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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
condemned/satirized, by greek writers, cynics/cynicism Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 27, 35, 39, 40, 74, 75, 78
satire Alexiou and Cairns (2017), Greek Laughter and Tears: Antiquity and After. 47, 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 163, 308
Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 190, 191
Edelmann-Singer et al. (2020), Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions, 44, 50, 96, 97, 98, 99, 148, 157
Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 39, 45, 46, 69, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 121, 122, 124, 134, 141, 176, 177, 182
Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 4, 15, 38, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 61, 71, 75, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 109, 111, 113, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 139, 140, 175, 187, 199
Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 378, 392
Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 12, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022), The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography, 10, 226, 232, 234
Laes Goodey and Rose (2013), Disabilities in Roman Antiquity: Disparate Bodies, 17, 18, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 97, 100, 105, 164, 166, 182, 184, 193, 196, 223
MacDougall (2022), Philosophy at the Festival: The Festal Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus and the Classical Tradition. 47
Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 486, 508, 510, 556, 608, 727, 728
Neusner Green and Avery-Peck (2022), Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points, 120
Pinheiro et al. (2015), Philosophy and the Ancient Novel, 105
Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 7, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
van 't Westeinde (2021), Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites, 221
satire, and irony in minim stories, in the babylonian talmud Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 105, 164, 187, 190
satire, asinus aureus, as Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 88, 109, 110, 111, 132, 178, 182, 183, 203
satire, by, ethiopians, use of Bosak-Schroeder (2020), Other Natures: Environmental Encounters with Ancient Greek Ethnography, 92
satire, cathemerinon O'Daly (2012), Days Linked by Song: Prudentius' Cathemerinon, 72
satire, eating and drinking in last supper, latin König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 34, 232, 278
satire, food in Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 26
satire, genre, lyric and Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205
satire, genres of latin poetry Culík-Baird (2022), Cicero and the Early Latin Poets, 22, 23, 39, 151, 152, 158, 202, 205, 206, 210
satire, hexameter Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 253, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394
satire, iambos Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 382
satire, in bavli, boyarin daniel, on Hidary (2017), Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash, 18
satire, in de re rustica, varro Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 4, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 76, 77, 78, 96, 109, 111, 114, 123, 124, 149, 150, 166, 167, 168, 179, 180, 181, 182, 185, 186, 188, 189
satire, literary genres Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 95
satire, lucretius, and Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 101
satire, lyric, and Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205
satire, menippean Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 203
Tacoma (2020), Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship, 27, 28, 29
satire, menippean form of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 21, 23
satire, menippus, menippean König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 18, 27, 45, 49, 198
satire, mennippean Merz and Tieleman (2012), Ambrosiaster's Political Theology, 201
satire, of christianization of the roman empire Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 378, 392
satire, on uncomprehending followers, epicureanism Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 22, 256, 257
satire, on, immigrants in rome, lucian’s Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 233
satire, onos, as Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 13, 58, 110, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 182
satire, philosophy, relationship to Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 20, 21, 23, 38, 39
satire, present approach to Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 20, 21, 23, 24
satire, relationship with philosophy Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 20, 21, 23
satire, roman Cueva et al. (2018b), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 2: Roman Novels and Other Important Texts, 350
Richlin (2018), Slave Theater in the Roman Republic: Plautus and Popular Comedy, 153, 249
Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022), Greek and Latin Poetry of Late Antiquity: Form, Tradition, and Context, 37
satire, social function of Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 24
satire, ‘drama’, structure of in tobit Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 95
satires, aristotle, influence on Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 109
satires, horace Duffalo (2006), The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate. 51, 103, 109, 111
Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 169, 170
satires, horace, characterisation of protagonists Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 78, 269, 270, 271, 281, 299, 300
satires, horace, comparisons between Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 108, 109, 110, 200, 233, 248, 249
satires, horace, cynic influences/references Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 78, 79, 80
satires, horace, depiction of father-son relationship Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 88, 130, 131, 132, 136, 137, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 253
satires, horace, dialectical style Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 5
satires, horace, epicurean influences on Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 60, 61, 108
satires, horace, literary influences on Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 77, 78, 106, 107, 115, 116, 117, 131, 132, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 229, 231
satires, horace, on wealth Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 40, 65
satires, horace, parody of stoicism Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 4, 248, 250
satires, horace, presentation of author-figure in Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 81
satires, horace, social/historical context Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 60
satires, horace, stock characters in Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 8, 131
satires, horace, studies Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 7, 8, 9
satires, horace, target audiences Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 5, 6, 42, 60, 77, 93, 206
satires, horace, topical commentary in Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 3, 9
satires, horace, treatment of economic issues Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 82, 83, 93, 94, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263
satires, horace, treatment of frankness Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106
satires, horace, treatment of friendship Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 4, 60
satires, horace, treatment of industry/prudence Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 89, 90, 91, 92
satires, horace, treatment of political ambition Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 175, 176, 179, 180, 183, 184, 185, 186
satires, horace, treatment of relationship with maecenas Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 2, 4, 34, 48, 49, 51, 60, 72, 76, 158, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 233
satires, horace, treatment of rural life Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 4, 233
satires, horace, vocabulary Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 110, 115, 116, 117, 118, 186, 251, 252, 291
satires, lucilius, possible representation in Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 1, 190, 191, 194, 195, 196
satires, lucilius’ Culík-Baird (2022), Cicero and the Early Latin Poets, 22, 57, 70, 141, 150, 151, 152, 158, 165, 202, 205, 206, 210, 211
satires, menippean, varro Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 284, 300
satires, octavian, later emperor augustus, appearance in Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 2
satires, persona of horace, contrasted with protagonists of the Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 192, 193, 194, 197, 198, 208, 211, 212, 233, 248, 287, 288
satires, ulysses, portrayal in Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 205, 206, 208, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 248, 297
satires, varro, menippean Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 284, 300
satirical, treatment of the symposium, lexiphanes König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 18, 19
satirizes, egyptian cults in rome, juvenal Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 364

