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214 results for "recital"
1. Septuagint, Canticles, 1 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •shema yisrael, rabbi akiva’s recitation Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 177
2. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 189
2.13. "וְקִרְעוּ לְבַבְכֶם וְאַל־בִּגְדֵיכֶם וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כִּי־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם הוּא אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וְנִחָם עַל־הָרָעָה׃", 2.13. "And rend your heart, and not your garments, And turn unto the LORD your God; For He is gracious and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy, And repenteth Him of the evil.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.1-3.3, 5.15, 5.19, 6.20-6.23, 7.1-7.4, 8.2, 13.11, 24.30-24.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 181, 190; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 69, 132
3.1. "וְיִמָּלְאוּ אֲסָמֶיךָ שָׂבָע וְתִירוֹשׁ יְקָבֶיךָ יִפְרֹצוּ׃", 3.1. "בְּנִי תּוֹרָתִי אַל־תִּשְׁכָּח וּמִצְוֺתַי יִצֹּר לִבֶּךָ׃", 3.2. "כִּי אֹרֶךְ יָמִים וּשְׁנוֹת חַיִּים וְשָׁלוֹם יוֹסִיפוּ לָךְ׃", 3.2. "בְּדַעְתּוֹ תְּהוֹמוֹת נִבְקָעוּ וּשְׁחָקִים יִרְעֲפוּ־טָל׃", 3.3. "אַל־תרוב [תָּרִיב] עִם־אָדָם חִנָּם אִם־לֹא גְמָלְךָ רָעָה׃", 3.3. "חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת אַל־יַעַזְבֻךָ קָשְׁרֵם עַל־גַּרְגְּרוֹתֶיךָ כָּתְבֵם עַל־לוּחַ לִבֶּךָ׃", 5.15. "שְׁתֵה־מַיִם מִבּוֹרֶךָ וְנֹזְלִים מִתּוֹךְ בְּאֵרֶךָ׃", 5.19. "אַיֶּלֶת אֲהָבִים וְיַעֲלַת־חֵן דַּדֶּיהָ יְרַוֻּךָ בְכָל־עֵת בְּאַהֲבָתָהּ תִּשְׁגֶּה תָמִיד׃", 6.21. "קָשְׁרֵם עַל־לִבְּךָ תָמִיד עָנְדֵם עַל־גַּרְגְּרֹתֶךָ׃", 6.22. "בְּהִתְהַלֶּכְךָ תַּנְחֶה אֹתָךְ בְּשָׁכְבְּךָ תִּשְׁמֹר עָלֶיךָ וַהֲקִיצוֹתָ הִיא תְשִׂיחֶךָ׃", 6.23. "כִּי נֵר מִצְוָה וְתוֹרָה אוֹר וְדֶרֶךְ חַיִּים תּוֹכְחוֹת מוּסָר׃", 7.1. "וְהִנֵּה אִשָּׁה לִקְרָאתוֹ שִׁית זוֹנָה וּנְצֻרַת לֵב׃", 7.1. "בְּנִי שְׁמֹר אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃", 7.2. "שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וֶחְיֵה וְתוֹרָתִי כְּאִישׁוֹן עֵינֶיךָ׃", 7.2. "צְרוֹר־הַכֶּסֶף לָקַח בְּיָדוֹ לְיוֹם הַכֵּסֶא יָבֹא בֵיתוֹ׃", 7.3. "קָשְׁרֵם עַל־אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ כָּתְבֵם עַל־לוּחַ לִבֶּךָ׃", 7.4. "אֱמֹר לַחָכְמָה אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ וּמֹדָע לַבִּינָה תִקְרָא׃", 8.2. "בְּאֹרַח־צְדָקָה אֲהַלֵּך בְּתוֹךְ נְתִיבוֹת מִשְׁפָּט׃", 8.2. "בְּרֹאשׁ־מְרוֹמִים עֲלֵי־דָרֶךְ בֵּית נְתִיבוֹת נִצָּבָה׃", 13.11. "הוֹן מֵהֶבֶל יִמְעָט וְקֹבֵץ עַל־יָד יַרְבֶּה׃", 24.31. "וְהִנֵּה עָלָה כֻלּוֹ קִמְּשֹׂנִים כָּסּוּ פָנָיו חֲרֻלִּים וְגֶדֶר אֲבָנָיו נֶהֱרָסָה׃", 3.1. "My son, forget not my teaching; But let thy heart keep my commandments;", 3.2. "For length of days, and years of life, And peace, will they add to thee.", 3.3. "Let not kindness and truth forsake thee; Bind them about thy neck, write them upon the table of thy heart;", 5.15. "Drink waters out of thine own cistern, And running waters out of thine own well.", 5.19. "A lovely hind and a graceful doe, Let her breasts satisfy thee at all times; With her love be thou ravished always.", 6.20. "My son, keep the commandment of thy father, And forsake not the teaching of thy mother;", 6.21. "Bind them continually upon thy heart, Tie them about thy neck.", 6.22. "When thou walkest, it shall lead thee, When thou liest down, it shall watch over thee; And when thou awakest, it shall talk with thee.", 6.23. "For the commandment is a lamp, and the teaching is light, And reproofs of instruction are the way of life;", 7.1. "My son, keep my words, And lay up my commandments with thee.", 7.2. "Keep my commandments and live, And my teaching as the apple of thine eye.", 7.3. "Bind them upon thy fingers, Write them upon the table of thy heart.", 7.4. "Say unto wisdom: ‘Thou art my sister’, And call understanding thy kinswoman;", 8.2. "In the top of high places by the way, Where the paths meet, she standeth;", 13.11. "Wealth gotten by vanity shall be diminished; But he that gathereth little by little shall increase. .", 24.30. "I went by the field of the slothful, And by the vineyard of the man void of understanding;", 24.31. "And, lo, it was all grown over with thistles, The face thereof was covered with nettles, And the stone wall thereof was broken down.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.6-5.8, 5.21, 8.4, 10.10, 12.3, 14.15-14.16, 14.18, 14.33-14.34, 15.22-15.31, 16.21, 27.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 3, 241; Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 189, 236, 288; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 112; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 153; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 116, 127; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74
5.6. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃", 5.7. "וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃", 5.8. "וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃", 5.21. "וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃", 8.4. "וְזֶה מַעֲשֵׂה הַמְּנֹרָה מִקְשָׁה זָהָב עַד־יְרֵכָהּ עַד־פִּרְחָהּ מִקְשָׁה הִוא כַּמַּרְאֶה אֲשֶׁר הֶרְאָה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשָׂה אֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה׃", 12.3. "וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה ענו [עָנָיו] מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃", 14.15. "וְהֵמַתָּה אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד וְאָמְרוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמְעוּ אֶת־שִׁמְעֲךָ לֵאמֹר׃", 14.16. "מִבִּלְתִּי יְכֹלֶת יְהוָה לְהָבִיא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לָהֶם וַיִּשְׁחָטֵם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃", 14.18. "יְהוָה אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפָשַׁע וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃", 14.33. "וּבְנֵיכֶם יִהְיוּ רֹעִים בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וְנָשְׂאוּ אֶת־זְנוּתֵיכֶם עַד־תֹּם פִּגְרֵיכֶם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃", 14.34. "בְּמִסְפַּר הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־תַּרְתֶּם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺנֹתֵיכֶם אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וִידַעְתֶּם אֶת־תְּנוּאָתִי׃", 15.22. "וְכִי תִשְׁגּוּ וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־הַמִּצְוֺת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה׃", 15.23. "אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה מִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וָהָלְאָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃", 15.24. "וְהָיָה אִם מֵעֵינֵי הָעֵדָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה לִשְׁגָגָה וְעָשׂוּ כָל־הָעֵדָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד לְעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתוֹ וְנִסְכּוֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּת׃", 15.25. "וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם כִּי־שְׁגָגָה הִוא וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְחַטָּאתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שִׁגְגָתָם׃", 15.26. "וְנִסְלַח לְכָל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם כִּי לְכָל־הָעָם בִּשְׁגָגָה׃", 15.27. "וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה וְהִקְרִיבָה עֵז בַּת־שְׁנָתָהּ לְחַטָּאת׃", 15.28. "וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁגֶגֶת בְּחֶטְאָה בִשְׁגָגָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃", 15.29. "הָאֶזְרָח בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לָעֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה׃", 15.31. "כִּי דְבַר־יְהוָה בָּזָה וְאֶת־מִצְוָתוֹ הֵפַר הִכָּרֵת תִּכָּרֵת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא עֲוֺנָה בָהּ׃", 16.21. "הִבָּדְלוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַזֹּאת וַאַכַלֶּה אֹתָם כְּרָגַע׃", 27.3. "אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא־הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל־יְהוָה בַּעֲדַת־קֹרַח כִּי־בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לוֹ׃", 5.6. "Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;", 5.7. "then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty.", 5.8. "But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him.", 5.21. "then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;", 8.4. "And this was the work of the candlestick, beaten work of gold; unto the base thereof, and unto the flowers thereof, it was beaten work; according unto the pattern which the LORD had shown Moses, so he made the candlestick.", 10.10. "Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your new moons, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.’", 12.3. "Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.—", 14.15. "now if Thou shalt kill this people as one man, then the nations which have heard the fame of Thee will speak, saying:", 14.16. "Because the LORD was not able to bring this people into the land which He swore unto them, therefore He hath slain them in the wilderness.", 14.18. "The LORD is slow to anger, and plenteous in lovingkindness, forgiving iniquity and transgression, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation.", 14.33. "And your children shall be wanderers in the wilderness forty years, and shall bear your strayings, until your carcasses be consumed in the wilderness.", 14.34. "After the number of the days in which ye spied out the land, even forty days, for every day a year, shall ye bear your iniquities, even forty years, and ye shall know My displeasure.", 15.22. "And when ye shall err, and not observe all these commandments, which the LORD hath spoken unto Moses,", 15.23. "even all that the LORD hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the LORD gave commandment, and onward throughout your generations;", 15.24. "then it shall be, if it be done in error by the congregation, it being hid from their eyes, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD—with the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof, according to the ordice—and one he-goat for a sin-offering.", 15.25. "And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they shall be forgiven; for it was an error, and they have brought their offering, an offering made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin-offering before the LORD, for their error.", 15.26. "And all the congregation of the children of Israel shall be forgiven, and the stranger that sojourneth among them; for in respect of all the people it was done in error.", 15.27. "And if one person sin through error, then he shall offer a she-goat of the first year for a sin-offering.", 15.28. "And the priest shall make atonement for the soul that erreth, when he sinneth through error, before the LORD, to make atonement for him; and he shall be forgiven,", 15.29. "both he that is home-born among the children of Israel, and the stranger that sojourneth among them: ye shall have one law for him that doeth aught in error.", 15.30. "But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand, whether he be home-born or a stranger, the same blasphemeth the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people.", 15.31. "Because he hath despised the word of the LORD, and hath broken His commandment; that soul shall utterly be cut off, his iniquity shall be upon him.", 16.21. "’Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.’", 27.3. "’Our father died in the wilderness, and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin; and he had no sons.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 189
1.3. "יְהֹוָה אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וגדול־[וּגְדָל־] כֹּחַ וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה בְּסוּפָה וּבִשְׂעָרָה דַּרְכּוֹ וְעָנָן אֲבַק רַגְלָיו׃", 1.3. "The LORD is long-suffering, and great in power, And will by no means clear the guilty; The LORD, in the whirlwind and in the storm is His way, And the clouds are the dust of His feet.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, communal •recitation, public Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236
3.16. "אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי יְהוָה אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמָע וַיִּכָּתֵב סֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו לְיִרְאֵי יְהוָה וּלְחֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ׃", 3.16. "Then they that feared the LORD Spoke one with another; and the LORD hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the LORD, and that thought upon His name.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.1, 5.6-5.13, 23.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 114, 115, 116, 127
5.1. "וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃", 5.1. "וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃", 5.6. "וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃", 5.7. "וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃", 5.8. "וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ מִמּוּל עָרְפּוֹ וְלֹא יַבְדִּיל׃", 5.9. "וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא׃", 5.11. "וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא׃", 5.12. "וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלוֹא קֻמְצוֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא׃", 5.13. "וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה׃", 23.24. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם שַׁבָּתוֹן זִכְרוֹן תְּרוּעָה מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ׃", 5.1. "And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;", 5.6. "and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin.", 5.7. "And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering.", 5.8. "And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder.", 5.9. "And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering.", 5.10. "And he shall prepare the second for a burnt-offering, according to the ordice; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin which he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven.", 5.11. "But if his means suffice not for two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering for that wherein he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering.", 5.12. "And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; it is a sin-offering.", 5.13. "And the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in any of these things, and he shall be forgiven; and the remt shall be the priest’s, as the meal-offering.", 23.24. "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you, a memorial proclaimed with the blast of horns, a holy convocation.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 189
4.2. "וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר אָנָּה יְהוָה הֲלוֹא־זֶה דְבָרִי עַד־הֱיוֹתִי עַל־אַדְמָתִי עַל־כֵּן קִדַּמְתִּי לִבְרֹחַ תַּרְשִׁישָׁה כִּי יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אַתָּה אֵל־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וְנִחָם עַל־הָרָעָה׃", 4.2. "And he prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘I pray Thee, O LORD, was not this my saying, when I was yet in mine own country? Therefore I fled beforehand unto Tarshish; for I knew that Thou art a gracious God, and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy, and repentest Thee of the evil.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 74
1.2. "כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃", 1.2. "But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 168, 169
4.2. "וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹה וַיֵּשֵׁבוּ׃", 4.2. "וְעַמִּינָדָב הוֹלִיד אֶת־נַחְשׁוֹן וְנַחְשׁוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־שַׂלְמָה׃", 4.2. "And he took ten men of the elders of the city, and said: ‘Sit ye down here.’ And they sat down.",
11. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.14-1.16, 9.3, 41.30-41.31, 42.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •recital, recitation •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 12; Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 74, 129; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 153
1.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 1.2. "וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃", 1.14. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃", 1.15. "וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃", 1.16. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃", 9.3. "כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃", 41.31. "וְלֹא־יִוָּדַע הַשָּׂבָע בָּאָרֶץ מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָב הַהוּא אַחֲרֵי־כֵן כִּי־כָבֵד הוּא מְאֹד׃", 42.5. "וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבֹּר בְּתוֹךְ הַבָּאִים כִּי־הָיָה הָרָעָב בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃", 1.2. "Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.", 1.14. "And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;", 1.15. "and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so.", 1.16. "And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars.", 9.3. "Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all.", 41.30. "And there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land;", 41.31. "and the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine which followeth; for it shall be very grievous.", 42.5. "And the sons of Israel came to buy among those that came; for the famine was in the land of Caa.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.14, 13.9, 15.26, 17.14, 19.5, 20.8-20.11, 25.31, 25.36, 28.12, 28.29, 32.4, 32.8, 34.6, 37.17, 37.22, 39.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 3, 5, 180, 184, 188, 241; Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 189, 236; Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
12.14. "וְהָיָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לָכֶם לְזִכָּרוֹן וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תְּחָגֻּהוּ׃", 13.9. "וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ כִּי בְּיָד חֲזָקָה הוֹצִאֲךָ יְהֹוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃", 15.26. "וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע לְקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה וְהַאֲזַנְתָּ לְמִצְוֺתָיו וְשָׁמַרְתָּ כָּל־חֻקָּיו כָּל־הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא־אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה רֹפְאֶךָ׃", 17.14. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתֹב זֹאת זִכָּרוֹן בַּסֵּפֶר וְשִׂים בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־מָחֹה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 19.5. "וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 20.8. "זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ", 20.9. "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ", 20.11. "כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃", 25.31. "וְעָשִׂיתָ מְנֹרַת זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה תֵּעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ׃", 25.36. "כַּפְתֹּרֵיהֶם וּקְנֹתָם מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ כֻּלָּהּ מִקְשָׁה אַחַת זָהָב טָהוֹר׃", 28.12. "וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־שְׁתֵּי הָאֲבָנִים עַל כִּתְפֹת הָאֵפֹד אַבְנֵי זִכָּרֹן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁמוֹתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שְׁתֵּי כְתֵפָיו לְזִכָּרֹן׃", 28.29. "וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁמוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּחֹשֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּט עַל־לִבּוֹ בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְזִכָּרֹן לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה תָּמִיד׃", 32.4. "וַיִּקַּח מִיָּדָם וַיָּצַר אֹתוֹ בַּחֶרֶט וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃", 32.8. "סָרוּ מַהֵר מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ־לוֹ וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־לוֹ וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃", 34.6. "וַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוָה עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת", 37.17. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה עָשָׂה אֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה הָיוּ׃", 37.22. "כַּפְתֹּרֵיהֶם וּקְנֹתָם מִמֶּנָּה הָיוּ כֻּלָּהּ מִקְשָׁה אַחַת זָהָב טָהוֹר׃", 39.7. "וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָם עַל כִּתְפֹת הָאֵפֹד אַבְנֵי זִכָּרוֹן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃", 12.14. "And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordice for ever.", 13.9. "And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the law of the LORD may be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.", 15.26. "and He said: ‘If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in His eyes, and wilt give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon thee, which I have put upon the Egyptians; for I am the LORD that healeth thee.’", 17.14. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write this for a memorial in the book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.’", 19.5. "Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine;", 20.8. "Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.", 20.9. "Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;", 20.10. "but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;", 20.11. "for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.", 25.31. "And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it.", 25.36. "Their knops and their branches shall be of one piece with it; the whole of it one beaten work of pure gold.", 28.12. "And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel; and Aaron shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a memorial.", 28.29. "And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the LORD continually. .", 32.4. "And he received it at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf; and they said: ‘This is thy god, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’", 32.8. "they have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them; they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed unto it, and said: This is thy god, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’", 34.6. "And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;", 37.17. "And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made he the candlestick, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, were of one piece with it.", 37.22. "Their knops and their branches were of one piece with it; the whole of it was one beaten work of pure gold.", 39.7. "And he put them on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel, as the LORD commanded Moses.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 6.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, communal •recitation, public Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236
6.1. "בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא נָדְדָה שְׁנַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר הַזִּכְרֹנוֹת דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים וַיִּהְיוּ נִקְרָאִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 6.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהָמָן מַהֵר קַח אֶת־הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן לְמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תַּפֵּל דָּבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃", 6.1. "On that night could not the king sleep; and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king.",
14. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.1-4.11, 5.12-5.15, 6.4-6.8, 8.19, 9.7, 9.27, 11.32, 12.1, 18.9-18.14, 24.8-24.9, 24.19, 25.17-25.19, 32.2, 32.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation •recitation •shema yisrael, rabbi akiva’s recitation •avesta, recitation of Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 166, 170, 174, 175, 176, 177; Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 5, 12, 176, 178, 179, 181, 182, 184, 188; Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 288; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 129; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 44, 45, 73, 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 44, 45, 73, 74
4.1. "יוֹם אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בֶּאֱמֹר יְהוָה אֵלַי הַקְהֶל־לִי אֶת־הָעָם וְאַשְׁמִעֵם אֶת־דְּבָרָי אֲשֶׁר יִלְמְדוּן לְיִרְאָה אֹתִי כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר הֵם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם יְלַמֵּדוּן׃", 4.1. "וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמַע אֶל־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּ וּבָאתֶם וִירִשְׁתֶּם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃", 4.2. "וְאֶתְכֶם לָקַח יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִא אֶתְכֶם מִכּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל מִמִּצְרָיִם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם נַחֲלָה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃", 4.2. "לֹא תֹסִפוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם׃", 4.3. "בַּצַּר לְךָ וּמְצָאוּךָ כֹּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים וְשַׁבְתָּ עַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקֹלוֹ׃", 4.3. "עֵינֵיכֶם הָרֹאֹת אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה יְהוָה בְּבַעַל פְּעוֹר כִּי כָל־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי בַעַל־פְּעוֹר הִשְׁמִידוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 4.4. "וְאַתֶּם הַדְּבֵקִים בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם חַיִּים כֻּלְּכֶם הַיּוֹם׃", 4.4. "וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־חֻקָּיו וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן תַּאֲרִיךְ יָמִים עַל־הַאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃", 4.5. "רְאֵה לִמַּדְתִּי אֶתְכֶם חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוַּנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּאִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃", 4.6. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם כִּי הִוא חָכְמַתְכֶם וּבִינַתְכֶם לְעֵינֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמְרוּ רַק עַם־חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה׃", 4.7. "כִּי מִי־גוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אֱלֹהִים קְרֹבִים אֵלָיו כַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּכָּל־קָרְאֵנוּ אֵלָיו׃", 4.8. "וּמִי גּוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים צַדִּיקִם כְּכֹל הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן לִפְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם׃", 4.9. "רַק הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ וּשְׁמֹר נַפְשְׁךָ מְאֹד פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וּפֶן־יָסוּרוּ מִלְּבָבְךָ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ וְהוֹדַעְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֵי בָנֶיךָ׃", 4.11. "וַתִּקְרְבוּן וַתַּעַמְדוּן תַּחַת הָהָר וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד־לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם חֹשֶׁךְ עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃", 5.12. "שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ", 5.13. "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃", 5.14. "וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ־וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמוֹךָ׃", 5.15. "וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל־כֵּן צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת׃", 6.4. "שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃", 6.5. "וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃", 6.6. "וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃", 6.7. "וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 6.8. "וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃", 8.19. "וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁכֹחַ תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבַדְתָּם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם הַעִדֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן׃", 9.7. "זְכֹר אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הִקְצַפְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם עַד־בֹּאֲכֶם עַד־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה מַמְרִים הֱיִיתֶם עִם־יְהוָה׃", 9.27. "זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃", 11.32. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשׂוֹת אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן לִפְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם׃", 12.1. "וַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וִישַׁבְתֶּם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מַנְחִיל אֶתְכֶם וְהֵנִיחַ לָכֶם מִכָּל־אֹיְבֵיכֶם מִסָּבִיב וִישַׁבְתֶּם־בֶּטַח׃", 12.1. "אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּן לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְךָ לְרִשְׁתָּהּ כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה׃", 18.9. "כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃", 18.11. "וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃", 18.12. "כִּי־תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וּבִגְלַל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישׁ אוֹתָם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃", 18.13. "תָּמִים תִּהְיֶה עִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 18.14. "כִּי הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה יוֹרֵשׁ אוֹתָם אֶל־מְעֹנְנִים וְאֶל־קֹסְמִים יִשְׁמָעוּ וְאַתָּה לֹא כֵן נָתַן לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 24.8. "הִשָּׁמֶר בְּנֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת לִשְׁמֹר מְאֹד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוֹרוּ אֶתְכֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם תִּשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃", 24.9. "זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמִרְיָם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃", 24.19. "כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃", 25.17. "זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃", 25.18. "אֲשֶׁר קָרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ כָּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִים אַחַרֶיךָ וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים׃", 25.19. "וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃", 32.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַסְתִּירָה פָנַי מֵהֶם אֶרְאֶה מָה אַחֲרִיתָם כִּי דוֹר תַּהְפֻּכֹת הֵמָּה בָּנִים לֹא־אֵמֻן בָּם׃", 32.2. "יַעֲרֹף כַּמָּטָר לִקְחִי תִּזַּל כַּטַּל אִמְרָתִי כִּשְׂעִירִם עֲלֵי־דֶשֶׁא וְכִרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי־עֵשֶׂב׃", 32.11. "כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃", 4.1. "And now, O Israel, hearken unto the statutes and unto the ordices, which I teach you, to do them; that ye may live, and go in and possess the land which the LORD, the God of your fathers, giveth you.", 4.2. "Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you.", 4.3. "Your eyes have seen what the LORD did in Baal-peor; for all the men that followed the Baal of Peor, the LORD thy God hath destroyed them from the midst of thee.", 4.4. "But ye that did cleave unto the LORD your God are alive every one of you this day.", 4.5. "Behold, I have taught you statutes and ordices, even as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the midst of the land whither ye go in to possess it.", 4.6. "Observe therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples, that, when they hear all these statutes, shall say: ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’", 4.7. "For what great nation is there, that hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is whensoever we call upon Him?", 4.8. "And what great nation is there, that hath statutes and ordices so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?", 4.9. "Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes saw, and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life; but make them known unto thy children and thy children’s children;", 4.10. "the day that thou stoodest before the LORD thy God in Horeb, when the LORD said unto me: ‘Assemble Me the people, and I will make them hear My words that they may learn to fear Me all the days that they live upon the earth, and that they may teach their children.’", 4.11. "And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the heart of heaven, with darkness, cloud, and thick darkness.", 5.12. "Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee.", 5.13. "Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;", 5.14. "but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou.", 5.15. "And thou shalt remember that thou was a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day.", 6.4. "HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE.", 6.5. "And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.", 6.6. "And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;", 6.7. "and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 6.8. "And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes.", 8.19. "And it shall be, if thou shalt forget the LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I forewarn you this day that ye shall surely perish.", 9.7. "Remember, forget thou not, how thou didst make the LORD thy God wroth in the wilderness; from the day that thou didst go forth out of the land of Egypt, until ye came unto this place, ye have been rebellious against the LORD.", 9.27. "Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;", 11.32. "And ye shall observe to do all the statutes and the ordices which I set before you this day.", 12.1. "These are the statutes and the ordices, which ye shall observe to do in the land which the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath given thee to possess it, all the days that ye live upon the earth.", 18.9. "When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations.", 18.10. "There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer,", 18.11. "or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer.", 18.12. "For whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD; and because of these abominations the LORD thy God is driving them out from before thee.", 18.13. "Thou shalt be whole-hearted with the LORD thy God.", 18.14. "For these nations, that thou art to dispossess, hearken unto soothsayers, and unto diviners; but as for thee, the LORD thy God hath not suffered thee so to do.", 24.8. "Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you, as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do.", 24.9. "Remember what the LORD thy God did unto Miriam, by the way as ye came forth out of Egypt.", 24.19. "When thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go back to fetch it; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hands.", 25.17. "Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way as ye came forth out of Egypt;", 25.18. "how he met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee, all that were enfeebled in thy rear, when thou wast faint and weary; and he feared not God.", 25.19. "Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget.", 32.2. "My doctrine shall drop as the rain, My speech shall distil as the dew; As the small rain upon the tender grass, And as the showers upon the herb.", 32.11. "As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—",
15. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 5.10-5.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •qedusha,recitation of Found in books: Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 73
5.11. "רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃", 5.12. "עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃", 5.13. "לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃", 5.14. "יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃", 5.15. "שׁוֹקָיו עַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מְיֻסָּדִים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָז מַרְאֵהוּ כַּלְּבָנוֹן בָּחוּר כָּאֲרָזִים׃", 5.16. "חִכּוֹ מַמְתַקִּים וְכֻלּוֹ מַחֲּמַדִּים זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃", 5.10. ’My beloved is white and ruddy, Pre-eminent above ten thousand. 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven. 5.12. His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set. 5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh. 5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires. 5.15. His legs are as pillars of marble, Set upon sockets of fine gold; His aspect is like Lebanon, Excellent as the cedars. 5.16. His mouth is most sweet; Yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.’
16. Hebrew Bible, Job, 31.27, 33.27-33.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation •scripture, recitation of Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 185; Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 91
31.27. "וַיִּפְתְּ בַּסֵּתֶר לִבִּי וַתִּשַּׁק יָדִי לְפִי׃", 33.27. "יָשֹׁר עַל־אֲנָשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר חָטָאתִי וְיָשָׁר הֶעֱוֵיתִי וְלֹא־שָׁוָה לִי׃", 33.28. "פָּדָה נפשי [נַפְשׁוֹ] מֵעֲבֹר בַּשָּׁחַת וחיתי [וְחַיָּתוֹ] בָּאוֹר תִּרְאֶה׃", 31.27. "And my heart hath been secretly enticed, And my mouth hath kissed my hand;", 33.27. "He cometh before men, and saith: ‘I have sinned, and perverted that which was right, And it profited me not.’", 33.28. "So He redeemeth his soul from going into the pit, And his life beholdeth the light.",
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, None (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •3 maccabees, public recitation of •readers of 2 maccabees, public recitation Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
18. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 30.21, 33.22, 61.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •angels, recitations of •recitation •piyyutim, manner of recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 234; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 132; Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 114
6.3. "וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃", 30.21. "וְאָזְנֶיךָ תִּשְׁמַעְנָה דָבָר מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ לֵאמֹר זֶה הַדֶּרֶךְ לְכוּ בוֹ כִּי תַאֲמִינוּ וְכִי תַשְׂמְאִילוּ׃", 33.22. "כִּי יְהוָה שֹׁפְטֵנוּ יְהוָה מְחֹקְקֵנוּ יְהוָה מַלְכֵּנוּ הוּא יוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ׃", 6.3. "And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.", 30.21. "And thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying: ‘This is the way, walk ye in it, When ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left.’", 33.22. "For the LORD is our Judge, The LORD is our Lawgiver, The LORD is our King; He will save us.", 61.10. "I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.",
19. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.18, 17.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •divine names, recitation of •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 29; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 127
13.18. "וַיֹּאמֶר לּוֹ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה לָמָּה זֶּה תִּשְׁאַל לִשְׁמִי וְהוּא־פֶלִאי׃", 17.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר לְאִמּוֹ אֶלֶף וּמֵאָה הַכֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח־לָךְ ואתי [וְאַתְּ] אָלִית וְגַם אָמַרְתְּ בְּאָזְנַי הִנֵּה־הַכֶּסֶף אִתִּי אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיו וַתֹּאמֶר אִמּוֹ בָּרוּךְ בְּנִי לַיהוָה׃", 13.18. "And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is hidden?", 17.2. "And he said to his mother, The eleven hundred shekels of silver that were taken from thee, about which thou didst pronounce a curse, uttering it also in my ears, behold, the silver is with me; I took it. And his mother said, Blessed be thou of the Lord, my son.",
20. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 3.16, 5.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 288; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 75
3.16. "וַיַּגְרֵס בֶּחָצָץ שִׁנָּי הִכְפִּישַׁנִי בָּאֵפֶר׃", 5.1. "עוֹרֵנוּ כְּתַנּוּר נִכְמָרוּ מִפְּנֵי זַלְעֲפוֹת רָעָב׃", 5.1. "זְכֹר יְהוָה מֶה־הָיָה לָנוּ הביט [הַבִּיטָה] וּרְאֵה אֶת־חֶרְפָּתֵנוּ׃", 3.16. "He hath also broken my teeth with gravel stones, He hath made me to wallow in ashes.", 5.1. "Remember, O LORD, what is come upon us; Behold, and see our reproach.",
21. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, None (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 149
22. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8, 4.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation •recitation, communal •recitation, public Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 181; Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236
1.8. "לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃", 4.7. "וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר נִכְרְתוּ מֵימֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מִפְּנֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה בְּעָבְרוֹ בַּיַּרְדֵּן נִכְרְתוּ מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן וְהָיוּ הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה לְזִכָּרוֹן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 1.8. "This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success.", 4.7. "then ye shall say unto them: Because the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the ark of the covet of the LORD; when it passed over the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off; and these stones shall be for a memorial unto the children of Israel for ever.’",
23. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 32.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256
32.8. "כָּל־מְאוֹרֵי אוֹר בַּשָּׁמַיִם אַקְדִּירֵם עָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי חֹשֶׁךְ עַל־אַרְצְךָ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃", 32.8. "All the bright lights of heaven Will I make black over thee, And set darkness upon thy land, Saith the Lord GOD.",
24. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 30.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 189
30.9. "כִּי בְשׁוּבְכֶם עַל־יְהוָה אֲחֵיכֶם וּבְנֵיכֶם לְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שׁוֹבֵיהֶם וְלָשׁוּב לָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת כִּי־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְלֹא־יָסִיר פָּנִים מִכֶּם אִם־תָּשׁוּבוּ אֵלָיו׃", 30.9. "For if ye turn back unto the LORD, your brethren and your children shall find compassion before them that led them captive, and shall come back into this land; for the LORD your God is gracious and merciful, and will not turn away His face from you, if ye return unto Him.’",
25. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 15.25, 15.28, 16.1, 16.8-16.36 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 123, 149, 153
15.25. "וַיְהִי דָוִיד וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׂרֵי הָאֲלָפִים הַהֹלְכִים לְהַעֲלוֹת אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה מִן־בֵּית עֹבֵד־אֱדֹם בְּשִׂמְחָה׃", 15.28. "וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲלִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר וּבַחֲצֹצְרוֹת וּבִמְצִלְתָּיִם מַשְׁמִעִים בִּנְבָלִים וְכִנֹּרוֹת׃", 16.1. "וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וַיַּצִּיגוּ אֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל אֲשֶׁר נָטָה־לוֹ דָּוִיד וַיַּקְרִיבוּ עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 16.1. "הִתְהַלְלוּ בְּשֵׁם קָדְשׁוֹ יִשְׂמַח לֵב מְבַקְשֵׁי יְהוָה׃", 16.8. "הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה קִרְאוּ בִשְׁמוֹ הוֹדִיעוּ בָעַמִּים עֲלִילֹתָיו׃", 16.9. "שִׁירוּ לוֹ זַמְּרוּ־לוֹ שִׂיחוּ בְּכָל־נִפְלְאֹתָיו׃", 16.11. "דִּרְשׁוּ יְהוָה וְעֻזּוֹ בַּקְּשׁוּ פָנָיו תָּמִיד׃", 16.12. "זִכְרוּ נִפְלְאֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מֹפְתָיו וּמִשְׁפְּטֵי־פִיהוּ׃", 16.13. "זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדּוֹ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב בְּחִירָיו׃", 16.14. "הוּא יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ מִשְׁפָּטָיו׃", 16.15. "זִכְרוּ לְעוֹלָם בְּרִיתוֹ דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר׃", 16.16. "אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וּשְׁבוּעָתוֹ לְיִצְחָק׃", 16.17. "וַיַּעֲמִידֶהָ לְיַעֲקֹב לְחֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃", 16.18. "לֵאמֹר לְךָ אֶתֵּן אֶרֶץ־כְּנָעַן חֶבֶל נַחֲלַתְכֶם׃", 16.19. "בִּהְיוֹתְכֶם מְתֵי מִסְפָּר כִּמְעַט וְגָרִים בָּהּ׃", 16.21. "לֹא־הִנִּיחַ לְאִישׁ לְעָשְׁקָם וַיּוֹכַח עֲלֵיהֶם מְלָכִים׃", 16.22. "אַל־תִּגְּעוּ בִּמְשִׁיחָי וּבִנְבִיאַי אַל־תָּרֵעוּ׃", 16.23. "שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ בַּשְּׂרוּ מִיּוֹם־אֶל־יוֹם יְשׁוּעָתוֹ׃", 16.24. "סַפְּרוּ בַגּוֹיִם אֶת־כְּבוֹדוֹ בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים נִפְלְאֹתָיו׃", 16.25. "כִּי גָדוֹל יְהוָה וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד וְנוֹרָא הוּא עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִים׃", 16.26. "כִּי כָּל־אֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֱלִילִים וַיהוָה שָׁמַיִם עָשָׂה׃", 16.27. "הוֹד וְהָדָר לְפָנָיו עֹז וְחֶדְוָה בִּמְקֹמוֹ׃", 16.28. "הָבוּ לַיהוָה מִשְׁפְּחוֹת עַמִּים הָבוּ לַיהוָה כָּבוֹד וָעֹז׃", 16.29. "הָבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבוֹד שְׁמוֹ שְׂאוּ מִנְחָה וּבֹאוּ לְפָנָיו הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַדְרַת־קֹדֶשׁ׃", 16.31. "יִשְׂמְחוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְתָגֵל הָאָרֶץ וְיֹאמְרוּ בַגּוֹיִם יְהוָה מָלָךְ׃", 16.32. "יִרְעַם הַיָּם וּמְלוֹאוֹ יַעֲלֹץ הַשָּׂדֶה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ׃", 16.33. "אָז יְרַנְּנוּ עֲצֵי הַיָּעַר מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי־בָא לִשְׁפּוֹט אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃", 16.34. "הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 16.35. "וְאִמְרוּ הוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעֵנוּ וְקַבְּצֵנוּ וְהַצִּילֵנוּ מִן־הַגּוֹיִם לְהֹדוֹת לְשֵׁם קָדְשֶׁךָ לְהִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ בִּתְהִלָּתֶךָ׃", 16.36. "בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעֹלָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן וְהַלֵּל לַיהוָה׃", 15.25. "So David, and the elders of Israel, and the captains over thousands, went to bring up the ark of the covet of the LORD out of the house of Obed-edom with joy.", 15.28. "Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covet of the LORD with shouting, and with sound of the horn, and with trumpets, and with cymbals, sounding aloud with psalteries and harps.", 16.1. "And they brought in the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tent that David had pitched for it, and they offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings before God.", 16.8. "O give thanks unto the LORD, call upon His name; Make known His doings among the peoples.", 16.9. "Sing unto Him, sing praises unto Him; Speak ye of all His marvellous works.", 16.10. "Glory ye in His holy name; Let the heart of them rejoice that seek the LORD.", 16.11. "Seek ye the LORD and His strength; Seek His face continually.", 16.12. "Remember His marvellous works that He hath done, His wonders, and the judgments of His mouth;", 16.13. "O ye seed of Israel His servant, Ye children of Jacob, His chosen ones.", 16.14. "He is the LORD our God; His judgments are in all the earth.", 16.15. "Remember His covet for ever, The word which He commanded to a thousand generations;", 16.16. "[The covet] which He made with Abraham, And His oath unto Isaac;", 16.17. "And He established it unto Jacob for a statute, To Israel for an everlasting covet;", 16.18. "Saying: ‘Unto thee will I give the land of Canaan, The lot of your inheritance.’", 16.19. "When ye were but a few men in number, Yea, very few, and sojourners in it,", 16.20. "And when they went about from nation to nation, And from one kingdom to another people,", 16.21. "He suffered no man to do them wrong, Yea, for their sake He reproved kings:", 16.22. "’Touch not Mine anointed ones, And do My prophets no harm.’", 16.23. "Sing unto the LORD, all the earth; Proclaim His salvation from day to day.", 16.24. "Declare His glory among the nations, His marvellous works among all the peoples.", 16.25. "For great is the LORD, and highly to be praised; He also is to be feared above all gods.", 16.26. "For all the gods of the peoples are things of nought; But the LORD made the heavens.", 16.27. "Honour and majesty are before Him; Strength and gladness are in His place.", 16.28. "Ascribe unto the LORD, ye kindreds of the peoples, Ascribe unto the LORD glory and strength.", 16.29. "Ascribe unto the LORD the glory due unto His name; Bring an offering, and come before Him; Worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness.", 16.30. "Tremble before Him, all the earth; The world also is established that it cannot be moved.", 16.31. "Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice; And let them say among the nations: ‘The LORD reigneth.’", 16.32. "Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; Let the field exult, and all that is therein;", 16.33. "Then shall the trees of the wood sing for joy, Before the LORD, for He is come to judge the earth.", 16.34. "O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; For His mercy endureth for ever.", 16.35. "And say ye: ‘Save us, O God of our salvation, And gather us together and deliver us from the nations, That we may give thanks unto Thy holy name, That we may triumph in Thy praise.’", 16.36. "Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, From everlasting even to everlasting. And all the people said: ‘Amen, ‘and praised the LORD.",
26. Herodotus, Histories, 1.39.2 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •olympia,, recitation at Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 94
1.39.2. You say that the dream told you that I should be killed by a spear of iron? But has a boar hands? Has it that iron spear which you dread? Had the dream said I should be killed by a tusk or some other thing proper to a boar, you would be right in acting as you act; but no, it was to be by a spear. Therefore, since it is not against men that we are to fight, let me go.”
27. Hippias of Elis, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •olympia,, recitation at Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 7
28. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 153, 189
29. Hippias of Elis, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •olympia,, recitation at Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 7
30. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 77
31. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 2.8 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •olympia,, recitation at Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 7
32. Ennius, Annales, None (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ovid, on recitations •recitation, ovid on •recitation, role of Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 219
33. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 19.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, communal •recitation, public •divine names, recitation of Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236; Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 109
34. Dead Sea Scrolls, Papdibhamb, 125, 1-4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 288
35. Dead Sea Scrolls, Festival Prayersc 4Q509, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 288
36. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 10.3, 10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •recitation, communal •recitation, public Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236, 256
37. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q504, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 249, 256
38. Varro, Fragments, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •recitation, in rome Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 191
39. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 222
40. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.13, 10.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, communal •recitation, public •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236, 256
41. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.13-9.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 116
42. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 5.116 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •publication, recitation as precursor to •recitation, and horace •recitation, as precursor to publication •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, of poetry •recitation, texts Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 213
5.116. In surditate vero quidnam est mali? erat surdaster sudaster GRV 1 ( corr. 1 ) M. Crassus, in ...7 Crassus Non. 176, 22 erat... Crassus Prisc. GL. 2.114,16 sed aliud molestius, quod male audiebat, etiamsi, ut mihi videbatur, iniuria. Epicurei Epicurei s ( etiam F) del. ( vel operarii subst. ) Dav. nostri Graece fere nesciunt nec Graeci Latine. ergo hi hic V in illorum et illi in horum sermone surdi, omnesque item item Urb. 323 ( s. XV ) Man. id X om. F s nos in is is his X eis F linguis quas non intellegimus, quae sunt innumerabiles, surdi profecto sumus. at at FH(?)BR e corr. vocem citharoedi citaroedi GV citharędi KH (e) non audiunt . aut X ne ne nec K stridorem quidem serrae, serrae F s fere X tum cum acuitur, aut grunditum, grunditum X Non. grunnitum FR 2 V b cum iugulatur, suis aut... 15 suis Non. 114,26 nec, cum quiescere volunt, fremitum murmurantis maris; et si cantus eos forte delectant, primum cogitare debent, ante quam hi sint inventi, multos beate vixisse sapientes, deinde multo maiorem percipi posse legendis his quam audiendis voluptatem.
43. Cicero, Orator, 54-60, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 211
44. Cicero, In Pisonem, 71, 70 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 210
45. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 9.24.2-9.24.3, 9.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204
46. Cicero, Letters, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204
47. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 9.13, 13.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256
48. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.13-9.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 116
49. Cicero, On Duties, 1.144, 1.147, 2.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •ovid, on recitations •recitation •recitation, ovid on •recitation, and horace •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, of little interest to poets •recitation, role of •publication, recitation as precursor to •recitation, as precursor to publication Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204, 208, 209, 218
1.144. Talis est igitur ordo actionum adhibendus, ut, quem ad modum in oratione constanti, sic in vita omnia sint apta inter se et convenientia; turpe enimn valdeque vitiosum in re severa convivio digna aut delicatum aliquem inferre sermonem. Bene Pericles, cum haberet collegam in praetura Sophoclem poëtam iique de communi officio convenissent et casu formosus puer praeteriret dixissetque Sophocles: O puerum pulchrum, Pericle! At enim praetorem, Sophocle, decet non solum manus, sed etiam oculos abstinentes habere. Atqui hoc idem Sophocles si in athletarum probatione dixisset, iusta reprehensione caruisset. Tanta vis est et loci et temporis. Ut, si qui, cum causam sit acturus, in itinere aut in ambulatione secum ipse meditetur, aut si quid aliud attentius cogitet, non reprehendatur, at hoc idem si in convivio faciat, inhumanus videatur inscitia temporis. 1.147. Nec vero alienum est ad ea eligenda, quae dubitationem afferunt, adhibere doctos homines vel etiam usu peritos et, quid iis de quoque officii genere placeat, exquirere. Maior enim pars eo fere deferri solet, quo a natura ipsa deducitur. In quibus videndum est, non modo quid quisque loquatur, sed etiam quid quisque sentiat atque etiam de qua causa quisque sentiat. Ut enim pictores et ii, qui signa fabricantur, et vero etiam poeitae suum quisque opus a vulgo considerari vult, ut, si quid reprehensum sit a pluribus, id corrigatur, iique et secum et ab aliis, quid in eo peccatum sit, exquirunt, sic aliorum iudicio permulta nobis et facienda et non facienda et mutanda et corrigenda sunt. 2.31. Honore et gloria et benivolentia civium fortasse non aeque omnes egent, sed tamen, si cui haec suppetunt, adiuvant aliquantum cum ad cetera, tum ad amicitias comparandas. Sed de amicitia alio libro dictum est, qui inscribitur Laelius; nunc dicamus de gloria, quamquam ea quoque de re duo sunt nostri libri, sed attingamus, quandoquidem ea in rebus maioribus administrandis adiuvat plurimum. Summa igitur et perfecta gloria constat ex tribus his: si diligit multitudo, si fidem habet, si cum admiratione quadam honore dignos putat. Haec autem, si est simpliciter breviterque dicendum, quibus rebus pariuntur a singulis, eisdem fere a multitudine. Sed est alius quoque quidam aditus ad multitudinem, ut in universorum animos tamquam influere possimus. 1.144.  Such orderliness of conduct is, therefore, to be observed, that everything in the conduct of our life shall balance and harmonize, as in a finished speech. For it is unbecoming and highly censurable, when upon a serious theme, to introduce such jests as are proper at a dinner, or any sort of loose talk. When Pericles was associated with the poet Sophocles as his colleague in command and they had met to confer about official business that concerned them both, a handsome boy chanced to pass and Sophocles said: "Look, Pericles; what a pretty boy!" How pertinent was Pericles's reply: "Hush, Sophocles, a general should keep not only his hands but his eyes under control." And yet, if Sophocles had made this same remark at a trial of athletes, he would have incurred no just reprimand. So great is the significance of both place and circumstance. For example, if anyone, while on a journey or on a walk, should rehearse to himself a case which he is preparing to conduct in court, or if he should under similar circumstances apply his closest thought to some other subject, he would not be open to censure: but if he should do that same thing at a dinner, he would be thought ill-bred, because he ignored the proprieties of the occasion. 1.147.  Nor is it out of place in making a choice between duties involving a doubt, to consult men of learning or practical wisdom and to ascertain what their views are on any particular question of duty. For the majority usually drift as the current of their own natural inclinations carries them; and in deriving counsel from one of these, we have to see not only what our adviser says, but also what he thinks, and what his reasons are for thinking as he does. For, as painters and sculptors and even poets, too, wish to have their works reviewed by the public, in order that, if any point is generally criticized, it may be improved; and as they try to discover both by themselves and with the help of others what is wrong in their work; so through consulting the judgment of others we find that there are many things to be done and left undone, to be altered and improved. 2.31.  All men do not, perhaps, stand equally in need of political honour, fame and the good-will of their fellow-citizens; nevertheless, if these honours come to a man, they help in many ways, and especially in the acquisition of friends. But friendship has been discussed in another book of mine, entitled "Laelius." Let us now take up the discussion of Glory, although I have published two books on that subject also. Still, let us touch briefly on it here, since it is of very great help in the conduct of more important business. The highest, truest glory depends upon the following three things: the affection, the confidence, and the mingled admiration and esteem of the people. Such sentiments, if I may speak plainly and concisely, are awakened in the masses in the same way as in individuals. But there is also another avenue of approach to the masses, by which we can, as it were, steal into the hearts of all at once.
50. Anon., Jubilees, 1.8, 1.14, 6.34, 23.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 5
1.8. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them. 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 23.19. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they will say regarding him: "He hath lived long,
51. Anon., Testament of Job, 49-50, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
52. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.24, 2.27, 4.47, 7.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •3 maccabees, public recitation of •readers of 2 maccabees, public recitation Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
2.24. For considering the flood of numbers involved and the difficulty there is for those who wish to enter upon the narratives of history because of the mass of material,' 2.27. just as it is not easy for one who prepares a banquet and seeks the benefit of others. However, to secure the gratitude of many we will gladly endure the uncomfortable toil,' 4.47. Menelaus, the cause of all the evil, he acquitted of the charges against him, while he sentenced to death those unfortunate men, who would have been freed uncondemned if they had pleaded even before Scythians.' 7.4. These were heated immediately, and he commanded that the tongue of their spokesman be cut out and that they scalp him and cut off his hands and feet, while the rest of the brothers and the mother looked on.'
53. Polybius, Histories, 12.27.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •3 maccabees, public recitation of •readers of 2 maccabees, public recitation Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
12.27.3. δοκεῖ μὲν γὰρ καὶ τὴν ἐμπειρικὴν περὶ ἕκαστα δύναμιν καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ τῆς πολυπραγμοσύνης ἕξιν παρεσκευάσθαι καὶ συλλήβδην φιλοπόνως προσεληλυθέναι πρὸς τὸ γράφειν τὴν ἱστορίαν, 12.27.3. τῶν μὲν γὰρ διὰ τῆς ὁράσεως εἰς τέλος ἀπέστη, τῶν δὲ διὰ τῆς ἀκοῆς ἀντεποιήσατο. καὶ ταύτης διμεροῦς οὔσης τινός, τοῦ μὲν διὰ τῶν ὑπομνημάτων τὸ δὲ περὶ τὰς ἀνακρίσεις ῥᾳθύμως ἀνεστράφη, καθάπερ ἐν τοῖς ἀνώτερον ἡμῖν δεδήλωται. 12.27.3.  For he entirely avoids employing his eyes and prefers to employ his ears. Now the knowledge derived from hearing being of two sorts, Timaeus diligently pursued the one, the reading of books, as I have above pointed out, but was very remiss in his use of the other, the interrogation of living witnesses.
54. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 5.2, 7.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •3 maccabees, public recitation of •readers of 2 maccabees, public recitation Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
5.2. and ordered him on the following day to drug all the elephants -- five hundred in number -- with large handfuls of frankincense and plenty of unmixed wine, and to drive them in, maddened by the lavish abundance of liquor, so that the Jews might meet their doom. 7.23. Blessed be the Deliverer of Israel through all times! Amen.
55. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 38.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 90
38.26. He sets his heart on plowing furrows,and he is careful about fodder for the heifers.
56. Cicero, De Oratore, 213-220, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 211
57. Varro, On The Latin Language, 340 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204
58. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 136 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •3 maccabees, public recitation of •readers of 2 maccabees, public recitation Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
136. There are a vast number of parties in the city whose association is founded in no one good principle, but who are united by wine, and drunkenness, and revelry, and the offspring of those indulgencies, insolence; and their meetings are called synods and couches by the natives.
59. Horace, Odes, 1.3.4, 3.11.6, 3.25.4, 3.27.20, 4.2.45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, for entertainment •ovid, on recitations •recitation, ovid on •recitation, role of Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204, 205, 219
60. Nepos, Atticus, 14.203 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 205
61. Ovid, Amores, 1.15.25-1.15.30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •ovid, on recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, ovid on •recitation, and horace •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, role of •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 203, 219
1.15.25. Tityrus et segetes Aeneiaque arma legentur, 1.15.26. Roma triumphati dum caput orbis erit; 1.15.27. Donec erunt ignes arcusque Cupidinis arma, 1.15.28. Discentur numeri, culte Tibulle, tui; 1.15.29. Gallus et Hesperiis et Gallus notus Eois, 1.15.30. Et sua cum Gallo nota Lycoris erit.
62. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 2.283-2.284 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ovid, on recitations •recitation, ovid on •recitation, role of Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 219
2.283. Utraque laudetur per carmina: carmina lector 2.284. rend=
63. Ovid, Epistulae Ex Ponto, 2.4.13-2.4.18, 4.1, 4.2.35-4.2.38 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, role of •recitation, and horace •ovid, on recitations •recitation •recitation, ovid on •recitation, of little interest to poets Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 208, 218, 219, 224
4.1. Accipe, Pompei, deductum carmen ab illo, 4.1. Quod legis, o vates magnorum maxime regum, 4.1. Conquerar, an taceam? ponam sine nomine crimen, 4.1. Nulla dies adeo est australibus umida nimbis, 4.1. Ite, leves elegi, doctas ad consulis aures, 4.1. Quam legis, ex illis tibi venit epistula, Brute, 4.1. Missus es Euxinas quoniam, Vestalis, ad undas, 4.1. Littera sera quidem, studiis exculte Suilii, 4.1. Unde licet, non unde iuvat, Graecine, salutem 4.1. Haec mihi Cimmerio bis tertia ducitur aestas 4.1. Gallio, crimen erit vix excusabile nobis, 4.1. Quo minus in nostris ponaris, amice, libellis, 4.1. O mihi non dubios inter memorande sodales, 4.1. Haec tibi mittuntur, quem sum modo carmine questus 4.1. Siquis adhuc usquam nostri non inmemor extat, 4.1. Invide, quid laceras Nasonis carmina rapti?
64. Ovid, Metamorphoses, a b c d\n0 7.141 7.141 7 141\n1 7.120 7.120 7 120\n2 7.119 7.119 7 119\n3 7.118 7.118 7 118\n4 7.114 7.114 7 114\n.. ... ... .. ...\n401 7.82 7.82 7 82 \n402 7.80 7.80 7 80 \n403 7.86 7.86 7 86 \n404 7.81 7.81 7 81 \n405 7.85 7.85 7 85 \n\n[406 rows x 4 columns] (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Keith and Edmondson (2016), Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle 141
7.141. Terrigenae pereunt per mutua vulnera fratres
65. Ovid, Tristia, 1.1, 2.519-2.520, 3.7.18-3.7.27, 3.14.35-3.14.52, 4.1.89-4.1.90, 4.10.43-4.10.50, 4.10.113, 5.1.23, 5.7.25-5.7.28, 5.12.53 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, and horace •recitation, book used in addition to •pliny the younger, on recitations •vergil, and recitation •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and vergil •recitation, of poetry •recitation, stand in for •ovid, on recitations •recitation, ovid on •recitation, role of •recitation, as one time event •recitation •recitation, of little interest to poets •ligurinus, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, for living authors of own works Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 201, 202, 203, 204, 208, 212, 218, 219, 224, 225
1.1. Parve—nec invideo—sine me, liber, ibis in urbem, 1.1. Di maris et caeli—quid enim nisi vota supersunt?— 1.1. Cum subit illius tristissima noctis imago, 1.1. Tinguitur oceano custos Erymanthidos ursae, 1.1. O mihi post nullos umquam note xml:id= 1.1. Nec tantum Clario est Lyde dilecta poetae, 1.1. Siquis habes nostris similes in imagine vultus, 1.1. In caput alta suum labentur ab aequore retro 1.1. Detur inoffenso vitae tibi tangere metam, 1.1. Est mihi sitque, precor, flavae tutela Minervae, 1.1. Littera quaecumque est toto tibi lecta libello, 2.519. et mea sunt populo saltata poemata saepe, 2.520. saepe oculos etiam detinuere tuos.
66. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 5.26.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •3 maccabees, public recitation of •readers of 2 maccabees, public recitation Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
5.26.3.  The Gauls are exceedingly addicted to the use of wine and fill themselves with the wine which is brought into their country by merchants, drinking it unmixed, and since they partake of this drink without moderation by reason of their craving for it, when they are drunken they fall into a stupor or a state of madness. Consequently many of the Italian traders, induced by the love of money which characterizes them, believe that the love of wine of these Gauls is their own godsend. For these transport the wine on the navigable rivers by means of boats and through the level plain on wagons, and receive for it an incredible price; for in exchange for a jar of wine they receive a slave, getting a servant in return for the drink.
67. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.28, 1.119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ovid, on recitations •recitation, ovid on •recitation, role of Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 219
1.28. quo magis aeternum da dictis, diva, leporem. 1.119. per gentis Italas hominum quae clara clueret;
68. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 260-266, 259 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
259. and the sacred scriptures testify in the case of every good man, that he is a prophet; for a prophet says nothing of his own, but everything which he says is strange and prompted by some one else; and it is not lawful for a wicked man to be an interpreter of God, as also no wicked man can be properly said to be inspired; but this statement is only appropriate to the wise man alone, since he alone is a sounding instrument of God's voice, being struck and moved to sound in an invisible manner by him.
69. Propertius, Elegies, 1.1.37-1.1.38, 2.13.11-2.13.12, 2.34.85-2.34.92 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ovid, on recitations •recitation, ovid on •recitation, role of •recitation •recitation, and horace •recitation, of little interest to poets Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 218, 219
70. Catullus, Poems, a b c d\n0 14 14 14 0 \n1 22 22 22 0 \n2 95.152 95.152 95 152\n3 165 165 165 0 \n4 170 170 170 0 \n5 172 172 172 0 \n6 189 189 189 0 \n7 218 218 218 0 \n8 35 35 35 0 \n9 44 44 44 0 \n10 16.13 16.13 16 13 \n11 44.12 44.12 44 12 \n12 36.1 36.1 36 1 \n13 10. 10. 10 \n14 47 47 47 0 \n15 28 28 28 0 \n16 50.123 50.123 50 123\n17 205 205 205 0 \n18 206 206 206 0 \n19 220 220 220 0 \n20 12 12 12 0 \n21 15 15 15 0 \n22 21 21 21 0 \n23 16.190 16.190 16 190\n24 11 11 11 0 \n25 9 9 9 0 \n26 6 6 6 0 \n27 26 26 26 0 \n28 23 23 23 0 \n29 4.5 4.5 4 5 \n30 68.33 68.33 68 33 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 218, 219, 225
71. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 3.333, 4.15-4.21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •avesta, recitation of Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 60, 72, 187
72. Vergil, Georgics, 1.299 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and horace •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, and propertius •recitation, and vergil •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 202, 203
1.299. Nudus ara, sere nudus; hiems ignava colono.
73. Vergil, Eclogues, 3.84-3.85 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pliny the younger, on recitations •vergil, and recitation •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and vergil •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 202
74. Vergil, Aeneis, 8.710, 12.168 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, of poetry Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 201, 204
8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 12.168. altars of turf and hearth-stones burning bright
75. Seneca The Elder, Controversies, None (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 203
7.1.27. inopia hominem Graecum laborasse, sensibus abundasse: itaque quotiens laetius aliquid describere ausus est, totiens substitit, utique cum se ad imitationem magni alicuius ingeni direxerat, sicut in hac controuersia fecit. nam in narratione, cum fratrem traditum sibi describeret, placuit sibi in hac explicatione una et infelici: nox erat concubia et omnia, iudices, canentia sub sideribus muta erant. MONTANVS IVLIVS qui comes fuit egregius poeta, aiebat illum imitari uoluisse VERGILL descriptionem: Nox erat et terras animalia fessa per omnis Alituum pecudumque genus sopor altus habebat. Virg. A. 8.26-27 At Vergilio imitationem bene cessisse, qui illos optimos uersus VARRONIS expressisset in melius: Desierant latrare canes urbesque silebant; Omnia noctis erant placida composta quiete. Solebat OVIDIVS de his uersibus dicere, fieri potuisse longe meliores, si secundi uersus ultima pars abscideretur et sic desineret: Omnia noctis erant. Varro quem uoluit sensum optime explicuit, Ouidius in illius uersu suum sensum inuenit: aliut enim intercisus uersus significaturus est, aliut totus significat.
76. Seneca The Elder, Suasoriae, 1.12, 2.20, 4.4-4.5 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, and horace •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 203
77. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.1, 2.2-2.3, 3.5, 7.4-7.6, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation •shema yisrael, rabbi akiva’s recitation •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 170, 174; Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 81, 86, 87, 137; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 153, 154, 168, 169
1.1. "מֵאֵימָתַי קוֹרִין אֶת שְׁמַע בְּעַרְבִית. מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁהַכֹּהֲנִים נִכְנָסִים לֶאֱכֹל בִּתְרוּמָתָן, עַד סוֹף הָאַשְׁמוּרָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עַד חֲצוֹת. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשָּׁחַר. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבָּאוּ בָנָיו מִבֵּית הַמִּשְׁתֶּה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא קָרִינוּ אֶת שְׁמַע. אָמַר לָהֶם, אִם לֹא עָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר, חַיָּבִין אַתֶּם לִקְרוֹת. וְלֹא זוֹ בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא כָּל מַה שֶּׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים עַד חֲצוֹת, מִצְוָתָן עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשָּׁחַר. הֶקְטֵר חֲלָבִים וְאֵבָרִים, מִצְוָתָן עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשָּׁחַר. וְכָל הַנֶּאֱכָלִים לְיוֹם אֶחָד, מִצְוָתָן עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשָּׁחַר. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים עַד חֲצוֹת, כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיק אֶת הָאָדָם מִן הָעֲבֵרָה: \n", 2.2. "אֵלּוּ הֵן בֵּין הַפְּרָקִים, בֵּין בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה לִשְׁנִיָּה, בֵּין שְׁנִיָּה לִשְׁמַע, וּבֵין שְׁמַע לִוְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ, בֵּין וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ לְוַיֹּאמֶר, בֵּין וַיֹּאמֶר לֶאֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בֵּין וַיֹּאמֶר לֶאֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב לֹא יַפְסִיק. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה, לָמָּה קָדְמָה שְׁמַע לִוְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ, אֶלָּא כְדֵי שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם תְּחִלָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל מִצְוֹת. וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ לְוַיֹּאמֶר, שֶׁוְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ נוֹהֵג בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה, וַיֹּאמֶר אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם: \n", 2.3. "הַקּוֹרֵא אֶת שְׁמַע וְלֹא הִשְׁמִיעַ לְאָזְנוֹ, יָצָא. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לֹא יָצָא. קָרָא וְלֹא דִקְדֵּק בְּאוֹתִיּוֹתֶיהָ, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר יָצָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר לֹא יָצָא. הַקּוֹרֵא לְמַפְרֵעַ, לֹא יָצָא. קָרָא וְטָעָה, יַחֲזֹר לְמָקוֹם שֶׁטָּעָה: \n" 3.5. "הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּתְּפִלָּה, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁהוּא בַעַל קְרִי, לֹא יַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא יְקַצֵּר. יָרַד לִטְבֹּל, אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת וְלִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁלֹּא תָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְכַּסֶּה וְיִקְרָא. וְאִם לָאו, יִתְכַּסֶּה בַמַּיִם וְיִקְרָא. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְכַּסֶּה, לֹא בַמַּיִם הָרָעִים וְלֹא בְמֵי הַמִּשְׁרָה, עַד שֶׁיַּטִּיל לְתוֹכָן מָיִם. וְכַמָּה יַרְחִיק מֵהֶם וּמִן הַצּוֹאָה, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת: \n", 7.4. "שְׁלשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ כְאֶחָד, אֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לֵחָלֵק, וְכֵן אַרְבָּעָה, וְכֵן חֲמִשָּׁה. שִׁשָּׁה נֶחֱלָקִין, עַד עֲשָׂרָה. וַעֲשָׂרָה אֵינָן נֶחֱלָקִין, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֶשְׂרִים: \n", 7.5. "שְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלוֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּקְצָתָן רוֹאִין אֵלּוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִים לְזִמּוּן. וְאִם לָאו, אֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן, וְאֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן. אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְבָרְכִין: \n", 9.5. "חַיָּב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרָעָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטּוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו) וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְיָ אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ. בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ, בִּשְׁנֵי יְצָרֶיךָ, בְּיֵצֶר טוֹב וּבְיֵצֶר רָע. וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת נַפְשֶׁךָ. וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מָמוֹנֶךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מִדָּה וּמִדָּה שֶׁהוּא מוֹדֵד לְךָ הֱוֵי מוֹדֶה לוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד. לֹא יָקֵל אָדָם אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח, שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקָּדָשִׁים. לֹא יִכָּנֵס לְהַר הַבַּיִת בְּמַקְלוֹ, וּבְמִנְעָלוֹ, וּבְפֻנְדָּתוֹ, וּבְאָבָק שֶׁעַל רַגְלָיו, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ קַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, וּרְקִיקָה מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר. כָּל חוֹתְמֵי בְרָכוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁקִּלְקְלוּ הַמִּינִין, וְאָמְרוּ, אֵין עוֹלָם אֶלָּא אֶחָד, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהוּ אוֹמְרִים, מִן הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעוֹלָם. וְהִתְקִינוּ, שֶׁיְּהֵא אָדָם שׁוֹאֵל אֶת שְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בַּשֵּׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (רות ב) וְהִנֵּה בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם, וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים יְיָ עִמָּכֶם, וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ, יְבָרֶכְךָ יְיָ. וְאוֹמֵר (שופטים ו) יְיָ עִמְּךָ גִּבּוֹר הֶחָיִל. וְאוֹמֵר (משלי כג) אַל תָּבוּז כִּי זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ. וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים קיט) עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר, הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ: \n", 1.1. "From what time may one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time that the priests enter [their houses] in order to eat their terumah until the end of the first watch, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: until dawn. Once it happened that his sons came home [late] from a wedding feast and they said to him: we have not yet recited the [evening] Shema. He said to them: if it is not yet dawn you are still obligated to recite. And not in respect to this alone did they so decide, but wherever the sages say “until midnight,” the mitzvah may be performed until dawn. The burning of the fat and the pieces may be performed till dawn. Similarly, all [the offerings] that are to be eaten within one day may be eaten till dawn. Why then did the sages say “until midnight”? In order to keep a man far from transgression.", 2.2. "These are the breaks between the sections: between the first blessing and the second, between the second and “Shema,” between “Shema” and “And it shall come to pass if you listen” between “And it shall come to pass if you listen” and “And the Lord said” and between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” (true and firm). Rabbi Judah says: between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” one should not interrupt. Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah said: Why was the section of “Shema” placed before that of “And it shall come to pass if you listen”? So that one should first accept upon himself the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven and then take upon himself the yoke of the commandments. Why does the section of “And it shall come to pass if you listen” come before that of “And the Lord said”? Because “And it shall come to pass if you listen” is customary during both day and night, whereas [the section] “And the Lord said” is customary only during the day.", 2.3. "One who recites the Shema without causing it to be heard by his own ear, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Yose says: he has not fulfilled his obligation. If he recited it without pronouncing the letters succinctly, Rabbi Yose says he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: he has not fulfilled his obligation. If he recites it out of order, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If he recites it and makes a mistake he goes back to the place where he made the mistake." 3.5. "If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits.", 7.4. "Three persons who have eaten together may not separate [to recite Birkat Hamazon]. Similarly four and similarly five. Six may separate, up until ten. And ten may not separate until there are twenty.", 7.5. "Two eating companies that were eating in the same room: When some of them can see some of the other they combine [for a zimun], but if not each group makes a zimun for itself. They do not bless over the wine until they put water into it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say they bless.", 9.5. "One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”",
78. Mishnah, Menachot, 13.1-13.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 12
13.1. "הֲרֵי עָלַי עִשָּׂרוֹן, יָבִיא אֶחָד. עֶשְׂרוֹנִים, יָבִיא שְׁנָיִם. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא שִׁשִּׁים עִשָּׂרוֹן. הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחָה, יָבִיא אֵיזוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יָבִיא מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, שֶׁהִיא מְיֻחֶדֶת שֶׁבַּמְּנָחוֹת: \n", 13.2. "מִנְחָה, מִין הַמִּנְחָה, יָבִיא אֶחָת. מְנָחוֹת, מִין הַמְּנָחוֹת, יָבִיא שְׁתָּיִם. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא חֲמִשְׁתָּן. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי מִנְחָה שֶׁל עֶשְׂרוֹנִים וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא מִנְחָה שֶׁל שִׁשִּׁים עִשָּׂרוֹן. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, יָבִיא מְנָחוֹת שֶׁל עֶשְׂרוֹנִים מֵאֶחָד וְעַד שִׁשִּׁים: \n", 13.3. "הֲרֵי עָלַי עֵצִים, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁנֵי גְזִירִין. לְבוֹנָה, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִקֹּמֶץ. חֲמִשָּׁה קֳמָצִים הֵן, הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְבוֹנָה, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִקֹּמֶץ. הַמִּתְנַדֵּב מִנְחָה, יָבִיא עִמָּהּ קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה. הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶת הַקֹּמֶץ בַּחוּץ, חַיָּב. וּשְׁנֵי בְזִיכִין טְעוּנִין שְׁנֵי קֳמָצִים: \n", 13.4. "הֲרֵי עָלַי זָהָב, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִדִּינַר זָהָב. כֶּסֶף, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִדִּינַר כָּסֶף. נְחשֶׁת, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִמָּעָה כָסֶף. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, הוּא מֵבִיא עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לֹא לְכָךְ נִתְכַּוָּנְתִּי: \n", 13.5. "הֲרֵי עָלַי יַיִן, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין. שֶׁמֶן, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִלֹּג. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא כַיּוֹם הַמְּרֻבֶּה: \n", 13.6. "הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה, יָבִיא כֶבֶשׂ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, אוֹ תוֹר אוֹ בֶן יוֹנָה. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי מִן הַבָּקָר וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פַר וָעֵגֶל. מִן הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פָר וָעֵגֶל אַיִל גְּדִי וְטָלֶה. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, מוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹר וּבֶן יוֹנָה: \n", 13.7. "הֲרֵי עָלַי תּוֹדָה, וּשְׁלָמִים, יָבִיא כֶבֶשׂ. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי מִן הַבָּקָר וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פָר וּפָרָה עֵגֶל וְעֶגְלָה. מִן הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פַר וּפָרָה, עֵגֶל וְעֶגְלָה, אַיִל וְרָחֵל, גְּדִי וּגְדִיָּה, שָׂעִיר וּשְׂעִירָה, טָלֶה וְטַלְיָה: \n", 13.8. "הֲרֵי עָלַי שׁוֹר, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בְּמָנֶה. עֵגֶל, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בְּחָמֵשׁ. אַיִל, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בִּשְׁתַּיִם. כֶּבֶשׂ, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בְּסָלַע. שׁוֹר בְּמָנֶה, יָבִיא בְמָנֶה חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. עֵגֶל בְּחָמֵשׁ, יָבִיא בְחָמֵשׁ חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. אַיִל בִּשְׁתַּיִם, יָבִיא בִשְׁתַּיִם חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. כֶּבֶשׂ בְּסֶלַע, יָבִיא בְסֶלַע חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. שׁוֹר בְּמָנֶה וְהֵבִיא שְׁנַיִם בְּמָנֶה, לֹא יָצָא, אֲפִלּוּ זֶה בְמָנֶה חָסֵר דִּינָר וְזֶה בְמָנֶה חָסֵר דִּינָר. שָׁחוֹר וְהֵבִיא לָבָן, לָבָן וְהֵבִיא שָׁחוֹר, גָּדוֹל וְהֵבִיא קָטָן, לֹא יָצָא. קָטָן וְהֵבִיא גָדוֹל, יָצָא. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, לֹא יָצָא: \n", 13.1. "[One who says], “I take upon myself to bring a tenth,” he must bring one [tenth]. “Tenths,” he must bring two [tenths]. [If he said,] “I specified [a certain number of tenths] but I do not know what number I specified,” he must bring sixty tenths [If he said,] “I take upon myself to bring a minhah,” he may bring whichever kind he chooses. Rabbi Judah says: he must bring a minhah of fine flour, for that is the distinctive [one] among the menahot.", 13.2. "[If he said] “A minhah” or “a kind of minhah,” he may bring one [of any kind]. [If he said] “Menahot” or “A kind from menahot,” he must bring two [of any one kind]. [If he said,] “I specified [a certain kind], but I do not know what kind I specified,” he must bring the five kinds. [If he said,] “I specified a minhah of [a certain number of] tenths but I do not know what number I specified,” he must bring sixty tenths. But Rabbi says, he must bring menahot [of every number] of tenths from one to sixty.", 13.3. "[If one said,] “I take upon myself to bring [pieces of] wood,” he must bring not less than two logs. “Frankincense,” he must bring not less than a handful. There are five cases of [not less than] a handful: One who says, “I take upon myself to bring frankincense,” he must bring not less than a handful. One who voluntarily offered a minhah must bring a handful of frankincense with it. One who offered up the handful outside [the Temp] is liable. The two dishes [of frankincense] require two handfuls.", 13.4. "“I take upon myself to offer gold,” he must bring not less than a golden denar. “Silver,” he must bring not less than a silver denar. “Copper,” he must bring not less than [the value of] a silver maah. [If he said] “I specified [how much I would bring] but I do not know what I specified,” he must bring until he says, “I certainly did not intend to give so much!”", 13.5. "[If one said,] “I take upon myself to bring wine,” he must bring not less than three logs. “Oil,” he must bring not less than one log; Rabbi says: not less than three logs. [If one said,] “I specified [how much I would offer] but I do not know how much I specified,” he must bring that quantity which is the most that is brought on any one day.", 13.6. "[If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer an olah,” he must bring a lamb. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah say: [he may bring] a turtle-dove or a young pigeon. [If he said,] “I specified a beast of the herd but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull and a calf. [If he said, “I specified] a beast of the cattle but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull, a bull calf, a ram, a he-goat, a he-kid, and a he-lamb. [If he said,] “I specified [some kind] but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must add to these a turtle-dove and a young pigeon.", 13.7. "[If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer a todah or a shelamim,” he must bring a lamb. [If he said,] “I specified a beast of the herd but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull and a cow, a bull calf and a heifer. [If he said, “I specified] a beast of the cattle but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull and a cow, a bull calf and a heifer, a ram and a ewe, a he-goat and a she-goat, a he-kid and a she-kid, a he-lamb and a ewe-lamb.", 13.8. "[If he said,] “I take upon myself to offer an ox,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of a maneh. “A calf,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of five selas. “A ram,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of two selas. “A lamb,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of one sela. If he said “An ox valued at one maneh,” he must bring one worth a maneh apart from its drink-offerings. “A calf valued at five selas,” he must bring one worth five selas apart from its drink-offerings. “A ram valued at two selas,” he must bring one worth two selas apart from its drink-offerings. “A lamb valued at one sela,” he must bring one worth one sela apart from its drink-offerings. [If he said, “I take upon myself to offer] an ox valued at a maneh,” and he brought two together worth a maneh, he has not fulfilled his obligation, even if one was worth a maneh less one denar and the other also was worth a maneh less one denar. [If he said] “A black one” and he brought a white one, or “a white one” and he brought a black one, or “a large one” and he brought a small one, he has not fulfilled his obligation. [If he said] “a small one” and he brought a large one, he has fulfilled his obligation; Rabbi says: he has not fulfilled his obligation.",
79. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 2.8, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 12
2.8. "הַסַּיָּד שֶׁשָּׁכַח עָצִיץ בַּבּוֹר וְנִתְמַלֵּא מַיִם, אִם הָיוּ הַמַּיִם צָפִים עַל גַּבָּיו כָּל שֶׁהוּא, יְשַׁבֵּר. וְאִם לָאו, לֹא יְשַׁבֵּר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ יְשַׁבֵּר: \n", 4.1. "הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלִים תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר, אֶחָד כֵּלִים גְּדוֹלִים וְאֶחָד כֵּלִים קְטַנִּים, אֲפִלּוּ כְלֵי גְלָלִים, כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים, כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה, פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. אֶחָד הַמַּנִּיחַ וְאֶחָד הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַהֲרִין בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, נִמְנוּ וְרַבּוּ בֵית שַׁמַּאי עַל בֵּית הִלֵּל. וּמוֹדִים בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, עֲדַיִין מַחֲלֹקֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ עוֹמָדֶת: \n", 2.8. "A plasterer forgot his lime-tub in a cistern and it became filled with water: if water flowed above it a little, it may be broken; and if not, it may not be broken, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But Rabbi Joshua says: in either case it may be broken.", 4.1. "If one put vessels under a water-spout, whether they be large vessels or small vessels or even vessels of dung, vessels of stone or earthen vessels, they make the mikveh invalid. It is all alike whether they were put there [purposely] or were [merely] forgotten, the words of Bet Shammai. But Bet Hillel declare it clean in the case of one who forgets. Rabbi Meir said: they voted and Bet Shammai had a majority over Bet Hillel. Yet they agree in the case of one who forgets [and leaves vessels] in a courtyard that the mikveh remains clean. Rabbi Yose said: the controversy still remains as it was.",
80. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.5, 11.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 47; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 45, 47
7.5. "הַמְגַדֵּף אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּפָרֵשׁ הַשֵּׁם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה, בְּכָל יוֹם דָּנִין אֶת הָעֵדִים בְּכִנּוּי יַכֶּה יוֹסֵי אֶת יוֹסֵי. נִגְמַר הַדִּין, לֹא הוֹרְגִים בְּכִנּוּי, אֶלָּא מוֹצִיאִים כָּל אָדָם לַחוּץ וְשׁוֹאֲלִים אֶת הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ אֱמֹר מַה שֶּׁשָּׁמַעְתָּ בְּפֵרוּשׁ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר, וְהַדַּיָּנִים עוֹמְדִין עַל רַגְלֵיהֶן וְקוֹרְעִין וְלֹא מְאַחִין. וְהַשֵּׁנִי אוֹמֵר אַף אֲנִי כָּמוֹהוּ, וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי אוֹמֵר אַף אֲנִי כָּמוֹהוּ: \n", 11.5. "נְבִיא הַשֶּׁקֶר הַמִּתְנַבֵּא עַל מַה שֶּׁלֹּא שָׁמַע וּמַה שֶּׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר לוֹ, מִיתָתוֹ בִידֵי אָדָם. אֲבָל הַכּוֹבֵשׁ אֶת נְבוּאָתוֹ, וְהַמְוַתֵּר עַל דִּבְרֵי נָבִיא, וְנָבִיא שֶׁעָבַר עַל דִּבְרֵי עַצְמוֹ, מִיתָתוֹ בִידֵי שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יח) אָנֹכִי אֶדְרשׁ מֵעִמּוֹ: \n", 7.5. "The blasphemer is punished only if he utters [the divine] name. Rabbi Joshua b. Korcha said: “The whole day [of the trial] the witnesses are examined by means of a substitute for the divine name:, ‘may Yose smite Yose.” When the trial was finished, the accused was not executed on this evidence, but all persons were removed [from court], and the chief witness was told, ‘State literally what you heard.’ Thereupon he did so, [using the divine name]. The judges then arose and tore their garments, which were not to be resewn. The second witness stated: “I too have heard thus” [but not uttering the divine name], and the third says: “I too heard thus.”", 11.5. "‘A false prophet’; he who prophesies what he has not heard, or what was not told to him, is executed by man. But he who suppresses his prophecy, or disregards the words of a prophet, or a prophet who transgresses his own word , his death is at the hands of heaven, as it says, “[And if anybody fails to heed the words he speaks in my name] I Myself will call him to account (Deut. 18:19).",
81. Mishnah, Shevuot, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 114
4.10. "עָמַד בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְאָמַר, מַשְׁבִּיעַ אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם שֶׁאִם אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִי עֵדוּת שֶׁתָּבֹאוּ וּתְעִידוּנִי, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְטוּרִין, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִתְכַּוֵּן לָהֶם: \n", 4.10. "[If] he stood in the synagogue and said, “I adjure you that if you know any testimony for me you should come and bear testimony for me”, they are exempt unless he directs himself to them.",
82. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.3, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 137, 182
1.3. "מָסְרוּ לוֹ זְקֵנִים מִזִּקְנֵי בֵית דִּין, וְקוֹרִין לְפָנָיו בְּסֵדֶר הַיּוֹם, וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ, אִישִׁי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, קְרָא אַתָּה בְּפִיךָ, שֶׁמָּא שָׁכַחְתָּ אוֹ שֶׁמָּא לֹא לָמָדְתָּ. עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שַׁחֲרִית, מַעֲמִידִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁעַר מִזְרָח, וּמַעֲבִירִין לְפָנָיו פָּרִים וְאֵילִים וּכְבָשִׂים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא מַכִּיר וְרָגִיל בָּעֲבוֹדָה: \n", 5.7. "כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הָאָמוּר עַל הַסֵּדֶר, אִם הִקְדִּים מַעֲשֶׂה לַחֲבֵרוֹ, לֹא עָשָׂה כְלוּם. הִקְדִּים דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר לְדַם הַפָּר, יַחֲזֹר וְיַזֶּה מִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר לְאַחַר דַּם הַפָּר. וְאִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא גָמַר אֶת הַמַּתָּנוֹת שֶׁבִּפְנִים נִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם, יָבִיא דָם אַחֵר וְיַחֲזֹר וְיַזֶּה בַתְּחִלָּה בִּפְנִים. וְכֵן בַּהֵיכָל, וְכֵן בְּמִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב, שֶׁכֻּלָּן כַּפָּרָה בִפְנֵי עַצְמָן. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, מִמְּקוֹם שֶׁפָּסַק, מִשָּׁם הוּא מַתְחִיל: \n", 1.3. "They delivered to him elders from the elders of the court and they read before him [throughout the seven days] from the order of the day. And they say to him, “Sir, high priest, you read it yourself with your own mouth, lest you have forgotten or lest you have never learned.” On the eve of Yom HaKippurim in the morning they place him at the eastern gate and pass before him oxen, rams and sheep, so that he may recognize and become familiar with the service.", 5.7. "Concerning every act of Yom Hakippurim mentioned in the prescribed order [in the mishnah]: if he performed one [later] act before an [earlier] one, it is as if it had not been done at all. If he dealt with the blood of the goat before the blood of the bull, he must start over again, and sprinkle the blood of the goat after the blood of the bull. If before he had finished the sprinklings within [the Holy of Holies] the blood was poured away, he must bring other blood, and start over again and sprinkle again within [the Holy of Holies]. Similarly, in the Hekhal and the golden altar, since they are each a separate act of atonement. Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: wherever he stopped, there he may begin again.",
83. Anon., Didache, 8.2-8.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
84. Suetonius, De Grammaticis, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 210
85. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
10.13. πειρασμὸς ὑμᾶς οὐκ εἴληφεν εἰ μὴ ἀνθρώπινος· πιστὸς δὲ ὁ θεός, ὃς οὐκ ἐάσει ὑμᾶς πειρασθῆναι ὑπὲρ ὃ δύνασθε, ἀλλὰ ποιήσει σὺν τῷ πειρασμῷ καὶ τὴν ἔκβασιν τοῦ δύνασθαι ὑπενεγκεῖν. 10.13. No temptation has taken you but such as man can bear. God isfaithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able,but will with the temptation also make the way of escape, that you maybe able to endure it.
86. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
3.3. Πιστὸς δέ ἐστιν ὁ κύριος, ὃς στηρίξει ὑμᾶς καὶ φυλάξει ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. 3.3. But the Lord is faithful, who will establish you, and guard you from the evil one.
87. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 10.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 12
10.7. "הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, גְּזַלְתִּיךָ, הִלְוִיתַנִי, הִפְקַדְתָּ אֶצְלִי, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם הֶחֱזַרְתִּי לְךָ אִם לֹא הֶחֱזַרְתִּי לְךָ, חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ, אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם גְּזַלְתִּיךָ, אִם הִלְוִיתַנִי, אִם הִפְקַדְתָּ אֶצְלִי, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּם: \n", 10.7. "If a man said to his fellow, “I robbed you”, [or], “You lent me [something]”, [or] “You deposited [something] with me, but I do not know whether I returned it or not” he is obligated to repay. But if he said, “I do not know whether I robbed you, [or], “whether you lent me [something]”, or “whether you deposited [something] with me”, he is exempt from repaying.",
88. Mishnah, Avot, 1.6, 3.2-3.8, 4.16 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 175, 176; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 117, 131, 157
1.6. "יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה וְנִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה לְךָ רַב, וּקְנֵה לְךָ חָבֵר, וֶהֱוֵי דָן אֶת כָּל הָאָדָם לְכַף זְכוּת: \n", 3.2. "רַבִּי חֲנִינָא סְגַן הַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מִתְפַּלֵּל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת, שֶׁאִלְמָלֵא מוֹרָאָהּ, אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ חַיִּים בְּלָעוֹ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן תְּרַדְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁנַיִם שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹשַׁב לֵצִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים א) וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב. אֲבָל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְיֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה בֵינֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג) אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי יְיָ אִישׁ אֶל רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב יְיָ וַיִּשְׁמָע וַיִּכָּתֵב סֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו לְיִרְאֵי יְיָ וּלְחֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם, מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קוֹבֵעַ לוֹ שָׂכָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ג) יֵשֵׁב בָּדָד וְיִדֹּם כִּי נָטַל עָלָיו:", 3.3. "רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד וְלֹא אָמְרוּ עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, כְּאִלּוּ אָכְלוּ מִזִּבְחֵי מֵתִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כח) כִּי כָּל שֻׁלְחָנוֹת מָלְאוּ קִיא צֹאָה בְּלִי מָקוֹם. אֲבָל שְׁלשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד וְאָמְרוּ עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, כְּאִלּוּ אָכְלוּ מִשֻּׁלְחָנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל מא) וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלַי זֶה הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי ה':", 3.4. "רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן חֲכִינַאי אוֹמֵר, הַנֵּעוֹר בַּלַּיְלָה וְהַמְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ יְחִידִי וְהַמְפַנֶּה לִבּוֹ לְבַטָּלָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ:", 3.5. "רַבִּי נְחוּנְיָא בֶּן הַקָּנָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל תּוֹרָה, מַעֲבִירִין מִמֶּנּוּ עֹל מַלְכוּת וְעֹל דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ. וְכָל הַפּוֹרֵק מִמֶּנּוּ עֹל תּוֹרָה, נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו עֹל מַלְכוּת וְעֹל דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ:", 3.6. "רַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא בֶן דּוֹסָא אִישׁ כְּפַר חֲנַנְיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְעוֹסְקִין בַּתּוֹרָה, שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה בֵינֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פב) אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ חֲמִשָּׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ט) וַאֲגֻדָּתוֹ עַל אֶרֶץ יְסָדָהּ. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ שְׁלשָׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פב) בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג) אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי ה' אִישׁ אֶל רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב ה' וַיִּשְׁמָע וְגוֹ'. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ) בְּכָל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי אָבֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ:", 3.7. "רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אִישׁ בַּרְתּוֹתָא אוֹמֵר, תֶּן לוֹ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאַתָּה וְשֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְכֵן בְּדָוִד הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברי הימים א כט) כִּי מִמְּךָ הַכֹּל וּמִיָּדְךָ נָתַנּוּ לָךְ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַמְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְשׁוֹנֶה, וּמַפְסִיק מִמִּשְׁנָתוֹ וְאוֹמֵר, מַה נָּאֶה אִילָן זֶה וּמַה נָּאֶה נִיר זֶה, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ:", 3.8. "רַבִּי דּוֹסְתַּאי בְּרַבִּי יַנַּאי מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ דָּבָר אֶחָד מִמִּשְׁנָתוֹ, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד) רַק הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ וּשְׁמֹר נַפְשְׁךָ מְאֹד פֶּן תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ. יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ תָקְפָה עָלָיו מִשְׁנָתוֹ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שם) וּפֶן יָסוּרוּ מִלְּבָבְךָ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ, הָא אֵינוֹ מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב וִיסִירֵם מִלִּבּוֹ:", 4.16. "רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דּוֹמֶה לִפְרוֹזְדוֹר בִּפְנֵי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. הַתְקֵן עַצְמְךָ בַפְּרוֹזְדוֹר, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לַטְּרַקְלִין: \n", 1.6. "Joshua ben Perahiah and Nittai the Arbelite received [the oral tradition] from them. Joshua ben Perahiah used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, and acquire for thyself a companion and judge all men with the scale weighted in his favor.", 3.2. "Rabbi Hanina, the vice-high priest said: pray for the welfare of the government, for were it not for the fear it inspires, every man would swallow his neighbor alive. R. Haiah ben Teradion said: if two sit together and there are no words of Torah [spoken] between them, then this is a session of scorners, as it is said: “nor sat he in the seat of the scornful…[rather, the teaching of the Lord is his delight]” (Psalms 1:1); but if two sit together and there are words of Torah [spoken] between them, then the Shekhinah abides among them, as it is said: “then they that feared the Lord spoke one with another; and the Lord hearkened and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the Lord and that thought upon His name” (Malachi 3:16). Now I have no [scriptural proof for the presence of the Shekhinah] except [among] two, how [do we know] that even one who sits and studies Torah the Holy One, blessed be He, fixes his reward? As it is said: “though he sit alone and [meditate] in stillness, yet he takes [a reward] unto himself” (Lamentations 3:28).", 3.3. "Rabbi Shimon said: if three have eaten at one table and have not spoken there words of Torah, [it is] as if they had eaten sacrifices [offered] to the dead, as it is said, “for all tables are full of filthy vomit, when the All-Present is absent” (Isaiah 28:8). But, if three have eaten at one table, and have spoken there words of Torah, [it is] as if they had eaten at the table of the All-Present, blessed be He, as it is said, “And He said unto me, ‘this is the table before the Lord’” (Ezekiel 41:2.", 3.4. "Rabbi Haiah ben Hakinai said: one who wakes up at night, or walks on the way alone and turns his heart to idle matters, behold, this man is mortally guilty.", 3.5. "Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakkanah said: whoever takes upon himself the yoke of the Torah, they remove from him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns, and whoever breaks off from himself the yoke of the Torah, they place upon him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns.", 3.6. "Rabbi Halafta of Kefar Haia said: when ten sit together and occupy themselves with Torah, the Shechinah abides among them, as it is said: “God stands in the congregation of God” (Psalm 82:. How do we know that the same is true even of five? As it is said: “This band of His He has established on earth” (Amos 9:6). How do we know that the same is true even of three? As it is said: “In the midst of the judges He judges” (Psalm 82:1) How do we know that the same is true even of two? As it is said: “Then they that fear the Lord spoke one with another, and the Lord hearkened, and heard” (Malachi 3:16). How do we know that the same is true even of one? As it is said: “In every place where I cause my name to be mentioned I will come unto you and bless you” (Exodus 20:21).", 3.7. "Rabbi Elazar of Bartotha said: give to Him of that which is His, for you and that which is yours is His; and thus it says with regards to David: “for everything comes from You, and from Your own hand have we given you” (I Chronicles 29:14). Rabbi Jacob said: if one is studying while walking on the road and interrupts his study and says, “how fine is this tree!” [or] “how fine is this newly ploughed field!” scripture accounts it to him as if he was mortally guilty.", 3.8. "Rabbi Dostai ben Rabbi Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: whoever forgets one word of his study, scripture accounts it to him as if he were mortally guilty, as it is said, “But take utmost care and watch yourselves scrupulously, so that you do not forget the things that you saw with your own eyes” (Deuteronomy 4:9). One could [have inferred that this is the case] even when his study proved [too] hard for him, therefore scripture says, “that they do not fade from your mind as long as you live” (ibid.). Thus, he is not mortally guilty unless he deliberately removes them from his heart.", 4.16. "Rabbi Jacob said: this world is like a vestibule before the world to come; prepare yourself in the vestibule, so that you may enter the banqueting-hall.",
89. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, a b c d\n0 11.3.81 11.3.81 11 3\n1 11.3.26 11.3.26 11 3\n2 11.3.25 11.3.25 11 3\n3 11.3.24 11.3.24 11 3\n4 11.3.23 11.3.23 11 3\n.. ... ... .. ..\n119 11.3.68 11.3.68 11 3\n120 11.3.66 11.3.66 11 3\n121 11.3.102 11.3.102 11 3\n122 11.3.93 11.3.93 11 3\n123 "4.1.77" "4.1.77" "4 1\n\n[124 rows x 4 columns] (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 7
90. Martial, Epigrams, 1.63, 2.1, 2.6, 2.71, 3.44.15, 3.45, 3.50, 4.8.7-4.8.12, 4.10, 4.82, 5.16.9, 5.61, 5.78.25, 7.51, 7.97, 9.89, 10.20, 11.3, 11.52, 12.2, 12.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment •recitation, and horace •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, role of •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 203, 204, 205, 208, 224
91. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
4.18. ῥύσεταί με ὁ κύριος ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου πονηροῦ καὶ σώσει εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐπουράνιον· ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν. 4.18. And the Lord will deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me for his heavenly kingdom; to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
92. Tosefta, Toharot, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 12
9.1. "חבר וע\"ה <שהיו> שרויין בחצר ושכחו כלים בחצר הראוי ליטמא מדרס טמא מדרס וליטמא טמא מת טמא מת לזה סוכה בפני פתחו ולזה סוכה בפני פתחו לזה מחיצה בפני פתחו ולזה מחיצה בפני פתחו זה מניח כליו בתוך סוכתו וזה מניח כליו בתוך סוכתו זה מניח כליו ע\"ג מחיצתו וזה מניח כליו ע\"ג מחיצתו <הכל> טהורין. ור\"ש אומר אע\"פ שאין שם לא סוכה ולא מחיצה טהורין שזה מניח לפני פתחו וזה מניח לפני פתחו לזה סוכה בפני פתחו של חבירו ולזה סוכה בפני פתחו של חבירו זה מניח כליו בתוך סוכתו לפני פתחו של חבירו וזה מניח כליו על גבי מחיצתו לפני פתחו של חבירו הרי אלו טמאין שלזה רשות ליכנס ולזה רשות ליכנס.",
93. Tosefta, Sotah, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oath, oaths, recitation of Found in books: Rosen-Zvi (2012), The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash, 160
2.2. "עד שלא נמחקה [מגילה] אמרה איני שותה או שאמרה טמאה אני או שבאו עדים שהיא טמאה המים נשפכין ואין בהן משום קדושה ומגילתה נגנזת תחת צירו של היכל ומנחתה מתפזרת נמחקה המגילה ואמרה אני טמאה המים נשפכין ואין בהן משום קדושה ומגילתה נגנזת תחת צירו של היכל ומנחתה מתפזרת בבית הדשן ואין מגילתה כשרה להשקות בה סוטה אחרת.",
94. Tosefta, Shabbat, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 165
6.7. "הרועין יוצאין בשקין שלהן ולא הרועים בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדברו חכמים בהווה א\"ר יהודה מעשה בר' טרפון שיצא בלילי שבת לבית המדרש ונתנו לו סדין ואחזו בשתי ידיו ויצא בו מפני הגשמים יוצאין [בסגור] ביריעה ובחמילה [בסקרוטיא] ובקטבוליא מפני הגשמים אבל לא בתיבה ולא בקופה ולא במחלצת מפני הגשמים.",
95. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 11.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •avesta, recitation of Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 45
11.5. "הבא במחתרת אם בא להרוג מצילין אותו בנפשו ליטול ממון אין מצילין אותו בנפשו ספק בא להרוג וספק בא ליטול ממון אין מצילין שנאמר (שמות כ״ב:ב׳) אם זרחה השמש עליו דמים לו וכי עליו בלבד חמה זורחת והלא על כל העולם כולו היא זורחת אלא מה זריחת השמש שהוא שלום לעולם אף זה כל זמן שאתה יודע שיש שלום הימנו בין ביום בין בלילה אין מצילין אותו בנפשו וכל זמן שאין אתה יודע שאין שלום הימנו בין ביום ובין בלילה מצילין אותו בנפשו יותר על כן אמר רבי אליעזר בן יעקב היו שם כדי יין וכדי שמן ושברן בשעה שהוא חתר חייב. הרודף אחר חבירו מצילין אותו בנפשו כיצד מצילין אותו בנפשו קוטע אחד מאבריו אם אין יכול לעמוד בו מקדים והורגו הרודף אחר הזכור בין בבית ובין בשדה מצילין אותו בנפשו אחר נערה המאורסה בין בבית ובין בשדה מצילין אותה בנפשו אחד נערה מאורסה ואחד כל עריות שבתורה מצילין אותן בנפשו אבל אם היתה אלמנה לכהן גדול גרושה וחלוצה לכהן הדיוט אין מצילין אותה בנפשו ושנעבד בה עבירה אין מצילין אותה בנפשו ואם יש להן מושיעין אין מצילין אותן בנפשו ר' יהודה אומר אם אמרה הניחו לו מצילין אותה בנפשו ומפני מה מצילין אותן בנפשו שאם היו מוחין בידם באים על עסקי נפשותם ר\"א בר צדוק אומר העובד ע\"ז מצילין אותו בנפשו. ",
96. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 129
2.6. "מעשה בהלל הזקן שסמך על העולה בעזרה וחברו עליו תלמידי בית שמאי אמר להם באו וראו שהיא נקבה וצריכין אנו לעשותה זבחי שלמים הפליגן בדברים והלכו להם מיד גברה ידן של ב\"ש ובקשו לקבוע הלכה כמותן והיה שם בבא בן בוטא שהוא מתלמידי בית שמאי [ויודע שהלכה כדברי בית הלל] בכל מקום [והלך] והביא את כל צאן קדר והעמידן בעזרה ואמר כל מי שצריך להביא עולות ושלמים יבוא ויטול באו ונטלו [את הבהמה והעלו עולות] וסמכו עליהן בו ביום נקבעה הלכה כדברי בית הלל ולא [ערער אדם בדבר] ושוב מעשה [בתלמיד אחד] מתלמידי בית הלל שסמך על העולה בעזרה מצאו תלמיד אחד מתלמידי בית שמאי אמר לו מה זה סמיכה אמר לו מה זה שתיקה שתקו בנזיפה.",
97. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.3-2.5, 2.12, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation •3 maccabees, public recitation of •readers of 2 maccabees, public recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 81, 137; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
2.3. "הקורא את שמע למפרע לא יצא וכן בהלל וכן בתפלה וכן במגלה.", 2.4. "הקורא את שמע וטעה והשמיט בה פסוק אחד לא יחזור ויקרא את הפסוק בפני עצמו אלא מתחיל באותו פסוק וגומר עד סוף וכן בהלל וכן במגלה וכן בתפלה. הנכנס לבית הכנסת ומצאן שקראו חצייה וגמר עמהן לא יחזור ויקרא מראשה עד אותו מקום אלא מתחיל מראש וגומר עד סוף וכן בהלל וכן בתפלה וכן במגלה.", 2.5. "הקורא את שמע וטעה ואינו יודע היכן טעה חוזר לראשה טעה באמצע הפרק חוזר לראש הפרק טעה בין כתיבה ראשונה לאחרונה חוזר לכתיבה ראשונה.", 2.12. "הזבין והזבות והנדות והיולדות מותרין לקרות בתורה ולשנות במשנה במדרש בהלכות ובאגדות ובעלי קריין אסורין בכולן ר' יהודה אומר <אבל> שונה הוא בהלכות הרגילות ובלבד שלא יציע את המשנה.", 4.3. "יין חי מברכין עליו בורא פרי העץ [ונוטלין] הימנו לידים נתן לתוכו מים מברכין עליו ב\"פ הגפן [ואין נוטלין] הימנו לידים דברי ר' אליעזר וחכ\"א אחד זה ואחד זה מברכין עליו ב\"פ הגפן ואין נוטלין הימנו לידים.",
98. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 7.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 127
99. Tacitus, Dialogus De Oratoribus, 13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, of poetry Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 201
100. Tacitus, Annals, 14.14-14.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 205
14.14. Vetus illi cupido erat curriculo quadrigarum insistere nec minus foedum studium cithara ludicrum in modum canere. concertare equis regium et antiquis ducibus factitatum memorabat idque vatum laudibus celebre et deorum honori datum. enimvero cantus Apollini sacros, talique ornatu adstare non modo Graecis in urbibus sed Romana apud templa numen praecipuum et praescium. nec iam sisti poterat, cum Senecae ac Burro visum ne utraque pervinceret alterum concedere. clausumque valle Vaticana spatium in quo equos regeret haud promisco spectaculo: mox ultro vocari populus Romanus laudibusque extollere, ut est vulgus cupiens voluptatum et, si eodem princeps trahat, laetum. ceterum evulgatus pudor non satietatem, ut rebantur, sed incitamentum attulit. ratusque dedecus molliri, si pluris foedasset, nobilium familiarum posteros egestate venalis in scaenam deduxit; quos fato perfunctos ne nominatim tradam, maioribus eorum tribuendum puto. nam et eius flagitium est qui pecuniam ob delicta potius dedit quam ne delinquerent. notos quoque equites Romanos operas arenae promittere subegit donis ingentibus, nisi quod merces ab eo qui iubere potest vim necessitatis adfert. 14.15. Ne tamen adhuc publico theatro dehonestaretur, instituit ludos Iuvenalium vocabulo, in quos passim nomina data. non nobilitas cuiquam, non aetas aut acti honores impedimento, quo minus Graeci Latinive histrionis artem exercerent usque ad gestus modosque haud virilis. quin et feminae inlustres deformia meditari; extructaque apud nemus, quod navali stagno circumposuit Augustus, conventicula et cauponae et posita veno inritamenta luxui. dabanturque stipes quas boni necessitate, intemperantes gloria consumerent. inde gliscere flagitia et infamia, nec ulla moribus olim corruptis plus libidinum circumdedit quam illa conluvies. vix artibus honestis pudor retinetur, nedum inter certamina vitiorum pudicitia aut modestia aut quicquam probi moris reservaretur. postremus ipse scaenam incedit, multa cura temptans citharam et praemeditans adsistentibus phonascis. accesserat cohors militum, centuriones tribunique et maerens Burrus ac laudans. tuncque primum conscripti sunt equites Romani cognomento Augustianorum, aetate ac robore conspicui et pars ingenio procaces, alii in spem potentiae. ii dies ac noctes plausibus personare, formam principis vocemque deum vocabulis appellantes; quasi per virtutem clari honoratique agere. 14.16. Ne tamen ludicrae tantum imperatoris artes notescerent, carminum quoque studium adfectavit, contractis quibus aliqua pangendi facultas necdum insignis erat. hi cenati considere simul et adlatos vel ibidem repertos versus conectere atque ipsius verba quoquo modo prolata supplere, quod species ipsa carminum docet, non impetu et instinctu nec ore uno fluens. etiam sapientiae doctoribus tempus impertiebat post epulas, utque contraria adseverantium discordia frueretur. nec deerant qui ore vultuque tristi inter oblectamenta regia spectari cuperent. 14.17. Sub idem tempus levi initio atrox caedes orta inter colonos Nucerinos Pompeianosque gladiatorio spectaculo quod Livineius Regulus, quem motum senatu rettuli, edebat. quippe oppidana lascivia in vicem incessentes probra, dein saxa, postremo ferrum sumpsere, validiore Pompeianorum plebe, apud quos spectaculum edebatur. ergo deportati sunt in urbem multi e Nucerinis trunco per vulnera corpore, ac plerique liberorum aut parentum mortis deflebant. cuius rei iudicium princeps senatui, senatus consulibus permisit. et rursus re ad patres relata, prohibiti publice in decem annos eius modi coetu Pompeiani collegiaque quae contra leges instituerant dissoluta; Livineius et qui alii seditionem conciverant exilio multati sunt. 14.18. Motus senatu et Pedius Blaesus, accusantibus Cyrenensibus violatum ab eo thesaurum Aesculapii dilectumque militarem pretio et ambitione corruptum. idem Cyrenenses reum agebant Acilium Strabonem, praetoria potestate usum et missum disceptatorem a Claudio agrorum, quos regis Apionis quondam avitos et populo Romano cum regno relictos proximus quisque possessor invaserant, diutinaque licentia et iniuria quasi iure et aequo nitebantur. igitur abiudicatis agris orta adversus iudicem invidia; et senatus ignota sibi esse mandata Claudii et consulendum principem respondit. Nero probata Strabonis sententia se nihilo minus subvenire sociis et usurpata concedere scripsit. 14.19. Sequuntur virorum inlustrium mortes, Domitii Afri et M. Servilii, qui summis honoribus et multa eloquentia viguerant, ille orando causas, Servilius diu foro, mox tradendis rebus Romanis celebris et elegantia vitae quam clariorem effecit, ut par ingenio, ita morum diversus. 14.14.  It was an old desire of his to drive a chariot and team of four, and an equally repulsive ambition to sing to the lyre in the stage manner. "Racing with horses," he used to observe, "was a royal accomplishment, and had been practised by the commanders of antiquity: the sport had been celebrated in the praises of poets and devoted to the worship of Heaven. As to song, it was sacred to Apollo; and it was in the garb appropriate to it that, both in Greek cities and in Roman temples, that great and prescient deity was seen standing." He could no longer be checked, when Seneca and Burrus decided to concede one of his points rather than allow him to carry both; and an enclosure was made in the Vatican valley, where he could manoeuvre his horses without the spectacle being public. Before long, the Roman people received an invitation in form, and began to hymn his praises, as is the way of the crowd, hungry for amusements, and delighted if the sovereign draws in the same direction. However, the publication of his shame brought with it, not the satiety expected, but a stimulus; and, in the belief that he was attenuating his disgrace by polluting others, he brought on the stage those scions of the great houses whom poverty had rendered venal. They have passed away, and I regard it as a debt due to their ancestors not to record them by name. For the disgrace, in part, is his who gave money for the reward of infamy and not for its prevention. Even well-known Roman knights he induced to promise their services in the arena by what might be called enormous bounties, were it not that gratuities from him who is able to command carry with them the compelling quality of necessity. 14.15.  Reluctant, however, as yet to expose his dishonour on a public stage, he instituted the so‑called Juvenile Games, for which a crowd of volunteers enrolled themselves. Neither rank, nor age, nor an official career debarred a man from practising the art of a Greek or a Latin mummer, down to attitudes and melodies never meant for the male sex. Even women of distinction studied indecent parts; and in the grove with which Augustus fringed his Naval Lagoon, little trysting-places and drinking-dens sprang up, and every incentive to voluptuousness was exposed for sale. Distributions of coin, too, were made, for the respectable man to expend under compulsion and the prodigal from vainglory. Hence debauchery and scandal throve; nor to our morals, corrupted long before, has anything contributed more of uncleanness than that herd of reprobates. Even in the decent walks of life, purity is hard to keep: far less could chastity or modesty or any vestige of integrity survive in that competition of the vices. — Last of all to tread the stage was the sovereign himself, scrupulously testing his lyre and striking a few preliminary notes to the trainers at his side. A cohort of the guards had been added to the audience — centurions and tribunes; Burrus, also, with his sigh and his word of praise. Now, too, for the first time was enrolled the company of Roman knights known as the Augustiani; conspicuously youthful and robust; wanton in some cases by nature; in others, through dreams of power. Days and nights they thundered applause, bestowed the epithets reserved for deity upon the imperial form and voice, and lived in a repute and honour, which might have been earned by virtue. 14.16.  And yet, lest it should be only the histrionic skill of the emperor which won publicity, he affected also a zeal for poetry and gathered a group of associates with some faculty for versification but not such as to have yet attracted remark. These, after dining, sat with him, devising a connection for the lines they had brought from home or invented on the spot, and eking out the phrases suggested, for better or worse, by their master; the method being obvious even from the general cast of the poems, which run without energy or inspiration and lack unity of style. Even to the teachers of philosophy he accorded a little time — but after dinner, and in order to amuse himself by the wrangling which attended the exposition of their conflicting dogmas. Nor was there any dearth of gloomy-browed and sad-eyed sages eager to figure among the diversions of majesty. 14.17.  About the same date, a trivial incident led to a serious affray between the inhabitants of the colonies of Nuceria and Pompeii, at a gladiatorial show presented by Livineius Regulus, whose removal from the senate has been noticed. During an exchange of raillery, typical of the petulance of country towns, they resorted to abuse, then to stones, and finally to steel; the superiority lying with the populace of Pompeii, where the show was being exhibited. As a result, many of the Nucerians were carried maimed and wounded to the capital, while a very large number mourned the deaths of children or of parents. The trial of the affair was delegated by the emperor to the senate; by the senate to the consuls. On the case being again laid before the members, the Pompeians as a community were debarred from holding any similar assembly for ten years, and the associations which they had formed illegally were dissolved. Livineius and the other fomenters of the outbreak were punished with exile. 14.18.  Pedius Blaesus also was removed from the senate: he was charged by the Cyrenaeans with profaning the treasury of Aesculapius and falsifying the military levy by venality and favouritism. An indictment was brought, again by Cyrene, against Acilius Strabo, who had held praetorian office and been sent by Claudius to adjudicate on the estates, once the patrimony of King Apion, which he had bequeathed along with his kingdom to the Roman nation. They had been annexed by the neighbouring proprietors, who relied on their long-licensed usurpation as a legal and fair title. Hence, when the adjudication went against them, there was an outbreak of ill-will against the adjudicator; and the senate could only answer that it was ignorant of Claudius' instructions and the emperor would have to be consulted. Nero, while upholding Strabo's verdict, wrote that none the less he supported the provincials and made over to them the property occupied. 14.19.  There followed the death of two famous men, Domitius Afer and Marcus Servilius; both of whom had been distinguished as great officials and eloquent orators. Afer's celebrity, however, was due to his practice as an advocate; that of Servilius, primarily to his long activity in the courts, then to his work as a Roman historian, and, again, to a refinement of life made more noticeable by the fact that, while equal in genius to his rival, he was a complete contrast to him in character. 14.20.  In the consulate of Nero — his fourth term — and of Cornelius Cossus, a quinquennial competition on the stage, in the style of a Greek contest, was introduced at Rome. Like almost all innovations it was variously canvassed. Some insisted that "even Pompey had been censured by his elders for establishing the theatre in a permanent home. Before, the games had usually been exhibited with the help of improvised tiers of benches and a stage thrown up for the occasion; or, to go further into the past, the people stood to watch: seats in the theatre, it was feared, might tempt them to pass whole days in indolence. By all means let the spectacles be retained in their old form, whenever the praetor presided, and so long as no citizen lay under any obligation to compete. But the national morality, which had gradually fallen into oblivion, was being overthrown from the foundations by this imported licentiousness; the aim of which was that every production of every land, capable of either undergoing or engendering corruption, should be on view in the capital, and that our youth, under the influence of foreign tastes, should degenerate into votaries of the gymnasia, of indolence, and of dishonourable amours, — and this at the instigation of the emperor and senate, who, not content with conferring immunity upon vice, were applying compulsion, in order that Roman nobles should pollute themselves on the stage under pretext of delivering an oration or a poem. What remained but to strip to the skin as well, put on the gloves, and practise that mode of conflict instead of the profession of arms? Would justice be promoted, would the equestrian decuries better fulfil their great judicial functions, if they had lent an expert ear to emasculated music and dulcet voices? Even night had been re­quisitioned for scandal, so that virtue should not be left with a breathing-space, but that amid a promiscuous crowd every vilest profligate might venture in the dark the act for which he had lusted in the light."
