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6 results for "sectarianism"
1. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.20-2.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sectarianism, heretics Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 258
2. Mishnah, Avot, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sectarianism, heretics Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 259
3.1. "עֲקַבְיָא בֶן מַהֲלַלְאֵל אוֹמֵר, הִסְתַּכֵּל בִּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים וְאִי אַתָּה בָא לִידֵי עֲבֵרָה. דַּע מֵאַיִן בָּאתָ, וּלְאָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, וְלִפְנֵי מִי אַתָּה עָתִיד לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן. מֵאַיִן בָּאתָ, מִטִּפָּה סְרוּחָה, וּלְאָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, לִמְקוֹם עָפָר רִמָּה וְתוֹלֵעָה. וְלִפְנֵי מִי אַתָּה עָתִיד לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:", 3.1. "Akabyah ben Mahalalel said: mark well three things and you will not come into the power of sin: Know from where you come, and where you are going, and before whom you are destined to give an account and reckoning. From where do you come? From a putrid drop. Where are you going? To a place of dust, of worm and of maggot. Before whom you are destined to give an account and reckoning? Before the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be he.",
3. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sectarianism, heretics Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 259
9.15. "מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי מֵאִיר, בָּטְלוּ מוֹשְׁלֵי מְשָׁלִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן עַזַּאי, בָּטְלוּ הַשַּׁקְדָּנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן זוֹמָא, בָּטְלוּ הַדַּרְשָׁנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, פָּסְקָה טוֹבָה מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, בָּא גוֹבַי וְרַבּוּ צָרוֹת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, פָּסַק הָעשֶׁר מִן הַחֲכָמִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן דּוֹסָא, בָּטְלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי קַטְנוּתָא, פָּסְקוּ חֲסִידִים. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ קַטְנוּתָא, שֶׁהָיָה קַטְנוּתָן שֶׁל חֲסִידִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, בָּטַל זִיו הַחָכְמָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה וּמֵתָה טָהֳרָה וּפְרִישׁוּת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פָּאבִי, בָּטַל זִיו הַכְּהֻנָּה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי, בָּטְלָה עֲנָוָה וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, בּוֹשׁוּ חֲבֵרִים וּבְנֵי חוֹרִין, וְחָפוּ רֹאשָׁם, וְנִדַּלְדְּלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה, וְגָבְרוּ בַעֲלֵי זְרוֹעַ וּבַעֲלֵי לָשׁוֹן, וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, וְאֵין שׁוֹאֵל, עַל מִי לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הַגָּדוֹל אוֹמֵר, מִיּוֹם שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שָׁרוּ חַכִּימַיָּא לְמֶהֱוֵי כְסָפְרַיָּא, וְסָפְרַיָּא כְּחַזָּנָא, וְחַזָּנָא כְּעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא, וְעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא אָזְלָא וְדַלְדְּלָה, וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. בְּעִקְּבוֹת מְשִׁיחָא חֻצְפָּא יִסְגֵּא, וְיֹקֶר יַאֲמִיר, הַגֶּפֶן תִּתֵּן פִּרְיָהּ וְהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר, וְהַמַּלְכוּת תֵּהָפֵךְ לְמִינוּת, וְאֵין תּוֹכֵחָה, בֵּית וַעַד יִהְיֶה לִזְנוּת, וְהַגָּלִיל יֶחֱרַב, וְהַגַּבְלָן יִשּׁוֹם, וְאַנְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל יְסוֹבְבוּ מֵעִיר לְעִיר וְלֹא יְחוֹנָּנוּ, וְחָכְמַת סוֹפְרִים תִּסְרַח, וְיִרְאֵי חֵטְא יִמָּאֲסוּ, וְהָאֱמֶת תְּהֵא נֶעְדֶּרֶת. נְעָרִים פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים יַלְבִּינוּ, זְקֵנִים יַעַמְדוּ מִפְּנֵי קְטַנִּים. (מיכה ז) בֵּן מְנַבֵּל אָב, בַּת קָמָה בְאִמָּהּ, כַּלָּה בַּחֲמֹתָהּ, אֹיְבֵי אִישׁ אַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ. פְּנֵי הַדּוֹר כִּפְנֵי הַכֶּלֶב, הַבֵּן אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָבִיו. וְעַל מִי יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת, וּנְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טָהֳרָה, וְטָהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי פְרִישׁוּת, וּפְרִישׁוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדֻשָּׁה, וּקְדֻשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה, וַעֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא, וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת, וַחֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְבִיאָה לִידֵי תְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, וּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים בָּא עַל יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב, אָמֵן: \n", 9.15. "When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”",
4. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
5. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sectarianism, heretics Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 259
87a. הכי השתא התם משתא וברוכי בהדי הדדי לא אפשר הכא אפשר דשחיט בחדא ומכסי בחדא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר חייב לכסות כסהו ונתגלה פטור מלכסות כסהו הרוח חייב לכסות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך וכסה מי ששפך יכסה שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר מנין שחייב לכסות שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יד) ואומר לבני ישראל אזהרה לכל בני ישראל,תניא אידך ושפך וכסה במה ששפך בו יכסה שלא יכסנו ברגל שלא יהיו מצות בזויות עליו תניא אידך ושפך וכסה מי ששפך הוא יכסנו מעשה באחד ששחט וקדם חבירו וכסה וחייבו רבן גמליאל ליתן לו י' זהובים,איבעיא להו שכר מצוה או שכר ברכה למאי נפקא מינה לברכת המזון אי אמרת שכר מצוה אחת היא ואי אמרת שכר ברכה הויין ארבעים מאי,תא שמע דא"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי מי שיצר הרים לא ברא רוח ומי שברא רוח לא יצר הרים דכתיב (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אמר ליה שוטה שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ה' צבאות שמו,אמר ליה נקוט לי זימנא תלתא יומי ומהדרנא לך תיובתא יתיב רבי תלת תעניתא כי הוה קא בעי מיברך אמרו ליה צדוקי קאי אבבא אמר (תהלים סט, כב) ויתנו בברותי רוש וגו',א"ל רבי מבשר טובות אני לך לא מצא תשובה אויבך ונפל מן הגג ומת אמר לו רצונך שתסעוד אצלי אמר לו הן לאחר שאכלו ושתו א"ל כוס של ברכה אתה שותה או ארבעים זהובים אתה נוטל אמר לו כוס של ברכה אני שותה יצתה בת קול ואמרה כוס של ברכה ישוה ארבעים זהובים,אמר רבי יצחק עדיין שנה לאותה משפחה בין גדולי רומי וקוראין אותה משפחת בר לויאנוס:,כסהו ונתגלה: אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מאי שנא מהשבת אבדה דאמר מר (דברים כב, א) השב אפילו מאה פעמים,אמר ליה התם לא כתיב מיעוטא הכא כתיב מיעוטא וכסהו:,כסהו הרוח: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא שחזר ונתגלה אבל לא חזר ונתגלה פטור מלכסות וכי חזר ונתגלה מאי הוי הא אידחי ליה אמר רב פפא זאת אומרת אין דיחוי אצל מצות,ומאי שנא מהא דתניא השוחט ונבלע דם בקרקע חייב לכסות התם כשרשומו ניכר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דם שנתערב במים אם יש בו מראית דם חייב לכסות נתערב ביין רואין אותו כאילו הוא מים נתערב בדם הבהמה 87a. The Gemara rejects this: b How can /b these cases b be compared? There, /b in the incident involving the students of Rav, it is b impossible to drink and recite a blessing simultaneously. /b Accordingly, by requesting a cup over which to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals, they demonstrated their desire to cease drinking. b Here, /b when one covers the blood of the undomesticated animal before slaughtering the bird, it is b possible to slaughter /b the bird b with the one /b hand b and cover /b the blood of the undomesticated animal b with the /b other b one. /b Accordingly, the act of covering the blood of the undomesticated animal is not considered an interruption of the acts of slaughter, since they could have been performed simultaneously., strong MISHNA: /strong If one b slaughtered /b an undomesticated animal or bird b and did not cover /b the blood, b and another /b person b saw /b the uncovered blood, the second person is b obligated to cover /b the blood. If one b covered /b the blood b and it was /b then b uncovered, /b he is b exempt from covering it /b again. If b the wind /b blew earth on the blood and b covered it, /b and it was consequently uncovered, he is b obligated to cover /b the blood., strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And he shall pour out /b its blood b and cover /b it with earth” (Leviticus 17:13), indicating that b the one who poured out /b its blood, i.e., slaughtered the animal, b shall cover it. /b If one b slaughtered /b the animal or bird b and did not cover /b the blood, b and another person saw /b the uncovered blood, b from where /b is it derived b that /b the person who saw the blood b is obligated to cover /b it? It is derived from the following verse, b as it is stated: “Therefore I said to the children of Israel” /b (Leviticus 17:12), which is b a warning to all the children of Israel /b to fulfill the mitzva of covering the blood., b It is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And he shall pour out /b its blood b and cover /b it with earth,” indicating that b with that which he poured out /b the blood b he shall cover it, /b i.e., he must use his hand, and b he /b may b not cover it with /b his b foot, so that mitzvot will not be contemptible to him. It is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And he shall pour out /b its blood b and cover /b it with earth,” indicating that b the one who poured out /b the blood b shall cover it. An incident /b occurred b involving one who slaughtered /b an undomesticated animal or bird b and another /b individual b preempted /b him b and covered /b the blood, b and Rabban Gamliel deemed him obligated to give ten gold coins to /b the one who