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11 results for "substitution"
1. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with text Found in books: Balberg (2017) 233
2.10. "הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה, לְשֵׁם זְבָחִים, לְשֵׁם אָשָׁם תָּלוּי, לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח, לְשֵׁם תּוֹדָה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְסוּלָה. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַכְשִׁיר. שְׁנַיִם אוֹחֲזִין בְּסַכִּין וְשׁוֹחֲטִין, אֶחָד לְשֵׁם אַחַד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ, וְאֶחָד לְשֵׁם דָּבָר כָּשֵׁר, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְסוּלָה. הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת, לְשֵׁם אָשָׁם וַדַּאי, לְשֵׁם בְּכוֹר, לְשֵׁם מַעֲשֵׂר, לְשֵׁם תְּמוּרָה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁנִּדָּר וְנִּדָּב, הַשּׁוֹחֵט לִשְׁמוֹ, אָסוּר, וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ נִדָּר וְנִדָּב, הַשּׁוֹחֵט לִשְׁמוֹ, כָּשֵׁר: \n", 2.10. "If one slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court] for it to be an olah or a shelamim or an asham for a doubtful sin or as a Pesah or a todah, the slaughtering is invalid. But Rabbi Shimon declares it valid. If two persons held one knife and slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court], one declaring it to be one of the above and the other intending it for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid. If one slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court] for it to be a hatat or an asham or a first-born or the tithe [of cattle] or a substitute offering, the slaughtering is valid. This is the general rule: if one slaughtered an animal declaring it to be a sacrifice which can be brought either as a voluntary or a freewill-offering it is invalid, but if he declares it to be a sacrifice which cannot be brought either as a votive or a freewill-offering it is valid.",
2. Mishnah, Menachot, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with text Found in books: Balberg (2017) 233
13.10. "הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה, יַקְרִיבֶנָּה בַמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָהּ בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, לֹא יָצָא. שֶׁאַקְרִיבֶנָּה בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יַקְרִיבֶנָּה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָהּ בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יָצָא. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵין זוֹ עוֹלָה. הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר, יְגַלַּח בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם גִּלַּח בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, לֹא יָצָא. שֶׁאֲגַלַּח בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יְגַלַּח בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם גִּלַּח בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יָצָא. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵין זֶה נָזִיר. הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, לֹא יְשַׁמְּשׁוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְדָבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב כג), אַךְ לֹא יַעֲלוּ כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֶל מִזְבַּח ה' בִּירוּשָׁלָיִם כִי אִם אָכְלוּ מַצּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵיהֶם, הֲרֵי הֵם כְּבַעֲלֵי מוּמִין, חוֹלְקִין וְאוֹכְלִין, אֲבָל לֹא מַקְרִיבִין: \n", 13.10. "[If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer an olah,” he must offer it in the Temple. And if he offered it in the Temple of Onias, he has not fulfilled his obligation. [If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer an olah but I will offer it in the Temple of Onias,” he must offer it in the Temple, yet if he offered it in the Temple of Onias he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Shimon says: this is not an olah. [If one said,] “I will be a nazirite,” he must bring his offerings and shave his hair in the Temple. And if he brought them and shaved his hair in the Temple of Onias he has not fulfilled his obligation. [If he said,] “I will be a nazirite but I will bring my offerings and shave my hair in the Temple of Onias,” he must bring them in the Temple, yet if he brought them and shaved his hair in the Temple of Onias he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Shimon says: such a one is not a nazirite. The priests who served in the Temple of Onias may not serve in the Temple in Jerusalem; and needless to say [this is so of priests who served] something else; for it is said, “The priests of the shrines, however, did not ascend the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem. But they did eat unleavened bread along with their kinsmen” (II Kings 23:9). Thus they are like those that had a blemish: they are entitled to share and eat [of the holy things] but they are not permitted to offer sacrifices.",
3. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.17-4.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with other actions Found in books: Balberg (2017) 238
4.17. Those who are born in Gemini will be of the following description: red countece, size not very large, evenly proportioned limbs, black eyes as if anointed with oil, cheeks turned down, and large mouth, contracted eyebrows; they conquer all things, they retain whatever possessions they acquire, they are extremely rich, penurious, niggardly of what is peculiarly their own, profuse in the pleasures of women, equitable, musical, liars. And the same by nature are learned, reflective, inquisitive, arriving at their own decisions, concupiscent, sparing of what belongs to themselves, liberal, quiet, prudent, crafty, they form many designs, calculators, accusers, importunate, not prosperous, they are beloved by the fair sex, merchants; as regards friendship, not to any considerable extent useful. 4.18. Those born in Cancer are of the following description: size not large, hair like a dog, of a reddish color, small mouth, round head, pointed forehead, grey eyes, sufficiently beautiful, limbs somewhat varying. The same by nature are wicked, crafty, proficients in plans, insatiable, stingy, ungracious, illiberal, useless, forgetful; they neither restore what is another's, nor do they ask back what is their own; as regards friendship, useful. 4.19. Those born in Leo are of the following description: round head, reddish hair, huge wrinkled forehead, coarse ears, large development of neck, partly bald, red complexion, grey eyes, large jaws, coarse mouth, gross in the upper parts, huge breast, the under limbs tapering. The same are by nature persons who allow nothing to interfere with their own decision, pleasing themselves, irascible, passionate, scorners, obstinate, forming no design, not loquacious, indolent, making an improper use of leisure, familiar, wholly abandoned to pleasures of women, adulterers, immodest, in faith untrue, importunate, daring, penurious, spoliators, remarkable; as regards fellowship, useful; as regards friendship, useless.
4. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2017) 4
26b. תנו רבנן טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בערב שבת מתפלל בליל שבת שתים טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בשבת מתפלל במוצאי שבת שתים של חול מבדיל בראשונה ואינו מבדיל בשניה ואם הבדיל בשניה ולא הבדיל בראשונה שניה עלתה לו ראשונה לא עלתה לו,למימרא דכיון דלא אבדיל בקמייתא כמאן דלא צלי דמי ומהדרינן ליה,ורמינהו טעה ולא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו הבדלה בחונן הדעת אין מחזירין אותו מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס קשיא,איתמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר תפלות אבות תקנום רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר תפלות כנגד תמידין תקנום,תניא כוותיה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא ותניא כוותיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי תניא כוותיה דרבי יוסי בר' חנינא אברהם תקן תפלת שחרית שנא' (בראשית יט, כז) וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמד פינחס ויפלל,יצחק תקן תפלת מנחה שנאמר (בראשית כד, סג) ויצא יצחק לשוח בשדה לפנות ערב ואין שיחה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטף ולפני ה' ישפוך שיחו,יעקב תקן תפלת ערבית שנאמר (בראשית כח, יא) ויפגע במקום וילן שם ואין פגיעה אלא תפלה שנאמר (ירמיהו ז, טז) ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה ואל תשא בעדם רנה ותפלה ואל תפגע בי,ותניא כוותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי מפני מה אמרו תפלת השחר עד חצות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד חצות ורבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד ארבע שעות,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת המנחה עד הערב שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד הערב רבי יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד פלג המנחה,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת הערב אין לה קבע שהרי אברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב קרבים והולכים כל הלילה,ומפני מה אמרו של מוספין כל היום שהרי קרבן של מוספין קרב כל היום רבי יהודה אומר עד שבע שעות שהרי קרבן מוסף קרב והולך עד שבע שעות,ואיזו היא מנחה גדולה משש שעות ומחצה ולמעלה ואיזו היא מנחה קטנה מתשע שעות ומחצה ולמעלה,איבעיא להו רבי יהודה פלג מנחה קמא קאמר או פלג מנחה אחרונה קאמר תא שמע דתניא ר' יהודה אומר פלג המנחה אחרונה אמרו והיא י"א שעות חסר רביע,נימא תיהוי תיובתיה דר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמר לך ר' יוסי בר' חנינא לעולם אימא לך תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות דאי לא תימא הכי תפלת מוסף לר' יוסי בר' חנינא מאן תקנה אלא תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות:,רבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות: איבעיא להו עד ועד בכלל או דלמא עד ולא עד בכלל תא שמע ר' יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה אי אמרת בשלמא עד ולא עד בכלל היינו דאיכא בין ר' יהודה לרבנן אלא אי אמרת עד ועד בכלל ר' יהודה 26b. On a similar note, b the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays in /b the evening prayer b two /b i Amida /i prayers b on Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday /b i Amida /i prayers in the evening prayer b at the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites i havdala /i [ /b the prayer of b distinction] /b between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the i Amida, /i which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, b in the first /b prayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, b but he does not recite i havdala /i in the second /b prayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, b if he recited i havdala /i in the second /b prayer b and did not recite i havdala /i in the first, the second prayer fulfilled his /b obligation, the b first one did not fulfill his /b obligation.,The Gemara comments: b Is that to say /b that b since he did not recite i havdala /i in the first /b prayer, he is b as one who did not pray and we require him to return /b to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite i havdala /i in the prayer must repeat that prayer.,The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b to the above conclusion from the i Tosefta /i : b One who erred and did not mention the might of the rains: /b He makes the wind blow and rain fall b in /b the second blessing of the i Amida /i , the blessing on b the revival of the dead, and /b one who erred and failed to recite b the request /b for rain b in /b the ninth blessing of the i Amida /i , b the blessing of the years, we require him to return /b to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite b i havdala /i in /b the blessing: b Who graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to return /b to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, b as he can recite /b i havdala /i b over the cup /b of wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains b difficult. /b ,The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. b It was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: /b The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; b prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs. /b However, b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said /b that the b prayers were instituted based on the daily offerings /b sacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.,The Gemara comments: b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and it was taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. /b The Gemara elaborates: b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is stated /b when Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: b “And Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stood /b before the Lord” (Genesis 19:27), b and /b from the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb b standing /b means b nothing other than prayer, /b as this language is used to describe Pinehas’ prayer after the plague, b as it is stated: “And Pinehas stood up and prayed /b and the plague ended” (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning., b Isaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And Isaac went out to converse [ i lasuaḥ /i ] in the field toward evening” /b (Genesis 24:63), b and conversation /b means b nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “A prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [ i siḥo /i ] before the Lord” /b (Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer., b Jacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: “And he encountered [ i vayifga /i ] the place and he slept there /b for the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). The word b encounter /b means b nothing other than prayer, as it is stated /b when God spoke to Jeremiah: b “And you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [ i tifga /i ] Me /b for I do not hear you” (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set., b And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi /b that the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: b Why did /b the Rabbis b say /b that b the morning prayer /b may be recited b until noon? Because, /b although the b daily morning offering /b is typically brought early in the morning, it may be b sacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says: /b My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited b until four hours /b into the day, is b because the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours. /b , b And why did /b the Rabbis b say /b that b the afternoon prayer /b may be recited b until the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda says /b that b the afternoon prayer /b may be recited only b until the midpoint of the afternoon because, /b according to his opinion, b the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon. /b , b And why did they say /b that b the evening prayer is not fixed? Because /b the burning of the b limbs and fats /b of the offerings that were b not consumed /b by the fire on the altar b until the evening. /b They remained on the altar and were b offered continuously /b throughout b the entire night. /b , b And why did /b the Rabbis b say /b that b the additional prayer /b may be recited b all day? Because the additional offering is brought /b throughout b the entire day. /b However, b Rabbi Yehuda says /b that b the additional prayer /b may be recited b until the seventh hour /b of the day, b because the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour. /b ,The i baraita /i continues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier i minḥa /i [ i minḥa gedola /i ] and lesser, later i minḥa /i [ i minḥa ketana /i ]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: b Which is i minḥa gedola /i ? From six-and-a-half hours /b after sunrise b and on, /b