List of validated texts:
26 validated results for "satire"
1. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianization of the Roman empire, satire of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in • satire

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 105, 191; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 392

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4.13 כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃'' None
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4.13 For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name.'' None
2. Homer, Iliad, 2.219 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • satire

 Found in books: Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 84; Laes Goodey and Rose (2013), Disabilities in Roman Antiquity: Disparate Bodies, 18

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2.219 φοξὸς ἔην κεφαλήν, ψεδνὴ δʼ ἐπενήνοθε λάχνη.'' None
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2.219 but whatsoever he deemed would raise a laugh among the Argives. Evil-favoured was he beyond all men that came to Ilios: he was bandy-legged and lame in the one foot, and his two shoulders were rounded, stooping together over his chest, and above them his head was warped, and a scant stubble grew thereon. '' None
3. Herodotus, Histories, 1.30 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Satires (Horace), treatment of political ambition • Satires (Horace), vocabulary • satire

 Found in books: Alexiou and Cairns (2017), Greek Laughter and Tears: Antiquity and After. 59, 60; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 186

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1.30 αὐτῶν δὴ ὦν τούτων καὶ τῆς θεωρίης ἐκδημήσας ὁ Σόλων εἵνεκεν ἐς Αἴγυπτον ἀπίκετο παρὰ Ἄμασιν καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς Σάρδις παρὰ Κροῖσον. ἀπικόμενος δὲ ἐξεινίζετο ἐν τοῖσι βασιληίοισι ὑπὸ τοῦ Κροίσου· μετὰ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τρίτῃ ἢ τετάρτῃ κελεύσαντος Κροίσου τὸν Σόλωνα θεράποντες περιῆγον κατὰ τοὺς θησαυρούς, καὶ ἐπεδείκνυσαν πάντα ἐόντα μεγάλα τε καὶ ὄλβια. θεησάμενον δέ μιν τὰ πάντα καὶ σκεψάμενον ὥς οἱ κατὰ καιρὸν ἦν, εἴρετο ὁ Κροῖσος τάδε. “ξεῖνε Ἀθηναῖε, παρʼ ἡμέας γὰρ περὶ σέο λόγος ἀπῖκται πολλὸς καὶ σοφίης εἵνεκεν 1 τῆς σῆς καὶ πλάνης, ὡς φιλοσοφέων γῆν πολλὴν θεωρίης εἵνεκεν ἐπελήλυθας· νῦν ὦν ἐπειρέσθαι με ἵμερος ἐπῆλθέ σε εἴ τινα ἤδη πάντων εἶδες ὀλβιώτατον.” ὃ μὲν ἐλπίζων εἶναι ἀνθρώπων ὀλβιώτατος ταῦτα ἐπειρώτα· Σόλων δὲ οὐδὲν ὑποθωπεύσας ἀλλὰ τῷ ἐόντι χρησάμενος λέγει “ὦ βασιλεῦ, Τέλλον Ἀθηναῖον.” ἀποθωμάσας δὲ Κροῖσος τὸ λεχθὲν εἴρετο ἐπιστρεφέως· “κοίῃ δὴ κρίνεις Τέλλον εἶναι ὀλβιώτατον;” ὁ δὲ εἶπε “Τέλλῳ τοῦτο μὲν τῆς πόλιος εὖ ἡκούσης παῖδες ἦσαν καλοί τε κἀγαθοί, καί σφι εἶδε ἅπασι τέκνα ἐκγενόμενα καὶ πάντα παραμείναντα· τοῦτο δὲ τοῦ βίου εὖ ἥκοντι, ὡς τὰ παρʼ ἡμῖν, τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου λαμπροτάτη ἐπεγένετο· γενομένης γὰρ Ἀθηναίοισι μάχης πρὸς τοὺς ἀστυγείτονας ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι, βοηθήσας καὶ τροπὴν ποιήσας τῶν πολεμίων ἀπέθανε κάλλιστα, καί μιν Ἀθηναῖοι δημοσίῃ τε ἔθαψαν αὐτοῦ τῇ περ ἔπεσε καὶ ἐτίμησαν μεγάλως.”'' None
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1.30 So for that reason, and to see the world, Solon went to visit Amasis in Egypt and then to Croesus in Sardis . When he got there, Croesus entertained him in the palace, and on the third or fourth day Croesus told his attendants to show Solon around his treasures, and they pointed out all those things that were great and blest. ,After Solon had seen everything and had thought about it, Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.” ,Croesus asked this question believing that he was the most fortunate of men, but Solon, offering no flattery but keeping to the truth, said, “O King, it is Tellus the Athenian.” ,Croesus was amazed at what he had said and replied sharply, “In what way do you judge Tellus to be the most fortunate?” Solon said, “Tellus was from a prosperous city, and his children were good and noble. He saw children born to them all, and all of these survived. His life was prosperous by our standards, and his death was most glorious: ,when the Athenians were fighting their neighbors in Eleusis, he came to help, routed the enemy, and died very finely. The Athenians buried him at public expense on the spot where he fell and gave him much honor.” '' None
4. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • satire

