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45 results for "synagogues"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic (figural art and jewish symbols) Found in books: Levine (2005) 372
28.6. "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה בְּבֹאֶךָ וּבָרוּךְ אַתָּה בְּצֵאתֶךָ׃", 28.6. "וְהֵשִׁיב בְּךָ אֵת כָּל־מַדְוֵה מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יָגֹרְתָּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְדָבְקוּ בָּךְ׃", 28.6. "Blessed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and blessed shalt thou be when thou goest out.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 14.1-14.7, 23.39-23.44 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •lulav, in synagogue art •basilica-type synagogue, plan, mosaic, mosaic, artistic motifs Found in books: Levine (2005) 68, 216
14.1. "וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח שְׁנֵי־כְבָשִׂים תְּמִימִים וְכַבְשָׂה אַחַת בַּת־שְׁנָתָהּ תְּמִימָה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת מִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן וְלֹג אֶחָד שָׁמֶן׃", 14.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 14.2. "זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃", 14.2. "וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר׃", 14.3. "וְעָשָׂה אֶת־הָאֶחָד מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ׃", 14.3. "וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת מִן־הַצָּרוּעַ׃", 14.4. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃", 14.4. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃", 14.5. "וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃", 14.5. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃", 14.6. "אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃", 14.7. "וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃", 23.39. "אַךְ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת־תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ תָּחֹגּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שַׁבָּתוֹן וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי שַׁבָּתוֹן׃", 23.41. "וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי תָּחֹגּוּ אֹתוֹ׃", 23.42. "בַּסֻּכֹּת תֵּשְׁבוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כָּל־הָאֶזְרָח בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשְׁבוּ בַּסֻּכֹּת׃", 23.43. "לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 23.44. "וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶת־מֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 14.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 14.2. "This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest.", 14.3. "And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper;", 14.4. "then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop.", 14.5. "And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water.", 14.6. "As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water.", 14.7. "And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field.", 23.39. "Howbeit on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruits of the land, ye shall keep the feast of the LORD seven days; on the first day shall be a solemn rest, and on the eighth day shall be a solemn rest.", 23.40. "And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.", 23.41. "And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year; it is a statute for ever in your generations; ye shall keep it in the seventh month.", 23.42. "Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are home-born in Israel shall dwell in booths;", 23.43. "that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.", 23.44. "And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the LORD.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •basilica-type synagogue, plan, mosaic, mosaic, artistic motifs Found in books: Levine (2005) 218
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 125.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic (figural art and jewish symbols) Found in books: Levine (2005) 372
125.5. "וְהַמַּטִּים עַקַלְקַלּוֹתָם יוֹלִיכֵם יְהוָה אֶת־פֹּעֲלֵי הָאָוֶן שָׁלוֹם עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 125.5. "But as for such as turn aside unto their crooked ways, The LORD will lead them away with the workers of iniquity. Peace be upon Israel.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.13, 41.1, 61.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in justin martyr •jewish symbols, found particularly in synagogues in palestine, original language of •synagogues, art in Found in books: Cohen (2010) 277; Feldman (2006) 317; Stern (2004) 109
29.13. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃", 41.1. "הַחֲרִישׁוּ אֵלַי אִיִּים וּלְאֻמִּים יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ יִגְּשׁוּ אָז יְדַבֵּרוּ יַחְדָּו לַמִּשְׁפָּט נִקְרָבָה׃", 41.1. "אַל־תִּירָא כִּי עִמְּךָ־אָנִי אַל־תִּשְׁתָּע כִּי־אֲנִי אֱלֹהֶיךָ אִמַּצְתִּיךָ אַף־עֲזַרְתִּיךָ אַף־תְּמַכְתִּיךָ בִּימִין צִדְקִי׃", 29.13. "And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;", 41.1. "Keep silence before Me, O islands, And let the peoples renew their strength; Let them draw near, then let them speak; Let us come near together to judgment.", 61.10. "I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 3, 2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 36
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic (figural art and jewish symbols) Found in books: Levine (2005) 372
8. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7, 6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 296
9. New Testament, Luke, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in justin martyr Found in books: Cohen (2010) 276
5.17. Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διδάσκων, καὶ ἦσαν καθήμενοι Φαρισαῖοι καὶ νομοδιδάσκαλοι οἳ ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες ἐκ πάσης κώμης τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ Ἰουδαίας καὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ· καὶ δύναμις Κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι αὐτόν. 5.17. It happened on one of those days, that he was teaching; and there were Pharisees and teachers of the law sitting by, who had come out of every village of Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem. The power of the Lord was with him to heal them.
10. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •roman synagogues, jewish art Found in books: Levine (2005) 352
2.1. "סֵדֶר תַּעֲנִיּוֹת כֵּיצַד, מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הַתֵּבָה לִרְחוֹבָהּ שֶׁל עִיר, וְנוֹתְנִין אֵפֶר מִקְלֶה עַל גַּבֵּי הַתֵּבָה, וּבְרֹאשׁ הַנָּשִׂיא וּבְרֹאשׁ אַב בֵּית דִּין, וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד נוֹתֵן בְּרֹאשׁוֹ. הַזָּקֵן שֶׁבָּהֶן אוֹמֵר לִפְנֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי כִבּוּשִׁין, אַחֵינוּ, לֹא נֶאֱמַר בְּאַנְשֵׁי נִינְוֵה, וַיַּרְא הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת שַׂקָּם וְאֶת תַּעֲנִיתָם, אֶלָּא (יונה ג) וַיַּרְא הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם, כִּי שָׁבוּ מִדַּרְכָּם הָרָעָה. וּבַקַּבָּלָה הוּא אוֹמֵר (יואל ב) וְקִרְעוּ לְבַבְכֶם וְאַל בִּגְדֵיכֶם:", 2.1. "What is the order [of service] for fast days?They take the ark out to the open space of the city. And they put ashes on the ark and on the head of the Nasi and on the head of the head of the court (av bet. And everyone [else] puts ashes on his own head. The elder among them says in front of them words of admonition, “Brothers, it does not say of the people of Nineveh, ‘And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting,’ but, ‘And God saw their deeds, for they turned from their evil way. (Jonah 3:10)’ And in the prophets it says, ‘And rend your heart and not your garments” (Joel 2:13).",
11. New Testament, Matthew, 15.1-15.7, 23.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in justin martyr Found in books: Cohen (2010) 276, 277
15.1. Τότε προσέρχονται τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἀπὸ Ἰεροσολύμων Φαρισαῖοι καὶ γραμματεῖς λέγοντες 15.2. Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταί σου παραβαίνουσιν τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων; οὐ γὰρ νίπτονται τὰς χεῖρας ὅταν ἄρτον ἐσθίωσιν. 15.3. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Διὰ τί καὶ ὑμεῖς παραβαίνετε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν; 15.4. ὁ γὰρ θεὸς εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 15.5. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ὃς ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Δῶρον ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 15.6. οὐ μὴ τιμήσει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ· καὶ ἠκυρώσατε τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν. 15.7. ὑποκριταί, καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν περὶ ὑμῶν Ἠσαίας λέγων 23.7. καὶ τοὺς ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς καὶ καλεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων Ῥαββεί. 15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying, 15.2. "Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread." 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God," 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying, 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men.