which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. b Which is i minḥa ketana /i ? From nine-and-a-half hours and on, /b which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.,On that note, b a dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda, /b who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does b he say the midpoint of the first i minḥa /i , /b i minḥa gedola /i ? b Or, /b does b he say the midpoint of the last i minḥa /i ? Come and hear /b an explicit resolution to this dilemma: b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i , b Rabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last i minḥa /i , and that is eleven hours minus a quarter /b of an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.,In any case, it is clear that according to this i baraita /i the i halakhot /i of prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: b Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, /b who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, /b could have b said to you: Actually, I will say to you /b that b the Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages based /b the times and characteristics of prayer b on the Temple offerings, /b even though they do not stem from the same source. b As, if you do not say so, /b that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, b then, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who instituted the additional prayer? /b It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. b Rather, /b even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, b the prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based them /b on the laws of the b offerings. /b ,We learned in the mishna that b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b The morning prayer may be recited b until four hours /b of the day. b A dilemma was raised before /b the yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says b until, /b does he mean b until and including /b the fourth hour, b or, perhaps /b when he says b “until” /b he means b until and not including, /b in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? b Come and hear /b a resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b The afternoon prayer may be recited only b until the midpoint of the afternoon. /b Now, b granted, if you say /b that b until /b means b until and not including, then there is /b a difference b between /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda and /b the opinion of b the Rabbis. However, if you say /b that b until /b means b until and including, /b then the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda /b
5. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with other actions Found in books: Balberg (2017) 4
110a. b and swear to the Lord of hosts; /b one shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). b They went to Alexandria in Egypt and built an altar and sacrificed /b offerings b upon it for the sake of Heaven, as it is stated /b in the following verse: b “In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, /b and a pillar at its border, to the Lord” (Isaiah 19:19).,The verse states: b “One shall be called the city of destruction” /b (Isaiah 19:18). The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the verse: b “One shall be called the city of destruction”? /b The Gemara answers: b As Rav Yosef translates /b into Aramaic: Concerning b the City of the Sun, which will be destroyed in the future, it will be said that it is one of them. And from where /b is it derived b that /b in the phrase: b “The city of destruction [ i heres /i ],” the term /b i heres /i b is /b referring b to the sun? As it is written: “Who commands the sun [ i ḥeres /i ], and it does not rise; /b and seals up the stars” (Job 9:7).,§ After mentioning the Jewish community in Egypt, the Gemara discusses Jewish communities in other locations. The verse states: “Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east and gather you from the west; I will say to the north: Give up, and to the south: Keep not back, b bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth” /b (Isaiah 43:5–6). What is the meaning of b “bring My sons from far”? Rav Huna says: These are the exiles of Babylonia, whose minds are calm, like sons, /b and who can therefore focus properly on Torah study and mitzvot. What is the meaning of b “and My daughters from the end of the earth”? These are the exiles of other countries, whose minds are unsettled, like daughters. /b ,§ b Rabbi Abba bar Rav Yitzḥak says /b that b Rav Ḥisda says, and some say /b that b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: /b The gentiles living b from Tyre to Carthage recognize the Jewish people, /b their religion, b and their Father in Heaven. But /b those living b to the west of Tyre and to the east of Carthage recognize neither the Jewish people nor their Father in Heaven. /b , b Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection to /b the statement of b Rav /b from the verse: b “From the rising of the sun until it sets, My name is great among the nations; and in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering; /b for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 1:11). This indicates that God’s name is known across the entire world, even to the west of Tyre and the east of Carthage. Rav b said to him: Shimi, /b is it b you /b who is raising such an objection? The verse does not mean that they recognize God and worship him. Rather, it means b that /b although they worship idols, b they call Him the God of gods. /b ,§ The verse states: “And b in every place offerings are presented to My name, /b and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts.” Does it b enter your mind /b to say that it is permitted to sacrifice offerings b in every place? /b Rather, b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says /b that b Rabbi Yonatan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torah /b study b in every place. /b God says: b I ascribe them /b credit b as though they burn and present /b offerings b to My name. /b ,Furthermore, when the verse states: b “And a pure meal offering,” this /b is referring to b one who studies Torah in purity, /b i.e., one who first b marries a woman and afterward studies Torah. /b Since he is married, he is not disturbed by sinful thoughts.,The Gemara cites another verse that praises Torah scholars. b “A Song of Ascents, Behold, bless the Lord, all you servants of the Lord, who stand in the House of the Lord at night” /b (Psalms 134:1). b What /b is the meaning of b “at night,” /b given that the Temple service is not performed at night and all the offerings must be sacrificed during the daytime? b Rabbi Yoḥa says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torah /b study b at night. The verse ascribes them /b credit b as though they engage in the /b Temple b service. /b ,§ The Gemara cites another verse that is interpreted in a similar vein. King Solomon said to Hiram of Tyre: “Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the i Shabbatot /i , and on the New Moons, and on the Festivals of the Lord our God. b This is an ordice forever for Israel” /b (II Chronicles 2:3). Since the Temple was eventually destroyed, what did Solomon mean when he said that it is “an ordice forever”? b Rav Giddel says /b that b Rav says: This /b is referring to the b altar /b that remains b built /b in Heaven even after the earthly Temple was destroyed, b and /b the angel b Michael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it. /b , b And Rabbi Yoḥa says /b that there is an alternative explanation of the verse: b These are Torah scholars, who engage in /b studying b the i halakhot /i of /b the Temple b service. The verse ascribes them /b credit b as though the Temple was built in their days /b and they are serving in it.,§ The Gemara cites similar interpretations of verses: b Reish Lakish said: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “This is the law [ i torah /i ] of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering, /b and of the consecration offering, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings” (Leviticus 7:37)? This teaches that b anyone who engages in Torah /b study is considered b as though he sacrificed a burnt offering, a meal offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering. /b , b Rava said /b an objection to this interpretation: b This /b verse states: b “of the burnt offering, of the meal offering.” /b If the interpretation of Reish Lakish is correct, the verse b should have /b written: b “Burnt offering and meal offering.” Rather, Rava says /b that the correct interpretation of this verse is: b Anyone who engages in Torah /b study b need not /b bring b a burnt offering, nor a sin offering, nor a meal offering, nor a guilt offering. /b , b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “This is the law of the sin offering” /b (Leviticus 6:18), b and: “This is the law of the guilt offering” /b (Leviticus 7:1)? These verses teach that b anyone who engages in /b studying b the law of the sin offering /b is ascribed credit b as though he sacrificed a sin offering, and anyone who engages in /b studying b the law of a guilt offering /b is ascribed credit b as though he sacrificed a guilt offering. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b It is stated with regard to an animal burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing /b to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), b and with regard to a bird burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing /b to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), b and with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing /b to the Lord” (Leviticus 2:2). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is b to say to you /b that b one who brings a substantial /b offering b and one who brings a meager /b offering have equal merit, b provided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b Rabbi Zeira said: What is the verse /b from which this principle is derived? b “Sweet is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he consumes little or much” /b (Ecclesiastes 5:11).The verse is interpreted as referring to one who brings an offering, and teaches that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering can be equally assured that their offering will be accepted., b Rav Adda bar Ahava said /b that the source is b from here: “When goods increase, those who consume them increase; and what advantage is there to the owner, /b except seeing them with his eyes?” (Ecclesiastes 5:10). One who brings a substantial offering, who thereby increases the number of priests who partake of it, does not have more merit than one who brings a meager offering. Rather, the offering that God desires is one where He recognizes, i.e., “seeing them with His eyes,” that its owner has the proper intent.,The Gemara addresses the expression “an aroma pleasing to the Lord” stated in the verses mentioned in the mishna. b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai says: Come and see what is written in the portion of offerings: As /b in these verses, the divine names b i El /i and i Elohim /i are not stated, but /b only b “the Lord.” /b This is b so /b as b not to give a claim to a litigant to argue. /b Only one name of God is used in conjunction with all the various offerings, to prevent heretics from claiming that different offerings are brought to different gods., b And it is stated with regard to a large bull /b offering: b “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing /b to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), b and with regard to a small bird /b offering: b “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing /b to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), b and with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing /b to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is b to say to you /b that b one who brings a substantial /b offering b and one who brings a meager /b offering have equal merit, b provided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b , b And lest you say /b that God b needs /b these offerings b for consumption, /b in which case a larger offering would be preferable to a smaller one, b the verse states: “If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and everything within it” /b (Psalms 50:12). b And it is stated: “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine” /b (Psalms 50:10–11). Similarly, it is stated in the following verse: b “Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?” /b (Psalms 50:13)., b I did not say to you: Sacrifice /b offerings to me, b so that you will say: I will do His will, /b i.e., fulfill His needs, b and He will do my will. You are not sacrificing to /b fulfill b My will, /b i.e., My needs, b but you are sacrificing to /b fulfill b your will, /b i.e., your needs, in order to achieve atonement for your sins by observing My mitzvot, b as it is stated: /b “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, b you shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted” /b (Leviticus 19:5)., b Alternatively, /b the verse: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, b you shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted [ i lirtzonkhem /i ]” /b (Leviticus 19:5), can be interpreted differently: b Sacrifice willingly [ i lirtzonkhem /i ]; sacrifice intentionally. /b ,This is b as Shmuel asked Rav Huna: From where /b is it derived with regard b to one who acts unawares /b in the case b of consecrated /b items, i.e., if one slaughtered an offering without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, but rather appeared like one occupied with other matters, b that /b the offering b is disqualified? /b Rav Huna said to Shmuel: It is derived from a verse, b as it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bull /b before the Lord” (Leviticus 1:5), teaching that the mitzva is not performed properly b unless the slaughter is for the sake of a young bull, /b i.e., with the knowledge that he is performing an act of slaughter.,Shmuel b said to /b Rav Huna: b We have this /b as an established i halakha /i already, that it is a mitzva to slaughter the offering for the sake of a bull, but b from where /b is it derived that this requirement is b indispensable? /b Rav Huna b said to him /b that the verse states: b “With your will you shall slaughter it” /b (Leviticus 19:5), i.e., b sacrifice intentionally, /b in the form of a purposeful action.,...Y
6. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with other actions Found in books: Balberg (2017) 4
28a. אלא חיה אבל שאר נשים מניחין,ר' אלעזר אמר אפילו שאר הנשים דכתיב (במדבר כ, א) ותמת שם מרים ותקבר שם סמוך למיתה קבורה,ואמר ר' אלעזר אף מרים בנשיקה מתה אתיא שם שם ממשה ומפני מה לא נאמר בה על פי ה' מפני שגנאי הדבר לאומרו,א"ר אמי למה נסמכה מיתת מרים לפרשת פרה אדומה לומר לך מה פרה אדומה מכפרת אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת א"ר אלעזר למה נסמכה מיתת אהרן לבגדי כהונה מה בגדי כהונה מכפרין אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת,ת"ר מת פתאום זו היא מיתה חטופה חלה יום אחד ומת זו היא מיתה דחופה ר' חנניא בן גמליאל אומר זו היא מיתת מגפה שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, טז) בן אדם הנני לוקח ממך את מחמד עיניך במגפה וכתיב (יחזקאל כד, יח) ואדבר אל העם בבקר ותמת אשתי בערב,שני ימים ומת זו היא מיתה דחויה ג' גערה ארבעה נזיפה חמשה זו היא מיתת כל אדם,א"ר חנין מאי קרא (דברים לא, יד) הן קרבו ימיך למות הן חד קרבו תרי ימיך תרי הא חמשה הן חד שכן בלשון יוני קורין לאחת הן,מת בחמשים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת חמשים ושתים שנה זו היא מיתתו של שמואל הרמתי ששים זו היא מיתה בידי שמים,אמר מר זוטרא מאי קרא דכתיב (איוב ה, כו) תבא בכלח אלי קבר בכלח בגימטריא שיתין הוו,שבעים שיבה שמונים גבורות דכתיב (תהלים צ, י) ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה אמר רבה מחמשים ועד ששים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת והאי דלא חשיב להו משום כבודו של שמואל הרמתי,רב יוסף כי הוה בר שיתין עבד להו יומא טבא לרבנן אמר נפקי לי מכרת א"ל אביי נהי דנפק ליה מר מכרת דשני מכרת דיומי מי נפיק מר א"ל נקוט לך מיהא פלגא בידך,רב הונא נח נפשיה פתאום הוו קא דייגי רבנן תנא להו זוגא דמהדייב לא שנו אלא שלא הגיע לגבורות אבל הגיע לגבורות זו היא מיתת נשיקה,אמר רבא חיי בני ומזוני לא בזכותא תליא מילתא אלא במזלא תליא מילתא דהא רבה ורב חסדא תרוייהו רבנן צדיקי הוו מר מצלי ואתי מיטרא ומר מצלי ואתי מיטרא,רב חסדא חיה תשעין ותרתין שנין רבה חיה ארבעין בי רב חסדא שיתין הלולי בי רבה שיתין תיכלי,בי רב חסדא סמידא לכלבי ולא מתבעי בי רבה נהמא דשערי לאינשי ולא משתכח,ואמר רבא הני תלת מילי בעאי קמי שמיא תרתי יהבו לי חדא לא יהבו לי חוכמתיה דרב הונא ועותריה דרב חסדא ויהבו לי ענותנותיה דרבה בר רב הונא לא יהבו לי,רב שעורים אחוה דרבא הוה יתיב קמיה דרבא חזייה דהוה קא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו שושביניה הוא א"ל כיון דאימסר מזלא לא אשגח בי א"ל ליתחזי לי מר איתחזי ליה א"ל הוה ליה למר צערא א"ל כי ריבדא דכוסילתא,רבא הוה יתיב קמיה דר"נ חזייה דקא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו אדם חשוב הוא א"ל מאן חשיב מאן ספין מאן רקיע,א"ל ליתחזי לי מר אתחזי ליה א"ל ה"ל למר צערא א"ל כמישחל בניתא מחלבא ואי אמר לי הקב"ה זיל בההוא עלמא כד הוית לא בעינא דנפיש בעיתותיה,רבי אלעזר הוה קאכיל תרומה איתחזי ליה א"ל תרומה קא אכילנא ולאו קודש איקרי חלפא ליה שעתא,רב ששת איתחזי ליה בשוקא אמר ליה בשוקא כבהמה איתא לגבי ביתא,רב אשי איתחזי ליה בשוקא א"ל איתרח לי תלתין יומין ואהדרי לתלמודאי דאמריתו אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ביום תלתין אתא אמר ליה מאי כולי האי קא דחקא רגליה דבר נתן ואין מלכות נוגעת בחבירתה אפילו כמלא נימא,רב חסדא לא הוה יכיל ליה דלא הוה שתיק פומיה מגירסא סליק יתיב בארזא דבי רב פקע ארזא ושתק ויכיל ליה,ר' חייא לא הוה מצי למיקרבא ליה יומא חד אידמי ליה כעניא אתא טריף אבבא א"ל אפיק לי ריפתא אפיקו ליה א"ל ולאו קא מרחם מר אעניא אההוא גברא אמאי לא קא מרחם מר גלי ליה אחוי ליה שוטא דנורא אמצי ליה נפשיה: 28a. with regard to b a woman /b who died b in childbirth, /b and therefore continues to bleed. b But /b the biers of b other women may be set down /b in the street., b Rabbi Elazar said: Even /b the biers of b other women /b must not be set down in the street, b as it is written: “And Miriam died there and was buried there” /b (Numbers 20:1), which teaches that b the /b site of her b burial was close to /b the place of her b death. /b Therefore, it is preferable to bury a woman as close as possible to the place where she died.,With regard to that same verse b Rabbi Elazar said /b further: b Miriam also died by /b the divine b kiss, /b just like her brother Moses. What is the source for this? b This is derived /b through a verbal analogy between the word b “there” /b stated with regard to Miriam and the word b “there” /b mentioned b with regard to Moses. /b With regard to Moses it says: “So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab by the mouth of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 34:5). b For what /b reason b was it not /b explicitly b stated with regard to her, /b as it is stated with regard to Moses, that she died b “by the mouth of the Lord”? /b It is b because it would be unseemly to say such a thing, /b that a woman died by way of a divine kiss, and therefore it is not said explicitly., b Rabbi Ami said: Why was /b the Torah portion that describes the b death of Miriam juxtaposed to the portion /b dealing with b the red heifer? To tell you: Just as the red heifer atones /b for sin, b so too, the death of the righteous atones /b for sin. b Rabbi Elazar said: Why was /b the Torah portion that describes the b death of Aaron juxtaposed to /b the portion discussing b the priestly garments? /b This teaches that b just as the priestly garments atone /b for sin, b so too, the death of the righteous atones /b for sin.,§ b The Sages taught /b the following i baraita /i : If one b dies suddenly /b without having been sick, b this is death /b through b snatching. /b If he b became sick for a day and died, this is an expedited death. Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel says: This is death at a stroke, as it is stated: “Son of man, behold, I am about to take away from you the delight of your eyes at a stroke” /b (Ezekiel 24:16). b And /b when this prophecy is fulfilled b it is written: “So I spoke to the people in the morning and at evening my wife died” /b (Ezekiel 24:18).,If he was sick for b two days and died, this is a quickened death. /b If he was sick for b three /b days and died, this is a death of b rebuke. /b If he died after being sick for b four /b days, this is a death of b reprimand. /b If one died after a sickness lasting b five /b days, b this is the /b ordinary b death of all people. /b , b Rabbi Ḥanin said: What is the verse /b from which this is derived? It is stated: b “Behold, your days approach that you must die” /b (Deuteronomy 31:14). This verse is expounded in the following manner: b “Behold [ i hen /i ]” /b indicates b one; “approach [ i karvu /i ],” /b a plural term, indicates b two; “your days [ i yamekha /i ],” /b also a plural term, indicates another b two; /b and therefore in total b this is five. /b How does the word b i hen /i /b indicate b one? Because in the Greek language they call /b the number b one i hen /i . /b ,The Gemara discusses the significance of death at different ages: If one b dies when /b he is b fifty years /b old, b this is death through i karet /i , /b the divine punishment of excision, meted out for the most serious transgressions. If he dies when he is b fifty-two years /b old, b this is the death of Samuel from Ramah. /b If he dies at the age of b sixty, this is death at the hand of Heaven. /b , b Mar Zutra said: What is the verse /b from which this is derived? b As it is written: “You shall come to your grave in a ripe age [ i bekhelaḥ /i ]” /b (Job 5:26). The word b “ripe age” [ i bekhelaḥ /i ] has the numerical value of sixty, /b and it is alluded to there that dying at this age involves a divine punishment.,One who dies at the age of b seventy /b has reached b old age. /b One who dies at the age of b eighty /b dies in b strength, as it is written: “The days of our years are seventy, or if by reason of strength, eighty years” /b (Psalms 90:10). b Rabba said: /b Not only is death at the age of fifty a sign of i karet /i , but even death b from fifty to sixty years /b of age b is death by i karet /i . And /b the reason that b all of these years were not counted /b in connection with i karet /i is b due to the honor of Samuel from Ramah, /b who died at the age of fifty-two.,The Gemara relates that b when Rav Yosef turned sixty he made a holiday for the Sages. /b Explaining the cause for his celebration, b he said: I have passed /b the age of b i karet /i . Abaye said to him: Master, /b even b though you have passed the i karet /i of years, have you, Master, escaped the i karet /i of days? /b As previously mentioned, sudden death is also considered to be a form of i karet /i . b He said to him: Grasp at least half in your hand, /b for I have at least escaped one type of i karet /i .,It was related that b Rav Huna died suddenly, /b and b the Sages were concerned /b that this was a bad sign. The Sage b Zuga from Hadayeiv taught them /b the following: b They taught /b these principles b only when /b the deceased b had not reached /b the age of b strength, /b i.e., eighty. b But if he had reached /b the age of b strength /b and then died suddenly, b this is death by way of a /b divine b kiss. /b , b Rava said: /b Length of b life, children, and sustece do not depend on /b one’s b merit, but rather they depend upon fate. As, Rabba and Rav Ḥisda were both pious Sages; /b one b Sage /b would b pray /b during a drought b and rain would fall, and /b the other b Sage /b would b pray and rain would fall. /b ,And nevertheless, their lives were very different. b Rav Ḥisda lived for ninety-two years, /b whereas b Rabba lived for /b only b forty /b years. b The house of Rav Ḥisda /b celebrated b sixty wedding feasts, /b whereas the b house of Rabba /b experienced b sixty calamities. /b In other words, many fortuitous events took place in the house of Rav Ḥisda and the opposite occurred in the house of Rabba., b In the house of Rav Ḥisda /b there was bread from b the finest flour [ i semida /i ] /b even b for the dogs, and it was not asked after, /b as there was so much food. b In the house of Rabba, /b on the other hand, there was coarse b barley bread /b even b for people, and it was not found /b in sufficient quantities. This shows that the length of life, children, and sustece all depend not upon one’s merit, but upon fate.,Apropos Rav Ḥisda’s great wealth, the Gemara reports that b Rava said: These three things I requested from Heaven, two /b of which b were given to me, /b and b one was not given to me: /b I requested the b wisdom of Rav Huna and the wealth of Rav Ḥisda and they were given to me. /b I also requested the b humility of Rabba bar Rav Huna, /b but b it was not given to me. /b ,The Gemara continues its discussion of the deaths of the righteous. b Rav Seorim, Rava’s brother, sat before Rava, /b and b he saw that /b Rava b was dozing, /b i.e., about to die. Rava b said to /b his brother: b Master, tell him, /b the Angel of Death, b not to torment me. /b Knowing that Rava was not afraid of the Angel of Death, Rav Seorim b said to /b him: b Master, are you not a friend of /b the Angel of Death? Rava b said to him: Since /b my b fate has been handed over /b to him, and it has been decreed that I shall die, the Angel of Death b no longer pays heed to me. /b Rav Seorim b said to /b Rava: b Master, appear to me /b in a dream after your death. And Rava b appeared to him. /b Rav Seorim b said to /b Rava: b Master, did you have pain /b in death? b He said to him: Like the prick /b of the knife b when letting blood. /b ,It was similarly related that b Rava sat before Rav Naḥman, /b and b he saw that /b Rav Naḥman b was dozing, /b i.e., slipping into death. Rav Naḥman b said to /b Rava: b Master, tell /b the Angel of Death b not to torment me. /b Rava b said to him: Master, are you not an important person /b who is respected in Heaven? Rav Naḥman b said to him: /b In the supernal world b who is important? Who is