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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
herders/shepherds, as god of hermes Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 186, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330
herders/shepherds, pastoralism, hermes, as god of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 186, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330
shepherd Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 120, 121, 123, 125, 134, 135, 141, 142, 144, 145, 154, 160
Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 8, 180
Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 196, 346
Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 31
Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 298, 306
Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 94
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 435
Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 260, 263, 277, 278, 280, 282, 284
Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 157, 171
shepherd, analogy between body and soul, between ruler and Laks (2022), Plato's Second Republic: An Essay on the Laws. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2022 19, 26
shepherd, apollo the Leemans et al (2023), Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature 432
shepherd, as rhetorical trope Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 298
shepherd, brongus, brongos Bannert and Roukema (2014), Nonnus of Panopolis in Context II: Poetry, Religion, and Society 94, 224
shepherd, christ Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 236, 339, 392, 393, 572, 619
shepherd, christ, good O'Daly (2012), Days Linked by Song: Prudentius' Cathemerinon, 242, 243, 247
shepherd, christ/jesus, and cynics, as good Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 371
shepherd, christianity, good image, and hermes Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 328
shepherd, fables Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 35, 80, 85, 86, 144, 310, 333, 350, 352, 377, 525
shepherd, gillian Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 553, 575, 576
shepherd, god Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 145, 149
shepherd, good Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 368
Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 53, 123, 135
shepherd, hermas’ the Kitzler (2015), From 'Passio Perpetuae' to 'Acta Perpetuae', 13, 71
shepherd, imagery, new testament, shepherds, and Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 115, 124, 129
shepherd, jesus the good Rohmann (2016), Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity, 50, 268
shepherd, king, as Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122, 135, 136
shepherd, moses Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 138, 139
shepherd, of hermas Dijkstra and Raschle (2020), Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity, 58
Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 141
Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 74, 84, 410, 538, 676
Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 168
Moss (2010), The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom, 116, 117
Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 135
O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 58, 59
Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 22, 55, 79, 96, 151
Pinheiro et al. (2012b), The Ancient Novel and Early Christian and Jewish Narrative: Fictional Intersections, 183
Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 42, 68, 126, 207
Rosen-Zvi (2011), Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity. 55, 56, 121
Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 387
Tabbernee (2007), Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism, 37, 103, 107, 365
Ward (2022), Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian, 73, 74
Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 41, 62
shepherd, of hermas / hermae pastor Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 26, 86, 103, 152
Yates and Dupont (2023), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE).. 22
shepherd, of hermas, inscription Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 132, 135, 137
shepherd, of hermas, the Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 179, 183, 185, 206
shepherd, of the flock Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 94
shepherd, paul, apostle, as Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 129
shepherd, philosopher as Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 61
shepherd, symbolic meaning Pinheiro et al. (2015), Philosophy and the Ancient Novel, 42
shepherd, symbolism, good O'Daly (2012), Days Linked by Song: Prudentius' Cathemerinon, 242, 243, 247
shepherd, teacher, as Azar (2016), Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews", 190, 193
shepherding, arsinoite nome, fayum Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 122, 160
shepherds Azar (2016), Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews", 190, 193
Bodel and Kajava (2009), Dediche sacre nel mondo greco-romano : diffusione, funzioni, tipologie = Religious dedications in the Greco-Roman world : distribution, typology, use : Institutum Romanum Finlandiae, American Academy in Rome, 19-20 aprile, 2006 228, 246
Bär et al (2022), Quintus of Smyrna’s 'Posthomerica': Writing Homer Under Rome. 237, 328, 329, 331, 336
Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 365, 388
Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity , 23
Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124, 128, 129
Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 58, 60, 61, 62
Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 237
Thonemann (2020), An Ancient Dream Manual: Artemidorus' the Interpretation of Dreams, 88, 99, 197, 198
Vlassopoulos (2021), Historicising Ancient Slavery, 64, 127, 171, 195
shepherds, absence of scholarly treatments Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 120
shepherds, crook Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 115, 121
shepherds, cyprian songs, and the, sophocles Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 591, 592
shepherds, flock composition Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 129
shepherds, flock ownership Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 124
shepherds, in literature and mythology Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 129
shepherds, lives, literary sources, for Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 117, 120, 121, 122, 129
shepherds, midian Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 85, 86, 87
shepherds, moses Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 104
shepherds, nature of egyptian evidence Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 122
shepherds, of phthla Ruffini (2018), Life in an Egyptian Village in Late Antiquity: Aphrodito Before and After the Islamic Conquest, 62, 167, 170
shepherds, of rule/ruler Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 468
shepherds, of the exile Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 133
shepherds, pedum crook Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 115, 121
shepherds, proclus, and the, sophocles Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 591, 592
shepherds, seventy Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 55, 97
shepherds, social status, of Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 124
shepherds, the, sophocles Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 591, 592
shepherds, travel, movements of Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 122
shepherds, … mere bellies, hesiod Tor (2017), Mortal and Divine in Early Greek Epistemology, 74, 75, 313
shepherd’, figure, jesus, ‘good Rüpke (2014), The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean. 204, 318, 319, 321, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 352
shepherd’s, hermes, syrinx pipes, invention of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 342