12. New Testament, John, 12.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in justin martyr Found in books: Cohen (2010) 276
12.42. Ὅμως μέντοι καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχόντων πολλοὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τοὺς Φαρισαίους οὐχ ὡμολόγουν ἵνα μὴ ἀποσυνάγωγοι γένωνται, 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue,
13. New Testament, Acts, 9.1-9.2, 9.20-9.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Levine (2005) 126
9.1. Ὁ δὲ Σαῦλος, ἔτι ἐνπνέων ἀπειλῆς καὶ φόνου εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς τοῦ κυρίου, 9.2. προσελθὼν τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ ᾐτήσατο παρʼ αὐτοῦ ἐπιστολὰς εἰς Δαμασκὸν πρὸς τὰς συναγωγάς, ὅπως ἐάν τινας εὕρῃ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντας, ἄνδρας τε καὶ γυναῖκας, δεδεμένους ἀγάγῃ εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ. 9.20. καὶ εὐθέως ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς ἐκήρυσσεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν pb n="267"/ ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. 9.21. ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες οἱ ἀκούοντες καὶ ἔλεγον Οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πορθήσας ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ τοὺς ἐπικαλουμένους τὸ ὄνομα τοῦτο, καὶ ὧδε εἰς τοῦτο ἐληλύθει ἵνα δεδεμένους αὐτοὺς ἀγάγῃ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς; 9.22. Σαῦλος δὲ μᾶλλον ἐνεδυναμοῦτο καὶ συνέχυννεν Ἰουδαίους τοὺς κατοικοῦντας ἐν Δαμασκῷ, συνβιβάζων ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ χριστός. 9.23. Ὡς δὲ ἐπληροῦντο ἡμέραι ἱκαναί, συνεβουλεύσαντο οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἀνελεῖν αὐτόν· ἐγνώσθη δὲ τῷ Σαύλῳ ἡ ἐπιβουλὴ αὐτῶν. 9.1. But Saul, still breathing threats and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest, 9.2. and asked for letters from him to the synagogues of Damascus, that if he found any who were of the Way, whether men or women, he might bring them bound to Jerusalem. 9.20. Immediately in the synagogues he proclaimed the Christ, that he is the Son of God. 9.21. All who heard him were amazed, and said, "Isn't this he who in Jerusalem made havoc of those who called on this name? And he had come here intending to bring them bound before the chief priests!" 9.22. But Saul increased more in strength, and confounded the Jews who lived at Damascus, proving that this is the Christ. 9.23. When many days were fulfilled, the Jews conspired together to kill him,
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.3, 2.266-2.270, 2.284-2.292, 2.444, 2.560, 4.634-4.640, 5.142-5.155, 6.312, 7.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jewish symbols, found particularly in synagogues in palestine, original language of •lulav, in synagogue art •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Feldman (2006) 317; Levine (2005) 36, 68, 126
1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward [am the author of this work]. 2.266. 7. There was also another disturbance at Caesarea:—those Jews who were mixed with the Syrians that lived there, raising a tumult against them. The Jews pretended that the city was theirs, and said that he who built it was a Jew, meaning king Herod. The Syrians confessed also that its builder was a Jew; but they still said, however, that the city was a Grecian city; for that he who set up statues and temples in it could not design it for Jews. 2.267. On which account both parties had a contest with one another; and this contest increased so much, that it came at last to arms, and the bolder sort of them marched out to fight; for the elders of the Jews were not able to put a stop to their own people that were disposed to be tumultuous, and the Greeks thought it a shame for them to be overcome by the Jews. 2.268. Now these Jews exceeded the others in riches and strength of body; but the Grecian part had the advantage of assistance from the soldiery; for the greatest part of the Roman garrison was raised out of Syria; and being thus related to the Syrian part, they were ready to assist it. 2.269. However, the governors of the city were concerned to keep all quiet, and whenever they caught those that were most for fighting on either side, they punished them with stripes and bonds. Yet did not the sufferings of those that were caught affright the remainder, or make them desist; but they were still more and more exasperated, and deeper engaged in the sedition. 2.270. And as Felix came once into the marketplace, and commanded the Jews, when they had beaten the Syrians, to go their ways, and threatened them if they would not, and they would not obey him, he sent his soldiers out upon them, and slew a great many of them, upon which it fell out that what they had was plundered. And as the sedition still continued, he chose out the most eminent men on both sides as ambassadors to Nero, to argue about their several privileges. 2.284. 4. Now at this time it happened that the Grecians at Caesarea had been too hard for the Jews, and had obtained of Nero the government of the city, and had brought the judicial determination: at the same time began the war, in the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, and the seventeenth of the reign of Agrippa, in the month of Artemisius [Jyar]. 2.285. Now the occasion of this war was by no means proportionable to those heavy calamities which it brought upon us. For the Jews that dwelt at Caesarea had a synagogue near the place, whose owner was a certain Cesarean Greek: the Jews had endeavored frequently to have purchased the possession of the place, and had offered many times its value for its price; 2.286. but as the owner overlooked their offers, so did he raise other buildings upon the place, in way of affront to them, and made workingshops of them, and left them but a narrow passage, and such as was very troublesome for them to go along to their synagogue. Whereupon the warmer part of the Jewish youth went hastily to the workmen, and forbade them to build there; 2.287. but as Florus would not permit them to use force, the great men of the Jews, with John the publican, being in the utmost distress what to do, persuaded Florus, with the offer of eight talents, to hinder the work. 2.288. He then, being intent upon nothing but getting money, promised he would do for them all they desired of him, and then went away from Caesarea to Sebaste, and left the sedition to take its full course, as if he had sold a license to the Jews to fight it out. 2.289. 5. Now on the next day, which was the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a certain man of Caesarea, of a seditious temper, got an earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward, at the entrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. 