101. Martial, Epigrams, 1.63, 2.1, 2.6, 2.71, 3.44.15, 3.45, 3.50, 4.8.7-4.8.12, 4.10, 4.82, 5.16.9, 5.61, 5.78.25, 7.51, 7.97, 9.89, 10.20, 11.3, 11.52, 12.2, 12.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment •recitation, and horace •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, role of •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 203, 204, 205, 208, 224
102. Suetonius, Nero, 54 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pliny the younger, on recitations •vergil, and recitation •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and vergil •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 202
103. New Testament, Acts, 8.30 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 514
8.30. προσδραμὼν δὲ ὁ Φίλιππος ἤκουσεν αὐτοῦ ἀναγινώσκοντος Ἠσαίαν τὸν προφήτην, καὶ εἶπεν Ἆρά γε γινώσκεις ἃ ἀναγινώσκεις; 8.30. Philip ran to him, and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, "Do you understand what you are reading?"
104. New Testament, Galatians, 1.4, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
1.4. τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν, 4.6. Ὅτι δέ ἐστε υἱοί, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν, κρᾶζον Ἀββά ὁ πατήρ. 1.4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father -- 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!"
105. Plutarch, Table Talk, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 210
106. Plutarch, Lucullus, 42 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, role of Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 283
107. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 13.80 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •publication, recitation as precursor to •recitation, as precursor to publication Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 209
108. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 27.5-27.8, 64.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ennius, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, as one time event •recitation, for entertainment •recitation, for living authors of own works •recitation, of enniuss works •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204, 210
109. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204, 205
110. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204, 205
111. Persius, Saturae, 1.30-1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204
112. Persius, Satires, 1.30-1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204
113. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.229, 4.15-4.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •avesta, recitation of Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 60, 187
114. Juvenal, Satires, 3.9, 11.179-11.182 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, and horace •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 203, 204, 205
115. New Testament, Matthew, 6.9-6.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sacred, recitation •recitation Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 10; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
6.9. Οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου, 6.10. ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου, γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς· 6.11. Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· 6.12. καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν· 6.13. καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.'
116. New Testament, Romans, 8.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
8.15. οὐ γὰρ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα δουλείας πάλιν εἰς φόβον, ἀλλὰ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἐν ᾧ κράζομεν 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father!"
117. New Testament, John, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
118. New Testament, Luke, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
11.2. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ὅταν προσεύχησθε, λέγετε Πάτερ, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven.
119. New Testament, Mark, 11.25, 14.36, 14.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 173
11.25. καὶ ὅταν στήκετε προσευχόμενοι, ἀφίετε εἴ τι ἔχετε κατά τινος, ἵνα καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς ἀφῇ ὑμῖν τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν. 14.36. καὶ ἔλεγεν Ἀββά ὁ πατήρ, πάντα δυνατά σοι· παρένεγκε τὸ ποτήριον τοῦτο ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· ἀλλʼ οὐ τί ἐγὼ θέλω ἀλλὰ τί σύ. 14.38. γρηγορεῖτε καὶ προσεύχεσθε, ἵνα μὴ ἔλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν· τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire." 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak."
120. Statius, Siluae, 2.1.117-2.1.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 205
121. Suetonius, Augustus, 74-75, 77-78, 85-89, 76 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 205
122. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 44; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 44
123. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.5.2, 1.8, 1.13, 1.15.2, 2.5, 2.19.1-2.19.4, 3.1.9, 3.5.12, 3.5.17, 3.10, 3.13, 3.15, 4.5, 4.7, 4.14.6, 4.19.4, 4.20, 5.3, 5.3.5-5.3.7, 5.3.9, 5.5, 5.12, 5.17, 6.26.1, 6.31.13, 7.4, 7.4.9, 7.17, 7.17.13, 7.20, 8.3-8.4, 8.7, 8.15, 8.19, 8.21, 8.21.4, 9.1, 9.13, 9.17.3, 9.18, 9.20, 9.26-9.28, 9.34-9.35, 9.36.4, 9.38 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, role of •recitation, as one time event •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, and horace •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for •publication, recitation as precursor to •recitation, as precursor to publication •pliny the younger, on recitation •recitation, for living authors of own works •recitation, of poetry •recitation, texts •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and vergil Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 202, 203, 204, 205, 208, 209, 212, 213, 224, 225, 283; Keeline (2018), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy, 313
1.8. To Saturninus. Your letter, asking me to send you one of my compositions, came at an opportune moment, for I had just made up my mind to do so. So you were spurring a willing horse, and you have not only spoiled your only chance of making excuses for declining, but have enabled me to press work upon you without feeling ashamed at asking the favour. For it would be equally unbecoming for me to hesitate about accepting your offer as for you who made it to look upon it as a bore. However, you must not expect anything of an original kind from a lazy man like me. I shall only ask you to find time to again look through the speech which I made to my townsfolk at the dedication of the public library. I remember that you have already criticised a few points therein, but merely in a general way, and I now beg that you will not only criticise it as a whole, but will apply your pencil to particular passages as well, in your severest manner. For even after a thorough revision it will still be open to us to publish or suppress it as we think fit. Very likely the revision will help us out of our hesitation and enable us to decide one way or the other. By looking through it again and again we shall either find that it is not worth publication or we shall render it worthy by the way we revise it. What makes me doubtful is rather the subject-matter than the actual composition. It is perhaps a shade too laudatory and ostentatious. And this will be more than our modesty can carry, however plain and unassuming the style in which it is written, especially as I have to enlarge on the munificence of my relatives as well as on my own. It is a ticklish and dangerous subject, even when one can flatter one's self that there was no way of avoiding it. For if people grow impatient at hearing the praises of others, how much more difficult must it be to prevent a speech becoming tedious when we sing our own praises or those of our family? We look askance even at unpretentious honesty, and do so all the more when its fame is trumpeted abroad. In short, it is only the good action that is done by stealth and passes unapplauded which protects the doer from the carping criticism of the world. For this reason I have often debated whether I ought to have composed the speech, such as it is, simply to suit my own feelings, or whether I should have looked beyond myself to the public. I am inclined to the former alternative by the thought that many actions which are necessary to the performance of an object lose their point and appositeness when that object is attained. I will not weary you with examples further than to ask whether anything could have been more appropriate than my gracing in writing the reasons which prompted my generosity. By so doing, the result was that I grew familiar with generous sentiments; the more I discussed the virtue the more I saw its beauties, and above all I saved myself from the reaction that often follows a sudden fit of open-handedness. From all this there gradually grew up within me the habit of despising money, and whereas nature seems to have tied men down to their money bags to guard them, I was enabled to throw off the prevailing shackles of avarice by my long and carefully reasoned love of generosity. Consequently my munificence appeared to me to be all the more worthy of praise, inasmuch as I was drawn to it by reason and not by any sudden impulse. Again, I also felt that I was promising not mere games or gladiatorial shows, but an annual subscription for the upbringing of freeborn youths. The pleasures of the eye and ear never lack eulogists; on the contrary, they need rather to be put in the background than in the foreground by speakers Beyond all this, however, there is a special obstacle in the way of publishing the speech. I delivered it not before the people but before decurions, * not in public but in the Council Chamber. So I am afraid that it may look inconsistent if, after avoiding the applause and cheers of the crowd when I delivered the speech, I now seek for that applause by publishing it, and if, after getting the common people, whose interests I was seeking, removed from the threshold and the walls of the Chamber - to prevent the appearance of courting popularity - I should now seem to deliberately seek the acclamations of those who are only interested in my munificence to the extent of having a good example shown them. Well, I have told you the grounds of my hesitation, but I shall follow the advice you give me, for its weight will be reason sufficient for me. Farewell. 1.13. To Socius Senecio. This year has brought us a fine crop of poets 2.5. To Lupercus. I have forwarded to you the speech which you have often asked for, and which I have often promised to send, but not the whole of it. A portion thereof is still undergoing the polishing process. Meanwhile, I thought it would not be out of place to submit to your judgment the parts which seemed to me to be more finished. I hope you will bestow on them the same critical attention that the writer has given them. I have never handled any subject that demanded greater pains from me, for whereas in other speeches I have submitted merely my carefulness and good faith to men's judgment, in this I submit my patriotism as well. It is out of that that the speech has grown, for it is a pleasure to sing the praises of one's native place and at the same time to do what I could to help its interests and its fame. But be sure you prune even these passages according to your judgment. For when I think of the fastidiousness of the general reader and the niceties of his taste, I understand that the best way to win praise is to keep within moderate limits. Yet at the same time, though I ask you to show this strictness, I feel bound to request you to display the opposite quality also and deal indulgently with many of the passages. For we must make certain concessions to our young readers, especially if the subject-matter allows of it. Descriptions of scenery, of which there are more than usual in this speech, should be treated not in a strict historical fashion, but with some approach to poetic licence. However, if anyone thinks that I have written more ornately than is warranted by the serious nature of the subject, the remaining portions of the address ought to mollify what one may call the austerity of such a man. I have certainly tried, by varying the character of the style, to get hold of all sorts and conditions of readers, and though I am afraid that each individual reader will not find every single passage to his liking, yet I think I may be pretty confident that the variety of styles will recommend the whole to all classes. For at a banquet, though we each one of us dislike certain dishes, yet we all praise the banquet as a whole, nor do the dishes which our palate declines make those we like any less enjoyable. I want my speech to be taken in the same spirit, not because I think I have succeeded in my aim, but because I have tried to succeed therein, and I believe my efforts will not have been in vain if only you will take pains now with what I enclose in this letter and afterwards with the remaining portions. You will say that you cannot do this sufficiently carefully until you have gone through the entire speech. That is so; but for the present you will be able to get a thorough acquaintance with what I send you, and there are sure to be certain passages that can be altered in part. For if you were to see the head or any limb of a statue torn from the trunk, though you might not be able to speak definitely of its symmetry and proportion to the rest of the body, you would at least be able to judge whether the part you were looking at was sufficiently well shaped. That is the only reason why authors send round to their friends specimens of their speeches, because any part can be judged to be perfect or not apart from the remainder. The pleasure of speaking with you has led me farther than I intended, but I will conclude for fear of exceeding in a letter the limits which I think ought to be set to a speech. Farewell. 4.5. To Julius Sparsus. There is a story that Aeschines was once asked by the Rhodians to read them one of his speeches, that he afterwards read them one of Demosthenes' as well, and that both were received with great applause. I cannot wonder that the orations of such distinguished men were applauded, when I think that just recently the most learned men in Rome listened for two days together to a speech of mine, with such earnestness, applause, and concentration of attention, though there was nothing to stir their blood, no other speech with which to compare mine, and not a trace of the conflict of debate. While the Rhodians had not only the beauties of the two speeches to kindle them but also the charm of comparison, my speech was approved though it lacked the advantages of being controversial. Whether it deserved its reception you will be able to judge when you have read it, and its bulk does not allow of my making a longer preface. For I ought certainly to be brief here where brevity is possible, so that I may be the more readily excused for the length of the speech itself, though it is not longer than the subject required. Farewell. 4.7. To Catius Lepidus. I am constantly writing to tell you what energy Regulus possesses. It is wonderful the way he carries through anything which he has set his mind upon. It pleased him to mourn for his son - and never man mourned like him; it pleased him to erect a number of statues and busts to his memory, and the result is that he is keeping all the workshops busy; he is having his boy represented in colours, in wax, in bronze, in silver, in gold, ivory, and marble - always his boy. He himself just lately got together a large audience and read a memoir of his life - of the boy's life; he read it aloud, and yet had a thousand copies written out which he has scattered broadcast over Italy and the provinces. He wrote at large to the decurions * and asked them to choose one of their number with the best voice to read the memoir to the people, and it was done. What good he might have effected with this energy of his - or whatever name we should give to such dauntless determination on his part to get his own way - if he had only turned it into a better channel! But then, as you know, good men rarely have this faculty so well developed as bad men; the Greeks say, "Ignorance makes a man bold; calculation gives him pause," ** and just in the same way modesty cripples the force of an upright mind, while unblushing confidence is a source of strength to a man without conscience. Regulus is a case in point. He has weak lungs, he never looks you straight in the face, he stammers, he has no imaginative power, absolutely no memory, no quality at all, in short, except a wild, frantic genius, and yet, thanks to his effrontery, and even just to this frenzy of his, he has got people to regard him as an orator. Herennius Senecio very neatly turned against him Cato's well-known definition of an orator by saying, "An orator is a bad man who knows nothing of the art of speaking," † and I really think that he thereby gave a better definition of Regulus than Cato did of the really true orator. Have you any equivalent to send me for a letter like this? Yes, indeed, you have, if you will write and say whether any one of my friends in your township, or whether you yourself have read this pitiful production of Regulus in the forum, like a Cheap Jack, pitching your voice high, as Demosthenes says, †† shouting with delight, and straining every muscle in your throat. For it is so absurd that it will make you laugh rather than sigh, and you would think it was written not about a boy but by a boy. Farewell. 4.20. To Nonius Maximus. You know my opinion of your volumes singly, for I have written to tell you as I finished each one; now let me give my broad view of the whole work. It is beautifully written, with power, incisiveness, loftiness, and variety of treatment, in elegant, pure language, with plenty of metaphor, while it is comprehensive and covers an amount of ground that does you great credit. You have been carried far by the sweeping sails of your genius and your resentment, both of which have been a great help to you; for your genius has lent a lofty magnificence to your resentment, which in turn has added power and sharpness to your genius. Farewell. 5.3. To Titius Aristo. While I gratefully acknowledge your many acts of kindness to me, I must especially thank you for not concealing from me the fact that my verses have formed the subject of many long discussions at your house, that such discussions have been lengthened owing to the different views expressed, and that some people, while finding no fault with the writings themselves, blamed me in a perfectly friendly and candid way for having written on such themes and for having read them in public. Well, in order to aggravate my misdeeds, here is my reply to them Nor does it annoy me that people should form such opinions about my character, when it is plain that those who are surprised that I should compose such poems are unaware that the most learned of men and the gravest and purest livers have regularly done the same thing. But I feel sure that I shall easily obtain permission from those who know the character and calibre of the authors in whose footsteps I am treading, to stray in company with men whom it is an honour to follow, not only in their serious but in their lightest moods. I will not mention the names of those still living for fear of seeming to flatter, but is a person like myself to be afraid that it will be unbecoming for him to do what well became Marcus Tullius, Caius Calvus, Asinius Pollio, Marcus Messalla, Quintus Hortensius, M. Brutus, Lucius Sulla, Quintus Catulus, Quintus Scaevola, Servius Sulpicius, Varro, Torquatus - or rather the Torquati, - Caius Memmius, Lentulus Gaetulicus, Annaeus Seneca, Lucan, and, last of all, Verginius Rufus? If the names of these private individuals are not enough, I may add those of the divine Julius, Augustus and Nerva, and that of Tiberius Caesar. I pass by the name of Nero, though I am aware that a practice does not become any the worse because it is sometimes followed by men of bad character, while a practice usually followed by men of good character retains its honesty. Among the latter class of men one must give a pre-eminent place to Publius Vergilius, Cornelius Nepos, and to Attius and Ennius, who should perhaps come first. These men were not senators, but purity of character is the same in all ranks. But, you say, I recite my compositions and I cannot be sure that they did. Granted, but they may have been content with their own judgment, whereas I am too modest to think that any composition of mine is sufficiently perfect when it has no other approbation but my own. Consequently, these are the reasons why I recite in public, first, because a man who recites becomes a keener critic of his own writings out of deference to his audience, and, secondly, because, where he is in doubt, he can decide by referring the point to his listeners. Moreover, he constantly meets with criticism from many quarters, and even if it is not openly expressed, he can tell what each person thinks by watching the expression and eyes of his hearers, or by a nod, a motion of the hand, a murmur, or dead silence. All these things are tolerably clear indications which enable one to distinguish judgment from complaisance. And so, if any one who was present at my reading takes the trouble to look through the same compositions, he will find that I have either altered or omitted certain passages, in compliance perhaps with his judgment, though he never uttered a word to me. But I am arguing on this point as though I invited the whole populace to my reading room and not merely a few friends to my private chamber, while the possession of a large circle of friends has been a source of pride to many men and a reproach to none. Farewell. 5.5. To Nonius Maximus. I have been told that Caius Fannius is dead, and the news has greatly upset me, in the first place, because I loved him for his taste and learning, and, secondly, because I used to avail myself of his judgment. He was naturally keen-witted; experience had sharpened his acumen, and he could detect the truth without hesitation. I am troubled, too, owing to the circumstances in which he died, for he has died without revoking an old will which contains no mention of those for whom he had the greatest affection, and is in favour of those with whom he has been on bad terms. However, this might have been got over - what is most serious is that he has left unfinished his finest work. Although his time was taken up with his profession as a pleader, he was engaged in writing the lives of those who were put to death or banished by Nero. He had already finished three books, in an unadorned, accurate style and in the Latin language. They are something between narrative and history, and the eagerness which people displayed to read them made him all the more desirous to finish the remaining volumes. It always seems to me hard and untimely when people die who are engaged upon some immortal work. For those who are devoted to their pleasures and live a sort of day-to-day existence exhaust every day the reasons why they should go on living, whereas when people think of posterity and keep alive their memory by their works, their death, come as it may, is always sudden, inasmuch as it cuts short something that is still unfinished. However, Caius Fannius had had for a long time a presentiment of what was to befall him. He dreamt in the quiet of the night that he was lying on his bed dressed for study and that he had a writing desk before him, as was his habit. Then he thought that Nero came to him, sat down on the couch, and after producing the first volume which Fannius had written about his crimes, turned over the pages to the end. He did the same with the second and third volumes, and then departed. Fannius was much alarmed, and interpreted the dream to mean that he would leave off writing just where Nero had left off reading, and so the event proved. When I think of it I feel grieved to think how many wakeful hours and how much labour Fannius toiled through in vain. I see before me my own mortality and my own writings. Nor do I doubt that you have the same thought and anxiety for the work which is still on your hands. Let us do our best, therefore, while life lasts, that death may find as few works of ours as possible for him to destroy. Farewell. 5.12. To Terentius Scaurus. Before giving a recital of a little speech which I had some thoughts of publishing, I called a few friends to hear it, so as to put me on my mettle, but not many, so that I might get candid criticism. For there are two reasons why I give these recitals, one that I may screw myself up to the proper pitch by their anxiety that I should do myself justice, and the other that they may correct me if I happen to make a mistake and do not notice it because the blunder is my own. I got what I wanted and I found some friends who gave me their advice freely; while I myself noticed certain passages which required correction. I have revised the speech which I am sending you. You will see what the subject is from the title, and the speech itself will explain all other points. It ought now to become so familiar to people as to be understood without any preface. But I trust that you will write and tell me what you think of it as a whole as well as in parts, for I shall be the more careful to suppress it, or the more determined to publish it, according as your critical judgment inclines one way or the other. Farewell. 5.17. To Spurinna. I know what an interest you take in the liberal arts, and how delighted you are when young men of rank do anything worthy of their ancestry. That is why I am losing no time to tell you that to-day I made one of the audience of Calpurnius Piso. He was reading his poem on the Legends of the Stars, and it was a learned and very excellent composition. It was written in fluent, graceful, and smooth elegiacs, and rose even to lofty heights as occasion demanded. The style was cleverly varied, in some places it soared, in others it was subdued; passing from the grand to the commonplace, from thinness to richness, and from lively to severe, and in each case with consummate skill. The sweetness of his voice lent it an additional charm, and his modesty made even his voice the sweeter, while his blushes and his nervousness, which were very plain to see, still further set off the reading. I don't know why, but diffidence becomes a man of letters much more than over-confidence. However, to cut the story short, - though I would gladly say more, because such performances are all the more charming when given by a young man, and all the rarer when he is of noble birth, - as soon as the reading was concluded, I embraced the youth with great cordiality, and by showering praises upon him - which are always the best incentive when giving advice - I urged him to go on as he had begun, and hold out to his descendants the light which his own ancestors had held out to him. I congratulated his excellent mother and also his brother, who made one of the audience, and indeed achieved as much reputation for brotherly feeling as his brother Calpurnius did for his eloquence, for while the latter was reading everybody noticed first the nervous look on the brother's face, and then the expression of joy. I pray Heaven that I may often have such news for you, for I am very partial to the age I live in, and I hope that it may not prove barren and worthless. I am really most anxious that our young men of rank should have some other beautiful objects in their houses besides the busts of their ancestors, and it seems to me that the latter tacitly approve and encourage these two young men, and even recognise them as their true descendants, which is in itself a sufficiently high compliment to both. Farewell. 7.4. To Pontius. You say you have read my hendecasyllabic verses, * and you ask how it was that I began to write poetry - I, who seem to you such a staid person, and I am bound to say I do not consider myself a trifler. Well, to go back to the very start, I have always been partial to poetry, for, when I was only fourteen years old, I composed a Greek tragedy. If you ask me what kind of a tragedy it was, I cannot tell you - at any rate I called it one. Subsequently, when on my return from military service, I was detained by contrary winds in the island of Icaria, I wrote some Latin elegiacs, with the sea and the island for my theme. I have also occasionally tried my hand at heroics, but this was my first essay at hendecasyllables, and the occasion of my doing so was as follows. The volumes of Asinius Gallus, in which he institutes a comparison between his father ** and Cicero, were being read to me at my Laurentine villa, and in them occurs an epigram written by Cicero upon his friend Tiro. Then, when I retired at mid-day - for it was summer-time - for my usual nap and sleep refused to come to me, I began to turn over in my mind the fact that the greatest orators had not only amused themselves with jeux d'esprit of this kind, but had also set great store on their achievements therein. I applied myself to the task, and, much to my surprise - inasmuch as I had not dabbled in verse for a long time - I dashed off in a very few minutes these verses on the subject which had tempted me to write Subsequently, when I returned to Rome, I read them to my friends, and they expressed approval of them. Whenever I had any leisure, especially when I was travelling, I essayed a variety of metres. Finally I made up my mind, as many others have done before me, to finish off a volume of hendecasyllables separately, and I do not regret having done so. The verses are read, copied, and even set to music, and the Greeks who have been induced to learn Latin by their admiration of this volume are now adapting them to the harp and the lyre. But why do I go on in this boastful strain ? Still, after all, poets have a licence to be furiously vain, and I am not quoting my own opinion of the value of my verses but that of others. Their criticism, whether right or wrong, certainly pleases me. I only hope that posterity may show the same excellent judgment, or the same want of it. Farewell. 0 7.17. To Celer. Every author has his own reasons for giving recitals; mine, as I have often said before, is that I may discover any slip I may have made, and I certainly do make them. So I am surprised when you say that some people have found fault with me for giving recitals of speeches at all, unless, indeed, they think that speeches are the only kind of composition which requires no emendations. I should be very glad if they were to tell me why they allow - if they do allow it - that history is a proper subject for recitation, seeing that history is written not for display but in the interests of strict truth, or why they should consider a tragedy a fit subject, seeing that it requires not an audience room but a stage and actors, or lyric verses, which need not a reader but the accompaniment of a chorus and a lyre. Perhaps they will say that long established custom sanctions the practice. Then is the originator of it to be blamed ? Besides, not only our own countrymen but the Greeks as well have constantly read speeches. But, they say, it is a waste of time to give a reading of a speech which has already been delivered. So it would be if the speech remained identically the same, and you read it to the same audience and immediately after its delivery; but if you make a number of additions, if you recast numerous passages, if you have a new audience, or if the audience be the same and yet a considerable time has elapsed, why should one hesitate more about giving a reading of an already delivered speech than about publishing it ? It may be argued that it is difficult to make a speech convincing when it is read. True, but that is a point connected with the difficulty of reciting, and has no bearing on the argument that a speech should not be read at all. For my own part I desire applause, not when I am reciting but when other people are reading my book, and that is why I let no opportunity of emending a passage escape me. In the first place, I go carefully over what I have written again and again; then I read it to two or three friends; subsequently I pass it on to others to make marginal criticisms, and, if I am in doubt, I once more call in a friend or two to help me in weighing their value. Last of all, I read it to a large audience, and it is then, if you can credit the statement, that I make the severest corrections, because the greater my anxiety to please, the more diligent I am in application. But the best judges of all are modesty, respect, and awe. Consider the matter in this light. If you are going to enter into conversation with some one person, however learned he may be, are you not less flurried than you would be if you were entering into conversation with a number of people or with persons who know nothing ? Is not your diffidence the greatest just at the moment when you rise to plead, and is it not then that you wish not only a large part of your speech but the whole of it were cast in a different mould ? Especially is this the case if the scene of the encounter is a spacious one and there is a dense ring of spectators, for we feel nervous even of the meanest and commonest folk who crowd there. If you think your opening points are badly received, does it not weaken your nerve and make you feel like collapse? I fancy so, the reason being that there exists a considerable weight of sound opinion in mere numbers simply, and though, if you take them individually, their judgment is worth next to nothing, taken collectively, it is worth a great deal. Hence it was that Pomponius Secundus, who used to write tragedies, was in the habit of exclaiming, " I appeal to the people," whenever he thought that a passage should be retained, which some one of his intimate friends considered had better be expunged, and so he either stuck to his own opinion or followed that of his friend, according as the people received the passage in silence or greeted it with applause. Such was the high estimate he formed of the popular judgment; whether rightly or wrongly does not affect me. For my custom is to call in, not the people, but a few carefully selected friends, whose judgment I respect and have confidence in, and whose faces I can watch individually, yet who are numerous enough collectively to put me in some awe. For I think that although Marcus Cicero says, "Composition is the keenest critic in the world," * this applies even more to the fear of speaking in public. The very fact that we keep thinking we are going to give a reading sharpens our critical taste, so too does our entry into the audience-hall, so too do our pale looks, anxious tremors, and our glances from side to side. Hence I am far from repenting of my practice, which I find of the greatest value to me, and so far am I from being deterred by the idle talk of my critics that I beg of you to point out to me some additional method of criticism in addition to those I have enumerated. For though I take great pains I never seem to take enough. I keep thinking what a serious matter it is to place anything in the hands of the public for them to read, nor can I persuade myself that' any work of mine, which you are always anxious should get a welcome everywhere, does not stand in need of constant revision by myself and a number of my friends. Farewell. 7.20. To Tacitus. I have read your book * and taken the greatest possible pains in marking the passages which struck me as requiring alteration or excision. I speak frankly, for it is my custom to tell the truth and yours to hear it without annoyance. Besides, it is just those people who most deserve praise who take criticism with the least impatience. Now I am looking forward to receiving my book from you with your critical notes. To me this is a most gratifying and even beautiful interchange of compliments. I am really charmed to think that if those who come after us are interested in us at all, the tale will everywhere be told of how you and I lived together as devoted, frank and loyal friends. It will be thought as uncommon as it is remarkable that two men of nearly the same age and dignities, who had achieved some distinction in the world of letters - for I am bound to speak rather sparingly in your praise as I am associating myself with you - should mutually admire and encourage one another to write. When I was quite a young man, and you had already won reputation and glory for yourself, it was my earnest wish to follow in your footsteps, and be next to you and recognised as "next to you, though the interval between us was great". ** There were many men of genius in those days, but the similarity of our natures compelled me to regard you as the one whom I could best imitate, and the one most worthy of such imitation. So I am the more delighted to find that, whenever the conversation turns upon literature, our names are mentioned together, and that, when people speak of you, my name immediately occurs to their minds. There are, it is true, some who are preferred to both of us. But so long as our names are coupled together I care not whose is placed first, because, in my opinion, he who is placed next to you is easily first. Moreover, you must have noticed this in the wills where our names have occurred, for we invariably receive the same legacies, and in equal shares, unless it so happens that the maker of the will is the particular friend of one of us. All these things point to the moral that we should increase the affection we bear one another, since we are linked together by so many ties, by our literary tastes, characters, and reputations, and above all, by the final judgments of dying men. Farewell. 0 8.3. To Sparsus. You hint to me that the book I sent you last pleases you more than any of my previous works. A very learned friend of mine is of precisely the same opinion, and that makes me think that neither of you is mistaken, for it is hardly possible that you both are wrong. Then again, I like to flatter myself you are right, for it is my wish that people should think my last book is always the most perfect, and for that reason I even now prefer - in comparison with the book I sent you - the speech which I lately published, and which I shall send on to you as soon as I find a trustworthy messenger. I have raised your expectations to such a pitch that I am afraid the speech will disappoint you when you pick it up to read, but in the meantime look out for its coming, as though it were sure to please you. After all, perhaps it will. Farewell. 8.4. To Caninius. You are doing quite right to get together materials for a history of the Dacian War. For what subject is more fresh or affords more abundant materials and scope, or, in a word, is more fitted for poetic treatment? for, though it reads like a fable, it is strictly and literally true. You will describe how rivers have been turned into new channels, * how new bridges have been thrown over the rivers, how precipitous mountains have been levelled to form camping places, and how a king was driven from his palace and even from life itself and yet kept an undaunted front. Moreover, you will describe the two triumphs we have celebrated, one of which was the first ever won over that unconquered race, while the other was gained over its last death-struggle. Notwithstanding your genius, which soars to its highest flights and shines most brilliantly when engaged on a noble theme, you will find a difficulty, and it will be a very great one, in the arduous and immense task of giving an adequate description of these mighty deeds. Moreover, additional trouble will be entailed by the fact that their barbarous and savage names - especially that of the king himself cannot be made to scan in Greek verse. But there is no difficulty which cannot be, if not entirely overcome, at any rate considerably lessened by art and diligence. Besides, if licence was given to Homer to contract, lengthen, and inflect the soft syllables of the Greek tongue to suit the easy flow of his verse, why should a similar licence be denied to you, especially as in your case it would arise not from any fastidious caprice, but from sheer necessity? Well, then, invoke the gods to your assistance - as you bards have prescriptive right to do - not forgetting that deity whose achievements, work, and counsels you are about to sing; let go the ropes, spread sail, and now if ever let the full tide of your genius carry you along ! Why should I not write to a poet in a poetic strain? I only make one stipulation, and that is that you send on to me the very first part of the poem as soon as it is finished, or even before you have finished it, just as it is, fresh from your pen, in the rough, and, as it were, but newly born. You will tell me that a few patches cannot give the same pleasure as the finished whole, and that an incomplete work is not so satisfactory as a complete one. I know that, and so I shall only judge them as beginnings ; I shall regard them as dismembered limbs, and they will lie in my writing-desk waiting for your final corrections. Do let me have this additional pledge of your regard for me, which I should value above all others - that of being entrusted with secrets which you would not like anyone else to know. To put the matter in a nutshell - while it is possible that I should approve and applaud your writings the more if you send them to me in less haste and after deeper consideration, the more haste and want of consideration you show in forwarding them to me, the more I shall love and applaud you as a friend. Farewell. 9.1. To Maximus. I have often advised you to publish at the earliest possible opportunity the speeches which you composed either in your defence or against Planta, * or, I should rather say, in your defence and against Planta, for so the subject-matter required. Now that I hear of his death, I do most earnestly beg and advise you to publish them. For though you have read them to a number of people and lent them to others, I should not like any one to think that you had not begun to write them until after his death, when they were already finished during his lifetime. Take care to preserve your reputation for firmness of character, as you will if you make it known both to your friends and enemies that you did not wait until your antagonist was dead before plucking up confidence enough to write, but that the edition was already prepared, and that he died before it could be published, by so doing, you will also escape the odium of glorying over the dead, which, as Homer says, ** is not seemly. For what has been written about a man in his lifetime may, if it be issued without delay, be published against him after he is dead, just as though he were still alive. If, therefore, you have any other work on your hands, postpone it for the time being, and carry through the publication of the speeches in question, which seemed to us who read them to be quite finished long ago. I hope you will now take the same view of it, for the matter is one which calls for no delay; indeed, the circumstances are such as to demand promptness. Farewell. 0 9.13. To Quadratus. The more carefully and closely you have read the books I composed to vindicate the character of Helvidius, the more anxious, you say, you are for me to write an account of the whole affair from beginning to end, which you were too young to take any part in, giving you details which do not appear in my volumes as well as those which do. When Domitian was put to death, I took counsel with myself and came to the conclusion that there was now a splendid and glorious opportunity for prosecuting the guilty, vindicating the oppressed, and at the same time bringing myself into prominence. It seemed to me that of all the many crimes committed by that crowd of wretches, there was none more atrocious than that a senator should have laid violent hands upon another senator in the senate-house, that a man of praetorian rank should have assaulted a man of consular rank, and a judge an accused person. Besides, Helvidius and I were friends, so far as friendship was possible with one who, owing to the terrorism that prevailed, tried to conceal his illustrious name and equally illustrious virtues in strict retirement; and I was also a friend of Arria and Fannia, * the former of whom was the step-mother of Helvidius, and the latter the mother of Arria. But it was not so much my feelings as a friend, but my sense of public duty, my indignation at what had taken place, and the importance of the precedent, which stirred me. For the first few days after liberty had been restored each man was busy in his own interests impeaching his own private enemies - at least the more unimportant of them - and at once obtaining their condemnation, but all was being done with uproar and turbulence. I considered it would show greater modesty and boldness not to overthrow the worst criminal of them all on the general odium against the practices of the late reign, but to attack him on a specific charge, after the first furious outburst had worn itself out and the general rage was daily abating, and when men were beginning again to think of what was just. So, though I was in great distress at the time, for I had just recently lost my wife, ** I sent to Anteia - who was the wife of Helvidius - asking her to come and see me, as the bereavement I had recently suffered kept me still confined to my house. When she came, I said It was my unfailing practice to consult Corellius on all matters, for I looked upon him as the most far-seeing and the wisest man of our time ; but in this business I was satisfied with my own judgment, for I was afraid that he would try and dissuade me from my design, as he was always rather prone to hesitation and caution. However, I could not make up my mind to refrain from giving him a hint, when the day came, of what I was going to do, though I did not ask his advice as to whether I should proceed with my intention, for I have found by experience that, when you have decided on a course of action, it is a mistake to consult as to its wisdom those whose advice you ought to follow when once you ask them for it. I entered the senate ; I craved permission to address the house, and for a little time everyone agreed with what I said. But when I began to touch upon the charge I was bringing and foreshadow whom I was accusing - though I had not yet named him - there were loud cries of dissent from all sides. One exclaimed, "Let us know who it is that you are denouncing out of order? " ; another, "Who is it that is being put on his trial before he has been impeached ?" ; another, "Let us who survive remain in security." I listened without fear or trepidation, sustained by the righteousness of the cause I had undertaken, while it always materially contributes to one's confidence or fear whether one's audience is merely unwilling to hear your case or actively disapproves of it. It would be tedious to relate all the exclamations which were flung from side to side, but at last the consul said By this time the time for recording opinions had arrived. Among the speakers were Domitius Apollinaris, the consul-designate, Fabricius Veiento, Fabius Maximinus, Vettius Proculus, the colleague of Publicius Certus, who was the subject of debate, and the father-in-law of the wife whom I had just lost. After these Ammius Flaccus spoke. They all defended Certus, just as if I had already named him, which I had not, and took up and defended his cause, though the charge had been left vague. †† I need not tell you the substance of their speeches, for you have them in my books, just as I took them down in their own words. They were opposed by Avidius Quietus and Cornutus Tertullus. Quietus urged that it was most unjust to refuse to hear the complaints of the aggrieved persons, and, therefore, Arria and Fannia ought not to be robbed of their right to lodge a complaint. It did not matter, he said, what class a person belonged to, the point was whether his case was just. Cornutus said that he had been appointed guardian by the consuls to the daughter of Helvidius at the request of her mother and step-father, and that he could not think of failing in his duties at such a moment. However, he would set a limit to his own personal resentment and only support the very moderate request of these excellent ladies, who would be satisfied with bringing before the notice of the senate the crime-stained servility of Publicius Certus, and asking that, though the penalty for his most iniquitous crime might be foregone, he might at least be branded with some mark of disgrace similar to being officially degraded by the censors. Satrius Rufus followed with an equivocal speech, the meaning of which was by no means clear. "I consider," he said, "Publicius Certus will be wronged unless he is acquitted ; he has been impeached by the friends of Arria ; and Fannia, and by his own friends. Nor ought we to be anxious on his account, for we, who think well of him, are also to act as his judges. If he is innocent, as I hope and prefer to think he is, and as I shall continue to believe until something is proved against him, you will be able to acquit him." Such were the sentiments delivered, in the order in which the speakers were severally called upon to speak. Then my turn came ; I rose to my feet, and opening my remarks as you will find in my book, I replied to all, one by one. It was wonderful to notice with what attention and applause all my points were received by those who a little before were shouting me down. This sweeping change of view was due either to the importance of the subject under debate, or to the success of my speech, or to the boldness of the speaker. At length I concluded; Veiento began to answer me, but no one suffered him to speak ; he was greeted with such interruptions and clamours that he exclaimed, "I beg of you, conscript fathers, not to force me to appeal to the tribunes for protection." Immediately the tribune Murena broke in with, "I permit you, most honourable Veiento, to speak." At that the tumult broke out again. In the pauses between the outcries the consul read over the names and took the votes by a division, and then adjourned the House, leaving Veiento still on his feet and struggling to deliver his speech. He complained bitterly of the indignity - as he called it - which had been shown him, quoting the line from Homer Certus was not present when all this took place, either owing to his having some suspicion of what was about to happen, or else he was ill, which was the reason he assigned for his absence. It is true that Caesar never referred to the senate the inquiry into Certus's crimes, yet I gained the point for which I had striven. For it was a colleague of Certus who gained the consulship, and Certus's place was taken by someone else, and so the sentence at the close of my speech was fulfilled, where I said, "Let him give back, now that we have a model emperor to reign over us, the prize which was conferred upon him by the worst of emperors." Subsequently, I recalled the speech to my memory as best I could, and added a good deal. By a coincidence, which looked rather more than a coincidence. Certus was taken ill and died a very few days after I published my book. I have heard people say that he was haunted by a phantom which was for ever presenting itself to his mind and gaze, and that he thought he saw me threatening him with a sword. I should not like to say that this actually was the case, but it adds to the moral that it should be considered as true. Well, I have written you a letter which, judged by the standard length of a letter, is about as long as the books you have read, but you have only yourself to blame, inasmuch as you were not content with the published books. Farewell. 9.18. To Sabinus. Your letter proves how attentively, how studiously, and with what powers of memory you have read my books, but you are only bringing work upon your own shoulders when you coax and invite me to send on to you as many of my compositions as I possibly can. I will do so, and will forward them in portions and piecemeal, so to speak, so that I may not fatigue that memory of yours, to which I am so much indebted, by throwing upon it too frequent or too heavy a load. I don't wish to compel you, when you are staggering under the burden, to quit each particular portion for the whole and leave the beginning in hastening on to what follows. Farewell. 9.20. To Venator. Your letter was all the more agreeable to me on account of its length, and because it referred throughout to my books. I am not surprised that they please you, inasmuch as you extend the love you bear me to my writings. I am at present chiefly occupied in getting in my grape harvest, which, though light, is still more plentiful than I had expected - if you can describe as getting in a grape harvest the plucking of an occasional grape, a visit to the wine-press, a taste of the must from the vat, and surprise visits to the domestic servants I brought from the city, who are now superintending my country servants and have left me to my secretaries and readers. Farewell. 9.26. To Lupercus. When referring to a certain orator of our own times, who was a straightforward and level-headed speaker, but lacked the grand manner and ornateness, I said, rather neatly in my opinion, "He has no faults, except it be a fault that he has none." For an orator ought to soar to great heights and be carried away by his feelings, and, on some occasions, he ought to rage and storm, and frequently get near the brink of a precipice, for precipices usually lie near high and exalted places. One travels more safely along level ground, but the road is low and undistinguished, and those who run are more likely to stumble than those who creep, yet the latter get no credit for not falling, while the former, despite their fall, often do. It is exactly the same with oratory as with other arts; it is the difficulty of the task which makes the credit of the achievement. You may notice how the tight-rope walkers, who are struggling along at a great height, evoke the loudest applause just when they seem to be on the point of falling, for those events create most wonder which are least expected, most hazardous, and, as the Greeks still better express it, are most recklessly daring. The skill of a helmsman is by no means so great when he is sailing on a smooth sea as when a tempest is raging; in the former case, there is no one to wonder at his skill as he enters the harbour unheeded and without applause; it is only when the ropes are creaking, and the mast is bent, and the helm is groaning, that the pilot appears in all his glory, and seems most like one of the deities of the sea. I am writing in this strain, because I think you have marked some passages in my works as turgid which I consider lofty, and others, as indiscreet and overdone, which seem to me to be boldly and adequately dealt with. But it makes all the difference whether the marks you have made signify your disapproval of a passage, or merely that it is a striking one. For anything which stands out conspicuously catches the eye, but it requires careful attention to decide whether it is out of proportion or cast on a grand scale, whether it is lofty or disproportionately high. But let me refer to Homer for examples, for who can fail to notice the extreme differences of style between "The great heaven trumpeted around,""His lance rested on the clouds," and all the passage beginning, "Not so loud thunders the wave of the sea" ? * One needs the most delicate pair of scales to decide whether these are empty marvels, which no one should credit, or magnificent and divinely inspired passages. I do not, of course, say that I have ever uttered parallel passages to these, or that I ever could utter them. I am not so mad as all that, but the point I do wish to make is that sometimes eloquence must be given a free rein, and that the rush of genius must not be restrained within too narrow a circuit. But, you will say, there is one rule for orators, and another for poets. Still, Marcus Tullius showed just the same daring as Homer - and yet I will say no more about Tullius, for, with respect to him, there is no possibility of dispute. However, take the case of Demosthenes, who is the pattern and model of all orators. Does he rein and curb himself in that well-known passage, "these scoundrels, flatterers, and polluted wretches," or again, "Not with walls of stone or brick did I fortify the city," or again, "Did I not set Euboea to be a bulwark to Attica on the side of the sea" ? or again, "For my own part, men of Athens, I swear I think he is intoxicated by the vastness of his own achievements"? ** What could be more daring than the fine digression beginning, "For a disease ..." or than this passage, shorter than those I have quoted above, but equally bold, "Then indeed I resisted the audacity of Python's eloquence, which was rushing like a tide upon you"? † In the same style he writes I am arguing against my argument, and you will say that Demosthenes is censured for these extravagances of his. But just notice how much finer Demosthenes is than his critic, and finer just because of his extravagances. Elsewhere, he shows his force, in these passages he shows how much he towers above others. Besides, did Aeschines abstain from the faults which he carped at in Demosthenes? What about this sentence 9.27. To Paternus. I have often felt the dignity, the majesty, and, in a word, the divine splendour of history, and quite lately I had another proof thereof. A certain person had given a reading of a book, which he had compiled with the greatest devotion to truth, and he had reserved part of it for another day. When lo and behold! the friends of a certain other party begged and implored him not to read the remainder; such was the shame they felt at hearing a recital of their deeds, though they had felt none at committing actions which they blushed to hear spoken of. He granted their request, as he was perfectly entitled to do. But the book remains just as it was written, and will remain so, and it will always find readers, the more so because it was not immediately published, inasmuch as delay only sharpens the curiosity of men to know. Farewell. 9.28. To Romanus. After a long delay I have received your letters, but the three came together. All were charmingly written in a most affectionate strain, and they were just the kind of letters that ought to have come from you, especially when I had looked for them for so long. In one of them you lay upon me the very pleasant duty of sending on your letter to that model of women, Plotina. * It shall be forwarded as you desire. In the same one you commend to my good will Pompilius Artemisius. I immediately granted his request. You tell me also that your grape harvest has been but a poor one; I can join you in your grumble in this respect, though we live so far apart. ** In another letter you announce that you are now dictating and writing a good deal, and by so doing you recall me to your remembrance. I am much obliged, and should be more so, if you had been good enough to let me read what you are writing or dictating. It is only fair that you should let me read your compositions, as I let you read mine, even though they relate to some other person than myself. At the close of your letter you promise that, when I give you a more exact account of the way I am spending my time, you will play truant from your own domestic duties and at once rush to see me, and I warn you that I am even now forging chains to hold you, which you will find impossible to break through. Your third letter mentions that you have received my speech in defence of Clarius, and that it seems to you to contain more matter than it did when I read it before you. That is so, for I subsequently inserted many passages. You add that you have sent me other letters over which you took greater pains than usual, and you ask whether I have received them. I have not, but I am exceedingly anxious to. So send them on to me at the earliest possible opportunity with interest for the delay, which I shall reckon at twelve per cent, for I really cannot let you off more lightly. Farewell. 0 9.34. To Tranquillus. Please help me out of my dilemma. I am told that I read badly, at least verses. Speeches I can read fairly well, but my reading of poetry is much inferior. I am thinking therefore, as I am about to give a reading to some intimate friends, of trying the experiment of having one of my freedmen to read for me. The fact that I have chosen one who reads, not perhaps well, but certainly better than I can, will show that I am treating my audience as old friends, provided that he is not flurried, for he is as used to reading as I am to poetry. For my own part, I do not know what I ought to do while he is reading, whether I should sit glued to my seat, without opening my lips like an idle spectator, or whether, as some people I know do, I should follow the words he utters with my lips, eyes, and hands. But in that case I fancy I should not accompany him any better than I should read. So I ask you again to help me out of my dilemma, and write and tell me truly whether it is better for me to read execrably badly, or whether or not I ought to do as I propose. Farewell. 9.35. To Atrius. I have received the book you sent me, and I am much obliged for it, but just for the present I am exceedingly busy. So I have not yet lead it, though I am most anxiously looking forward to do so, but such is the respect due both to your letters and to your writings that I should think it a crying shame if I took it up when my mind was not free to give it undivided attention. I have nothing but praise for the minuteness with which you revise your work, yet there are limits to revision, inasmuch as too much nicety rather impairs than improves, and then again revision takes us away from an up-to-date subject, and neither allows us to finish off an old theme, nor begin a new one. Farewell. 9.38. To Saturninus. Our friend Rufus has won my praise, not because you asked me to praise him, but because he so richly deserved it. For I read his book, which was a perfectly finished production, and the affection he bears me made me still more pleased with it. However, I judged it quite impartially, for it is quite a mistake to suppose that it is only those who read a book with spiteful motives who give a critical estimate of it. Farewell.
124. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 5.3, 7.17.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pliny the younger, on recitation Found in books: Keeline (2018), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy, 313
5.3. To Titius Aristo. While I gratefully acknowledge your many acts of kindness to me, I must especially thank you for not concealing from me the fact that my verses have formed the subject of many long discussions at your house, that such discussions have been lengthened owing to the different views expressed, and that some people, while finding no fault with the writings themselves, blamed me in a perfectly friendly and candid way for having written on such themes and for having read them in public. Well, in order to aggravate my misdeeds, here is my reply to them Nor does it annoy me that people should form such opinions about my character, when it is plain that those who are surprised that I should compose such poems are unaware that the most learned of men and the gravest and purest livers have regularly done the same thing. But I feel sure that I shall easily obtain permission from those who know the character and calibre of the authors in whose footsteps I am treading, to stray in company with men whom it is an honour to follow, not only in their serious but in their lightest moods. I will not mention the names of those still living for fear of seeming to flatter, but is a person like myself to be afraid that it will be unbecoming for him to do what well became Marcus Tullius, Caius Calvus, Asinius Pollio, Marcus Messalla, Quintus Hortensius, M. Brutus, Lucius Sulla, Quintus Catulus, Quintus Scaevola, Servius Sulpicius, Varro, Torquatus - or rather the Torquati, - Caius Memmius, Lentulus Gaetulicus, Annaeus Seneca, Lucan, and, last of all, Verginius Rufus? If the names of these private individuals are not enough, I may add those of the divine Julius, Augustus and Nerva, and that of Tiberius Caesar. I pass by the name of Nero, though I am aware that a practice does not become any the worse because it is sometimes followed by men of bad character, while a practice usually followed by men of good character retains its honesty. Among the latter class of men one must give a pre-eminent place to Publius Vergilius, Cornelius Nepos, and to Attius and Ennius, who should perhaps come first. These men were not senators, but purity of character is the same in all ranks. But, you say, I recite my compositions and I cannot be sure that they did. Granted, but they may have been content with their own judgment, whereas I am too modest to think that any composition of mine is sufficiently perfect when it has no other approbation but my own. Consequently, these are the reasons why I recite in public, first, because a man who recites becomes a keener critic of his own writings out of deference to his audience, and, secondly, because, where he is in doubt, he can decide by referring the point to his listeners. Moreover, he constantly meets with criticism from many quarters, and even if it is not openly expressed, he can tell what each person thinks by watching the expression and eyes of his hearers, or by a nod, a motion of the hand, a murmur, or dead silence. All these things are tolerably clear indications which enable one to distinguish judgment from complaisance. And so, if any one who was present at my reading takes the trouble to look through the same compositions, he will find that I have either altered or omitted certain passages, in compliance perhaps with his judgment, though he never uttered a word to me. But I am arguing on this point as though I invited the whole populace to my reading room and not merely a few friends to my private chamber, while the possession of a large circle of friends has been a source of pride to many men and a reproach to none. Farewell.
125. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 112, 14 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 127
126. Lucian, Alexander The False Prophet, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •angels, recitations of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
127. Palestinian Talmud, Moed Qatan, 3.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 165
128. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 1.296 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, and ligurinus Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 204
129. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, None (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 73, 74
130. Anon., Targum Onqelos, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74
131. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 175
132. Palestinian Talmud, Yoma, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 45, 74
133. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 175
134. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74
135. Palestinian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 175
136. Palestinian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 175
137. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 1.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 223
138. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 184, 185
139. Gellius, Attic Nights, None (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 211
140. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 3.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 45, 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 45, 74
141. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Shimeon Ben Yohai, 19.5 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 180
142. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 127
143. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 6.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 116
6.2. וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי כט, כד): חוֹלֵק עִם גַּנָּב שׂוֹנֵא נַפְשׁוֹ אָלָּה יִשְׁמַע וְלֹא יַגִּיד, מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁלְטוֹן אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹרֵג אֶת הַקַּבְּלָנִין וּמַתִּיר אֶת הַגַּנָּבִים, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל מַלִּיזִין עָלָיו שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כָּרָאוּי, מֶה עָשָׂה הוֹצִיא כָּרוֹז בַּמְּדִינָה וְאָמַר כָּל עַמָּא לַקּוֹמְפּוֹן, מֶה עָשָׂה הֵבִיא חֻלְדּוֹת וְנָתַן לִפְנֵיהֶן מָנוֹת וְהָיוּ הַחֻלְדּוֹת נוֹטְלוֹת אֶת הַמָּנוֹת וּמוֹלִיכוֹת אוֹתָם לַחוֹרִים, לְמָחָר הוֹצִיא כָּרוֹז וְאָמַר כָּל עַמָּא לַקּוֹמְפּוֹן, הֵבִיא חֻלְדּוֹת נָתַן לִפְנֵיהֶם מָנוֹת וְסָתַם אֶת הַחוֹרִים וְהָיוּ הַחֻלְדּוֹת נוֹטְלוֹת אֶת הַמָּנוֹת וּמוֹלִיכוֹת אוֹתָן לַחוֹרִין וּמוֹצְאוֹת אוֹתָן מְסֻתָּמוֹת וּמַחֲזִירוֹת אֶת הַמָּנוֹת לִמְקוֹמָן, לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּל אֶלָּא מִן הַקַּבְּלָנִין, הֲרֵי מִן הַשִּׁלְטוֹן. מִן הַמַּעֲשֶׂה מִנַיִן, רְאוּבֵן גָּנַב לְשִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי יָדַע בֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַל תְּפַרְסְמֵנִי וַאֲנָא יָהֵיב לָךְ פַּלְגָא, לְמָחָר נִכְנְסוּ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְשָׁמְעוּ קוֹל הַחַזָּן מַכְרִיז מַאן גָּנַב לְשִׁמְעוֹן, וְלֵוִי קָאֵים תַּמָּן, הֲלוֹא נָתְנָה תּוֹרָה אִפּוֹפְסִין, וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע.
144. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, 1.1, 2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 223
145. Galen, On My [His] Own Books, 19.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pliny the younger, on recitations •recitation, role of Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 283
146. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •avesta, recitation of Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74
7b. הכי קאמר מגדף מביא קרבן הואיל ובא בו כרת במקום קרבן דברי ר"ע קסבר מיגו דבעי מכתב כרת בעלמא וכתיב כרת במקום קרבן שמע מינה מייתי קרבן,ואומר (במדבר ט, יג) חטאו ישא אתא לרבנן והכי קאמר ר"ע לרבנן אמריתו מגדף לית ביה מעשה מהו מגדף מברך את השם אלא כרת דכתיב למאי אתא,אמרי ליה ליתן כרת למקלל דכתיב במקלל ((במדבר ט, יג) חטאו ישא האיש ההוא) וכתיב בפסח שני (במדבר ט, יג) חטאו ישא מה להלן כרת אף כאן כרת,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) את ה' מגדף איסי בן יהודה אומר כאדם האומר לחבירו גירפתה הקערה וחיסרתה קסבר מגדף מברך את השם הוא,ר' אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כאדם האומר לחבירו גירפתה הקערה ולא חיסרתה קסבר מגדף היינו עובד ע"ז,תניא אידך את ה' רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר בעובד ע"ז הכתוב מדבר וחכמים אומרים לא בא הכתוב אלא ליתן כרת למברך השם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big יש מביאות קרבן ונאכל ויש מביאות קרבן ואינו נאכל ויש שאינם מביאות,מביאות קרבן ונאכל המפלת כמין בהמה חיה ועוף דר"מ וחכ"א עד שיהא בו מצורת אדם,המפלת סנדל או שיליא או שפיר מרוקם והיוצא מחותך וכן שפחה שהפילה מביאה קרבן ונאכל,ואלו מביאות ואינן נאכלות המפלת ואין יודע מה הפילה ושתי נשים שהפילו אחת ממין פטור ואחת ממין חובה א"ר יוסי אימתי בזמן שהלכו זה למזרח וזה למערב אבל אם היו שתיהן עומדות שתיהן מביאות קרבן ונאכל,אלו שאין מביאות המפלת שפיר מלא מים מלא דם מלא גנינים המפלת כמין דגים וחגבים ושקצים ורמשים המפלת יום ארבעים ויוצא דופן ר' שמעון מחייב ביוצא דופן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big שפחה מנלן דת"ר (ויקרא יב, ב) בני ישראל אין לי אלא בני ישראל גיורת ושפחה מנין ת"ל (ויקרא יב, ב) אשה,מאי וכן שפחה ס"ד אמינא כי אמרינן כל מצות שהאשה חייבת בה עבד חייב בה ה"מ בדבר ששוה בין איש ובין אשה אבל יולדת דבנשים איתא באנשים ליתא אימא לא תחייב שפחה אהכי תנא שפחה:,אלו מביאין קרבן כו': מאי עבדין מייתין תרוייהו חד קרבן ודאי וחטאת עוף ספק ומתני,ומי אית ליה לר' יוסי תנאה והתנן רבי שמעון אומר מביאות שניהן חטאת אחת רבי יוסי אומר אין שניהן מביאות חטאת אחת אלמא לר' יוסי לית ליה תנאה,אמר רבא מודה ר' יוסי במחוסר כפרה וכן כי אתא רבין אמר ר' יוחנן מודה רבי יוסי במחוסר כפרה,מ"ט התם בעי גברא ידיעה דכתיב (ויקרא ד, כג) או הודע אליו חטאתו הילכך לא מתיין ומתני אבל הכא כי מתיין נשים קרבן לאישתרויי באכילת קדשים,כדתני סיפא דההיא רבי יוסי אומר כל חטאת שהיא באה על חטא אין שתים מביאות אותה:,אלו שאין מביאות כו' ר' שמעון מחייב ביוצא דופן: מ"ט דר"ש אמר ר"ל אמר קרא (ויקרא יב, ה) ואם נקבה תלד לרבות לידה אחרת מאי היא יוצא דופן,ורבנן מ"ט א"ר מני בר פטיש (ויקרא יב, ב) אשה כי תזריע וילדה עד שתלד ממקום שמזרעת:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המפלת לאור שמונים ואחד ב"ש פוטרין מן הקרבן וב"ה מחייבין,אמרו ב"ה לב"ש מ"ש אור שמונים ואחד מיום שמונים ואחד אם שיוה לו לטומאה לא ישוה לו לקרבן,אמרו להם ב"ש לא אם אמרתם במפלת יום שמונים ואחד שכן יצאה לשעה שהיא ראויה להביא בה קרבן תאמר במפלת לאור שמונים ואחד שלא יצאה לשעה שהיא ראויה להביא בה קרבן,אמרו להן ב"ה והלא המפלת יום שמונים ואחד שחל להיות בשבת תוכיח שלא יצאה לשעה שהיא ראויה להביא בהו קרבן וחייבת קרבן,אמרו להן ב"ש לא אם אמרתם יום שמונים ואחד שחל להיות בשבת שאף על פי שאינן ראוי לקרבן יחיד ראוי לקרבן ציבור תאמר במפלת לאור שמונים (יום) ואחד שאין הלילה ראוי לא לקרבן יחיד ולא לקרבן ציבור,והדמים אינן מוכיחים שהמפלת בתוך מלאת דמיה טמאים ופטורה מן הקרבן: 7b. The Gemara answers that b this /b is what Rabbi Akiva b is saying: /b One who unwittingly b blasphemes brings an offering, since its /b punishment of b i karet /i comes, /b i.e., is written, b in a place /b where the Torah discusses b an offering, /b i.e., i karet /i is mentioned in a passage that discusses a sin offering (see Numbers 15:27–31). This is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva, /b as b he maintains: Since /b the verse b should have written i karet /i in general, /b i.e., without connecting it to bringing an offering, b and /b yet this b i karet /i is written in a place /b where the Torah discusses b an offering, conclude from it /b that the unwitting blasphemer b brings an offering /b for his transgression.,The Gemara analyzes the next clause of the i baraita /i : b And /b the verse b states: /b “Whoever curses his God b shall bear his sin” /b (Leviticus 24:15). The Gemara explains: Here we b arrive at /b the opinion of b the Rabbis, and this /b is what b Rabbi Akiva is saying to the Rabbis: You say /b that the transgression of one who b blasphemes does not involve an action, /b as b what is /b the case of one who b blasphemes? /b It is one who b blesses, /b i.e., curses, b the Name, /b i.e., God. b But /b if so, then concerning the punishment of b i karet /i that is written: /b “That person blasphemes the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off [ i venikhreta /i ] from among his people” (Numbers 15:30), b for what /b purpose b does it come, /b if not to render him liable to bring an offering?,The Rabbis b say to him: /b It comes b to give /b the punishment of b i karet /i to one who curses /b God, in order to teach that the phrase: “Shall bear his sin,” written in the verse: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), is referring to i karet /i , so that one can derive by verbal analogy that an individual who was obligated to bring a Paschal offering for the second i Pesaḥ /i and did not do so is likewise liable to receive i karet /i . b As it is written with regard to one who curses /b God: “Whoever curses his God b shall bear his sin,” and it is written with regard to /b one who was obligated to bring a Paschal offering for the b second i Pesaḥ /i /b and did not do so: “That man b shall bear his sin” /b (Numbers 9:13). b Just as there, /b with regard to one who curses God it is referring to the punishment of b i karet /i , so too here, /b with regard to the Paschal offering it is referring to the punishment of b i karet /i . /b ,With regard to one who blasphemes, b the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: “That person b blasphemes [ i megaddef /i ] the Lord” /b (Numbers 15:30). b Isi ben Yehuda says: /b This is b like a person who says to another: You cleaned [ i geirafta /i ] the bowl and rendered it lacking, /b i.e., the transgression of blasphemy is so severe that it is compared to one who does actual damage to God. Isi ben Yehuda b maintains /b that the case of the b blasphemer is /b identical to that of one who b blesses, /b i.e., curses, b the Name, /b i.e., God, which is a particularly severe transgression., b Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says /b that this is b like a person who says to another: You cleaned the bowl /b and removed its contents, b but did not render it lacking, /b i.e., the transgression of blasphemy is not compared to one who does actual damage to God. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya b maintains /b that the case of the b blasphemer is /b the same as that of b an idol worshipper, /b which is a less severe transgression.,This dispute as to the nature of the transgression of the blasphemer b is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : “That person blasphemes b the Lord” /b (Numbers 15:30), and b Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The verse is speaking of an idol worshipper. And the Rabbis say: The verse comes only to give /b the punishment of b i karet /i to one who blesses, /b i.e., curses, b the Name, /b i.e., God., strong MISHNA: /strong b There are /b some women who b bring /b a sin b offering /b of a woman after childbirth b and /b the offering b is eaten /b by the priests. b And there are /b some women who b bring /b a sin b offering but it is not eaten. And /b there are b some /b women who b do not bring /b a sin offering at all.,The mishna elaborates: The following women b bring /b a sin b offering and it is eaten /b by the priests: b One who miscarries /b a fetus with a form b similar to a domesticated animal, /b one who miscarries a fetus with a form similar to b an undomesticated animal, or /b one who miscarries a fetus with a form similar to b a bird; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: /b She does not bring a sin offering b unless /b the fetus b has the form of a person. /b ,With regard to a woman b who miscarries a sandal /b fetus, i.e., one that has the form of a flat fish; b or /b if she miscarries the b placenta; or an amniotic sac /b in which b tissue developed; or /b a fetus b that emerged cut, /b i.e., in pieces; b and likewise /b a Canaanite b maidservant, /b owned by a Jew, b who miscarried; /b in all these cases b she brings /b a sin b offering and it is eaten /b by the priests., b And these /b women b bring /b sin offerings b but /b their sin offerings b are not eaten: One who miscarries and does not know /b the nature of b what she miscarried; and two women who miscarried, /b in a case where b one /b miscarried a fetus b of a type /b for which a woman is b exempt /b from bringing an offering b and /b the other b one /b miscarried a fetus b of a type /b for which a woman is b liable /b to bring an offering, and they do not know which miscarried which type. b Rabbi Yosei said: When /b is their sin offering not eaten? It is b when /b both women b went /b to different places within the Temple to bring their offerings, e.g., b this /b woman went b to the east and that /b woman went b to the west. But if both of them were standing /b together, b both of them /b together b bring /b one sin b offering, and it is eaten. /b , b These /b women b do not bring /b a sin offering: A woman b who miscarries an amniotic sac full of water, /b or one b full of blood, /b or one b full of /b different b colors; /b and likewise a woman b who miscarries /b a fetus with a form b similar to fish, or grasshoppers, or repugt creatures, or creeping animals; /b and a woman b who miscarries /b on the b fortieth day /b of her pregcy; b and /b a woman who gives birth by b caesarean section. Rabbi Shimon deems /b a woman b liable /b to bring a sin offering b in /b the case where she gives birth by b caesarean section. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b From where do we /b derive that in the case of a Canaanite b maidservant, /b owned by a Jew, who miscarried, she brings a sin offering and it is eaten? b As the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The passage discussing the i halakhot /i of a woman following childbirth begins with the verse: “Speak to b the children of Israel, /b saying: If a woman conceives and gives birth to a male” (Leviticus 12:2). From this verse b I have /b derived b only /b that the full-fledged b children of Israel /b are included in these i halakhot /i ; b from where /b do I derive that b a convert and /b a Canaanite b maidservant /b are also included in these i halakhot /i ? b The verse states “a woman,” /b which includes other women.,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the special emphasis in the mishna: b And likewise /b a Canaanite b maidservant? /b Why does the mishna deem it necessary to write this i halakha /i ? The Gemara answers: It might b enter your mind to say /b that b when we say: /b With regard to b any mitzva in which a woman is obligated /b a Canaanite b slave is /b also b obligated in that /b mitzva, b this statement /b applies b with regard to a matter that is the same for a man and for a woman. But /b with regard to the offerings of b a woman after childbirth, which is /b a category that applies b to women /b but b does not /b apply b to men, /b one might b say /b a Canaanite b maidservant is not obligated /b to bring these offerings. It is b for this /b reason the mishna b taught /b the case of a Canaanite b maidservant. /b ,§ The mishna teaches: b These /b women b bring /b a sin b offering /b but their sin offerings are not eaten. It then teaches that in a case where one miscarried a fetus of a type for which a woman is exempt from bringing an offering and the other one miscarried a fetus of a type for which a woman is obligated to bring an offering, Rabbi Yosei maintains that if both are standing together they bring one offering together. The Gemara asks: b What /b exactly b do they do? The two of them bring one definite /b burnt b offering, and a sin offering of a bird /b due to b uncertainty, and they /b each b stipulate /b that if she is obligated to bring the sin offering the animal is hers, and if not then it belongs to the other woman.,The Gemara asks: b And is Rabbi Yosei of /b the opinion that b a stipulation /b is effective in the case of a sin offering? b But didn’t we learn /b in a mishna (23a): With regard to a situation where one of two women unwittingly ate a piece of forbidden fat and is obligated to bring a sin offering, but it is unknown which woman, b Rabbi Shimon says: They both bring one sin offering /b together, and b Rabbi Yosei says: They do not both bring one sin offering /b together. b Evidently, Rabbi Yosei is not of /b the opinion that b a stipulation /b is effective with regard to a sin offering., b Rava said: Rabbi Yosei concedes /b that a stipulation is effective b with regard to one who has not yet /b brought b an atonement /b offering to complete the purification process, as is the case concerning a woman after childbirth. b And likewise, when Ravin came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to one who has not yet /b brought b an atonement /b offering that a stipulation is effective.,The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b for this difference between the sin offering of one who has not yet brought an atonement offering and standard sin offerings? The Gemara answers: b There, /b with regard to a sin offering brought for a transgression, b the man requires /b definite b awareness /b of his transgression for him to be obligated to bring a sin offering, b as it is written: “If his sin, /b which he has sinned, b be known to him” /b (Leviticus 4:28). b Therefore, /b in the case where one of two women ate forbidden fat, b they do not bring /b a sin offering together b and stipulate /b that it should be for whichever of them ate the forbidden fat. b But here, /b with regard to a woman after a miscarriage, b when /b these b women bring /b their sin offering they do so only in order b to become permitted in the consumption of sacrificial /b food, and therefore the stipulation is effective.,The Gemara cites a proof that this distinction is in fact the opinion of Rabbi Yosei: b As it is taught in the latter clause of that /b mishna that b Rabbi Yosei says: /b With regard to b any sin offering that comes /b as atonement b for a sin, two /b people b do not bring it /b together. This indicates that if a sin offering does not atone for a sin, two people can bring it together.,§ The mishna teaches: And b these /b women b do not bring /b a sin offering, and among them are a woman who gives birth by caesarean section. b Rabbi Shimon deems /b a woman b liable /b to bring an offering b in /b a case where she gives birth by b caesarean section. /b The Gemara asks: b What is the reason of Rabbi Shimon? Reish Lakish said /b that b the verse states: “But if she bears a girl” /b (Leviticus 12:5). The term “she bears” is superfluous in the context of the passage, and it serves b to include another /b type of b birth, /b and b what /b is b it? /b This is a birth by b caesarean section. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b as for b the Rabbis, what is /b their b reasoning? Rabbi Mani bar Pattish said /b that their ruling is derived from the verse: b “If a woman conceives [ i tazria /i ] and gives birth to a male” /b (Leviticus 12:2). The word i tazria /i literally means to receive seed, indicating that all the i halakhot /i mentioned in that passage do not apply b unless she gives birth through the place where she receives seed, /b not through any other place, such as in the case of a caesarean section., strong MISHNA: /strong A woman who gives birth to a daughter counts fourteen days during which she is ritually impure. That is followed by sixty-six days during which she remains ritually pure even if she experiences a flow of blood. The Torah obligates a woman to bring her offering on the eighty-first day (see Leviticus 12:1–6). If the woman miscarries another fetus before that day, she is not required to bring an additional offering. In the case of a woman b who miscarries /b a fetus b on the night of, /b i.e., preceding, b the eighty-first /b day, b Beit Shammai deem /b her b exempt from /b bringing a second b offering and Beit Hillel deem /b her b liable /b to bring a second offering., b Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: What is different /b between the b night of the eighty-first and /b the b day of the eighty-first? If they are equal with regard to /b the i halakhot /i of b ritual impurity, /b i.e., the blood flow of this woman on the eighty-first night renders her ritually impure and all the standard strictures of ritual impurity apply to her, b will /b the two time periods b not be equal with regard to /b liability to bring an additional b offering /b as well?, b Beit Shammai said to /b Beit Hillel: b No, /b there is a difference between that night and the following day. b If you said with regard to /b a woman b who miscarries /b on the b eighty-first day /b that she is obligated to bring an additional offering, this is logical, b as she emerged into a period that is fit /b for b her to bring /b her b offering. /b Would you b say /b the same b with regard to /b a woman b who miscarries on the night of /b the b eighty-first /b day, b where she did not emerge into a period that is fit /b for b her to bring /b her b offering, /b as offerings are not sacrificed at night?, b Beit Hillel said to /b Beit Shammai: b But let /b the case of a woman b who miscarries on /b the b eighty-first day that occurs on Shabbat prove /b that this distinction is incorrect, b as she did not emerge into a period that is fit /b for b her to bring /b her b offering /b because individual offerings are not sacrificed on Shabbat, b and /b nevertheless b she is obligated to bring /b an additional b offering. /b , b Beit Shammai said to /b Beit Hillel: b No, /b there is a difference between these cases. b If you said /b this ruling with regard to a woman b who miscarries on /b the b eighty-first day that occurs on Shabbat, /b the reason is b that although /b Shabbat b is unfit for /b the sacrifice of b an individual offering, /b it is b fit for /b the sacrifice of b a communal offering /b whose time is fixed, e.g., the daily offering. Would you b say /b the same b with regard to /b a woman b who miscarries on the night of /b the b eighty-first /b day, b as the night is completely unfit, /b since b neither an individual offering nor a communal offering /b is sacrificed at night?,Beit Shammai add: b And /b as for the ritual impurity status of b the blood, /b i.e., Beit Hillel’s opinion that the two time periods are equal with regard to the i halakhot /i of ritual impurity, this b does not prove /b what the i halakha /i should be with regard to offerings, b as /b with regard to a woman b who miscarries /b before the b completion /b of the term of eighty days, b her blood is impure /b like the blood of a woman after childbirth, and nevertheless b she is exempt from /b bringing b the offering. /b
147. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 168, 169
7b. מיתיבי מברכין לבתולה שבעה ולאלמנה יום אחד מאי לאו אפילו אלמנה שנשאת לבחור לא לאלמון אבל לבחור מאי שבעה אי הכי ליתני מברכין לבתולה שבעה ולאלמנה שנשאת לבחור שבעה ולאלמנה יום אחד,מילתא פסיקתא קתני דליכא בתולה דבצרה משבעה וליכא אלמנה דבצרה מיום אחד:,גופא אמר רב נחמן אמר לי הונא בר נתן תנא מנין לברכת חתנים בעשרה שנאמר (רות ד, ב) ויקח עשרה אנשים מזקני העיר ויאמר שבו פה ורבי אבהו אמר מהכא (תהלים סח, כז) במקהלות ברכו אלהים ה' ממקור ישראל,ורב נחמן בהאי קרא דרבי אבהו מאי דריש ביה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא היה ר"מ אומר מנין שאפילו עוברים שבמעי אמן אמרו שירה על הים שנאמר במקהלות ברכו אלהים ה' ממקור ישראל ואידך אם כן לימא קרא מבטן מאי ממקור על עסקי מקור,ורבי אבהו בהאי קרא דרב נחמן מאי דריש ביה ההוא מיבעי ליה למידרש עמוני ולא עמונית מואבי ולא מואבית דאי סלקא דעתך לברכה לא סגיא דלאו זקנים,ואידך אי סלקא דעתך למידרש לא סגיא דלאו עשרה אין לפרסומי מילתא וכדאמר ליה שמואל לרב חנא בגדתאה פוק ואייתי לי בי עשרה ואימא לך באנפייהו המזכה לעובר קנה והלכתא המזכה לעובר לא קנה:,תנו רבנן מברכין ברכת חתנים בבית חתנים ר' יהודה אומר אף בבית האירוסין מברכין אותה,אמר אביי וביהודה שנו מפני שמתייחד עמה,תניא אידך מברכין ברכת חתנים בבית חתנים וברכת אירוסין בבית האירוסין ברכת האירוסין מאי מברך רבין בר רב אדא ורבה בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב יהודה אמרי בא"י אמ"ה אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על העריות ואסר לנו את הארוסות והתיר לנו את הנשואות על ידי חופה וקדושין רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה בא"י מקדש ישראל על ידי חופה וקדושין,מאן דלא חתים מידי דהוה אברכת פירות ואברכת מצות ומאן דחתים מידי דהוה אקידושא:,ת"ר מברכין ברכת חתנים בעשרה כל שבעה אמר רב יהודה והוא שבאו פנים חדשות,מאי מברך אמר רב יהודה בא"י אמ"ה 7b. b The Gemara raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : b One recites a benediction for a virgin /b who marries for b seven /b days b and for a widow /b who marries for b one /b day. b What, is it not even /b in the case of b a widow who is married to a bachelor, /b that one recites the benediction for one day? The Gemara answers: b No, /b it is only in the case of a widow who is married b to a widower /b that the benediction is recited for one day. The Gemara asks: b However, /b one may then infer that in the case of a widow who is married b to a bachelor, what /b is the i halakha /i ? The blessing is recited b seven /b days? b If so, let /b the i tanna /i b teach /b the i baraita /i : b One recites a benediction for a virgin /b who marries for b seven /b days, b and for a widow /b who marries b a bachelor seven /b days, b and for a widow /b marrying a widower for b one day. /b Why was the middle case omitted?,Although the i tanna /i could have included that case in the i baraita /i , b he taught categorical matters. /b He preferred to avoid entering into detail, b as there is no virgin /b for b whom /b the benediction is recited b fewer than seven /b days, b and there is no widow /b for b whom /b the benediction is recited for b less than one day. /b However, there are circumstances where even for a widow the benediction is recited for more than one day.,§ Apropos the source for the benediction of the grooms, the Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself. Rav Naḥman said: Huna bar Natan said to me /b that it was b taught: From where /b is it derived b that the benediction of the grooms /b is recited b in /b a quorum of b ten /b men? It is b as it is stated: “And he took ten men of the Elders of the city and said: Sit you here, /b and they sat” (Ruth 4:2). b And Rabbi Abbahu said /b that the source is b from here: “In assemblies [ i mak’helot /i ], bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel” /b (Psalms 68:27). This verse indicates that a congregation [ i kahal /i ], which contains at least ten men, blesses God when reciting a benediction related to the source of Israel, i.e., conjugal relations, which will lead to the birth of Jewish children., b And what does Rav Naḥman derive from this verse /b from b which Rabbi Abbahu /b derived that i halakha /i ? b He requires /b the verse b to /b derive b that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Meir would say: From where /b is it derived b that even fetuses in their mother’s womb recited /b the b song at the /b Red b Sea? /b It is b as it is stated /b in the chapter of Psalms that describes the exodus from Egypt: b “In assemblies, bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel.” /b Even those fetuses that were still in the source, i.e., the womb, joined the assemblies in blessing God. b And the other /b Sage, Rabbi Abbahu says: b If that /b is the meaning, b let the verse say: From the belly of Israel. What is /b the meaning of the term b “source”? /b Clearly, it is referring b to matters /b related to b the source /b of Israel, i.e., the benediction of the grooms, which must be recited in a congregation, a quorum of ten., b And what does Rabbi Abbahu derive from this verse /b from b which Rav Naḥman /b derived his i halakha /i ? b He requires /b the verse stating that Boaz assembled ten men in order b to teach /b that the Torah prohibition with regard to marrying members of the nations of Ammon and Moab is limited to a male b Ammonite and not a female Ammonite, /b and to a male b Moabite and not a female Moabite, as, if it would enter your mind /b that Boaz gathered the men only b to /b recite b a benediction, /b would it b not /b have been b sufficient /b if they b were not Elders? /b From the fact that he convened a quorum of Elders, apparently it was to engage in halakhic discourse and to issue a halakhic ruling., b And the other /b Sage, Rav Naḥman, would reject that proof. b If it would enter your mind /b that he gathered the men b in order to teach /b a i halakha /i , would it b not /b have been b sufficient /b if they b were not ten? /b The Gemara answers: b Yes, /b in fact a quorum of ten is not necessary to issue a halakhic ruling. Nevertheless, Boaz convened ten Elders b to publicize the matter, as Shmuel said to Rav Ḥana of Baghdad: Go and bring me an assembly of ten /b men b and I will say to you before them /b a i halakha /i that I seek to disseminate: With regard to b one who transfers ownership /b of an object b to a fetus, /b the fetus b acquires /b it, although it has not yet entered the world. Boaz too assembled ten Elders to publicize the matter. Apropos the i halakha /i that Shmuel publicized, the Gemara rules: b And the i halakha /i /b is: With regard to b one who transfers ownership /b of an object b to a fetus, /b the fetus b does not acquire /b it., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, /b when the bride enters into the wedding canopy. b Rabbi Yehuda said: One recites it even in the house of the betrothal, /b at the time of the betrothal., b Abaye said: And /b the Sages b taught /b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda b in Judea because /b there the custom was b that /b the groom b be secluded with /b his betrothed, leading to the concern lest he engage in conjugal relations with her. Therefore, the blessing is recited already at that stage., b It is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : b One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, and the benediction of the betrothal in the house of the betrothal. /b With regard to b the benediction of the betrothal, what /b formula b does one recite? Ravin bar Rav Adda and Rabba bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who sanctified us through His mitzvot, and commanded us concerning the forbidden relatives, and prohibited to us those women who are betrothed, and permitted to us /b those women b who are married by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludes /b the blessing b in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord, Who sanctifies Israel by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal. /b , b One who does not conclude /b the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, but instead recites it without a concluding blessing, deems the formula of this blessing b just as /b the formula b is in the blessing /b recited over b fruits and the blessing /b recited over b mitzvot, /b in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appear only at the beginning of the blessing. b And one who concludes /b the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, deems the formula of this blessing b just as /b the formula b is /b in the blessing b of i kiddush /i , /b in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appears both at the beginning and the conclusion of the blessing.,§ b The Sages taught: One recites the benediction of the grooms in /b a quorum of b ten /b men b all seven /b days of the wedding celebration. b Rav Yehuda said: And that is /b the case only b when new faces /b who did not previously participate in the festivities b came /b to join the celebration.,The Gemara asks: b What blessings does one recite? Rav Yehuda said /b that these are the seven blessings: b Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, /b
148. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 45; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 45
18a. הוגה את השם באותיותיו והיכי עביד הכי והתנן אלו שאין להם חלק לעולם הבא האומר אין תורה מן השמים ואין תחיית המתים מן התורה אבא שאול אומר אף ההוגה את השם באותיותיו,להתלמד עבד כדתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות,אלא מאי טעמא אענש משום הוגה את השם בפרהסיא דהוי ועל אשתו להריגה דלא מיחה ביה מכאן אמרו כל מי שיש בידו למחות ואינו מוחה נענש עליו,ועל בתו לישב בקובה של זונות דאמר ר' יוחנן פעם אחת היתה בתו מהלכת לפני גדולי רומי אמרו כמה נאות פסיעותיה של ריבה זו מיד דקדקה בפסיעותיה והיינו דאמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (תהלים מט, ו) עון עקבי יסבני עונות שאדם דש בעקביו בעולם הזה מסובין לו ליום הדין,בשעה שיצאו שלשתן צדקו עליהם את הדין הוא אמר (דברים לב, ד) הצור תמים פעלו [וגו'] ואשתו אמרה (דברים לב, ד) אל אמונה ואין עול בתו אמרה (ירמיהו לב, יט) גדול העצה ורב העליליה אשר עיניך פקוחות על כל דרכי וגו' אמר רבי [כמה] גדולים צדיקים הללו שנזדמנו להן שלש מקראות של צדוק הדין בשעת צדוק הדין,תנו רבנן כשחלה רבי יוסי בן קיסמא הלך רבי חנינא בן תרדיון לבקרו אמר לו חנינא אחי (אחי) אי אתה יודע שאומה זו מן השמים המליכוה שהחריבה את ביתו ושרפה את היכלו והרגה את חסידיו ואבדה את טוביו ועדיין היא קיימת ואני שמעתי עליך שאתה יושב ועוסק בתורה [ומקהיל קהלות ברבים] וספר מונח לך בחיקך,אמר לו מן השמים ירחמו אמר לו אני אומר לך דברים של טעם ואתה אומר לי מן השמים ירחמו תמה אני אם לא ישרפו אותך ואת ספר תורה באש אמר לו רבי מה אני לחיי העולם הבא,אמר לו כלום מעשה בא לידך אמר לו מעות של פורים נתחלפו לי במעות של צדקה וחלקתים לעניים אמר לו אם כן מחלקך יהי חלקי ומגורלך יהי גורלי,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שנפטר רבי יוסי בן קיסמא והלכו כל גדולי רומי לקברו והספידוהו הספד גדול ובחזרתן מצאוהו לרבי חנינא בן תרדיון שהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה ומקהיל קהלות ברבים וס"ת מונח לו בחיקו,הביאוהו וכרכוהו בס"ת והקיפוהו בחבילי זמורות והציתו בהן את האור והביאו ספוגין של צמר ושראום במים והניחום על לבו כדי שלא תצא נשמתו מהרה אמרה לו בתו אבא אראך בכך אמר לה אילמלי אני נשרפתי לבדי היה הדבר קשה לי עכשיו שאני נשרף וס"ת עמי מי שמבקש עלבונה של ס"ת הוא יבקש עלבוני,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי מה אתה רואה אמר להן גליון נשרפין ואותיות פורחות אף אתה פתח פיך ותכנס בך האש אמר להן מוטב שיטלנה מי שנתנה ואל יחבל הוא בעצמו,אמר לו קלצטונירי רבי אם אני מרבה בשלהבת ונוטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבך אתה מביאני לחיי העולם הבא אמר לו הן השבע לי נשבע לו מיד הרבה בשלהבת ונטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבו יצאה נשמתו במהרה אף הוא קפץ ונפל לתוך האור,יצאה בת קול ואמרה רבי חנינא בן תרדיון וקלצטונירי מזומנין הן לחיי העולם הבא בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ויש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים,ברוריא דביתהו דר' מאיר ברתיה דר' חנינא בן תרדיון הואי אמרה לו זילא בי מלתא דיתבא אחתאי בקובה של זונות שקל תרקבא דדינרי ואזל אמר אי לא איתעביד בה איסורא מיתעביד ניסא אי עבדה איסורא לא איתעביד לה ניסא,אזל נקט נפשיה כחד פרשא אמר לה השמיעני לי אמרה ליה דשתנא אנא אמר לה מתרחנא מרתח אמרה לו נפישין טובא (ואיכא טובא הכא) דשפירן מינאי אמר ש"מ לא עבדה איסורא כל דאתי אמרה ליה הכי,אזל לגבי שומר דידה א"ל הבה ניהלה אמר ליה מיסתפינא ממלכותא אמר ליה שקול תרקבא דדינרא פלגא פלח ופלגא להוי לך א"ל וכי שלמי מאי איעביד א"ל אימא אלהא דמאיר ענני ומתצלת א"ל 18a. b pronounce the /b ineffable b name /b of God b with /b all of b its letters, /b i.e., as it is spelled. The Gemara asks: b And how could he do that? But didn’t we learn /b in the mishna ( i Sanhedrin /i 90a): b These /b are the people b who have no share in the World-to-Come: One who says /b that b the Torah is not from Heaven or /b that b there is no /b source b from the Torah /b for b the resurrection of the dead. Abba Shaul says: Also one who pronounces the /b ineffable b name /b as it is written, b with /b all of b its letters, /b has no share in the World-to-Come.,The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b did it to teach himself, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the prohibition against sorcery: b “You shall not learn to do” /b (Deuteronomy 18:9); this indicates: b But you may learn to understand and to teach. /b In other words, certain prohibitions do not apply when one is acting only in order to acquire knowledge of the subject.,The Gemara asks: b Rather, what is the reason /b that b he was punished? /b The Gemara answers: He was punished b because he would pronounce the /b ineffable b name /b of God b in public, /b instead of privately. b And his wife /b was condemned b to execution /b by decapitation b because she did not protest his /b doing so. b From here /b the Sages b stated: Anyone who has the capability to protest /b effectively the sinful conduct of another b and does not protest is punished for /b that person’s sin.,The Gemara asks: b And /b why was b his daughter /b condemned b to sit in a brothel? As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Once, the daughter of /b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b was walking before the nobles of Rome, /b and they b said /b to each other: b How pleasant are the steps of this young woman. /b Upon hearing this, b she immediately took care /b to keep walking in such a fashion that b her steps /b would continue to be pleasing to them. b And this is /b the same as that b which Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “The iniquity of my heel encircles me” /b (Psalms 49:6)? It means that b the sins that a person tramples with one’s heel in this world, /b i.e., dismisses and pays no attention to them as they seem to lack importance, e.g., the way that one walks, come and b encircle him on the Day of Judgment. /b ,The Gemara relates: b When the three of them went out /b after being sentenced, b they accepted the /b justice of God’s b judgment. /b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said: “The Rock, His work is perfect; /b for all His ways are justice” (Deuteronomy 32:4). b And his wife said /b the continuation of the verse: b “A God of faithfulness and without iniquity.” His daughter said: “Great in counsel, and mighty in work; whose eyes are open upon all the ways /b of the sons of men, to give every one according to his ways” (Jeremiah 32:19). b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: How great are these righteous people, that /b these b three verses, /b which speak b of /b the b acceptance of /b God’s b judgment, occurred to them at the time of accepting the /b righteousness of His b judgment. /b ,§ b The Sages taught: When Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma fell ill, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon went to visit him. /b Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to him: Ḥanina my brother, do you not know that this nation has been given reign by /b a decree from b Heaven? /b The proof is b that /b Rome has b destroyed /b God’s b Temple, and burned His Sanctuary, and killed His pious ones, and destroyed His best ones, and it still exists. /b Evidently, all of this is by Divine decree. b And /b yet b I heard about you that you sit and engage in Torah /b study, b and convene assemblies in public, and have /b a Torah b scroll placed in your lap, /b thereby demonstrating complete disregard for the decrees issued by the Romans.,Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said to him: Heaven will have mercy /b and protect me. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to him: I am saying reasonable matters to you, and you say to me: Heaven will have mercy? I wonder if /b the Romans b will not burn /b both b you and /b your b Torah scroll by fire. /b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said to him: My teacher, what /b will become of b me? /b Am I destined b for life in the World-to-Come? /b ,Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to him: Did any /b special b incident occur to you /b which might serve as an indication? Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said to him: I confused /b my own b coins /b that I needed b for /b the festivities of b Purim with coins of charity, and I distributed them /b all b to the poor /b at my own expense. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to him: If /b that is b so, may my portion be of your portion, and may my lot be of your lot. /b ,The Sages b said: Not /b even b a few days /b passed b before Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma died /b of his illness, b and all of the Roman notables went to bury him, and /b they b eulogized him /b with b a great eulogy. And upon their return, they found Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon, who was sitting and engaging in Torah /b study b and convening assemblies in public, with a Torah scroll placed in his lap. /b , b They brought him /b to be sentenced, b and wrapped him in the Torah scroll, and encircled him with bundles of branches, and they set fire to it. And they brought tufts of wool and soaked them in water, and placed them on his heart, so that his soul should not leave /b his body b quickly, /b but he would die slowly and painfully. b His daughter said to him: Father, must I see you like this? /b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said to her: If I alone were being burned, it would be difficult for me, /b but b now that I am burning along with a Torah scroll, He who will seek /b retribution for b the insult /b accorded b to the Torah scroll will also seek /b retribution for b the insult /b accorded b to me. /b , b His students said to him: /b Our b teacher, what do you see? /b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said to them: /b I see the b parchment burning, but /b its b letters are flying /b to the heavens. They said to him: b You too should open your mouth and the fire will enter you, /b and you will die quickly. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said to them: It is preferable that He who gave /b me my soul b should take it away, and one should not harm oneself /b to speed his death., b The executioner [ i kaltzatoniri /i ] said to him: My teacher, if I increase the flame and take off the tufts of wool from your heart, /b so that you will die sooner and suffer less, b will you bring me to the life of the World-to-Come? /b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b said to /b the executioner: b Yes. /b The executioner said: b Take an oath for me, /b that what you say is true. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon b took /b the b oath for him, /b and the executioner b immediately increased the flame and took off the tufts of wool from his heart, /b causing b his soul /b to b leave /b his body b quickly. /b The executioner b too leaped and fell into the fire /b and died., b A Divine Voice emerged and said: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon and the executioner are destined for the life of the World-to-Come. /b Upon hearing this, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b wept and said: There is /b one who b acquires his /b share in the b World /b -to-Come b in one moment, /b such as the executioner, b and there is /b one who b acquires his /b share in the b World /b -to-Come only b after many years /b of toil, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon.,§ The Gemara relates: b Berurya, the wife of Rabbi Meir, was a daughter of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon. She said to /b Rabbi Meir: b It is a disrespectful matter for me that my sister is sitting in a brothel; /b you must do something to save her. Rabbi Meir b took a vessel [ i tarkeva /i ] /b full b of dinars and went. He said /b to himself: b If no transgression was committed with her, a miracle will be performed /b for her; b if she committed a transgression, no miracle will be performed for her. /b ,Rabbi Meir b went and dressed as /b a Roman b knight, /b and b said to her: Accede to my /b wishes, i.e., engage in intercourse with me. b She said to him: I am menstruating [ i dashtana /i ] /b and cannot. b He said to her: I will wait. She said to him: There are many /b women in the brothel, b and there are many /b women b here who are more beautiful than I. He said /b to himself: I can b conclude from /b her responses that b she did not commit a transgression, /b as b she /b presumably b said this to all who come. /b , b Rabbi Meir went over to her guard, /b and b said to him: Give her /b to me. The guard b said to him: I fear /b that if I do so, I will be punished b by the government. /b Rabbi Meir b said to him: Take /b this b vessel /b full b of dinars; give half /b to the government as a bribe, b and half will be for you. /b The guard b said to him: But when /b the money b is finished, what shall I do? /b Rabbi Meir b said to him: Say: God of Meir answer me! And you will be saved. /b The guard b said to him: /b
149. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 90
150. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 177; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 157
86a. חכים יתקרי ורבי לא יתקרי ואסו דרבי על ידו תהא רבי ור' נתן סוף משנה רב אשי ורבינא סוף הוראה,וסימנך (תהלים עג, יז) עד אבוא אל מקדשי אל אבינה לאחריתם,אמר רב כהנא אישתעי לי רב חמא בר ברתיה דחסא רבה בר נחמני אגב שמדא נח נפשיה אכלו ביה קורצא בי מלכא אמרו איכא חד גברא ביהודאי דקא מבטל תריסר אלפי גברי מישראל ירחא בקייטא וירחא בסתוא מכרגא דמלכא,שדרו פריסתקא דמלכא בתריה ולא אשכחיה ערק ואזל מפומבדיתא לאקרא מאקרא לאגמא ומאגמא לשחין ומשחין לצריפא ומצריפא לעינא דמים ומעינא דמים לפומבדיתא בפומבדיתא אשכחיה איקלע פריסתקא דמלכא לההוא אושפיזא דרבה קריבו תכא קמיה ואשקוהו תרי כסי ודליוה לתכא מקמיה הדר פרצופיה לאחוריה,אמרו ליה מאי נעביד ליה גברא דמלכא הוא אמר להו קריבו תכא לקמיה ואשקיוהו חד כסא ודליוהו לתכא מקמיה ולתסי עבדו ליה הכי ואתסי אמר מידע ידענא דגברא דקא בעינא הכא הוא בחיש אבתריה ואשכחיה אמר אזלינא מהא אי מקטל קטלו לההוא גברא לא מגלינא ואי נגידי מנגדין ליה מגלינא,אתיוהו לקמיה עייליה לאדרונא וטרקיה לבבא באנפיה בעא רחמי פרק אשיתא ערק ואזיל לאגמא הוה יתיב אגירדא דדקולא וקא גריס קא מיפלגי במתיבתא דרקיעא אם (ויקרא יג, ב) בהרת קודמת לשער לבן טמא ואם שער לבן קודם לבהרת טהור,ספק הקב"ה אומר טהור וכולהו מתיבתא דרקיעא אמרי טמא ואמרי מאן נוכח נוכח רבה בר נחמני דאמר רבה בר נחמני אני יחיד בנגעים אני יחיד באהלות,שדרו שליחא בתריה לא הוה מצי מלאך המות למקרב ליה מדלא הוה קא פסיק פומיה מגרסיה אדהכי נשב זיקא ואויש ביני קני סבר גונדא דפרשי הוא אמר תינח נפשיה דההוא גברא ולא ימסר בידא דמלכותא,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמר טהור טהור יצאת בת קול ואמרה אשריך רבה בר נחמני שגופך טהור ויצאתה נשמתך בטהור נפל פתקא מרקיעא בפומבדיתא רבה בר נחמני נתבקש בישיבה של מעלה נפקו אביי ורבא וכולהו רבנן לאיעסוקי ביה לא הוו ידעי דוכתיה אזלו לאגמא חזו צפרי דמטללי וקיימי אמרי שמע מינה התם הוא,ספדוהו תלתא יומי ותלתא לילותא נפל פתקא כל הפורש יהא בנידוי ספדוהו שבעה יומי נפל פתקא לכו לביתכם לשלום,ההוא יומא דנח נפשיה דלייה זעפא ודרי לההוא טייעא כי רכיב גמלא מהאי גיסא דנהר פפא ושדייה בהך גיסא אמר מאי האי אמרי ליה נח נפשיה דרבה בר נחמני אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם כולי עלמא דידך הוא ורבה בר נחמני דידך את דרבה ורבה דידך אמאי קא מחרבת ליה לעלמא נח זעפא,רבי שמעון בן חלפתא בעל בשר הוה יומא חד הוה חמימא ליה הוה סליק ויתיב אשינא דטורא אמר לה לברתיה בתי הניפי עלי במניפא ואני אתן ליך ככרין דנרד אדהכי נשבא זיקא אמר כמה ככרין דנרד למרי דיכי,הכל כמנהג המדינה וכו' הכל לאתויי מאי לאתויי באתרא דנהיגי מכרך ריפתא ומשתה אנפקא דאי אמר להו קדימו ואייתי לכו אמרו לו לא כל כמינך,מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן מתיא שאמר לבנו צא ושכור וכו' מעשה לסתור חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני ואם פסק להן מזונות 86a. b shall be called a wise [ i ḥakim /i ] /b physician, b but he shall not be called rabbi, and Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi’s b convalescence shall be through him. /b I also saw written there: b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b and Rabbi Natan /b are b the end of the Mishna, /b i.e., the last of the i tanna’im /i , the redactors of the Mishna. b Rav Ashi and Ravina /b are b the end of instruction, /b i.e., the end of the period of the i amora’im /i , the redacting of the Talmud, which occurred after the period of the i tanna’im /i ., b And your mnemonic /b to remember that Rav Ashi and Ravina redacted the Talmud is the verse: b “Until I entered into the sanctuary [ i mikdashei /i ] of God, and considered [ i avina /i ] their end” /b (Psalms 73:17). The sanctuary, i mikdashei /i , alludes to Rav Ashi, while the term i avina /i alludes to Ravina, which is a contraction of Rav Avina. The phrase: Their end, is interpreted as a reference to the redacting of the Talmud.,§ The Gemara relates another story discussing the greatness of the Sages. b Rav Kahana said: Rav Ḥama, son of the daughter of Ḥasa, told me /b that b Rabba bar Naḥmani died due to /b the fear of a decree of religious b persecution. /b The Gemara explains: His enemies b accused him [ i akhalu beih kurtza /i ] /b of disloyalty b in the king’s palace, /b as they b said: There is one man from /b among b the Jews who exempts twelve thousand Jewish men from the king’s head tax /b two months a year, b one month in the summer and one month in the winter. /b Since many people would study in Rabba’s study hall during the months of Adar and Elul, he was being blamed for preventing those people from working during those months., b They sent a messenger [ i peristaka /i ] of the king after him, but he /b was b not /b able to b find him. /b Rabba bar Naḥmani b fled and went from Pumbedita to Akra, from Akra to Agma, from Agma to Shiḥin, from Shiḥin to Tzerifa, from Tzerifa to Eina Demayim, and from Eina Demayim /b back b to Pumbedita. /b Ultimately, b he was found in Pumbedita, /b as b the king’s messenger arrived /b by chance b at that same inn where Rabba /b bar Naḥmani was hiding. The inn attendants b placed a tray before /b the messenger b and gave him two cups to drink. They /b then b removed the tray from before him and his face was /b miraculously b turned backward. /b ,The attendants b said to /b Rabba bar Naḥmani: b What should we do with him? He is the king’s man, /b and we cannot leave him like this. Rabba bar Naḥmani b said to them: Place a tray before him and give him one cup to drink, and /b then b remove the tray from before him and he will be healed. They did this, and he was healed. /b The messenger b said: I am certain that the man I seek is here, /b as this unnatural event must have befallen me on his account. b He searched for /b Rabba bar Naḥmani b and found /b out where he was. The messenger b said /b that they should tell Rabba bar Naḥmani: b I will leave this /b inn and will not disclose your location. Even b if they will kill that man, /b i.e., me, b I will not disclose /b your location. b But if they will beat him, /b me, b I will disclose /b your whereabouts, as I cannot bear being tortured.,With that guarantee, b they brought /b Rabba bar Naḥmani b before /b the messenger. b They took him into /b a small b vestibule [ i le’idrona /i ] and closed the door before him. /b Rabba bar Naḥmani b prayed for mercy, /b and b the wall crumbled. He fled and went to /b hide in b a swamp. He was sitting on the stump of a palm /b tree b and studying /b Torah alone. At that moment, the Sages b in the heavenly academy were disagreeing /b with regard to a i halakha /i of leprosy. In general, a leprous spot includes two signs of impurity, a bright white spot and a white hair. The basic i halakha /i is that b if /b the b snow-white leprous sore [ i baheret /i ] preceded the white hair /b then the afflicted person is b ritually impure, but if the white hair preceded the i baheret /i , /b he is b pure. /b ,The heavenly debate concerned a case of b uncertainty /b as to which came first, the spot or the hair. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, says: /b The individual is b pure, but every /b other member of b the heavenly academy says: /b He is b impure. And they said: Who can arbitrate /b in this dispute? They agreed that b Rabba bar Naḥmani /b should b arbitrate, as Rabba bar Naḥmani /b once b said: I am preeminent in /b the i halakhot /i of b leprosy /b and b I am preeminent in /b the i halakhot /i of ritual impurity imparted by b tents. /b , b They sent a messenger /b from heaven b after him /b to take his soul up to the heavenly academy, but b the Angel of Death was unable to approach /b Rabba bar Naḥmani, b as his mouth did not cease from his /b Torah b study. In the meantime, a wind blew and howled between the branches. /b Rabba bar Naḥmani b thought /b that the noise was due to b an infantry battalion [ i gunda /i ] /b about to capture him. b He said: Let that man, /b i.e., me, b die and not be given over to the hands of the government. /b The Angel of Death was therefore able to take his soul., b As he was dying, he said /b in response to the dispute in heaven: It is b pure; /b it is b pure. A Divine Voice emerged /b from heaven b and said: Happy are you, Rabba bar Naḥmani, as your body is pure and your soul left /b you b with /b the word: b Pure. A note [ i pitka /i ] fell from heaven /b and landed b in /b the academy of b Pumbedita. /b The note read: b Rabba bar Naḥmani was summoned to the heavenly academy, /b i.e., he has died. b Abaye and Rava and all of the /b other b Rabbis went out to tend to his /b burial; however, b they did not know the location of his /b body. b They went to the swamp /b and b saw birds forming a shade and hovering /b over a certain spot. The Rabbis b said: /b We can b conclude from this /b that b he is there. /b ,The Rabbis b lamented him for three days and three nights. A note fell /b from heaven, upon which was written: b Anyone who removes himself /b from the lamentations b shall be ostracized. /b Accordingly, b they lamented him /b for b seven days. /b Another b note fell /b from heaven, stating: b Go to your homes in peace. /b ,On b that day when /b Rabba bar Naḥmani b died, a hurricane lifted a certain Arab [ i taya’a /i ] /b merchant b while he was riding /b his b camel. /b The hurricane carried him b from one side of the Pappa River and threw him onto the other side. He said: What is this? /b Those present b said to him: Rabba bar Naḥmani has died. He said before /b God: b Master of the Universe! The entire world is Yours and Rabba bar Naḥmani is /b also b Yours. You are to Rabba and Rabba is to You, /b i.e., you are beloved to each other. If so, b why are You destroying the world /b on his account? b The storm subsided. /b ,The Gemara concludes its earlier discussion of obese Sages (84a). b Rabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta was obese. One day he was /b particularly b hot /b and b went and sat on a mountain boulder /b to cool himself off. b He said to his daughter: My daughter, fan me with a fan, and /b as a gift b I will give you packages of spikenard. In the meantime, /b a strong b wind blew. He said: How many packages of spikenard /b do I owe b to the overseers of this /b wind?,§ The Gemara returns to its discussion of the mishna (83a), which teaches that an employer must provide his laborers with sustece, b all in accordance with the regional custom. /b The Gemara asks: b What is added /b by the inclusive term: b All? /b The Gemara answers: This serves b to include a place where it is customary /b for the laborers to b eat bread and drink a quarter- /b i log /i b [ i anpaka /i ] of wine. As, if /b in such a case the employer were to b say to them: Arise early /b in the morning b and I will bring you /b this sustece, so as not to waste work time, b they may say to him: It is not in your power /b to compel us to do so.,§ The mishna teaches that there was b an incident involving Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya, who said to his son: Go out and hire /b laborers for us. His son hired the laborers and stipulated that he would provide sustece for them. The Gemara asks: After the mishna has stated that all practices are in accordance with the regional custom, how can it cite this b incident, /b which seems b to contradict /b the previous ruling, as Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya and his son did not follow the regional custom? The Gemara answers: The mishna b is incomplete and this /b is what it b is teaching: /b All practices are in accordance with the regional custom, b but if /b the employer pledged to provide sustece for them,
151. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 131
152. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 46; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 46
43a. להבריח מים עשויות,ורבה מאי טעמא לא אמר כרבי זירא במהלכת כולי עלמא לא פליגי כי פליגי בשעמדה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מתני' נמי דיקא דבמהלכת לא פליגי ממאי מדקתני מעשה שבאו מפלנדרסין והפליגה ספינתם בים רבן גמליאל ורבי אלעזר בן עזריה הלכו את כולה ורבי יהושע ורבי עקיבא לא זזו מארבע אמות שרצו להחמיר על עצמן,אי אמרת בשלמא במהלכת לא פליגי היינו דקתני רצו דילמא עמדה,אלא אי אמרת פליגי האי רצו להחמיר איסורא הוא,אמר רב אשי מתניתין נמי דיקא דקתני ספינה דומיא דדיר וסהר מה דיר וסהר דקביעי אף ספינה נמי דקביעא,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי הלכתא כרבן גמליאל בספינה הלכתא מכלל דפליגי,אין והתניא חנניא (בן אחי רבי יהושע) אומר כל אותו היום ישבו ודנו בדבר הלכה אמש הכריע אחי אבא הלכה כרבן גמליאל בספינה והלכה כרבי עקיבא בדיר וסהר:,בעי רב חנניא יש תחומין למעלה מעשרה או אין תחומין למעלה מעשרה,עמוד גבוה עשרה ורחב ארבעה לא תיבעי לך דארעא סמיכתא היא,כי תיבעי לך בעמוד גבוה עשרה ואינו רחב ארבעה אי נמי דקאזיל בקפיצה,לישנא אחרינא בספינה מאי,אמר רב הושעיא ת"ש מעשה שבאו מפלנדרסין והפליגה ספינתם בים וכו' אי אמרת בשלמא יש תחומין משום הכי רצו אלא אי אמרת אין תחומין אמאי רצו,כדאמר רבא במהלכת ברקק הכא נמי במהלכת ברקק,תא שמע פעם אחת לא נכנסו לנמל עד שחשיכה וכו' אי אמרת בשלמא יש תחומין שפיר אלא אי אמרת אין תחומין כי לא היינו בתוך התחום מאי הוי,אמר רבא במהלכת ברקק,תא שמע הני שב שמעתא דאיתאמרן בצפר' בשבתא קמיה דרב חסדא בסורא בהדי פניא בשבתא קמיה דרבא בפומבדיתא,מאן אמרינהו לאו אליהו אמרינהו אלמא אין תחומין למעלה מעשרה לא דלמא יוסף שידא אמרינהו,תא שמע הריני נזיר ביום שבן דוד בא מותר לשתות יין בשבתות ובימים טובים 43a. for b they are /b only b made to keep the water out; /b that is to say, a boat’s walls are not designed to turn it into a place of residence, but to protect it from the water. Therefore, they do not have the status of partitions made for the purpose of residence.,The Gemara asks: As for b Rabba, what is the reason he did not state /b his opinion b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Zeira? /b The Gemara answers: b With regard to /b a boat b that is moving, all agree, /b i.e., even Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Akiva, that one is permitted to walk about the entire boat. b They disagree /b only with regard to a boat b that is stationary. /b Rabban Gamliel holds that the boat’s walls constitute effective partitions, whereas Rabbi Yehoshua disagrees., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The mishna is also precise /b in its implication b that /b the i tanna’im /i b do not disagree with regard to a moving /b boat. The Gemara asks: b From where /b is this implied? b From that which is taught: /b There was b an incident where /b all of these Sages b were coming from Pelandarsin, and their boat set sail on the sea /b on Shabbat, taking them out beyond their Shabbat limit. b Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya walked /b about b the entire /b boat, while b Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Akiva did not move beyond four cubits, as they sought to be stringent with themselves. /b ,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak explains: b Granted, if you say /b that b they do not disagree with regard to a moving /b boat, b that is why it is taught /b that they b sought /b to be stringent with themselves, i.e., they wished to practice stringency although they were under no obligation to do so, as they were concerned that b perhaps /b the boat b will stand, /b i.e., come to a stop., b But if you say /b that b they disagree /b even in the case of a boat that is moving, b this /b phrase: b Sought to be stringent, /b is problematic, for the mishna should not refer to a desire to be stringent, as according to their opinion b it is an /b outright b prohibition. /b ,With regard to the previous issue, b Rav Ashi said: The mishna is also precise, /b implying this point in another manner as well, b for it teaches /b the law governing a boat b parallel to /b the law governing b a pen and a stable. Just as a pen and a stable are fixed /b in their place, b so too, /b the mishna discusses b a boat that is fixed /b in its place., b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: /b Rav and Shmuel both said that b the i halakha /i is in accordance with Rabban Gamliel with regard to a boat, /b and if they had to decide b the i halakha /i , /b then this proves b by inference that /b the i tanna’im /i b disagreed /b about the issue. This is difficult, as the words: They wished to be stringent upon themselves, imply that there was no fundamental dispute at all.,Rav Ashi replied: b Yes, /b the i tanna’im /i do in fact disagree about a boat that is standing. When the mishna says that Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Akiva wished to be stringent upon themselves, implying that there is no real dispute, it is referring to a boat that is stationary. b And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Ḥaya, son of Rabbi Yehoshua’s brother, says: All that day /b they spent on the boat, b they sat and discussed the matter of i halakha /i ; /b and come b evening my father’s brother, /b i.e., Rabbi Yehoshua, b determined: /b The b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabban Gamliel with regard to a /b moving b boat, /b i.e., one is permitted to walk about all of it. b And /b the b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Akiva with regard to a pen and a stable, /b i.e., one may only walk four cubits in them, and the same applies to a stationary boat., b Rav Ḥaya raised a dilemma: Does /b the prohibition of Shabbat b limits /b apply b above ten /b handbreadths from the ground, b or /b perhaps does the prohibition of Shabbat b limits not /b apply b above ten /b handbreadths? In other words, does the Shabbat limit apply only close to the ground, in which case walking more than ten handbreadths above the ground, would be permitted?,The Gemara clarifies the case in which this dilemma arises: With regard to b a post ten /b handbreadths b high and four /b handbreadths b wide, /b partly within the limit and partly outside of it, this case b should not be a dilemma for you. /b Such a stable post b is /b like b solid ground, /b although it differs from the surrounding area in height; therefore, it is prohibited to walk from the part within the limit to the part outside of it.,The case b where /b there b should be a dilemma for you /b is that of b a post ten /b handbreadths b high but not four /b handbreadths b wide, /b or the like. b Alternatively, /b the case is one b where he advances by way of a leap /b in the air above ten handbreadths from the ground.,The Gemara presents b another version /b of the previous dilemma: b What is /b the i halakha /i b with regard to a boat /b sailing on the surface of the water more than ten handbreadths from the sea or river bed? Does the prohibition of Shabbat limits apply or not?, b Rav Hoshaya said: Come /b and b hear /b a resolution to this dilemma from what was taught in the mishna: b It once happened that /b all of these Sages b were coming from Pelandarsin, and their boat set sail on the sea, etc. Granted, if you say /b that the prohibition of Shabbat b limits applies /b above ten handbreadths, b this is why /b Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Akiva b sought /b to be stringent. b However, if you say /b that the prohibition of Shabbat b limits /b does not apply above ten handbreadths, b why did they seek /b to be stringent?,The Gemara answers: It may be suggested b as Rava said /b with regard to a parallel case, establishing that case as one where the boat was b moving through /b shallow, b swampy water; here, too, /b we are dealing with a case b where /b the boat b was moving through /b shallow, b swampy water, /b within ten handbreadths of the sea’s bed, so that the prohibition of Shabbat limits certainly applies.,The Gemara cites another proof. b Come /b and b hear /b a resolution from the mishna: On b one occasion /b on a Shabbat eve, b they did not enter the port until after nightfall, etc. Granted, if you say /b that the prohibition of Shabbat b limits /b applies above ten handbreadths, it was b well /b that they asked whether or not they may disembark. b However, if you say /b that the prohibition of Shabbat b limits does not apply /b above ten handbreadths, even if Rabban Gamliel had told them: b We were not within the /b city’s b limit /b before nightfall, b what /b difference b would it /b have made? They could have alighted from the boat, for the boat was above ten handbreadths, where the prohibition of Shabbat limits does not apply.,The Gemara answers that b Rava said: /b The mishna refers to a case where the boat was b moving through /b shallow, b swampy water /b within ten handbreadths of the sea’s bed.,The Gemara cites another proof: b Come /b and b hear /b a resolution from the incident involving b the seven teachings that were /b first b said on Shabbat morning before Rav Ḥisda in Sura /b and then repeated b toward the conclusion of /b that b Shabbat before Rava in Pumbedita, /b despite the fact that the distance between them is too great for someone to have traversed it on Shabbat., b Who said /b those teachings, and delivered them from one place to the other? Was it b not Elijah /b the Prophet, who traveled from Sura to Pumbedita by way of a miraculous leap through the air above ten handbreadths from the ground, b who said them? Apparently, /b the prohibition of Shabbat b limits does not apply above ten /b handbreadths, for Elijah would not have transgressed this prohibition. The Gemara rejects this argument: This is b no /b proof; b perhaps Yosef the demon, /b who does not observe Shabbat, b reported these /b teachings and brought them from Sura to Pumbedita.,The Gemara attempts to bring a different proof: b Come /b and b hear /b that which was taught in a i baraita /i : With regard to one who said: b I will be a nazirite on the day that the son of David comes, /b i.e., upon the arrival of the Messiah, b he is permitted to drink wine on Shabbat and Festivals, /b for the Messiah will not arrive on one of those days.
153. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 82
10b. השתא [הא] אמרי לא צריכא לקדושי אלא מצאו את אלו ומנאום,ולא אלו בלבד אלא כל שתעלה לך מסורת בידך מאבותיך שמוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון כל המצות הללו נוהגין בה מפני שקדושה ראשונה קידשה לשעתה וקידשה לעתיד לבא קשיא דר' ישמעאל אדר' ישמעאל,תרי תנאי אליבא דר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי ואיבעית אימא הא ר' אלעזר בר יוסי אמרה דתניא ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אמר אשר לוא חומה (ויקרא כה, ל) אע"פ שאין לו עכשיו והיה לו קודם לכן:,ויהי בימי אחשורוש אמר רבי לוי ואיתימא רבי יונתן דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאנשי כנסת הגדולה כל מקום שנאמר ויהי אינו אלא לשון צער,ויהי בימי אחשורוש (אסתר א, א) הוה המן ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים (רות א, א) הוה רעב ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב (בראשית ו, א) וירא ה' כי רבה רעת האדם (בראשית ו, ה),ויהי בנסעם מקדם (בראשית יא, ב) הבה נבנה לנו עיר (בראשית יא, ד) ויהי בימי אמרפל (בראשית יד, א) עשו מלחמה (בראשית יד, ב) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו (יהושע ה, יג) וחרבו שלופה בידו ויהי ה' את יהושע (יהושע ו, כז) וימעלו בני ישראל (יהושע ז, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים (שמואל א א, א) כי את חנה אהב וה' סגר רחמה (שמואל א א, ה),ויהי (כי) זקן שמואל ולא הלכו בניו בדרכיו (שמואל א ח, ג) ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל [וה' עמו] (שמואל א יח, יד) ויהי שאול עוין את דוד (שמואל א יח, ט) ויהי כי ישב המלך בביתו (שמואל ב ז, א) רק אתה לא תבנה הבית (מלכים א ח יט),והכתיב (ויקרא ט, א) ויהי ביום השמיני ותניא אותו היום היתה שמחה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא כיום שנבראו בו שמים וארץ כתיב הכא ויהי ביום השמיני וכתיב התם (בראשית א, ה) ויהי (בקר) יום אחד,הא שכיב נדב ואביהוא,והכתיב (מלכים א ו, א) ויהי בשמונים שנה וארבע מאות שנה והכתיב (בראשית כט, י) ויהי כאשר ראה יעקב את רחל והכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד והאיכא שני והאיכא שלישי והאיכא טובא,אמר רב אשי כל ויהי איכא הכי ואיכא הכי ויהי בימי אינו אלא לשון צער,חמשה ויהי בימי הוו ויהי בימי אחשורוש ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים ויהי בימי אמרפל (ישעיהו ז, א) ויהי בימי אחז (ירמיהו א, ג) ויהי בימי יהויקים,(א"ר) לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים הוו מאי קמ"ל,כי הא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל כלה שהיא צנועה בבית חמיה זוכה ויוצאין ממנה מלכים ונביאים מנלן מתמר דכתיב (בראשית לח, טו) ויראה יהודה ויחשבה לזונה כי כסתה פניה משום דכסתה פניה ויחשבה לזונה,אלא משום דכסתה פניה בבית חמיה ולא הוה ידע לה זכתה ויצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים מלכים מדוד נביאים דא"ר לוי מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים היו וכתיב (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ,וא"ר לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו מקום ארון אינו מן המדה,תניא נמי הכי ארון שעשה משה יש לו עשר אמות לכל רוח וכתיב (מלכים א ו, כ) ולפני הדביר עשרים אמה אורך וכתיב כנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות וכנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות ארון גופיה היכא הוה קאי אלא לאו שמע מינה בנס היה עומד,ר' יונתן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו יד, כב) וקמתי עליהם וגו' והכרתי לבבל שם ושאר ונין ונכד נאם ה' שם זה הכתב שאר זה לשון נין זה מלכות ונכד זו ושתי,רבי שמואל בר נחמני פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו נה, יג) תחת הנעצוץ יעלה ברוש ותחת הסרפד יעלה הדס,תחת הנעצוץ תחת המן הרשע שעשה עצמו ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו ז, יט) ובכל הנעצוצים ובכל הנהלולים,יעלה ברוש זה מרדכי שנקרא ראש לכל הבשמים שנאמר (שמות ל, כג) ואתה קח לך בשמים ראש מר דרור ומתרגמינן מרי דכי,תחת הסרפד תחת ושתי הרשעה בת בנו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ששרף רפידת בית ה' דכתיב (שיר השירים ג, י) רפידתו זהב,יעלה הדס זו אסתר הצדקת שנקראת הדסה שנאמר (אסתר ב, ז) ויהי אומן את הדסה והיה לה' לשם זו מקרא מגילה לאות עולם לא יכרת אלו ימי פורים,ר' יהושע בן לוי פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (דברים כח, סג) והיה כאשר שש ה' עליכם להיטיב אתכם כן ישיש להרע אתכם,ומי חדי הקב"ה במפלתן של רשעים והא כתיב (דברי הימים ב כ, כא) בצאת לפני החלוץ ואומרים הודו לה' כי לעולם חסדו וא"ר יוחנן מפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב בהודאה זו לפי שאין הקב"ה שמח במפלתן של רשעים,ואמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (שמות יד, כ) ולא קרב זה אל זה כל הלילה בקשו מלאכי השרת לומר שירה אמר הקב"ה מעשה ידי טובעין בים ואתם אומרים שירה,אמר רבי אלעזר הוא אינו שש אבל אחרים משיש ודיקא נמי דכתיב כן ישיש ולא כתיב ישוש ש"מ,רבי אבא בר כהנא פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (קהלת ב, כו) לאדם שטוב לפניו נתן חכמה ודעת ושמחה זה מרדכי הצדיק ולחוטא נתן ענין לאסוף ולכנוס זה המן לתת לטוב לפני האלהים זה מרדכי ואסתר דכתיב ותשם אסתר את מרדכי על בית המן,רבה בר עופרן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ירמיהו מט, לח) ושמתי כסאי בעילם והאבדתי משם מלך ושרים מלך זו ושתי ושרים זה המן ועשרת בניו,רב דימי בר יצחק פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא 10b. b Now, didn’t they say /b later in the same i baraita /i that b it is not necessary to consecrate /b them? b Rather, /b this is what the i baraita /i means to say: It is due to the fact that when the exiles ascended from Babylonia b they discovered these and enumerated them. /b ,The i baraita /i continues. b And not only these, but /b in b any /b city with regard to b which you receive a tradition from your ancestors that it was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun, all these mitzvot are observed in it, due to /b the fact b that the initial consecration sanctified /b Eretz Yisrael b for its time and sanctified /b Eretz Yisrael b forever. /b This is b difficult, /b as there is a contradiction between one statement b of Rabbi Yishmael and /b another statement b of Rabbi Yishmael. /b ,The Gemara answers: This is a dispute between b two /b later b i tanna’im /i , /b who hold b according to /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei. /b Each transmitted Rabbi Yishmael’s opinion in a different manner. b And if you wish, say /b instead that one of the traditions is mistaken, as with regard to b this /b statement, b Rabbi Elazar bar Yosei said it, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said /b that the verse states: b “Which has [ i lo /i ] a wall” /b (Leviticus 25:30). The word i lo /i is written with an i alef /i , meaning no, that it does not have a wall, but its vocalization is in the sense of its homonym, i lo /i with a i vav /i , meaning that it has a wall. This indicates that b even though it does not presently have /b a wall, as it was destroyed, b but it had a wall previously, /b it retains its status as a walled city. It is Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, who maintains that the first consecration sanctified Jerusalem forever.,§ The Gemara returns to the primary topic of this chapter, the book of Esther. The Gemara cites various aggadic interpretations of the verses of the Megilla. The opening verse of the Megilla states: b “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] in the days of Ahasuerus” /b (Esther 1:1). b Rabbi Levi said, and some say /b that it was b Rabbi Yonatan /b who said: b This matter is a tradition /b that b we /b received b from the members of the Great Assembly. Anywhere that /b the word b i vayhi /i is stated, it is /b an ominous b term /b indicating b nothing other /b than impending b grief, /b as if the word were a contraction of the words i vai /i and i hi /i , meaning woe and mourning.,The Gemara cites several proofs corroborating this interpretation. b “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] in the days of Ahasuerus” /b led to grief, as there b was Haman. “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] in the days when the judges ruled” /b (Ruth 1:1) introduces a period when there b was famine. “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ], when men began to multiply” /b (Genesis 6:1) is immediately followed by the verse: b “And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth” /b (Genesis 6:5)., b “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] as they journeyed from the east” /b (Genesis 11:2) is followed by: b “Come, let us build us a city” /b (Genesis 11:4), which led to the sin of the Tower of Babel. The Gemara cites further examples: b “And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel” /b (Genesis 14:1), about whom it is stated: b “These made war” /b (Genesis 14:2). Another verse states: b “And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho” /b (Joshua 5:13), it was there that he saw an angel b “with his sword drawn in his hand” /b as a warning. It is written: b “And the Lord was [ i vayhi /i ] with Joshua” /b (Joshua 6:27), and immediately afterward: b “But the children of Israel committed a trespass” /b (Joshua 7:1). It states: b “And it came to pass that there was a certain man of Ramathaim” /b (I Samuel 1:1), and it mentions shortly afterward Hannah’s inability to conceive: b “For he loved Hannah, but the Lord had closed up her womb” /b (I Samuel 1:5).,Similarly, the verse states: b “And it came to pass, when Samuel was old” /b (I Samuel 8:1), and then it is written: b “And his sons did not walk in his ways” /b (I Samuel 8:3). Also, it states: b “And it came to pass that David was successful in all his ways, and the Lord was with him” /b (I Samuel 18:14), and only a few verses prior it is written: b “And Saul viewed David with suspicion” /b (I Samuel 18:9). In another instance, the verse states: b “And it came to pass, when the king dwelt in his house” /b (II Samuel 7:1). Here King David mentioned his desire to build a temple for God, but it is written elsewhere that he was told: b “Yet you shall not build the house” /b (II Chronicles 6:9).,After citing several verses where i vayhi /i portends grief, the Gemara mentions a number of verses that seem to indicate otherwise. b But isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] on the eighth day” /b (Leviticus 9:1), which was the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle? b And it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to that day: b On that day there was joy before the Holy One, Blessed be He, similar to /b the joy that existed on the b day on which the heavens and earth were created. /b The Gemara cites a verbal analogy in support of this statement. b It is written here, /b with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] on the eighth day,” and it is written there, /b in the Creation story: b “And it was [ i vayhi /i ] /b evening, and it was b morning, one day” /b (Genesis 1:5). This indicates that there was joy on the eighth day, when the Tabernacle was dedicated, similar to the joy that existed on the day the world was created. Apparently, the term i vayhi /i is not necessarily a portent of grief.,The Gemara answers: This verse does not contradict the principle. On the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle, a calamity also befell the people, b as Nadav and Avihu died. /b ,The Gemara cites additional verses where i vayhi /i is not indicative of impending grief: b But isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] in the four hundred and eightieth year” /b (I Kings 6:1), which discusses the joyous occasion of the building of the Temple? b And /b furthermore, b isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ i vayhi /i ] when Jacob saw Rachel” /b (Genesis 29:10), which was a momentous occasion? b And isn’t it written: “And it was [ i vayhi /i ] evening, and it was [ i vayhi /i ] morning, one day” /b (Genesis 1:5)? b And isn’t there the second /b day of Creation, b and isn’t there the third /b day, where the term i vayhi /i is used? b And aren’t there many /b verses in the Bible in which the term i vayhi /i appears and no grief ensues? Apparently, the proposed principle is incorrect.,Rather, b Rav Ashi said: /b With regard to b every /b instance of b i vayhi /i /b alone, b there are /b some that mean b this, /b grief, b and there are /b some that mean b that, /b joy. However, wherever the phrase b “and it came to pass in the days of [ i vayhi bimei /i ]” /b is used in the Bible, b it is nothing other /b than b a term of /b impending b grief. /b ,The Gemara states that b there are five /b instances of b i vayhi bimei /i /b in the Bible. b “And it came to pass in the days of [ i vayhi bimei /i ] Ahasuerus”; “And it came to pass in the days [ i vayhi bimei /i ] when the judges ruled”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ i vayhi bimei /i ] Amraphel”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ i vayhi bimei /i ] Ahaz” /b (Isaiah 7:1); b “And it came to pass in the days of [ i vayhi bimei /i ] Jehoiakim” /b (Jeremiah 1:3). In all those incidents, grief ensued.,§ Apropos the tradition cited by Rabbi Levi above, the Gemara cites additional traditions that he transmitted. b Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a tradition /b that b we /b received b from our ancestors: Amoz, /b father of Isaiah, b and Amaziah, /b king of Judea, b were brothers. /b The Gemara questions: b What /b novel element b is this /b statement b teaching us? /b ,The Gemara responds: It is b in accordance with that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: Any bride who is modest in the house of her father-in-law merits that kings and prophets /b will b emerge from her. From where do we /b derive this? b From Tamar, as it is written: “When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a prostitute; for she had covered her face” /b (Genesis 38:15). Can it be that b because /b Tamar b covered her face he thought her to be a prostitute? /b On the contrary, a harlot tends to uncover her face., b Rather, because she covered her face in the house of her father-in-law and he was not familiar with her /b appearance, Judah didn’t recognize Tamar, thought she was a harlot, and sought to have sexual relations with her. Ultimately, b she merited that kings and prophets emerged from her. Kings /b emerged from her b through David, /b who was a descendant of Tamar’s son, Peretz. However, there is no explicit mention that she was the forebear of b prophets. /b This is derived from that b which Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a tradition /b that b we /b received b from our ancestors. Amoz, /b father of Isaiah, b and Amaziah, /b king of Judea, b were brothers, and it is written: “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz” /b (Isaiah 1:1). Amoz was a member of the Davidic dynasty, and his son, the prophet Isaiah, was also a descendant of Tamar., b And Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a tradition /b that b we /b received b from our ancestors: The place of the Ark /b of the Covet b is not /b included b in the measurement /b of the Holy of Holies in which it rested.,The Gemara comments: b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The Ark crafted by Moses had ten cubits /b of empty space b on each side. And it is written /b in the description of Solomon’s Temple: b “And before the Sanctuary, which was twenty cubits in length, /b and twenty cubits in breadth” (I Kings 6:20). The place “before the Sanctuary” is referring to the Holy of Holies. It was twenty by twenty cubits. If there were ten cubits of empty space on either side of the Ark, apparently the Ark itself occupied no space. b And it is written: And the wing of one of the cherubs was ten cubits and the wing of the other cherub was ten cubits; /b the wings of the cherubs occupied the entire area. If so, b where was the Ark itself standing? Rather, /b must one b not conclude from it /b that the Ark b stood by means of a miracle /b and occupied no space?,§ The Gemara cites prologues utilized by various Sages to introduce study of the Megilla: b Rabbi Yonatan introduced this passage, /b the book of Esther, b with an introduction from here: “For I will rise up against them, /b says the Lord of hosts, b and cut off from Babylonia name, and remt, and offspring [ i nin /i ], and posterity, says the Lord” /b (Isaiah 14:22). This verse may be interpreted homiletically: b “Name,” this is /b the b writing /b of ancient Babylonia that will disappear from the world. b “Remt,” this is /b the b language /b of ancient Babylonia. b “offspring,” this is /b their b kingdom. And “posterity,” this is Vashti, /b who according to tradition was Nebuchadnezzar’s granddaughter, and the book of Esther relates how she too was removed from the throne., b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “Instead of the thorn shall the cypress come up, and instead of the nettle shall the myrtle come up; /b and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off” (Isaiah 55:13). Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interpreted the verse homiletically as referring to the righteous individuals who superseded the wicked ones in the book of Esther., b “Instead of the thorn”; /b this means b instead of the wicked Haman. /b He is referred to as a thorn b because he turned himself into an object of idol worship, /b as he decreed that all must prostrate themselves before him. The Gemara cites proof that the term thorn is used in connection with idol worship, b as it is written: “And upon all thorns, and upon all brambles” /b (Isaiah 7:19), which is understood to be a reference to idol worship.,The next section of the verse discusses what will replace the thorns, i.e., Haman: b “Shall the cypress [ i berosh /i ] come up”; this is Mordecai. /b Why is he called a cypress [ i berosh /i ]? b Because he was called the chief /b [ b i rosh /i /b ] b of all the spices, as it is stated: “Take you also to yourself the chief spices, of pure myrrh [ i mar deror /i ]” /b (Exodus 30:23), b and we translate /b “pure myrrh,” into Aramaic as b i mari dakhei /i . /b Mordecai was like i mari dakhi /i , the chief [ i rosh /i ] of spices, and therefore he is called i berosh /i .,The verse continues: “And b instead of the nettle [ i sirpad /i ],” /b this means b instead of the wicked Vashti. /b Why is she called a nettle [ i sirpad /i ]? Because she was b the daughter of the son of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, who burned the ceiling [ i saraf refidat /i ] of the House of God, as it is written: “Its top [ i refidato /i ] of gold” /b (Song of Songs 3:10).,The next section of the verse states: b “Shall the myrtle [ i hadas /i ] come up”; this is the righteous Esther, who was called Hadassah /b in the Megilla, b as it is stated: “And he had brought up Hadassah; /b that is, Esther” (Esther 2:7). The concluding section of the verse states: b “And it shall be to the Lord for a name”; this is the reading of the Megilla. “For an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off”; these are the days of Purim. /b , b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And it shall come to pass, that as the Lord rejoiced over you to do you good, /b and to multiply you; so the Lord will rejoice over you to cause you to perish, and to destroy you” (Deuteronomy 28:63). The verse indicates that just as the Lord rejoiced in the good he did on behalf of Israel, so too, the Lord b will rejoice to cause you harm. /b ,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: b Does the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b in fact b rejoice over the downfall of the wicked? But it is written: “As they went out before the army, and say: Give thanks to the Lord, for His kindness endures forever” /b (II Chronicles 20:21), b and Rabbi Yoḥa said: For what /b reason were the words: b “for He is good” not stated in this /b statement of b thanksgiving, /b as the classic formulation is: “Give thanks to the Lord; for He is good; for His kindness endures forever” (I Chronicles 16:34)? b Because the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked. /b Since this song was sung in the aftermath of a military victory, which involved the downfall of the wicked, the name of God was not mentioned for the good., b And /b similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “And the one came not near the other all the night” /b (Exodus 14:20)? b The ministering angels wanted to sing /b their b song, /b for the angels would sing songs to each other, as it states: “And they called out to each other and said” (Isaiah 6:3), but b the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: The work of My hands, /b the Egyptians, are b drowning at sea, and you /b wish to b say songs? /b This indicates that God does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked., b Rabbi Elazar said /b that this is how the matter is to be understood: Indeed, God Himself b does not rejoice /b over the downfall of the wicked, b but He causes others to rejoice. /b The Gemara comments: One can b learn from /b the language of the verse b as well, as it is written: “So /b the Lord b will rejoice [ i ken yasis /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 28:63). b And it is not written i yasus /i , /b the grammatical form of the verb meaning: He will rejoice. Rather, it is written i yasis /i . The grammatical form of this verb indicates that one causes another to rejoice. Consequently, these words are understood to mean that God will cause others to rejoice. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, b learn from /b it that this is the case., b Rabbi Abba bar Kahana introduced this passage with an introduction from here. /b The verse states with regard to God’s reward to the righteous: b “He gives to a man that is good in His sight wisdom, and knowledge, and joy” /b (Ecclesiastes 2:26). The Gemara explains that b this /b verse b is /b referring to b the righteous Mordecai. /b With regard to the next part of the verse: b “But to the sinner He gives the task of gathering and heaping up,” this is /b referring to b Haman. /b The conclusion of the verse states: b “That he may give it to one who is good before God” /b (Ecclesiastes 2:26). b This is Mordecai and Esther, as it is written: “And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman” /b (Esther 8:2)., b Rabba bar oferan introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And I will set my throne in Elam, and destroy from there the king and the princes, says the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 49:38). b “The king” /b who was destroyed; b this is /b referring to b Vashti. “And the princes”; this is /b referring to b Haman and his ten sons. /b , b Rav Dimi bar Yitzḥak introduced this passage with an introduction from here: /b
154. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pesikta de-rav kahana, public recitation of scripture and Found in books: Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 82
10b. מקלט היה כתוב על פרשת דרכים כדי שיכיר הרוצח ויפנה לשם אמר רב כהנא מאי קרא (דברים יט, ג) תכין לך הדרך עשה [לך] הכנה לדרך,רב חמא בר חנינא פתח לה פתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (תהלים כה, ח) טוב וישר ה' על כן יורה חטאים בדרך אם לחטאים יורה ק"ו לצדיקים,ר"ש בן לקיש פתח לה פתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (שמות כא, יג) ואשר לא צדה והאלהים אנה לידו וגו' (שמואל א כד, יד) כאשר יאמר משל הקדמוני מרשעים יצא רשע וגו',במה הכתוב מדבר בשני בני אדם שהרגו את הנפש אחד הרג בשוגג ואחד הרג במזיד לזה אין עדים ולזה אין עדים הקב"ה מזמינן לפונדק אחד זה שהרג במזיד יושב תחת הסולם וזה שהרג בשוגג יורד בסולם ונפל עליו והרגו זה שהרג במזיד נהרג וזה שהרג בשוגג גולה,אמר רבה בר רב הונא אמר רב הונא ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא א"ר אלעזר מן התורה ומן הנביאים ומן הכתובים בדרך שאדם רוצה לילך בה מוליכין אותו,מן התורה דכתיב (במדבר כב, יב) לא תלך עמהם וכתיב (במדבר כב, כ) קום לך אתם מן הנביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו מח, יז) אני ה' אלהיך מלמדך להועיל מדריכך בדרך (זו) תלך מן הכתובים דכתיב (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן,אמר רב הונא רוצח שגלה לעיר מקלט ומצאו גואל הדם והרגו פטור קסבר (דברים יט, ו) ולו אין משפט מות בגואל הדם הוא דכתיב,מיתיבי ולו אין משפט מות ברוצח הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר ברוצח או אינו אלא בגואל הדם כשהוא אומר (דברים יט, ד) והוא לא שונא לו מתמול שלשום הוי אומר ברוצח הכתוב מדבר,הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא ולו אין משפט מות בגואל הדם הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בגואל הדם הכתוב מדבר או אינו אלא ברוצח כשהוא אומר (דברים יט, ו) כי לא שונא הוא לו מתמול שלשום הרי רוצח אמור הא מה אני מקיים ולו אין משפט מות בגואל הדם הכתוב מדבר,תנן מוסרין לו שני ת"ח שמא יהרגנו בדרך וידברו אליו מאי לאו דמתרו ביה דאי קטיל בר קטלא הוא,לא כדתניא וידברו אליו דברים הראוים לו אומרים לו אל תנהג בו מנהג שופכי דמים בשגגה בא מעשה לידו ר"מ אומר הוא מדבר ע"י עצמו שנאמר (דברים יט, ד) וזה דבר הרוצח אמרו לו הרבה שליחות עושה,אמר מר בשגגה בא מעשה לידו פשיטא דאי במזיד בר גלות הוא אין,והא תניא ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר בתחלה אחד שוגג ואחד מזיד מקדימין לערי מקלט וב"ד שולחין ומביאין אותם משם,מי שנתחייב מיתה הרגוהו שנאמר (דברים יט, יב) ושלחו זקני עירו ולקחו אותו משם ונתנו אותו ביד גואל הדם ומת מי שלא נתחייב פטרוהו שנאמר (במדבר לה, כה) והצילו העדה את הרוצח מיד גואל הדם מי שנתחייב גלות מחזירין אותו למקומו שנא' (במדבר לה, כה) והשיבו אותו העדה אל עיר מקלטו אשר נס שמה,רבי אומר מעצמן הן גולין כסבורין הן אחד שוגג ואחד מזיד קולטות והן אינן יודעין שבשוגג קולטות במזיד אינן קולטות,א"ר אלעזר עיר שרובה רוצחים אינה קולטת שנאמר (יהושע כ, ד) ודבר באזני זקני העיר ההיא את דבריו ולא שהושוו דבריהן לדבריו,וא"ר אלעזר עיר שאין בה זקנים אינה קולטת דבעינן זקני העיר וליכא איתמר עיר שאין בה זקנים רבי אמי ור' אסי חד אומר קולטת וחד אומר אינה קולטת למאן דאמר אינה קולטת בעינן זקני העיר וליכא למאן דאמר קולטת מצוה בעלמא,ועיר שאין בה זקנים ר' אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר נעשה בה בן סורר ומורה וחד אמר אין נעשה בה בן סורר ומורה למ"ד אין נעשה בה בן סורר ומורה בעינן (דברים כא, יט) זקני עירו וליכא למ"ד נעשה בה בן סורר ומורה מצוה בעלמא,ועיר שאין בה זקנים ר' אמי ור' אסי חד אמר מביאה עגלה ערופה וחד אמר אינה מביאה עגלה ערופה למ"ד אינה מביאה עגלה ערופה בעינן (דברים כא, ג) זקני העיר ההיא וליכא למאן דאמר מביאה עגלה ערופה מצוה בעלמא,א"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה נאמרה פרשת רוצחים 10b. b Refuge was written on /b signs at every b crossroads /b marking the path to a city of refuge, b so that the /b unintentional b murderer would identify /b the route to the city of refuge b and turn to /b go b there. Rav Kahana said: What is the verse /b from which this is derived? b “Prepare for you the road” /b (Deuteronomy 19:3), meaning: b Perform for you preparation of the road. /b ,§ Apropos that i halakha /i , the Gemara cites that b Rav Ḥama bar Ḥanina introduced this portion /b with regard to the i halakhot /i of exile b with an introduction from here: “Good and upright is God; therefore He directs sinners along the way” /b (Psalms 25:8). He said: b If He directs sinners /b by commanding the placing of signs directing them to the city of refuge, it may be inferred b i a fortiori /i /b that He will assist and direct b the righteous /b along the path of righteousness., b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish introduced this portion with an introduction from here: /b It is stated with regard to an unintentional murderer: b “And one who did not lie in wait, but God caused it to come to his hand, /b and I will appoint you a place where he may flee” (Exodus 21:13). Now this is puzzling. Why would God cause one to sin in this manner? The verse states: b “As the ancient parable says: From the wicked comes forth wickedness” /b (I Samuel 24:13). Evil incidents befall those who have already sinned.,Reish Lakish explains: In this light, the verse “But God caused it to come to his hand” may be understood. b With regard to what /b scenario b is the verse speaking? /b It is b with regard to two people who killed a person, /b where b one killed unintentionally /b while b the other killed intentionally. For this /b person b there are no witnesses /b to his action, b and for that /b person b there are no witnesses /b to his action; therefore, neither received the appropriate punishment of exile and execution, respectively. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, summons them to one inn. This /b person b who killed intentionally sits beneath a ladder, and that /b person b who killed unintentionally descends the ladder, and /b he b falls upon him and kills him. /b There were witnesses to that incident and therefore, b that /b person b who killed intentionally is killed, and that /b person b who killed unintentionally is exiled, /b each receiving what he deserved.,Apropos the path upon which God leads people, the Gemara cites a statement that b Rabba bar Rav Huna says /b that b Rav Huna says, and some say /b it was a statement that b Rav Huna says /b that b Rabbi Elazar says: From the Torah, from the Prophets, and from the Writings /b one learns that b along the path a person wishes to proceed, one leads /b and assists b him. /b ,One learns this b from the Torah, as it is written /b that initially God said to Balaam with regard to the contingent dispatched by Balak: b “You shall not go with them” /b (Numbers 22:12). After Balaam implored Him and indicated his desire to go with them, b it is written: “Arise, go with them” /b (Numbers 22:20). One learns this b from the Prophets, as it is written: “I am the Lord your God, Who teaches you for your profit, Who leads you on the path that you go” /b (Isaiah 48:17), indicating that along the path that one seeks to go, God will direct him. One learns this b from the Writings, as it is written: “If one seeks the cynics, He will cause him to join the cynics, but to the humble He will give grace” /b (Proverbs 3:34), indicating that if one chooses cynicism God will direct him there and if he opts for humility God will grant him grace.,§ The Gemara resumes its discussion of the i halakhot /i of exile. b Rav Huna says: /b In the case of an unintentional b murderer who was exiled to a city of refuge, and the blood redeemer found him /b on the way b and killed him, /b he is b exempt. /b The Gemara notes: b Rav Huna holds /b that the verse: “Lest the blood redeemer pursue the murderer…and strike him fatally… b and for him there is no sentence of death, /b as he did not hate him from before” (Deuteronomy 19:6), b is written with regard to the blood redeemer, /b teaching that the blood redeemer is not liable to be executed for killing the murderer.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to the opinion of Rav Huna from a i baraita /i : b “And for him there is no sentence of death”; the verse is speaking with regard to the /b unintentional b murderer, /b teaching that the unintentional murderer is not liable to be executed. That is why the Jewish people were commanded to establish cities of refuge to protect him. The i baraita /i proceeds to prove that the verse is written with regard to the murderer. b Do you say /b that it is speaking b with regard to the /b unintentional b murderer, or /b is it speaking b only with regard to the blood redeemer? When it states /b in an earlier verse: b “And he did not hate him from before” /b (Deuteronomy 19:4), it is clear that the reference is to the unintentional murderer, and therefore, b you must say /b that in the phrase: “And for him there is no sentence of death,” b the verse is speaking with regard to the /b unintentional b murderer. /b ,The Gemara answers: Rav Huna b states /b his opinion b in accordance with /b the opinion of b that /b following b i tanna /i , as it is taught /b in another i baraita /i : b “And for him there is no sentence of death”; the verse is speaking with regard to the blood redeemer. /b The i baraita /i clarifies: b Do you say /b that it is speaking b with regard to the blood redeemer, or /b is it speaking b only with regard to /b the unintentional b murderer? When it states: “As he did not hate him from before,” /b the unintentional b murderer /b is already b stated, /b as that phrase certainly is referring to him. b How do I realize /b the meaning of the verse: b “And for him there is no sentence of death”? /b It is b with regard to the blood redeemer /b that b the verse is speaking. /b ,The Gemara cites proof concerning Rav Huna’s ruling from the mishna. b We learned /b in the mishna: b And they would provide /b the unintentional murderer fleeing to a city of refuge with b two Torah scholars, /b due to the concern that b perhaps /b the blood redeemer b will /b seek to b kill him in transit, and /b in that case b they will talk to /b the blood redeemer. The Gemara asks: b What, is it not that /b the Torah scholars b forewarn him that if he kills /b the unintentional murderer b he /b would be b liable to be executed? /b That contradicts Rav Huna’s opinion that a blood redeemer who kills the unintentional murderer is exempt.,The Gemara rejects this proof: b No, /b the statement of the Torah scholars to the blood redeemer can be explained b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b And they will speak to him /b about b matters appropriate to him. They say to /b the blood redeemer: b Do not accord him treatment /b appropriate for b murderers, /b as it was b unintentionally /b that b he came to be involved in the incident. Rabbi Meir says: /b The unintentional murderer too b speaks [ i medabber /i ] on his own behalf /b to dissuade the blood redeemer, b as it is stated: “And this is the matter [ i devar /i ] of the murderer, /b who shall flee there and live” (Deuteronomy 19:4), indicating that the murderer himself apologizes and speaks to the blood redeemer. The Sages b said to /b Rabbi Meir: b Many /b matters b are performed /b more effectively through b agency. /b ,The Gemara analyzes the i baraita /i . b The Master says /b in the i baraita /i : It was b unintentionally /b that b he came to be involved in the incident. /b The Gemara asks: Isn’t this b obvious? As, if it were intentionally /b that he killed a person, b is he liable to be exiled? /b The Gemara answers: b Yes, /b even intentional murderers flee to a city of refuge on occasion.,The Gemara continues: b And /b so b it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Initially, either /b one who killed another b unintentionally or /b one who killed another b intentionally /b would b hurry /b and flee b to the cities of refuge, and the court /b in his city would b send /b for him b and /b would b bring him from there /b to stand trial.,The i baraita /i continues: With regard to b one who was /b found b liable /b to receive the b death /b penalty for intentional murder, after the trial the court b would execute him, as it is stated: “And the elders of his city shall send and take him from there and deliver him into the hands of the blood redeemer and he shall die” /b (Deuteronomy 19:12). And with regard to b one who was not /b found b liable /b to receive the b death /b penalty, e.g., if they deemed that it was due to circumstances beyond his control, b they freed him, as it is stated: “And the congregation shall rescue the murderer from the hands of the blood redeemer” /b (Numbers 35:25). With regard to b one who was /b found b liable to be exiled, /b the court would b restore him to his place /b in the city of refuge, b as it is stated: /b “And the congregation shall judge between the murderer and the blood redeemer… b and the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge, that he fled there” /b (Numbers 35:24–25).,The i baraita /i continues: b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: /b The Torah does not command intentional murderers to flee to a city of refuge; rather, the Torah is cognizant of the fact that in practice, intentional murderers b would exile /b themselves b on their own, /b as b they thought /b that they would be b admitted /b to these cities, which would provide refuge for b both unintentional and intentional /b murderers, b and they do not know that /b only those who murder b unintentionally are admitted /b to these cities, but those who murder b intentionally are not admitted. /b ,§ b Rabbi Elazar says: /b An unintentional murderer b is not admitted to a city /b of refuge b whose majority /b consists of unintentional b murderers, as it is stated /b with regard to an unintentional murderer who fled to a city of refuge: b “And he shall speak his matters in the ears of the elders of that city” /b (Joshua 20:4), indicating that there is some novel element in the matters that he seeks to convey to the elders of the town, b but not when their matters are equal to his matters, /b as those elders made the same statements when they arrived at the city of refuge as unintentional murderers., b And Rabbi Elazar says: /b An unintentional murderer b is not admitted to a city in which there are no elders, as we require /b the fulfillment of the verse: “And he shall speak in the ears of b the elders of the city” /b (Joshua 20:4), b and there are none. It was stated: A city in which there are no elders /b is the subject of a dispute between b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi. One says: /b An unintentional murderer b is admitted /b there, b and one says: /b An unintentional murderer b is not admitted /b there. The Gemara explains: b According to the one who says /b that an unintentional murderer b is not admitted to a city in which there are no elders, /b his reasoning is due to the fact that b we require /b the presence of b the elders of the city and there are none. According to the one who says /b that an unintentional murderer b is admitted /b there, his reasoning is that he holds that speaking to the elders is b merely a mitzva /b i ab initio /i , but it does not affect the city’s status as a city of refuge., b And a city in which there are no elders /b is the subject of another dispute between b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi. One says: /b One b can become a wayward and rebellious son in it. And one says: /b One b cannot become a wayward and rebellious son in it. /b The Gemara explains: b According to the one who says /b that one b cannot become wayward and rebellious son in it, /b it is due to the fact that b we require /b the presence of the elders of the city, as it is written: “And his father and mother shall take hold of him and bring him out to b the elders of his city /b and the gate of his place” (Deuteronomy 21:19), b and there are none. According to the one who says /b that one b can become a wayward and rebellious son in it, /b the presence of the elders is b merely a mitzva /b i ab initio /i ., b And a city in which there are no elders /b is the subject of another dispute between b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi. One says: /b If a corpse was discovered proximate to that city, the inhabitants of the city b bring a heifer whose neck is broken. And one says: /b The inhabitants of the city b do not bring a heifer whose neck is broken. /b The Gemara explains: b According to the one who says /b that the inhabitants of the city b do not bring a heifer whose neck is broken, /b it is due to the fact that b we require /b the presence of the elders of the city, as it is written: “And b the elders of that city /b shall bring the calf down to a rough valley” (Deuteronomy 21:4), b and there are no /b elders. b According to the one who says /b that the inhabitants of the city b bring a heifer whose neck is broken, /b the presence of the elders is b merely a mitzva /b i ab initio /i .,§ b Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: For what /b reason b was the portion /b discussing b murderers stated /b
155. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 131
81b. b Sit properly /b and do not act in a revolting manner. Satan then b said to him: Give me a cup. They gave him a cup. He coughed up his phlegm and spat it into /b the cup. b They berated him /b for acting this way, at which point Satan pretended to b sink /b down b and die. They heard /b people around them b saying: Peleimu killed a man! Peleimu killed a man! /b Peleimu b fled and hid himself in the bathroom. /b Satan b followed him /b and b fell before him. Upon seeing that /b Peleimu b was suffering, he revealed himself to him. /b Satan b said to him: What is the reason that you spoke this way, /b provoking me by saying: An arrow in the eye of Satan? He replied: b But what then should I say? /b Satan b said to him: Let the Master, /b i.e., Peleimu, b say: /b Let b the Merciful One rebuke the Satan. /b ,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi was accustomed to say, whenever he would fall on his face /b in prayer: b May the Merciful One save us from the evil inclination. One day his wife heard him /b saying this prayer. b She said: After all, it has been several years since he has withdrawn from /b engaging in intercourse with b me /b due to his advanced years. b What is the reason that he says this /b prayer, as there is no concern that he will engage in sinful sexual behavior?, b One day, /b while b he was studying in his garden, she adorned herself and repeatedly walked past him. He said: Who are you? She said: I am Ḥaruta, /b a well-known prostitute, b returning from my day /b at work. b He propositioned her. She said to him: Give me that pomegranate from the top of the tree /b as payment. b He leapt up, went, /b and b brought it to her, /b and they engaged in intercourse., b When he came home, his wife was lighting /b a fire in the b oven. He went and sat inside it. She said to him: What is this? He said to her: Such and such an incident /b occurred; he told her that he engaged in intercourse with a prostitute. b She said to him: It was I. He paid no attention to her, /b thinking she was merely trying to comfort him, b until she gave him signs /b that it was indeed she. b He said to her: I, in any event, intended to transgress. /b The Gemara relates: b All the days of that righteous man he would fast /b for the transgression he intended to commit, b until he died by that death /b in his misery.,The Gemara explains the source that one who intended to transgress is punished even though he did not actually sin. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i concerning a husband who nullified the vow of his wife: b “Her husband has made them null; and the Lord will forgive her” /b (Numbers 30:13). b With regard to what /b case b is the verse speaking? /b Why would the woman require forgiveness if her husband has nullified her vow? It is referring b to a woman who vowed /b to b be a nazirite, and her husband heard and nullified her /b vow. b And she did not know that her husband had nullified her /b vow, b and she drank wine and contracted impurity from a corpse, /b violating her presumed vow.,The Gemara relates: b When Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. He said: And if /b with regard to b one who intended to eat pork, and /b kosher b lamb came up in his hand, /b like this woman who intended to violate her vow but in fact did not, b the Torah /b nevertheless b says: She requires atonement and forgiveness, all the more so /b does b one who intended to eat pork and pork came up in his hand /b require atonement and forgiveness., b In a similar manner, you /b can b say /b that the same lesson can be derived from the verse: b “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity” /b (Leviticus 5:17). b When Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. /b He said: b And if /b with regard to b one who intended to eat /b permitted b fat, and /b forbidden b fat /b mistakenly b came up in his hand, the Torah states: “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity,” all the more so /b is this true for b one who intended to eat /b forbidden b fat and /b forbidden b fat came up in his hand. Isi ben Yehuda says /b with regard to the verse b “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”: With regard to this matter all sufferers shall grieve, /b since the verse teaches that one is punished even for sinning unawares.,§ The mishna teaches that b a man may be secluded with his mother. Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav Asi says: A man may be secluded with his sister, and live with his mother or with his daughter /b in a permanent arrangement, without concern. b When he said this before Shmuel, /b the latter b said: It is prohibited to be secluded with all those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah, and even with an animal, /b as it is prohibited to engage in intercourse with an animal as well., b We learned /b in the mishna: b A man may be secluded with his mother, and with his daughter, and sleep alongside them with bodily contact, and /b this appears to be b a conclusive refutation of /b the statement of b Shmuel. /b The Gemara answers: b Shmuel /b could have b said to you: And according to your reasoning, /b how should one explain b that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b his sister, and his mother-in-law, and all those with whom relations are forbidden, /b including his mother and daughter, b one may be secluded with them only /b in the presence b of witnesses, /b from which it can be inferred: In the presence b of witnesses, yes; without /b the presence b of witnesses, no. /b This i baraita /i supports the opinion of Shmuel that one may not be secluded with his mother or sister., b Rather, /b it b is /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i /b as to whether one may be secluded with his mother or sister. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Meir said: Be careful with me because of my daughter, /b i.e., make sure I am not left secluded with her. Similarly, b Rabbi Tarfon said: Be careful with me because of my daughter-in-law. A certain student mocked him /b for being wary of the possibility of sinning with his daughter-in-law. b Rabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: Not many days passed until that student stumbled /b into sin b with his mother-in-law. /b ,The Gemara stated that according to Shmuel it is prohibited for one to be alone b even with an animal. /b The Gemara relates: b Abaye removed /b the animals b from the entire field /b he was in. b Rav Sheshet transferred /b the animals to the other side b of the fence. Rav Ḥa from Neharde’a happened /b to come b to Rav Kahana in Pum Nahara. He saw that /b he b was sitting and studying, and an animal was standing before him. /b Rav Ḥa b said to him: Doesn’t the Master hold /b that one may not be secluded b even with an animal? /b Rav Kahana b said to him: It /b did b not /b enter b my mind /b that an animal was before me., b Rava says: A man may be secluded with two sisters-in-law and with two rival wives, /b i.e., two women who share a husband; b with a woman and her mother-in-law; /b and b with a woman and her husband’s daughter. /b Since these women typically dislike each other, each fears that the other will publicize her sins, and they will be careful not to transgress. Similarly, a man may be secluded b with a woman and a girl who knows the meaning of sexual intercourse, /b i.e., one who is old enough to understand the nature of intercourse, b but /b is still young enough that b she does not submit herself to intercourse, /b since she does not yet desire it. In such a situation, the woman is concerned that the child will reveal her behavior.,§ The mishna teaches that b when /b one’s children b have grown up, this one sleeps in his garment /b and that one sleeps in her garment, but they may share a bed. The Gemara asks: b And how /b old must a child be to be considered grown up for the purposes of this i halakha /i ? b Rav Adda bar Rav Azza says /b that b Rav Asi says: A girl /b must reach the b age /b of b nine years and one day; a boy /b must reach the b age /b of b twelve years and one day. There are /b those b who say: A girl /b must reach the b age /b of b twelve years and one day; a boy /b must reach the b age /b of b thirteen /b years b and one day. And /b according to b this and that, /b according to both opinions, the girl is considered a child b until /b she has reached the stage of: b “Your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown” /b (Ezekiel 16:7), meaning the onset of puberty., b Rafram bar Pappa says /b that b Rav Ḥisda says: They taught /b that a man may sleep in close proximity to his minor daughter b only if she is not ashamed to stand naked before him, but /b if she is b ashamed to stand naked before him, it is prohibited /b for him to sleep close to her, regardless of her age. b What is the reason? /b It is that the b inclination has a hold upon her, /b as otherwise she would not be ashamed.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Aḥa bar Abba arrived at the house of Rav Ḥisda, his son-in-law. He took his daughter’s daughter and placed her on his lap. /b Rav Ḥisda b said to him: Doesn’t the Master think that she /b might already be b betrothed? /b Rav Aḥa b said to him: /b If that is true, b you have transgressed /b the ruling b of Rav, as Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says, and some say /b it was said by b Rabbi Elazar: It is prohibited for a man to betroth his daughter when she is a minor, until she grows up and says: I want /b to marry b so-and-so, /b as otherwise she might reject the designated husband and ultimately sin by committing adultery. Rav Ḥisda replied: b The Master has likewise transgressed /b the words b of Shmuel. As Shmuel says: One may not make use of a woman, /b so how can you hold her on your lap? b He said to him: I hold in accordance with another /b statement b of Shmuel, as Shmuel says: /b
156. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 75; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 75
11b. (ישעיהו מה, ז) יוצר אור ובורא חשך,לימא יוצר אור ובורא נוגה,כדכתיב קאמרינן,אלא מעתה (ישעיהו מה, ז) עושה שלום ובורא רע מי קא אמרינן כדכתיב אלא כתיב רע וקרינן הכל לישנא מעליא הכא נמי לימא נוגה לישנא מעליא,אלא אמר רבא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום,בשלמא מדת לילה ביום כדאמרינן יוצר אור ובורא חשך אלא מדת יום בלילה היכי משכחת לה,אמר אביי גולל אור מפני חשך וחשך מפני אור,ואידך מאי היא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אהבה רבה וכן אורי ליה רבי אלעזר לר' פדת בריה אהבה רבה,תניא נמי הכי אין אומרים אהבת עולם אלא אהבה רבה ורבנן אמרי אהבת עולם וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו לא, ג) ואהבת עולם אהבתיך על כן משכתיך חסד,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל השכים לשנות עד שלא קרא ק"ש צריך לברך משקרא ק"ש א"צ לברך שכבר נפטר באהבה רבה,אמר רב הונא למקרא צריך לברך ולמדרש א"צ לברך,ור' אלעזר אמר למקרא ולמדרש צריך לברך למשנה א"צ לברך,ור' יוחנן אמר אף למשנה נמי צריך לברך [אבל לתלמוד א"צ לברך],ורבא אמר אף לתלמוד צריך (לחזור ו) לברך,דאמר רב חייא בר אשי זימנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב לתנויי פרקין בספרא דבי רב הוה מקדים וקא משי ידיה ובריך ומתני לן פרקין.,מאי מברך א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לעסוק בדברי תורה,ור' יוחנן מסיים בה הכי הערב נא ה' אלהינו את דברי תורתך בפינו ובפיפיות עמך בית ישראל ונהיה אנחנו וצאצאינו וצאצאי עמך בית ישראל כלנו יודעי שמך ועוסקי תורתך ברוך אתה ה' המלמד תורה לעמו ישראל,ורב המנונא אמר אשר בחר בנו מכל העמים ונתן לנו את תורתו ברוך אתה ה' נותן התורה אמר רב המנונא זו היא מעולה שבברכות,הלכך לימרינהו לכולהו:,תנן התם אמר להם הממונה ברכו ברכה אחת והם ברכו וקראו עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר וברכו את העם ג' ברכות אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא,מאי ברכה אחת כי הא דרבי אבא ור' יוסי בר אבא אקלעו לההוא אתרא בעו מנייהו מאי ברכה אחת לא הוה בידייהו ואתו שיילוהו לרב מתנה לא הוה בידיה אתו שיילוהו לרב יהודה אמר להו הכי אמר שמואל אהבה רבה,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי א"ר שמעון בן לקיש יוצר אור כי אתא רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר הא דרבי זריקא לאו בפירוש אתמר אלא מכללא אתמר דאמר ר' זריקא א"ר אמי אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש זאת אומרת ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו,אי אמרת בשלמא יוצר אור הוו אמרי היינו דברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלא קא אמרי אהבה רבה 11b. b “Who forms light and creates darkness, /b Who makes peace and creates evil, I am the Lord Who does all these things” (Isaiah 45:7).,With regard to this formula of the blessing, the Gemara asks: b Let him say /b the following formula instead: b Who forms light and creates brightness, /b so as not to mention darkness, which has negative connotations.,The Gemara answers: b We say /b the blessing b as /b the verse b is written /b in the Bible and do not alter the formula that appears in the verse.,The Gemara strongly objects: b But if so, /b what about the continuation of the verse: b “Who makes peace and creates evil”? Do we say /b this blessing b as it is written /b in the Bible? b Rather, it is written evil and we euphemistically recite /b the blessing b all things /b to avoid mention of evil. b Here, too, let us euphemistically say brightness /b instead of darkness., b Rather, Rava said: /b The reason we recite: “Who creates darkness” is b in order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night during the day, /b and thereby unify day and night as different parts of a single entity.,The Gemara continues and asks: b Granted, the attribute of night /b is mentioned b during the day, as we say: Who forms light and creates darkness, but where do you find the attribute of day /b mentioned b at night? /b In the blessing over the radiant lights recited at night there is no mention of “Who forms light.”, b Abaye said: /b Nevertheless, the attribute of day is mentioned at night in the words: b Rolling away light before the darkness and darkness before the light. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And what is /b the formula of b the other /b blessing recited before i Shema /i ? b Rav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel: An abounding love [ i ahava rabba /i ]. And Rabbi Elazar instructed his son, Rabbi Pedat, /b to b also /b say: b An abounding love. /b , b That was also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One does not recite: An eternal love [ i ahavat olam /i ]; rather, /b one recites: b An abounding love. And the Rabbis say /b that one recites: b An eternal love, and so it says: “And an eternal love I have loved you, therefore I have drawn you with kindness” /b (Jeremiah 31:2).,The blessing: An abounding love, is about God’s love for us and includes praise for His giving us the Torah. Therefore, b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: One who arose to study, until he recites i Shema /i he must recite a /b special b blessing /b over the Torah. b If he /b already b recited i Shema /i he need not recite /b that b blessing, as he has exempted /b himself b by /b reciting the blessing of: b An abounding love, /b which includes the components of the blessing over the Torah.,Having mentioned the blessing recited over Torah, the Gemara focuses on a dispute over what constitutes Torah in terms of requiring a blessing. b Rav Huna said: For /b the study of b Bible, one must recite a blessing, /b as it is the word of God, b and for /b halakhic b midrash, /b the derivation of i halakhot /i from verses, b one need not recite a blessing. /b , b And Rabbi Elazar said: For Bible and midrash, /b which includes i halakhot /i derived from verses themselves, b one must recite a blessing; for Mishna, /b which is only comprised of halakhic rulings issued by the Sages, b one need not recite a blessing. /b , b And Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even for Mishna, /b which includes final, binding halakhic rulings, b one must recite a blessing as well, but for Talmud, /b which comprises a study of the Mishna and the rationales for its rulings, b one need not recite a blessing. /b , b And Rava said: Even for Talmud, /b which is the means to analyze the significance of the i halakhot /i , and is the only form of Torah study that leads one to its true meaning, b one must recite a blessing. /b ,This statement is supported by the practical i halakha /i derived from observation of Rav’s practice. His student, b Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi, said: Many times I stood before Rav to study our chapter in the i Sifra /i , /b also known as i Torat Kohanim /i , the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, b of the school of Rav, /b and I saw that Rav b would first wash his hands, /b then b recite a blessing, /b and only then b he would teach us our chapter. /b This demonstrates that even before their study of i Torat Kohanim /i , which, due to Rav’s explanation of the reasons behind the i halakhot /i , was the equivalent of studying Talmud, one must recite a blessing.,The Gemara clarifies: b What /b formula of b blessings does he recite? /b There is a dispute over the formula of the blessings as well. b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: /b The formula of this blessing is like the standard formula for blessings recited over other mitzvot: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, b Who sanctified us with his mitzvot and commanded us to engage in matters of Torah. /b , b And Rabbi Yoḥa concludes /b the blessing by adding b the following: Lord our God, make the words of Your Torah sweet in our mouths and in the mouths of Your people, the house of Israel, so that we and our descendants and the descendants of Your people, the house of Israel, may be those who know Your name and engage in Your Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Who teaches Torah to His people Israel. /b , b And Rav Hamnuna said /b an additional formula: b Who has chosen us from all the peoples and given us His Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Giver of the Torah. /b With regard to this formula, b Rav Hamnuna said: This /b concise blessing b is the most outstanding of all the blessings /b over the Torah, as it combines thanks to God for giving us the Torah as well as acclaim for the Torah and for Israel.,Since several formulas for the blessing over Torah were suggested, each with its own distinct advantage, the Gemara concludes: b Therefore, let us recite them all /b as blessings over the Torah.,The Gemara returns to dealing with the blessings that accompany i Shema /i , and describes the practice in the Temple. b We learned there, /b in a mishna in tractate i Tamid /i : In the morning b the /b deputy High Priest b appointed /b to oversee activity in the Temple, b said to /b the priests who were members of the priestly watch [ i mishmar /i ] on duty that week: b Recite a single blessing. /b The members of the priestly watch b recited a blessing, and read the Ten Commandments, i Shema /i , i VeHaya im Shamoa /i and i VaYomer /i , /b the standard recitation of i Shema /i . Additionally, b they blessed the people /b with b three blessings. /b These blessings were: b True and Firm, /b the blessing of redemption recited after i Shema /i ; b i Avoda /i , /b service, the special blessing recited over God’s acceptance of the sacrifices with favor, similar to the blessing of Temple Service recited in the i Amida /i prayer; b and the priestly benediction, /b recited in the form of a prayer without the outstretched hands that usually accompany that blessing ( i Tosafot /i ). b And on Shabbat one blessing is added to /b bless b the outgoing priestly watch, /b as the watch serving in the Temple was replaced on Shabbat.,Certain details in this mishna are not sufficiently clear. First, b what is the single blessing /b that the deputy High Priest instructed the guards to recite? The Gemara relates: It is b like /b the incident b where Rabbi Abba and Rabbi Yosei bar Abba happened to /b visit b a certain /b unnamed b place, /b and the people there b asked them: What is the single blessing /b mentioned in the mishna? They b did not have /b an answer b readily available. /b So b they came and asked Rav Mattana, and he /b too b did not have /b an answer b readily available. They came and asked Rav Yehuda, /b and b he told them: Shmuel said as follows: An abounding love /b is the single blessing recited by the priestly watch., b Rabbi Zerika said /b that b Rabbi Ami said /b that b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said /b a different answer: This single blessing is: b Who creates light. /b That was how Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement was received in Babylonia, yet b when Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said /b that this i halakha /i was not a direct quote of a statement by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. b That which Rabbi Zerika said was not stated explicitly /b by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, but b rather it was inferred from /b another statement. b As Rabbi Zerika said /b that b Rabbi Ami said /b that b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: /b From the expression: Recite a single blessing, in the mishna in tractate i Tamid /i , b it follows /b that failure to recite one of the b blessings /b recited before i Shema /i b does not prevent /b one from reciting the b other. /b This means that if only one of the blessings was recited, the obligation to recite that blessing was fulfilled, as the two blessings are not mutually dependent.,The conclusion was drawn from Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement that he held that the single blessing recited was: Who creates light. The considerations that led the Sages to that conclusion were: b Granted, if you say that they would recite: Who creates light, /b then the conclusion of Reish Lakish, that failure to recite one of the b blessings /b recited before i Shema /i b does not prevent one /b from reciting the b other, /b is understandable, as they recited: Who creates light, b and did not recite: An abounding love, /b and they nonetheless fulfilled their obligation.
157. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 177
28a. אלא חיה אבל שאר נשים מניחין,ר' אלעזר אמר אפילו שאר הנשים דכתיב (במדבר כ, א) ותמת שם מרים ותקבר שם סמוך למיתה קבורה,ואמר ר' אלעזר אף מרים בנשיקה מתה אתיא שם שם ממשה ומפני מה לא נאמר בה על פי ה' מפני שגנאי הדבר לאומרו,א"ר אמי למה נסמכה מיתת מרים לפרשת פרה אדומה לומר לך מה פרה אדומה מכפרת אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת א"ר אלעזר למה נסמכה מיתת אהרן לבגדי כהונה מה בגדי כהונה מכפרין אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת,ת"ר מת פתאום זו היא מיתה חטופה חלה יום אחד ומת זו היא מיתה דחופה ר' חנניא בן גמליאל אומר זו היא מיתת מגפה שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, טז) בן אדם הנני לוקח ממך את מחמד עיניך במגפה וכתיב (יחזקאל כד, יח) ואדבר אל העם בבקר ותמת אשתי בערב,שני ימים ומת זו היא מיתה דחויה ג' גערה ארבעה נזיפה חמשה זו היא מיתת כל אדם,א"ר חנין מאי קרא (דברים לא, יד) הן קרבו ימיך למות הן חד קרבו תרי ימיך תרי הא חמשה הן חד שכן בלשון יוני קורין לאחת הן,מת בחמשים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת חמשים ושתים שנה זו היא מיתתו של שמואל הרמתי ששים זו היא מיתה בידי שמים,אמר מר זוטרא מאי קרא דכתיב (איוב ה, כו) תבא בכלח אלי קבר בכלח בגימטריא שיתין הוו,שבעים שיבה שמונים גבורות דכתיב (תהלים צ, י) ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה אמר רבה מחמשים ועד ששים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת והאי דלא חשיב להו משום כבודו של שמואל הרמתי,רב יוסף כי הוה בר שיתין עבד להו יומא טבא לרבנן אמר נפקי לי מכרת א"ל אביי נהי דנפק ליה מר מכרת דשני מכרת דיומי מי נפיק מר א"ל נקוט לך מיהא פלגא בידך,רב הונא נח נפשיה פתאום הוו קא דייגי רבנן תנא להו זוגא דמהדייב לא שנו אלא שלא הגיע לגבורות אבל הגיע לגבורות זו היא מיתת נשיקה,אמר רבא חיי בני ומזוני לא בזכותא תליא מילתא אלא במזלא תליא מילתא דהא רבה ורב חסדא תרוייהו רבנן צדיקי הוו מר מצלי ואתי מיטרא ומר מצלי ואתי מיטרא,רב חסדא חיה תשעין ותרתין שנין רבה חיה ארבעין בי רב חסדא שיתין הלולי בי רבה שיתין תיכלי,בי רב חסדא סמידא לכלבי ולא מתבעי בי רבה נהמא דשערי לאינשי ולא משתכח,ואמר רבא הני תלת מילי בעאי קמי שמיא תרתי יהבו לי חדא לא יהבו לי חוכמתיה דרב הונא ועותריה דרב חסדא ויהבו לי ענותנותיה דרבה בר רב הונא לא יהבו לי,רב שעורים אחוה דרבא הוה יתיב קמיה דרבא חזייה דהוה קא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו שושביניה הוא א"ל כיון דאימסר מזלא לא אשגח בי א"ל ליתחזי לי מר איתחזי ליה א"ל הוה ליה למר צערא א"ל כי ריבדא דכוסילתא,רבא הוה יתיב קמיה דר"נ חזייה דקא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו אדם חשוב הוא א"ל מאן חשיב מאן ספין מאן רקיע,א"ל ליתחזי לי מר אתחזי ליה א"ל ה"ל למר צערא א"ל כמישחל בניתא מחלבא ואי אמר לי הקב"ה זיל בההוא עלמא כד הוית לא בעינא דנפיש בעיתותיה,רבי אלעזר הוה קאכיל תרומה איתחזי ליה א"ל תרומה קא אכילנא ולאו קודש איקרי חלפא ליה שעתא,רב ששת איתחזי ליה בשוקא אמר ליה בשוקא כבהמה איתא לגבי ביתא,רב אשי איתחזי ליה בשוקא א"ל איתרח לי תלתין יומין ואהדרי לתלמודאי דאמריתו אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ביום תלתין אתא אמר ליה מאי כולי האי קא דחקא רגליה דבר נתן ואין מלכות נוגעת בחבירתה אפילו כמלא נימא,רב חסדא לא הוה יכיל ליה דלא הוה שתיק פומיה מגירסא סליק יתיב בארזא דבי רב פקע ארזא ושתק ויכיל ליה,ר' חייא לא הוה מצי למיקרבא ליה יומא חד אידמי ליה כעניא אתא טריף אבבא א"ל אפיק לי ריפתא אפיקו ליה א"ל ולאו קא מרחם מר אעניא אההוא גברא אמאי לא קא מרחם מר גלי ליה אחוי ליה שוטא דנורא אמצי ליה נפשיה: 28a. with regard to b a woman /b who died b in childbirth, /b and therefore continues to bleed. b But /b the biers of b other women may be set down /b in the street., b Rabbi Elazar said: Even /b the biers of b other women /b must not be set down in the street, b as it is written: “And Miriam died there and was buried there” /b (Numbers 20:1), which teaches that b the /b site of her b burial was close to /b the place of her b death. /b Therefore, it is preferable to bury a woman as close as possible to the place where she died.,With regard to that same verse b Rabbi Elazar said /b further: b Miriam also died by /b the divine b kiss, /b just like her brother Moses. What is the source for this? b This is derived /b through a verbal analogy between the word b “there” /b stated with regard to Miriam and the word b “there” /b mentioned b with regard to Moses. /b With regard to Moses it says: “So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab by the mouth of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 34:5). b For what /b reason b was it not /b explicitly b stated with regard to her, /b as it is stated with regard to Moses, that she died b “by the mouth of the Lord”? /b It is b because it would be unseemly to say such a thing, /b that a woman died by way of a divine kiss, and therefore it is not said explicitly., b Rabbi Ami said: Why was /b the Torah portion that describes the b death of Miriam juxtaposed to the portion /b dealing with b the red heifer? To tell you: Just as the red heifer atones /b for sin, b so too, the death of the righteous atones /b for sin. b Rabbi Elazar said: Why was /b the Torah portion that describes the b death of Aaron juxtaposed to /b the portion discussing b the priestly garments? /b This teaches that b just as the priestly garments atone /b for sin, b so too, the death of the righteous atones /b for sin.,§ b The Sages taught /b the following i baraita /i : If one b dies suddenly /b without having been sick, b this is death /b through b snatching. /b If he b became sick for a day and died, this is an expedited death. Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel says: This is death at a stroke, as it is stated: “Son of man, behold, I am about to take away from you the delight of your eyes at a stroke” /b (Ezekiel 24:16). b And /b when this prophecy is fulfilled b it is written: “So I spoke to the people in the morning and at evening my wife died” /b (Ezekiel 24:18).,If he was sick for b two days and died, this is a quickened death. /b If he was sick for b three /b days and died, this is a death of b rebuke. /b If he died after being sick for b four /b days, this is a death of b reprimand. /b If one died after a sickness lasting b five /b days, b this is the /b ordinary b death of all people. /b , b Rabbi Ḥanin said: What is the verse /b from which this is derived? It is stated: b “Behold, your days approach that you must die” /b (Deuteronomy 31:14). This verse is expounded in the following manner: b “Behold [ i hen /i ]” /b indicates b one; “approach [ i karvu /i ],” /b a plural term, indicates b two; “your days [ i yamekha /i ],” /b also a plural term, indicates another b two; /b and therefore in total b this is five. /b How does the word b i hen /i /b indicate b one? Because in the Greek language they call /b the number b one i hen /i . /b ,The Gemara discusses the significance of death at different ages: If one b dies when /b he is b fifty years /b old, b this is death through i karet /i , /b the divine punishment of excision, meted out for the most serious transgressions. If he dies when he is b fifty-two years /b old, b this is the death of Samuel from Ramah. /b If he dies at the age of b sixty, this is death at the hand of Heaven. /b , b Mar Zutra said: What is the verse /b from which this is derived? b As it is written: “You shall come to your grave in a ripe age [ i bekhelaḥ /i ]” /b (Job 5:26). The word b “ripe age” [ i bekhelaḥ /i ] has the numerical value of sixty, /b and it is alluded to there that dying at this age involves a divine punishment.,One who dies at the age of b seventy /b has reached b old age. /b One who dies at the age of b eighty /b dies in b strength, as it is written: “The days of our years are seventy, or if by reason of strength, eighty years” /b (Psalms 90:10). b Rabba said: /b Not only is death at the age of fifty a sign of i karet /i , but even death b from fifty to sixty years /b of age b is death by i karet /i . And /b the reason that b all of these years were not counted /b in connection with i karet /i is b due to the honor of Samuel from Ramah, /b who died at the age of fifty-two.,The Gemara relates that b when Rav Yosef turned sixty he made a holiday for the Sages. /b Explaining the cause for his celebration, b he said: I have passed /b the age of b i karet /i . Abaye said to him: Master, /b even b though you have passed the i karet /i of years, have you, Master, escaped the i karet /i of days? /b As previously mentioned, sudden death is also considered to be a form of i karet /i . b He said to him: Grasp at least half in your hand, /b for I have at least escaped one type of i karet /i .,It was related that b Rav Huna died suddenly, /b and b the Sages were concerned /b that this was a bad sign. The Sage b Zuga from Hadayeiv taught them /b the following: b They taught /b these principles b only when /b the deceased b had not reached /b the age of b strength, /b i.e., eighty. b But if he had reached /b the age of b strength /b and then died suddenly, b this is death by way of a /b divine b kiss. /b , b Rava said: /b Length of b life, children, and sustece do not depend on /b one’s b merit, but rather they depend upon fate. As, Rabba and Rav Ḥisda were both pious Sages; /b one b Sage /b would b pray /b during a drought b and rain would fall, and /b the other b Sage /b would b pray and rain would fall. /b ,And nevertheless, their lives were very different. b Rav Ḥisda lived for ninety-two years, /b whereas b Rabba lived for /b only b forty /b years. b The house of Rav Ḥisda /b celebrated b sixty wedding feasts, /b whereas the b house of Rabba /b experienced b sixty calamities. /b In other words, many fortuitous events took place in the house of Rav Ḥisda and the opposite occurred in the house of Rabba., b In the house of Rav Ḥisda /b there was bread from b the finest flour [ i semida /i ] /b even b for the dogs, and it was not asked after, /b as there was so much food. b In the house of Rabba, /b on the other hand, there was coarse b barley bread /b even b for people, and it was not found /b in sufficient quantities. This shows that the length of life, children, and sustece all depend not upon one’s merit, but upon fate.,Apropos Rav Ḥisda’s great wealth, the Gemara reports that b Rava said: These three things I requested from Heaven, two /b of which b were given to me, /b and b one was not given to me: /b I requested the b wisdom of Rav Huna and the wealth of Rav Ḥisda and they were given to me. /b I also requested the b humility of Rabba bar Rav Huna, /b but b it was not given to me. /b ,The Gemara continues its discussion of the deaths of the righteous. b Rav Seorim, Rava’s brother, sat before Rava, /b and b he saw that /b Rava b was dozing, /b i.e., about to die. Rava b said to /b his brother: b Master, tell him, /b the Angel of Death, b not to torment me. /b Knowing that Rava was not afraid of the Angel of Death, Rav Seorim b said to /b him: b Master, are you not a friend of /b the Angel of Death? Rava b said to him: Since /b my b fate has been handed over /b to him, and it has been decreed that I shall die, the Angel of Death b no longer pays heed to me. /b Rav Seorim b said to /b Rava: b Master, appear to me /b in a dream after your death. And Rava b appeared to him. /b Rav Seorim b said to /b Rava: b Master, did you have pain /b in death? b He said to him: Like the prick /b of the knife b when letting blood. /b ,It was similarly related that b Rava sat before Rav Naḥman, /b and b he saw that /b Rav Naḥman b was dozing, /b i.e., slipping into death. Rav Naḥman b said to /b Rava: b Master, tell /b the Angel of Death b not to torment me. /b Rava b said to him: Master, are you not an important person /b who is respected in Heaven? Rav Naḥman b said to him: /b In the supernal world b who is important? Who is honorable? Who is complete? /b ,Rava b said to /b Rav Naḥman: b Master, appear to me /b in a dream after your death. And b he appeared to him. /b Rava b said to him: Master, did you have pain /b in death? Rav Naḥman b said to him: Like the removal of hair from milk, /b which is a most gentle process. But nevertheless, b were the Holy One, Blessed be He, to say to me: Go /b back b to that world, /b the physical world, b as you were, I would not want to go, for the fear of /b the Angel of Death b is great. /b And I would not want to go through such a terrifying experience a second time.,The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Elazar was /b once b eating i teruma /i , /b when the Angel of Death b appeared to him. He said to /b the Angel of Death: b I am eating i teruma /i ; is it not called sacred? /b It would be inappropriate for me to die now and thereby defile this sacred i teruma /i . The Angel of Death accepted his argument and left him. b The moment passed, /b and he lived for some time afterward.,It was similarly related that the Angel of Death once b appeared to Rav Sheshet in the marketplace. /b Rav Sheshet b said to /b the Angel of Death: Shall I die b in the market like an animal? Come to /b my b house /b and kill me there like a human being.,So too, the Angel of Death b appeared to Rav Ashi in the marketplace. /b Rav Ashi b said to /b the Angel of Death: b Give me thirty days so that I may review my studies, for you say /b above: b Fortunate is he who comes here /b to Heaven b with his learning in his hand. On the thirtieth day /b the Angel of Death b came /b to take him. Rav Ashi b said to /b the Angel of Death: b What is all of this? /b Why are you in such a hurry to take me? Why can you not postpone my death? He said to him: b The foot of /b Rav Huna b bar Natan is pushing /b you, as he is ready to succeed you as the leader of the generation, b and one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, even /b by b one hairbreadth. /b Therefore, you cannot live any longer.,The Angel of Death b was unable /b to take b Rav Ḥisda because his mouth was never silent from study. /b So the Angel of Death b went /b and b sat on the cedar /b column that supported the roof of b the study hall of the Sages. The cedar cracked and /b Rav Ḥisda b was silent /b for a moment, as he was startled by the sound. At that point the Angel of Death was b able to /b take b him. /b ,The Angel of Death b could not come near Rabbi Ḥiyya, /b owing to his righteousness. b One day /b the Angel of Death b appeared to him as a poor person. He came and knocked on the door. He said to /b Rabbi Ḥiyya: b Bring out bread for me, /b and b he took out /b bread b for him. /b The Angel of Death then b said /b to Rabbi Ḥiyya: b Master, do you not have mercy on a poor person? Why, then, do you not have mercy upon that man, /b i.e., upon me, and give me what I want? The Angel of Death then b revealed /b his identity b to him, /b and b showed him a fiery rod /b in order to confirm that he was the Angel of Death. At this point Rav Ḥiyya b surrendered /b himself b to him. /b
158. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 165; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 157
41a. ושטיח בחוסר כל (דברים כח, מח) אמר ר' אמי אמר רב בלא נר ובלא שלחן רב חסדא אמר בלא אשה רב ששת אמר בלא שמש רב נחמן אמר בלא דעה תנא בלא מלח ובלא רבב,אמר אביי נקטינן אין עני אלא בדעה במערבא אמרי דדא ביה כולא ביה דלא דא ביה מה ביה דא קני מה חסר דא לא קני מה קני,אמר ר' אלכסנדרי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אין החולה עומד מחליו עד שמוחלין לו על כל עונותיו שנאמר (תהלים קג, ג) הסולח לכל עוניכי הרופא לכל תחלואיכי רב המנונא אמר חוזר לימי עלומיו שנאמר (איוב לג, כה) רוטפש בשרו מנוער ישוב לימי עלומיו כל משכבו הפכת בחליו (תהלים מא, ד) אמר רב יוסף לומר דמשכח למודו,רב יוסף חלש איעקר ליה למודיה אהדריה אביי קמיה היינו דבכל דוכתא אמרינן אמר רב יוסף לא שמיע לי הדא שמעתא אמר ליה אביי את אמריתה ניהלן ומהא מתניתא אמריתה ניהלן,כי הוה גמיר רבי תלת עשרי אפי הילכתא אגמריה לרבי חייא שבעה מנהון לסוף חלש רבי אהדר ר' חייא קמיה הנהו שבעה אפי דאגמריה שיתא אזדו הוה ההוא קצרא הוה שמיע ליה לרבי כדהוה גריס להו אזל ר' חייא וגמר יתהון קמי קצרא ואתא ואהדר יתהון קמי רבי כד הוה חזי ליה רבי לההוא קצרא אמר ליה רבי אתה עשית אותי ואת חייא איכא דאמרי הכי קאמר ליה אתה עשית את חייא וחייא עשה אותי,ואמר ר' אלכסנדרי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא גדול נס שנעשה לחולה יותר מן הנס שנעשה לחנניה מישאל ועזריה של חנניה מישאל ועזריה אש של הדיוט והכל יכולים לכבותה וזו של חולה של שמים היא ומי יכול לכבותה,ואמר ר' אלכסנדרי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא ואמרי לה אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כיון שהגיע קיצו של אדם הכל מושלים בו שנאמר (בראשית ד, יד) והיה כל מוצאי יהרגני רב אמר מן הדין קרא (תהלים קיט, צא) למשפטיך עמדו היום כי הכל עבדיך,רבה בר שילא אמרו ליה שכיב גברא גבוה הוה רכיב גירדונא זוטרא מטא תיתורא איסתויט שדייה וקא שכיב קרי על נפשיה למשפטיך עמדו היום,שמואל חזייה לההוא (קרוקיתא דעקרבא) יתיבא על אקרוקתא ועברה נהרא טרקא גברא ומיית קרי עליה למשפטיך עמדו היום,אמר שמואל אין מבקרין את החולה אלא למי שחלצתו חמה לאפוקי מאי לאפוקי הא דתניא ר' יוסי בן פרטא אומר משום ר' אליעזר אין מבקרין לא חולי מעיים ולא חולי העין ולא מחושי הראש בשלמא חולי מעיים משום כיסופא אלא חולי העין ומחושי הראש מאי טעמא,משום דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה דיבורא קשיא לעינא ומעלי לאישתא אמר רבא האי אישתא אי לאו דפרוונקא דמלאכא דמותא מעלי 41a. b and a rug, /b as an exile needs those items and they are portable. The Sages interpreted the following verse describing the exile experience: “Therefore shall you serve your enemy whom the Lord shall send against you, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and b in want of all things; /b and he shall put a yoke of iron upon your neck, until he has destroyed you” (Deuteronomy 28:48). b Rabbi Ami said /b that b Rav said: /b “In want of all things” means b without a lamp and without a table /b to eat upon. b Rav Ḥisda said: Without a wife. Rav Sheshet said: Without an attendant /b to aid him. b Rav Naḥman said: Without intelligence. /b One of the Sages b teaches /b in a i baraita /i : b Without salt and without fat [ i revav /i ] /b in which to dip his bread., b Abaye said /b that b we have a tradition: A poor person is only /b one lacking b in intelligence, /b in agreement with the opinion of Rav Naḥman. b In the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, b they say: /b One b who /b has b this /b attribute, intelligence, b in him /b has b everything in him. /b One b who does not /b have b this /b attribute b in him, what is in him? /b If b he acquired this, what /b else b is lacking? /b If b he has not acquired this, what has he acquired? /b ,§ b Rabbi Alexandri said /b that b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: The sick person recovers from his illness only when /b the heavenly court b forgives him for all his sins, as it is stated: “Who forgives all your iniquity; Who heals all your diseases” /b (Psalms 103:3). b Rav Hamnuna said: /b When he recovers, b he returns to the days of his youth, as it is stated /b in a verse with regard to one recovering from illness: b “His flesh is tenderer than a child’s; he returns to the days of his youth” /b (Job 33:25). Interpreting the verse: “The Lord will support him upon the bed of suffering; b You overturned all his lying down in his illness” /b (Psalms 41:4), b Rav Yosef said: /b That is b to say that /b the sick person b forgets his studies, /b as everything that is organized is overturned.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Yosef /b himself b fell ill /b and b his studies were forgotten. Abaye restored /b his studies by reviewing what he had learned from Rav Yosef b before him. This is /b the background for that b which we say everywhere /b throughout the Talmud, that b Rav Yosef said: I did not learn this i halakha /i , /b and b Abaye said to him /b in response: b You said this to us and /b it was b from this i baraita /i /b that b you said it to us. /b ,The Gemara relates: b When Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b would learn thirteen aspects of a i halakha /i /b on a certain issue, b he taught Rabbi Ḥiyya seven of them. Ultimately, Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b fell ill /b and forgot all thirteen aspects. b Rabbi Ḥiyya restored those seven aspects that /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b taught him /b by reviewing them before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. However, b six were gone /b and forgotten, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had not taught them to anyone. There b was a certain launderer /b who b would hear Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b when he was studying /b those i halakhot /i . b Rabbi Ḥiyya went and learned /b those i halakhot /i b from the launderer and he came and restored them /b by reviewing them b before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. b When Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b saw that launderer, Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: You made me and Ḥiyya, /b as we were able to learn these i halakhot /i that otherwise would have been forgotten. b Some say /b that b this is what he said to /b the launderer: b You made Ḥiyya, and Ḥiyya made me. /b , b And Rabbi Alexandri said /b that b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: Greater is the miracle performed for the sick person than the miracle that was performed for Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, /b who were rescued from the fiery furnace (see Daniel, chapter 3), as in the miracle of b Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, /b they were rescued from b the fire of a layman, and anyone is capable of extinguishing it. And that /b fire afflicting b a sick person /b with a fever is the fire b of Heaven, and who can extinguish it? /b , b And Rabbi Alexandri said /b that b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said, and some say Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the end /b of the time allotted for the life of b a person arrived, everything has dominion over him, as it is stated /b that Cain said: b “Whosoever finds me will slay me” /b (Genesis 4:14). Cain feared that since God sentenced him to death he would be susceptible to all threats and vulnerable to anyone seeking to murder him. b Rav said /b that it is derived b from this verse: “They stand this day according to Your judgments; for all are Your servants” /b (Psalms 119:91). When the decree emerges from Heaven that the time has arrived for a person to die, everyone is a servant of God, an agent to kill him.,The Gemara relates that people b said to Rabba bar Sheila: A man died. /b This person b was tall /b and was b riding on a small mule [ i giredona /i ]. When he reached a bridge [ i tittora /i ], /b the mule b was frightened [ i istavveit /i ] /b and b cast off /b the rider, b and /b although the rider was tall and the mule was short and the rider did not fall far, b he died. /b Rabba bar Sheila b read /b the verse and applied it b to /b the rider: b “They stand this day according to Your judgments.” /b , b Shmuel saw a certain frog [ i kerokita /i ], /b and also noticed b that a scorpion was sitting upon the frog and /b the frog b crossed the river. /b The scorpion b stung a man /b on the other side of the river b and /b the man b died. /b Shmuel b read /b and applied the verse b to /b the dead man: b “They stand this day according to Your judgments.” /b Even the frog and scorpion are servants and agents of God. The only way the scorpion could reach the man and kill him was by means of the frog taking it across the river.,§ b Shmuel said: One visits a sick person only if /b that person b is one whom fever overcame. /b The Gemara asks: b What /b illnesses b does /b this statement come to b exclude? /b The Gemara answers: It comes b to exclude that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yosei ben Perata says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: One visits neither those with intestinal illness, nor those with eye illness, nor /b those suffering from b headaches. /b The Gemara asks: b Granted, /b one does not visit b those with intestinal sickness, due to /b the sick person’s b embarrassment, /b as he would need to frequently relieve himself and it would be awkward for him in the presence of the visitor. b However, what is the reason /b that one does not visit b those with eye illnesses and headaches? /b ,The Gemara answers: b It is due to /b that b which Rav Yehuda said, as Rav Yehuda said: Speech is injurious for the eye and beneficial for /b curing b a fever. /b Therefore, if one suffers from pain in his eye or his head it is better for him not to talk. If he has visitors, he will need to speak to them, which will cause him harm. b Rava said: /b With regard to b this fever [ i ishta /i ], were it not the agent [ i parvanka /i ] of the Angel of Death, /b i.e., the cause of serious, potentially deadly illnesses, it could be deemed b beneficial, /b
159. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, None (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 87
160. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 74; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 74
93b. קסבר מגדף היינו מברך השם וכתיב במברך את השם (ויקרא כד, טו) ונשא חטאו,וגמר האי חטאו דהכא מחטאו דהתם מה להלן כרת אף כאן נמי כרת,ור' נתן סבר (במדבר ט, יג) וחדל לעשות הפסח ונכרתה דהאי כי לשון דהא הוא וה"ק רחמנא דהא קרבן ה' לא הקריב במועדו בראשון,האי חטאו ישא מאי עביד ליה קסבר מגדף לאו היינו מברך את השם וגמר האי חטאו דהתם מהאי חטאו דהכא מה הכא כרת אף התם כרת,ור' חנניא בן עקביא סבר וחדל לעשות הפסח ונכרתה אי קרבן ה' לא הקריב במועדו בשני,והאי חטאו ישא מאי עביד ליה כדאמרן,הלכך הזיד בזה ובזה דברי הכל חייב שגג בזה ובזה דברי הכל פטור,הזיד בראשון ושגג בשני לרבי ולר' נתן מחייבי לרבי חנניא בן עקביא פטור,שגג בראשון והזיד בשני לרבי חייב לר' נתן ולר' חנניא בן עקביא פטור:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big איזו היא דרך רחוקה מן המודיעים ולחוץ וכמדתה לכל רוח דברי רבי עקיבא ר"א אומר מאיסקופת העזרה ולחוץ אמר ליה רבי יוסי לפיכך נקוד על (במדבר ט, י) ה' לומר לא מפני שרחוק ודאי אלא מאיסקופת העזרה ולחוץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר עולא מן המודיעים לירושלים חמשה עשר מילין הויא סבר לה כי הא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כמה מהלך אדם ביום עשרה פרסאות מעלות השחר ועד הנץ החמה חמשת מילין משקיעת החמה ועד צאת הכוכבים חמשת מילין פשו לה תלתין חמיסר מצפרא לפלגא דיומא וחמיסר מפלגא דיומא לאורתא,עולא לטעמיה דאמר עולא אי זה הוא דרך רחוקה כל שאין יכול ליכנס בשעת שחיטה,אמר מר מעלות השחר עד הנץ החמה חמשת מילין מנא לן דכתיב (בראשית יט, טו) וכמו השחר עלה ויאיצו המלאכים וגו' וכתיב (בראשית יט, כג) השמש יצא על הארץ ולוט בא צוערה ואמר רבי חנינא לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והויא חמשה מילין,גופא אמר עולא איזה הוא דרך רחוקה כל שאין יכול ליכנס בשעת שחיטה ורב יהודה אמר כל שאין יכול ליכנס בשעת אכילה,אמר ליה רבה לעולא לדידך קשיא ולרב יהודה קשיא לדידך קשיא דאמרת כל שאין יכול ליכנס בשעת שחיטה והא טמא שרץ דאין יכול ליכנס בשעת שחיטה וקאמרת שוחטין וזורקין על טמא שרץ,ולרב יהודה קשיא דאמר כל שאין יכול ליכנס בשעת אכילה והא טמא שרץ דיכול ליכנס בשעת אכילה וקאמר אין שוחטין וזורקין על טמא שרץ,אמר ליה לא לדידי קשיא ולא לרב יהודה קשיא לדידי ל"ק דרך רחוקה לטהור ואין דרך רחוקה לטמא 93b. b He holds /b that with regard to the case of the b blasphemer /b mentioned in the verse: “That person blasphemes the Lord and that soul shall be cut off [ i karet /i ] from among his people” (Numbers 15:30), b this is /b identical to the case of b one who blesses the name /b of God, a euphemism for cursing God’s name. b And it is written with regard to one who blesses the name /b of God: “Whoever curses his God b shall bear his sin” /b (Leviticus 24:15). Therefore, the punishment of i karet /i applies to a sin about which the Torah states: Shall bear his sin., b And /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b learned /b the meaning of b this /b phrase: “And he shall bear b his sin,” /b stated b here, /b with regard to one who did not sacrifice the Paschal lamb, by way of a verbal analogy b from /b the phrase: “Shall bear b his sin” /b stated b there, /b with regard to the blasphemer. b Just as later, /b with regard to the blasphemer, it is referring to the punishment of b i karet /i , so too here, /b with regard to the Paschal lamb, it is referring to the punishment of b i karet /i . /b This concludes the Gemara’s explanation of the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi., b And Rabbi Natan holds /b that the verse should be understood differently. In the verse: b “And refrains from offering the Paschal lamb, /b that soul b shall be cut off /b from his people; because [ i ki /i ] he did not bring the offering of the Lord in its appointed season” (Numbers 9:13), b this /b word b i ki /i /b has the b meaning of: Because. And this is /b what b the Torah is saying: “Because he did not bring the offering of the Lord in its appointed season,” /b referring to participating in the Paschal lamb on b the first /b i Pesaḥ /i , he is liable to receive i karet /i .,The Gemara asks: If so, b that /b part of the verse which says: b He shall bear his sin, what does /b Rabbi Natan b do with it? /b The Gemara answers: Rabbi Natan b holds /b that b the /b case of the b blasphemer is not /b identical with the case of one who b blesses the name /b of God; blasphemy refers instead to one who sings praises to false gods. Thus, the Torah does not specify the punishment of one who curses God. b He learned /b the meaning of b that /b phrase b “his sin,” there, /b with regard to one who curses God, by way of a verbal analogy b from this /b phrase b “his sin” here, /b in the case of one who did not offer the Paschal lamb. b Just as here, /b with regard to the Paschal lamb, the punishment is b i karet /i , so too there, /b with regard to one who curses God, the phrase: He shall bear his sin, is a reference to the punishment of b i karet /i . /b , b And Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya holds /b that the word i ki /i in the verse should be rendered: If, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi interpreted it, but the verse should be understood as follows: b “And refrained from participating /b in the offering of b the Paschal lamb, /b that soul b shall be cut off /b from his people b if he did not bring the offering of the Lord in its appointed season,” /b which is b on the second /b i Pesaḥ /i .,The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b that /b phrase: b “He shall bear his sin,” what does /b Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya b do with it? /b The Gemara answers: He uses it in the same way as Rabbi Natan, b as we said /b above, to derive the punishment for one who curses God., b Therefore, /b if one b intentionally /b refrained from offering the Paschal lamb b on both /b the first and second i Pesaḥ /i , b all agree /b that he is b liable /b to receive i karet /i . If one b unwittingly /b forgot b on both /b the first and second i Pesaḥ /i , b all agree /b that he is b exempt /b from i karet /i .,If one b intentionally /b refrained from offering the Paschal lamb b on the first /b i Pesaḥ /i b and unwittingly /b forgot b on the second, /b according b to /b the opinions of b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b and Rabbi Natan he /b is b liable /b to receive i karet /i , because he intentionally refrained from offering the sacrifice on the first i Pesaḥ /i and did not rectify his mistake on the second i Pesaḥ /i ; however, according b to /b the opinion of b Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya /b he is b exempt, /b because he holds that one is liable only if he intentionally refrained both times from offering the Paschal lamb.,If one b unwittingly /b forgot b on the first /b i Pesaḥ /i b and intentionally /b refrained from bringing the offering b on the second /b i Pesaḥ /i , according b to /b the opinion of b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b he is liable, /b because Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi considers the second i Pesaḥ /i an independent Festival that is mandatory for all those who did not offer the Paschal lamb on the first i Pesaḥ /i . According b to /b the opinions of b Rabbi Natan and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Akavya, /b who hold that the second i Pesaḥ /i is a chance to redress the sin of the first i Pesaḥ /i , since he did not intentionally fail to offer the Paschal lamb on the first i Pesaḥ /i , he is b exempt /b from the punishment of i karet /i even if he intentionally failed to offer the Paschal lamb on the second i Pesaḥ /i ., strong MISHNA: /strong b What is the /b definition of b a distant journey /b that exempts one from observing the first i Pesaḥ /i ? Anywhere b from the /b city of b Modi’im and beyond, and /b from anywhere located an equal b distance /b from Jerusalem and beyond b in every direction; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: From the threshold of the /b Temple b courtyard and beyond /b is considered a distant journey; therefore, anyone located outside the courtyard at the time that the Paschal lamb is slaughtered is exempt from observing the first i Pesaḥ /i . b Rabbi Yosei said to him: Therefore, /b the word is b dotted over the /b letter b i heh /i /b in the word “distant [ i reḥoka /i ]” b to say /b that the meaning of the word should be qualified: It should be understood that b it is not because he is really distant; rather, /b it includes anyone located b from the threshold of the /b Temple b courtyard and beyond. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b Ulla said: /b The distance b from the /b city of b Modi’im to Jerusalem is fifteen i mil /i . He held like this /b following opinion b that Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: How /b far b can an /b average b person walk on an /b average b day? /b One can walk b ten parasangs [ i parsaot /i ], /b which are forty i mil /i . This is divided in the following way: b From dawn until sunrise /b one can walk a distance of b five i mil /i , /b and b from sunset until the emergence of the stars /b one can walk another b five i mil /i . /b There are b thirty /b i mil /i b remaining /b that one can walk in a day: b Fifteen from the morning until midday, and fifteen from midday until evening. /b ,The Gemara explains that b Ulla /b conforms b to his /b standard line of b reasoning /b below, b as Ulla said: What is /b the definition of b a distant journey? /b It is b any /b distance from which b one is unable to /b reach Jerusalem and b enter /b the Temple b by the /b earliest b time of the slaughter /b of the Paschal lamb. The obligation to slaughter the Paschal lamb begins at noon; therefore, if one is a distance of fifteen i mil /i from the Temple in the morning, he will not be able to arrive there before the time that the offering may be slaughtered.,The Gemara addresses the previously mentioned discussion: b The Master said /b that b from dawn until sunrise /b one can walk a distance of b five i mil /i . From where do we /b derive this? b As it is written: “And when the morning arose, the angels hastened Lot, /b saying: Arise, take your wife and your two daughters that are here, lest you be swept away in the iniquity of the city” (Genesis 19:15), b and it is written: “The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came to Zoar” /b (Genesis 19:23). Therefore, the distance between Sodom and Zoar is the distance one can walk between dawn and sunrise, b and Rabbi Ḥanina said: I myself saw that place, and it is /b a distance of b five i mil /i . /b This serves as a biblical proof that one can walk five i mil /i between dawn and sunrise.,The Gemara discusses b the matter /b of the above statement b itself. Ulla said: What is /b the definition of b a distant journey; any /b journey of a distance from which b one is unable to /b reach Jerusalem and b enter /b the Temple b by the /b earliest b time of the slaughter /b of the Paschal lamb. b And Rav Yehuda said: Any /b journey of a distance from which b one is unable to /b reach Jerusalem, where the Paschal lamb is eaten, and b enter during the time of the eating, /b the following night., b Rabba said to Ulla: /b According b to your /b opinion it is b difficult, and /b according b to Rav Yehuda’s /b opinion it is b difficult. /b According b to your /b opinion it is b difficult, as you said /b that b any /b journey of a distance from which b one is unable to /b reach Jerusalem and b enter /b the Temple courtyard b by the time of the slaughter /b of the Paschal lamb is considered a distant journey. b Yet /b with regard to b one who is ritually impure /b due to contact with a dead b creeping animal, who is unable to enter /b the Temple courtyard b at the time of the slaughter /b due to his impurity, b you said: One /b may b slaughter /b the Paschal lamb b and sprinkle /b its blood b on /b behalf of b one who is ritually impure /b due to contact with a dead b creeping animal, /b even though he will only become pure after nightfall, when the Paschal lamb is eaten., b And /b according b to Rav Yehuda’s /b opinion it is b difficult, as he said /b that b any /b journey of a distance from which b one is unable to enter /b Jerusalem b during the time of the eating /b is considered a distant journey; b yet /b with regard to b one who is ritually impure /b due to contact with a dead b creeping animal, who /b is able to b enter /b Jerusalem and participate in consuming the offering b at the time of the eating, he said /b the opposite: b One /b may b not slaughter /b the Paschal lamb b and sprinkle /b its blood b on /b behalf of b one who is ritually impure /b due to contact with a dead b creeping animal, /b even though he will be able to immerse and become ritually pure by nightfall, when the offering is to be eaten.,Ulla b said to him: According to my /b opinion it is b not difficult, and according to Rav Yehuda’s /b opinion it is b not difficult. According to my /b opinion it is b not difficult /b because I hold that the concept of b a distant journey /b applies only b to one who is ritually pure, and the /b principle of a b distant journey /b does b not /b apply b to one who is ritually impure. /b If one is ritually impure at the time of the slaughter, his obligation is immediately deferred to the second i Pesaḥ /i regardless of the fact that he will become ritually pure in time to eat the offering at nightfall.
161. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 100, 112-113, 149, 153, 180, 372-373, 385-386, 388-390, 438-450, 6, 387 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 213, 219
162. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 118
18a. כאן קודם גזר דין כאן לאחר גזר דין הכא נמי ביחיד,וגזר דין דיחיד תנאי היא דתניא היה רבי מאיר אומר שנים שעלו למטה וחוליין שוה וכן שנים שעלו לגרדום לידון ודינן שוה זה ירד וזה לא ירד זה ניצל וזה לא ניצל,מפני מה זה ירד וזה לא ירד זה ניצל וזה לא ניצל זה התפלל ונענה וזה התפלל ולא נענה מפני מה זה נענה וזה לא נענה זה התפלל תפלה שלימה נענה וזה לא התפלל תפלה שלימה לא נענה,ר' אלעזר אמר כאן קודם גזר דין כאן לאחר גזר דין רבי יצחק אמר יפה צעקה לאדם בין קודם גזר דין בין לאחר גזר דין,וגזר דין דצבור מי מיקרע והא כתוב אחד אומר (ירמיהו ד, יד) כבסי מרעה לבך וכתיב (ירמיהו ב, כב) כי אם תכבסי בנתר ותרבי לך בורית נכתם עונך לפני מאי לאו כאן קודם גזר דין כאן לאחר גזר דין,לא אידי ואידי לאחר גזר דין ולא קשיא כאן בגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה כאן בגזר דין שאין עמו שבועה,כדרב שמואל בר אמי דאמר רב שמואל בר אמי ואמרי לה אמר רב שמואל בר נחמני אמר רב יונתן מנין לגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה שאינו נקרע שנאמר (שמואל א ג, יד) [ו] לכן נשבעתי לבית עלי אם יתכפר עון בית עלי בזבח ובמנחה,אמר רבא בזבח ובמנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר בתורה אביי אמר בזבח ומנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר בתורה ובגמילות חסדים רבה ואביי מדבית עלי קאתו רבה דעסק בתורה חיה ארבעין שנין אביי דעסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים חיה שיתין שנין,תנו רבנן משפחה אחת היתה בירושלים שהיו מתיה מתין בני י"ח שנה באו והודיעו את רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שמא ממשפחת עלי אתם דכתיב ביה (שמואל א ב, לג) וכל מרבית ביתך ימותו אנשים לכו ועסקו בתורה וחיו הלכו ועסקו בתורה וחיו והיו קורין אותה משפחת רבן יוחנן על שמו,אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב מניין לגזר דין של צבור שאינו נחתם אינו נחתם והכתיב (ירמיהו ב, כב) נכתם עונך לפני אלא אע"ג שנחתם נקרע שנאמר (דברים ד, ז) כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו,והכתיב (ישעיהו נה, ו) דרשו ה' בהמצאו התם ביחיד הכא בצבור,ביחיד אימת אמר רבה בר אבוה אלו עשרה ימים שבין ר"ה ליוה"כ (שמואל א כה, לח) ויהי כעשרת הימים ויגף ה' את נבל [י' ימים] מאי עבידתייהו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כנגד עשר לגימות שנתן נבל לעבדי דוד (אמר) רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אלו י' ימים שבין ר"ה ליוה"כ:,בר"ה כל באי העולם עוברין לפניו כבני מרון: מאי כבני מרון הכא תרגימו כבני אמרנא ריש לקיש אמר כמעלות בית מרון (אמר) רב יהודה אמר שמואל כחיילות של בית דוד,אמר רבב"ח א"ר יוחנן וכולן נסקרין בסקירה אחת אמר ר"נ בר יצחק אף אנן נמי תנינא (תהלים לג, טו) היוצר יחד לבם המבין אל כל מעשיהם מאי קאמר אילימא ה"ק דברנהו לכולי עלמא ומייחד לבייהו כהדדי והא קא חזינן דלאו הכי הוא אלא לאו הכי קאמר היוצר רואה יחד לבם ומבין אל כל מעשיהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big על ששה חדשים השלוחין יוצאין על ניסן מפני הפסח על אב מפני התענית על אלול מפני ר"ה על תשרי מפני תקנת המועדות על כסליו מפני חנוכה ועל אדר מפני הפורים,וכשהיה בהמ"ק קיים יוצאין אף על אייר מפני פסח קטן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big וליפקו נמי אתמוז וטבת 18a. b Here /b the verse is referring to the time b before /b one’s b sentence /b is issued, when God shows favor and forgives; and b there /b the verse is referring to the time b after /b the b sentence /b has been issued, when He no longer forgives. This implies that after a sentence has been issued, there is no possibility of repentance, which seems to contradict the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa. The Gemara answers: b Here too /b it is referring to b an individual, /b but a community is granted forgiveness even after its sentence has been issued.,§ The question of whether or not b an individual’s sentence /b can be rescinded b is /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i , as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Meir would say: Two /b people b take to /b their b beds, and their illness is the same, or two /b people b ascend to the tribunal [ i gardom /i ] for judgment, and their /b potential b sentence is the same; /b but b this /b one b comes down /b from his bed, b while that /b one b does not come down from his bed, and this /b one b is saved /b from death, b while that /b one b is not saved. /b , b For what /b reason b did this /b one recover and b come down /b from his bed, b while that /b one b did not /b recover and b come down from his bed; /b and why b was this one saved /b from death, b while that one was not saved? /b The difference between them is that b this /b one b prayed and was answered, while that /b one b prayed, but was not answered. And for what /b reason b was this /b one b answered and that /b one b not answered? This /b one b prayed a prayer /b with his b whole /b heart and consequently b was answered, while that /b one b did not pray a prayer /b with his b whole /b heart and therefore b was not answered. /b , b Rabbi Elazar said: /b Not so; rather, b here /b he prayed b before /b his heavenly b sentence /b was issued, and so he was answered, whereas b there /b the other one prayed b after /b his heavenly b sentence /b was issued, and therefore he was not answered. b Rabbi Yitzḥak /b disagreed and b said: Crying out /b to God b is effective for a person, both before /b his b sentence /b has been issued b and /b also b after /b his b sentence /b has been issued, as even after his sentence has been issued, it can still be rescinded if he repents.,The Gemara asks: b Can a sentence of a community /b really b be torn up /b because they have repented? b But one verse says: /b “O Jerusalem, b wash your heart from wickedness, /b that you may be saved” (Jeremiah 4:14), b and /b elsewhere b it is written: “For though you wash yourself with lye, and use much soap, yet the stain of your iniquity is before Me, /b says the Lord God” (Jeremiah 2:22). b What, is it not /b that b here /b the verse is referring to the time b before the sentence, /b when the heart can still be washed with repentance, whereas b there /b the verse is referring to the time b after the sentence, /b when washing no longer helps, as the sentence cannot be canceled?,The Gemara answers: b No, /b both b this /b verse b and that /b verse refer to the time b after the sentence /b has been decreed, b and /b still it is b not difficult: Here /b the verse is referring to b a sentence accompanied by an oath /b taken by God not to cancel the sentence, whereas b there /b the verse is referring to b a sentence that is not accompanied by /b God’s b oath /b not to cancel the sentence, and so the sentence can in fact be canceled through repentance.,This is b like /b what b Rav Shmuel bar Ami /b said, b as Rav Shmuel bar Ami /b said, b and some say /b that it was b Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani /b who b said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: From where /b is it derived b that a sentence accompanied by /b God’s b oath /b not to cancel it b cannot be torn up /b or canceled? b As it is stated: “And therefore I have sworn to the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli’s house will not be purged with sacrifice nor offering forever” /b (I Samuel 3:14).,With regard to this verse b Rava said: With sacrifice or offering /b the sin of Eli’s house b is not atoned, but it can be atoned through Torah /b study. b Abaye said: With sacrifice or offering /b the sin of Eli’s house b is not atoned, but it is atoned through Torah /b study b and /b the performance of b acts of kindness. /b It is related that b Rabba and Abaye came from the house of Eli, /b which was subject to the curse that most of its members would die young. b Rabba, who engaged /b almost exclusively b in Torah /b study, b lived for forty years, /b whereas b Abaye, who engaged in /b both b Torah /b study b and in /b the performance of b acts of kindness lived for sixty years. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b There was a certain family in Jerusalem whose members used to die at the age of eighteen, /b and they did not know why. b They came and told Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai /b about their situation. b He said to them: Perhaps you /b are descended b from the family of Eli, as it is written about them: “And all the increase of your house shall die young men” /b (I Samuel 2:33). If indeed this is so, the remedy is as follows: b Go and engage in Torah /b study, in the merit of which b you will live. They went and engaged in Torah /b study b and lived. And /b people b would call that family /b afterward b by the name of Rabbi Yoḥa /b in his honor., b Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: From where /b is it derived b that the sentence of a community is never sealed [ i neḥtam /i ]? /b The Gemara immediately asks: b Is never sealed? But isn’t it written: “Yet the stain [ i nikhtam /i ] of your iniquity is before Me” /b (Jeremiah 2:22), which implies that the sentence of a community is indeed sealed. b Rather, /b one must say that the question was as follows: From where is it known with regard to the sentence of a community that b although it is sealed, it can /b still b be torn up? As it is stated: “As is the Lord our God whenever we call out to Him” /b (Deuteronomy 4:7). This implies that there is always a way to draw close to God.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t it written: “Seek the Lord while He may be found; call upon Him when He is near” /b (Isaiah 55:6), which implies that there are times when He is not near and does not answer. The Gemara answers: b There /b the verse is referring to b an individual, /b to whom God is near only at certain times; b here /b the verse is referring to b a community, /b to which God is close whenever the people call out to Him.,§ The Gemara asks: With regard to b an individual, when /b is God near to him? b Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. /b The Gemara asks further: The verse states: b “And it came to pass about ten days after that the Lord smote Nabal, and he died” /b (I Samuel 25:38). These b ten days, what are they doing here, /b i.e., why was there a delay of ten days before Nabal died? b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: They correspond to the ten meals that Nabal gave the servants of David /b who came to visit him, as out of politeness he allowed David’s ten servants to eat, and therefore his punishment was delayed for ten days. b Rav Naḥman said /b that b Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, /b during which everyone is given one last opportunity to repent for the sins he committed over the course of the previous year.,§ The mishna teaches: b On Rosh HaShana all creatures pass before Him like i benei maron /i . /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of the phrase b i benei maron /i ? /b The Gemara answers: b Here /b in Babylonia b they interpreted it /b to mean: b Like a flock of sheep [ i kivnei imarna /i ]. Reish Lakish /b disagreed and b said: Like the ascent of Beit Maron, /b which was very steep; one standing at the summit could discern all those climbing the mountain with a single look. b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said /b another opinion: b Like the soldiers of the house of /b King b David, /b who could be surveyed with a single glance., b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: And they are all scanned in a single scan. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: We, too, learn /b this in the i baraita /i : The verse states: b “He who fashions their hearts alike, who considers all their deeds” /b (Psalms 33:15). b What is this /b verse b saying? If we say this is what it is saying: That He created everyone and unites /b all b their hearts together, /b there is a difficulty, b since don’t we see that it is not so, /b as the hearts of people are not united and are not similar to one another? b Rather, is this not what it is saying: The Creator sees their hearts together and considers all their deeds /b with a single scan?, strong MISHNA: /strong b In six months /b of the year b the messengers go out /b from the court in Jerusalem to report throughout Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora which day was established as the New Moon, the thirtieth or the thirty-first day since the previous New Moon. They go out b in /b the month of b Nisan, due to Passover, /b so that people will know on which day to celebrate it; b in /b the month of b Av, due to the fast /b of the Ninth of Av; b in Elul, due to Rosh HaShana, /b which begins thirty days after the New Moon of Elul; b in Tishrei, due to the /b need to establish the b correct /b dates on which to celebrate b the Festivals /b of Tishrei, i.e., Yom Kippur and i Sukkot /i ; b in Kislev, due to Hanukkah; and in Adar, due to Purim. /b , b And when the Temple was standing, /b messengers b would also go out in /b the month of b Iyyar due to small Passover, /b i.e., second i Pesaḥ /i , which occurs on the fourteenth of Iyyar. This holiday allowed those who were ritually impure or on a distant journey on the fourteenth of Nisan, and therefore incapable of bringing the Paschal lamb at that time, to bring their Paschal lamb a month later., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b And /b if they go out for the month of Av due to the fast, b let them go out also /b in the months of b Tammuz and Tevet, /b as they too contain public fast days.
163. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 47; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 47
56a. בכל יום דנין את העדים בכינוי יכה יוסי את יוסי,נגמר הדין לא הורגין בכינוי אלא מוציאין כל אדם לחוץ שואלין את הגדול שביניהן ואומר לו אמור מה ששמעת בפירוש והוא אומר והדיינין עומדין על רגליהן וקורעין ולא מאחין,והשני אומר אף אני כמוהו והשלישי אומר אף אני כמוהו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא עד שיברך שם בשם,מנהני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם וגו' בנקבו שם יומת,ממאי דהאי נוקב לישנא דברוכי הוא דכתיב (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואזהרתיה מהכא (שמות כב, כז) אלהים לא תקלל,ואימא מיברז הוא דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים יב, ג) ואבדתם את שמם לא תעשון כן לה' אלהיכם,בעינא שם בשם וליכא,ואימא דמנח שני שמות אהדדי ובזע להו ההוא נוקב וחוזר ונוקב הוא ואימא דחייק שם אפומא דסכינא ובזע בה ההוא חורפא דסכינא הוא דקא בזע,אימא פרושי שמיה הוא דכתיב (במדבר א, יז) ויקח משה ואהרן את האנשים האלה אשר נקבו בשמות ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא,חדא דבעינא שם בשם וליכא ועוד הויא ליה אזהרת עשה ואזהרת עשה לא שמה אזהרה,ואיבעית אימא אמר קרא (ויקרא כד, יא) ויקב ויקלל למימרא דנוקב קללה הוא,ודילמא עד דעבד תרוייהו לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב (ויקרא כד, יד) הוצא את המקלל ולא כתיב הוצא את הנוקב והמקלל שמע מינה חדא היא,תנו רבנן איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות את העובדי כוכבים שמוזהרין על ברכת השם כישראל ואינן נהרגין אלא בסייף שכל מיתה האמורה בבני נח אינה אלא בסייף,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא ה' זו ברכת השם,אמר ר' יצחק נפחא לא נצרכא אלא לרבותא הכינויין ואליבא דרבי מאיר,דתניא (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו מה תלמוד לומר והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת לפי שנאמר ונוקב שם מות יומת יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד בלבד מניין לרבות כל הכינויין תלמוד לומר איש כי יקלל אלהיו מכל מקום דברי רבי מאיר,וחכמים אומרים על שם המיוחד במיתה ועל הכינויין באזהרה,ופליגא דרבי מיישא דאמר רבי מיישא בן נח שבירך את השם בכינויים לרבנן חייב,מאי טעמא דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) כגר כאזרח גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן בנקבו שם אבל עובד כוכבים אפילו בכינוי,ורבי מאיר האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח בסקילה אבל עובד כוכבים בסייף סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ואיתרבו איתרבו קמ"ל,ורבי יצחק נפחא אליבא דרבנן האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן שם בשם אבל עובד כוכבים לא בעינן שם בשם,איש איש למה לי דיברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,תנו רבנן שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח דינין וברכת השם ע"ז גילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים וגזל ואבר מן החי 56a. b On every day /b of a blasphemer’s trial, when the judges b judge the witnesses, /b i.e., interrogate the witnesses, they ask the witnesses to use b an appellation /b for the name of God, so that they do not utter a curse of God’s name. Specifically, the witnesses would say: b Let Yosei smite Yosei, /b as the name Yosei has four letters in Hebrew, as does the Tetragrammaton.,When b the judgment is over, /b and the court votes to deem the defendant guilty, b they do not sentence /b him b to death based on /b the testimony of the witnesses in which they used b an appellation /b for the name of God, without having ever heard the exact wording of the curse. b Rather, they remove all /b the b people /b who are not required to be there from the court, so that the curse is not heard publicly, and the judges b interrogate the eldest of /b the witnesses, b and say to him: Say what you heard explicitly. And he says /b exactly what he heard. b And the judges stand on their feet and make a tear /b in their garments, as an act of mourning for the desecration of the honor of God. b And they do not /b ever fully b stitch /b it back together again., b And the second /b witness b says: I too /b heard b as he /b did, but he does not repeat the curse explicitly. b And the third /b witness, in the event that there is one, b says: I too /b heard b as he /b did. In this manner, the repetition of the invective sentence is limited to what is absolutely necessary., strong GEMARA: /strong The Sage b taught /b in a i baraita /i : A blasphemer is not liable b unless he blesses, /b a euphemism for curses, the b name /b of God b with /b the b name /b of God, e.g., by saying: Let such and such a name strike such and such a name.,The Gemara asks: b From where is this matter /b derived? b Shmuel says: /b It is derived from that b which the verse states: “And he who blasphemes [ i venokev /i ] the name /b of the Lord shall be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him; the convert as well as the homeborn, b when he blasphemes [ i benokvo /i ] the name, he shall be put to death” /b (Leviticus 24:16). It is derived from the repetition of the phrase “blasphemes the name” that the reference is to cursing the name of God with the name of God.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b is it derived b that this /b word b i nokev /i is a term for blessing, /b i.e., cursing? The Gemara answers that it is derived from the statement of Balaam, who was sent by Balak to curse the Jewish people: b “How shall I curse [ i ekkov /i ] whom God has not cursed?” /b (Numbers 23:8). b And /b the b prohibition /b against cursing God is derived b from here: “You shall not curse God” /b (Exodus 22:27).,The Gemara asks: b But say /b that perhaps the meaning of i nokev /i b is /b not cursing, but rather b making a hole, as it is written: “And made a hole [ i vayyikkov /i ] in its lid” /b (II Kings 12:10). According to this, the word i nokev /i is referring to one who makes a hole and damages the written name of God. b And /b the b prohibition /b against doing so is derived b from here: “And you shall destroy their name /b out of that place. b You shall not do so to the Lord your God” /b (Deuteronomy 12:3–4).,The Gemara answers: It is derived from the repetition of i nokev /i that for one to be liable, it is b necessary /b that his transgression involve the b name /b of God b with /b the b name /b of God, b and /b such a transgression is b not /b possible if the reference is to making a hole.,The Gemara challenges: b But say that /b such a transgression is possible, as one can b place two /b written b names /b of God, b one on top of the other, and tear /b through b them /b at once. The Gemara explains: b That /b would be defined as b making a hole and again making a hole, /b not making a hole in one name by means of another name. The Gemara asks: b But say that /b one can b etch /b the b name /b of God b on the point of a knife and cut /b through another name b with it. /b The Gemara answers: In b that /b case, b it is the point of the knife that is cutting, /b not the name of God.,The Gemara asks: b Say /b that i nokev /i means the b utterance of the /b ineffable b name of /b God. b As it is written: “And Moses and Aaron took these men that are pointed out [ i nikkevu /i ] by name” /b (Numbers 1:17). b And /b the b prohibition /b to do so is derived b from here: “You shall fear the Lord, your God” /b (Deuteronomy 6:13).,The Gemara answers: b One /b answer is b that /b for one to be liable, it is b necessary /b that his transgression involve the b name /b of God b with /b the b name /b of God, b and /b such a transgression is b not /b possible if the reference is to uttering the ineffable name of God. b Furthermore, /b the prohibition derived from the verse “You shall fear the Lord, your God” b is a prohibition /b stated as b a positive mitzva, and a prohibition /b stated as b a positive mitzva is not considered a prohibition. /b ,The Gemara presents an alternative proof that i nokev /i is referring to cursing: b And if you wish, say /b instead that b the verse states: “And /b the son of the Israelite woman b blasphemed [ i vayyikkov /i ] /b the name b and cursed” /b (Leviticus 24:11). b That is to say that /b the meaning of b i nokev /i is /b to b curse. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But perhaps /b this verse does not prove that the meaning of i nokev /i is to curse; rather, it indicates that one is not liable to be executed b unless he does both, /b i.e., both i nokev /i and cursing God? The Gemara answers: This shall b not enter your mind, as it is written: “Bring forth the one who cursed… /b and stone him” (Leviticus 24:14), b and it is not written: Bring forth the i nokev /i and one who cursed. Conclude from it /b that b it is one /b act and not two.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), that the verse could have stated: b One [ i ish /i ] /b who curses his God. b Why /b must b the verse state: “Anyone [ i ish ish /i ]”? /b It is b to include the gentiles, who are prohibited from blessing, /b i.e., cursing, b the name /b of God, just b like Jews /b are. b And they are executed /b for this transgression b by the sword alone, as all death /b penalties b stated with regard to the descendants of Noah are by the sword alone. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But is this /b i halakha /i b derived from here? /b Rather, b it is derived from there: /b “And the Lord God commanded the man” (Genesis 2:16), as is stated in a i baraita /i that will soon be quoted at length: b “The Lord,” this /b is referring to b the blessing, /b i.e., cursing, b of the name /b of God. This verse concerns Adam, the first man, and is therefore binding on all of humanity., b Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says: /b The verse “anyone who curses his God” b is necessary only to include /b gentiles who curse God using b the appellations /b for the name of God, rather than mentioning the ineffable name, b and /b this is b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Meir. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Why /b must b the verse state: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin”? But isn’t it already stated: “And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death” /b (Leviticus 24:16)? Rather, b since it is stated: “And he who blasphemes the name /b of the Lord b shall be put to death,” /b one b might /b have thought that one b will be liable only for /b cursing b the ineffable name /b of God. b From where /b is it derived that the verse b includes /b one who curses b any of the appellations /b as well? b The verse states: “Anyone who curses his God,” /b to indicate that one is liable to be executed b in any case. /b This is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. /b , b And the Rabbis say: For /b cursing b the ineffable name /b of God, one is punished b by death, and for /b cursing b the appellations, /b one is liable to receive lashes b for /b violating b a prohibition. /b ,The Gemara comments: b And /b Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, who holds that according to the Rabbis, gentiles are not liable for cursing appellations for the name of God, b disagrees with /b the opinion of b Rav Meyasha. As Rav Meyasha says: A descendant of Noah who blessed God by /b one of the b appellations is liable /b to be executed even b according to /b the opinion of b the Rabbis. /b , b What is the reason? /b It is b because the verse states: “The convert as well as the homeborn, /b when he blasphemes the name, he shall be put to death” (Leviticus 24:16), from which it is derived that b it is /b only in the case of b a convert or a homeborn /b Jew b that we require /b the condition: b “When he blasphemes the name,” /b i.e., he is liable to be executed only if he curses the ineffable name. b But a gentile /b is liable to be executed b even due to /b merely cursing b an appellation. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And what does Rabbi Meir do with this /b part of the verse: b “The convert as well as the homeborn”? /b What does he derive from it? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir derives that b a convert or a homeborn /b Jew is liable to be executed b by stoning /b for this transgression, b but a gentile /b is executed b by the sword. /b This exclusion is necessary as otherwise it might b enter your mind to say /b that b since /b gentiles b are included /b in the i halakhot /i of this verse, b they are included /b in all the i halakhot /i of blasphemy. Therefore the verse b teaches us /b that they are not stoned.,The Gemara asks: b And what does Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa do with this /b part of the verse: b “The convert as well as the homeborn,” according to /b the opinion b of the Rabbis, /b since Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa holds that the Rabbis do not deem either a Jew or a gentile liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: He derives that b it is /b specifically with regard to b a convert and a homeborn /b Jew b that we require /b the condition that he curse b a name /b of God b by a name /b of God; b but /b with regard to b a gentile, we do not require /b that he curse b a name /b of God b by a name /b of God in order for him to be liable.,The Gemara asks: b Why do I /b need the inclusive term b “anyone /b who curses his God,” according to the opinions that do not derive from it that a gentile is liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: No i halakha /i is derived from it; it is not a superfluous term, as b the Torah spoke in the language of people. /b ,§ Since the i halakhot /i of the descendants of Noah have been mentioned, a full discussion of the Noahide mitzvot is presented. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The descendants of Noah, /b i.e., all of humanity, b were commanded /b to observe b seven mitzvot: /b The mitzva of establishing courts of b judgment; and /b the prohibition against b blessing, /b i.e., cursing, b the name /b of God; and the prohibition of b idol worship; /b and the prohibition against b forbidden sexual relations; and /b the prohibition of b bloodshed; and /b the prohibition of b robbery; and /b the prohibition against eating b a limb from a living /b animal.
164. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 46; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 46
156b. דקאי צדק במערב מהדרנא ומוקמינא ליה במזרח והיינו דכתיב (ישעיהו מא, ב) מי העיר ממזרח צדק יקראהו לרגלו,ומדשמואל נמי אין מזל לישראל דשמואל ואבלט הוו יתבי והוו קאזלי הנך אינשי לאגמא א"ל אבלט לשמואל האי גברא אזיל ולא אתי טריק ליה חיויא ומיית א"ל שמואל אי בר ישראל הוא אזיל ואתי אדיתבי אזיל ואתי,קם אבלט שדיה לטוניה אשכח ביה חיויא דפסיק ושדי בתרתי גובי א"ל שמואל מאי עבדת א"ל כל יומא הוה מרמינן ריפתא בהדי הדדי ואכלינן האידנא הוה איכא חד מינן דלא הוה ליה ריפתא הוה קא מיכסף אמינא להו אנא קאימנא וארמינא כי מטאי לגביה שואי נפשאי כמאן דשקילי מיניה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף א"ל מצוה עבדת נפק שמואל ודרש (משלי י, ב) וצדקה תציל ממות ולא ממיתה משונה אלא ממיתה עצמה,ומדר"ע נמי אין מזל לישראל דר"ע הויא ליה ברתא אמרי ליה כלדאי ההוא יומא דעיילה לבי גננא טריק לה חיויא ומיתא הוה דאיגא אמילתא טובא ההוא יומא שקלתה למכבנתא דצתא בגודא איתרמי איתיב בעיניה דחיויא לצפרא כי קא שקלה לה הוה קא סריך ואתי חיויא בתרה,אמר לה אבוה מאי עבדת אמרה ליה בפניא אתא עניא קרא אבבא והוו טרידי כולי עלמא בסעודתא וליכא דשמעיה קאימנא שקלתי לריסתנאי דיהבית לי יהבתיה ניהליה אמר לה מצוה עבדת נפק ר"ע ודרש וצדקה תציל ממות ולא ממיתה משונה אלא ממיתה עצמה,ומדר"נ בר יצחק נמי אין מזל לישראל דאימיה דר"נ בר יצחק אמרי לה כלדאי בריך גנבא הוה לא שבקתיה גלויי רישיה אמרה ליה כסי רישיך כי היכי דתיהוו עלך אימתא דשמיא ובעי רחמי לא הוה ידע אמאי קאמרה ליה יומא חד יתיב קא גריס תותי דיקלא נפל גלימא מעילויה רישיה דלי עיניה חזא לדיקלא אלמיה יצריה סליק פסקיה לקיבורא בשיניה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מחתכין את הדלועין לפני הבהמה ואת הנבלה לפני הכלבים רבי יהודה אומר אם לא היתה נבלה מערב שבת אסורה לפי שאינה מן המוכן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איתמר (ער"ל שח"ז סימן) אמר עולא הלכה כרבי יהודה (ושמואל אמר הלכה כר"ש),ואף רב סבר הלכה כרבי יהודה מדכרכי דזוזי דרב אסר ושמואל שרי ואף לוי סבר הלכה כרבי יהודה כי הא דלוי כי הוו מייתי טריפתא לקמיה ביומא טבא לא הוה חזי לה אלא כי יתיב אקילקליתא דאמר דילמא לא מתכשרא ואפילו לכלבים לא חזיא,ושמואל אמר הלכה כרבי שמעון ואף זעירי סבר הלכה כר"ש דתנן בהמה שמתה לא יזיזנה ממקומה ותרגמא זעירי בבהמת קדשים אבל בחולין שפיר דמי ואף רבי יוחנן אמר הלכה כר"ש ומי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא א"ר יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן 156b. Is it b because Jupiter is /b situated b in the west /b that you cannot have children? b I will restore /b it b and establish /b it b in the east. And that is /b the meaning of b that which is written /b with regard to Abraham: b “Who has raised up one from the east, he will call justice [ i tzedek /i ] to his steps [ i leraglo /i ]. /b He gives nations before him, and makes him rule over kings; his sword makes them as the dust, his bow as the driven stubble” (Isaiah 41:2). God established Jupiter [ i tzedek /i ] in the east on behalf of [ i leraglo /i ] Abraham., b And from /b that which transpired to b Shmuel, /b one can b also /b conclude that b there is no constellation for the Jewish people. /b The Gemara relates that b Shmuel and /b the gentile sage b Ablet were sitting, and /b they saw b these people were going to the lake. Ablet said to Shmuel: This person will go and he will not return, /b because b a snake will bite him and he will die. Shmuel said to him: If he is a Jew, he will go and come back. As they were sitting /b for a while, the person they discussed b went /b away b and /b then b returned. /b , b Ablet stood up, threw down /b the person’s b burden, and inside he found a snake cut and cast in two pieces. Shmuel said to him: What did you do /b to merit being saved from death? The person b said to him: Every day we all take bread /b together b and eat /b from the bread. b Today, there was one of us who did not have bread, /b and when it came time to gather the bread, b he was embarrassed /b because he did not have any to give. b I said to /b the others: b I will go and take /b the bread. b When I came to /b the person who did not have bread, b I rendered myself as one who was taking from him so that he would not be embarrassed. /b Shmuel b said to him: You performed a mitzva. Shmuel went out and taught /b based on this incident that even though it is written: b “And charity will save from death” /b (Proverbs 10:2), it does b not /b only mean that it will save a person b from an unusual death but /b even b from death itself. /b , b And from /b that which transpired to b Rabbi Akiva as well /b it can be derived that b there is no constellation for the Jewish people, as Rabbi Akiva had a daughter, and Chaldean /b astrologers b told him /b that b on the same day that she enters the wedding canopy, a snake will bite her and she will die. She was very worried about this. On that day, /b her wedding day, b she took /b the ornamental b pin /b from her hair b and stuck it /b into a hole b in the wall /b for safekeeping, and b it happened /b that it b entered /b directly b into the eye of the snake. In the morning, when she took /b the pin, b the snake was pulled and came out with it. /b , b Her father /b Rabbi Akiva b said to her: What did you do /b to merit being saved from the snake? She told him: b In the evening a poor person came and knocked on the door, and everyone was preoccupied with the feast and nobody heard him. I stood /b and b took the portion that you had given me /b and b gave it to him. /b Rabbi Akiva b said to her: You performed a mitzva, /b and you were saved in its merit. b Rabbi Akiva went out and taught /b based on this incident that even though it is written: b “And charity will save from death” /b (Proverbs 10:2), it does b not /b mean that it will save a person only b from an unusual death, but /b even b from death itself. /b , b And from /b that which transpired to b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak as well /b it can be derived that b there is no constellation for the Jewish people, As Chaldean /b astrologers b told Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak’s mother: Your son will be a thief. She did not allow him /b to b uncover his head. She said to /b her son: b Cover your head so that the fear of Heaven will be upon you, and pray for /b Divine b mercy. He did not know why she said /b this b to him. One day he was sitting and studying beneath a palm tree /b that did not belong to him, and b the cloak fell off of his head. He lifted his eyes /b and b saw the palm tree. He was overcome by impulse /b and b he climbed up and detached a bunch of dates with his teeth. /b Apparently, he had an inborn inclination to steal, but was able to overcome that inclination with proper education and prayer., strong MISHNA: /strong b One may cut the pumpkins before an animal /b on Shabbat, as long as they were picked prior to Shabbat. b And /b likewise one may cut b an /b animal b carcass before the dogs /b on Shabbat. b Rabbi Yehuda says: If it was not /b already b a carcass, /b i.e., it was not dead, b prior to Shabbat, it is prohibited /b to cut it or even move it on Shabbat b because it is not prepared /b for use on Shabbat., strong GEMARA: /strong A dispute between the i amora’im /i with regard to the prohibition of set-aside on Shabbat b was stated. i Ayin /i , i reish /i , i lamed /i , i shin /i , i ḥet /i , i zayin /i /b is a b mnemonic /b for the names of the i amora’im /i who stated the following i halakhot /i . b Ulla said: /b The b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, /b who holds that there is a prohibition of set-aside on Shabbat. b And Shmuel said: /b The b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon. /b , b And Rav also holds /b that the b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda. /b From where is it ascertained that this is Rav’s opinion? b From that which /b was taught with regard to b the mats that are /b on b ships; Rav prohibited /b moving them on Shabbat due to the prohibition of set-aside, b and Shmuel permitted /b moving them. b And Levi also holds /b that the b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, as /b can be seen from his practice when b they would bring a /b slaughtered animal with regard to which there was concern that it was b an animal with a condition that will cause it to die within twelve months [ i tereifa /i ], before Levi on a Festival. He would /b examine it b only when he was sitting /b near b a garbage /b dump, b as he said: Perhaps it would not be /b determined to be b kosher and /b it would b not be suited even for dogs, /b and then it would be prohibited to move the carcass. Apparently, he holds that it is prohibited to move a carcass that was not prepared for use before Shabbat., b And Shmuel said: /b The b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon, /b who holds that the prohibition of set-aside does not apply on Shabbat. b And Ze’eiri also holds /b that the b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon, as we learned /b in a mishna: With regard to b an animal that died /b on Shabbat, b one may not move it from its place /b on Shabbat. b And Ze’eiri explained: /b This prohibition only applies b to a consecrated animal, /b as consecrated items may not be fed to dogs in deference to their sanctity; therefore, it is set-aside and may not be moved on Shabbat. b However, in /b the case of b a non-sacred /b animal, one may b well /b move it and use it because it does not have set-aside status. b And Rabbi Yoḥa also said /b that the b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon. /b The Gemara asks: b And did Rabbi Yoḥa /b really b say that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: /b The b i halakha /i is in accordance with an unattributed mishna, and we learned /b in a mishna:
165. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 46
67b. ואיכא דאפיך להו:,אמר לעשרה כתבו גט: ת"ר אמר לעשרה כתבו גט ותנו לאשתי אחד כותב על ידי כולם כולכם כתובו אחד כותב במעמד כולם הוליכו גט לאשתי אחד מוליך ע"י כולם כולכם הוליכו אחד מוליך במעמד כולם,איבעיא להו מנה אותן מהו רב הונא אמר מנה אינו ככולכם ר' יוחנן משום ר' אלעזר דמן רומה אמר מנה הרי הוא ככולכם,אמר רב פפא ולא פליגי הא דמנה כולהו והא דמנה מקצתייהו אמרי לה להאי גיסא ואמרי לה להאי גיסא,אתקין רב יהודה בגיטא דכולכם כתובו או כולכון או כל חד וחד מינכון חתומו או כולכון או כל תרי מינכון אובילו או כולכון או כל חד וחד מינכון,אמר רבא זימנין דגאיז ליה לדיבוריה ואמר כולכון ולא אמר כל חד מינכון ואתי לאיפסולי,אלא אמר רבא כתובו כל חד מינכון חתומו כל תרי מינכון אובילו כל חד מינכון:, br br big strongהדרן עלך האומר: /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמי /strong /big שאחזו קורדייקוס ואמר כתבו גט לאשתי לא אמר כלום אמר כתבו גט לאשתי ואחזו קורדייקוס וחזר ואמר לא תכתבנו אין דבריו האחרונים כלום,נשתתק ואמרו לו נכתוב גט לאשתך והרכין בראשו בודקין אותו שלשה פעמים אם אמר על לאו לאו ועל הן הן הרי אלו יכתבו ויתנו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי קורדייקוס אמר שמואל דנכתיה חמרא חדתא דמעצרתא וליתני מי שנשכו יין חדש הא קמ"ל דהא רוחא קורדייקוס שמה,למאי נפקא מינה לקמיעא מאי אסותיה בישרא סומקא אגומרי וחמרא מרקא,אמר אביי אמרה לי אם לשימשא בת יומא כוזא דמיא בת תרי יומי סיכורי בת תלתא יומי בשרא סומקא אגומרי וחמרא מרקא לשימשא עתיקתא ליתי תרנגולתא אוכמתי וליקרעה שתי וערב וליגלחיה למציעתא דרישיה ולותביה עילויה וננחיה עילויה עד דמיסרך,ולינחות וליקום במיא עד צואריה עד דחליש עלמא עילויה ולימוד ולסליק וליתיב ואי לא ליכול כרתי ולינחות וליקום במיא עד צואריה עד דחליש עלמא עילויה ולימוד ולסליק וליתיב,לשימשא בישרא סומקא אגומרי וחמרא מרקא לתלגא בישרא שמינא אגומרי וחמרא חייא,רב עמרם חסידא כי הוה מצערין ליה בי ריש גלותא הוו מגנו ליה אתלגא למחר אמרו ליה מאי ניחא ליה למר דלייתו ליה אמר הני כל דאמינא להו מיפך אפכי אמר להו בישרא סומקא אגומרי וחמרא מרקא אייתו ליה אינהו בישרא שמינא אגומרי וחמרא חייא,שמעה ילתא ומעיילה ליה לבי מסותא ומוקמי ליה במיא דבי מסותא עד דמהפכי מיא דבי מסותא והוו דמא וקאי בישריה פשיטי פשיטי,רב יוסף איעסק בריחיא רב ששת איעסק בכשורי אמר גדולה מלאכה שמחממת את בעליה,א"ל ריש גלותא לרב ששת מ"ט לא סעיד מר גבן א"ל דלא מעלו עבדי דחשידי אאבר מן החי א"ל מי יימר אמר ליה השתא מחוינא לך א"ל לשמעיה זיל גנוב אייתי לי חדא כרעא מחיותא,אייתי ליה אמר להו אהדמו לי הדמי דחיותא אייתו תלת כרעי אותיבו קמיה אמר להו הא בעלת שלש רגלים הואי פסוק אייתו חדא מעלמא אותיבו קמיה אמר ליה לשמעיה אותביה נמי להך דידך אותבה אמר להו האי בת חמש רגלים הואי,אמר ליה אי הכי ליעבדו קמיה (שמעיה) דמר וליכול א"ל לחיי קריבו תכא קמייהו ואייתו קמיה בישרא ואותיבו קמיה ריסתנא דחנקא חמתא גששיה ושקלה כרכה בסודריה,לבתר דאכיל אמרי ליה 67b. b And there are /b those b who reverse /b the attribution of the opinions of Rabba and Rav Yosef with regard to this matter.,The mishna teaches that if a man b said to ten /b people: b Write /b and give b a bill of divorce /b to my wife, one of the ten writes the bill of divorce and two sign it. b The Sages taught: /b If b one said to ten /b people: b Write a bill of divorce and give /b it b to my wife, one writes on behalf of them all. /b If he said: b All of you write /b the document, b one writes /b it b in the presence of them all. /b If he said: b Deliver a bill of divorce to my wife, one /b person b brings /b it b on behalf of them all. /b If he said: b All of you deliver /b a bill of divorce, then b one brings /b it b in the presence of them all. /b , b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: If he said: Write a bill of divorce, and b he enumerated them /b by name, b what is /b the i halakha /i ? Can one of them write the bill of divorce on behalf of them all? Or perhaps it is comparable to a situation where one says: All of you write, when it must be written in the presence of them all. b Rav Huna says: /b If b one enumerated /b them by name, b it is not comparable to /b saying: b All of you /b write. b Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Elazar of Rome: /b If b one enumerated /b them by name, b it is comparable to /b saying: b All of you /b write., b Rav Pappa said: And they do not disagree. This /b is referring to a case b where he enumerated them all, and that /b is referring to a case b where he enumerated some of them. Some say /b that the distinction between the cases should be explained b in this manner, and some say it in that manner. /b Some explain that the distinction is that if he enumerated them all, he insists that they all participate, but if he enumerated some of them, he does not insist that they do so. He enumerated the names that he did only to indicate that he wants the people performing the task to be chosen from those people. Others explain that if he enumerated only some of them, he thereby expressed his intent that they alone participate, but if he enumerated them all but did not say: All of you write, that is not the case.,The Gemara recounts: b Rav Yehuda instituted in /b the case of b a bill of divorce /b with regard to which the husband gave instructions in the presence of many people and the concern is that it will be interpreted that he said: b All of you /b write, and if they do not all sign there will be uncertainty whether or not the woman is divorced, that he should say: b Write /b it, b either all of you or each and every one of you; sign /b it, b either all of you or every two of you; deliver /b it, b either all of you or each and every one of you. /b In that way, there is no concern that the bill of divorce will be invalid if one of them fails to participate., b Rava said: /b This ordice still leaves room for a pitfall. Since Rav Yehuda instituted a formula that is that long and complex, b sometimes /b the husband b may truncate his statement and say: All of you, but he will not say: Every one of you. And /b the bill of divorce b will be invalidated /b as a result., b Rather, Rava said /b that he must say: b Each of you /b may b write /b it, b every two of you /b may b sign /b it, b each one of you /b may b deliver /b it. However, he should not say: All of you, so that the bill of divorce will not be invalidated if one fails to do so.,, strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b one who was afflicted with /b temporary b insanity [ i kordeyakos /i ] and said: Write a bill of divorce for my wife, he said nothing, /b because he was not lucid at the time. If b he said: Write a bill of divorce for my wife, /b when he was lucid, b and was /b then b afflicted with /b temporary b insanity and he retracted /b his previous statement b and said: Do not write it, his latter statement /b is considered to be b nothing, /b i.e., it is not halakhically valid.,The mishna continues: In a case where the husband b became mute, and /b two people b said to him: /b Shall b we write a bill of divorce for your wife, and he nodded his head /b indicating his agreement, b they examine him /b with various questions b three times. If he responded to /b questions that have b a negative /b answer: b No, and /b responded b to /b questions that have b a positive /b answer: b Yes, /b indicating his competence, b they shall write /b the bill of divorce b and give /b it to his wife based on the nod of his head., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What /b is the nature of the temporary b insanity /b mentioned in the mishna? b Shmuel said: /b The reference is to one b who was afflicted by /b drinking b new wine that /b came directly b from the winepress. /b The Gemara asks: b And let /b the i tanna /i of the mishna then b teach /b explicitly: With regard to b one who was afflicted by /b drinking b new wine. /b The Gemara answers: b This teaches us that the name of the demon /b that causes this insanity b is i Kordeyakos /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b What difference is there? /b The Gemara answers: The difference is with regard b to /b writing b an amulet /b to prevent harm caused by the demon. The amulet must include the name of the demon. The Gemara asks: b What is the remedy /b for that illness? The Gemara responds: The afflicted person should eat b red meat /b roasted b over coals and /b drink b wine diluted [ i marka /i ] /b with a large amount of water., b Abaye said: /b My b mother told me /b that the remedy b for a day-old fever, /b i.e., one contracted that day, is drinking b a jug [ i kuza /i ] of water. /b The remedy for a fever b two days old /b is b bloodletting [ i sikurei /i ]. /b The remedy for a fever b three days old /b is eating b red meat /b roasted b over coals and /b drinking b diluted wine. For an old fever /b that lasts for an extended period of time, the remedy is b to bring a black hen, tear it lengthwise and widthwise, shave the middle of /b the sufferer’s b head, and place /b the hen b upon it, and leave /b the hen b upon him until /b it b adheres to his /b head due to the blood., b And let him descend /b into the water b and let him stand in the water up to his neck until the world /b appears b faint for him, /b i.e., he feels faint. b And let him submerge /b himself in the water, b and emerge /b from the water b and sit /b and rest. b And if /b he is b not /b able to undergo this process, b let him eat leeks, and descend /b into the water, b and stand in the water up to his neck until the world /b appears b faint for him. And let him submerge /b himself in the water, b and emerge /b from the water b and sit /b and rest.,The remedy b for a fever /b is eating b red meat /b that was roasted b over coals and /b drinking b diluted wine. /b A remedy b for the chills /b is eating b fatty meat /b that was roasted b over coals and /b drinking b undiluted wine. /b ,It was related: b When the /b members b of the Exilarch’s house would afflict Rav Amram the pious they would /b make b him lie down /b to sleep all night b on /b the b snow. The next day they would say to him: What is preferable for the Master, /b i.e., Rav Amram, b for us to bring him /b to eat? Rav Amram b said /b to himself: b Anything I say to them, /b they will do b the opposite. He said to them: /b Bring me b red meat /b roasted b over coals and diluted wine. They brought him fatty meat /b roasted b over coals and undiluted wine /b instead, which is what Rav Amram had intended, because this is the remedy for one who suffers from the chills., b Yalta, /b Rav Naḥman’s wife, b heard /b what the members of the Exilarch’s house did, and that Rav Amram was suffering from the chills. b And she brought him to the bathhouse, and placed him in the water of the bathhouse until the water of the bathhouse turned /b red like b blood. And his flesh became /b covered with spots that looked like b coins [ i peshitei /i ]. /b ,It is related: When b Rav Yosef /b suffered from the cold b he would work by /b grinding with b millstones /b in order to keep warm. When b Rav Sheshet /b suffered from the cold b he would work by /b lifting b beams. He said: Great is labor, as it warms its master. /b ,§ The Gemara relates another incident of the house of the Exilarch: b The Exilarch said to Rav Sheshet: What is the reason /b that the b Master, /b i.e., Rav Sheshet, b does not eat with us? He said to him: Because the slaves /b do not act b according to a high standard, as /b they are b suspected /b of transgressing the prohibition against eating b a limb /b severed b from a living /b animal. The Exilarch b said to him: Who says /b that this is so? Rav Sheshet b said to him: I will now show you. /b Rav Sheshet b said to his servant: Go steal one leg from the animal /b that the servants of the Exilarch’s house slaughtered for a meal and b bring /b it b to me. /b ,Rav Sheshet’s servant b brought /b one leg b to him /b and afterward Rav Sheshet b said to /b the servants of the Exilarch’s household: b Set out the portions of the animal for me. They brought him /b only b three legs and placed them before him, /b because the fourth leg had been stolen. Rav Sheshet b said to them: Did this /b animal b have /b only b three legs? /b When the servants heard this b they cut one /b leg b from another /b living animal and b they brought /b it and b placed /b it b before /b Rav Sheshet. Rav Sheshet b said to his servant: Bring /b out b this /b leg b of yours, /b i.e., that you stole, b as well. He placed /b that leg on the table and Rav Sheshet b said to them: Did this /b animal b have five legs? /b ,The Exilarch realized that he could not rely on his servants. b He said to /b Rav Sheshet: b If so, they should prepare /b the meat b in the presence of /b my b Master’s servant and /b then you can b eat /b without concern. Rav Sheshet b said to him: Very well. They brought a table before them, and they brought /b the b meat before him. And /b the servants b placed a small /b bone in the meat b before him so that /b it b would cause /b Rav Sheshet to b choke. /b Since Rav Sheshet was blind, they thought that he would be unable to notice the bone. b He felt it, took /b the entire piece of meat and b wrapped it in his scarf [ i sudarei /i ] /b out of concern that he would be hurt by the small bones that he could not see., b After he ate, /b the servants realized what he had done and they wanted to show the Exilarch that Rav Sheshet did not eat the meat that was given to him. Therefore, the servants b said to /b the Exilarch:
166. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 73, 88; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 73, 88
22a. שקרא ושנה ולא שימש תלמידי חכמים,אתמר קרא ושנה ולא שימש ת"ח ר' אלעזר אומר הרי זה עם הארץ ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר הרי זה בור ר' ינאי אומר ה"ז כותי,רב אחא בר יעקב אומר הרי זה מגוש אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כרב אחא בר יעקב דאמרי אינשי רטין מגושא ולא ידע מאי אמר תני תנא ולא ידע מאי אמר,ת"ר איזהו ע"ה כל שאינו קורא ק"ש שחרית וערבית בברכותיה דברי ר' מאיר וחכ"א כל שאינו מניח תפילין בן עזאי אומר כל שאין לו ציצית בבגדו ר' יונתן בן יוסף אמר כל שיש לו בנים ואינו מגדלן ללמוד תורה אחרים אומרים אפילו קורא ושונה ולא שימש ת"ח זהו ע"ה,קרא ולא שנה הרי זה בור לא קרא ולא שנה עליו הכתוב אומר (ירמיהו לא, כז) וזרעתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה זרע אדם וזרע בהמה,(משלי כד, כא) ירא את ה' בני ומלך ועם שונים אל תתערב אמר רבי יצחק אלו ששונים הלכות פשיטא מהו דתימא שונין בחטא וכדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו קמ"ל,תנא התנאים מבלי עולם מבלי עולם ס"ד אמר רבינא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן תניא נמי הכי א"ר יהושע וכי מבלי עולם הן והלא מיישבי עולם הן שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ו) הליכות עולם לו אלא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן,אשה פרושה וכו' ת"ר בתולה צליינית ואלמנה שובבית וקטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הרי אלו מבלי עולם,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן למדנו יראת חטא מבתולה וקיבול שכר מאלמנה יראת חטא מבתולה דר' יוחנן שמעה לההיא בתולה דנפלה אאפה וקאמרה רבש"ע בראת גן עדן ובראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים ובראת רשעים יהי רצון מלפניך שלא יכשלו בי בני אדם,קיבול שכר מאלמנה דההיא אלמנה דהואי בי כנישתא בשיבבותה כל יומא הות אתיא ומצלה בי מדרשיה דר' יוחנן אמר לה בתי לא בית הכנסת בשיבבותך אמרה ליה רבי ולא שכר פסיעות יש לי,כי קאמר כגון יוחני בת רטיבי,מאי קטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הכא תרגימו זה ת"ח המבעט ברבותיו,רבי אבא אמר זה תלמיד שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה דא"ר אבהו אמר רב הונא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי ז, כו) כי רבים חללים הפילה ועצומים כל הרוגיה כי רבים חללים הפילה זה ת"ח שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה ועצומים כל הרוגיה זה ת"ח שהגיע להוראה ואינו מורה 22a. is one b who read /b the Written Torah b and learned /b the Mishna b but did not serve Torah scholars /b in order to learn the reasoning behind the i halakhot /i . Since he believes himself knowledgeable, he issues halakhic rulings, but due to his lack of understanding he rules erroneously and is therefore considered wicked. His cunning is in his public display of knowledge, which misleads others into considering him a true Torah scholar., b It was stated: /b With regard to one who b read /b the Written Torah b and learned /b the Mishna b but did not serve Torah scholars, Rabbi Elazar says: This /b person b is an ignoramus. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: This /b person b is a boor. Rabbi Yannai says: This /b person b is /b comparable to b a Samaritan, /b who follows the Written Torah but not the traditions of the Sages., b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: This /b person b is /b comparable to b a sorcerer [ i magosh /i ], /b who uses his knowledge to mislead people. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable to /b accept the opinion of b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, as people say /b proverbially: b The sorcerer chants and does not know what he is saying; /b so too, b the i tanna /i teaches /b the Mishna b and does not know what he is saying. /b ,§ b The Sages taught: Who is an ignoramus [ i am ha’aretz /i ]? /b It is b anyone who does not recite i Shema /i /b in the b morning and evening with its blessings; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: /b It is b anyone who does not don phylacteries. Ben Azzai says: /b It is b anyone who does not have ritual fringes on his garment. Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef said: /b It is b anyone who has sons and does not raise them to study Torah. i Aḥerim /i say: Even if one reads /b the Written Torah b and learns /b the Mishna b but does not serve Torah scholars, he is an ignoramus. /b ,If one b read /b the Written Torah b but did not learn /b the Mishna, b he is a boor. With regard to /b one who b did not read and did not learn /b at all, b the verse states: /b “Behold, the days come, says the Lord, b and I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast” /b (Jeremiah 31:26). One who has not studied at all is comparable to a beast.,The verse states: b “My son, fear the Lord and the king; and meddle not with those who are repeating” /b (Proverbs 24:21). b Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These are /b individuals b who repeatedly learn /b the b i halakhot /i /b but do not know the reasons behind them. The Gemara asks: b Isn’t /b that b obvious? /b How else could the verse be understood? The Gemara answers: He states this b lest you say /b that the verse is referring to individuals who b repeatedly /b commit b sins, and /b this is b in accordance with /b the words of b Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: Once a person committed a transgression and repeated it, /b in his eyes b it became permitted for him. /b Since the verse could be interpreted in this manner, Rabbi Yitzḥak b teaches us /b that the verse is referring to those who learn without understanding., b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The i tanna’im /i , /b who recite the tannaitic sources by rote, b are /b individuals b who erode the world. /b The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: b Could /b it b enter your mind /b that they are individuals b who erode the world? Ravina says: /b This statement is referring to those b who issue halakhic rulings based /b on b their /b knowledge of b i mishnayot /i . This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehoshua said: Are they /b individuals b who erode the world? Aren’t they settling the world, as it is stated: “His ways [ i halikhot /i ] are eternal” /b (Habakkuk 3:6)? The Sages read the term i halikhot /i as i halakhot /i , inferring that one who learns i halakhot /i attains eternal life. b Rather, /b this is referring to those b who issue halakhic rulings based /b on b their /b knowledge of b i mishnayot /i . /b ,§ The mishna states that b an abstinent woman /b is among those who erode the world. b The Sages taught: A maiden who prays /b constantly, b and a neighborly [ i shovavit /i ] widow /b who constantly visits her neighbors, b and a child whose months /b of gestation b were not completed, /b all b these are /b people b who erode the world. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: We learned /b the meaning of b fear of sin from a maiden, and /b the significance of b receiving /b divine b reward from a widow. /b The meaning of b fear of sin /b can be learned b from a maiden, as Rabbi Yoḥa heard a certain maiden who fell on her face /b in prayer, b and she was saying: Master of the Universe, You created the Garden of Eden and You created Gehenna, You created /b the b righteous and You created /b the b wicked. May it be Your will that men shall not stumble because of me /b and consequently go to Gehenna.,The significance of b receiving /b divine b reward /b can be learned b from a widow, as /b there was b a certain widow in whose neighborhood there was a synagogue, /b and despite this b every day she went and prayed in the study hall of Rabbi Yoḥa. /b Rabbi Yoḥa b said to her: My daughter, /b is there b not a synagogue in your neighborhood? She said to him: My teacher, don’t I attain a reward /b for all b the steps /b I take while walking to pray in the distant study hall?,The Gemara answers: b When it is stated /b in the i baraita /i that a maiden who prays constantly is one who erodes the world, it is referring, b for example, /b to b Yoḥani bat Retivi, /b who constantly prayed and pretended to be saintly but actually engaged in sorcery.,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of b a child whose months /b of gestation b were not completed? Here, /b in Babylonia, b they interpreted this /b as alluding to an imperfect, incomplete b Torah scholar who scorns his teachers. /b , b Rabbi Abba says: This is a student who has not /b yet b attained /b the ability b to issue /b halakhic b rulings, and /b yet b he issues rulings /b and is therefore compared to a prematurely born child. This is b as Rabbi Abbahu says /b that b Rav Huna says /b that b Rav says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “For she has cast down many wounded; and a mighty host are all her slain” /b (Proverbs 7:26)? b “For she has cast down [ i hippila /i ] many wounded”; this /b is referring to b a Torah scholar who has not /b yet b attained /b the ability b to issue rulings, and /b yet b he issues rulings. “And a mighty host [ i ve’atzumim /i ] are all her slain”; this /b is referring to b a Torah scholar who has attained /b the ability b to issue rulings, but does not issue rulings /b and prevents the masses from learning Torah properly.
167. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 74, 117
29a. כי הא (דרבה) בר חמא כי הוו קיימי מקמיה דרב חסדא מרהטי בגמרא בהדי הדדי והדר מעייני בסברא,אמר רבא מאני משתיא במטללתא מאני מיכלא בר ממטללתא חצבא ושחיל בר ממטללתא ושרגא במטללתא ואמרי לה בר ממטללתא ולא פליגי הא בסוכה גדולה הא בסוכה קטנה:,ירדו גשמים: תנא משתסרח המקפה של גריסין,אביי הוה קא יתיב קמיה דרב יוסף במטללתא נשב זיקא וקא מייתי ציבותא אמר להו רב יוסף פנו לי מאני מהכא אמר ליה אביי והא תנן משתסרח המקפה אמר ליה לדידי כיון דאנינא דעתאי כמי שתסרח המקפה דמי לי,ת"ר היה אוכל בסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיגמור סעודתו היה ישן תחת הסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיאור,איבעיא להו עד שיעור או עד שיאור ת"ש עד שיאור ויעלה עמוד השחר תרתי אלא אימא עד שיעור ויעלה עמוד השחר:,משל למה הדבר דומה: איבעיא להו מי שפך למי ת"ש דתניא שפך לו רבו קיתון על פניו ואמר לו אי אפשי בשמושך,ת"ר בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לכל העולם כולו משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שעשה סעודה לעבדיו והניח פנס לפניהם כעס עליהם ואמר לעבדו טול פנס מפניהם והושיבם בחושך,תניא רבי מאיר אומר כל זמן שמאורות לוקין סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שמלומדין במכותיהן משל לסופר שבא לבית הספר ורצועה בידו מי דואג מי שרגיל ללקות בכל יום ויום הוא דואג,תנו רבנן בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לעובדי כוכבים לבנה לוקה סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שישראל מונין ללבנה ועובדי כוכבים לחמה לוקה במזרח סימן רע ליושבי מזרח במערב סימן רע ליושבי מערב באמצע הרקיע סימן רע לכל העולם כולו,פניו דומין לדם חרב בא לעולם לשק חיצי רעב באין לעולם לזו ולזו חרב וחיצי רעב באין לעולם לקה בכניסתו פורענות שוהה לבא ביציאתו ממהרת לבא וי"א חילוף הדברים,ואין לך כל אומה ואומה שלוקה שאין אלהיה לוקה עמה שנאמר (שמות יב, יב) ובכל אלהי מצרים אעשה שפטים ובזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום אין מתיראין מכל אלו שנאמר (ירמיהו י, ב) כה אמר ה' אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה עובדי כוכבים יחתו ואין ישראל יחתו,ת"ר בשביל ארבעה דברים חמה לוקה על אב בית דין שמת ואינו נספד כהלכה ועל נערה המאורסה שצעקה בעיר ואין מושיע לה ועל משכב זכור ועל שני אחין שנשפך דמן כאחד,ובשביל ארבעה דברים מאורות לוקין על כותבי (פלסתר) ועל מעידי עדות שקר ועל מגדלי בהמה דקה בא"י ועל קוצצי אילנות טובות,ובשביל ד' דברים נכסי בעלי בתים נמסרין למלכות על משהי שטרות פרועים ועל מלוי ברבית 29a. b As /b in b that /b situation involving Rava and Rami b bar Ḥama, when they would stand before Rav Ḥisda, /b after he taught them a i halakha /i b they /b would b quickly /b review b the tradition /b that they heard from him b together and /b only b then analyze the rationale /b of the tradition that they had received. Apparently, in the study of Mishna and the amoraic commentary on the Mishna there is a distinction between extensive and intensive study.,With regard to residence in the i sukka /i , b Rava said: Drinking vessels /b such as cups, which are usually clean, remain b in the i sukka /i . Eating vessels /b are taken b out of the i sukka /i /b after use. b An earthenware jug and a wicker basket [ i shaḥil /i ] /b that are used for drawing water are taken b outside the i sukka /i . And a lamp /b remains b inside the i sukka /i , and some say /b it is taken b outside the i sukka /i . /b The Gemara comments: b And they do not disagree. /b Rather, b this /b opinion, that a lamp remains inside the i sukka /i , is referring b to a large i sukka /i , /b where the lamp and its odor do not disturb those residing in the i sukka /i . And b that /b opinion, that the lamp is taken outside the i sukka /i , is referring b to a small i sukka /i , /b where the lamp’s odor is offensive.,§ The mishna stated: If b rain fell, /b it is permitted to leave the i sukka /i from the point that it is raining so hard that the congealed dish will spoil. b It was taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : The measure is b from when a congealed dish of pounded grain, /b a dish ruined by even slight rainfall, b will spoil. /b , b Abaye was sitting before Rav Yosef in the i sukka /i . The wind blew and brought /b with it b splinters /b from the roofing, and they fell onto the food. b Rav Yosef said to him: Vacate my vessels from here, /b and I will eat in the house. b Abaye said to him: Didn’t we learn /b in the mishna that one remains in the i sukka /i b until the congealed dish will spoil? /b That is not yet the case. b He said to him: For me, since I am delicate, /b this situation b is as if the congealed dish will spoil. /b , b The Sages taught: /b If b one was eating in the i sukka /i , and rain fell, /b and b he descended /b from the i sukka /i on the roof to eat in his house, b one does not burden him to ascend /b back to the i sukka /i once the rain ceases b until /b after b he finishes his meal. /b Similarly, if b one was sleeping under /b the roofing of b the i sukka /i , and rain fell, and he descended /b to sleep in the house, b one does not burden him to ascend /b back to the i sukka /i once the rain ceases; rather, he may sleep in the house b until it becomes light. /b , b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: Is the correct reading of the i baraita /i : b Until one awakens [ i sheyeor /i ], /b spelled with an i ayin /i , and once he awakens he returns to the i sukka /i even in the middle of the night? Or is the correct reading: b Until it becomes light [ i sheyeor /i ], /b spelled with an i alef /i , and he need not return to the i sukka /i until morning? b Come /b and b hear /b a proof that will resolve the matter from a related i baraita /i : One need not return to the i sukka /i b until it becomes light [ i sheyeor /i ], /b spelled with an i alef /i , b and dawn /b arrives. The Gemara asks: Why did the i baraita /i repeat the arrival of light b two /b times (Ritva)? b Rather, say /b instead: b Until he awakens [ i sheyeor /i ], /b spelled with an i ayin /i , b and the dawn /b arrives. Both of the readings are accurate, as until one awakens and it becomes light he may remain in the house.,§ The mishna continues: The Sages b told a parable: To what is this matter comparable? /b It is comparable to a servant who comes to pour wine for his master, and he pours a jug of water in his face. b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b Who poured /b the water b in whose /b face? b Come /b and b hear /b a proof, b as it is taught /b explicitly in a i baraita /i : b His master poured a jug /b of water b on his face and said to him: I do not want your service. /b ,Apropos the fact that rain on i Sukkot /i is an indication of divine rebuke, the Gemara cites several related topics. b The Sages taught: When the sun is eclipsed it is a bad omen for the entire world. /b The Gemara tells b a parable. To what is this matter comparable? /b It is comparable b to a king of flesh and blood who prepared a feast for his servants and placed a lantern [ i panas /i ] before them /b to illuminate the hall. b He became angry at them and said to his servant: Take the lantern from before them and seat them in darkness. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Meir says: When the /b heavenly b lights, /b i.e., the sun and the moon, b are eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people, /b which is a euphemism for the Jewish people, b because they are experienced in their beatings. /b Based on past experience, they assume that any calamity that afflicts the world is directed at them. The Gemara suggests b a parable: /b This is similar b to a teacher who comes to the school with a strap in his hand. Who worries? /b The child b who is accustomed to be beaten each and every day is /b the one who b worries. /b , b The Sages taught /b in another i baraita /i : b When the sun is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the /b other b nations. /b When b the moon is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people. /b This is b due to /b the fact b that the Jewish people calculate /b their calendar primarily based b on the moon, and the /b other b nations /b calculate based b on the sun. /b When the sun is b eclipsed in the east, it is a bad omen for the residents /b of the lands of b the east. /b When it is eclipsed b in the west, it is a bad omen for the residents /b of the lands of b the west. /b When it is eclipsed b in the middle of the sky, it is a bad omen for the entire world. /b ,If, during an eclipse, b the visage /b of the sun b is /b red b like blood, /b it is an omen that b sword, /b i.e., war, b is coming to the world. /b If the sun b is /b black b like sackcloth /b made of dark goat hair, it is an omen that b arrows of hunger are coming to the world, /b because hunger darkens people’s faces. When it is similar both b to this, /b to blood, b and to that, /b to sackcloth, it is a sign that both b sword and arrows of hunger are coming to the world. /b If it was b eclipsed upon its entry, /b soon after rising, it is an omen that b calamity is tarrying to come. /b If the sun is eclipsed b upon its departure /b at the end of the day, it is an omen that b calamity is hastening to come. And some say the matters are reversed: /b An eclipse in the early morning is an omen that calamity is hastening, while an eclipse in the late afternoon is an omen that calamity is tarrying.,The Sages said: b There is no nation that is afflicted whose god is not afflicted with it, as it is stated: “And against all the gods of Egypt I will mete out judgment; I am God” /b (Exodus 12:12). The Gemara adds: b When the Jewish people perform God’s will, they /b need b not fear any of these /b omens, b as it is stated: “Thus says the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of Heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them” /b (Jeremiah 10:2). b The nations will be dismayed, but the Jewish people will not be dismayed, /b provided they do not follow the ways of the nations., b The Sages taught /b that b on account of four matters the sun is eclipsed: On /b account of b a president of the court who dies and is not eulogized appropriately, /b and the eclipse is a type of eulogy by Heaven; b on /b account of b a betrothed young woman who screamed in the city /b that she was being raped b and there was no one to rescue her; on /b account of b homosexuality; and on /b account of b two brothers whose blood was spilled as one. /b , b And on account of four matters the /b heavenly b lights /b are b eclipsed: On /b account of b forgers of a fraudulent document [ i pelaster /i ] /b that is intended to discredit others; b on /b account of b testifiers of false testimony; on /b account of b raisers of small domesticated animals in Eretz Yisrael /b in a settled area; b and on /b account of b choppers of good, /b fruit-producing b trees. /b , b And on account of four matters the property of homeowners is delivered to the monarchy /b as punishment: b On /b account of those b keepers of paid /b promissory b notes, /b who keep these documents instead of tearing them or returning them to the borrowers, as that would allow the lender to collect money with the note a second time; b and on /b account of b lenders with interest; /b
168. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 117
