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39 results for "souls"
1. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 49
2. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 49
3. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 49
4. Plato, Euthydemus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 36
289a. to turn the rocks into gold would our knowledge be of any worth. For unless we know how to use the gold, we found no advantage in it. Do you not remember? I asked.
5. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 55, 56
69c. πρῶτον διεκόσμησεν, ἔπειτʼ ἐκ τούτων πᾶν τόδε συνεστήσατο, ζῷον ἓν ζῷα ἔχον τὰ πάντα ἐν ἑαυτῷ θνητὰ ἀθάνατά τε. καὶ τῶν μὲν θείων αὐτὸς γίγνεται δημιουργός, τῶν δὲ θνητῶν τὴν γένεσιν τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ γεννήμασιν δημιουργεῖν προσέταξεν. οἱ δὲ μιμούμενοι, παραλαβόντες ἀρχὴν ψυχῆς ἀθάνατον, τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο θνητὸν σῶμα αὐτῇ περιετόρνευσαν ὄχημά τε πᾶν τὸ σῶμα ἔδοσαν ἄλλο τε εἶδος ἐν αὐτῷ ψυχῆς προσῳκοδόμουν τὸ θνητόν, δεινὰ καὶ ἀναγκαῖα ἐν ἑαυτῷ 69c. or any of the other elements; but He, in the first place, set all these in order, and then out of these He constructed this present Universe, one single Living Creature containing within itself all living creatures both mortal and immortal. And He Himself acts as the Constructor of things divine, but the structure of the mortal things He commanded His own engendered sons to execute. And they, imitating Him, on receiving the immortal principle of soul, framed around it a mortal body, and gave it all the body to be its vehicle, and housed therein besides another form of soul, even the mortal form,
6. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 46
7. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 46
608d. χρόνου ἐσπουδακέναι, ἀλλʼ οὐχ ὑπὲρ τοῦ παντός; 608d. and not rather for all time? I think so, he said; but what is this that you have in mind? Have you never perceived, said I, that our soul is immortal and never perishes? And he, looking me full in the face in amazement, said, No, by Zeus, not I; but are you able to declare this? I certainly ought to be, said I, and I think you too can, for it is nothing hard. It is for me, he said; and I would gladly hear from you this thing that is not hard. Listen, said I. Just speak on, he replied. You speak of good
8. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52
245c. παρὰ θεῶν ἡ τοιαύτη μανία δίδοται· ἡ δὲ δὴ ἀπόδειξις ἔσται δεινοῖς μὲν ἄπιστος, σοφοῖς δὲ πιστή. δεῖ οὖν πρῶτον ψυχῆς φύσεως πέρι θείας τε καὶ ἀνθρωπίνης ἰδόντα πάθη τε καὶ ἔργα τἀληθὲς νοῆσαι· ἀρχὴ δὲ ἀποδείξεως ἥδε. 245c. is given by the gods for our greatest happiness; and our proof will not be believed by the merely clever, but will be accepted by the truly wise. First, then, we must learn the truth about the soul divine and human by observing how it acts and is acted upon. And the beginning of our proof is as follows: Every soul is immortal. For that which is ever moving is immortal but that which moves something else or is moved by something else, when it ceases to move, ceases to live. Only that which moves itself, since it does not leave itself, never ceases to move, and this is also
9. Herodotus, Histories, 2.123 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 20
2.123. These Egyptian stories are for the benefit of whoever believes such tales: my rule in this history is that I record what is said by all as I have heard it. The Egyptians say that Demeter and Dionysus are the rulers of the lower world. ,The Egyptians were the first who maintained the following doctrine, too, that the human soul is immortal, and at the death of the body enters into some other living thing then coming to birth; and after passing through all creatures of land, sea, and air, it enters once more into a human body at birth, a cycle which it completes in three thousand years. ,There are Greeks who have used this doctrine, some earlier and some later, as if it were their own; I know their names, but do not record them.
10. Plato, Axiochus (Spuria), None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 166
11. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 31
525c. οἳ δʼ ἂν τὰ ἔσχατα ἀδικήσωσι καὶ διὰ τὰ τοιαῦτα ἀδικήματα ἀνίατοι γένωνται, ἐκ τούτων τὰ παραδείγματα γίγνεται, καὶ οὗτοι αὐτοὶ μὲν οὐκέτι ὀνίνανται οὐδέν, ἅτε ἀνίατοι ὄντες, ἄλλοι δὲ ὀνίνανται οἱ τούτους ὁρῶντες διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίας τὰ μέγιστα καὶ ὀδυνηρότατα καὶ φοβερώτατα πάθη πάσχοντας τὸν ἀεὶ χρόνον, ἀτεχνῶς παραδείγματα ἀνηρτημένους ἐκεῖ ἐν Ἅιδου ἐν τῷ δεσμωτηρίῳ, τοῖς ἀεὶ τῶν ἀδίκων ἀφικνουμένοις θεάματα καὶ νουθετήματα. 525c. for in no other way can there be riddance of iniquity. But of those who have done extreme wrong and, as a result of such crimes, have become incurable, of those are the examples made; no longer are they profited at all themselves, since they are incurable, but others are profited who behold them undergoing for their transgressions the greatest, sharpest, and most fearful sufferings evermore, actually hung up as examples there in the infernal dungeon, a spectacle and a lesson to such of the wrongdoer
12. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 48
78e. ἱματίων ἢ ἄλλων ὡντινωνοῦν τοιούτων, ἢ ἴσων ἢ καλῶν ἢ πάντων τῶν ἐκείνοις ὁμωνύμων; ἆρα κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχει, ἢ πᾶν τοὐναντίον ἐκείνοις οὔτε αὐτὰ αὑτοῖς οὔτε ἀλλήλοις οὐδέποτε ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν οὐδαμῶς κατὰ ταὐτά; οὕτως αὖ, ἔφη ὁ Κέβης , ταῦτα: οὐδέποτε ὡσαύτως ἔχει. ΦΑΙΔ. 78e. Socrates. But how about the many things, for example, men, or horses, or cloaks, or any other such things, which bear the same names as the absolute essences and are called beautiful or equal or the like? Are they always the same? Or are they, in direct opposition to the essences, constantly changing in themselves, unlike each other, and, so to speak, never the same? The latter, said Cebes; they are never the same. Phaedo.
13. Plato, Meno, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 20
81a. ΜΕΝ. οὐκοῦν καλῶς σοι δοκεῖ λέγεσθαι ὁ λόγος οὗτος, ὦ Σώκρατες; ΣΩ. οὐκ ἔμοιγε. ΜΕΝ. ἔχεις λέγειν ὅπῃ; ΣΩ. ἔγωγε· ἀκήκοα γὰρ ἀνδρῶν τε καὶ γυναικῶν σοφῶν περὶ τὰ θεῖα πράγματα— ΜΕΝ. τίνα λόγον λεγόντων; ΣΩ. ἀληθῆ, ἔμοιγε δοκεῖν, καὶ καλόν. ΜΕΝ. τίνα τοῦτον, καὶ τίνες οἱ λέγοντες; ΣΩ. οἱ μὲν λέγοντές εἰσι τῶν ἱερέων τε καὶ τῶν ἱερειῶν ὅσοις μεμέληκε περὶ ὧν μεταχειρίζονται λόγον οἵοις τʼ εἶναι 81a. Men. Now does it seem to you to be a good argument, Socrates? Soc. It does not. Men. Can you explain how not? Soc. I can; for I have heard from wise men and women who told of things divine that— Men. What was it they said ? Soc. Something true, as I thought, and admirable. Men. What was it? And who were the speakers? Soc. They were certain priests and priestesses who have studied so as to be able to give a reasoned account of their ministry; and Pindar also
14. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 35
959b. τὸ δὲ σῶμα ἰνδαλλόμενον ἡμῶν ἑκάστοις ἕπεσθαι, καὶ τελευτησάντων λέγεσθαι καλῶς εἴδωλα εἶναι τὰ τῶν νεκρῶν σώματα, τὸν δὲ ὄντα ἡμῶν ἕκαστον ὄντως, ἀθάνατον εἶναι ψυχὴν ἐπονομαζόμενον, παρὰ θεοὺς ἄλλους ἀπιέναι δώσοντα λόγον, καθάπερ ὁ νόμος ὁ πάτριος λέγει—τῷ μὲν γὰρ ἀγαθῷ θαρραλέον, τῷ δὲ κακῷ μάλα φοβερόν—βοήθειάν τε αὐτῷ μήτινα μεγάλην εἶναι τετελευτηκότι· ζῶντι γὰρ ἔδει βοηθεῖν πάντας τοὺς προσήκοντας, ὅπως ὅτι δικαιότατος ὢν καὶ 959b. is nothing else than the soul, while the body is a semblance which attends on each of us, it being well said that the bodily corpses are images of the dead, but that which is the real self of each of us, and which we term the immortal soul, departs to the presence of other gods, there (as the ancestral law declares) to render its account,—a prospect to be faced with courage by the good, but with uttermost dread by the evil. But to him who is dead no great help can be given; it was when he was alive