2.290. Whereupon the sober and moderate part of the Jews thought it proper to have recourse to their governors again, while the seditious part, and such as were in the fervor of their youth, were vehemently inflamed to fight. The seditious also among [the Gentiles of] Caesarea stood ready for the same purpose; for they had, by agreement, sent the man to sacrifice beforehand [as ready to support him] so that it soon came to blows. 2.291. Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.292. But John, and twelve of the principal men with him, went to Florus, to Sebaste, and made a lamentable complaint of their case, and besought him to help them; and with all possible decency, put him in mind of the eight talents they had given him; but he had the men seized upon and put in prison, and accused them for carrying the books of the law out of Caesarea. 2.444. for he went up thither to worship in a pompous manner, and adorned with royal garments, and had his followers with him in their armor. 2.560. and as they had them already cooped up together in the place of public exercises, which they had done out of the suspicion they had of them, they thought they should meet with no difficulty in the attempt; yet did they distrust their own wives, which were almost all of them addicted to the Jewish religion; 4.634. whereupon Vitellius sent away Cecinna, with a great army, having a mighty confidence in him, because of his having beaten Otho. This Cecinna marched out of Rome in great haste, and found Antonius about Cremona in Gall, which city is in the borders of Italy; 4.635. but when he saw there that the enemy were numerous and in good order, he durst not fight them; and as he thought a retreat dangerous, so he began to think of betraying his army to Antonius. 4.636. Accordingly, he assembled the centurions and tribunes that were under his command, and persuaded them to go over to Antonius, and this by diminishing the reputation of Vitellius, and by exaggerating the power of Vespasian. 4.637. He also told them that with the one there was no more than the bare name of dominion, but with the other was the power of it; and that it was better for them to prevent necessity, and gain favor, and, while they were likely to be overcome in battle, to avoid the danger beforehand, and go over to Antonius willingly; 4.638. that Vespasian was able of himself to subdue what had not yet submitted without their assistance, while Vitellius could not preserve what he had already with it. 4.639. 3. Cecinna said this, and much more to the same purpose, and persuaded them to comply with him; and both he and his army deserted; 4.640. but still the very same night the soldiers repented of what they had done, and a fear seized on them, lest perhaps Vitellius who sent them should get the better; and drawing their swords, they assaulted Cecinna, in order to kill him; and the thing had been done by them, if the tribunes had not fallen upon their knees, and besought them not to do it; 5.142. 2. Now, of these three walls, the old one was hard to be taken, both by reason of the valleys, and of that hill on which it was built, and which was above them. 5.143. But besides that great advantage, as to the place where they were situated, it was also built very strong; because David and Solomon, and the following kings, were very zealous about this work. 5.144. Now that wall began on the north, at the tower called “Hippicus,” and extended as far as the “Xistus,” a place so called, and then, joining to the council-house, ended at the west cloister of the temple. 5.145. But if we go the other way westward, it began at the same place, and extended through a place called “Bethso,” to the gate of the Essenes; and after that it went southward, having its bending above the fountain Siloam, where it also bends again towards the east at Solomon’s pool, and reaches as far as a certain place which they called “Ophlas,” where it was joined to the eastern cloister of the temple. 5.146. The second wall took its beginning from that gate which they called “Gennath,” which belonged to the first wall; it only encompassed the northern quarter of the city, and reached as far as the tower Antonia. 5.147. The beginning of the third wall was at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter of the city, and the tower Psephinus, and then was so far extended till it came over against the monuments of Helena, which Helena was queen of Adiabene, the daughter of Izates; it then extended further to a great length, and passed by the sepulchral caverns of the kings, and bent again at the tower of the corner, at the monument which is called the “Monument of the Fuller,” and joined to the old wall at the valley called the “Valley of Cedron.” 5.148. It was Agrippa who encompassed the parts added to the old city with this wall, which had been all naked before; for as the city grew more populous, it gradually crept beyond its old limits, 5.149. and those parts of it that stood northward of the temple, and joined that hill to the city, made it considerably larger, and occasioned that hill, which is in number the fourth, and is called “Bezetha,” to be inhabited also. It lies over against the tower Antonia, but is divided from it by a deep valley, 5.150. which was dug on purpose, and that in order to hinder the foundations of the tower of Antonia from joining to this hill, and thereby affording an opportunity for getting to it with ease, and hindering the security that arose from its superior elevation; 5.151. for which reason also that depth of the ditch made the elevation of the towers more remarkable. This new-built part of the city was called “Bezetha,” in our language, which, if interpreted in the Grecian language, may be called “the New City.” 5.152. Since, therefore, its inhabitants stood in need of a covering, the father of the present king, and of the same name with him, Agrippa, began that wall we spoke of; but he left off building it when he had only laid the foundations, out of the fear he was in of Claudius Caesar, lest he should suspect that so strong a wall was built in order to make some innovation in public affairs; 5.153. for the city could no way have been taken if that wall had been finished in the manner it was begun; as its parts were connected together by stones twenty cubits long, and ten cubits broad, which could never have been either easily undermined by any iron tools, or shaken by any engines. 5.154. The wall was, however, ten cubits wide, and it would probably have had a height greater than that, had not his zeal who began it been hindered from exerting itself. 5.155. After this, it was erected with great diligence by the Jews, as high as twenty cubits, above which it had battlements of two cubits, and turrets of three cubits altitude, insomuch that the entire altitude extended as far as twenty-five cubits. 6.312. But now, what did most elevate them in undertaking this war, was an ambiguous oracle that was also found in their sacred writings, how, “about that time, one from their country should become governor of the habitable earth.” 7.45. and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body.
