.,§ The mishna states that an abstinent woman is among those who erode the world. The Sages taught: A maiden who prays constantly, and a neighborly shovavit widow who constantly visits her neighbors, and a child whose months of gestation were not completed, all these are people who erode the world.,The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: We learned the meaning of fear of sin from a maiden, and the significance of receiving divine reward from a widow. The meaning of fear of sin can be learned from a maiden, as Rabbi Yoḥa heard a certain maiden who fell on her face in prayer, and she was saying: Master of the Universe, You created the Garden of Eden and You created Gehenna, You created the righteous and You created the wicked. May it be Your will that men shall not stumble because of me and consequently go to Gehenna.,The significance of receiving divine reward can be learned from a widow, as there was a certain widow in whose neighborhood there was a synagogue, and despite this every day she went and prayed in the study hall of Rabbi Yoḥa. Rabbi Yoḥa said to her: My daughter, is there not a synagogue in your neighborhood? She said to him: My teacher, don’t I attain a reward for all the steps I take while walking to pray in the distant study hall?,The Gemara answers: When it is stated in the baraita that a maiden who prays constantly is one who erodes the world, it is referring, for example, to Yoḥani bat Retivi, who constantly prayed and pretended to be saintly but actually engaged in sorcery.,The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of a child whose months of gestation were not completed? Here, in Babylonia, they interpreted this as alluding to an imperfect, incomplete Torah scholar who scorns his teachers.,Rabbi Abba says: This is a student who has not yet attained the ability to issue halakhic rulings, and yet he issues rulings and is therefore compared to a prematurely born child. This is as Rabbi Abbahu says that Rav Huna says that Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For she has cast down many wounded; and a mighty host are all her slain” (Proverbs 7:26)? “For she has cast down hippila many wounded”; this is referring to a Torah scholar who has not yet attained the ability to issue rulings, and yet he issues rulings. “And a mighty host ve’atzumim are all her slain”; this is referring to a Torah scholar who has attained the ability to issue rulings, but does not issue rulings and prevents the masses from learning Torah properly.'' None
45. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Targum Onkelos • Targums

 Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 292; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 216