7a. נימרינהו לתרוייהו אל ההודאות ורוב ההודאות,אמר ר' אבהו גדול יום הגשמים מתחיית המתים דאילו תחיית המתים לצדיקים ואילו גשמים בין לצדיקים בין לרשעים ופליגא דרב יוסף דאמר רב יוסף מתוך שהיא שקולה כתחיית המתים קבעוה בתחיית המתים,אמר רב יהודה גדול יום הגשמים כיום שניתנה בו תורה שנא' (דברים לב, ב) יערף כמטר לקחי ואין לקח אלא תורה שנא' (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו רבא אמר יותר מיום שניתנה בו תורה שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי מי נתלה במי הוי אומר קטן נתלה בגדול,רבא רמי כתיב יערף כמטר לקחי וכתיב תזל כטל אמרתי אם תלמיד חכם הגון הוא כטל ואם לאו עורפהו כמטר,תניא היה ר' בנאה אומר כל העוסק בתורה לשמה תורתו נעשית לו סם חיים שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואומר (משלי ג, ח) רפאות תהי לשרך ואומר (משלי ח, לה) כי מוצאי מצא חיים וכל העוסק בתורה שלא לשמה נעשית לו סם המות שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי ואין עריפה אלא הריגה שנאמר (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל,א"ל ר' ירמיה לר' זירא ליתי מר ליתני א"ל חלש לבאי ולא יכילנא לימא מר מילתא דאגדתא א"ל הכי אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי האדם עץ השדה וכי אדם עץ שדה הוא,אלא משום דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת וכתיב אותו תשחית וכרת הא כיצד אם ת"ח הגון הוא ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת ואם לאו אותו תשחית וכרת,אמר רבי חמא (אמר רבי) חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יז) ברזל בברזל יחד לומר לך מה ברזל זה אחד מחדד את חבירו אף שני תלמידי חכמים מחדדין זה את זה בהלכה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כאש שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' לומר לך מה אש אינו דולק יחידי אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין ביחידי,והיינו דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על שונאיהן של תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בד בבד בתורה ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין שנאמר ונואלו,ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען [וגו'] והתעו את מצרים,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק למה נמשלו דברי תורה כעץ שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לומר לך מה עץ קטן מדליק את הגדול אף תלמידי חכמים קטנים מחדדים את הגדולים והיינו דאמר ר' חנינא הרבה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מרבותי ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,רבי חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כא, יד) לקראת צמא התיו מים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים אם תלמיד הגון הוא לקראת צמא התיו מים ואי לא הוי כל צמא לכו למים,רבי חנינא בר חמא רמי כתיב (משלי ה, טז) יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה וכתיב (משלי ה, יז) יהיו לך לבדך אם תלמיד הגון הוא יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה ואם לאו יהיו לך לבדך,(ואמר) רבי חנינא בר אידי למה נמשלו דברי תורה למים דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים לומר לך מה מים מניחין מקום גבוה והולכין למקום נמוך אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,ואמר רבי אושעיא למה נמשלו דברי תורה לשלשה משקין הללו במים וביין ובחלב דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב לומר לך מה שלשה משקין הללו אין מתקיימין אלא בפחות שבכלים אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,כדאמרה ליה ברתיה דקיסר לר' יהושע בן חנניה אי חכמה מפוארה בכלי מכוער אמר לה אביך רמי חמרא במני דפחרא אמרה ליה אלא במאי נירמי אמר לה אתון דחשביתו רמו במאני דהבא וכספא,אזלה ואמרה ליה לאבוה רמייא לחמרא במני דהבא וכספא ותקיף אתו ואמרו ליה אמר לה לברתיה מאן אמר לך הכי אמרה ליה רבי יהושע בן חנניה קריוהו אמר ליה אמאי אמרת לה הכי אמר ליה כי היכי דאמרה לי אמרי לה והא איכא שפירי דגמירי 7a. b we will recite them both: God of thanksgivings, and: Abundant thanksgivings. /b ,§ The Gemara cites statements in praise of rainfall. b Rabbi Abbahu said: The day of rain is greater than the resurrection of the dead. /b The reason is that b while the resurrection of the dead /b benefits only b the righteous, rain /b benefits b both the righteous and the wicked. /b The Gemara comments: b And /b this statement b disagrees with /b the opinion of b Rav Yosef, as Rav Yosef said: Since /b rainfall b is equivalent to the resurrection of the dead, /b the Sages b established /b its recitation b in /b the second blessing of the i Amida /i , the blessing of b the resurrection of the dead. /b According to Rav Yosef, rainfall is the equivalent to, but not superior to, the resurrection of the dead.,Similarly, b Rav Yehuda said: The day of the rains is as great as the day /b on which b the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine [ i likḥi /i ] shall drop as the rain” /b (Deuteronomy 32:2), b and i lekaḥ /i means nothing other /b than b Torah, as it is stated: “For I give you good doctrine [ i lekaḥ /i ]; do not forsake My Torah” /b (Proverbs 4:2). b Rava said: /b Rainfall is even b greater than the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain,” /b and when one makes a comparison, b which /b object b is /b made b dependent upon which? You must say /b that b the lesser /b object b is dependent upon the greater /b one. If Torah is compared to rain, it follows that rain is greater than Torah.,The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse from Deuteronomy. b Rava raised a contradiction: /b At the beginning of the verse b it is written: “My doctrine shall drop [ i ya’arof /i ] as the rain,” /b in a harsh manner, b and /b yet later in the verse, b it is written: “My speech shall distill as the dew,” /b in a gentle tone. He resolves this apparent contradiction as follows: b If he is a worthy Torah scholar, /b the Torah flows through him b like the dew, but if /b he is b not /b worthy, b it snaps his neck [ i orfehu /i ] like the /b powerful b rain. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Bena’a would say: Anyone who engages in Torah for its own sake, his Torah /b study b will be an elixir of life for him, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it” /b (Proverbs 3:18), b and it says: “It shall be health to your navel” /b (Proverbs 3:8), b and it says: “For whoever finds Me finds life” /b (Proverbs 8:35). b And anyone who engages in Torah not for its own sake, /b e.g., for self-aggrandizement, his Torah b will be an elixir of death for him, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop [ i ya’arof /i ] as the rain,” and i arifa /i /b means b nothing other /b than b killing, as it is stated: “And they shall break the heifer’s neck [ i arefu /i ] there in the valley” /b (Deuteronomy 21:4)., b Rabbi Yirmeya /b once b said to Rabbi Zeira: Let the Master come and teach /b a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Zeira b said to him: My heart is weak and I cannot /b strain myself over a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Yirmeya replied to him: In that case, b let the Master tell us a matter of i aggada /i , /b which does not require as much effort. Rabbi Zeira b said to him /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said as follows: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “For man is a tree of the field” /b (Deuteronomy 20:19)? b And is man /b actually b a tree of the field? /b , b Rather, /b it is b because it is written /b earlier in the same verse: b “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” and it is written /b in the next verse: b “Them you may destroy and cut down” /b (Deuteronomy 20:20). This indicates that there are certain trees which may be cut down, while others may not be destroyed. b How so? If a Torah scholar is worthy: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” but if /b he is b not /b worthy: b “He you may destroy and cut down.” /b ,The Gemara cites other expositions that deal with Torah study. b Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “Iron sharpens iron, /b so a man sharpens the countece of his friend” (Proverbs 27:17)? This verse comes b to tell you /b that b just as /b with b these iron implements, one sharpens the other /b when they are rubbed against each other, b so too, /b when b Torah scholars /b study together, they b sharpen one another in i halakha /i . /b , b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: Why are matters of Torah compared to fire, as it is stated: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 23:29)? b To tell you: Just as fire does not ignite /b in b a lone /b stick of wood but in a pile of kindling, b so too, matters of Torah are not retained /b and understood properly by b a lone /b scholar who studies by himself, but by a group of Sages., b And this is what Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [ i habaddim /i ], and they shall become fools [ i noalu /i ]” /b (Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: There is a b sword upon the enemies of Torah scholars, /b a euphemism for Torah scholars themselves, b who sit alone [ i bad bevad /i ] and study Torah. And not only that, but /b those who study by themselves b grow foolish /b from their solitary Torah study, b as it is stated: “And they shall become fools.” /b , b And not only that, but they sin, as it is written here: “And they shall become fools,” and it is written there: “For that we have done foolishly [ i noalnu /i ] and for that we have sinned” /b (Numbers 12:11). b And if you wish, say /b instead that it is derived b from here: “The princes of Zoan have become fools [ i noalu /i ]…they have caused Egypt to go astray” /b (Isaiah 19:13)., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Why are Torah matters likened to a tree, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it” /b (Proverbs 3:18)? This verse comes b to tell you /b that b just as a small /b piece of b wood can ignite a large piece, so too, minor Torah scholars can sharpen great /b Torah scholars and enable them to advance in their studies. b And this is what Rabbi Ḥanina said: I have learned much from my teachers and even more from my friends, but from my students /b I have learned b more than /b from b all of them. /b , b Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction. /b In one verse b it is written: “To him who is thirsty bring water” /b (Isaiah 21:14), which indicates that the one who has water must bring it to the thirsty person, b and it is written /b elsewhere: b “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water” /b (Isaiah 55:1), from which it may be inferred that the thirsty person must seek out water himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa resolves this apparent contradiction by explaining that b if he is a worthy student /b the teacher must seek him out, as in b “to him who is thirsty bring water,” but if /b the student is b not /b worthy, then b “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” /b i.e., this student must seek out a teacher himself., b Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama raised /b another b contradiction. /b In one verse b it is written: “Let your springs be dispersed abroad” /b (Proverbs 5:16), whereas in the next verse b it is written: “Let them be your own” /b (Proverbs 5:17). Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama explains: b If the student /b sitting before you b is worthy, /b then b “Let your springs be dispersed abroad,” /b as you should teach him, but b if /b he is b not /b worthy, then b “Let them be your own.” /b , b And Rabbi Ḥanina bar Idi said: Why are matters of Torah likened to water, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water” /b (Isaiah 55:1)? This verse comes b to tell you: Just as water leaves a high place and flows to a low place, so too, Torah matters are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly, /b i.e., a humble person., b And Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is written /b with regard to water: b “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is written /b in the same verse: b “Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.” /b This verse comes b to tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels, /b e.g., clay pots, but not vessels of silver and gold, as they will spoil, b so too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly. /b ,The Gemara cites a related incident: This b is as the daughter of the /b Roman b emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya, /b who was an ugly man: b Woe to glorious wisdom /b such as yours, which is contained b in an ugly vessel. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya b said to her, /b in a seemingly unrelated response: Does b your father keep his wine in /b simple b clay vessels? /b The emperor’s daughter b said to him: Rather, in what, /b then, b should he keep it? /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya b said to her: You, who are so important, /b should b put it in vessels of gold and silver. /b ,The emperor’s daughter b went and said /b this b to her father. He put the wine in vessels of gold and silver and it turned sour. /b When his advisors b came and told the emperor /b that the wine had turned sour, b he said to /b his daughter: b Who told you /b to do b this? /b His daughter b responded: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya. /b The emperor b summoned him /b and b said to him: Why did you say this to her? /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya b said to him: Just as she said to me, so I said say to her, /b to demonstrate to her that fine material is best preserved in the least of vessels. The emperor said to him: b But there are handsome people who are learned. /b
169. Babylonian Talmud, Temurah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 223
14b. ולא תיסמי מנחת נסכים ממתני' ולא קשיא כאן בנסכים הבאין עם הזבח כאן בנסכים הבאין בפני עצמן,ואי הוה ליה איגרתא מי אפשר למישלחא והא אמר רבי אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כותבי הלכות כשורף התורה והלמד מהן אינו נוטל שכר,דרש ר' יהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דר"ל כתוב אחד אומר (שמות לד, כז) כתוב לך את הדברים האלה וכתוב אחד אומר (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה לומר לך דברים שעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתב ושבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פה,ותנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כתוב לך את הדברים האלה אלה אתה כותב אבל אין אתה כותב הלכות,אמרי דלמא מילתא חדתא שאני דהא רבי יוחנן ור"ל מעייני בסיפרא דאגדתא בשבתא ודרשי הכי (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך אמרי מוטב תיעקר תורה ואל תשתכח תורה מישראל,אמר רב פפא השתא דאמרת נסכים הבאין בפני עצמן קריבין אפי' בלילה נזדמנו נסכים בלילה מקדישין בלילה ומקריבין,אמר ליה רב יוסף בריה דרב שמעיה לרב פפא תניא דמסייע לך זה הכלל כל הקרב ביום אינו קדוש אלא ביום וכל הקרב בלילה קדוש (בין ביום בין) בלילה,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה ועלות השחר פוסלת בהן כאברין,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק (במדבר כט, לט) אלה תעשו לה' במועדיכם אלו חובות הבאות חובה ברגל,לבד מנדריכם ונדבותיכם לימד על נדרים ונדבות שקרבין בחולו של מועד,ולעולותיכם במה הכתוב מדבר אי בעולת נדר הרי כבר אמור נדריכם ואי בעולת נדבה הרי כבר אמור ונדבותיכם הא אינו מדבר אלא בעולת יולדת ועולת מצורע,ולמנחותיכם במה הכתוב מדבר אי במנחת נדר הרי כבר אמור אי במנחת נדבה הרי כבר אמור הא אינו מדבר אלא במנחת סוטה ובמנחת קנאות,ולנסכיכם ולשלמיכם מקיש נסכים לשלמים מה שלמים ביום אף נסכים ביום ולשלמיכם לרבות שלמי נזיר,א"ל אביי ולימא מר שלמי פסח דאי שלמי נזיר נידר ונידב הוא,דהתניא זה הכלל כל שהוא נידב ונידר קרב בבמת יחיד ושאינו נידב ונידר אינו קרב בבמת יחיד,ותנן המנחות והנזירות קריבין בבמת יחיד דברי ר"מ סמי מכאן נזירות,מי איכא למ"ד דנזיר לאו נידר ונידב הוא והכתיב (שמואל ב טו, ז) מקץ ארבעים שנה ויאמר אבשלום אל המלך אלכה נא ואשלם את נדרי אשר נדרתי לה' בחברון כי נדר נדר עבדך וגו' מאי לאו אקרבן,לא אעיקר נדרו אמר עיקר נדרו בחברון הוה והלא בגשור הוה,אמר רב אחא ואיתימא רבה בר רב חנן לא הלך אבשלום אלא להביא כבשים מחברון ה"נ מסתברא דאי תימא לאקרובי הוא דאזיל שביק ירושלים ואזיל ומקריב בחברון,ואלא מאי להביא כבשים מחברון האי אשר נדרתי לה' בחברון מחברון מיבעי ליה,אלא לעולם לאקרובי ודקא קשיא לך אמאי שבק ירושלים ומקריב בחברון תיקשי לך גבעון דמקום קדוש הוא אלא כיון שהותרו הבמות כל היכא דבעי מקריב,ארבעים שנה למאן תניא רבי נהוראי אומר משום רבי יהושע מקץ ארבעים שנה ששאלו להם מלך דתניא אותה שנה ששאלו להם מלך אותה שנה עשירית של שמואל היתה 14b. b and /b in light of this ruling b he will not delete /b the phrase: b The meal offering /b that accompanies b the libations, from the i baraita /i . And /b instead, the apparent contradiction between the i baraitot /i can be explained as follows: It is b not difficult; here, /b the i baraita /i that states that meal offerings accompanying libations are sacrificed only in the day is referring b to libations that come with /b an animal b offering, /b whereas b there, /b the i baraita /i that permits sacrificing a meal offering that accompanies the libations at night is referring b to libations that come /b to be sacrificed b by themselves, /b i.e., which do not accompany the sacrifice of an offering.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Rav Dimi’s suggestion to write this opinion in a letter. b And /b even b if he had /b someone to write b a letter /b for him, b would /b it have been b possible to send it? But didn’t Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, say /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b Those b who write i halakhot /i are /b considered b like /b those who b burn the Torah, and one who learns from /b written i halakhot /i b does not receive /b the b reward /b of studying Torah. Evidently, it is prohibited to send i halakhot /i in letters.,Before resolving the difficulty, the Gemara further discusses the prohibition of writing down the Torah: b Rabbi Yehuda bar Naḥmani, the disseminator for Reish Lakish, expounded /b as follows: b One verse says: “Write you these words,” and one verse says, /b i.e., it states later in that same verse: b “For by the mouth of these words” /b (Exodus 34:27). These phrases serve b to say to you: Words that were /b taught b orally you may not recite in writing, and /b words b that are written you may not recite orally, /b i.e., by heart., b And /b furthermore, b the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: /b The word “these” in the command b “write you these words” /b serves to emphasize that b these /b words, i.e., those recorded in the Written Law, b you may write, but you may not write i halakhot /i , /b i.e., the i mishnayot /i and the rest of the Oral Law., b They said /b in response to the question of how Rav Dimi could propose writing down the i halakha /i in a letter: b Perhaps /b with regard to b a new matter /b it b is different, /b i.e., it might be permitted to write down new material so that it not be forgotten. One proof for this suggestion is b that Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish /b would b read from a scroll of i aggada /i , /b containing the words of the Sages, b on Shabbat. And /b they did so because b they taught as follows: /b Since one cannot remember the Oral Law without writing it down, it is permitted to violate the i halakha /i , as derived from the verse: b “It is time to work for the Lord; they have made void your Torah” /b (Psalms 119:126). b They said it is better to uproot /b a single i halakha /i of the b Torah, /b i.e., the prohibition of writing down the Oral Torah, b and /b thereby ensure b that the Torah is not forgotten from the Jewish people /b entirely.,§ With regard to Rav Dimi’s differentiation between libations that come with an animal offering and libations that are sacrificed by themselves, b Rav Pappa said: Now that you have said /b that b libations that come by themselves are sacrificed even at night, /b if one b happened /b to have b libations /b of this kind b at night, /b they may be b consecrated /b by placing them in a service vessel b at night and /b they may be b sacrificed /b at night., b Rav Yosef, son of Rav Shemaya, said to Rav Pappa: /b A i baraita /i b is taught that supports your /b opinion. b This is the principle: Any /b offering b that is sacrificed in the day is consecrated /b by being placed in a service vessel b only in the day; but any /b offering b that is sacrificed at night is consecrated both in the day and at night. /b ,With regard to the topic of libations sacrificed by themselves, b Rav Adda bar Ahava says: And dawn disqualifies them, like /b the i halakha /i of b limbs /b of offerings that have had their blood sprinkled during the day. Such limbs are left to burn on the altar all night long, but at dawn they are disqualified and may no longer be placed on the altar.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the verse: “These you shall offer to the Lord in your appointed seasons, beside your vows, and your voluntary offerings, and your burnt offerings, and your meal offerings, and your libations, and your peace offerings” (Numbers 29:39). b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: “These you shall offer to the Lord in your appointed seasons,” /b i.e., b these /b are the b obligatory /b offerings b that come /b to be sacrificed as b obligatory /b offerings b on the pilgrimage Festival, /b e.g., the burnt offerings of appearance, the Festival offerings, and the additional offerings.,The verse continues: b “Beside your vows and your voluntary offerings.” /b This b teaches with regard to vows and voluntary offerings that they are sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival. /b ,The verse further states: b “And your burnt offerings.” /b The Gemara inquires: b With regard to what /b case b is the verse speaking? If /b it is referring b to a vow burnt offering, /b the verse b already said: “Your vows.” And if /b it is referring b to a voluntary burnt offering, /b the verse b already said: “Your voluntary offerings.” Consequently, it is speaking of nothing other than a burnt offering of a woman who gave birth, /b i.e., the lamb that she sacrifices on the forty-first day after giving birth to a son or the eighty-first day after giving birth to a daughter, b and a burnt offering of a leper, /b which is the lamb that is sacrificed after a leper is purified. The verse teaches that these obligatory offerings may be sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival.,The verse continues: b “And your meal offerings.” /b The Gemara again asks: b With regard to what /b case b is the verse speaking? If /b it is referring b to a meal offering /b brought in fulfillment of b a vow, /b the verse b already said: /b “Your vows.” b If /b it is referring b to a voluntary meal offering, /b the verse b already said: /b “Your voluntary offerings.” b Consequently, it is speaking of nothing other than /b the b meal offering of a i sota /i , and that /b is the b meal offering of jealousy. /b ,The verse further states: b “And your libations and your peace offerings.” /b The Torah here b juxtaposes libations to peace offerings: Just as peace offerings /b are sacrificed only b during the day, /b not at night, b so too, libations /b are sacrificed only b during the day, /b not at night. Finally, the verse states: b “And your peace offerings.” /b This serves b to include the peace offering of a nazirite, /b which he brings at the completion of his term of naziriteship. This offering may also be sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival.,With regard to the last i halakha /i , b Abaye said to /b Rav Dimi, when he cited this statement in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa: b But let the Master say /b that the phrase “and your peace offerings” serves to include the b peace offering /b that is brought together with b a Paschal offering. /b This offering is sacrificed on the fourteenth of Nisan by a large group of people when they will not receive enough meat from their Paschal offering to feed them all. The suggested derivation from the verse is that if a peace offering separated for this purpose was not sacrificed on the fourteenth of Nisan, it may be brought during the intermediate days of the Festival. Abaye further adds: It is more reasonable to include this peace offering, b as, if /b the verse is referring to b the peace offering of a nazirite, it is /b already included by the verse in the categories of offerings that are b vowed or contributed /b voluntarily.,Abaye elaborates: b As isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b This is the principle: Any /b offering b that is vowed or contributed /b voluntarily, e.g., a burnt offering or a peace offering, b is sacrificed on a private altar. And /b any offering b that is not vowed or contributed /b voluntarily b may not be sacrificed on a private altar. /b , b And we learned /b in another i baraita /i : b The meal offerings and the /b offerings of b a nazirite are sacrificed on a private altar; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. /b It is clear from these i baraitot /i that the peace offering of a nazirite belongs in the category of offerings that are vowed or contributed voluntarily. If so, there is no need for it to be included separately by the verse. Rav Dimi replied to Abaye: b Delete /b the phrase: offering of b a nazirite from here, /b i.e., from the i baraita /i that considers it an offering that is vowed or contributed voluntarily. Only the nazirite vow itself is classified as voluntary; once the vow has been uttered, the ensuing offerings are obligatory.,The Gemara asks: b Is there one who said that /b the offering of b a nazirite is not vowed or contributed /b voluntarily? b But isn’t it written: “And it came to pass at the end of forty years, that Absalom said to the king: Please let me go and pay my vow, which I have vowed to the Lord, in Hebron. For your servant vowed a vow /b while I dwelled at Geshur in Aram, saying: If the Lord shall indeed bring me back to Jerusalem, then I will serve the Lord” (II Samuel 15:7–8). The Gemara explains the difficulty: b What, is it not /b the case that Absalom asked his father for permission for him to go to Hebron b to /b sacrifice b an offering /b on a private altar?,The Gemara answers: b No, /b Absalom did not go to Hebron to sacrifice his nazirite offerings. Rather, Absalom actually b said that /b he undertook b the principal vow /b to be a nazirite when he was in Hebron. The Gemara asks: b Was his principal vow /b to be a nazirite in fact uttered b in Hebron? But wasn’t /b the vow made when Absalom was b in Geshur? /b After all, the verse states explicitly: “For your servant vowed a vow while I dwelled at Geshur.”, b Rav Aḥa said, and some say /b that it was b Rabba bar Rav Ḥa /b who said: The verse means that b Absalom went to Hebron only /b in order b to bring sheep /b specifically from there. The Gemara adds that b this also stands to reason, as, if you say that /b Absalom b went /b to Hebron b to sacrifice /b his offering, would he have b abandoned Jerusalem and gone to sacrifice in Hebron? /b ,The Gemara rejects Rabba bar Rav Ḥa’s answer: b But rather, what /b is our explanation of the verse? That Absalom went b to bring sheep from Hebron? /b If so, b this /b verse that states: “Please let me go and pay my vow, b which I have vowed to the Lord, in Hebron” /b (II Samuel 15:7), b should /b instead b have /b stated: Which I have vowed to the Lord b from Hebron. /b , b Rather, /b the Gemara explains that b actually /b Absalom did go to Hebron b to sacrifice /b his peace offering as a nazirite. b And that /b which is b difficult for you, /b i.e., b why /b Absalom b abandoned Jerusalem and sacrificed /b his offering b in Hebron, /b should not pose a difficulty for you; rather, it is the question of why Absalom did not sacrifice his offering in b Gibeon /b that b should pose a difficulty for you, as /b at that time the Tabernacle and the communal altar were in Gibeon, and b it was a sanctified place. /b Why, then, did Absalom go to Hebron rather than Gibeon? b Rather, since the /b private b altars were permitted, /b he was permitted to b sacrifice wherever he wished, /b and he chose to go to Hebron. There was no reason for him to choose to go to Gibeon rather than any private altar.,The verse states that Absalom submitted his request to his father “at the end of forty years.” The Gemara asks: b Forty years, according to whose /b counting, i.e., forty years from when? It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Nehorai says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua: /b The verse is referring b to the end of forty years /b from b when /b the Jewish people b requested for themselves a king, /b in the days of Samuel (see I Samuel, chapter 8). b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b that year when they requested for themselves a king, that year was the tenth /b year of the leadership b of Samuel. /b
170. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 118
105a. רקקה ולא קראה חליצתה כשירה רקקה ולא חלצה ולא קראה חליצתה פסולה קראה ולא רקקה ולא חלצה אין כאן בית מיחוש,מני אילימא רבי אליעזר חלצה ולא רקקה ולא קראה חליצתה כשירה והא אמר רבי אליעזר (דברים כה, ט) ככה יעשה דבר שהוא מעשה מעכב אלא פשיטא רבי עקיבא וקתני רקקה ולא חלצה ולא קראה חליצתה פסולה למאן,אילימא לעלמא פשיטא מי הויא חליצה דאישתריא לעלמא אלא לאו לאחין שמע מינה,ולר"ע מאי שנא רקיקה ומאי שנא קרייה,קרייה דאיתא בין בתחלה בין בסוף לא מיחלפא ליה רקיקה דבתחלה ליתא ולבסוף איתא מיחלפא ליה ואתו למישרי חלוצה לאחין,ואיכא דאמרי הכי שלחו ליה יבמה שרקקה תחלוץ ואינה צריכה לרוק פעם אחרת כי ההיא דאתיא לקמיה דרבי אמי הוה יתיב רבי אבא בר ממל קמיה רקקה מקמי דתחלוץ אמר ליה רבי אמי חלוץ לה ושרי לה תיגרא,אמר ליה ר' אבא והא בעינן מירק הא רקקה לה ותירוק ומה בכך נפיק מיניה חורבא דאי אמרת תיהדר ותירוק אמרי רקיקה קמייתא לית בה מששא ואתי למישרי חלוצה לאחין,והא בעינן כסדרן כסדרן לא מעכבא הוא סבר דחויי קא מדחי ליה נפק דק ואשכח דתניא בין שהקדים חליצה לרקיקה בין שהקדים רקיקה לחליצה מה שעשה עשוי,לוי נפק לקרייתא בעו מינה גידמת מהו שתחלוץ יבמה שרקקה דם מהו (דניאל י, כא) אבל אגיד לך את הרשום בכתב אמת מכלל דאיכא כתב שאינו אמת,לא הוה בידיה אתא שאיל בי מדרשא אמרו ליה מי כתיב וחלצה ביד ומי כתיב וירקה רוק,אבל אגיד לך הרשום בכתב אמת וכי יש כתב שאינו אמת,לא קשיא כאן בגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה כאן בגזר דין שאין עמו שבועה,כדרב שמואל בר אמי דאמר רב שמואל בר אמי אמר רבי יונתן מנין לגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה שאינו מתקרע שנא' (שמואל א ג, יד) לכן נשבעתי לבית עלי אם יתכפר עון בית עלי בזבח ובמנחה עד עולם,אמר רבה בזבח ובמנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר הוא בדברי תורה אביי אמר בזבח ובמנחה אינו מתכפר אבל מתכפר בגמילות חסדים רבה ואביי מדבית עלי קאתו רבה דעסק בתורה חיה ארבעין שנין אביי דעסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים חיה שיתין שנין,ת"ר משפחה אחת היתה בירושלים שהיו מתים כבן שמנה עשרה שנה באו והודיעו את רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שמא ממשפחת עלי אתם שנא' (שמואל א ב, לג) וכל מרבית ביתך ימותו אנשים לכו ועסקו בתורה ותחיו הלכו ועסקו בתורה וחיו והיו קורין אותן משפחת יוחנן על שמו,אמר רב שמואל בר אוניא אמר רב מנין לגזר דין של צבור שאינו נחתם אינו נחתם והא כתיב (ירמיהו ב, כב) כי אם תכבסי בנתר ותרבי לך בורית נכתם עונך לפני,אלא מנין שאפי' נחתם מתקרע שנאמר (דברים ד, ז) מי כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו והכתיב (ישעיהו נה, ו) דרשו ה' בהמצאו לא קשיא הא ביחיד הא בציבור יחיד,אימת אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אלו עשרה ימים שבין ר"ה ליוה"כ,שלחו ליה לאבוה דשמואל יבמה שרקקה דם תחלוץ לפי שאי אפשר לדם בלא צחצוח רוק,מיתיבי יכול יהא דם היוצא מפיו ומפי האמה טמא ת"ל (ויקרא טו, ב) זובו טמא ואין דם היוצא מפיו ומפי האמה טמא אלא טהור,ל"ק כאן במוצצת כאן בשותת:,חרש שנחלץ וכו': 105a. b spit and did not recite /b the verses, b her i ḥalitza /i is valid. If she spat but did not remove /b the shoe b and did not recite /b the text, b her i ḥalitza /i is disqualified. If she recited /b the verses b but did not spit or did not remove /b the shoe, b there is no doubt /b that she has done nothing, and her action has no halakhic significance.,The Gemara clarifies: b Who is /b the author of the i baraita /i ? b If we say /b it is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer, /b could it be that he would hold that b if she removed /b the shoe b but did not spit or did not recite /b the verses, b her i ḥalitza /i is valid, /b as stated in the i baraita /i ? b But didn’t Rabbi Eliezer say: /b The phrase b “so shall it be done” /b (Deuteronomy 25:9) indicates that any b element /b of the i ḥalitza /i process b that /b constitutes b an action is indispensable; /b therefore spitting is necessary. b Rather, /b it b is obvious /b that the i baraita /i is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Akiva, and he teaches /b at the end of the i baraita /i that b if she spat but did not remove /b the shoe b or did not recite /b the text, b her i ḥalitza /i is disqualified. /b The Gemara clarifies: b To whom /b is the i yevama /i disqualified from marrying after such a i ḥalitza /i ?, b If we say /b that Rabbi Akiva means to teach us that she is disqualified from marriage b to everyone /b in the world, this is unnecessary, as it is clear that spitting alone will not permit her to marry any stranger. It b is obvious /b that her i ḥalitza /i is invalid, as b did any i ḥalitza /i take place /b in order b for her to be permitted to a stranger? Rather, is it not /b clear that Rabbi Akiva is ruling that she is disqualified from marriage b to the brothers? Learn from here /b that Rabbi Akiva also thinks that spitting alone disqualifies her from marriage to the brothers, which is not in accordance with the previous assumption with regard to his opinion.,The Gemara asks: b But according to Rabbi Akiva’s /b understanding that only an action performed on the body of the i yavam /i is indispensable for i ḥalitza /i , b what is different /b about b spitting and what is different /b about b recitation? /b Both are not indispensable, so why is it that if she spat but did not remove the shoe she is disqualified from marriage to the brothers, yet if she recited the text but did not remove the shoe her action has no halakhic significance?,The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva finds a reason to rabbinically prohibit the woman after spitting, yet holds that the reason is not valid after the recitation alone. b The recitation /b of the verses, b which takes place both at the beginning /b of the process, before the removal of the shoe, b and at the end, will not cause him to be confused /b about a proper i ḥalitza /i , as one who witnesses her recitation knows that she may have only recited the text but has not yet removed the shoe, and therefore it will cause no harm to invalidate her i ḥalitza /i and permit her in levirate marriage to the i yevamin /i . But with regard to b spitting, which /b does b not take place at the beginning but takes place at the end, /b after the removal of the shoe, one who witnesses her spitting might assume that she had already removed the shoe, and b he /b might b confuse /b this woman with a woman who removed the shoe, and if we would allow her to perform levirate marriage after the spitting, b they will come to permit a i yevama /i who performed i ḥalitza /i to /b marry b the brothers /b of the i yavam /i after the i ḥalitza /i . Therefore, Rabbi Akiva finds reason to rabbinically prohibit a woman after spitting, although he doesn’t do so if they merely recited the verses of i ḥalitza /i ., b And there are /b those b who say /b that b this is what they sent to /b Shmuel’s father: b A i yevama /i who spat /b before removing the shoe b shall remove /b the shoe, b and she is not required to spit another time. This is like /b the incident b where a certain woman came before Rabbi Ami /b for i ḥalitza /i , b and Rabbi Abba bar Memel sat before him /b at the time. b She spat before she removed /b the shoe. b Rabbi Ami said to him: /b Rabbi Abba, tell b her to remove /b the shoe of the i yavam /i , b so /b one may b dismiss her case /b from the court, as she does not require another act of spitting., b Rabbi Abba said to him: But /b for i ḥalitza /i b we need her to spit. /b He answered: b She /b already b spat. /b Rabbi Abba said to him: That spitting was done before the removal, b so let her spit again, and what /b would be the problem b with that? /b He answered him: b A disaster /b could be b brought out from it, as, if you say she should spit again /b there will be others who b say: The first spitting has no /b halakhic b significance /b and she is still permitted to the brothers if no spitting was performed subsequently, b and they will come to permit /b a bona fide b i ḥalutza /i , /b i.e., a i yevama /i who has performed i ḥalitza /i , b to the brothers, /b because when they see her spitting the first time they will say that she certainly already removed the shoe beforehand.,He challenged again: b But we require /b that i ḥalitza /i be performed in b the proper order, /b as recorded in the Torah. He answered him: b Their proper order is not indispensable. /b Rabbi Abba bar Memel b thought: He is /b merely b pushing off /b my legitimate questions with far-fetched attempts to justify his statements that are not well founded. Afterward, b he went out /b from the house of study and b examined /b the matter b and discovered /b that it was as Rabbi Ami said. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Whether the removal /b of the shoe b preceded the spitting, /b as the proper order requires, b or whether the spitting preceded the removal /b of the shoe, b what he did is done, /b i.e., is effective, as the woman is therefore permitted to remarry.,Apropos adherence to instructions given in the Torah, the Gemara relates a story. b Levi went out to the villages /b to teach people Torah. b They asked him /b several questions: Firstly, b what is /b the i halakha /i for b an armless woman, may she perform i ḥalitza /i /b with her teeth? Secondly, b what is /b the i halakha /i if b a i yevama /i spat blood /b instead of saliva, is the i ḥalitza /i valid? Furthermore, they asked with regard to the verse: b “But I will declare to you that which is inscribed in the writing of truth” /b (Daniel 10:21), if b by inference, there is writing /b in Heaven b that is not truth. /b , b He did not have /b an answer b at hand /b to these questions, so b he came and asked /b at b the house of study. They said to him /b in response to the first question: b Does it say /b in the Torah: b And she shall remove /b the shoe b by hand? /b Clearly, she may remove the shoe in any manner and there is no reason to disqualify an armless woman. With regard to the second question, they said: b And does it say /b in the verse: b And she shall spit saliva? /b It merely states: “And she shall spit,” indicating that even if she spits blood the i ḥalitza /i is valid.,With regard to the verse cited in the third question: b “But I will declare to you that which is inscribed in the writing of truth,” /b about which you ask: b But is there writing /b in Heaven b that is not truth? /b ,This is b not difficult. Here, /b i.e., a writing of truth, refers to b a sentence of judgment accompanied by an oath; /b this is called “writing of truth” as it cannot ever be canceled. b There, /b i.e., the inferred untruthful writing, refers to b a sentence of judgment that is not accompanied by an oath, /b as it could be canceled if conditions change.,This is b in accordance with the words of Rav Shmuel bar Ami, as Rav Shmuel bar Ami said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: From where /b is it derived b that a sentence of judgment accompanied by an oath cannot be torn up? /b It is b as it is stated: “Therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli’s house shall not be atoned for with sacrifice nor offering forever” /b (I Samuel 3:14), which indicates that due to the accompanying oath, the sentence of judgment cannot ever be rescinded, even if offerings of atonement are brought.,Apropos this verse, the Gemara mentions what b Rabba said /b with regard to it: b With sacrifice and offering, /b one from the house of Eli b will not be atoned for, but he may gain atonement through words of Torah /b study. b Abaye said: Through sacrifice and offering he may not achieve atonement, but he may gain atonement through acts of kindness. /b The Gemara relates that b Rabba and Abaye /b themselves b descended from the house of Eli. Rabba, who immersed himself /b primarily b in Torah /b study, b lived forty years, while Abaye, who immersed himself /b both b in Torah and acts of kindness, lived sixty years. /b They both lived longer lives than usual for descendants of the house of Eli, due to their actions.,The Gemara relates a similar story from a i baraita /i : b The Sages taught: There was a certain family in Jerusalem whose children were dying at around age eighteen. /b The members of the family b came and told Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai /b about these tragic deaths. b He said to them: Perhaps you are from the house of Eli, as it is stated: “All the increase of your house shall die young men” /b (I Samuel 2:33), which teaches that as soon as they reach full maturity, old enough to be called “men,” they die. Therefore, you must b go out and immerse yourselves in Torah, and /b you will b live. They went and immersed themselves in Torah and lived /b longer lives, b and /b people b would call them: The family of Yoḥa, after his name, /b as the advice he gave them enabled them to live.,With regard to a decree of judgment that cannot be torn up, b Rav Shmuel bar Unya said /b that b Rav said: From where /b is it derived b that a sentence of judgment upon a community is never sealed? /b The Gemara expresses surprise: b Is it /b truly b not sealed? But isn’t it written: “For although you wash yourself with niter, and take much soap for yourself, yet your iniquity is marked before Me” /b (Jeremiah 2:22), indicating that there is no longer any atonement for iniquity of a community., b Rather, /b one must say as follows: b From where /b is it derived that b even when /b a community’s sentence b is sealed, it may be torn up /b as a result of repentance, b as it is stated: “For what /b great nation is there, that has God so close unto them, b as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” /b (Deuteronomy 4:7). The Gemara objects: b But isn’t it written /b in another verse: b “Seek the Lord while He may be found, /b call upon Him when He is near b ” /b (Isaiah 55:6), implying that God is not always near and may not always answer whenever we call upon Him? The Gemara answers: This contradiction is b not difficult. This /b verse b is concerning an individual /b who must seek God where He is found, as He is not always equally accessible to answer those who call out to Him. b That /b first verse b is concerning a community, /b for whom He is accessible “whenever we call upon Him.”,The Gemara asks: For an individual, b when /b is the time that God is close to him? b Rav Naḥman said /b that b Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days that are between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. /b ,The Gemara returns to the questions the villagers asked Levi: The Sages in Eretz Yisrael b sent this /b i halakha /i b to Shmuel’s father: A i yevama /i who spat blood shall remove /b the shoe, b because it is not possible /b that b blood /b came out of her mouth b without any trace of saliva, /b and she fulfills her obligation through this saliva.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i that states with regard to a i zav /i : One b might /b have thought b that blood that issues from his mouth or from the opening of his genital organ should be ritually impure, /b like any of the secretions that issue from a i zav /i e.g., saliva and urine; therefore, b the verse states: “His discharge is impure” /b (Leviticus 15:2), to teach: Only his white, pus-like discharge and other secretions similar to it are ritually impure, b but blood that issues from his mouth or from his genital organ is not impure, but it is pure. /b And from here one may learn that blood can issue from the mouth without saliva, for if it was as they said, that all spittle necessarily contains saliva, the blood in the spittle would be ritually impure due to the saliva.,The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. Here, /b where it said that blood cannot issue from the mouth without saliva, it is referring b to a woman who sucks /b up the blood in her mouth before spitting it out, in which case there will certainly be some saliva in the mouth. b There, it is referring to /b blood that was b flowing /b by itself from an oral wound of the i zav /i , in which case the spittle of blood might contain no saliva in it at all.,It was taught in the mishna: b if a deaf-mute man underwent i ḥalitza /i /b or a deaf-mute woman performed i ḥalitza /i , or if an adult woman performs i ḥalitza /i with a male minor, her i ḥalitza /i is invalid.
171. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 132
12a. ומי הוה שמן המשחה והתניא משנגנז ארון נגנז שמן המשחה וצנצנת המן ומקלו של אהרן שקדיה ופרחיה וארגז ששלחו פלשתים דורון לישראל שנאמר (שמואל א ו, ח) ואת כלי הזהב אשר השבותם לו אשם תשימו בארגז מצדו ושלחתם אותו והלך,ומי גנזו יאשיהו מלך יהודה גנזו שראה שכתוב בתורה (דברים כח, לו) יולך ה' אותך ואת מלכך וגו' צוה וגנזום שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לה, ג) ויאמר ללוים המבינים לכל ישראל הקדושים לה' תנו את ארון הקדש בבית אשר בנה שלמה בן דוד מלך ישראל אין לכם משא בכתף עתה עבדו את ה' אלהיכם ואת עמו ישראל,ואמר רבי אלעזר אתיא שם שם אתיא משמרת משמרת אתיא דורות דורות אמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא,ת"ר כיצד מושחין את המלכים כמין נזר ואת הכהנים כמין כי מאי כמין כי אמר רב מנשיא בר גדא כמין כף יוני,תני חדא בתחלה מוצקין שמן על ראשו ואח"כ נותנין לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ותניא אחריתי בתחלה נותנין לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ואח"כ מוצקים לו שמן על ראשו תנאי היא איכא דאמרי משיחה עדיפא ואיכא דאמרי יציקה עדיפא,מ"ט דמאן דאמר יציקה עדיפא דכתיב (ויקרא ח, יב) ויצוק משמן המשחה על ראש אהרן וימשח אותו לקדשו ומאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא מ"ט קסבר שכן אתה מוצא אצל כלי שרת והכתיב ויצוק ובסוף וימשח הכי קאמר מאי טעם ויצוק משום דוימשח,ת"ר (תהלים קלג, ב) כשמן הטוב [וגו'] יורד על הזקן זקן אהרן וגו' כמין שני טפי מרגליות היו תלויות לאהרן בזקנו אמר רב פפא תנא כשהוא מספר עולות ויושבות לו בעיקר זקנו ועל דבר זה היה משה דואג אמר שמא חס ושלום מעלתי בשמן המשחה יצתה בת קול ואמרה כשמן הטוב וגו' (תהלים קלג, ג) כטל חרמון מה טל חרמון אין בו מעילה אף שמן המשחה שבזקן אהרן אין בו מעילה,ועדיין היה אהרן דואג אמר שמא משה לא מעל אבל אני מעלתי יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו (תהלים קלג, א) הנה מה טוב ומה נעים שבת אחים גם יחד מה משה לא מעל אף אתה לא מעלת,ת"ר אין מושחים את המלכים אלא על המעיין כדי שתמשך מלכותם שנא' (מלכים א א, לג) ויאמר המלך להם קחו עמכם את עבדי אדוניכם [וגו'] והורדתם אותו אל גחון,אמר רבי אמי האי מאן דבעי לידע אי מסיק שתיה אי לא ניתלי שרגא בעשרה יומי דבין ראש השנה ליום הכפורים בביתא דלא נשיב זיקא אי משיך נהוריה נידע דמסיק שתיה,ומאן דבעי למיעבד בעיסקא ובעי למידע אי מצלח אי לא מצלח לירבי תרנגולא אי שמין ושפר מצלח,האי מאן דבעי למיפק [לאורחא] ובעי למידע אי חזר ואתי לביתא אי לא ניקום בביתא דחברא אי חזי בבואה דבבואה לידע דהדר ואתי לביתא ולאו מלתא היא דלמא חלשא דעתיה ומיתרע מזליה אמר אביי השתא דאמרת סימנא מילתא היא [לעולם] יהא רגיל למיחזי בריש שתא קרא ורוביא כרתי וסילקא ותמרי,אמר להו רב משרשיא לבריה כי בעיתו מיעל ומיגמרי קמי רבייכו גרסו מתניתא ועלו לקמי רבייכו וכי יתביתו קמיה חזו לפומיה דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך וכי גרסיתו גרסו על נהרא דמיא דכי היכי דמשכן מיא משכן שמעתתייכו ותיבו אקילקלי דמתא מחסיא ולא תיבו אפדני דפומבדיתא טב גלדנא סריא [דמתא מחסיא למיכל] מכותחא דרמי כיפי,(שמואל א ב, א) רמה קרני באלהי רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותן שאול ויהוא שנמשחו בפך לא נמשכה מלכותן:,המשוח בשמן המשחה וכו': ת"ר משיח יכול מלך ת"ל כהן אי כהן יכול מרובה בגדים ת"ל משיח אי משיח יכול משוח מלחמה תלמוד לומר והכהן המשיח שאינו משיח על גביו,מאי משמע כדאמר רבא הירך המיומנת שבירך הכא נמי המשיח המיומן שבמשוחים,אמר מר משיח יכול מלך מלך פר הוא דמייתי שעיר הוא דמייתי איצטריך ס"ד אמינא על שגגת מעשה יביא שעיר על העלם דבר יביא פר קמ"ל:,אין בין משוח בשמן המשחה כו': מתניתין דלא כרבי מאיר דאי ר"מ הא תניא מרובה בגדים מביא פר הבא על כל המצות דברי ר"מ ולא הודו לו חכמים,מ"ט דר"מ דתניא (ויקרא ד, ג) משיח אין לי אלא משוח בשמן המשחה מרובה בגדים מנין תלמוד לומר הכהן המשיח,במאי אוקימתיה כרבנן 12a. The Gemara asks with regard to the fact that Jehoahaz was anointed: b And was there anointing oil /b during the days of Jehoahaz? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b When the Ark of the Covet was sequestered, the anointing oil, and the jar of i manna /i /b (see Exodus 16:33), b and Aaron’s staff /b with b its almonds and blossoms /b (see Numbers 17:23), b and the chest that the Philistines sent /b as b a gift to Israel, /b were all b sequestered /b with it, b as it is stated: /b “And you shall take the Ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart, b and put the vessels of gold that you return Him as a guilt-offering in a chest by its side and send it away that it may go” /b (I Samuel 6:8)., b And who sequestered /b the Ark? b Josiah, king of Judea, sequestered it, as he saw that it is written in the Torah /b in the portion of rebuke: b “The Lord will lead you, and your king /b whom you shall establish over you, unto a nation that you have not known” (Deuteronomy 28:36). b He commanded and /b the people b sequestered them, as it is stated: “And he said to the Levites who taught all Israel, and who were sacred unto the Lord: Place the sacred Ark in the room that Solomon, son of David, king of Israel built; there shall be no more burden upon your shoulders. Now serve the Lord your God and His people Israel” /b (II Chronicles 35:3)., b And Rabbi Elazar says: One derives /b a verbal analogy between the term: b There, /b written with regard to the Ark (see Exodus 29:43), and the term: b There, /b written with regard to the jar of i manna /i (see Exodus 16:33); and between the term: b Keepsake, /b written with regard to the jar of i manna /i (see Exodus 16:33), and the term: b Keepsake, /b written with regard to Aaron’s staff (see Numbers 17:25–26); and between the term: b Generations, /b written with regard to the jar of i manna /i (see Exodus 16:33), and the term: b Generations, /b written with regard to the anointing oil (see Exodus 30:31). By means of these verbal analogies it is derived that all of these items were sequestered. b Rav Pappa said: /b They anointed Jehoahaz b with pure balsam /b oil, not with anointing oil.,§ b The Sages taught: How does one anoint the kings? /b One smears the oil in a manner that is b similar to /b the form of b a crown /b around his head. b And /b how does one anoint b the priests? /b One smears the oil in a shape b like /b the Greek letter b chi. /b The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of: b Like /b the Greek letter b chi? Rav Menashya bar Gadda said: Like /b the b Greek /b equivalent of the Hebrew letter b i kaf /i . /b , b It is taught /b in b one /b i baraita /i : b Initially, they pour oil on /b the priest’s b head, and thereafter, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes. And it is taught /b in b a different /b i baraita /i : b Initially, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes, and thereafter, they pour oil on his head. /b The Gemara explains: b It is /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i . Some say: Anointing /b with oil between his eyes b is preferable /b and takes precedence, b and some say: Pouring /b oil on his head b is preferable /b and takes precedence., b What is the reason /b for the opinion b of the one who said /b that b pouring /b oil on his head b is preferable? /b It is b as it is written: “And he poured from the anointing oil upon Aaron’s head and anointed him to sanctify him” /b (Leviticus 8:12), indicating that pouring precedes anointing. b And the one who said /b that b anointing is preferable /b and takes precedence, b what is the reason /b for his opinion? b He holds: /b Anointing takes precedence b as /b that is what b you find with regard to service vessels /b (see Numbers 7:1). They were anointed, but the anointing oil was not poured on them. The Gemara asks: b But isn’t it written /b with regard to the priests: b “And he poured,” and ultimately: “And anointed”? /b The Gemara answers: b This /b is what the verse b is saying: What is the reason /b that b he poured /b the oil? It is b due to /b the fact b that he /b had already b anointed /b them. Anointing is the primary component of the process., b The Sages taught: “It is like the precious oil upon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaron’s beard, /b that comes down upon the collar of his garments” (Psalms 133:2). b Two drops /b of anointing oil, b shaped like pearls, were suspended for Aaron from his beard. Rav Pappa said /b that it is b taught: When /b Aaron would b speak /b and his beard would move, those drops would miraculously b rise and settle on the roots of his beard /b so that they would not fall. b Moses was concerned about this matter. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forfend, I misused /b the consecrated b anointing oil /b and poured more than necessary, as two additional drops remain? b A Divine Voice emerged and said: “It is like the precious oil /b upon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaron’s beard, that comes down upon the collar of his garments. b Like the dew of Hermon” /b (Psalms 133:2–3). This analogy teaches: b Just as there is no misuse of the dew of Hermon, /b which is not consecrated, b so too, /b with regard to b the anointing oil that is on Aaron’s beard, there is no misuse /b of consecrated property., b And still Aaron was concerned. He said: Perhaps Moses did not misuse /b consecrated property; b but /b perhaps b I misused /b consecrated property, as the additional oil is on my beard and I enjoy it. b A Divine Voice emerged and said: “Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unity” /b (Psalms 133:1). b Just as /b your brother b Moses did not misuse /b consecrated property, b so too, you did not misuse /b consecrated property., b The Sages taught: One anoints the kings only upon a spring, /b as an omen, b so that their kingdom will continue /b like a spring, b as it is stated /b with regard to the coronation of Solomon before the death of David: b “And the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord, /b and let Solomon my son ride upon my own mule, b and bring him down to Gihon. /b And let Tzadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel and sound the shofar and say: Long live King Solomon” (I Kings 1:33–34).,§ Apropos good omens, the Gemara cites a statement that b Rabbi Ami said: This /b person b who seeks to know if he will complete his year or if /b he will b not, /b i.e., whether or not he will remain alive in the coming year, b let him light a lamp, during the ten days that are between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, in a house in which wind does not blow. If its light continues /b to burn, b he knows that he /b will b complete his year. /b , b And one who seeks to conduct a business venture and wishes to know if he will succeed /b or b if /b he will b not succeed, let him raise a rooster. If /b the rooster b grows fat and healthy, he will succeed. /b , b One who seeks to embark on a journey and wishes to know if he /b will b return and come to /b his b home /b or b if /b he will b not, let him go to a dark [ i daḥavara /i ] house. If he sees the shadow of a shadow he shall know that he /b will b return and come home. /b The Sages reject this: This omen b is not /b a significant b matter. Perhaps he will be disheartened /b if the omen fails to appear, b and his fortune will suffer /b and it is this that causes him to fail. b Abaye said: Now that you said /b that b an omen is /b a significant b matter, a person should always be accustomed to seeing /b these b on Rosh HaShana: Squash, and fenugreek, leeks, and chard, and dates, /b as each of these grows quickly and serves as a positive omen for one’s actions during the coming year.,Apropos good omens, b Rav Mesharshiyya said to his son: When you seek to enter and study before your teacher, study the i baraita /i /b first, b and /b only then b enter before your teacher. And when you are sitting before him, look to his mouth, as it is written: “And your eyes shall see your teacher” /b (Isaiah 30:20). b And when you study, study adjacent to a river of water; just as the water flows, your studies will flow /b unimpeded. He added: b And /b it is preferable for you to b sit on the rubbish heaps [ i akilkelei /i ] of Mata Meḥasya, and do not sit in the palaces [ i appadnei /i ] of Pumbedita. Better to eat the rotten fish [ i gildana /i ] of Mata Meḥasya than /b to eat b i kutḥa /i , which displaces rocks, /b a metaphor for how potent it is.,Apropos good omens for anointing, it is stated in the prayer of Hannah, Samuel’s mother: b “My horn is exalted in my God” /b (I Samuel 2:1). The Gemara infers: b My horn is exalted, and my jug is not exalted. David and Solomon were anointed with /b oil from b a horn. /b This was a good omen for them and b their reign endured. Saul and Jehu were anointed with /b oil from b a jug and their reign did not endure. /b ,§ The mishna teaches: And who is the anointed priest? It is the High Priest b who is anointed with the anointing oil, /b not the High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. b The Sages taught: “Anointed” /b is written in the verse (Leviticus 6:15). One b might /b have thought that the reference is to b a king. /b Therefore, b the verse states: “Priest.” If /b the reference is to b a priest, /b one b might /b have thought that the reference is to a priest consecrated by donning b multiple garments. /b Therefore, b the verse states: “Anointed.” If /b the reference is to one who is b anointed, /b one b might /b have thought that the reference is even to a priest b anointed for war. /b Therefore, b the verse states: “And the anointed priest,” /b indicating b that there is no anointed /b priest b over him; /b rather, he is the highest-ranking priest.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b is this b inferred? /b The Gemara answers: It is b as Rava said /b with regard to the term b “the thigh” /b in the verse: “The sciatic nerve that is on the hollow of the thigh” (Genesis 32:33); the reference is to b the stronger of the thighs. Here too, /b where the verse states: b “The anointed,” /b the reference is to b the /b most b distinguished of /b those b anointed, /b i.e., the High Priest.,The Gemara analyzes the i baraita /i : b The Master said: “Anointed” /b is written in the verse. One b might /b have thought that the reference is to b a king. /b The Gemara asks: b Is it a bull that a king brings /b for a sin-offering? b It is a male goat that he brings, /b as the Torah states explicitly, later in that passage. The Gemara answers: It b was necessary /b for the i tanna /i to say this, as it may b enter your mind to say: /b It is b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action /b for which all people are liable to bring a sin-offering that a king b shall bring /b a male goat as his offering; but b for absence /b of awareness b of the matter /b with the unwitting performance of an action, a king b shall bring a bull. /b Therefore, the i tanna /i b teaches us /b that it is only the High Priest who brings a bull.,§ The mishna teaches: b The difference between /b a High b Priest anointed with the anointing oil /b and one consecrated by donning multiple garments is only that the latter does not bring the bull that comes for the transgression of any of the mitzvot. The Gemara comments: b The mishna is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Meir, as, if it was /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Meir, isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : A priest who is consecrated by donning b multiple garments brings a bull that comes for /b the transgression of b any of the mitzvot; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir, but the Rabbis did not concede /b that point b to him. /b ,The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b for the opinion b of Rabbi Meir? /b It is b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b “Anointed” /b is written in the verse. b I have /b derived b only a priest anointed with the anointing oil. From where /b do I derive the i halakha /i of a priest who is consecrated by donning b multiple garments? The verse states: “The anointed priest,” /b from which it is derived that anyone who is appointed as the High Priest is included, even if he was not anointed.,The Gemara asks: b In accordance with which /b opinion b did you interpret /b the mishna? It is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b the Rabbis. /b
172. Origen, Against Celsus, 7.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •angels, recitations of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
7.9. But as Celsus promises to give an account of the manner in which prophecies are delivered in Phœnicia and Palestine, speaking as though it were a matter with which he had a full and personal acquaintance, let us see what he has to say on the subject. First he lays it down that there are several kinds of prophecies, but he does not specify what they are; indeed, he could not do so, and the statement is a piece of pure ostentation. However, let us see what he considers the most perfect kind of prophecy among these nations. There are many, he says, who, although of no name, with the greatest facility and on the slightest occasion, whether within or without temples, assume the motions and gestures of inspired persons; while others do it in cities or among armies, for the purpose of attracting attention and exciting surprise. These are accustomed to say, each for himself, 'I am God; I am the Son of God; or, I am the Divine Spirit; I have come because the world is perishing, and you, O men, are perishing for your iniquities. But I wish to save you, and you shall see me returning again with heavenly power. Blessed is he who now does me homage. On all the rest I will send down eternal fire, both on cities and on countries. And those who know not the punishments which await them shall repent and grieve in vain; while those who are faithful to me I will preserve eternally.' Then he goes on to say: To these promises are added strange, fanatical, and quite unintelligible words, of which no rational person can find the meaning: for so dark are they, as to have no meaning at all; but they give occasion to every fool or impostor to apply them to suit his own purposes.
173. Servius, In Vergilii Bucolicon Librum, 6.11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pliny the younger, on recitations •vergil, and recitation •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and vergil •recitation, of poetry •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 201, 202
174. Augustine, Confessions, 8.29 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ennius, and recitations •gellius, aulus, on recitations •recitation, gellius on •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, of enniuss works Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 211
175. Servius, Commentary On The Aeneid, 4.323, 6.861 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pliny the younger, on recitations •vergil, and recitation •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and vergil •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 202
176. Anon., Alphabetical Collection, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 91
177. Anon., Arsenius, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •piyyutim, manner of recitation Found in books: Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 114
178. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.24.11, 5.17.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, and horace •recitation, book used in addition to •pliny the younger, on recitations •vergil, and recitation •recitation, pliny on •recitation, and vergil •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 202, 224
179. Servius, In Vergilii Georgicon Libros, 1.299 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation •recitation, and horace •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 203
180. Yannai, Piyyutim, 7.5, 8.5 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 47, 73
182. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 15.7  Tagged with subjects: •angels, recitations of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
183. Epist., Carm., 1.13.152, 1.14.31, 1.17.16, 1.19.35-1.19.49, 2.1.109-2.1.110, 2.1.187, 2.1.214-2.1.218, 2.2.67-2.2.105  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, and horace •recitation, book used in addition to •ovid, on recitations •recitation, ovid on •recitation, role of •recitation •recitation, of little interest to poets •recitation, of poetry •ligurinus, and recitations •pliny the younger, on recitations •quinn, kenneth, on recitation •vergil, and recitation •poetry, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, and propertius •recitation, performance •recitation, stand in for Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 201, 203, 218, 219, 224
184. Quintilian, Epist. Ad Tryphonem, 10.1.16, 10.7.19, 11.3.4  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment •publication, recitation as precursor to •recitation, and horace •recitation, as precursor to publication •recitation, book used in addition to •recitation, of poetry •recitation, texts Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 195, 205, 213
185. Zosimos, On Virtue, 3.6.1  Tagged with subjects: •divine names, recitation of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 109
186. Thucydides, [Tibullus], 3.1  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, and horace •recitation, book used in addition to Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 224
187. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q400-407, 0  Tagged with subjects: •angels, recitations of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
188. Anon., Corpus Hermeticum, 1.26  Tagged with subjects: •angels, recitations of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 67
189. Anon., Lexicon Artis Grammaticae (E Cod. Coislin. 345), 6.2  Tagged with subjects: •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 116
190. Various, Anthologia Graeca, 9.141  Tagged with subjects: •ligurinus, and recitations •entertainment, and recitations •recitation, and ligurinus •recitation, for entertainment Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 205
191. Anon., Yalqut Shimoni, None  Tagged with subjects: •piyyutim, manner of recitation Found in books: Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 114
192. Anon., Semahot, 8.9-8.16  Tagged with subjects: •shema yisrael, rabbi akiva’s recitation Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 176, 177
193. Anon., Chaldean Oracles, 2.3  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 87, 109
194. Anon., Tanchuma (Buber), None  Tagged with subjects: •oath, public recitation of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 127
195. Zoroastrian Literature, Hērbedestān, 7.5, 8.5  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 73
196. Anon., Midrash Tannaim To Deut, 11.22  Tagged with subjects: •recital, recitation Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 188
197. Anon., Hekhalot Rabbati, 204  Tagged with subjects: •divine names, recitation of Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 78
198. Zoroastrian Literature, Dādestān Ī Dēnīg, 24.5  Tagged with subjects: •avesta, recitation of Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 123; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 123
200. Zoroastrian Literature, Hadōxt Nask, 2.9-2.14, 2.19  Tagged with subjects: •avesta, recitation of Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 123; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 123
201. Anon., Maase Asara Harugei Malkhut, None  Tagged with subjects: •shema yisrael, rabbi akiva’s recitation Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 177
202. Anon., Tanhb Ki Tavo, 4  Tagged with subjects: •shema yisrael, rabbi akiva’s recitation Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 176
203. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q504-506, 0  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •recitation, communal Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 119, 249
204. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qpsdana(4Q243), 0  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 249
205. Anon., Book of Secrets, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.94, 2.95, 2.182, 3.47-60, 5.15  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 87
206. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q507, 3  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 288
207. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q508, 2, 22+23  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 288
208. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q320, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236
209. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q409, None  Tagged with subjects: •recitation, communal •recitation, public Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 236
210. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qpsn(4Q95), 0  Tagged with subjects: •recitation •recitation, historical Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 222
211. Gaius Iulius Victor, Ars Rhetorica, 442  Tagged with subjects: •olympia,, recitation at Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 7
212. Diogenes Laertius, Roman History, 8.63  Tagged with subjects: •olympia,, recitation at Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 7
213. Epigraphy, Aramaic Incantation Bowls, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan
214. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Q34, 1+2  Tagged with subjects: •recitation Found in books: Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 288