15. Mishnah, Sotah, 25.16 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Levine (2005) 126
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 17.149-17.163, 18.55-18.59, 19.300, 20.173-20.178, 20.182-20.184 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic (figural art and jewish symbols) •lulav, in synagogue art Found in books: Levine (2005) 68, 224
17.149. 2. There was one Judas, the son of Saripheus, and Matthias, the son of Margalothus, two of the most eloquent men among the Jews, and the most celebrated interpreters of the Jewish laws, and men wellbeloved by the people, because of their education of their youth; for all those that were studious of virtue frequented their lectures every day. 17.150. These men, when they found that the king’s distemper was incurable, excited the young men that they would pull down all those works which the king had erected contrary to the law of their fathers, and thereby obtain the rewards which the law will confer on them for such actions of piety; for that it was truly on account of Herod’s rashness in making such things as the law had forbidden, that his other misfortunes, and this distemper also, which was so unusual among mankind, and with which he was now afflicted, came upon him; 17.151. for Herod had caused such things to be made which were contrary to the law, of which he was accused by Judas and Matthias; for the king had erected over the great gate of the temple a large golden eagle, of great value, and had dedicated it to the temple. Now the law forbids those that propose to live according to it, to erect images or representations of any living creature. 17.152. So these wise men persuaded [their scholars] to pull down the golden eagle; alleging, that although they should incur any danger, which might bring them to their deaths, the virtue of the action now proposed to them would appear much more advantageous to them than the pleasures of life; since they would die for the preservation and observation of the law of their fathers; since they would also acquire an everlasting fame and commendation; since they would be both commended by the present generation, and leave an example of life that would never be forgotten to posterity; 17.153. ince that common calamity of dying cannot be avoided by our living so as to escape any such dangers; that therefore it is a right thing for those who are in love with a virtuous conduct, to wait for that fatal hour by such behavior as may carry them out of the world with praise and honor; 17.154. and that this will alleviate death to a great degree, thus to come at it by the performance of brave actions, which bring us into danger of it; and at the same time to leave that reputation behind them to their children, and to all their relations, whether they be men or women, which will be of great advantage to them afterward. 17.155. 3. And with such discourses as this did these men excite the young men to this action; and a report being come to them that the king was dead, this was an addition to the wise men’s persuasions; so, in the very middle of the day, they got upon the place, they pulled down the eagle, and cut it into pieces with axes, while a great number of the people were in the temple. 17.156. And now the king’s captain, upon hearing what the undertaking was, and supposing it was a thing of a higher nature than it proved to be, came up thither, having a great band of soldiers with him, such as was sufficient to put a stop to the multitude of those who pulled down what was dedicated to God; so he fell upon them unexpectedly, and as they were upon this bold attempt, in a foolish presumption rather than a cautious circumspection, as is usual with the multitude, and while they were in disorder, and incautious of what was for their advantage; 17.157. o he caught no fewer than forty of the young men, who had the courage to stay behind when the rest ran away, together with the authors of this bold attempt, Judas and Matthias, who thought it an ignominious thing to retire upon his approach, and led them to the king. 17.158. And when they were come to the king, and he asked them if they had been so bold as to pull down what he had dedicated to God, “Yes, (said they,) what was contrived we contrived, and what hath been performed we performed it, and that with such a virtuous courage as becomes men; for we have given our assistance to those things which were dedicated to the majesty of God, 17.159. and we have provided for what we have learned by hearing the law; and it ought not to be wondered at, if we esteem those laws which Moses had suggested to him, and were taught him by God, and which he wrote and left behind him, more worthy of observation than thy commands. Accordingly we will undergo death, and all sorts of punishments which thou canst inflict upon us, with pleasure, since we are conscious to ourselves that we shall die, not for any unrighteous actions, but for our love to religion.” 17.160. And thus they all said, and their courage was still equal to their profession, and equal to that with which they readily set about this undertaking. And when the king had ordered them to be bound, he sent them to Jericho, and called together the principal men among the Jews; 17.161. and when they were come, he made them assemble in the theater, and because he could not himself stand, he lay upon a couch, and enumerated the many labors that he had long endured on their account, 17.162. and his building of the temple, and what a vast charge that was to him; while the Asamoneans, during the hundred and twenty-five years of their government, had not been able to perform any so great a work for the honor of God as that was; 17.163. that he had also adorned it with very valuable donations, on which account he hoped that he had left himself a memorial, and procured himself a reputation after his death. He then cried out, that these men had not abstained from affronting him, even in his lifetime, but that in the very day time, and in the sight of the multitude, they had abused him to that degree, as to fall upon what he had dedicated, and in that way of abuse had pulled it down to the ground. They pretended, indeed, that they did it to affront him; but if any one consider the thing truly, they will find that they were guilty of sacrilege against God therein. 18.55. 1. But now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Caesar’s effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images; 18.56. on which account the former procurators were wont to make their entry into the city with such ensigns as had not those ornaments. Pilate was the first who brought those images to Jerusalem, and set them up there; which was done without the knowledge of the people, because it was done in the night time; 18.57. but as soon as they knew it, they came in multitudes to Caesarea, and interceded with Pilate many days that he would remove the images; and when he would not grant their requests, because it would tend to the injury of Caesar, while yet they persevered in their request, on the sixth day he ordered his soldiers to have their weapons privately, while he came and sat upon his judgment-seat, which seat was so prepared in the open place of the city, that it concealed the army that lay ready to oppress them; 18.58. and when the Jews petitioned him again, he gave a signal to the soldiers to encompass them routed, and threatened that their punishment should be no less than immediate death, unless they would leave off disturbing him, and go their ways home. 18.59. But they threw themselves upon the ground, and laid their necks bare, and said they would take their death very willingly, rather than the wisdom of their laws should be transgressed; upon which Pilate was deeply affected with their firm resolution to keep their laws inviolable, and presently commanded the images to be carried back from Jerusalem to Caesarea. 19.300. But after a very little while the young men of Doris, preferring a rash attempt before piety, and being naturally bold and insolent, carried a statue of Caesar into a synagogue of the Jews, and erected it there. 20.173. 7. And now it was that a great sedition arose between the Jews that inhabited Caesarea, and the Syrians who dwelt there also, concerning their equal right to the privileges belonging to citizens; for the Jews claimed the pre-eminence, because Herod their king was the builder of Caesarea, and because he was by birth a Jew. Now the Syrians did not deny what was alleged about Herod; but they said that Caesarea was formerly called Strato’s Tower, and that then there was not one Jewish inhabitant. 20.174. When the presidents of that country heard of these disorders, they caught the authors of them on both sides, and tormented them with stripes, and by that means put a stop to the disturbance for a time. 20.175. But the Jewish citizens depending on their wealth, and on that account despising the Syrians, reproached them again, and hoped to provoke them by such reproaches. 20.176. However, the Syrians, though they were inferior in wealth, yet valuing themselves highly on this account, that the greatest part of the Roman soldiers that were there were either of Caesarea or Sebaste, they also for some time used reproachful language to the Jews also; and thus it was, till at length they came to throwing stones at one another, and several were wounded, and fell on both sides, though still the Jews were the conquerors. 20.177. But when Felix saw that this quarrel was become a kind of war, he came upon them on the sudden, and desired the Jews to desist; and when they refused so to do, he armed his soldiers, and sent them out upon them, and slew many of them, and took more of them alive, and permitted his soldiers to plunder some of the houses of the citizens, which were full of riches. 20.178. Now those Jews that were more moderate, and of principal dignity among them, were afraid of themselves, and desired of Felix that he would sound a retreat to his soldiers, and spare them for the future, and afford them room for repentance for what they had done; and Felix was prevailed upon to do so. 20.182. 9. Now when Porcius Festus was sent as successor to Felix by Nero, the principal of the Jewish inhabitants of Caesarea went up to Rome to accuse Felix; and he had certainly been brought to punishment, unless Nero had yielded to the importunate solicitations of his brother Pallas, who was at that time had in the greatest honor by him. 20.183. Two of the principal Syrians in Caesarea persuaded Burrhus, who was Nero’s tutor, and secretary for his Greek epistles, by giving him a great sum of money, to disannul that equality of the Jewish privileges of citizens which they hitherto enjoyed. 20.184. So Burrhus, by his solicitations, obtained leave of the emperor that an epistle should be written to that purpose. This epistle became the occasion of the following miseries that befell our nation; for when the Jews of Caesarea were informed of the contents of this epistle to the Syrians, they were more disorderly than before, till a war was kindled.
17. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •roman synagogues, jewish art Found in books: Levine (2005) 352
18. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.21-3.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •roman synagogues, jewish art •synagogues, art in Found in books: Levine (2005) 352; Stern (2004) 4
3.21. "כתב הנכתב ליחיד מכנין אותה לרבים לרבים אין מכנין אותה ליחיד רבי יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף הרי זה מגדף. תורגמן העומד לפני חכם אינו רשאי לא לפחות ולא להוסיף ולא לשנות אלא אם כן יהיה אביו או רבו. ",
19. Tacitus, Histories, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jewish symbols, found particularly in synagogues in palestine, original language of Found in books: Feldman (2006) 317
5.13.  Prodigies had indeed occurred, but to avert them either by victims or by vows is held unlawful by a people which, though prone to superstition, is opposed to all propitiatory rites. Contending hosts were seen meeting in the skies, arms flashed, and suddenly the temple was illumined with fire from the clouds. of a sudden the doors of the shrine opened and a superhuman voice cried: "The gods are departing": at the same moment the mighty stir of their going was heard. Few interpreted these omens as fearful; the majority firmly believed that their ancient priestly writings contained the prophecy that this was the very time when the East should grow strong and that men starting from Judea should possess the world. This mysterious prophecy had in reality pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, as is the way of human ambition, interpreted these great destinies in their own favour, and could not be turned to the truth even by adversity. We have heard that the total number of the besieged of every age and both sexes was six hundred thousand; there were arms for all who could use them, and the number ready to fight was larger than could have been anticipated from the total population. Both men and women showed the same determination; and if they were to be forced to change their home, they feared life more than death. Such was the city and people against which Titus Caesar now proceeded; since the nature of the ground did not allow him to assault or employ any sudden operations, he decided to use earthworks and mantlets; the legions were assigned to their several tasks, and there was a respite of fighting until they made ready every device for storming a town that the ancients had ever employed or modern ingenuity invented.
20. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jewish symbols, found particularly in synagogues in palestine, original language of Found in books: Feldman (2006) 317
21. New Testament, Mark, 7.1-7.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in justin martyr Found in books: Cohen (2010) 276
7.1. Καὶ συνἄγονται πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καί τινες τῶν γραμματέων ἐλθόντες ἀπὸ Ἰεροσολύμων 7.2. καὶ ἰδόντες τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ὅτι κοιναῖς χερσίν, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν ἀνίπτοις, ἐσθίουσιν τοὺς ἄρτους. 7.3. —οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐὰν μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, 7.4. καὶ ἀπʼ ἀγορᾶς ἐὰν μὴ ῥαντίσωνται οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, καὶ ἄλλα πολλά ἐστιν ἃ παρέλαβον κρατεῖν, βαπτισμοὺς ποτηρίων καὶ ξεστῶν καὶ χαλκίων. 7.5. —καὶ ἐπερωτῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς Διὰ τί οὐ περιπατοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταί σου κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ κοιναῖς χερσὶν ἐσθίουσιν τὸν ἄρτον; 7.6. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν Ἠσαίας περὶ ὑμῶν τῶν ὑποκριτῶν, ὡς γέγραπται ὅτι Οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· 7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?" 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me.
22. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.50, 1.279 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jewish symbols, found particularly in synagogues in palestine, original language of •lulav, in synagogue art Found in books: Feldman (2006) 317; Levine (2005) 68
1.50. Afterward I got leisure at Rome; and when all my materials were prepared for that work, I made use of some persons to assist me in learning the Greek tongue, and by these means I composed the history of those transactions; and I was so well assured of the truth of what I related, that I first of all appealed to those that had the supreme command in that war, Vespasian and Titus, as witnesses for me, 1.279. 31. It now remains that I debate with Manetho about Moses. Now the Egyptians acknowledge him to have been a wonderful, and a divine person; nay they would willingly lay claim to him themselves, though after a most abusive and incredible manner; and pretend that he was of Heliopolis, and one of the priests of that place, and was ejected out of it among the rest, on account of his leprosy;
23. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, None (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 471
24. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, 1.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •targum, and synagogue art Found in books: Levine (2005) 471
1.16. דָּבָר אַחֵר, רַב לָכֶם סֹב אֶת הָהָר הַזֶּה, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (תהלים ס, יא): מִי יוֹבִלֵנִי עִיר מָצוֹר, זוֹ רוֹמִי, וְלָמָּה דָוִד קוֹרֵא אוֹתָהּ מָצוֹר, עִיר שֶׁמֵּצֵרָה וּמְבַצְּרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עִיר מָצוֹר, שֶׁמְבֻצֶּרֶת מִכָּל מָקוֹם, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לִכְבּשׁ אוֹתָהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עִיר מָצוֹר, עִיר שֶׁהַכֹּל מְבַצְּרִין אוֹתָהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הָיָה דָוִד מִתְאַוֶּה וְאוֹמֵר מִי יוֹבִלֵנִי עִיר מָצוֹר, מִי יִתֵּן שֶׁאֶפָּרַע מִמֶּנָּה, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, דָּוִד, וְיָכוֹל אַתָּה לָהּ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם (תהלים ס, יא): מִי נָחַנִי עַד אֱדוֹם, אָמַר לְפָנָיו מִי שֶׁכְּבָר הִשְׁלִיטַנִי עַל אֱדוֹם הוּא מַשְׁלִיט אוֹתִי אַף עַל זוֹ סַגִּיאִין, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁשָּׁלַט דָּוִד עַל אֱדוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב ח, יד): וַיָּשֶׂם בֶּאֱדוֹם נְצִבִים. מַהוּ נְצִיבִים, רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר קַסְטְרֵס. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִי אַדְרִיאַנְטִין. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, דָּוִד, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁיָּדֶיךָ חַדּוֹת וַחֲרוּצוֹת, וַאֲנִי מְבַקֵּשׁ לִרְדּוֹת אֶת עוֹלָמִי בָּהֶם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דָּוִד, אֲנִי צָרִיךְ לָהּ לְדוֹרוֹת, וּכְבָר משֶׁה רַבְּךָ בִּקֵּשׁ לְהִזְדַוֵּג בָּהֶן, וְאָמַרְתִּי לוֹ רַב לָכֶם, רַב יְצַוֶּה לְתַלְמִידָיו סֹב אֶת הָהָר הַזֶּה.
25. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
26. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
27. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, art in Found in books: Stern (2004) 4
28. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 16.4, 38.2, 47.4, 48.2, 51.2, 72.3, 76.7, 80.4, 93.4, 95.4, 96.2, 102.5, 103.1-103.2, 105.6, 108.3, 112.5, 123.6, 133.6, 137.2, 140.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010) 276, 277
114. Some rules for discerning what is said about Christ. The circumcision of the Jews is very different from that which Christians receive Justin: For the Holy Spirit sometimes brought about that something, which was the type of the future, should be done clearly; sometimes He uttered words about what was to take place, as if it was then taking place, or had taken place. And unless those who read perceive this art, they will not be able to follow the words of the prophets as they ought. For example's sake, I shall repeat some prophetic passages, that you may understand what I say. When He speaks by Isaiah, 'He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and like a lamb before the shearer,' Isaiah 53:7 He speaks as if the suffering had already taken place. And when He says again, 'I have stretched out my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people;' Isaiah 65:2 and when He says, 'Lord, who has believed our report?' Isaiah 53:1— the words are spoken as if announcing events which had already come to pass. For I have shown that Christ is oftentimes called a Stone in parable, and in figurative speech Jacob and Israel. And again, when He says, 'I shall behold the heavens, the works of Your fingers,' unless I understand His method of using words, I shall not understand intelligently, but just as your teachers suppose, fancying that the Father of all, the unbegotten God, has hands and feet, and fingers, and a soul, like a composite being; and they for this reason teach that it was the Father Himself who appeared to Abraham and to Jacob. Blessed therefore are we who have been circumcised the second time with knives of stone. For your first circumcision was and is performed by iron instruments, for you remain hard-hearted; but our circumcision, which is the second, having been instituted after yours, circumcises us from idolatry and from absolutely every kind of wickedness by sharp stones, i.e., by the words [preached] by the apostles of the corner-stone cut out without hands. And our hearts are thus circumcised from evil, so that we are happy to die for the name of the good Rock, which causes living water to burst forth for the hearts of those who by Him have loved the Father of all, and which gives those who are willing to drink of the water of life. But you do not comprehend me when I speak these things; for you have not understood what it has been prophesied that Christ would do, and you do not believe us who draw your attention to what has been written. For Jeremiah thus cries: 'Woe unto you! Because you have forsaken the living fountain, and have dug for yourselves broken cisterns that can hold no water. Shall there be a wilderness where Mount Zion is, because I gave Jerusalem a bill of divorce in your sight?' Jeremiah 2:13
29. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •roman synagogues, jewish art Found in books: Levine (2005) 352
125b. זמורה שהיא קשורה בטפיח ממלאין בה בשבת,פקק החלון ר"א אומר בזמן שהוא קשור ותלוי פוקקין בו ואם לאו אין פוקקין בו וחכ"א בין כך ובין כך פוקקין בו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנן התם אבן שעל פי החבית מטה על צידה והיא נופלת אמר רבה א"ר אמי א"ר יוחנן לא שנו אלא בשוכח אבל במניח נעשה בסיס לדבר האסור ורב יוסף א"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן לא שנו אלא בשוכח אבל במניח נעשה כיסוי להחבית,אמר רבה מותבינן אשמעתין האבן שבקירויה אם ממלאין בה ואינה נופלת ממלאין בה ולא היא התם כיון דהדקה שויא דופן,אמר רב יוסף ומותבינן אשמעתין אם לאו אין ממלאין בה ולא היא התם כיון דלא הדקה בטולי בטלה,במאי קמיפלגי מר סבר בעינן מעשה ומר סבר לא בעינן מעשה,ואזדו לטעמייהו דכי אתא רב דימי א"ר חנינא ואמרי לה א"ר זירא א"ר חנינא פעם אחת הלך רבי למקום אחד ומצא נדבך של אבנים ואמר לתלמידיו צאו וחשבו כדי שנשב עליהן למחר ולא הצריכן רבי למעשה,ור' יוחנן אמר הצריכן רבי למעשה מאי אמר להו רבי אמי אמר צאו ולמדום אמר להו רבי אסי אמר צאו ושפשפום אמר להו,איתמר ר' יוסי בן שאול אמר סואר של קורות הוה ור' יוחנן בן שאול אמר גשוש של ספינה הוה מ"ד גשוש כ"ש סואר ומ"ד סואר אבל גשוש קפיד עליה:,זמורה שהיא קשורה כו': קשורה אין לא קשורה לא לימא מתניתין דלא כרשב"ג,דתניא חריות של דקל שגדרן לעצים ונמלך עליהן לישיבה צריך לקשור רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אין צריך לקשור,אמר רב ששת אפי' תימא רשב"ג הכא במאי עסקינן במחוברת באביה אי הכי קא משתמש במחובר לקרקע למטה מג' רב אשי אמר אפי' תימא בתלושה גזירה שמא יקטום:,פקק החלון כו': אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן הכל מודים שאין עושין אהל עראי בתחלה ביו"ט וא"צ לומר בשבת לא נחלקו אלא להוסיף שר"א אומר אין מוסיפין ביו"ט וא"צ לומר בשבת וחכ"א מוסיפין בשבת וא"צ לומר ביו"ט:,וחכ"א בין כך ובין כך פוקקין בו: מאי בין כך ובין כך אמר ר' אבא אמר רב כהנא 125b. With regard to b a /b vine b branch that is tied to a pitcher, one may fill /b water b with it on Shabbat /b because the branch became part of the vessel.,With regard to b a window shutter, Rabbi Eliezer says: When it is tied /b to b and hanging /b from the window, i.e., it is not touching the ground, b one may shutter /b the window b with it, /b because it is not considered building; b and if not, /b i.e., it is touching the ground, b one may not shutter /b the window b with it. And the Rabbis say: Both /b in b this /b case b and /b in b that /b case b one may shutter with it. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b We learned /b in a mishna b there: /b In the case of b a stone that is atop a barrel /b and one wants to open the barrel, b he tilts /b the barrel b on its side and /b the stone b falls. Rabba said /b that b Rabbi Ami said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: They only taught /b this in a case b where one forgets /b the stone atop the barrel; b however, /b in a case b where one places /b the stone atop the barrel intentionally, the barrel b becomes a base for a prohibited object, /b and it is therefore prohibited to move the barrel. b And Rav Yosef /b said that b Rabbi Asi said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: They only taught /b this in a case b where one forgets /b it; b however, /b in a case b where one places /b it there, the stone b becomes a cover for the barrel /b and it is permitted to use it like other barrel covers., b Rabba said: We raise an objection to our i halakha /i /b from the mishna: With regard to b a stone that is in a gourd /b used to draw water, b if they fill it /b with water b and /b the stone b does not fall, one may fill with it /b on Shabbat. Apparently, if the stone is designated for a purpose, it is no longer set-aside. He rejects the proof: b And that is not so, /b as these cases are not comparable. b There, /b in the case of the stone in the gourd, b since one attached /b it to the gourd, b he rendered /b the stone b a wall /b of the gourd and part of the vessel, unlike in the case of the stone atop the barrel., b Rav Yosef said: And we raise an objection to our i halakha /i /b from the mishna: b And if not, /b and the stone does fall, b one may not fill with it. /b A stone that is not attached is not considered to be part of the vessel and is therefore set-aside. He rejects the proof. b And that is not so, /b as these cases are not comparable. b There, since he did not attach /b the stone to the gourd, b he negates its /b status as a part of the vessel and it remains set-aside.,The Gemara explains: b With regard to what do they disagree? One Sage, /b Rabba, b holds /b that b we require an action /b to change the status of a stone or another set-aside object into a vessel, b and one Sage, /b Rav Yosef, b holds /b that b we do not require an action. /b , b And they, /b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, b follow their /b regular line of b reasoning, as when Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that b Rabbi Ḥanina said, and some say that /b it was b Rabbi Zeira /b who b said /b that b Rabbi Ḥanina said: Once Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b went to one place and found a course of /b building b stones, and /b he b said to his students: Go out and think /b that you are designating these stones for Shabbat b so that we may sit on them tomorrow /b on Shabbat, b and Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b did not require them /b to perform b an action /b with those stones. Thought alone was sufficient., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b That is not what happened. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b required them /b to perform b an action /b to designate the stones. The Gemara asks: b What /b action b did he say to them /b to perform? b Rabbi Ami said /b that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to them: Go out and arrange /b the stones. b Rabbi Asi said /b that b he said to them: Go out and rub /b the mortar off of b them. /b Rabbi Ami requires a more significant action to render the stones a vessel., b It was stated /b that there was a dispute with regard to this matter. b Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul said: It was a /b new b stack of beams, /b not stones. b And Rabbi Yoḥa ben Shaul said: It was the sounding pole of a ship /b used to determine the depth of the water. b The one who said /b that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi permitted sitting on a ship’s b sounding pole, all the more so /b he permitted doing so in the case of b beams. And /b with regard to b the one who said /b that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi permitted sitting on a stack of b beams, but /b in the case of the b sounding pole /b he would prohibit doing so because it is set-aside due to monetary loss, as he is b particular about it /b that it will not become warped and damaged.,We learned in the mishna: With regard to b a /b vine b branch that is tied /b to a pitcher, one may fill water with it on Shabbat. The Gemara infers: If it is b tied, yes, /b it is permitted; if it is b not tied, no, /b it is prohibited. b Let us say that the mishna is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b , b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b hard branches of a palm /b tree b that one cut for firewood /b or for construction, b and /b then b he reconsidered their /b designation and decided to use them b for sitting, he must tie /b the branches together on Shabbat eve so that they will not be set-aside. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He need not tie /b them together, and nevertheless, it is permitted to move them. According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, cut wood need not be specially prepared to be used on Shabbat., b Rav Sheshet says: Even /b if b you say /b that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, with what are we dealing here? With /b a case where the shoot is still b connected to its origin, /b the vine. The Gemara asks: b If so, he is making use /b of an item that b is attached to the ground, /b and the Sages issued a decree prohibiting the use of any plant attached to the ground. The Gemara answers: This is referring to a branch attached to the vine b below three /b handbreadths off the ground. A vine attached to the ground below three handbreadths off the ground was not prohibited in that decree, just as it is permitted to make use of tree roots adjacent to the ground. b Rav Ashi said: Even /b if b you say /b that it is referring b to a /b branch that b is detached, /b nevertheless, its use is prohibited due to the b decree lest one cut /b and straighten the branch to prepare it for use with the bucket. Therefore, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel teaches that there is no need for concern.,We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer and the Rabbis dispute the case of b a window shutter /b and in what manner one is permitted to shutter a window on Shabbat. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Everyone agrees that one may not construct a temporary tent on a Festival /b for the b first time, and needless to say, /b one may not do so b on Shabbat. /b The i tanna’im /i b disagree only /b with regard to b adding /b to an existing tent, b as Rabbi Eliezer says: One may not add /b to an existing structure b on a Festival, and needless to say, /b one may not do so b on Shabbat. And the Rabbis say: One may add /b to a temporary structure b on Shabbat, and needless to say, /b one may do so b on a Festival. /b ,We learned in the mishna that the Rabbis say: Both in this case and in that case one may shutter with it. The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of: b Both /b in b this /b case b and /b in b that /b case, in this context? b Rabbi Abba said /b that b Rav Kahana said: /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •roman synagogues, jewish art Found in books: Levine (2005) 352
86b. קורה ארבעה מתרת במים,הא קא אזיל דלי לאידך גיסא ומייתי קים להו לרבנן דאין דלי מהלך יותר מארבעה טפחים,תחת קורה מיהא הא עריבי מיא אלא משום דקל הוא שהקילו חכמים במים כדבעא מיניה רבי טבלא מרב מחיצה תלויה מהו שתתיר בחורבה א"ל אין מחיצה תלויה מתרת אלא במים קל הוא שהקילו חכמים במים:,א"ר יהודה לא תהא מחיצה: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ר' יהודה בשיטת ר' יוסי אמרה דאמר מחיצה תלויה מתרת אפילו ביבשה,דתנן המשלשל דפנות מלמעלה למטה בזמן שגבוהות מן הארץ ג' טפחים פסולה ממטה למעלה אם גבוהות י' טפחים כשירה,רבי יוסי אומר כשם שמלמטה למעלה עשרה כך מלמעלה למטה עשרה,ולא היא לא רבי יהודה סבר לה כרבי יוסי ולא ר' יוסי סבר לה כרבי יהודה,רבי יהודה לא סבר לה כרבי יוסי עד כאן לא קאמר רבי יהודה אלא בעירובי חצירות דרבנן אבל סוכה דאורייתא לא,ולא ר' יוסי סבר לה כר' יהודה עד כאן לא קאמר ר' יוסי אלא בסוכה דאיסור עשה הוא אבל שבת דאיסור סקילה הוא לא אמר,ואם תאמר אותו מעשה שנעשה בציפורי על פי מי נעשה לא על פי רבי יוסי אלא על פי רבי ישמעאל בר' יוסי נעשה,דכי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת שכחו ולא הביאו ספר תורה מבעוד יום למחר פרסו סדין על העמודים והביאו ספר תורה וקראו בו,פרסו לכתחילה מי שרי והא הכל מודים שאין עושין אהל עראי בשבת,אלא מצאו סדינין פרוסין על העמודים והביאו ספר תורה וקראו בו,אמר רבה ר' יהודה ור' חנניא בן עקביא אמרו דבר אחד ר' יהודה הא דאמרן ר' חנניא בן עקביא (דתנן) ר' חנניא בן עקביא אומר גזוזטרא שיש בה ארבע אמות על ארבע אמות 86b. A cross b beam of four /b handbreadths laid across a cistern located between two courtyards b permits /b one to draw b water /b from that cistern.,With this in mind, the following difficulty arises: The b bucket /b he uses to draw the water b might drift /b under the cross b beam to the other side /b of the cistern b and bring /b water from the other courtyard. The Gemara answers: b The Sages have established that a bucket does not drift more than four handbreadths /b from the point where it was lowered, and it will therefore stay on its original side of the partition.