 Found in books: Alexiou and Cairns (2017), Greek Laughter and Tears: Antiquity and After. 52; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 106

5. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Satires (Horace), literary influences on • satire

 Found in books: Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 106; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 210

6. Cicero, On Duties, 1.130, 2.69 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Maecenas, and Satires • Satires (Horace), treatment of relationship with Maecenas • Satires (Horace), vocabulary • satire

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 145; Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 177; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 167, 168, 252

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1.130 Cum autem pulchritudinis duo genera sint, quorum in altero venustas sit, in altero dignitas, venustatem muliebrem ducere debemus, dignitatem virilem. Ergo et a forma removeatur omnis viro non dignus ornatus, et huic simile vitium in gestu motuque caveatur. Nam et palaestrici motus sunt saepe odiosiores, et histrionum non nulli gestus ineptiis non vacant, et in utroque genere quae sunt recta et simplicia, laudantur. Formae autem dignitas coloris bonitate tuenda est, color exercitationibus corporis. Adhibenda praeterea munditia est non odiosa neque exquisita nimis, tantum quae fugiat agrestem et inhumanam neglegentiam. Eadem ratio est habenda vestitus, in quo, sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est.
2.69
Sed cum in hominibus iuvandis aut mores spectari aut fortuna soleat, dictu quidem est proclive, itaque volgo loquuntur, se in beneficiis collocandis mores hominum, non fortunam sequi. Honesta oratio est; sed quis est tandem, qui inopis et optimi viri causae non anteponat in opera danda gratiam fortunati et potentis? a quo enim expeditior et celerior remuneratio fore videtur, in eum fere est voluntas nostra propensior. Sed animadvertendum est diligentius, quae natura rerum sit. Nimirum enim inops ille, si bonus est vir, etiamsi referre gratiam non potest, habere certe potest. Commode autem, quicumque dixit, pecuniam qui habeat, non reddidisse, qui reddiderit, non habere, gratiam autem et, qui rettulerit, habere et, qui habeat, rettulisse. At qui se locupletes, honoratos, beatos putant, ii ne obligari quidem beneficio volunt; quin etiam beneficium se dedisse arbitrantur, cum ipsi quamvis magnum aliquod acceperint, atque etiam a se aut postulari aut exspectari aliquid suspicantur, patrocinio vero se usos aut clientes appellari mortis instar putant.'' None
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1.130 \xa0Again, there are two orders of beauty: in the one, loveliness predominates; in the other, dignity; of these, we ought to regard loveliness as the attribute of woman, and dignity as the attribute of man. Therefore, let all finery not suitable to a man's dignity be kept off his person, and let him guard against the like fault in gesture and action. The manners taught in the palaestra, for example, are often rather objectionable, and the gestures of actors on the stage are not always free from affectation; but simple, unaffected manners are commendable in both instances. Now dignity of mien is also to be enhanced by a good complexion; the complexion is the result of physical exercise. We must besides present an appearance of neatness â\x80\x94 not too punctilious or exquisite, but just enough to avoid boorish and ill-bred slovenliness. We must follow the same principle in regard to dress. In this, as in most things, the best rule is the golden mean. <" 2.69 \xa0Now in rendering helpful service to people, we usually consider either their character or their circumstances. And so it is an easy remark, and one commonly made, to say that in investing kindnesses we look not to people\'s outward circumstances, but to their character. The phrase is admirable! But who is there, pray, that does not in performing a service set the favour of a rich and influential man above the cause of a poor, though most worthy, person? For, as a rule, our will is more inclined to the one from whom we expect a prompter and speedier return. But we should observe more carefully how the matter really stands: the poor man of whom we spoke