15. Plato, Ion, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 49
533d. ὅ μοι δοκεῖ τοῦτο εἶναι. ἔστι γὰρ τοῦτο τέχνη μὲν οὐκ ὂν παρὰ σοὶ περὶ Ὁμήρου εὖ λέγειν, ὃ νυνδὴ ἔλεγον, θεία δὲ δύναμις ἥ σε κινεῖ, ὥσπερ ἐν τῇ λίθῳ ἣν Εὐριπίδης μὲν Μαγνῆτιν ὠνόμασεν, οἱ δὲ πολλοὶ Ἡρακλείαν. καὶ γὰρ αὕτη ἡ λίθος οὐ μόνον αὐτοὺς τοὺς δακτυλίους ἄγει τοὺς σιδηροῦς, ἀλλὰ καὶ δύναμιν ἐντίθησι τοῖς δακτυλίοις ὥστʼ αὖ δύνασθαι ταὐτὸν τοῦτο ποιεῖν ὅπερ ἡ λίθος, ἄλλους 533d. what I take it to mean. For, as I was saying just now, this is not an art in you, whereby you speak well on Homer, but a divine power, which moves you like that in the stone which Euripides named a magnet, but most people call Heraclea stone. For this stone not only attracts iron rings, but also imparts to them a power whereby they in turn are able to do the very same thing as the stone,
16. Aristotle, Soul, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 47
17. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.27, 1.36, 1.39, 2.62 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 33, 82, 83
1.27. But this Anaxagoras will not allow; yet mind naked and simple, without any material adjunct to serve as an organ of sensation, seems to elude the capacity of our understanding. Alcmaeon of Croton, who attributed divinity to the sun, moon and other heavenly bodies, and also to the soul, did not perceive that he was bestowing immortality on things that are mortal. As for Pythagoras, who believed that the entire substance of the universe is penetrated and pervaded by a soul of which our souls are fragments, he failed to notice that this severance of the souls of men from the world-soul means the dismemberment and rending asunder of god; and that when their souls are unhappy, as happens to most men, then a portion of god is unhappy; which is impossible. 1.36. "Lastly, Balbus, I come to your Stoic school. Zeno's view is that the law of nature is divine, and that its function is to command what is right and to forbid the opposite. How he makes out this law to be alive passes our comprehension; yet we undoubtedly expect god to be a living being. In another passage however Zeno declares that the aether is god — if there is any meaning in a god without sensation, a form of deity that never presents itself to us when we offer up our prayers and supplications and make our vows. And in other books again he holds the view that a 'reason' which pervades all nature is possessed of divine power. He likewise attributes the same powers to the stars, or at another time to the years, the months and the seasons. Again, in his interpretation of Hesiod's Theogony (or Origin of the Gods) he does away with the customary and received ideas of the gods altogether, for he does not reckon either Jupiter, Juno or Vesta as gods, or any being that bears a personal name, but teaches that these names have been assigned allegorically to dumb and lifeless things. 1.39. Chrysippus, who is deemed to be the most skilful interpreter of the Stoic dreams, musters an enormous mob of unknown gods — so utterly unknown that even imagination cannot guess at their form and nature, although our mind appears capable of visualizing anything; for he says that divine power resides in reason, and in the soul and mind of the universe; he calls the world itself a god, and also the all‑pervading world-soul, and again the guiding principle of that soul, which operates in the intellect and reason, and the common and all‑embracing nature of things; beside this, the fire that I previously termed aether; and also the power of Fate, and the Necessity that governs future events; and also all fluid and soluble substances, such as water, earth, air, the sun, moon and stars, and the all‑embracing unity of things; and even those human beings who have attained immortality. 2.62. Those gods therefore who were the authors of various benefits owned their deification to the value of the benefits which they bestowed, and indeed the names that I just now enumerated express the various powers of the gods that bear them. "Human experience moreover and general custom have made it a practice to confer the deification of renown and gratitude upon of distinguished benefactors. This is the origin of Hercules, of Castor and Pollux, of Aesculapius, and also of Liber (I mean Liber the son of Semele, not the Liber whom our ancestors solemnly and devoutly consecrated with Ceres and Libera, the import of which joint consecration may be gathered from the mysteries; but Liber and Libera were so named as Ceres' offspring, that being the meaning of our Latin word liberi — a use which has survived in the case of Libera but not of Liber) — and this is also the origin of Romulus, who is believed to be the same as Quirinus. And these benefactors were duly deemed divine, as being both supremely good and immortal, because their souls survived and enjoyed eternal life.
18. Cicero, On Divination, 1.64 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 83
1.64. Divinare autem morientes illo etiam exemplo confirmat Posidonius, quod adfert, Rhodium quendam morientem sex aequales nominasse et dixisse, qui primus eorum, qui secundus, qui deinde deinceps moriturus esset. Sed tribus modis censet deorum adpulsu homines somniare, uno, quod provideat animus ipse per sese, quippe qui deorum cognatione teneatur, altero, quod plenus ae+r sit inmortalium animorum, in quibus tamquam insignitae notae veritatis appareant, tertio, quod ipsi di cum dormientibus conloquantur. Idque, ut modo dixi, facilius evenit adpropinquante morte, ut animi futura augurentur. 1.64. Moreover, proof of the power of dying men to prophesy is also given by Posidonius in his well-known account of a certain Rhodian, who, when on his death-bed, named six men of equal age and foretold which of them would die first, which second, and so on. Now Posidonius holds the view that there are three ways in which men dream as the result of divine impulse: first, the soul is clairvoyant of itself because of its kinship with the gods; second, the air is full of immortal souls, already clearly stamped, as it were, with the marks of truth; and third, the gods in person converse with men when they are asleep. And, as I said just now, it is when death is at hand that men most readily discern signs of the future.
19. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.18-1.25, 1.36-1.43, 1.65-1.66, 1.72, 1.76, 1.78, 4.35, 4.83 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 107, 109
1.18. Mors igitur ipsa, quae videtur notissima res esse, quid sit, primum est videndum. sunt enim qui discessum animi a corpore putent putent s ( cf. censeant) putant X (varietatem modorum def. Gaffiot, Le subjonc- tif de subordination Paris 1906 p. 52) esse mortem; sunt qui nullum censeant fieri discessum, sed una animum et corpus occidere, animumque in corpore extingui. qui discedere animum censent, cessent V 1 alii statim dissipari, alii diu permanere, alii semper. quid sit porro ipse animus aut ubi aut unde, magna dissensio est. aliis cor ipsum animus aut ubi... 227.1 animus in mg. G 1 aut unde... dicuntur Non. 66,5 videtur, ex quo excordes, vecordes vec. HM vaec. VG 1 (sed a 1 )R 1 ( sed a 1? ) Nonii codd. pr. F H vęc. K concordesque vecordes excordes concordes H signis transponendi non satis dilucidis additis dicuntur quid igitur sit animus... est. nam animus ab ani- ma dictus est (227, 12). aliis ... 