List of validated texts:
20 validated results for "shepherds"
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.19, 9.1-9.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Rule/Ruler, Shepherds, of • shepherds

 Found in books: Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 61; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 468

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3.19 בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃
9.1
וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃
9.1
וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.2 וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃ 9.2 וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃'' None
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3.19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’
9.1
And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth. 9.2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered.'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.15-27.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd • shepherd • shepherd,

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 121, 141, 144; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 29, 35; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 157, 171

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27.15 וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 27.16 יִפְקֹד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אִישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.17 אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 27.18 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־רוּחַ בּוֹ וְסָמַכְתָּ אֶת־יָדְךָ עָלָיו׃ 27.19 וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה וְצִוִּיתָה אֹתוֹ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃' ' None
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27.15 And Moses spoke unto the LORD, saying: 27.16 ’Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation, 27.17 who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’ 27.18 And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay thy hand upon him; 27.19 and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight. 27.20 And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearken.'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 23.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Good Shepherd • Shepherd • Shepherd-form • shepherds

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 368; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 60; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 31

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23.1 מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד יְהוָה רֹעִי לֹא אֶחְסָר׃' ' None
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23.1 A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.' "23 He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; He leadeth me beside the still waters.,A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.,He restoreth my soul; He guideth me in straight paths for His name's sake.,Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me; Thy rod and Thy staff, they comfort me.,Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; And I shall dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.,Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; Thou hast anointed my head with oil; my cup runneth over."' None
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd • shepherd • shepherds

 Found in books: Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 346; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 58; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 35

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2.6 יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃'' None
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2.6 The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up.'' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd • Shepherd-form • shepherds

 Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 60; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 31

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40.11 כְּרֹעֶה עֶדְרוֹ יִרְעֶה בִּזְרֹעוֹ יְקַבֵּץ טְלָאִים וּבְחֵיקוֹ יִשָּׂא עָלוֹת יְנַהֵל׃'' None
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40.11 Even as a shepherd that feedeth his flock, That gathereth the lambs in his arm, And carrieth them in his bosom, And gently leadeth those that give suck.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.15-34.16, 34.22-34.24 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd-form • Shepherds, leaders of Israel as • shepherds

 Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 60; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 292

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34.15 אֲנִי אֶרְעֶה צֹאנִי וַאֲנִי אַרְבִּיצֵם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 34.16 אֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת אֲבַקֵּשׁ וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת אָשִׁיב וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת אֶחֱבֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה אֲחַזֵּק וְאֶת־הַשְּׁמֵנָה וְאֶת־הַחֲזָקָה אַשְׁמִיד אֶרְעֶנָּה בְמִשְׁפָּט׃
34.22
וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּי לְצֹאנִי וְלֹא־תִהְיֶינָה עוֹד לָבַז וְשָׁפַטְתִּי בֵּין שֶׂה לָשֶׂה׃ 34.23 וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.24 וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃'' None
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34.15 I will feed My sheep, and I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD. 34.16 I will seek that which was lost, and will bring back that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick; and the fat and the strong I will destroy, I will feed them in justice.
34.22
therefore will I save My flock, and they shall no more be a prey; and I will judge between cattle and cattle. 34.23 And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd. 34.24 And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken.'' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 11.4-11.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd • shepherd • shepherd, of the flock

 Found in books: Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 94; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 32

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11.4 כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי רְעֵה אֶת־צֹאן הַהֲרֵגָה׃ 11.5 אֲשֶׁר קֹנֵיהֶן יַהֲרְגֻן וְלֹא יֶאְשָׁמוּ וּמֹכְרֵיהֶן יֹאמַר בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה וַאעְשִׁר וְרֹעֵיהֶם לֹא יַחְמוֹל עֲלֵיהֶן׃'' None
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11.4 Thus said the LORD my God: ‘Feed the flock of slaughter; 11.5 whose buyers slay them, and hold themselves not guilty; and they that sell them say: Blessed be the LORD, for I am rich; and their own shepherds pity them not.'' None
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 89.59-89.64 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seventy, Shepherds • Shepherd-form

 Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 55

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89.59 And He called seventy shepherds, and cast those sheep to them that they might pasture them, and He spake to the shepherds and their companions: ' Let each individual of you pasture the sheep" '89.60 And one of those four went to that white bull and instructed him in a secret, without his being terrified: he was born a bull and became a man, and built for himself a great vessel and dwelt thereon;,and three bulls dwelt with him in that vessel and they were covered in. And again I raised mine eyes towards heaven and saw a lofty roof, with seven water torrents thereon, and those torrents,flowed with much water into an enclosure. And I saw again, and behold fountains were opened on the surface of that great enclosure, and that water began to swell and rise upon the surface,,and I saw that enclosure till all its surface was covered with water. And the water, the darkness, and mist increased upon it; and as I looked at the height of that water, that water had risen above the height of that enclosure, and was streaming over that enclosure, and it stood upon the earth.,And all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until I saw how they sank and were",swallowed up and perished in that water. But that vessel floated on the water, while all the oxen and elephants and camels and asses sank to the bottom with all the animals, so that I could no longer see them, and they were not able to escape, (but) perished and sank into the depths. And again I saw in the vision till those water torrents were removed from that high roof, and the chasms,of the earth were leveled up and other abysses were opened. Then the water began to run down into these, till the earth became visible; but that vessel settled on the earth, and the darkness,retired and light appeared. But that white bull which had become a man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, and one of those three was white like that bull, and one of them was red as blood, and one black: and that white bull departed from them.,And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens; and among them was born a white bull. And they began to bite one another; but that white bull which was born amongst them begat a wild ass and a white bull with it, and the,wild asses multiplied. But that bull which was born from him begat a black wild boar and a white",sheep; and the former begat many boars, but that sheep begat twelve sheep. And when those twelve sheep had grown, they gave up one of them to the asses, and those asses again gave up that sheep to the wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. And the Lord brought the eleven sheep to live with it and to pasture with it among the wolves: and they multiplied and became many flocks of sheep. And the wolves began to fear them, and they oppressed them until they destroyed their little ones, and they cast their young into a river of much water: but those sheep began to,cry aloud on account of their little ones, and to complain unto their Lord. And a sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled and escaped to the wild asses; and I saw the sheep how they lamented and cried, and besought their Lord with all their might, till that Lord of the sheep descended at the voice of the sheep from a lofty abode, and came to them and pastured them. And He called that sheep which had escaped the wolves, and spake with it concerning the wolves that it should,admonish them not to touch the sheep. And the sheep went to the wolves according to the word of the Lord, and another sheep met it and went with it, and the two went and entered together into the assembly of those wolves, and spake with them and admonished them not to touch the,sheep from henceforth. And thereupon I saw the wolves, and how they oppressed the sheep,exceedingly with all their power; and the sheep cried aloud. And the Lord came to the sheep and they began to smite those wolves: and the wolves began to make lamentation; but the sheep became",quiet and forthwith ceased to cry out. And I saw the sheep till they departed from amongst the wolves; but the eyes of the wolves were blinded, and those wolves departed in pursuit of the sheep,with all their power. And the Lord of the sheep went with them, as their leader, and all His sheep,followed Him: and his face was dazzling and glorious and terrible to behold. But the wolves",began to pursue those sheep till they reached a sea of water. And that sea was divided, and the water stood on this side and on that before their face, and their Lord led them and placed Himself between,them and the wolves. And as those wolves did not yet see the sheep, they proceeded into the midst of that sea, and the wolves followed the sheep, and those wolves ran after them into that sea.,And when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to flee before His face, but that sea gathered itself together, and became as it had been created, and the water swelled and rose till it covered,those wolves. And I saw till all the wolves who pursued those sheep perished and were drowned.",But the sheep escaped from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there was no water and no grass; and they began to open their eyes and to see; and I saw the Lord of the sheep,pasturing them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep going and leading them. And that,sheep ascended to the summit of that lofty rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it to them. And after that I saw the Lord of the sheep who stood before them, and His appearance was great and,terrible and majestic, and all those sheep saw Him and were afraid before His face. And they all feared and trembled because of Him, and they cried to that sheep with them which was amongst,them: \' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.\' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander,from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen,away. And when they saw it they feared and trembled at its presence, and desired to return to their,folds. And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those sheep which had fallen away, and began to slay them; and the sheep feared its presence, and thus that sheep brought back those,sheep that had fallen away, and they returned to their folds. And I saw in this vision till that sheep became a man and built a house for the Lord of the sheep, and placed all the sheep in that house.,And I saw till this sheep which had met that sheep which led them fell asleep: and I saw till all the great sheep perished and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a pasture, and,approached a stream of water. Then that sheep, their leader which had become a man, withdrew,from them and fell asleep, and all the sheep sought it and cried over it with a great crying. And I saw till they left off crying for that sheep and crossed that stream of water, and there arose the two sheep as leaders in the place of those which had led them and fallen asleep (lit. \' had fallen asleep and led,them \'). And I saw till the sheep came to a goodly place, and a pleasant and glorious land, and I saw till those sheep were satisfied; and that house stood amongst them in the pleasant land.,And sometimes their eyes were opened, and sometimes blinded, till another sheep arose and led them and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened.,And the dogs and the foxes and the wild boars began to devour those sheep till the Lord of the sheep raised up another sheep a ram from their",midst, which led them. And that ram began to butt on either side those dogs, foxes, and wild,boars till he had destroyed them all. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself,unseemly. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that",ram which had forsaken its glory. And it went to it and spake to it alone, and raised it to being a ram, and made it the prince and leader of the sheep; but during all these things those dogs,oppressed the sheep. And the first ram pursued that second ram, and that second ram arose and fled before it; and I saw till those dogs pulled,down the first ram. And that second ram arose",and led the little sheep. And those sheep grew and multiplied; but all the dogs, and foxes, and wild boars feared and fled before it, and that ram butted and killed the wild beasts, and those wild beasts had no longer any power among the,sheep and robbed them no more of ought. And that ram begat many sheep and fell asleep; and a little sheep became ram in its stead, and became prince and leader of those sheep.,And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him.,And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep,,but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from,the sheep, and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell there. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to testify unto them and lament over them. And after that I saw that when they forsook the house of the Lord and His tower they fell away entirely, and their eyes were blinded; and I saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until,those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild,beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep. And I saw that He forsook that their house and their tower and gave them all into the hand of the lions, to tear and devour them,,into the hand of all the wild beasts. And I began to cry aloud with all my power, and to appeal to the Lord of the sheep, and to represent to Him in regard to the sheep that they were devoured,by all the wild beasts. But He remained unmoved, though He saw it, and rejoiced that they were devoured and swallowed and robbed, and left them to be devoured in the hand of all the beasts.,And He called seventy shepherds, and cast those sheep to them that they might pasture them, and He spake to the shepherds and their companions: \' Let each individual of you pasture the sheep,henceforward, and everything that I shall command you that do ye. And I will deliver them over unto you duly numbered, and tell you which of them are to be destroyed-and them destroy ye.\' And,He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: \' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than",I have commanded them. And every excess and the destruction which will be wrought through the shepherds, record (namely) how many they destroy according to my command, and how many according to their own caprice: record against every individual shepherd all the destruction he,effects. And read out before me by number how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against them, and know every deed of the shepherds, that I may comprehend and see what they do, whether or not they abide by my,command which I have commanded them. But they shall not know it, and thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but only record against each individual all the destruction which,the shepherds effect each in his time and lay it all before me.\' And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their season, and they began to slay and to destroy more than they were bidden, and they delivered,those sheep into the hand of the lions. And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished,that house. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that tower because that house of the sheep was demolished, and afterwards I was unable to see if those sheep entered that house.,And the shepherds and their associates delivered over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour them, and each one of them received in his time a definite number: it was written by the other,in a book how many each one of them destroyed of them. And each one slew and destroyed many",more than was prescribed; and I began to weep and lament on account of those sheep. And thus in the vision I saw that one who wrote, how he wrote down every one that was destroyed by those shepherds, day by day, and carried up and laid down and showed actually the whole book to the Lord of the sheep-(even) everything that they had done, and all that each one of them had made,away with, and all that they had given over to destruction. And the book was read before the Lord of the sheep, and He took the book from his hand and read it and sealed it and laid it down.,And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that,house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure.,And as touching all this the eyes of those sheep were blinded so that they saw not, and (the eyes of) their shepherds likewise; and they delivered them in large numbers to their shepherds for,destruction, and they trampled the sheep with their feet and devoured them. And the Lord of the sheep remained unmoved till all the sheep were dispersed over the field and mingled with them (i.e. the,beasts), and they (i.e. the shepherds) did not save them out of the hand of the beasts. And this one who wrote the book carried it up, and showed it and read it before the Lord of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and besought Him on their account as he showed Him all the doings,of the shepherds, and gave testimony before Him against all the shepherds. And he took the actual book and laid it down beside Him and departed. 89.61 He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: \' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than" 89.62 I have commanded them. And every excess and the destruction which will be wrought through the shepherds, record (namely) how many they destroy according to my command, and how many according to their own caprice: record against every individual shepherd all the destruction he 89.63 effects. And read out before me by number how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against them, and know every deed of the shepherds, that I may comprehend and see what they do, whether or not they abide by my 89.64 command which I have commanded them. But they shall not know it, and thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but only record against each individual all the destruction which'" None
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.60-1.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, shepherd • Shepherds, Moses • king, as shepherd • shepherd,