honorable? Who is complete? /b ,Rava b said to /b Rav Naḥman: b Master, appear to me /b in a dream after your death. And b he appeared to him. /b Rava b said to him: Master, did you have pain /b in death? Rav Naḥman b said to him: Like the removal of hair from milk, /b which is a most gentle process. But nevertheless, b were the Holy One, Blessed be He, to say to me: Go /b back b to that world, /b the physical world, b as you were, I would not want to go, for the fear of /b the Angel of Death b is great. /b And I would not want to go through such a terrifying experience a second time.,The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Elazar was /b once b eating i teruma /i , /b when the Angel of Death b appeared to him. He said to /b the Angel of Death: b I am eating i teruma /i ; is it not called sacred? /b It would be inappropriate for me to die now and thereby defile this sacred i teruma /i . The Angel of Death accepted his argument and left him. b The moment passed, /b and he lived for some time afterward.,It was similarly related that the Angel of Death once b appeared to Rav Sheshet in the marketplace. /b Rav Sheshet b said to /b the Angel of Death: Shall I die b in the market like an animal? Come to /b my b house /b and kill me there like a human being.,So too, the Angel of Death b appeared to Rav Ashi in the marketplace. /b Rav Ashi b said to /b the Angel of Death: b Give me thirty days so that I may review my studies, for you say /b above: b Fortunate is he who comes here /b to Heaven b with his learning in his hand. On the thirtieth day /b the Angel of Death b came /b to take him. Rav Ashi b said to /b the Angel of Death: b What is all of this? /b Why are you in such a hurry to take me? Why can you not postpone my death? He said to him: b The foot of /b Rav Huna b bar Natan is pushing /b you, as he is ready to succeed you as the leader of the generation, b and one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, even /b by b one hairbreadth. /b Therefore, you cannot live any longer.,The Angel of Death b was unable /b to take b Rav Ḥisda because his mouth was never silent from study. /b So the Angel of Death b went /b and b sat on the cedar /b column that supported the roof of b the study hall of the Sages. The cedar cracked and /b Rav Ḥisda b was silent /b for a moment, as he was startled by the sound. At that point the Angel of Death was b able to /b take b him. /b ,The Angel of Death b could not come near Rabbi Ḥiyya, /b owing to his righteousness. b One day /b the Angel of Death b appeared to him as a poor person. He came and knocked on the door. He said to /b Rabbi Ḥiyya: b Bring out bread for me, /b and b he took out /b bread b for him. /b The Angel of Death then b said /b to Rabbi Ḥiyya: b Master, do you not have mercy on a poor person? Why, then, do you not have mercy upon that man, /b i.e., upon me, and give me what I want? The Angel of Death then b revealed /b his identity b to him, /b and b showed him a fiery rod /b in order to confirm that he was the Angel of Death. At this point Rav Ḥiyya b surrendered /b himself b to him. /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with other actions Found in books: Balberg (2017) 4
5b. (ויקרא יד, נו) ולשאת ולספחת ואין שאת אלא לשון גבוה שנא' (ישעיהו ב, יד) ועל [כל] ההרים הרמים ועל [כל] הגבעות הנשאות ואין ספחת אלא טפילה שנאמר (שמואל א ב, לו) ספחני נא אל אחת הכהונות לאכל פת לחם,א"ר יהושע בן לוי בא וראה כמה גדולים נמוכי הרוח לפני הקב"ה שבשעה שבית המקדש קיים אדם מקריב עולה שכר עולה בידו מנחה שכר מנחה בידו אבל מי שדעתו שפלה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו הקריב כל הקרבנות כולם שנאמר (תהלים נא, יט) זבחי אלהים רוח נשברה ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נמאסת שנאמר (תהלים נא, יט) לב נשבר ונדכה אלהים לא תבזה,ואמר ריב"ל כל השם אורחותיו בעולם הזה זוכה ורואה בישועתו של הקב"ה שנאמר (תהלים נ, כג) ושם דרך אראנו בישע אלהים אל תקרי ושם אלא ושם דרך,[כיצד מקנא לה כו']: הא גופא קשיא אמרת אמר לה בפני שנים אל תדברי עם איש פלוני זה אלמא דבור סתירה הוא,והדר תני דיברה עמו עדיין מותרת לביתה ומותרת לאכול בתרומה אלמא דבור לא כלום הוא,אמר אביי הכי קאמר אל תדברי ודברה אל תדברי ונסתרה (ולא כלום) אל תסתרי ודברה עמו עדיין מותרת לביתה ומותרת לאכול בתרומה נכנסה עמו לבית הסתר ושהתה כדי טומאה אסורה לביתה ואסורה לאכול בתרומה,ואם מת חולצת אמאי תתייבם נמי יבומי,אמר רב יוסף אמר קרא (דברים כד, ב) ויצאה מביתו והלכה והיתה לאיש אחר לאיש אחר ולא ליבם,א"ל אביי אלא מעתה חליצה נמי לא תיבעי א"ל אילו איתיה לבעל מי לא בעיא גט השתא נמי תיבעי חליצה,ואית דאמרי אמר רב יוסף רחמנא אמר ויצאה מביתו והלכה והיתה לאיש אחר דלא ליסתריה לביתיה ואת אמרת תתייבם נמי יבומי,אמר ליה אביי אלא מעתה לאחר לא תינשא דלא תיסתריה לביתיה,אמר ליה 5b. b “And for a sore [ i se’et /i ] and for a scab [ i sappaḥat /i ]” /b (Leviticus 14:56), b and i se’et /i /b means b nothing other /b than b elevated, as it is stated: “And upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up [ i nissaot /i ]” /b (Isaiah 2:14). b And i sappaḥat /i /b means b nothing other /b than b an appendage, as it is stated /b in the context of the curse given to the descendants of Eli: b “Put me [ i sefaḥeni /i ], I pray of you, into one of the priests’ offices, that I may eat a morsel of bread” /b (I Samuel 2:36). They will have to be joined with another priestly family to receive their priestly gifts. One can therefore interpret the verses discussing leprosy as teaching that one who initially is arrogant, i se’et /i , will eventually become a i sappaḥat /i , diminished in stature., b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Come and see how great the lowly in spirit are before the Holy One, Blessed be He. For when the Temple /b was b standing, a person /b would b sacrifice a burnt-offering /b and b the merit of a burnt-offering would be his; /b he would sacrifice b a meal-offering /b and b the merit of a meal-offering would be his. But /b with regard to b one whose spirit is lowly, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as if he had sacrificed all the sacrificial offerings, as it is stated: “The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit” /b (Psalms 51:19), indicating that one who is humble of spirit is regarded as if he offered all the “sacrifices of God.” b And not only /b that, b but his prayer is not despised /b by God, b as it is stated /b at the end of that verse: b “A broken and contrite heart, O God, You will not despise.” /b , b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi /b also b says: Whoever appraises his ways in this world, /b i.e., whoever carefully considers all his actions before deciding on the proper mode of conduct, b merits and sees the salvation of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And to him that orders his way aright [ i vesam derekh /i ] will I show the salvation of God” /b (Psalms 50:23). b Do not read /b it as b “ i vesam /i ,” /b “that orders”; b rather, /b read it as b i vesham derekh /i , /b that appraises his way.,§ The mishna teaches: b How /b does he b issue a warning to her /b in an effective manner? If he says to her in the presence of two witnesses: Do not speak with the man called so-and-so, and she nevertheless spoke with him, she is still permitted to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband. However, if after he told her not to speak with so-and-so, she entered into a secluded place and remained with that man for sufficient time to engage in sexual intercourse, she is forbidden to her home, i.e., to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, from that moment until she undergoes the i sota /i rite. The Gemara notes the apparent contradiction in the mishna: b This /b matter b itself is difficult: You said /b in detailing the wording of the warning that b he said to her in the presence of two /b witnesses: b Do not speak with the man /b called b so-and-so, apparently /b indicating that b speaking is /b tantamount to b seclusion. /b Therefore, speaking with that man should result in the woman becoming forbidden to her husband., b But then /b the mishna b teaches: /b If b she /b nevertheless b spoke with him, she is still permitted to her home, /b i.e., to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, b and /b if she is the wife of a priest b she is /b still b permitted to partake of i teruma /i , apparently /b indicating that b speaking is nothing. /b Therefore, issuing a warning to her not to speak with a particular man should not qualify as an effective warning., b Abaye said /b an explanation: b This is what /b the mishna b is saying: /b If he said to her: b Do not speak /b with so-and-so, b and she /b later b spoke /b with him; or if the husband said to her: b Do not speak /b with so-and-so, b and she /b later b secluded herself /b with him, b it is nothing, /b as this was