227, 2 dicuntur H et Nasica ille prudens bis consul Corculum et egregie cordatus homo, catus Aelius Sextus . Ennius ann. 331 Empedocles animum esse censet cordi suffusum sanguinem; aliis pars quaedam cerebri visa est animi animi om. K 1, post princip. add. c principatum tenere; aliis nec cor ipsum placet nec cerebri quandam partem esse animum, 1.19. sed alii in corde, alii in cerebro dixerunt animi esse sedem et locum; animum autem alii animam, ut fere nostri— declarat nomen: ut fere nostri declarant nomen. nam W corr. Dav. declarant nomina Sey. nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus et animosos et bene animatos et ex animi sententia; ipse autem animus ab anima dictus est—; Zenoni Zeno fr. 134. Stoico animus ignis videtur. sed haec quidem quae dixi, cor, cerebrum, animam, ignem volgo, reliqua fere singuli. ut multo multo Bentl. multi cf. Lact. inst. 7, 13, 9 opif. 16, 13 ante veteres, proxime autem Aristoxenus, musicus idemque philosophus, ipsius corporis intentionem quandam, velut in cantu et fidibus quae a(rmoni/a armonia W cf. I 24.41 dicitur: sic ex corporis totius natura et figura varios motus cieri tamquam in cantu sonos. 1.20. hic ab artificio suo non recessit et tamen dixit aliquid, quod ipsum quale esset erat multo ante et dictum et explanatum a Platone. Xenocrates Xen. fr. 67 animi figuram et quasi corpus negavit esse ullum, ull in r. V c ullum s numerum verum X cf. ac. 2,124 dixit esse, cuius vis, ut iam ante Pythagorae visum erat, in natura maxuma esset. eius doctor Plato triplicem finxit animum, animam X ( sed u supra a V 1? ) cuius principatum, id est rationem, in capite sicut in arce posuit, et duas partes parere separare X in parere corr. V c (e priore loco iterum ss. V 3 ) voluit, iram et cupiditatem, quas quas-cupiditatem om. H locis disclusit: disclusit om. X add. V 2 R rec s (suis add. s ) cf. I,80 Pr. 32 iram in pectore, cupiditatem supter subter RHK 1 ( l sup ss. K 2 ) collocavit V 2 praecordia locavit. Plato ... 228, 2 locavit H 1.21. Dicaearchus dice archus KRV dicaearc us | G 1 autem in eo sermone, quem Corinthi chorinthi GK habitum tribus libris exponit, doctorum dictorum X, corr. in KV hominum disputantium primo libro multos loquentes facit; duobus Pherecratem pherecraten G pthiotam X (pth. G phiot. K) quendam Phthiotam senem, quem ait a Deucalione ortum, disserentem inducit nihil esse omnino animum, animum omnino K et hoc esse nomen totum ie, frustraque et post frustraque add. V 1? vix recte animalia et animantis animantes V 2 appellari, neque in homine inesse animum vel animam nec in bestia, vimque omnem eam, qua vel agamus quid vel sentiamus, in omnibus corporibus vivis aequabiliter aequabiliter V (exp. m. vet.) esse fusam nec separabilem a corpore esse, quippe quae nulla sit, nec sit quicquam nisi corpus unum et simplex, ita figuratum ut temperatione naturae vigeat et sentiat. 1.22. Aristoteles, longe omnibus—Platonem semper excipio—praestans et ingenio et diligentia, cum quattuor nota illa genera principiorum esset complexus, e quibus omnia orerentur, orirentur H s quintam quandam naturam censet esse, esse esset GR 1 e corr. e qua equa G 1 ( in mg. de) K 1 (equae K 2 ut v. ) R esse qua V (quae V 2 ) sit mens; cogitare enim et providere et discere et docere et invenire aliquid et tam multa alia alia X exp. V vet , cf. 247,14 meminisse, amare odisse, cupere timere, angi laetari, haec et et om. H similia eorum in horum quattuor generum inesse nullo nullo numero H putat; quintum genus genus om. H adhibet vacans nomine et sic sic exp. V vet ipsum animum e)ndele/xeian endelecheian GKVH, sed in R inter e et a graecum com- pendium diphthongi ei ( ) scriptum est appellat appellant G 1 V 1 novo nomine quasi quandam continuatam motionem et perennem. Nisi quae me forte fugiunt, fugiunt (exp. m. vet.) V haec hae V rec s sunt fere omnium post fere add. V 2 de animo sententiae. Aristoteles cum quattuor ... 229, 3 de animo sentiae H Democritum enim, magnum illum quidem virum, sed levibus et rotundis corpusculis efficientem animum anim um V ( ss. c ) concursu quodam fortuito, omittamus; nihil est enim apud istos, quod non atomorum turba conficiat. nihil... eorum t. conficiat Non. 269,12 1.23. Harum sententiarum quae vera sit, deus aliqui aliquis V rec s viderit; harum ... viderit Lact. inst. 7,8, 9 (postquam breviter ad § 18—22 respexit) quae veri simillima, magna quaestio est. harum ... 9 quaestio est H utrum igitur inter has sententias diiudicare malumus an ad propositum redire? Cuperem equidem utrumque, si posset, sed est difficile confundere. quare si, ut ista non disserantur, liberari mortis metu possumus, possimus K 2 id agamus; sin id non potest nisi hac quaestione animorum explicata, nunc, si videtur, hoc, illud alias. Quod malle te intellego, id puto esse commodius; efficiet enim ratio ut, quaecumque vera sit earum sententiarum quas exposui, mors aut malum non sit aut sit bonum potius. 1.24. nam si cor cor s. G aut sanguis aut cerebrum est animus, certe, quoniam est corpus, interibit cum reliquo corpore; corpore V c s tempore X si anima est, fortasse dissipabitur; si ignis, extinguetur; si est Aristoxeni harmonia, harmonia GKR arm.V arm. H dissolvetur. quid de Dicaearcho dicam, qui nihil omnino animum dicat esse? efficiet ... 25 dicit esse H his sententiis omnibus nihil post mortem pertinere ad quemquam potest; pariter enim cum vita sensus amittitur; non sentientis autem nihil est ullam in partem quod intersit. reliquorum sententiae spem adferunt, si te hoc forte delectat, posse animos, cum e corporibus excesserint, in caelum quasi in domicilium suum pervenire. Me vero delectat, idque primum ita esse velim, deinde, etiamsi non sit, mihi persuaderi tamen velim. Quid tibi ergo opera nostra opus est? num eloquentia Platonem superare possumus? evolve diligenter eius eum librum, qui est de animo: anima ex -o V c? amplius quod desideres nihil erit. Feci mehercule, et quidem saepius; sed nescio quo modo, dum lego, adsentior, cum posui librum et mecum ipse de inmortalitate imm. GR animorum coepi cogitare, adsensio omnis illa elabitur. Quid? 1.25. hoc dasne aut manere animos post mortem aut morte ipsa interire? Do vero. Quid, quod K 1 (corr. 2 ) R si maneant? Beatos beatas V esse concedo. Sin intereant? Non esse miseros, quoniam ne sint quidem; iam iam cf. p. 225,21 ac. 2, 109 al. (Mue) istuc coacti a te paulo ante concessimus. Quo modo igitur aut cur mortem malum tibi videri dicis? quae aut beatos nos efficiet animis manentibus aut non miseros sensu carentis. carentes V 2 1.36. Sed ut deos esse natura opinamur, qualesque que del. Bai. sint, ratione cognoscimus, quodsi ... 235, 6 cognoscimus ( omissis 235,2 maxume ... 235, 4 habiturus) H (libere) sic permanere animos arbitramur consensu nationum omnium, qua in sede maneant qualesque sint, ratione discendum est. cuius ignoratio ingnoratio GV 1 finxit inferos easque formidines, quas tu contemnere non sine causa videbare. in terram enim cadentibus corporibus isque humo tectis, e quo aquo V 1 (aq in r. 1 ) eqd V 2 mg. dictum est humari, sub terra censebant reliquam vitam agi mortuorum; quam eorum opinionem magni errores consecuti sunt, quos auxerunt poëtae. 1.37. frequens enim consessus quos... con in r. K 1 consessus s consensu X, s in fine add. V 1 theatri, in quo sunt mulierculae et pueri, movetur audiens tam grande carmen: A/dsum Trag. inc. 73 atque advenio A/cherunte acher onte K (u ss. c ) vi/x via alta atque a/rdua Pe/r speluncas sa/xis structas a/speris pende/ntibus Ma/xumis, ubi ri/gida constat cra/ssa crassa s. v. add. K c caligo i/nferum, ubi ...inferum Non. 272,39 tantumque valuit error—qui mihi quidem iam sublatus videtur—, ut, corpora cremata cum scirent, tamen ea fieri apud inferos fingerent, quae sine corporibus nec fieri possent possunt V 2 nec intellegi. animos enim per se se s. v. add. V c ipsos viventis vigentis ex viventis V 1 non poterant mente complecti, formam aliquam figuramque quaerebant. inde Homeri tota ne/kuia, NECUIA KRV ( sed A in p A corr. 1 ) necyia mai. litt. G NErCUO mantia RK nepsyomantia mai. litt. G psichomantia, sed psicho in r. V 1 aut 2 ( ex div. 1, 132 ) corr. Dav. inde ea quae meus amicus Appius nekuomantei=a faciebat, inde -de in om. K 1 add. c in vicinia vitia KRV 1 (vicinia corr. 1 ) vicia G nostra Averni lacus, u/nde animae excita/ntur obscura u/mbra opertae, apertae ( vel ę, -e K 1 ) opertę corr. V 1 K 2 ima/gines mo/rtuorum, alto o/stio hostio alte (altę K 1 ) ostio s alto corr. K 2 V 1aut2 s . locum rest. Leo. alii aut imagines mortuorum in fine relicta male Ciceroni ipsi tribuunt aut ibi mort. imagines scribunt (praeterea aperto ex ostio Mdv. opertae ex ostio Ribb. altae Klotz) Acheru/ntis, acheruntis (acherontis KV 1 e corr. ) s. s. imagines mortuorum X salso sa/nguine. Trag. inc. 76 cf. Leo Progr. Gott. 1910 p. 21. has tamen imagines loqui volunt, quod fieri nec sine lingua nec sine palato nec sine faucium laterum pulmonum vi et figura potest. nihil enim animo videre poterant, ad oculos omnia referebant. 