cannot return a favour in kind, of course, but if he is a good man he can do it at least in thankfulness of heart. As someone has happily said, "A\xa0man has not repaid money, if he still has it; if he has repaid it, he has ceased to have it. But a man still has the sense of favour, if he has returned the favour; and if he has the sense of the favour, he has repaid it." On the other hand, they who consider themselves wealthy, honoured, the favourites of fortune, do not wish even to be put under obligations by our kind services. Why, they actually think that they have conferred a favour by accepting one, however great; and they even suspect that a claim is thereby set up against them or that something is expected in return. Nay more, it is bitter as death to them to have accepted a patron or to be called clients. <'" None
7. Horace, Sermones, 1.1-1.2, 1.1.24, 1.1.33, 1.1.113, 1.4.9-1.4.10, 1.4.12-1.4.16, 1.4.25-1.4.32, 1.4.34, 1.4.48, 1.4.126-1.4.127, 1.5, 1.6.23, 1.6.58, 1.6.120, 1.8-1.9, 1.9.23-1.9.24, 1.9.45-1.9.48, 1.10.21, 1.10.79, 1.10.81, 2.1, 2.1.28-2.1.36, 2.1.40-2.1.42, 2.1.57-2.1.60, 2.1.74-2.1.78, 2.1.80-2.1.86, 2.2.1, 2.3, 2.3.18-2.3.20, 2.3.24-2.3.26, 2.3.34, 2.3.314-2.3.320, 2.3.325, 2.6.1-2.6.5, 2.6.65, 2.6.71, 2.6.74-2.6.77, 2.6.79-2.6.117, 2.7-2.8, 2.7.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cynics/Cynicism, condemned/satirized by Greek writers • De Re Rustica (Varro), satire in • Horace, Satires • Horace, Satires as autofiction • Horace, satire and libel • Lucilius, possible representation in Satires • Maecenas, and Satires • Menippus, Menippean satire • Satires (Horace), Cynic influences/references • Satires (Horace), characterisation of protagonists • Satires (Horace), comparisons between • Satires (Horace), depiction of father-son relationship • Satires (Horace), dialectical style • Satires (Horace), literary influences on • Satires (Horace), parody of Stoicism • Satires (Horace), presentation of author-figure in • Satires (Horace), stock characters in • Satires (Horace), studies • Satires (Horace), target audience(s) • Satires (Horace), treatment of economic issues • Satires (Horace), treatment of frankness • Satires (Horace), treatment of friendship • Satires (Horace), treatment of political ambition • Satires (Horace), treatment of relationship with Maecenas • Satires (Horace), treatment of rural life • Satires (Horace), vocabulary • Satires I • Ulysses, portrayal in Satires • audience of satire • authenticity, thematized in satire • career, literary, satiric careers • fear, of satiric abuse • genre, lyric and satire • indignatio, in satiric plot • lyric, and satire • morality of satire • persona of Horace, contrasted with protagonists of the Satires • persona, satiric • philosophy, relationship to satire • plot, of satiric career • satire • satire, food in • satire, hexameter • satire, present approach to • satire, relationship with philosophy • variety in satire • weeping, as response to satire

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 58, 144, 145; Duffalo (2006), The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate. 103, 109, 111; Goldschmidt (2019), Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry, 17, 18, 65, 66, 67, 79, 80, 81, 82; Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 101, 102, 103, 104, 122; Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 391, 392; Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 7, 9, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 58, 59, 61, 64, 91, 110, 114, 152, 160, 163, 215; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022), The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography, 232; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 27; Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 556; Mayor (2017), Religion and Memory in Tacitus’ Annals, 198; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 169, 170; Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 20, 25, 26, 166, 167; Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 48, 49, 74, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 88, 105, 118, 131, 132, 136, 158, 159, 166, 175, 179, 180, 183, 184, 186, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 205, 206, 216, 233, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 269, 270, 271, 288, 299