not an effective warning. Similarly, if he said to her: b Do not seclude yourself /b with so-and-so, b and /b then b she spoke with him /b without secluding herself with him, b she is still permitted to her home, /b i.e., her husband, b and she is /b still b permitted to partake of i teruma /i . /b However, b if /b after he issued a warning to her not to seclude herself with someone, b she entered with /b that man b into a secluded place and remained /b there with him for a period of time b sufficient for defilement, /b then b she is forbidden to her home, /b i.e., her husband, b and forbidden to partake of i teruma /i . /b ,§ The mishna teaches that after a woman who was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with another man, nevertheless secludes herself with another man, she becomes forbidden to her husband, b and /b if her husband b dies /b childless before she drank the bitter water, b she performs i ḥalitza /i /b with her late husband’s brother and does not enter into levirate marriage. The Gemara asks: b Why /b must she perform i ḥalitza /i ? b Let her enter into levirate marriage. /b After all, although she secluded herself with the other man after the warning, there is only an unverified suspicion of adultery. Why should it be prohibited for her to enter into levirate marriage with her deceased husband’s brother, the i yavam /i ?, b Rav Yosef said: /b With regard to a man who divorces his wife because: “He has found some unseemly matter about her” (Deuteronomy 24:1), i.e., he suspects her of sexual impropriety, b the verse states: “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife” /b (Deuteronomy 24:2). It is inferred from this that she is free b to /b marry b another man, but /b she is b not /b permitted b to /b marry b the i yavam /i . /b The i yavam /i is not considered “another man,” as he takes the place of his brother., b Abaye said to him: If that is so, /b that the Torah explicitly prohibits levirate marriage in this case, then b she should not require i ḥalitza /i as well, /b as the verse explicitly permitted her to marry another man, seemingly abrogating the need for i ḥalitza /i to free her from the bond to the i yavam /i . Rav Yosef b said to him /b in response: b If the husband were /b alive, b would she not require a bill of divorce /b to permit her to remarry, even though she was forbidden to him? b Now, as well, she should require i ḥalitza /i /b in order to release her bond with the i yavam /i , even though, as the verse indicates, it remains prohibited for them to enter into levirate marriage., b And there are /b those b who say /b that say that in answer to Abaye’s question b Rav Yosef said: The Merciful One said /b with regard to a man who divorces his wife because he has found some unseemly matter about her: b “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife,” /b indicating that the man should divorce her b so that his house not be destroyed /b by his continuing to dwell with her, b and you /b want to b say that she should enter into levirate marriage? /b How can it be that the same verse instructing the husband to divorce her would also instruct the i yavam /i to marry her? However, there is no reason to exempt her from performing i ḥalitza /i ., b Abaye said to him: If that is so, /b that the verse would not tell the i yavam /i to marry her, b she should not marry another /b man either, b so that /b the second husband’s b house not be destroyed. /b How can it be that the same verse instructing the husband to divorce her would also instruct another man to marry her?,Rav Yosef b said to him: /b
8. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with other actions Found in books: Balberg (2017) 4
49b. כשם שניסוכו בקדושה כך שריפתו בקדושה מאי משמע אמר רבינא אתיא קדש קדש כתיב הכא (במדבר כח, ז) בקדש הסך נסך וכתיב התם (שמות כט, לד) ושרפת את הנותר באש לא יאכל כי קדש הוא,כמאן אזלא הא (דתניא) נסכים בתחילה מועלין בהן ירדו לשיתין אין מועלין בהן לימא רבי אלעזר בר צדוק היא דאי רבנן הא נחתו להו לתהום,אפילו תימא רבנן בדאיקלט,ואיכא דאמרי לימא רבנן היא ולא ר' אלעזר בר צדוק דאי רבי אלעזר אכתי בקדושתייהו קיימי אפילו תימא רבי אלעזר אין לך דבר שנעשה מצותו ומועלין בו אמר ריש לקיש בזמן שמנסכין יין על גבי מזבח פוקקין את השיתין לקיים מה שנאמר בקדש הסך נסך שכר לה',מאי משמע אמר רב פפא שכר לשון שתיה לשון שביעה לשון שכרות אמר רב פפא שמע מינה כי שבע איניש חמרא מגרוניה שבע אמר רבא צורבא מרבנן דלא נפישא ליה חמרא ליגמע גמועי רבא אכסא דברכתא אגמע גמועי,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב מה יפו פעמותיהן של ישראל בשעה שעולין לרגל בת נדיב בתו של אברהם אבינו שנקרא נדיב שנא' (תהלים מז, י) נדיבי עמים נאספו עם אלהי אברהם אלהי אברהם ולא אלהי יצחק ויעקב אלא אלהי אברהם שהיה תחילה לגרים,תנא דבי רב ענן מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) חמוקי ירכיך למה נמשלו דברי תורה כירך לומר לך מה ירך בסתר אף דברי תורה בסתר,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (מיכה ו, ח) הגיד לך אדם מה טוב ומה ה' דורש ממך כי אם עשות משפט ואהבת חסד והצנע לכת עם אלהיך עשות משפט זה הדין ואהבת חסד זו גמילות חסדים והצנע לכת עם אלהיך זו הוצאת המת והכנסת כלה לחופה והלא דברים ק"ו ומה דברים שדרכן לעשותן בפרהסיא אמרה תורה הצנע לכת דברים שדרכן לעשותן בצנעא על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ר אלעזר גדול העושה צדקה יותר מכל הקרבנות שנאמר (משלי כא, ג) עשה צדקה ומשפט נבחר לה' מזבח וא"ר אלעזר גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה שנאמר (הושע י, יב) זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד אם אדם זורע ספק אוכל ספק אינו אוכל אדם קוצר ודאי אוכל,וא"ר אלעזר אין צדקה משתלמת אלא לפי חסד שבה שנאמר זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד,ת"ר בשלשה דברים גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה צדקה בממונו גמילות חסדים בין בגופו בין בממונו צדקה לעניים גמילות חסדים בין לעניים בין לעשירים צדקה לחיים גמילות חסדים בין לחיים בין למתים,וא"ר אלעזר כל העושה צדקה ומשפט כאילו מילא כל העולם כולו חסד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ה) אוהב צדקה ומשפט חסד ה' מלאה הארץ שמא תאמר כל הבא לקפוץ קופץ ת"ל (תהלים לו, ח) מה יקר חסדך אלהים (חסד ה' מלאה הארץ) וגו' יכול אף ירא שמים כן ת"ל (תהלים קג, יז) וחסד ה' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו,א"ר חמא בר פפא כל אדם שיש עליו חן בידוע שהוא ירא שמים שנא' חסד ה' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה וכי יש תורה של חסד יש תורה שאינה של חסד אלא תורה לשמה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא לשמה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד איכא דאמרי תורה ללמדה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא ללמדה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד:,כמעשהו בחול כו': ואמאי נייתי במקודשת אמר זעירי קסבר אין שיעור למים וכלי שרת מקדשין שלא מדעת 49b. b just as its pouring is in sanctity, so too must its burning be in sanctity. From where /b may it b be inferred /b that this is referring to burning? b Ravina said: It is derived /b by means of a verbal analogy between the term b sanctity /b written with regard to libations and b sanctity /b written with regard to leftover offerings. b It is written here, /b with regard to libations: b “In sanctity shall you pour a libation” /b (Numbers 28:7), b and it is written there, /b with regard to leftover offerings: b “You shall burn the leftovers in fire; they are not to be eaten, for they are sanctity” /b (Exodus 29:34). Through the verbal analogy it is derived that leftover libations must also be burned.,The Gemara notes: b In accordance with whose /b opinion b is that which is taught /b in this mishna? With regard to b libations, initially, /b prior to being poured, b one /b can b misuse consecrated property with them, /b as is the case with all consecrated items. However, once b they descended to the drainpipes, one does not /b violate the prohibition against b misuse /b of b consecrated property with them, /b because the mitzva was already fulfilled. b Let us say /b that the mishna b is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok, /b who holds that the libations did not descend to the depths but would collect between the ramp and the altar and would be collected once every seventy years. b As, if /b it were in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b how could the libations be misused? b Didn’t they /b already b descend to the depths /b through the drainpipes?,The Gemara rejects this: b Even /b if b you say /b that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b it could be referring b to /b a case b where /b some of the wine landed outside the drainpipes and b was collected /b in the space between the ramp and the altar., b And some say /b a different version of this exchange. b Let us say /b that the mishna b is /b in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis and not /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok. As, if /b it were in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar, /b then the wine that collected between the ramp and the altar b remains in its sanctity, /b as it must be burned, and the prohibition against misuse would still apply. The Gemara rejects this: b Even /b if b you say /b that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar, there is no item whose mitzva has been performed with which one /b can violate the prohibition against b misuse of consecrated property. Reish Lakish said: When they pour wine onto the altar, they plug /b the top of b the drainpipes /b so that the wine does not descend to the depths, in order b to fulfill that which is stated: “In sanctity shall you pour a libation of strong drink [ i shekhar /i ] unto the Lord” /b (Numbers 28:7).,The Gemara asks: b From where /b may it b be inferred /b that this is referring to plugging the drainpipes? b Rav Pappa said: i Shekhar /i /b is b an expression of drinking, of satiation, of intoxication. /b In order to underscore all three aspects of the libations, the space between the altar and the ramp would fill with wine. b Rav Pappa said: Conclude from this that when a person is satiated from /b drinking b wine, /b it is b from his throat /b being filled with wine that he is b satiated. /b Unlike food, wine does not satiate a person when it fills his stomach. b Rava said: /b Therefore, b let a young /b Torah b scholar, who does not /b have b much wine, swallow /b his wine b in /b large b swigs, /b filling his throat each time, as he will thereby maximize his enjoyment. And b Rava /b himself, when drinking b a cup of blessing, would swallow /b large b swigs /b so as to drink the wine accompanying the mitzva in an optimal manner.,§ Apropos the homiletic interpretations of the verses from Song of Songs with regard to the drainpipes, the Gemara cites additional interpretations. b Rava taught: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “How beautiful are your steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter” /b (Song of Songs 7:2)? b How beautiful are the feet of the Jewish people at the time when they ascend /b to Jerusalem b for the Festival. “O prince’s daughter”; /b this is referring to b the daughter of Abraham our Patriarch, who was called prince, as it is stated: “The princes of the peoples are gathered, the people of the God of Abraham” /b (Psalms 47:10). The verse calls the Jewish people the people of b the God of Abraham and not the God of Isaac and Jacob. /b Why are the Jewish people associated specifically with Abraham? b Rather /b than referring to the three Patriarchs, the verse is referring to b the God of Abraham, who was first of the converts, /b and therefore it is reasonable for the princes of other nations to gather around him.,In b the school of Rav A /b it was b taught: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “The hidden of your thighs” /b (Song of Songs 7:2)? b Why are matters of Torah likened to a thigh? /b It is b to tell you /b that b just as /b the b thigh is /b always b concealed, /b covered by clothes, so b too, matters of Torah /b are optimal when recited b in private /b and not in public., b And this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “It has been told you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord does require of you; only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God” /b (Micah 6:8)? b “To do justly”; this is justice. “To love mercy”; this is acts of kindness. “To walk humbly with your God”; this is /b referring to b taking the /b indigent b dead out /b for burial b and accompanying /b a poor b bride to /b her b wedding canopy, /b both of which must be performed without fanfare. The Gemara summarizes: b And are /b these b matters not /b inferred b i a fortiori /i ? If, /b with regard to b matters that tend to be conducted in public, /b as the multitudes participate in funerals and weddings, b the Torah says: Walk humbly, /b then in b matters that tend to be conducted in private, /b e.g., giving charity and studying Torah, b all the more so /b should they be conducted privately.,§ b Rabbi Elazar said: One who performs /b acts of b charity is greater than /b one who sacrifices b all /b types of b offerings, as it is stated: “To perform charity and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than an offering” /b (Proverbs 21:3), including all types of offerings. b And Rabbi Elazar said: Acts of kindness, /b assisting someone in need, b are greater than charity, as it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness” /b (Hosea 10:12). This means: b If a person sows, /b it is b uncertain /b whether b he /b will b eat or /b whether b he /b will b not eat, /b since much can go wrong before the seed becomes food. However, if b a person reaps, he certainly eats. /b In this verse, charity is likened to sowing, while acts of kindness are likened to reaping., b And Rabbi Elazar said: /b The reward for b charity is paid /b from Heaven b only in accordance with the kindness /b and generosity included b therein /b and in accordance with the effort and the consideration that went into the giving. It is not merely in accordance with the sum of money, b as it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness.” /b , b The Sages taught /b that b acts of kindness are superior to charity in three respects: Charity /b can be performed only b with one’s money, /b while b acts of kindness /b can be performed b both with his person and with his money. Charity /b is given b to the poor, /b while b acts of kindness /b are performed b both for the poor and for the rich. Charity /b is given to the b living, /b while b acts of kindness /b are performed b both for the living and for the dead. /b , b And Rabbi Elazar said: Anyone who performs charity and justice is /b considered b as though he filled the whole world in its entirety with kindness, as it is stated: “He loves charity and justice; the earth is full of the kindness of the Lord” /b (Psalms 33:5). b Lest you say that anyone who comes to leap /b and perform an act of kindness may simply b leap /b and do so without scrutiny, b the verse states: “How precious is your kindness, O God” /b (Psalms 36:8). It is a precious and rare occurrence to perform an act of kindness properly. One b might /b have thought that b even a God-fearing /b individual does not always encounter the opportunity to perform acts of kindness. Therefore, b the verse states: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him” /b (Psalms 103:17)., b Rabbi Ḥama bar Pappa said: /b With regard to b any person who has grace about him, it is certain that he is God-fearing, as it is stated: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him.” /b When one sees that a certain individual is endowed with grace and kindness, one can be certain that he is a God-fearing person. b And Rabbi Elazar said: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and a Torah of kindness is on her tongue” /b (Proverbs 31:26)? The Gemara asks: b Is there, then, a Torah of kindness and a Torah that is not of kindness? Rather, /b it is b Torah /b studied b for its own sake that is a Torah of kindness, /b as one studies it wholeheartedly; and it is Torah studied b not for its own sake /b but for some ulterior motive b that is a Torah that is not of kindness. Some say /b that it is b Torah /b studied in order b to teach it /b to others b that is a Torah of kindness; /b it is Torah studied b with /b the intent of b not teaching it /b to others b that is a Torah that is not of kindness. /b ,§ The mishna continues: b As its performance during the week, /b so is its performance on Shabbat, except that on Shabbat one would not draw water. Instead, on Shabbat eve, one would fill a golden barrel that was not consecrated and would place it in the Temple chamber, and water would be drawn from there on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: b And why /b should one do so? b Let /b him b bring /b the water b in a consecrated /b barrel. b Ze’iri said: /b The i tanna /i in the mishna b holds that there is no /b requisite b measure for the water /b to be poured for libation, and therefore more than three i log /i could be consecrated; b and /b that b Temple vessels consecrate /b their content if it is fit to be consecrated, even b without intent /b to consecrate it.
9. Cyprian, The Lapsed, 15-18, 14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2017) 238
10. Cyprian, Letters, 62/63 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •substitution, of sacrifice with other actions Found in books: Balberg (2017) 238
11. Sallustius, On The Gods, 15-16 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2017) 238