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58 results for "reading"
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 14.1-14.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 68
14.1. "וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח שְׁנֵי־כְבָשִׂים תְּמִימִים וְכַבְשָׂה אַחַת בַּת־שְׁנָתָהּ תְּמִימָה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת מִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן וְלֹג אֶחָד שָׁמֶן׃", 14.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 14.2. "זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃", 14.2. "וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר׃", 14.3. "וְעָשָׂה אֶת־הָאֶחָד מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ׃", 14.3. "וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת מִן־הַצָּרוּעַ׃", 14.4. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃", 14.4. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃", 14.5. "וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃", 14.5. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃", 14.6. "אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃", 14.7. "וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃", 14.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 14.2. "This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest.", 14.3. "And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper;", 14.4. "then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop.", 14.5. "And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water.", 14.6. "As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water.", 14.7. "And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 17.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 348
17.12. "וִידֵי מֹשֶׁה כְּבֵדִים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו וַיֵּשֶׁב עָלֶיהָ וְאַהֲרֹן וְחוּר תָּמְכוּ בְיָדָיו מִזֶּה אֶחָד וּמִזֶּה אֶחָד וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה עַד־בֹּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃", 17.12. "But Moses’hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 26.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 65
26.2. "וְגַם־אִישׁ הָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה אוּרִיָּהוּ בֶּן־שְׁמַעְיָהוּ מִקִּרְיַת הַיְּעָרִים וַיִּנָּבֵא עַל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת כְּכֹל דִּבְרֵי יִרְמְיָהוּ׃", 26.2. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עֲמֹד בַּחֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה וְדִבַּרְתָּ עַל־כָּל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה הַבָּאִים לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת בֵּית־יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְדַבֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם אַל־תִּגְרַע דָּבָר׃", 26.2. "’Thus saith the LORD: Stand in the court of the LORD’S house, and speak unto all the cities of Judah, which come to worship in the LORD’S house, all the words that I command thee to speak unto them; diminish not a word.",
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 65
12.20. "Then David arose from the ground, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and bowed down: then he came to his own house, and asked them to set bread before him, and he did eat.",
5. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 165
2.28. "None of those who do not sacrifice shall enter their sanctuaries, and all Jews shall be subjected to a registration involving poll tax and to the status of slaves. Those who object to this are to be taken by force and put to death;
6. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 75-76, 82-83, 81 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 66, 152
81. Now these laws they are taught at other times, indeed, but most especially on the seventh day, for the seventh day is accounted sacred, on which they abstain from all other employments, and frequent the sacred places which are called synagogues, and there they sit according to their age in classes, the younger sitting under the elder, and listening with eager attention in becoming order.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 132-133, 135-137, 214, 245, 281-282, 134 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 67
134. and, as they wished to curry favour with him by a novel kind of flattery, so as to allow, and for the future to give the rein to, every sort of ill treatment of us without ever being called to account, what did they proceed to do? All the synagogues that they were unable to destroy by burning and razing them to the ground, because a great number of Jews lived in a dense mass in the neighbourhood, they injured and defaced in another manner, simultaneously with a total overthrow of their laws and customs; for they set up in every one of them images of Gaius, and in the greatest, and most conspicuous, and most celebrated of them they erected a brazen statue of him borne on a four-horse chariot.
8. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 44-70, 72-96, 71 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 67
71. and then when they were dead they raged no less against them with interminable hostility, and inflicted still heavier insults on their persons, dragging them, I had almost said, though all the alleys and lanes of the city, until the corpse, being lacerated in all its skin, and flesh, and muscles from the inequality and roughness of the ground, all the previously united portions of his composition being torn asunder and separated from one another, was actually torn to pieces.
9. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 152
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.232 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 82
2.232. Also, let the same regulations be observed with respect to those who are hindered, not by mourning, but by a distant journey, from offering up their sacrifice in common with and at the same time with the whole nation. "For those who are travelling in a foreign land, or dwelling in some other country, do no wrong, so as to deserve to be deprived of equal honour with the rest, especially since one country will not contain the entire nation by reason of its great numbers, but has sent out colonies in every direction."
11. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 40.3.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 81
12. Tosefta, Shabbat, 16.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 59
13. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 60
7.1. "אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל בראשונה לא היו חותמים על כתובת נשים כשרות אלא כהנים או לוים או ישראלים המשיאין לכהונה א\"ר יוסי בראשונה לא היה מחלוקת בישראל ב\"ד של שבעים וא' שהיו בלשכת הגזית ושאר בתי דינין של עשרים ושלשה היו בעיירות של ישראל ושני בתי דינין של ג' היו בירושלים אחד בהר הבית ואחד בחיל נצרך אחד מהן הלכה הולך אצל ב\"ד שבעירו אין ב\"ד בעירו הולך לב\"ד הסמוך לעירו אם שמעו אמרו להם ואם לאו הוא והמופלא שבהן באין לב\"ד שבהר הבית אם שמעו אמרו להם ואם לאו הוא והמופלא שבהן באין לבית דין שבחיל אם שמעו אמרו להם ואם לאו אלו ואלו באין לבית דין הגדול שבלשכת הגזית אע\"פ שהוא שבעים ואחד אין פחות מעשרים ושלשה נצרך אחד מהן לצאת רואה אם יש שם עשרים ושלשה יוצא ואם לאו אינו יוצא עד שיהו שם עשרים ושלשה ושם היו יושבין מתמיד של שחר ועד תמיד של בין הערבים בשבתות וימים טובים לא היו נכנסין אלא לבית המדרש שבהר הבית נשאלה שאלה אם שמעו אמרו להם אם לאו עומדין למנין אם רבו מטמאין טימאו רבי מטהרין טיהרו ומשם הלכה רווחת בישראל משרבו תלמידי שמאי והלל שלא שימשו כל צרכן הרבו מחלוקות בישראל ונעשו שתי תורות ומשם שולחין ובודקין כל מי שהוא חכם ועניו ושפל וירא חטא ופרקו טוב ורוח הבריות נוחה עליו עושין אותו דיין בעירו משנעשה דיין בעירו מעלין ומושיבין אותו בהר הבית משם מעלין ומושיבין אותו בחיל משם מעלין ומושיבין בלשכת הגזית ושם יושבין ובודקין את יחסי כהונה ואת יחסי לויה כהן שנמצא בו פסול לובש שחורין ומתעטף שחורין ושלא נמצא בו פסול לובש לבנים ומשמש עם אחיו הכהנים מביא עשירית האיפה משלו ועבודה בידו ואע\"פ שאין המשמר שלו אחד כהן גדול ואחד כהן הדיוט שעבדו עד שלא הביאו העשירית האיפה עבודתו כשרה.",
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.115-4.116, 12.11-12.33, 12.107-12.108, 13.67, 14.115, 14.235, 14.260, 15.121-15.122, 19.279-19.296, 19.300-19.311, 20.115-20.117, 20.173-20.178, 20.182-20.184 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 66, 67, 68, 72, 82, 83, 157
4.115. You shall retain that land to which he hath sent you, and it shall ever be under the command of your children; and both all the earth, as well as the seas, shall be filled with your glory: and you shall be sufficiently numerous to supply the world in general, and every region of it in particular, with inhabitants out of your stock. 4.116. However, O blessed army! wonder that you are become so many from one father: and truly, the land of Canaan can now hold you, as being yet comparatively few; but know ye that the whole world is proposed to be your place of habitation for ever. The multitude of your posterity also shall live as well in the islands as on the continent, and that more in number than are the stars of heaven. And when you are become so many, God will not relinquish the care of you, but will afford you an abundance of all good things in times of peace, with victory and dominion in times of war. 12.11. 1. When Alexander had reigned twelve years, and after him Ptolemy Soter forty years, Philadelphus then took the kingdom of Egypt, and held it forty years within one. He procured the law to be interpreted, and set free those that were come from Jerusalem into Egypt, and were in slavery there, who were a hundred and twenty thousand. The occasion was this: 12.12. Demetrius Phalerius, who was library keeper to the king, was now endeavoring, if it were possible, to gather together all the books that were in the habitable earth, and buying whatsoever was any where valuable, or agreeable to the king’s inclination, (who was very earnestly set upon collecting of books,) to which inclination of his Demetrius was zealously subservient. 12.13. And when once Ptolemy asked him how many ten thousands of books he had collected, he replied, that he had already about twenty times ten thousand; but that, in a little time, he should have fifty times ten thousand. 12.14. But he said he had been informed that there were many books of laws among the Jews worthy of inquiring after, and worthy of the king’s library, but which, being written in characters and in a dialect of their own, will cause no small pains in getting them translated into the Greek tongue; 12.15. that the character in which they are written seems to be like to that which is the proper character of the Syrians, and that its sound, when pronounced, is like theirs also; and that this sound appears to be peculiar to themselves. Wherefore he said that nothing hindered why they might not get those books to be translated also; for while nothing is wanting that is necessary for that purpose, we may have their books also in this library. 12.16. So the king thought that Demetrius was very zealous to procure him abundance of books, and that he suggested what was exceeding proper for him to do; and therefore he wrote to the Jewish high priest, that he should act accordingly. 12.17. 2. Now there was one Aristeus, who was among the king’s most intimate friends, and on account of his modesty very acceptable to him. This Aristeus resolved frequently, and that before now, to petition the king that he would set all the captive Jews in his kingdom free; 12.18. and he thought this to be a convenient opportunity for the making that petition. So he discoursed, in the first place, with the captains of the king’s guards, Sosibius of Tarentum, and Andreas, and persuaded them to assist him in what he was going to intercede with the king for. 12.19. Accordingly Aristeus embraced the same opinion with those that have been before mentioned, and went to the king, and made the following speech to him: 12.20. “It is not fit for us, O king, to overlook things hastily, or to deceive ourselves, but to lay the truth open. For since we have determined not only to get the laws of the Jews transcribed, but interpreted also, for thy satisfaction, by what means can we do this, while so many of the Jews are now slaves in thy kingdom? 12.21. Do thou then what will be agreeable to thy magimity, and to thy good nature: free them from the miserable condition they are in, because that God, who supporteth thy kingdom, was the author of their law 12.22. as I have learned by particular inquiry; for both these people, and we also, worship the same God the framer of all things. We call him, and that truly, by the name of Ζηνα, [or life, or Jupiter,] because he breathes life into all men. Wherefore do thou restore these men to their own country, and this do to the honor of God, because these men pay a peculiarly excellent worship to him. 12.23. And know this further, that though I be not of kin to them by birth, nor one of the same country with them, yet do I desire these favors to be done them, since all men are the workmanship of God; and I am sensible that he is well-pleased with those that do good. I do therefore put up this petition to thee, to do good to them.” 12.24. 3. When Aristeus was saying thus, the king looked upon him with a cheerful and joyful countece, and said, “How many ten thousands dost thou suppose there are of such as want to be made free?” To which Andreas replied, as he stood by, and said, “A few more than ten times ten thousand.” The king made answer, “And is this a small gift that thou askest, Aristeus?” 12.25. But Sosibius, and the rest that stood by, said that he ought to offer such a thank-offering as was worthy of his greatness of soul, to that God who had given him his kingdom. With this answer he was much pleased; and gave order, that when they paid the soldiers their wages, they should lay down [a hundred and] twenty drachmas for every one of the slaves? 12.26. And he promised to publish a magnificent decree, about what they requested, which should confirm what Aristeus had proposed, and especially what God willed should be done; whereby he said he would not only set those free who had been led away captive by his father and his army, but those who were in this kingdom before, and those also, if any such there were, who had been brought away since. 12.27. And when they said that their redemption money would amount to above four hundred talents, he granted it. A copy of which decree I have determined to preserve, that the magimity of this king may be made known. 12.28. Its contents were as follows: “Let all those who were soldiers under our father, and who, when they overran Syria and Phoenicia, and laid waste Judea, took the Jews captives, and made them slaves, and brought them into our cities, and into this country, and then sold them; as also all those that were in my kingdom before them, and if there be any that have been lately brought thither,—be made free by those that possess them; and let them accept of [a hundred and] twenty drachmas for every slave. And let the soldiers receive this redemption money with their pay, but the rest out of the king’s treasury: 12.29. for I suppose that they were made captives without our father’s consent, and against equity; and that their country was harassed by the insolence of the soldiers, and that, by removing them into Egypt, the soldiers have made a great profit by them. 12.30. Out of regard therefore to justice, and out of pity to those that have been tyrannized over, contrary to equity, I enjoin those that have such Jews in their service to set them at liberty, upon the receipt of the before-mentioned sum; and that no one use any deceit about them, but obey what is here commanded. 12.31. And I will that they give in their names within three days after the publication of this edict, to such as are appointed to execute the same, and to produce the slaves before them also, for I think it will be for the advantage of my affairs. And let every one that will inform against those that do not obey this decree, and I will that their estates be confiscated into the king’s treasury.” 12.32. When this decree was read to the king, it at first contained the rest that is here inserted, and omitted only those Jews that had formerly been brought, and those brought afterwards, which had not been distinctly mentioned; so he added these clauses out of his humanity, and with great generosity. He also gave order that the payment, which was likely to be done in a hurry, should be divided among the king’s ministers, and among the officers of his treasury. 12.33. When this was over, what the king had decreed was quickly brought to a conclusion; and this in no more than seven days’ time, the number of the talents paid for the captives being above four hundred and sixty, and this, because their masters required the [hundred and] twenty drachmas for the children also, the king having, in effect, commanded that these should be paid for, when he said in his decree, that they should receive the forementioned sum for every slave. 12.107. Now when the law was transcribed, and the labor of interpretation was over, which came to its conclusion in seventy-two days, Demetrius gathered all the Jews together to the place where the laws were translated, and where the interpreters were, and read them over. 12.108. The multitude did also approve of those elders that were the interpreters of the law. They withal commended Demetrius for his proposal, as the inventor of what was greatly for their happiness; and they desired that he would give leave to their rulers also to read the law. Moreover, they all, both the priest and the ancientest of the elders, and the principal men of their commonwealth, made it their request, that since the interpretation was happily finished, it might continue in the state it now was, and might not be altered. 13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages; 14.115. “There were four classes of men among those of Cyrene; that of citizens, that of husbandmen, the third of strangers, and the fourth of Jews. Now these Jews are already gotten into all cities; and it is hard to find a place in the habitable earth that hath not admitted this tribe of men, and is not possessed by them; 14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.260. and desired of the people, that upon the restitution of their law and their liberty, by the senate and people of Rome, they may assemble together, according to their ancient legal custom, and that we will not bring any suit against them about it; and that a place may be given them where they may have their congregations, with their wives and children, and may offer, as did their forefathers, their prayers and sacrifices to God. 15.121. 2. At this time it was that the fight happened at Actium, between Octavius Caesar and Antony, in the seventh year of the reign of Herod and then it was also that there was an earthquake in Judea, such a one as had not happened at any other time, and which earthquake brought a great destruction upon the cattle in that country. 15.122. About ten thousand men also perished by the fall of houses; but the army, which lodged in the field, received no damage by this sad accident. 19.279. So Claudius sent an order to the president of Egypt to quiet that tumult; he also sent an edict, at the requests of king Agrippa and king Herod, both to Alexandria and to Syria, whose contents were as follows: 19.280. “Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, high priest, and tribune of the people, ordains thus: 19.281. Since I am assured that the Jews of Alexandria, called Alexandrians, have been joint inhabitants in the earliest times with the Alexandrians, and have obtained from their kings equal privileges with them, as is evident by the public records that are in their possession, and the edicts themselves; 19.282. and that after Alexandria had been subjected to our empire by Augustus, their rights and privileges have been preserved by those presidents who have at divers times been sent thither; and that no dispute had been raised about those rights and privileges, 19.283. even when Aquila was governor of Alexandria; and that when the Jewish ethnarch was dead, Augustus did not prohibit the making such ethnarchs, as willing that all men should be so subject [to the Romans] as to continue in the observation of their own customs, and not be forced to transgress the ancient rules of their own country religion; 19.284. but that, in the time of Caius, the Alexandrians became insolent towards the Jews that were among them, which Caius, out of his great madness and want of understanding, reduced the nation of the Jews very low, because they would not transgress the religious worship of their country, and call him a god: 19.285. I will therefore that the nation of the Jews be not deprived of their rights and privileges, on account of the madness of Caius; but that those rights and privileges which they formerly enjoyed be preserved to them, and that they may continue in their own customs. And I charge both parties to take very great care that no troubles may arise after the promulgation of this edict.” 19.286. 3. And such were the contents of this edict on behalf of the Jews that was sent to Alexandria. But the edict that was sent into the other parts of the habitable earth was this which follows: 19.287. “Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, high priest, tribune of the people, chosen consul the second time, ordains thus: 19.288. Upon the petition of king Agrippa and king Herod, who are persons very dear to me, that I would grant the same rights and privileges should be preserved to the Jews which are in all the Roman empire, which I have granted to those of Alexandria, I very willingly comply therewith; and this grant I make not only for the sake of the petitioners, 19.289. but as judging those Jews for whom I have been petitioned worthy of such a favor, on account of their fidelity and friendship to the Romans. I think it also very just that no Grecian city should be deprived of such rights and privileges, since they were preserved to them under the great Augustus. 19.290. It will therefore be fit to permit the Jews, who are in all the world under us, to keep their ancient customs without being hindered so to do. And I do charge them also to use this my kindness to them with moderation, and not to show a contempt of the superstitious observances of other nations, but to keep their own laws only. 19.291. And I will that this decree of mine be engraven on tables by the magistrates of the cities, and colonies, and municipal places, both those within Italy and those without it, both kings and governors, by the means of the ambassadors, and to have them exposed to the public for full thirty days, in such a place whence it may plainly be read from the ground.” 19.292. 1. Now Claudius Caesar, by these decrees of his which were sent to Alexandria, and to all the habitable earth, made known what opinion he had of the Jews. So he soon sent Agrippa away to take his kingdom, now he was advanced to a more illustrious dignity than before, and sent letters to the presidents and procurators of the provinces that they should treat him very kindly. 19.293. Accordingly, he returned in haste, as was likely he would, now he returned in much greater prosperity than he had before. He also came to Jerusalem, and offered all the sacrifices that belonged to him, and omitted nothing which the law required; 19.294. on which account he ordained that many of the Nazarites should have their heads shorn. And for the golden chain which had been given him by Caius, of equal weight with that iron chain wherewith his royal hands had been bound, he hung it up within the limits of the temple, over the treasury, that it might be a memorial of the severe fate he had lain under, and a testimony of his change for the better; that it might be a demonstration how the greatest prosperity may have a fall, and that God sometimes raises up what is fallen down: 19.295. for this chain thus dedicated afforded a document to all men, that king Agrippa had been once bound in a chain for a small cause, but recovered his former dignity again; and a little while afterward got out of his bonds, and was advanced to be a more illustrious king than he was before. 19.296. Whence men may understand that all that partake of human nature, how great soever they are, may fall; and that those that fall may gain their former illustrious dignity again. 19.300. But after a very little while the young men of Doris, preferring a rash attempt before piety, and being naturally bold and insolent, carried a statue of Caesar into a synagogue of the Jews, and erected it there. 19.301. This procedure of theirs greatly provoked Agrippa; for it plainly tended to the dissolution of the laws of his country. So he came without delay to Publius Petronius, who was then president of Syria, and accused the people of Doris. 19.302. Nor did he less resent what was done than did Agrippa; for he judged it a piece of impiety to transgress the laws that regulate the actions of men. So he wrote the following letter to the people of Doris in an angry strain: 19.303. “Publius Petronius, the president under Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, to the magistrates of Doris, ordains as follows: 19.304. Since some of you have had the boldness, or madness rather, after the edict of Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was published, for permitting the Jews to observe the laws of their country, not to obey the same, 19.305. but have acted in entire opposition thereto, as forbidding the Jews to assemble together in the synagogue, by removing Caesar’s statue, and setting it up therein, and thereby have offended not only the Jews, but the emperor himself, whose statue is more commodiously placed in his own temple than in a foreign one, where is the place of assembling together; while it is but a part of natural justice, that every one should have the power over the place belonging peculiarly to themselves, according to the determination of Caesar,— 19.306. to say nothing of my own determination, which it would be ridiculous to mention after the emperor’s edict, which gives the Jews leave to make use of their own customs, as also gives order that they enjoy equally the rights of citizens with the Greeks themselves,— 19.307. I therefore ordain that Proculus Vitellius, the centurion, bring those men to me, who, contrary to Augustus’s edict, have been so insolent as to do this thing, at which those very men, who appear to be of principal reputation among them, have an indignation also, and allege for themselves, that it was not done with their consent, but by the violence of the multitude, that they may give an account of what hath been done. 19.308. I also exhort the principal magistrates among them, unless they have a mind to have this action esteemed to be done with their consent, to inform the centurion of those that were guilty of it, and take care that no handle be hence taken for raising a sedition or quarrel among them; which those seem to me to hunt after who encourage such doings; 19.309. while both I myself, and king Agrippa, for whom I have the highest honor, have nothing more under our care, than that the nation of the Jews may have no occasion given them of getting together, under the pretense of avenging themselves, and become tumultuous. 19.310. And that it may be more publicly known what Augustus hath resolved about this whole matter, I have subjoined those edicts which he hath lately caused to be published at Alexandria, and which, although they may be well known to all, yet did king Agrippa, for whom I have the highest honor, read them at that time before my tribunal, and pleaded that the Jews ought not to be deprived of those rights which Augustus hath granted them. 19.311. I therefore charge you, that you do not, for the time to come, seek for any occasion of sedition or disturbance, but that every one be allowed to follow their own religious customs.” 20.115. Now as this devastation was making, one of the soldiers seized the laws of Moses that lay in one of those villages, and brought them out before the eyes of all present, and tore them to pieces; and this was done with reproachful language, and much scurrility; 20.116. which things when the Jews heard of, they ran together, and that in great numbers, and came down to Caesarea, where Cumanus then was, and besought him that he would avenge, not themselves, but God himself, whose laws had been affronted; for that they could not bear to live any longer, if the laws of their forefathers must be affronted after this manner. 20.117. Accordingly Cumanus, out of fear lest the multitude should go into a sedition, and by the advice of his friends also, took care that the soldier who had offered the affront to the laws should be beheaded, and thereby put a stop to the sedition which was ready to be kindled a second time. 20.173. 7. And now it was that a great sedition arose between the Jews that inhabited Caesarea, and the Syrians who dwelt there also, concerning their equal right to the privileges belonging to citizens; for the Jews claimed the pre-eminence, because Herod their king was the builder of Caesarea, and because he was by birth a Jew. Now the Syrians did not deny what was alleged about Herod; but they said that Caesarea was formerly called Strato’s Tower, and that then there was not one Jewish inhabitant. 20.174. When the presidents of that country heard of these disorders, they caught the authors of them on both sides, and tormented them with stripes, and by that means put a stop to the disturbance for a time. 20.175. But the Jewish citizens depending on their wealth, and on that account despising the Syrians, reproached them again, and hoped to provoke them by such reproaches. 20.176. However, the Syrians, though they were inferior in wealth, yet valuing themselves highly on this account, that the greatest part of the Roman soldiers that were there were either of Caesarea or Sebaste, they also for some time used reproachful language to the Jews also; and thus it was, till at length they came to throwing stones at one another, and several were wounded, and fell on both sides, though still the Jews were the conquerors. 20.177. But when Felix saw that this quarrel was become a kind of war, he came upon them on the sudden, and desired the Jews to desist; and when they refused so to do, he armed his soldiers, and sent them out upon them, and slew many of them, and took more of them alive, and permitted his soldiers to plunder some of the houses of the citizens, which were full of riches. 20.178. Now those Jews that were more moderate, and of principal dignity among them, were afraid of themselves, and desired of Felix that he would sound a retreat to his soldiers, and spare them for the future, and afford them room for repentance for what they had done; and Felix was prevailed upon to do so. 20.182. 9. Now when Porcius Festus was sent as successor to Felix by Nero, the principal of the Jewish inhabitants of Caesarea went up to Rome to accuse Felix; and he had certainly been brought to punishment, unless Nero had yielded to the importunate solicitations of his brother Pallas, who was at that time had in the greatest honor by him. 20.183. Two of the principal Syrians in Caesarea persuaded Burrhus, who was Nero’s tutor, and secretary for his Greek epistles, by giving him a great sum of money, to disannul that equality of the Jewish privileges of citizens which they hitherto enjoyed. 20.184. So Burrhus, by his solicitations, obtained leave of the emperor that an epistle should be written to that purpose. This epistle became the occasion of the following miseries that befell our nation; for when the Jews of Caesarea were informed of the contents of this epistle to the Syrians, they were more disorderly than before, till a war was kindled.