1.1 but after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, did all those very things, by way of opposition, which his brother had forbidden him to do, without fear; for he used violence to the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them; nay, at the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up to oppose his brother; ' '1.6 12. As for ourselves, therefore, we neither inhabit a maritime country, nor do we delight in merchandise, nor in such a mixture with other men as arises from it; but the cities we dwell in are remote from the sea, and having a fruitful country for our habitation, we take pains in cultivating that only. Our principal care of all is this, to educate our children well; and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life to observe the laws that have been given us, and to keep those rules of piety that have been delivered down to us. 1.1 1. I suppose that, by my books of the Antiquities of the Jews, most excellent Epaphroditus, I have made it evident to those who peruse them, that our Jewish nation is of very great antiquity, and had a distinct subsistence of its own originally; as also I have therein declared how we came to inhabit this country wherein we now live. Those Antiquities contain the history of five thousand years, and are taken out of our sacred books; but are translated by me into the Greek tongue.
1.1
but after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, did all those very things, by way of opposition, which his brother had forbidden him to do, without fear; for he used violence to the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them; nay, at the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up to oppose his brother;
1.1
but as for the place where the Grecians inhabit, ten thousand destructions have overtaken it, and blotted out the memory of former actions; so that they were ever beginning a new way of living, and supposed that every one of them was the origin of their new state. It was also late, and with difficulty, that they came to know the letters they now use; for those who would advance their use of these letters to the greatest antiquity pretend that they learned them from the Phoenicians and from Cadmus; 1.2 However, since I observe a considerable number of people giving ear to the reproaches that are laid against us by those who bear ill will to us, and will not believe what I have written concerning the antiquity of our nation, while they take it for a plain sign that our nation is of a late date, because they are not so much as vouchsafed a bare mention by the most famous historiographers among the Grecians, 1.2 Moreover, he attests that we Jews, went as auxiliaries along with king Alexander, and after him with his successors. I will add farther what he says he learned when he was himself with the same army, concerning the actions of a man that was a Jew. His words are these:— 1.2 for if we remember, that in the beginning the Greeks had taken no care to have public records of their several transactions preserved, this must for certain have afforded those that would afterward write about those ancient transactions, the opportunity of making mistakes, and the power of making lies also;
1.4.9
As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary.
1.4.9
but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life.
1.5
Afterward I got leisure at Rome; and when all my materials were prepared for that work, I made use of some persons to assist me in learning the Greek tongue, and by these means I composed the history of those transactions; and I was so well assured of the truth of what I related, that I first of all appealed to those that had the supreme command in that war, Vespasian and Titus, as witnesses for me,
1.5
I shall also endeavor to give an account of the reasons why it hath so happened, that there hath not been a great number of Greeks who have made mention of our nation in their histories. I will, however, bring those Grecians to light who have not omitted such our history, for the sake of those that either do not know them, or pretend not to know them already.


1.6.120 2. And now, in the first place, I cannot but greatly wonder at those men who suppose that we must attend to none but Grecians, when we are inquiring about the most ancient facts, and must inform ourselves of their truth from them only, while we must not believe ourselves nor other men; for I am convinced that the very reverse is the truth of the case. I mean this,—if we will not be led by vain opinions, but will make inquiry after truth from facts themselves;
1.6.120
12. As for ourselves, therefore, we neither inhabit a maritime country, nor do we delight in merchandise, nor in such a mixture with other men as arises from it; but the cities we dwell in are remote from the sea, and having a fruitful country for our habitation, we take pains in cultivating that only. Our principal care of all is this, to educate our children well; and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life to observe the laws that have been given us, and to keep those rules of piety that have been delivered down to us.
1.8
However, they acknowledge themselves so far, that they were the Egyptians, the Chaldeans, and the Phoenicians (for I will not now reckon ourselves among them) that have preserved the memorials of the most ancient and most lasting traditions of mankind;
1.8
When this man had reigned thirteen years, after him reigned another, whose name was Beon, for forty-four years; after him reigned another, called Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months; after him Apophis reigned sixty-one years, and then Jonias fifty years and one month; 1.9 but that, as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who had then the dominion over Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called Judea, and that large enough to contain this great number of men, and called it Jerusalem.” 1.9 for almost all these nations inhabit such countries as are least subject to destruction from the world about them; and these also have taken especial care to have nothing omitted of what was remarkably done among them; but their history was esteemed sacred, and put into public tables, as written by men of the greatest wisdom they had among them;
2.1
1. In the former book, most honored Epaphroditus, I have demonstrated our antiquity, and confirmed the truth of what I have said, from the writings of the Phoenicians, and Chaldeans, and Egyptians. I have, moreover, produced many of the Grecian writers, as witnesses thereto. I have also made a refutation of Manetho and Cheremon, and of certain others of our enemies.
2.1
Or how is it possible that all the Jews should get together to these sacrifices, and the entrails of one man should be sufficient for so many thousands to taste of them, as Apion pretends? Or why did not the king carry this man, whosoever he was, and whatsoever was his name (which is not set down in Apion’s book),
2.1
for in his third book, which relates to the affairs of Egypt, he speaks thus:—“I have heard of the ancient men of Egypt, that Moses was of Heliopolis, and that he thought himself obliged to follow the customs of his forefathers, and offered his prayers in the open air, towards the city walls; but that he reduced them all to be directed towards the sun-rising, which was agreeable to the situation of Heliopolis;
2.3
for some of his writings contain much the same accusations which the others have laid against us, some things that he hath added are very frigid and contemptible, and for the greatest part of what he says, it is very scurrilous, and, to speak no more than the plain truth, it shows him to be a very unlearned person, and what he lays together looks like the work of a man of very bad morals, and of one no better in his whole life than a mountebank.
2.3
for you see how justly he calls those Egyptians whom he hates, and endeavors to reproach; for had he not deemed Egyptians to be a name of great reproach, he would not have avoided the name of an Egyptian himself; as we know that those who brag of their own countries, value themselves upon the denomination they acquire thereby, and reprove such as unjustly lay claim thereto.
2.6.1
However, it is not a very easy thing to go over this man’s discourse, nor to know plainly what he means; yet does he seem, amidst a great confusion and disorder in his falsehoods, to produce, in the first place, such things as resemble what we have examined already, and relate to the departure of our forefathers out of Egypt;
2.6.1
nay, when last of all Caesar had taken Alexandria, she came to that pitch of cruelty, that she declared she had some hope of preserving her affairs still, in case she could kill the Jews, though it were with her own hand; to such a degree of barbarity and perfidiousness had she arrived; and doth any one think that we cannot boast ourselves of any thing, if, as Apion says, this queen did not at a time of famine distribute wheat among us?
2.7
These Egyptians therefore were the authors of these troubles, who not having the constancy of Macedonians, nor the prudence of Grecians, indulged all of them the evil manners of the Egyptians, and continued their ancient hatred against us;
2.7
and, in the second place, he accuses those Jews that are inhabitants of Alexandria; as, in the third place, he mixes with these things such accusations as concern the sacred purifications, with the other legal rites used in the temple.