1.38. Magni autem est ingenii sevocare sevocare Aug. revocare W mentem a sensibus et cogitationem ab consuetudine a consuetudine V ( ult. e ex o) abducere. Quidam enim nihil animo ... 9 abducere H magni.. 9 abducere Aug. epist. 137,5 itaque credo equidem etiam alios tot saeculis, sed quod quot G litteris exstet, extet K cf. Lact. inst. 7, 8, 7 Aug. epist. 137,12 Pherecydes Syrius syrus X syrius s Aug. primus primum W primus Bentl. atque hoc legisse videtur Aug. : 'quod apud Graecos olim primus Pherecydes Syrius cum disputavisset', dixit animos esse hominum sempiternos, antiquus antiquo s K 1 R 1 sane; fuit enim meo regte gentili. hanc opinionem discipulus eius Pythagoras maxime confirmavit, qui cum Superbo regte in Italiam venisset, tenuit Magnam illam Graeciam cum honore honore del. V vet honore et disc. s disciplina, tum etiam auctoritate, multaque saecula postea sic viguit Pythagoreorum nomen, ut nulli alii docti viderentur. iderentur V sed redeo ad antiquos. rationem illi sententiae suae non fere reddebant, nisi quid erat numeris aut descriptionibus descriptionibus B s discriptionibus X (discretionibus V) explicandum: 1.39. Platonem ferunt, ut Pythagoreos cognosceret, in Italiam venisse ad venisse adscr, in mg. et in ea (ita P) cum alios multos tum archytam (ut crithitã P) timeumque cognovit (et timęum invenisse R)V c R rec P al., ( cf. fin. 5,87 ), unde V c post ferunt (21) add. qui, tum corr. venit ed dicisse ( voluit ut v. edidicisse pro et dedicisse) signo inter haec verba ut ante notam mg. addito et didicisse dedicisse GR Pythagorea omnia primumque de animorum aeternitate non solum sensisse idem quod Pythagoram, sed rationem etiam attulisse. quam, nisi quid rationes. . quas V 2? adtul. V dicis, praetermittamus et hanc totam spem inmortalitatis relinquamus. An tu cum me in summam exspectationem adduxeris, deseris? deseres V 2 s errare mehercule me errare hercule K mehercules V 2 malo cum Platone, quem tu quanti facias scio et quem ex tuo ore admiror, quam cum cũ i. r. V rec istis vera sentire. 1.40. Macte mac in r. V c virtute! Macte virtute Non. 341, 37 ego enim ipse cum eodem ipso ipso cf. div. 2, 95 isto We. non invitus erraverim. num igitur dubitamus—? an sicut pleraque? quamquam hoc quidem minime; persuadent enim mathematici terram in medio mundo sitam ad universi caeli complexum quasi puncti instar optinere, quod ke/ntron centron X (ante Vitr. praeterea ap. Rom. non invenitur) illi vocant; eam porro naturam esse quattuor omnia gignentium corporum, ut, quasi partita habeant inter se ac divisa momenta, terrena et umida umida RG 1 V 1 ( add. G 1 V 1 ) suopte nutu et suo pondere ad paris angulos in terram et in mare mari X mare K 2 s ferantur, reliquae duae partes, una ignea altera animalis, ut illae superiores ille GKV superioris X in medium locum mundi gravitate ferantur et pondere, sic hae rursum rursus V 2 rectis lineis in caelestem calestem GV 1 locum subvolent, sive ipsa natura superiora adpetente sive quod a gravioribus leviora superiora... 23 leviora om. R 1 add. m. vet. in mg. (superiora ex -re). eadem verba usque ad levio fere omnia in r. scripsit V 1 natura repellantur. quae cum constent, sive quod ... constent Non. 273, 7 perspicuum debet esse animos, cum e corpore excesserint, sive illi sint animales, id est spirabiles, spirabiles KV 2 (l sp.) spiritabiles RV 1 spiritales G sive ignei, sublime ferri. 1.41. si vero aut numerus quidam sit sit est Mdv. sed cf. comm. animus, quod subtiliter magis quam dilucide dicitur, aut cf. Aug. gen. ad litt. 7, 21 quinta illa non nominata magis quam non intellecta natura, multo etiam integriora ac puriora sunt, ut a terra longissime se se om. H ecferant. si vero ... 5 ecferant ecf. X (eff. corr. V 1 ecf. K c ) Horum igitur aliquid animus, putetur vel cogitetur fere potius supplendum quam sit (We.). est ante animus add. B s ne nec K tam vegeta vegeta V 1 (veg in r. ) K 2 veta GK 1 R mens aut in corde cerebrove aut in Empedocleo sanguine demersa iaceat. Dicaearchum vero cum Aristoxeno aequali et condiscipulo suo, doctos sane homines, omittamus; quorum alter ne nae R nę K ne, sed e in r. V 1 condoluisse quidem umquam videtur, qui animum quia nimium K 1 se habere non sentiat, alter ita delectatur suis cantibus, ut eos etiam ad haec transferre conetur. harmonian arm. ter H ( in 13 V 1 e corr., in 14 K) harmoniă K autem ex intervallis sonorum nosse possumus, quorum varia compositio etiam harmonias arm. ter H ( in 13 V 1 e corr., in 14 K) efficit pluris; membrorum vero situs vero situs om. K 1 add. c et figura corporis vacans animo quam possit harmoniam arm. ter H ( in 13 V 1 e corr., in 14 K) efficere, non video. armonian ... 17 video sed hic quidem, quamvis eruditus sit, sicut est, haec magistro concedat Aristoteli, canere ipse doceat; bene enim illo Graecorum proverbio praecipitur: quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat. cf. Arist. Ve. 1431 Cic. Att. 5, 10,3 1.42. illam vero funditus eiciamus individuorum corporum levium et rutundorum rotundorum KV ( sed fuit rut.) H concursionem fortuitam, quam tamen tamen add. K 2 Democritus concalefactam et spirabilem, spirabilem eqs. cf. Aug. epist. 118, 4, 28 id est animalem, esse volt. is autem animus, qui, si si add. G 1 s. l. est horum quattuor quattuor horum Non. generum, ex quibus ex quibus unde V 2 Non ft. recte omnia constare dicuntur, animus...239, 1 dicuntur Non. 272, 29 ex inflammata anima constat, ut potissimum videri video videri om. X (videt' pro video V sed t' V c in r. ) add. K 2 s Panaetio, superiora capessat necesse est. nihil enim habent haec duo genera proni et supera semper petunt. ita, sive dissipantur, procul a terris id evenit, sive permanent et conservant habitum suum, hoc etiam magis necesse est ferantur ad caelum et ab is perrumpatur et dividatur crassus hic et concretus aër, qui est terrae proximus. calidior est enim vel potius ardentior ardentior ex -us V 1 animus quam est est exp. V c hic aër, aer in mg. V c quem modo dixi crassum atque concretum; quod ex eo sciri sciri scribi K 1 potest, quia corpora nostra terreno principiorum genere confecta ardore animi concalescunt. 