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122, 139; Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 104; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 171

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1.60 And after his marriage, Moses took his father-in-law's herds and tended them, being thus instructed in the lessons proper to qualify him for becoming the leader of a people, for the business of a shepherd is a preparation for the office of a king to any one who is destined to preside over that most manageable of all flocks, mankind, just as hunting is a good training-school for men of warlike dispositions; for they who are practising with a view to learning the management of an army, previously study the science of hunting, brute animals being as some raw material exposed to their attacks in order for them to practise the art of commanding on each occasion of war or of peace, " '1.61 for the pursuit of wild beasts is a training-school of strategy to be developed against enemies, and the care and management of tame animals is a royal training for the government of subjects; for which reason kings are called shepherds of their people, not by way of reproach, but as a most especial and pre-eminent honour. 1.62 And it appears to me, who have examined the matter not with any reference to the opinions of the many, but solely with regard to truth (and he may laugh who please'" None
10. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas • Shepherd of Hermas, The

 Found in books: Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 96; Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 185

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7.5 μὴ ἀποστερεῖτε ἀλλήλους, εἰ μήτι ἂν ἐκ συμφώνου πρὸς καιρὸν ἵνα σχολάσητε τῇ προσευχῇ καὶ πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ἦτε, ἵνα μὴ πειράζῃ ὑμᾶς ὁ Σατανᾶς διὰ τὴν ἀκρασίαν ὑμῶν.'' None
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7.5 Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control."" None
11. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.6-6.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas • Shepherd of Hermas, inscription

 Found in books: Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 538; Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 137

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6.6 ἔστιν δὲ πορισμὸς μέγας ἡ εὐσέβεια μετὰ αὐταρκείας· 6.7 οὐδὲν γὰρ εἰσηνέγκαμεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐξενεγκεῖν τι δυνάμεθα· 6.8 ἔχοντες δὲ διατροφὰς καὶ σκεπάσματα, τούτοις ἀρκεσθησόμεθα. 6.9 οἱ δὲ βουλόμενοι πλουτεῖν ἐμπίπτουσιν εἰς πειρασμὸν καὶ παγίδα καὶ ἐπιθυμίας πολλὰς ἀνοήτους καὶ βλαβεράς, αἵτινες βυθίζουσι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους εἰς ὄλεθρον καὶ ἀπώλειαν· 6.10 ῥίζα γὰρ πάντων τῶν κακῶν ἐστὶν ἡ φιλαργυρία, ἧς τινὲς ὀρεγόμενοι ἀπεπλανήθησαν ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως καὶ ἑαυτοὺς περιέπειραν ὀδύναις πολλαῖς.'' None
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6.6 But godliness with contentment is great gain. ' "6.7 For we brought nothing into the world, and we certainly can't carry anything out. " '6.8 But having food and clothing, we will be content with that. 6.9 But those who are determined to be rich fall into a temptation and a snare and many foolish and harmful lusts, such as drown men in ruin and destruction. 6.10 For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some have been led astray from the faith in their greed, and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows. '' None
12. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.4-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas, The • Shepherd of Hermas, Use of Ephesians

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 112; Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 183, 185

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4.4 ἓν σῶμα καὶ ἓν πνεῦμα, καθὼς καὶ ἐκλήθητε ἐν μιᾷ ἐλπίδι τῆς κλήσεως ὑμῶν· 4.5 εἷς κύριος, μία πίστις, ἓν βάπτισμα· εἷς θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ πάντων, 4.6 ὁ ἐπὶ πάντων καὶ διὰ πάντων καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν.'' None
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4.4 There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 4.6 one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. '' None
13. New Testament, Romans, 16.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas • Shepherd of Hermas, Authorship