2.8 2. Now, although I cannot but think that I have already demonstrated, and that abundantly, more than was necessary, that our fathers were not originally Egyptians, nor were thence expelled, either on account of bodily diseases, or any other calamities of that sort, 2.8 for Apion hath the impudence to pretend, that “the Jews placed an ass’s head in their holy place;” and he affirms that this was discovered when Antiochus Epiphanes spoiled our temple, and found that ass’s head there made of gold, and worth a great deal of money. ' None
8. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.513-1.522 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Satires (Horace), treatment of relationship with Maecenas • satire

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 177; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 165

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1.513 Munditie placeant, fuscentur corpora Campo: 1.514 rend= 1.515 Lingula ne rigeat, careant rubigine dentes, 1.517 Nec male deformet rigidos tonsura capillos: 1.519 Et nihil emineant, et sint sine sordibus ungues: 1.521 Nec male odorati sit tristis anhelitus oris: 1.522 rend='' None
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1.513 of bad example to thy future love ;' "1.514 But get it gratis, and she'll give thee more," '1.515 For fear of losing what she gave before. 1.516 The losing gamester shakes the box in vain, 1.517 And bleeds, and loses on, in hopes to gain. 1.518 Write then, and in thy letter, as I said, 1.519 Let her with mighty promises be fed.' "1.520 Cydyppe by a letter was betray'd," "1.521 Writ on an apple to th' unwary maid;" '1.522 She read herself into a marriage vow,'' None
9. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Satires (Horace), depiction of father-son relationship • Satires (Horace), treatment of relationship with Maecenas • Satires I • commodity,, Oifeand Satires as

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 195; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 164

10. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Horace, Satires • Horace, Satires as autofiction • Octavian (later Emperor Augustus), appearance in Satires • Satires (Horace), presentation of author-figure in • Satires (Horace), studies • Satires (Horace), treatment of economic issues • Satires (Horace), treatment of industry/prudence • Satires (Horace), treatment of relationship with Maecenas • Ulysses, portrayal in Satires • authenticity, thematized in satire • persona of Horace, contrasted with protagonists of the Satires • satire

 Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019), Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry, 18; Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 153; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 318, 321; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 169; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 2, 7, 91, 169, 192, 216, 258

11. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cynics/Cynicism, condemned/satirized by Greek writers • Lucretius, and satire • satire

 Found in books: Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 206; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 101; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 74

12. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, and satire • indignatio, in satiric plot

 Found in books: Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 38; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 101

13. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • philosophy, relationship to satire • satire • satire, Menippean form of • satire, present approach to • satire, relationship with philosophy

 Found in books: Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 331; Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 23

14. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Menippean satire • indignatio, in satiric plot

 Found in books: Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 71; Tacoma (2020), Cicero and Roman Education: The Reception of the Speeches and Ancient Scholarship, 28

15. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Maecenas, and Satires • Satires (Horace), treatment of frankness

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 144; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 105

16. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • satire

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 134; Laes Goodey and Rose (2013), Disabilities in Roman Antiquity: Disparate Bodies, 184

17. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Juvenal, dating of Satires • Juvenal, satirizes Egyptian cults in Rome • audience of satire • authenticity, thematized in satire • career, literary, satiric careers • decadence, and satire • fear, of satiric abuse • indignatio, in satiric plot • morality of satire • persona, satiric • persona, satiric, allusivity of • persona, satiric, conflicting impressions of • persona, satiric, moral characterization of • persona, satiric, need to objectify • philosophy, relationship to satire • plot, of satiric career • revenge, satire as • satire • satire, Roman • satire, Roman, and decadence • satire, hexameter • satire, present approach to • satire, relationship with philosophy • satiric theory • variety in satire

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008), Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, 98, 105, 109, 111, 134; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 178; Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 84; Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 390, 393, 394; Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 364; Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 8, 18, 21, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 60, 62, 63, 71, 72, 73, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 121, 127, 150, 151, 154, 165, 166, 169, 170, 193, 194, 203, 204, 207, 216; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 311; König and Whitton (2018), Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 8, 143, 175, 206, 369, 375, 376, 377, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400; Laes Goodey and Rose (2013), Disabilities in Roman Antiquity: Disparate Bodies, 32; Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 20; Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 214, 217, 218

18. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Juvenal, dating of Satires • indignatio, in satiric plot

 Found in books: Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 49; König and Whitton (2018), Roman Literature under Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian: Literary Interactions, AD 96–138 175

19. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Satires (Horace), treatment of economic issues • genre, lyric and satire • indignatio, in satiric plot • lyric, and satire • satire • satire, Roman

 Found in books: Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 86; Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 32, 42, 43, 44; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 312, 313, 324, 325, 326, 327, 329; Richlin (2018), Slave Theater in the Roman Republic: Plautus and Popular Comedy, 249; Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 204; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 259

20. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • De Re Rustica (Varro), satire in • Last Supper, Latin satire, eating and drinking in • art history, Petronius’ satire of • decadence, and satire • satire, Roman • satire, Roman, and decadence • satire, Roman, and ekphrasis • satire, food in

 Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 178, 179, 181, 188, 194; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 278; Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 25, 26

21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Asinus Aureus, as satire • Onos, as satire • decadence, and satire • satire • satire, Roman, and decadence

 Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 180; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 88, 109, 110, 111, 132, 168, 169, 178, 182, 183; Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 4, 15, 52, 53, 109, 121, 187

11.27 But it happened that, while I reasoned with myself and while I examined the issue with the priests, there came a new and marvelous thought in my mind. I realized that I was only consecrated to the goddess Isis, but not sacred to the religion of great Osiris, the sovereign father of all the goddesses. Between them, although there was a religious unity and concord, yet there was a great difference of order and ceremony. And because it was necessary that I should likewise be a devotee of Osiris, there was no long delay. For the night after there appeared to me one of that order, covered with linen robes. He held in his hands spears wrapped in ivy and other things not appropriate to declare. Then he left these things in my chamber and, sitting in my seat, recited to me such things as were necessary for the sumptuous banquet for my initiation. And so that I might know him again, he showed me how the ankle of his left foot was somewhat maimed, which gave him a slight limp.Afterwards I manifestly knew the will of the god Osiris. When matins ended, I went from one priest to another to find the one who had the halting mark on his foot, according to my vision. At length I found it true. I perceived one of the company of the priests who had not only the token of his foot, but the stature and habit of his body, resembling in every point the man who appeared in the nigh. He was called Asinius Marcellus, a name appropriate to my transformation. By and by I went to him and he knew well enough all the matter. He had been admonished by a similar precept in the night. For the night before, as he dressed the flowers and garlands about the head of the god Osiris, he understood from the mouth of the image (which told the predestinations of all men) how the god had sent him a poor man of Madauros. To this man the priest was supposed to minister his sacraments so that he could receive a reward by divine providence, and the other glory for his virtuous studies.' ' None
22. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • satire

 Found in books: Alexiou and Cairns (2017), Greek Laughter and Tears: Antiquity and After. 56, 58, 59, 64; Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 38

23. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.101 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Memppean satire • Satires (Horace), literary influences on

 Found in books: Stephens and Winkler (1995), Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary, 363; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 209

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6.101 There have been six men named Menippus: the first the man who wrote a History of the Lydians and abridged Xanthus; the second my present subject; the third a sophist of Stratonicea, a Carian by descent; the fourth a sculptor; the fifth and sixth painters, both mentioned by Apollodorus.However, the writings of Menippus the Cynic are thirteen in number:Necromancy.Wills.Epistles artificially composed as if by the gods.Replies to the physicists and mathematicians and grammarians; andA book about the birth of Epicurus; andThe School's reverence for the twentieth day.Besides other works."" None
24. Augustine, The City of God, 18.18 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Asinus Aureus, as satire • satire

 Found in books: Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 111; Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 187