1.43. accedit accidit X accedit s V rec ut eo facilius animus evadat ex hoc aëre, quem saepe iam appello, eumque perrumpat, quod nihil est animo velocius, nulla est celeritas quae possit cum animi celeritate contendere. qui si permanet incorruptus suique similis, necesse est ita feratur, ut penetret et dividat omne caelum hoc, in quo nubes imbres ventique coguntur, caelum... coguntur Non. 264,32 quod et umidum umidum G ( add. sed rursus eras.) KR 1 V 1 hum. H et caliginosum est propter exhalationes exalationes GKV (exal at., in mg. p humorem V 2 )H terrae. Quam regionem cum superavit animus naturamque sui similem contigit et adgnovit, agnovit H a gn. V iunctis iuncti s R 1 iunctus GKVH ex anima tenui et ex ardore solis temperato ignibus insistit consistit V e corr. et finem altius se ecferendi ecf. ut 238, 5 (eff. hic V c ) facit. cum enim sui similem et levitatem et calorem adeptus est, add. s tamquam paribus examinatus ponderibus nullam in partem movetur, eaque ei demum naturalis est sedes, cum ad sui simile penetravit; in quo nulla re egens aletur et sustentabitur isdem rebus, quibus astra sustentantur hisdem X ( isdem V isdem H?) susten- tatur G 1 sustentur K 1 sustantur V 1 et aluntur. Cumque corporis facibus inflammari soleamus ad omnis fere cupiditates eoque magis incendi, quod is aemulemur, qui ea habeant quae nos habere cupiamus, profecto beati erimus, cum corporibus relictis et cupiditatum et aemulationum erimus expertes; 1.65. prorsus haec divina mihi videtur vis, quae tot res efficiat et tantas. quid est enim enim s. v. add. G 1 memoria rerum et verborum? quid porro inventio? profecto id, quo ne in deo quidem quidem V 2 s om. X quicquam maius magis V 1 (corr. rec ) intellegi potest. potest R 1 potes G non enim ambrosia deos aut nectare aut Iuventate iuventute V rec pocula ministrante laetari laetare GR 1 (corr. 1 ) V 1 (corr. 2 ) Hom. Y 232 arbitror, nec Homerum audio, qui Ganymeden ganimeden V 1 (corr. 1 ) H ab dis dis ex his R raptum ait ait ex aut K c propter formam, ut ut V Iovi bibere ministraret; ut... ministraret Arus. GL. VII458, 16 non iusta causa, cur Laomedonti tanta tanta add. K c ex tanti V 2 fieret fieret V 2 s fierit X iniuria. fingebat haec Homerus et et add. V 2 humana ad deos transferebat: -ebat in r. V c transferret ad nos ss. K 2 divina mallem ad nos. fingebat... 2 nos Aug. civ. 4, 26 conf. 1,16 quae autem divina? vigere, sapere, invenire, meminisse. quid igitur... 15 videtur et quis igitur ( pro aut qui) pri- mus 250, 3 meminisse H ergo animus animusq : K ( ui ss. 2 ) lac. ind. Po. ( suppl. fere sec. § 66 et rep. 6,26 : viget invenit meminit) qui ..., qui del. Lb. quidem Sey. ut ego Eurip. fr. 1018 dico, divinus est, ut Euripides dicere audet, deus. Et quidem, et quidem ex equi- dem V 1 si si add. K c deus aut anima aut ignis est, idem est animus hominis. nam ut illa natura caelestis et terra vacat et umore, humore X sic utriusque utrisque V 1 harum rerum humanus animus est expers; sin autem est quinta quaedam natura, ab Aristotele inducta primum, haec et deorum est et animorum. Hanc nos sententiam secuti sicuti K his ipsis verbis in Consolatione hoc hoc del. s, sed hoc ut p. 253, 27 de hoc ipso usurpatum est. Cic. distinguit inter hoc argumentum quod suis verbis exprimit et universam Aristotelis sententiam e qua illud ductum est. expressimus: 1.66. 'Animorum nulla in terris origo inveniri potest; nihil nihil quid H enim est est enim Lact. in animis mixtum atque concretum aut quod ex terra natum atque fictum esse videatur, nihil ne n e V( ss. m. rec. ) aut umidum humidum GV 2 H quidem aut flabile aut igneum. his enim in naturis nihil inest, quod vim memoriae vim memoriae in r. V 2 mentis cogitationis habeat, quod et praeterita teneat et futura provideat praevident V Lact. B 2 et complecti possit praesentia. quae sola divina sunt, nec invenietur nec enim inv. Lact. umquam, unde in de G 1 R 1 V ( m 2 ) unde K Lact. ad hominem venire possint nisi a deo. sin... 20 a deo H Animorum 20 a deo Lact. ira 10, 45 (inst. 7,8, 6) singularis est igitur quaedam natura atque vis animi seiuncta ab his usitatis notisque naturis. ita, quicquid est illud, quod sentit quod sapit quod vivit quod viget, caeleste et divinum ob eamque rem aeternum sit necesse est. nec vero deus ipse, qui intellegitur a nobis, alio modo intellegi potest nisi mens soluta quaedam et libera, segregata ab omni concretione mortali, omnia sentiens et movens nec vero ... 4 movens Lact. inst. 1,5, 25 (7, 3, 4) Salv. gub. dei 1, 1, 14 ipsaque praedita motu sempiterno. nec ... 4 sempiterno mens quaedam est soluta et libera, secreta ... 4 sempiterno Aug. civ. 22,20 hoc e genere atque que V q; sed; in r. R eadem e natura est humana mens.' Ubi igitur aut qualis est ista mens? 1.72. Ita Plato Phaedon 80sqq. enim censebat itaque disseruit, duas ut ante duas eras. in K esse vias duplicesque cursus animorum e corpore excedentium: nam cf. Lact. inst. 7, 10, 10 qui se humanis vitiis contaminavissent et se totos toto GV 1 ( s add. 2 ) R 1 ut v. (s add. ipse, tum lib- ex bib-) libidinibus dedissent, quibus caecati vel velut X (sed ut exp. V vet ) domesticis vitiis atque flagitiis se inquinavissent vel re publica violanda rei publicae violandae V 2 fraudes inexpiabiles concepissent, concoepissent GR concęp. K is devium quoddam iter esse, seclusum a concilio deorum; qui autem se integros castosque servavissent, quibusque fuisset minima cum corporibus contagio seseque contagiose seque V 1 ab is semper sevocavissent s evocavissent V ( exp. vet ) essentque in corporibus humanis vitam imitati deorum, is ad illos a quibus essent profecti reditum facilem patere. 1.76. quam cum lego, nihil malo quam has res relinquere, his vero modo auditis multo magis. Veniet tempus, et quidem et quidem V 1 celeriter, sive et sive X sed et exp. V 1 retractabis sive properabis; volat enim aetas. tantum autem abest ab eo ut malum mors sit, quod tibi dudum videbatur, ut verear verear K c ne homini nihil sit non malum aliud certius, nihil bonum aliud certius Jeep certe sed X (sed exp. V vet ) aliud, certe sit We. potius, si quidem vel di dii V 2 ipsi vel cum dis futuri sumus lac. ind. Po. ( suppl. fere: sed iam reliquorum philosophorum de hac re quaeramus sententias) cf. comm. et p.442,18 Quid refert? refers K c Adsunt enim, qui haec non probent. ego autem numquam ita te in hoc sermone dimittam, ulla uti ratione mors ratione mors V ratione ut mors GKR tibi videri malum possit. Qui potest, cum ista cognoverim? Qui possit, rogas? 1.78. movemur enim saepe aliquo acute concluso, labamus mutamusque sententiam clarioribus etiam in rebus; in his est enim aliqua obscuritas. id igitur si acciderit, simus siminus GKR 1 (corr. 1? ) V 1 (corr. 2 ) armati. Sane quidem, sed ne accidat, accidit K 1 V 1 providebo. Num quid igitur est causae, quin quin ex qui K 2 amicos nostros Stoicos dimittamus? eos dico, qui aiunt manere animos, cum e corpore excesserint, excesserint add. K 2 sed non semper. Istos vero qui, quod tota in hac causa difficillimum est, suscipiant, posse animum manere corpore vacantem, illud autem, quod non modo facile ad credendum est, sed eo concesso, quod volunt, consequens, id vero id vero Kl. idcirco (id non concedant Mdv. ) non dant, ut, cum diu permanserit, ne intereat. 4.35. quae si quando adepta erit adepta erit Lb. ea deptaretur K ( m. 2 potius quam 1 ) eademptaretur GRV id quod ei fuerit concupitum, tum ecferetur ecferetur We. (effertur Dav. ) fertur Gr. fert X alacritate, ut nihil ei constet, quod agat, ut ille, qui voluptatem voluptatem eqs. Trabea fr. II eundemque Cic. in verbis nihil ei ei B ( e corr. ) Bentl. est X ( ē. K esse V 3 ) quod s quid X constet ( Com. inc. 37 ) respicit, cf. fin. 2, 14 animi nimiam summum esse errorem arbitratur. eorum igitur malorum in una virtute posita sanatio est. Quid autem est non miserius solum, sed foedius etiam et deformius quam aegritudine quis adflictus debilitatus iacens? cui miseriae proxumus est is qui qui q: V (: in r. V c ) adpropinquans aliquod malum metuit exanimatusque examinatusque K Non. pars pendet animi. aliquod ... 23 animi Non. 498, 2 quam vim mali significantes poëtae impendere apud inferos saxum Tantalo faciunt ob scelera Trag. inc. 110 animique inpotentiam et superbiloquentiam. animique 25 superbiloquentiam Non. 175, 31 ea communis poena stultitiae est. omnibus enim, quorum mens abhorret a ratione, ratio V 1 semper aliqui talis aliqui talis Gron. (aliquis talis Victorius ) cf. p. 432, 7 aliquid aliis W terror impendet. 4.83. itaque non fortuito factum videtur, sed a te ratione propositum, ut separatim de aegritudine et de ceteris perturbationibus disputaremus; in ea est enim fons miseriarum et caput. sed et alt. et om. V aegritudinis et reliquorum animi morborum una sanatio est, omnis opinabilis esse et voluntarios ea reque requae GKR (quae ... videatur in r. K 1 ) suscipi, quod ita rectum esse videatur. hunc errorem quasi radicem malorum omnium stirpitus stirpitus Statil. Max. ap. Char. GL. 2, 219, 25 philosophia se extracturam pollicetur.