performed the act of slaughter., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: Are these ten gold coins b compensation /b for the stolen b mitzva or /b are they b compensation /b for the stolen b blessing /b recited over the mitzva? The Gemara elaborates: b What is the /b practical b difference? /b The difference is b with regard to /b a similar case involving b Grace after Meals. If you say /b the coins are b compensation for the mitzva, /b then with regard to Grace after Meals, since all its blessings constitute b one /b mitzva, one would be obligated to give only ten gold coins. b But if you say /b they are b compensation for the /b lost b blessing, /b then with regard to Grace after Meals the compensation b is forty /b gold coins, since Grace after Meals comprises four blessings. b What /b is the conclusion?,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof from an incident in b which a certain heretic said to Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi: b He who created mountains did not create wind, and he who created wind did not create mountains; /b rather, each was created by a separate deity, b as it is written: “For behold, He Who forms the mountains and He Who creates the wind” /b (Amos 4:13), indicating that there are two deities: One who forms the mountains and one who creates the wind. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Imbecile, go to the end of the verse, /b which states: b “The Lord, the God of hosts, is His name.” /b The verse emphasizes that God is the One Who both forms and creates.,The heretic b said to /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: b Give me three days’ time and I will respond to you /b with b a rebuttal /b of your claim. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b sat /b and fasted b three /b days of b fasting /b while awaiting the heretic, in order that he would not find a rebuttal. b When /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b wanted to have a meal /b at the conclusion of those three days, b they said to him: /b That b heretic is standing at the doorway. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b recited /b the following verse about himself: b “They put gall into my food, /b and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink” (Psalms 69:22), i.e., my meal is embittered with the presence of this heretic.,When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the door he saw that it was in fact a different heretic, not the one who asked for three days to prepare a rebuttal. This heretic b said to him: Rabbi, I am a bearer of good tidings for you: Your enemy did not find a response, and he threw himself from the roof and died. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b the heretic: Since you have brought me good tidings, b would you like to dine with me? /b The heretic b said to him: Yes. After they ate and drank, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b the heretic: Would b you /b like to b drink the cup of blessing, /b i.e., the cup of wine over which the Grace after Meals is recited, b or /b would b you /b like to b take forty gold coins /b instead, and I will recite the Grace after Meals? The heretic b said to him: I /b will b drink the cup of blessing. A Divine Voice emerged and said: The cup of blessing is worth forty gold coins. /b Evidently, each one of the blessings in the Grace after Meals is worth ten gold coins.,The Gemara adds: b Rabbi Yitzḥak says: That family /b of the heretic who dined with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b still exists among the prominent /b families b of Rome, and /b that family b is called: The family of bar Luyyanus. /b ,§ The mishna teaches that if one b covered /b the blood b and it was /b then b uncovered /b he is not obligated to cover it again. b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: What is different /b about this case from the mitzva of b returning a lost item, where the Master said: /b The verse states with regard to the obligation to return a lost item: b “You shall return /b them to your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1), b even one hundred times? /b ,Rav Ashi b said to /b Rav Aḥa: b There, /b in the verse discussing the obligation to return a lost item, b a restriction is not written /b in the verse to limit the obligation. b Here, /b in the verse discussing the obligation to cover the blood, b a restriction is written, /b as the verse states: b “And he shall cover it.” /b The usage of the term “it” indicates that one must cover the blood only one time.,§ The mishna teaches that if b the wind /b blew earth on the blood and b covered it /b one is obligated to cover the blood. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: They taught /b this i halakha /i b only /b if the blood b was again uncovered. But /b if the blood b was not again uncovered /b one is b exempt from /b the obligation b to cover it. /b The Gemara asks: b And when /b the blood b was again uncovered, what of it? Isn’t it /b already b rejected /b from the mitzva of covering since it was covered by the wind? b Rav Pappa said: That is to say /b that b there is no permanent /b rejection b with regard to mitzvot. /b Although the wind covered the blood, the mitzva to cover it was not rendered null; rather, the mitzva simply could not be performed. Consequently, once the blood is again uncovered, the mitzva to cover the blood remains in place.,The Gemara asks: b But /b even if the wind covered the blood and it remained covered, why is one exempt from performing the mitzva of covering the blood? b What is different /b about this case b from that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : In a case where b one slaughters /b an undomesticated animal or a bird b and /b its b blood is absorbed by the ground, /b one is b obligated to cover /b the blood? The Gemara responds: b There, /b the i baraita /i is referring to a case b where the impression /b of the blood b is /b still b recognizable, /b i.e., it was not entirely absorbed in the ground., strong MISHNA: /strong In a case of the b blood /b of an undomesticated animal or bird b that was mixed with water, if there is in /b the mixture b the appearance of blood /b one is b obligated to cover /b it. If the blood b was mixed with wine one views /b the wine b as though it is water, /b and if a mixture with that amount of water would have the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. Likewise, if the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird b was mixed with the blood of a domesticated animal, /b which one does not have to cover,
6. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •sectarianism, heretics Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 258
27b. סבר שיולי משאיל לו כי היכי דמשאיל לו משאיל לאיניש אחרינא ואתא ההוא גברא לאורועי נפשיה,אמר רבא א"ר יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר רב חסדא אמר ר' יוחנן ספק חי ספק מת אין מתרפאין מהן ודאי מת מתרפאין מהן,מת האיכא חיי שעה לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,ומנא תימרא דלחיי שעה לא חיישינן דכתיב (מלכים ב ז, ד) אם אמרנו נבוא העיר והרעב בעיר ומתנו שם והאיכא חיי שעה אלא לאו לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,מיתיבי לא ישא ויתן אדם עם המינין ואין מתרפאין מהן אפילו לחיי שעה,מעשה בבן דמא בן אחותו של ר' ישמעאל שהכישו נחש ובא יעקב איש כפר סכניא לרפאותו ולא הניחו ר' ישמעאל וא"ל ר' ישמעאל אחי הנח לו וארפא ממנו ואני אביא מקרא מן התורה שהוא מותר ולא הספיק לגמור את הדבר עד שיצתה נשמתו ומת,קרא עליו ר' ישמעאל אשריך בן דמא שגופך טהור ויצתה נשמתך בטהרה ולא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים (קהלת י, ח) ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש,שאני מינות דמשכא דאתי למימשך בתרייהו,אמר מר לא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש איהו נמי חויא טרקיה חויא דרבנן דלית ליה אסותא כלל,ומאי ה"ל למימר (ויקרא יח, ה) וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם,ור' ישמעאל הני מילי בצינעא אבל בפרהסיא לא דתניא היה רבי ישמעאל אומר מנין שאם אומרים לו לאדם עבוד עבודת כוכבים ואל תהרג שיעבוד ואל יהרג ת"ל וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם יכול אפילו בפרהסיא ת"ל (ויקרא כב, לב) ולא תחללו את שם קדשי,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כל מכה שמחללין עליה את השבת אין מתרפאין מהן ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר"י כל 27b. The Gemara explains the rationale for this leniency: The gentile b thinks /b to himself that the Jew b is asking him /b for his opinion, and b just as he is asking him, he /b will also b ask other people. And /b the gentile further reasons that if the Jew understands that the gentile provided him with bad advice, b that man, /b i.e., the gentile, b will bring harm to himself /b by damaging his own reputation. It is therefore assumed that the gentile will provide good advice in order to avoid sullying his reputation.,§ The Gemara analyzes a situation in which one may receive medical attention from gentiles. b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says, and some say /b that it was b Rav Ḥisda /b who b says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b If there is b uncertainty /b as to whether a patient will b live /b through his ailment b or die /b from it, the patient b may not be treated by /b gentile doctors, due to the concern that a gentile doctor may kill him. But if it is b certain /b that he will b die /b from his affliction if he does not receive medical attention, the patient b is treated by them, /b as it is possible that a gentile physician will save him.,The Gemara challenges: Even if it is certain that the patient will b die /b if he is not treated, b nevertheless, there is /b value in b temporal life, /b i.e., it is preferable for the Jew to live as long as his ailment permits rather than risking a premature death at the hands of a gentile physician. The Gemara explains: b We are not concerned with /b the value of b temporal life /b when there is a possibility of permanent recovery, and therefore it is preferable to receive medical attention from a gentile despite the risk involved.,The Gemara asks: b And from where do you say that we are not concerned with /b the value of b temporal life? As it is written /b with regard to the discussion held by four lepers left outside a besieged city: b “If we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there; /b and if we sit still here, we also die. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die” (II Kings 7:4). The starving lepers decided to risk premature death rather than waiting to die of starvation. The Gemara asks rhetorically: b But isn’t there temporal life /b to be lost, in which case it would be preferable for the lepers to remain in their current location? b Rather, is it not /b apparent that b we are not concerned with /b the value of b temporal life? /b ,The Gemara b raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : b A person may not engage in dealings with heretics, and one may not be treated by them even in /b a case where it is clear that without medical attention one will experience only b temporal life. /b ,The i baraita /i relates an incident illustrating this point. There was b an incident involving ben Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmael’s sister, /b in b which a snake bit him. And /b following the attack, b Ya’akov of the village of Sekhanya, /b who was a heretic, a disciple of Jesus the Nazarene, b came to treat him, but Rabbi Yishmael did not let him /b do so. b And /b ben Dama b said to him: Rabbi Yishmael, my brother, let him /b treat me, b and I will be healed by him. And I will cite a verse from the Torah /b to prove b that /b accepting medical treatment from a heretic b is permitted /b in this situation. b But /b ben Dama b did not manage to complete the statement before his soul departed /b from his body b and he died. /b , b Rabbi Yishmael recited with regard to him: Fortunate are you, ben Dama, as your body is pure and your soul departed in purity, and you did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state /b the verse: b “And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:8), i.e., one is punished for ignoring an ordice of the Sages. This incident indicates that it is not permitted for one to accept medical treatment from a heretic even if it is clear that without it he will live only a short while.,The Gemara explains: b Heresy is different, as it is enticing. /b In other words, it is prohibited to accept medical treatment from a heretic, b as one might come to be drawn after /b his heresy. By contrast, receiving medical attention from a gentile is permitted if it is certain that one will die if he is not treated., b The Master said /b above: b You did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state /b the verse: b “And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him.” /b The Gemara asks: But ben Dama b was also bitten by a snake, /b even before this declaration of Rabbi Yishmael, so how can he be considered fortunate? The Gemara explains: b The snake /b mentioned in the curse b of the Sages /b is different, b as it has no remedy whatsoever. /b Although ben Dama was bitten by a snake, he could have been healed.,The Gemara asks: b And what would /b ben Dama b have said? /b What verse did he intend to cite as proof that it was permitted for him to be healed by a heretic? The verse: “You shall therefore keep My statutes, and My ordices, which if a man do, b he shall live by them” /b (Leviticus 18:5). This teaches that one should live by God’s mitzvot, b and not that he /b should b die by them. /b This verse serves as a source for the i halakha /i that one may violate a prohibition in order to save a life., b And /b why does b Rabbi Yishmael /b disagree with ben Dama? He maintains that b this matter /b applies only b in private, but in public /b one b may not /b transgress a prohibition even to save a life. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yishmael would say: From where /b is it derived b that if /b oppressors b say to a person: Worship an idol and you /b will b not be killed, that one should worship /b the idol b and not be killed? The verse states: “He shall live by them,” and not that he should die by them. /b One b might /b have thought that this applies b even in public. /b Therefore, b the verse states: “And you shall not profane My holy name” /b (Leviticus 22:32).,§ The Gemara examines various circumstances in which one is permitted to receive treatment from a gentile. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b With regard to b any injury for which Shabbat is desecrated, one may not be treated by /b gentiles. b And there are /b those b who say /b that b Rabba bar bar Ḥana says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b With regard to b any /b