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 300; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 387

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16.14 ἀσπάσασθε Ἀσύνκριτον, Φλέγοντα, Ἑρμῆν, Πατρόβαν, Ἑρμᾶν, καὶ τοὺς σὺν αὐτοῖς ἀδελφούς.'' None
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16.14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. '' None
14. New Testament, Titus, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas • Shepherd of Hermas, The

 Found in books: Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 74, 410; Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 183

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1.6 εἴ τίς ἐστιν ἀνέγκλητος, μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνήρ, τέκνα ἔχων πιστά, μὴ ἐν κατηγορίᾳ ἀσωτίας ἢ ἀνυπότακτα.'' None
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1.6 if anyone is blameless, the husband of one wife, having children who believe, who are not accused of loose or unruly behavior. '' None
15. New Testament, John, 10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Good Shepherd • New Testament, shepherds and shepherd imagery • shepherds • shepherds, flock ownership • social status, of shepherds

 Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 269; Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 124

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10.12 ὁ μισθωτὸς καὶ οὐκ ὢν ποιμήν, οὗ οὐκ ἔστιν τὰ πρόβατα ἴδια, θεωρεῖ τὸν λύκον ἐρχόμενον καὶ ἀφίησιν τὰ πρόβατα καὶ φεύγει, — καὶ ὁ λύκος ἁρπάζει αὐτὰ καὶ σκορπίζει,—'' None
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10.12 He who is a hired hand, and not a shepherd, who doesn't own the sheep, sees the wolf coming, leaves the sheep, and flees. The wolf snatches the sheep, and scatters them. "" None
16. New Testament, Luke, 2.8-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • New Testament, shepherds and shepherd imagery • compared to the shepherds, • crook, shepherds • pedum (shepherds crook) • shepherds • shepherds, in literature and mythology

 Found in books: Huebner (2013), The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict. 115; Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 307

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2.8 Καὶ ποιμένες ἦσαν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ αὐτῇ ἀγραυλοῦντες καὶ φυλάσσοντες φυλακὰς τῆς νυκτὸς ἐπὶ τὴν ποίμνην αὐτῶν. 2.9 καὶ ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς καὶ δόξα Κυρίου περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν· 2.10 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ ἄγγελος Μὴ φοβεῖσθε, ἰδοὺ γὰρ εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην ἥτις ἔσται παντὶ τῷ λαῷ,'' None
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2.8 There were shepherds in the same country staying in the field, and keeping watch by night over their flock. 2.9 Behold, an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. 2.10 The angel said to them, "Don\'t be afraid, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be to all the people. '' None
17. New Testament, Matthew, 5.48, 19.5-19.6, 19.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd • Shepherd of Hermas, Use of Mark • Shepherd, James M.H. • shepherds • teacher, as shepherd

 Found in books: Azar (2016), Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews", 190; Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 99; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 260; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 230

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5.48 Ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι ὡς ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος τέλειός ἐστιν.
19.5
καὶ εἶπεν Ἕνεκα τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ κολληθήσεται τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν; 19.6 ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ σὰρξ μία· ὃ οὖν ὁ θεὸς συνέζευξεν ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω.
19.21
ἔφη αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Εἰ θέλεις τέλειος εἶναι, ὕπαγε πώλησόν σου τὰ ὑπάρχοντα καὶ δὸς τοῖς πτωχοῖς, καὶ ἕξεις θησαυρὸν ἐν οὐρανοῖς, καὶ δεῦρο ἀκολούθει μοι.'' None
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5.48 Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. ' "
19.5
and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' " '19.6 So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don\'t let man tear apart."
19.21
Jesus said to him, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me."'' None
18. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas • Shepherd of Hermas, Authorship • Shepherd of Hermas, Community • Shepherd of Hermas, Dating • Shepherd of Hermas, Provenance • Shepherd of Hermas, Transmission • Shepherd of Hermas, date of composition • Shepherd of Hermas, theology • Shepherd-form

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 301, 302, 303, 305; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 509, 510; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161; Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 55, 96

19. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas • Shepherd of Hermas, The • Shepherd of Hermas, Use of Ephesians • Shepherd of Hermas, theology

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 112; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 510; Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 179, 183, 185

20. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Shepherd of Hermas, The • Shepherd of Hermas, and Church identity • Shepherd of Hermas, and Church order

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 172; Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 179




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