67b דכתיב (ויקרא טז, כב) במדבר ומאן דאמר אסורין דכתיב (ויקרא טז, כב) גזירה,ומאן דאמר אסורין האי מדבר מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא (ויקרא טז, י) המדברה (ויקרא טז, י) המדברה (ויקרא טז, כב) במדבר לרבות נוב וגבעון שילה ובית עולמים,ואידך האי גזירה מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא גזירה אין גזירה אלא חתוכה דבר אחר אין גזירה אלא דבר המתגזר ויורד,דבר אחר גזירה שמא תאמר מעשה תהו הוא ת"ל אני ה\' אני ה\' גזרתיו ואין לך רשות להרהר בהן,אמר רבא מסתברא כמאן דאמר מותרין לא אמרה תורה שלח לתקלה,תנו רבנן עזאזל שיהא עז וקשה יכול בישוב ת"ל במדבר ומנין שבצוק ת"ל גזירה תניא אידך עזאזל קשה שבהרים וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל יז, יג) ואת אילי הארץ לקח,תנא דבי ר\' ישמעאל עזאזל שמכפר על מעשה עוזא ועזאל,ת"ר (ויקרא יח, ד) את משפטי תעשו דברים שאלמלא (לא) נכתבו דין הוא שיכתבו ואלו הן עבודת כוכבים וגלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים וגזל וברכת השם,את חוקותי תשמרו דברים שהשטן משיב עליהן ואלו הן אכילת חזיר ולבישת שעטנז וחליצת יבמה וטהרת מצורע ושעיר המשתלח ושמא תאמר מעשה תוהו הם ת"ל (ויקרא יח, ל) אני ה\' אני ה\' חקקתיו ואין לך רשות להרהר בהן,אימתי מטמא בגדים ת"ר המשלח מטמא בגדים ואין השולח את המשלח מטמא בגדים,יכול משיצא חוץ לחומת עזרה ת"ל המשלח אי המשלח יכול עד שיגיע לצוק תלמוד לומר והמשלח הא כיצד משיצא חוץ לחומת ירושלים דברי ר\' יהודה,רבי יוסי אומר עזאזל וכבס עד שהגיע לצוק ר\' שמעון אומר (ויקרא טז, כו) והמשלח את השעיר לעזאזל יכבס בגדיו זורקו בבת ראש ומטמא בגדים,67b established his opinion based on a verse, as it is written: “And the goat shall bear upon it all their iniquities to a land which is cut off; and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness” (Leviticus 16:22). The concluding phrase, “in the wilderness,” is unnecessary, and indicates that the goat shall be available for anyone to use, similar to a wilderness. And the one who said they are prohibited based his opinion on the same verse, as it is written, “cut off” gezeira, which indicates a prohibition.,The Gemara asks: And the one who said they are prohibited, what does he do with this term wilderness, i.e., what does he derive from it? The Gemara answers: He needs it for that which was taught in a baraita: There are three expressions used to describe the location of the procedure with the scapegoat: “Into the wilderness” (Leviticus 16:10), “into the wilderness” (Leviticus 16:21), and “in the wilderness” (Leviticus 16:22), to include Nov and Givon and Shiloh, when the Tabernacle was located there, and the eternal Temple. The mitzva of the scapegoat applied during the time periods when communal offerings were sacrificed in any of these locations.,The Gemara asks: And the other, what does he do with this word gezeira? The Gemara answers: He needs it for that which was taught in a baraita with regard to the word gezeira: Gezeira means nothing other than cut. That is, he must send the goat away to a place cut up by rocks standing upright and sticking out. Alternatively, gezeira is referring to nothing other than something that breaks apart and falls, a reference to the goat, which is torn limb from limb.,Alternatively, the word gezeira is written lest you say the procedure of the scapegoat is a meaningless act, since what sanctity and atonement is achieved in sending the goat to Azazel and pushing it from the cliff? Therefore, the verse states: “I am the Lord” (Leviticus 18:5), i.e., I, the Lord, decreed it gezartiv, and you have no right to question it.,Having clarified the reasoning of each opinion, the Gemara concludes its discussion of whether the limbs of the goat are permitted for benefit. Rava said: It is reasonable to rule in accordance with the one that said the limbs of the goat are permitted, since the Torah did not say: “And send the goat” to cause mishap. Once the man pushes the goat off the cliff, he is no longer responsible for it. Therefore, if it were prohibited to derive benefit from the goat’s remains, the mitzva itself could lead to a mishap if someone were to find the goat’s remains and make use of them.,§ The Sages taught: The word Azazel indicates that the cliff the goat is pushed from should be rough and hard. I might have thought that it may be located in a settled area. Therefore, the verse states: “In the wilderness.” And from where does one derive that the goat is pushed from a cliff? The verse states “gezeira,” indicating an area that is sharp, like a cliff. It was taught in another baraita: Azazel is a reference to the hardest mountain, and so it says: “And the mighty eilei of the land he took away” (Ezekiel 17:13). Azazel is interpreted as azaz-el, with the term el connoting something rough and hard.,The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Azazel is so called because it atones for the actions of Uzza and Azael. These are the names of “sons of God” who sinned with “daughters of men” (Genesis 6:2) and thereby caused the world to sin during the generation of the Flood.,The Gemara cites another baraita related to the scapegoat. The Sages taught with regard to the verse: “You shall do My ordices, and you shall keep My statutes to follow them, I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 18:4), that the phrase: My ordices, is a reference to matters that, even had they not been written, it would have been logical that they be written. They are the prohibitions against idol worship, prohibited sexual relations, bloodshed, theft, and blessing God, a euphemism for cursing the Name of God.,The phrase: And you shall keep my statutes, is a reference to matters that Satan and the nations of the world challenge because the reason for these mitzvot are not known. They are: The prohibitions against eating pork; wearing garments that are made from diverse kinds of material, i.e., wool and linen; performing the ḥalitza ceremony with a yevama, a widow who must participate in a levirate marriage or ḥalitza; the purification ceremony of the leper; and the scapegoat. And lest you say these have no reason and are meaningless acts, therefore the verse states: “I am the Lord” (Leviticus 18:4), to indicate: I am the Lord, I decreed these statutes and you have no right to doubt them.,§ It was taught in the mishna that the tanna’im disagreed about from what point the garments of the man who leads the scapegoat are rendered impure. The Sages taught in a baraita: The garments of the one who dispatches the goat are rendered impure, but the garments of the one who dispatches the dispatcher, e.g., those who accompany him, are not rendered impure.,One might have thought that as soon as he leaves the wall of the Temple courtyard he becomes ritually impure. Therefore, the verse states: “He that dispatched” (Leviticus 16:26), to teach that he does not contract impurity until his journey has begun. On the other hand, if the verse had simply stated: He that dispatched, one might have thought he does not become impure until he reaches the cliff. Therefore, the verse states: “And he that dispatched,” with the inclusive term “and.” How is this to be understood? His garments are rendered impure only when he emerged outside the wall of Jerusalem. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.,Rabbi Yosei says that the verse states: “And he that dispatched the goat to Azazel shall wash” (Leviticus 16:26), which indicates that his garments are not rendered impure until he has reached Azazel, i.e., the cliff. Rabbi Shimon says: His garments are rendered impure only when he pushes the goat from the cliff, as it says: “And he that dispatched the goat to Azazel shall wash his clothes” (Leviticus 16:26), to indicate that he throws it headlong and only then, once he has fulfilled the mitzva, his garments are rendered impure.,he came next to the bull and the goat that were to be burned. He tore their flesh but was not required to cut it into pieces, and removed the portions of the offering consumed on the altar and placed them in a large bowl magis and burned them on the altar.,He interwove and bound the bull and the goat together into braids as one mass. They were placed in that way upon two poles and carried by four people who took them out to the place designated for burning, outside of Jerusalem. And at what point do the bull and goat render the garments of those who carried them impure, as it is written: “And he who burns them shall wash his garments” (Leviticus 16:28)? They render the garments impure from the moment that they emerged outside the wall of the Temple courtyard. Rabbi Shimon says: They render the garments impure from the moment that the fire has ignited in most of the bull and the goat.,Would it enter your mind to say he burned them? He would not burn them right away, since he had to perform other services first. Rather, say that he placed them in a large bowl in order to burn them on the altar later.,It was taught in the mishna that the High Priest interwove and bound the bull and the goat together into braids as one mass before taking them to be burned. Rabbi Yoḥa said: He made them like a braid, whose parts are interwoven. It was taught: He would not dissect the bull and goat in the manner of the dissection of the flesh of a burnt-offering, where the animal is skinned and then cut into parts. Rather, he would leave the skin on top of the flesh and would cut the animal into pieces without skinning it. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is stated here with regard to the bull and goat, skin and flesh and dung (Leviticus 16:27), and it is stated below, with regard to the bull sin-offerings that are burned, skin and flesh and dung (Leviticus 4:11).'' None
46. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • targum, • targum, and midrash, study of

 Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 401; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 284




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