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b Nonetheless, the water becomes intermingled under the /b cross b beam, /b and consequently the bucket will bring up water from the other courtyard. b Rather, /b it must be that the reason for the leniency is not that the cross beam actually prevents the flow of the water, but b because the Sages were lenient with regard to water. /b They allowed a partition suspended above the water to be considered as though it blocked the flow of the water. b As Rav Tavla asked of Rav: /b With regard to b a suspended partition, does it permit /b carrying b in a ruin? /b Do we say that the remts of the walls suspended in the air are considered as though they descended to the ground and closed off the area, thereby rendering it a private domain? Rav b said to him: A suspended partition /b of this kind b permits /b carrying b only /b in the case b of water, /b as b the Sages were lenient with regard to water. /b ,The mishna teaches: b Rabbi Yehuda said: /b There is no need for a partition in the cistern, as b a partition /b inside a cistern b is no /b better than the wall above it. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Rabbi Yehuda stated this in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who said: A suspended partition permits /b carrying b even on land, /b as it is considered as though it descended to the ground and sealed off the area. Accordingly, there is no need to erect a partition inside the airspace of a cistern., b As we learned /b in a mishna: b One who lowers /b i sukka /i b walls from above /b going b downward, when /b the walls b are three handbreadths higher than the ground, /b the i sukka /i b is invalid, /b as they are not considered partitions; but if he constructed walls b from below /b going b upward, if they are ten handbreadths high /b the i sukka /i b is valid, /b even if they do not reach the roofing., b Rabbi Yosei, /b however, b says: Just as /b with regard to walls constructed b from below /b going b upward, ten /b handbreadths suffice, b so /b too, in the case of walls built b from above /b going b downward, ten /b handbreadths are enough for it to be considered a whole wall, even if it more than three handbreadths above the ground. Similarly, Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a partition suspended above a cistern is considered as though it descended and sealed off the area.,The Gemara rejects this argument: b But this is not so, /b for we can distinguish between the two opinions and claim that b neither Rabbi Yehuda holds /b in accordance b with Rabbi Yosei, nor does Rabbi Yosei hold /b in accordance b with Rabbi Yehuda. /b ,The Gemara elaborates: b Rabbi Yehuda does not /b necessarily b hold /b in accordance b with Rabbi Yosei, /b as a distinction can be made between the two cases. b Rabbi Yehuda stated /b his opinion b only with regard to the joining of courtyards, /b which are required b by rabbinic law, but /b in the case of b a i sukka /i , which /b is required b by Torah law, no, /b he did not say that we can rely on suspended partitions., b And /b conversely, b Rabbi Yosei does not /b necessarily b hold /b in accordance b with Rabbi Yehuda, /b as b Rabbi Yosei stated /b his opinion b only with regard to a i sukka /i , /b which b is a prohibition /b stated in the Torah b from a positive commandment. /b The prohibition is not written as a negative commandment, but it can be inferred from a positive commandment. Neglect of the positive commandment of i sukka /i is not punishable by the court, therefore we are not stringent in this regard. b But /b with regard to b Shabbat, /b which is b a prohibition /b punishable b by stoning, /b Rabbi Yosei b did not state /b his opinion. Consequently, Rabbi Yosei might agree that we must be very stringent with regard to all i halakhot /i of Shabbat, even those that are rabbinic in origin., b And if you ask: That incident, which occurred in Tzippori, /b when they relied on suspended partitions on land for Shabbat, b on whose authority was it performed? /b It was done b not on the authority of Rabbi Yosei, but /b rather b it was performed on the authority of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, /b who maintains that a suspended partition renders it permitted to carry even if it is over land and even on Shabbat.,The incident transpired in the following manner. b As when Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said: /b It b once /b happened that the people b forgot and did not bring a Torah scroll /b to the synagogue on Friday b while it was still day, /b which meant they were left without a scroll from which to read on Shabbat. b On the following day, /b Shabbat, b they spread a sheet over the pillars /b positioned between the house where the scroll was kept and the synagogue, thereby forming a corridor with partitions suspended on each side. b And /b in this manner b they brought the Torah scroll /b to the synagogue b and read from it. /b ,The Gemara expresses surprise at the wording of this account: Did they actually b spread /b sheets on Shabbat? b Is it permitted /b to do so b i ab initio /i ? But doesn’t everyone agree that one may not erect a temporary tent on Shabbat /b i ab initio /i ? Spreading sheets over pillars is considered constructing a temporary tent., b Rather, /b what happened was that b they found sheets spread over the pillars, /b which they used as partitions, b and /b in this manner b they brought the Torah scroll /b to the synagogue b and read from it. /b , b Rabba said: Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya said the same thing. /b Both were very lenient with regard to the i halakha /i of a partition over water. The ruling of b Rabbi Yehuda is that which we /b just b said, /b that the wall of the courtyard permits a cistern. The ruling of b Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya is as we learned: Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya says: /b In the case of b a balcony that contains four cubits by four cubits, /b which is suspended over water,
31. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 7.33-7.38 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 296
32. Rufinus of Aquileia, In Suam Et Eusebii Caesariensis Latinam Ab Eo Factam Historiam, 10.38-10.40 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, jewish, earthquakes and Found in books: Kraemer (2020) 113
33. Julian (Emperor), Letters, 51 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, jewish, earthquakes and Found in books: Kraemer (2020) 113
34. Julian (Emperor), Letters, 51 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, jewish, earthquakes and Found in books: Kraemer (2020) 113
35. Julian (Emperor), Letters, 51 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, jewish, earthquakes and Found in books: Kraemer (2020) 113
36. Anon., Arsenius, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, art in Found in books: Stern (2004) 109
37. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Al. Sev., 28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Levine (2005) 297
38. John Chrysostom, Against The Jews, 1.3, 1.5, 2.2, 8.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Levine (2005) 296
39. Socrates of Constantinople, Ecclesiastical History, 3.20  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, jewish, earthquakes and Found in books: Kraemer (2020) 113
41. Aristophanes, Islands Pcg, 1.2-1.3  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Levine (2005) 296
42. Hammurabi, Laws of Hammurabi, 1.1  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Levine (2005) 297
43. Anon., Genesis Rabbati, 45.8  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, synagogue, synagogue, destruction (converted into church), tomb of maccabean martyrs Found in books: Levine (2005) 297
44. Anon., Yalqut Shimoni, None  Tagged with subjects: •synagogues, art in Found in books: Stern (2004) 109