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18.18 Perhaps our readers expect us to say something about this so great delusion wrought by the demons; and what shall we say but that men must fly out of the midst of Babylon? Isaiah 48:20 For this prophetic precept is to be understood spiritually in this sense, that by going forward in the living God, by the steps of faith, which works by love, we must flee out of the city of this world, which is altogether a society of ungodly angels and men. Yea, the greater we see the power of the demons to be in these depths, so much the more tenaciously must we cleave to the Mediator through whom we ascend from these lowest to the highest places. For if we should say these things are not to be credited, there are not wanting even now some who would affirm that they had either heard on the best authority, or even themselves experienced, something of that kind. Indeed we ourselves, when in Italy, heard such things about a certain region there where landladies of inns, imbued with these wicked arts, were said to be in the habit of giving to such travellers as they chose, or could manage, something in a piece of cheese by which they were changed on the spot into beasts of burden, and carried whatever was necessary, and were restored to their own form when the work was done. Yet their mind did not become bestial, but remained rational and human, just as Apuleius, in the books he wrote with the title of The Golden Ass, has told, or feigned, that it happened to his own self that, on taking poison, he became an ass, while retaining his human mind. These things are either false, or so extraordinary as to be with good reason disbelieved. But it is to be most firmly believed that Almighty God can do whatever He pleases, whether in punishing or favoring, and that the demons can accomplish nothing by their natural power (for their created being is itself angelic, although made malign by their own fault), except what He may permit, whose judgments are often hidden, but never unrighteous. And indeed the demons, if they really do such things as these on which this discussion turns, do not create real substances, but only change the appearance of things created by the true God so as to make them seem to be what they are not. I cannot therefore believe that even the body, much less the mind, can really be changed into bestial forms and lineaments by any reason, art, or power of the demons; but the phantasm of a man which even in thought or dreams goes through innumerable changes may, when the man's senses are laid asleep or overpowered, be presented to the senses of others in a corporeal form, in some indescribable way unknown to me, so that men's bodies themselves may lie somewhere, alive, indeed, yet with their senses locked up much more heavily and firmly than by sleep, while that phantasm, as it were embodied in the shape of some animal, may appear to the senses of others, and may even seem to the man himself to be changed, just as he may seem to himself in sleep to be so changed, and to bear burdens; and these burdens, if they are real substances, are borne by the demons, that men may be deceived by beholding at the same time the real substance of the burdens and the simulated bodies of the beasts of burden. For a certain man called Pr stantius used to tell that it had happened to his father in his own house, that he took that poison in a piece of cheese, and lay in his bed as if sleeping, yet could by no means be aroused. But he said that after a few days he as it were woke up and related the things he had suffered as if they had been dreams, namely, that he had been made a sumpter horse, and, along with other beasts of burden, had carried provisions for the soldiers of what is called the Rhœtian Legion, because it was sent to Rhœtia. And all this was found to have taken place just as he told, yet it had seemed to him to be his own dream. And another man declared that in his own house at night, before he slept, he saw a certain philosopher, whom he knew very well, come to him and explain to him some things in the Platonic philosophy which he had previously declined to explain when asked. And when he had asked this philosopher why he did in his house what he had refused to do at home, he said, I did not do it, but I dreamed I had done it. And thus what the one saw when sleeping was shown to the other when awake by a phantasmal image. These things have not come to us from persons we might deem unworthy of credit, but from informants we could not suppose to be deceiving us. Therefore what men say and have committed to writing about the Arcadians being often changed into wolves by the Arcadian gods, or demons rather, and what is told in song about Circe transforming the companions of Ulysses, if they were really done, may, in my opinion, have been done in the way I have said. As for Diomede's birds, since their race is alleged to have been perpetuated by constant propagation, I believe they were not made through the metamorphosis of men, but were slyly substituted for them on their removal, just as the hind was for Iphigenia, the daughter of king Agamemnon. For juggleries of this kind could not be difficult for the demons if permitted by the judgment of God; and since that virgin was afterwards, found alive it is easy to see that a hind had been slyly substituted for her. But because the companions of Diomede were of a sudden nowhere to be seen, and afterwards could nowhere be found, being destroyed by bad avenging angels, they were believed to have been changed into those birds, which were secretly brought there from other places where such birds were, and suddenly substituted for them by fraud. But that they bring water in their beaks and sprinkle it on the temple of Diomede, and that they fawn on men of Greek race and persecute aliens, is no wonderful thing to be done by the inward influence of the demons, whose interest it is to persuade men that Diomede was made a god, and thus to beguile them into worshipping many false gods, to the great dishonor of the true God; and to serve dead men, who even in their lifetime did not truly live, with temples, altars, sacrifices, and priests, all which, when of the right kind, are due only to the one living and true God. "" None
25. Vergil, Eclogues, 1.1
 Tagged with subjects: • Maecenas, and Satires • satire

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 153; Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 15

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1.1 You, Tityrus, 'neath a broad beech-canopy"" None
26. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Memppean satire • satire

 Found in books: Graverini (2012), Literature and Identity in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 124; Stephens and Winkler (1995), Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary, 363




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