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.124, 2.128-2.131, 2.231, 2.266-2.270, 2.284-2.292, 4.406-4.409, 5.184-5.237, 6.423-6.427, 7.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading •reading, and sermon Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61, 63, 65, 66, 68, 78, 152, 165
2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.130. and quietly set themselves down; upon which the baker lays them loaves in order; the cook also brings a single plate of one sort of food, and sets it before every one of them; 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.231. Accordingly, he, perceiving that the multitude would not be quiet unless they had a comfortable answer from him, gave order that the soldier should be brought, and drawn through those that required to have him punished, to execution, which being done, the Jews went their ways. 2.266. 7. There was also another disturbance at Caesarea:—those Jews who were mixed with the Syrians that lived there, raising a tumult against them. The Jews pretended that the city was theirs, and said that he who built it was a Jew, meaning king Herod. The Syrians confessed also that its builder was a Jew; but they still said, however, that the city was a Grecian city; for that he who set up statues and temples in it could not design it for Jews. 2.267. On which account both parties had a contest with one another; and this contest increased so much, that it came at last to arms, and the bolder sort of them marched out to fight; for the elders of the Jews were not able to put a stop to their own people that were disposed to be tumultuous, and the Greeks thought it a shame for them to be overcome by the Jews. 2.268. Now these Jews exceeded the others in riches and strength of body; but the Grecian part had the advantage of assistance from the soldiery; for the greatest part of the Roman garrison was raised out of Syria; and being thus related to the Syrian part, they were ready to assist it. 2.269. However, the governors of the city were concerned to keep all quiet, and whenever they caught those that were most for fighting on either side, they punished them with stripes and bonds. Yet did not the sufferings of those that were caught affright the remainder, or make them desist; but they were still more and more exasperated, and deeper engaged in the sedition. 2.270. And as Felix came once into the marketplace, and commanded the Jews, when they had beaten the Syrians, to go their ways, and threatened them if they would not, and they would not obey him, he sent his soldiers out upon them, and slew a great many of them, upon which it fell out that what they had was plundered. And as the sedition still continued, he chose out the most eminent men on both sides as ambassadors to Nero, to argue about their several privileges. 2.284. 4. Now at this time it happened that the Grecians at Caesarea had been too hard for the Jews, and had obtained of Nero the government of the city, and had brought the judicial determination: at the same time began the war, in the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, and the seventeenth of the reign of Agrippa, in the month of Artemisius [Jyar]. 2.285. Now the occasion of this war was by no means proportionable to those heavy calamities which it brought upon us. For the Jews that dwelt at Caesarea had a synagogue near the place, whose owner was a certain Cesarean Greek: the Jews had endeavored frequently to have purchased the possession of the place, and had offered many times its value for its price; 2.286. but as the owner overlooked their offers, so did he raise other buildings upon the place, in way of affront to them, and made workingshops of them, and left them but a narrow passage, and such as was very troublesome for them to go along to their synagogue. Whereupon the warmer part of the Jewish youth went hastily to the workmen, and forbade them to build there; 2.287. but as Florus would not permit them to use force, the great men of the Jews, with John the publican, being in the utmost distress what to do, persuaded Florus, with the offer of eight talents, to hinder the work. 2.288. He then, being intent upon nothing but getting money, promised he would do for them all they desired of him, and then went away from Caesarea to Sebaste, and left the sedition to take its full course, as if he had sold a license to the Jews to fight it out. 2.289. 5. Now on the next day, which was the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a certain man of Caesarea, of a seditious temper, got an earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward, at the entrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. 2.290. Whereupon the sober and moderate part of the Jews thought it proper to have recourse to their governors again, while the seditious part, and such as were in the fervor of their youth, were vehemently inflamed to fight. The seditious also among [the Gentiles of] Caesarea stood ready for the same purpose; for they had, by agreement, sent the man to sacrifice beforehand [as ready to support him] so that it soon came to blows. 2.291. Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.292. But John, and twelve of the principal men with him, went to Florus, to Sebaste, and made a lamentable complaint of their case, and besought him to help them; and with all possible decency, put him in mind of the eight talents they had given him; but he had the men seized upon and put in prison, and accused them for carrying the books of the law out of Caesarea. 4.406. At that time all the other regions of Judea that had hitherto been at rest were in motion, by means of the robbers. Now as it is in a human body, if the principal part be inflamed, all the members are subject to the same distemper; 4.407. o, by means of the sedition and disorder that was in the metropolis. had the wicked men that were in the country opportunity to ravage the same. Accordingly, when every one of them had plundered their own villages, they then retired into the desert; 4.408. yet were these men that now got together, and joined in the conspiracy by parties, too small for an army, and too many for a gang of thieves: and thus did they fall upon the holy places and the cities; 4.409. yet did it now so happen that they were sometimes very ill treated by those upon whom they fell with such violence, and were taken by them as men are taken in war: but still they prevented any further punishment as do robbers, who, as soon as their ravages [are discovered], run their way. Nor was there now any part of Judea that was not in a miserable condition, as well as its most eminent city also. 5.184. 1. Now this temple, as I have already said, was built upon a strong hill. At first the plain at the top was hardly sufficient for the holy house and the altar, for the ground about it was very uneven, and like a precipice; 5.185. but when king Solomon, who was the person that built the temple, had built a wall to it on its east side, there was then added one cloister founded on a bank cast up for it, and on the other parts the holy house stood naked. But in future ages the people added new banks, and the hill became a larger plain. 5.186. They then broke down the wall on the north side, and took in as much as sufficed afterward for the compass of the entire temple. 5.187. And when they had built walls onthree sides of the temple round about, from the bottom of the hill, and had performed a work that was greater than could be hoped for (in which work long ages were spent by them, as well as all their sacred treasures were exhausted, which were still replenished by those tributes which were sent to God from the whole habitable earth), they then encompassed their upper courts with cloisters, as well as they [afterward] did the lowest [court of the] temple. 5.188. The lowest part of this was erected to the height of three hundred cubits, and in some places more; yet did not the entire depth of the foundations appear, for they brought earth, and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make them on a level with the narrow streets of the city; 5.189. wherein they made use of stones of forty cubits in magnitude; for the great plenty of money they then had, and the liberality of the people, made this attempt of theirs to succeed to an incredible degree; and what could not be so much as hoped for as ever to be accomplished, was, by perseverance and length of time, brought to perfection. 5.190. 2. Now, for the works that were above these foundations, these were not unworthy of such foundations; for all the cloisters were double, and the pillars to them belonging were twenty-five cubits in height, and supported the cloisters. These pillars were of one entire stone each of them, and that stone was white marble; 5.191. and the roofs were adorned with cedar, curiously graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polish, and the harmony of the joints in these cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable; nor was it on the outside adorned with any work of the painter or engraver. 5.192. The cloisters [of the outmost court] were in breadth thirty cubits, while the entire compass of it was by measure six furlongs, including the tower of Antonia; those entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of all sorts. 5.193. When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; 5.194. upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary;” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary;” 5.195. and was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first court. This court was foursquare, and had a wall about it peculiar to itself; 5.196. the height of its buildings, although it were on the outside forty cubits, was hidden by the steps, and on the inside that height was but twenty-five cubits; for it being built over against a higher part of the hill with steps, it was no further to be entirely discerned within, being covered by the hill itself. 5.197. Beyond these fourteen steps there was the distance of ten cubits; this was all plain; 5.198. whence there were other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. For since there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a necessity for a second gate for them: this gate was cut out of its wall, over against the first gate. 5.199. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women; for as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally. 5.200. The western part of this court had no gate at all, but the wall was built entire on that side. But then the cloisters which were betwixt the gates extended from the wall inward, before the chambers; for they were supported by very fine and large pillars. These cloisters were single, and, excepting their magnitude, were no way inferior to those of the lower court. 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.206. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter. 5.207. 4. As to the holy house itself, which was placed in the midst [of the inmost court], that most sacred part of the temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps; and in front its height and its breadth were equal, and each a hundred cubits, though it was behind forty cubits narrower; for on its front it had what may be styled shoulders on each side, that passed twenty cubits further. 5.208. Its first gate was seventy cubits high, and twenty-five cubits broad; but this gate had no doors; for it represented the universal visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the house, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them; 5.209. but then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. Its height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. 5.210. But that gate which was at this end of the first part of the house was, as we have already observed, all over covered with gold, as was its whole wall about it; it had also golden vines above it, from which clusters of grapes hung as tall as a man’s height. 5.211. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and sixteen in breadth; 5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures. 5.215. 5. When any persons entered into the temple, its floor received them. This part of the temple therefore was in height sixty cubits, and its length the same; whereas its breadth was but twenty cubits: 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies. 5.220. Now, about the sides of the lower part of the temple, there were little houses, with passages out of one into another; there were a great many of them, and they were of three stories high; there were also entrances on each side into them from the gate of the temple. 5.221. But the superior part of the temple had no such little houses any further, because the temple was there narrower, and forty cubits higher, and of a smaller body than the lower parts of it. Thus we collect that the whole height, including the sixty cubits from the floor, amounted to a hundred cubits. 5.222. 6. Now the outward face of the temple in its front wanted nothing that was likely to surprise either men’s minds or their eyes; for it was covered all over with plates of gold of great weight, and, at the first rising of the sun, reflected back a very fiery splendor, and made those who forced themselves to look upon it to turn their eyes away, just as they would have done at the sun’s own rays. 5.223. But this temple appeared to strangers, when they were coming to it at a distance, like a mountain covered with snow; for as to those parts of it that were not gilt, they were exceeding white. 5.224. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. of its stones, some of them were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. 5.225. Before this temple stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, and equal both in length and breadth; each of which dimensions was fifty cubits. The figure it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns; and the passage up to it was by an insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much as touch it at any time. 5.226. There was also a wall of partition, about a cubit in height, made of fine stones, and so as to be grateful to the sight; this encompassed the holy house and the altar, and kept the people that were on the outside off from the priests. 5.227. Moreover, those that had the gonorrhea and the leprosy were excluded out of the city entirely; women also, when their courses were upon them, were shut out of the temple; nor when they were free from that impurity, were they allowed to go beyond the limit before-mentioned; men also, that were not thoroughly pure, were prohibited to come into the inner [court of the] temple; nay, the priests themselves that were not pure were prohibited to come into it also. 5.228. 7. Now all those of the stock of the priests that could not minister by reason of some defect in their bodies, came within the partition, together with those that had no such imperfection, and had their share with them by reason of their stock, but still made use of none except their own private garments; for nobody but he that officiated had on his sacred garments; 5.229. but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration. 5.230. The high priest did also go up with them; not always indeed, but on the seventh days and new moons, and if any festivals belonging to our nation, which we celebrate every year, happened. 5.231. When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment, round, without seam, with fringework, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. 5.232. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast was embroidered with five rows of various colors, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colors we told you before the veils of the temple were embroidered also. 5.233. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment; in these buttons were enclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: 5.234. on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. 5.235. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribbon, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name [of God]: it consists of four vowels. 5.236. However, the high priest did not wear these garments at other times, but a more plain habit; he only did it when he went into the most sacred part of the temple, which he did but once in a year, on that day when our custom is for all of us to keep a fast to God. 5.237. And thus much concerning the city and the temple; but for the customs and laws hereto relating, we shall speak more accurately another time; for there remain a great many things thereto relating which have not been here touched upon. 6.423. So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company, 6.424. found the number of sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred; 6.425. which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons that were pure and holy; 6.426. for as to those that have the leprosy, or the gonorrhea, or women that have their monthly courses, or such as are otherwise polluted, it is not lawful for them to be partakers of this sacrifice; 6.427. nor indeed for any foreigners either, who come hither to worship. 7.45. and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body.
16. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.186-1.189, 1.209, 1.279 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 68, 82, 165
1.186. Again, Hecateus says to the same purpose, as follows:—“Ptolemy got possession of the places in Syria after the battle at Gaza; and many, when they heard of Ptolemy’s moderation and humanity, went along with him to Egypt, and were willing to assist him in his affairs; 1.187. one of whom (Hecateus says) was Hezekiah, the high priest of the Jews; a man of about sixty-six years of age, and in great dignity among his own people. He was a very sensible man, and could speak very movingly, and was very skilful in the management of affairs, if any other man ever were so; 1.188. although, as he says, all the priests of the Jews took tithes of the products of the earth, and managed public affairs, and were in number not above fifteen hundred at the most.” 1.189. Hecateus mentions this Hezekiah a second time, and says, that “as he was possessed of so great a dignity, and was become familiar with us, so did he take certain of those that were with him, and explained to them all the circumstances of their people: for he had all their habitations and polity down in writing.” 1.209. “There are a people called Jews, who dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inhabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to rest on every seventh day; on which times they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. 1.279. 31. It now remains that I debate with Manetho about Moses. Now the Egyptians acknowledge him to have been a wonderful, and a divine person; nay they would willingly lay claim to him themselves, though after a most abusive and incredible manner; and pretend that he was of Heliopolis, and one of the priests of that place, and was ejected out of it among the rest, on account of his leprosy;
17. Mishnah, Parah, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 76
3.5. "לֹא מָצְאוּ מִשֶּׁבַע, עוֹשִׂין מִשֵּׁשׁ, מֵחָמֵשׁ, מֵאַרְבַּע, מִשָּׁלשׁ, מִשְּׁתַּיִם וּמֵאֶחָת. וּמִי עֲשָׂאָם. הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עָשָׂה משֶׁה, וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה עָשָׂה עֶזְרָא, וְחָמֵשׁ, מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁבַע מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ. וּמִי עֲשָׂאָן. שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק וְיוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל עָשׂוּ שְׁתַּיִם שְׁתַּיִם, אֶלְיְהוֹעֵינַי בֶּן הַקּוֹף וַחֲנַמְאֵל הַמִּצְרִי וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פִּיאָבִי עָשׂוּ אַחַת אֶחָת: \n", 3.5. "If they did not find the residue of the ashes of the seven [red cows] they performed the sprinkling with those of six, of five, of four, of three, of two or of one. And who prepared these? Moses prepared the first, Ezra prepared the second, and five were prepared from the time of Ezra, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: seven from the time of Ezra. And who prepared them? Shimon the Just and Yoha the high priest prepared two; Elihoenai the son of Ha-Kof and Hanamel the Egyptian and Ishmael the son of Piabi prepared one each.",
18. Mishnah, Middot, 1-4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61
19. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 60, 348
2.1. "אין דורשין בעריות בשלשה אבל דורשין בשנים [ולא] במעשה בראשית בשנים אבל דורשין ביחיד ולא במרכבה ביחיד אא\"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה רבי אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא [כן אמרתי לך מתחלה שאין שונין] במרכבה ביחיד אלא אם כן היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו מעתה ארצה לפניך אמר לו אמור פתח רבי אלעזר בן ערך ודרש במעשה מרכבה ירד רבי יוחנן בן זכאי מן החמור ונתעטף בטליתו וישבו שניהם על גבי אבן תחת הזית והרצה לפניו עמד ונשקו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל אשר נתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש [אלעזר בן ערך] נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך [אברהם] אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך [שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים] רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר רבי יהושע הרצה לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי [רבי עקיבה] הרצה לפני רבי יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני רבי עקיבה.",
20. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61
5.1. "אָמַר לָהֶם הַמְמֻנֶּה, בָּרְכוּ בְרָכָה אֶחַת, וְהֵן בֵּרְכוּ. קָרְאוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים, שְׁמַע, וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ, וַיֹּאמֶר. בֵּרְכוּ אֶת הָעָם שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב, וַעֲבוֹדָה, וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים. וּבְשַׁבָּת מוֹסִיפִין בְּרָכָה אַחַת לַמִּשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא: \n", 5.1. "The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving.",
21. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 36.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 582
22. New Testament, Acts, 2.9-2.11, 13.14-13.41, 14.14-14.16, 22.24, 22.26 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 79, 82, 157, 158, 582
2.9. Πάρθοι καὶ Μῆδοι καὶ Ἐλαμεῖται, καὶ οἱ κατοικοῦντες τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν, Ἰουδαίαν τε καὶ Καππαδοκίαν, Πόντον καὶ τὴν Ἀσίαν, 2.10. Φρυγίαν τε καὶ Παμφυλίαν, Αἴγυπτον καὶ τὰ μέρη τῆς Λιβύης τῆς κατὰ Κυρήνην, καὶ οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες Ῥωμαῖοι, 2.11. Ἰουδαῖοί τε καὶ προσήλυτοι, Κρῆτες καὶ Ἄραβες, ἀκούομεν λαλούντων αὐτῶν ταῖς ἡμετέραις γλώσσαις τὰ μεγαλεῖα τοῦ θεοῦ. 13.14. Αὐτοὶ δὲ διελθόντες ἀπὸ τῆς Πέργης παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν τὴν Πισιδίαν, καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων ἐκάθισαν. 13.15. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τις ἔστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε. 13.16. ἀναστὰς δὲ Παῦλος καὶ κατασείσας τῇ χειρὶ εἶπεν Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται καὶ οἱ φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν, ἀκούσατε. 13.17. Ὁ θεὸς τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου Ἰσραὴλ ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν, καὶ τὸν λαὸν ὕψωσεν ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ μετὰ βραχίονος ὑψηλοῦ ἐξήγαγεν αὐτοὺς ἐξ αὐτῆς, 13.18. καί, ὡς τεσσερακονταετῆ χρόνονἐτροποφόρησεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, 13.19. καθελὼν ἔθνη ἑπτὰ ἐν γῇ Χαναὰν κατεκληρονόμησεν τὴν γῆν αὐτῶν 13.20. ὡς ἔτεσι τετρακοσίοις καὶ πεντήκοντα. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἔδωκεν κριτὰς ἕως Σαμουὴλ προφήτου. κἀκεῖθεν ᾐτήσαντο βασιλέα, 13.21. καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς τὸν Σαοὺλ υἱὸν Κείς, ἄνδρα ἐκ φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, ἔτη τεσσεράκοντα· 13.22. καὶ μεταστήσας αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν τὸν Δαυεὶδ αὐτοῖς εἰς βασιλέα, ᾧ καὶ εἶπεν μαρτυρήσας Εὗρον Δαυεὶδ τὸν τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, [ἄνδρα] κατὰ τὴν καρδίαν μου, ὃς ποιήσει πάντα τὰ θελήματά μου. 13.23. τούτου ὁ θεὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ σπέρματος κατʼ ἐπαγγελίαν ἤγαγεν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ σωτῆρα Ἰησοῦν, 13.24. προκηρύξαντος Ἰωάνου πρὸ προσώπου τῆς εἰσόδου αὐτοῦ βάπτισμα μετανοίας παντὶ τῷ λαῷ Ἰσραήλ. 13.25. ὡς δὲ ἐπλήρου Ἰωάνης τὸν δρόμον, ἔλεγεν Τί ἐμὲ ὑπονοεῖτε εἶναι; οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐγώ· ἀλλʼ ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετʼ ἐμὲ οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἄξιος τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν λῦσαι. 13.26. Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, υἱοὶ γένους Ἀβραὰμ καὶ οἱ ἐν ὑμῖν φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν, ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος τῆς σωτηρίας ταύτης ἐξαπεστάλη. 13.27. οἱ γὰρ κατοικουlt*gtντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῶν τοῦτον ἀγνοήσαντες καὶ τὰς φωνὰς τῶν προφητῶν τὰς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκομένας κρίναντες ἐπλήρωσαν, 13.28. καὶ μηδεμίαν αἰτίαν θανάτου εὑρόντες ᾐτήσαντο Πειλᾶτον ἀναιρεθῆναι αὐτόν· 13.29. ὡς δὲ ἐτέλεσαν πάντα τὰ περὶ αὐτοῦ γεγραμμένα, καθελόντες ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου ἔθηκαν εἰς μνημεῖον. 13.30. ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἤγειρεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν· 13.31. ὃς ὤφθη ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους τοῖς συναναβᾶσιν αὐτῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ, οἵτινες [νῦν] εἰσὶ μάρτυρες αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν λαόν. 13.32. καὶ ἡμεῖς ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελιζόμεθα τὴν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἐπαγγελίαν γενομένην 13.33. ὅτι ταύτην ὁ θεὸς ἐκπεπλήρωκεν τοῖς τέκνοις ἡμῶν ἀναστήσας Ἰησοῦν, ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῶ γέγραπται τῷ δευτέρῳ Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμ ν γεγέννηκά σε. 13.34. ὅτι δὲ ἀνέστησεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν μηκέτι μέλλοντα ὑποστρέφειν εἰς διαφθοράν, οὕτως εἴρηκεν ὅτιΔώσω ὑμῖν τὰ ὅσια Δαυεὶδ τὰ πιστά. 13.35. διότι καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει Οὐ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν· 13.36. Δαυεὶδ μὲν γ̓ὰρ ἰδίᾳ γενεᾷ ὑπηρετήσας τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ βουλῇ ἐκοιμήθη καὶ προσετέθη πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας αὐτοῦ καὶ εἶδεν διαφθοράν, 13.37. ὃν δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἤγειρεν οὐκ εἶδεν διαφθοράν. 13.38. Γνωστὸν οὖν ἔστω ὑμῖν, ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ὅτι διὰ τούτου ὑμῖν ἄφεσις ἁμαρτιῶν καταγγέλλεται, καὶ ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν οὐκ ἠδυνήθητε 13.39. ἐν νόμῳ Μωυσέως δικαιωθῆναι ἐν τούτῳ πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων δικαιοῦται. 13.40. βλέπετε οὖν· μὴ ἐπέλθῃ τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν τοῖς προφήταις 13.41. 14.14. ἀκούσαντες δὲ οἱ ἀπόστολοι Βαρνάβας καὶ Παῦλος, διαρρήξαντες τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν ἐξεπήδησαν εἰς τὸν ὄχλον, κράζοντες 14.15. καὶ λέγοντες Ἄνδρες, τί ταῦτα ποιεῖτε; καὶ ἡμεῖς ὁμοιοπαθεῖς ἐσμ ὑμῖν ἄνθρωποι, εὐαγγελιζόμενοι ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ τούτων τῶν ματαίων ἐπιστρέφειν ἐπὶ θεὸν ζῶντα ὃς ἐποίησεν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς· 14.16. ὃς ἐν ταῖς παρῳχημέναις γενεαῖς εἴασεν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη πορεύεσθαι ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν· 22.24. ἐκέλευσεν ὁ χιλίαρχος εἰσάγεσθαι αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν παρεμβολήν, εἴπας μάστιξιν ἀνετάζεσθαι αὐτὸν ἵνα ἐπιγνῷ διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν οὕτως ἐπεφώνουν αὐτῷ. 22.26. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης προσελθὼν τῷ χιλιάρχῳ ἀπήγγειλεν λέγων Τί μέλλεις ποιεῖν; ὁ γὰρ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος Ῥωμαῖός ἐστιν. 2.9. Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and people from Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia, 2.10. Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, the parts of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, 2.11. Cretans and Arabians: we hear them speaking in our languages the mighty works of God!" 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak." 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise, 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead, 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers, 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. "Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins, 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.'" 14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out, 14.15. "Men, why are you doing these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to the living God, who made the sky and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them; 14.16. who in the generations gone by allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways. 22.24. the commanding officer commanded him to be brought into the barracks, ordering him to be examined by scourging, that he might know for what crime they shouted against him like that. 22.26. When the centurion heard it, he went to the commanding officer and told him, "Watch what you are about to do, for this man is a Roman!"
23. New Testament, Luke, 4.16-4.30, 4.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 79, 157, 158, 348, 582
4.16. Καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς Ναζαρά, οὗ ἦν τεθραμμένος, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων εἰς τὴν συναγωγήν, καὶ ἀνέστη ἀναγνῶναι. 4.17. καὶ ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαίου, καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ βιβλίον εὗρεν [τὸν] τόπον οὗ ἦν γεγραμμένον 4.18. Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπʼ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς, ἀπέσταλκέν με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει, 4.19. κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν. 4.20. καὶ πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον ἀποδοὺς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ ἐκάθισεν· καὶ πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἦσαν ἀτενίζοντες αὐτῷ. 4.21. ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν. 4.22. καὶ πάντες ἐμαρτύρουν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον Οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος; 4.23. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Πάντως ἐρεῖτέ μοι τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην Ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν· ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν — Καφαρναοὺμ ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου. 4.24. εἶπεν δέ Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδεὶς προφήτης δεκτός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ. 4.25. ἐπʼ ἀληθείας δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, πολλαὶ χῆραι ἦσαν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἠλείου ἐν τῷ Ἰσραήλ, ὅτε ἐκλείσθη ὁ οὐρανὸς ἔτη τρία καὶ μῆνας ἕξ, ὡς ἐγένετο λιμὸς μέγας ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν, 4.26. καὶ πρὸς οὐδεμίαν αὐτῶν ἐπέμφθη Ἠλείας εἰ μὴ εἰς Σάρεπτα τῆς Σιδωνίας πρὸς γυναῖκα χήραν. 4.27. καὶ πολλοὶ λεπροὶ ἦσαν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπὶ Ἐλισαίου τοῦ προφήτου, καὶ οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη εἰ μὴ Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος. 4.28. καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἀκούοντες ταῦτα, 4.29. καὶ ἀναστάντες ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τῆς πόλεως, καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν ἕως ὀφρύος τοῦ ὄρους ἐφʼ οὗ ἡ πόλις ᾠκοδόμητο αὐτῶν, ὥστε κατακρημνίσαι αὐτόν· 4.30. αὐτὸς δὲ διελθὼν διὰ μέσου αὐτῶν ἐπορεύετο. 4.44. Καὶ ἦν κηρύσσων εἰς τὰς συναγωγὰς τῆς Ἰουδαίας. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written, 4.18. "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed, 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son?" 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.'" 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian." 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 4.44. He was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee.
24. Josephus Flavius, Life, 290-292, 294-295, 293 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 165
25. Tosefta, Megillah, 2.17, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 60, 75
3.21. "כתב הנכתב ליחיד מכנין אותה לרבים לרבים אין מכנין אותה ליחיד רבי יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף הרי זה מגדף. תורגמן העומד לפני חכם אינו רשאי לא לפחות ולא להוסיף ולא לשנות אלא אם כן יהיה אביו או רבו. ",
26. Tosefta, Pesahim, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61
27. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 60
4.5. "ולוים בכנורות [ובנבלים] וכל כלי שיר מהן אומרים (תהילים קל״ד:א׳) שיר המעלות הנה ברכו וגו' [יש מהן] שהיו אומרים (שם) שאו ידיכם קדש וגו' וכשנפטרין זה מזה היו אומרים (שם) יברכך ה' מציון וגו' וראה בנים וגו' שתי חצוצרות בידם קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לשער המים תקעו והריעו ותקעו רבי יהודה אומר אין פחות משבע ולא יותר על עשרה שלש לפתיחת שערים האומר על פתיחתן אינו אומר על נעילתן האומר על נעילתן אינו אומר על פתיחתן שלש [לפני מזבח האומר לפני מזבח אינו אומר למעלה העשירי האומר למעלה העשירי אינו אומר לפני מזבח].", 4.5. "And the Levites with their harps and lyres and cymbals and all manner of musical instruments without number were there, saying, “Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants of the Lord.” Some were saying, Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, and bless ye the Lord. When they parted they said to one another, The Lord bless thee out of Zion, and see thou the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life. You should see your children's children. The herald cried out: they sounded a plain note, a tremolo, and a plain note. Rabbi Yehudah said: They did not sound less than seven nor more than thirteen times at the opening of the Temple gates. He who blew at their opening did not do so at their closing. Three times they sounded before the altar. He who blew before the altar did not do so on the tenth step, and he who blew on the tenth step did not do so before the altar.",
28. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 80.1, 98.13 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 582
80.1. וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה (בראשית לד, א), (יחזקאל טז, מד): הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה תִּרְגֵּם בִּכְנִישָׁתְהוֹן דִּמְעוֹנָא, (הושע ה, א): שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ, אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִטֹּל אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְהַעֲמִידָן בַּדִּין וְלֵאמֹר לָהֶם לָמָּה לֹא יְגַעְתֶּם בַּתּוֹרָה, לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נֶהֱנִים מֵאַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לָא יָהֲבִין לָן כְּלוּם. וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נוֹתְנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים אַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לָכֶם בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַל אִלֵּין דְּבֵי נְשִׂיאָה דַּהֲווֹ נָסְבִין כּוֹלָּא. בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ כִּי לָכֶם הַמִּשְׁפָּט, שֶׁלָּכֶם הָיָה, (דברים יח, ג): וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים, לְפִיכָךְ לָכֶם וַעֲלֵיכֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין נֶהְפָּכֶת. שָׁמַע רַבִּי וְכָעַס, בְּפַתֵּי רַמְשָׁא סְלֵיק רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שָׁאֵיל שְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי וּפַיְּסֵי עֲלוֹהִי דְּיוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֵן מַכְנִיסִין מוּמָסִין לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קַרְקְסָאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן וּמְשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ מְשִׂיחִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי קְטָטָה בְּטֵלָה, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה אָמַר מִלָּה דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא וְאַקְפַּדְתְּ עֲלוֹהִי, אָמַר לוֹ וְיוֹדֵעַ הוּא בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאוּלְפַן קַבֵּיל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין. וְאִי שָׁאֵלְנָא לֵיהּ מְגִיִּיב, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין, אִם כֵּן יִסַּק לְהָכָא, וּסְלֵיק לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַהוּ דִּכְתִיב: הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךָ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כַּבַּת כֵּן אִמָּהּ, כַּדּוֹר כֵּן נָשִׂיא, כַּמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן כֹּהֲנָיו. הָכָא אָמְרֵי לְפוּם גִּנְּתָא גַּנָּנָא. אָמַר לוֹ רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ עַד כַּדּוּן לָא חֲסֵלִית מִן מְפַיְּסֵיהּ עַל הָדָא וְאַתָּה מַיְיתֵי לָן אוֹחֲרִי, עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית תּוֹרְתָא עֲנִישָׁא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ בְּעִיטָא, לֵית אִתְּתָא זָנְיָא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ זָנְיָא. אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ אִם כֵּן לֵאָה אִמֵּנוּ זוֹנָה הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהֶם (בראשית ל, טז): וַתֵּצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ וגו', יָצָאת מְקֻשֶּׁטֶת כְּזוֹנָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה. 80.1. וַיִּקְּחוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי (בראשית לד, כה), מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, יָדַעְנוּ שֶׁבְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב הֵם, אֶלָּא בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב שֶׁלֹא נָטְלוּ עֵצָה מִיַּעֲקֹב. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, שֶׁנָטְלוּ עֵצָה זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲחֵי דִינָה, וְכִי אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ אֵלּוּ נַפְשָׁם עָלֶיהָ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמָם, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (שמות טו, כ): וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן אַהֲרֹן נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (במדבר כה, יח): וְעַל דְּבַר כָּזְבִּי בַת נְשִׂיא מִדְיָן אֲחֹתָם, וְכִי אֲחוֹתָם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא בַּת אֻמָּתָן הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנָה נַפְשָׁהּ עַל אֻמָּתָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֻמָּתָהּ לִשְׁמָהּ. (בראשית לד, כה): אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיוּ. שְׁמוּאֵל שָׁאַל לְלֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי אָמַר לוֹ מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לד, כה): וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל הָעִיר בֶּטַח, אָמַר לוֹ בְּטוּחִים הָיוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן, וְלֹא הָיָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב רוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת בָּנַי לִפֹּל בְּיַד אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, מֶה עָשָׂה נָטַל חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ וְעָמַד לוֹ עַל פִּתְחָהּ שֶׁל שְׁכֶם וְאָמַר אִם יָבוֹאוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לָהֶם לְבָנַי אֲנִי נִלְחַם כְּנֶגְדָן, הוּא דְּהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ לְיוֹסֵף (בראשית מח, כב): וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׁכֶם אַחַד עַל אַחֶיךָ וגו', וְהֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁנָּטַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ בִּשְׁכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כב): אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתִּי מִיַּד הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּי. (בראשית לד, כו): וְאֶת חֲמוֹר וְאֶת שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ. 98.13. דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ כְּאַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (בראשית מט, טז), כַּמְּיֻחָד שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁנִּדְבַּק לַמְיֻחָד שֶׁבַּשְּׁבָטִים אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹפֵט אֶחָד שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד לֹא הָיָה מַעֲמִיד, וְאֵיזֶה זֶה, זֶה שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ. כִּיחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מַה יְּחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ סִיּוּעַ כָּךְ שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְסִיּוּעַ, אֶלָּא (שופטים טו, טו): וַיִּמְצָא לְחִי חֲמוֹר טְרִיָה, מַהוּ טְרִיָה, בַּר תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין. רַבִּי אָבוּן אָמַר בִּטְנָהּ תְּרֵין, הִיא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אָבוּוֹן, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אָבוּן (שופטים טו, טז): בִּלְחִי הַחֲמוֹר חֲמוֹר חֲמֹרָתָיִם וגו' (שופטים טו, יח): וַיִּצְמָא מְאֹד, דִּמְפַטְפֵּט צָחֵי, אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא וְרַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה צַרְצוּר שֶׁל מַיִם לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטְלוֹ, אֶלָּא (שופטים טו, יח): וַיִּקְרָא אֶל ה' וַיֹּאמַר אַתָּה נָתַתָּ בְיַד עַבְדְּךָ וגו', אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אִם אֵינוֹ בֵּינִי לְבֵינָן אֶלָּא הַמִּילָה הַזֹּאת כְּדַאי הוּא שֶׁלֹא אֶפֹּל בְּיָדָן, מִיָּד (שופטים טו, יט): וַיִּבְקַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַמַּכְתֵּשׁ אֲשֶׁר בַּלֶּחִי, רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא שְׁמוֹ לֶחִי. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא מַכְתֵּשׁ שְׁמוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֵבִיא לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַעֲיָן מִבֵּין שִׁנָּיו, בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת, מִבִּרְכָתוֹ שֶׁל משֶׁה שֶׁאָמַר (דברים לג, כב): יְזַנֵּק מִן הַבָּשָׁן, מִבֵּין שִׁנָּיו.