20. Hirtius, Commentarius De Bello Alexandrino, 1.21.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 83
21. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 3.978-3.1023 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 107
3.978. Atque ea ni mirum quae cumque Acherunte profundo 3.979. prodita sunt esse, in vita sunt omnia nobis. 3.980. nec miser inpendens magnum timet aere aëre saxum 3.981. Tantalus, ut famast, cassa formidine torpens; 3.982. sed magis in vita divom metus urget iis 3.983. mortalis casumque timent quem cuique ferat fors. 3.984. nec Tityon volucres ineunt Acherunte iacentem 3.985. nec quod sub magno scrutentur pectore quicquam 3.986. perpetuam aetatem possunt reperire profecto. 3.987. quam libet immani proiectu corporis exstet, 3.988. qui non sola novem dispessis iugera membris 3.989. optineat, sed qui terrai totius orbem, 3.990. non tamen aeternum poterit perferre dolorem 3.991. nec praebere cibum proprio de corpore semper. 3.992. sed Tityos nobis hic est, in amore iacentem 3.993. quem volucres lacerant atque exest anxius angor 3.994. aut alia quavis scindunt cuppedine curae. 3.995. Sisyphus in vita quoque nobis ante oculos est, 3.996. qui petere a populo fasces saevasque secures 3.997. imbibit et semper victus tristisque recedit. 3.998. nam petere imperium, quod iest nec datur umquam, 3.999. atque in eo semper durum sufferre laborem, 3.1000. hoc est adverso nixantem trudere monte 3.1001. saxum, quod tamen e summo iam vertice rusum 3.1002. volvitur et plani raptim petit aequora campi. 3.1003. deinde animi ingratam naturam pascere semper 3.1004. atque explere bonis rebus satiareque numquam, 3.1005. quod faciunt nobis annorum tempora, circum 3.1006. cum redeunt fetusque ferunt variosque lepores, 3.1007. nec tamen explemur vitai fructibus umquam, 3.1008. hoc, ut opinor, id est, aevo florente puellas 3.1009. quod memorant laticem pertusum congerere in vas, 3.1010. quod tamen expleri nulla ratione potestur. 3.1011. Cerberus et Furiae iam vero et lucis egestas, 3.1012. Tartarus horriferos eructans faucibus aestus! 3.1013. qui neque sunt usquam nec possunt esse profecto; 3.1014. sed metus in vita poenarum pro male factis 3.1015. est insignibus insignis scelerisque luela, 3.1016. carcer et horribilis de saxo iactus deorsum, 3.1017. verbera carnifices robur pix lammina taedae; 3.1018. quae tamen etsi absunt, at mens sibi conscia factis 3.1019. praemetuens adhibet stimulos torretque flagellis, 3.1020. nec videt interea qui terminus esse malorum 3.1021. possit nec quae sit poenarum denique finis, 3.1022. atque eadem metuit magis haec ne in morte gravescant. 3.1023. hic Acherusia fit stultorum denique vita.
22. Plutarch, Letter of Condolence To Apollonius, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 166
23. Plutarch, Placita Philosophorum (874D-911C), 4.2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 33
24. Plutarch, Consolation To His Wife, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 166
25. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 68.20 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •immortality of soul, difference between greek and jewish view of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 22
26. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 5.66 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 33
27. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 11.28.7-11.28.10, 15.20.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 33, 82
28. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.151, 7.156-7.157, 8.83 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 33, 82, 83
7.151. Hence, again, their explanation of the mixture of two substances is, according to Chrysippus in the third book of his Physics, that they permeate each other through and through, and that the particles of the one do not merely surround those of the other or lie beside them. Thus, if a little drop of wine be thrown into the sea, it will be equally diffused over the whole sea for a while and then will be blended with it.Also they hold that there are daemons (δαίμονες) who are in sympathy with mankind and watch over human affairs. They believe too in heroes, that is, the souls of the righteous that have survived their bodies.of the changes which go on in the air, they describe winter as the cooling of the air above the earth due to the sun's departure to a distance from the earth; spring as the right temperature of the air consequent upon his approach to us; 7.156. And there are five terrestrial zones: first, the northern zone which is beyond the arctic circle, uninhabitable because of the cold; second, a temperate zone; a third, uninhabitable because of great heats, called the torrid zone; fourth, a counter-temperate zone; fifth, the southern zone, uninhabitable because of its cold.Nature in their view is an artistically working fire, going on its way to create; which is equivalent to a fiery, creative, or fashioning breath. And the soul is a nature capable of perception. And they regard it as the breath of life, congenital with us; from which they infer first that it is a body and secondly that it survives death. Yet it is perishable, though the soul of the universe, of which the individual souls of animals are parts, is indestructible. 7.157. Zeno of Citium and Antipater, in their treatises De anima, and Posidonius define the soul as a warm breath; for by this we become animate and this enables us to move. Cleanthes indeed holds that all souls continue to exist until the general conflagration; but Chrysippus says that only the souls of the wise do so.They count eight parts of the soul: the five senses, the generative power in us, our power of speech, and that of reasoning. They hold that we see when the light between the visual organ and the object stretches in the form of a cone: so Chrysippus in the second book of his Physics and Apollodorus. The apex of the cone in the air is at the eye, the base at the object seen. Thus the thing seen is reported to us by the medium of the air stretching out towards it, as if by a stick. 8.83. He was the first to bring mechanics to a system by applying mathematical principles; he also first employed mechanical motion in a geometrical construction, namely, when he tried, by means of a section of a half-cylinder, to find two mean proportionals in order to duplicate the cube. In geometry, too, he was the first to discover the cube, as Plato says in the Republic.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •immortality of soul, difference between greek and jewish view of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 22
49b. אזלא ודלדלה ואין שואל ואין מבקש על מי יש להשען על אבינו שבשמים,בעקבות משיחא חוצפא יסגא ויוקר יאמיר הגפן תתן פריה והיין ביוקר ומלכות תהפך למינות ואין תוכחת בית וועד יהיה לזנות והגליל יחרב והגבלן ישום ואנשי הגבול יסובבו מעיר לעיר ולא יחוננו,וחכמות סופרים תסרח ויראי חטא ימאסו והאמת תהא נעדרת נערים פני זקנים ילבינו זקנים יעמדו מפני קטנים בן מנוול אב בת קמה באמה כלה בחמותה אויבי איש אנשי ביתו פני הדור כפני הכלב הבן אינו מתבייש מאביו ועל מה יש לנו להשען על אבינו שבשמים, big strong(גמ׳) /strong /big אמר רב לא שנו אלא של מלח וגפרית אבל של הדס ושל וורד מותר ושמואל אומר אף של הדס ושל וורד אסור של קנים ושל חילת מותר ולוי אמר אף של קנים ושל חילת אסור וכן תני לוי במתניתיה אף של קנים ושל חילת אסור,ועל האירוס מאי אירוס א"ר אלעזר טבלא דחד פומא רבה בר רב הונא עבד ליה לבריה טנבורא אתא אבוה תבריה אמר ליה מיחלף בטבלא דחד פומא זיל עביד ליה אפומא דחצבא או אפומא דקפיזא,בפולמוס של טיטוס גזרו על עטרות כלות וכו' מאי עטרות כלות אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן עיר של זהב תניא נמי הכי איזהו עטרות כלות עיר של זהב אבל עושה אותה כיפה של מילת,תנא אף על חופת חתנים גזרו מאי חופת חתנים זהורית המוזהבות תניא נמי הכי אלו הן חופת חתנים זהורית המוזהבות אבל עושה פפירית ותולה בה כל מה שירצה,ושלא ילמד את בנו יוונית ת"ר כשצרו מלכי בית חשמונאי זה על זה היה הורקנוס מבחוץ ואריסטובלוס מבפנים בכל יום ויום היו משלשלין דינרים בקופה ומעלין להן תמידים,היה שם זקן אחד שהיה מכיר בחכמת יוונית לעז להם בחכמת יוונית אמר להן כל זמן שעוסקים בעבודה אין נמסרין בידכם למחר שלשלו להם דינרים בקופה והעלו להם חזיר כיון שהגיע לחצי חומה נעץ צפרניו נזדעזעה א"י ארבע מאות פרסה,אותה שעה אמרו ארור אדם שיגדל חזירים וארור אדם שילמד לבנו חכמת יוונית ועל אותה שנה שנינו מעשה ובא עומר מגגות צריפים ושתי הלחם מבקעת עין סוכר,איני והאמר רבי בא"י לשון סורסי למה אלא אי לשון הקודש אי לשון יוונית ואמר רב יוסף בבבל לשון ארמי למה אלא או לשון הקודש או לשון פרסי,לשון יוונית לחוד וחכמת יוונית לחוד,וחכמת יוונית מי אסירא והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל משום רשב"ג מאי דכתיב (איכה ג, נא) עיני עוללה לנפשי מכל בנות עירי אלף ילדים היו בבית אבא חמש מאות למדו תורה וחמש מאות למדו חכמת יוונית ולא נשתייר מהן אלא אני כאן ובן אחי אבא בעסיא,שאני של בית ר"ג דקרובין למלכות הוו דתניא מספר קומי הרי זה מדרכי האמורי אבטולוס בן ראובן התירו לספר קומי שהוא קרוב למלכות של בית רבן גמליאל התירו להן חכמה יוונית מפני שקרובין למלכות,בפולמוס האחרון גזרו שלא תצא כלה באפריון וכו' מ"ט משום צניעותא,משמת רבן יוחנן בטלה החכמה ת"ר משמת רבי אליעזר נגנז ס"ת משמת רבי יהושע בטלה עצה ומחשבה משמת ר"ע בטלו זרועי תורה ונסתתמו מעיינות החכמה,משמת רבי אלעזר בן עזריה בטלו עטרות חכמה (משלי יד, כד) שעטרת חכמים עשרם משמת רבי חנינא בן דוסא בטלו אנשי מעשה משמת אבא יוסי בן קטונתא בטלו חסידים ולמה נקרא שמו אבא יוסי בן קטונתא שהיה מקטני חסידים,משמת בן עזאי בטלו השקדנין משמת בן זומא בטלו הדרשנין משמת רשב"ג עלה גובאי ורבו צרות משמת רבי הוכפלו צרות,משמת רבי בטלה ענוה ויראת חטא אמר ליה רב יוסף לתנא לא תיתני ענוה דאיכא אנא אמר ליה רב נחמן לתנא לא תיתני יראת חטא דאיכא אנא, br br big strongהדרן עלך ערופה וסליקא לן מסכת סוטה /strong /big br br
30. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •immortality of soul, difference between greek and jewish view of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 22
64b. b as Rabbi Yishmael states only there, /b in the mishna, that three i se’a /i of barley are reaped on Shabbat, b as /b in that case b when /b one b limits /b the amount available b for eating, /b he likewise b limits /b the amount of b reaping. But here, when /b one b limits /b the amount b of eating /b by bringing the two figs, he also b increases /b the amount of b reaping. /b Therefore is it b certain /b that b we bring /b the ill person the b three /b figs attached by a single stem., strong MISHNA: /strong b The mitzva of the i omer /i is to bring /b the barley reaped for the meal offering b from /b fields b proximate /b to Jerusalem. If the barley b did not ripen /b in b the /b fields b proximate to Jerusalem, one brings it from any place /b in Eretz Yisrael. There was b an incident where the i omer /i came from Gaggot Tzerifin and /b the wheat for b the two loaves /b on i Shavuot /i came b from the valley of Ein Sokher. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that the barley reaped for the i omer /i meal offering should ideally be brought from fields proximate to Jerusalem? The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say /b that it is b because /b the verse states: “And if you bring a meal offering of first fruits to the Lord, you shall bring for the meal offering of your first fruits grain in the ear parched with fire, even groats of the b fresh ear [ i karmel /i ]” /b (Leviticus 2:14). This indicates that the grain should be soft and fresh. Consequently it should be brought from close by, not from a place where it might become stale and hardened during a long journey., b And if you wish, say /b instead that the reason is b due to /b the principle that b one does not postpone /b performance of b the mitzvot. /b When presented with the opportunity to perform a mitzva, one should perform it immediately. Therefore, the barley for the mitzva of the i omer /i meal offering in the Temple should be brought from the first crop encountered outside of Jerusalem.,§ The mishna teaches: There was b an incident where the i omer /i came from Gaggot Tzerifin /b and the two loaves on i Shavuot /i came from the valley of Ein Sokher. b The Sages taught /b a i baraita /i that provides the background of this event: b When the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy besieged each other /b in their civil war, b Hyrcanus was outside of /b Jerusalem, besieging it, b and Aristoblus was inside. On each and every day they would lower dinars in a box /b from inside the city, b and /b those on the outside b would send up /b animals for them to bring the b daily offerings /b in the Temple., b A certain elderly man was there, /b in Jerusalem, b who was familiar with Greek wisdom. He communicated to /b those on the outside b by /b using words understood only by those proficient in b Greek wisdom. The elderly man said to them: As long as they are engaged with the /b Temple b service, they will not be delivered into your hands. /b Upon hearing this, b on the following day, /b when b they lowered dinars in a box, they sent up a pig to them. Once /b the pig b reached halfway /b up the b wall, it inserted its hooves /b into the wall and b Eretz Yisrael shuddered four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs. /b ,When the Sages saw this, b they said /b at b that time: Cursed is he who raises pigs, and cursed is he who teaches his son Greek wisdom. And /b it is b with regard to that time /b of civil war, in which the land was destroyed, that b we learned: An incident /b occurred b in which the i omer /i , /b the measure of barley brought as a communal offering on the sixteenth of Nisan, b came from Gaggot Tzerifim, and the two loaves /b offered on i Shavuot /i came b from the valley of Ein Sokher. /b Since no fresh barley grain was found in the fields immediately surrounding Jerusalem, it had to be brought from these outlying areas.,§ The Gemara relates another tradition with regard to that occasion when the i omer /i came from Gaggot Tzerifin and the two loaves from the valley of Ein Sokher: b When it came /b time to bring the b i omer /i /b meal offering, b they did not know from where /b they could b bring /b the b i omer /i /b grain, as all the surrounding fields were looted and ruined. The court publicly b proclaimed /b their difficulty. b A certain deaf-mute [ i ḥersha /i ] came /b forward and b stretched out one hand toward a roof, /b i gag /i in Hebrew, b and one hand toward a hut [ i atzerifa /i ]. Mordekhai said to /b the Sages: b Is there a place that is called Gaggot Tzerifin or Tzerifin Gaggot? They checked and found /b that there was such a place, and it contained fields of barley from which they were able to bring the i omer /i meal offering.,A similar incident occurred b when they needed to bring the two loaves, /b and b they did not know from where to bring /b the grain. Again the court publicly b proclaimed /b their difficulty, and b a certain deaf-mute came /b forward and b stretched out /b one b hand toward his eye [ i a’eineih /i ] and one hand toward a door latch [ i assikhera /i ]. Mordekhai said to /b the Sages: b And is there a place that is called: Ein Sokher, or Sokher Ayin? They checked and found /b that there was such a place, and it contained fields of wheat from which they were able to bring the two loaves.,The Gemara relates another story that demonstrates Mordekhai’s wisdom: Once, b a certain three women brought three nests /b for their obligatory offerings of pairs of pigeons or doves (see Leviticus 15:29). b One /b of them b said: /b This offering is b for my i ziva /i ; and one said: /b This if b for my i yamma /i ; and /b the last b one said: /b This is b for my i ona /i . /b ,The Sages b understood from /b the first woman’s statement: b For my i ziva /i , /b that she had experienced a discharge of uterine blood when not expecting her menstrual period, which would give her the status of b an actual i zava /i . /b From the second woman’s statement: b For my i yamma /i , /b they understood: b My actual i yamma /i , /b i.e., she was also a i ziva /i , as i yam /i can mean: Sea, or a flow of blood. From the third woman’s statement: b For my i ona /i , /b they came to the conclusion that she needed to bring a sacrifice b for her time [ i ona /i ] /b of completing her purification process from being a i zava /i . Accordingly, they understood b that all /b these women were obligated to bring b one sin offering and one burnt offering. /b , b Mordekhai said to /b the other Sages: b Perhaps /b the first woman b was endangered /b in the course b of /b her menstrual b flow [ i zov /i ]. /b Similarly, b perhaps /b the second woman b was endangered at sea [ i yam /i ]. /b Finally, b perhaps /b the third woman b was endangered through her eye [ i ayin /i ], /b as i ayin /i is phonetically similar to i ona /i . According to these explanations, each woman sought to bring a voluntary offering to give thanks to God for being saved from danger. If so, the appropriate offering in each case is not a sin offering, b as they are all burnt offerings. /b It b was checked and /b they b found /b that Mordekhai’s interpretation was in fact correct.
31. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •immortality of soul, difference between greek and jewish view of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 22
82b. ואתא איהו תיקן חפיפה:,ושיהו רוכלין מחזרין בעיירות משום תכשיטי נשים כדי שלא יתגנו על בעליהם:,ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין דאורייתא הוא דכתיב (ויקרא טו, טז) ואיש כי תצא ממנו שכבת זרע ורחץ את בשרו במים דאורייתא הוא לתרומה וקדשים אתא הוא תיקן אפילו לדברי תורה:,עשרה דברים נאמרו בירושלים אין הבית חלוט בה ואינה מביאה עגלה ערופה ואינה נעשית עיר הנדחת,ואינה מטמאה בנגעים ואין מוציאין בה זיזין וגזוזטראות ואין עושין בה אשפתות ואין עושין בה כבשונות ואין עושין בה גנות ופרדסות חוץ מגנות וורדין שהיו מימות נביאים הראשונים ואין מגדלים בה תרנגולין ואין מלינין בה את המת,אין הבית חלוט בה דכתיב (ויקרא כה, ל) וקם הבית אשר לו חומה לצמיתות לקונה אותו לדורותיו וקסבר לא נתחלקה ירושלים לשבטים,ואינה מביאה עגלה ערופה דכתיב (דברים כא, א) כי ימצא חלל באדמה אשר ה' אלהיך נותן לך לרשתה וירושלים לא נתחלקה לשבטים,ואינה נעשית עיר הנדחת דכתיב (דברים יג, יג) עריך וירושלים לא נתחלקה לשבטים,ואינה מטמאה בנגעים דכתיב (ויקרא יד, לד) ונתתי נגע צרעת בבית ארץ אחוזתכם וירושלים לא נתחלקה לשבטים,ואין מוציאין בה זיזין וגזוזטראות מפני אהל הטומאה ומשום דלא ליתזקו עולי רגלים,ואין עושין בה אשפתות משום שקצים,ואין עושין בה כבשונות משום קוטרא,ואין עושין בה גנות ופרדסין משום סירחא,ואין מגדלין בה תרנגולין משום קדשים,ואין מלינין בה את המת גמרא:,אין מגדלין חזירים בכל מקום תנו רבנן כשצרו בית חשמונאי זה על זה היה הורקנוס מבפנים ואריסטובלוס מבחוץ ובכל יום היו משלשים להם בקופה דינרין והיו מעלין להם תמידים,היה שם זקן אחד שהיה מכיר בחכמת יוונית אמר להם כל זמן שעוסקין בעבודה אין נמסרים בידכם למחר שילשלו דינרין בקופה והעלו להם חזיר כיון שהגיע לחצי החומה נעץ צפרניו בחומה ונזדעזעה ארץ ישראל ארבע מאות פרסה על ארבע מאות פרסה,באותה שעה אמרו ארור האיש שיגדל חזירים וארור האדם שילמד את בנו חכמת יוונית ועל אותה שעה שנינו מעשה שבא עומר מגנות הצריפין ושתי הלחם מבקעת עין סוכר:,וחכמת יוונית מי אסירא והתניא אמר רבי בארץ ישראל 82b. b And /b Ezra b came /b and added to the Torah’s minimal obligation. He b instituted /b the requirement of b combing /b the hair even when it is known that it is not knotted and contains no repulsive substance.,The Gemara discusses the next of Ezra’s ordices: b And that peddlers should circulate through /b all b the towns. /b This Gemara explains that this is b because /b peddlers supply b women’s cosmetics, /b and therefore Ezra instituted this practice b so that /b women b should not become unattractive to their husbands. /b ,The Gemara analyzes the last of the ten ordices: b And he instituted /b the requirement of b immersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. /b The Gemara asks: But this b is /b required b by Torah law, as it is written: “And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe /b all b his flesh in water” /b (Leviticus 15:16). The Gemara answers: b By Torah law /b immersion b is /b required only if one wishes to partake b of i teruma /i or sacrificial /b meat. Ezra b came /b and further b instituted /b that immersion is necessary b even for /b reciting or studying b matters of Torah. /b ,§ The mishna teaches that one may not raise chickens in Jerusalem. The Gemara cites a i baraita /i that contains a list of other i halakhot /i that are unique to Jerusalem. b Ten matters were stated with regard to Jerusalem: A house /b situated b in /b Jerusalem does b not /b become b irredeemable /b one year after its sale. Those who sell houses in other walled cities have the right to buy back their property for one year after the transaction. If they fail to do so, the house becomes the permanent possession of the buyer (see Leviticus 25:29–30). This i halakha /i does not apply to houses in Jerusalem. b And /b its Elders do b not bring a heifer whose neck is broken /b as required when a murder victim is found near a city and the murderer is unknown (see Deuteronomy 21:1–9); b and /b it b cannot become an idolatrous city /b (see Deuteronomy 13:13–19).,The i baraita /i continues its list: b And /b a house in Jerusalem b cannot become ritually impure /b with the impurity b of leprous sores; and one may not build out projections or balconies [ i gezuztraot /i ] /b from houses that are b in it; and one may not establish garbage dumps in /b Jerusalem; b and one may not build kilns in it; and one may not plant gardens and orchards [ i pardesot /i ] in it, except for /b the b rose gardens that were /b already there b from the times of the early prophets; and one may not raise chickens in it; and /b finally, b one may not leave a corpse overnight in /b Jerusalem.,The Gemara discusses these ten i halakhot /i pertaining to Jerusalem, one by one: b A house /b situated b in /b it does b not /b become b irredeemable /b one year after its sale. The reason is b that it is written: /b “And if it is not redeemed within the space of a full year, then b the house /b that is in the b walled /b city b shall be made sure in perpetuity to him who bought it, throughout his generations” /b (Leviticus 25:30). b And /b the i tanna /i who taught this i baraita /i b maintains /b that b Jerusalem was not apportioned to /b any single one of b the tribes /b of Israel; rather, it is considered common property. Since no one has ancestral ownership of any house in Jerusalem, its houses cannot be sold permanently.,The Gemara analyzes the next i halakha /i : b And /b its inhabitants do b not bring a heifer whose neck is broken. /b The reason is b that it is written: “If one is found slain in the land that the Lord your God gives you to possess it” /b (Deuteronomy 21:1). b And, /b again, the i tanna /i who taught this i baraita /i b maintains /b that b Jerusalem was not apportioned to /b any one of b the tribes /b of Israel. Therefore, it is not included in the description: “The land that the Lord your God gives you to possess it.”,The i baraita /i states: b And /b it b cannot become an idolatrous city. /b The reason is b that it is written, /b in the introduction of the passage dealing with the i halakha /i of an idolatrous city: “If you shall hear tell concerning one of b your cities, /b which the Lord your God gives you to dwell there” (Deuteronomy 13:13). b And /b the i tanna /i who taught this i baraita /i maintains that b Jerusalem was not apportioned to /b any one of b the tribes /b of Israel. It is therefore not included in the description “one of your cities, which the Lord your God gives you to dwell there.”,The i baraita /i further teaches: b And /b a house in Jerusalem does b not become ritually impure /b with the impurity b of leprous sores. /b The reason is b that it is written: “And I put the plague of leprosy in a house of the land of your possession” /b (Leviticus 14:34). b And /b the i tanna /i who taught this i baraita /i maintains that b Jerusalem was not apportioned to /b any one of b the tribes /b of Israel. It is there-fore not included in the description “a house of the land of your possession.”,The Gemara discusses the next i halakha /i : b And one may not build out projections or balconies /b from houses that are b in /b Jerusalem. The Gemara provides two reasons for this prohibition. First, it is b due to /b the danger of contracting b ritual impurity /b by being in b the /b same b tent /b as a corpse, i.e., under the same roof, in which case the impurity spreads to all items under the roof. If even a small part of a corpse is under a balcony, everyone who passes under that balcony is rendered impure. Many people come to Jerusalem to sacrifice offerings, and they must maintain a state of ritual purity. The other reason is b so that those /b great crowds of b pilgrims not be injured /b by colliding with the projections.,The next i halakha /i pertaining to Jerusalem is: b And one may not establish garbage dumps in it. /b The Gemara explains that the reason is b due to /b the b repugt creatures /b that are attracted to such heaps and impart ritual impurity upon their death.,The i baraita /i states: b And one may not build kilns in /b Jerusalem. The reason is b due to the /b unsightly b smoke /b produced by kilns. The Sages sought to preserve the beauty of Jerusalem and the Temple.,The i baraita /i teaches: b And one may not plant gardens and orchards in it. /b This is b due to the odor /b emitted by these places, either from discarded weeds or from fertilizer.,The next i halakha /i on the list is: b And one may not raise chickens in /b Jerusalem. The Gemara explains that this is b due to the sacrificial /b meat that is consumed in Jerusalem. Since chickens peck in the garbage, they are likely to pick up items that impart ritual impurity and bring them into contact with the consecrated food, which may not be eaten in an impure state.,The Gemara discusses the last i halakha /i : b And one may not leave a corpse overnight in it. /b The Gemara notes that this prohibition is b a tradition; /b there is no known explanation for it.,§ The mishna teaches that b one may not raise pigs anywhere. The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i the background for this i halakha /i : b When /b the members of b the house of Hasmonean /b monarchy b were at war with each other, Hyrcanus, /b one of the parties to this war, b was inside /b the besieged Jerusalem, b while /b his brother b Aristobulus, /b the other contender to the throne, was b on the outside. And every day /b the people inside b would lower down money in a box /b from the Temple walls, to purchase sheep to sacrifice, b and /b those on other side b would /b take the money and b send up /b sheep b to them /b over the wall for the b daily offerings. /b , b There was a certain elder there who was familiar with Greek wisdom, /b and b he said /b to those besieging Jerusalem: b As long as they occupy themselves with the /b Temple b service, they will not be delivered into your hands. The next day they lowered down money in a box /b as usual, b but /b this time b they sent up to them a pig. When the pig reached to the midpoint of the /b Temple b wall it stuck its hooves into the wall, and Eretz Yisrael quaked /b over an area of b four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs. /b , b At that time /b the Sages b said: Cursed be the man who raises pigs, and cursed be the man who teaches his son Greek wisdom. And /b it was b concerning that time /b of siege that b we learned /b in a mishna: There was b an incident /b in which the barley for the b i omer /i offering came from the gardens of Tzerifin, /b far from Jerusalem, b and /b the wheat for b the two loaves /b of i Shavuot /i was brought b from the valley of Ein Sokher. /b Barley and wheat could not be brought from any nearer because the besiegers had destroyed all the produce around Jerusalem. This concludes the i baraita /i .,The Gemara asks a question with regard to this i baraita /i : b And is /b it really b prohibited /b to study b Greek wisdom? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: In Eretz Yisrael, /b
32. Augustine, Contra Academicos, 3.38 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 82
33. Damaskios, In Phaedonem (Versio 1), 1.442 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 49
34. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 15.5  Tagged with subjects: •immortality of soul, difference between greek and jewish view of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 22
35. Epiphanius, On The Faith, 9.40  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 83
36. Hyperides, Funeral Oration, 43  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 162
37. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 1.146, 2.807, 2.809, 2.817, 2.1101  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 82, 83
39. Cicero, On Academic Scepticism, 2.135  Tagged with subjects: •souls, and immortality Found in books: Long (2019), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy, 162