29. Palestinian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
30. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan nan nan
31. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
32. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan nan nan
33. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
34. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan nan nan
35. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 3.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 152
3.6. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן (ויקרא ב, ב), תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא וַאֲפִלּוּ רִבּוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (משלי יד, כח): בְּרָב עָם הַדְּרַת מֶלֶךְ. (ויקרא ב, ב): וְקָמַץ מִשָּׁם מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ מִסָּלְתָּהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ, מִסַּלְתָּהּ וְלֹא כָּל סָלְתָּהּ, מִשַּׁמְנָהּ וְלֹא כָּל שַׁמְנָהּ, הֲרֵי שֶׁהֵבִיא מִנְחָתוֹ מִגּוֹלָה מֵאַסְפַּמְיָא וְרָאָה אֶת הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁהִקְמִיץ וְאָכַל אֶת הַשְּׁאָר, אָמַר אוֹי לִי, כָּל הַצַּעַר הַזֶּה שֶׁנִּצְטַעַרְתִּי בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה, וְהַכֹּל מְפַיְּסִין אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ וּמָה אִם זֶה שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַעֵר אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי פְּסִיעוֹת בֵּין הָאוּלָם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ זָכָה לֶאֱכֹל, אַתָּה שֶׁנִּצְטַעַרְתָּ כָּל הַצַּעַר הַזֶּה, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא (ויקרא ב, ג): וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אַבָּא אֲזַל לְחַד אֲתַר אַשְׁכָּחָא הָדֵין פְּסוּקָא רֹאשׁ סִדְרָא: וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו, מַה פָּתַח עֲלָהּ (תהלים יז, יד): מִמְתִים יָדְךָ ה' מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד. מִמְתִים יָדְךָ ה', מַה גִּבּוֹרִים הֵם אֵלּוּ שֶׁנָּטְלוּ חֶלְקָן מִתַּחַת יָדְךָ ה', וְאֵיזֶה זֶה שִׁבְטוֹ שֶׁל לֵוִי. מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד, אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא נָטְלוּ חֵלֶק בָּאָרֶץ. חֶלְקָם בַּחַיִּים, אֵלּוּ קָדְשֵׁי מִקְדָּשׁ. וּצְפוּנְךָ תְּמַלֵּא בִטְנָם, אֵלּוּ קָדְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל. יִשְׂבְּעוּ בָנִים, (ויקרא ו, יא): כָּל זָכָר בִּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן יֹאכְלֶנָּה. וְהִנִּיחוּ יִתְרָם לְעוֹלְלֵיהֶם, וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו, אַהֲרֹן זָכָה לְבָנִים בֵּין כְּשֵׁרִים בֵּין פְּסוּלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב, ה): בְּרִיתִי הָיְתָה אִתּוֹ הַחַיִּים וְהַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹדֵף שָׁלוֹם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. (מלאכי ב, ה): וָאֶתְּנֵם לוֹ מוֹרָא וַיִּירָאֵנִי, שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה וּבִרְתֵת וּבְזִיעַ. מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (מלאכי ב, ה): מִפְּנֵי שְׁמִי נִחַת, אָמְרוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּצַק משֶׁה שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה עַל רֹאשׁ אַהֲרֹן, נִרְתַּע וְנָפַל לַאֲחוֹרָיו, וְאָמַר, אוֹי לִי שֶׁמָּא מָעַלְתִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. הֵשִׁיבָה רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאָמְרָה לוֹ (תהלים קלג, א ג): הִנֵּה מַה טּוֹב וּמַה נָּעִים שֶׁבֶת אַחִים גַּם יָחַד כַּשֶּׁמֶן הַטּוֹב עַל הָרֹאשׁ וגו' כְּטַל חֶרְמוֹן שֶׁיּוֹרֵד וגו'. מַה הַטַּל אֵין בּוֹ מְעִילָה אַף הַשֶּׁמֶן אֵין בּוֹ מְעִילָה. כַּשֶּׁמֶן הַטּוֹב עַל הָרֹאשׁ יוֹרֵד עַל הַזָּקָן זְקַן אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי שְׁנֵי זְקָנִים הָיוּ לְאַהֲרֹן וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ הַזָּקָן זְקַן, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה משֶׁה אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן יוֹרֵד עַל זְקַן אַהֲרֹן הָיָה שָׂמֵחַ כְּאִלּוּ עַל זְקָנוֹ יָרָד. (מלאכי ב, ו): תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת הָיְתָה בְּפִיהוּ, שֶׁלֹּא אָסַר אֶת הַמֻּתָּר וְלֹא הִתִּיר אֶת הָאָסוּר. בְּשָׁלוֹם וּבְמִישׁוֹר הָלַךְ אִתִּי, שֶׁלֹּא הִרְהֵר אַחַר דַּרְכֵי הַמָּקוֹם, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁלֹּא הִרְהֵר אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם. וְרַבִּים הֵשִׁיב מֵעָוֹן, שֶׁהֵשִׁיב פּוֹשְׁעִים לְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים א, ד): מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ, מַה כְּתִיב בּוֹ בַּסּוֹף (מלאכי ב, ז): כִּי שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְּשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ וגו'.
36. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
37. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
38. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 348
98a. הא איסורא איכא ה"ה דאפילו איסורא נמי ליכא ואיידי דבעי למיתני סיפא אבל חייבין תנא נמי רישא אין חייבין,אמר רבא הא דאמור רבנן אין אב למצרי לא תימא משום דשטופי בזמה דלא ידיע אבל ידיע חיישינן אלא אפילו דידיע נמי לא חיישינן,דהא שני אחין תאומים דטפה אחת היה ונחלקה לשתים וקתני סיפא לא חולצין ולא מייבמין ש"מ אפקורי אפקריה רחמנא לזרעיה דכתיב (יחזקאל כג, כ) בשר חמורים בשרם וזרמת סוסים זרמתם,ת"ש דאמר רבי יוסי מעשה בניפטיים הגר שנשא אשת אחיו מאמו ובא מעשה לפני חכמים ואמרו אין אישות לגר ואלא גר דקדיש ה"נ לא תפסי בה קדושין אלא אימא אין איסור אשת אח לגר מאי לאו דנסבא אח כשהוא גר,לא דנסבא כשהוא עובד כוכבים כשהוא עובד כוכבים מאי למימרא מהו דתימא ליגזור כשהוא עובד כוכבים אטו כשהוא גר קמ"ל,ת"ש דאמר בן יאסיין כשהלכתי לכרכי הים מצאתי גר אחד שנשא אשת אחיו מאמו אמרתי לו בני מי הרשך אמר לי הרי אשה ושבעה בניה על ספסל זה ישב ר' עקיבא ואמר שני דברים גר נושא אשת אחיו מאמו ואמר (יונה ג, א) ויהי דבר ה' אל יונה שנית לאמר שנית דברה עמו שכינה שלישית לא דברה עמו שכינה קתני מיהת גר נושא אשת אחיו מאמו מאי לאו דנסבא אחיו כשהוא גר,לא דנסבא כשהוא עובד כוכבים מאי למימרא מהו דתימא נגזור כשהוא עובד כוכבים אטו כשהוא גר קמ"ל,ומי מהימן והאמר ר' אבא אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל תלמיד חכם שמורה הלכה ובא אם קודם מעשה אמרה שומעין לו ואם לאו אין שומעין לו,איבעית אימא מורה ובא היה ואיבעית אימא משום דקאמר הרי אשה ושבעה בניה ואיבעית אימא שאני הכא דקאמר מעשה אחרינא בהדה,אמר מר ויהי דבר ה' אל יונה שנית לאמר שנית דברה עמו שכינה שלישית לא דברה עמו והא כתיב (מלכים ב יד, כה) הוא השיב [את] גבול ישראל מלבא חמת עד ים הערבה כדבר ה' אשר דבר ביד עבדו יונה בן אמתי הנביא,אמר רבינא על עסקי נינוה קאמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר הכי קאמר כדבר ה' אשר דבר ביד עבדו הנביא כשם שנהפך לנינוה מרעה לטובה כך בימי ירבעם בן יואש נהפך להם לישראל מרעה לטובה,ת"ש גר שהיה לידתו בקדושה והורתו שלא בקדושה יש לו שאר האם ואין לו שאר האב כיצד נשא אחותו מן האם יוציא מן האב יקיים אחות האב מן האם יוציא 98a. b there is /b a rabbinic b prohibition, /b contrary to Rav Aḥa’s opinion. The Gemara answers: b The same is true that there is no prohibition, either. And since /b the i baraita /i b wanted to teach in the latter clause /b that if they were born in sanctity b they are liable, it also taught in the first clause /b that b they are not liable. /b For this reason, the i baraita /i mentions only the absence of liability., b Rava said: /b With regard to b that which the Sages said, /b that b a gentile has no patrilineage, do not say /b that it is b because they are /b so b steeped in licentiousness that they do not know /b the identity of their fathers with certainty, b but /b if that identity b is known, we are concerned /b that the paternity is recognized, with regard to the prohibition of intercourse with forbidden paternal relatives and other halakhic issues. b Rather, /b even b when it is known, we are still not concerned. /b ,The proof is b from /b the case of b two /b identical b twin brothers, who were one drop that was divided into two /b and obviously have the same father, b and /b yet it b is taught /b in b the latter clause /b of the i baraita /i : b They do not perform i ḥalitza /i and they do not perform levirate marriage, /b although they certainly have the same father. b Learn from this /b that b the Merciful One dispossesses /b the male gentile of b his offspring, as it is written /b with regard to Egyptians: b “Whose flesh is the flesh of donkeys, and whose semen is the semen of horses” /b (Ezekiel 23:20), i.e., the offspring of a male gentile is considered no more related to him than the offspring of donkeys and horses.,The Gemara resumes its discussion of the dispute between Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov and Rav Sheshet. b Come /b and b hear /b another proof, b as Rabbi Yosei said: An incident /b took place b involving Niftayim the convert, who married the wife of his maternal /b half b brother, and the incident came before the Sages, and they said /b that b there is no /b valid b marriage for a convert. /b The Gemara asks: Is this possible? b And if a convert betroths /b a woman who is not related to him, b is /b his b betrothal to her indeed ineffective? Rather, /b modify the i baraita /i and b say /b that b with regard to a convert there is no prohibition /b proscribing b a brother’s wife. /b The Gemara concludes: b What, is /b the i baraita /i b not /b referring to a case b where /b the b brother, /b her first husband, b married her when he was /b already b a convert, /b thereby proving that a convert is permitted to marry the wife of his deceased brother who was also a convert, even if they were maternal brothers?,The Gemara answers: b No, /b the i baraita /i is referring to a case b where /b the brother b married her while he was /b still b a gentile, /b and since he converted they are no longer married. The Gemara asks: If he married her b while he was a gentile, what /b is the purpose b of stating /b this obvious i halakha /i ? The Gemara answers: b Lest you say /b the Sages b should decree /b that the marriage is prohibited even in a case where the first husband married her b while he was a gentile, due to /b the prohibition against their marriage if the brother married her b when he was /b already b a convert. /b The i baraita /i therefore b teaches us /b that there is no such decree., b Come /b and b hear /b another proof, b as ben Yasiyan said: When I went to cities overseas, I found one convert who married the wife of his maternal /b half b brother. I said to him: My son, who permitted /b this to b you? He said to me: There is /b a local b woman and her seven sons /b to whom this was permitted. b On this /b very b bench [ i safsal /i ], Rabbi Akiva sat and said two statements: /b He said that b a convert may marry the /b former b wife of his maternal /b half b brother, and he said /b that the verse b “And the word of the Lord came to Jonah a second time, saying” /b (Jonah 3:1) implies that the b Divine Presence spoke with him /b only b a second /b time. However, b a third /b time the b Divine Presence did not speak with him, /b i.e., Jonah did not receive any more prophecies. b In any event, /b this i baraita /i b teaches /b that b a convert may marry the wife of his maternal brother. What, is it not /b referring to a case b where /b the convert’s b brother married her when he /b himself b was /b already b a convert? /b ,The Gemara answers: b No, /b the i baraita /i is referring to a case b where /b the brother b married her while he was /b still b a gentile. /b The Gemara asks: If so, b what /b is the purpose b of stating /b this obvious i halakha /i ? The Gemara answers: b Lest you say we should decree /b that marriage between a convert and the former wife of his brother is prohibited even if the brother married her b while he was /b still b a gentile, due to /b the prohibition against their marrying if the brother married her b when he was /b already b a convert. /b The i baraita /i therefore b teaches us /b that there is no such decree., b And is /b that convert who cited Rabbi Akiva b a reliable /b witness, despite the fact that the ruling affects him personally? b Didn’t Rabbi Abba say /b that b Rav Huna said /b that b Rav said: /b With regard to b any Torah scholar who teaches /b a ruling of b i halakha /i /b in a certain case b and it comes /b to be, b if he said it before the incident, one listens to him. And if not, /b if the ruling followed the incident, one b does not listen to him. /b ,The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say /b that the convert b taught /b the ruling, b and /b only afterward b it came /b to be that he himself married his sister-in-law. b And if you wish, say /b that he is reliable b because he /b supported his ruling by b stating /b that there was a practical case involving b a woman and her seven sons, /b in which Rabbi Akiva ruled that this kind of marriage is permitted. b And if you wish, say /b that b here it is different, as /b the convert b stated a different incident with it. /b Since he cited an unrelated teaching of Rabbi Akiva in the same testimony, this teaching is also considered reliable., b The Master said /b that Rabbi Akiva inferred from the verse b “And the word of the Lord came to Jonah a second time, saying” /b that the b Divine Presence spoke with him /b only b a second /b time. However, b a third /b time the Divine Presence b did not speak with him. /b The Gemara asks: b Isn’t it written /b with regard to King Jeroboam ben Joash: b “He restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the Lord, /b the God of Israel, b which He spoke by the hand of His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet” /b (II Kings 14:25)? Evidently, Jonah prophesied at least once more., b Ravina said: /b Rabbi Akiva b was saying /b that Jonah did not prophesize a third time b about the issue of Nineveh. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said /b that b this is /b the meaning of the phrase b “According to the word of the Lord, /b the God of Israel, b which He spoke by the hand of His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet”: /b It is not that Jonah had prophesized about the conquests of Jeroboam ben Joash, but rather that b just as /b the fortune of b Nineveh turned from bad to good, so too, in the days of Jeroboam ben Joash, Israel’s /b fortune b turned from bad to good. /b ,The Gemara resumes discussion of the dispute between Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov and Rav Sheshet. b Come /b and b hear /b another proof: b A convert whose birth was in sanctity but whose conception was not in sanctity has maternal kinship, /b i.e., his relationship to his mother’s relatives is recognized. b However, he does not have paternal kinship. How so? /b If b he married his maternal /b half b sister, /b who was born before him and converted, b he must divorce /b her. Although by Torah law they are considered unrelated, the Sages rendered it prohibited for them to marry, lest he marry a maternal half sister who was born after him and is forbidden to him. If she is his b paternal /b half sister, b he may maintain /b her as his wife. If he married his b father’s maternal /b half b sister, he must divorce her. /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 60
53a. אשה היתה בוררת חטים לאור של בית השואבה:,חסידים ואנשי מעשה כו': ת"ר יש מהן אומרים אשרי ילדותנו שלא ביישה את זקנותנו אלו חסידים ואנשי מעשה ויש מהן אומרים אשרי זקנותנו שכפרה את ילדותנו אלו בעלי תשובה אלו ואלו אומרים אשרי מי שלא חטא ומי שחטא ישוב וימחול לו,תניא אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן כשהיה שמח בשמחת בית השואבה אמר כן אם אני כאן הכל כאן ואם איני כאן מי כאן הוא היה אומר כן למקום שאני אוהב שם רגלי מוליכות אותי אם תבא אל ביתי אני אבא אל ביתך אם אתה לא תבא אל ביתי אני לא אבא אל ביתך שנאמר (שמות כ, כד) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבא אליך וברכתיך,אף הוא ראה גלגולת אחת שצפה על פני המים אמר לה על דאטפת אטפוך ומטיפיך יטופון אמר רבי יוחנן רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,הנהו תרתי כושאי דהוו קיימי קמי שלמה (מלכים א ד, ג) אליחרף ואחיה בני שישא סופרים דשלמה הוו יומא חד חזייה למלאך המות דהוה קא עציב א"ל אמאי עציבת א"ל דקא בעו מינאי הני תרתי כושאי דיתבי הכא מסרינהו לשעירים שדרינהו למחוזא דלוז כי מטו למחוזא דלוז שכיבו,למחר חזיא מלאך המות דהוה קבדח א"ל אמאי בדיחת א"ל באתר דבעו מינאי תמן שדרתינהו מיד פתח שלמה ואמר רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,תניא אמרו עליו על רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כשהיה שמח שמחת בית השואבה היה נוטל שמנה אבוקות של אור וזורק אחת ונוטל אחת ואין נוגעות זו בזו וכשהוא משתחוה נועץ שני גודליו בארץ ושוחה ונושק את הרצפה וזוקף ואין כל בריה יכולה לעשות כן וזו היא קידה,לוי אחוי קידה קמיה דרבי ואיטלע והא גרמא ליה והאמר רבי אלעזר לעולם אל יטיח אדם דברים כלפי מעלה שהרי אדם גדול הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה ואיטלע ומנו לוי הא והא גרמא ליה,לוי הוה מטייל קמיה דרבי בתמני סכיני שמואל קמיה שבור מלכא בתמניא מזגי חמרא אביי קמיה (דרבא) בתמניא ביעי ואמרי לה בארבעה ביעי,תניא אמר ר' יהושע בן חנניה כשהיינו שמחים שמחת בית השואבה לא ראינו שינה בעינינו כיצד שעה ראשונה תמיד של שחר משם לתפלה משם לקרבן מוסף משם לתפלת המוספין משם לבית המדרש משם לאכילה ושתיה משם לתפלת המנחה משם לתמיד של בין הערבים מכאן ואילך לשמחת בית השואבה,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן שבועה שלא אישן שלשה ימים מלקין אותו וישן לאלתר אלא הכי קאמר לא טעמנו טעם שינה דהוו מנמנמי אכתפא דהדדי:,חמש עשרה מעלות: אמר ליה רב חסדא לההוא מדרבנן דהוי קמסדר אגדתא קמיה א"ל שמיע לך הני חמש עשרה מעלות כנגד מי אמרם דוד א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעי למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד חמש עשרה מעלות והורידן אי הכי חמש עשרה מעלות יורדות מיבעי ליה,אמר ליה הואיל ואדכרתן (מלתא) הכי אתמר בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעא למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד מי איכא דידע אי שרי למכתב שם 53a. It was so bright that b a woman would /b be able to b sort wheat by the light of the /b Celebration of the b Place of the Drawing /b of the Water.,§ The mishna continues: b The pious and the men of action /b would dance before the people who attended the celebration. b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i that b some of them would say /b in their song praising God: b Happy is our youth, /b as we did not sin then, b that did not embarrass our old age. These are the pious and the men of action, /b who spent all their lives engaged in Torah and mitzvot. b And some would say: Happy is our old age, that atoned for our youth /b when we sinned. b These are the penitents. /b Both b these and those say: Happy is he who did not sin; and he who sinned should repent and /b God b will absolve him. /b , b It is taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : b They said about Hillel the Elder that when he was rejoicing at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing /b of the Water b he said this: If I am here, everyone is here; and if I am not here, who is here? /b In other words, one must consider himself as the one upon whom it is incumbent to fulfill obligations, and he must not rely on others to do so. b He would /b also b say this: To the place that I love, there my feet take me, /b and therefore, I come to the Temple. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: b If you come to My house, I will come to your house; if you do not come to My house, I will not come to your house, as it is stated: “In every place that I cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you” /b (Exodus 20:21).,The Gemara cites another statement of Hillel the Elder. b Additionally, he saw one skull that was floating on the water /b and b he said to it: Because you drowned /b others, b they drowned you, and those that drowned you will be drowned. /b That is the way of the world; everyone is punished measure for measure. Apropos following one’s feet, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b ,The Gemara relates with regard to b these two Cushites who would stand before Solomon: “Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha” /b (I Kings 4:3), and b they were scribes of Solomon. One day /b Solomon b saw that the Angel of Death was sad. He said to him: Why are you sad? He said to him: They are asking me /b to take the lives of b these two Cushites who are sitting here. /b Solomon b handed them to the demons /b in his service, b and sent them to the district of Luz, /b where the Angel of Death has no dominion. b When they arrived at the district of Luz, they died. /b , b The following day, /b Solomon b saw that the Angel of Death was happy. He said to him: Why are you happy? He replied: In the place that they asked me /b to take them, b there you sent them. /b The Angel of Death was instructed to take their lives in the district of Luz. Since they resided in Solomon’s palace and never went to Luz, he was unable to complete his mission. That saddened him. Ultimately, Solomon dispatched them to Luz, enabling the angel to accomplish his mission. That pleased him. b Immediately, Solomon began /b to speak b and said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b ,§ b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b They said about Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that when he would rejoice at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing /b of the Water, b he would take eight flaming torches and toss one and catch another, /b juggling them, b and, /b though all were in the air at the same time, b they would not touch each other. And when he would prostrate himself, he would insert his two thumbs into the ground, and bow, and kiss the floor /b of the courtyard b and straighten, and /b there was b not any /b other b creature /b that b could do that /b due to the extreme difficulty involved. b And this was the /b form of bowing called b i kidda /i /b performed by the High Priest.,The Gemara relates: b Levi demonstrated a i kidda /i before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi and strained his thigh b and came up lame. /b The Gemara asks: b And is that what caused him /b to be lame? b But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One should never speak impertinently toward /b God b above; as a great person /b once b spoke impertinently toward /b God b above, /b and even though his prayers were answered, he was still punished b and came up lame. And who /b was this great person? It was b Levi. /b Apparently his condition was not caused by his bow. The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction. Both b this and that caused him /b to come up lame; because he spoke impertinently toward God, he therefore was injured when exerting himself in demonstrating i kidda /i .,Apropos the rejoicing of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, the Gemara recounts: b Levi would walk before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi juggling b with eight knives. Shmuel /b would juggle b before King Shapur with eight glasses of wine /b without spilling. b Abaye /b would juggle b before Rabba with eight eggs. Some say /b he did so b with four eggs. /b All these were cited., b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said: When we would rejoice /b in b the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing /b of the Water, b we did not see sleep in our eyes /b the entire Festival. b How so? /b In the b first hour /b of the day, b the daily morning offering /b was sacrificed and everyone came to watch. b From there /b they proceeded b to /b engage in b prayer /b in the synagogue; b from there, to /b watch the sacrifice of b the additional offerings; from there, /b to the synagogue b to /b recite b the additional prayer. From there /b they would proceed b to the study hall /b to study Torah; b from there to the eating and drinking /b in the i sukka /i ; b from there to the afternoon prayer. From there /b they would proceed b to the daily afternoon offering /b in the Temple. b From this /b point b forward, /b they proceeded b to the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing /b of the Water.,The Gemara wonders: b Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: /b One who took b an oath that I will not sleep three days, one flogs him /b immediately for taking an oath in vain, b and he /b may b sleep immediately /b because it is impossible to stay awake for three days uninterrupted. b Rather, this is what /b Rabbi Yehoshua b is saying: We did not experience the sense of /b actual b sleep, because they would /b merely b doze on each other’s shoulders. /b In any case, they were not actually awake for the entire week.,§ The mishna continues: The musicians would stand on the b fifteen stairs /b that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms. b Rav Ḥisda said to one of the Sages who was organizing i aggada /i before him: Did you hear /b with regard to b these fifteen /b Songs of b Ascents /b in Psalms, b corresponding to what did David say them? He said to him /b that b this /b is what b Rabbi Yoḥa said: At the time that David dug the drainpipes /b in the foundation of the Temple, the waters of b the depths rose and sought to inundate the world. /b Immediately, b David recited the fifteen /b Songs of the b Ascents and caused them to subside. /b Rav Ḥisda asked: b If so, /b should they be called b fifteen /b Songs of the b Ascents? They should have been /b called Songs of the b Descents. /b ,Rav Ḥisda continued and b said to him: Since you reminded me /b of this b matter, this is /b what b was /b originally b stated: At the time that David dug the drainpipes, /b the waters of b the depths rose and sought to inundate the world. David said: Is there anyone who knows whether it is permitted to write the /b sacred b name /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61
64b. שחל להיות בשבת מניח ידו על כתף חבירו ויד חבירו על כתיפו ותולה ומפשיט קרעו והוציא את אימוריו נתנו במגיס והקטירן על גבי המזבח,יצתה כת הראשונה וישבה לה בהר הבית שניה בחיל והשלישית במקומה עומדת חשיכה יצאו וצלו את פסחיהן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר יצחק אין הפסח נשחט אלא בג' כתות של שלשים שלשים בני אדם מ"ט קהל ועדה וישראל מספקא לן אי בבת אחת אי בזה אחר זה,הלכך בעינן שלש כתות של שלשים שלשים בני אדם דאי בבת אחת הא איכא ואי בזה אחר זה הא איכא הלכך בחמשין נמי סגיא דעיילי תלתין ועבדי עיילי עשרה ונפקי עשרה עיילי עשרה ונפקי עשרה:,נכנסה כת ראשונה וכו': איתמר אביי אמר ננעלו תנן רבא אמר נועלין תנן,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו למסמך אניסא אביי אמר ננעלו תנן כמה דעיילו מעלו וסמכינן אניסא רבא אמר נועלין תנן ולא סמכינן אניסא,והא דתנן א"ר יהודה ח"ו שעקביא בן מהללאל נתנדה שאין עזרה ננעלת על כל אדם בישראל בחכמה וביראת חטא כעקביא בן מהללאל אביי מתרץ לטעמיה ורבא מתרץ לטעמיה אביי מתרץ לטעמיה אין בעזרה בשעה שננעלה על כל אדם בישראל בחכמה וביראת חטא כעקביא בן מהללאל רבא מתרץ לטעמיה אין בעזרה בשעה שנועלין אותה על כל ישראל בחכמה וביראת חטא כעקביא בן מהללאל,תנו רבנן מעולם לא נתמעך אדם בעזרה חוץ מפסח אחד שהיה בימי הלל שנתמעך בו זקן אחד והיו קוראין אותו פסח מעוכין,תנו רבנן פעם אחת ביקש אגריפס המלך ליתן עיניו באוכלוסי ישראל אמר ליה לכהן גדול תן עיניך בפסחים נטל כוליא מכל אחד ונמצאו שם ששים ריבוא זוגי כליות כפלים כיוצאי מצרים חוץ מטמא ושהיה בדרך רחוקה ואין לך כל פסח ופסח שלא נמנו עליו יותר מעשרה בני אדם והיו קוראין אותו פסח מעובין,נטל כוליא הא בעי אקטורה דהדר מקטיר להו והכתיב (ויקרא ג, ה) והקטירו שלא יערב חלביו של זה בזה,דהדר מקטיר להו חדא חדא והתניא (ויקרא ג, טז) והקטירם שיהא כולו כאחד אלא תפיסה בעלמא דשקיל מינייהו עד דיהבין ליה מידי אחרינא:,כהנים עומדין שורות וכו': מאי טעמא אילימא דילמא שקלי דדהבא ומעיילי דכספא הכא נמי דילמא שקלי בר מאתן ומעיילי בר מאה אלא דהכי שפיר טפי:,ולא היו לבזיכין שוליים וכו': תנו רבנן כל הבזיכין שבמקדש לא היו להן שוליים חוץ מבזיכי לבונה של לחם הפנים שמא יניחום ויפרוס הלחם:,שחט ישראל וקבל הכהן וכו': לא סגיא דלאו ישראל היא גופא קמ"ל דשחיטה בזר כשירה וקבל הכהן הא קמשמע לן מקבלה ואילך מצות כהונה,נותנו לחבירו שמעת מינה הולכה שלא ברגל הויא הולכה דילמא הוא נייד פורתא ואלא מאי קמ"ל הא קמשמע לן (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך:,קבל את המלא ומחזיר את הריקן וכו': אבל איפכא לא מסייע ליה לר"ש בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין מעבירין על המצות:,כהן הקרוב אצל המזבח וכו': מאן תנא פסח בזריקה א"ר חסדא ר' יוסי הגלילי היא,דתניא ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר (במדבר יח, יז) את דמם תזרוק על המזבח ואת חלבם תקטיר דמו לא נאמר אלא דמם חלבו לא נאמר אלא חלבם למד על בכור ומעשר ופסח שהן טעונין מתן דמים ואימורין לגבי מזבח,מנלן דטעונין יסוד אמר רבי אלעזר אתיא זריקה זריקה מעולה כתיב הכא את דמם תזרוק על המזבח וכתיב התם (ויקרא א, יא) וזרקו בני אהרן הכהנים את דמו על המזבח סביב מה עולה טעונה יסוד אף פסח נמי טעון יסוד 64b. b occurred on Shabbat, /b when moving the rods is prohibited (Rambam), b he would rest his hand on another’s shoulder and the other’s hand on his /b own b shoulder and suspend /b the offering b and flay /b it. b He would tear /b open the flesh of the offering b and remove its sacrificial parts, /b i.e., the fats and other parts offered on the altar. b He would place /b the sacrificial parts b in a large basin [ i mageis /i ] and burn them on the altar. /b ,If this took place on Shabbat, when carrying is prohibited, b the first group would exit and remain on the Temple Mount; the second /b group would remain within b the rampart, /b which was an area outside the women’s courtyard; b and the third /b group b would stand in its place /b in the Temple. They would wait there until nightfall, and as soon as b it became dark, they would /b all b go out and roast their Paschal lambs, /b everyone in his own place., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: The Paschal lamb is slaughtered only in three groups of /b at least b thirty people /b each. b What is the reason /b for this rule? The verse says: b Assembly, congregation, and Israel, /b and each of these terms refers to a group of no fewer than ten people. b We are uncertain /b as to whether this means that we need three groups of ten people b at the same time /b or b one after another. /b , b Therefore, /b in order to satisfy both possible interpretations, b we require three groups of thirty people /b each. b As, if /b you say we need all thirty b at the same time, /b we b have /b that, b and if /b we need them b one after another, /b we b have /b that as well. b Therefore, /b in pressing circumstances when there are not enough people present, b even fifty /b people b suffice. /b How so? b Thirty enter and perform /b the necessary rite, b ten /b others b enter and ten /b of the original group b leave /b so that those present are considered a new group, b and /b then b ten /b others b enter and ten /b more b leave /b so that those present now comprise a third group. In this way the Paschal lamb is slaughtered in three groups of thirty people each, although the total number of people involved is only fifty.,The mishna teaches that b the first group entered, /b after which they closed the doors to the Temple courtyard. b It was stated /b that the i amora’im /i disagreed about the precise wording of the mishna. b Abaye said: We learned /b in the mishna that the doors of the Temple courtyard miraculously b closed by themselves. Rava said: We learned /b in the mishna b that /b people b would close /b the doors of the Temple courtyard at the appropriate time., b What is /b the practical difference b between them? The /b practical difference b between them is /b with regard to b whether we rely on a miracle. Abaye said: We learned /b in the mishna b that the doors closed by themselves; as many /b people b as entered, entered, and we rely on a miracle /b to close the doors so that an excessive number of people not enter and thus create a danger (Rabbeinu Ḥael). b Rava said: We learned /b in the mishna b that /b people would b close /b the doors, b and we do not rely on a miracle /b to ensure that the courtyard not become overly crowded., b And that which we learned /b elsewhere in a mishna with regard to the ban placed upon Akavya ben Mahalalel for having spoken harshly about Shemaya and Avtalyon, that b Rabbi Yehuda said: Heaven forbid that Akavya ben Mahalalel was banned; /b it must have been someone else, as even when the entire Jewish people would come to Jerusalem for the Festival, b the Temple courtyard would not close on any man from Israel /b as full of b wisdom and fear of sin as Akavya ben Mahalalel; Abaye /b can b explain /b this statement b according to his opinion, and Rava /b can also b explain /b it b according to his opinion. Abaye /b can b explain /b it b according to his opinion /b as follows: b No man from Israel was in the Temple courtyard when it closed by itself /b who was as full of b wisdom and fear of sin as Akavya ben Mahalalel. Rava, /b too, can b explain /b it b according to his opinion /b as follows: b No /b man b from Israel was in the Temple courtyard when they closed it /b who was as full of b wisdom and fear of sin as Akavya ben Mahalalel. /b , b The Sages taught: No one was ever crushed /b by the great throngs of people b in the Temple courtyard, except for one Passover in the days of Hillel when an old man was crushed, and they called /b that Passover b the Passover of the crushed. /b , b The Sages taught: Once, King Agrippa wished to set his eyes on the multitudes [ i ukhlosin /i ] of Israel /b to know how many they were. He b said to the High Priest: Set your eyes on the Paschal lambs; /b count how many animals are brought in order to approximate the number of people. The High Priest b took a kidney from each one, /b as the kidneys are burned on the altar, b and six hundred thousand pairs of kidneys were found there, double /b the number of b those who left Egypt. /b This did not reflect the sum total of the Jewish people, as it b excluded those who were ritually impure or at a great distance, /b who did not come to offer the sacrifice. Furthermore, this was a count of the Paschal lambs and not of the people, b and there was not a single Paschal lamb that did not have more than ten people registered for it. They called that /b Passover b the Passover of the crowded, /b due to the large number of people.,The Gemara questions one of the details of this story: How could the High Priest b take a kidney? /b Didn’t b he have to burn it /b on the altar? The Gemara answers: b He /b first took the kidneys for the count, and b subsequently he burned them. /b The Gemara asks: b Isn’t it written: “And /b the priest b shall burn it /b on the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire to the Lord” (Leviticus 3:11)? The singular “it” apparently indicates that b he must not mix /b the b fats of this /b sacrifice b with /b those of b another; /b rather, he must burn each set separately.,The Gemara answers: b He subsequently burned them one by one /b and not all together. The Gemara asks further: b Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that the plural “them” in the verse: “And the priest b shall burn them /b upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire for a satisfying aroma; all the fat is the Lord’s” (Leviticus 3:16) indicates b that all /b the sacrificial parts of a sacrifice must be offered b at the same time? Rather, /b it must be that when the High Priest took a kidney for counting, it was b merely /b momentary b seizure; /b that is, b he took it from them until they brought him something else /b with which to keep track of the numbers, and it was this other item that was counted afterward.,It was stated in the mishna that b the priests stood in rows /b and that there were rows of priests holding silver bowls and rows of priests holding gold bowls, but that in no rows were there both gold and silver bowls. b What is the reason /b that there was no intermingling of gold and silver bowls? b If you say /b that it was due to concern that b perhaps /b a priest b would take a gold /b bowl to keep for himself b and /b then b return a silver /b one in its place, the solution described in the mishna does not alleviate this concern. b Here, too, /b in a row where everyone is holding gold bowls, there is concern that b perhaps /b a priest b would take a two-hundred- /b dinar bowl, keep it for himself, b and /b then b return a /b one-hundred-dinar bowl in its place (Rid). b Rather, /b the reason is b that this /b arrangement, where all the bowls in each row are of the same color, b is /b aesthetically b more attractive. /b ,It was further stated in the mishna that b the bowls did not have /b flat b bases. /b The Gemara adds that b the Sages taught /b a i baraita /i that states: b None of the bowls in the Temple had /b flat b bases /b for the same reason, so that they should not be put down, which would allow the blood to congeal. This was b with the exception of the bowls of frankincense /b that would be placed on b the showbread, /b which did have flat bases. They could not have sharp bottoms out of concern that b perhaps /b the priests b would rest them on the bread and the bread would break. /b The showbread had an intricate and delicate shape, and a bowl with a sharp bottom could pierce or break the bread.,It was taught in the mishna: b An Israelite would slaughter /b the offering b and a priest would receive /b the blood and pass it to other priests. The Gemara asks: b Is it not sufficient /b if someone who is b not an Israelite /b slaughters the offering? Must the ritual slaughter be performed specifically by an Israelite, and not by a priest or a Levite? The Gemara answers: The mishna b teaches us this /b i halakha /i b itself, that /b even if the b slaughter /b is performed b by a non-priest /b it b is valid. /b And that which was stated in the mishna that b the priest receives /b the blood b comes to teach us that from receiving and onward /b the rite is b a commandment /b cast b upon the priesthood, /b and a non-priest may not perform it.,It was also taught in the mishna that the priest would b pass /b the bowl of blood b to another /b priest. The Gemara suggests: b Learn from this that carrying without walking, /b i.e., transporting the blood to the altar by passing it from hand to hand without actually walking with it to the altar, b is /b considered a valid act of b carrying /b the blood of a sacrifice to the altar, one of the four rites involved in the offering of a sacrifice. This would resolve the same uswered question in tractate i Zevaḥim /i . The Gemara rejects this proof: b Perhaps /b the priest b would move a little /b with his feet as he passed the bowl to the next priest, in order to fulfill the requirement to walk with the blood to the altar. b Rather, what does this /b account of how they transported the blood to the altar b teach us? /b The Gemara answers: b It teaches us /b that the priests were arranged in rows in order to increase the number of people involved in the rite and fulfill the principle that b “in the multitude of people is the king’s glory” /b (Proverbs 14:28).,It was further stated in the mishna that each priest would b receive a full /b bowl of blood b and return an empty /b one. The Gemara infers: b But the opposite /b was b not /b done; the priest would not first return an empty bowl and then receive a full one. This b supports /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: One must not postpone /b the performance of b mitzvot. /b When one is presented with the opportunity to fulfill a mitzva, he must do so immediately and not delay for any reason. In this case, since bringing the blood to the altar is a mitzva, the priest should first fulfill the mitzva at hand and receive the full bowl of blood, and only then should he return the empty bowl.,It was also stated in the mishna that b the priest who was closest to the altar /b would sprinkle the blood upon the altar. b Who is the i tanna /i /b who holds that the blood of b the Paschal lamb /b requires b sprinkling /b from afar upon the altar, and that pouring the blood directly from the bowl onto the altar does not suffice? b Rav Ḥisda said: It is Rabbi Yosei HaGelili. /b , b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: /b The verse states: “But the firstborn of an ox, or the firstborn of a sheep, or the firstborn of a goat, you shall not redeem, they are sacred; b you shall sprinkle their blood upon the altar and you shall burn their fat /b for an offering made by fire, for a satisfying aroma to the Lord” (Numbers 18:17). b It is not stated: Its blood, but /b rather b “their blood.” /b Similarly, b it is not stated: Its fat, but /b rather b “their fat.” /b This b teaches with regard to the firstborn /b animal, which is mentioned explicitly in the verse, as well as b the tithed animal and the Paschal lamb, /b which have a level of sanctity similar to a firstborn animal, b that they /b all b require placement of their blood and sacrificial parts on the altar, /b although the Torah does not give explicit instructions with regard to this aspect of the rite for a tithed animal or Paschal lamb.,The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive that their blood b requires /b sprinkling upon the altar on a side that has a b base? Rabbi Elazar said: This is derived /b by way of a verbal analogy between the word b sprinkling /b used here and the word b sprinkling /b used b with regard to a burnt-offering. Here, it is written: “You shall sprinkle their blood upon the altar;” there, it is written /b with regard to a burnt-offering: “And he shall slaughter it on the side of the altar northward before the Lord; b and the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall sprinkle its blood round about upon the altar” /b (Leviticus 1:11). b Just as /b the blood of a b burnt-offering must /b be sprinkled on the altar in a place where there is b a base, so too, /b the blood of a b Paschal lamb must /b be sprinkled in a place where there is b a base. /b
41. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 60
26a. יקחו ספרים ספרים לוקחין תורה,אבל אם מכרו תורה לא יקחו ספרים ספרים לא יקחו מטפחות מטפחות לא יקחו תיבה תיבה לא יקחו בית הכנסת בית הכנסת לא יקחו את הרחוב,וכן במותריהן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בני העיר שמכרו רחובה של עיר אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן זו דברי ר' מנחם בר יוסי סתומתאה אבל חכ"א הרחוב אין בו משום קדושה,ור' מנחם בר יוסי מאי טעמיה הואיל והעם מתפללין בו בתעניות ובמעמדות ורבנן ההוא אקראי בעלמא:,בית הכנסת לוקחין תיבה: אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן לא שנו אלא בית הכנסת של כפרים אבל בית הכנסת של כרכין כיון דמעלמא אתו ליה לא מצו מזבני ליה דהוה ליה דרבים,אמר רב אשי האי בי כנישתא דמתא מחסיא אף על גב דמעלמא אתו לה כיון דאדעתא דידי קאתו אי בעינא מזבנינא לה,מיתיבי א"ר יהודה מעשה בבית הכנסת של טורסיים שהיה בירושלים שמכרוה לרבי אליעזר ועשה בה כל צרכיו והא התם דכרכים הוה ההיא בי כנישתא זוטי הוה ואינהו עבדוה,מיתיבי (ויקרא יד, לד) בבית ארץ אחוזתכם אחוזתכם מיטמא בנגעים ואין ירושלים מיטמא בנגעים אמר רבי יהודה אני לא שמעתי אלא מקום מקדש בלבד,הא בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות מיטמאין אמאי הא דכרכין הוו אימא א"ר יהודה אני לא שמעתי אלא מקום מקודש בלבד,במאי קמיפלגי ת"ק סבר לא נתחלקה ירושלים לשבטים ורבי יהודה סבר נתחלקה ירושלים לשבטים,ובפלוגתא דהני תנאי,דתניא מה היה בחלקו של יהודה הר הבית הלשכות והעזרות ומה היה בחלקו של בנימין אולם והיכל ובית קדשי הקדשים,ורצועה היתה יוצאת מחלקו של יהודה ונכנסת בחלקו של בנימין ובה מזבח בנוי והיה בנימין הצדיק מצטער עליה בכל יום לבולעה שנאמר (דברים לג, יב) חופף עליו כל היום לפיכך זכה בנימין ונעשה אושפיזכן לשכינה,והאי תנא סבר לא נתחלקה ירושלים לשבטים דתניא אין משכירים בתים בירושלים מפני שאינן שלהן ר"א (בר צדוק) אומר אף לא מטות לפיכך עורות קדשים בעלי אושפיזין נוטלין אותן בזרוע,אמר אביי ש"מ אורח ארעא למישבק אינש גולפא ומשכא באושפיזיה,אמר רבא לא שנו אלא שלא מכרו שבעה טובי העיר במעמד אנשי העיר אבל מכרו שבעה טובי העיר במעמד אנשי העיר אפילו 26a. b they may purchase scrolls /b of the Prophets and the Writings. If they sold b scrolls /b of the Prophets and Writings, b they may purchase a Torah /b scroll., b However, /b the proceeds of a sale of a sacred item may not be used to purchase an item of a lesser degree of sanctity. Therefore, b if they sold a Torah /b scroll, b they may not /b use the proceeds to b purchase scrolls /b of the Prophets and the Writings. If they sold b scrolls /b of the Prophets and Writings, b they may not purchase wrapping cloths. /b If they sold b wrapping cloths, they may not purchase an ark. /b If they sold b an ark, they may not purchase a synagogue. /b If they sold b a synagogue, they may not purchase a town square. /b , b And similarly, /b the same limitation applies b to /b any b surplus funds /b from the sale of sacred items, i.e., if after selling an item and purchasing something of a greater degree of sanctity there remain additional, unused funds, the leftover funds are subject to the same principle and may be used to purchase only something of a degree of sanctity greater than that of the original item., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna states: b Residents of a town who sold the town square /b may purchase a synagogue with the proceeds. Concerning this mishna, b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: This is the statement of Rabbi Menaḥem bar Yosei, cited unattributed. However, the Rabbis say: The town square does not have any sanctity. /b Therefore, if it is sold, the residents may use the money from the sale for any purpose., b And Rabbi Menaḥem bar Yosei, what is his reason /b for claiming that the town square has sanctity? b Since the people pray in /b the town square b on /b communal b fast days and on /b non-priestly b watches, /b it is defined as a place of prayer and as such has sanctity. b And the Rabbis, /b why do they disagree? They maintain b that /b use of the town square b is merely an irregular occurrence. /b Consequently, the town square is not to be defined as a place of prayer, and so it has no sanctity.,§ The mishna states: If they sold b a synagogue, they may purchase an ark. /b The Gemara cites a qualification to this i halakha /i : b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: They taught /b this b only /b with regard to b a synagogue of a village, /b which is considered the property of the residents of that village. b However, /b with regard to b a synagogue of a city, since /b people b come to it from the /b outside b world, /b the residents of the city b are not able to sell it, because it is /b considered to be the property b of the public /b at large and does not belong exclusively to the residents of the city., b Rav Ashi said: This synagogue of Mata Meḥasya, although /b people b from the /b outside b world come to it, since they come at my discretion, /b as I established it, and everything is done there in accordance with my directives, b if I wish, I can sell it. /b ,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani’s statement, from a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda said: /b There was b an incident involving a synagogue of bronze workers [ i tursiyyim /i ] that was in Jerusalem, which they sold to Rabbi Eliezer, and he used it for all his /b own b needs. /b The Gemara asks: b But wasn’t /b the synagogue b there /b one b of cities, /b as Jerusalem is certainly classified as a city; why were they permitted to sell it? The Gemara explains: b That /b one b was a small synagogue, and /b it was the bronze workers b themselves /b who b built it. /b Therefore, it was considered exclusively theirs, and they were permitted to sell it.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b from another i baraita /i : The verse states with regard to leprosy of houses: “And I put the plague of leprosy b in a house of the land of your possession” /b (Leviticus 14:34), from which it may be inferred: b “Your possession,” /b i.e., a privately owned house, b can become ritually impure with leprosy, but /b a house in b Jerusalem cannot become ritually impure with leprosy, /b as property there belongs collectively to the Jewish people and is not privately owned. b Rabbi Yehuda said: I heard /b this distinction stated b only /b with regard to b the site of the Temple alone, /b but not with regard to the entire city of Jerusalem.,The Gemara explains: From Rabbi Yehuda’s statement, it is apparent that only the site of the Temple cannot become ritually impure, b but synagogues and study halls /b in Jerusalem b can become ritually impure. Why /b should this be true given b that they are /b owned by the b city? /b The Gemara answers: Emend the i baraita /i and b say /b as follows: b Rabbi Yehuda said: I heard /b this distinction stated b only /b with regard to b a sacred site, /b which includes the Temple, synagogues, and study halls., b With regard to what /b principle do the first i tanna /i and Rabbi Yehuda b disagree? The first i tanna /i holds /b that b Jerusalem was not apportioned to the tribes, /b i.e., it was never assigned to any particular tribe, but rather it belongs collectively to the entire nation. b And Rabbi Yehuda holds: Jerusalem was apportioned to the tribes, /b and it is only the site of the Temple itself that belongs collectively to the entire nation.,The Gemara notes: They each follow a different opinion b in the dispute /b between b these i tanna’im /i : /b ,One i tanna /i holds that Jerusalem was apportioned to the tribes, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b What /b part of the Temple b was in the /b tribal b portion of Judah? The Temple mount, the /b Temple b chambers, and the /b Temple b courtyards. And what was in the /b tribal b portion of Benjamin? The Entrance Hall, the Sanctuary, and the Holy of Holies. /b , b And a strip /b of land b issued forth from the portion of Judah and entered into the portion of Benjamin, and upon /b that strip b the altar was built, and /b the tribe of b Benjamin, the righteous, would agonize over it every day /b desiring b to absorb it /b into its portion, due to its unique sanctity, b as it is stated /b in Moses’ blessing to Benjamin: b “He covers it throughout the day, /b and he dwells between his shoulders” (Deuteronomy 33:12). The phrase “covers it” is understood to mean that Benjamin is continually focused upon that site. b Therefore, Benjamin was privileged by becoming the host [ i ushpizekhan /i ] of the /b Divine Presence, as the Holy of Holies was built in his portion., b And this /b other b i tanna /i holds /b that b Jerusalem was not apportioned to the tribes, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may not rent out houses in Jerusalem, due to /b the fact b that /b the houses b do not belong to /b those occupying them. Rather, as is true for the entire city, they are owned collectively by the nation. b Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok says: Even beds may not /b be hired out. b Therefore, /b in the case of the b hides of /b the renter’s b offerings /b that the innkeepers take in lieu of payment, the b innkeepers /b are considered to be b taking them by force, /b as they did not have a right to demand payment.,Apropos the topic of inns, the Gemara reports: b Abaye said: Learn from /b this i baraita /i that b it is proper etiquette /b for b a person to leave /b his wine b flask and /b the b hide /b of the animal that he slaughtered b at his inn, /b i.e., the inn where he stayed, as a gift for the service he received.,§ The Gemara returns its discussion of the mishna: b Rava said: They taught /b that there is a limitation on what may be purchased with the proceeds of the sale of a synagogue b only when the seven representatives of the town /b who were appointed to administer the town’s affairs b had not sold /b the synagogue b in an assembly of the residents of the town. However, /b if b the seven representatives of the town had sold /b it b in an assembly of the residents of the town, /b then b even /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61
105a. תשבע בסוף ולא תשבע בתחלה נחלקו עליו בני כהנים גדולים ואמרו תשבע בתחלה ובסוף אמר רבי דוסא בן הרכינס כדבריהם אמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי יפה אמר חנן לא תשבע אלא בסוף:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהי שלשה דייני גזילות היו בירושלים אדמון בן גדאי וחנן המצרי וחנן בן אבישלום קשיא תלת אתרין קשיא גזירות אגזילות,בשלמא תלת אתרין לא קשיא דחשיב ליה קתני דלא חשיב ליה לא קתני אלא גזירות אגזילות קשיא,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק שהיו גוזרין גזירות על גזילות כדתניא קיטמה נטיעה ר' יוסי אומר גוזרי גזירות שבירושלים אומרים נטיעה בת שנתה שתי כסף בת שתי שנים ארבע כסף,ורמינהי שלשה דייני גזירות היו בירושלים אדמון וחנן ונחום א"ר פפא מאן תנא נחום ר' נתן היא דתניא רבי נתן אומר אף נחום המדי מגוזרי גזירות שבירושלים היה ולא הודו לו חכמים,ותו ליכא והאמר ר' פנחס אמר רבי אושעיא שלש מאות ותשעים וארבעה בתי דינין היו בירושלים כנגדן בתי כנסיות וכנגדן בתי מדרשות וכנגדן בתי סופרים דיינין טובא הוו וכי קאמרינן אגוזרי גזירות קאמרינן,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי גוזרי גזירות שבירושלים היו נוטלין שכרן תשעים ותשע מנה מתרומת הלשכה לא רצו מוסיפין להם לא רצו אטו ברשיעי עסקינן אלא לא ספקו אע"פ שלא רצו מוסיפין עליהן,קרנא הוה שקיל איסתירא מזכאי ואיסתירא מחייב ודאין להו דינא והיכי עביד הכי והכתי' (שמות כג, ח) ושוחד לא תקח,וכ"ת ה"מ היכא דלא שקיל מתרוייהו דלמא אתי לאצלויי דינא קרנא כיון דשקיל מתרוייהו לא אתי לאצלויי דינא וכי לא אתי לאצלויי דינא מי שרי,והתניא ושוחד לא תקח מה ת"ל אם ללמד שלא לזכות את החייב ושלא לחייב את הזכאי הרי כבר נאמר (דברים טז, יט) לא תטה משפט אלא אפי' לזכות את הזכאי ולחייב את החייב אמרה תורה ושוחד לא תקח,הני מילי היכא דשקיל בתורת שוחד קרנא בתורת אגרא הוה שקיל ובתורת אגרא מי שרי והתנן הנוטל שכר לדון דיניו בטלין הנ"מ אגר דינא קרנא אגר בטילא הוה שקיל,ואגר בטילא מי שרי והתניא מכוער הדיין שנוטל שכר לדון אלא שדינו דין ה"ד אילימא אגר דינא דינו דין והתניא הנוטל שכר לדון דיניו בטילין אלא אגר בטילא וקתני מכוער הדיין,הני מילי בטילא דלא מוכחא קרנא בטילא דמוכחא הוה שקיל דהוה תהי באמברא דחמרא ויהבי ליה זוזא,כי הא דרב הונא כי הוה אתי דינא לקמיה אמר להו הבו לי גברא דדלי לי בחריקאי ואידון לכו דינא,אמר רבי אבהו בא וראה כמה סמויות עיניהן של מקבלי שוחד אדם חש בעיניו נותן ממון לרופא ספק מתרפא ספק אינו מתרפא והן נוטלין שוה פרוטה ומסמין עיניהן שנאמר (שמות כג, ח) כי השוחד יעור פקחים,תנו רבנן (דברים טז, יט) כי השוחד יעור עיני חכמים קל וחומר לטפשין ויסלף דברי צדיקים קל וחומר לרשעים מידי טפשים ורשעים בני דינא נינהו אלא הכי קאמר כי השוחד יעור עיני חכמים אפילו חכם גדול ולוקח שוחד אינו נפטר מן העולם בלא סמיות הלב ויסלף דברי צדיקים 105a. b She takes an oath at the end /b of their marriage, i.e., when she learns that her husband died. The oath is to the effect that he did not leave her any funds when he departed overseas, as she is claiming full payment of her marriage contract. b And she does not take an oath at the outset /b of his trip overseas, when she demands support soon after his departure. b The sons of High Priests disagreed with /b Ḥa’s opinion b and said: She takes an oath /b both b at the outset and at the end. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: /b The i halakha /i is b in accordance with their statement, /b i.e., that of the sons of the High Priests. b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said /b that b Ḥa spoke well: She takes an oath only at the end. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna states that there were two judges who issued decrees [ i gezeirot /i ] in Jerusalem. b And /b the Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from the following i baraita /i : b There were three judges /b who adjudicated cases b of theft [ i gezeilot /i ] in Jerusalem: Admon ben Gaddai, Ḥa the Egyptian, and Ḥa ben Avishalom. /b The fact that the i baraita /i mentions b three /b judges is b difficult, as /b the mishna includes only b two; /b and the fact that the judges are described in the mishna as those who issue b decrees /b is also b difficult as /b they are described in the i baraita /i as judges who adjudicate cases of b theft. /b ,The Gemara continues: b Granted, /b the contradiction between the statement that there were b three /b judges and the statement b that /b there were b two /b is b not difficult, /b as those b who are important to him /b the i tanna /i b teaches /b in the mishna, b and /b those b who are not important to him /b the i tanna /i b does not teach /b in the mishna. Although there were other judges, the i tanna /i mentioned only those pertinent to the topic at hand. b However, /b the contradiction between the ruling that refers to b decrees /b and the ruling that refers b to theft is difficult. /b , b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: /b There is no contradiction, b as they would issue decrees concerning /b matters of b theft, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to an animal that b severed /b a young b plant /b in the field of another, b Rabbi Yosei says /b that b those who issue decrees in Jerusalem said: /b For b a plant one year old, /b the animal’s owner must pay b two silver /b pieces; for a plant b two years old, /b he pays b four silver /b pieces.,The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b between the i baraita /i cited above and another i baraita /i : b There were three /b prominent b judges /b who issued b decrees in Jerusalem: Admon, Ḥa, and Naḥum. /b In the previous i baraita /i , Naḥum was not listed. b Rav Pappa said: Who /b is the i tanna /i who b taught /b that the third judge was b Naḥum? It is Rabbi Natan, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Natan says: Naḥum HaMadi was also among those who /b would b issue decrees in Jerusalem, but the Sages did not agree with /b his opinion.,The Gemara asks: b And /b were there b no more /b judges? b Didn’t Rabbi Pineḥas say /b that b Rabbi Oshaya said: There were 394 courts in Jerusalem, and a comparable number of synagogues, and a comparable number of study halls, and a comparable number of houses of teachers /b of schoolchildren. The Gemara answers: b There were many judges, but when we say /b that there were a small number, it is specifically b concerning those who issue decrees /b that b we say /b so.,§ b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav Asi said: Those who issue decrees in Jerusalem would take their wages, ninety-nine i maneh /i , /b equal to 9,900 dinars per year, b from the collection of the /b Temple treasury b chamber. /b If b they did not wish /b to do so, b one adds /b to their wages. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: If b they did not wish /b to do so? Does this mean that if they desired higher wages, they were paid more? b Is that to say /b that b we are dealing with wicked /b people who demand wages beyond what they need? b Rather, /b on the contrary, Rav Asi said that if their wages were b insufficient /b for their needs, then b even if they did not wish /b to receive higher wages, b one adds to their /b wages so that they may devote themselves to their communal service.,The Gemara relates: The Sage b Karna would take an i istera /i , /b a small coin, b from the innocent party, and an i istera /i from the guilty party, /b i.e., he would charge both parties that came to him for judgment, b and /b then b he would judge their case. /b The Gemara asks: b But how could he do so? Isn’t it written: “And you shall take no bribe” /b (Exodus 23:8), which indicates that a judge may not take money from either of the two litigants?, b And if you say /b that b this /b prohibition against taking a bribe b applies only when /b a judge b does not take from both /b parties, as there is a concern that b perhaps he may come to pervert the judgment /b in favor of the party that gave him the bribe, whereas in the case of b Karna, since he took from both /b parties b he will not come to pervert the judgment, /b who says that the verse is referring only to those circumstances? b Is it permitted /b to take a bribe even in a case b when one will not pervert the judgment? /b , b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b “And you shall take no bribe” /b (Exodus 23:8); b what /b is the meaning when b the verse states /b this? b If /b it comes b to teach that /b one should b not acquit the guilty and /b one should b not convict the innocent /b due to a bribe, b it is already stated: “You shall not wrest judgment” /b (Deuteronomy 16:19). b Rather, /b this verse teaches that b even /b if the purpose of the bribe is b to /b ensure that one b acquit the innocent and convict the guilty, the Torah /b nevertheless b says: “And you shall take no bribe.” /b This indicates that it is prohibited for a judge to receive anything from the litigants, even if there is no concern at all that justice will be perverted.,The Gemara answers: b This applies only when one takes the money in the form of a bribe, /b even if he does not intend to pervert the judgment, whereas b Karna took /b the money b in the form of a salary, /b not a bribe. The Gemara asks: b But is it permitted /b to take money from litigants b in the form of a salary? Didn’t we learn /b in a mishna ( i Kiddushin /i 58b): With regard to b one who takes a salary to judge /b cases, b his judgments are void? /b The Gemara answers: b This applies only /b when he took money as his b compensation for judging /b the case, whereas b Karna /b accepted the money b as compensation for unemployment, /b i.e., as he could not engage in his usual work while dealing with the case, he would take compensation for this unemployment.,The Gemara asks: b And is /b it b permitted /b to take money b as compensation for unemployment? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Ugly is the judge who takes a salary to judge /b cases; b however, his judgments are /b valid b judgments? /b The Gemara clarifies: b What are the circumstances /b of this i baraita /i ? b If we say /b that it is referring to one who accepted money as his b compensation for judging, /b are b his judgments /b valid b judgments? But didn’t we learn /b in a mishna ( i Kiddushin /i 58b): With regard to b one who takes a salary to judge /b cases, b his judgments are void? Rather, /b it must certainly be referring to a situation where he takes money as b compensation for unemployment, and /b yet the i baraita /i b teaches: Ugly is the judge. /b ,The Gemara answers: b This /b statement that the judge is ugly b applies only /b when the fact that he is taking a salary for his b unemployment is not evident, /b as he was not engaged in some other type of work at the time. b Karna, /b however, b would take /b money for his b unemployment /b when b it was evident /b that he was taking time off work to judge the case, b as he was examining /b people's b wine stores [ i ambara /i ] /b to see which casks would last and which were going sour, b and they would pay him /b one b dinar /b as a salary. Consequently, when Karna paused from his work to deal with a case, it was clear that he was losing money.,This b resembles /b an incident involving b Rav Huna. When /b people b would come /b for b judgment before him, /b he would b say to them: /b As I am unable to take time off from my work, b give me a man who can draw water for me, /b to irrigate the fields in my place, b and I will judge your case. /b , b Rabbi Abbahu said: Come and see how blind are the eyes of those who accept bribes, /b and how they ruin themselves. If b a person has pain in his eyes, /b he b gives a doctor money, /b and even then b it is uncertain /b whether b he will be healed /b or b whether he will not be healed. And /b yet those judges b take /b the b value /b of b a i peruta /i , /b a small amount of money as a bribe, b and /b actively b blind their eyes, as it is stated: “For a bribe blinds those who have sight” /b (Exodus 23:8)., b The Sages taught: “For a bribe blinds the eyes of the wise” /b (Deuteronomy 16:19); b i a fortiori /i /b it will certainly blind the eyes b of fools. “And perverts the words of the righteous” /b (Deuteronomy 16:19); b i a fortiori /i /b it will certainly pervert the statements b of the wicked. /b The Gemara asks: b Are fools and the wicked suitable for judgment, /b i.e., to be appointed as judges? b Rather, this is what /b the i tanna /i of the i baraita /i b said: “For a bribe blinds the eyes of the wise”; even /b if he were b very wise but he took a bribe, /b he b will not leave /b this b world without /b suffering b blindness of the heart, /b i.e., he will eventually turn foolish. b “And perverts the words of the righteous”; /b
43. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 348
14b. הא בדברי תורה הא במשא ומתן בדברי תורה הוו במשא ומתן לא הוו.,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה מהלך בדרך ור' אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה לי פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא כך שניתי לכם ולא במרכבה ביחיד אלא א"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו רבי תרשיני לומר לפניך דבר אחד שלמדתני אמר לו אמור,מיד ירד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מעל החמור ונתעטף וישב על האבן תחת הזית אמר לו רבי מפני מה ירדת מעל החמור אמר אפשר אתה דורש במעשה מרכבה ושכינה עמנו ומלאכי השרת מלוין אותנו ואני ארכב על החמור מיד פתח ר"א בן ערך במעשה המרכבה ודרש וירדה אש מן השמים וסיבבה כל האילנות שבשדה פתחו כולן ואמרו שירה,מה שירה אמרו (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות עץ פרי וכל ארזים הללויה נענה מלאך מן האש ואמר הן הן מעשה המרכבה עמד רבן יוחנן ב"ז ונשקו על ראשו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל שנתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולחקור ולדרוש במעשה מרכבה יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש אתה נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך אברהם אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך,וכשנאמרו הדברים לפני ר' יהושע היה הוא ורבי יוסי הכהן מהלכים בדרך אמרו אף אנו נדרוש במעשה מרכבה פתח רבי יהושע ודרש ואותו היום תקופת תמוז היה נתקשרו שמים בעבים ונראה כמין קשת בענן והיו מלאכי השרת מתקבצין ובאין לשמוע כבני אדם שמתקבצין ובאין לראות במזמוטי חתן וכלה,הלך רבי יוסי הכהן וסיפר דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ואשרי יולדתכם אשרי עיני שכך ראו ואף אני ואתם בחלומי מסובין היינו על הר סיני ונתנה עלינו בת קול מן השמים עלו לכאן עלו לכאן טרקלין גדולים ומצעות נאות מוצעות לכם אתם ותלמידיכם ותלמידי תלמידיכם מזומנין לכת שלישית,איני והתניא ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר שלשה הרצאות הן ר' יהושע הרצה דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ר"ע הרצה לפני ר' יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני ר"ע ואילו ר"א בן ערך לא קא חשיב דארצי וארצו קמיה קחשיב דארצי ולא ארצו קמיה לא קא חשיב והא חנניא בן חכינאי דלא ארצו קמיה וקא חשיב דארצי מיהא קמיה מאן דארצי.,ת"ר ארבעה נכנסו בפרדס ואלו הן בן עזאי ובן זומא אחר ורבי עקיבא אמר להם ר"ע כשאתם מגיעין אצל אבני שיש טהור אל תאמרו מים מים משום שנאמר (תהלים קא, ז) דובר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני,בן עזאי הציץ ומת עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים קטז, טו) יקר בעיני ה' המותה לחסידיו בן זומא הציץ ונפגע ועליו הכתוב אומר (משלי כה, טז) דבש מצאת אכול דייך פן תשבענו והקאתו אחר קיצץ בנטיעות רבי עקיבא יצא בשלום,שאלו את בן זומא מהו לסרוסי כלבא אמר להם (ויקרא כב, כד) ובארצכם לא תעשו כל שבארצכם לא תעשו שאלו את בן זומא בתולה שעיברה מהו לכ"ג מי חיישינן לדשמואל דאמר שמואל 14b. b This /b case is referring b to words of Torah, /b while b that /b case is referring b to commerce. With regard to words of Torah, they were /b trustworthy; b with regard to commerce, they were not. /b ,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of the Design of the Divine Chariot. b The Sages taught: An incident /b occurred b involving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, who was riding on a donkey and was traveling along the way, and /b his student, b Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, was riding a donkey behind him. /b Rabbi Elazar b said to him: My teacher, teach me one chapter in the Design of the /b Divine b Chariot. He said to him: /b Have b I not taught you: And one may not /b expound the Design of the Divine Chariot b to an individual, unless he is a Sage who understands on his own accord? /b Rabbi Elazar b said to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one thing that you taught me. /b In other words, he humbly requested to recite before him his own understanding of this issue. b He said to him: Speak. /b , b Immediately, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai alighted from the donkey, and wrapped /b his head in his cloak in a manner of reverence, b and sat on a stone under an olive tree. /b Rabbi Elazar b said to him: My teacher, for what reason did you alight from the donkey? He said: /b Is it b possible that /b while b you are expounding the Design of the /b Divine b Chariot, and the Divine Presence is with us, and the ministering angels are accompanying us, that I should ride on a donkey? Immediately, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh began /b to discuss b the Design of the /b Divine b Chariot and expounded, and fire descended from heaven and encircled all the trees in the field, and all /b the trees b began reciting song. /b , b What song did they recite? “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths…fruit trees and all cedars…praise the Lord” /b (Psalms 148:7–14). b An angel responded from the fire, saying: This is the very Design of the /b Divine b Chariot, /b just as you expounded. b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai stood and kissed /b Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh b on his head, and said: Blessed be God, Lord of Israel, who gave our father Abraham a son /b like you, b who knows /b how b to understand, investigate, and expound the Design of the /b Divine b Chariot. There are some who expound /b the Torah’s verses b well but do not fulfill /b its imperatives b well, /b and there are some b who fulfill /b its imperatives b well but do not expound /b its verses b well, /b whereas b you expound /b its verses b well and fulfill /b its imperatives b well. Happy are you, our father Abraham, that Elazar ben Arakh came from your loins. /b ,The Gemara relates: b And when /b these b matters, /b this story involving his colleague Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, b were recounted before Rabbi Yehoshua, he was walking along the way with Rabbi Yosei the Priest. They said: We too shall expound the Design of the /b Divine b Chariot. Rabbi Yehoshua began expounding. And that was the day of the summer solstice, /b when there are no clouds in the sky. Yet the b heavens became filled with clouds, and there was the appearance of a kind of rainbow in a cloud. And ministering angels gathered and came to listen, like people gathering and coming to see the rejoicing of a bridegroom and bride. /b , b Rabbi Yosei the Priest went and recited /b these b matters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, /b who b said /b to him: b Happy are /b all of b you, and happy are /b the mothers b who gave birth to you; happy are my eyes that saw this, /b students such as these. b As for you and I, /b I saw b in my dream /b that b we were seated at Mount Sinai, and a Divine Voice came to us from heaven: Ascend here, ascend here, /b for b large halls /b [ b i teraklin /i /b ] b and pleasant couches are made up for you. You, your students, and the students of your students are invited to /b the b third group, /b those who will merit to welcome the Divine Presence.,The Gemara poses a question: b Is that so? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: There are three lectures. /b In other words, there are three Sages with regard to whom it states that they delivered lectures on the mystical tradition: b Rabbi Yehoshua lectured /b on these b matters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai; Rabbi Akiva lectured before Rabbi Yehoshua; /b and b Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai lectured before Rabbi Akiva. However, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was not included /b in the list, despite the testimony that he lectured before Rabban Yoḥa. The Gemara explains: Those b who lectured and were /b also b lectured to were included; /b but those b who lectured and were not lectured to were not included. /b The Gemara asks: b But wasn’t /b there b Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai, who was not lectured to, and /b yet b he is included? /b The Gemara answers: Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai b actually lectured before one who lectured /b in front of his own rabbi, so he was also included in this list.,§ b The Sages taught: Four entered the orchard [ i pardes /i ], /b i.e., dealt with the loftiest secrets of Torah, b and they are as follows: Ben Azzai; and ben Zoma; i Aḥer /i , /b the other, a name for Elisha ben Avuya; b and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva, /b the senior among them, b said to them: When, /b upon your arrival in the upper worlds, b you reach pure marble stones, do not say: Water, water, /b although they appear to be water, b because it is stated: “He who speaks falsehood shall not be established before My eyes” /b (Psalms 101:7).,The Gemara proceeds to relate what happened to each of them: b Ben Azzai glimpsed /b at the Divine Presence b and died. And with regard to him the verse states: “Precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones” /b (Psalms 116:15). b Ben Zoma glimpsed /b at the Divine Presence b and was harmed, /b i.e., he lost his mind. b And with regard to him the verse states: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, lest you become full from it and vomit it” /b (Proverbs 25:16). b i Aḥer /i chopped down the shoots /b of saplings. In other words, he became a heretic. b Rabbi Akiva came out safely. /b ,The Gemara recounts the greatness of ben Zoma, who was an expert interpreter of the Torah and could find obscure proofs: b They asked ben Zoma: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard to b castrating a dog? /b The prohibition against castration appears alongside the sacrificial blemishes, which may imply that it is permitted to castrate an animal that cannot be sacrificed as an offering. b He said to them: /b The verse states “That which has its testicles bruised, or crushed, or torn, or cut, you shall not offer to God, nor b shall you do so in your land” /b (Leviticus 22:24), from which we learn: With regard to b any /b animal b that is in your land, you shall not do /b such a thing. b They /b also b asked ben Zoma: /b A woman considered b to be a virgin who became pregt, what is /b the i halakha /i ? b A High Priest /b may marry only a virgin; is he permitted to marry her? The answer depends on the following: b Are we concerned for /b the opinion of b Shmuel? Shmuel says: /b
44. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 348
54a. מתני׳ big strongהרואה /strong /big מקום שנעשו בו נסים לישראל אומר ברוך שעשה נסים לאבותינו במקום הזה מקום שנעקרה ממנו עכו"ם אומר ברוך שעקר עכו"ם מארצנו,על הזיקין ועל הזועות ועל הרעמים ועל הרוחות ועל הברקים אומר ברוך שכחו וגבורתו מלא עולם על ההרים ועל הגבעות ועל הימים ועל הנהרות ועל המדברות אומר ברוך עושה בראשית רבי יהודה אומר הרואה את הים הגדול אומר ברוך שעשה את הים הגדול בזמן שרואהו לפרקים,על הגשמים ועל בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב על בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת בנה בית חדש וקנה כלים חדשים אומר ברוך שהחיינו וקיימנו והגיענו לזמן הזה מברך על הרעה מעין על הטובה ועל הטובה מעין על הרעה,והצועק לשעבר הרי זו תפלת שוא היתה אשתו מעוברת ואומר יהי רצון שתלד אשתי זכר הרי זו תפלת שוא היה בא בדרך ושמע קול צוחה בעיר ואומר יהי רצון שלא תהא בתוך ביתי הרי זו תפלת שוא,הנכנס לכרך מתפלל שתים אחת בכניסתו ואחת ביציאתו בן עזאי אומר ארבע שתים בכניסתו ושתים ביציאתו נותן הודאה על שעבר וצועק על העתיד,חייב אדם לברך על הרעה כשם שמברך על הטובה שנאמר (דברים ו, ה) ואהבת את ה' אלהיך בכל לבבך וגו' בכל לבבך בשני יצריך ביצר טוב וביצר הרע ובכל נפשך אפילו הוא נוטל את נפשך ובכל מאדך בכל ממונך ד"א בכל מאדך בכל מדה ומדה שהוא מודד לך הוי מודה לו,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים ולא יכנס להר הבית במקלו ובמנעלו ובפונדתו ובאבק שעל רגליו ולא יעשנו קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר,כל חותמי ברכות שבמקדש היו אומרים עד העולם משקלקלו הצדוקים ואמרו אין עולם אלא אחד התקינו שיהו אומרים מן העולם ועד העולם,והתקינו שיהא אדם שואל את שלום חברו בשם שנאמר (רות ב, ד) והנה בעז בא מבית לחם ויאמר לקוצרים ה' עמכם ויאמרו לו יברכך ה' ואומר (שופטים ו, יב) ה' עמך גבור החיל ואומר (משלי כג, כב) אל תבוז כי זקנה אמך ואומר (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך רבי נתן אומר הפרו תורתך משום עת לעשות לה':, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הני מילי אמר רבי יוחנן דאמר קרא (שמות יח, י) ויאמר יתרו ברוך ה' אשר הציל וגו',אניסא דרבים מברכינן אניסא דיחיד לא מברכינן והא ההוא גברא דהוה קא אזיל בעבר ימינא נפל עליה אריא אתעביד ליה ניסא ואיתצל מיניה אתא לקמיה דרבא וא"ל כל אימת דמטית להתם בריך ברוך שעשה לי נס במקום הזה,מר בריה דרבינא הוה קאזיל בפקתא דערבות וצחא למיא איתעביד ליה ניסא איברי ליה עינא דמיא ואישתי,ותו זמנא חדא הוה קאזיל ברסתקא דמחוזא ונפל עליה גמלא פריצא איתפרקא ליה אשיתא על לגוה כי מטא לערבות בריך ברוך שעשה לי נס בערבות ובגמל כי מטא לרסתקא דמחוזא בריך ברוך שעשה לי נס בגמל ובערבות אמרי אניסא דרבים כולי עלמא מיחייבי לברוכי אניסא דיחיד איהו חייב לברוכי,תנו רבנן הרואה מעברות הים ומעברות הירדן מעברות נחלי ארנון אבני אלגביש במורד בית חורון ואבן שבקש לזרוק עוג מלך הבשן על ישראל ואבן שישב עליה משה בשעה שעשה יהושע מלחמה בעמלק ואשתו של לוט וחומת יריחו שנבלעה במקומה על כולן צריך שיתן הודאה ושבח לפני המקום,בשלמא מעברות הים דכתיב (שמות יד, טז) ויבאו בני ישראל בתוך הים ביבשה מעברות הירדן דכתיב (יהושע ג, יז) ויעמדו הכהנים נושאי הארון ברית ה' בחרבה בתוך הירדן הכן וכל ישראל עוברים בחרבה עד אשר תמו כל הגוי לעבור את הירדן,אלא מעברות נחלי ארנון מנלן דכתיב (במדבר כא, יד) על כן יאמר בספר מלחמות ה' את והב בסופה וגו' תנא את והב בסופה שני מצורעים היו דהוו מהלכין בסוף מחנה ישראל כי הוו קא חלפי ישראל אתו אמוראי 54a. This mishna, which includes all of this chapter’s i mishnayot /i , contains a series of blessings and i halakhot /i that are not recited at specific times, but rather in response to various experiences and events. br br strong MISHNA: strong span class="gemarra-regular" One who sees a place where miracles occurred /span span class="gemarra-regular" on Israel’s behalf recites: Blessed…Who performed miracles /span span class="gemarra-regular" for our forefathers in this place. /span One who sees span class="gemarra-regular" a /span span class="gemarra-regular" place from which idolatry was eradicated recites: Blessed…Who eradicated /span span class="gemarra-regular" idolatry from our land. /span /strong /strong ,One who sees conspicuous natural occurrences recites a blessing. b For i zikin /i and i zeva’ot /i , /b which the Gemara will discuss below, b for thunder, /b gale force b winds, and lightning, /b manifestations of the power of the Creator, one b recites: Blessed…Whose strength and power fill the world. For /b extraordinary (Rambam) b mountains, hills, seas, rivers, and deserts, one recites: Blessed…Author of creation. /b Consistent with his opinion that a separate blessing should be instituted for each individual species, b Rabbi Yehuda says: One who sees the great sea recites /b a special blessing: b Blessed…Who made the great sea. /b As with all blessings of this type, one only recites it b when he sees /b the sea b intermittently, /b not on a regular basis., b For rain and /b other b good tidings, one recites /b the special blessing: b Blessed…Who is good and Who does good. /b Even b for bad tidings, one recites /b a special blessing: b Blessed…the true Judge. /b Similarly, when b one built a new house or purchased new vessels, he recites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time. /b The mishna articulates a general principle: b One recites a blessing for the bad /b that befalls him b just as /b he does b for the good. /b In other words, one recites the appropriate blessing for the trouble that he is experiencing at present despite the fact that it may conceal some positive element in the future. b Similarly, /b one must recite a blessing for b the good /b that befalls him b just as for the bad. /b ,The mishna states: b And one who cries out over the past /b in an attempt to change that which has already occurred, b it is a vain prayer. /b For example, b one whose wife was pregt and he says: May it be /b God’s b will that my wife will give birth to a male child, it is a vain prayer. /b Or b one who was walking on the path /b home b and he heard the sound of a scream in the city, and he says: May it be /b God’s b will that /b this scream b will not be from my house, it is a vain prayer. /b In both cases, the event already occurred.,The Sages also said: b One who enters a large city, /b the Gemara explains below that this is in a case where entering the city is dangerous, b recites two prayers: One upon his entrance, /b that he may enter in peace, b and one upon his exit, /b that he may leave in peace. b Ben Azzai says: /b He recites b four /b prayers, b two upon his entrance and two upon his exit. /b In addition to praying that he may enter and depart in peace, he b gives thanks for the past and cries out /b in prayer b for the future. /b ,The mishna articulates a general principle: b One is obligated to recite a blessing for the bad /b that befalls him b just as he recites a blessing for the good /b that befalls him, b as it is stated: “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, /b with all your soul, and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). The mishna explains this verse as follows: “ b With all your heart” /b means b with your two inclinations, with your good inclination and your evil inclination, /b both of which must be subjugated to the love of God. b “With all your soul” /b means b even if God takes your soul. “And with all your might” /b means b with all your money, /b as money is referred to in the Bible as might. b Alternatively, /b it may be explained that “ b with all your might” /b means b with every measure that He metes out to you; /b whether it is good or troublesome, b thank Him. /b ,The mishna teaches several Temple-related i halakhot /i . b One may not act irreverently /b or conduct himself flippantly b opposite the eastern gate /b of the Temple Mount, b which is aligned opposite the Holy of Holies. /b In deference to the Temple, one b may not enter the Temple Mount with his staff, his shoes, his money belt [ i punda /i ], or /b even b the dust on his feet. One may not make /b the Temple b a shortcut /b to pass through it, b and through an i a fortiori /i inference, /b all the more so b one may not spit /b on the Temple Mount.,The mishna relates: b At the conclusion of all blessings /b recited b in the Temple, those /b reciting the blessing b would say: /b Blessed are You Lord, God of Israel, b until everlasting [ i haolam /i ] /b , the world. But b when the Sadducees strayed and declared /b that b there is but one world /b and there is no World-to-Come, the Sages b instituted that /b at the conclusion of the blessing b one recites: From everlasting [ i haolam /i ] to everlasting [ i haolam /i ] /b .,The Sages also b instituted that one should greet another in the name /b of God, i.e., one should mention God’s name in his greeting, b as it is stated: “And presently Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the harvesters, The Lord is with you, and they said to him, May the Lord bless you” /b (Ruth 2:4). b And it says: /b “And the angel of God appeared to him b and said to him, God is with you, mighty man of valor” /b (Judges 6:12). b And it says: “And despise not your mother when she is old” /b (Proverbs 23:22), i.e., one must not neglect customs which he inherits. b And /b lest you say that mentioning God’s name is prohibited, b it says: “It is time to work for the Lord; they have made void Your Torah” /b (Psalms 119:126), i.e., it is occasionally necessary to negate biblical precepts in order to perform God’s will, and greeting another is certainly God’s will. b Rabbi Natan says /b another interpretation of the verse: b “Make void Your Torah” because “it is the time to work for the Lord,” /b i.e., occasionally it is necessary to negate biblical precepts in order to bolster the Torah., strong GEMARA: /strong With regard to the obligation to recite a blessing for a miracle, the Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The verse states: “And Jethro said: Blessed be the Lord, Who delivered /b you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; Who delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians” (Exodus 18:10); a blessing is recited for a miracle.,The Gemara asks: b For a miracle /b that occurs for the b multitudes we recite a blessing, /b but b for a miracle /b that befalls b an individual /b person b we do not recite a blessing? Wasn’t /b there an incident where b a certain man was walking along the right side /b of the Euphrates River when b a lion attacked him, a miracle was performed for him, and he was rescued? He came before Rava, who said to him: Every time that you arrive there, /b to the site of the miracle, b recite the blessing, “Blessed…Who performed a miracle for me in this place.” /b , b And /b once when b Mar, son of Ravina, was walking in a valley of willows and /b was b thirsty for water, a miracle was performed for him /b and b a spring of water was created for him, and he drank. /b , b Furthermore, once /b when Mar, son of Ravina, b was walking in the marketplace [ i risteka /i ] of Meḥoza and a wild camel [ i gamla peritza /i ] attacked him. The wall cracked open, he went inside it, /b and he was rescued. Ever since, b when he came to the willows he recited: Blessed…Who performed a miracle for me in the willows and with the camel. /b And, b when he came to the marketplace of Meḥoza he recited: Blessed…Who performed a miracle for me with the camel and in the willows, /b indicating that one recites a blessing even for a miracle that occurs to an individual. The Sages b say: On a miracle /b performed on behalf b of the multitudes, everyone is obligated to recite a blessing; on a miracle /b performed on behalf b of an individual, /b only the individual b is obligated to recite a blessing. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i a list of places where one is required to recite a blessing due to miracles that were performed there: b One who sees the crossings of the /b Red b Sea, /b where Israel crossed; b and the crossings of the Jordan; and the crossings of the streams of Arnon; the hailstones of Elgavish on the descent of Beit Ḥoron; the rock that Og, King of Bashan, sought to hurl upon Israel; and the rock upon which Moses sat when Joshua waged war against Amalek; and Lot’s wife; and the wall of Jericho that was swallowed up in its place. On all of these /b miracles b one must give thanks and /b offer b praise before God. /b ,The Gemara elaborates: b Granted, /b the miracles at b the crossings of the sea /b are recorded explicitly in the Torah, b as it is stated: “And the Israelites went into the sea on dry ground /b and the water was a wall for them on their right and on their left” (Exodus 14:22). So too, the miracle at b the crossings of the Jordan, as it is stated: “The priests who bore the ark of God’s covet stood on dry land within the Jordan, while all Israel crossed on dry land until the entire nation finished crossing the Jordan” /b (Joshua 3:17)., b However, from where do we /b derive the miracle that occurred at b the crossing of the streams of Arnon? As it is stated: “Wherefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of the Lord: i Vahev /i in i Sufa /i /b , and the valleys of Arnon. And the slope of the valleys that incline toward the seat of Ar, and lean upon the border of Moab” (Numbers 21:14–15). It was b taught: i “Vahev in Sufa”; /i there were two lepers, /b one named Et and the second named Hev, b who were walking at the rear of the camp of Israel. As Israel passed, the Emorites came /b
45. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 582
24a. תניא כוותיה דרב חסדא כל אלו שאמרו אין מדליקין בהן בשבת מדליקין בהן ביום טוב חוץ משמן שריפה לפי שאין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה בברכת המזון כיון דמדרבנן הוא לא מדכרינן או דילמא משום פרסומי ניסא מדכרינן אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא אינו מזכיר ואם בא להזכיר מזכיר בהודאה רב הונא בר יהודה איקלע לבי רבא סבר לאדכורי בבונה ירושלים אמר להו רב ששת כתפלה מה תפלה בהודאה אף ברכת המזון בהודאה:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר ראש חודש בברכת המזון אם תימצי לומר בחנוכה דרבנן לא צריך ראש חודש דאורייתא צריך או דילמא כיון דלא אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא מזכרינן רב אמר מזכיר רבי חנינא אמר אינו מזכיר אמר רב זריקא נקוט דרב בידך דקאי רבי אושעיא כוותיה דתני ר' אושעיא ימים שיש בהן קרבן מוסף כגון ר"ח וחוש"מ ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בעבודה ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס ויש בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון ימים שאין בהן קרבן מוסף כגון שני וחמישי (ושני) ותעניות ומעמדות,שני וחמישי מאי עבידתייהו אלא שני וה' וב' של תעניות ומעמדות ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בשומע תפלה ואם לא אמר אין מחזירין אותו (ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס) ואין בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה במוספין כיון דלית ביה מוסף בדידיה לא מדכרינן או דילמא יום הוא שחייב בארבע תפלות רב הונא ורב יהודה דאמרי תרוייהו אינו מזכיר רב נחמן ורבי יוחנן דאמרי תרוייהו מזכיר,אמר אביי לרב יוסף הא דרב הונא ורב יהודה דרב הוא דאמר רב גידל אמר רב ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא בשבת אינו צריך להזכיר של ראש חדש שאילמלא שבת אין נביא בראש חדש,מי דמי התם נביא בדר"ח ליכא כלל הכא איתיה בערבית ושחרית ומנחה אלא להא דמיא דאמר רב אחדבוי אמר רב מתנה אמר רב יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא במנחה בשבת א"צ להזכיר של יום טוב שאילמלא שבת אין נביא במנחה ביום טוב 24a. b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rav Ḥisda. All of these /b oils b with which /b the Sages b said /b that b one may not light on Shabbat, one may light with them on a Festival, with the exception of burnt oil, because one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival. /b , b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the ruling with regard to the obligation b to mention Hanukkah in Grace after Meals? /b The dilemma is: b Since it is merely an obligation by rabbinic law, do we not mention it? Or, perhaps due to publicity of the miracle, we mention it. Rava said /b that b Rav Seḥora said /b that b Rav Huna said: One does not mention /b it. b And if, /b nevertheless, b he comes to mention /b it, b he mentions it in /b the blessing of b thanksgiving. /b The Gemara relates that b Rav Huna bar Yehuda happened by Rava’s house /b on Hanukkah. When, after eating, he came to recite Grace after Meals, b he thought to mention /b Hanukkah b in /b the blessing: b Who builds Jerusalem. Rav Sheshet said to /b the yeshiva students: One mentions Hanukkah in Grace after Meals b just as /b he does b in /b the i Amida /i b prayer. Just as /b in the i Amida /i b prayer /b one mentions Hanukkah b in /b the blessing of b thanksgiving, so too, in Grace after Meals /b one mentions Hanukkah b in /b the blessing of b thanksgiving. /b ,Based on the previous dilemma, b an /b additional b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the ruling with regard to the obligation b to mention the New Moon in Grace after Meals? /b The dilemma is: b If you say /b that b on Hanukkah, /b since it is only b by rabbinic law, one need not /b mention it in Grace after Meals; perhaps b the New Moon, /b which is b by Torah law, one is required /b to mention it. b Or, perhaps since it is not /b a day on which it is b prohibited to perform labor, one need not mention it. /b The Sages disputed this matter: b Rav said: One mentions /b the New Moon in Grace after Meals. b Rabbi Ḥanina said: One does not mention /b it. b Rav Zerika said: Take /b the i halakha /i b of Rav in your hand /b as authoritative, since b Rabbi Oshaya holds in accordance with his /b opinion. b As Rabbi Oshaya taught /b in a i Tosefta /i : b Days /b on b which there is an additional offering sacrificed /b in the Temple, i.e., b the New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival; /b in b the evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites /b the b eighteen /b blessings of the i Amida /i prayer b and says /b a passage b pertaining to the event /b of the day b during /b the blessing of b Temple service. And if he did not recite /b it, b we require him to return /b to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. b And /b on those days, b there is no i kiddush /i recited over the cup /b of wine at the start of the day, b but there is mention /b of the day recited b in Grace after Meals, /b in accordance with Rav’s opinion. b Days /b on b which there is no additional offering, i.e., Monday, and Thursday, and fast days, and /b non-priestly b watches [ i ma’amadot /i ], /b have a different legal status as detailed below.,Before drawing a conclusion, the Gemara seeks to clarify: b Monday and Thursday, what is their purpose /b in this discussion, i.e., why are Monday and Thursday mentioned here if no special prayers are recited on those days? The Gemara explains: b Rather, /b certainly the reference is to b Monday and Thursday and Monday /b that are b fast days /b for rain b and of i ma /i ’ i amadot /i . /b On those days, in the b evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites eighteen /b blessings b and recites /b a passage b pertaining to the event /b of the day, i.e., the fast, b in /b the blessing: b Who listens to prayer. However, if one did not mention /b it, b we do not require him to return /b to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. b And, /b on those days, b there is no i kiddush /i recited over a cup /b of wine, b and there is no mention /b of the day recited b in Grace after Meals. /b , b An /b additional b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the ruling with regard to the obligation b to mention Hanukkah in /b the b additional prayer /b on Shabbat during Hanukkah or on the New Moon of Tevet, which falls during Hanukkah? The sides of the dilemma are: Do we say that b since /b Hanukkah b has no /b additional prayer b of its own, /b and the additional prayer has no connection to Hanukkah, b we do not mention /b it? b Or, perhaps it is /b the essence of b the day that is obligated /b in the mention of Hanukkah, in which case there is no distinction between the various prayers, and it should be mentioned b in /b all b four prayers, /b including the additional prayer on Shabbat and the New Moon. There is a dispute: b Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda both said: One does not mention /b it. b Rav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥa both said: One mentions /b it., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: This /b opinion of b Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda /b is b Rav’s /b opinion, as b Rav Giddel said /b that b Rav said: /b In the case of b the New Moon that occurs on Shabbat, the one who recites the portion from the Prophets [ i haftara /i ] on Shabbat need not mention the New Moon /b in the blessing, b as, if /b it b were not Shabbat, there would be no /b reading from b the Prophets on the New Moon. /b The i haftara /i is unrelated to the New Moon, and therefore the New Moon is not mentioned in the blessing. The same should be true with regard to mention of Hanukkah in the additional service on the New Moon, as, if it were not the New Moon, he would not be reciting the additional service on Hanukkah. Therefore, when he recites the additional prayer, he need not mention Hanukkah.,The Gemara rejects this comparison. b Is /b this b comparable? There, /b reading from the b Prophets /b is b not at all part of /b the service b on the New Moon. Here, there is /b mention of Hanukkah b in /b the b evening, morning, and afternoon prayers. Rather, /b it is b comparable to this: /b As b Rav Aḥadvoi said /b that b Rav Mattana said /b that b Rav said: /b On b a Festival that occurs on Shabbat, one who recites the portion from the Prophets during the afternoon service on Shabbat need not mention the Festival, as, if /b it were b not Shabbat, there would be no /b reading from the b Prophets during the afternoon service on a Festival. /b If so, even though there is a i haftara /i during the morning service on a Festival, since they do not read from the Prophets in the afternoon, the reading is considered totally unrelated to the Festival and one does not mention the Festival. The same is true with regard to Hanukkah. One does not mention Hanukkah in the additional prayer.
46. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 43.4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 348
43.4. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיְחַל משֶׁה, מַהוּ כֵן, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק, שֶׁהִתִּיר נִדְרוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצְרוֹ. כֵּיצַד, אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָשׂוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל הָעֵגֶל עָמַד משֶׁה מְפַיֵּס הָאֱלֹהִים שֶׁיִּמְחֹל לָהֶם. אָמַר הָאֱלֹהִים, משֶׁה, כְּבָר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי (שמות כב, יט): זֹבֵחַ לָאֱלֹהִים יָחֳרָם, וּדְבַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁיָּצָא מִפִּי אֵינִי מַחֲזִירוֹ. אָמַר משֶׁה רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָם וְלֹא נָתַתָּ לִי הֲפָרָה שֶׁל נְדָרִים, וְאָמַרְתָּ (במדבר ל, ג): אִישׁ כִּי יִדֹּר נֶדֶר לַה' אוֹ הִשָּׁבַע שְׁבֻעָה לֶאְסֹר אִסָּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹ לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ, הוּא אֵינוֹ מוֹחֵל אֲבָל חָכָם מוֹחֵל אֶת נִדְּרוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵל עָלָיו, וְכָל זָקֵן שֶׁמּוֹרֶה הוֹרָאָה אִם יִרְצֶה שֶׁיְקַבְּלוּ אֲחֵרִים הוֹרָאָתוֹ צָרִיךְ הוּא לְקַיְמָהּ תְּחִלָּה, וְאַתָּה צִוִּיתַנִי עַל הֲפָרַת נְדָרִים, דִּין הוּא שֶׁתַּתִּיר אֶת נִדְרְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתַנִי לְהַתִּיר לַאֲחֵרִים. מִיָּד נִתְעַטֵּף בְּטַלִּיתוֹ וְיָשַׁב לוֹ כְּזָקֵן, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹמֵד כְּשׁוֹאֵל נִדְרוֹ, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים ט, ט): וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר, וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהָיָה משֶׁה יוֹשֵׁב וְהָאֱלֹהִים יִתְבָּרַךְ שְׁמוֹ עוֹמֵד, אָמַר רַבִּי דְּרוּסָאי קָתֶדְרָא עָשָׂה לוֹ כְּקָתֶדְרָא שֶׁל אַסְטָלִיסְטָקִין הַלָּלוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֵן נִכְנָסִין לִפְנֵי הַשִּׁלְטוֹן וְהֵן נִרְאִין עוֹמְדִין וְאֵינָן אֶלָּא יוֹשְׁבִין, וְאַף כָּאן כָּךְ, יְשִׁיבָה שֶׁהִיא נִרְאָה עֲמִידָה, הֱוֵי: וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר, וְכִי יֵשׁ יְשִׁיבָה לְמַעְלָה, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא שֶׁכֻּלָּם עוֹמְדִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ו, ב): שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ, וְכֵן (יחזקאל א, כד כה): בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶם, וְכֵן (דניאל ז, טז): קִרְבֵת עַל חַד מִן קָאֲמַיָּא, וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ משֶׁה כְּשֶׁעָלָה לַמָּרוֹם הָיָה עוֹמֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י, י): וְאָנֹכִי עָמַדְתִּי בָהָר, וּכְתִיב (דברים ה, ה): אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין ה' וּבֵינֵיכֶם, וְאֵין יוֹשֵׁב שָׁם אֶלָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְבַדּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב יח, יח): רָאִיתִי אֶת ה' יוֹשֵׁב עַל כִּסְאוֹ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר, וּמַהוּ כֵן, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא בַּר אַחָא שֶׁיָּשַׁב לְהַתִּיר נִדְרוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצְרוֹ, וּמָה אָמַר לוֹ דָּבָר קָשֶׁה, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דָּבָר קָשֶׁה אָמַר לְפָנָיו תָּהִיתָ אֶתָמְהָא, אָמַר לוֹ תּוֹהֶא אֲנָא עַל הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמִּי, אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר משֶׁה מֻתָּר לָךְ מֻתָּר לָךְ, אֵין כָּאן נֶדֶר וְאֵין כָּאן שְׁבוּעָה, הֱוֵי: וַיְחַל משֶׁה, שֶׁהֵפֵר נִדְרוֹ לְיוֹצְרוֹ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר ל, ג): וְלֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים, לוֹמַר שֶׁהִתִּיר נֶדֶר לָאֱלֹהִים, וְכֵן וַיְחַל משֶׁה.
47. Jerome, Commentary On Ezekiel, 34.3 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 582
48. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 15.7, 18.5  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61, 348
49. Anon., Lexicon Artis Grammaticae (E Cod. Coislin. 345), 3.6  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 152
50. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 14, 47, 49  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 577
52. Anon., Metzora, 1.1, 1.49, 2.4  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61, 348
53. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 12-13, 177, 305-321, 14  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 82
14. As I have already said Ptolemy picked out the best of these, the men who were in the prime of life and distinguished for their courage, and armed them, but the great mass of the others, those who were too old or too young for this purpose, and the women too, he reduced to slavery, not that he wished to do this of his own free will, but he was compelled by his soldiers who claimed them as a reward for the services which they had rendered in war. Having, as has already been stated, obtained an opportunity for securing their emancipation, I addressed the king with the following arguments. 'Let us not be so unreasonable as to allow
54. Anon., Soferim, 16.8  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 152
55. Anon., Tanhuma, None  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 348
56. Anon., Yalqut Shimoni, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61
57. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 5.12  Tagged with subjects: •reading, and sermon •sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 61
58. Anon., Midrash Mishle, 31  Tagged with subjects: •sermon (derashah), homily, and haftarah reading Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 582